You are on page 1of 239

Proc.

XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 1

1. Livestock feed resources, availability and augmentation

001 Nutritive value of masoor (Lens esculenta) straw in calves - M.K. Mehta, A.S. Rane and R.P.S.
Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry,
Mhow - 453 446 (M.P.)

Masoor straw was fed as a sole feed to eight crossbred calves with an average body
weight of 150.50±3.36 Kg. The nutritive value was estimated by conducting a metabolism trial.
The digestibiItty of nutrients and balance of nutrients were estimated. Voluntary Dry Matter
intake was 2.74 kg/100 Kg. body weight. The digestibility coefficients for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF,
NFE, NDF and ADF were 54.65±0.54, 55.85±0.25, 59.58±0.94, 64.95±1.50, 51.25±1.40, 61.66±0.90,
50.58±1.17 and 39.83±0.70 percent, respectively. The DCP and TDN contents on DM basis were
5.15±0.07 and 53.97±0.67 percent; respectively. The balance studies indicated that the nitrogen
balance was positive while the calcium and phosphorous balance was negative. The negative
mineral balance was attributed to a very wide Ca:P ratio(10:1). The deficiency of Phosphorous
(0.1%) and excess of Ca (1.09%) may be the reason of this imbalance. The supplementation of
phosphorous may be helpful to provide optimum mineral nutrition. It is concluded that nutritionally
it is much superior to the wheat straw, which is mostly: used in this area for feeding of the animals.

002 Comparative nutrient utilization in sheep and goat fed masoor straw based ration - S.B. Maity,
M.M. Das and S.S. Kundu, Plant Animal Relationship Division,Indian Grassland and Fodder
Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Six adult jalauni sheep (28.16±1.04 kg) and six adult Bundhelkhandi local goat (29.5±1.28
kg) were fed concentrate mixture 100g as supplement and masoor (Lentil) straw ad libitum to
investigate the nutritional importance of masoor straw in small ruminants ration. After one month
of preliminary feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted. Average dry matter
intake (kg/d) by the sheep (Tl) was 1.l0±.07 and in goat (T2) it was 0.956±0.l1 CP intake (g/d) in Tl
and T2 was 85.0±3.96 and 79.5±7.4, respectively. Digestibility coefficient of dry matter was higher
(54.44±1.61) in sheep than in goat (50.47±1.15). Similarly digestibility (%) of organic matter was
higher (55.95±1.57) in sheep than in goat ( 52.43±0.99). CP digestibility (%) was comparable in
both the groups (42.41±3.66 vs 43.16±2.31). Digestibility (%) of crude fiber was comparatively
higher in sheep (45.91±1.69) than in goat (42.06±1.02). Similarly NFE digestibility (%) was also
higher in T2 (63.33±1.94) than in T1 (59.39±1.20). Nitrogen retention (g/d) was comparable in T1
(2.91±0.38) and T2 (2.33±0.3l). Digestible crude protein (DCP) intake (g/d) and total digestible
2 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

nutrient (TDN) intake in T1 (35.5±1.98 and 486.0±9.53) and T2 (34.0±2.98 and 479.0±6.15) were
comparable. Thus the nutrient utilization by the sheep and goat fed masoor straw with 100g
concentrate mixture was comparable.

003 Nutritive value of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw for sheep - D.L. Verma, Raghavendra
Bhatta, N.P. Singh and S. Vaithiyanathan, Division of Animal Nutrition Central Sheep and Wool
Research Institute, Avikanagar via Jaipur - 304 501

A study was conducted to determine the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of Guar
Straw in sheep. Six Malpura rams, on an average, weighing 33 kg were randomly selected from the
Institute flock and housed in individual feeding pens (3’x4'). They were offered ad lib. chaffed
Guar Straw for a period of 30 days. Free choice clean drinking water was provided twice a day. A
metabolism trial was conducted for 10 days duration, the first 5 days as the adjustment period and
the second 5 days as the collection period, after 20 days of preliminary feeding. Initial and final
body weights and daily feed offer, feed residue, faecal out put and urine excretion of all the rams
were recorded. The Guar Straw contained 6.79% Crude Protein, 57.70% Neutral Detergent Fibre,
47.17% Acid Detergent Fibre, 38.26% Cellulose and 7.87% Acid Detergent Lignin on dry matter
basis. The dry matter intake of the rams was 1497±0.03 g/head/day or 41.2±1.42 g/kg body weight
or 101.2±3.13 g/kg 0.75. The digestibility coefficients (%) of Dry matter, Crude Protein, Neutral
Detergent Fibre, Acid Detergent Fibre and Cellulose were found to be 50.95±1.00, 49.64±1.02,
42.08±1.26, 45.22±1.69 and 55.94±1.50, respectively. The intake, excretion in faeces, excretion in
urine and retention of nitrogen worked out to 16.32, 8.19, 2.52 and 5.61 g/head/day respectively.
The initial and final body weights of the rams were recorded as 32.7±0.68 and 40.3±0.59 kg. It was
concluded that the Guar Straw can serve as a good maintenance fodder for sheep when fed as
sole feed.

004 Effect of feeding tree leaves as supplements on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation
pattern in sheep grazing on semi-arid rangeland - Raghavendra Bhatta1, S. Vaithiyanathan, N.P.
Singh, A.K. Shinde and D.L. Verma, Division of Animal Nutrition Central Sheep and Wool
Research Institute, Avikanagar via Jaipur - 304 501

A study was carried out to determine the effect of feeding different tree leaves as supplements on
nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood profile of sheep grazing on a semi-arid rangeland.
Thirty Malpura rams of uniform body weight and age were divided into five groups of six each.
They were grazed as a single flock from 08.00 to 17.00 h on the available rangeland for 60 days.
The first group (G1), not provided any supplementation, served as the Control. The second
group (G2) was supplemented with 200 g/h/d conventional concentrate mixture. The third, fourth
1
Corresponding author : Present address: National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi,
Bangalore 560030, Karnataka, E-mail: ragha0209@epatra.com
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 3

and fifth groups (G3, G4 and G5) were provided with 200g DM through freshly lopped foliage of
Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica and Albezia lebbek trees respectively. The foliage from P.
cineraria contained 133.4g kg 1DM condensed tannins (CT) with protein precipitating capacity
(PPC) of 66 g kg-1 DM. A. nilotica contained 18.9 g kg-1 DM hydrolysable tannins (HT) with PPC
of 11.5 g kg-1 DM. However, A lebbek didn’t contain any tannins. The protein content of the three
tree leaves was 119, 139 and 194 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The DMI (g d-1) was 688, 916, 1024, 1003
and 999 in G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5, respectively. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and metabolizable
energy (ME) intakes in the supplemented groups (G2 to G5) were higher (P<0.05) than those in the
Control group (G1). Supplementation with concentrate mixture and tree leaves improved DM
digestibility. CP digestibility was lower (P<0.05) in G3 compared to G2, G4 and G5. Rumen
fermentation study conducted six hours after supplementa-tion revealed that the total N,
ammonia N and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) levels were lower (P<0.05) in G3 compared to other
supplemented groups. Although the hemoglobin (Hb) levels were similar in all the groups, blood
urea N (BUN) was lower in G3 compared to other groups. The animals lost body weight in Control
group and maintained in all the supplemented groups. It was concluded that supplementation
with tree leaves containing CT like P. cineraria improved rumen fermentation pattern by
preventing excessive loss of nitrogen and the tree leaves can be best utilized as supplements
rather than as sole feed in sheep ration.

005 Effect of different levels of feed intake on utilization of nutrients in crossbred calves - P. Singh,
A.K. Verma, D.S. Sahu, and U.R. Mehra, Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research
Institute,Izatnagar-243 122, (U.P.)

Twenty growing crossbred calves (mean body wt.149.0±3.94 kg) were randomly divided
into 4 groups 5 in each following randomized block design. To assess the voluntary dry matter
intake (VDMI) during preliminary feeding period, all the animals were fed concentrate mixture and
wheat straw ad libitum. The lowest DMI amongst all animals fed ad libitum was defined as
‘VDMI’. The animals were fed at four fixed levels. The highest level of DMI was 95% of VDMI
(group I) as determined in preliminary period of feeding the other 3 levels were 80% (group 2),
60% (group 3) and 40% (group 4) of the VDMI. The experimental feeding was continued for a
month followed by a metabolism trial. Representative samples of feeds, faeces and urine were
suitably preserved for analysis. The dry matter intake through concentrate (crushed maize 33,
deoiled-soya meal 32, wheat bran 32, min. mix. 2 and common salt 1 part) and roughage (wheat
straw) was 40 : 60. The DMI (kg/d) ranged from 1.62 (group 4) to 4.06 (group 1) and CP intake (g/
d) varied from 177 to 442 among 4 groups. The intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and
hemi-cellulose (g/d or g/kg W0.75) was also significantly (P<0.05) different among 4 groups as
envisaged. The digestibility of DM in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 59.9, 61.7, 64.6 and 30.4 %,
4 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

respectively and it was significantly (P<0.05) lower in group 4 as compared to remaining 3 groups.
The digestibility of other all nutrients viz. OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF & HC was comparable among
groups 1, 2 and 3. However, the digestibility of these nutrients was significantly (P<0.05) lower in
group 4 (40% intake) as compared to other 3 groups. Intake and balance of N was significantly
(P<0.01) different among 4 groups. Animals of groups 1,2 and three were in positive nitrogen
balance however, animals of group 4 were in negative N balance being fed at 40 % level of VDMI.
From the results, it may be deduced that the intake and utilization of nutrients was adversely
affected at 40% level of feed intake, however, the digestibility of nutrients was not affected at 80%
and 60% levels of feed intake.

006 Influence of varying dry matter intake on levels of purine derivatives and creatinine in
urine and blood in crossbred calves - A.K. Verma, P. Singh, D.S. Sahu, and U.R. Mehra, Animal
Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,Izatnagar - 243 122 (U.P.)

Twenty growing crossbred calves (mean body wt.149.0±3.94 kg) were randomly divided
into 4 groups 5 in each following randomized block design. To assess the voluntary dry matter
intake (VDMI during preliminary was assessed and lowest DMI amongst all’ animals fed ad
libitum was defined as ‘VDMI’. The animals were fed at four fixed levels. The highest level of
DMI was 95% of VDMI (group I) as determined in preliminary period of feeding the other 3 levels
were 80% (group 2), 60% (group 3) and 40% (group 4) of the VDMI. The experimental feeding was
continued for a month followed by a metabolism trial. Representative samples of feeds, faeces
and urine were suitably preserved for analysis. The urinary concentrations ( µmol/kg W 0.75) of
allantoin, uric acid and total purine derivatives were 1460, 82.5 and 1542 in group 1; 1328, 80.5 and
1409 in group 2; 1217, 81.2 and 1298 in group 3 and 884, 54.7 and 938 in group 4, respectively and
were significantly (P<0.05) lower in group 4 (40% intake level) as compared to other 3 groups,
which were comparable. Excretion of allontoin in urine (mmol/d) was significantly (P<0.05) higher
in group 1 as compared to groups 3 and 4 but it was comparable in groups 2 and 3. In respective
groups, the concentration of creatinine in urine ( mol/Kg W0.75) was 1.84, 1.76, 1.86 and 1.72, which
was constant and did notdiffer significantly among 4 groups. However, PD:C ratio in groups 1, 2,
3 & 4 was 0.84, 0.80, 0.71 & 0.54, respectively and was significantly lower in group 4 as compared
to groups 1 and 2 but was comparable to group 3. From the results, it is evident that urinary
excretion of creatinine was constant but the PD excretion was variable according to the level of
feed intake and nutritional quality of diet. Thus, PD:C ratio worked out may be
useful indicator for assessing the nutritional status of animals or quality of feeds being fed to
the animals at farm levels.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 5

007 Nutritional evaluation of two improved variety of Maize - N.P. Singh, L.K. Karnani, and S.S.
Kundu, Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute,
Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Two varieties i.e. African tall and QPM were sown in winter season at CR farm of Indian
Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi. After three months of growth the vegetative
material was harvested on daily basis for experimentation on nutrient utilization in crossbred
heifers. For this purpose 16 crossbred heifers were divided into 4 groups of 4 animals each. Group
I and II were offered ad lib African tall maize while group III and IV were offered ad lib QPM
maize. However, group I and III were also offered concentrate (Barley 32%, Mustered cake 36%,
Wheat bran 28%, Mineral mixture 2% and Salt 2%) at the rate of 1% of body weight. The trail was
conducted for the period of 50 days duration. Digestive trial was conducted for 7 days at the end
of feeding trial. The results indicated that dry matter intake in group I, II, III, and IV were 4.35, 2.57,
5.77 and 2.89 kg/day respectively. In group I and III the intake of maize was 2.7 and 4.1
respectively. The intake of QPM maize was higher in concentrate fed group (group III). The dry
matter intake was 2.62, 1.56, 3.49 and 1.75-kg/ 100 kg body weight, which corresponds to 94.18,
55.88, 125.19 and 62.84 g/W0.75 kg. The dry matter digestibility was 65.34, 58.26, 70.86 and 62.36
percent in group I, II, III, and IV, respectively.

008 Evaluation of different pasture utilization system using in situ lamb grazing - G.H. Pailan,
S.B. Maity and M.M. Roy, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 003 (U.P.)

Two improved pasture systems viz., Reseeded Pasture (RP) and Sown Pasture (SP) in its
second year of establishment were evaluated using in situ lamb grazing. Grasses likeCenchrus
ciliaris, Cenchrus setigerus and legumes like Stylcsanthes hamata, Stylosanthes scabra were
introduced to improved the pasture quality in RP and SP. The protected Natural Pasture (NP) was
used as control. Under each system there were four plots of 0.25 ha each. Eight growing Jalauni
lambs of about 6 to 8 months age and 15.50 kg body weight were allowed to graze for 7 hours daily
from 9.00 am to 4.00 pm in each system. The rotational system of grazing was followed where all
the anima1s were grazed together and 7 days rotation was followed within the 4 plots of a system.
After 60 days of pre1iminary grazing a digestion trial was conducted on grazing lambs, selecting
four animals from each system. Total faecal outgo for 24 hours in a day during trial period was
collected using faecal collection bag. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were estimated using
lignin as internal indicator. The growth rate (g/d) of sheep during the 120 days of experimental
period was higher in SP (54.67) than NP (20.58) and RP (20.08).,The mouth grab samples of sheep
showed that CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and ash content were ranged from 6.74 to 7.53 %, 58.91 to 62.78
%, 31.50 to 34.07 %,6.55 to 7.59 % and 5.93 to 6.41 %, respectively. DM intake/100 kg body weight
in NP, RP and SP was 1.94, 1.78 and 1.89 kg, respectively. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP and ADF
6 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

varied from 48.02 to 49.17 %,51.92 to 52.78 %, 42.72 to 44.95 % and 39.53 to 42.29 %, respectively
and variation between the groups was non-significant. The results indicated the distinct
superiority of sown pasture in the very second year of its establislnnent over the protected
natural or reseeded pasture.

009 Evaluation of pasture grass hay of dry temperate zone of Himachal Pradesh in crossbred
calves - V.K. Sharma, J.S. Chauhan, K.S. Sharma and Daisy Wadhwa, Department of Animal
Nutrition, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, CSKHPKV, Palampur - 176 062 (H.P.)

A digestibility cum metabolic trial was conducted in crossbred of about one and half
years of age to test the and pasture grass hay of dry temperate zone of Lauhal and Spin of
Himachal Pradesh. 15 cross bred calves were divided into 3 groups of five calves each. T1 group
was offered 100 % pasture grass hay only where as T2 and T3 groups were offered 80 % pasture
grass hay + 20% concentrate in conventional system of feeding and as in complete feed system
of feeding respectively. The dry matter and TDN (Kg/h/d) intakes were found to be significant
(P<0.05) among the different treatments groups. These values were 2.040±274.29, 2.537±0.22 and
2.719±0.26 in case of DMI and 4.713±0.71, 4.854±0.56 and 4.920±0.64 (Kg/h/d) respectively. The
CP intake (g/h/d) and digestibi1ity (%) in respect to T2 and T3 found to be significantly higher
(P<0.05) as compared to Tl treatment. These values were 229.67±30.89, 340.07±21.45 and
384.07±31.13 (g/h/d) and59.29±l.41 and 73.44±1.45 and 80.00±1.82 per cent respectively among
the different treatment groups. N-intake and N-balance (g/d/h) were also found to be significantly
higher (P<0.05) in T2 and T3 as compared to T1 treatment group. These values were 36.74±3.71,
49.20±3.55 and 61.45±3.11 (g/h/d) for N-intake and 7.63±3.30, 15.33±3.47 and 19.33±6.40 (g/h/d)
for N-balance in Tl, T2 and T3 treatment groups respectively.

010 Traditional fodder conservation practices in the mountains of Himachal Pradesh - Ram Singh,
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Regional Research Centre CSKHPKV
Campus, Palampur-176 062 (H.P.)

In mountain region, the demand of feeds and fodders for livestock is much higher than
their availability. The available fodder is not only insufficient but also poor in nutritive value, as
a result, the productivity of the animal is very low. Whatever fodder resources are available, their
availability is also seasonal. By and large, there is shortage of fodder from November to June, but
during monsoon, plenty of greens are available and there is no shortage of fodder from July to
October. Even the surplus grass is harvested and conserved as hay for use during lean period of
winters. The crop residues are also stored for feeding the animals. Thus, fodder conservation is
an established practice in whole of the state to ensure the availability of fodder during periods of
scarcity. The present study was undertaken to study the nutrient degeneration dynamics in
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 7

conserved forages in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. Stored samples of hay, maize stover,
paddy straw and wheat straw were collected on 15th day of every month from the same stacks
owned by the farmers. The samples were collected separately from open storage and stored
under shed from October to March and subjected to chemical analysis to study the changes in
their chemical composition. In case of hay stored in open, the CP content decreased from 9.18%
in October to 7.15% in March and the NDF content increased from 68% to 71 %. In storage under
shed, the loss in protein content was less as compared to open storage. Similar trend was
reported in case of maize stover. The analysis of paddy straw indicated a decrease of almost one
unit in protein content from October (4.18%) to February (3.15%) in open storage. Chemical
constituents remained almost similar in case of storage under shed. The analysis of wheat straw
indicated no nutrient degeneration under storage. It was concluded from this study that the
nutrient degeneration took place in all the forages (except wheat straw) in open as well as storage
under shed. However, the losses in protein were more in open storage as compared to storage
under shed this might be due to losses in leaching and bleaching in open storage.

011 Use of salicornia roughage (Salicornia brachiata) in total mixed ration for mehsani buffalo
heifers - Nitin Tyagi, S. Parnerkar, M. Tripathi, P.U. Gujbhiye and M.C. Desai, Department of
Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural
University Sardar Krushinagar - 385 506 (Gujrat)

In order to know the nutritional value of salicornia and the desired level of feeding to
buffaloes, a feeding trial of 60 days duration was conducted on 12 Mehsani buffalo heifers. The
two dietary treatments were, TI : TMR with 40% level of concentrate mixture and 60% roughage
including mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and sorghum green fodder (2.5 kg) and
T2 : TMR with 40% level of concentrate mixture and 60% roughage containing mature pasture
grass, sorghum green fodder (2.5 kg) and salicornia at 20% level. The average daily gain in
weight was 586.11±34.27 and 602.78±30.86 g, respectively in T1 and T2. The average DMI of T1
and T2 groups during entire experimental period was 98.26±1.32 and 105.73±1.53 where T2 group
showed significantly higher DMI. Average voluntary water intake per kg DMI was 4.84±0.09 and
5.1l±0.11, respectively in T1 and T2. The digestibility coefficient of treatment groups T1 and T2
for DM was 56.70 and 59.08; for OM, 59.74 and 59.77; for CP, 51.76 and 53.35; for CF, 55.54 and
52.34; for EE, 63.75 and 61.83 and for NFE, 63.75 and 64.86. The treatment groups showed
statistically higher digestibility for CF and EE while DM digestibility was significantly higher in
group T2. The digestibility of DM, CP and NFE were statistically similar. The TMR-I and II
provided 5.52% and 5.59% DCP and 56.8% and 52.64% TDN. The efficiency of utilisation of DM,
CP, DCP, and TDN (kg/kg wt. gain) for T1 and T1 were 8.54±0.50 and 8.73±0.55; 1.0l±0.06 and
1.02±0.07; 0.53±0.04 and 0.54±0.04 and 5.0l±0.25 and 4.80±0.29, respectively. The average daily
intake of DCP was 301.38±6.70 g and 322.02±2.90±0.06 kg and 2.85±0.05 kg in group T1 and T2,
respectively. The DCP and TDN intake in both the groups were statistically similar and more or
less in accordance with ICAR (1995) recommendation.
8 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

012 Effect of processing of crop residues on physical characteristics and nutrient utilization in
sheep - G.V.N. Reddy, A. Yashwanth, G.N. Asha and B. Bhima, Dept of Veterinary Biochemistry,
College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030

Five crop residues : (groundnut straw, soybean straw, bajra straw, castor straw and palm
fibre press) where subjected to different processing methods chopping, grinding, expander
extruder processing and steam pelleting and studied the effect of processing on physical characters
and nutritive value by feeding to sheep. The bulk density was highest with steam pelleting.
When the crop residues were ground using hammer mill with 8mm sieve, modulus of fineness and
practical size were highest with castor straw and lowest with groundnut straw. Molasses
absorbability was highest with bajra straw and lowest with soybean straw. Groundnut straw and
soybean straw can be pelleted easily and can form sole ration for adult sheep. Pelletability was
low with bajra straw and palm fibre press and can’t form sole ration for sheep while Pelletability
was very low with castor straw and requires addition of concentrates for pelleting. The nutritive
value of bajra straw, palm fibre press and castor straw were obtained by difference method.
Groundnut straw has highest nutritive value among all the crop residues tested while palm fibre
press and castor straw has least. Expander extender processing and steam pelleting increased the
nutritive value of crop residues. These results indicate that different crop residues behave
differently for processing and steam pelleting increased the nutritive value of crop residues.

013 Chemical composition and in sacco digestibility of locally available feeds and fodder
ingredients of hills villages of Uttaranchal - Parasu Ram Singh1, Mahendra Singh and M.L.Verma,
Govind Ballabha Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant nagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal)

Concentrates and roughages are the two most important ingredients that are used in the
formulation of rations of dairy animals. Seven samples of concentrate and 8 samples of
roughages were collected in three months (February to April) from 17 villages of Tarikhet block of
Almora district of Uttaranchal. The concentrate viz. maize grains, wheat grains, barley grains,
minor millets grains ( Jhungra), and Pulses ( bhat and soybean) and roughages viz. hay, paddy
straw wheat straw, bhat straw, minor millets straw, mixed green grasses, tree leaves (Bhimal and
Timil) were evaluated for their chemical composition and in sacco digestibility with a view to
assess their utility in the calculation of nutrient availability for dairy animal. The organic matter
(OM) , ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE)
contents of different roughages varied from OM-88.35 (paddy straw) to 93.16 (hay), Ash-6.83
(hay) to 11.65 (paddy straw), CP-4.00 (wheat straw) to 19.20 (Bhimal tree leaves), EE-0.80 (wheat
straw) to 3.77 (Bhimal tree leaves), CF-16.60 ( Timil tree leaves) to 36.16 (wheat straw), NFE- 44.07
(Bhimal tree leaves) to 55.75 (minor millets) per cent on dry matter basis), respectively. Nutrients
1
Research Associate, DCN Division ,N.D.R.I. Karnal (Haryana)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 9

contents of different concentrate varied from OM-94.13 (bhat grain) to 98.13 (wheat grain), ash
-1.86 (wheat grain) to 5.87 (bhat grain), CP-6.88 (minor millets grain) to 41.88 (soybean grain),
EE-1.90 (wheat grain) to 9.40 (soybean grain), CF-1.88 (minor mi11ets grain) to 6.00 (bhat grain),
NFE-37.95 (soybean grains) to 83.74 (wheat grain), respectively .The in sacco dry matter
digestibility of different roughages in 72 hrs incubation period, varied from 60.00 (wheat straw) to
76.00 (Bhimal tree leaves) per cent and different concentrate in 24 hrs. varied from 69.00 (minor
mi1lets grain) to 96.00 (soybean grain) per cent. Thus, on average ingredients digestibility of all
roughages was 62.59, 30.62, 44.37and 58.66 per cent of OM, CP, EE and CF, respectively. The
corresponding value of concentrate was 74.02, 66.66,73.83 and 46.33 percent.

014 Assessment of availability of fruit residues for incorporation in animal ration - S. K. Gupta,
S. N. Rai, P.P. Atreja, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana)

A survey was conducted to assess the availability of fruit residues especially of


banana, mango and orange on national level. The samples were collected from local market and
were partitioned into two as edible and non-edible portions (from human consumption view
point). The non-edible part of fruit residues was assumed to be available as a source of
non-conventional feed for animals. The average amount of waste available from their respective
fruit was 33.66% (banana peel), 24.59% (orange peel) and 17.28% (mango peel). The total
production of above mentioned fruits was16.87, 1.66 and 10.50 million tons in 2002. The
assessment of availability of fruit waste was calculated by multiplying percent waste with
production level. It was estimated that 5.65, 0.40 and 1.81 million tons fruit waste could be
available each year, which may be utilized as animal feed as such or after suitable processing to
mitigate the shortage of feeds in the country. The dry matter content was highest in mango peel
(25.85 %) followed orange peel (22.86%) and banana peel (10.81 %). The organic matter, crude
protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract contents of orange peel were 96.55,
7.23, 4.01, 30.02, 3.44 and 55.28 per cent, respectively whereas in case of banana peel the
corresponding values were 81.73, 7.21, 4.10, 6.17, 18.26 and 64.23 percent, respectively. Mango
peel contained 94.57, 3.82, 1.28, 5.48, 5.43, and 83.98 per cent organic matter, crude protein,
ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract, respectively. On the basis of chemical
composition it can be concluded that fruit residues are poor in protein but rich in total
carbohydrates (CF+NFE) and can be incorporated as an energy source in diet.

015 Assessment of availability of vegetable residues for incorporation in animal ration - S.K. Gupta,
S.N. Rai, P.P. Atreja, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana)

A survey was carried out to assess the availability of vegetable residues especially of
carrot, peas, ash gourd and cauliflower on national level. The samples were collected from agro
10 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

processing plants located in Northern parts of India and from local market. All Ithe samples were
partitioned into two as edible and non-edible portions (from human consumption view point).
The non-edible part of vegetable residues was assumed to be available as a source of
non-conventional feed for animals. The average amount of waste available from their respective
vegetables was 33.14% (carrot waste), 61.27% (peapods), 10.35% (Ash gourd peel) and 32.86%
(Cauliflower waste) respectively and total production of above mentioned vegetables was 0.34,
2.71, 0.15 and 4.71 million tons in 2002, respectively. It was estimated that 0.11, 1.66, 0.15 and 1.54
million tons of vegetable waste could be available each year, which may be utilized as animal feed
as such or after suitable processing to mitigate the shortage of feeds in the country. All the
residues contained high amount of moisture. The dry matter content was highest in peapods
(17.85%) followed by carrot waste (10.43%), cauliflower waste (7.68%) and ash gourd peel (7.28%).
The organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract contents
of cauliflower waste were 95.49, 20.98, 4.20, 18.33, 4.50 and 51.98 per cent whereas in case of
peapods the corresponding values were 94.74, 15.56, 1.09,26.03, 5.26 and 52.04 per cent,
respectively. Ash gourd peel contained 89.98, 10.07, 3.93, 31.47, 10.01 and 44.50 per cent organic
matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract, respectively whereas
in case of carrot residues the corresponding values were 93.49, 8.34, 1.26, 26.27, 6.50 and 57.61 per
cent respectively. On the basis of crude protein, total carbohydrate (CF+NFE) and NFE content,
cauliflower waste and peapods can be used as one of the ingredients of concentrate mixture
whereas carrot waste and ash gourd peel can be regarded comparable to hay and grasses.

016 Effect of feeding of vegetable residues on growth rate, dry matter intake and feed conversion
efficiency in crossbred kids - S.K. Gupta, S.N. Rai and P.P. Atreja, Division of Dairy Cattle
Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001

Eighteen crossbred kids (Alpine x Beetal) of similar body weight (15.34 kg) and age (5
months) were divided into three groups of six each. The dietary groups were group I (control- 40
% berseem hay, 20 % oat hay supplemented with 30 % concentrate mixture and green fodder
(berseem and lucerne), group II (oat hay was replaced by ash gourd peel from group I diet) and
group III (berseem hay was replaced by pea pods from group I diet). The growth trial lasted for120
days in which weekly dry matter intake and body weights were taken. The results revealed that
replacement of oat and berseem hay with ash gourd peel and pea pods neither influenced
voluntary dry matter intake (g/d/kid) nor per kg metabolic body weight or per 100 kg body weight.
The initial DM intake in group I to III was 580.14, 607.18 and 634.4 g/d/kid which increased to
790.0, 868.0 and 853.82 g/d/kid, respectively. DM intake in group II and III kept on increasing
however in group I it remained constant (790 g/d/kid) from 14 week of study indicating the more
palatability of ash gourd peel and pea pods. Total live weight gain (6.42, 7.28 and 6.67 kg) and
daily gain (53.43, 60.69 and 55.56 g/d/kid) in group I to III were also similar to each other and were
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 11

not influenced by the incorporation of ash gourd peel and pea pods. The initial body weights of
kids were 14.37, 15.67 and 16.08, which increased to 20.79, 22.95 and 22.75 kg at the end of
experiment. The weekly growth rate also followed a similar trend and there was no significant
difference between the groups. Feed conversion efficiency for growth as g DM intake per g body
weight was significantly (P<0.01) superior in group II (12.43) to group I (13.41) and III (13.58). CP
conversion efficiency for growth as g CP intake per g body weight gain was best in group II (1.67)
followed by group I (1.77) and group III (1.87). All the groups differed significantly (P<0.05) to
each other. It can be concluded that ash gourd peel and pea pods can be used to replace oat and
berseem hay in the ration of growing kids with better feed conversion efficiency.

017 Effect of replacing roughages with ash gourd peel and pea pods on voluntary intake and nutrient
utilization in crossbred kids - S.K. Gupta, S.N. Rai and P.P. Atreja, Division of Dairy Cattle
Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001

Eighteen crossbred kids (Alpine x Beetal) of similar body weight (15.34 kg) and age (5
month) were divided into three groups of six each. The dietary groups were group I (control- 40
% berseem hay, 20 % oat hay supplemented with 30 % concentrate mixture and green fodder
(berseem and lucerne), group II (oat hay was replaced by ash gourd peel from group I diet) and
group III (berseem hay was replaced by pea pods from group I diet). The metabolic trial was
conducted after a feeding period of 3 months. The results revealed that DM intake (g/d/kid) of
group III (769.96±7.76) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of group I (720.59±7.22).
However there was no significant difference between groups I & II and II & III in terms of DM
intake. The intake (g/d/kid) of organic matter (OM), digestible organic matter (DOM) and crude
protein (CP) in group III (702.9±6.73, 518.74±5.26 & 112.92±0.71) was significantly (P<0.01) higher
than that of group I (633.62±6.22, 449.54±4.77 and 107.36±0.47) and group II (633.25±14.38,
471.39±14.82 and 108.16±1.47), respectively. While group I and II did not differ significantly to
each other. Digestibility of DM in group III (71.28±0. 17) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than
that of group I and II (69.25±0.30 & 68.93±0.89), respectively. There was no significant difference
between DM digestibilities of group I and II. The CP and CF digestibility in group II (78.03±0. 49
and 54.98±1.48) and group III (78.16±0.35 and 53.50±0.39) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than
that of group I (71.90±0.86 and 49.59±0.57), respectively. However group II and III did not differ
significantly. The digestibility of OM and NFE in group II (73.8 ±0.15 and 80.99±0.10) was
significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of group I (70.97±0.28 and 78.04±0.21) and group II
(70.99±0.80 & 77.49±0.64) respectively. Group I and II did not differ significantly in terms of OM
and NFE digestibility. The ether extract digestibility in group II (71.24±0.65) was significantly
(P<0.01) higher than that of group I (68.52±0.33) and group III (69.12±0.22) respectively. There
was no significant difference between EE digestibilities of group I and III. The DCP and TDN
intake (g/d/kid) in group III (86.61±0.52 & 534.57±5.33) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that
12 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

of group I (80.75±0.33 & 468.58 4.88) and group II (80.60±1.54 & 495.24±15.34). The DCP and TDN
intake in group I and II did not differ significantly. It can be concluded that ash gourd peel and pea
pods are equally palatable and superior in nutritional quality in companson to berseem and oat
hay, hence these vegetable residues can be utilized in replacing good quality roughages in the
ration of growing kids.

018 Feed and fodder inadequecy : Key issue in India’s livestock production scenario - P. Kataria,
Department of Economic and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Pb.)

Livestock production is the backbone of Indian Economy. This sector has been the
primary source of energy for agricultural operations and major source of animal protein for India’s
teaming millions. India is house to 15 percent of world’s cattle population and 16 percent of
human population to be sustained on 2% of total geographical area. India’s livestock has been
marred by low productivity as compared to the world figures. The average milk yield per animal
per year is as low as 48% of the world average. The tremendous pressure of livestock on available
feed and fodder resources and consequent dismal scenario of fodder availability has been the
major impediment in the sustained group of livestock sector. The deficits of green and dry fodder
have been recorded at 61 and 22 per cent of their respective demands in the year 2000. These
figures are projccted to mount up to 65 and 25 percent respectively by the year 2025. Since feed
and fooder are said to be responsible for improving the productivity by 70 percent and only 30%
improvement comes through genetic inheritance. Addressing the issue of feed and fodder
availability therefore becomes the need of the hour.

019 Dairy cattle nutrition status in the agro eco region-9 (Indo-gangetic plains) - R.B. Singh, M.K.
Ghosh and R.C. Saha, Eastern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani-741 235,
Nadia, West Bengal

Nutrition survey has been conducted on dairy cattle nutrition in Patna and Gaya from 85
households (Landless-21, Marginal-21, Small-26 and Large-17) through door to door visit. Landless
farmers maintains only desi non-descript cattle and\or buffalo mainly on grazing, cut grass, straw,
kitchen, vegetable and fruit wastes collected from various sources. Hardly any concentrate is fed.
Marginal and small farmers maintain desi cattle and buffaloes mainly on home grown feeds and
grazing and/or cut grass but unable to provide purchased feed to their cattle to any significant
extent. Green fodder is mainly available in the form of natural vegetation. Animals are sent for
grazing in fields during day time and stall fed in the morning and evening with small amount of dry
fodder, kitchen wastes, cut grass and sometimes tree leaves. Lactating cows and buffaloes are
supplemented with small amount of home made concentrate (cake/wheat bran/maize/rice bran/dal
chuni). Mineral mixture is not fed but salt is fed only occasionally. Cultivation and feeding of
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 13

green fodder is hardly practised by these group of farmers. Few small farmers maintain crossbred
cows. They supplement a littlequantity of linseed cake/mustard cake, rice kura (local rice bran),rice
grit and/or maize when the cow is in milk. Feeding of concentrate feeds is stopped as soon as the
home grown stock is exhausted. A small section of the small farmers cultivate green fodder viz.
berseem, sorghum, maize but quantity fed to the animals is low. However, a section of small
farmers having off farm income from various sources maintain crossbred cows (both Holstein and
Jersey crosses) with good milk production. They purchase concentrate feeds from the market
and feed to their milch animals resulting good production and health of their milch animals. Large
holders besides keeping desi cattle also rear crossbred cows (both Jersey and Holstein crosses)
and buffaloes. Cut grass from fields fed besides kitchen wastes and straws. These farmers though
small in number also cultivate green fodder like maize, cowpea, oat, berseem, jowar etc. though
quantity of cultivated green fodder feeding is low and depends on season and area under
cultivation. Branded ready mix concentrate mixture is also fed to cattle by a small number of
farmers. Deficiency or surplus of nutrients supplied to the lactating cows through feeds in this
ecoregion have been estimated as compared to ICAR Feeding Standard (1988). Average DM
intake (% BW) was 1.85, 1.92, 2.17 and 2.78 kg respectively in the cows of landless, marginal, small
and large farmers. Average TDN deficiency in cows of the landless and marginal farmers was 11
% and that in the cows of small farmers was marginally negetive. TDN supplied to the cows of the
large farmers was surplus by 12%. Supply of DCP by the landless, marginal and small farmers to
their cows was deficient by 38%, 37% and 32% respectively. DCP supplied to the cows by the
large farmers was, however, marginally surplus. Supply of phosphorous through feeds is
adequate but that of calcium is deficient.

020 Chemical composition, amino acid profile, and tannin fractionation of certain Indian agro
industrial byproducts Keshab Barman1 and S.N.Rai2, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana)

Mangifera indica (kernel), Acacia nilotica (pods), Prosopis juliflora (pods), Shorea
robusta (cake), Madhuca indica (cake) and Camellia assamens is (waste) were evaluated for
compositional changes, amino acids profiles, fractionation of tannin and digestion kinetics.
Madhuca indica and Camelia assamensis contained highest level of crude protein (18.83, 16.22%
respectively) followed by Shorea robusta, Acacia nilotica,and Prosopis juliflora (14.00,13.15,12.25
% respectively). Ether extract content was highest in Mangifera indica (13.50 %) and lowest in
Shorea robusta (1.06%) while crude fiber content was highest in Prosopis juliflora (33.10%) and
lowest in Shorea robusta (1.09%). Mangifera indica and Camelia assamensis contained high
level of most essential amino acids. Lysine, cystein+methinoine, arginine and threonine content
of Mangifera indica was 1.91,7.65, 13.38 and 9.56 g/100g protein respectively (on DM). Its
1
Ph.D. Scholar, DCN Division, NDRI Karnal;
2
Author for correspondence and Principal Scientist (Email : snr@ndri.hry.nic.in)
14 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

threonine and cystein+methionine content even higher than whole egg protein (5.74, 7.65 Vs 5.70
g/100 g protein on DM). Acacia nilotica contained highest level of total phenol and total tannin
(21.67±0.63;18.71±0.68 respectively, % DM) followed by Mangifera indica and Shorea robusta
(9.59±0.28, 8.39±0.59; 9.08±0.04, 7.98±0.45 respectively, % DM) while others contained within this
range. In vitro DM and OM was highest in Mangifera indica (83.33±0.50; 85.55±0.40
respectively, % DM) followed by Camelia assamica (73.04±2.58; 72.54±2.91), Acacia nilotica
(63.12±3.82; 75.91±7.45), Prosopis juliflora (61.89±1.68; 62.81±1.55) and other showed below 50
per cent digestibility. In vitro CP digestibility was highest in Shorea robusta (79.00±0.50%) and
lowest in Mangifera indica (59.74±5.80%). In vitro gas production was highest (P<0.01) in Camelia
assamica followed by Acacia nilotica,Prosopis juliflora, Mangifera indica, Shorea robusta
and Madhuca indica during the first stage kinetic (0-24h) while overall gas production in both
first and second stage kinetic(24-48h) was highest in Acacia nilotica and lowest in Madhuca
indica (275.67; 145.0 m g.substrate). Potential degradability was highest in Prosopis juliflora
(83.99 %) and lowest in Mangifera indica (24.83%) showing highest effective degradability
(63.50%) while lowest in Madhuca indica (24.50 %). The UDP content (g/kg DM) was highest in
Madhuca indica (142.17) and lowest in Mangifera indica (27.74). UDP content of Acacia nilotica
was 57.20 g/kg DM In sacco DM and OM was highest in Acacia nilotica and Prosopis juliflora.
It is inferred that Mangifera indica and Camelia assamica may be used as both energy and good
source of essential amino acids while that of Acacia nilotica and Prosopis juliflora may be used
as energy source.

021 Comparative evaluation of cotton seed cake and leucaena leaf meal on per se profiles of amino
acids, tannin and their influence on digestion kinetics - Keshab Barman1 and S.N.Rai2, National
Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana)

Cotton seed cake and Leucanea leaf meal were evaluated for chemical composition,
profiles of amino acid and tannin, degradition kinetic and gas production. Cotton seed cake and
Leucaena leaf meal both contained high crude protein (22.75; 24.68 % DM) and contained
moderate level of NFE (38.38; 46.22 %DM). Crude fiber content was however, higher in cotton
seed cake than Leucaena leaf meal. Methionine+cystein content (g/100g/protein) of Leucaena
leaf meal was higher than that of cotton seed cake (6.47; 5.57) even higher than that of whole egg
protein (6.47; 5.70). However, lysine content was moderate in cotton seed cake and low in Leucaena
leaf meal (1.90; 0.58). Other essential amino acids are present in good proportion except arginine
in both the ingredients as well as histidine and tyrosine in Leucaena leaf meal. Leucaena leaf meal
contained higher (P<0.05) level of total phenol and total tannin than that of cotton seed cake
(5.12±0.17, 0.94±0.05; 2.83±0.15, 0.59±0.05% DM). Hydrolysable and condensed tannin contents
of Leucaena leaf meal was higher (P<0.05) than that of cotton seed cake. IVDMD and IVOMD
a
Ph.D. Scholar, DCN Division,
b
Author for correspondence and Principal Scientist (Email : snr@ndri.hry.nic.in)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 15

value of cotton seed cake (53.76±1.50; 52.97±1.19 %) was not significantly differ from Leucaena
leaf meal (50.73±1.53; 52.78±2.03%). However, IVCPD value of Leucaena leaf meal was significantly
(P<0.05) higher than that of cotton seed cake (76.67±0.88; 64.94±1.24% DM). Total gas
production in terms of m1 per g substrate and rate of production (m1/h/g substrate) was statistically
insignificant between cotton seed cake and Leucaena leaf meal during the first stage kinetic
to-24h). However, it was increased (P<0.05) in the second stage kinetic in cotton seed cake than
that of Leucaena leaf meal. Potential degradability of cotton seed cake was higher than that of
Leucaena leaf meal, but effective degradability of both dry matter and organic matter was higher in
Leucaena leaf meal than that of cotton seed cake. Both effective (66.20 vs 41.40 %) and potential
degradability (95.49 vs 71.98 %) of crude protein of cotton seed cake was higher than that of
Leucaena leaf meal. However, UDP content per unit weight was also higher in cotton seed cake
than that of Leucaena leaf meal (217.52; 144.62, g/kg DM). It is inferred that as a source of protein,
amino acid content of Leucaena leaf meal is better than that of cotton seed cake.

022 Nutritional evaluation and partitioning of tannins in certain agro industrial byproducts and tree
leaves - Keshab Barman1 and S.N.Rai2, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001, Haryana

Tamarindus indica (Tamarind seed meal), Acacia nilotica (Babul seed chuni) - two agro
industrial byproducts and Terminia lata (Arjun), Robinia pseudoacacia (Robinia), Fiscus
religiosa (Pipal) and Quercus incana (Oak) - four tree leaves were evaluated for chemical
composition, fiber fractionation, partitioning of tannins (total phenol, non tannin phenol, total
tannin, hydrolysable tannin, and condensed tannin), IVDMD, IVOMO and IVCPD along with in
vitro gas production. Babul chuni contained the highest level of crude protein (28.34 % DM) than
tamarind seed meal (13.49 % DM). However, nitrogen free extract content of Tamarind seed meal
was higher (63.35 % DM) than Babul seed chuni (39.52% DM). NDF and ADF content was higher
in tamarind seed meal (50.95; 37.91% DM respectively) than Babul seed chuni (45.73 and 36.12 %
DM respectively). Among the tree leaves protein content was ranged from 7 to 9 per cent (DM).
However, crude fiber content was higher (47.40 % DM) in Oak leave and moderate in Arjun,
Robinia and Pipal (19.93; 24.48; 26.40% DM respectively). Among the Robinia, Pipal and Oak
leaves NDF and ADF content was higher in Oak leaves (63.22; 60.62 % respectively). Total tannin
content was lower in both Tamarind seed meal and Babul seed chuni (2.96±0.31; 0.27±0.05 % DM
respectively). However, among the tree leaves Oak and Arjun leaves contained higher level of
total tannin (8.16±0.24; 7.48±0.15 % DM respectively) and Robinia and Pipal contained moderate
level of total tannin (2.83±0.08; 1.52±0.08 % DM respectively). IVDMD and IVOMD values were
lower in Tamarind seed meal than Babul seed chuni. However IVCPD values remained similar.
Among the tree leaves IVDMD, IVOMD and IVCPD values were higher in Arjun followed by
Pipal and Robinia and lowest in Oak leaves. Rate of gas production (m1/h/g substrate) during the
a
Ph.D. Scholar, DCN Division,
b
Author for correspondence and Principal Scientist (Email : snr@ndri.hry.nic.in)
16 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

first stage kinetics was lower in Tamarind seed meal than Babul seed chuni however; the
production was higher in second stage kinetic. Among the tree leaves rate of gas production
(m1/h/g substrate) was lowest in oak leaves and moderate in others. It may be inferred that Babul
seed chuni and Tamarind seed meal can be used as a good source of protein and energy
respectively and among the tree leaves except Oak leaves Arjun, Pipal and Robinia can be used
as a maintenance type forage in ruminants.

023 Evaluation of sugarcane trash of different varieties based on chemical composition and yield -
Y. Ramana Reddy, E. Raghava Rao and N. Krishna, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science, ANGR Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030

Samples of twelve varieties of sugarcane trash viz. Co A 89085, Co 6907, Co 8368, Co V


94102, Co C 671,91 V 83,83 R 23, Co A 92081, Co V 92102, Co 7805, Co 85036 and Co A 88081 were
collected from sugarcane harvesting fields and evaluated based on chemical composition and
yield. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and nitrogen free extract (NFE)
content of trash were significantly different among the varieties and the values ranged from 82.95
to 94. 92, 2.11 to 5.79 1.02 to 1.72 and 49.90 to 59.52, respectively. DM, EE and NFE content were
significantly (P<0.01) higher in Co C 671, 91 V 83 and Co V 94102 and lower in Co A 89085, Co A
85036 and Co V 94102, respectively. The CP value of Co C 671 was lower and that of Co V 92102
was higher significantly (P<0.05). OM and CF content of trash samples were not significantly
(P>0.05) different and the values ranged from 90.20 to 94.93 and 31.17 to 35.44 per cent,
respectively among the varieties. Further, fresh yield (t/ha) , yield of DM, OM and CP (t/ha) were
significantly different among the varieties and the values ranged from 10.53 to 38.08, 9.37 to 33.95,
8.65 to 32.09 and 0.46 to 0.98, respectively. The fresh yield of trash, DM and OM yields (t/ha) were
significantly (P<0.01) higher in Co V 94102 and lower in Co V 92102 varieties, respectively.
However, the CP yield (t/ha) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in 91 V 83 variety and lower in Co
7805 variety, respectively.

024 Varietal evaluation of sugarcane tops based on chemical composition and yield - Y. Ramana
Reddy, E. Raghava Rao and N. Krishna, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
Science, ANGR Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030

Twelve varieties of sugarcane tops collected from harvesting fields in sugarcane based
production system were evaluated based on chemical composition and yield. The twelve
varieties of sugarcane tops evaluated were Co A 89085, Co 6907, Co 8368, Co V 94102, Co C 671,
91 V 83, 83 R 23, Co A 92081, Co V 92102, Co 7805, Co 85036 and Co A 88081. Dry matter (DM),
organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract
(NFE) and total ash (TA) content of top varieties ranged from 26.03 to 37.83, 92.92 to 95.22, 3.46 to
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 17

9.68, 1.22 to 2.29, 27.08 to 32.44, 51.51 to 58.94 and 4.78 to 7.08 per cent, respectively and the values
were significantly different among the varieties except DM. OM, EE, CF and NFE values were
significantly (P<0.01) higher in Co A 88081, Co V 94102, Co 6907 and Co A 89085 and lower in Co
85036, Co 7805 Co A 89085 and Co V 92102, respectively. The CP content was significantly
(P<0.05) higher in Co V 92102 and lower in Co 8368. Further, fresh tops yield (t/ha), yield of DM,
OM and CP (t/ha) from different varieties were significantly different and the values ranged from
18.56 to 50.40, 5.41 to 19.06, 5.10 to 17.93 and 0.35 to 1.85, respectively. The yield of fresh tops,
DM, OM and CP (t/ha) were significantly (P<0.01) higher in Co V 92102 and lower in Co A 88081,
Co A 92081, Co A 92081, Co A 88081, Co 6907 and Co 8368, respectively.

025 Comparative evaluation of feeding healthy versus diseased groundnut (Arachis hypogoea)
haulms on chemical composition, in vitro, in sacco dry matter degradability, voluntary dry
matter intake and nutrient utilization in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) - Ramchandra Ramteke,
K. Sivaiah, S. Pande and Michael Blummel1, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad - 30 (A.P.)

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) haulms is an important roughage source for livestock


feeding in semi-arid tropics. In the present investigation healthy and diseased fodders of groundnut
(TMV -2) procured from ICRISAT have been evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro and in
sacco dry matter digestibility, voluntary dry matter intake, and nutrient digestibility. Four adult
male buffaloes of same age group and body weight of 244±25 kg were selected in a randomized
block design for conducting digestion trial. For healthy (T1) and diseased (T2) groundnut haulms
(TMV-2) the chemical composition estimated was 91.00, 89.94 for DM; 87.90, 90.75 for OM; 10.77,
8.43 for CP; 1.40, 0.62 for EE; 8.27, 41.00 for CF; 47.46, 40.90 for NFE; 12.10, 9.05 for total ash; 70.14,
71.58 for NDF; 45.50, 55.54 for ADF; 24.64, 16.04 for hemicellulose; 33.54, 43.41 for cellulose; 8.17,
10.60 for lignin; and 3.79,1.53 per cent for silica, respectively on DMB. IVDMD values reported
were 58.07 and 43.06 per cent and EDDM were 58.50 and 38.10 per cent for healthy (T1) and
diseased (T2) groundnut haulms respectively. In healthy (T1) and diseased (T2) groundnut haulms,
the in vivo digestibility coefficients were 58.57,50.17 for DM; 61.73, 55.42 for OM; 47.91, 32.29 for
CP; 32.81, 36.29 for EE; 58.83, 59.21 for CF; 65.55, 57.25 for ADF; 82.68, 80.41 for hemicellulose;
56.36, 50.84 for cellulose, respectively. The CP, EE, NFE, total ash, hemicellulose values decreased
in T2 as compared to T1. The digestibility coefficients for diseased groundnut haulms for DM,
OM, CP, NFE, NDF, ADF and cellulose and significantly different (P<0.01) from that of healthy
groundnut haulms. The percent dry matter intake recorded were higher (2.56%) in T1 as compared
to T2 (1.73%). The DCP and TDN values were higher in T1 with 5.16 and 53.41 per cent as
compared to T2 with 2.72 and 49.18 percent respectively. From the present investigation, it could
be concluded that based on chemical composition IVDMD, EDDM, nutritive value (DCP, TDN),
the healthy straw of groundnut (T1) were found to be superior than the diseased straw of
groundnut.
1
ICRISAT, Patancheru-502,324, AP, India
18 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

026 “In vitro and in sacco dry matter degradability evaluation of healthy and diseased sorghum
(Sorghum bicolor) straw in buffaloes (Bos bubalis)” - Ramchandra Ramteke, K. Sivaiah,
K. Bandyopadhyay and Michael Blummel1,College of Veterinary Science, Rajendra Nagar,
Hyderabad-30 (A.P.)

Chemical composition, in vitro and in sacco dry matter degradability of healthy


sorghum straw (T1) were compared with diseased sorghum straw (T2) (H-112 variety) using two
rumen fistulated buffaloes (300±25 kg) fed healthy sorghum straw(T l) ad-lib with 300g of
groundnut cake and feeding diseased sorghum straw (T2) with 500gms of groundnut cake
respectively. The average IVDMD values were 37.37 and 31.21 percent for T1 and T2, respectively.
The mean in sacco DM degradability values were 31.45, 39.10, 45.36, 49.64 and 53.57 percent for
T1, and 22.52, 29.89, 35.25, 41.93 and 46.90 percent for T2 respectively at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hrs
respectively. The readily soluble fraction (a), insoluble but degradable fraction (b) and rate
constant/hr (c) were 19.20, 38.69 and 0.0311 for T1 and 12.37, 44.72, 0.0210 for T2, respectively. The
Effective degradability of DM (EDDM) was 36.1 and 27.8 percent for healthy and diseased
sorghum straw. It is concluded that diseased sorghum straw considerably reduced the chemical
composition and in vitro and in sacco dry matter digestibility as compared to healthy straw.

027 Evaluation of some fruit wastes by in vitro, in sacco method and rumen fermentation pattern in
fistulated steers and buffaloes - B. Devasena, K. Haritha, A. Ravi and J. Rama Prasad,
Department of Animal Nutrition,College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati 517 502 (A.P.)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of fruit wastes like guava
(Psidium guava), papaya (Carica papaya) and mango (Mangifera indica) fruit waste (MFW)
and mango fruit pulp waste (MFPW) in concentrate mixtures by IVDMD, in sacco DM
degradability and rumen fermentation patterns using fistulated steers and buffaloes. The crude
protein content was highest (14.8%) in papaya fruit waste and lowest in mango fruit waste (4.6%).
The nitrogen free extract content was highest in MFPW (78.3%), followed by MFW (68.9%),
papaya fruit waste (52.9%) and guava fruit waste (26.7%). IVDMD was lowest in guava fruit waste
and highest in mango fruit waste when estimated with rumen liquor of cattle and buffaloes.
Highest EDDM% value was observed in mango fruit waste in cattle and buffaloes as determined
by in sacco nylon bag technique. In papaya fruit waste highest EPD% value was observed in
cattle and buffaloes. The mean pH values differ significantly (P<0.05) among the different fruit
wastes in cattle and buffaloes. The concentration of TVFA was significantly (P<0.05) higher in
cattle and buffaloes fed rations containing mango fruit pulp waste. It can be inferred from the
present study that, guava, papaya, mango fruit waste and mango fruit pulp waste can be used in
the rations of cattle and buffaloes.
1
ICRISAT, Patancheru-502,324, AP, India
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 19

028 Scope for utilization of sunflower heads as animal feed in Andhra Pradesh - D. Nagalakshmi,
D. Narasimha Reddy and M. Rajendra Prasad, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 30

A survey was undertaken to assess the availability and utilization pattern of sunflower
heads (SFH) in seven sunflower growing districts of Andhra Pradesh i.e., Kurnool, Anantapur,
Cuddapah, Prakasam, Karimnagar, Mahaboobnagar and Warangal. The survey revealed that
farmers were feeding SFH in a very limited quantity to their animals (18.10%) and mainly fed to
bullocks. The feeding was in the form of deseeded heads (17.55%) and few farmers (2.23%) were
mixing SFH with other locally available feeds and fodders for feeding to animals. The main mode
of SFH disposal was by burning and composting. Unawareness and lack of tradition (59.1 %)
were the reasons attributed for not feeding SFH to their animals. The popular SFH hybrids grown
by the farmers were analysed by in vitro and in situ methods which revealed that SFH is
nutritionally superior to many of the traditionally used roughages. The crude protein and crude
fibre in these hybrids ranged between 5.91 and 9.78 and 25.51 and 42.98 percent, respectively. The
in vitro organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities and effective DM degradability
for SFH on an average was 66.30, 45.55 and 64.40%, respectively. The survey and nutritional
analysis indicated that SFH can form a roughage source in animal rations, but proper extension
and demonstrations of utilization of SFH is required for popularizing the use of SFH as livestock feed.

029 Seasonal variation in nutritional parameters of Aerua lanata - P. Tripathi, S.B.N. Rao,
Gaurav Kumar and Vinod Kumar, Central Research Institute for goats, Makhdoom, Farah,
Mathura 281 122 (U.P.)

In this study plant samples of Aerua lanata, which is palatable to small ruminants and
locally known as Godhari were collected from the selected area during spring, summer, rainy and
winter seasons of the year and chemically analysed to see the seasonal variation in nutritional
parameters at CIRG, Makhdoom. The crude protein percent was observed 15.70, 14.83, 13.30 and
13.00 in the spring, summer, rainy and winter season respectively. The values of Neutral detergent
fiber varied season to season that was of 62.92 % in spring 59.00 % in summer 63.94 % in rainy and
53.60 % in the winter season. There was not much variation observed in the ash content of Aerua
lanata i.e. 10.10, 10.91, 10.74, 12.30 % during spring, summer, rainy and winter season
respectively. Ether exract percentage was not observed with much variation in various season of
the year. It was 2.95, 2.83, 2.06 and 3.24 % in spring, summer, rainy and winter season respectively.
The content of acid detergent fiber was 36.26, 34.00, 33.51, 36.72% in the spring, summer, rainy
and winter season respectively. So it can be concluded that Aerua lanata is a nutritionally
potential plant under rain-fed situation, having good protein content during the spring and
summer months when most of the pasture species dried due to high atmospheric temperature and
soil water depletion. However anti -nutritional factor need to be studied.
20 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

030 Soil characteristics and production potential of various silvipasture systems under rain-fed
condition - P. Tripathi, Vinod Kumar, Gaurav Kumar and Nawab Singh, Central Research Institute
for goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura 281 122 (U.P.)

A study was carried out at CIRG, Makhdoom to study the soil characteristics and
production potential of three silvipasture systems namely Natural, Reseeded and Sown. The soil
of the experimental area was loamy sand in texture and having 1.60 - 1.65 g/cc bulk density. Due
to high sand content, water holding capacity of the soil was also poor i.e. 14 - 20 %. pH value of
the soil ranged from neutral to slightly alkaline. Organic carbon content of soil was observed very
low. Available nitrogen content varied from 155-188 kg/ha. Soil also observed very low in
available phosphorus content (7-9 kg/ha) and medium to high in available potassium content.
The annual rainfall during the year 2002 was 323 mm. The green matter production in the monsoon
season under Natural, Reseeded and Sown pasture was 8.05, 10.8 and 6.0 t/ha respectively. The
dry matter production 2.79, 3.45 and 1.89 t/ha was observed under Natural, Reseeded and Sown
pasture respectively in the monsoon season. There was drastic reduction observed in pasture
production in the winter season, the green matter production was 5.2, 5.3 and 3.2 t/ha in Natural,
Reseeded and Sown pasture system respectively. However dry matter production was recorded
1.5, 2.69 and 1.28 t/ha under Natural, Reseeded and Sown pasture system. Reduction in green
matter production as well as dry matter production in the winter season may be due to poor
fertility of the soil and soil moisture depletion as soil is poor in water holding capacity so most of
the plants attained maturity under stress , condition.

