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THE AFFINITIES OF THE CRETACEOUS AMMONITE NEOSAYNOCERAS BREISTROFFER, 1947 by W.J. KENNEDY and ©. W. WRIGHT Austaact. The cryptic mieromorph ammonite Neoseynocerar Bristol, 1967 x radeserted and shown tobe ‘2 Cenomanian offshoot of Salckeras Drettrofer, 1936 ofthe Flckidae Slasceras and Neauyraceas ate ‘Separated Com the remaining Fickiidae ae Salascratinue subfamh no, ‘Tix Albian-Cenomanian marl of Algeria and Tunisia, Madagascer and Tanzania, and Texas and northern Mexico are well kiown for thir rch faunas of diminutive pyrtic ammonites (Pervinguiére 1907, 1910; Collignon 1928-1929, 1931, 1964; Bése 1928; Adkins 1928; Young 1979), Some ofthese are no more than nuclei of larger species, but others are genuinely diminutive, frequently ‘puedomorphic taxa, unknown for reasons of preservational potential or environmental preferences ‘nother faces (Kennedy and Hancock 1971; Kennedy and Weight 1981) The affinities of genera and subgenera Euhystrichoceras Spath, 1933, Pionocycloides Spath, 1925, and Sakondryella Colignon, 1964, among these dwarfs, with the Mortoniceratinae were demonstrated by Kennedy and Wright (198i), and the origins ofthe Flickidae in Lyeliceratidae by Wright and Kennedy (1979), We deal here withthe diminutive and highly distinctive genus Neosaynoceras Breistoffer, 1947 (p. 76), type species Saynoceras gazelle Pervinguire, 1907 (p. 115, pl. 5, fis. 1-6), which s known only from the lower Cenomanian of Algeria, Tunisia, and Madagascar. The largest knovn specimens ares than 115mm in diameter and show modification of ornament suggestive of maturity (eowded sutures, and excentrie coiling). When introducing. gazella in 1907, Pervinguire placed it between Holcodicus Unig, 1882 and Scaphites Parkinson, 1811 and regarded it asa perisphinetid; Roman (1938, p.391) concurred with this assignation, but Breistroffer (1947, p. 76) regarded it as a degenerate acanthoceratid. In the Treatise Wright (1957, p. 414), following Breistoffer, assigned it to the ‘Acanthoveratinae without comment, It is argued below that Neosaynoceras is 8 Cenomanian offshoot of Salaciceras Breistrofer, 1947 ofthe Flickiidae SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY ans are wat indicat the repositories of speximens ct ‘Tilinger: OUM -Universy Museum, Oxford: SP (Colecons of the Sorbonoe now inthe Universit Pletreet Mare Cura Pars The Callignon Collection snow ‘hosed inthe Universite de Dion, Family puckupar Adkins, 1928 ‘Genus Neosaymaceras Brestotfer, 1987 Type species. Saymoceras gazelae Pervingure, 1907 p. 11S, pl. 5, Bg. 1-6, by the orignal designation of ‘Brest (1947, p76). Diagnosis. Swall: largest known sposimens less than 15 mm diameter. Phregmocone a globose ‘adicone, smooth or with fain radial folds and shallow furrows at first which develop into primary "ibs with bullate inner and outer ventrolateral tubercles linked across the venter by riblts or sti Pang, V2, 8, p11 2) ‘The outer ventrolateral tubercles are opposite or alternate on the venter, more commonly the later. ody chambers ate strongly ribbed and tuberculate and markedly scaphitoid with the inner edge cccliding part of the umbilicus; tuberles become spnate and the shell resembles a Horse Chesinut (Glescuts) eed case. The suture line is simple with rounded terminations tothe constituent elements fof lobes and saddles: E/L isnarrow and asymmetrically bifid, L broad with few incisions, L/U, small And litle subsivided. Discussion. Few genera resemble Neosaynoceras, and this is a major factor in the dificuty ‘experienced in deciding its affinities. The most obvious comparison is with the Scaphitaceae, ‘specially given the obviously scaphitoig coiling ofthe body chamber of some specimens (PL. 2, figs. 1.4.20) and the looping of ribs between outer ventrolateral tuberles (PL 21, figs. 3,12), a ste of ‘omament shown by several Seaphits (eg. Wiedmann 1965, pl. 57 figs. 1-7) of essentially the same Sate, The Lest of seaphitid affinities lies nthe suture line. Scaphitids have quadrilobate early sutures, after quinquilobate primary suture (se Doguzhacva and Mikhailova 1982) and also ‘pseudolobes' jn the saddle L/U, resulting from the widening ofthis saddle and the deepening of is central