Techniques and Exercises Used In Team Building

Presented To Prof. Monika Srivastava Presented By Prachi Bajpai(1223) Pranoti Sau(1226)


A number of techniques and exercises are used in team building to facilitate team performance and to address specific problematic issues. issues. They are useful and powerful ways to structure the team¶s activities and energies in order to achieve understanding of the issues and to take corrective action. action. 

Exercises and Techniques
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Role Analysis Technique Interdependency Exercises A Role Negotiation Technique The Appreciations and Concerns Exercise Responsibility Charting Visioning Force Field Analysis Constructive Interventions.

The technique was developed by Ishwar Dayal and John M.Role Analysis Technique  The role analysis technique( RAT or RAP) intervention is designed to clarify role expectations and obligations of team members to improve team effectiveness. effectiveness. India. but it may also be helpful in established teams where role ambiguity or confusion exist.   . Thomas for clarifying the roles of top management in India. This technique is particularly applicable for new teams. exist.

technique. The role being defined is called ³focal role´. Thomas called it as role analysis technique. Hence Dayal and behavior. leads to more mutually satisfactory and productive behavior. The intervention is predicted on the belief that consensual determination of role requirements for team members. ³focal  . consisting of a joint building of the requirements by all concerned.

There are 4 steps involved in this processprocessThe 1st step consist of the focal roles initiated by the focal role individual with organizational goals kept in mind. In new organization.   . these duties and behavior are listed in chalkboard and then discussed by the entire team. modified. others. analysis. team. 2nd step examines the focal role incumbent¶s expectations of others. These role. of the other roles that most affect the incumbent¶s own role. it may be desirable to conduct a role analysis. expectations are discussed. and agreed upon by the group and the focal role person. The incumbent list his or her expectations.

discussion. Again it is discussed within the role. group. In this final step the focal person is asked to write summary of the role as it has been defined this is known as Role Profile and is derived from the results of discussion. In 3rd step the group tells the incumbent that what they expect from him in the focal role.  . group.

units. and in providing useful information about current challenge being faced in others areas of responsibility. .Interdependency Exercises    An interdependency exercise is a useful intervention if team members have expressed a desire to improve cooperation among themselves and among their units. It basically works well with approximately 10 people. in surfacing problems that may be latent and not previously examined. people. It is also useful for assisting people in getting better acquainted. responsibility.

It avoids probing into the likes and dislikes of members for one another and their personal feelings about one another. The group.  .´ another. other.A Role Negotiation Technique  ³Role negotiation intervenes directly in the relationships of power. change effort is directed at the work relationships among members. The technique is basically an imposed structure for controlled negotiations between parties in which each party agrees in writing to change certain behaviors in return for changes in behavior of the other. and influence within the group. authority. members.

It is also called the negotiation period in Tradewhich the two parties discuss the most important behavior changes they want from other and the changes they are willing to make themselves. Here one party put their views rules. He Harrison. outlined this technique into following stepsstepsContract Setting. Issue Diagnosis. themselves. 1. to other party that what change they require to make or not. . not. Influence Trade.Here the consultant sets the climate and Settingestablishes the ground rules. 3. behavior.Individuals think about how their own Diagnosiseffectiveness can be improved if others change their behavior. 2. The technique was developed by Roger Harrison.

This version is usually productive. Basically in this exercise each member of the group writes appreciation as well as concerns for other members in the paper and read out in front of others.  .The Appreciations and Concerns Exercise  The appreciation and concerns exercise may be appropriate if interview data suggest that one of the deficiencies in the interactions of members of a group is lack of expression of appreciation and that another deficiency is the avoidance of confronting concerns and irritations.

desirable. An appreciation can be a powerful and positive intervention in the life of the group. when the concern segment is used. a mini group. lecture from the facilitator on the nature of constructive feedback is desirable. .

 It helps to clarify who is responsible for what on various decisions and actions. relevant.Responsibility Charting Richard Beckhard and Ruben Harris gave this technique.  It is a simple. and effective technique for improving team functioning.  .