031 Nutritional status of tree leaves available in the arid region of Haryana - Naresh Kumar,
V.K. Khatta1, CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal, Rewari (Haryana)

A survey was conducted for the feeding practices of goats and nutritional status of
fodder trees in area neighboring RRS, Bawal. The study revealed that goat farmers primarily
depend upon tree leaves for feeding their animals. Chemical analysis of fodder samples revealed
that Bakain (Melia azadirach) had the highest CP content followed by Desi Kikar (Acacia
nibtica), Israili Kikar (A. tortillas) and Sesum (Dalbergia sisoo). The respective CP values in
these species were16.34, 15.63, 15.39, and 14.98% (dmb). Whereas the CF, EE and NFE values in
these species were9.61, 7.75, 10.53, 9.65; 10.26, 8.79, 11.73, 10.45; 55.75, 62.17, 55.30 and 55.81% in
that order. Rest of the species had CP content in the range of 11.35 in Pipal (Ficus religiosa) to
13.66% in Kasood (Cassia siamea).Jhar beri (Zizyphus nummularia) a commonly available bush
contained 13.69% CP and 59.74% NFE. Guar straw (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba) which is normally
the sole feed during hostile weather conditions was found to be a poor source crude protein
(6.76%).
Department of Animal Nutrition, CCSHAU, Hisar - 125 004
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 21

032 Evaluation of nutritive value and rumen degradability of nutrients in poplar leaves at different
stages of maturity in ruminants - Namrata Saxena, S.S. Chauhan, Anand Singh and Himanshu
Pandey, Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar U.S. Nagar-263 145 (Uttranchal)

In an experiment conducted on ten different varieties of poplar leaves at two stages of


maturity to estimates nutritive value of leaves of poplar for ruminant feeding. It was found that
the mean value of DM, OM, TA, CP, EE , NDF, ADF and HC in poplar leaves were 30.28, 90.01, 9.99,
12.64, 2.75, 44.61, 28.61 and 16.01respectively at first stage and 33.75, 87.67, 12.33, 10.99, 2.50,
48.84, 31.07 and 17.77 per cent at second stage respectively. Rumen digestibility of nutrient in the
leaves of different varieties was highest and lowest and average value of DM were : 71.99 and
59.08; OM : 74.5 and 60.7 ; NDF : 68.65 and 54.22; ADF : 61.50 and 44.49; HC : 98.36 and 74.55 and
CP : 53.68 and 39.11 at first stage and at second stage DM : 64.94, and 56.59; OM : 65.38 and 57.42
; NDF : 57.32 and 41.84; ADF :44.32 and 33.33; HC : 78.16 and 68.35 ; CP : 45.74 and 29.97 per cent.
The value at first and second stage differed significantly ( P< 0.05 ). On the basis of over all
nutrient analysis and scoring, the leaves of the varieties 103 and G-48 were found of high nutritive
value as compared to other varieties.

033 Studies on the addition of malt sprout on feed intake, milk production and its composition in
crossbred lactating cows - Manoj Singh and S.S. Chauhan, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar- 263 145 (Uttaranchal)

Studies on crossbred lactating cows were conducted to test the milk production and its
composition fed with a basal diet having green sorghum and wheat straw in a proportion of 60 :
40 ad lib supplemented with concentrate mixtures fortified with different levels of malt sprout.
Three types of balanced concentrate mixtures having 0, 5 and 10 per cent malt sprout in their
composition were used. Eighteen crossbred cows were divided into three groups of six each on
the basis of their milk yield and state of lactation. The rations provided were isonitrogenous. The
figures of DMI were 3.40±0.15 in T1, 3.47±0.15 in T2 and 3.62± 0.15 kg/100 kg body weight in T3.
The overall average milk production was noted as highest in T3 (12.65±0.38) followed by T2
(11.93±0.38) and T1 (11.90±0.38 litres). The differences were, however, not significant and the
average values of total solids were recorded as highest in T3 (12.87±0.07) followed by T2 (12.78±0.07)
and least in T1 (12.76±0.07 per cent). The values of SNF in all the treatments were almost the same
i.e. 8.68±0.15 in T1 and T3 and 8.72±0.15 per cent in T2. Protein percentage was same in T1 and T2
(3.76±0.03 per cent) and a bit higher in T3 i.e. 3.79±0.03 per cent. The values of lactose were
4.20±0.15, 4.22±0.15 and 4.13±0.15 per cent in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The differences
however, were not significant. It was concluded that malt sprout, a protein rich feed stuff can be
added in the concentrate mixtures of lactating crossbred cows @ 10% for making the rations more
economic and cheaper.
22 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

034 Effect of addition of malt sprout in the cattle concentrate mixtures on the
performance of crossbred heifers - Manoj Singh and S.S. Chauhan, Department of
Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of
Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263 145 (Uttaranchal)

In a experiment conducted on eighteen crossbred heifers ranging between 8-18 months


of age were divided into three groups of six each. These animals were fed with a basal diet having
green sorghum and wheat straw in a proportion of 60 : 40 ad lib and three types of balanced
concentrate mixtures having 0, 5 and 10 per cent malt sprout in their composition. The mean
random glucose concentration was found highest (58.16 mg/dL) in treatment III and in the rest
two treatments, the level was the same (57.83). The serum total protein values were 7.59, 7.63 and
7.68 g/dL in treatments I, II and III, respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase was estimated as
73.0 international units (U/L) in treatment I, 71.5 in TII and 70.66 in TIII In the present study, the
values of SGPT were recorded as 17.85, 18.03, and 12.92±1.26 U/L in TI, TII and TIII, respectively.
Whereas the values of first two treatments had no significant difference between them, in the III
treatment having 10% inclusion of malt sprout in their diet showed significantly less content of
the enzyme compared to both I and II treatments. The results indicated values of SGOT as 52.67
in treatment I, 51.00 in treatment II and 42.66 U/L in treatment III. The first two values did not differ
significantly, however, the value in treatment III was significantly less compared to first two
treatments. The values of serum calcium in all the treatments were almost the same and did not
have statistical difference. The values were 9.52, 9.36 and 9.34 mg/dL in treatments I, II and III,
respectively. The values of phosphorus were noted as 5.65 in TI, 5.85 in TII and 5.75 mg/dl in TIII.
The values of serum cholesterol were recorded as highest in TIII (84.33) followed by TI (81.83) and
least in TII (81.66 mg/dl). It was concluded that malt sprout a protein rich non-conventional feed
stuff had no adverse effect as far as blood biochemistry of growing heifers was concerned.

035 Studies on possibilitiesof adding non-conventional feed ingredient in the rations of heifers -
S.S. Chauhan and Manoj Singh, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and
Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263 145, Uttaranchal

An experiment was conducted on eighteen crossbred heifers ranging between 8-18


months of age divided into three groups of six each fed with a basal diet having green sorghum
and wheat straw in a proportion of 60 : 40 ad lib and three types of balanced concentrate mixtures
having 0, 5 and 10 per cent malt sprout as non-conventional feed ingredient in their composition.
The rations provided were isonitrogenous and near isocaloric. The highest value of daily gain (g/
day) was noted in treatment III (411.10±8.33 g) followed by treatment II (397.91±8.33 g) and I
(384.00±8.33 g). The value of treatment III was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the value of
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 23

treatment I. The values of treatment I and II were not significantly different from each other.
Similarly, treatment III and II also did not show any significance. The figures of DMI were
118.74±5.55 g in TI, 122.16±5.55 in TII and 113.88± 5.55 g per kg W0.75 in TIII. The FCR values were
recorded as 14.54±0.95 in the I, 15.58± 0.95 in the II and 14.45±0.95 in the III treatment. It was
concluded that malt sprout, a protein rich non-conventional feed stuff can be added in the
concentrate mixtures of growing crossbred heifers for making the rations more economic and
cheaper.

036 Non-starch polysaccharides in different varities of maize, wheat and rice - Parminder Singh,
J.S. Chawla and S.S. Sikka, Deptt. of Vety. & Animal Husbandry Extension, Department of Animal
Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004 (Pb.)

Five varieties each of maize (Paras, Sartaj, Parkash, Parbhat and Bio-9637), wheat (PBW-34,
PBW-154, PBW-343, WH-542 and TL-1210) and rice (PR-111, PR-113, PR-114, PR-115 and PR-116)
were procured from the Department of Plant Breeding, PAU Ludhiana and analysed for their
insoluble (LNSP), soluble (S.NSP) and total (T.NSP) non-starch polysaccharides contents. The I.
NSP, S.NSP and T.NSP contents of different varieties of maize ranged from 8.46 to 8.70, 0.96 to 1.40
and 9.53 to 10.10 per cent, respectively. The I. NSP of different varieties of maize did not differ
significantly, whereas, S.NSP and T.NSP of Bio-9637 and Parkash were statistically comparable
but significantly (P®0.05) more than the S.NSP and T.NSP contents of Paras, Sartaj and Parbhat.
Similarly, the I. NSP, S.NSP and T.NSP contents of different varieties of wheat ranged from 8.50 to
12.40, 2.50 to 3.66 and 11.00 to 16.06 per cent, respectively. The I. NSP, S.NSP and T.NSP of
TL-1210 variety of wheat were significantly (P®0.05) more than all the other varieties of wheat.
The LNSP, S.NSP and T.NSP of PBW-343 variety of wheat were significantly (P®0.05) less than
PBW-34 variety but significantly (P®0.05) more than the varieties of PBW154 and WH-542. The
NSP contents of PBW-154 and WH-542 were statistically similar. The LNSP, S.NSP and T.NSP
contents of different varieties of rice ranged from 0.75 to 0.90, 0.17 to 0.31 and 0.93 to 1.21 per cent,
respectively, and these differences were statistically non-significant. The results of the present
study indicated that there is considerable variation in NSP contents among different varieties of
maize and wheat and varieties which possess less amount of NSP should be included in the
rations of commercial broilers.

037 Regional variation in the availability of feed resources in Karnataka state- a case study -
S. Anandan, S.S. Raju, U.B. Angadi and K.S. Ramachandra, National Institute of Animal
Nutrition and Physiology Adugodi, Bangalore-560 030

The overall availability of feed resources in the state was to the tune of 40.3 million tones
(Crop residues 29.9 million tones, greens 7.8 million tones, Concentrates 2.6 million tones). Crop
residues constituted the major share of the dry matter. Sugarcane tops accounted for the largest
contribution for the crop residues (32%) followed by maize stover (16%), rice straw (15%),
24 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

sorghum kadbi (12%) and ragi straw (11%). In the districts of Dharwad, Bagalkote, Belgaum, Bidar
and Mandya sugarcane tops was the major source of crop residues accounting for more than the
50% of the total crop residues. Rice straw was the major crop residue in the districts of Dakshina
Kannada (93%), Kodagu (86%), Uttar Kannada (84%), Udupi (80%) Shimoga (49%), Raichur
(49%), Koppal (41%) and Mysore (38%). Oil cakes constitute a major share of the available
concentrates in the state followed by grains, brans and chuni. However, in the districts of Gulbarga
and Bidar, which are the major pulse, growing districts, the availability of chunis were higher than
the brans. In Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada, the predominantly rice growing districts; the
availability of bran was higher than the cakes. The potential dry matter availability increased from
6 Kg/RLU/day to 8 Kg/RLU/day for the period 1985 - 86 to 1997 - 98. The increased dry matter
availability was chiefly due to increase in the crop residues. The dry matter availability has
increased over the years in the districts of Northern Karnataka along with Dharwad, Hassan and
Mysore. Apart from the coastal districts the districts of Bangalore rural,
Bangalore urban, Tumkur and Hassan were deficient in DM availability. It is clearly evident that
the scenario with regard to the availability of feed resources in the states vis a vis districts within
the state are quite varied and there is a strong need to assess the feed resources at the district
level for formulating and implementing meaningful livestock developmental activities

038 Chemical composition of grass, legume and tree leaves under silvipasture system - K.S. Murthy,
K.S. Dutta, R.M. Javia, M.M. Roy, K.R. Tajane and R.R. Shah, Cattle Breeding Farm, Gujarat
Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001

A 3 tier silvopasture system was established using tree species, legumes and grasses
under treatments (1) Natural pasture (NP), (2) Reseeded pasture (RP) and (3) Sown pasture (SP).
Reseeding and sowing was done with grasses Dicanthium coricosum (DC) and Cenchrus ciliaris
(CC) and legumes Stylosanthes hamata (SH) and Stylosanthes scabra (SS). Common tree species
such as Azadirechta indica (AI), Ziziphus mauritiana (ZM), Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and
Acacia nitolica (AN) were planted in each treatment. Samples of grasses, legumes and tree leaves
were analyzed for their chemical composition. The CP content was estimated to be 5.48, 4.79,
13.13, 10.78, 16.96, 9.995, 17.67, 15.05, 4.87 and 6.08 % respectively for CC, DC, SH, SS, AI, ZM, LL,
AN, NP and RP. Corresponding values for EE, CF, TA and NFE were found to be 2.69, 1.76, 4.83,
4.25, 1.92, 1.84, 4.41, 2.73, 3.57, 3.98, 31.87, 31.52, 31.45, 35.70, 10.40, 22.08, 21.21, 15.30, 25.67, 28.61,
10.27, 15.28, 7.74, 10.25, 13.39, 13.48, 11.27, 10.52, 13.28, 15.48 and 49.69, 46.65, 42.85, 39.02, 57.33,
52.65, 45.44, 56.40, 52.61, 46.05%. It can be concluded that legumes such as SH and SS and tree
leaves such those of AI, LL and AN are good source of protein, carbohydrates and ash.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 25

039 Chemical composition and voluntary intake of baru (Sorghum halipensis) grass in Gir animals-
K.S. Murthy, K.S. Dutta, K.R. Tajane, R.R. Shah, P.S. Dalal & K.Ravikala, Cattle Breeding Farm,
Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001

Baru (Sorghum helepensis ) is widely found after the onset of monsoon on the bunds of
agriculture fields. This wild jowar though considered as a weed by farmers is widely used as
fodder by dairy farmers. Plants of this species grow very rapidly and become less palatable and
fibrous after flowering. Flowering takes place after 45 days. Chemical composition of baru
immediately after flowering was in the order crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free
extract, ash, silica, phosphorus and calcium, 4.1, 1.8, 35.8, 47.0, 11.3, 9.8, 0.09 and 0.38, respectively
on dry matter basis. HCN content was 16.0 mg/100 g dry matter. Van Soest fibre fractions NDS,
NDF, Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were 23.72, 76.28, 50.91, 26.72, 49.37, 7.09 per cent on dry
matter basis, respectively. Silage was prepared of baru at flowering stage and the chemical
composition of silage was 3.8, 2.2, 35.0, 46.6, 12.4, 0.19, 0.45, respectively for crude protein, ether
extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, ash silica, phosphorus and calcium on dry matter basis.
Silage was quite palatable and HCN content was 12.4 mg/100 g dry matter. The silage was offered
to dry adult animals of this farm and voluntary intake was 13.4 kg/day.

040 Effect of using urea treated wheat straw as complete feed under loose housing sytem on the
performance of crossbred heifers - S.K. Singh, S.K. Pachauri, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department
of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, JNKVV, Jabalpur

Eighteen crossbred heifers were distributed to three treatments. Treatment I was used
as control, where as treatment II and III were fed complete feed “Sani” based on wheat
straw+concentrate mixture and urea treated wheat straw+concentrate mixture, respectively. The
study was conducted for the period of 60 days inclusive of 7 days digestion trial. The complete
feed “Sani” contained 12% CP and 1.95 Meal ME/kg as recommended by Kearl (1982). The CP and
ME content of concentrate mixture fed to control were 21.5% & 2.4 Mcal/kg. The CP content of
“Sani” based on 4% urea treated wheat straw was raised to 7.45% from 3.25% with proportionate
reduction in the CF (36.5 to 35.5) and NFE (47.5 to 43.5) content. Significantly, (P<0.05) higher DM
intake was more in heifers of III. Significantly, (P<0.05) higher wt. gain (g/day) was observed in
treatment III .The digestibilities of were found significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatment III. Cost
of feeding per kg body weight gain was calculated as Rs. 26.50, 27.38 and 26.92 for treatment I, II
and III, respectively. Complete feed “Sani” raised slightly the feed cost/kg gain but in heifer
faster gain is desired and this slight increase in the cost will be compensated by way of early
puberty and maturity, which are economical traits.
26 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

041 Land Utilization, Feed Resources, Feeding Practices, Milk Production and Disposal Pattern in
few districts of North Bihar - R.K. Sohane, P.B. Jha, Asha Kumari, and Ayodhya Prasad, Rajendra
Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur - 848 125

A survey was conducted in the year 2000-2001 in some selected districts of North Bihar,
to have a holistic view of the farms, feed and feeding practices, milk production and disposal etc.
The data on these aspects were collected from 100 farmers of different categories (small, medium
and rich farmers) on especially designed proforma. The study revealed that the average land
holding (acres) and the proportion (%) of irrigated area of small, medium and rich farmers were
1.19, 4.12 and 12.13; 79.15, 93.10 and 76.90, respectively. Manual method of harvesting
predominated among the different categories of the farmers. Wheat and paddy were the main
cereals crops grown by the farmers and that the proportion (%) of area under wheat was more
than paddy. it was also indicated that farmers of different categories were using wheat and paddy
straw as the main roughages and that there was more use of home mixed ration in animal feeding.
Wheat and maize grains were the main ingredients of home mixed ration with very limited use of
oil seeds (linseed/tori cake). Berseem, oat and sorghum were the main green fodder crops grown
by different categories of farmers. Farmers were feeding crop residues, green fodder, and
concentrate in sanni (mixed form) and there was more use of common salt than mineral mixture.
The overall average number of milch cows and buffaloes per farmers was 1.40 and 0.597,
respectively whereas the overall average milk production (lit/cow or lit/buffaloes) of cow and
buffaloes was 7.70 and 4.95, respectively. Among the cows, the crossbred cows gave the highest
average milk production (8.25 lit/cow) while among the buffaloes, the non-descript buffaloes
gave the highest average milk production (4.66 litres/buffaloes). Majority of farmers (30.66%)
sold milk through cooperative societies. It appeared that the main constraints for dairy farming,
were the availability of limited land to grow the fodder crops, poor knowledge of scientific
feeding, lack of veterinary care, low prices of milk, high bank interest on loan and other
gynaecological problem etc.

042 Prediction of the efficiency of in vitro ruminal microbial production of different cultivars of
rice straw by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) - K.V. S.V. Prasad1, A.K. Pattanaik, N. Dutta,
B.C. Viraktamath2, K. Sharma, and M. Blummel1, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar-243-122

NIRS is successfully used in crop improvement programs to reduce often-laborious


conventional laboratory analyses. Chemical measurements, in vitro digestibility
measurements and more recently extent and rate of in vitro gas production were accurately
predicted by NIRS. The present work explored the use of NIRS (FOSS Analyzer 5000 with
software WinISI II) for the prediction of the efficiency of in vitro ruminal microbial production - an
1
International Livestock Research Institute, South Asia Project, Patancheru-502 324;
2
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad-500 030
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 27

important fodder quality trait - in crop improvement programs. Leaves, stems and whole plants of
32 cultivars of rice were investigated. Efficiency of ruminal microbial production was calculated
from combined in vitro gas volumes and true organic matter degradability measurements at times
of microbial peak production. Efficiency of microbial production was estimated as the ratio of mg
of organic matter truly degraded to ml gas produced by it and termed partitioning factor (PF).
Time of microbial peak production was estimated as the time of half-maximum gas production
(t½) using a derivation of the sigmoidal Gompertz model y = AS * exp(-exp[(2718 MR *)*(LAG-t) + I)]]. The
108 rice straw leaves, stems and whole plants were split into a NIRS calibration and validation set
each consisting of 54 straw samples. The NIRS calibration set was used to develop equations
with which to blind-predict the 54 straw samples in the validation set. The agreement between
NIRS predicted PF values and actually measured ones was R2 = 0.94 with a standard error of
prediction of 0.1. It is concluded that NIRS can be used to predict in vitro efficiency of microbial
production in rice improvement work.

043 Evaluation of genetic variability of rice cultivars for better straw quality by in vitro gas
production technique - A.K. Pattanaik, N. Dutta, Ch. Ramakrishna Reddy1, B.C. Viraktamath2,
K. Sharma, and M. Blummel1 Department of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research
Institute, Izatnagar-243-122 (U.P.)

The overall objective of this work was to explore the genetic variability in promising rice
cuItivars for better straw quality. Thirty-two rice cultivars (7 boro and 25 hybrids) grown from
DOR were used for in vitro gas production test. The leaves, stems and whole plants of each
cultivar was incubated as per standard protocol, and accumulated gas volumes were measured at
3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, 72 and 96 hours postincubation in order to estimate the true digestibility
of organic matter (TDOM) and the rate and extent of gas production. Consistent and significant
differences were observed for various gas production variables among the genotypes as well as
plant parts viz. lag phase, maximum rate of gas production, rate and extent of gas production, time
for microbial peak production (estimated as time for half-maximum gas production, t½), and
efficiency of microbial production (estimated as mg of organic matter truly degraded per ml gas
produced, PFOM)’ Straw of rice cultivars also differed significantly in their TDOM (measured at t½),
and the genotype with higher straw yield (kg DM/ha) also had the better digestibility (R2 = 0.78;
P<0.0001). Further, digestibility of whole plant was found to be positively correlated with t½ (R2
=0.87; P<0.0001), PFOM (R2 = 0.79; P<0.0001) and yield (kg/ha) of digestible stover (R2 = 0.81;
P<0.0001). A significant variation was also evident in the energy (watts) required for grinding of
different straw samples. Based on the findings, it is concluded that rice germ plasm has sufficient
genetic variability to enable the nutritive value of the straw to be improved through breeding
without any apparent biological barriers.
1
Intemational Livestock Research Institute, South Asia Project, Patancheru 502 324;
2
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad 500 030
28 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

044 Chemical composition of tree leaves used as fodder in Mizoram - K.C. Das, S. Malik1 and
P.K. Subudhi2, Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal
Husbandry, Central Agricultural University Selesih, Aizawl (Mizoram)

Twelve (12) tree leaves of Mizoram used as fodder for cattle by the natives viz. Artocarpus
heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Bauhinia vahlii (Maljhan), Bauhinia variegata (Mountain ebony),
Callicarpa arborea (Ghiwala), Cinnamomum tamala (Indian cassia), Clerodendron infortunatum
(Bhant), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber tree), Macaranga peltata (Binunga gum tree), Mangifera
sylvatica (Wild mango), Musa sylvatica (wild banana), Panicum plicata and Trema orientalis
(Charcoal tree); were collected and analyzed for DM, CP, EE, TA, CF and NFE. Among the
different tree leaves analyzed; the percentage of DM, CP, EE, TA, CF and NFE (all on DM basis
except DM) varied from 14.28 to 50.0, 9.41 to 23.68, 0.87 to 4.27 ,3.68 to 21.88, 6.09 to 30.97 and 41.06
to 66.02 respectively. CP content was higher in leaves of Trema orientalis, Bauhinia variegata
and Bauhinia vahlii. Leaves of Mangifera sylvatica, Panicum plicata and Cinnamomum tamala
contained lower quantity of CP. Leaves of Cinnamomum lamala, Hevea brasiliensis and Bauhinia
vahlii contained higher EE whereas leaves of Trema orientalis and Artocarpus heterophyllus
contained lower EE. Leaves of Musa sylvatica and Trema orientalis contained higher TA
indicating higher content of minerals. Leaves of Panicum plicata, Cinnamomum tamala and
Mangifera sylvatica contained higher CF whereas leaves of Macaranga peltata, Bauhinia
vahlii and Callicarpa arborea contained higher NFE compared to the other tree leaves. In this
preliminary study, the results suggest that tree leaves of Trema orientalis, Bauhinia variegata
and Bauhinia vahlii may be fed as rich source of protein. The leaves of Cinnamon lamala,
Bauhinia vahlii and Macaranga peltata may be fed as rich source of energy to cattle.

045 Nutritional characteristics of bamboo leaves used as fodder in Tripura - Chander Datt,
M. Niranjan, Aruna Chhabra3 K.R. Dhiman4,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,Tripura
Centre, P.O. Lambucherra 799 210 Tripura (W)

Several species of bamboo leaves are being used as fodder in Tripura particularly
during the lean period of November to April. Seven species of bamboo leaves were collected and
their chemical composition and in vitro digestibility values were determined. These species
included Bambusa pallida,B.nana,B.Nutan B.Cacherensis,Dendrocalamus hamiltonii,
D. sikkimensis and M. bambusoids. The DM content varied from 49.79 to 55.21 per cent and the
mean value was 52.71±0.75 per cent. The values (DM basis) for OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE and total ash
were 83.89±0.66, 12.42±0.69, 1.39±0.07,25.28±0.78, 44.04±0.83 and 16.11±0.66 per cent,
respectively. The analysis of cell wall showed the average values of 73.01±0.58, 41.61±1.51,
31.40±1.13, 32.15±0.99 and 5.59±0.43 for NDF, ADF, hemicellulose,cellulose and acid detergent
lignin. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD)
ranged from 34.98 to 43.45 per cent and from 37.13 to 46.51 per cent, respectively. The highest
IVDMD and IVOMD values were observed in B.nutan while the lowest values were recorded in
D.sikkimensis.
1
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetic; 2 Department of Veterinary Microbiology; 4
ICAR Res.Complex
for NEN Region, Umiam, Meghalaya; 3 DCN Division, NDRI Karnal Haryana.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 29

046 Nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility of different cultivars of paddy straw - Chander
Datt, Aruna Chhabra1, M.Niranjan, K.Chattopadhyaya, K.R.Dhiman2 and N.P. Singh, ICAR
Research complex for NEH Region,Tripura Centre, Lembucherra- 799 210 Tripura (W)

Paddy straw constitutes about ninety per cent of the total dry roughages available for
ruminants in Tripura. Twenty four varieties/cultivars/lines grown in the experimental plots of
Plant Breeding Division of this Centre were analyzed for straw quality in terms of chemical
composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) organic matter digestibility (IVOMD).
These cultivars included C-10, RCM-9, RCM-10, RCM-11, RCM-12, Ngoba, RCPL-1-84-4, Pyzum
white, Pyzum red, TRC-02-2, NDR-97, TOX-3241, Binni, Kali Kasha etc.Proximate evaluation
showed the value of 85.69±0.38, 4.71±0.18, 1.22±0.02, 29.51±0.44. 49.75±0.53 and 14.81±0.38 per
cent (DM basis) for OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, and total ash, respectively. The mean values for NDF,
ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and acid detergent lignin were 72.57±1.10, 46.34±0.72, 26.30±0.58,
33.69±0.65 and 5.23±0.09 per cent, respectively. IVDMD values varied from 37.85 to 54.78 per cent
with an overall value of 45.91±1.10. The mean IVOMD value was 47.63±1.08 per cent varying from
39.63 to 56.10 per cent. Wide variations were recorded among the varieties in terms of nutrient
composition and digestibility under in vitro conditions.

047 Variation in chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of various cultivars


of maize as fodder - Chander Datt, M. Niranjan, K.Chattopadhyaya, K.R. Dhiman3 and
Aruna Chhabra4, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region , Tripura Centre,P .0. Lembucherra
- 799 210, Tripura (W)

A study was conducted in order to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry
matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) digestibility of ten cultivars of maize including
some varieties and their crosses (F1) grown at plant Breeding Division of the Centre. These
varieties/crosses included Naveen, Jhum Black, Jhum Black x Naveen, Jhum Yellow, Jhum Red,
Jhum Red Naveen, Prakash x Jhum Black, Jhum Yellow x Naveen, Prakash and Prakash x Jhum
Red. The mean values (range in parenthesis) were 89.31±0.42 (86.51-91.35),8.57±0.28(7.29-9.80)
1.31±0.07 (1.07-1.66), 25.53±0.55 (22.09-28.07), 53.90±0.66 (50.28-58.15) and 10.69±0.42 (8.65-13.49)
per cent (DM basis) for OM,CP,EE,CF,NFE and total ash, respectively. Cell wall composition
showed the average values (range in parenthesis) to be 59.01±1.09 (53.10-64.53), 36.18±1.02
(30.23-41.94), 22.83±0.04 (17.49-25.91), 27.67±1.15 (22.29-33.69) and 3.66±0.20 (2.92-4.73) per cent
for NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, respectively. IVDMD and IVOMD values
ranged from 53.61 to 65.87 per cent and from 55.90 to 68.23 per cent with average values of
60.37±1.27 and 62.49±1.09 per cent, respectively. The variety Jhum yellow and its cross with
Naveen showed the highest IVDMD and IVOMD values while the lowest digestibility was
observed in Prakash x Jhum Black.
1,4 2,3
DCN Division NDRI,Karnal,Haryana; ICAR Res.Complex for NEH Region,Umiam,Meghalaya
30 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

048 Effect of urea treatment on in-situ disappearence of cell wall constituents of crop residues in
two different rumen environments - Sheela Choudhary1, O.P. Mathur and Ajay Singh,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan
Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 001

Three adult Nali rams fistulated at rumen were used for in situ studies. Two different
rumen environments were created by manipulating the dietary regime. Significant (P<0.05) effect
of change in rumen environment was observed on pH, TVFA, total protozoal count and rumen
ammonia concentration. The extent of disappearance and effective degradability of NDF, ADF,
hemicellulose and cellulose of treated and untreated crop residues i.e. Jowar Sorghum vulgarie)
and Bajra (Pennisetum typhodium) were determined in both rumen environments by incubating
samples for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in each rumen environment. The trends of disappearance of
NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose were similar in jowar and bajra straws. The values of
disappearance were minimum in untreated straws and maximum for 4 percent urea treated straws
in both rumen environments. The effective degradability of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and
cellulose were maximum at 48 hours of incubation for 4 percent urea treated straws in RE-II.

049 Nutritional evaluation of mustard straw based complete feed in sheep - R. K. Dhuria, G.R. Purohit,
T. Sharma, R.S. Arya, and D.D. Garg, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and
Animal Science, Rajasthan AgriculturalUniversity, Bikaner-334 001

Three iso-nitrogenous complete feed containing Mustard straw at 40 (T1), 50 (T2) and 60
(T3) level were formulated and evaluated using 18 male sheep in completely randomized design.
The effects of feeding of complete feed were evaluated in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility
of dry matter & gross nutrients, and intake of digestible nutrients. The dry matter intake was
recorded to be 853, 815 and 788 g/day, respectively for T1, T2 and T3. There were non-significant
differences among the feeds in apparent digestibility of all nutrients except NFE. Increasing the
Mustard straw in the complete feed decreased the nutrients except NFE. Increasing the Mustard
straw in the complete feed decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, EE and NFE but increased the
digestibility of CF, NDF, ADF and Hemicellulose. All animals were in positive N, Ca and P
balances. The DCP and TDN contents of complete feeds were 10.40 and 57.45; 9.89 and 54.26 and
9.12 and 53.00 per cent, respectively for T1 to T3. It can be concluded that the optimum level of
inclusion of Mustard straw as roughage source is 60 % with out any adverse effect on voluntary
feed intake, nutrient balance and utilization in sheep.

1
Assistant Professor, Apx Centre, 68- Officers Campus, Krishna Marg, Khatipura-12 Jaipur
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 31

050 Nutritional evaluation of common herbs of Chhattisgarh plain - Abhijeet Wankhede and
R.K. Jain1, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science & Animal
Husbandry, Durg- 491001

The samples of commonly available eight varieties of herbs ( Altemathera sessilis,


Cocculus hirsutus, Desmodium diffusum, Dolichus falcatus,Malachra capitata, Phaseolus
trilobus, Tephrosia purpurea, Teramus labialis) were collected from different locations of Durg
and Rajnandgaon districts of Chhattisgarh plain during the months of Nov. - Jan. and evaluated
for nutritional characteristics in terms of proximate principles, fibre fractions, presence of natural
toxicants and In vitro digestibility. The results of the study indicated that the OM content of
herbs leaves ranged from 77.02 to 93.26% averaging 86.72±2.17%. The mean values (range in
parenthesis) for CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, Ca, P and AIA were 16.24±1.15 (12.66 - 21.65), 3.46±0.13
(2.99-4.01), 10.10±0.54 (7.26-11.60), 57.11±2.39 (46.19-65.50), 13.26±2.17 (6.74-22.98), 2.67±0.37
(1.39-4.31), 0.27±0.08 (0.17-0.47) and 0.32±0.02 (0.21-0.41) percent on dry matter basis,
respectively. The CP content was highest in D.falcatus leaves with the lowest value for A.sessilis.
The leaves of C.hirsutus contained the highest percentage of fibre while it was the lowest in
D.falcuts. There was a large variation in Ash content. The Ca content was highest in M.capitata
leaves whereas lowest in the T.purpurea. The almost all herbs leaves studied were found to be
rich in crude protein and Ca, while low in Phosphorus. The data of cell wall and cell
constituents of different herbs leaves indicated that the mean values (range in parenthesis) for
cell contents, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were 45.71±2.34 (39.47-55.63),
54.35±2.36 (44.37-60.53), 35.32±3.36 (21.20-46.51), 22.06±2.81 (14.18-32.64), 18.9±2.32 (12.15-28.92)
and 11.51±1.88 (5.95- 20.40)% on DM Basis, respectively. The cell content was highest in T.labialis
and lowest in P.trilobus leaves. The value of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were lowest in
M.capitata leaves. The leaves of D.diffusum contained the highest percentage of lignin. The
mean values (range in parenthesis) among different herbs species for oxalate, saponin and tannin
contents were 1.33±0.19 (0.71-2.15), 2.66±0.36 (1.35-3.40) and 1.25±0.02 (1.20-1.60) percent on dry
matter basis, respectively. The oxalate and tannins contents were highest in C.hirsutus, while
saponin in Asessilis leaves. The mean values (range in parenthesis) of in vitro digestibility for
DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF for different species of herbs were 41.04±2.60 (33.17-47.90), 44.49±2.29
(38.09-52.82), 40.82±3.61 (26.99-49.55), 39.57±3.45 (27.23-52.28) and 44.30±3.28 (32.75-57.90)
percent on DM basis, respectively. The highest values of in vitro digestibility of DM, CP and
ADF were found in C.hirsutus leaves. The leaves of T.purparea and M.capitata were highest in
IVOMD and IVNDFD values, respectively.
1
College of Veterinary Sci. & A.H. Mhow (M.P.)
32 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

051 Nutritional evaluation of common shrubs of chhattisgarh plain - Abhijeet Wankhede and R.K.Jain1,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Durg- 491 001

The samples of commonly available eight varieties of shrubs (Acacia nilotica,


Aeschynomene indica Linn, Desmodium brachystachyum, Mucuna prorits, Sesbania uliginosa,
Seda acuta, Urena lobate and Ziziphus nummalaria.) were collected from different locations of
Durg and Rajnandgaon districts of Chhattisgarh plain and evaluated for nutritional characteristics
in terms of proximate principles, fibre fractions, presence of natural toxicants and in vitro
digestibility. The proximate analysis of different species of shrubs revealed that the OM content
of shrubs leaves ranged from 81.73 to 93.22% averaging 89.31±0.01%. The mean values (range in
parentheses) for CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, Ca, P and AIA were 17.78±2.40 (11.81-27.58), 3.00±0.56
(1.33-4.98), 14.57±3.60 (6.87-28.10), 53.94±2.34 (48.38-68.84), 10.69±1.40 (6.68-18.27), 2.37±0.33
(1.60-4.19), 0.24±0.02 (0.17-0.35) and 0.34±0.04 (0.20-0.56) percent on dry matter basis,
respectively. The CP content was highest in S.uligiona leaves with the lowest value for A.indica.
The leaves of Z.nummalaria contained the highest percentage of fibre while it was the lowest in
U.lobats. The ash content was highly variable. The most of the shrubs leaves were also found to
be rich in crude protein and calcium while low in Phosphorus. The results of cell wall and cell
constituents for different shrubs leaves revealed that the mean values (range in parenthesis) for
cell contents, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were 49.20±3.77 (38.24-65.39),
49.43±4.01 (34.61-59.10), 30.74±4.71 (15.41-44.91), 12.77±0.59 (4.37-29.42),19.86±4.00 (7.13-36.46)
and 14.47±2.58 (6.07-22.15)% on dry matter basis, respectively. The cell content was highest in
U.lobata with the lowest value for A.indica leaves. The leaves of A.indica contained highest
percentage of NDF, ADF and cellulose among all other species of shrubs. The D.brachystachyum
leaves contained highest Lignin with the lowest value in S.acuta. The mean values (range in
parenthesis) in different varieties of shrubs for oxalate, saponin and tannin contents were 0.88±0.11
(0.39-1.21), 2.810.28 (1.61-3.43) and 1.39±0.04 (1.16-1.71) percent on dry matter basis, respectively.
The leaves of A.indica, M.prurits and U.lobata were highest in oxalate, saponin and tannin
contents, respectively .The mean values (range in parenthesis) of in vitro digestibility for DM,
OM, CP, NDF, and ADF for different species of shrubs were 43.86±5.04 (29.55-65.51), 47.38±4.58
(30.69-65.00), 35.70±2.59 (26.73-45.56), 41.12±3.61 (25.71-52.66) and 36.33±1.64 (31.12-41.28)
percent on DM basis, respectively. The highest values of in vitro digestibility of DM, OM, CP
were seen in S.uliginosa while NDF and ADF in A.indica and M.prutita leaves, respectively.
1
College of Veterinary Sci. & A.H. Mhow (M.P.)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 33

052 Nutritional evaluation of common tree leaves of Chhattisgarh plain - Abhijeet Wankhede and
R.K. Jain1, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry,
Durg- 491 001

The samples of commonly available eight varieties of tree leaves (Acacia leucophloea,
Albizzia lebbek, Albizzia thomsoni, Ficus bengalensis, Ficus glomerate, Ficus retusa, Terminalia
arjuna,. Salmalia melabaricum.) were collected from different locations of Durg and Rajnandgaon
districts of Chhattisgarh plain and evaluated for nutritional characteristics in terms of proximate
principles, fibre fractions, presence of natural toxicants and in vitro digestibility. Among different
varieties of tree leaves the OM content ranged from 80.83 to 89.12% averaging 85.83±1.25%. The
mean values (range in parenthesis) for CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, Ca, P and AIA were 12.45±1.37
(7.64-18.00), 2.85±0.23 (1.89-3.75), 15.87±2.63 (6.81-24.91), 54.69±3.72 (42.69-68.89), 14.20±1.24
(10.96-19.17), 2.99±0.32 (1.98-4.19), 0.19±0.02 (0.11-0.26) and 0.41±0.25 (0.13-1.34) percent on dry
matter basis, respectively. Most of the tree leaves were rich in CP and all most all leaves were high
in Ca, while low in P content. The Ca : P ratio in tree leaves was very wide. The results of cell wall
and cell constituents for different tree leaves revealed that the mean values (range parenthesis)
for cell wall and cell constituents in tree leaves for cell contents, NDF, ADF, cellulose,
hemicellulose and lignin were 40.31±1.89 (34.43-46.31), 59.69±1.89 (53.69-65.57), 45.63±4.62
(24.50-57.09), 17.41±3.24 (4.94-29.06), 13.32±4.19 (3.67-33.46) and 22.98±2.21 (16.25-33.11) percent
on dry matter basis, respectively. The cell content was significantly highest in S.melabaricum
leaves with the lowest value for A.lebbek. The highest value of cellulose was found in F.retusa.
The lignin content was very high in all most all tree leaves. The mean values (range in
parenthesis) in various varieties of tree leaves for oxalate, saponin and tannin contents were
0.81±0.22 (0.30-2.07), 3.12±0.21 (2.29-4.07) and 1.39±0.04 (1.24-1.53) percent on dry matter basis,
respectively. The highest values of oxalate, saponin and Tannin were found in leaves of
S.melabaricum, A.leucophloea and A.thomsoni, respectively. The leaves of F.bengalensis were
similar in tannin content with A.thomsoni. The mean values (range in parenthesis) of in vitro
digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF for different species of tree leaves were 28.71±1.55
(23.00-32.70), 31.55±1.72 (24.0436.91), 30.05±3.35 (23.26-41.94), 34.08±3.37 (20.67-48.13) and
33.57±2.73 (24.27-43.35) percent on dry matter basis, respectively. The leaves of S.melabaricum,
F.glomerata, A.lebbek and T.arjuna were highest in in vitro digestibility of DM, OM, CP and
NDF, respectively. The IVADFD value was highest is leaves of T.arjuna.
1
College of Veterinary Sci. & A.H. Mhow (M.P.)
34 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

053 Variability in nutrient composition of wheat straw (Triticum sativum) during draught in Jaipur
and adjoining areas -Vishnu Sharma1, Jyoti Phalod2, B.K.Sharma, Sanjita Sharma and Seema Middha2,
Apex Centre (RAU), SFS, IV sector, Mansarovar, Jaipur

The quality control of bulk feed stuffs is the major concern during drought. An
experiment was planned and 38 samples of wheat straw were analyzed in duplicate for their
nutrient composition. The samples were collected from different places of Jaipur city and vicinity
area. The range of CP, CF, EE, NFE, TA, AIA and ASA was 3.06-3.94, 32.0-40.0, 0.5-1.0,
46.54-56.56, 6.5-12.5, 3.0-9.0 and 2.5-7.0 per cent Mean+ SE values were 3.67+0.042, 35.39+0.34,
0.65+0.03, 51.17+0.44, 9.44+0.32, 1.32+0.21 and 4.74+0.24, respectively. The coefficient of
Variance was observed maximum 31.12 for ASA followed by 28.19, 21.38, 15.80, 7.12, 5.92 and 5.32
for AIA, TA, EE, CP, CF and NFE. It was inferred that during drought time maximum variation was
observed in ash contents whereas carbohydrates were least variable.

054 Role of Arid Browse Shrubs in Animal Production in Western Rajasthan - J.P. Singh, B.C.
Mondal and R.K. Beniwal, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Institute,
Bikaner-334 004

Browse shrubs play an important role in the leaf forage production or arid ecosystem.
They provide forage resource to livestock and wild life during periods of scarcity when most of
the grasses dried up. In extreme climatic situation, browse constitute the only source of green
forage to provide supplements of protein and energy.Jharberi (Ziziphus nummularia) shrub is
well known species by providing the quality leaf fodder in arid and semi-arid region. This shrub
is important, as its dried leaves localy called as Pala, are rich in digestive CP and minerals play a
vital role in increasing the carrying capacity of poor scrub grazing lands. Other arid browse
shrubs like Lana, (Halozylon salicornicum), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Bawli (Acacia
jacquemontii) and Luni (Salsola barvosma) are also traditionally utilized by the farmers as
fodder for livestock along with other forages, In view of this attention was given to collect and
evaluate the native diversity of these and shrubs for their role in livestock production in western
Attention. was also given to gather the information regarding traditional system of
utilization of these species and their impact on livestock production in the area. For example dried
phylloclade of Phog (C. polygonoides) locally called as Lasoo are collected and fed to livestock
especially camels in the lean period and severe drought condition. Its fruits also form a nourishing
feed for milch cattle and camels. The dried pods and seeds of Bawli (Acacia Jacquemontii) are
supposed to increase the milk yield. Therefore, these browse species can be considered as a
supplement to protein deficient pastures and further add to the productivity and carrying capacity of
arid grasslands by providing quality forage during the lean period and prolonged drought
condition.
1 2
8/C-54, Pratap Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Rajasthan; Nutrition Laboratory, (Govt. of Raj.),Jaipur,
Rajasthan.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 35

055 Chemical Composition Haloxylon salicornicum Used as Animal Feed in Western Rajasthan -
B.C. Mondal and J.P. Singh, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station,
Bikaner, Rajasthan

Woody perennials are the important component in livestock production system in arid
region. Haloxylon salicornicum locally known as Lana, is a multipurpose shrub particularly in
Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of western Rajasthan. It is browsed by animals especially camels
and much preferred in the fruiting stage. The green twigs called. as Kanti are not liked by cattle
but browsed by camel and goats. It has high percentage of green foliage during the lean period
and provides the browse materials to livestock and wild life. It is believed that milk production in
cattle increases after feeding its Fuli (fruiting tops) along with Guar Phalkati (cluster bean) and
Lasu of Phog (Calligonum polygonoides). In winter when grasses dry up, its green twigs fulfill
mineral as well as water requirement of the animals. As a fodder H. salicornicum has high
nutritional value with high protein content at fruiting stage. Samples of Lana were collected from
different places of Bikaner district of western Rajasthan. Dried and ground samples were analysed
for its chemical composition. Fruiting top of Lana contain higher CP, total ash, and EE in compari-
son to its twig where as carbohydrate (TCHO) and fibre fraction (NDF, ADF) were higher in twig
than its fruiting top. Protein contents in fruiting tops ranged from 14 - 19 whereas in twigs 12 to
15%. It is a good source of protein (CP), inorganic constituents (Total ash) and carbohydrate
(TCHO) and can be used as animals feed by partial replacement of concentrate mixture either
alone or mixing with other feed/feed ingredients. In this paper potential of H. salicornicum for its
forage value is assessed and evaluated for its potential in livestock production in arid region.

056 Feeding Vilayati Babool (Prosopis julilflora) Pods to Marwari Goats in Arid Region - B. K.
Mathur and S. R. Siyak, Shailesh Paharia and H.C. Bohra, Division of Animal Science and Forage
Production, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur

Ten (10) goats in late lactation were divided into two group of 5 each i.e. group
I control and group II treatment. Animals of each group were offered weighed quantity of
roughage and concentrate on as such basis (consisting of 35% grinded bajara, 40% tumba seed
cake and 25% groundnut cake). However, in treatment group 35% bajra in concentrate was
replaced by Prosopis juliflora pod powder (PJPP) making ration near about isocaloric.Trail was
carried out for 4 weeks. The DMI/100kg body weight per day in control group varies from
3.045±0.02 to 3.28±0.01 kg and treatment group 3.28±0.03 to 3.59±0.01 kg respectively. Water
intake/100 body weight per day of control group varied from 3.89±0.02 to 6.09±1.3 liter, where as
treatment group 4.72±0.29 to 6.99±1.82 liter, respectively. The milk yield and blood constitutes
were more or less similar for both group. Initial average body weight of the control and treatment
group was 30.82±2.16 to 28.36±2.29 kg and final body weight was 31.32±1.83 and 29.24±2.81 kg,
respectively. Study showed that PJPP can be used up to 35% in the concentrate of goats. No
significant effect was observed on blood parameters and milk yield of goats in late lactation,
during extremes of summer in arid zone.
36 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

057 Effect of feeding honge (Pongamia glabra) seed cake on blood and urine constituents of
growing lambs - T.M.Prabhu1, V.R.B. Sastry and A. Kannan, Division of Animal Nutrition,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243122

Twenty four male crossbred lambs (8.75±0.391 to 8.80±0.279 Kg b.wt) were assigned
equally to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design and respectively fed
isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 22% soybean meal (SBM)
(reference diet) and 8.25% solvent extracted honge seed cake (SHC), 16.50% SHC and 16.50% Na
OH (1% w/w) treated SHC (replacing 25 and 50% SBM nitrogen) (test diets) to meet 80% of CP
requirements along with ad lib wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw for 165 days. Processing method
for bulk preparation of honge seed cake for animal experimentation was selected on the basis of
residual Karanjin left in the processed cakes on laboratory scale. The blood biochemical (blood
glucose, serum protein, albumin, globulin and their ratios, urea and creatinine) and enzymatic
(AST, AL T and ALP) profile did not differ due to dietary variations, except for significantly lower
(P<0.01) lactate dehydrogenase activity on test diets. The physical (colour, sp. gravity & pH),
biochemical (sugar, protein & ketone bodies) and microscopic (epithelial cells, RBC’s and triple
phosphate crystals) examination of urine showed no alteration in qualitative characteristics
indicating the normal function of kidney among lambs fed dietary combinations. Thus the honge
seed cake, after solvent extraction followed by alkali processing, could be included upto 50%
N-replacement of SBM in growing lamb rations without any harmful effect.

058 Nitrogen fractions of some locally available proteinaceous feedstuffs - B. Ramachandra and
V. Nagabhushana, Department of AnimalNutrition, Veterinary College, Bidar-585 401 (Karnataka)

Dietary N can be partitioned in to various fractions based em solubility in buffer or acid


detergent and digestion by protease. Eleven samples of concentrate feed ingredients such as
melt and bone meal, oil seed cake and broken pulses were analyzed for the composition of total
nitrogen, buffer insoluble nitrogen protease (Streptomyces griseus) insoluble nitrogen and acid
detergent insoluble nitrogen (N 6.25). The buffer insoluble N valfue (%) of meat and bone meal
(65.59) and black gram chuni (63.28) were observed to be significantly higher followed by ambadi
cake and sunflower cake the least. Fraction of feed N resistant to protease was found to be
significlntly high in ambadi cake (41.46) as compared to other feed samples and ground cake
being the least (12.97). Acid detergent insoluble N content (%) groundnut cake was observed to
be significlntly lower (5.54) followed by other samples with maximum ADIN content in ambadi
cake. ADIN content of green gram chuni was similar to that of black gram chuni. Rumen escape
protein value (%) of ambadi cake (21.52) and meat and bone meal (26.41) was found to be
significantly high as compared to other feed samples with a low value for groundnut cake and
1
Assistant Professor, Dept. Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Banglore-24
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 37

sunflower cake. Rapid rumen solubalizable N expressed as % RDN was significantly high for
sunflower cake (86.76) followed by groundnut cake, ambadi cake, field bean. Black gram chuni,
bengal gram chuni, meat and bone meal, cotton seed cake and sunflower cake were having, similar
value for rapidly solubalizable N fraction. It is concluded that various iso-nitrogenous feed
sources can have wide variation in rumen degradation pattern thus presenting different N
fractions at duodenal level.

059 In sacco dry matter and protein degradability of some common cakes in buffaloes on sorghum
straw based diet - R.N. Dhore, and A.V. Mahurkar, Department of Animal Nutrition, Post Graduate
Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ako1a (M.S.) 444 104 (Maharashtra Animal and
Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur)

An experiment was conducted to find out the suitable strategic protein supplement to
increase the nutrient utilization from sorghum stover in buffaloes. The significantly higher IVOMD
of 71.80±0.50 was recorded in CSC supplemented sorghum stover than other cakes tested.
However, the degradabi1ity of DM and CP and post feeding rumen liquor metabolites NH3-N and
NPN were significantly higher in GNC than CSC group. But TCA ppt. N and TVFA
concentrations were non significant. The blood glucose, serum protein and lipids were also non
significant. Considering the slow protein degradabi1ity rate and cost of the CSC. It was
concluded that, the CSC was the best protein supplement on sorghum stover based diet for
buffaloes.

060 Nutritional evaluation of Umber (Ficus glomerata) tree leaves for goats - R.G. Burte,
S.S. Jadhav and C.V. Bhambure, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr.
Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415712 (Maharashtra)

Fresh umber (Ficus glomerata) tree leaves were fed to five cross bred (Osmanabadi x
Local) male goats of an average body weight of (15.40±0.96 kg) for 21 days as a preliminary period
and six days as a collection period to determine the nutritive value of umber tree leaves. The
umber (Ficus glomerata) tree leaves contained, DM-30.63, OM-92.l5, CP-16.97; CF-10.03,
EE-1.90, NFE-63.25, TA-7.85, cell wall-58.26, NDF-41.72, ADF-38.29, cellulose-31.91, hemicelluiose-
3.43, lignin-4.54, tannin-1.86, Ca-1.87 and P-0.15 per cent on DM basis. The average dry matter
consumption was 5.06±0.27 kg/100kg body weight per day. The average digestibility coefficients
for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, Cell Contents, NDF, ADF; Cellulose and Hemicellulose were
61.30±1.70, 61.55±1.72, 67,45±1.89, 33.99±3.12, 53.19±1.96, 62.12±1.67, 62.88±1.62, 59.09±1.82,
60.71±1.64, 60.14±1.86 and 40.97±4.48 per cent, respectively. The goats showed positive balances
for N, Ca and P except two animals which showed negative retention for P. The DCP and TDN
contents were 11.45±0.40 and 57.51±1.66 per cent, respectively on DM basis. The total average
gain in body weight recorded was 29.72+6.13 g /day. The overall results suggested that the umber
tree leaves could serve as a good top feed source for maintenance and growth in goats.
38 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

061 Nutritive value of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) tree leaves for goats - R. G. Burte, S.S. Jadhav,
C.V. Bhambure, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr. Balasaheb Savant
Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712 (Maharashtra)

Jamun (Syzygium cumini) tree leaves contained DM-46.24, OM-92.96, CP-9.28, CF-
14.79, EE-4.94; NFE-63.95, TA-7.04. Cell Content-57.08, NDF-42.91, ADF- 7.41, Cellulose-28.64,
Hemicellulose-5.51, Lignin-5.40 and Tannin-5.87 per cent on dry matter basis. The major mineral
contents were Ca and P of 1.28 and 0.14 per cent, respectively. The metabolic trial was conducted
on six crossbred (Osmanabadi x Local) male goats having an average body weight of 13.81±0.87
kg. The digestibility coefficients for DM, OM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, Cell Content, NDF, ADF, Cellulose
and hemicellouse were 50.42±2.77, 51.02±2.90, 50.92±2.52,65.76±1.31, 69.52±1.79, 46.40±3.31, 51.94±
2.76, 48.39± 2.91, 49.46±3.09, 43.61±3.20 and 40.56±1.42 per cent, respectively. The dry matter
intake was 3.60±0.24 kg/100kg body weight on DM basis. As regards the retention of N and Ca
variability was observed. However, all the goats showed negative balances for the phosphorus.
All the animals showed loss in body weights (-29.65 g/day). Jamun leaves have DCP- 4.72±0.23
and TDN-51.85± 2.64 per cent on DM basis. Considering the DMI, the Jamun tree leaves may be
used in the goat ration during scarcity period.

062 Nutritional evaluation of Dhaman (Grewia tiliafolia) tree leaves for goats - R.G. Burte, S.S.
JADHAV, and C.V. Bhambure, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr. Balasaheb
Savant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712 (Maharashtra)

Nutritive value of Dhaman (Grewia tiliafolia) tree leaves was determined by conducting meta-
bolic trail on six cross bred (Osmanabadi x Local) male goats of an average body weight of
14.25±0.24 kg and age of (1.1 yrs). The Dhaman (Grewia tiliafolia) tree leaves contained DM-
37.24, OM-90.64, CP-15.45, CF-13.65, EE-6.80, NFE-54.75, TA-9.35, Cell content-69.15, NDF-30.84,
ADF-27.43, Cellulose-22.92, Hemicellulose-3.41, Lignin-4.00, Tannins.,0.71, Ca-2.27 and P-0.21 per
cent on DM basis. The average dry matter consumption was 5.89±0.09 kg/100 kg body weight per
day. The average digestibility coefficients for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, Cell contents, NDF,
ADF, Cellulose and Hemicellulose were 66.39±0.56, 66.80±0.60, 71.58±9.57, 79.96±0.29, 61.23±0.66,
65.18±0.69, 71.68±0.55, 54.52±1.02, 59.69±1.90, 60.25±0.69 and 39.64±2.23 per cent, respectively.
The nutritive value in term of digestible nutrients amounts to 11.14±0.38 per cent DCP and 67.42
±0.64 per cent TDN. The balance studies showed that all the animals were in positive balance of
nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. The average gain in body weight was observed to be 66.00
gm/day. It was concluded that Dhaman tree leaves can meet the maintenance as well as growth
requirements of goats.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 39

063 Effect of feeding of Gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) tree leaves on growth performance of
growing crossbred heifers - Rekha Kurup, A.B. Deshmukh, Bhavana Wankhade and S.A.Udar,
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Akola - 444 104 (M.S.)

An experiment on 9 crossbred heifers (7-20; -63 kg) was conducted to determine the
effect of feeding gliricidia leaves on nutrient utilization and growth performance. The Group T1
was fed with green maize fodder and cottonseeds whereas, in T2 25% and T3 100% CP of green
maize fodder replaced by gliricidia leaves was fed along with cottonseeds. All experimental
groups was fed ad lib dry jowar straw. The mean CP and EE content of Gliricidia tree leaves was
(17.85±7.20 and 6.70±2.85 per cent) higher than the green maize. The dry matter intake was
significantly higher (3.43 kg/day) in group T 2 as compared to Group T1 and T3.The digestibility
coefficient for DM (62.85±1.82%), CP (63.37±2.88%), CF (58.86±0.90%) and NFE (72.34±1.36%)
was higher in T1 than T2 and T3. Whereas the digestibility coefficient for EE (61.63±2.61%) was
higher in T2. There was significantly lower intake for DCP was observed in Group T2 (26.93%) and
T3 (29.62%) than T1. The TDN in group T2 higher by 28.18 and was lower by 15.16% in T3 as
compared to T1. The mean daily weight gain was non significant however, it was higher in T2. It
was observed that the feeding gliricidia leaves to crossbred heifers had better effect on DM
intake and body weight.

064 Vegetable waste as complete feed for bucks - M. Wadhwa, S. Kaushal, and M.P.S. Bakshi,
Department of Animal Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Pb.)

The vegetable wastes like cauliflower leaves, cabbage leaves and pea vines were
evaluated for their nutritional worth. These vegetable wastes, supplemented with minerals and
common salt, were fed ad-lib, as complete feed, to 3 bucks. The leaves of cauliflower and that of
cabbage had low concentration of cell wall constituents and high concentration of crude protein.
Cabbage leaves had the highest and pea vines had the lowest concentration of water soluble
sugars, proteins and phenolics. The fractionation of proteins indicated that vegetable waste in
general had highest concentration of water soluble and lowest concentration of alcohol soluble
fraction. The leaves of cauliflower and that of cabbage were found to be highly palatability and
digestible. The excretion of purine derivatives was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the urine of
bucks fed cauliflower leaves than that in bucks offered other vegetable wastes or even the
conventional green fodder A. sativa, resulting in significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen retention
and apparent biological value. The ME value of leaves of both, cauliflower and cabbage was
significantly higher than that of pea vines.
40 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

065 Potential of Sarson Saag Waste as buffalo feed - M.P.S. Bakshi, S. Kaushal, and M. Wadhwa,
Department of Animal Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, (Pb.)

A cannary waste- sarson saag (SSW), was evaluated for its nutritional worth in
comparison to conventional complete feed (made iso-nitrogenous to SSW) and a conventional
green fodder, A. sativa. Each diet was offered ad-lib, supplemented with mineral mixture and
common salt, to 3 murrah male buffaloes. The SSW was found to be comparable to that of
conventional green fodder-A sativa, but significantly superior to conventional control complete
feed, in terms of digestibility of nutrients. The TCA precipitable-N, in the rumen liquor of animals
fed SSW was considerably higher than that in animals fed green fodder, A sativa. The excretion
of total purine derivatives (PD) in the urine ranged between 300-520 µm/Kg W 0.75 /d. The
excretion of purine derivatives in ailimals fed SSW was comparable to those fed A sativa, but
significantly higher than that in animals fed control/conventional complete feed. The microbial
protein synthesis, as estimated from PD excreted in urine, was also significantly (p<0.05) higher
in animals fed SSW and A. sativa than in animals of control group, resulting in significantly
(p<0.05) higher N-retention and apparent biological value. The SSW was highly palatable and
showed excellent effect on the health. of the animals.

066 Non-traditional straws: alternative feedstuffs for buffaloes - S. Kaushal, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S.
Bakshi, Department of Animal Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Pb.)

