VERBAL ADVANTAGE

Level I

By Charles Harrington Elster

Verbal Advantage Success Edition About This Guide This guide is an abstract-or condensed version. Follow along in this guide as you listen. there is an aural review quiz. and enhance your enjoyment of the program. 3. accelerate your vocabulary growth rate. After every ten key-word discussions in the program. 2. When you finish listening to a level. Using this guide in any (or all) of the above ways will reinforce what you learn by listening. i . Read the abstracts of the key-word discussions in the guide either before or directly after taking each review quiz. review it in the guide before beginning the next level. each more challenging than the last. It is designed to serve both as a reference to the contents of the program and as a study aid. Here are several ways you can use this guide in conjunction with the audio program: 1.of all the lessons and information presented in Verbal Advantage. Verbal Advantage contains ten levels of instructions.

war OOR. jar. i . Lightened.car. pass. allow UR.spa. dull. woman. ooze. aisle Note: Y is used in combination with other letters to form a syllable: SLYT-lee (slightly). walk E.hay.turn. AH. would Obscure. ee . back. state AW. EYE is used when this sound by itself forms a syllable: EYE-land (island). stare. came. raucous ii . eye . carrot U. o . oo .up. ur .in. eer . circus. bear AY. learn I.do. nation O. e . odd. tour. loin. y and EYE. aw . all. shipment. uh . took.connect. color. good. charity. difference I. air . i . e . ahoy UH. wait. policy. out. were. final. polite. pie. or Variable Vowel Sounds A. let. some. not AHR. gallop. uu . hit. doubt OY. alarm AIR.by. sew.item. stir. rule OR.oil. a -flat. sip UU.ago. right. key EER. coat OO. u -focus. door. also ago. ow .yes. nice.go. born. librarian E. lure OW. tower.cow. a . or -for.Verbal Advantage Success Edition Vowel Sounds A. full.hair.pull. oy . ay . ah . oor -poor. boy.edible. lettuce. ahr .raw. step EE. fear OH. beat. Unstressed. taken. oh .see. father.pier. beer. exact Y.

emblem employ the Y sound of you and others do not: N(Y)OO.zoo. end. p -pen.wheat. tank P. pack L. cup. duty. bubble CH. whet. conscious T. rush. power Y. hope.no. thirst. reason Z. astute ‘m . winner ‘n – hidden. daze. peach D. pop R. th . zh . th – there.vision. w . wait. measure. D(Y)OO tee. y . hw . bitter. please ZH. or French je iii . whale. turtle.she. f -fat. brother. bell ‘1. h . staff G. k .king. anger. s . arrive. bogus. g . pass SH. actor. j -jug. bathe V.my.red. n . awhile J. catcher. chasm. uh-ST(Y)OOT. v .sing.thin. satin. layer (Y). (y) .dog.indicates that some speakers M. juice. take.hit. even. prism.yes. sudden F. azure.spasm. list TH. effort.very. z .boy. nation.top.will. you.sit. sh . this. m .get. also. new. nothing. apple NG. cab.Verbal Advantage Success Edition Consonant Sounds B. add. bigger. knee. humble. tragic. live W. ng .leg. open. ch . b . behind HW. sarcasm N. t . cotton. cattle. r . 1. d . pepper. bath TH. car S. ask.ladle. age K.chip. tag H.

iv . bon. garcon A nasalized sound-the N is stopped in the nose. Words of one syllable are printed in CAPITALS. Scottish loch.Verbal Advantage Success Edition Foreign Sounds KH. blanc.KAY-shin.French vin. Words of more than two syllables that have a primary and manner secondary stress are transcribed in the following: The syllable with secondary stress is printed in CAPITALS. kh . Hebrew lechayim A guttural sound.German ach. (n) . like that of clearing the throat (N). KEY TO PRONUNCIATION Syllables are separated by a hyphen [-] Syllables printed in CAPITAL letters are stressed. Syllables printed in small (lower-case) letters are not stressed. and the syllable with primary stress is printed in BOLDFACED CAPITALS: ED-i-fi.