lobule (Wiedmann 1965; Kullman and Wiedmann 1970), Unfortunately the preservation of the Madaga material of Neasaynocerasgazelae available tous has not allowed the exposure ofthe early sutures. ‘Thematuresuturelines, however show no race of development of pscudolobes’ which are manifest, ‘ncontemporiry Seaphitaceas, Consequently we dismiss te idea of afinities with his group, despite the seaphitoid body chambers ‘Afinity with the Acanthoceratidae is suggested because thes are the enly contemporary group in, Which strong ventrolateral tuberculation commonly develops, as in lower Cenomanian genera ‘Manteliceras Hyatt, 1903, Sharpeiceras Hyatt, 1903, and Graysoniies Young, 1958 of the Manteliceratinae, ot Acompsoceras Hyatt, 1903 of the Aeanthoceratinae, Study of the early development ofthese taxa shows that thei early ontogeny (well shown in similarly sized specimens figured by Pervinguidre 1907, 1910 and Colignon 1928-1929, 1931) involes early acquisition of ‘umbilical inner, and outer ventrolateral tubereles, plus in some lateral or even siphonal tubercles (eg. Acompsoceras), and ribs at a stage where Deosaynoceras is almost smooth, These early (Cenomunian acanthoceratids also lack constrictions or furrows and looping of tbs between ventral tubercles. "The closest analogues to Neosaynoceras lic i the late Albian Salaziceras Brestoffer, 1936 (p. 64 type species Ammonites salazacenss Hébert and Munier-Chalmas, 1875, p. 114 pl. 5, fig )- Scholz (1579) illustrates the ontogeny of the genus in deta and, although the taxonomic treatment may be ‘guestioned, specimens named Salaziceras salazacensepeprolasense Scholr, 1979 (p. 93, pl. 21, figs 16 18-20, texi-figs. 25, 26n, 27C-G, K, N-g) have muclel with furrows and folds like those of [Neosaynoceras nuclei (eg Scholr 1979, pl. 21 figs. 18-20), while specimens deseribed as Salaziceras Ureistrofferi pseudonodosa Scholr, 1979 (p. 96, pl. 2, figs. 23,24, 26: text-fig. 27) develop a single ‘ventral tubercle linked across the venter by a looped rb (lextfig, 10-2). Scholz also introduced ‘subgenus Salasiceras (Naskytes) Scholz, 1979, type species. (N.) hakonense Scholz, 1979 (p. 97, I 22, figs. 1-5; lextsigs 2s, 28) for species witha transient juvenile stage with siphonal tubercles “and.an adult body chamber with strong ventral tubercles linked across the Venter by looped ribs (tex. fig. 16-1, x-N, 8-5), the adult aperture developing a remarkable constrition and ventral rostrum (lextsig. 1, 1, x). Examination of casts of the types of S. (V.) bakonyense throws doubt oo the exislenee of a true siptional tuberce. In one paratype isdispaced from the siphonal ine when the other itis visible on few ribs only and i likely to bea malformation. Ttalso appears possible that Noskyts, which hasa highly specialized apertures the mieroconch of Salasicerar. In any case, the common morphological features of these tuberculate upper Albian Salasceras and lower Cenomanian Neosaynoceras suggest lose afinity and that Neasaynocerass ‘descendant of Salasicerain which the single ventrolateral tubercle ofS. bresioffrpseudonodosa and of "Noskyes' body chambers has been replaced by inner and outer ventrolateral tubercles. The Suture lines of both genera are simplified, but this sno strong indicator of affinity, rather reflecting {thei smal sie 1 sexton 1, Metascphitesthomat(Pervaguire, 1907, holotype. the orignal of Pervinguiee 1907. figs 30,3, from Djbel Mila, Tunica, Sorbonne Colleton, now inthe Université Pie ot Marie Cure, Paris 11, M: tha (Peringie, 1907), GPIT [486243 the oruial of Schole 1979.23, 6-0-0, tg, Sluicerar (Nookytex) bakonyente Scho, 1979, G-M GPIT H426/240, «paratype the oral of Scholz 1979 pl. 22; fi, 3K-M, OPIY 14867258, a puraype the original of Scholz 197, 22 hg. I. GPIT 1486)251, inner whorls of the Holotype, the original of Schr 1973, 22, hg. 4 x-s, GPIT 1886242, a paratype, the ‘original of Schole 199, p33 iS, £8 (Sacra) brett ber Scho, 179.1-% GPTT THS6)2¥7, «paratype the original of Schote 973, p21 ig 28-1, OPIT 1486)236, the orginal of Schelz L. LDL, hig, 290-218: (S) bretrofer prendonodas Scho, 1979, GPIT 1486/2388 paratype the cig of Rogote1879,ph 21, fe\28. The ogi of t-v ae frm The upper Albin ofthe Bakoay Mountains, Hungary, ‘Alliguresare x2