Straws of 4 different fodder crops viz.,Trifolium resupinatum (shaftal),Trifolium


alexandrium (Berseem), Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Lolium perenne (rye grass) were
evaluated for their nutritional worth. Four male buffaloes in each group were offered respective
straw, ad-lib, supplemented with minerals and vitamin A. Straw of M.sativa had significantly
(p<0.05) higher contents of organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and Cellulose as
compared to that in other straws. L. perenne straw had the highest content of neutral detergent
fiber and that of hemicellulose but lowest crude protein content, amongst the non-traditional
straws tested. The straw of T. resupinatum had the lowest concentration of cell wall constituents.
The intake of dry matter was observed to be same in all the groups. The digestibility of all the
nutrients, except that of crude protein and that of hemicellulose in T. resupinatum straw was
comparable to that of L.perenne straw. The maximum digestibility of crude protein was observed
in M. sativa straw. The highest crude protein digestibility of M. sativa straw resulted in higher
TCA precipitable-N in the rumen liquor of animals fed this straw. The total purine derivatives
excreted (PDexc) in urine varied between 220-320 µm/Kg W.75. The microbial protein synthesized,
as estimated from PDexc, was higher in animals fed T. resupinatum straw, though differed non-
significantly from that synthesized by animals fed other straws. The N-retention and apparent
biological value were higher in animals fed L.perenne straw but comparable to that in animals fed
straws of M.sativa and T.alexandrium. The availability of ME from straw of T.resupinatum was
higher than that from other straws. Results showed that all the straws could be fed, exclusively,
to adult ruminants without any deleterious effect on the health of the animals.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 41

067 Effect of replacing concentrate mixture with stylo meal on nutritional status in ewes - A.B.
Mojumdar, P.S. Pathak1, M.M. Das, S.K. Mahanta and P.K. Pathak, Plant Animal Relationship
Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003 (U.P.), India

Stylosanthes hamata, a promising range legume rich in protein, was harvested at full
flowering stage, chaffed, then put under sun drying and ground in a threshing machine. Twelve
crossbred (Local x Corriedale) adult ewes (23.68±0.37 kg) divided into three groups (G1, G2, G3) of
four in each, were fed a composite ration of dry mixed grass and concentrate mixture/stylo meal.
Ewes under control group (G1) were fed concentrate mixture to meet the complete protein
requirement. While in experimental ewes, the concentrate mixture was replaced with stylo meal at
50 (G2) and 100 (G3) percent levels on iso nitrogenous basis. All the ewes were fed dry mixed
grass as basal roughage. The experimental feeding was continued for 65 days. Towards the end
of experimental feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Average
values of daily dry matter intake (DMI) were 716.9, 687.0 and 725.4 g while average DMI as kg/
100kg body weight were 2.94, 2.73 and 2.97 in G1, G2 and G3 groups, respectively. Similarly CP and
DCP intake (g/d) in the corresponding groups were 76.67 and 36.63; 76.52 and 41.32 and 77.02 and
36.22 , respectively. Dry matter digestibility (69.29%) was higher (P<0.05) in G2 than G1 (65.20%)
and G3 (62.73%). Average digestibilities of CP, NDF and ADF were comparable amongst the
groups and ranged from 47.33 to 54.06, 50.08 to 56.83.7 and 51.08 to 53.76 %, respectively. Thus
nutritional status seems to be better in ewes fed diet supplemented with both stylo meal and
concentrate mixture in 50:50 ratio.

068 Chemical Composition and mineral contents of locally available feeds and fodders for feeding
milch cows and buffaloes in urban and peri-urban dairy farms - J.P. Sehgal, Shashi Kant, S.K.
Sirohi, T.K. Walli and R.C. Chopra, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

A survey of dairy farms of urban and peri urban areas of district of Karnal, Kurukshetra
and Yamunanagar was conducted with respect to their existing feeding practices and to collect,
identify and evaluate locally available feeds and fodders of these areas for their type and quality
with respect to milch animals. The survey data showed that in urban area of Karnal, there were 163
dairies having 1105 milch animals and the average number of milch animals per day on these
dairies was 6.76. There were only 1.24 cows and 5.52 buffaloes per dairy, indicating that there were
only 18.33% cows as against 81.67% buffaloes in urban dairies of Karnal. In the peri urban dairies,
there were only 12.9% cows as against 87.1 % buffaloes. In Kurukshetra and Yamunanager
districts also, there were more buffaloes than cows in urban and peri-urban dairies. Most of the
dairy owners feed wheat straw upto the maximum quantity (7-8 kg/animal/day).Some farmers also
feed wheat straw along with mustard cake (1kg), cotton seed cake (1kg) and Barley atta
42 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

(1kg/animal/day) or some wheat bran and Rardi. On an average, crossbred cow yielding 7.98 lts
milk/d and a buffalo yielding 7.7 lt milk/d in urban and peri-urban area is being fed with 7-8 kg
wheat straw and 3.5 kg concentrate ingredient like mustard cake, cottonseed cake, wheat bran,
rice bran or Rardi, with no or little green forages, separately two or three times in a day. During
summer month the farmers feed maize/jowar i.e non-leguminious fodders containing 20-30 % dry
matter in chopped form @ 50-60 kg/animal/day with very little wheat bran/barley atta. In winter
months they feed berseem or oats fodder in general and some times also the winter maize fodder
@ 50-60 kg/per animal/day along with wheat straw and wheat bran. From the
nutritional point of view, these animals remain underfed and even no mineral mixture is provided.
Some dairy owners provide salt to their milch animals. The Chemical Composition and Van Soest
analyses of various feed ingredients collected from these dairy farms viz wheat straw, GN Cake,
wheat bran, heat bran mixed with barley, gram chunni; feed pellets, mustard cake and the green
fodders like berseem and sarson indicated that mostly these feeds had ideal chemical
composition and mineral content, except in feed pellets, which were poor in fat and crude protein
content, but were higher in crude fiber content. The survey results suggest that these dairy
owners should provide balanced total mixed rations with higher amount of concentrate mixture,
for getting higher yields from their milch animals, in order to make their dairies more profitable.

069 Formulation of total mixed rations with different concentrate : roughage ratios for lactating
crossbred cows of urban and peri-urban dairies - J.P. Sehgal, S.K. Sirohi, Shashikant, T.K. Walli
and R.C. Chopra, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

With an objective to develop economically viable balanced total mixed ration (TMR),
with suitable combination of locally available concentrate ingredients, crop residue and green
forages for urban and peri-urban system of milk production. through use of concentrate based
feeding system, 20 feed formulations for lactating animals, containing 50, 60 or 70% concentrate
mixture with the rest as untreated or urea-NH3 treated wheat straw or paddy straw and green
maize, were tested through in vitro studies. The ratios of concentrate to wheat straw or paddy
straw and green maize, on DM basis were 50:50: 60:40 or 70:30. The concentrate mixture consisted
of maize 40; groundnut cake (exp) 10; cottonseed cake, 10; mustard cake (exp) 20; wheat bran 17.,
mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part. The concentrate mixture contained 22.1% CP; 4.80%
E.E; 43.45% NDF and 12.20% ADF. Maize fodder had 11.30% CP. Untreated wheat and paddy
straws had 2.85% and 4.95% C.P respectively, which increased to 5.70, and 9.60 % after subjecting
these straws to urea-NH3 treatment. The results of the in vitro studies showed that total mixed
ration containing 70% concentrate mixture withrest as wheat straw, had the highest range for
IVDMD (58.0 to 61.3%) and IVOMD (59.8 - 62.5%), compared to other rations formulations, in
which the values varied from 20.6 to 56.2 and 39.4 to 59.9% respectively. Also the in vitro gas
production (ml/200mg substrate) and metabolisable energy ME (Kcal/kg DM) were the highest in
the total mixed ration containing 70% concentrate mixture with rest as roughage portion. The
results indicated that a total mixed ration containing 70% concentrate mixture with 30% roughage
i.e. wheat straw is quite suitable for urban and peri-urban system of milk production, through use
of concentrate based feeding system for lactating crossbred cows.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 43

070 Evaluation of Complete feed mixtures or Total mixed rations for lactating cross bred cows of
urban and peri-urban dairies - J.P. Sehgal, S.K. Sirohi, A. Dey, Shashi Kant, T.K. Walli, and R.C.
Chopra, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001

To evaluate economically viable balanced total mixed rations based on high concentrate
: low roughage diet for urban and peri-urban dairies, 18 crossbred lactating cows (Holstein
Fresian X Tharparker) in their 2nd to 4th lactation yielding 13-15 kg milk per day were selected and
divided into 3 groups of 6 each on the basis of milk production. The experimental animals were fed
individually total mixed rations consisted of Concentrate: Wheat straw: Green maize (on dry
matter basis) in the ratio of 60:20:20: in group I., 70:20:10 in group II and 70:30:0 with 2kg green
maize fodder per day per animal in group III, for a period of 150 days. The concentrate mixture was
mixed with wheat Straw and green fodder right at the time of feeding and the feeding was done
once in a day. Milking was done manually 3 times a day and daily milk yield of each animal was
recorded. Milk samples were taken every fortnight for quality parameters. A digestibility trial of 7
days duration was conducted on 15 animals by taking 5 animals from each group. Samples of
feeds, feeds refusals, and faeces collected were analysed for proximate principals and statistical
analysis of the data was carried out. The result sowed that the DMI/day/animal was higher in
group II (12.70 kg) and lower in group III (11.73kg) . The DMI/day/animal in group I was less than
in group II and group III.

071 Effect of different Barley straw cultivars on digestibility of nutrients in cattle heifers - T .K.
Walli, S.K. Sirohi, H.P. Tripathi and R.P.S. Verma1, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National
Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana)

Two barley straw cultivars namely RD-2618 and Azad were grown in NDRI Karnal
agricultural farm. The effective DM degradability of these cultivars was calculated using Orskov
model p=a+bc/(c+k) by incubating nylon bags for different intervals in fistulated cattle calves.
The EDMD% were 40.7 and 34.4 and their degradation rate were 0.11 and 0.42% respectively.
Both the straws from RD-2618 and Azad varieties were fed to heifers to see the intake the
digestibility of nutrient of straw. For this experimentation ten heifers of similar age and body
weight were selected and divided into two groups of five each. In first group Azad barley straw
ad lib plus limited quantity of concentrate mixture (1.0 kg) plus green fodder (5kg) maize was fed
and in group second Azad barley straw was replaced by straw of RD-2618 barley variety. Maize
fodder was fed just to meet vit. A requirement. Experiment was conducted for 30 days and at last
digestion trial was conducted. Results showed that total DMI (kg/d/animal) in group I and group
II was 2.31 and 2.32 respectively. The DMI on metabolic body size was also similar in both groups
and differences were non-significant. The digestibility coefficients of DM, EE, CP, NDF, ADF,
1
PS, Project Directorate on Wheat, Karnal
44 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

TC, HC were higher in Azad barley straw group in comparison to RD-2618 barley straw fed group.
The TDNI (kg/d/a) was 3.39 and 3.11 in G-I and G-II, respectively. TDN% was also higher in group
I than group II i.e. 63.31 and 59.82. It was concluded from the study that Azad barley straw variety
perform better in vivo system than RD-2618 when limited quantity of concentrate was provided,
however varietal differences does exists which needs further study.

072 Chemical composition, straw and grain yield and effective DM degradability of different barley
straw cultivars - S.K. Sirohi, T.K.Walli, H.P. Tripathi and R.P.S. Verma, Dairy Cattle Nutrition
Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

Twelve varieties of Barley straw were taken from Advance varietal trial of Project
Directorate on Wheat, Karnal. These variety were namely BH-393, BH-549, BH-550,
BH-553, BH-687, RD-2035, RD-2552, RD-2618, RD-2620, Azad , Jyoti and K-678. All the varieties
were evaluated for their chemical composition, straw to grain ratio and effective DM degradability.
Results of chemical composition showed that CP content varied from 1.75% to 4.37% and highest
value was noticed in K-678. NDF content varied from 66.2% to 72.2% in all twelve varieties. The
lowest and highest values for NDF was observed in RD-2035 and Azad barley straw variety
respectively. Similar variations also existed in ADF, ADL and Ash content which varied from
40.8% to 45.7% and 4.45% to 8.15% and 8.6% to 11.4% in above varieties. Straw to grain ratio
varied from 1.39 to 2.05 and maximum straw yield was noticed in RD-2035(71.7 q/ha) and highest
grain yield was noticed in RD-2620 (47.65 q/ha).Three rumen fistulated buffalo calves(18-20
mouths of age) were used to determine the in sacco DMD at different intervals i.e. 8, 16, 24, 48,
and 72 h. Results indicated that percent EDMD varied from 31.4 to 38.9 in different barley
cultivars. Similarly the degradation rate varied between 0.11 to 0.54%/h among different straw
varieties. Highest EDMD % was observed in RD-2618 (40.7) and lowest in Jyoti (27.3) barley
cultivars. The degradability of DM for different barley cultivars i.e.BH-393, BH-549,
BH-550, BH-553, RD-2035, RD-2620, Azad, Jyoti, K-678 and BH-687 were 48.86, 45.05, 43.42, 53.56,
52.18, 49.79, 49.39, 51.93, 48.67, 39.20, 51.21 and 49.86% respectively. Therefore, it was concluded
that genetic variability does exist in chemical composition, degradation rate, and degradability of
DM of barley straw cultivars, which can be exploited for getting the maximum nutrients for
livestock.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 45

2. Biotechnological applications in Animal Nutrition

073 Comparative nutrient digestibility (in vitro) in cattle, buffalo and goat using different levels of
tannin containing TMR and their tannin degraded products using HPLC - K. Barman and S.N.
Rai, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana

Four total mixed rations (TMR) containing 0, 4, 8 and 12% tannins, added in the form of
Acacia nilotica pods, were evaluated for their in vitro nutrient digestibilities and digestion
kinetics (gas production) with 3 sets of separate experiment taking rumen fluid from buffalo,
cattle, and goat. The tannin degradation products were identified and quantified by HPLC. In
vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD), organic matter (IYOMD) and crude protein (IVCPD)
and gas production decreased signiticantly with increasing tannin levels across all species. CP
digestibilities differed much more (P<0.01) across all species than DM or OM digestibilities.
Digestibilities decreased in the order of goat>cattle>buffalo. The HPLC profiles of the tannin
degradation products differed noticeably after exposure to rumen fluid from buffalo, cattle or
goat. Phloroglucinol, gallic acid, resorcinol and (+) catechin were detected in all cases.
Phloroglucinol and resorcinol were major, and gallate and catechin were minor, end products of
tannin degradation in buffalo and cattle rumen f1uid. In goat fluid, however, phloroglucinol and
(+) catechin were the major, and gallate and resorcinol were minor, end products. It is inferred that
rumen liquor from goats was the most resistant and buffalo was the least resistant to Acacia
nilotica tannins. Rumen liquors from all three species were capable of degrading Acacia nilotica
tannins even though the animals had no pre exposure to these diets.

074 Effect of fungal probiotic on rumen fermentation crossbred heifers - A.K. Samanta, K.K. Singh,
G.H. Pailan, N.C. Verma, and Sonu Rai, Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland
and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Out of the several fungal isolate of cattle, buffalo and goat rumen, the anaerobic fungus
of goat rumen (GR3) was found to produce beneficial effect on in vitro dry matter degradation as
well as total volatile fatty acid production. Ten growing crossbred heifers were randomly divided
in to two groups (group I and II) of five animals in each group. All the animal were maintained on
a diet of wheat straw and concentrate. The experimental animals (group II) received the fungal
probiotic daily. The 2 ml of GR3 (Piromyces spp. of goat rumen) isolate (4 days old culture) was
daily fed to crossbred heifers before offering morning feeding and watering to see the effect of
probiotic on rumen metabolites and microbial. The roughage used was wheat straw and the
46 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

chemical composition of wheat straw as 3.66 % CP, 1.98 % ether extract, 63.41 % NDF, 42.01 %
ADF and 5.83 % lignin, while the concentrate mixture contained 19.55 % CP, 3.84 % ether extract,
29.04% NDF, 11.90% ADF and 3.08% lignin. The rumen pH were 6.81 and 6.82 in group I and II
respectively. Therefore, it represented ideal pH values as pH range of 6.15 to 7.00 is reported to be
optimum for proteolysis and cellulolysis. Total volatile fatty acids were 18.2 and 17.1 meq/100 ml
SRL in group I and II respectively. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was 22.32 mg /100 ml SRL in
group I and 21.92 mg /100 ml SRL in group II. Therefore, the probiotic GR 3 (Piromyces spp.) did
not affect those rumen metabolites in animal system. The total viable bacterial population was
2.55 x 109 and 2.65 x 109 per ml in group I and II respectively. The number of anaerobic fungus was
8.65 x 103 per ml in-group I and 9.15 x 103 per ml in group II. So the anaerobic fungal probiotic did
not bring any significant change on either total bacterial population or fungal population. Total
ciliate population were 10.23 x 105 per ml in group I and 9.15 x 105 per ml in group II. Oligotricha
constituted more than 80% of total population while rest were belonged to holtricha irrespective
of treatment. Therefore, fungal probiotic did not influence the microbial population in the present
experiment.

075 Effect of fungal probiotic on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and live weight gain in
crossbred heifers - K.K. Singh, A.K. Samanta, G.H. Pailan, N.C. Verma, and Sonu Rai, Plant
Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Based upon in vitro effect on dry matter degradation, the anaerobic fungal isolate GR3
(Piromyces spp. of goat rumen) was daily fed to six heifers to see its effect on dry matter intake
and nutrient utilization. Both control (group I) and experimental (group II) animals were main-
tained on diet of wheat straw and concentrate for a period of 90 days and weight of the animals
were recorded fortnightly. Dry matter intake as % body weight were 2.73 and 2.81 in group I and
II respectively which was found to be 94.41 and 97.62 g/kg0.75 in respective groups. Though it
represented a minor level of higher intake in probiotic groups but did not differ significantly.
Digestibility coefficients of different nutrients viz., dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether
extract, nitrogen free extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber were almost identical in
both control and probiotic fed heifers. TDN intake (kg / day) was 2.44 and 2.49 in control and
probiotic fed animal, respectively. Hence the above isolate i.e. GR 3 though exhibited significant
effect on dry matter degradation under in vitro system but failed to evoke any significant
response on nutrient utilization in crossbred growing heifers. At the onset of growth trial the
average body weight of heifers was 104.98 kg in-group 104.32 and I in group II. The final weight
after 90 days were 149.80 kg and 150.50 kg in respective groups. Therefore, daily live weight gains
were 498 g/head/day and 513 g/head/day in group I and II, respectively. In terms of live weight
gain also, anaerobic fungal probiotic cannot induce any significant changes in compared to the
control.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 47

076 Growth performance and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves inoculated with cellulose
degrading bacteria - Neeta Agarwal, R. K. Srivastava and D.N. Kamra, Microbiology Section
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar-243122

Micro-crystalline cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from the rumen of buffalo
and the isolate BB-112 showing the best fibrolytic activity was selected for the feeding to buffalo
calves. Twentyfour buffalo calves with average body weight of 101 kg were divided in three
groups. The animals were fed on the diet constituted of concentrate mixture and wheat straw in
the ratio of 2: 1. The concentrate mixture consisted of wheat bran 74, soybean meal 24, mineral
mixture 1 and salt 1 parts. The diet of group 2 was supplemented with 125ml culture of BB-112
containing 3.6x109 cells/ml and group three with 125ml of Ruminococcus fIavefaciens culture with
same cell count. Group 1 served as control. The feeding was continued for 179 days. The dry
matter intake in group 2 and 3 was higher in comparison to group 1 and group 3 was higher than
group 2. The digestibility of acid detergent fibre was also higher in group 3 and 2 as compared to
that in the control group animals, whereas, digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by
addition of microbial feed additives. The animals of group 3 where the feed was supplemented
with R. fIavefaciens showed daily weight gain of 599g/d, the animals of group 2 where BB-112 was
supplemented the body weight gain was 532g/d, whereas in control group animals it was only
492g/d. The data indicate that the cellulose degrading bacteria isolated from the rumen of buffalo
and R. fIavefaciens appear to be potent microbial feed additives for the buffalo to improve
nutrient utilization and growth performance.

077 Influence of different forms of complete diets on rumen ecosystem - A.K. Samanta, K.K.
Singh, M.M. Das. S.S. Kundu and S.D. Sharma, Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian
Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Fibrous feed resources like natural grass and crop residues are staple feed for Indian
livestock. These are supposed to maintain a low profile of rumen metabolites for growth and
multiplication of rumen anaerobic microorganisms. In the present endeavor the complete diet was
prepared with natural grass and concentrate mixture (mustard cake 35 parts,-barley grain 25 parts,
wheat bran 37 parts, and one part each of urea, mineral mixture and common salt) at a ratio of 60
: 40. The above diet was given to six growing heifers in mash form (T1) and to another six growing
heifers in the form of blocks (T2). After feeding for a period of 90 days rumen liquor was collected
by stomach tube for consecutive, two days to see the effect of complete diet on mash / block form
on rumen metabolites as well as microbial population. Rumen pH (6.42 vs. 6.81) and volatile fatty
acid concentration (16.94 vs. 15.26 meq/100 ml SRL) were identical in both the groups. The levels
of rumen ammonia-N (31.73 vs. 26.50 mg/dl SRL) in mash fed animals might be due to the
consumption of concentrate mixture at faster rate. Unlike T1, the complete feed (T2) in block form
48 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

can have the control over the concentration of rumen ammonia-N due to consumption of grass
and concentrate at proportionate ration and speed. TCA precipitable-N, was higher in block fed
animals than the mash fed calves. The average total bacterial population (number ml) was 6.78 x
109 and 9.31 x 109 in T1 and T2 respectively. The anaerobic rumen fungal population was about
double (15.25 x 103 vs. 8.52 x 103 per ml) in block fed animals than those animals receiving diet in
mash form. However, the total protozoa population (number/ml) was higher in mash fed animals.
Differential protozoa count indicated entodinia population (number/ml) ranged from 12.91 x 106
to 16.47 x 106 while hoiotricha population (number/ml) was within the range of 6.41 x 106 to 13.44
x 106. In mash fed animals, populations of holotricha (especially Isotricha) were more than the
Entodinia population. But in block fed animals, the population of Entodinia was more than the
Holotricha. Therefore the feeding of complete diets in block form ensured better rumen
environments for growth and multiplication of anaerobic microbes in crossbred heifers.

078 Large scale propagation of yeast for supplementation in animal feeds - G.V.N. Reddy and
B. Bhima, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya
N. G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

A series of experiments were conducted to standardize the conditions for harvesting


maximum quantity of yeast and evolved a procedure for large scale propagation of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3190 strain of yeast for feeding livestock as probiotic. The
effect of addition of different percentage of certain compounds on growth of yeast was studied
and growth curve experiment was conducted in order to assess the time for peak growth. These
compounds included molasses, urea or ammonia (N source), phosphoric acid (P source) and
boric acid (Boron source). The optimum levels of these compounds required for maximum yield of
yeast were detected. It was found that addition of phosphoric acid did not show any significant
increase in growth. Based on the above results, economically viable medium for large scale
propagation of yeast was designed. This medium included 25% molasses, 0.2% urea and 185µM/
L, boric acid. Maximum yield of yeast was obtained within 24 hrs. at 30±2°C, pH 4.5-5. It was
shown that boric acid decreases incubation time by 2 hrs. (26 hrs. to 24 hrs.). The collected yeast
harvested was concentrated by centrifugation and lyophilization. After harvesting of yeast, the
medium was subjected to distillation and ethanol (5%v/v) was collected and cost economics of
yeast production was worked out. A profit of Rs. 69.55 was per 62.5 kg molasses used obtained
making cost of yeast nil.

079 Effect of yeast culture based diet on growth and nutrient utilization in deoni bull calves - G.V.N.
Reddy and B. Bhima, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science,
Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

Two complete diets (1) without yeast culture and (control) and (2) lyophilized yeast
culture at 0.1 % level were formulated and processed into mash using sorghum straw as sole
source of roughage. These two diets were fed to 12 Deoni bull calves (6 in each group, 5-6
months) in a growth cum digestion experiment to assess the effect of yeast culture on growth and
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 49

nutrient utilization. The DMI was 5.3% higher on the diet containing yeast culture. Digestibilities
of all the nutrients and DCP and TDN contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher on diet containing
yeast culture. The ADG was significantly (P<0.05) higher and feed intake /kg gain was
significantly (P<0.05) lower on the diet containing yeast culture. These results indicate that
incorporation of yeast culture at 0.1 % level in the diet of growing Deoni bull calves improved the
animal performance in terms of higher ADG (P<0.05), and decreased feed /kg gain.

080 Effect of supplementing lactobacilli (Sporolac) on growth rate, nutrient utilization, rumen
fermentation pattern of male Muzaffarnagari lambs - S.B. Nageswara Rao and T.K. Dutta
Nutrition Feed Resources and Products Technology Division, Central Institute for Research on
Goats, Makhdoom, Farah (P.O.), 281 122

Eighteen male Muzaffarnagari lambs at about 10 days age were divided into 3 groups of
six each to find out the effect of supplementing two levels of commercial lactobacilli preparation
(Sporolac) on growth and nutrient utilization. Group I served as control. Group II received (Sporolac)
orally with normal saline solution in the doses calculated on body weight basis. Group III
received double dose as that of Group II. All the lambs were maintained under standard farm
management conditions. They were allowed to suckle with their respective mothers twice a. day.
Concentrate mixture [maize grain, 25%; Barley grain, 20%; ground nut cake (expellar), 25%; til
cake, 10%; wheat bran, 17%; mineral mixture, 1.5% and salt 1.5%], seasonal greens and gram
straw were provided. After 90 days of age, the lambs were weaned and fed the concentrate
mixture, gram bhusa and green fodder until they attained 180 days of age. A digestion trial of 5
days duration was conducted around 5th month of age. After digestion trial, rumen liquor samples
were collected by stomach tube and were analyzed for pH, total N, NH3-N, TVF A and fractional
VFA. The birth weight, weight at 3 months, weight at 6 months (Kg), ADG (0-3 months), ADG
(0-6 months) was found to be similar in all the groups. The ADG (0-6 months) was found to be
122.50±8.77, 127.13±10.91 and 126.48±5.88 g/day, respectively in the GI, GII and GIII, respectively
and similar statistically (P<0.05). The feed efficiency (Kg feed per Kg gain) that calculated over 10
week period was found to be 7.89, 7.65 and 7.44 in GI, GII and G III. The greasy fleece yield (g) was
found to be apparently improved by lactobacilli supplementation (515.83±28.36 in G I; 553.33±74.42
in G II and 574.17±29.28 in G III). The intake of DCP and TDN (g/ Kg W 0.75) were numerically
improved (P>0.05) by supplementation of lactobacilli (5.98±0.28 in G I; 6.31±0.41 in G II and
6.92±0.42 in G III for DCP and 45.97±0.35 in G I; 46.55±2.07 in G II and 47.99±1.97 in G III for TDN).
Although, the supplemented lactobacilli did not improve the nutrient digestibilities significantly,
some numerical improvements were noticed in the digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, EE and NFE. The
pH of SRL was significantly (P<0.01) more due to lactobacilli feeding. The total N and NH3-N (mg/
100 ml) were significantly lowered (P<0.05) due to lactobacilli feeding. TVFA and proportions of
VFA (acetate, propionate and butyrate) were not affected by supplementation of lactobacilli. It
may be concluded from the results that lactobacilli supplementation caused similar growth per-
formance and non-significant improvements on greasy fleece yield, nutrient utilization. At the
same time, it had some positive effect on some of the rumen profiles.
50 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

081 EfFect of supplementing lactobacilli (SporoLac) on mIneral status of male Muzaffamagari lambs -
S.B. Nageswara Rao and T K. Dutta, Nutrition, Feed Resources and Products Technology
Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah (P.O.) 281 122

Eighteen male Muzaffarnagari lambs at about 10 days age were divided into 3 groups of
six each to find out the effect of supplementing two levels of Cmmercial lactobacilli preparation
(Sporolac) on growth and nutrient utilization. Group I served as control. Group II received (Sporolac)
orally with normal saline solution in the doses calculated on body weight basis. Group III
received double dose as that of Group II. All the Iambs were maintained under standard farm
management conditions. They were allowed to suckle with their respective mothers twice a day.
Concentrate mixture [maize grain, 25%; Barley grain, 20%; ground nut cake (expellar), 25%; til
cake, 10%; wheat bran, 17%; mineral mixture, 1.5% and salt 1.5%], seasonal greens and gram
straw were provided. After 90 days of age, the lambs were weaned and fed the concentrate
mixture. gram bhusa and green fodder until they attained 180 days of age. Blood samples were
collected by jugular vein puncture. The minerals such as Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg were estimated.
Tissues such as muscle (Longissmus dorsi) and liver were collected ftom three animals ftom each
group after slaughter. The tissues were wet digested with tri acids and minerals such as Cu, Zn,
Mn, Co, Mg and Ca were estimated. The Cu content (ppm) in blood was found to be apparently
(P>0.05) more due to supplementation of lactobacilli (0.88±0.09 in G I; 1.03±0.06 in G II and
0.92±0.08 in G III). The Ca (mg%) and Fe (ppm) contents in blood were similar in all groups.
However, the contents of Zn was more (P<0.01) in G I where as the contents of Mg was more
(P<0.05) in G II in comparison to other groups. Although lactobacilli supplementation did not
cause significant improvements in muscle mineral concentrations, some numerical improvements
were noticed in muscle Cu, Zn, Mn, Co and Ca. Similar trend was observed for Liver Cu, Zn and
Mn. It may be inferred from the results that little enhancement in the mineral status of male
Muzaffarnagari lambs was observed due to feeding of lactobacilli from 10 days of age to 6 months
of age.

082 Effect of herbs as feed additive on groth nutrient utilization in crossbred heifers - Nilin Gupta,
Anil Kumar and D.P. Tiwari, Department Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary and Animal
Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, U.S. Nagar,
(Uttaranchal)

Twenty one crossbred female calves were divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each to
study the effect of herbs as feed additive in terms of growth and nutrient utilization. Animals in
group I were fed concentrate mixture and served as a control group. Animals in group II and III
were fed concentrate mixture containing Asparagus racemosus and Cryptolepis buchanani and
Urtica dioica, Eclipta alba and Bacopa monneiri @ 1.0 per cent as feed additive, respectively.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 51

All the animals were fed seasonally available green fodder (berseem and maize) in a restricted
quantity (2 kg green/animal), paddy straw ad libitum and concentrate mixture as per requirement
during the experimental feeding lasted for 150 days. There was no significant difference in the
average total daily intake, average dry matter intake per 100 kg body weight and average dry
matter intake per kg metabolic body size among the heifers of different groups. The roughage:
concentrate ratio also did not differ significantly. The daily TDN intake/ kgw0.75 was 60.94±2.97g
in group I, 61.34±1.77 g in group II and 67.81±2.46 g in group III whereas the values of DCP intake/
w0.75 kg were 8.15±0.36g, 8.09±0.21, 9.28±0.48 g in groups I, II and III, respectively. The TDN and
DCP intake values also did not differ significantly among the 3 groups of heifers. However, the
values of TDN and DCP intake were higher in group III. The digestibility of organic matter and
crude fiber was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group II and group III as compared to group I,
whereas, digestibility of crude protein was significantly higher (P<0.05) in group III as compared
to group I and group II. The digestibility of dry matter, ether extract and nitrogen free extract did
not differ significantly among all the groups. The value of average daily body weight gain was
382.30±12.59 g, in group I, 419.22±4.17 g in group II and 470.50±15.69 g in group III. The value of
feed conversion ratio during the entire feeding trial was 9.39±0.36, 8.69±0.49 and 8.11±0.41 kg
DMI/kg gain in group I, II and III, respectively. Average daily body weight gain differed
significantly among the three groups and highest weight gain was observed in heifers of group
III fed Bacopa monneiri, Urtica dioica and Eclipta alba herbs. Thus, supplementations of these
herbs as feed additive enhanced the digestibility of paddy straw and have a beneficial effect on
nutrient utilization and growth of heifers.

083 Effect of fungal treatment on the gross protein value and net protein utilization of poultry
droppings - Parminder Singh1, J.S. Chawla and S.S. Sikka, Department of Animal Nutrition,
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004 (Pb.)

Dried poultry droppings (PD) of broiler cage house were collected and subjected to
solid state fermentation using non-toxic fungi viz. Aspergillus sp. (AP-1) and two strains of
Trichoderma reesei i.e. TR-9123 and TR-9414. The PD after moistening with 1.36 per cent (w/v)
sulphuric acid, were autoclaved at 15 psi pressure for 30 minutes. The autoclaved PD were
inoculated with each of the above fungi and allowed to ferment at 30oC for 10 days. The fermented
PD were sundried and fed to one week old broiler chicks by formulating depletion, reference and
test diets for determining gross protein value (GPV) and nitrogen free and test diets for
determining net protein utilization (NPU), respectively. The GPV of PD fermented with TR-9414
was maximum (18.02) and significantly (P<0.05) more than the untreated (8.50) and autoclaved PD
(13.52) but was statistically comparable to that of AP-1 (17.13) and TR-9123 (14.92) fermented PD,
respectively, The GPV of TR-9123, AP-1 and autoclaved PD were statistically similar but
1
Deptt. of Vety. & A.H. Extension
52 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

significantly (P<0.05) more than the untreated PD. The NPU of PO fermented with TR-9123 (11.66)
and AP-1 (11.70) were statistically similar but significantly (P<0.05) more than the untreated (8.80)
and autoclaved PD (9.10). The NPU of PD fermented with TR-9414 (10.40) was significantly
(P<0.05) more than the untreated PD but was statistically similar with NPU of TR 9123, AP-1 and
autoclaved PD. The NPU of autoclaved and untreated PD were statistically comparable with each
other. These results indicated that fungal treatment improved the protein quality of PD with
respect to its GPV and NPU.

084 Effects of plant extracts on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and fibre degrading enzyme
activities in an in vitro gas production system - A.K. Patra, D.N. Kamra and Neeta Agarwal,
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar,
-243 122 (U.P.)

The effects of ethanol, methanol and water extracts of the pulp of Terminalia belerica
(bahera), Terminalia chebula (harad) and Emblica officinalis (amla), Azadirachta indica (neem)
seed kernel and Acacia concinna (shikakai) pod were studied on rumen fermentation pattern,
methane generation and enzyme profile in in vitro gas production system. Methanol extracts of
T. belerica, T. chebula and A. indica seed kernel, ethanol extract of T. chebula, and water extract
of T. belerica reduced methane generation by rumen microbes of buffaloes fed high roughage
diet. Water extracts of all the plants, methanol extracts of A. concinna and E. officinalis , and
ethanol extracts of T. chebula and E. officinalis showed higher total gas production. Molar per
cent of propionate was increased significantly by water and methanol extracts of A. concinna,
methanol extract of T. chebula, and water extracts of E. officinalis and T. chebula. Rumen ciliate
protozoal numbers were decreased by all extracts of A. concinna. The effects of the plant extracts
were also studied on carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and acetyl esterase activities and in vitro
dry matter degradability of feed. The preliminary results of these experiments indicate that
secondary metabolites present in some economically important plants have activity against
methanogenic bacteria and ciliate protozoa and affect the rumen fermentation significantly.
Therefore, these plant secondary compounds appear to have a potential of practical application
in the manipulation of rumen fermentation for increasing animal productivity.

085 Isolation and characterization of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens from the rumen of crossbred steers
A. Thulasi, M. Chandrasekharaiah, and K.T. Sampath, Animal Nutrition Division, National
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore-560 030

Studies were undertaken to isolate Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a secondary cellulolytic


bacteria that could serve as one of the target organism for introduction of vectors containing
cellulase gene. A habitat simulating media (Rumen Glucose Xylose Agar) was prepared containing
glucose and xylose as the energy source. The organism was isolated by the Hungate’s roll tube
technique from the rumen digesta. The colonies from the roll tubes were sub cultured in the
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 53

Rumen Glucose Xylose broth. The various isolates were then identified and characterized based
on morphology, cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests. Six isolates were
taken for the study and all the six were found to be gram-negative curved rods. All the isolates
tested positive for the O-F test, which indicated that these isolates were fermentors. All the
isolates were able to ferment xylose, glucose, cellobiose and maltose and two of them were able
to ferment starch and carboxy methylcellulose. It was observed that none of the isolates were
able to ferment glycerol or lactose or lactate and salicin. Butyrate and acetate were found to be the
end products of fermentation. The results obtained were similar to the fermentation characteristics
of Butyrivibrio. Five of the isolates were able to liquefy gelatin, which indicated that these strains
were able to break down proteins. However all the isolates tested negative for the other biochemical
tests - methyl red test, hydrogen sulphide production test, indole test and nitrate reduction. The
final pH of the medium was found to be in the range of 5.6 -6.0. Based on the microbiological tests,
biochemical tests, sugar fermentation tests and end product analysis, the isolates were identified
as those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

086 Activity of the hydrolytic enzymes in pure cultures of cellulolytic bacteria - A. Thulasi,
M. Chandrasekharaiah, and K.T. Sampath, Animal Nutrition Division, National Institute of
Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore-560 030

Studies were undertaken to determine the activity of endo b 1, 4, glucanase, xylanase,


amylase, beta glucosidase and alpha glucosidase, in pure cultures of Ruminococcus albus and
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, using the substrates carboxy methyl cellulose, xylan (from oat spelts),
starch, p-nitro phenyl b D- glucopyranoside and p-nitro phenyl a- D- glucopyranoside respec-
tively . The reducing sugars that were formed after incubation of the enzyme and the substrates
were estimated using dinitro salicilic acid. The enzyme activity was expressed as µ moles of
reducing sugars (glucose or xylose) produced per minute per ml under assay conditions. The
activity of carboxy methyl cellulase was found to be 0.013±0.0004 µ mole glucose/min/ml in
Ruminococcus albus and 0.0052±0.0009 µ mole glucose/min/ml in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. The
activity of this enzyme was found to be significantly higher in the rumen fluid (0.049±0.0008 mole
glucose/min/ml) as compared to the activity in pure cultures of cellulolytic bacteria. The activity
of xylanase was found to be 0.0031±0.0001 µ mole xylose/min/ml with Ruminococcus albus and
0.0133±0.003 µ mole xylose/min/ml with Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. The activity of xylanase in the
rumen fluid (0.0265±0.0007 µ mole xylose/min/ml) was significantly higher when compared with
the activity of the enzymes in the two cellulolytic bacteria. The activity of amylase was found to
be 0.0072±0.0005 µ mole glucose/min/ml in Ruminococcus albus and 0.0017±0.0002 µ mole
glucose/min/ml in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and 0.0098±0.0002 µ mole glucose/min/ ml in rumen
fluid. The activity of a - glucosidase was found to be 0.021±0.002 µ mole glucose/min/ml in
Ruminococcus albus, 0.0014±0.0001 µ mole glucose/min/ml in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and
54 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

0.0432 µ mole glucose/min/ml in the rumen fluid. The activity of this enzyme was significantly
higher in the rumen fluid. The activity of a - glucosidase was found to be 0.0044±0.0008 µ mole
glucose/min/ml in Ruminococcus albus, 0.0022±0.0003 µ mole glucose/min/ml in Butyrivibrio
fibrisolvens and 0.0050±0.001 µ mole glucose/min/ ml in the rumen fluid. It was found that the
activity of all the enzymes except xylanase is lower in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and hence this
secondary cellulolytic bacteria could be chosen as a target for genetic manipulation for
enhancing the activity of the cellulase enzymes.

087 Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on carcass characteristics of muzaffarnagari


lambs - V. Rajkumar, M.K. Agnihotri and S.B.N.Rao, Central Institute for Research on Goats,
Makhdoom, Farah - 281 122, Mathura (U.P.)

In order to assess the effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli culture on meat


production profile of lambs, 18 Muzaffarnagari lambs (10 days after lambing) were
randomly divided in to 3 groups, six in each. Group I was kept as control; group II was given
Sporolac @ 0.0 15 x 108 lactobacilli/kg body weight, daily orally and group III received Sporolac
double the dose of group II. Lambs were reared up to 90 days on standard creep mixture, seasonal
greens and gram straw in addition to suckling dams. After weaning at 90 days concentrate mixture
@ 300 - 600 g/d in addition to seasonal greens and gram straw were given till 7 months of
slaughter age. Three animals from each group were slaughtered using standard commercial
procedure. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in body weight, body dimensions,
carcass and non-carcass traits and carcass composition of lambs reared under different
treatments. The overall mean slaughter and carcass weights were 32.26±0.78 and 14.46±0.34 kg.
The DP was 44.84±0.86 with carcasses having lean, fat and bone percentage of 64.97±0.92,
7.17±0.65 and 23.97±0.3, respectively. Results suggested that feeding lactobacilli did not reveal
marked beneficial effect on meat production profile of lambs reared under intensive management
system.

088 Testing proteolytic of potential of cud liquor vis-a-vis rumen liquor in cattle and buffalo -
Goapal Krishna1, Animal Nutrition, CCS-HAU, Hisar,

An attempt was made to test the proteolytic potential of cud liquor vis a-vis rumen
liquor and Fungal cellulase ( Sigma Cat. No. E -9422) by incubating raw and protected casein (150
mg approximately under in vitro system for 96 hrs continuously with 15ml cud liquor (Cattle and
buffalo) 15 ml rumen liquor (Cattle and Buffalo. Fungal cellulase 156 units/25 ml liter (Sigma Cat.
No. E-9422) and Distilled water, respectively. The dilution rate of inoculum (undigested residue
and microbial protein ) varied between 0.4 to 0.8 under different incubation media cited above. It
is worth noting that casein dry matter disappearance per cent in raw casein was considerably
1
Kothi No. 790, Sector 55, Faridabad-121 004 (Haryana)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 55

reduced from 98.7 to 61.3, 91.3 to 70.3 as tested by using cud liquor (Cattle and Buffalo),
simultaneously casein dry matter disappearance was also reduced significantly (P<0.05) from 99
to 68, 100 to 70.7 on protection as tested by using rumen liquor (Cattle and Buffalo ). The use of
Fungal cellulase Sigma (Cat .No. E-9422) under in vitro system also confirmed the considerable
reduction af casein dry matter disappearance per cent from 100 to 49 (raw casein vis-a-vis pro-
tected casein).however proteolysis potential was significantly (P<0.05) lower with Fungal cellu-
lase as compared to cud liquor and rumen liquor. respectively. which is directly related with higher
concentration of proteases in cud liquor and rumen liquor.The proteolysis potential of cud liquor
in terms of casein crude protein disappearance per cent was significantly (P<0.05) higher as
compared to rumen liquor (Score card value 153 vis-a vis 133 in Cattle. ) and (Score card value 172
vis-a-vis 153), Overall proteolysis Score card values were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in Buffalo
as compared to Cattle when protected casein was tested (172 vis-a-vis 153 with cud liquor) and
(153 vis-a-vis 133) with rumen liquor). Higher Score card values with cud liquor and rumen liquor
as compared to Fungal cellulase is a documentary evidence of presence of hiqher concentration
of protease & with earlier incubation media. It may be concluded from the present study that cud
liquor is a very rich source proteases complex having excellent proteolysis potenial and its
commercial exploitation is feasible being cheaper natural source that too toxin free.

089 Influence of fibrolytic enzyme on rumen fermentation - Raman Malik, S.K. Sirohi, S.G. Gayal1 and
Rameshwer Singh2, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

Six fibrolytic enzymes (three cellulase T1,T2 and T3; three xylanase T4, T5 and T6; one containing
both cellulase and xylanase T7) were evaluated as feed supplement under in vitro condition
using buffalo rumen liquor and a substrate having 50:50 concentrate and wheat straw (on DM)
along with a control group (T8). Each enzyme was added at the three levels (L1, L2 and L3). The
levels of cellulose enzyme were 2000, 2850 and 4300 carboxymethyle cellulase units per kg DM of
substrate and xylanase enzymes 7500, 10700 and 16050 xylanase units per kg DM of substrate
respectively. IVDMD at L1 improved when E2 (55.46%) and E5 (54.20%) were supplemented as
compared to control (44.75%). IVDMD at L2 were significantly higher in all enzyme supplemented
groups over control, and greatest response were recorded in the E2 (70.50%) and E5 (70.71 %)
supplemented groups as compared to control (48.16%). IVDMD at L3 were also higher in all
enzyme supplemented group but there was no significant effect in L2 and L3. TVFA
concentration (meq/100ml) at L1 was higher in groups E2 (9.5) and E5 (8.6) as compare to control
(6.5). At level 2 TVFA concentration (meq/100ml) was higher in groups E1 (9.8), E2 (10.2), E5 (10.5)
and E6 (8.9) as compare to control group (6.6). TVFA concentration at level 3 was higher in all
enzyme supplemented groups except in group supplemented with E4. Level of ammonia-N was
higher in only E4 and E5 groups on all the three levels of enzyme supplementation. TCA
1 2
CIRCOT, Mumbai, DM Division NDRI, Karnal
56 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

precipitable protein (g/kg of OM digested) were higher in group supplemented with E1, E2 and E5
on all the three levels over control group. Total gas production was higher in groups E2, E3, E4,
E5 and E7 at level L1 and L2, however, it was significantly higher in all enzyme supplemented
group over control. The concentration of bacteria and protozoa were also higher in E2 and E7 at
level L1, however, at level 2 and 3 population of bacteria and protozoa were significantly higher in
almost all enzyme supplemented groups. It was concluded from this study that the fibrolytic
enzyme can be used to improve the rumen fermentation and fiber degradability.

090 Response of cellulose and xylanase enzyme mixtrure on in vitro rumen fermentation - Raman
Malik, S.K. Sirohi, S.G. Gayal1 and Rameshwer Singh2, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National
Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

A mixture of enzyme containing cellulase and xylanase was evaluated under rumen in
vitro conditions feed supplement condition using buffalo rumen liquor and a substrate having
50:50 concentrate and wheat straw (on DM basis) along with a control group. The level of
cellulose enzyme was 2850 carboxymethylecellulase units per kg DM of substrate and xylanase
enzyme 10700 xylanase units per kg DM of substrate. It was found that supplementation of mixed
enzyme significantly improved the IVDMD (74.25 Vs 48.15%), TVFA concentration (11.2 Vs7.3
meq/100 ml), total gas production (32.6 Vs 25.4 ml), population of bacteria (7.5X10 Vs 25.4X108)
and protozoa population (8.9X104Vs5.9 X104) as compared to control group. However level of
ammonia-N and TCA precipitable protein was not significantly influenced by the enzyme
supplementation. It was also found that supplementation of mixture of both enzyme excelled over
the individual supplementation of enzyme. From this study it was concluded that a mixture of
fibrolytic enzyme can be used to improve the rumen fermentation and dry matter degradability.
1 2
CIRCOT, Mumbai; DM Division, NDRI, Karnal
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 57

3. Strategic feed supplementation for livestock

091 Effects of source and dietary fat level on conjugated linoleic acid content of buffalo milk and
milk products - A.K. Tyagi, Neelam Kewalramani, T.R. Dhiman1, S.K. Kanawjia, Harjit Kaur and
K.K. Singhal, DCN, Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

The present experiment was conducted to find out the effect of level and source of fat on
CLA content of milk and milk products in buffaloes. Eighteen lactating Murrah buffaloes were
divided into 3 equal groups on the basis of milk yield. They were fed concentrate mixture and
non-leguminous green fodder ad lib. Concentrate mixture contained deoiled GNC (EE 2.5%),
expeller GNC (EE 4.6%) and mustard cake (EE 4.8%) in the three groups respectively. At the start
of the experiment, milk yield averaged 9.1, 9.5 and 10.3 kg/d in the three respective groups. After
21 days of adaptation, daily milk yield and nutrients intake were recorded for two months
experimental period. Milk samples collected at fortnightly intervals were analysed for fat, protein,
SNF and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content. The milk products viz paneer, ghee and
mozzarella cheese were prepared from the milk of each group of buffaloes and were evaluated for
flavour, body texture and appearance. Daily DM intake through concentrate mixture and
roughage in groups I, II and III averaged 5.19, 5.45,4.82 and 12.04, 12.53 and 12.35 kg amounting
to total intake of 17.23, 17.98 and 17.17 kg respectively. The DM intake in group II was
significantly higher than groups I and III. The daily milk yield in group II (9.37 kg) and group III
(9.07 kg) was higher (P<0.05) than in group I (7.88 kg). However, variation among the groups for
milk fat, protein and SNF contents was not significant. The milk products like paneer, ghee and
Mozzarella cheese showed no significant change in their flavour, texture and colour appearance
due to dietary fat levels. The cis 9, trans 11 fraction of CLA which is beneficial from health point
of view, was 0.504, 0.605, 0.618 mg/g of fat in the milk of groups I, II and III respectively. The CLA
content (cis 9, trans 11) of all the milk products tested was highest in group II which were fed the
concentrate mixture containing EE content of 4.6% from expeller GNC. The total CLA content of
all the milk products was also highest in group II. Thus, the expeller groundnut cake was found
to increase the CLA content of milk and milk products in buffaloes.

092 Strategic supplementation of finger millet straw to improve milk yield in crossbred cows - On-
farm trial - M. Chandrasekharaiah, K.T. Sampath and U.S. Praveen, Animal Nutrition Division,
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore- 560 030

Two on-farm lactation trials of 6 months and 3 months duration were conducted in two
villages i.e. Anagalapura and Menesi, respectively of Doddaballapura taluk of Bangalore district
1
Utah State University, Logan, USA
58 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

in Karnataka state to study the effect of strategic supplementation to the basal diet of finger millet
straw in lactating crossbred cows. 24 crossbred cows (8 to 10 lits/day) were divided into two
groups (Control and Experimental) of 12 each in Anagalapura village and 16 crossbred cows (8 to
10 lits/day) were divided into 8 each in Menesi village based on lactation number, milk yield and
days after calving. In both the villages, the cows in Control group were fed finger millet straw with
supplements such as groundnut cake and wheat bran as practiced by the farmers. Animals in
Experimental group were fed finger millet straw with groundnut cake, wheat bran and maize grain
by replacing part of wheat bran in this group. The animals in both the groups were fed ad libitum
finger millet straw as the major source of roughage. The average milk yield/day in Experimental
group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in Control group in Anagalapura (9.28±1.25 lit/
day vs 8.35±1.10) and Menesi (8.13±1.15 lit/day vs 7.05±1.13) villages. A digestibility trial of a 7
day duration was also carried out at the end of the study using 5 animals in each group. It was
found that the digestibility of CF, EE and NFE was significantly (P<0.05) higher in experimental
group than in Control group. The farmers income was increased by Rs. 10.54 and Rs. 13.46/cow/
day respectively, in Anagalapura and Menesi villages by improved method of feeding. The study
indicated that strategic supplementation of finger millet straw with limiting nutrients i.e. energy
through maize grain improved the utilization of finger millet straw, thereby
increased milk production. Hence with minimum alternation in the existing feeding practices by
scientific intervention, the farmers income can be increased through enhanced milk
production.

093 Performance of lactating buffaloes fed sugarcane top based diets with or without
strategic supplementation - A.K. Garg, P. Singh, M. S. Rathore and R. K. Tiwari, Animal
Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

Seventeen lactating buffaloes with an average milk yield of 5.4 kg/d and being fed
sugarcane tops regularly as a major source of green fodder were selected. These cows were
divided into three groups. Gr I: (Control, 5 buffaloes) was kept on feeding practice being followed
by farmers themselves. In Gr II (6 buffaloes), mineral mixture was supplemented @ 100g/animal/d.
Animals in Gr III (6 buffaloes) were supplemented with concentrate mixture to meet the
requirements. Initially milk yield (kg/day) and body wt. (kg) were comparable among the three
groups. However, average milk yield after 3 months of experimental feeding period was 3.75, 4.52
and 5.8 kg/day in group I, II and III, respectively. Digestion trial conducted during the experimental
period showed that the DM intake (kg/day, kg/100 kg b.wt. and g/kgW0.75) was comparable
among three groups. However, the digestibility of DM was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group
III as compared to group I and II. Digestible DMI (kg/100 kg b.wt. and g/kgW0.75) and final body
wt. were similar among the three groups. It was deduced that the supplementation of mineral
mixture and/or concentrate mixture to the lactating buffaloes fed sugarcane top based diets
substantially improved their milk production.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 59

094 Groundnut gotar supplementation at graded levels to jowar straw vis-a vis improvement in
nutritive value of jowar straw in Gir animals - K. Ravikala, K.S. Murthy, M.D. Patel, K.S. Dutta,
K.R. Tajane, and R.R. Shah, Cattle Breeding Farm, Gujarat Agricultural University,
Junagadh.362 001

Jowar straw is a common dry non maintenance roughage offered to all categories of
bovines. Different treatments viz., physical, chemical and biologicals of straw result in loss of dry
matter and costly and hence, are not widely practiced. Even ecofriendly treatment such as urea
treatment is not followed in this area. Hence, in the present experiment, efforts were made to
enhance the nutritive value of jowar straw by supplementation with groundnut gotar, a
commonly available leguminous crop residue in this area. Groundnut gotar is a good source of
protein (12.0 to 15.0 %) and calcium (1.0 to 2.5 %), respectively. Six castrated animals (Average
body Wt.270.12+13.58 Kg and average age 4.53+0.43 years) formed the part of the study. Jowar
straw was offered to these animals as sole feed (T-1) and its nutritive value was estimated. Jowar
straw was mixed with groundnut gotar in the rations of 80 : 20, (T -2) 70 : 30 (T -3) and 60 : 40
(T -4), respectively and offered as sole feed to these animals in different phases, each phase
consisting of three weeks preliminary period and seven day collection period for digestion-cum-
metabolic trials. Dry matter intake/day, kg per 100 kg body weight and g/kgw0.75 T-1 were 3.78, 1.40
and 57.42 for T1, 3.93, 1.45 and 58.71 for T2, 4.17, 1.51 and 61.38 and for T3 and 4.30, 1.51 and 63.69
for T4 respectively. Dry matter intake per 100 kg body weight and g/w kg0.75 were at par
respectively. DCP and TDN contents of rations under T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 2.36 and 51.15; 3.39
and 52.14, 4.07 and 53.24 and 4.39 and 54.19, respectively and at each supplementation there is
significant ( P< 0.02 ) improvement in DCP percent Cost of feeding per day per animal for
maintenance purpose was Rs.5.92, 6.86, 7.72 and 8.06, respectively under T1, T2, T3 and T4 being
significantly (P<0.05) higher under T4 and T3 compared to T1 and T2. Higher cost of feeding is
justified due to elevation in nutritional status of jowar straw from T1, T2, T3 and T4. The results
of the experiment concluded that the leguminous crop residue groundnut gotar can be practically
and economically used to supplement and improve the nutritional status of jowar straw from non
maintenance roughage to maintenance roughage.
1
Gotar is a local term used to denote crop residue left after harvesting of main leguminous crop.

095 Performance of crossbred cattle fed pearl millet straw as sole feed supplemented with GNC and
green fodder - Prabha Nisal, Surekha Kale and V.C.Badve, BAIF Development Research Foundation,
Central Research Station,Uruli Kanchan, Pune 412-202, Maharashtra

Performance of cross-bred lactating cattle on pearl millet straw was studied. Twelve
crossbred animals of 20 to 25 months old, about 350 kg body wt.were divided into two groups of
six each. In control group the animals were fed ad libitum chopped green maize along with
60 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004
concentrate. Experimental group was on peal millet straw as sole roughage. In addition GNC and
min mix was offered to each animal The digestibility trial was conducted at the end of intake
studies. Intake studies were carried out for one complete lactation. The average milk yield/day/
animal was 7.5 lits. and fat % 4.5 in control group. In experimental group the milk yield was 7.9 lits
and fat % is 4.7 % . Village level studies on pearl millet straw were encouraging. Studies were
conducted in Tal parner dist.Ahmednagar. where Pearl millet straw is only available roughage to
the animals in summer. Total 20 animals average milk yield of 8-12 lits and 1st and 2nd lactation
were selected. The animals were divided into two groups of 10 each. The records of daily intake
and milk production were maintained. Animals were supplemented with GNC in addition to Pearl
millet straw to observe the effect of strategic supplementation on milk yield. Studies conducted at
farmer level showed rise in milk yield and fat % in GNC supplemented to pearl millet straw.

096 Effect of strategic supplementation on milk production and reproduction performance of indigenous
cows maintained on straw based ration - B.K. Sahu, A.K. Nath, R.K. Swain and D.P. Samantaray,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa
University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 003

An on-farm trail was conducted for a duration of 210 days on 24 lactating indigenous
cows (5.08±0.12 years old; 209.36±15.87 kg b. wt.; 59.92±5.37 days of lactation; within 2nd
lactation; 1.96±0.15 l initial average milk yield/d) supplementing deoiled groundnut cake (DGNC)
to a paddy straw ration to study the milk production and reproduction performances. The farmers
were feeding their cows wheat bran, mixed grasses and ad libitum paddy straw. The cows were
divided in to two groups on the basis of their body weight, lactation number, days of lactation at
the start of experiment and average daily milk yield in to two groups. Cows of group 1 were led as
per the prevailing feeding practices, but in group 2 the cows were supplemented daily with DGNC
equivalent to 22.5 g RDN/kg DOM in addition to the ration fed by the farmers. The animals were
maintained in shed of the farmers as per their practices. The DM and DCP intake were signilicantly
higher (P<0.05) in supplemented group but no effect in TDN intake. The group 2 cows yielded
208.40 litres more milk compared to group 1 during experimental period of 210 days. The average
milk yield (l/cow/d) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in group 2 (2.19±0.09) compared to group 1
(1.40±0.67). The fortnfghtly average milk fat, milk protein, SNF and total solids percentage were
4.86±0.06 and 4.87±0.04; 3.22±0.02 and 3.24±0.03; 8.14±0.07 and 8.82±0.09 and 14.14±0.09 and
14.06±0.09 in group 1 and group 2 respectively, which were not statistically significant. The profit
per day was calculated to be Rs. 13.05 in group 2 as against Rs. 7.72 in group 1, indicating a clear
advantage of supplementation. The average postpartum oestrus period (d), average days of
experimental feeding up to the first oestrus (d) services per conception (no) were 198.25, 123.25
and 1.75 in group 1 and 136.63, 72.75 and 1.5 in group 2. Eight cows in group 2 and four cows in
group 1 were found pregnant registering a conception rate of 66.6% Majority of the farmers
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 61

(approximately 90 %) expressed their willingness to feed groundnut cake to their milking cows fed
paddy straw as sole fodder. They perceived that their animals when given GNC consumed more
paddy straw, condition of the animal and milk yield improved, no change in butter content, more
assured cash out-lays.

097 Effect of feeding mustard oil on milk yield and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes - S. B.
Shinde and Aruna B. Bobade, Department of Animal Science and Dairy Science, College of
Agriculture, Pune - 411 003; M.P.K.V. Rahuri (Maharashtra)

Sixty private commercial buffalo dairy farms located around the Pune city were selected
randomly and divided into Group I - less than 10 buffaloes, Group II 11 to 25 buffaloes, Group III
- 26 to 50 buffaloes and Group IV-more than 50 buffaloes. It was found that feeding of varying
levels of mustard oil was a common practice among all the groups. The levels of oil fed were 50,
100, 150, 200,250 and 500 ml. oil/day/buffalo. The group wise distribution of respondents feeding
oil to their buffaloes was 77.33, 93.33, 100.00 and 53.00 percent, respectively. Among the different
levels of oil fed, it was found that the level of 200ml/day/buffalo showed significantly higher milk
production than 100, 150, and 250 ml levels while it was at par with the levels of 50, 200 and 500 ml
respectively. The increasing trend in milk production was noticed up to 200 ml level and there
after it was declined. The fat content of milk of buffaloes fed with 50, 100 and 200 ml oil was at par
with each other but significantly lower than 250and 500 ml. Levels. The SNF contents of milk of
buffaloes fed with 50, 100, 200 and 500 ml. were at par. The highest value of 9.85 per cent was
found with 150 ml. Level but the same was at par with 250 and 500 ml. Levels. The different levels
of mustard oil feeding had no significant effect on TS content of milk of either group.

098 Effect of herbal preparation on nutritional and lactation performances in Murrah buffaloes fed
concentrate mixture and wheat straw - S.K. Mahanta, S.S. Kundu and L.K. Karnani, Plant
AnimalRelationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi-284003
(U.P.)