old-fashioned. stands for the Latin nota bene and means "note well. sincere. The abbreviation N. 5. ramble. CANDOR (KAN-dur) Frankness. sincere expression. 5 . mysterious. egress. strange. Additional useful word: archaic (ar-KAY-ik). outspokenness. Synonyms: straightforwardness. put what someone else has expressed into different words. the entrance. Corresponding noun: digression. the exit. deviate. Synonyms. " 1. Synonyms of candid include forthright and ingenuous. stray from the point. openness. UNCANNY (uhn-KAN-ee) Eerie. take good note of. Antonyms and Related Information Listed in Order of Presentation. the place you walk in. weird. DIGRESS (di-GRES or dy-GRES) To wander. professed or declared as true without being demonstrated or proved. go off in another direction. Related words: ingress. forthrightness. the place you walk out.B. ingenuousness (in-JENyoo-us-nis). appearing or seeming to be true. frank. 3. 2. open. Synonyms: plausible.Verbal Advantage Level Five With Pronunciations. by Level and Number. OSTENSIBLE (ah-STEN-suh-buul) Apparent. 4. PARAPHRASE (PAR-uh-frayz) To restate. Corresponding adjective: candid. specious.

a sudden change of mind or change in the emotions. steadfast. reliable. glum. 9. MOROSE (muh-ROHS) Gloomy. agreeable. changeable. having the same taste. volatile. mercurial. Corresponding noun: saturation. permeated. tending to change abruptly for no apparent or logical reason. ill-tempered. Synonyms: compatible. hatred of humankind. sanguine. impulsive. Corresponding noun: adept (AD-ept). Antonyms: alien. SATURATED (SACH-uh-ray-tid) Soaked. a highly skilled person. an expert. sodden. dolorous. 6 . concerned with everyday affairs as opposed to theory or speculation. Corresponding noun: moroseness. or temperament. adroit (Level 3. kindred. Synonyms: sullen. incongruous (in-KAHNG-groo-us). Additional useful word: misanthropy. 8. thoroughly wet. capricious should rhyme with delicious. grumpy. drenched. Antonyms: stable. deft. full of moisture. handy. Corresponding noun: caprice. jovial. having to do with actual practice. Word 41). saturnine. lugubrious. 7. PRAGMATIC (prag-MAT-ik) Practical. Synonyms: steeped. abiding. whimsical. nature. CAPRICIOUS (kuh-PRISH-us) Unpredictable. 11. CONGENIAL (kun-JEE-nee-ul) Sympathetic. moody. imbued. Synonyms: clever. erratic. expert. fickle. 10. depressed. proficient.Verbal Advantage Level Five 6. dexterous. dissident. unwavering. Antonyms: optimistic. harmonious. able. Pronunciation tip: caprice is pronounced kuhPREES. impregnated. Synonyms: flighty. ADEPT (uh-DEPT) Skilled.

13. be in accord with. voluntary. unite in opinion. coincide. acts together. not constant. happening from time to time. unrelenting. trifling. occur at the same time. boisterous. sticking out in a glaring way. NEGLIGIBLE (NEG-li-juh-buul) Unimportant. immovable. insignificant 15.Verbal Advantage Level Five 12. necessary. VANGUARD (VAN-gard) The forefront of an action or movement. (3) To happen together. of little consequence.is "together. Synonyms: trivial. that which concurs happens together. Antonyms: optional. ADAMANT (AD-uh-mint) Unyielding. Synonyms: unshakable. inflexible. Etymology tip: One meaning of the Latin prefix con. leading position or persons in a movement. occurring in scattered or random way. (2) To act together. binding. 14. incessant. mandatory. 16. obtrusive. CONCUR (kun-KUR) (1) To agree. also. 18. or is together in opinion. 17. SPORADIC (spor-RAD-ik) Occasional. infrequent. clamorous. Antonyms: constant. flagrant. unremitting. combine in having an effect." By derivation. refusing to give in. irregular. disagreeably or offensively loud. implacable. OBLIGATORY (uh-BLIG-uh-tor-ee) Required. BLATANT (BLAY-tint) Noisy. 7 .