Responsibility is often shared. Execute. R:  Responsible These are the individuals who actually complete the task or activity and are responsible for action and/or implementation. A: C: I: Accountable Consult Inform [14] 14] .RESPONSIBLE: Do The Job. with each individual¶s degree of responsibility determined by the individual with the ³A´.

Only one ³A´ can be assigned to a task or activity and authority must accompany accountability. R: A:  Responsible Accountable This is the individual who carries the ³yes´ or ³no´ authority and has full veto power for an activity. It is important to clarify the levels of accountability and to distinguish between management accountability and operational accountability. Take Ultimate Ownership.ACCOUNTABLE: Make the Decision. S: I: [15] 15] Support Inform .

CONSULT: Communication Before. R: A: S:  Responsible Accountable Support These are the individuals who are providing logistical support and resources for the particular work. In The Loop. I: Inform [16] 16] .

one- [17] 17] .INFORM: Need To Know. in turn. R: A: C: I:  Responsible Accountable Consult Inform These are the individuals who need to be informed after a decision or action is taken because they. ³Inform´ implies only one-way communication. may take action or make a decision based on the output. Do Not Change The Decision.

RACI Chart Example .

RACI ± Vertical Analysis Lots of R¶s ± does the individual have too much work No empty spaces ± does the individual need to be involved in this many activities.Does the type or degree of participation fit the qualifications of the role? . Are they a gatekeeper? No R¶s or A¶s ± should the role be eliminated? Too many A¶s ± is there proper segregation of duties? Is this a bottleneck? Qualification .

Are procedures outdated and need to be streamlined. All boxes full ± Too many people involved. Lots of C¶s ± are they necessary Lots of I¶s ± should this be standard or only on an exception basis.RACI ± Horizontal Analysis No R¶s ± is the job getting done? Too many R¶s ± is this a sigh of ³over the wall´ activities? Just get it off my desk? No A¶s ± Why note? Who is accountable To many A¶s ± Is there confusion? Who is doing what? Too few A¶s and R¶s ± Is the process slowing down while activity is performed on an ³ad hoc´ basis. .

If one person has approval. 2. Assign responsibility to only one person. Support role must be clarified and clearly assigned. 4.veto approvalinvolvement on most decisions.Guidelines 1. that person could become a bottleneck for getting things done. . Avoid having too many people with an approval-veto function on approvalan item. 3.

 .  This term used for an intervention in which group members in one or more organizational groups describe their vision of what they want the organization to be like in future. 1949. future.VISIONING ISIONING Ronald Lipitt has given this concept in 1949.

Force field Analysis Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin. a pioneer in the field of social sciences. diagnosing situations. for Lewin. Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur: occur:    Driving Forces Restraining Forces Equilibrium . situations.

.FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS FFA is an analysis technique to identify forces that either drive or restrain planned change aimed at solving a problem in an organization. performance. It is a creative activity that can organization. be used by needs analysts as they focus on solutions which will help an organization make a transformation from the µcurrent (problem) state¶ to the µdesired (solved) state¶ as they identify interventions to improve performance.

HOW TO CONDUCT: Following STEPS are taken: taken:  Describe the current situation . List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid? .      Describe the desired situation . Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken .



Helps to recognize circumstances which can and cannot be changed. Provides a means to analyze ways to minimize or eliminate barriers to goal attainment.    .Advantages of Force Field Analysis  Brings into the open factors which will work for and against the closing of a gap Identified by a needs analysis.

including denial. as well as for the persons offering the feedback.  Negative feedback can create considerable defensiveness.  .CONSTRUCTIVE INTERVENTION The basic team building process can generate both negative and positive feedback. arguing or verbal retaliation.  Positive feedback can be awkward for some recipients'.

Managing the odds of such exercises Participants need to be informed of the nature of the intervention  Training should be given in giving constructive feedback  Training should be given which help in dealing with a range of feelings  The facilitator needs counseling and listening skills of a high order  .