A feeding trial of 70 days duration was conducted on fourteen lactating Murrah


buffaloes (480 kg body weight, 2nd to 4th parity, mid-lactation and 6.0 kg milk yield/d). Animals were
divided into two groups (control and experimental) of 7 animals in each, and fed a composite
ration of concentrate mixture (barley: maize: mustard cake: deoiled rice bran: wheat bran: mineral
mixture: salt: molasses: urea, 25: 15: .18.75: 22.50: 7.50: 1.50: 1.50: 7.50: 0.75) and wheat straw
according to ICAR (1998) standard computed on fortnightly basis. Buffaloes of experimental
group were additionally given (10g/animal/d) a combination of certain herbs (Zingiber officinale,
Adds rocemosus, Lepidium sativum, Fergonelia facunm, Pychotis ajowan, Accium sativum,
Anacycus pyrethrum, Anaqua sodichlordum, Ficus religiosa and Myristica officialis) with ga-
lactogogue and stomachic actions to record its effect on nutritional and lactation
62 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

performances. Average daily DM intake was higher (P>0.05) by 10.97% in buffaloes under
experimental group (12.24 kg) than those on control group (11.03 kg). Average digestibility of
DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were comparable between the groups.
All the animals were in positive nitrogen balance. Animals were also under similar plane of
nutrition consuming (g/ kg W0.75) comparable quantities of CP (10.00 vs 11.23) and TDN (57.74 vs
64.70). Average daily milk yield was higher by 25.1% in buffaloes of experimental group (5.37 kg)
when compared to those of control group (4.29 kg). However, combination of herbs did not have
any influence on milk constituents like total solids (18.38 vs 17.90%), fat (8.21 vs 8.19%), protein
(4.46 vs 4.30%) etc. Thus additional offering (little quantity) of above said herbal preparation had
positive effect (p>0.05) on daily feed (DM) intake and milk yield in lactating buffaloes fed on
composite ration of concentrate mixture and wheat straw.

099 Effect of different levels of fibre in maintanence diet on methane production in cattle
Madhu Mohini and Veena Mani, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Twelve male cattle (217 to 300 kg body weight) were divided in three groups of four
animals each. Three diets were prepared with concentrate mixture and wheat straw (40:60) by
varying the composition of ingredients of conc. mix to get three levels of NDF (40,50 and 60%) in
the diet. The NDF(%) was 10.87, 24.72 and 34.55 in the three conc. mixtures, respectively.
However, CP content was kept between 11-12%. Animals were fed concentrate mixture to meet the
protein requirements with wheat straw as basal roughage. Finally the ratio of concentrate and
wheat straw came to be 42:58, 40:60 and 42:58 in the three groups. Total DMI (kg/d) was 6.42 ±0.44,
6.85±0.47 and 6.49±0.21 and the values were 2.29±0.04, 2.42±0.10 and 2.27±0.11 kg/100 kg body
weight. These values did not differ statistically among the groups. As the amount of straw as well
as concentrate intake did not vary among the groups, the difference was only in the type of
concentrate mixture. Digestibility of the total diet was also not affected. DMD and OMD ranged
between 56.14 to 58.88 and 57.24 to 60.17%. In fact increase in the fibre content of the diet was
because of higher fibre in conc. which is highly digestible and has not affected the digestibility of
the diet. Though methane production (g/d) increased with the increase in the fibre content yet the
difference among the groups was not significant indicating that methane production does not
depend only on amount of fibre in the diet but on the type of fibre also.

100 Effect of increasing fibre in the diet through straw on methane production - Madhu Mohini,
Veena Mani, T.K.Walli and Aruna Chhabra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Concentrate mixture comprising GNC, maize and wheat bran (35,30 and 32 parts) was
prepared having 12.41% CP and 67.5% TDN. NDF of concentrate mixture and wheat straw was
estimated, the values were 34 and 79%. Four substrates were prepared to get 40,50,60 and 70%
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 63
NDF in the diet. Ratio of concentrate mixture and wheat straw came to 85:15, 65:35,40:60, and 20:80
to get the desired NDF level. These substrates were incubated for 24 hours to estimate in vitro
digestion (one stage) and in vitro gas production. IVDMD (%) was 68.65, 59.62, 48.40 and 39.43,
which decreased significantly with the increase in fibre content of diet. IVOMD also decreased
from 65.17 (40% NDF) to 35.48 (70%NDF). However, the percent NDF digestibility was not af-
fected. Total gas produced was 50.69±2.85, 44.99±2.99, 33.87±1.82 and 23.13±1.76 lt /kg DM in the
four substrates respectively, which differ significantly (P<0.05). When expressed as lt/kg, DDM
the values were 75.40, 77.53, 70.99 and 61.27. Total Methane produced (lt/kg DDM) also
decreased significantly with the increase in fibre level however the percent of methane produced
was more and when digestibility of the diet was considered, the values (28.28, 30.26, 29.03 and
30.57) did not vary significantly. The result indicated that percent of methane in the total gas was
more when level of fibre was high.

101 Effect of oil supplementation on methane production from high fibrous diets - Madhu Mohini,
Veena Mani, T.K.Walli and Aruna Chhabra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Concentrate mixture (12.41% CP and 67.5% TDN) and wheat straw were mixed to have 60
to 70% NDF in the substrate. Ratio of concentrate and wheat straw came to 40:60 and 20:80. EE of
concentrate mixture came to be 2.77%, which led to 1.6 and 1.1% EE in the whole ration. The two
substrates were supplemented with mustard oil (1 and 1.5%). In vitro DMD and gas productioo
was studied. IVDMD as well as IVOMD was significantly lower on high level of fibre. One percent
addition of oil stimulated digestibility while no difference was observed at 1.5% level of
supplementation. Total gas produced per kg DDM reduced at 60% NDF (95.60, 90.9, 87.92) as well
as at 70% NDF (85.14, 74.95, 67.97) on supplementation of oil. Methane percent in the total gas
also reduced without affecting digestibility of both diets at 1.5% level of oil supplementation.
Total vaoatile fatty acids and the fractionaI VFAs were not effected significantly. The results
indicated that lower level of oil in the diet cause more methane production.

102 Effect of Short term Supplementation of Monensin onGrowth Performance of Dairy Heifers -
Sujata Pandita, Himadri Patir and Madhu Mohini, Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National
Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Ten, KF Dairy heifers, apparently healthy and disease free were divided into two groups.
Group I was fed to gain @ 500 g/day. Group II heifers in addition to above feeding were
supplemented with monensin for a period of 75 days. All the heifers were then subjected to adlib
feeding for 220 days. Growth was monitored every 15 days during treatment period and every 20
days during post treatment period. Body weight increased significantly (p<0.01) during the
treatment as well as post treatment period. The live weight gain tended to be 42.75 kg and 53.04 kg
64 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

at the end of 75 days. The average daily gain (ADG) was significantly higher in supplemented
calves (24.13%) as compared to group I. After 220 days of withdrawal of the treatment, the live
weight gain continued to be high in supplemented group (83.1 Vs 98.85 kg, p<0.01). Thus, even
short-term supplementation of monensin had a beneficial effect on growth even after its
withdrawal.

103 Effect of feed additives on nutrient digestibility and rumen metabolites in buffaloes - S.S. Khirwar,
B.S.Tewatia and Shiv Kumar, Department of Animal Nutrition CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana)

Effect of feed additives (0.2% iso-butyric acid, 0.2 % iso-valeric acid and 4 % linseed oil)
on nutrient digestibility, rumen metabolites and microbial population was studied in a 4x4 switch
over trial on adult male fistulated buffaloes. The animals were fed chaffed pearl millet stover and
concentrate mixture (70:30). Concentrate mixture contained mustard cake 25, crushed maize grain
36, de-oiled rice polish 36, mineral mixture 2 and salt 1 per cent. After preliminary feeding period of
15 days, a digestion trial of five days duration was conducted. Rumen liquor samples for
estimation of metabolites were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours post-feeding. Freshly drawn
rumen liquor samples collected at 0 and 4 hours were used for total protozoal and viable as well as
cellulolytic bacterial counts. The total dry matter intake varied between 9.18 to 9.98 kg per day,
while dry matter intake per 100 kg body weight varied between 1.61 and 1.66 kg. The digestibility
of dry matter, organic matter, crude fibre, NDF, ADF and cellulose was highest under linseed oil
group, while the ether extract digestibility was lowest under this group. Addition of iso-acids
resulted in marginal improvement in the digestibility of crude protein, while the digestibility
coefficients of all other proximate principals and fibre fractions remained similar to the control
group given no additive. The average total volatile fatty acid content was lowest under iso-
butyric feeding followed by linseed oil and iso-Valeric acid, while it was highest under control
group feeding. This was mainly due to lower TVFA content before feeding. The TVFA content
increased with time after feeding up to 6 hours but declined at 8 hours of feeding. The average
total N as well as ammonia N content was lowest in animals fed linseed oil followed by iso-butyric,
iso-valeric and the control indicating that N utilization may be better in animals fed linseed oil
followed by iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric acid. Addition of iso-valeric and iso-butyric acid had
depressing effect on the total protozoal, total viable and cellulolytic bacterial counts at 0 as well
as 4 hours after feeding in comparison to control. Addition of linseed oil at 4 % level increased the
viable and cellulolytic bacterial counts with decreased protozoal counts due to partial defaunation.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 65
104 Effect of feeding untreated and urea treated straw with three levels of concentrate on
reproductive performance in crossbred heifers - Chetna Bhatt, R.S. Jaiswal, Himanshu Pandey
and Anand Singh, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145

Sixteen cross breed heifers of 8 to 18 months of age were divided into four groups. In T 1
group untreated wheat baled straw and 100% of concentrate mixture was given to balance energy
and CP requirement. In T2, T3 and T4 groups urea treated wheat straw with 100%, 75% and 125%
of concentrate mixture were given according to their requirement. This untreated and urea treated
straw was offered ad lib and concentrate mixture was content mustard cake, wheat grain and rice
bran. Mineral mixture 30g and common salt 30 g as well as 2 kg green fodder given to all of the
groups. Reproductive performance of animals shows age of animals at puberty in T1, T2, T3 and T4
groups were found 912 days, 823.6 days, 925 days and 923.66 days, respectively and weight of
animals at puberty time was recorded 202, 202, 232 and 204 kg, respectively. Same way age of
animals at conception in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups were found 1046, 1069, 1097 and 1138 days,
respectively and weight of animal at that time were recorded 257, 258, 263 and 259 kg in T1, T 2, T
3
and T 4 groups, respectively. Numbers of services required in T1, T 2, T 3 and T 4 groups were
found 4.6, 4.3, 4.0 and 8.0, respectively. It may be concluded that T3 groups was found better in
comparative to T1, T2, and T4 groups, also less services required in T3 group compare to other
groups. Thus urea treatment of straw with 75% concentrate mixture gives better results in term of
reproductive performance.

1 05 Effect of feeding untreated and ammonia (urea) treated straw with three levels of concentrate on
blood parameter in crossbred heifers - Chetna Bhatt, R.S. Jaiswal, Anand Singh and Himanshu
Pandey, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145

In an experiment was conducted on sixteen cross breed heifers of 8 to 18 months of age


were divided into four groups. In T1 group untreated wheat baled straw and 100% of concentrate
mixture was given to balance energy and CP requirement. In T2, T3 and T4 groups urea treated
wheat straw with 100%, 75% and 125% of concentrate mixture were given according to their
requirement. This untreated and urea treated straw was offered ad lib and concentrate mixture
was content mustered cake, wheat grain and rice bran. Mineral mixture 30 g and common salt 30
g as well as 2 kg green fodder given to all of the groups. Blood sample were taken before urea
treated straw feeding and after one year urea treated straw feeding. Blood glucose level before
urea treated straw feeding in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 47.07, 52.30, 51.47 and 48.3 mg/dl,
respectively. Whereas after feeding of urea treated straw in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups were 72, 75,
84 and 77 mg/dl, respectively. Blood urea level before urea treated straw feeding inT1, T2, T3 and
66 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004
T4 groups were observed 21.8, 19.92, 18.7 and 23.3 mg/dl respectively, and after feeding of urea
treated straw in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups blood urea level were found 24.25, 22.5 and 24.0 mg/dl,
respectively. Where as in T1 group where untreated wheat straw were given there blood urea level
was 24.75 mg/dl. Concentration of a serum protein in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups before urea treated
straw feeding were found 7.26, 7.03, 7.26 and 7.22 mg/dl, respectively, and after feeding of a urea
treated straw value of a serum protein were found 7.61, 7.51, and 7.86 in T2, T3 and T4 group,
respectively. Where as in T1 group this value was 7.56mg/dl. Thus the result shows that feeding
of urea treated straw ration increase.

106 Studies the effect of feeding ammonia (urea) treated straw with three levels of concentrate on
nutrient utilization and growth performance in crossbred heifers - Chetna Bhatt, R. S. Jaiswal,
Himanshu Pandey and Anand Singh, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145

Sixteen cross bred heifers ranging from 8 to 16 months of age and 58 to 148 kg in body
weight were divided into four groups of four in each. T1 group was untreated wheat baled straw
and 100% of concentrate mixture and T2, T3 & T4 groups were 100%, 75% and 125% of
concentrate mixture with urea treated wheat straw given in respective groups according to their
requirement. This untreated and urea treated straw were offered ad lib and concentrate mixture
prepared with mustard cake, wheat grain and rice bran. Mineral mixture 30 g and common salt 30
g as well as 2 kg green fodder given to all of the groups. The average daily body weights gain
were 280±26.41, 331±18.31, 302±21.22 and 385±36.80 gm/day in treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4,
respectively. These value were statistically non significant. The dry matter intake in terms of kg/
100 kg body weight was 3.4, 3.4, 2.9 and 3.7 in T1, T2, T3 & T4, respectively. These values were
statistically tested and showed non-significance. A seven days digestion trial was conducted
and digestibility coefficients were calculated the digestibility of dry matter and CP were 60.4,
55.2:60.3, 42.8:57.3, 39.4 and 60.4,39.7 in T1, T2, T3 & T4, respectively. The digestibility of NDF and
ADF were 56.2, 41.4:60.7, 56.7:67.5, 60.9 and 63.3, 65.8 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3 & T4,
respectively. These values were non significant (P>0.5). In view of above, it may concluded that
urea treatment of wheat straw is economic and beneficial for growing heifers and also reduce the
concentrate requirements.

107 Studies on milk production and its composition in lactating cows fed with ammonia (urea)
treated straw with three levels of concentrate mixtures - Anand Singh, Himanshu Pandey and
R.S.Jaiswal, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B.
Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145

The experiment was conducted to determine the amount of milk that can be supported
by ammonia (Urea) treated baled wheat straw fed ad lib and concentrate mixture were given
100%, 75% and 125% to T2, T3 and T4 groups, respectively on their requirement. The T1 was
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 67

control group which fed untreated wheat straw and 100% concentrate mixture with usual
supplement of green fodder 2 kg per head per day. The milk production in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups
were 7.0, 9.0, 8.6 and 9.5 kg per day. For the milk composition two type sample were taken 1st urea
treated and 2nd untreated wheat straw fed animals milk and found that in urea treated wheat straw
fed animal milk urea content 23.3 mg per 100 ml, fat 4.24% and milk protein 3.89%. In untreated
wheat straw fed animals milk urea content 18.5 mg per 100 ml, fat 3.31% and milk protein 4.04%. It
was observed that ammonia treated baled wheat straw with 75% concentrate mixture could
support milk production up to 8.6 kg per day and its feed cost lowest than other feed. There was
no adverse effect on milk production and composition.

108 Performance of lactating crossbred cows fed different levels of undegradeable dietary protein
and plane of nutrition - M.Ravi Kumar, D.P. Tiwari and Anil Kumar, Department of Animal
Nutrition College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttaranchal)

Twenty-four medium producing (10 kg/d, 45 to 135 days postpartum) lactating


crossbred cows were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and were fed either concentrate
mixture I containing 59:41 (Low UDP) or concentrate mixture II containing 52:48 (High UDP)
RDP:UDP ratio and to meet either 100% of NRC requirements (Normal plane) or 115% of NRC
requirements (Higher plane), in a 2x2 factorial designed experiment. Green jowar was fed ad
libitum as sole roughage to all the animals. The total dry matter intake, roughage DMI, concen-
trate DMI, roughage : concentrate ratio, DMI/100 kg body weight, DMI/kg W0.75, digestibilities of
DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE and intakes of TDN and DCP did not differ significantly due to both
UDP level and plane of nutrition and also due to their interaction. The total dry matter intake
varied from 145.18 gin LUDP + NP to 152.57 g/kg W0.75 in LUDP + HP diet. Increase in milk yield
with increased UDP level and also with increased plane of nutrition was consistent throughout
the experimental period. The overall daily average milk yields in cows fed with low and high UDP
diets were 7.91 and 8.99 kg, respectively and for normal and higher plane, the milk yields were 8.15
and 8.75 kg/day, respectively. The 4% FCM yields were, 9.20 kg for low UDP diet, 10.28 kg for high
UDP diet, 9.11 kg for normal plane of nutrition and 10.37 kg for higher plane of nutrition. Fat yields
for the corresponding treatments were 0.40, 0.45, 0.39 and 0.46 kg, respectively. Milk yield, FCM
yield and also fat yield did not differ significantly among different dietary treatments and also
their interaction, but values were higher with increased UDP level and higher plane of nutrition.
Total solids (14.65 and 13.83%), lactose (5.44 and 4.92%), solids-not-fat (9.44 and 8.83%) and
gross energy (887 and 838 kcal/kg) of milk decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased UDP
level while total solids (13.84 and 14.64), fat (4.84 and 5.36%), and gross energy (832 and 894 kcal/
kg) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in plane of nutrition. Gross and net energetic
efficiencies and also gross and net efficiencies of nitrogen utilization for milk production were not
68 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

affected significantly with either of the factors or their interaction. The study suggest that,
increasing UDP level from 41 % to 48% of dietary CP and also increasing plane of nutrition from
100% to 115% of NRC requirements maintain a consistently higher milk production, though the
differences were statistically non-significant.

109 Serum biochemical constituents as influenced by different undegradeable dietary protein levels
and planes of nutrition in lactating crossbred cows - M. Ravi Kumar, D.P. Tiwari, Anil Kumar and
Nilin Gupta, Department Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant
University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar 263145, U. S. Nagar (Uttaranchal)

Twenty four medium producing lactating crossbred cows were divided into 4 groups of
6 animals each. Animals of each group was fed with concentrate mixture with either 59:41 (Low
UDP) or 52:48 (High UDP) RDP: UDP ratio and either in normal plane (to meet 100% NRC
requirements) or in higher plane (to meet 115% NRC requirements), in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment
in order to discern the effect of undegradable dietary protein levels and plane of nutrition on
blood biochemical constituents. Green sorghum ad lib was the sole roughage. The lactation trial
lasted for 105 days excluding 15 days of prior adaptation period. Blood samples were collected on
0th, 45th and 90th days of experimental period and serum samples were analyzed for total protein,
albumin, globulin, albumin: globulin ratio, ammonia nitrogen, and activities of aspartate
transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) and compared among various treatment groups.
Only AST activity increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in UDP level and plane of nutri-
tion and the increased values were also within normal physiological range and all the other
parameters were not affected by treatments. It was concluded that increase in UDP level from 41
to 48% of dietary CP and increase in plane of nutrition from 100 to 115% of NRC requirements
pose no additional stress on lactating crossbred cows, as assessed from serum biochemical
constituents.

110 Economics of a dairy farm under commercial feed supplements in a village dairy cooperative in
the terai area of Uttaranchal - Rajan Kumar Tripathi1, Vir Singh2 and Anil Kumar3, College of
Veterinary and Animal Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,
Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal)

Dairy farms in village dairy cooperatives (VDCs) often depend on the supplementation
of commercial feeds for dairy animals. Study on the economics of such dairy farms was
undertaken randomly in selected VDCs in the Terai area of Uttaranchal Himalayas. Highest cost
in a dairy farm was incurred on labour (43 per cent of the total variable costs). Feed costs
1
Department of Livestock Production & Management; 2 Department of Animal Nutrition, 3
Department of
Agricultural Economics; Address for Correspondence: Dr. Vir Singh, Professor;
e-mail : drvirsingh@rediffmai1.com
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 69

accounted for 42 per cent. Costs on medicine, AI, services, etc accounted for only sevenper cent.
Miscellaneous costs were merely one per cent of the total variable costs. Annual gross returns at
a dairy farm were valued at Rs. 44517.00. Net returns on total (fixed + variable) costs were Rs.
11708.26. Net returns derived from variable costs were equal to Rs. 18945.07. Investment of Rupee
one in dairy farming in the Terai area, based on the variable costs, for example, will earn Rs. 1.74.
This, by all standards, appears to be a profitable enterprise rather than just a subsidiary source of
economy. The study suggests that if prices of milk produced were fixed on the basis of the costs
of inputs, dairying would emerge far more remunerative than it at present is. Analysis of a dairy
farm from the perspective of ecological economics would be instrumental in our understanding of
dairy farm-farming system linkages and in the process of enhancing sustainability of agro-eco-
systems.

111 Relative nutrient utilization, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in sheep and goat due to
Cenchrus ciliaris-Grewia optiva dietary combination - Sultan Singh, L.K. Karnani, S.S. Kundu
and B.B. Singh, Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research
Institute, Jhansi-284003 (U.P.)

For adult male each of sheep and goat were maintained on Cenchrus ciliaris - G. optiva
dietary regimen for three months. Cenchrus cilaris and G. optiva were offered in 75 : 25 and 50 :50
ratio to sheep and goat, respectively. After 45 days of feeding, rumen liquor samples were col-
lected at 0 and 4 h post feeding and were evaluated for nitrogen metabolites (Total -N, NH3-N,
TCA soluble - N), pH and VFA production. Digestion-cum-metabolism trial was conducted at the
end of experimental period to determine nutrient utilization and Nitrogen balance. Dry matter
intake as % body weight and g/kg W0.75 basis was comparable between both species. However
the dry matter intake (g/d) was relatively higher in goat (771.75±55.9) than sheep (614.72±32.8).
Dry matter, organic matter and cell wall contents digestibility was identical between both species.
However, CP digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) in goat (71.18±1.24) vis-a vis sheep
(57.60±2.03). Both the species were in positive nitrogen balance, while goat (36.44) revealed
higher nitrogen balance (% of intake) than sheep (29.02). Concentration of nitrogen metabolites
(mg/100 ml) was more at 4 hr post feeding than before feeding. Total volatile fatty acid production
(m eq/L) was more in sheep than great at both the hours of sampling. However the mean TVFA
concentration was 99.37 and 89.15 m eq/L in sheep and goat, respectively. The concentration of
nitrogen metabolites was more in goat than sheep at both the hours of feeding. Average total-N
and TCA soluble-N concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in goat (98.25 and 70.43) than
sheep (83.81 and 61.95). Results revealed that dry matter intake and cell wall contents utilization
is similar in sheep and goat however goat had higher CP digestibility and more concentrate of
nitrogen metabolites than sheep.
70 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

112 Rumen fermentation and microbial concentration in sheep and goat fed grass concentrate diet -
P.K. Gupta, Sultan Singh, S.S. Kundu, Hari Singh and G.N. Lodhi, Department of Animal
Husbandry, Brahama Nand Post Graduate College, Rath, Hamirpur (U.P.)

Four animals each of adult Muzaffarnagari sheep and local goat with mean body weight
of 40.1±3.4 and 28.3±3.3 was maintained on grass concentrate diet. Rumen liquor sample were
collected before feeding through stomach and were evaluated for pH, TVFA and nitrogen
metabolites (Total - N and NH3 - N) concentration. Microbial population (Total protozoa, bacterial
microscope count and sporangial count) was also determined in rumen liquor sample of both
species. Total volatile fatty acid concentration (m eq/L) was non significantly (P<0.05) higher in
goat (134.75±4.49) than sheep (119.25±10.43). Similarly the concentration of total - N and NH3 - N
was identical in both species (37.1 and 11.72 in sheep and 39.9 and 13.30 in goat). Total protozoa
count (x 105/ml) was relatively higher in goat (12.60 than sheep (9.78), however the percent
distribution of Holotrichs was more in sheep (21.3 than goat (7.9). Total sporangial count (x 10 5/
ml) was comparatively higher in sheep (6.50) vis-a.-vis goat (5.30). Goat existed higher
concentration of bacterial microscope count (13.41) vis-a.-vis sheep (9.10 x 108/ml). Results
revealed that goat had better rumen fermentation and microbial concentration than sheep on
grass - concentrate diet.

113 Effect of protein and energy levels in complete pelleted feeds on nutrient digestibilitY and rumen
parameters in goats - P. Baswa Reddy, T.J. Reddy, K. Sivaiah, M. Uma, Y.R. Reddy and B.Ekambaram
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

A metabolism trial was conducted by feeding four complete pelleted rations with CP and
TDN combinations of 12 and 55 (CR1) 12 and 60 (CR2) , 14 and 55 (CR3) and 14 and 60 (CR4) to four
groups of native Mahaboobnagari goats with four animals in each group. Rumen samples were
analysed at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h intervals of post feeding. The average daily DM intake was 767.01,
709.36, 926.53 and 953.35 grams and the average DM intake per BW 0.75 was 79.91,72.62, 93.05 and
95.53 grams in CR1,CR2,CR3 and CR4 respectively. The DM digestibilities were 56.52, 59.73, 57.86
2 and 60.25 per cent and the CP digestibilities were 69.34, 71.28, 70.33 and 72.41 percent for CR1,
CR2, CR3 and CR4 respectively. The digestibilities of CF were significantly (P<0.05) higher for CR1
and CR3 where as the digestibilities of EE and NFE were significantly (P<0.01) higher for CR2 and
CR4. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balance with significantly higher balances in CR4.
In all the groups, total nitrogen (mg/100 ml) in the rumen liquor significantly (P<0.01)
increased from 0 to 2 hrs and then gradually decreased. The values were higher for CR4 at all the
intervals. TCA precipitable nitrogen (mg/100 mg), NH3-N (mg/100 ml) and NPN (mg/100 ml) also
followed same trends as that of total nitrogen. TVFA contents (meq/100ml) in the rumen liquor
increased significantly (P<0.01) from 0 to 2 hours and then decreased gradually in all the groups.
At all the intervals TVFA values were highest for CR4 and lowest for CR1. PH values were higher
in CR1 and lower in CR4 at all intervals, where as within the group, significantly (P<0.01) lower PH
value was recorded at 2 h post feeding in all the groups.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 71

114 Studies on rumen metabolites in goats fed different levels of protein and energy - P.J Anaiah,
K. Sivaiah, T.J. Reddy and M. Uma, B. Ekambaram and Y.R. Reddy, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

Fifty Mahaboobnagar goat kids were randomly divided into five groups of ten animals
each (five males and five females) and were fed with milk and milk + milk replacers for 42 and 90
days, respectively. Five experimental kid starter rations were prepared with CP and TDN combina-
tions of 18 and 65 (T1) 18 and 70 (T2) 20 and 65 (T3),20 and 70(T4) and 16 and 75 (T5 - control group)
and were given to kids. A growth experiment was conducted for a period of 120 days. At the end
of the growth trial, rumen liquor was collected to study rumen metabolites with four animals in
each group. Rumen liquor samples were analyzed at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h interval post-feeding.
Significantly (P<0.01) lower PH was observed in T5 group (16%CP) and higher TVFA (meq/100ml)
concentration in T5 and T4, which contained higher energy (75% and 70%. TDN) in the ration.
NH3 -N (mg/100 ml) and total nitrogen concentrations were significantly (P<0.01) lowered in T5
group (16%CP) than other experimental groups. Significantly (P<0.01) lowest pH values and
higher TVFA values at 2h post feeding were observed, when compared, to 0 and 6h post-feeding
in all the treatments. Peak concentrations of all rumen nitrogen fractions were observed at 2h
post-feeding in all the treatments.

115 Performance of graded Jamunapari goat kids fed rice straw mixed sola (Aeschonomene indica
linn) hay supplemented with urea molasses granules - N. Jain, S.P. Tiwari and M.K.Gendley,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora,
(Chhattisgarh)

The study was carried out for 105 days in the sub-tropic humid climate of Chhattisgarh
plains in the Southeast India. Twenty graded Jamunapari kid goats (4-5 months age and 12.43 kg
average body weight) were randomly assigned to four groups of five animals in each. The kids of
group I were fed ad lib. chopped sola hay and rice straw (70:30). In group II kids were fed de-oiled
rice bran (100g) and in group III kids were fed urea molasses mineral granules (50g) whereas in
Group IV kids were fed fish meal (25g) plus urea molasses mineral granules (50g) along with fine
chopped sola hay and rice straw. A 7-day metabolism trial was conducted at the end of
experiment. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) digestibility were more
(P<0.05) in groups III and IV but similar in other groups. Digestibility of organic matter (DM)
differed (P<0.05) among the four groups. It was highest in group III (66.16%) and the lowest in
group I (57.20%) digestibility.
72 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004
116 Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern in goat kids
fed sola (Aeschonomene indica linn) grass based diet - Nisha Jain, S.P. Tiwari and M.K.Gendley,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora
(Chhattisgarh)

A study was conducted in goat (Capra hircus) kids fed on sola (Aeschonomene Indica
Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30) as source of roughage. Twenty graded Jamunapari kids
(4-5 months age, 12.43 kg average body weight) were randomly allocated to fourgroups of five
kids in each. The kids were fed ad-lib only roughage. In groups II, III and IV kids were fed
de-oiled rice bran (100g/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50g/d) respectively along with
roughage. The rumen fermentation studies revealed that the microbial protein synthesis was
higher in group III (42.94g/100ml) and IV (57.04g/100ml) as compared to control (5) and II. There
was a significant improvement of bacterial biomass (0.057g/100ml) and (0.082 g/100ml). Similarly
bacterial and protozoal population also get affected due to supplementation of fermentable-N
and bypass protein like fish meal in the diet. This is due to the better digestibility of organic matter
and production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen.

117 Effect of feeding monensin sodium and vitamin E on nutrient intake and growth rates in barbari
goats - R.S. Upadhyaya, U.B. Chaudhary and Nawab Singh, NFR and PT Division, Central
Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom, P.O. Farah-281 122 (U.P.)

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of Monensin sodium with or without
vitamin E supplementation on nutrient intake and growth rates in Barbari kids of about 8 to 9
months of age. The initial body weights of animals ranged from 11.9 to 13.3 kg. Twenty Barbari
kids were divided into four groups of 5 each and fed as per following feeding schedule, Group A:
Gram straw ad lib + concentrate mixture, Group B: Gram straw ad lib + concentrate mixture
containing Monensin sodium (25mg/kg on fresh basis) Group C: Feeding same as given to group
B + vitamin E (160 mg tocopheryl acetate given to each animal twice a week), Group D: Feeding
same as given to group A + vitamin E as given to group C. The feeding period lasted for about 150
days followed by a digestibility trial. The body weights were recorded at fortnightly intervals.
The dry matter (DM) intake (g/h/d) in groups A, B, C and D were 708.05±12.39, 630.51±33.84,
610.63±43.56 and 686.55±73.42 respectively. The percentage roughage in the dry matter
consumed by animals of group A, B, C and D were 57.6, 51.8, 54.5 and 58.9 respectively. The intake
of crude protein (g/h/d) by animals in group A, B, C and D were 113.04±2.19, 108.93±2.91,
107.40±6.01and 103.24±10.34 respectively. While corresponding values of TDN intake (g/h/d)
were 395.27±:6.28, 350.48±2.44, 322.53±18.09 and 315.13±10.88. The growth rate of animals has
been computed as group A, Y=0.049X+13.241(R2=0.96), Group B, Y1=0.0606X1+12.17(R2=0.9707),
Group C, Y2=0.051X2+13.516(R2=0.96), Group D,Y3=0.0408X3+13.721(R2=0.98) Where Y, Y1, Y2
andY3 represent body weights (kg) at fortnightly intervals and X, X1, X2, and X3 are days (from
start to end of the experiment). The growth rate was higher in group B followed by groups C, A
and D in decreasing order. All the goat kids remained healthy through out the experimental period.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 73

118 A Preliminary study on effect of Concentrate supplementation on growth performance of Male


Yaks - R. Pourouchottamane and A. Chatterjee, National Research Centre on Yak (lCAR) Dirang,
Arunachal Pradesh

The present experiment was carried out to study the growth performance of young male
yaks under different feeding regime. The experiment was conducted at institute experimental farm
at nyukmadung (2750 m above mean sea level). The animals were maintained under intensive
system of management (tie stall). Fifteen male yaks of around one year of age and similar
bodyweight were selected and divided into three groups. There was no significant difference in
average bodyweight of the yaks in three groups. The first group was fed only roughage
ad-libidum consisting of cut grasses, maize fodder and locally available tree leaves. The second
group was supplemented with concentrate mixture @ 1% of their bodyweight while third group
was supplemented concentrate mixture @ 1.5% of their bodyweight to meet their nutritional
requirements. Crude protein content of concentrate mixture was 15.3 percent. The feeding trail
was carried out for sixty days and the bodyweight was taken at fortnightly interval. At the end of
sixty days, the bodyweight gains were found to be 1.4 Kg per animal in 1st group, 13.58 Kg per
animal in 2nd group and 15 Kg per animal in 3rd group. The daily bodyweight gains were
calculated to be 23.33±5.45 grams, 226.33±20.44 grams and 250±25.5 grams respectively in 1st,
2nd and 3rd groups. Yaks in general are not supplemented with any concentrate mixture under
traditional system. In this study, efforts have been made to see the effect of concentrate
supplementation at two different level on growth rate of young yak calves. The preliminary
observation clearly showed the positive effect of higher plane of nutrition through concentrate
supplement on growth rate of yaks.

119 Methane production and nutrient utilization at different levels of oil in diets of steers - Barun
Bairagi1 and Madhu Mohini, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Based on average body weight, twelve crossbred steers of 2 to 2½ years were divided
into 3 groups (I, II, III) of 4 animals each. Three treatment diets (T1, T2, T3) were prepared by
mixing wheat straw and concentrate mixture in the ratio of 60:40, where deoiled groundnut cake
was used in concentrate mixture. T2 and T3 were prepared by adding groundnut oil in
concentrate of T1 diet to bring the EE content of total diets to 1, 2 and 3% respectively. The intake
of different nutrients (DM, OM, CP and CF) and digestibility of different nutrients (DM, OM, CP,
CF, NDF, ADF, EE and NFE) were statistically (p>0.05) not different in three treatment groups.
Nitrogen balance (23.99, 24.84,and 17.76 g/d) and N-retention as percent of N-intake (27.06, 30.00
and 23.21) also did not vary among the three groups. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in
methane production (g/d) in group II (60.74) and group III (63.82) compared to group I (85.58).
When the methane loss (g/d) expressed as per kg of nutrient intake as well as percent of energy
intake, there was also a significant decrease (p<0.05) in group II and III. The results indicated that
there was reduction in methane production without affecting the digestibility in group II and III.
1
Ph.D. Scholar, DCN Division
74 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

120 Effect of level of oil (groundnut oil) on in- vitro digestibility and methane production - Barun
Bairagi1 and Madhu Mohini, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Concentrate mixture (deoiled GNC, maize grain and rice bran) after oil extraction with
ether was taken along with wheat straw in the ratio of 60:40 as substrate. One to 5% groundnut oil
was added in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. IVDMD, IVOMD, IVNDFD and IVADFD (%) decreased
significantly (p<0.05) from 40.38(T2) 32.22(T5); 39.06(T2) to 32.50(T5); 38.45(TO) to 31.11 (T3) and
29.26(TO) to 18.99(T5) respectively. In case of total gas and methane production (lit/kg DM) mean
values were ranged from 54.39(T5) to 91.57(TO) and from 12.49(T4) to 27.82(TO) among different
diets. So, results indicated that nutrients digestibility improved at lower level (T2) and
significantly reduced (p<0.05) at higher level of oil (T5) where as total gas and methane
production decreased consistently and significantly (p<0.05) without affecting TVFA
concentration (meq/100 ml SRL) due to the addition of increasing amounts of oil in the diets.

121 In-vitro methane production and nutrient’s digestibility as affected by addition of different levels of
mustard oil in diet - Barun Bairagi1 and Madhu Mohini, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Digestibility of nutrients, total gas and methane production were determined by using
in- vitro rumen fermentation from six different diets (TO, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) containing 0, 1, 2,
3, 4 and 5 percent of mustard oil. Diets were prepared with wheat straw and concentrate mixture
(60:40). The concentrate mixture was prepared with deoiled mustard cake, maize grain and rice
bran along with mineral mixture and salt. The oil content of diets was extracted previously with
ether. The IVDMD, IVOMD, IVNDFD and IVADFD (%) decreased from 45.49(T2) to 42.13(T4);
31.29(T3) to 28.49(T4); 43.32(T3) to 38.82(T1) and 31.85(T1) to 28.15(T2) respectively, where as
total gas and methane production (lit/kg DM) varied from 26.03(T5) to 34.82(TO) and from 10.58
(T5) to 13.81 (TO) respectively among different diets. So, results indicated that DM, OM, NDF
digestibility improved at lowers level (T2 or T3) with significant decrease (p<0.05) at higher level
(T5) of oil inclusion. There was consistent and significant reduction (p<0.05) in total gas as well
as methane production without affecting TVFA concentration (meq/100 ml SRL) with increased
oil content of the diets. The study indicated that there was reduction in methane production
without affecting digestibility of the substrate upto 4% level of oil inclusion.

122 In vitro dry matter digestibility and rumen fermentation as affected by bypass fat supplementation
in total mixed ration - S.K. Sirohi, S.S. Thakur, Raman Malik, T.K.Walli, Dairy Cattle Nutrition
Division, National Dairy of Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Calcium salts of soap stock, Acid oil, Palm fatty acid and Kusum oil were prepared by double
decomposition method and tested for their efficacy under in vitro conditions to see rumen
fermentation pattern and DMD. Protected fat supplements as mentioned above were evaluated
1
Ph.D. Scholar, DCN Division
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 75

by in vitro method as a supplement in a total mixed ration (TMR), containing Wheat Straw and
Concentrate in ratio of 60:40.concentrate mixture was prepared by using wheat bran-25, maize-40,
mustared cake-32, mineral mixture 2.0 and salt 1.0 parts respectively. TMR having crude protein
and ether extract 12.0 and 3.2 percent respectively. Five percent and ten percent i.e. two levels of
fat were tested in TMR under in vitro system. Results indicated that at 5% level of fat
supplementation, IVDMD (%) was at par with the control diet. The values of IVDMD were
39.6(control), 40.1, 37.0, 38.2, 36.0 and 38.0, 35.5, 37.6 and 34.2 at 5% and 10% level of fat
supplementation in control soap stock, acid oil, Palm fatty acid and Kusum oil protected fat
supplemented treatments. However at 10% level, the digestibility value decreased slightly.
Similar trend was noticed in the case of rumen fermentation parameters like TVFAs, NH3-N, TCA-
N and Total-N. The values of ammonia nitrogen (mg/100 ml) at 5% and 10% level of protected fat
supplementation in all sources were similar to control diet. However TVFAs (meq/100 ml) values
were higher on 10% level of supplementation than 5% and control diet. It was concluded from
results that protected fat supplement could be used in TMR upto 5% level without any effect of
DMD and rumen fermentation.

123 Effect of protected fat supplements on rumen fermentation nutrient utilization and digestibility
in adult buffalo calves - S.K. Sirohi, T.K. Walli, Raman Malik and S.S. Thakur, DCN Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Protected fat supplements (calcium salts) were prepared by using byproducts of edible
oil Industries and non-conventional resources like soap stock, acid oil, palm fatty acid and karanj
oil, using double decomposition method. Five adult fistulated buffalo calves were used for the in
vivo trial and allotted to five diets in a switch over design. The five diets were: T1- Wheat straw
ad lib + Concentrate + Green fodder, as per their requirement. In T2, T3, T4, T5 groups, additional
200g protected fat was supplemented from soap stock, Acid oil, Palm fatty acid and Karanj oil
respectively. Experimental feeding was carried out for a period of one month and digestion trial
was conducted at the end of experimental feeding. During the trial period, samples of rumen liquor
were collected to study the fermentation parameters. Results showed that DMI (Kg/d) was similar
in all the treatment groups as compared to control. DMI (Kg/d) in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 4.14,
4.34, 4.44, 4.36 and 5.01 respectively. Similarly, the digestibility coetfficients were also not effected
due to protected fat supplementation. Highest DMD% was noticed in treatment group 5 and
values were 56.46, 62.42, 60.16, 60.46 and 65.34 in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. CPD% was
higher in treatment groups in comparison with control group and the highest value was noticed
in T1 group. The crude fiber digestibility was highest in T5 and values were significantly (P<0.05)
higher T4 and T5 in comparison with control T1.digestibility of EE were significantly (P<0.05)
higher in T2, T4 and T5 in comparison with T1, however values of T1 and T3 remained similar.
Rumen fermentation parameters like TVFAs, NH3-N, and TCA-N Total-N were also not affected
by protected fat supplementation. It was concluded from the study that protected fat could be
supplemented in the diet upto 4% over and above to the fat present in the normal diet without any
adverse effect on nutrient utilization.
76 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

4. Commercialization of feed technologies :


Problems and prospects

124 On farm evaluation of expander extruder processed sunflower heads based complete diets in
lactating crossbred cows - D. Nagalakshmi, D. Narasimha Reddy and M. Rajendra Prasad,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N. G. Ranga
Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500 030

An On farm trial of 180 days was conducted on 12 crossbred cows (Ongole X Jersey) by randomly
allotting to a complete diet and a conventional diet (6 in each group). The complete diet was
formulated with 40% sunflower (Helianthus annunus) heads (capitulum after removal of seeds)
as sole roughage source and subjected to expander-extruder pelletization (EEP). The EEP
complete diet was compared with conventional system of feeding under which calculated amount
of concentrate mixture and ad lib amounts of hybrid Napier and paddy straw were fed separately.
The CP content in concentrate mixture and expander extruded pelleted diet was 17.70 and 12.03%
respectively. The DM (P<0.01), OM (P<0.05), ether extract (P<0.05), CF (P<0.01), NDF (P<0.01)
and ADF (P<0.01) digestibility was higher when fed conventional diet in comparison to those fed
EEP diet. The digestibility of CP, NFE and cell contents was comparable between both the groups.
The CP (P<0.01) and DCP (P<0.05) in the processed SFH based complete diet were higher while
TDN was similar in comparison to conventional diet. The DM intake by cows fed EEP was lower
(P<0.01) than the intake of cows fed conventional diet. The DM intake and nutrient intakes by
cows fed on either diet was higher than the recommended requirements of Kearl (1982). The cows
fed EEP diet yielded 5.93 lts of milk daily with 4.0% fat, whereas the cows on conventional system
produced on an average 5.26 litres of milk daily having 4.47% fat. There was no difference
regarding milk yield, 4% FCM, fat % and SNF. The DM intake/kg 4% FCM was 1.72 kg by cows
fed EEP diet and was 2.02kg in that fed conventional diet. The cost of feed/kg FCM was though
statistically similar; it was 72 paisa lower in EEP diet than conventional diet. This long-term study
indicated that SFH can form a sole source of roughage in complete diets of milch cows and this
diet proved more balanced and nutritious than the conventional feeding.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 77

125 Effect of rapeseed meal based expander extruder processed complete diet on milk and meat
production in on farm situation - G.V.N. Reddy, P. Dipti Wilhelmina and M.S. Reddy, Department
of VeterinaryBiochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural
University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

A complete diet was formulated using pressure cooked rapeseed meal as protein
supplement and processed into pellets using expander extruder. In the first experiment, this
complete diet was compared with a conventional diet containing concentrate, mixture, green
grass and chopped sorghum straw by feeding to 12 crossbred cows of early lactation (6 in each
group) for 6 months and studied the effect of these diets production. In the second experiment,
the same complete diet was compared with a conventional diet containing concentrate mixture
and chopped sorghum straw by feeding 12 Nellore ram lambs (6 in each group) for 6 months and
studied the effect of these diets on growth and carcass characteristics. The complete diet
recorded 21% higher milk yield with 17.5% less feed/kg milk production and 29.6% less cost of
feed/kg yield compared to conventional diet in cows. Complete diet recorded 13.4 % higher ADG,
15.15% less feed/kg gain 12.7% less cost of feed/kg gain compared to conventional diet in lambs.
Dressing percentage and proportion of lean were higher on complete diet. These results indicate
that pressure cooked rapeseed meal can form an alternative protein supplement to traditionally
used groundnut cake.

126 Effect of differently processed rapeseed meal based complete diet on growth and nutrient
utilization in sheep - G.V.N. Reddy P. Dipti Wilhelmina and M.S. Reddy, Department of Veterinary
Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

A complete diet was formulated using pressure cooked (30min, 15 psi and 121o C)
rapeseed meal and processed into mash. This was further subjected to expander extruder
processing and steam pelleting. These three differently processed diets were compared with a
complete diet containing sorghum straw and concentrate (conventional) by feeding to 24 Nellore
ram lambs (4-5 months, 6 in each group) for 6 months in a growth cum metabolic experiment. The
DMI was comparable among all the diets. The DCP and TDN contents and ADG were
significantly (P<0.05) higher in pelleted rapeseed meal based complete diets as compared to mash
and conventional diet. The feed intake/kg gain and cost of feed/kg gain were significantly (P<0.05)
higher in conventional and mash and mash diets compared to expander-extruder processed and
steam pelleted diets. N, Ca, P balances were positive on all the diets. Carcass studies revealed a
better performance of sheep fed on steam pelleted diet in terms of dressing %, wholesale cuts,
lean, bone and fat % and meat: bone ratio though not significant statistically. These results,
indicate that processing of RSM based complete diet using expander extruder or steam pelleting
improved nutrient utilization as well as better ADG when compared to mash or conventional diet.
Further, the performance of sheep fed on expander extruder processed and steam pelleted diets
was comparable.
78 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

127 On farm trials: Effect of complete feed blocks on milk yield and its composition in buffalo -
M.M. Das, K.K. Singh, A.K. Samanta, S.S. Kundu and S.D. Sharma, Plant Animal Relationship
Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

The complete feed blocks containing natural grass and concentrate mixture
(mustard cake 35 kg, barley 25 kg, wheat bran 37 kg, mineral mixture 1kg, common salt 1 kg and
urea 1kg) at the ratio of 60 : 40 were given to farmers of Simardha village (Jhansi) to compare the
effect of complete feed blocks and farmers own package of feeding practices (mash) on milk yield
and its composition. In one farmer two lactating buffaloes were maintained on complete feed
block and two were kept on farmer’s own diet in mash form. The concentrate mixture (farmer’s) is
comprised of mustard cake 1 kg, cottonseed cake1 kg and barley 2 kg. This 4 kg of concentrate
mixture is offered in two times; two kg during morning and 2 kg during evening milking. Wheat
straw was offered ad libitum. 3-4 complete feed blocks were offered in a day. In case of second
farmer, three buffaloes were maintained on complete feed blocks and three buffaloes were
maintained on farmer’s mash diet i.e. wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The concentrate
mixture (farmer’s) is comprised of mustard cake 1kg, cottonseed cake 1kg and wheat bran 1kg.
Animals received total of 3 kg above concentrate mixture i.e. 1.5 kg during each milking. Wheat
straw was given ad libitum. The intake, milk yield and composition were recorded after completion
of adaptation period. The average body weight in control group was 474.9 kg and in block fed
buffalo it was 480.2 kg. The average dry matter intake was 9.89 kg / day and 11.55 kg / day in
control and block fed lactating buffaloes respectively. When the dry matter intake was expressed
in terms of % body weight the values were 2.08 and 2.41 in respective groups. This reflected 15 %
higher intake in case of block form of diet over the mash diet as adopted routinely by the farmer.
The dry matter intake (% body weight) was significantly high in block diets in compared to mash
diets. The average milk yield in control and block diets was 5.94 liter and 6.77 liter. This repre-
sented 14 % higher milk yield in block fed buffaloes in compared to mash fed buffaloes, but did
not differ significantly. The fat %, total solids %, solid not fat % and protein % were identical in
both the groups. Milk urea was 24.70 mg/dl of milk in buffaloes maintained by farmers own
package of practices while it was 22.13 mg/dl in block fed buffaloes and did not differ
significantly. The cost of milk in control and block diets was Rs 7.00 per liter and Rs. 7.30 per liter
respectively. Farmer opined that the blocks not only enhanced milk yield but also easy for feeding
and storage.

128 Effect of differently processed complete diet on performance of murrah buffaloes - G.V.N. Reddy,
P. Dipti Wilhelmina and M.S. Reddy, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College
of Veterinary Science, Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030

A complete diet was formulated using pressure cooked (30min. 15psi and 121°C)
rapeseed meal at 15% level and processed into mash. One third of mash was subjected to
expander-extruder processing and another one third was subjected to steam pelleting. These
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 79

three differently processed diets were compared with a conventional diet (containing
concentrate mixture, chopped sorghum straw and sorghum silage) by feeding to 24 lactating
Murrah buffaloes for 6 months (6 in each group) to study the effect of processing of complete diet
on nutrient utilization and milk production. A digestibility trail was conducted half way through
the experiment. The DMI was comparable on all the diets. The DCP and TDN contents were
significantly (P<0.05) higher on pelleted diets. The conventional diet was comparable with mash
group. The digestibility coefficients except for EE were higher (P<0.05) in pelleted diets when
compared to mash and conventional diet. Total milk and FCM yields were significantly (P<0.05)
higher on pelleted diets compared to mash or conventional diet. Cost of feed/kg milk yield was
less in processed complete diet.These results indicate that nutrient utilization was improved due
to processing of complete diet and bear a significant effect in increasing the milk production.
Pelleting of mash either by expander-extruder or steam pelleting had similar effect on nutrient
digestibility and milk production in Murrah buffaloes.

129 Comparative utilization of wheat straw and groundnut fodder based complete feed in loose and
block form in calves - T. Sharma, R. S. Arya, R. K. Dhuria, D. D. Garg, M. Harish and G.R. Purohit,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan
Agricultural, Bikaner (Rajasthan)

A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days on twelve growing calves divided into two
equal groups of six each. One group (T1) was given complete feed in loose form and second
group (T2) was offered complete feed in block form. The complete feed prepared was consisting
of Wheat straw 30 parts, groundnut fodder 30 parts and concentrate mixture 40 parts. The
complete feed blocks of 4 kg each were prepared at 3000 PSI. The effects of feeding complete feed
in loose and block form to calves were evaluated in terms of dry matter intake, body weight
changes, digestibility of dry matter and gross nutrients and intake of digestible nutrients. The
calves well accepted the complete feed in loose and block form and remained in good health
throughout the experiment. The dry matter intake calculated as kg/100 kg body weight and g/kg
metabolic weights were recorded to be 3.83 and 139.05 for T1 and 4.04 and 147.47 for T2 group.
The digestibility of nutrient did not reveal any significant effect of compaction of complete feed
except for ether extract, showed significantly higher digestibility in T2 group. A live weight gain
of 288.88 g/day in (T2)calves compared to calves kept on complete ration in loose form ensured
a live weight gain of 233.33 g/day. The result indicated that compaction of feed increased feed
intake and daily weight gain in calves.

130 Effect of complete feed blocks on nutrient utilization and growth in crossbred heifers - K.K.
Singh, M.M. Das, A.K. Samanta, S.S. Kundu and S.D. Sharma, Plant Animal Relationship
Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Effect of complete feed blocks on growth and nutrient utilization in crossbred animals
was studied on twelve growing crossbred female calves (10-12 months age) divided into two
80 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

three differently processed diets were compared with a conventional diet (containing
concentrate mixture, chopped sorghum straw and sorghum silage) by feeding to 24 lactating
Murrah buffaloes for 6 months (6 in each group) to study the effect of processing of complete diet
on nutrient utilization and milk production. A digestibility trail was conducted half way through
the experiment. The DMI was comparable on all the diets. The DCP and TDN contents were
significantly (P<0.05) higher on pelleted diets. The conventional diet was comparable with mash
group. The digestibility coefficients except for EE were higher (P<0.05) in pelleted diets when
compared to mash and conventional diet. Total milk and FCM yields were significantly (P<0.05)
higher on pelleted diets compared to mash or conventional diet. Cost of feed/kg milk yield was
less in processed complete diet.These results indicate that nutrient utilization was improved due
to processing of complete diet and bear a significant effect in increasing the milk production.
Pelleting of mash either by expander-extruder or steam pelleting had similar effect on nutrient
digestibility and milk production in Murrah buffaloes.

129 Comparative utilization of wheat straw and groundnut fodder based complete feed in loose and
block form in calves - T. Sharma, R. S. Arya, R. K. Dhuria, D. D. Garg, M. Harish and G.R. Purohit,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan
Agricultural, Bikaner (Rajasthan)

A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days on twelve growing calves divided into two
equal groups of six each. One group (T1) was given complete feed in loose form and second
group (T2) was offered complete feed in block form. The complete feed prepared was consisting
of Wheat straw 30 parts, groundnut fodder 30 parts and concentrate mixture 40 parts. The
complete feed blocks of 4 kg each were prepared at 3000 PSI. The effects of feeding complete feed
in loose and block form to calves were evaluated in terms of dry matter intake, body weight
changes, digestibility of dry matter and gross nutrients and intake of digestible nutrients. The
calves well accepted the complete feed in loose and block form and remained in good health
throughout the experiment. The dry matter intake calculated as kg/100 kg body weight and g/kg
metabolic weights were recorded to be 3.83 and 139.05 for T1 and 4.04 and 147.47 for T2 group.
The digestibility of nutrient did not reveal any significant effect of compaction of complete feed
except for ether extract, showed significantly higher digestibility in T2 group. A live weight gain
of 288.88 g/day in (T2)calves compared to calves kept on complete ration in loose form ensured
a live weight gain of 233.33 g/day. The result indicated that compaction of feed increased feed
intake and daily weight gain in calves.

130 Effect of complete feed blocks on nutrient utilization and growth in crossbred heifers - K.K.
Singh, M.M. Das, A.K. Samanta, S.S. Kundu and S.D. Sharma, Plant Animal Relationship
Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003 (U.P.)

Effect of complete feed blocks on growth and nutrient utilization in crossbred animals
was studied on twelve growing crossbred female calves (10-12 months age) divided into two
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 81

for NDF and 79.88±6.26 for Hemicellulose. The average nitrogen balances in experimental sheep
were recorded to be 13.40g/day. The DCP and TDN content of complete feed blocks were
calculated to be 11.44% and 54.29% respectively. The rumen parameters viz., pH, TVFA and total
protozoal count estimated at 0, 3 and 6 h post feeding, revealed drop in pH at 3 h post feeding
whereas, TVFA and rumen ammonia nitrogen showed continuously rising trend from 0 to 6 h post
feeding. The result indicated that sheep can be effectively maintained with high nitrogen balance
and good health on feeding complete feed in compressed block form.

132 Nutrient utilization in sheep fed sodium hydroxide or alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated millet
(Pennisetum typhoides) kabdi based complete feed diets in mash or block - O. H. Chaturvedi,
R. Prasad, M.K. Tripathi, A.S. Mishra, S. Vaithiyanathan, S.K.S. Raghuvanshi and R. C. Jakhmola,
Animal Nutrition Division, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan- 304501

Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) kadbi either untreated or treated with sodium
hydroxide (2% NaOH) or with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (2% NaOH and 1.5% H2O2) was made
into complete feed mixture with roughage : concentrate ratio of 60:40 (pearl millet kadbi-60. con-
centrate-35 and molasses-5 parts). One part of the complete feed mixture was compressed into the
form of block using complete feed block making machine at 4000 PSI, while another part was
remained in mash form. Thirty Malpura adult rams were fed complete feed diet either in mash or
block form in six groups of five each. Feeding experiment lasted for 35 days followed by a
metabolic trial. Dry matter intake (DMI) in rams ranged from 1050 to 1428 g/day on different diets,
amounting 3.2 to 4.1% body weight. DMI indicated that pearl millet kadbi based complete diets
are effectively utilizcd. Organic matter intake (OMI) followed a similar trend to that of DMI among
different groups. Digestible crude protein intake (DCPI) was higher (P<0.01) in rams fed NaOH
treated kadbi based complete feed blocks. AHP treated kadbi based complete feed blocks or mash
than other groups. Similarly, Nitrogen utilization was better in rams fed NaOH treated kadbi based
complete feed blocks, AHP treated kadbi based complete feed blocks or mash than other groups.
The digestibility of DM and fibre fractions was 5 to 12% units better (P<0.05) in rams fed treated
kadbi based diets as compared to those fed untreated diets. Rams fed block and mash diet
consumed 1369 and 1226 g DM, respectively. Similarly. there was an increasing trend for
digestible OMI, DCPI and N utilization in block fed rams as compared to those fed mash. The
differences between both the forms of diets were statistically non-significant. It is concluded that
the treatment of pearl millet kadbi with NaOH or AHP signilicantly improved intake and utilization
of nutrients over untreated pearl millet kadbi based diets. However, the AHP treatment of kadbi
did not have added effect over the NaOH in terms of improving their feeding value.
82 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

133 Effect of white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor) treatment of mustard (Brassica juncea) straw
on its feeding value in sheep fed complete feed blocks - A. S. Mishra, M. K. Tripathi, A. K. Misra,
S. Vaithiyanathan, R. Prasad. V. Dixit and R. C. Jakhmola, Division of Animal Nutrition, Central
Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar 304 501 (Rajasthan)

Mustard straw (autoclaved, moisture content 70%), and spawn of Coriolus versicolor
(2.5% on W/W basis) were mixed and incubated in polythene bags at 5°C for 21 days. After 21
days the bags were opened and treated straw was dried under the sun. The fungal treatment
affected the chemical composition of straw in a way that the treated straw had higher NDF, ADF
and ADL and lower hemicellulose content than that of untreated straw. Complete feed blocks
(CFB) were prepared by using either fungal treated mustard straw or untreated mustard straw as
a major source of roughage. Sixty parts of either of these straws were mixed intimately with 35
parts of concentrate mixture and 5 parts of uromol (10% urea on W/W) before being compressed
in the form of blocks. The pressure applied for making complete feed block was 2000 psi in fungal
treated and 4000 psi in untreated straw, based mixtures. Sixteen adult Malpura ram (27±0.9kg body
weight and 20±1.5 months age) were divided into 2 groups of 8 anirnals each and each group
received either untreated mustard straw based complete feed blocks (UCFB) or fungal treated
mustard straw based complete feed blocks (FCFB) for 60 days. Dry matter intake and digestibility
of dry matter, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose were similar in both groups. However, digestibility of
organic matter, crude protein, cellulose and lignin were significantly lower in sheep fed FCFB
diets than those eaten UCFB diet. As a result, both metabolisable energy content (MJ/kg DM)
and digestible protein content (g/kg DM) of FCFB diet (7.28 and 81.35) were lower than that of
UCFB diet (6.49 and 75.73). The digested protein in FCFB fed animals was better utilized as
indicated by lower urinary nitrogen excretion in sheep fed FCFB diets than those offered UCFB
diets. The microbial protein supply from rumen to lower gut - calculated using excretion pattern of
purine derivatives, was 50.6 g/d in FCFB fed animals against 86.7 g/d in those fed UFCB diet. All
blood parameters and liver enzymes were with in reported normal range of variations for sheep.
Blood glucose, serum protein, blood urea-N was similar whereas, serum albumin, globulin and
albumin : globulin ratio was significantly (P<0.05) higher in FCFB fed sheep than those of UCFB
fed animals. It is concluded that Coriolus versicolor could not effectively degrade lignin of
mustard straw possibly due to non availability of oxygen radicals which facilitate higher lignin
degradation. The fungal treatment however, improved utilisation of absorbed nitrogen from the
gut.

134 Studies on Feed Block Formation using Mustard Straw - A. Singh, S.K. Jha, J.S. Panwar, A. Kumar,
A. Pandeya and R.B. Gautam, Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Agricultural Research
Institute, New Delhi - 110 012

Moisture dependent physical properties of mustard straw like bulk density, true density
and porosity were studied. The bulk and true densities increased linearly with increase in
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 83

moisture content and varied from 42.5 to 55.3 kg/m3 and from 1915.56 to 1945 kg/m3, respectively
as the moisture content varied from 8 to 22 per cent (w.b.). Feed blocks of mustard straw alone as
well as mixed with concentrates and molasses were prepared at different compaction pressures
(0.021 to 0.042 kg/m2) and at different moisture contents of feed. The properties of these blocks
like bulk density and block resiliency were determined. Bulk density increased with increase in
compaction pressure but decreased with increase in moisture contenf of feed. However,
resilience of block decreased with increase in compaction pressure and increased with increase
in moisture content of feed. Bulk density of blocks ranged in between 260 to 808 kg/m3. Bulk
density increased with addition of concentrates and molasses. At 15% (w.b.) moisture content,
the bulk density of blocks of a mixture of mustard straw (65%), concentrate (35%) and molasses
(5%) varied from 571 to 669 kg/m3 whereas the bulk density of blocks of mustard straw alone was
in the range of 400 to 500 kg/m3. Blocks of a mixture of mustard straw, concentrate and molasses
are nutritious feed and due to increase in bulk density; its handling, storage and transportation is
easy and economical.