especially a system of religious belief. Corresponding noun: peeve. removed. toilsome. at a distance. credo (KREE-doh or KRAY-doh). dogma. something that irritates or annoys. N. ALOOF (uh-LOOF) Apart. withdrawn.B. full of complaints. fretful. Credulous and gullible are synonymous. Credulous means willing to accept something as true without questioning. indifferent. PEE-vish) Irritable. Corresponding adjective: precocious. 22. difficult to please. sleazy. especially in mental ability. gaudy. ARDUOUS (AHR-joo-us) Very difficult.Verbal Advantage Level Five 19. hard to achieve or accomplish. garish." a corruption of "Saint Audrey lace. 20. CREED (KREED. Antonym: retardation. professed faith or opinion. not wishing to speak or associate with others. ill-humored and impatient. credible. Related words: incredible." an inferior type of lace sold at Saint Audrey's fair in England. requiring great effort. PRECOCIOUSNESS (pruh-KOH-shus-nis) Early development or maturity. laborious. PEEVISH (as spelled. standoffish. Synonyms: strenuous. Synonyms: doctrine. Compare cantankerous (Level 1. unapproachable. 21. 8 . complaining. Word 41). 23. credulous. Synonyms: unsympathetic. 24. rhymes with seed) Belief. TAWDRY (TAW-dree) Cheap and showy. Etymology: Tawdry comes from the phrase "tawdry lace. cross.

logic. 29. single. 27. (2) Determined or arrived at in a random or illogical manner. REASONABLE (PUR-suh-nuh-buul) Attractive. fair. Usage tip: Avoid using personable to mean having nice personality. or law. based on personal feelings or preferences rather than on reason. tediously uniform. hypothesis.means "one. cannot correctly be personable. to decide. and approachable. determine. Reserve personable either for someone who is attractive in appearance or attractive both in appearance and personality. pleasant. RESOLUTE (REZ-uh-loot) Firmly determined or settled. having a set opinion or purpose. Antonyms: irresolute. Related words: Arbiter and arbitrator both mean a judge or umpire who makes a final decision or resolves a dispute. An awkward or unbecoming person. presentable. Synonyms: handsome. Corresponding verb: resolve. comely. Etymology tip: The prefix mono. monocle. unvarying and dull. theory.Verbal Advantage Level Five 25. 26. Sociable. persevering. affable. making discretionary judgments or decisions that may or may not be fair or reasonable. literally. unsteady. and monogram. conjecture. no matter how friendly and pleasant. resolved." as in the related words monogamy. ARBITRARY (AHR-bi-trair-ee) (1) Unreasoned. and amiable already suggest people who are friendly. settle once and for all. having one continuous sound or tone. Synonyms: steadfast. (3) Exercising unrestrained or absolute power. 9 . pleasing in appearance. unwavering. MONOTONOUS (muh-NAH-tub-nus) Lacking variety. SUPPOSITION (SUHP-uh-ZISH-un) An assumption. 28. vacillating.

PLIANT (PLY-int) Bending easily. intransigent. containing many elements. Synonym: rejoinder. multitudinous. having unlimited power or authority. workable. Take care to spell obstinate correctly and pronounce it AHB-sti-nit. adamant (Level 1. not yielding to argument or persuasion. 36. OMNIPOTENT (ahm-NIP-uh-tint) All-powerful. 34. omnipresent. 33. all-knowing. pliable. and omniscient (ahm-NISH-int). cut roughly. Figuratively. almighty. or characteristics. intractable. Synonyms: adaptable. MANIFOLD (MAN-i-fohld) Numerous and varied. Synonyms: multifarious. 35. Etymology tip: The element omni. inflexible. consisting of many kinds. supple. OBSTINATE (AHB-sti-nit) Stubborn. features. RETORT (ri-TORT) A quick reply. especially one that is cutting or witty." as in omnidirectional. Synonyms: inheritance. Word 15). Pronunciation tip: Obstinate is sometimes mispronounced as if it were spelled obstinant. LACERATE (LAS-ur-ayt) Literally. flexible. cause pain. afflict. 31. mangle. LEGACY (LEG-uh-see) Something handed down from the past.Verbal Advantage Level Five 30. Synonyms: hidebound. 10 . to wound. 32. to tear. bequest.means "all. rend. unwilling to give in or compromise.