135 Voluntry inyake and nutrient utilization of mixed and complete rations by lactating camels and
their calves - A.K. Nagpal, Manju Arora and G.P. Singh, National Research Centre on Camel,
P.B. 07, Bikaner-334 001 (Rajasthan)

Seven lactating camels (B.Wt 516.00±20.92 kg and age 8-10 years) in their second/third
lactation were randomly divided into two groups. First group MR (milch) of 3 camels was fed on
mixed ration consisting of dry moth chara, dry khejri leaves and mineral mixture (74.3: 25.0: 0.7)
while second group CR (milch) of 4 camels was fed on complete ration consisting of dry moth
chara, khejri, wheat straw and concentrate ingredients (35.3: 25.0: 30.0: 9.7) for a period of 92 days.
Their 7 camel calves CR (calves) were fed in group on the same complete ration as that given to
CR (milch). The MR (milch) could not maintain their body weights and suffered a loss of 332.5g/
d while CR (milch) could achieve ADG of only 27.2g/d. The CR (calves) had higher (P<0.01) ADG
of 587 g/d. CR(milch) had significantly (P<0.05) higher DMI kg/100 kg body weight of 3.06 than
those of MR (milch) and CR (calves). Significant higher (P<0.05) digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, EE
and NFE were observed in CR(calves) as compared to lactating camels. The DM, DCP and TDN
intakes g/kg WO0.75 were 109.24, 146.17, 83.60; 4.88, 10.51,7.79 and 63.83, 89.32, 60.49 in MR
(milch), CR(milch) and CR(calves) respectively. The apparent absorption of sodium, potassium,
calcium and phosphorus were observed to be maximum (P<0.1) in CR (calves) and minimum in CR
(milch) except calcium. Magnesium absorption was higher (P<0.01) in MR(milch) and lower in
CR(calves). Lactating camels had lower (P<0.01) serum values of glucose, triglycerides
potassium and phosphorus indicating camels were under lactation stress. However higher (P<0.01)
serum magnesium was observed in MR(milch) than the other 2 groups which could be attributed
to higher (P<0.01) Mg absorption (65%). It was concluded that feeding of complete feed
improved nutrient digestibility, intake and serum biochemicals in lactating camel and calves
although higher cost was involved.
84 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

136 Nutrient utilization in camel calves fed gram (Cicer arietinum) straw based complete feed
blocks - A.K. Nagpal, Manju Arora and G.P. Singh, National Research Centre on Camel, P.B. 07,
Bikaner-334 001 (Rajasthan)

In the first phase nutritional evaluation of chane ki khar (CKK) as sole roughage diet in
4 camel calves (apprx. 10 months, 241-276 kg ) was studied for 21 days. In second phase, 12 camel
calves (approx. 10 months, 187-240 kg ) were randomally distributed into 3 groups of 4 each and
were given complete ration in loose form ( CR 1-L ) consisting of chane ki khar, groundnut chara
and concentrate in the ratio of 70: 15: 15, complete ration having similar composition as that of CR
1-L but in the form of feed blocks (CR1-FB) prepared on feed block making machine developed by
IARI, New Delhi and complete ration consisting of chane ki khar, groundnut chara and
concentrate in the ratio of 60:25:15 in feed block form (CR2-FB) for 98 days. Significant (P<0.05)
difference was observed for all proximate principles except CF and cell wall components among
CKK and CR1-L, CR1-FB, CR2-FB. Nutrient intake of DCP, TDN and ME did not differ
significantly among CR1-L, CR1-FB and CR2-FB but was significantly (P<0.05) higher than CKK.
Nutrient intake in terms of DCP g/kg W0.75 was 7.77 and significantly (P<0.05) highest in CR2-FB
and lowest (4.01) in CKK while TDN was significanltly (P<0.05) highest (62.40) in CR1-L and
lowest in CKK (41.41). The apparent absorption (%) of Na, Ca and P was found to differ non
significantly (P<0.05) among the groups given complete rations but was significantly higher as
compared to CKK. The average daily gain and feed/body weight gain ratio did not differ
significantly among CR1-L, CR1-FB and CR2-FB and ranged from 377.55 to 420.92 g/d and
13.51-14.30 respectively. It was inferred that camel calves given complete feed blocks had better
nutrient utilization and growth, apart from additional advantages of easy handling, storage and
transport of complete feed blocks.

137 Farmers perceptions for the feeding of complete balanced feed blocks - O.P. Lohan, Nand Kishore
and S.K. Sunda, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana)

A study was planned to find out the perception of farmers about the feeding of complete
feed blocks and their effect on the performance of animals. The farm trial was conducted in three
villages of near to CCS HAU, Hisar. In each village one farmer, having lactating animal was
selected. The complete feed blocks having concentrate to roughage ratio 40:60, along with green
fodder available with the farmers were offered to lactating animals, only. The trial was conducted
for a period of one month in each village. It was observed that in comparison to conventional
feeding systems there was about 1 kg increased in feed intake and 850 ml to 1.20 litre increased in
milk yield. The farmer’s perceptions were; all the farmers liked form of the feed; reported increased
in milk yield and observed improvement in body condition of animals.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 85

138 A comparison of two forms of complete feed i.e. mash vis pelleted with regards to nutrients
intake by goats - Nawab Singh, V.B. Chaudhary and P.K. Sahoo, Nutrition Feed Resources
and Products Technology, Division Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom Farah
Mathura-281 122 (U.P.)

Two complete feeds one in mash and another in pelleted form made from dried Neem (Azadirachta
indica) tree leaves (50%), Gram straw (20%) and concentrate mixture (30%) were prepared in bulk
quantity and tested using 12 adult male goats of Barbari breed having six animals for each feed
using standard procedures of metabolic trial. The concentrate mixture was consisted of Maize
25%, Barley 20%, Ground nut cake 25%, Wheat bran 17%, Sesame cake 10%, Mineral mixture
1.5% and common salt 1.5%. The organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogen
free extract and total ash contents were 87.19, 15.12 ,3.31, 14.66, 54.10 and 12.81 per cent
respectively on DM basis in mash complete feed. The corresponding values for pelleted
complete feed were 89.42, 15.85 ,2.38, 15.30, 55.87 and 10.58 per cent. Dry matter intake was
3.045±0.118 and 3.319±0.314 kg per 100 kg live weight for mash and pelleted feed respectively. The
digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE were 47.03±1.65, 49.23±1.68, 51.91±2.91,
75.44±0.86, 50.07±3. 08 and 46.64±2.22 respectively in case of mash feed. The corresponding
values in case of pelleted feed were 45.77±1.39, 50.52±1.25, 51.16±1.34, 72.83±428, 43.56±2.73 and
51.29±1.44 respectively. CP and TDN Intake per kg W0.75 was 11.06±0.52 and 31.43±1.92g for mesh
feed respectively. The corresponding values for pelleted feed were 12.46±0.84 and 35.71±2.98 g
respectively. The nitrogen balance in g/day/animal was 1.25±0.19 and 1.88±0.25
respectively for mash and pelleted feeds. The values of DM, CP and TDN intake were 8.86, 12.84
and 13.62 percent higher for pelleted feed then the mash feed. Similarly the values of nitrogen
balance in experimental animals were 50.40 percent higher for pelleted feed. Thus pelleted feed
was found superior in terms of DM, CP and TDN intake in goats.

139 Evaluation of complete diets containing varying proportions of sunflower heads in different
concentrate and roughage ratios by in vitro and in situ techniques - D. Narsimha Reddy, D.
Nagalakshmi and M. Rajendra Prasad, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
Science, Rajendranagar, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad- 500 030

Twelve complete diets were formulated for cattle using sunflower heads (SFH) as sole
roughage source or in combinations with sorghum straw (SS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and maize
cobs (MC) in three roughage concentrate ratios of 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60. The crude protein (CP)
was similar among all the diets (15.48 to 17.49%) except for lower (P<0.01) CP in diet containing
20% MC and 20% SFH (14.74%). The ether extract was lower (P<0.01) in MC incorporated diets
compared to other roughages sources. The fibre content decreased (P<0.01) and ash content
increased (P<0.05) when SFH was a sole roughage source. Incorporation of SB increased (P<0.01)
86 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

the fibre content in diets. The fibre fractions were similar among all the diets. The in vitro organic
matter (IVOMD) and neutral detergent fibre (IVNDFD) digestibilities ranged from 55.67 to 69.02%
and 11.84 to 52.35%, respectively. Increase in SB in diets from 10 to 20% reduced (P<0.01) the
IVOMD. The IVNDFD lowered (P<0.01) as the SS or SB increased in diets beyond 10%, but such
effect was not observed when SFH was present as sole roughage (20-40%). The effective DM
degradability (EDMD) was higher (P<0.01) when SFH was present as sole roughage source
(69.04%) compared to other dietary combinations. Based on these results, 4 complete diets were
again formulated with 60% roughage proportion containing 40% SFH in combination with either
MC, SS or SB and 50% SFH with SS. Incorporation of SFH at 50% level, did not affect the chemical
composition, fibre fractions, mineral content in diets and the in vitro digestibilities. The EDMD%
was highest (P<0.05) for diet containing 50% SFH (69.70%) followed by diets with 40% SFH along
with 10% SB and SS (62.87%) or 20% SS (60.87%). From these results it can be inferred that SFH
can be incorporated in complete diets of cattle either as sole roughage source at 40% level or at
50% level in combination with 10% SS.

140 In vitro studies to determine optimum level of inclusion of red gram (Cajanus cajan) straw in
complete pelleted diets - P. Baswa Reddy, T.J. Reddy, K. Sivaiah, Y.R. Reddy, B.Ekambaram,
M.UmaDepartment of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030

Red gram (Cajanus cajan) straw is one of the major agricultural by-products available in
most parts of Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh. In vitro studies were carried out to determine
the optimum level of inclusion of red gram straw in complete pelleted rations for goats. Red gram
straw contained 9.26% CP, 42.44% CF, 1.24% EE, 38.64% NFE, and 8.42% total ash. Four
concentrate mixtures C1, C2, C3 and C4 were formulated to have CP and TDN contents of 18 and 70,
18 and 65, 20 and 70 and 20 and 65 percent respectively. Six complete feeds were prepared in pellet
form under each concentrate group by incorporating red gram straw at 20(T1), 30(T2), 40(T3), 50
(T4), 60(T5) and 70(T6) percent level. The 24 complete rations thus obtained were evaluated for
IVDMD, NH3-N(mg%), TVFA (meq/100ml) and Total gas production in 48h (ml/200g substrate).
Under C1 group, as the roughage level increased from 20% (T1) to 70% (T6), the IVDMD values
significantly (p<0.01) decreased from 59.67 to 43.85. NH3-N and TVFA values also decreased
significantly (p<0.01) from13.28 and 10.87 to 8.85 and 7.63 respectively. Total gas
production in 48h was highest for T1 (44.57) and lowest for T6 (44.40). Under C2 group, the
IVDMD, NH3-N,TVFA and total gas production were53.65, 12.68, 9.43 and 43.72 for T1 and they
decreased significantly as the roughage level increased to 70% (T6). Similar trend was observed
for these in vitro parameters in C3 and C4 groups also. Basing on the results of the in vitro
evaluation and also considering the cost factor involved in inclusion of higher levels of
concentrate mixture in complete diets, it is concluded that 50(T4), 40(T3), 50(T4) and 40(T3) per
cent of red gram straw was the optimum level of inclusion in C1, C2, C3 and C4 respectively.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 87

141 Effect of dietary incorporation of solvent extracted Karanj Cake with or without processing on
in vitro rumen fermentation and nutrient degradability in buffalo - S.K. Saha, V.R.B. Sastry,
N.M. Soren, A.K. Panda and A. Kumar, Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary
Research Institute Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122 (U. P.)

In order to assess the effect of incorporation of solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) with
or without processing on in vitro rumen fermentation and nutrient degradability in buffalo three
isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures were formulated having soyabean meal in the
concentrate mixture of reference concentrate mixture which was replaced at 20 % level with
solvent extracted karanj cake as such and NaOH (1.5%, w/w) treated SKC in the test mixtures.
Exactly 0.2g of respective concentrate mixtures and 0.3g finely ground wheat straw as substrate
was added to the in vitro flask containIng 10 ml strained rumen liquor of buffalo and 30 ml
Mcdougall's buffer. The flasks were then incubated at 39°C in BOD incubator for 3,6,12 and 24
hours as per Tilley and Terry method. After respective periods of incubation, the contents of flask
were filtered through sintered glass crucible for assessing the degradability of DM and NDF.
Rumen liquor was collected for estimation of TVF A and ammonia nitrogen. The results revealed
that the percent degradability of DM and NDF was significantly (p<0.05) decreased during all the
incubation periods when SKC was incorporated as such with concomitant
reduction in TVFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration as compared to that of NaOH
treated SKC While the percent degradability of DM and NDF of the NaOH treated SKC contain-
ing concentrate mixture was found to be significantly higher than that of untreated SKC mixture.
The concentration of ammonia nitrogen was comparable when NaOH treated SKC and soyabean
meal incorporated mixtures were incubated. It could, therefore, be concluded that solvent
extracted karanj cake had a negative effect on in vitro rumen fermentation and nutrient
degradability which could be alleviated to some extent by NaOH treatment.

142 Effect of season and moisture content on the efficiency of energy consumption in grinding and
particle size of barley grain - Z.S. Sihag and K.K.Yadav, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

The experiment was conducted in the month of November and December for winter season (room
temperature: 20±3°C; relative humility: 50±4%) and in the month of May and June for summer
season (room temperature: 41±2oC; relative humidity 40±2%). Four quintals of material was ground
through hammer mill by using 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mm screen size. The energy consumption was
measured with the help of energy meter and using Ro-Tap sieve shaker did further analysis for
different parameters. The sieves were arranged in such a way that the largest number sieve was
at the bottom and in ascending order the smallest number sieve at the top. 100 gm of sample was
placed on the top sieve and shaked until the weight of sieves become constant (20 mm) with a
88 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

RoTap sieve shaker. The screen size and moisture level significantly (P<0.05) affected the energy
consumption in the grinding of barley. As the screen size increased energy consumption
decreased significantly (P<0.05), whereas in case of moisture levels inverse relationship was true.
With the increase of screen size the time taken for grinding also decreased significantly (P<0.05),
whereas in case of moisture levels inverse was true. The energy consumption (KWh/quintal) at
2 mm screen hole size was 4.4, 5.0, 5.1; at 3 mm screen hole size was 1.07, 2.0, 1.93; at 4 mm screen
hole size was .6, 1.3, 1.33; at 5 mm screen hole size was .4, .8 .4 and 6 mm screen hole size was .2,
.3 and .2 KWh/quintal of material at 11, 13 and 15 percent moisture levels, respectively. The
energy consumption was significantly lower in summer season compared to winter season. The
average energy consumption was .55 KWh/quintal in winter and .37 KWh/quintal in summer.
That may be due to comparatively low moisture content of grains, lower humidity during the
season and less loss of energy by the motor. As the screen size increased the proportion of
coarse particles goes on increasing with subsequent decrease of medium and five particles.
There was a direct relationship between screen size and modulus of finess. With the increase of
moisture level the number of coarse particles and modulus of finess increased significantly
(P<0.05). Particle size increased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase of screen hole size and
moisture level, however, inverse was true for surface area. No. of particles per gram of sample
decreased significantly (P<0.05) in general with the increase of screen hole size and moisture
level. From this experiment, it can be concluded that grinding in summer is economical than in
winter. Above 11% moisture level grinding is not optimum and economical in case of barley. 3 mm
sieve is best for optimum particle size.

143 Effect of season and moisture content on the efficiency of energy consumption in grinding and
particle size of groundnut cake - Z.S. Sihag and K.K.Yadav, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana)

The experiment was conducted in the month of November and December for winter
season (room temperature: 20±3°C; relative humility: 50±4%) and in the month of May and June
for summer season (room temperature: 41±2oC; relative humidity 40±2%). Four quintals of
material was ground through hammer mill by using 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mm screen size. The energy
consumption was measured with the help of energy meter and using Ro-Tap sieve shaker did
further analysis for different parameters. The sieves were arranged in such a way that the largest
number sieve was at the bottom and in ascending order the smallest number sieve at the top. 100
gm of sample was placed on the top sieve and shaked until the weight of sieves become constant
(20 mm) with a Ro-Tap sieve shaker.The screen size significantly (P<0.05) affected the energy
consumption in the grinding of groundnut cake also but the affect of moisture level was not
observed in case of groundnut cake on energy consumption. The energy and time consumption
for grinding was lower in summer than in winter. The bulk density of GNC increased from 14 kg/
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 89

ft3 to about 19 kg/ft3 after grinding. As the screen size increased number of coarse particles
increased and that of medium and fine decreased, but the effect was not so prominent as in case
of barley. Moisture level did not affected modulus of uniformity and finess significantly (P<0.05).
Particle size in general increased and surface area and particles/gram decreased with the increase
of sieve size. Moisture level did not affect the particle size of GNC upto 11 % of moisture level.
From this experiment it can be concluded that grinding through even 6 mm sieve has
optimum particle size (2:6:2) and a lot of saving of time and energy is possible.

144 Effect of urea and alkali treatment of wheat straw and its replacement by concentrate mixture at
different levels on its compaction behaviour - Nand Kishore, O.P.Lohan and S.K. Sunda, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Wheat straw was separately treated with urea and NaOH at 4% level (w/w) keeping the moisture
level at 50%. The urea treated and NaOH treated straws was stacked air tight for 21 and 3 days,
respectively followed by their aeration for three days to reduce their moisture content to about 12
to 15%. Treated and untreated straw and the concentrate mixture were analysed for its proximate
composition NDF, ADF and ADL contents. A concentrate mixture was prepared by mixing barley,
rice polish, mustard cake, mineral mixture and salt keeping the CP and TDN contents at 20 and
68%, respectively. The treated straws were replaced by concentrate mixture at 10, 20, 30, 40 and
50% levels and densified into complete feed blocks keeping moisture content between 15 to 17%
and molasses at 15% level. The complete feed blocks so formed were stored under atmospheric
conditions for two months and later were evaluated for their durability, post compression expan-
sion and density. The urea treatment significantly (p<0.01) increased the CP content of wheat
straw from 2.85 to 8.83%. The CF content was significantly (p<0.01) decreased from 35.25% to
31.12% due to alkali treatment of the straw. The ash, NDF, ADF and cellulose contents of the
straw increased slightly due to both the treatments, however, the differences were non significant.
The densification of urea and alkali treated straw increased their density to 2.8 to 3.9 times,
respectively. As the level of concentrate mixture in the feed blocks increased, the times increase
in density significantly (p<0.01) decreased and was recorded 1.5 and 1.9 times at a replacement
level of 50% of urea treated and NaOH treated wheat straws, respectively. Both the treatments
decreased (p<0.01) significantly the post compression expansion of the feed blocks. The post
compression expansion was low (38.08%) with alkali treated straw than (45.05%) with urea treated
straw. The increase in the level of concentrate mixture in the feed blocks decreased (p<0.01)
significantly the post compression expansion with a minimum value of 32.33% in the blocks made
of alkali treated straw and concentrate mixture in the ratio 50:50. The durability of the blocks was
52% with untreated straw, 88.62% in urea treated straw and 95.65% with NaOH with NaOH treated
straw, the differences being highly significant. Increase in the level of the concentrate mixture in
the blocks increased their durability. The most durable feed blocks with 97.11 and 99.32%
durability were obtained at 50% replacement of urea treated and NaOH treated wheat straws,
respectively.
90 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

145 Effect of replacement of urea and alkali treated paddy straw by concentrate mixture at different
levels on its compaction behaviour - Nand Kishore and O.P. Lohan, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana)

Paddy straw was chaffed to a particle size of 2 to 2.5 cm and separately treated with urea
and NaOH at 4% level (w/w), keeping the moisture content at 50% level. Urea treated and NaOH
treated straws were stacked airtight for 21 and 3 days, respectively followed by their aeration for
3 days to reduce their moisture content to about 12 to 15%. Treated and untreated straws were
analysed for their proximate composition, NDF, ADF and ADL contents. A concentrate mixture
was prepared by mixing barley, rice polish, mustard cake, mineral mixture and salt keeping the CP
and TDN contents at 20 and 68%, respectively. The concentrate mixture at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%
levels replaced the treated straw and blocks were made keeping moisture content between 15 to
17% and molasses at 15% level. To keep the CP content of NaOH treated blocks at par to urea
treated blocks required amount of urea was added at the time of block making. The blocks so
formed were stored in atmospheric conditions for two months and then evaluated for their
durability, post compression expansion and increase in density. The urea treatment of paddy
straw increased its CP content from 5.02% to 10.06%. The contents of OM, CF, ADL and
hemicellulose slightly decreased while the contents of total ash, NDF, ADF and cellulose slightly
increased due to both urea and alkali treatments. Urea and NaOH treatments increased the
density of wheat straw by 5 and 6 units, respectively, while the densification of straws increased
their density by 3.36 and 4.67 times, respectively. The level of supplemental concentrate mixture
was inversely proportional to the times increase in density and it was 1.57 and 1.87 times in urea
and NaOH treated straws, respectively when replaced by concentrate mixture at 50% level. The
post compression expansion was more in the urea treated straw based blocks (30.20%) in
comparison to NaOH treated straw based blocks (20.43%). With an increase in concentrate
mixture level in the blocks, the post compression expansion studiedly decreased both in urea and
NaOH treated straw based blocks. Urea treated paddy straw based blocks were less durable than
the NaOH treated straw based blocks, the values being 82.80 and 96.74%, respectively, the
difference being significant (P<0.01). As the ratio of roughage; concentrate narrowed, the
durability of the blocks increased (P<0.01) significantly and was 96.69% and 79.05% in urea and
NaOH treated straw based blocks, respectively at 50% replacement of the straw by the
concentrate mixture.

146 Cottonseed hulls based complete diets for crossbred calves - M. Ramachandran and K.K. Singhal
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National,.Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

To compare the feeding value of wheat straw (WS) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) based
complete diets in mash and flaked forms, 15 crossbred male calves were divided into 3 groups of
5 each and fed on complete diets (roughage: concentrate 60:40; CP 12%, TDN 55%). Group I was
fed on WS based diet while groups II and III were fed on CSH based complete diet in flaked and
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 91

mash form, ad lib, respectively, along with similar quantity of non-leguminous green fodder
throughout the experimental period of 120 days. Daily DM intake /100 kg BW was higher (P<0.05)
in groups II (3.55 kg) and III (3.55 kg) than in group I (2.78 kg). Average daily body weight gain
was also higher (P<0.05) in groups II (585.83 g) and III (533.33 g) than in group I (245.42 g),
resulting in higher (P<0.05) feed conversion efficiency in groups II (8.49) and III (9.29) than in
group I (15.61), however, variations between the groups II and III for DMI and body weight gain
were non-significant. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in group I (69.28%) than in groups II
(54.19%) and III (56.30%) and the variation between later groups was not significant. Digestibility
of cell wall constituents, except cellulose did not vary significantly among the groups. Intake of
digestible OM, CP and NDF was higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than in group I. DCP content
of diet I (8.75%) was higher (P<0.05) than diets II and III (6.94 and 7.39%, respectively), however,
TDN content of all the diets was similar (about 55%). DCP intake was 21.34 and 28.26 per cent
higher in groups II and III than group I and TDN intake was 55.81 and 70.23 per cent higher in
groups II and III than group I. All the groups were in positive balances of N, Ca and P, however,
balance of N was higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than in group I. It can be concluded that
feeding of cottonseed hulls (60%) based complete diets (CP 12%, TDN 55%) in crossbred calves
improved (P<0.05) growth rate and nutrient utilization than WS based complete diet. Flaking of
CSH based complete diet though improved the bulk density (about 85%), feed intake and growth
performance over respective mash diet but improvement was not significant.

147 Digestion kinetics of complete diets based on wheat straw and alkali treated cottonseed hulls -
M. Ramachandran and K.K. Singhal, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal 132 001 (Haryana)

Digestion kinetics of isocaloric (55% TDN) complete diets comprising 60 per cent roughage either
wheat straw (WS) or 5% alkali treated cottonseed hulls (CSH), containing 10, 12 and 14 per cent
CP, in mash and flaked forms were studied. Degradation constants, rate of DM degradation and
DM degradability of complete diets as well as fibre (ash free NDF) digestion kinetics of different
complete diets was estimated as per recommended models. NDF content of all the diets decreased
on raising their CP content, however, lignin content of CSH based complete diets was higher than
those based on WS. DM disappearance (a) and rate of degradation were higher for WS based
diets than those based on CSH. Average value of potentially degradable DM fraction (b) of CSH
based diets, irrespective of the CP level, was higher than WS based complete diets. Potential DM
degradation (PDMD) of CSH and WS based complete diets was similar, however, flaking of CSH
based diets improved the effective DM degradability. At the end of 96 h incubation flaked diet
had 12.93 and 8.42% higher average DM disappearance, than those based on CSH and WS,
irrespective of the CP level, respectively. Lag time of NDF digestion in CSH based diets was
higher than that based on WS, irrespective of CP level and physical form. However, rate of NDF
92 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

digestion was higher (P>0.05) in CSH based mash (20.59%) and flaked diet (38.24%) than WS
based diets and it was optimum for the diets containing 12% CP, irrespective of roughage or
processing. Potential extent of NDF digestion (PED) in WS based complete diets of all the CP
levels were similar and higher than CSH based mash, however, flaking improved it. CSH based
mash and flaked diets containing 12% CP had higher (P>0.05) apparent extent of NDF digestion
than respective WS based diet. It can be concluded that fibre digestion kinetics of NaOH treated
CSH was almost similar to that of WS and physical rocessing of the diet such as alkali treatment
followed by flaking can improve the fibre digestion of cottonseed hulls.

148 Evaluation of complete feeds for lactating cows using locally available feed in ingredients of
cotton belt - S. Saijpaul, R.S. Grewal1 and Ravneet Kaur, Department of Animal Nutrition Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Pb.)

A lactation study was planned to evaluate the most economical complete feed for high yield
lactating animals of the cotton-growing region of Punjab. Twenty high yielding crossbred cows
of similar body weight, lactation number and lactation days (9442.9 kg, 2.73 and 71.35 resp.) were
randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. The complete feeds were prepared using
50:50 and 40:60 roughage to concentrate ratio depending upon the crude protein of concentrate
mixture and the type of roughage. The roughage combinations were 40 berseem green + 10 wheat
straw (T1), 10 berseem hay + 40 non-leguminous fodder (T2), 40 berseem hay + 10 wheat straw
(T3) and 20 non-leguminous fodder + 20 urea treated wheat straw (T4) respectively. The protein
sources were soybean meal + mustard cake (T1), cotton seed + mustard cake + soybean meal (T2
& T4) and cotton seed + mustard cake (T3). The feeding trial revealed that the voluntary dry
matter intake of the animals ranged between 15-20 kg/animal/day. The dry matter intake of the
animals in T-2 group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other treatments. The digestibility of
DM, OM, CF and NFE were also significantly higher in T-2 group (76.86±4.29, 77.34±4.95,
70.75±4.93, 83.83±9.13) but comparable to T-1 group (72.65±1.86, 74.23±2.07, 67.18±8.62, 78.91±1.08
% respectively). There was no significant difference in total milk yield, fat corrected milk, fat %
and SNF % among the groups. The cost of milk production were comparable in T-1, T-2, T-3 and
T-4 ( Rs 4.46, 3.88, 4.16 and 3.81 liter respectively) but due to higher milk production in T-2 group
and lower feed cost, the profit margin turned out to be more in T-2 (Rs. 1.05/liter) as compared to
T-1 (Rs. 0.57/liter) which constituted the control.
1
Dairy Manager, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, PAU, Ludhiana
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 93

5. Feed quality in animal production systems

149 One point in situ in cubation technique for the estimation of undegraded protein in forages -
Neeraj Gupta, A.K. Tyagi1 and K.K. Singhal, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001
(Haryana)

Neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was used as a direct estimate of UIP.
Different feeds and fodders, collected from the fields of NDRI Karnal farm from January to March,
were incubated In situ for a time equivalent to mean retention time (MRT), estimated from the
digestibility of the feeds and fodders plus 10 h to account for a lag in passage of particles from the
rumen. The samples were incubated for 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the estimated total mean
retention time (TMRT). In some samples, the UIP values obtained from the fractional rates of
degradation and passage were highly correlated with those estimated from samples incubated for
75% of TMRT, while incubating rest of the samples at this point over estimate the UIP fraction.

150 Practical Nutritional worth of Solvent extracted Taramira ( Eruca sativa) seed cake for sheep
Vishnu Sharma, G.R. Purohit and Sanjita Sharma2, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Apex
Centre, S.F.S. IV Sector, Mansarovar, Jaipur

Taramira (Eruca sativa) is an important rainfed crop in the desertic area of Rajasthan.
Owing to imultiple use of its oil, solvent extraction of seeds of Taramira has started by the
industries. Solvent extraction leaves a huge protein rich bio mass containing about 37.50 per cent
protein. An experiment was planned and conducted to study practical nutritional worth of this
cake in terms of DCP, TDN, NR, RDP and UDP. For this two digestibility trials were conducted on
four adult rams and digestibility coefficients of Taramira cake were determined by difference
method. In situ study was also made. The values for digestibility of various fractions were DM
59.07±3.20, CP 71.91±2.29, EE 62.23±2.79, CF 54.82±1.85 and NFE 64.47±3.60 per cent respectively.
On computation nutritive value in terms of DCP, TDN and NR of Taramira seed cake were 26.96,
62.78 and 1:1.133 respectively. Further partitioning of protein revealed that this cake contains
24.15 and 13.35 per cent rumen degradable (RDP) and undegradable (UDP) fractions. It was
inferred that this protein rich agro-industrial by product can be used as a protein replacer in arid
zone.
1
Corresponding author, amrish@ndri.hry.nic.in; 2 8/C-54, Pratap Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
94 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

151 Studies on detoxification of castor cake - S. Anandan, G.K. Anil Kumar and K.S.Ramachandra
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore 560 030

In spite of its high protein content, castor cake is not used as livestock feed due to the
presence of toxic factors- Ricin, Ricinine and Allergen. Of the three, Ricin is the most detrimental
to the animals. In order to detoxify the cake, a number of physical and chemical methods were
employed. Soaking (3h, 6h and 12 h), steaming (30 min and 60 min), boiling (30 min and 60 min),
Autoclaving (15 p.s.i , 30 min; 15 p.s.i, 60 min) and heating (100oc 30 Min; 120oc 25 Min) were the
physical methods employed while the chemical methods consisted of Ammonia (0.75 %; 1.25 %),
Formaldehyde (0.5 %, 1.0%), Lime (1%, 2% and 4%), Sodium chloride (0.5%, 1% and 2%), Tannic
acid ( 0.5%, 1%) and Sodium hydroxide (0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%). The efficacy of the treatments
was assessed based on the quantitative changes in Ricin content. Of all the methods employed
Autoclaving (15 p.s.i., 60 min) and Lime treatment (4%) could completely remove the toxin. The
same was confirmed by the qualitative test using PAGE (Poly acryl amide gel electrophoresis)
wherein there was total disappearance of band corresponding to ricin in these two treatments.

152 Growth performance of lambs fed detoxified castor cake - S. Anandan, G.K. Anil Kumar and
K.S. Ramachandra, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi,
Bangalore 560 030

Six lambs (Mandya cross) aged 10 to 12 months were fed for a period of eight months to
ascertain efficacy of detoxification by feeding castor cake as a sole protein source. The
animals were given concentrate mixture at the rate of 1.5 % body weight long with ad lib Para
grass as the roughage source. The initial and final body weights were 15.62 Kg and 31.67 Kg,
respcectively. The average daily gain (ADG) was 76g. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the
feed efficiency were 8.9 and 0.12m respectively. A metabolism trial was conducted in the middle of
the experiment to assess the nutritive value of the diet. The average dry matter intake (DMI) was
805.78 g/day. The average digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CF, CP, NDF, and ADF were 51.35, 50.82,
54.30, 57.42, 68.8, 40.22 and 30.72 respcectively. All the animals were apparently healthy and did
not show any symptoms throughout the feeding trial showing that detoxified castor cake can be
used as a sole protein source in the diet of growing lambs.

153 Effect of dry heat and sunlight on aflatoxin counteraction in compounded feed - N.K.S. Gowda, V.
Malathi and R.U. Suganthi, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology,
Bangalore 560 030

A study was undertaken to know the effect of drying feed on aflatoxin degradation.
Compounded feed spiked with 50 mg aflatoxin culture material was taken in a series of aluminium
trays (AFB1 : 605-655 ppb), and kept in hot air oven at temperatures of 60, 80, 100 and 120°c.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 95

separately. At each level of temperature replicate samples were taken at 0 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr and
3 hrs. interval and analysed for aflatoxin using TLC. Maximum aflatoxin reduction (AFB1 : 67 to
138 ppb; 80-90%) was noticed at 120oc for 2 hr and 3 hr of drying. At 100oc after 3 hrs of drving
about 65% aflatoxin reduction was recorded. Moderate reduction (36-40%) was observed at 80°c
for 2-3 hr of drying. However, drying of contaminated feed at 60°c did not result in much reduction
in aflatoxin content even upto 3 hr. In an another experiment, effect of sunlight (ambient tempera-
ture 27-36°c) on aflatoxin degradation was studied. Aflatoxin contaminated feed (AFB1 : 502 ppb)
was spread as thin layer in a series of aluminium trays and exposed to sunlight for different hours
of duration. Aflatoxin content in feed reduced linearly with increased duration of drying in sun-
light. About 27% aflatoxin reduction was noticed with 30 min. ex posure and 90-94% of reduction
was recorded after 10-14 hr of drying AFB1 : 30-47 PPb). It can be concluded that drying of feeds
is an effective and practical way of reducing the aflatoxin level in contaminated feeds.

154 Effect of endosulfan on nutritional and lactation performances in goats fed concentrate mixture
and oat hay - S.K. Mahanta, S.K. Nag, B.K. Bhadoria and M.K. Raikwar, Plant Animal Relationship
Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 004 (U.P.)

Twelve Barbari milch goats (18.14f±0.89 kg; 2nd-3rd parity and mid lactation), divided into
3 treatment groups (T1 to T3) of 4 in each, were fed a mixed ration of concentrate mixture and oat
hay along with daily dosage of endosulfan (an organochlorine pesticide) to record its influence
on nutritional and lactation performances including milk quality. Goats under T2 and T3 groups
were fed endosulfan @ 15 and 30 mg/head/day, respectively for 25 consecutive days, while goats
under T1 group were kept as control without any dosage of endosulfan. Towards the end of
experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted including record of
daily milk yield. Milk and blood samples were also analyzed for milk quality and blood
metabolites. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) of composite ration was 527, 582 and 526 g in
goats of T1, T2 and T3 group, respectively and the differences were non significant. DMI
calculated as percent of body weight was also comparable among the groups, ranging from 2.89
to 3.17%. Similarly, average digestibility of nutrients like DM (69.6-73.7%), OM (72.6-77.2%), CP
(74.2-75.2%) and NDF (63.5-68.5%) was comparable among the groups. Although the values were
relatively low in goats of T3 group. All the animals were in positive nitrogen balances (0.94-1.02
g/ head/day). Animals were also on similar plane of nutrition consuming (g/kg W0.75) comparable
quantities of protein (DCP: 6.53-6.93) and energy (TDN: 40.95-46.55). Average daily milk yield was
373, 383 and 396 g in T1, T2 and T3 group, respectively and the differences were non-significant.
In milk samples the fat (5.27-5.47%), protein (4.25-4.45%), ash (0.90-0.93%) and total solids
(14.69-14.97%) contents were also statistically similar among the groups. However, the
endosulfan content (mg/kg) in milk was significantly (P<0.01) higher in T2 (0.17) and T3 (0.24)
groups when compared to T1 group (0.06). While in blood samples, plasma protein, glucose and
96 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

urea-N contents were comparable and ranged from 7.27 to 7.52 g, 47.55 to 49.62 mg and 15.52 to
16.12 mg per dl, respectively. Thus the study revealed that endosulfan will appear in milk of milch
goats apparently without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization, milk yield and its
composition, and blood metabolites, provided feed stuffs and drinking water are contaminated
with it. However, the pesticide may have some effect on the animals on exposure for quite a long
time.

155 Effect of detoxified rapeseed (brassica sp.) Meal on biochemical profile and vital organs -
S. Gangu Naidu, G.V.N. Reddy, Y. Anjaneyulu, G. Alexander and M.S. Reddy, Dept of Veterinary
Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -500 030

Five complete diets were formulated without rapeseed meal (control D1) or raw rapeseed
meal (D2) or rapeseed meal treated with 0.5% copper sulphate (D3) or pressure cooked rapeseed
meal (D4) or 0.5% copper sulphate followed by pressure cooked rapeseed meal (D5) as protein
supplement. Diets were processed into mash and fed to growing ram lambs to study the effect of
method of processing of rapeseed meal on growth, biochemical profile and vital organs. The
lambs fed on D2 showed lowered serum total protein, albumin, albumin : globulin ratio, choles-
terol, urea, creatinine, thyroxin and haemoglobin and increased ALT levels. Further, the lambs of
this group also exhibited the damage of vital organs viz., mild congestion in liver, hyaline casts in
kidney and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. The lambs fed with D3 and D5 also showed
lowered serum albumin levels and higher ALT and AST levels reflecting the effect on vital
organs, may be due to the excess copper sulphate used as a toxin binder to detoxify the rapeseed
meal. Two animals from each group fed on D3 and D5 died after four months due to cumulative
effect of copper toxicity. Lambs fed with D4 did not show any adverse effect on the health
compared to other diets. These results revealed that pressure-cooking could be a safe method
for detoxification of rapeseed meal and it can be used in livestock rations as protein supplement
without any deleterious effect on growth, biochemical profile and vital organs.

156 Effect of storage of feed ingredients and compounded feeds in different structures on nutritional
quality - G.V.N. Reddy and J.V. Lakshmi, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of
Veterinary Science, Acharya N. G.Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030

Eight feed ingredients (maize, rice bran, rice polish, deoiled rice bran, wheat bran,
groundnut cake, deoiled groundnut cake and soya bean meal) and two compounded feeds
(concentrate feed for cattle and poultry feed) were stored in cement concrete, galvanized iron,
plastic, cardboard and thatched storage structures for eight months and analysed for changes in
nutritional quality, microbial counts and aflatoxins at bimonthly intervals. The studies indicated
that plastic structures proved to be the best with minimum changes in chemical composition,
microbial count and aflatoxins. These studies also indicated that use of these ingredients and
feeds within 60 days avoids deterioration of nutritional quality.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 97

157 Effect of storage of finished feeds in various packing materials on nutritional quality - G.V.N.
Reddy and J.V. Lakshmi, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

Three finished feeds (concentrate mixture for cattle, poultry feeds and complete diets for
ruminants) were processed into mash and pellet form and stored for 6 months in different packing
materials available : 1. High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 2. HDPE woven (HDPEW), 3. HDPEW
with paper lining outside, 4.) HDPEW with gunny outside, 5. Gunny with paper lamination
outside, 6. Gunny with damber lamination inside, 7. Gunny with damber lamination on both sides
and 8. Ordinary gunny bags. The samples collected at the monthly intervals were assessed for
physical, chemical characters, microbial load and aflatoxin. Highest (P<0.05) CP and EE contents
and low insect, microbial load and aflatoxin contents were recorded on HDPE and HDPEW bags
compared to other packing materials. CP and EE contents decreased with the storage period in all
packing materials with concomitant increase in CF and TA. Insects, microbial count and aflatoxin
contents increased (P<0.05) as the storage period increased irrespective of packing material. The
results of this study indicate that though HDPE and HDPEW bags proved better than all other
bags, HDPEW can be prefered due to low cost for storing finished feed and it is better to use the
finished feed within a month to avoid deterioration of quality.

158 Detoxification of certain toxins (triterpenoids) in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake -
O. Suneel Kumar, K. Joji Reddy- and G.V.N. Reddy, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 030

Neemseed-cake (NSC) is bitter and contains certain toxic principles (triterpenoids),


which limit its usage as an animal feed. To detoxify these toxins different physical, chemical and
combination of physical and chemical methods were applied. These triterpenoids were estimated
quantitatively by analytical HPLC. Water washing removed 82.53% of azadirachtin, 53.13% of
nimbin and 35.89% of salannin. The chemical treatments (4% urea with 40% moisture) removed
45.5% azadirachtin, 75.94% nimbin and 98.07% Salannin. Water washing followed by urea
treatment removed 83.27% azadirachtin and 100% nimbin and salannin.

159 Antinutritional factors and insecticide-pesticide residues in agriculture byproducts - Sajjan


Sihag, and K.R. Yadav, Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

The study was under taken to formulate safe total mixed rations for ruminants by
incorporating cotton byproducts for major cotton growing area of Haryana. During the
survey of area samples of wheat straw, bajra stover, cotton seed, cotton seed cake, cotton leaves
98 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

(after last picking) and cotton plants were collected. As due to sever attack of insect pest on
cotton crop insecticide pesticide are used as plant protection measures and find their way into
animal feed. Therefore, prior to incorporation of these feed ingredients in total mixed rations they
were analysed for insecticide pesticide residues and antinutritional factors. The oxalates
contents of wheat straw, urea treated wheat straw, bajra stovers and urea treated stovers were
0.06, 0.19, 0.23 and 0.25 g per 100g of dry matter, respectively, indicating that oxalates of urea
treated and non treated straw or stover were with in the permissible limit. The gossypol content
of cotton seed and cotton seed cake was 75 and 16.5 mg percent, respectively, indicating high
amount of gossypol in cotton seed than cake. The quantitity of gossypol in both byproducts was
with in permissible limits. The oxalates in cotton straw and urea treated cotton straw were 0.25g
and 0.29g per 100g, which were also with in limits. The DDT content of cotton leaf, cotton plant,
cotton seed and cotton seed was 0.246, 0.052, 0.078 and 0.049 µg per g of dry matter, respectively.
It was analysed that HCH, Endosulphan, Cypermethrin and Malathion insecticide residues in
cotton leaves, cotton plant, cotton seed and cotton seed cake were with in permissible limit as
animal feeds. It was also found that among organochlorines, residues of lindane were at par of the
permissible value of 0.05ppm in cotton seed, however among the synthetic pyrethroids, residues
of permethrin and cyfluthrin were found above the maximum residue limits of 0.5 and 0.05 ppm in
cotton seeds. It was noticed that insecticide-pesticide residues were comparatively less in cake
than cotton seeds.

160 In vitro evaluation of adsorbents as antidote for monocrotophos : An organophosphorus


pesticide - Pramod Singh and Aruna Chhabra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy
Research Institute (ICAR), Karnal- 132001 (Haryana)

Activated charcoal and zeolite were evaluated against Monocrotophos (MCP), the
most commonly used organophosphorus pesticide in India. Both the adsorbents were used at
three levels in diet comprising of concentrate mixture and Lucerne hay in the ratio of 50:50 along
with 100 ppm of MCP. Control groups T-1 (without MCP) and T-2 (with MCP) did not contain any
adsorbent. The treatment groups T-3, T-4 and T-5 contained 1, 2 and 3 per cent of activated
charcoal respectively on DM basis in total diet where as groups T-6, T-7 and T-8 contained zeolite
at levels used for charcoal. The volume of total gas produced and dry matter disappearance were
estimated using in vitro gas technique. The values for volume of total gas produced (ml/g feed/
48 hr) were 204.10±5.57, 167.90±7.27, 175.17±7.13, 184.10±7.02, 173.04±7.80, 166.86±6.81, 168.45±6.48
and 163.73±6.62, and percent dry matter disappearance after 48-hour incubation were 70.55±1.70,
62.30±2.21, 64.86±2.36, 67.52±1.72, 66.92±1.40, 63.93±1.68, 64.92±1.81 and 66.02±1.65 in groups
T-1 to T-8 respectively. It was evident from the results that activated charcoal at 2 percent level in
diet provided better rumen environment for the utilization of feeds contaminated with
organophosphorus pesticides.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 99

6. Micronutrients and fertility, immunity interactions

161 Effect of different calcium sources on quantity and quality of milk, nutrient utilization and
serum mineral profile in crossbred cows - Deepak Kumar Dubey, S.D. Sharma, and P.V. Raman
Rao, Department of Animal Nutritioin, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar-263 145 (U.P.)
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different calcium sources on
quantity and quality of milk and blood serum mineral profile in crossbred cows. There were seven
treatments and 3 replications in each treatment. In all the 7 treatment groups control diet was fed
but different calcium sources were fed. In T7, no calcium source was supplemented. The values of
milk production and milk fat in different treatment groups did not differ significantly among
themselves up to the end of experimental period. After 120 days from beginning, the value of
serum calcium level were significantly higher in T1, T2, T3 and T6 than in T4. The values of serum
phosphorus level in group T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 did not differ significantly among
themselves up to end of experimental period. The values of digestibility coefficients of dry matter,
organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose
did not differ significantly among the 7 treatment groups. The values of dry matter intake, organic
matter intake, crude protein intake and gross energy intake did not differ significantly among the
7 treatments.

162 Effect of supplementing chelated minerals on blood mineral profile and immune response in
growing kids - Khong Van Dinh and Aruna Chhabra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National
Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

To study the effect of chelated minerals supplementation, a growth experiment of 105


days duration was conducted on 24 goat kids (Alpine x Beetal) of similar age and body weight
(12.90 Kg) divided into 4 groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 of 6 animals in each group. Animals in group 1 were
not given trace elements Cu, Mn and Zn, whereas groups 2, 3 and 4 were supplemented with
12ppm of Cu, 60ppm of Mn and 70ppm of Zn in the form of inorganic salts (CuSO4, MnCl2, ZnSO4),
organic (imported) and organic (prepared) chelated minerals respectively. It was found that supple-
mentation of minerals had no significant effects on blood mineral profile of Ca, P, Mn and Zn.
Meanwhile, the level of Cu in blood of group 1 deceased sharply from 82.66±2.03 to 29.68±11.41
µg/100ml (P<0.001) and Cu level in other groups remained unaffected. The immune response was
increased by 28.51 % (2.35±0.40 to 3.02±0.11) and 30.08% (2.46±0.24 to 3.20±0.20) in groups 3 and
4 respectively while in the group 1, it was decreased by 29.20% (2.74±0.38 to 1.94±0.14) and in
group 2, this parameter remained almost unchanged (2.57±0.21 to 2.55±0.17). It was concluded
that the supplementation of chelated minerals has beneficial effects on immune response in goat kids.
100 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

163 Micro and macro nutrient utilization and milk production in dairy cows fed finger millet and
paddy straw as major source of dry roughage - N.K.S. Gowda, C.S. Prasad and L.B. Ashok,
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore 560 030

Nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, milk yield, milk composition and plasma mineral
profile were studied in crossbred dairy cows during the late stage of lactation fed either finger
millet (ragi) (Group I) or paddy straw (Group II) as a source of dry roughage. The cows in both the
groups were fed as per requirement with concentrate, green fodder (para grass) and straw in the
ratio of 30:45:25 parts (DM). The animals in both the groups were provided 1 per cent commercial
mineral mixture in the concentrate. After a preliminary feeding of 50 days a digestibility trial was
conducted for 7 days and samples of feed, fodder, dung, urine and milk were analysed for macro
and micro nutrient content. Nutrient analysis has shown that ragi straw contained more CP, Ca, P,
Mg, Cu, Zn and Co than paddy straw. However, paddy straw contained higher ADF, ash and
silica. The oxalate content of paddy straw (0.32%) was more than that of ragi straw (0.12%) and
green fodder (0.07%). The intake of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and most of the micronutrients (Ca, P,
Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co) was significantly higher in cows fed ragi straw. The digestibility of DM
(50.3 & 43.9%), CP (72.8 & 67.5%), NDF (39.8 & 24.7%) and AD F (23.6 & 14.1%) was significantly
higher in cows fed ragi straw. The gut absorption of Ca (26.0 & 15.4%), Cu (71.2 & 63.1%), Mn
(28.7 & 13.5%) and Co (59.8 & 31.2%) was significantly higher in the ragi straw fed group. The net
retention (Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn) and retention as percentage of total intake (Ca, Mn) was better in
cows consuming ragi straw as a roughage source. The requirement of all the micronutrients in
both the group of cows could be met irrespective of the type of roughage fed except that of Ca,
which was low (0.40%) in paddy straw fed cows. This suggests that additional Ca supplementation
is required in paddy straw feeding system. The average dairy milk yield was also non-
significantly higher (7.0 lit/cow/day) in cows fed ragi straw as compared to cows fed paddy straw
(6.3 lit/cow/day). The average milk composition (SNF, protein, ash) also did not differ except that
of milk fat which was significantly (4.7 & 4.5%) low in cows fed paddy straw. The blood plasma
values did not differ significantly between the groups. The overall results of this study has
indicated that ragi straw is a better source of dry fodder than paddy straw in terms of micro and
macro nutrient composition and their utilization.

164 Metabolic profile and performance of lactating cows with salt deficiency followihg repletion -
A.K. Pattanaik, M.K. Joshi, S.A. Khan and S. Mehmood1, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal
Nutrition, Indian veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122

A herd of crossbred lactating cows showing symptoms of licking the walls were
investigated. The cause was narrowed down to a possible deficiency of sodium chloride in their
diet. To confirm this, ten representative cows were selected from the herd for an exploratory
study. The multiparous cows, with an average live weight of 390 kg, were in their 4-6 months of
1
Livestock Production Research (Cattle & Buffalo)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 101

lactation. The experimental protocol was to compare the changes in their metabolic, nutritional
and production parameters before and following a period of replenishment of dietary sodium
chloride. Accordingly, blood was collected for assessing their metabolic profile. The daily feed
and water intake of the cows were recorded along with milk yield and,composition for a period of
five days after which the cows were switched over to a concentrate supplement containing 1.5%
common salt. Following three weeks of experimental feeding, all the experimental procedures were
repeated for another five days, fol1owed at the end by blood studies. The results revealed that
the mean intake of roughages showed an increase (P<0.05) with a concurrent significant decrease
in water intake. An increase was also recorded in mean daily milk yield following salt
supplementation. No differences was however apparent in fat, protein, lactose, total ash, sodium
and potassium contents of milk; calcium and phosphorus content of milk, on the other hand
increased (P<0.05) following salt supplementation. Comparison of mettabolic profile between the
pre- and postsupplementation period revealed similar serum concentrations of glucose, total
protein, albumin, globulin and their ratio while that of urea and alkaline phosphatase increased
(P<0.05) coupled with a significant increase in haemoglobin and packed cell Section volume. No
changes was evident with respect to the serum osmolality and its content of macro-minerals viz.
sodium, potassium and calcium but serum inorganic phosphorus level showed a significant
(P<0.05) increase following the replenishment period. It is concluded that deficiency of sodium
chloride in diet can alter the productive and metabolic parameters of milch cows.

165 Effect of feeding zinc sulfate treated soyabean meal on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance
in crossbred cattle - R.S. Dass, A.K. Garg, R.K. Tiwari, and G.P. Mandal, Centre of Advanced
Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

An experiment was conducted on 12 crossbred cattle bulls of 364.48 kg mean body


weight to study the effect of feeding zinc sulfate treated soyabean meal on nutrient utilization and
nitrogen balance. Animals were divided into three groups of four animals in each in a randomized
block design and fed on wheat straw and concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirement
as per Kearl (1982). Concentrate mixture contained wheat bran (55 parts), maize (20 parts), soyabean
meal (22 parts), mineral mixture (2 parts) and salt (1 part). Concentrate mixture offered to the
animals in group II and III was having soyabean meal treated with 1 and 2 percent zinc sulphate,
respectively. The experimental feeding lasted for 40 days, followed by a 6 days metabolism trial.
Results revealed no significant difference in the DM intake as well as digestible dry matter (DDM)
intake (Kg/day, of kg/100kg B.W., g/kg W0.75) in three groups. Daily intake (kg/d) of organic
matter (OM) and digestible organic matter (DOM) was also similar in three groups, but when the
intake was calculated as g/KgW0.75, it was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group III as compared
to group I, but there ware no significant (P<0.05) differences between group I and group II; and
between group II and group III. The digestibility of all the nutrients was alike statistically in the
102 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

three groups except for crude protein (CP), which was significantly higher in group III (67.46 per
cent), as compared to group I (60.8 per cent) and group II (61.25 per cent). Intake of nitrogen and
its excretion through feces and urine was comparable in the three groups but nitrogen balance (g/
day) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group III as compared to other two groups. There was no
effect of treatment on calcium and phosphorus intake, their excretion and balance. These results
indicate that treatment of soyabean meal with 2 per cent zinc sulfate may be used as a mean of
protection of good quality protein from rumen degradation.

166 Growth and nutrient utilization in crossbred calves as affected by zinc supplementation from
inorganic and organic sources - G.P. Mandal, R.S. Dass and A.K. Garg, Centre of Advanced
Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

An experiment was conducted on twenty crossbred calves (avg. body wt. 226.2±8.77
kg) of about 14 months of age, randomly divided into four equal groups to ascertain the effect of
zinc supplementation on their growth and nutrient utilization. All the experimental calves were fed
on basal diet having 33ppm zinc and consisted of concentrate mixture (maize 30 parts, soybean
meal 27 parts, wheat bran 40 parts, mineral mixture, 2 parts and common salt 1 part) and wheat
straw. Calves in group I, II and III were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm zinc as zinc sulfate,
while calves in group IV were supplemented with 35ppm zinc as zinc propionate. Experimental
feeding cum growth trial was conducted for 180 days. During this period fortnightly body weights
were recorded to assess their growth rate. A metabolism trial was conducted after 120 days
feeding to know the digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance. Results revealed that average
daily gain was similar (P>0.05) at 500.8, 483.4, 503.4 and 527.8g/d in group I, II, III and IV,
respectively. Though, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and hemicellulose was highest in
group III and lowest in group IV (except for hemicellulose, which was lowest in group II),
digestibility of EE, ADF and cellulose was similar (P>0.05) in the four groups, with the result the
daily DM, DCP and TDN intakes (g/kg W0.75) were similar (P>0.05) in the four groups, at 83.67,
84.22, 84.94, 89.01; 7.56, 7.42, 8.27, 7.33; 54.06, 53.42, 57.88, 56.03 in G-I, G-II, G-III and G-IV,
respectively. Nitrogen intake and nitrogen balance also did not show any significant difference
among the four treatments. Therefore, these results indicated that basal diet containing 33ppm
zinc was sufficient so far as growth rate and nutrient utilization in crossbred calves is concerned.

167 Studies on mineral status of different categories of anoestrus cattle in the red laterite zone of
West Bengal - P. Biswas and Amit Kumar Patra, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal
University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, 37, K.B. Sarani, Kolkata - 700 037 (West Bengal)

A survey work was undertaken to evaluate the mineral status of different categories of
anoestrus cattle and normal cyclic cows in Bankura District under the Red Laterite Zone of West
Bengal. A total of 102 nos. non-descript cows were randomly selected out of which 22 animals
were normal cyclic and 80 were anoestrus cows. Anoestrus cows consisted of 38 heifer (3 to 5
years), 16 dry cows and 26 lactating cows (Post Partum anoestrus). Hb, Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 103

in normal cyclic cows were found to be 10.57±0.136, 11.66±0.155, 4.64±0.028, 4.56±0.113, 0.80±0.026,
1.19±0.024 and 0.24±0.015 respectively. All the values were within the normal limit. Hb, Ca, P, Fe,
Cu, Zn, and Mn in anoestrus heifer were found to be 10.21±0.122, 11.42±0.194, 3.81±0.043,
3.74±0.110, 0.46±0.021, 1.16±0.022 and 0.10±0.010 respectively. Hb, Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn in
dry cows were found to be 10.25±0.129, 11.21±0.325, 4.07±0.056, 4.00±0.117, 0.47±0.032, 1.12±0.023
and 0.11±0.010 respectively. Hb, Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn in post-partum anoestrus cows were
found to be 9.75±0.104, 10.38±0.219, 3.66±0.077, 4.33±0.107, 0.36±0.026, 1.06±0.034 and 0.11±0.009
respectively. All the values were significantly higher in normal cyclic cows. P, Cu and Mn. content
in all categories of anoestrus animals were found below the minimum critical level.

168 Effects of selenium supplementation on clinical chemistry, thyroid hormones and antioxidant
status of fluorosed calves - M.K. Joshi, A.K. Pattanaik and A. Sahoo1, Centre of Advanced Studies in
Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122

Twenty crossbred calves of 18 months of age were used in the present study in order to
ascertain the efficacy of dietary selenium (Se) in ameliorating fluorosis. Group I (n=5) with no
fluoride (F) and no Se served as control. The rest (n=15), having prior exposure to 200 ppm dietary
F during the previous year and showing signs of fluorosis, were distributed into 3 equal groups,
and either given no F but 0.5 ppm Se (T1), 200 ppm F and 0.5 ppm Se (T2), and 200 ppm F but no
Se (T3). The calves were fed on a standard concentrate mixture, supplemented to a basal feed of
wheat straw. Blood was collected initially and thereafter at 40 days intervals, and analyzed for
various haematological, biochemical and antioxidant indices besides thyroid hormones : Results
revealed that the mean values of haemoglobin, packed-cell volume and differential leukocyte
count did not show significant variation due to treatments. Likewise, calves under different
treatments exhibited similar concentrations of serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin,
urea, cholesterol, calcium and inorganic phosphorus so also aspartate aminotransferase. Serum
activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, on the other hand, were higher
(P<0.01) in T3 compared to control and T1 while being comparable to T2. Serum fluoride
concentration was higher (P<0.01) in T2 and T3 compared to other two groups. Serum levels of
both the thyroid hormones viz. triiodothyronine and thyroxine varied significantly (P<0.05) due
to dietary interventions, indicating improved thyroid status because of Se supplementation. As
regards the antioxidant indices, while no effect of dietary treatments was apparent on the
erythrocytic reduced glutathione (P>0.05), that of catalase and lipid peroxidation were signifi-
cantly (P<0.5) higher in T3 compared to T1 andT2 which in turn was higher than control. The
activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly (P<0.05) lowered in T3 compared to control
with the values for T1 and T2 being comparable to both. It is concluded that exposure to high
dietary fluoride creates a situation of oxidative stress in calves, and Se supplementation appeared
to be a promising ameliorative agent to resist it. However further studies are warranted to prove
it conclusively.
• Oral presentation, 1 IVRI Regional Station, Palampur
104 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

169 Effect of dietary protein on growth performance of crossbred calves exposed to high fluoride
diet - J. Lohakare A.K. Pattanaik and S.A. Khan, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122

Effects dietary protein levels on the performance of crossbred calves exposed to high
fluoride diets were investigated. Accordingly, 30 crossbred calves (6-8 months) were
distributed randomly into a 2x3 factorial arrangement involving two levels of dietary fluorine (F;
0 and 200 ppm), and three levels of dietary protein (CP; 100, 75 and 125% of Kearl, 1982). All the
calves were fed on a standard diet consisting of concentrate mixture and ad libitum wheat straw.
There was daily recording of dry matter intake as well as fortnightly monitoring of live weight
changes. A metabolism trial was conducted towards the end of the 210 days of experimental
feeding. The results revealed that the mean digestibility of all organic nutrients, with the
exception of ether extract, was significantly (P<0.01) higher upon F supplementation
concomitant to an increased intake. The dietary CP levels also significantly influenced the CP
digestibility as well as nitrogen balance. The mean daily nitrogen retention was significantly
(P<0.01) reduced due to F supplementation chiefly because of reduced intake. High F in the diet
also affected (P<0.05) the calcium and phosphorus balance. The plane of nutrition during the
metabolism trial revealed the mean intake (per kg W0.75) of DM (92.24±1.96 vs. 66.46±2.40g), CP
(10.74±0.60 vs. 9.69±0.56g) and ME (188.89±3.37 vs. 144.20±4.78 kcal) were affected (P<0.05) due
to F inclusion. The average daily gain of the calves was significanrly (P<0.05) influenced by both
dietary CP as well as F levels, being lower on low protein (319.3±50.41 vs. 400.0±26.99 and
407.4±34.54g) and high F (289.1±27.92 vs. 462.1±17.07g), respectively. Similar was the case in
terms of feed conversion efficiency; it was lower (P<0.05) upon low CP and high F feeding.
Moreover, a significant interaction between F and CP indicated a lower (P<0.05) feed efficiency
when F was added to low CP diet. Overall, it is concluded that while feeding of high CP did not
exert appreciable protective effects, provision of low CP diet aggravated the performance-
reducing effects of high fluoride diet.

170 Excretion pattern of Arsenic in growing crossbred calves - C.S. Mishra, Veena Mani and Harjit
Kaur, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Ten Karan Fries calves of about 4-5 months of age were distributed in two equal groups.
The requirements of both the groups of calves were met by feeding concentrate mixture and
green oats, however, the calves in group II were supplemented with 50 ppm As in the form of
arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The calculated amount of As2O3 was mixed in small quantity of
concentrate mixture which was offered to the animals separately in plastic troughs and after
consumption of that quantity, rest of the concentrate mixture was offered. After two and a half
months of feeding on this diet, a metabolic trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 105

excretion pattern of As. Samples of feed, fodder, water, faeces and urine were analyzed for As.
Blood samples from these calves were analysed for As at the start and end of the experiment. The
concentrate mixture, green oats and water contained 1.20, 0.71 and 0.03 ppm As respectively.
Daily arsenic intake averaged 4±0.09 and 93±9.01mg resulting in faecal and urinary excretion as
1.69±0.04, 1.69±0.14 and 0.93±0.12 and 1.11±0.19 mg in the two groups, respectively. The results
obtained from the metabolic trial revealed 34.17% and 97.00% retention of As in groups I and II
respectively. Blood As concentration was 156.22±2.89 and 112.80±20.89 ppb at the onset of
experiment in the respective two groups. The blood As level remained same in group I till the end
of the experiment, but increased significantly in As supplemented group II (211.14±15.39 ppb)
after 60 days of arsenic supplementation. The data suggested accumulating nature of arsenic in
the animal body.

171 Effect of feeding green sugarcane tops with various sources of calcium and phosphorus on their
bio-avallabillty in Red-Kandharl calves - V.H. Kalbande, S.M. Wankhede, and R.B. Jagtap,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,MAFSU, Parbhani
(Maharashtra)

Twenty-four native Red-Kandhari calves of 15.84±0.23 months age and 92.64±0.95 kg


body weight were randomly distributed into four equal groups, control group and experimental
groups T1, T2 and T3 with 1:1 male to female ratio with six calves in each. The calves in control
group C were fed’ ad-libitum green sugarcane tops as a sole source of roughage without any
mineral supplementation while those in experimental groups T 1, T 2 and T 3 were fed
ad-libitum green sugarcane tops alongwith calcium carbonate plus diphosphorus pentaoxide,
diacalcium phosphate and mineral mixture, respectively. All the calves were provided fresh
drinking water ad-libitum throughout experimental period (120 days). The dry matter intake (kg
day) and dry matter intake kg per 100 kg body weight were higher (P<0.05) in experimental groups
T2 ( 4.15 and 3.26) fed with dicalcium phosphate as compared to those in groups T1 (3.85 and 2.96)
and T3 (3.71 and 2.96) fed calcium carbonate plus diphosphorus pentaoxide, and mineral mixture,
respectively than in control group. (3.50 and 2.96) which did not receive any mineral supplement.
However DMI g per kg metabolic body weight (W075 kg) was remained similar in all the groups,
the values being 82.73 for control and 77.28, 86.39 and 77.69 for experimental groups T1, T2 and T3
respectively. The calves in experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 gained significantly (P<0.01) higher
total body weight (kg) and daily gain in body weight (g), the values being 38.2, 32.63, 34.31 and
318.00, 271.00 and 285.00, respectively, the corresponding values for control group were 25.55
and 213.00. Serum calcium level (mg/100 ml) at ‘0’day and average from 1st to 15th week in control
group and experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 were similar. The values being 9.17, 9.17; 8.65, 9.98;
8.39, 10.33 and 9.04, 10.34, respectively. However the phosphorus content of serum (mg/100 ml)at
‘0’ day was similar in all the groups but average serum phosphorus level (mg/100 ml) from 1st to 15th
week was higher ( P<0.O5) in experimental calves T2 (3.91, 6.09) as mineral source as compared to
in groups T1 (3.85,5.19), T3 (3.07, 5.22) and control group C (4.94, 4.94). Calcium retention (g
106 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

day) in experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher as compared to group.
Per cent bio-availability of calcium from dicalcium phosphate in group T2 (45.29) was higher
(P<0.01) than T1(33.73) fed calcium carbonate which was higher (P<0.01) than mineral mixture fed
group T3 (22.95). Retention of phosphorus (g/day) in groups T 1, T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.01) as
compared to group. The values being 4.66,7.18,5.19 and 2.92 in the four groups respectively and
for control groups C 2.92. Per cent bio-availability of phosphorus in group T 2 (40.84) was signifi-
cantly higher (P<0.01) than T1 (21.56) and T3 (24.25). Overall results clearly indicated that when
green sugarcane tops fed to the ruminants as a sole source of roughage, dicalclum phosphate (50
g/day/head) should be supplemented to meet the daily requirement of calcium and phosphorus
of ruminants, otherwise ruminants.

172 Effect of dietary sulphur on nutrients digestibilitiy, microbial and metabolic profiles in
buffaloes - B.S.Tewatia, S.S. Khirwar and Shiv Kumar, Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS
HAU, Hisar (Haryana)

Four adult male fistulated buffaloes were offered four levels of dietary sulphur to study
its effects on nutrient digestibility, microbial and metabolic profiles in a 4 x 4 switch over
experiment. The animals were offered chaffed pearl millet (Pennesitum typhoides) stover and
concentrate mixture (70:30). Concentrate mixture contained mustard cake 25, crushed maize grain
37, wheat bran 37 and salt 1 %. The T1 group ration contained 0.14 % sulphur on DM basis. The
level of dietary sulphur was increased to 0.16 %, 0.20% and 0.24% by supplementing appropriate
quantities of sodium sulphate under treatments (T2), (T3) and (T4), respectively. Rumen liquor
samples for estimation of metabolites were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours post-feeding while
samples collected at 0 and 4 hours were used for microbial counts. The daily DM intake (kg/100
kg body weight) was 1.63 (T1), 1.62 (T2),.1.66 (T3) and 1.68 (T4). DM digestibility was 62.55, 62.27,
61.08 and 62.08 %, respectively. The differences observed in daily DM intake and DM digestibil-
ity were statistically non-significant. Digestibility of fibrous constituents of ration increased with
higher levels of dietary sulphur in the ration.. TVFA concentration increased up to 6 hour
post-feeding in T1 while the concentration increased up to 8 hour post-feeding under T2, T3 and
T4, which indicated that sulphur addition hampered TVFA production. The total-N content of
rumen liquor at 0 hour was lowest under T3 followed by T2, T4 and T1. The trend remained same at
all the post feeding intervals. Average total-N (mg/100 ml) of rumen liquor was lowest in T3 (69.4)
followed by T2 (72.9), T4 (73.8) and T1 (74.9). Ammonia-N (mg/100 ml) of rumen liquor at 0 hour was
lowest under T2 (14.2) followed by T3 (16.1), T1 (17.1) and T4 (17.5). Total protozoal counts (x 105/
ml) at 4 hr. post-feeding were 2.03, 2.64, 2.68 and 3.06 in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Total
bacterial (x 109/ml) and cellulolytic bacterial counts (x 107/ml) at 4 hr. post-feeding were 3.6,15.0;
4.6, 24.0; 4.8, 24.0 and 6.8, 46.0 in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Total fungal units (x 104/ml) also
increased with higher levels of dietary sulphur. Results of this study indicate that higher levels of
dietary sulphur up to 0.24 % of total dry matter augmented rumen microbial population and
subsequently the digestibility of fibrous constituents of the ration.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 107

173 Mineral status of soil, feed and fodders and its influence on animals and its products in red
laterite zone of West Bengal - M. Mondal, S.K. Pyne and G. Samanta, Palli Siksha Bhaban,
Visva Bharati, West Bengal

A detailed survey was conducted in the red laterite zone of West Bengal covering four
districts namely West Midnapur, Bankura, Birbhum and Purulia to study the mineral status of soil,
feed and fodders, animals and in their products. The soil of this region indicated that it was
adequate in calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn). However,
zinc (Zn) deficiency (0.4ppm) was found to be wide spread throughout this region. The mineral
status in different feed ingredients showed that Ca,0.10-2.42%; P, 0.18-1.8%; Cu, 6.57-56.10ppm;
Zn, 11.77-59.59ppm; Mn, 22.29-393.26ppm; and Fe, 157.56-698.10ppm, respectively. The average
mineral content in different cultivated fodders were Ca, 0.28-3.69%; P, 0.12-0.37; Cu,4.50-16.88ppm
; Zn,12.15-46.33 ppm; Mn,24.03-126.88 ppm and Fe, 143.46-901.95ppm . From the findings it was
indicated that cultivated fodder, dry roughages and tree leaves were deficient in phosphorus and
zinc, however, marginal deficiency of copper was obtained. The haemoglobin values in different
categories of cattle varied from 9.08-13.78% . Plasma mineral levels in cattle showed that it
contains Ca, 8.37-11.71% ; P, 3.22-5.13%; Cu, 0.48-2.86ppm; Zn, 0.50-1.76ppm; Mn, 0.28-1.32ppm
and Fe, 1.53-5.99ppm, respectively. The haemoglobin percentage in various categories of buffa-
loes ranged from 9.63-15.95% .The level of plasma minerals were Ca, 8.36-11.49 %; P, 3.20-5.42% ;
Zn, 0.51-1.54ppm ; Cu, 0.62-1.73ppm ;Mn; 0.37-1.28ppm and Fe, 2.29-6.02ppm, respectively. The
haemoglobin values of goats varied from 9.76-12.94% and the different plasma minerals like Ca,
9.02-11.04%; P, 4.22-5.31%; Cu, 0.74-1.18ppm ; Zn, 0.67-1.46ppm; Mn,0.43-1.55ppm and Fe, 2.85-
5.19ppm, respectively. Milk samples from cows indicated that the level of Ca. 112.85-123.17%; P,
88.66-108.18 %; Cu, 0.12-0.53ppm ; Zn, 2.76-3.99ppm ; Mn, 1.23-2.58 ppm and Fe, 2.28-4.18ppm,
respectively. From the observation it was inferred that the plasma of cattle, buffalo, sheep and
goat were deficient in phosphorus. A very few cattle and buffaloes were also deficient in copper
and zinc. A marginal deficiency was observed in the plasma of goats. In the m ilk samples of cows
and buffaloes phosphorus and zinc were below the normal level. Major milk constituents like, fat,
SNF and total solid were also followed the same trend. From the above findings it may be inferred
that Zn defiency in soil was reflected in the feed and fodders. The poor level of P, Zn and Cu also
influenced the plasma of cow, buffalo, sheep and goat and they were also deficient in those
animals and ultimately milk from them had the low levels of P, Zn and Cu content.

174 Effect of supplementary selenium on endogenous faecal excretion and true absorption of
selenium in cattle and buffaloes fed on paddy straw based diets - Chander Datt1 and Aruna
Chhabra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001
(Haryana)

The apparent absorption of any mineral under estimates the extent to which element is
absorbed and also does not differentiate between the contributions made from unabsorbed
1
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre,Lembucherra-799210, Tripura (W)
108 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

mineral and the mineral of endogenous origin to the net faecal excretion. With this view
endogenous faecal excretion of selenium (Se) was estimated in cattle and buffaloes given low and
high Se diets in order to arrive at true absorption values of this element. For this, 10 male calves
each of crossbred cattle (Karan Fries) and Murrah buffaloes were randomly distributed into 2
groups of 5 animals each in a two way randomized block design. The animals in group 1 (T1) were
fed on basal ration (dietary Se =0.487 ppm) consisting of paddy straw and concentrate mixture in
order to meet their requirements. The animals in group II (T2) were supplemented with 2.7 ppm of
Se in form of sodium selenite over and above the basal ration. The animals in both groups were
also given green maize fodder so as to meet their Beta carotene requirement. After 60 days of
experimental feeding a metabolism trial of 7 days was conducted concurrent with in radio tracer
technique using 75Se (Sodium seleno sulphate, BARC, Mumbai) as tracer administered via jugular
vein. The accumulated total excretion of 75Se ( per cent of injected dose) during 8 day collection
was significantly (P<0.01) higher in T2 as compared to T1 in both the species. The apparent
absorption was found to be 38.30 and 15.61 per cent in cattle, 39.67 and 22.42 per cent in buffaloes
in T1 and T2, respectively. Endogenous faecal excretion of Se (Vf ;mg/d) was significantly(P<0.0)
higher inT2 than T1 in both the species. The contribution of Vf to total faecal excretion of Se
averaged 22.13±0.61 and 5.10±0.23 in T1 and T2 , respectively in cattle. The corresponding values
were 13.49±0.22 and 6.32±0.19 per cent in buffalo. True absorption of Se was 51.93±1.23 and
19.91±0.83 per cent of intake inT1 and T2, respectively in cattle. The corresponding values in
buffaloes were 53.16±1.15 and 28.74±1.70 per cent. Apparent absorption, endogenous faecal
excretion and true absorption values were significantly higher (P<0.01) in buffaloes than in cattle.
Supplementary Se in excess of requirement though increased endogenous faecal excretion (mg/
d) but its effect on total daily faecal Se per se was far more than on endogenous faecal Se which
was reflected in lower contributions of endogenous faecal Se to total faecal Se excretion in T2.
Results also indicated that absorption underestimated the extent to which Se was truly absorbed.

175 Mineral status of feeds and fodders and buffaloes of Jhajjar district of Haryana - V. Kapoor, K.K.
Yadav, P.S. Yadav and M.A. Akbar, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal
Sciences, CCS HAU, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

An extensive survey was conducted in Jhajjar district of Haryana to assess the mineral
status of buffaloes. Sufficient number of samples of feeds, fodders and of biological
materials viz. blood, hair and milk of different categories of buffaloes were collected from eight
different sites to represent whole of the district. The samples were analyzed for Ca, P, Zn, Cu, Mn
and Fe content and the values were compared with the requirements (feeds and fodders) and
with the standard normal values (biological samples). The results indicated deficiency (% of
samples analyzed) of Zn (93%), Cu (91%) and Mn (85%) in the commonly fed dry fodders viz.
wheat straw, Jowar kadbi and bajra kadbi. Deficiency was also recorded in green berseem (Zn
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 109

91%, Cu 68%), oat (Zn 86%, Cu 57% and Mn 70%) and sugar cane tops (Zn 100%, Cu 100% and
Mn 75%). Wheat Dalia offered by majority of the farmers was found to be deficient in Zn (73%)
and Mn (63%) content. About 30% samples of cottonseed, mustard cake and guar seed and 50%
samples of pelleted feeds and methi were also deficient in Cu and Zn, respectively. However, Ca
and P in all the feeds and fodders were within the normal range. The profile of minerals in blood
serum indicated deficiency of Ca and P in 40 and 33% of overall buffalo population, respectively
while Cu and Fe were within the normal range. Deficiency of Zn and Mn, as based on hair Zn
status, was recorded in 61 and 12% of population, respectively. The values of various minerals in
milk were, however, within the normal reported range. It may thus be inferred from the study that
there is a need of supplementation of Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the diet of buffaloes of Jhajjar district.

176 Feeding pattern and mineral status of buffaloes in Fatehabad district of Haryana - P.S. Yadav,
K.K. Yadav, and A.B. Mandal1, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Sciences,
CCS.H.A.U. Hisar-125004 (Haryana)

A survey was conducted during rabi season (December-January) to study the feeding
pattern and mineral status of buffaloes in Fatehabad district of Haryana state. Accordingly, the
data related to feeds and feeding, milk production etc. and sufficient number of samples of blood,
hair and milk of buffaloes and feeds and fodders offered to them were collected
from eight sites representing the whole district. The samples were analyzed for Ca, P, Zn, Cu, Mn
and Fe contents. Wheat straw was the main dry roughage and berseem was the major green
fodder available which was fed liberally to milch buffaloes. However, some farmers were also
using oat and grasses along with some locally available weeds as green supplement to their
buffaloes. Among the concentrates, cotton seed, cotton seed cake, mustard cake, bajra grain and
gram churi were the most popular ones and were being over fed in terms of DCP and TDN as the
sole concentrates. Some farmers were feeding wheat bran, feed pallets and also methi grains to
their buffaloes. Use of common salt and mineral mixture as supplement was not a common
practice among farmers. The Ca and P contents in feeds and fodders were within the normal
range. On comparison of mean values of trace mineral concentrations with their corresponding
requirements, the wheat straw, available green fodders and all the ingredients of the concentrate
mixture were found to be deficient in Zn. In addition, wheat straw was found to contain lesser
amount of Cu and Mn than the required level of 10 and 40ppm, respectively. The mean values of
various minerals in serum of buffaloes were, Ca (mg/dl) 8.32±0.20, P (mg/dl) 4.20±0.11, Zn (ppm)
2.61±0.22, Cu (ppm) 0.63±0.06, Mn (ppm) 0.10±0.01 and Fe (ppm) 2.47±0.26. The critical analysis of
serum and hair mineral status indicated a deficiency of Ca, P, Cu and Zn in 42, 25, 43, and 34% of
buffalo population, respectively. Hence, there is a need of supplementation of Ca, P, Zn and Cu
in the diet of milch buffaloes of this district.
1
Animal nutrition and feed technology, CARl, Izatnagar
110 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

177 Mineral status of common kharif and rabi fodder crops at different stages of maturity -
K.K. Yadav, P.S. Yadav, M.A. Akbar, and V. Kapoor, Department of Animal Nutrition,College of
Animal Sciences, CCS.H.A.U. Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment was conducted to know the mineral content of different varieties of


forages grown during kharif and rabi seasons at two/three stages of maturity. Samples of different
varieties of kharif season viz. bajra (12), cowpea ((1), guar (2), makchari (1), napier grass (1),
sorghum single cut (6), sorghum multi cut (1) and of rabi season viz. berseem (3), oat (4), lucerne
(1), chinese cabbage (1) were collected and analyzed for their Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe contents.
The concentration of Ca in leguminous fodders like cowpea (1.04 -1.76%), guar (1.40-1.77%),
berseem (1.10-1.70%) and lucerne (1.50-1.70%) was higher than in non leguminous fodders such
as bajra (0.16-0.48%), makchari (0.37-0.70%), napier grass (0.26-0.43%), sorghum (0.26-0.67%), oat
(0.57-0.70%) and chinese cabbage (0.32-0.40%). The P content was higher in non-leguminous
(bajra:0.22-0.32%, sorghum:0.13-0.28%, oat 0.20-0.31% and chinese cabbage:0.30-0.37%) than in
most of the leguminous fodders (guar:0.14-0.24, berseem:0.13-0.22% and lucerne:0.16-0.17%) of
both seasons. The concentration of Ca in bajra and napier grass declined and that of makchari
increased with advancing maturity and all varieties of sorghum exhibited higher Ca content at 2nd
stage of maturity. Generally, a decline in trace mineral concentration was observed w.r.t. Cu, Zn
and Mn in kharif fodders. While Mn content was higher, the content of Cu and Zn was much
below the recommended level. In rabi fodders, besides Ca and P, a declining trend in trace mineral
concentration was observed as the plants matured; the values in berseem were, however, above
the required level. None of the varieties of oat fodder contained the required amount of Cu
(10ppm) and Zn (40ppm) except OS-7 which though deficient in Zn contained 10ppm Cu. Thus it
may be concluded from the study that almost all the fodders grown in kharif season and oat
fodder of rabi season were deficient in Cu and Zn.

178 Trace element Concentration in some locally available tree fodder of Sikkim - A. Chatterjee,
D. De1, I.U. Sheikh and M. Requib, National Research Center on Yak (ICAR), Dirang-790 101
Arunachal Pradesh

The samples of twenty one locally available tree fodder were collected from different
parts of Sikkim. These tree fodder are commonly used for feeding of cattle, goat and sheep. The
samples were dried and processed as per standard procedure for trace element analysis. The
concentration of five important trace elements namely Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Cobalt
were analysed through atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer A-100). The copper
concentration (mg/kg DM) varied from 12.8 in Kabra ( Ficus infectoria) to 232.6 in Gayo (Bridelia
retusa). The Zinc concentration (mg/kg DM) ranged from 19.70 in Kabra (Ficus infectoria) to
* Scientist, ICAR- RC - NEH (Sikkim center) , Tadong, Sikkim.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 111

12.8 in Chiple (Reevesia pubescens). The Manganese concentration varied widely from sample to
sample - the range being much wider. The lowest manganese concentration (mg/kg DM) was
once again in Kabra or Ficus infectoria (31.0) closely followed by Rubber or Ficus elastica (32.2).
The highest Manganese concentration (mg/kg DM) was obtained in Jhingani (Eurya japonica)
- the value being 758.0. The Iron concentration (mg/kg DM) ranged from 39.8 in Lali (Ampora
wallichi) to 901.0 in Khasre (Ficus hirta). The cobalt was nondetectable in six samples out of
twenty one. The highest Cobalt concentration was in Chiple (Reevesia pubescens) - the value
being only 6.6 mg/kg DM. The mean concentration ( mg/kg DM) of different trace elements in tree
fodder analysed in this study were 58.83±10.64, 39.13±3.47, 227.9±47.0, 396.8±46.7 and 3.06±0.56
respectively, for Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Cobalt.

179 Trace element concentration in some tree fodder commonly fed to Yaks in Arunachal Pradesh
A. Chatterjee, A. Basu, M. Sarkar and M. Bhattacharya, National Research Center on Yak
(ICAR) Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh- 790 101

Blemkar (Buddlija asiatica), Domkar (Symplocus racemosa), Salyx (Salyx humboldtiana), Syluli
(Acer campbellp), Maar (Costanopsis spp), Zimbu (Lingustrum myrsinitis), Karsingh (Acer
hookeri ), Bagar (Berberis spp), Phrengpa ( Quercus walliasehiana) and Bamlakpa (Embelia
spp) are some tree fodder commonly available for feeding of yaks in West kameng district,
Arunachal Pradesh. In the present study efforts have been made to have a comparative data on
trace element status of these tree fodder. The samples were dried and processed as per standard
procedure for trace element analysis. The concentration of five important trace elements namely
Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Cobalt were analysed through atomic absorption
spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer A-100). Highest copper concentration (mg/kg DM) was in Domkar
(18.25), where as in Baggar copper was non detectable. The Zinc concentration (mg/kg DM)
ranged from 6.75 in Blemkar to 43.0 in Baggar. The Manganese concentration varied widely from
sample to sample ranging from 15.45 in Syluli to 301.95 in Maar. Wide range was obtained for Iron
as well. The Iron concentration (mg/kg DM) ranged from 44.35 in Baggar to 647.0 in Domkar. The
cobalt (mg/kg DM) was very low in all the samples ranging from 0.50 in Sylulii to 3.90 in Maar. The
mean concentration ( mg/kg DM) of different trace elements in tree fodder analysed in this study
were 6.61±1.92, 14.95±3.52, 168.38±36.94, 175.08±52 and 1.73±0.38, respectively, for Copper, Zinc,
Manganese, Iron and Cobalt. The result obtained in this study revealed that the tree fodder
analysed here are richer in Manganese and Iron in comparison to Copper, Zinc and Cobalt.

180 Mineral status of tree leaves commonly used as fodder in Tripura - Chander Datt, M.Datta and
A. Baidyasukla, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Lembucherra -799210 Tripura (W)

Twenty species of tree leaves used as fodder in Tripura were analyzed for their major (Ca
and P) and trace (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) minerals in order to assess their mineral status. These
species included Artocarpus heterophyllyus, Erythrina indica, Ficus h ispida, F. religiosa,
Gmelina arborea, Bambusa sp. Grewia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, Leucaena leucocephala,
112 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

Albizzia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium, Moringa oleifera, Zizyphus sp., Morus sp., Bauhinia
Variegata, Cassia siamea, Samanea saman, Shorea robusta, Bombax ceiba and Dalbergia
sissoo. The average (range in parenthesis) content of Ca and P were found to be 1.52±0.13 (0.23-
2.74) and 0.21 (0.07-0.42) per cent (DM basis), respectively. The content of Fe varied from 40.68 to
284.70 ppm with an average value of 140.87±19.19.The Cu concentration averaged 7.70±1.25
ranging from 7.05 to 17.11 ppm. The Zn content was found to range from 6.50 to 244.29 ppm
averaging 60.92±16.78 ppm. The value for Mn concentration was found to be as low as 31.10 ppm
to as high as 952.25 ppm.Generally, the tree leaves possessed a very wide ratio of Ca:P (7.71:1)
compared to the ideal one. While Fe and Mn content seemed to be adequate but Zn concentra-
tion was slightly less than the requirements. Sixty per cent of the tree leaves showed Cu content
below the required level of 10 ppm.

181 Macro element Concentration in some locally available tree fodder of Sikkim - A. Chatterjee,
D. De1 and I.U. Sheikh, National Research Center on Yak (ICAR) Dirang-790 101 (Arunachal
Pradesh)

Twenty one locally available tree fodder were collected from different parts of Sikkim.
These tree fodder are commonly used for feeding of cattle, goat and sheep. The samples were
dried and processed as per standard procedure for macro element analysis. The
concentration of four important macro elements namely Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and
Potassium were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer A-100). The
calcium concentration ranged from 0.16 per cent in Katush (Castonopsis tribuloides) to 0.31
percent in Khasre (Ficus hirta). The Magnesium concentration (g/kg) ranged from 0.372 in
Jhingani (Eurya japonica) to 0.727 in Kamle (Bohmeria macrophylla). The Sodium
concentration ranged from 0.02 percent (in several species) to 0.06 percent in Chiple (Reevesia
pubescens). The potassium concentration was much higher than other elements analysed here in
all the tree fodder species ranging from 0.38 percent in Pipli (Exbucklandia populnea) to 2.51
percent in Rai Khanyum (Ficus benjamina). The mean concentration of Calcium, Magnesium,
Sodium and Potassium in tree fodder analysed in this study were 0.28±0.01 percent, 0.574±0.021
g/kg, 0.029±0.002 percent and 1.54±0.15 percent respectively.

182 Mineral Status of feed and fodder of Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan - G.P. Singh, National
Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner - 334 001 (Rajasthan)

A total of 12 randomly selected villages of Jaisalmer District were surveyed and samples
of feed and fodder were collected for analysis of trace elements. In addition to feed and fodder
samples, information on feeding practices were also collected. Samples were processed and
1
Scientist, ICAR- RC - NEH (Sikkim center), Tadong, Sikkim.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 113

analyzed for Cu, Zn, Co and Mn. It was observed that in 58% villages common salt was used for
camel feeding, however, feeding of mineral mixture is not a practice. Interesting feature during the
survey was that camel population was increased in 25% villages, while, there was decrease in
camel population in 75% villages. In this district camel milk was used as such or as kheer. Most
common feed and fodder were guar chara and phalgati (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus). Sewan
grass (Lasiuxus sindicus), Moog (Phaseolus mungo), and Moth Chara (Phaseolus aconitifolius).
Average copper content in the feed and fodder of Jaisalmer district was 44.02 ppm with range of
6.8 to 67.2 ppm. Similarly zinc content 27.78 ppm with range of 3.72 ppm in sewan to 54.20 ppm in
guar phaligati. Cobalt content of feeds varied from 4.0 ppm in wheat straw to 32.2 ppm in guar with
average of 8.78 ppm. Similarly magnese content was 13.70 ppm. Thus majority of feeds & fodder
of Jaisalmer district were deficient in respect of Cu, Zn, Co and Mn.

183 Copper, manganese and zinc content of feeds and fodders in the Patan district of North Gujrat -
M.R. Chavda, Subhash Parnerkar and H.B. Desai, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University,
Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506

To study the Copper, Manganese and Zinc content of feeds and fodders, a survey was
conducted in five talukas of Patan district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy
cooperative network. Two villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically lo-
cated apart in direction and truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each
village, 10 farmers whose animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected
ensuring that they truly represent animal feeding practices of the village. The Cu, Mn and Zn
content of concentrates jowar (1.33-3.01, 14.00-21.12, 30.61-62.56), wheat (3.30-4.49, 35.55-44.65,
21.89-34.63), Bajra (2.86-4.48, 11.24-24.93, 17.46-59.85), barley (3.87, 49.71, 32.15), guar (13.05-
18.34, 21.57-30.13, 54.68-69.41), cotton seed cake (8.20-11.38, 28.87-41.36, 33.39-62.06), isabgul
gola (3.86-5.50, 13.44-15.95, 18.03-58.06), bajra husk (2.32-6.12, 24.65-34.23, 18.84-24.60), Sagardan-
the balanced compound concentrate of dairy cooperative (19.79-21.47, 87.38-105.52, 120.72-127.48)
and home mixed concentrate (5.18-31.75, 26.85-107.78, 62.17-155.83) was estimated. The Cu, Mn
and Zn content of green fodder viz. Lucerne (7.90-7.96,31.15-34.39, 22.92-26.53), maize (3.90-5.84,
39.42-41.84, 30.26-45.27), jowar (3.20-5.24, 46.47-63.29, 19.50-58.81), multi cut bajra (3.67-8.11,
39.22-89.43, 31.33-52.80), hybrid napier (2.74-4.88, 37.97-48.93, 27.94-32.83), local mixed grass (2.25-
7.38, 49.78-69.88, 26.86-41.33) and dry fodder like straws of bajra (0.26-9.60, 26.44-50.21, 8.82-
12.81), jowar (0.76-5.62, 31.00-50.61, 8.97-23.43,), wheat (0.26, 6.61, 34.35), legume straws like udid
(2.74-6.93, 32.27-59.49, 9.08-13.04) and mung (5.79-9.08, 65.12-96.88, 14.71-27.55) were also
estimated. The majority of home mixed / compound concentrate mixture were adequate in Cu, Mn
and Zn content. Most of the green/dry fodder was deficient in Zn and Cu, but Mn content was
adequate in majority of them.
114 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

184 Copper, manganese and zinc content of feeds and fodders in the Banaskantha district of North
Gujrat - Subhash Parnerkar, Mehul Patel, S. Zadbuke, Sanjay Patil, M.R. Chavda, and H.B. Desai,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat
Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar -385 506

To study the Copper, Manganese and Zinc content of feeds and fodders, a survey was
conducted in five talukas of Patan district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy
cooperative network. Two villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically
located apart in direction and truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each
village, 10 farmers whose animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected
ensuring that they truly represent animal feeding practices of the village. The Cu, Mn and Zn
content of concentrates jowar (2.50-), bajra (4.19-32.26, 14.15-36.54, 22.91-32.26), guar (13.97-
16.34, 9.01-35.00, 48.41-58.45), cotton seed cake (12.10-27.52, 34.07-38.78, 35.69-96.05), isabgul lali
(20.22-22.65, 39.96-45.83, 65.28-96.19), maize (4.92-8.92, 81.71-94.83, 27.15-80.13), Banasdan-the
balanced compound concentrate of dairy cooperative (22.26-53.27, 130.52-166.91, 116.38-148.34)
and home mixed concentrate (11.36-53.26, 35.42-166.91, 16.88-149.82) was estimated. The Cu, Mn
and Zn content of green fodder viz. Lucerne (7.32-36.06, 31.17-61.49, 24.69-119.14), jowar (8.32-
8.84, 31.58-76. 75, 22.88-32.84), multi cut bajra (5.20-36.93, 28.96-99.35, 18.91-42.44), napier (5.28-
25.58, 25.29-141.96, 25.52-36.83), and dry fodder like straws of jowar (10.32, 68.14, 46.01), maize
(28.53, 55.98, 26.53), bajra (4.64-7.09, 62.00-84.68, 4.82-19.94). The majority of home mixed/
compound concentrate mixture were adequate in Cu, Mn and Zn content. Most of the green/dry
fodder was deficient in Zn but Mn and Cu content was adequate in majority of them.

185 Copper, manganese and zinc content of feeds and fodders in the Mehsana district of North
Gujrat - D.L.Upadhyaya, Subhash Parnerkar and H.B.Desai, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University,
Sardarkrushinagar -385 506

To study the Copper, Manganese and Zinc content of feeds and fodders, a survey was
conducted in five talukas of Mehsana district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy
cooperative network. Two villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically
located apart in direction and truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each
village, 10 farmers whose animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected
ensuring that they truly represent animal feeding practices of the village. The Cu, Mn and Zn
content of home mixed concentrate (3.71-97.34, 4.45-128.36, 4.46-177.40) was estimated. The Cu,
Mn and Zn content of green fodders viz. Lucerne (4.48-21.82, 25.07-52.73, 8.76-39.84), jowar
(6.44-19.30, 16.60-60.48, 12.25-22.06), bajri (9.71, 28.5, 10.79), local mixed grass (7.74-26.18,14.39-
128.26,13.47-100.82) and dry fodder like straws of bajra (5.66-51.53, 23.55-64.26, 2.20-18.48), jowar
(6.54-18.34, 34.48-94.38, 10.82-67.34), paddy (5.08-6.34, 42.22, 6.70-43.17).
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 115

186 Copper, manganese and zinc content of feeds and fodders in the Sabarkantha district of North
Gujrat - Parag Ghogale, Subhash Parnerkar and H.B.Desai, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University,
Sardarkrushinagar -385 506

To study the Copper, Manganese and Zinc content of feeds and fodders, a survey was
conducted in five talukas of Sabarkantha district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed
dairy cooperative network. Two villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically
located apart in direction and truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each
village, 10 farmers whose animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected
ensuring that they truly represent animal feeding practices of the village. The Cu, Mn and Zn
content of concentrates Maize (4.92, 72.6, 21.38), wheat (13.60, 42.25, 22.95), guar (6.25, 21.84,
60.65), cotton seed cake (12.73, 12.83, 36.26), and home mixed concentrate (2.10-8.83, 12.03-55.76,
26.54-62.56) was estimated. The Cu, Mn and Zn content of green fodders viz. Lucerne (19.67,
55.74, 38.98), jowar (4.05-9.90, 29.28-51.82, 18.46-50.64), multi cut bajra (3.02-11.33, 32.74-115.91,
17.66-39.83), local mixed grass (2.07-4.30, 22.42-46.17, 19.47-30.76) and dry fodder like straws of
bajra (4.11-13.72, 61.99-95.85, 16.37-68.96), jowar (2.02-16.84, 13.30-60.46, 12.14-45.08), paddy (4.22-
5.26, 29.09-85.57, 18.51-22.15), legume straws like udid (3.73-5.14, 69.64-27.61, 10.58-28.24).

187 Mineral status of soil, feed and fodder in and around Jabalpur district - S.K. Mukherjee, M.M.
Mathur, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur

In the survey conducted in and around Jabalpur district soil, feed and fodder, samples
were collected to study their mineral status. These samples were processed and analyzed for
minerals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer USA Model No. 3300). It was
observed that the soil of Jabalpur mainly comprised of mixed red and black soil. The Ca, P, Mg (%)
and Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn (ppm) content of soil ranged from 0.28-0.89 (0.46), 0.016-0.067 (0.035),
0.012-0.031 (0.018) and 6.9-32.1 (24.33), 0.07-3.56 (2.99), 0.20-0.93 (0.47), 0.21-0.92 (0.58) and 7.9-
44.9, respectively. The soil was found severely deficient in P (73%) and Zn (77%) and
marginally deficient in Mg (13%) Fe, Co and Mn (10% each). The non-leguminous straws (Wheat
and paddy) were found to contain on an average 0.155, 0.04 and 0.13% Ca, P and Mg and 100.34,
8.44, 0.075, 35.575 and 81.92 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. While, in leguminous
straw (Mashoor) these minerals were 0.21, 0.04 and 0.13% and 202.0, 3.92, 0.02, 16.6 and 117.2
ppm, respectively. Similarly, cultivated non-leguminous green like M. P. Chari contained 0.56, 0.26
and 0.13% and 76.33, 5.77, 0.01, 11.6 and 197.66 ppm, respectively. While, the cultivated
leguminous fodder like berseem contained 2.36, 0.27 and 0.16% and 126.75, 24.95, 0.55, 16.1 and
114.5 ppm, respectively. These minerals in local grass hay were 0.72,0.28 and 0.33 % and 298.1,
10.7, 0.19, 37.12 and 77.54 ppm, respectively. Top feeds like Ber, Baool, Pipal, Subabbol, Pakar and
116 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

Gular on an average contained 1.09-4.7, 0.16-0.48 and 0.11-0.56% Ca, P and Mg and 58-419, 1.9-29,
0.08-0.37, 16.2-47.8 and 63.0-125.3 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. The cereal grains
like maize and wheat contained 0.04, 0.35 and 0.25% Ca, P and Mg and 56.65, 4.13, 0.04, 16.39 and
23.48 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. While, the by-products like rice polish, urad
and mashoor chuni contained 0.22, 0.94 and 0.21% and 62.88, 7.42, 0.033, 28.307 and 90.273 ppm,
respectively. Oil seed meals like groundnut, mustard, and linseed contained 0.53, 0.917 and
0.343% Ca, P and Mg and 81.107, 64.82, 0.561, 41.287 and 36.957 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn,
respectively.

188 Evaluation of critical supplementation of wheat straw with graded levels of various sources of
cobalt by in vitro gas production techhnique - V. Nagabhushana1, K. Sharma, A.K.Pattanaik and
Narayan Dutta, Indian Vetrrinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122 (U.P.)

Wheat straw was supplemented with graded levels of cobalt from three sources such as
cobaltous chloride, cobaltous sulphate and cobalt acetate to study the effect on in vitro gas
production parameters by Hohenheim gas test (HFT). The 24 hr. gas production was not
significantly affected by supplementation of cobalt as cobaltous chloride or cobaltous sulphate
supplementation but caused general decrease in gas volume. True substrate degradability of
wheat straw in terms of DM and NDF was found to be significantly improved up to 6ppm of cobalt
as cobaltous chloride where as similar picture was not evident with cobalt as cobaltous sulphate
or cobalt acetate. In vitro microbial biomass production was also found to be increased when
cobalt was supplemented as cobaltous chloride up to 6 ppm and no such effect was evident from
other two sources. Neither level nor source of cobalt supplementation affected the partition
factor or ME content of wheat straw in the present study. The results indicated that
supplementation of wheat straw with cobaltous chloride up to 6 ppm was appear to be effective
as a divalent cation in enhancing microbial attachment to fibre particles, there by increasing the
in vitro substrate degradability and microbial growth.

189 Nutrient utilization in goats as influenced by dietary interaction of iodine and cobalt - A. K.
Pattanaik and S.A. Khan, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary
Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122 (U.P.)

Twenty four goats of 9 months of age and weighing 17.55±0.91 kg were assigned ran-
domly into four groups, in order to assess the implications of dietary iodine and cobalt levels in
terms of nutrient utilization and growth performance. The treatments included supplementation
of two levels of iodine viz. 0 and 25 mg along with either 0 or 0.1 mg cobalt per animal per day in
a 2x2 factorial design (T1: I0-Co0, T2: I.25-Co0, T3: I0-Co0.1 and T4: I.25-Co0.1). All the goats were
fed a standard concentrate supplement in addition to ad Libitum wheat straw. A metabo1ism trial
1
Present address: Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Nutrition,Vveterinary, College, Bidar (Karnataka)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 117

of 6 days duration was conducted at 120 days post-feeding. There was fortnightly recording of
live weight changes besides daily recording of voluntary feed intake. The results, revealed that
during the metabolism trial the intake of DM, CP, DCP and ME were without significant
differences among the four groups. The digestibiliry of organic nutrients also did not vary
significantly except for the CP, which was lower (P<0.05) in T1 and T4 groups as compared to T2
and T3. Although there was no difference with respect to the mean daily intake and excretion of
nitrogen, its retention was found to be significantly (P<0.05) lowered in group T1 (1.05±0.12 g)
and T4 (1.43±0.31 g) in comparison to T2 (2.79±0.35 g), while that of T3 (2.02±0.20g) was
comparable to both T2 and T4. The same trend was apparent when the retention was expressed
as percentages of intake and absorbed nitrogen, indicating significant influence of dietary
treatments on nitrogen metabolism and assimilation. The average daily gain exhibited by the
animals under the four groups were -7.50±6.58, 31.46±1.75, 1.83±7.50 and -3.33±3.20 g following
120 days of experimental feeding with a mean daily feed (DM) intake of 398.9, 480.3, 396.7 and
365.7 g, respectively. It is concluded that the positive impact of iodine supplementation appears
to be nullified in the presence of higher dietary cobalt, possibly because of dietary interaction
between the two.

190 Evolving economic mineral mixture for broilers using agriculture grade trace minerals - G.G.
Barley, M.M. Mathur, R.P.S. Baghel, and S.K. Mukhrjee, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

One hundred eight day old broiler chicks were randomly divided in 6 treatments each
with 3 replicates. The diets contained 22% CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg for starter and 20% CP and
2800 Kcal ME/kg for finishers. In T1, commercial grade (Supplement) and T2, L.R. grade mineral
supplements were used @ 2.5 kg in the ration. Agriculture grade micro mineral sources were used
in T3 (Zn), T4 (Mn), T5 (Cu) and T6 (Zn, Mn, Cu) replacing L.R. grade mineral source. During
0-4 weeks, gain in body weight was significantly lower in T5 than T2. Chicks in T2 attained
significantly more gain in weight than T1. Average feed intake among broilers did not vary
significantly. The FER and PI values were significantly lower (P<0.05) in T5 than T2. During 4-6
weeks, feed intake in T4 was significantly more than T1, T2, T3, and T5 and T6. The gain in body
weight was significantly higher in T4 than T3 and the FER and PI values did not differ
significantly amongst the dietary groups. Overall, performance of broilers (0-6weeks) indicated
that chicks in T4 group consumed significantly more feed than T1, T2, T3 T5. No significant
difference was observed in gain in body weight between T2, T4, T5, and T6 groups. Similar trend
was followed in FER and PI values. The cost/kg weight gain observed was Rs.15.66 (T1); 15.48
(T2): 15.30 (T3): 15.53 (T4); 15.26 (T5) and 15.18 (T6) in different groups. Hence, it is concluded
that agriculture grade mineral sources can safely replace laboratory grade mineral sources for
preparing the mineral mixture for broilers.
118 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

191 Mineral status of soil, feeds and fodders in and around Seoni district of M.P. - S.K. Mukherjee,
R.P.S. Baghel, and M.M. Mathur, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Seoni district is mostly covered with forest area rich in grazing land leading to better
feeding of animals. The survey was conducted in and around Seoni district to collect the samples
of soil, feed and fodder to know their mineral status. The samples so collected were processed
and analyzed for mineral content using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer
USA Model, No. 3300). The analyzed data indicated that the mineral contents of soil samples
ranged from 0.32-0.62 (0.38), 0.021-0.038 (0.030) and 0.021-0.028 (0.025) % in Ca, P and Mg and
4.18-31.8 (27.06), 0.22-3.02 (2.12),0.48-0.88 (0.68), 0.29-1.4 (0.91) and 23.0-25.5, (23.19) ppm in Fe,
Cu, Co, Zn and Mn (ppm), respectively. The soil was found severely deficient in P (97%) and Zn
(60%) and marginally deficient in Ca and Fe (3%). The non-leguminous straws (Wheat and
paddy) were found to contain on an average 0.14, 0.055 and 0.165% Ca, P and Mg and 117.63, 8.79,
0.01, 30.49 and 81.26 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. While, in leguminous straw
(Mashoor) these minerals were 0.21, 0.06 and 0.13% and 194.6, 4.50, 0.02, 19.49 and 150.89 ppm,
respectively. Similarly, in cultivated non-leguminous fodders like M.P. Chari average values of
these minerals were 0.69, 0.22 and 0.16% Ca, P and Mg and 103.0, 2.52, 0.02, 10.7 and 185.66 ppm
of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. While, green berseem on an average contained 2.32, 0.26
and 0.22% Ca, P and Mg and 73.5, 29.87, 0.64, 13.0 and 119.0 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn,
respectively. The cereal grains like maize and wheat contained 0.05, 0.355 and 0.23% Ca, P and Mg
and 48.16, 3.28, 0.045, 32.24 and 26.54 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. While, the
by-products like rice polish, urad and mashoor chuni contained on an average 0.227, 0.84 and
0.277% Ca, P and Mg and 51.76, 6.87, 0.047, 25.85 and 87.35 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn,
respectively. Oil seed meals like groundnut, mustard and linseed on an average had 0.547, 1.05
and 0.30% Ca, P and Mg and 113.55, 12.07,0.55, 44.61 and 44.14 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn,
respectively.

192 Mineral Status of soil feeds and fodder in and around Rewa district - S.K. Mukherjee, R.P.S.
Baghel, and M.M. Mathur, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Survey was conducted in and around Rewa district to collect the samples of soil, feed
and fodder to study their mineral status. These samples were procured and analyzed for
minerals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer USA Model No 3300). It was
observed that the soil of Rewa district mainly comprised of mixed black soil. The Ca, P, Mg (%)
and Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn (ppm) content ranged (with average) from 0.1-0.99 (0.27), 0.03-0.08
(0.052) 0.02-0.031(0.028), 16.1-96.27(25.98),0.01-6.04 (1.60), 0.09-0.75(0.49), 0.04-1.26 (0.46) and 6.7-
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 119

62.0 (20.97), respectively. The soil was found deficient in P (43%) and Zn (73%) and marginally
deficient in Cu, Ca (13%), Fe and Co (10%) and Mn (7%) while Mg content were found adequate.
The non-leguminous straws like (wheat and paddy) were found to contain on an average 0.145,
0.115, 0.20 % of Ca, P & Mg and 88.5,12.38, 0.01, 36.1 and 104.03 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn,
respectively. While in leguminous straw (Masoor) these minerals were 0.22, 0.05, 0.16 and 206.6,
1.29, 0.02, 25.63 and 87.39, respectively. Similarly, cultivated non-leguminous green like M.P. Chari
contained 0.52, 0.23 and 0.15 and 138.3, 3.556, 0.024, 12.04 and 108.07, respectively. Cultivated
leguminous fodder like berseem contained 2.18, 0.26, 0.37% of Ca, P & Mg and 115.0, 47.77, 0.54,
14.45 and 116.0 ppm of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn, respectively. These minerals in local grass hay
were 0.31, 0.27, 0.35% and 182.25, 14.250, 0.18,28.7 and 77.84 ppm, respectively. The cereal grains
like maize and wheat contained on an average 0.035, 0.365, 0.195 and 45.79, 2.965, 0.028, 32.195 and
26.19, respectively. While, by products like rice polish, urad and masoor chuni contained 0.223,
0.887,0.297 percentage and 56.43, 0.037, 28.597 and 86.723 ppm, respectively. While, oil seed meals
like groundnut, mustard and linseed cake contained 0.58, 0.69, 0.33 % and 98.33, 15.02,0.527,38.93
and 29.09 ppm, respectively.

193 Effect of chromium supplementation on Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in black
Bengal goats - S. Haldar, T.K. Paul and T.K. Ghosh, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal
University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the effect of supplemental Cr on the
intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in black Bengal goats. For this 9 male black Bengal
goats of 2.5 to 3 years of age were divided into 3 groups viz. C (control), T 1 and T2, The diet in
group C was devoid of any supplemental source of Cr while that in T1 and T2 groups were
supplemented with 200 and 400 ppb of elemental Cr in the form of Cr-chloride hexahydrate for 50
days. At the end of supplementation blood samples were collected from the animals at 5, 15, 30,
60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after infusion of 50% dextrose monohydrate solution at the rate
of 0.5 g/Kg body weight for 2 minutes. The maximum glucose concentration was found to be
189.0, 177.0 and 230.0 mg dl-1 in C, T1 and T2 respectively. The rate of glucose clearance on the
other hand was observed to be 0.42, 0.41 and 0.31 ml minute-1 respectively in the corresponding
groups, Plasma half-life (T½ of glucose was 76.28, 71.66 and 105.75 minutes respectively in C, T1
and T2. Area under curve (AVC) in C, T1 and T2 groups was 16717.5, 17985.0 and 20942.5 mg-min
ml-1 respectively while VD area (1 Kg-1) was 2.75, 2.56 and 2.85 respectively in the corresponding
groups. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between groups in relation to
clearance rate and T½ of glucose though the other parameters were not affected to that extent due
to supplementation of Cr. The present study, therefore, did not reveal any definite trend of Cr
supplementation on the kinetics of glucose utilization.
120 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

194 Utilization of diammonium phosphate instead of dicalcium phosphate as a source of phosphorus


by lactating goats - R.T. Maitey, A.K. Dabadghao, R.P.S. Baghel, and M.M. Mathur, Department
of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-
482 001 (M.P.)

The study was undertaken to see the utilization of phosphorus from diammonium
phosphate (Fertilizer grade) replacing dicalcium phosphate at 50% level. Twelve lactating goats
just after kidding were divided into two treatments (T1 and T2). These animals were fed for 120
days a mixture of green tree leaves (Pipal and Gular) in equal proportions as sole roughage ad lib
and a concentrate mixture containing 20% CP and 70% TDN. The mineral mixture of control group
(T1) contained di-calcium phosphate while in treatment group di-ammonia phosphate was used
replacing phosphorus of DCP at 50% level (T2). The reduction in the amount of calcium due to
use of DAP was maintained by including limestone powder in the mineral mixture at an appropri-
ate level. The body weight gain, milk production and nutrient utilization were studied in Barbari
goats. The overall daily dry matter intake (DMI) during the entire experimental period was 1.062
kg and 1.067 kg/h/d in groups T1 and T2, respectively which comes to 4.070 and 4.066kg/100 kg
body weight. Differences between the groups were non- significant. The average body weights
of goats attained during this period in T1 and T2 groups were 26.13 and 26.29 kg respectively
which were non significant. Digestibility of various nutrients also did not show any significant
difference among the dietary treatments. No significant differences were observed in milk yield in
both the dietary groups. Numerically a higher percent fat was noted in T2 (3.08%) than in T1 (2.93)
but statistically it was found non significant. It was therefore concluded that phosphorus of DCP
can be replaced safely by DAP at 50% level in lactating goats without affecting the milk yield and
milk quality (fat%) and minerals contents in milk.

195 Status of chromium and other minerals in plasma and body tissues of black Bengal goats -
T.K. Ghosh, T.K. Paul and S. Haldar, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of
Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

A total of 69 adult black Bengal goats of 2-3 years of age were selected randomly from
three villages for assessing the status of Cr and some major (Ca and Mg) and trace (Cu, Zn, Fe
and Mn) in the plasma and body tissues (liver, kidney and different muscles) of under natural
grazing conditions. Cr concentration in plasma of the surveyed goats was found to be 0.056±0.002
µg ml-1 while in liver and kidney its concentration was 0.113±0.006 and 0.068±0.004 mg Kg-1 fresh
weight respectively. Amongst different muscles Cr concentration ranged from 0.106±0.016 to
0.142±0.013 mg Kg-1 fresh weight. Comparatively (P>0.05) higher concentration (mg Kg-1) of Cr
was detected in the quadriceps femoris muscle (0.142±0.013) followed by that in neck muscle
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 121

(0.114±0.014), triceps (0.111±0.011) and trapezius (0.106±0.016) muscles. Plasma Ca and Mg in


the surveyed goats were found to be 11.8±0.05 and 3.5±0.09 mg dl-1 respectively. Cu, Zn, Fe and
Mn contents (µg ml-1) in plasma were 0.89±0.024, 1.13±0.047, 1.59±0.060 and 0.23±0.011
respectively. The corresponding values (mg Kg-1 FW) of the concerned trace elements in liver
were 9.99±0.75, 25.17±0.66, 38.36±2.09 and 2.75±0.48 respectively. The same in kidney were
2.99±0.66, 18.97±0.67, 34.92±1.66 and 1.76±0.53 respectively. In different muscles the
concentrations of these trace elements ranged between 0.87±0.074 to 1.05±0.063 (Cu), 24.64±1.541
to 37.14±3.493 (Zn), 23.31±2.975 to 31.56±3.489 (Fe) and 0.58±0.052 to 0.71±0.045 (Mn). It was
concluded from the present study that in the surveyed area the goats had adequate distribution
of Cr in plasma and body tissues. However, marginal deficiency of other trace elements was
detected in the goats.

196 Status of chromium and other minerals in soil and common feedstuffs of goats in rural West
Bengal - T. K. Paul, S. Haldar and T. K. Ghosh, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal
University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

A field survey was conducted to assess the status of chromium (Cr), some major (Ca and
Mg) and trace (Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) in the locally available feeds and fodder generally consumed
by black Bengal goats reared by the farmers of rural West Bengal. The survey areas, which
belong to new alluvial agroclimatic zone, were located at least 200 m away from the road sides to
avoid possible contamination from vehicular emissions. Soil samples were collected at plough
depth (12" -18") randomly from the vi11ages under survey. All the samples were oven dried,
ground through 0.5 mm sieve and analyzed for Cr as well as other elements in atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. Cr concentration in soil ranged from 1.05 to 2.30 (1.62±0.13) mg Kg-1 DM and
66.7% soil samples were found to be deficient in Cr (the minimum critical level is 2.0 mg Kg-1 DM
as per WHO, 1988). Concentration of Ca varied from 0.066 to 0.082 (0.071±0.001)% DM and that of
Mg ranged between 0.024 to 0.036 (0.028±0.001)% DM. Concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in
soil were estimated to be 1.40 to 1.55 (1.48±0.02), 2.08 to 2.45 (2.26±0.04), 89.50 to 103.30 (96.62±1.23)
and 56.12 to 72.50 (63.20±1.24) mg Kg DM-1. Pasture grass, which mainly consisted of doob grass
(Cynodon dactylon), contained 0.15 to 0.60 (0.34±0.01) mg Cr Kg-1 DM and 8.33% of the pasture
grass samples were found to be deficient in Cr (minimum critical concentration 0.20 mg Kg-1 DM).
In concentrate feeds Cr concentration varied from 0.88 to 1.08 (0.98±0.20) mg Kg-1 DM while that
in the green roughage ranged from 0.74 to 0.86 (0.80±0.01) mg Kg-1DM. As found in soil, Ca in
pasture grass, green roughage and concentrate feeds had adequate distribution of Ca (0. 52±0.01,
0.58±0.01 and 1.81±0.01% DM respectively. Mg in pasture grass varied from 0.09 to 0.16
(0.13±0.01)% DM and deficiency was detected in all the samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe
and Mn were adequate in pasture grass, green roughage and concentrate feeds. In pasture grass
the concentration of the corresponding trace elements were 48.34±0.74, 31.59± 0.55, 414.84±1.55
122 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

and 62.83±1.01 mg Kg-1 respectively. However, about 16.7% of the pasture grass samples were
having Zn concentration lower than the minimum critical level of 30 ppm. In green roughage the
concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were 49.13±1.29, 36.89±0.83, 353.71±1.53 and 96.58±1.14 mg
Kg-1 respectively. In concentrate feeds the corresponding values were 21.02±0.54, 30.46±0.96,
217.69±1.22 and 69.08±1.19 mg Kg Kg-1 DM respectively. All the mean values were above the
respective minimum critical values. The survey indicated that the goats in the surveyed area can
be maintained on natural pasture and concentrate feeds without much risk of being exposed to
deficiency of Cr and other important major and trace elements.

197 Arsenic content in the water of some districts of Haryana - Veena Mani, Harjit Kaur
and C.S. Mishra, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Water samples were collected from various locations of some industrial cities (Sonipat,
Yamunanagar, Panipat and Ambala) and sources (tap, well water, tubewell, sewage, etc.) for
analyzing arsenic content. The flourometric method for the estimation of arsenic was
standardized. Since the arsenic content in water was very less, the samples were concentrated
and complexed with catechol and sodium EDTA. After drying, the samples were extracted with
toluene via the formation of ion-associate with acridine orange (ACO) followed by regeneration
of ACO by sulphuric acid. The complex gave bright yellow colour in toluene which was further
processed and the fluorescence in aqueous solution was monitored at 480/530 nm. The Arsenic
content in various water sources taken from Panipat varied from 110-125 ppb, however Yamuna
river water contained about 220 ppb As. In Gohana region (Distt. Sonepat), As content varied
from 118-224 ppb in water samples taken from tap, well and tubewell. In Ambala and Yamunanagar
districts, As content ranged from 143-190 ppb in different water sources. There was not much
difference in the arsenic content of sewage water before and after treatment (154 vs 143 ppb).
WHO recommendation for safe level of arsenic is 0.01 mg/L and maximum allowable
concentration is 0.05 ppm, whereas FAO has recommended 0.10 ppm as the safe level. The levels
observed in the present study are higher than the recommended levels of WHO and FAO.

198 Relative bio-availabilty of copper sources (sulfate or nitrate) administered through oral or
intravenous routes in black Bengal bucks (Capra hircus) - D. Prasad, S. Haldar and T.K. Ghosh,
Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037

Six black Bengal bucks (Capra hircus) of 14 to16 months of age were used in a switch
over design to study the relative bio-availability of copper from copper sulfate or copper nitrate.
In vitro solubility assay showed that Cu from copper nitrate was more soluble than that from
copper sulfate in neutral pH at room temperature (P<0.05) and also in 0.1 N HCl (P<0.01) at 39°C.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 123

Single oral dose of 100 mg Cu as copper sulfate (T1) or Cu-nitrate (T2) did not appreciably
influence (P>0.05) the apparent digestibility coefficients of OM, CP and NDF.Intake of digestible
OM and body weight changes in the bucks were also similar (p>0.05) during either of the
treatment periods. Cu intakes, which were identical (P>0.05) in T1 (13.95 mg/Kg DM) and T2
(13.89 mg/Kg DM), were within the normal dietary limits. Following the single oral dose feacal
excretion of Cu reached the peak at 48 h in both T1 and T2 which was followed by a consistent
decline and the basal level of excretion was reached by 168 h. Overall Cu excretion through feaces
was more (P<0.05) in T1 than T2. Plasma Cu concentration did not vary much (p>0.05) in the
bucks fed with either copper sulfate or copper nitrate though a transient rise was observed up to
4 h in T1 and 8 h in T2. When sterile solutions of copper sulfate or copper nitrate containing 50 mg
or 100 mg Cu/ml was injected intravenously no localized reaction could be noticed in the
experimental bucks. Plasma Cu level was not affected by the source of the copper salt (P>0.05)
though it increased when the dose level of Cu was raised from 50 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml copper
nitrate caused a rapid rise in plasma Cu concentration which was followed by a steep decline in
the same and this was suggestive of faster clearance of the compound from the body. Copper
sulfate, on the other hand, sustained higher (P<0.05) level of plasma Cu till the last sample of
blood was collected at 48 h. The study indicated positive but short term effects of copper sulfate
and copper nitrate in elevating blood Cu concentration. It was suggested that these two sources
of Cu might be explored with different dose levels and other possible routes of administration for
rectification of Cu deficiency in ruminants.