irascible (i-RAS-uh-buul). birth. give formal assurance of. RENAISSANCE (ren-uh-SAHNS orREN-uh-sahns) A revival. sedate. dominate.B. scrupulous. dishonorable. impertinent. something that causes hesitation or doubt in determining what is appropriate and proper. creation. vanquish. deceitful. 41. (2) To guarantee. CANTANKEROUS (kan-TANGK-uh-rus) Difficult to deal with. Related word: unwarranted. WARRANT (WAH-rint or WAR-int) (1) To justify. N. UNSCRUPULOUS (uhn-SKROO-pyoo-lus) Untrustworthy. fresh. authorize. 38. Synonyms: cheeky. Synonyms: contentious. promise. sober. enslave. resurgence 39. having scruples-hence. make submissive. overwhelm completely. beginning. Antonyms: solemn. without good reason or authorization. sanction. bring under rigid control. lacking integrity or moral principles. Compare peevish (Level 1. argumentative. FLIPPANT (FLIP-int) Disrespectful in a frivolous way. corrupt. thoughtless. malicious. SUBJUGATE (SUHB-juh-gayt) To conquer. taking pains to do something exactly right. Synonyms: rebirth.Verbal Advantage Level Five 37. disagreeable. 11 . defeat. 40. 42. Synonyms: origin. GENESIS (JEN-i-sis) A coming into being. renewal of life or vigor. give good reason for. 43. unjustifiable. Related words: scruple. grave. Word 23). quick to quarrel or to exhibit ill will. Corresponding noun: subjugation. treating something serious in a trivial manner.

askew. accommodate. obscure language or a private vocabulary used and understood only by members of a particular group or profession. unnecessarily complex phraseology. not. and means literally "not able to be violated. circumspect (Level 3. incorruptible. Word 35). Synonyms: ample. Synonyms: sacred. cosmopolitan. safe from assault. economical. Related words: commode. untouchable. or destruction. suave. the suffix -able. pertaining to or living in a city. provident (Level 4. frugal (Level 2. Etymology tip: Inviolable combines the prefix in-. amusing way. Word 1). 48. COMMODIOUS (kuh-MOH-dee-us) Spacious. lopsided. comfortably convenient. planning wisely. 12 . Synonyms: discreet." 49. rhymes with why) Twisted. 47. careful. unassailable. distorted in an odd. and the verb to violate. crooked. 46.Verbal Advantage Level Five 44. accommodations. WRY (like rye. capacious (kuh-PAY-shus). speech or writing that is highly technical and difficult to understand. using one's resources wisely. (2) Spending carefully. INVIOLABLE (in-VY'l-uh-buul) Secure. URBANE (ur-BAYN) Polished. infringement. PRUDENT (PROO-dint) (1) Cautious. Related word: urban. Word 21). specifically. Synonyms: thrifty. exercising sound judgment in practical matters. 45. having plenty of room. Related words: provide. JARGON (JAHR-gun) Specialized and often pretentious language. Urbane suggests the polished sophistication of a city dweller. sophisticated.

Also discussed is the useful expression sotto voce (SAW-toh VOH-chay). Level I ends with a discussion of the proper use of the verbs to lay and to lie. the state of being in the vicinity of something.B." uttered in a soft voice so as not to be overheard.Verbal Advantage Level Five 50." Drop close and let proximity do its work alone. * * * * * 13 . PROXIMITY (prahk-SIM-i-tee) Nearness. Proximity means closeness. Usage tip: Avoid using the common phrase "close proximity." It's a redundancy. therefore "close proximity" means "close closeness. closeness. an Italian phrase meaning "under the breath. * * * * * N.

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