199 Effect of bromochloromethane capsule on methane production in rams - R. Bhar and N. Haque,
Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar- 243 122 (U.P.)

Four adult muzaffarnagari rams (45.34±2.29 kg) were taken to study the antimethanogenic
effect of bromochlormethane (BCM) capsule. The rams were fed on wheat straw ad lib along with
600g of concentrate mixture without any BCM capsule (control). The animals were then put one
by one into the metabolism crate within open circuit respiration chamber. Digestibility trial of six
days collection period was conducted along with the collection of air samples from respiration
chamber for estimation of methane. Thereafter, in the second phase though the rams were
continued on similar diet but one BCM capsule was supplemented daily along with their
concentrate mixture. Digestibility of the diets along with the estimation of methane production
was done once again in all the four rams fed on BCM capsule supplemented diets one by one.
There was no signifIcant difference in DM intake and DM digestibility between the control and
capsu1e fed rams. However, supplementation of BCM capsule significantly (P<0.01) reduced the
methane production from rams.
124 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

200 Effect of niacin supplementation on growth nutrient utilization and blood profile in bufalo calves-
Ravindra Kumar and R.S. Dass, Centre of Advanced Studies in Anilnal Nutrition, Indian
Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

A study was undertaken to examine the effect of three levels of niacin (0, 100 and 200ppm)
supplementation on the performance of buffalo calves. Fifteen non-descript growing male
buffalo calves (9-10m of age) were divided in a completely randomized design into three groups
(I, II and III) on the basis of their BW. Group I served as control (0 ppm niacin) while buffalo calves
in group II and III were supplemented with 100 and 200ppm niacin, respectively. Feeding was
done for a body weight gain of 500-600g per day for a period of 120 days. During this period daily
DM intake and fortnightly BW changes were recorded. A metabolism trial was conducted after 75
days of experimental feeding to assess nutrient intake, their utilization and balance. Blood was
also collected from all the animals at 0 day and subsequently at an interval of one month to study
the various blood biochemical parameters.Results revealed that the intake and digestibility of
DM, OM, CP, EE, TCHO, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemi-cellulose were statistically similar in three
groups. Animals in all the three groups were in positive N, Ca and P balances. Intake of DM, CP,
DCP and TDN (g/d/KgW0.75) was comparable among the control and niacin supplemented groups.
The DCP (%) and TDN (%) in the ration of three groups were 8.07, 7.99, 7.92 and 56.70, 56.63, 56.74
respectively and were comparable among the groups. There was no significant difference in
overa1l fortnightly daily DM intake (kg/d) among the groups. The ADG (g) in group II (567.50)
was non-significantly higher than group I (500.00) and group III (510.00). The feed: gain ratio was
also comparable among the three groups. Blood biochemical profile (glucose, total protein,
albumin, globulin, A: G ratio, blood urea nitrogen, insulin) did not show any significant effect of
niacin supplementation. Serum cholesterol (mg/100ml) was significantly (P<0.01) lower in 200ppm
niacin supplemented group than control and 100 ppm niacin supplemented groups. From present
study it can be concluded that niacin supplementation at 100 and 200ppm level in buffalo calves
fed on wheat straw and concentrate mixture did not have any significant effect on daily feed
intake, live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency during normal growing period.

201 Reduction in the incidence of mastitis in dairy buffaloes upon vitamin E supplementation during
periparturient period - N. Panda, Harjit Kaur and A.K. Tyagi, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Twenty four pregnant buffaloes in their advance pregnancy were randomly divided into
four groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4 ) of six each. They were supplemented with 0, 1000, 1500 and 2000
IU of a-tocopheryl acetate 60 days before parturition to 30 days after parturition. The dose of
vitamin E was reduced to 500, 750 and 1000 IU in the respective three supplemented groups from
30 days to 60 days post partum. After parturition, buffaloes were examined for sub clinical and
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 125

clinical mastitis. The subclinical mastitis was examined by modified California mastitis test (MCMT)
and somatic cell counts in milk (SCC).During the first fortnight, 41.6, 33.3, 25.0 and 25.0 % of teats
in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were infected having score/ teat as 0.75, 0.67, 0.50 and 0.42. Upto 120 days of
lactation, the % teat infection was significantly less in all the vitamin E supplemented groups than
control group. The SCC was 2.02 x 105, 1.58 x 105 and 1.46 x 105 and 1.51 x 105 on the day of
parturition in the four groups respectively. The SCC values were significantly lower in T3 and T4
groups from parturition to 45 days of parturition as compared to other two groups. The number of
clinical mastitis cases were 3, 2, 1, and 1percent teat infection was 53.33, 25.00, 16.66 and 16.66 in
the respective four groups. The reduction in teat infection was 0.25, 50 and 50 % in T 2, T3 and T4,
groups respectively in comparison to T1. The reduction in the duration of IMI was 15.92, 29.20
and 38.05 % in T2, T3 and T4 groups. The data indicated beneficial effect of vitamin E
supplementation on sub clinical and clinical mastitis.

202 Influence of supplemental vitamin E on milk yield, milk antioxidant vitamins and somatic cell
counts in Murrah buffaloes - N. Panda, Harjit Kaur and Neelam Kewalramani, Dairy Cattle
Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-l32 00l (Haryana)

An experiment was conducted on 24 dry, pregnant Murrah buffaloes selected from


NDRI, Cattle yard. They were divided into four groups of six each and were supplemented with 0,
1000, 1500 and 2000 IU of vitamin E 60 days pre partum to 60 days post partum with a reduced
dose of 0, 500, 750 and 1000 IU from 30 to 60 days post partum. The milk yield was recorded upto
120 days of lactation. The average 60 day milk production was 8.12, 9.13, 10.40 and 10.15 kg /day
in the four respective groups which was significantly higher in T3 and T4 as compared to T1 and
T2 groups (P<0.05). The overall increase in milk production was 12.44, 28.07, 25.00 % in T2, T3 and
T4 groups over T1 group which was due to more number of clinical mastitis cases in the control
group. The number of SCC remained lower in both T3 and T4 up to 60 days of vitamin E
supplementation, which was 2.03, 1.59, 1.39 and 1.38 lakhs in the four respective groups. The
a-tocopherol content of colostrum was 3.36, 3.96, 5.15 and 5.19 µ/ml in the four groups showing
17.86, 53.27 and 54.46% increase in the level of a-tocopherol in T2, T3 and T4 over T1 group. All the
supplemented groups also had significantly higher milk a-tocopherol than control. The average
milk a-tocopherol upto 60 days lactation was 23.37, 28.97, 34.25 and 34.69 mg/g of fat in the T1, T2,
T3 and T4 groups, respectively. The retinol level in colostrum and milk was 1.09, 1.07, 1.10 and 0.52,
0.51, 0.52 and 0.52 mg/ml in the respective four groups. The milk fat and SNF content did not vary
among the treatments.
126 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

203 Effect of vitamin E supplementation on plasma antioxidant vitamins and total antioxidant status
of periparturient Murrah Buffaloes - N. Panda and Harjit Kaur, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana)

Twenty-four Murrah Buffaloes in their advance pregnancy were distributed into four
equal groups. They were supplemented with 0, 1000, 1500,2000 IU dl-a-tocopheryl acetate
(vitamin E) h-1d-1 respectively from 60 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum and at half the dose
from 30 to 60 days post partum in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Blood samples were collected at
-60, -45, -30, -15, -7, 0, 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of parturition. Vitamin E and b-carotene contents
of feeds and fodders offered to the buffaloes and the blood samples were estimated. Intake of
vitamin E through feeds and fodder was 221, 232, 252 and 226 mg/d during dry period and 246, 267,
279 and 255 mg/d during lactation in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Plasma a-tocopherol level 60
days before parturition averaged 1.10, 1.18, 1.11 and 1.06 µg/ml which decreased by 54.54, 48.30,
32.43 and 26.42% on the day of parturition in the four respective groups. Higher plasma a-
tocopherol in T3 and T4 at calving helped to regain normal plasma vitamin E status within two
weeks of parturition, whereas, T1 and T2 required more than four weeks to reach this level.
Average plasma retinol concentration 60 days prior to parturition decreased by 19.48, 28.75, 21.69
and 19.74% on the day of parturition, in the four respective groups (P>0.05). The decrease in
plasma antioxidant values (FRAP values) at calving was 39.91, 29.65, 18.60 and 16.67%
respectively in the four respective groups. On the day of parturition, FRAP values were
significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 groups than control group T1. The data indicated that the
extent of decrease in the levels of a-tocopherol and total antioxidant activity at parturition in
buffaloes can be reduced by supplementing vitamin E during dry period which may help in
improving their immunity status.

204 Losses in vitamins A and E potency on storage of concentrate mixture - Harjit Kaur, Neelam
Kewalramani, M.R. Garg and Parameet Kumar, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Concentrate mixture was fortified with three levels of vitamin A i.e. 5000, 10000 and 15000
IU/Kg, with and without the addition of an antioxidant. Similarly, vitamin E was added at three
levels viz.150, 225 and 300IU/Kg concentrate mixture. The samples were divided into 6 portions
and stored. The samples were estimated for their vitamin A and E contents in the beginning.
Samples were withdrawn from these stored feeds at monthly intervals for the analysis of vitamins
A and E, to observe the changes in vitamin A and E content on storage. The analysis of vitamins
A and E was carried out using HPLC. Vitamin A content decreased from 4.68 - 60.42, 3.78-43.18 and
3.71-55.47% from one month to six months of storage in concentrate mixture fortified with 5000,
10000 and 15000 IU vitamin A/Kg with an overall average of 4.05 to 53.02 % at
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 127

first and sixth month of storage, without added antioxidant. The decrease in vitamin A potency
was 3.84% at first month and 50.40% at sixth month, with added antioxidant (BHT@500ppm). The
addition of antioxidant did not reduce the extent of losses of vitamin A activity. Similarly, vitamin
E activity showed decline of 6.92% at first month of storage which increased to 39.93% at six
months of storage of concentrate mixture. The results highlight the need to consider losses in
these two vitamins upon storage and fortification should be done accordingly to fulfill the
requirements of the animals.

205 Effect of Arsenic on immunity and haematological parameters in growing crossbred calves -
C.S. Mishra, Veena Mani and Harjit Kaur, Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Division National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Ten growing Karan Fries calves of about 4-5 months age, were randomly distributed in
two groups. The animals in both the groups were fed concentrate mixture and green fodder, to
fulfill their energy and protein requirements. However group II calves were additionally given 50
ppm As in the form of As2O3. The required quantity of As2O3 was mixed in small quantity of
concentrate mixture which was offered to the calves in plastic tubs to ensure complete intake and
the rest of the concentrate was given later on. Blood samples were taken at fortnightly intervals
for a period of 90 days to study the effect of As on various blood parameters like Hb, PCV, TLC
and DLC. Blood As content and total Ig were also estimated at fortnightly intervals. Lymphocyte
proliferation assay was carried out at 0, 45 and 90 day. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in
lymphocyte stimulation index from 1.138 to 0.794 was observed at 90 days in experimental group.
However total Ig content was not affected due to treatment. There was gradual increase in blood
As content in group II calves. The blood As level was 156.22±2.89 and 112.10±20.79 ppb in group
I at 0 days which was increased to 162.45±4.84 and 197.14±18.11 ppb in group II at 90 days,
indicating statistically significant difference. There was no significant change in various hemato-
logical parameters such as Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC during 90 days of As feeding at 50 ppm level to
growing crossbred male calves.

206 Influence of Homoeopathic Preparations on Immune Response to Commercial Broilers in Hot


Humid Climate - S.S Jagtap, M.R.Vahora, Kuldeep Khanna, V.P.Vadodaria1, H.B.Desai2, Poultry
Complex, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand-388 001

The growth and development of bird is adversely affected by high ambient temperature
besides nutrition, management and disease control. To study the interaction of
environmental factors during the various phases of growth, an experiment was planed and
1
Principal, College of Vety. Science & A.H, GAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
2
Professor and Head, Dept. of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College,GAU,Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
128 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

conducted with the use of heat regulating homoeopathic preparations. For this purpose, day old
300 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups viz. T1 (control) and T2
(treated with heat regulating homoeopathic preparations @2gm/lit of drinking water) with ten
replications each. Feed given to both the groups was same. Immune response of birds against
Ranikhet disease was assessed through serum collected on 6th day (preimmunization) and on 42nd
day (post-immunization) by HI test. For serum biochemistry on 42nd day two birds were randomly
selected from each replication and serum from both the birds was pooled to make one
representative sample per replication. On 6th day antibody titre in T1 and T2 were 2.427±0.043 and
2.674±0.036 respectively. On 42nd day antibody titers in T1 and T2 were 1.400±0.163 and 2.648±0.036
respectively. Results of the serum biochemistry in T1 and T2 were total protein 3.50±0.18 and
3.96±0.26; calcium 8.16±0.12 and 8.28±0.15; phosphorus 5.61±0.25 and 5.80±0.25 (mg/dl); SGOT
145.68±12.23 and 131.78 ±9.66; SGPT 53.77±2.20 and 48.62±2.74 respectively. Thus, it can be
concluded that heat regulating homoeopathic preparations gives better immune response and
also protect the birds from heat stress.

207 Immune response and serum biochemistry as influenced by homoeopathic preparations given to
commercial broilers in hot humid climate of Gujarat - M.R.Vahora, S.S Jagtap, H.B.Desai1,
V.P.Vadodaria2, Kuldeep Khanna, Poultry Complex, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural
University, Anand-388 001

An experiment was planned and conducted with the use of homoeopathic preparations
(Immune promoter-Growth promoter) to study the effect on immune response and serum
biochemistry. For this purpose day old 300 commercial broiler chicks were randomly
distributed equally into two groups T1 and T2 with ten replications each. Group T1 was
maintained as control and group T2 was treated with heat regulating homoeopathic
preparations @ 1gm/lit. of drinking water for first two weeks and then @ 2gm/lit throughout the
experiment. Feed given to both the groups was same. Immune response of birds against Ranikhet
disease was assessed through serum collected on 6th day (pre-immunization) and on 42nd day
(post-immunization) by HI test. For serum biochemistry on 42nd day two birds were randomly
selected from each replication and serum from both the birds was pooled to make one represen-
tative sample per replication. On 6th day antibody titre for T1 and T2 were 2.43±0.043 and 2.72±0.036
respectively. On 42nd day antibody titers in T1 and T2 were 1.40±0.16 and 2.82±0.037 respectively.
Results of the serum biochemistry in T1 and T2 were total protein 3.50±0.18 and 3.67±0.16 (g/dl);
calcium 8.16±0.12 and 8.23±0.12 (mg/dl); phosphorus 5.61±0.25 and 5.85±0.24 (mg/dl); SGOT
145.68±12.23 and 128.44±8.41; SGPT 53.77±2.20 and 48.40±2.41 respectively. Thus, it can be
concluded that heat regulating homoeopathic preparations gives better immune response and
also protect the birds from heat stress.
1
Dept. of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, GAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
2
College of Vety. Science & A.H, GAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 129

208 Implication of dietary energy restriction on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of lambs -
V.K. Sihgh, A. K. Pattanaik, T.K. Goswami and K. Sharma, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal
Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar - 243 122

Twenty-four Muzaffarnagari lambs ( 8 months, 24 kg), consisting 12 each of male and


female were used for ascertaining the effects of dietary energy restriction on the humoral and
cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. The lambs, allotted randomly into three equal groups,
were fed on wheat straw based diets to provide 100, 80 and 60 per cent of the calculated dietary
energy requirements. The immunity of the experimental animals was appraised towards the end
of the feeding trial lasting for 180 days. The CMI response of the animals was assessed through
in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) as well as in vitro nitrite production. The DTH
response, measured by increase in skin thickness following intra-dermal inoculation of
phytohaemaglitinin-P, was significantly (P<0.05) compromised in both the energy-restricted groups
compared to the control. Likewise, the in vitro nitrite production by lymphocytes, both basal as
well as following LPS stimulation, also revealed significantly (P<0.05) lower values due to energy
restriction; the values being 5.17±0.27 and 6.84±0.89, 3.78±0.14 and 4.33±0.24, and 3.65±0.19 and
4.29±0.65 µM/105 cells for 100, 80 and 60 percent energy groups, respectively. The humoral
immunity of the lambs was measured by monitoring the antibody production against Brucella
abortus S 19 soluble antigen employing ELISA. The antibody titre, expressed as A492, was
significantly reduced in the energy restricted lambs at 7 day post-inoculation (PI) with no
apparent variation at subsequent periods up to 21 days PI. No effect of sex was apparent on the
immune parameters measured. It is concluded that dietary energy restriction even at 80 per cent
of the suggested requirements significantly affected that CMI response with no
apparent effect on the humoral immunity of lambs. However, further studies are warranted
involving varied antigenic sources to conclusively prove the impact of dietary energy on the
humoral immunity.

209 Serum Sodium and Potassium content in female yaks of different age groups under field
condition - A. Chatterjee, R. Pourouchottamane, U.A. Nandankar, M. Sarkar, National Research
Center on Yak (ICAR), Dirang-790 101 (Arunachal Pradesh)

Serum Sodium and Potassium content were analysed in thirty three female yaks of
different age groups from Mandalaphudung area (around 8500 ft. above msl.) in West Kameng
district, Arunachal Pradesh. The animals were divided into different age groups namely 6-12
months (Group A), 12 -24 months ( Group B), 24-30 months (Group C), 30-36 months
(Group D) , 36-42 months (Group E) and 42-48 months (Group F). All the animals were maintained
under traditional system of grazing on high altitude grassland without any
supplementation. However salt used to be offered to the animals for licking once or twice in a
130 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

month. The blood samples were collected and the serum concentration of Sodium and Potassium
were analysed as per standard procedure using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin
Elmer A-100). The results obtained for sodium concentration (m mol/1) were 119.7±24.9, 128.6±16.8,
137.3±13.4, 109.4±7.3, 127.54±14.3 and 132.9±19.4 respectively for groups A,B,C,D,E and F. The
over all mean Sodium concentration was 125.9±4.5 m mol/1. The Potassium concentration (m mol/
1) were 4.88±0.39, 7.02±1.49, 6.75±0.91, 5.32±0.43, 5.75±0.57 and 5.88±0.58 , respectively for groups
A,B,C,D,E and F. The overall mean Potassium concentration was 5.97±0.36 m mol/1. The Na: K
ratio ranged from 18.3 : 1 (Group B) to 24.5 : 1 ( Group A). The average Na : K ratio was found to be
21.1: 1.

210 Nutrient intake, digestibility and reproductive performance of buffaloes fed Wheat grains and
Mustard cake based Total Mixed Rations - S.S.Thakur, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana)

Twelve Murrah milch buffaloes were divided into two groups of six in each with initial body
weights 519.5 and 541.8 kg, initial milk yield was 10.17 and 10.33 kg/day, days in lactation 42 and
43 and the lactation number from II to IV. All the buffaloes were fed mixed ration comprising of
concentrate, green sorghum/green maize fodder and wheat straw in 50:35:15 proportion for initial
two months of experimentation and thereafter in 40:40:20 proportion on DM basis. Group I
buffaloes were fed traditional concentrate comprising of maize grains18, barley grains 15,
cottonseed cake 6, groundnut cake 15, mustard cake 12, wheat bran 20, deoiled rice bran 11,
mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part. Buffaloes of group II were fed concentrate in which
maize were replaced partially and barley grains completely with wheat grains. The composition of
group II concentrate was, wheat grains 20, maize grains 15, mustard cake 22, groundnut cake 14,
wheat bran 10, deoiled rice bran 16, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part. The experiment was
conducted for a period of 120 days during which daily feed intake; fortnightly body weights,
seven days digestibility trial and reproductive performance were recorded. The digestibility data
showed that the DM digestibility was 65.59 and 65.32 percent and digestible DMI was 9.24 and
9.80 kg/day in group I and II buffaloes. Digestibilities of DM, CP, NFE and hemicellulose were
higher by 3.8, 5.0, 3.7 and 5.2 in group II buffaloes than those of group I. DCP and TDN values of
TMR’s of group I and II were 8.49, 9.55; 64.78 and 66.50% showing improvement of 12.5% in DCP
and 2.7% in TDN content of group II TMR over that of group I. A glance at the reproductive
performance of the buffaloes indicated that buffaloes of group II and I came in to heat 55.8 and
78.8 days post calving and pregnancy percentage was 33.3 and 50% in the respective groups.
Thus the results of the present study indicate that the replacement of traditional feed
ingredients with feed ingredients available with local farmers in rice wheat production
system such as wheat grains mustard cake and deoiled rice polish in the TMRs of lactating
buffaloes brought improvement in digestibility of DM, CP, NFE and hemicellulose and
reproductive performance.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 131

211 Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on the fertility of goats in hot semiarid regions -
A.K. Shinde, S.K. Sankhyan, Raghavendra Bhatta, N.P. Singh and D.L. Verma, Division of Animal
Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar - 304 501 (Rajasthan)

The effect of ambient temperature, humidity, rainfall, pod feeding and level of nutrition
on fertility of Kutchi goats under free range grazing in semiarid environment of Rajasthan was
examined. The data contained 297 natural services over a period of 3 years. The conception rate
in the mean minimum and maximum temperature range of 10-30, 20-40, 30-30, 30-40 and 30-50°C
was 9.76, 11.11, 15.48, 40.74 and 22.89 % and in temperature humidity index range of 60-70, 70-80,
80-90 and >90 was 3.70, 20.20, 59.25 and 16.83% respectively. The warm season favored
conception rate (Summer 40.7; Monsoon 49.5%) compared to cool season (Winter 9.8%). The
conception rate was 70.3% during no or sporadic rains as compared to 29.7 % during rainy
season. The decrease of sunshine hours, because of cloudy weather, favored the conception rate
and 33% of goats were conceived in July month. The increase of digestible crude protein and
metabolic energy intakes by 36.10 and 7.14 % in summer, and 41.01 and 18.83 % in monsoon over
that during winter increased the conception rate from 9.80 in winter to 40.70 in summer and 49.50%
in monsoon. The conception rate was 73.7 % during the period when tree pods from grazing land
were accessed to goats compared to 26.3 % in non-accessed period. It was concluded from the
study that maximum number of goats were conceived when minimum-maximum temperatures
were 30-40°C, THI 80-90, DCP and ME intakes >90g and >16MJ/day, sporadic or no rain, pod
access and cloudy weather conditions.

212 Reproductive performance of rams fed raw, processed and supplemented cotton (Gossypium)
seed meal in corporated diets - A. Kannan, V.R.B. Sastry, D.K. Agrawal, A.K. Panda and Avneesh
Kumar, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Division, IVRI,
Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

Gossypol causes infertility in male and female nonruminants. However effect of gossypol in male
ruminants are not clearly researched. To study the effect of gossypol in male ruminants, Twenty
four rams of 5-8 months of age and of uniform body weight were divided into four groups of six
animals each in a completely randomized design. Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate
mixtures were formulated, containing 20% soybean meal (Diet I) or 40% raw (Diet II), 40% raw
supplemented with 500 IU of vitamin E per head per day (Diet III) and 40%, 1.5% Ca (OH) 2 treated
cotton seed meal (Diet IV). The rams were fed with respective concentrate mixtures as per
fortnightly body weights to meet 80% CP requirements of NRC (1985) along with ad libitum
wheat straw and clean drinking water through out 510 days of experimental feeding. Daily dry
matter intake and fortnightly body weight changes were recorded. Just after the attainment of
132 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

maturity semen was collected at different intervals to evaluate reproductive performance of rams.
At 450th day blood was collected at hourly intervals to estimate plasma testosterone levels. After
510 days of experimental feeding, animals were sacrificed to study gross and histopathological
changes in reproductive organs if any, due to feeding of raw, Vitamin E supplemented and Ca
(OH)2 treated CSM incorporated diets. Though, there was no significant difference between
groups in attaining sexual maturity, raw CSM fed rams could not show typical sexual behavior.
The pH and mass activity of ram semen were found to be comparable between the treatments.
However, the semen volume was significantly lower (P<0.01) in rams of raw CSM group as
compared to those of control. Progressive motility and sperm concentration were depressed
significantly (P<0.01) in raw CSM as well as vitamin supplemented group. The percentage of live
spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.01) lower on all CSM containing diets as compared to that on
control diet. Raw CSM feeding resulted in the presence of significantly (P<0.01) higher
percentage of abnormal spermatozoa. However, seminal biochemical profile of rams did not show
significant difference. Total protein, total cholesterol and the enzyme activities (AST and ALT) of
seminal plasma collected from rams of different dietary groups were similar on all the diets.
Feeding of raw CSM incorporated diet significantly (p<0.05) depressed plasma testosterone level
which was collected hourly intervals throughout the day as compared to other diets. The testicu-
lar degenerative changes and histopathological changes in vital organs noticed on raw CSM diet
were alleviated to some extent by vitamin E supplementation and to a major extent by [Ca (OH)2]
treatment. Thus, CSM after processing with 1.5% lime [Ca(OH)2] was found suitable in the feed-
ing of breeding rams without any adverse effect on reproductive performance.

213 Lead levels in common feeds and fodders - Arvind Kumar and R.C. Chopra, National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

Random samples of commonly available feeds (maize, ground nut cake, mustard cake, wheat bran,
cotton seed meal), roughages (berseem. oat, maize, green jowar, wheat straw, paddy straw) and
water were collected from different areas of Karnal (including NDRI farm), Panipat and Yamuna
Nagar districts of Haryana State. Cocentrate feeds like cotton seed meal, ground nut cake, maize
grain, mustard cake and wheat bran were found to contain (DM basis) 16.7±1.4 to 18.6±1.6,
6.6±1.3 to 8.9±0.8, 7.4 ±2.0 to 9.1±0.9, 17.6±1.6 to 19.5±1.9 and 15.3±1.9 to 18.9±1.6 ppm lead
respectively. Barseem, oats, green maize, jowar. wheat straw and paddy straw (DM basis) were
found to contain 10.0±0.8 to 12.6±0.8, 7.9±0.9 to 8.5±0.8, 10.6±0.5 to 12.3±1.4, 3.6±0.4 to 4.6±0.6,
6.6±0.3 to 7.0±0.8 and 9.9±0.7 to 11.7±0.5 ppm lead respectively whereas water contained 0.10 to
0.17 ppm lead.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 133

214 Influence of dietary lead levels on growth nutrient utilization and certain blood parameters in
crossbred calves - Arvind Kumar and R.C. Chopra, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana)

Eighteen growing male crossbred calves weighing 86.8±5.9 kg were randomly divided into 3
treatment groups and adapted for a period of 20 days on basal ration consisting of concentrate
mixture and green maize as per their requirements (NRC 1989). Treatment particulars were : T 1
(basal diet). T2 (basal diet + 50 ppm lead as lead acetate) and T3 (basal diet + 100 ppm lead as lead
acetate). Fortnightly body weights and dry matter intake were recorded. Blood samples were
drawn from all the calves at fortnightly intervals and analysed for Hb, PCV and blood lead
content. Serum was carefully separated from blood and analysed for SGPT, SGOT, alkaline
phosphatase, acid phosphatase and serum urea contents. A metabolic trial of 6 days duration was
conducted to study the effect of lead supplementation on nutrient digestibility and mineral
balances after 6 fortnights of growth study. Addition of lead (50 and 100 ppm) did not show any
adverse effect on ADG, DMI, FCE, N balance and nutrient digestibility (DM, CP, ADF, NDF except
EE, which was low in the T2 & T3 groups) in calves. The mineral balances (Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn)
were not affected by lead supplementation in diet. Most of the ingested lead was excreted
through the faeces. Howevever, the absorption and retention of lead was higher in the lead
supplemented groups. Supplementation of lead (50 and 100 ppm) increased the concentration of
lead in blood and SGOT, alkaline phosphatase and urea in serum. However, Hb, PCV, SGPT and
acid phosphatase concentration were not affect by the supplementation of lead in diet.

215 Influence of various dietary lead levels on milk production and it’s excretion pattern in lactating
goats - Arvind Kumar and R.C. Chopra, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Twelve lactating goats in their late lactation were divided into 3 groups of 4 each on the
basis of their milk yield after adaptation period of 20 days on basal ration (concentrate
mixture+cowpea). T1 served as control whereas in T2 and T3 lead (as lead acetate) was added in
the concentrate mixture to raise the concentration of lead by 50 and 100 ppm in the diet (OM
basis) respectively. Daily DMI and milk yield were recorded for a period of 40 days. Milk samples
were collected at weekly intervals and analysed for milk composition (fat, protein, lactose. SNF,
Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe). Dietary supplementation of lead (50 and 100 ppm) did not show any
effect on the DMI, milk yield and milk composition of goats. The concentration of lead in milk
remained unaffected by the supplementation of lead (50 and 100 ppm) in the diet. Faeces seemed
to be the main route of excretion for orally ingested lead.
134 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

7. Nutritional Strategies for Ruminant Production Systems

216 Evaluation of berseem based total mixed ration (TMR) having different levels of energy and
proteins on nutrient utilization and balances of Ca, P and N in lactating crosbred cows - Naresh
Girdhar1 and N. Balaraman2, Project Directorate on Cattle (ICAR), Grass Farm Road, P.O. Box No.
17, Meerut Cantt - 250 001 (U.P.)

To assess the nutritive value of berseem based total mixed ration (having different levels
of energy and protein) in terms of DCP, TDN and balances of Ca, P, and N in lactating animals, a
metabolism trial was conducted on 12 crossbred cows (Karan Fries). A 7 day collection period
was adopted. Animals were selected from the herd of NDRI, Karnal with similar milk yield and
stage of lactation and were randomly distributed into three groups of four each. The animals were
offered berseem based TMR with energy and protein levels (%) as 55, 10 (group I); 60, 12 (group
II) and 65, 14 (group III), respectively. The feeding was done ad libitum. The results indicated a
significantly higher (P<0.05) digestibility of CP in group-III (65% TDN and 14% CP) as compared
to group I (55% TDN and 10% CP) and group II (60% TDN and 12% CP). The digestibility of CF
was significantly higher (P<0.05) in group I and III as compared to group II. The animals of group
III also showed significantly higher (P<0.05) digestibility of NFE as compared to group I. The
digestibility co-efficients of various proximate principles and NDF ranged from 59.7 to 78.6%
indicating by and large a highly digestible nature of various nutrients of TMR. There was no
significant difference with respect to TDN among the three groups. Inspite of assumed levels of
55, 60 and 65% in the three groups, the actual levels obtained ranged from 60.72 to 63.71 %. The
nutritive ratio ranged from 4.53 to 8.00 in the three groups, being highest in group I and lowest in
group III, N retained (g/100 kg BW) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in group III followed by
group II and lowest in group I. Ca and P retained (g/100kg BW) was significantly higher (P<0.01)
in group III as compared to group I and II. The higher retention of Ca in the animals of group III
may be due to the higher content of Ca in the TMR of these animals, higher DMI and the less
losses through faeces.

217 Evaluation of maize based total mixed ration (TMR) having different levels of energy and protein
on nutrient utilization and balances of Ca, P and N in lactating crossbred cows - Naresh Girdhar1 and
N. Balaraman 2, Project Directorate on Cattle, P.O. Box No. 17, Grass Farm Road,
Meerut Cantt-250 001 (U.P.)
To assess the nutritive value of maize fodder based TMRs (having different levels of
energy and protein), in terms of DCP, TDN and balances of Ca, P and N in lactating crossbred
cows, a metabolism trial was conducted. A 7 day collection period was adopted. Animals were
1 2
Sr. Scientist, PDC, Meerut Cantt., Joint Director (R), NDRI, Karnal.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 135

selected from the herd of NDRI, Karnal with similar milk yield and stage of lactation and were
randomly distributed into three groups of four each. The animals were offered maize based TMR
with energy and protein levels (%) as 55, 10 (group I); 60,12 (group II) and 65, 14 (group III),
respectively. The feeding was done ad libitum. The results indicated no significant difference
between the different groups with respect to digestibilities of various nutrients (DM, OM, EE, CF,
NFE, NDF and ADF) except CP. The digestibility of CP was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the
group III as compared to group I and II. There was an increase in the digestibility of CP with
increasing level of CP in the TMRs. There was significant difference (P<0.0 I) regarding DCP (%)
between the different groups. The TDN (%) ranged from 66.7 to 70.4 in different groups and it was
much higher than the assumed values of 55, 60 and 65% in the respective groups. Nutritive ratio
ranged from 5.51 to 9.00, which varied significantly (p<0.05) in different groups. N and Ca retained
(g/100 kg BW) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the three groups however the P
retained (g/100 kg BW) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group I as compared to group III.

218 Effect of high plane of nutrition on mammogenesis and growth in KF heifers - Mahendra Singh,
A.K. Dang, Charan Singh and R.K. Mehla, Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy
Research Institute Karnal-132 001, (Haryana)

To find out the effect of high plane of nutrition, 20 Karan Fries (KF) female calves of 6
months age were divided into two groups ot ten each. Group I (Control) calves were maintained
as per the feeding practices (1 kg concentrate and ad lib roughage) followed in the Institute’s
herd, while Group II (Experimental) calves were offered concentrate @ 2% body weight and ad lib
roughage. Body weight, feed intake, udder measurements were recorded at fortnightly intervals
till the onset of puberty. Blood samples were collected at fortnightly interval and blood glucose
and NEFA were determined. In the beginning of the experiment the mammary fat pad of both the
groups was similar. At the time of puberty the mammary growth as indicated by udder
measurements was more (P<0.05) in heifers fed at high plane of nutrition in comparison to control.
Total feed intake of the Experimental group recorded at fortnightly interval was significantly high
(P<0.05) in comparison to control. Blood glucose and NEFA varied in both the groups. All the
heifers of the experimental group exhibited heat with average age of 18,19 months in comparison
to heat shown by only one heifer of the control group. All the heifers of the experimental group
also became pregnant. The heifers kept on high plane of nutrition exhibited heat with average
body weight of 295 kg.

219 Milk yield and composition in buffaloes fed wheat grains and mustard cake based total mixed
rations - S.S.Thakur and S.K.Tomar, Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Twelve milch buffaloes were divided into two groups of six in each on the basis of milk
yield and days in milk. The initial body weights were 519.5 and 541.8 kg, initial milk yield was 10.17
and 10.33 kg/day, days in lactation were 42 and 43 and the lactation number varied from II to IV. All
136 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

the buffaloes were fed mixed ration comprising of concentrate, green sorghum / green maize
fodder and wheat straw in 50:35:15 proportion for initial two months of experimentation and
thereafter in 40:40:20 proportion on DM basis. Group I buffaloes were fed concentrate which was
being offered to institute herd comprising of maize grains18, barley grains 15, cottonseed cake 6,
groundnut cake15, mustard cake12, wheat bran 20, deoiled rice bran11, mineral mixture2 and
common salt 1 part. Buffaloes of group II were fed concentrate in which maize was replaced
partially and barley grains completely with wheat grains. The composition of group II concen-
trate was, wheat grains 20, maize grains15, mustard cake22, groundnut cake14, wheat bran10,
deoiled rice bran16, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part. The experiment was conducted for
a period of 120 days during which daily feed intake and milk yield, fortnightly body weights, milk
pH, milk fat, total solids, milk protein, milk fat composition, reproductive performance were
recorded. The final body weights were 500.50 and 550.19 kg showing loss of 19.00 kg and gain of
3.62 kg in groups I & II. DM intake (kg/d) was 12.54 and 14.21 kg and DMI/100kg body weight was
2.49 and 2.64 kg in the respective groups. Average milk yield was 8.23 and 8.65 kg/day and fat
corrected milk yield (4%fat) was 11.56 and 12.24 kg showing an increase of 5.10 and 5.88 % in milk
yield and FCM yield/day in group II buffaloes over those of group I. Milk pH was 6.9 and 7.0, milk
fat 6.27 and 6.70, and milk protein 4.26 and 4.31, SNF 10.14 and 10.33 percent respectively in the
two treatment groups. Perusal of the milk fat composition in two groups revealed that short chain
fatty acids were 50.04, 52.09%, stearic acid 11.37, 10.85%; mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
28.28, 28.15%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 2.00 and 1.94 % respectively. DMI/kg milk
yield was 1.53 and 1.66 kg in groups I and II.

220 Nutrient utilisation and performance of milch buffaloes fed mustard cake and sunflower cake
based total mixed rations - B.S. Tewatia, S.S.Khirwar and V.S. Panwar, Department of Animal
Nutrition CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana)

Ten milch Murrah buffaloes weighing on an average 500 kg and running into second
month of their lactation were selected and distributed into two comparable groups of five animals
each. The animals under group-I (TMR-I) were fed calculated quantities of chopped green oats,
wheat straw and mustard cake based concentrate mixture in the form of TMR. The animals under
group-II (TMR-II) were fed sunflower cake based concentrate mixture in TMR. After six
fortnights of experimental feeding, a digestion trial of seven days duration was conducted. Crude
protein content of TMR-I and TMR-II was 11.7 and 11.5 %, respectively. Ether extract, crude fibre
and nitrogen free extract content of TMR-I and TMR-II were 2.92, 1.72; 23.02, 24.01 and 51.62,
51.38 per cent, respectively. The average daily dry matter intake values were 12.3 and 12.4 kg while
average dry matter digestibility coefficients were 61.8 and 62.5 per cent in TMR-I and TMR-II
groups, respectively. The results indicated that dry matter intake and its digestibility did not
differ significantly between experimental groups. The mean values of crude protein, crude fibre
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 137

and NFE digestibility coefficients were 63.9, 54.3, 71.4 and 65.9, 53.7, 73.2 per cent in TMR-I and
TMR-II, respectively. No significant difference could be recorded in NDF, ADF and cellulose
digestibility between the two experimental groups. The mean values of DCP and TDN intake per
day were 918.81g and 7.53 kg under TMR-I while corresponding figures were 939.92g and 7.42kg
under TMR-II. The differences in milk yield and milk composition between TMR,s were statisti-
cally nonsignificant thus indicating that source of protein did not have any effect on milk yield
and its composition in milch buffaloes. The results of the experiment clearly showed that mustard
cake and sunflower cake based TMR,s are efficient in meeting the nutrient requirements of
lactating Murrah buffaloes.

221 Effect of feeding different levels of roughage and concentrate on the performance of lactating
buffaloes - R.S.Yadav, S. Singh, A.K. Varma and M.A. Akbar, Department of Livestock
Production and Management, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004 (Haryana)

An experiment was conducted on eighteen buffaloes (30-45 days calved). These


buffaloes were divided into three homogenous groups on basis of their milk production, lactation
length and body weight. The three groups were randomly allotted to the following treatments viz.
T1 buffaloes were fed roughage and concentrate in the ratio of 60:40, T 2 buffaloes were fed
roughage and concentrate in the ratio of 50:50 and T 3. Buffalos were fed roughage and
concentrate in the ratio of 40:60 The average daily nutrients intake was significantly (p< 0.05)
higher in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. No significant difference was observed in the nutrients
intake between T1 and T3. The nutrients required per kg milk produced was significantly (P< 0.05)
low in T2 as compared to T1. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrients intake
per kg milk produced between T1 and T3 and T2 and T3. Buffaloes were fed roughage and
concentrate in the ratio of 40:60. The average daily milk yield was significantly (P<0.05) higher in
T2 (8.9 kg) as compared to T1 and T3. the milk composition was not significantly influenced by the
treatment. However, the fat percentage was slightly higher (6.94%) in T1 as compared to T2 and T3.
There was no significant difference in body weight of buffaloes during the experiment under
different treatments. The feed cost per kg milk produced was low (Rs. 8.4) in T1 as compared to T2
and T1.

222 Response of compound v/s home made concentrates to milk yield by buffaloes - R.J. Pote and
L.M. Karanjkar, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Marathwada
Agricultural University Parbhani- 431 401 (M.S.)

The experiment, planned with the objectives to evaluate the MAIDC milk ration, its
digestibility and economics, was undertaken at the University Dairy farm for 90 days on sixteen
lactating buffaloes. It (T1) was compared with homemade concentrates (T2) along with required
roughages. The mean values of various parameters were tested by student’s ‘t’ test The mean
daily milk yield ranged from 3.10 to 4.23 lt in T1 and T2 as well. The homemade concentrate and
MAIDC milk ration responded equally to the milk yield. But, feeding of homemade concentrate
138 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase (7.41 %) in milk fat over compounded feed (6.71 %).
Further, yields of FCM showed significant difference (P<0.05) between two treatments; feeding
homemade concentrate had significantly higher FCM yield (3.85 lt) over compounded
concentrate (3.60 lt). The DCP values ranged from 11.32 to 11.54 and from 11.46 to 12.08% under
T1 and T2 with mean of 11.41 and 11.58 %, respectively. The anticipated nutritive values of
homemade concentrate and MAIDC feed were 16% DCP and 70% TDN; however the observed
values under T1 and T2 were less by 28.69 and 27.69 and 27.62 % for DCP; the TDN value was
reduced merely by 4.18 % under T1 but increased by 11.51% in T2. No significant difference could
be recorded for mean DCP values observed (P>0.05); however TDN value of compounded feed
was significantly (P<0.05) superior. It was inferred that both feeds are palatable, nutritious and
enhance the milk yield substantially. Homemade concentrate mixture is equally beneficial for
small farmer because the locally available feed ingredients can be utilized. If a farmer of
commercial dairy entrepreneur can offer little higher price, they can go for to MAIDC milk ration.

223 Performance of milch buffaloes fed sunflower heads based complete feed - S.Anandan, G.K. Anil
Kumar and K.S. Ramachandra, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi,
Bangalore 560 030

Sunflower heads based complete feed was fed to eight milch buffaloes at different
stages of lactation at Kasabe Camp, Raichur, Karnataka for four months. The animals were
compared with those animals under the routine feeding practices followed by the farmers. The
prevailing practice comprised of rice straw based diet wherein compounded feed (around 2 kg) or
rice polish/rice bran/wheat bran (around 4 kg) were given along with rice straw. The initial milk
yield in the control and complete feed fed groups were 5.04 and 5.90 lts/day respectively. The milk
yield at the end of the trial was 5.22 and 7.58 lts/day. An increase of 1.68 lts/day was seen in the
group fed complete feed. The average feed consumption in this group was around 13 kg/day on
as such basis. The Eat % and SNF % in control and treatment groups did not vary throughout the
trial. The results indicated that sunflower heads based complete feeds could, not only be safely
fed to the milching buffaloes but also could increase and sustain the higher milk yield for a longer
duration.

224 Efect of different feeding regimes on nutrient and water intake in lactating Murrah buffaloes
and their calves -Amit Kumar, R.S.Yadav, T.R.Chauhan and N.S.Yadav, Department of Livestock
Production and Management, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004 (Haryana)

Twenty Murrah buffaloes during early lactation (20 days) and their calves (sixteen in
number) were divided into four groups viz., T1 and T3 animals were fed 100% ICAR
recommended level of nutrition while T2 and T4 animals fed 120% ICAR recommendations. T2
and T4 groups in group feeding systems. The feed & fodders were fed conventional concentrate
mixture, green berseem, mustard, sorghum, sugarcane tops and ammoniated wheat straw (4%
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 139

urea) for a period of 180 days. Calves were kept on milk and conventional concentrate mixture
upto three months of age except some green fodder in order to stimulate the rumen. It was
observed that the average daily dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrient intake and
dry matter and crude protein intake were significantly different between levels of feeding both in
buffaloes and calves. TDN intake per 100 kg body weight and per kg W0.75 differed significantly
between levels of feeding, in case of calves. The difference for these parameters between rearing
systems were found non-significant in both except daily dry matter intake, daily TDN intake and
TDN intake per 100 kg body weight in case of buffaloes. Daily voluntary water intake differed
significantly between levels of feeding. However, average voluntary water intake, per kg dry
matter consumed and per kg W 0.75 were non-significant between rearing systems in both
buffaloes and calves. Similar results were obtained for total water intake. The results obtained
clearly showed that nutrient and water intake increased with increase in levels of feeding.

225 Study of physiological states and feeding behvariour of lactating murrah buffaloes and their
calves under different planes of nutrition and rearing systems - Amit Kumar, T.R.Chauhan,
R.S.Yadav and N.S.Yadav, Deptt. of Livestock Production and Management, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004 (Haryana)

Twenty lactating Murrah buffaloes (20 days) and their calves, sixteen in number were
divided into four groups viz. T1 and T3 groups were fed individually while T2 and T4 group in
group feeding system. T1 and T3 animals were fed 100% ICAR recommended level of nutrition,
while T2 and T4 animals fed 120% ICAR recommendations. The feed and fodders were fed
conventional concentrate mixture, green berseem, mustard, sorghum, sugarcane top and
ammoniated wheat straw (4% urea) for a period of 180 days. Calves were kept on milk and
conventional concentrate mixture upto three months of age except some green fodder in order to
stimulate the rumen to become all four part functioning. It was observed that the rectal
temperature and respiration rate were significantly (P<0.01) higher in levels of feeding in
buffaloes but non-significant in calves. Rearing system has no significant difference in above
parameter in both buffaloes and calves. Blood haemoglobin level was found nonsignificant
under different feeding regimes both in buffaloes and calves. Feeding levels significantly
influenced the blood glucose level and plasma protein in both buffaloes and calves. Although
these parameters were not influenced by rearing systems. In case of buffaloes, time spent on
feeding and rumination (8 pm to 9 am) was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by feeding levels. The
difference for these parameters between rearing systems were found non-significant except time
spent on rumination from 8 am to 8 p.m. while in case of calves rearing systems significantly
(P<0.05) influenced time spent on feeding, although differences due to level of feeding were
non-significant. Time spent on rumination was found non-significant. Time spent on rumination
was found non-significant in both feeding levels and rearing systems, in calves.
140 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

226 Effect of pre-partum supplemetary protein on milk production in subsequent


lactation in buffaloes - S.S. Khirwar, B.S. Tewatia and S.S. Grewal1, Department of Animal
Nutrition CCS HAU, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Fifteen Murrah buffaloes in the last quarter of their pregnancy and weighing on an
average 600 kg were divided into three groups. The animals in T1 group were offered wheat straw,
green fodder and concentrate mixture to meet their requirements. Animals in T2 and T3 groups
were offered 15 and 30 % higher protein vis-a-vis T1 group. Animals in all the groups were fed
individually for a period of four fortnights. Feed intake and body weight changes were recorded
at fortnightly intervals and the nutrients supply at each fortnight was revised accordingly.
Average daily dry matter intake varied between 1.80 and 2.00 kg per 100 kg body weight and did
not vary significantly among different treatment groups over different fortnights. Average body
weight gains for four fortnights were 548.9, 626.7 and 693.3g/d, respectively in T 1, T2 and T3
groups. Average body weight (kg) of new born calves was higher in buffaloes offered higher
protein prepartum and the values were 38.8 (T1), 41.4 (T2) and 42.0 (T3). Twenty-one days after
calving the animals were taken for second phase and fed according to their requirements for
maintenance and milk production for a period of three months. Concentrate mixture for the
second phase constituted of crushed wheat (30 parts), crushed barley (33.5), mustard cake (33.5),
mineral mixture (2) and common salt (1). Crude protein, EE, CF, total ash and NFE content of
second phase concentrate mixture was 19.64, 3.64, 7.78, 8.18 and 60.76 per cent, respectively.
Average milk yield (kg) of buffaloes for a period of three months was 10.14 (T1), 10.30 (T2) and
10.61 (T3) and the differences amongst treatment groups were non-significant. Milk composition
did not vary among different groups. Results of present study indicated that increased protein
supply during last two months of pregnancy resulted in higher growth rate of buffaloes with
higher birth weights of new born calves. However, no significant effect on milk yield and milk
composition in subsequent lactation was observed.

227 Nutritional status of buffaloes in Mehsana district of North Gujrat - D. L. Upadhyaya, Subhash
Parnerkar and S. R. Bhagwat, Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506

To study the plane of nutrition of buffaloes, a survey was conducted in five talukas of
Mehasana district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy cooperative network. Two
villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically located apart in
direction and truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each village, 10 farmers
whose animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected ensuring that they truly
1
Department of Livestock Production and Management, HAU, Hisar
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 141

represent animal feeding practices of the village. The average daily milk yield of buffaloes
surveyed was 11.24 (10.0-17.0) kg. The average DCP intake of buffaloes in Vijapur, Keralu, Mehasana,
Visnagar and Kadi taluka was 104.03 (85.94-117.23), 96.33 (74.01-125.60), 103.68 (60.90-152.45),
103.68 (79.53-140.16) and 102.86 (74.03-135.25) per cent of requirement, respectively. The respec-
tive average TDN intake was 102.79 (91.58-116.02), 114.80 (97.37-133.42), 112.31 (98.12-136.60),
124.55 (105.45-138.24) and 127.06 (95.76-156.78) percent of requirement. The overall average DCP
and TDN intake of the buffaloes worked out as 102.12 and 116.30 per cent of requirement
respectively.

228 Feeding plane of buffaloes in the Sabarkantha district of North Gujarat - Parag Ghogale, Subhash
Parnerkar and K.B. Prajapati, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science
and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506

To study the plane of nutrition of buffaloes, a survey was conducted in five talukas of
Sabarkantha district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy cooperative network. Two
villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically located apart in direction and
truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each village, 10 farmers whose
animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected ensuring that they truly
represent animal feeding practices of the village. The average daily milk yield of buffaloes
surveyed was 10.56 (10-11.44) kg. The average DCP intake of buffaloes in Khedbrahma, Idar,
Bhiloda, Bayad and Modasa taluka was 108.6(68.18-142.69), 104.59 (83.36-126.31), 101.06
(84-125.26), 91.16 (67.8-129.37)and 107.15 (77.82-133.61) per cent of requirement, respectively. The
respective average TDN intake was 121.35(97.4-142.69), 104.99(77.3-141.14), 113.01(89.64-125.36),
110.88 (74.18-124.13) and 115.61 (100.44-125.63) percent of requirement. The overall average DCP
and TDN intake of the buffaloes worked out as 101.70 and 112.35 per cent of requirement
respectively.

229 Nutritional status of buffaloes in the Banaskantha district of North Gujarat - Subhash Parnerkar,
Mehul Patel, Sanjay Patil, S. Zadbuke and S. R. Bhagwat, Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University
Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506
To study the nutritional status of buffaloes, a survey was conducted in five talukas of
Banaskantha district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy cooperative network. Two
villages were selected in each taluka, which were geographically located apart in direction and
truly represent the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each village, 10 farmers whose
animals produced at least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected ensuring that they truly
142 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

represent animal feeding practices of the village. The average DCP intake of buffaloes in Dantiwada,
Palanpur, Deesa, Deodar and Vadgam taluka was 120.40 (71.90-182.43), 122.38 (86.08-174.17),
126.17 (84.91-174.11), 123.12 (51.22-162.46) and 96.26 (61.50-117.06) per cent of requirement,
respectively. The respective average TDN intake was 109.25(69.97-143.33), 120.75 (87.57-157.02),
114.80 (70.42-149.73), 120.03 (93.88-150.86) and 115.89 (77.11-133.54) percent of requirement. The
overall average DCP and TDN intake of the buffaloes worked out as 117.67 and 116.14 per cent of
requirement respectively.

230 Feeding plane of buffaloes in the Patan district of North Gujarat - M. R. Chavda, Subhash
Parnerkar and S. R. Bhagwat, Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506

To study the plane of nutrition of buffaloes, a survey was conducted in five talukas of Patan
district of North Gujarat, which has well-developed dairy cooperative network. Two villages were
selected in each taluka, which were geographically located apart in direction and truly represent
the animal husbandry practices of taluka. In each village, 10 farmers whose animals produced at
least 10 kg or more milk per day were selected ensuring that they truly represent animal feeding
practices of the village. The average daily milk yield of buffaloes surveyed was 11.24 (10.0-17.0)
kg. The average DCP intake of buffaloes in Siddhpur, Patan, Chansma, Harij and Sami taluka was
104.03 (85.94-117.23), 96.33 (74.01-125.60), 103.68 (60.90-152.45), 103.68 (79.53-140.16) and 102.86
(74.03-135.25) per cent of requirement, respectively. The respective average TDN intake was
102.79 (91.58-116.02), 114.80 (97.37-133.42), 112.31 (98.12-136.60), 124.55 (105.45-138.24) and 127.06
(95.76-156.78) percent of requirement. The overall average DCP and TDN intake of the buffaloes
worked out as 102.12 and 116.30 per cent of requirement respectively.

231 Nutritional Status of buffaloes in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh - Himanshu Pandey,
R.S. Jaiswal, Ripusudan Kumar and Anand Singh, Department of Livestock Production and
Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture
and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal)

A study was conducted in five tehsils of Kanpur Dehat district for evaluate the nutritional status
of buffaloes by 140 farmers having land holding. More number of buffaloes were kept by each
categories of the land holding farmers. The average dry matter supply was 2.36, 2.35, 2.01 and 2.52
kg/day in calves, 3.72, 3.99, 4.82 and 4.21 kg/day in non milch and 8.74, 8.92, 8.96 and 8.57 kg/day
in milch buffaloes in marginal, small, medium and large categories of farmers respectively. The
average DCP intake by animals of corresponding categories was deficit by 0.04, 0.05, 0.06 and 0.09
gm/day in calves, 0.06, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.08 gm/day in non milch and 0.36, 0.39, 0.40 and 0.41 gm/day
in milch buffaloes. The average TDN supply was 0.97, 1.06, 0.82 and 1.06 in calves. It is too lower
than other than two groups. Small categories of the farmers given too much green fodder but not
fulfill the requirement of concentrate but medium and large categories of the farmers fulfill the
nutritional need of the farmers. Production status of the each category of farmers is too well in the
study areas.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 143

232 Feeding practices of Murrah buffaloes in the home tract of Haryana - S.R. Bhardwaj, H.K. Gulati
and R.S.Yadav, Department of Livestock Production and Management, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Based on cross-section data of 240 farmers in home tract of Murrah buffaloes in Haryana, the
feeding practices were worked out. About 84% of the farmers do not follow the recommended
feeding practices. They feed home-prepared concentrate according to their economic conditions.
Majority (75%) feed roughage three times in a day. Eighty-one persent of respondents are
feeding the concentrate twice in a day at the time of milking. More than 50% farmers give 10-15 kg
green fodder and 5-10 kg dry fodder to an animal per day. Majority (78%) respondents feed extra
ration to pregnant animals in the form of concentrates. The feeding has been done in the form of
mixture of green and dry fodder by two third of the respondents. All the respondents provide
chaffed green fodder to the animals. Concentrate has been provided to the animals after boiling
whole ingredients. Eighty percent respondents do not feed mineral mixture & common salt
regularly to their animals. Half of the respondents use bucket to provide drinking water. The most
common source of water is water works. Watering is done three times a day to the animals by 77%
of the farmers.

233 Effect of different levels of roughage & concentrate on growth, reproduction and production
performance of growing Murrah buffalo heifers - M.S. Saini, D. Prasad, R.S. Yadav and S.S.
Grewal, Department of Livestock Production & Management, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar-125 004

Murrah buffalo heifers (24) at the age of about 8 months were divided into three
homogenous groups of 8 heifers each on the basis of their body weight. They were fed
concentrate and roughages in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and denoted as G1, G2 and G3. The
feeding schedule continued till their first heat (sexual maturity). Thereafter, the heifers were
placed on feeding schedule of pregnant buffalo as per ICAR (1985). Bimonth1y body weight, age
at first heat, weight at first heat, age at first conception number of insemination per conception
weight at first conception, age at first calving, weight at first calving and average peak yield were
recorded. Although there were some numerical variation in weight in growing period due to
different concentrate level, weight at first heat (346, 350 and 356 kg) did not differ significantly.
Age at first heat was lower (878, 907 and 1001 d) in G1, but age at first conception was higher (1022,
980, and 991 d) in G1 as compared to G2 and G3 due to higher number of inseminations per
conception (3.75, 1.85 and 2.57). The weight at first conception were almost similar in all the three
groups (419, 418 and 417 kg). The age at first calving (1328, 1290 and 1298d) and weight at first
calving (486, 477 and 480 kg) were not affected due to feeding regimes. The average peak yield
(9.1, 9.0 and 9.3 kg) has been recorded and it has not been affected due to previous treatments. It
may be concluded that lower level of concentrate to roughage ratio (1:3) during growing period
sustain proper growth and reproduction in buffalo heifers as compared to higher level of
concentrate to roughage ratio (1:1 or 1:2).
144 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

234 Sustainability and feeding of high yielding buffaloes under field vis a vis farm conditions - D. Lal,
V.B. Dixit, S. Khanna, A. Saini and T.R. Chauhan, Buffalo Nutrition Division, Central Institute for
Research on Buffaloes, Sisra Road, Hisar

Hisar and its nearby areas come under the native breeding tract of Murrah buffaloes.
There are a few high yielding buffaloes giving about 18-20 kg milk daily. The feeding practices of
five such buffaloes were studied in the adopted villages under the field conditions. There animals
were fed variety of energy rich feed ingredients like cotton seeds, wheat, bajra, black gram
fenugreek seeds etc. in the boiled form; cotton seed cake (soaked) mixed with straw and green
(sanni) in the traditional manner. These animals were able to meet their nutrients requirements
when calculations were made at the farmers doorsteps. The daily dry matter intake of these
animals were 16-17 kg. however when similar information was collected on eight such high yield
buffaloes shifted from villages, brought and reared under farm conditions, there was a drop in
milk production upto 30-40 per cent within a month, because of the reason that desired DMI could
not be achieved. Meeting the energy requirements of these buffaloes is a challenge because of
the physiological limits of DMI. Thus it is concluded that feeding of high producing buffaloes to
meet their nutrients requirements is more of an art rather then following the simple thumb rules of
nutrition.

235 Comparative response of loose house and village type house on the performance of buffalo
heifers during winter - L.R.Gupta, I.J.Juneja, R.S.Yadav, Hari Om and S.S.Grewal, Deptt. of LP.M.
CCSHAU, Hisar -125 004 (Haryana)

Fifteen Murrah buffalo heifers (13-18 months) were divided into three groups on the
basis of body weight and age and were allotted to 3 type of houses i.e. (T1 loose house, T2 loose
house & mud roof and T3 village type closed house with kucha floor). The dry matter and water
intake was affected (P<0.05) by type of housing. The buffalo heifers reared on kutcha floor (T3)
house consumed more (P<0.05) dry matter than those kept in T2 group. No significant difference
in the dry matter intake among the buffalo heifers of T1 and T3 as well as T1 and T2 group was
observed. The daily voluntary water intake in T3 (14.44±0.616 litre) was more (p< 0.05) than T1
(12.26±0.786 litre) group heifers. There was no significant difference in daily water intake of T1
and T2 as well as T2 and T3 groups. The same trend was observed when voluntary water intake
per kg dry matter intake was calculated. The respiration rate did not differ but rectal temperature
was effected (P<0.05) by the system of housing. The rectal temperature was higher (P<0.05) in T3
heifers than T1 heifers in the morning, whereas; rectal temperature in the evening was not af-
fected by treatments. The mean daily weight gain in T1, T2 and T3 was 0.508±0.030, 0.521±0.030
and 0.435±0.020 kg., respectively. The buffalo heifers maintained on kucha floor (T3) had lowest
(P <0.05) daily weight gain as compared to other groups. The feed cost per kg gain in T1, T2 and
T3 was Rs. 33.78, 32.21 and 39.91, respectively. It is inferred that loose house as superior to village
type closed barn house for buffalo heifers.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 145

236 Intake and utilization of nutrients in male buffalo calves in loose and closed house during
winter - L.R.Gupta, I.J.Juneja, Hari Om, R.S.Yadav and S.S.Grewal, Deptt. of L.P.M. CCSHAU,
Hisar -125 004 (Haryana)

Ten Murrah male buffalo calves of 12-13 months of age were divided into two groups on
the basis of their body weight and age and allotted in two type of (T1 loose house and T2 closed
barn) houses during winter (Nov. to March 2003). The calves were fed green jowar and berseem
as roughage and concentrate mixture as per their requirements. The mean dry matter intake per
100 kg body weight in T1 and T2 group calves was 2.58±0.110 and 2.82±0.101 kg, respectively.
The mean daily voluntary water intake in T1 and T2 calves was 7.55±0.455 and 7.99±0.483 litres,
respectively. The differences were statistically non-significant. The digestibility of nutrients was
not affected significantly by the type of houses. The respiration rate and rectal temperature both
in the morning and evening were not affected significantly by treatments. The daily mean live
weight gain was 0.397±0.035 and 0.381±0.028 kg. in T1 and T2 group calves, respectively. The
mean dry matter intake per kg body weight gain was 9.67±0.551 and 11.62±0.821 kg., respectively.
This showed that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency was not affected significantly by
housing system. The average feed cost per kg gain inT1 and T2 was Rs. 31.01 and Rs. 33.48,
respectively. It is inferred that male buffalo calves could be maintained in loose house during
winter without any adverse effect. Thus construction of costly house is not warranted.

237 Effect of various levels of cotton seed feeding on the growth performance of surti buffalo heifers -
J.L. Chaudhary1, Hem Raj Jat2 and C.M. Yadav3, Department of Animal Production, Rajasthan
College of Agriculture, Udaipur - 313 001 (Rajasthan)

A study on 18 growing surti buffalo heifers was conducted for 120 days from february to
June, to assess the effect of three levels of (T1 zero percent, T2 30 percent and T3 60 percent)
cotton seed feeding on nutrient intake, digestibility of nutrients and growth performance in surti
buffalo heifers. Average dry matter intake and daily body weight gain in groups T1, T2 and T3 were
5.77±0.69, 5.95±0.85 and 6.08±1.02 kg/day; 0.533±19.03, 0.583 ±21.36 and 654±77.20 kg/day,
respectively and variation among groups were non significant in DMI/day. But daily body weight
gain was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in T3 than T2 and T1 heifers. Digestibility coefficient of DM
and OM were higher (P<0.05) in T3 group as compared to T1 group. There was no difference in
digestibility coefficient of these nutrients among T3 and T2 groups. Similarly, digestibility
coefficient of CP was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 than T2 and T1. The digestibility of CF, EE
and NFE was not affected by different levels of cotton seed feeding. It may be inferred from this
study cotton seed may be fed 60 percent or 30 percent in concentrate mixture for optimum growth
rate and nutrient utilization in growing buffalo heifers.
1
Asstt. Professor; 2 Ph.D. Scholar; 3
Senior Research Fellow
146 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

238 Effect of feeding total mixed rations on nutrient utilisation and growth performance of pregnant
buffalo heifers - Mahesh Ahlawat, S.S. Khirwar and T.R.Chauhan1, Department of Animal
Nutrition, CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana)

Eighteen Murrah buffalo heifers weighing on an average 425 kg and running into last
quarter of their pregnancy were selected and distributed into three comparable groups of six
animals each. The animals under group-I (T1) were fed calculated quantities of chopped sorghum
green, wheat straw and groundnut cake based concentrate mixture in the form of total mixed
ration (TMR). The groundnut cake was replaced by sunflower cake and mustard cake under
group-II (T2) and group-III (T3). The animals were fed individually for a period of 90 days, at the
end of which a digestion trial of seven days duration was conducted. The mean value of
fortnightly total dry matter intake of the experimental heifers over a progressive period (90 days)
indicated that daily total dry matter intake was 9.45, 9.53 and 9.36 kg in T1, T2 and T3 groups,
respectively. The dry matter intake values per kg metabolic body size were 91.62, 92.32 and 90.39
g in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The differences amongst treatment group were nonsignificant.
The average dry matter digestibility coefficients were 68.91, 68.88 and 68.38 per cent in T1, T2 and
T3 groups, respectively. The mean values of DCP intake per day were 840.0, 830.0 and 830.0 g and
the differences of DCP intake per day were non-significant. The values of TDN intake (kg/day)
per day in treatments T1, T2 and T3 were 5.53, 5.34 and 6.28, respectively. DCP and TDN intakes
were not affected by incorporation of sunflower cake and mustard cake in place of groundnut
cake in the ration of pregnant Murrah buffalo heifers. Total body weight gain during the
experimental period was 63.33, 63.83 and 65.00 kg in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The body weight
gain (g/day) was 703.70, 709.26 and 722.22, respectively. The cost of concentrate mixture (Rs/per
kg) was 6.26, 5.51 and 5.80 in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The respective figures of average
daily feeding cost per animals were Rs. 38.79, 35.79 and 36.95 in respective treatments and the
cost of daily feeding was more in T1 as compared to T2 and T3.The results of this study clearly
indicate that by incorporating cheap sources of protein like sunflower cake and mustard cake in
place of costly groundnut cake, feeding cost could be reduced significantly without any adverse
effect on growth and nutrient utilization in pregnant buffalo heifers.

239 Feeding plane of pregnant cattle and buffalo in Karnal district of Haryana - D.V. Dahiya, V.K.
Paliwal and S.S. Khirwar, Department of Animal Nutrition,CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana),

A survey was conducted to study the plane of nutrition and conventional feeding of pregnant
cattle and buffalo in Karnal district of Haryana. From each of the two blocks, three villages were
randomly selected. Twenty families from each village, rearing cattle and buffalo belonging to four
1
Central Institute of Research on Buffaloes, Hisar
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 147

categories, namely landless, small (having up to 5 acres of irrigated land), medium (having 5 to 10
acres of irrigated land) and large (having more than 10 acres of irrigated land) were selected to
collect data on the plane of feeding pregnant cattle and buffalo. The area (% of cultivated land)
under fodder crop shown by small, medium and large farmers was 18.70, 11.58 and 5.95 per cent
during kharif and 18.14, 11.44 and 5.98 per cent during rabi season, respectively. Sorghum
(Sorghum bicolor) and barseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) were the main fodder crop during the
kharif and rabi season, respectively. Among the energy feeds, farmers were using wheat flour,
wheat dalia, gram husk, wheat bran and rice polish. Mustard cake was the main source of protein
followed by cotton seed cake. The DMI (kg/100kg body weight) was 2.37, 2.33, 2.52 and 2.57 in
cattle owned by large, medium, small and landless farmers, whereas the corresponding figures of
the DMI in buffalo were 2.19, 2.32, 2.17 and 2.29, respectively. Average TDN intake of cattle reared
by large, medium, small and land less farmers was 5.99, 6.14, 1.67 and 0.64 percent less than
requirement, while in buffalo the deficit was of the order of 0.12, 5.24, 14.20 and 11.35 per cent
respectively. Protein was fed 20.72, 25.88, 22.60 and 27.98 percent higher in cattle reared by large,
medium, small and land less farmers while it was and 13.31, 24.62, 12.60 and 4.21 percent higher in
buffaloes than requirement. Significantly (P<0.05) less TDN was supplied to pregnant buffaloes
by all categories of farmers while buffaloes of large and medium and small and landless farmers
did not differ among themselves between protein supplied vis-a-vis required. Pregnant cattle did
not differ significantly in TDN supplied vis-a-vis- required irrespective of categories of farmers
where as significantly (P<0.05) higher protein was supplied by medium, small and land less
farmers while it was similar in large farmers. This clearly reflects that pregnant cattle and buffalo
were getting less energy and excess protein than requirement.

240 Feeds and feeding practices of buffaloes in Jaipur City of Rajasthan - Sanjita Sharma1, Vishnu
Sharma, B.K. Sharma and P.K. Mehrotra, Apex Centre (RAU), SFS, IV sector, Mansarovar,
Jaipur (Rajasthan)

Jaipur is having highest buffalo population in Rajasthan. Most of farmers are engaged
in buffalo farming. A survey was conducted to study the feeds & feeding practices of buffaloes
in Jaipur city. For this out of total 14 Veterinary hospital areas four areas were selected. Total 12
farmers from each area were selected and categorized according to animal holding viz, less than 5,
6-10 and more than 10 buffaloes.It was reveled that commonly used green fodder is Berseem,
Bajra Kasni, Jowar and local Makra grass. The dry fodder used were mainly wheat straw and
Bajra straw. Commonly used concentrate ingredients are Cotton seed cake, Til cake, Mustard
cake, Chana churi, Moong churi, Guar churi, Wheat bran and deoiled rice bran. Frequency of
feeding is twice a day and concentrates offered in all the forms like mash/pellets. Soaking and
boiling are commonly used pretreatment. Mineral and Vitamin supplementation is least adopted
regular practice. During gestation no spatial nutrient allowance is provided by most of the
farmers. However at time of parturition Methi, Jaggery and Ajwain is given for 10-30 days. It was
reveled that availability of ingredients differ significantly among seasons and socioeconomic
condition of the farmers and the amount of concentrate also varied according to the milk yield and
economic status of the farmers. The adoption of principles of scientific feeding is on low score.
1
Mailing address : 8/C-54 Pratap Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Rajasthan
148 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

241 Effect of feeding management practices on performance of female buffalo calves - O.P. Mehla,
R.S.Yadav, Naresh Kumar and H.K.Gulati, Deptt. of Livestock Production & Management, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004 (Haryana)

The study was conducted on twenty Murrah female buffalo calves between 8-10 months
of age were divided into four homogeneous groups according to their body weight and age.
These four groups were randomly allotted to different feeding mangement practices viz. T1 calves
were fed concentrate mixture containing mustard cake as a source of protein + concentrate and
roughage feeding once in a day, T2 fed concentrate mixture containing mustard cake as source of
protein + two times concentrate and roughage feeding, T3 fed concentrate mixture containing
cotton seed cake as a source of protein + concentrate and roughage feeding once in a day and T4
fed concentrate mixture containing cotton seed cake as a source of protein + two times roughage
and concentrate feeding in a day. The average daily dry matter, crude protein and total digestible
nutrients intake of buffalo calves was not significantly influenced by the treatments. Similar
results were obtained for nutrients intake per kg body weight gain. The average daily body
weight was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in calves fed mustard cake as source protein in the
concentrate as compared to those fed cotton seed cake as a source of protein in the ration. Similar
results were obtained for increase in body length of buffalo calves. However, increase, height,
heart girth and abdominal girth were not significantly influenced by the treatments. Cost per kg
gain was lowest (Rs. 17.36) in T1 as compared to other treatments.

242 Effect of replacement of wheat bhoosa with mustard straw on growth performance of pre-
pubertal heifers - S.K. Sunda, O.P. Lohan and Nand Kishore, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Effect of feeding mustard straw on 18 growing buffalo heifers of similar body weight was
studied using three groups of six animals in each treatment. The group T1 was offered
complete feed blocks having concentrate and wheat bhoosa, whereas in T2 and T3 20% and 30%
wheat bhoosa was replaced with mustard straw respectively. In each treatment, roughage to
concentrate ratio was kept to 60:40. All the rations were isonitrogenous. To prepare the complete
feed blocks, roughage portion was mixed with 15% molasses and then with concentrate mixture
thoroughly and compressed in hydraulic block making machine. A growth trial of 90 days was
followed by a digestion trial of 6 days. The complete feed blocks were offered ad lib and the
intake was recorded. The daily DM intake per 100 kg body weight was wimilar and the values were
1.92, 1.91 and 1.69 in treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The digestibility co-efficients of DM,
CP, CF and EE were slightly decreased in T2 and T3 treatments, however, the differences were
non-significant. The digestibility coefficient of NFE was decreased significantly due to the
addition of mustard straw in the ration. The DCP content of treatments were almost same, whereas,
the TDN content decreased in treatment T2 and T3. The initial body weight of different groups
was 261.67, 261.63, 261.60 kg, in treatment T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The average daily gain was
506, 423 and 355 g, in treatment T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The daily gain was significantly higher
in T1 treatment as compared to both T2 and T3 treatments. It can be concluded that replacement of
wheat bhoosa with mustard straw had adverse affect on the growth of animals.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 149

243 Feeding practices and economics of milk production in buffaloes of Mahakosal region of M.P. -
S. Nayak, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur

There are about 516 big dairies (Jabalpur, 349; Mandla, 65; Katani, 57) in Mahakosal
region. In these dairies, more than 200 buffaloes are maintained by the farmers. Survey of 15
dairies of Jabalpur area was done to study the feeding practices and economics of milk
production of buffaloes in this region of Madhya Pradesh. In general, it was observed that
common fodder available for feeding of buffaloes in this area was green M.P. Chari, maize and
jowar in Kharif season (June to September) & green berseem during Rabi season (Oct. to April).
The wheat straw constitutes the major portion of roughage fed to these buffaloes. The average
milk production of buffaloes recorded was 10-12 kg/animal/day. In most of the dairy farms routine
feeding practice observed was to feed about 8 kg of wheat straw, 10kg of available green fodder
and 8 kg of concentrate mixture/animal/day for about 10-12kg of milk production. Normally for
each 2kg of milk production about lkg, concentrate mixture was offered to animals. Normally, the
concentrate mixture is prepared using maize, mustard cake, wheat bran, gram chuni, arhar chuni &
gram husk. The proportion of maize, cake, chuni and wheat bran was 1:1:7:7. On an average 8 kg
concentrate mixture was fed daily divided in the morning and evening preferably prior to milking.
Daily about 50g common salt and 100ml of mustard oil/animal/day was also fed to each milking
buffaloes. The mineral mixture was mostly not fed to animals. Thus, it was realized that these
animals are over fed and not fed the balance feed. The cost of feed calculated was about
Rs. 70-/ day (Wheat straw, 8kg Rs. 12/-; Concentrate mixture, 8 kg Rs. 48, Green roughage about
10 kg Rs. 10/-). While, the cost of milk production was Rs. 140/- per day. Thus, over and above the
feed cost there was net return of Rs. 70 - day from each milking buffaloes. If we consider the
expenditure on other items per animal per day it may be accounted to Rs. 20/- day. Thus, out of
each milking buffalo there is net profit of Rs. 50/- day. If we calculate the cost of milk production, it
comes to about Rs. 9/- per kg.

244 Influence of family size of farmers on feeding and production performance of buffaloes - S. B.
Shinde and Aruna B. Bobade, Department of Animal Science and Dairy Science,College of
Agriculture, Pune - 411 003; M.P.K.V. Rahuri (Maharashtra)

Influence of family size of sixty dairy farmers on feeding and production performance of
Murrah buffaloes was studied by grouping them into four groups. Group I: less than 2
members, Group II: 3 to 5 members, Group III: 6 to 10 members and Group IV: more than 10
members. It was noticed that with increasing size of the family the feeding of green and dry
roughages increased significantly with highest values of 23.5 and 12.0 kg/day/buffalo
respectively (group IV). As regard to concentrates feeding, it was found that significantly high-
est quantity of 9.0 kg/day/buffalo was fed by group I than rest of the groups. Among group II, III
and IV the quantities of concentrates fed did not differ significantly. The significantly higher milk
production of 8.5 lit/day/buffalo was noticed in group III than that of group II and IV. The fat
content of 8.5 % was significantly higher in group IV than rest of the groups. Similar trend was
observed in case of SNF (10.33 %) and TS (18.68% )contents of milk of group IV.
150 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

245 Influence of educational status of farmers on feeding and production performance of buffaloes -
S.B. Shinde and Aruna B. Bobade, Department of Animal Science and Dairy Science, College of
Agriculture, Pune - 411 003; M.P.K.V. Rahuri (Maharashtra)

Influence of educational status of sixty dairy farmers on feeding and production perfor-
mance of Murrah buffaloes was studied by grouping them into four groups. Group I: Illiterate,
Group II: Primary education, Group III : Secondary education, Group IV: Higher secondary
education. All these respondents were feeding green fodder to milch buffaloes throughout the
year. The overall average quantity fed was 19.83 kg./day/buffalo. The differences among the
groups were non significant. However, the highest quantity of 22.54 kg/day/buffalo was fed by
group I followed by group II (20.9 kg), group III(19.00kg), group and 17.30 by group IV,
respectively. The decreasing trend in feeding of green fodder to buffaloes was observed among
the groups. The significant differences were noticed in feeding of dry fodder by different groups.
Significantly lower quantity (6.6kg/day/buffalo) was fed by group I than rest of the groups. All
groups practiced feeding of concentrate mixture with overall average quantity fed was 6.1 kg/
day/buffalo. The highest quantity offered was 6.7 kg by group IV and lowest (6.1 kg) by group I.
However, there were non significant differences among the groups. The milk production of
buffalos from different groups did not differ significantly. The daily milk production of 8.3lit./
buffalo was found in group II. The overall average daily milk production was 7.8 lit. The fat
content of milk of group IV (7.8%) was significantly higher than group I and III, respectively. The
SNF content (9.92%) and TS content (17.7 %) of milk were significantly higher in this group.

246 Studies on feeding pattern followed at private commercial buffalo dairy farms - S.B. Shinde and
Aruna B. Bobade, Department of Animal Science and Dairy Science, College of Agriculture,
Pune - 411 003; M.P.K.V. Rahuri (Maharashtra)

A study was under taken to know the feeding pattern followed at the private buffalo
dairy farms located around Pune city. In all sixty farms were randomly selected and grouped into
Group I -less than 10 buffaloes, Group II - 11 to 25 buffaloes, Group III - 26 to 50 buffaloes and
Group IV-more than 50 buffaloes. It was observed that almost all the groups were offering green
fodder throughout the year to their milking buffaloes. The overall average quantity fed was 22.76
kg./Buffalo/day. Group IV offered the highest quantity of 27.6 kg, while the lowest quantity of
17.66 kg. was fed by group I. The highest quantity of dry fodder (10.38kg/day/buffalo) was fed by
group IV and lowest (8.7kg) by group II. The over all average quantity of dry fodder (9.84 kg) fed
was almost uniform in all the groups. Therazing of buffalo and chaffing of roughages was also a
common practice in all the groups (100%). 43.33 % respondents followed feeding of home made
concentrate mixture. Among the different groups 60 % respondents from group IV adopted this
practice while lowest percent (26.66) was noticed in-group I. The common ingredients used for
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 151

making home made concentrate mixture were cotton seed cake, ground nut cake, coconut cake,
crushed sorghum, maize, wheat grains, gram chuni and bhusa. All the respondents from four
groups (100%) were feeding concentrates to their buffaloes either of home made or ready made
type. The overall average quantity of concentrate mixture offered was 5.57 kg/day/buffalo. The
lowest quantity of 4.2 kg was fed by group I . The highest quantity of 6.6 kg was offered by group
IV. The feeding of cooked Bajra grains along with jaggery to freshly calved buffaloes was also
practiced by all groups with varying percentages of 33.33, 93.33, 86.66 and 100.00 in group I to IV,
respectively. Feeding of mineral mixture was also practiced by all groups The highest percentage
(33.33%) of respondents adopting this practice was in-group IV indicative of the fact that still
large number of respondents were not feeding mineral mixture to their buffaloes.

247 Comparative palatability of mustard (BrasSsica juncea) seed cake and til (Sesamum indicum)
seed cake and its effect on production performance of Tharparkar cattle in arid zone - .B.K.
Mathur, A.K. Patel, A.C. Mathur, S.K. Kaushish and Ramesh Chandra Bohra, Central Arid Zone
Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

Mustard (Brasssica juncea ) crop is grown for oil in western Rajasthan, however
mustard seed cake is not incorporated in ration of cattle in arid zone. A comparative study was
conducted to understand the effect of feeding mustard seed cake in lactating Tharparkar cattle.
Experiment was conducted using eight Tharparkar cows divided into two equal groups of four
each, forming control (T1 replacing 25% concentrate by water soaked, til seed cake (41.4% CP),
and treatment (T2) water soaked mustard seed cake (32.90% CP). The cake and water optimum
ratio worked out was 1:3 and 1:2 for Til and mustard seed cake respectively. Til seed cake mixed
ration was well acceptable and palatable to cattle from very first day where as mustard seed cake
containing ration for the first fortnight, was less acceptable (25 to 30% left) their after cattle
developed taste and accepted it. The average fortnight milk yield was 84.57±2.35 and 78.83±1.76
liters for T1 and T2 group, respectively. The calving interval observed was 396±20.84 and 393±15.24
days in T 1 and T 2 groups respectively. Average time taken for expulsion of
placenta was more or less same in T1 and T2 groups i.e. 03.00±00.14 and 3.11±00.22 hours
respectively. The hemoglobin and blood biochemistry viz glucose, total portion, albumin and
urea showed non- significant differences, however MSC fed group showed higher values for
globulin and cholesterol. Study revealed higher acceptability, palatability and milk yield of cows
in which concentrate was replaced on weight basis by til seed cake in comparison to mustard
seed cake fed group, however non significant difference on reproductive health parameters was
observed.
152 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

248 Superiority in terms of nutrient utilization and milk yield ability of total mixed ration over
control in lactating cattle - R.K. Sohane, P.B. Jha and Asha Kumari, Rajendra Agricultural
University, Bihar Pusa, Samastipur - 848 125

A study on 10 lactating crossbred cows were conducted for 120 days during rabi season
(November, 2002 to March, 2003) to see the effect of a promising total mixed ration which was
selected through growth trials. The ten lactating cows (2-4 lactation period) were divided into two
groups of five each. One groups of cows was fed the TMR while the other group was fed the
control. The total mixed ration contained green berseem mixed with oat and paddy straw 60 parts
by weight as a roughages and 40 parts concentrate mixture incorporating locally available feed
stuff like maize, wheat bran, mustard cake, linseed cake, mineral mixture and common salt in the
ratio of 34, 33, 15, 15, 2 and 1 per cent respectively. The TMRs was analysed for proximate
principles cell wall and mineral composition. The results indicated that daily dry matter was
substantially higher in TMR as compared to control. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM,
CP, NDF, HC were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TMR as compared to control. Significant
difference (P<0.05) existed with respect to average milk yield of cows on feeding of control and
TMR which were 6.31 and 9.26 kg/day, respectively. The corresponding values of the fat content
were 3.20 and 3.96 per cent, respectively. It was inferred from the present study that TMR
consisting of 60 per cent roughage and 40 per cent concentrate is desirable for crossbred cows
yielding 8-10 kg milk/day and also for increasing milk production efficiency and profit from the
dairy programme.

249 Evaluation of Total Mixed Rations in Crossbred Cattle - S.S. Chauhan and P.C. Saxena,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, U. S. Nagar, Uttaranchal,

An experiment using 18 growing crossbred heifers of around 100 Kg body weight were
divided into three groups of six animals in each. Three Total Mixed Rations comprising of local
feed stuffs were fed to the above heifers. The results revealed that total organic matter intake was
5676.69, 4534.27 and 4663.72 g/day in the treatments I, II and III, respectively. Group I showed the
highest and significantly (P<0.05) different value than group II and III. The later two groups did
not differ significantly. TMR # I had significantly highest (P<0.05) value of CP intake (739.33 g/
day) followed by TMR # II (552.03 g/day) and TMR # III (511.63 g/day). The last two values did
not differ significantly. The intake of total crude fibre was significantly higher in group I (1596.30
g/day) than group II (1264.44 g/day) and group III (1242.51 g/day). The gross gain of heifers on
three TMR’s at 75th day of the trial were noted as significantly highest (P<0.05) in TI (38.58)
followed by TII (34.17) and TIII (32.25) TII and TIII did not differ statistically. The body gains at the
end of the experiment i.e. after three months were noted as highest in TI having 47.25 Kg and
lowest in TIII (40.08 Kg). TII had medium gain and the value was 43.33.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 153

250 Effect of feeding untreated and treated soybean cake on lactation curve based on linear
regression in crossbred cows - S.R. Bhagwat1 and Arun Srivastava2, Department of Animal
Nutrition, Veterinary College, G.A.U., Sardarkrushinagar Gujrat-385 506

Sixteen crossbred cows maintained at N.D.R.I., Karnal were randomly distributed in to


four groups of four each. They were fed green maize and concentrate mixture. However Soybean
cake was incorporated in untreated form, (Group-I) and after heat treatment at 140o C for 4 hrs
(Group-II ), formaldehyde treatment with 1 per cent v/w of protein (Group-III) and tannic acid
treatment with 10 per cent w/w of cake (Group-IV) in order to protect the protein in concentrate
mixture. Mean total FCM yield and 4% FCM in 120 days were 1368.67 and 11.41 in untreated,
1288.03 and 10.93 in heat treated, 1370.98 and 11.41 in formaldehyde treated and 1446.07 and 12.05
kg in tannic acid treated groups, respectively. Based on daily milk yield for 120 days linear
regression was fitted and the regression coefficients (b) and constant (A) estimated as Y=A+bt.
Values were 13.39 and -0.0139 in Group-I, 14.33.and -0.0334 in Group-II, 12.01 and -0.0101 in
Group-III and 14.40 and -0.0253 in Group-IV, respectively. Results indicated that though the milk
yield was higher in tannic acid followed by heat and untreated and was minimum in formaldehyde
the rate of decrease was maximum in heat followed by tannic acid and untreated and minimum in
formaldehyde treated groups.

251 Comparative feeding plane of milch cattle and milch cattle and buffalo in Karnal district of
Haryana - D.V. Dahiya, V.K. Paliwal and S.S. Khirwar, Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

A survey was conducted in Karnal district of Haryana on 120 respondents in the


category of landless, small (having up to 5 acres of irrigated land), medium (having 5 to 10 acres
of irrigated land) and large (having more than 10 acres of irrigated land), taken randomly to study
the plane of nutrition of milch cattle and buffalo reared by them. The area under fodder crops
(acres) during kharif sown by small, medium and large farmers was 0.66, 0.99 and 1.36 and
corresponding figures for rabi season were 0.63, 0.96 and 1.44, respectively. The average
livestock population increased progressively and significantly (p<0.05) with the increase in land
holding of the farmers. Large category of the farmers had significantly (p<0.05) more number of
milch cattle and buffalo than other categories of the farmers. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in
kharif and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) in rabi season were the major fodder crops.
Different wheat products, byproducts of wheat, gram husk and oil cakes especially mustard oil
cake were the feed ingredients used by different categories of farmers for feeding to their milch
animals. The average daily milk yield per family from cattle and buffalo was 5.48 and 11.56 kg,
respectively. The values for DMI (kg) per 100 kg body weight were 3.12, 2.75, 2.89 and 3.04 in
1
Associate Professor; 2 Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, N.D.R.I., Karnal.
154 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

milch cattle owned by landless, small, marginal and large farmers, respectively. While the
corresponding figures for milch buffaloes were 2.54, 2.46, 2.67 and 2.65, respectively. Average
TDN intake for milch cows reared by landless, small, marginal and large farmers was 7.31, 0.57, and
0.70 and 10.69 percent higher than required. The buffaloes reared by landless, medium, and large
categories of farmers were consuming 2.98, 1.87, and 4.83 percent higher TDN,
respectively, where as the milch buffaloes maintained by small farmers were getting 0.40 percent
less TDN than the required. The comparison of protein requirement and supply revealed that the
cattle reared by landless, small, medium and large categories of farmers were receiving 1.55, 9.75,
21.25 and 11.52 percent higher protein than required. While the buffaloes reared by the landless
and medium farmers were getting 5.19 and 2.89 percent excess protein and of small and large
farmers were receiving 0.73 and 0.36 percent less protein than the required. This showed that the
small and large farmers were supplying marginally lower amount of protein in the diet of milch
buffaloes. These observations are interesting in view of the. individual care taken by these
categories of the farmers.

252 Ruminnat species and feeds related differential ruminal disappearence of fibrous components -
S.K. Bhatia, and K. Pradhan, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Sciences, CCS
HAU, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Relative ruminal degradation of fibrous components from 12 variable (CP ranged from
11.5-12.9, NDF 50.1-73.0, ADF 28.1-49.8) substrates constituted by sole source of roughage
(wheat straw, paddy straw) supplemented with protein moiety (cakes, hays, concentrate mixture)
was discerned through nylon bag (2x4.5", mesh size 57µm) technique in adult cattle and buffalo
fed wheat straw - groundnut cake fortified with common salt mineral mixture-vitamin. Irrespective
of feeds fermented (12, 24, 48, 72 hr.), cattle (24.7, 28.7%) and buffalo (28.9, 32.7% for NDF and
ADF, respectively) did not vary for ruminal disappearances but a concomitant increase (P<0.05)
due to fermentation periods existed. An overall average disappearance of these two fibrous
moieties from wheat straw-groundnut cake, wheat straw-mustard cake, wheat straw- cottonseed
cake, wheat straw concentrate mixture exceeded in buffalo (32.7, 33.5, 8.6, 24.5% NDF and 41.5,
35.2, 26.5, 28.9% ADF) than cattle (24.3, 25.9, 16.1, 15.3% NDF and 33.2, 26.9, 16.3, 17.5% ADF).
The disappearance of NDF and ADF at 48 hr. of incubation, irrespective of feed substrates, was
higher (P<0.05) in buffalo (35.7%, 38.6%) than cattle (28.9%, 31.7%). The differential degradation
amongst feeds (though with identical crude protein contents) may be ascribed to varied lignin
(1.3 to 7.2%) contents. Of all the feeds, wheat straw-sesame cake (8.4%), wheat
straw-concentrate (7.5%) and paddy straw-mustard cake (7.6%) exhibiting the least NDF
disappearance in cattle at 12 hr. had an overall average less degradation than buffalo. Though,
buffalo also surpassed cattle in NDF degradation from paddy straw cottonseed cake but was
without differential ADF degradation between these ruminants. More ruminal disappearance
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 155

between 24 and 48 hr. of fermentation for NDF (13.0 vs. 9.3 units) and ADF (11.3 vs.7.3 units) by
buffalo vis-a-vis. cattle became evident. The study inferred no variation for ruminal disappearance
of fibrous components between cattle and buffalo but differential degradations of such moieties
due to fermentation of few feeds between these ruminants were evidently recorded. Slower
disappearance in the rumen of buffalo relative to cattle beyond 48 hr. of fermentation was
consistently observed.

253 Evaluation of some total mixed rations on nutrient utilization and growth pattern on crossbred
calves - R.K. Sohane, P.B. Jha and Asha Kumari, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa,
Samastipur - 848 125

In a growth experiment of 16-weeks duration 25 crossbred growing calves (7-12 months)


were distributed into five groups (five calves in each group). The initial body weight of calves in
different treatments were almost similar. A digestion trial was also conducted for 7-days during
the fifth fortnight of the growth trial period. The dietary treatments were T1 (control), T2 (Sorghum
based TMR), T3 (TMR based on urea treated paddy straw), T4 (TMR based on paddy straw) and
T5 (TMR based on berseem mixed with Oat and Paddy straw). All the rations contained roughage
and concentrate in the ratio of 60 : 40. The average daily gain in weight was 435, 550, 475, 420 and
500 g/d in groups T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively and the variation among groups was
significant (5% level). The DM intake was 2.428, 2.576, 2.569, 2.334 and 2.426 kg/100kg body
weight in groups T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The efficiency of feed utilization (feed gain
ratio) was 6.37, 5.2, 6.0, 6.52 and 5.54 in groups T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The digestibility
coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose for different treatments varied from
51.56 to 57.28, 51.86 to 59.46, 49.25 to 56.38, 43.28 to 49.25, 39.25 to 43.68 and 46.42 to 54.38 per
cent, respectively. It may be concluded from the present study that the sorghum (for kharif
season) and berseem mixed with oat (for rabi season) based TMRs can be used economically for
the feeding of crossbred calves without any adverse effects on nutrients intake and growth
performance of calves.

254 Survey for feeding practices and feeding status of Gir animals in Junagadh, Rajkot and Bhavnagar
districts - H.B. Gardhariya and M.R. Gadariya, K.R. Tajane, K.S. Murthy and K.S. Dutta, Cattle
Breeding Farm, Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001

As a part of Network Project on Survey of Animal Genetic resources of Gir cattle,


information on feeding schedules and grazing were collected from dairy farmers of four talukas
each of Rajkot, Junagadh and Bhavnagar. Concentrate feed was offered only after soaking by
43% of farmers surveyed. The common concentrate feeds were groundnut cake, cotton seed
cake, cereal grains, dried coconut and pelleted compounded feeds. Milch animals are fed
156 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

concentrates individually twice-a-day. In Bhavnagar district, there was a tendency to feed


concentrate during noon also. Bullocks and breeding bulls are fed about 2.5 to 3.0 kg
concentrate/day. About 66 % of dairy farmers grow green fodder for their cattle, while 1/3 of this
percentage feed green fodder by mixing various crops. Chaffing of green and dry fodder was
done by 54.35 % of farmers. Most common green and dry fodders are maize, jowar, bajra, lucerne,
groudnut gotar, jowar straw and paddy/wheat bhoosa. The amount of green fodder offered
varied between 7.8 to 9.2 kg. while dry fodder offered was 5.5 to 8.0 kg and the feeding is
distributed evenly in morning, noon and evening hours of the day. Gir calves were offered
230 - 320 g concentrate in each morning and evening in Bhavnagar district only and not sent for
grazing. The other feeds offered to calves in these districts include 1-1.4 kg green fodder, 0.7-1.0
kg dry fodder, respectively. Grazing, for growing cattle ( 6-42 months) after covering a distance of
2.3 kms. consisted of 2.5 hrs grazing, while for milch cows and breeding bulls, it was for a shorter
distance of 1.4 to 1.9 km and for 2 to 3 hours. Concentrate feeding for growing animals was seen
in Bhavnagar district only. Considering various estimates, generally, all the categories of
animals that were surveyed are adequately fed for DCP but underfed slightly for TDN.

255 Effect of different seasons on nutrient utilization in Rathi heifers - K. Paliwal, Sanjita Sharma1,
Vishnu Sharma and R.S. Chaudhary, Deptt. of LPM,College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Bikaner (Rajasthan)

Rathi breed of cattle is native to Bikaner. Looking to the hot environment in this part an
experiment was planned and conducted to study the effect of seasons viz. winter spring and
summer on nutrient utilization in Rathi heifers. Four female calves of Rathi breed having more or
less similar body weight and age at college dairy farm were kept individually and fed conventional
concentrate pellets and wheat straw. Digestibility trials were conducted in mid of every season.
The effect of seasons on digestibility coefficient of DM was non significant but it was found to
be higher in summer (68.83%) than spring (66.01%) and winter (65.77%). Similarly non significant
difference were evident in digestibility coefficient of CP and CF. the digestibility of CP & CF were
higher in winter (65.30 & 59.35%) than spring (62.01 and 57.38%) and summer (59.13 & 53.05%).
The digestibility coefficient of EE was non significantly differ in summer (77.85%) as compared to
spring (76.36%) but both of these were highly significant (P<0.01) differ with winter (63.26%). the
digestibility of NFE was significantly higher in summer (70.96%) as compared to winter (67.54%).
However, no significant difference was found between winter and spring, spring and summer
seasons on digestibility of NFE.
Correspondence: 8/C-54, Pratap Nagar, Tonk Phatak,Jaipur(Raj)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 157

256 Curve fit for the liquid and solid pools in the rumen of cattle to develop probabilistic model based
on cell wall intake (CWI) in diet - Bandla Srinivas1, Soumitra Jash and Khub Singh, Division of
Bioenergetics and Environmental Sciences, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and
Physiology, Bangalore - 560 030

Three multifarious crossbred steers fitted with large diameter flexible rumen cannula
(Age 2.5-3 yrs; Mean Body weight 299±7, 323±8 and 287±12) were fed on 6 isonitrogenous and
isocaloric diets in a switch over. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement with
variable cell wall proportion from a minimum of 25% to 75% with 10% increment. The total ration
was fed at once at 9.30 h. Rumen was manually evacuated at 4 hourly fermentation intervals
starting from 9.30 h, at zero, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours. Digesta contents were separated into two
compartments; mat and bailable and sampled separately in 1/1000 and total contents were sampled
in 1/100 proportion. Overlapping between compartments was estimated based on hydration.
Estimated values of solid and liquid through 3-compartmental model were tabulated in
continuous frequency with 5% class interval of CWI. Mean solid pool at 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-
45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70 and 75% of CWI in rumen was 1.99, 2.89, 4.64, 3.38, 2.64, 3.18,
5.09, 5.23, 8.01 and 9.45, respectively. The corresponding values for liquid pool was 30.58, 35.24,
41.82, 37.33, 34.81, 38.72, 40.70, 46.60, 59.04 and 67.71, respectively. The corrected R2 values for the
some of the best curve fit were 0.270, 0.272, 0.259 and 0.267 respectively for linear & reciprocal, 2nd
order hyperbola, Hoeval function and log normal, respectively for solid and corresponding
values for liquid were 0.161, 0.148, 0.151 and 0.146, respectively. It is to conclude that the linear &
reciprocal curve fit (Y=A+B*X+C/X) may be the best curve in general for using in the first order
digestion kinetic models to estimate pool size of solid and liquid in rumen based on CWI.

257 Occurence of solid and liquid intersections in rumen cattle with reference to cell wall intake
(CWI) in diet - Bandla Srinivas1, Soumitra Jash and Khub Singh, Division of Bioenergetics and
Environmental Sciences, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore - 560 030

Three multifarious crossbred steers fitted with large diameter flexible rumen cannula
(Age 2.5-3 yrs; Mean Body weight 299±7, 323±8 and 287±12) were fed on 6 isonitrogenous and
isoenergy diets on a switch over. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance
requirement with variable cell wall proportion from a minimum of 25% to 75% with 10%
increment. The total ration was fed at once at 9.30 h. Rumen was manually evacuated at 4 hourly
fermentation intervals starting from 9.30 h, at zero, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours. Digesta contents
were separated into two compartments; mat and bailable and sampled separately in 1/1000 and
total contents were sampled in 1/100 proportion. Overlapping between compartments was
estimated based on hydration. Data tabulated in continuous frequency with 5% class interval
based on CWI using conditional probability such as the probability of an event B occurring when
1
CSWRI, Avikanagar (Rajasthan)
158 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

it is known that some event M has occurred, following equation applied to estimate the
occurrence of intersection of both the compartments P (B/M) = P (M u B)/P (M) if P(M) >0. The
occurrence of solid in bailable was 0.39, 0.26, 0.240.29, 0.38, 0.40, 0.21, 0.20, 0.14 and 0.14 for the
CW intake of 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70 and 70-75%, respectively.
Similarly the occurrence of liquid on mat form of digesta for the corresponding CI of CW intake
was 0.39, 0.55, 0.60, 0.40, 0.31, 0.41, 0.62, 0.65, 0.77 and 0,71; respectively. Based on the above
observations, the optimum level of occurrence of mat intersection with bailable and mat union
with bailable were 0.25 and 0.58, respectively. It is to infer that it was a median proportion of the
intersection of mat and bailable form of digesta for a favorable fermentation in rumen.

258 Studies on the use of total mixed rations in growing crossbred heifers - P.C. Saxena, Manoj
Singh, S.S. Chauhan and Ashok Kumar, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145
U.S. Nagar (Uttaranchal)

An experiment was conducted on growing crossbred heifers with the main objective to
develop Total Mixed Rations using locally available feed stuffs. Eighteen, growing crossbred
heifers ranging between 100 to 202 Kg of body weight were selected from the herd maintained at
the university farm. Theses were divided into three groups of six each on the basis of the body
weight. One animal from each of these three groups was randomly allotted to one of the three
treatments. Three types of experimental Total Mixed Rations (TMR’s) were prepared in which
roughage and concentrate ratios were maintained as 60:40. The green roughage was sorghum
and the dry was taken as wheat bhusa. These TMR’s fed to the animals ad libitum. The heifers
were weighted at fortnightly intervals during the trial period of three months. In terms of dry
matter intake, TMR # I had highest (P<0.05) value of intake (6.26 Kg/day) followed by TMR # II
(4.92 Kg/day) and TMR # III (4.68 Kg/day). When these values were converted into intake in
terms of Kg/100Kg body weight, the figures were 3.72, 2.62 and 2.58 Kg/100 Kg body weight. The
body weight gains at the end of the experiment i.e. after three months were noted as highest in TI
having 47.25 Kg and lowest in TIII 40.08Kg. TII had medium gain and the value was 43.33. TI had
highest per day body gain (P<0.05) and the value was noted as 525.95 followed by TII (482.32) and
TIII (445.37) g/day. In the end, the feed conversion ratio (F.C.R.) was also calculated and the
values in three treatments were noted as 11.92, 10.22 and 10.51 in TI, TII and TIII,respectively.

259 Effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse based complete ratIons on performance of crossbred
(Hf x Deoni) calves - V.H. Kalbande, S.M. Wankhede and S.S. Jirobe, Department of Animal
Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani-431 401 (Maharashtra)

The present investigation was planned to study the performance of native crossbred
(Hf x Deoni) calves maintained under four different feeding regimens using homogenously mixed
untreated and urea-treated sugarcane by-product with various crop residues and balanced
concentrate mixture in the ratio of 60:40. Sugarcane by-products viz. sugarcane bagasse,
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 159

sugarcane tops (dried), Sugarcane trash and various crop residues viz. straw of jowar, bajra,
wheat, maize were treated with 4 per cent urea solution at 30 per cent moisture level after chaffing
into smaller pieces and were ensiled for 30 days under polythene cover. Crude Protein content
was substantially increased with reduction of NDF and ADF content without change in other
proximate components. One balanced concentrate mixture using locally available raw feed
ingredients was manufactured. Twenty-four cross-bred (Hf x Deoni) calves of 14.95±0.14 months
age and of body weight 97.83±1.25 kg were selected and randomly distributed into four groups of
six each with1:1 male to female ratio. The calves in control group were fed untreated roughages ad
libitum with a measured quantity of balanced concentrate mixture separately. The calves in
experimental group T1 T2 and T3 were offered complete rations CR1 CR2 and CR3 ad libitum
respectively. The voluntary feed intake in calves recorded as daily dry matter intake (g), per kg
metabolic (W0.75) body weight was significantly (P<0.01) higher in T1 T2 and T3 values being 4.69,
3.90, 131.39: 4.94, 3.83, 130.07: 5.17, 4.18 and 139.53 respectively. The corresponding values in
control group were 3.86, 3.19 and 105.92 respectively. The calves in T1 T2 and T3 fed complete
ration CR1, CR2 and CR3 respectively recorded higher (P<0.01) total gain (kg) and average daily
gain (g), the values being 29.00, 322: 29.41, 334 and 27.33, 303 respectively, while corresponding
values for calves in control group were 22.75 and 252. Feed efficiency however, in rations, CR1,
CR2 and CR3 remained similar to control ration. The cost of ration per kg gain in body weight for
calves fed experimental, rations CR3 was substantially higher (Rs. 64) as compared to those fed
experimental rations CR1 (Rs. 58), CR2 (Rs. 59) and control ration (Rs. 60). The per cent
digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, ADF and NDF were higher (P<0.01) in experimental ration
CR1, CR2 and CR3 as compared to control ration (C). The nutritive value of control ration and
experimental ration CR1, CR2 and CR3 as DCP and TDN were similar. Daily Intake of DM, DCP and
TDN (g) by crossbred calves in control group (C) was significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to
those in experimental group T1 T2 and T3.

260 Effect of feeding urea treated sugarcane by-products based complete rations on performance of
crossbred (Hf x Deoni) calves (on-farm studies) - V.H. Kalbande, S.M.Wankhede, and
M.R. Kendrekar, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences, MAFSU,
Parbhani-431 401 (Maharashtra)

On-farm experiment was carried out to assess the effect of feeding urea treated
sugarcane by-products based complete rations on performance of crosbred (Hf x Deoni) Calves.
The experimental groups T1 T2 and T3 were fed ad-libitum experimental rations CR1, CR2 and CR3
respectively, containing urea treated roughages mixed with balanced concentrate mixture and
thoroughly blended with sugarcane molasses were compared with control diet (discussed as
earlier; see these proceedings) The voluntary feed intake by calves in 150 days duration as total
dry matter intake (kg), daily dry matter intake (kg) in experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 fed
complete rations CR1,CR2 and CR3 respectively were significantly (P<0.01) higher as compared to
those in control. However, DMI kg per 100 kg body weight and DMI g per kg metabolic body
160 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

weight (W0.75 kg) in experimental groups remained similar in control group but recorded
significantly higher (P<0.01) total gain (kg) and average daily gain (g), the values being 49.50,
274.66; 49.83, 276.66 and 41.50, 230.16 respectively, against control group of 27.00 and 148.50.
Feed efficiency (kg DM per kg gain in body weight) was also higher (P<0.01) as compared to
control. The cost (Rs.) of ration (urea treated roughage + concentrate) per kg gain in body weight
for calves fed experimental rations was lower (P<0.01) compared to control ration. The over all
results of the on-farm feeding trial revealed that urea treatment of sugarcane by-products and
other crop residues substantially increased the crude protein (N x 6.25) content. The results of
on-farm study also indicated that the use of urea treated poor quality roughages are beneficial
when fed in the form of complete ration as compared to conventional/traditional system of
feeding to the calves.

261 Feeding pattern of livestock in Kanpur Dehat District of Uttar Pradesh - Himanshu Pandey,
R.S. Jaiswal, Ripusudan Kumar, Namrata Saxena and Anand Singh, Department of Livestock
Production and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal)

A study was conducted in 140 farmers of 5 tehsils of the Kanpur Dehat district of the
Uttar Pradesh. Feeding pattern of milch animals, observed that average quantity of fodder fed to
the pregnant cows by marginal, small and medium farmers was 20.4, 22.8 and 26.4 kg but
corresponding figures for buffaloes were 21.4, 23.8 and 28.3 kg. The quantities of concentrate
given to the pregnant cows was 1.07, 1.19 and 1.43 kg, and in the case of pregnant buffaloes the
quantities were 1.25, 1.31 and 1.49 kg, respectively in the case of each categories of the farmers.
The quantities of given to the milking cows of fodder and concentrate were 24.2, 25.4 and 29.1 kg
and 1.66, 1.82 and 1.98 kg but in the case of buffaloes the quantities of fodder and concentrate
were 25.1, 27.2 and 29.1 and 1.69, 1.86 and 2.01 kg, respectively by the marginal, small and medium
farmers. The fodder and concentrate quantities given to the dry cows and buffaloes were 10.7,
12.6,12.8 and 12.2, 13.2, 13.7 and concentrate 0.11, 0.13 and 0.15 kg, respectively. The type of feed
and fodder fed to the animals by different household categories during different season are
bargad, gular, mango babool, jamun and neem tree leaves and wheat straw, berseem, chari, lucern,
maize straw, doob, jawar straw fodder and grasses. The feeding practices is too much similar
between each categories of the farmers but production scinario of each categories of the farmers
were too much different.

262 Effect of rearing systems and feeding levels on physiological status of crossbred calves -
M..S. Yadav, R.S. Yadav and H.K. Gulati, Deptt. of Livestock Production and Management, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment was conducted on sixteen crossbred calves between 8-12 months of age.
These calves were divided into four homogeneous groups as per their body weight and age.
These four groups were randomly allotted to different rearing system viz., T1 individual feeding
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 161

with as per NRC requirements. T2 individual rearing with 120% of NRC. T3 group 100% NRC
feeding level and T4 group rearing with 120% NRC feeding levels. The rectal temperature and
respiration rate was not significantly influenced by the treatments but the respiration rate in the
evening was significantly (p<0.05) higher in calves fed 120 per NRC standards (T2 & T4) than the
morning respiration rate. There was no significant difference in haemoglobin and total plasma
protein level of crossbred calves due to rearing systems and feeding levels. However, glucose
level was significantly higher (62.25 and 62.02 mg/100 ml) in calves fed as per 120 percent NRC
irrespective of rearing systems. The interaction between rearing systems and level of feeding for
these parameters was non-significant.

263 Effect of rearing systems and feeding levels on the performance of crossbred calves - R.S.Yadav,
M.S.Yadav and Naresh Kumar, Deptt. of Livestock Production and Management, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment was conducted on sixteen crossbred calves between 8-12 months of age.
These calves were divided into four homogeneous groups as per their body weight and age.
These four groups were randomly allotted to different rearing system viz., T1 individual feeding
with 100% NRC feeding level, T2 individual rearing with 120% NRC feeding level, T3 group
rearing with 100% NRC feeding level and T4 group rearing with 120% NRC feeding levels. The dry
matter intake was significantly (p<0.01) higher in calves fed 120% NRC recommendations;
However, rearing system had no significant effect on dry matter intake. The feed conversion
efficiency was not significantly influenced by the rearing systems and level of feeding by the
calves. The individual reared calves gained significantly (P<0.05) more daily body weight as
compared to group reared calves. No significant effect was observed in daily increase in body
measurements due to rearing system and level of feeding. The interaction between rearing
systems and level of feeding was non-significant for nutrients intake, nutrients intake per kg
body weight gain, body weight gain & body measurements. Irrespective of groups total cost of
raising a calf was less in calves maintained as per NRC feeding standards. Cost per kg gain body
weight was less (Rs. 21.27) for individually reared calves as compared to group reared calves.

264 Effect of plane of nutrition in pregnant crossbred cattle - Sajjan Sihag, K.R. Yadav and
B.L. Pander, Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Twelve crossbred cattle of first calving in last quarter of pregnancy were divided
randomly into three groups (T1, T2 and T3) of four animals each group. The concentrate mixture
consisting of mustard cake, barley, wheat bran, wheat, mineral mixture and common salt was
prepared having 20% crude protein and 75% TDN. The animals of first group (T1) were offered
concentrate mixture and green fodder (8.75% CP) to fulfill the requirement as per NRC standards.
The animals of group II (T2) and III (T3) were fed 10 and 20 percent of higher crude protein by
increasing the amount of concentrate mixture, respectively. Wheat straw was fed ad-libtum to all
162 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

animals. The total dry matter consumption per day and per 100kg body weight of pregnant cattle
did not differ significantly due to plane of nutrition. However, the dry matter intake from wheat
straw was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control as compared to T2 and T3, which did not differ
among themselves. The CP percent of the diet were 11.11, 11.98 and 12.89, while corresponding
figures for DCP were 7.17, 8.25 and 9.11 percent in treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The
values of TDN intake were 5.28, 5.33 and 5.45 kg per day in treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively.
The TDN intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 as compared to T1 but was at par with T2
The values of crude protein digestibility were 64.71, 68.99 and 70.71 percent in groups T 1, T2 and
T3, respectively, indicating that CP digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 and T3 as
compared to T1. Same trend was observed in digestibility figures of EE and NFE, however
differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CF, NDF and hemicellulose were non significant. The
body weight changes from last quarter of pregnancy up to calving were 50.75, 56.25 and 55.75 kg,
and the average birth weights of the calves were 28.25, 29.75 and 29.50 kg, in T1, T2 and T3,
respectively. The body weight changes of cattle and birth weights of calves were significantly
(P<0.05) higher by feeding 10 and 20% more protein than required as per NRC standards, but the
differences between T2 and T3 were nonsignificant. It may be inferred that feeding 10% higher
protein than the NRC requirement to pregnant cattle is advantageous in terms of digestibility,
body weight changes of cattle and birth weight of calves.

265 In-vitro evaluation of total mixed rations for growing animals - K.R. Yadav, and Sajjan Sihag,
Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004
(Haryana)

The study was conducted to formulate the economical complete ration, based on locally available
feed ingredients for growing animals. A survey was carried out in the region and samples of feeds
and fodders were collected which were fed by the farmers to their animals. The farmers were
feeding cotton seed, cottonseed cake, mustard cake, wheat, barley and wheat bran as
concentrate mixture and wheat straw and green oats as roughage. Different concentrate
combinations were prepared with these feed ingredients having 18% CP and 74% TDN. Eighteen
complete rations were formulated in the ratios of 50:50 and 60:40 roughage to concentrates of nine
each using oats fodder and wheat straw as roughage. On an average the crude protein values of
such rations were 14.43 and 13.77% in the ratios of 50:50 and 60:40 roughage to concentrates,
respectively. The CF value of the total mixed ration having ratio of 60:40 (22.17%) was high as
compared to 50:50 (18.76%) ratio of roughage to concentrate. It was observed that in-sacco dry
matter and protein disappearance and in-vitro dry matter digestibility were higher in 50:50 ratio of
roughage to concentrate as compared to 40:60 ratio, however the differences were non
significant. When the different concentrate mixture combinations of 18%CP used in formulation
of these rations were assessed on the basis of in-sacco dry matter disappearance, protein
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 163

disappearance and in-vitro dry matter digestibility of total mixed ration it was found that
combination of cotton seed (5), mustard cake (32.70), broken wheat (10), bajra (9.30), wheat bran
(40), mineral mixture (2) and common salt (1 part) or cotton seed cake (12), mustard cake (25.63),
wheat (9.36), bajra (10), wheat bran (40), mineral mixture (2) and salt (1) were better than other
combinations in formulation of complete ration for growing animals in the ratio of 50:50 or 60:40 of
roughage to concentrates. On the basis of in-vitro results it may be inferred that total mixed ration
in the ratio of 60:40 of roughage to concentrate having green oats as part of roughage and
concentrate mixture consisting of CSC, mustard cake, wheat, bajra and wheat bran was superior
and economical.

266 Effect of supplementary feeding on production performance of ewes grazing on community


rangeland during late gestation and early lactation, O. H. Chaturvedi, R. Bhatta, D.L. Verma
and J.S. Mann, Animal Nutrition Division, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute,
Avikanugar-304 501(Rajasthan)

A demonstration trial was carried out on farmers sheep flock maintained on natural
rangeland at Meno Ki Dhani village of district Tonk. Rajasthan. about 10 km from the Central
Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, located in hot semi-arid region. During late
summer to monsoon season. Malpura and Kheri ewes (28), 2-3 years old. in their late gestation
and weighing 36.03±1.27 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups of 7 each (GI, G2,G3 and G4).
Ewes in all the groups were grazed on natural rangeland from 06.00 to 11.00 h and 16.00 to 19.00 h
followed by night shelter in side open improvised animal shed. GI ewes were maintained on sole
grazing while ewes in G2, G3 and G4, in addition to grazing received concentrate mixture (DCP 13
and TDN 68 %) at the rate of 1% of their body weight during late gestation. early lactation and
entire last quarter of pregnancy to early part of lactation, respectively. The vegetation cover of
community rangeland consisted mainly grasses. shrubs and fodder trees. The herbage yield of
rangeland was 16.34-q DM/ha which contained mainly Cynodon dactylon (Dhob). Zizyphus
nummularia (Pala) and dead litter. The grasses, shrubs. tree leaves and Musk Melon crop
residues dominated in the pasture grazed by the ewes. The birth weights of lambs in T2 (3.93), T3
(3.45) and T4 (3.74) were higher than in T1 (3.02). Similarly. the body weights of lambs in T2, T3
and T4 at the age of 15. 30. 45 and 60 days were also higher than in T1. The average daily gain (g)
of lambs up to two months of age was higher in T2 (168.3) followed by T4 (143.7). T3 (106.3) and
T1 (98.0). The milk yield of the lactating ewe increased up to 150-250 g per day due to concentrate
supplementation. The heart girth and paunch girth of the ewes in all the treatments decreased at
lambing as compared to at advance pregnancy. The height and length of ewes in all the
treatments at advance pregnancy and at lambing remained almost similar. Thus, the
supplementary feeding of ewes during critical stages of production enhances the general
condition of ewes and birth weight as well as growth rate of lambs.
164 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

267 Growth performance and survivability of Bharat Merino lambs fed commercially available
pelleted cattle feed - A.S. Rajendiran, K. Narayanan, A.S.M. Raja, S. Rajapandi and S. Parthasarathy,
Southern Regional Research Centre of Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute,Mannavanur,
Kodaikanal- 624 103 (Tamilnadu)

Effect of feeding commercially available cattle feed containing 1% urea to Bharat Merino
lambs maintained at Kodai hills was studied, as there is no sheep feed available
commercially in the market. A total of 42 spring-born Bharat Merino suckling lambs with a mean
age of 52 days (range 28-67) were divided into two groups with equal representation of sex, body
weight and age. Group-I received pelleted sheep feed containing no urea fed routinely in the farm,
while group-II was fed with pelleted cattle feed purchased from open market. The percent proxi-
mate composition of both the feeds did not vary significantly (CP 11.4 Vs 10.3; NDF 52.1 Vs 54.3).
Community feeding was practiced every day morning for 3 months excluding an adaptation
period of 10 days. Except for the concentrate ration, other managemental practices including
grazing were uniform for both the groups. All the lambs were grazed 8 hours a day on improved
pasture containing Kikiyu grass. Daily pellet feed intake and weekly body weight were recorded.
Initial body weight was 12.59±0.56 in group-1 and 12.61±0.60 in group-II and the final body
weight was 19.41±0.90 (21) and 19.92±0.87 (21), respectively Cumulative mean daily pellet intake
(g/head/day) was 147 and 153.3 and DMI (g/Kg.0.75) was 20.23 and 17.42, in group I & II,
respectively. The pellet intake was significantly (P<0.01) higher in group-II. Cumulative gain (Kg)
was 6.82±0.47 in lambs fed sheep feed and 7.31±0.45 in lambs fed with cattle feed. The
corresponding Average Daily Gain (g) was 74.93±5.21 and 80.38±4.93, which varied non-
significantly. FCR (Pellet intake/Weight gain) was 1.96 and 1.91, respectively in group-I & II. The
cost of pellet feed/Kg live weight gain was significantly higher in group-I (Rs.14.41) as compared
to Rs.12.03 in group-II. Survivability was 100% in both the groups. Though lambs in group-II
consumed significantly more feed (P<0.01), the improvement in daily body weight gain and FCR
was non-significant. However, there was a significant (P<0.01) reduction in cost of pellet feeding/
kg live weight gain in lambs fed with cattle feed. Thus, it is concluded that commercially available
cattle feed containing 1% urea may safely and economically be fed to growing Bharat Merino
lambs.

268 Effects of three different growth rates on plasma metabolites in dairy heifers - Himadri Patir,
Sujata Pandita and Madhu Mohini, Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy Research
Institute Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Effect of three rates of gain on plasma metabolites were evaluated in 15 KF dairy heifers
allotted to three different groups on the basis of age and body weights. The initial bodyweight
was similar in these groups. Feeding was so done that group-I heifers gained @ 547±64 g/day;
group-II heifers gained @ 630±43 g/day where as in group-III the growth rate was augmented to
679±49 g/day by monensin supplementation @ 200 mg/day/head. Blood samples from these were
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 165

collected at weekly interval for a period of 10 weeks. Plasma was aliquoted and analyzed for
metabolites via glucose, NEFA and urea nitrogen (PUN), which were estimated by standard
biochemical procedures. Glucose was found to be similar for group-I and II (P>0.05) whereas it
was significantly high for group-III (P<0.001). Mean levels were 66.15±1.43, 67.01±1.71
and73.59±1.68 mg/dl in group I, II and III respectively. NEFA was found to be lowest in group-III
(P<0.001) while it was identical for group-I and II. The mean levels were 123.95±3.71, 124.40±4.01
and 108.84±2.63µ mol/L in three groups respectively. PUN levels in group-I (25.86±0.85 mg/dl)
and group-II (25.78±0.96 mg/dl) were similar, whereas the levels were significantly different in
group-III (32.25±1.41 mg/dl, P<0.001). Thus, when the growth rates were altered by normal
feeding, plasma metabolite levels did not exhibit change but when the growth was altered by
ionophore feeding, there was a significant change in metabolite profile.

269 Comparison of effect of feeding low and high lignified cellulosic feeds treated with urea on
growth in crossbred calves - J.P. Puri and B.N.Gupta, Department of Veterinary Physiology,
C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana)

Studies were conducted to compare the effect of feeding urea treated low lignified (rice
straw) and high lignified (rice husk) lignified cellulosic feeds on dry matter intake and growth in
cross-bred calves. For this purpose two growth studies were conducted separately, taking 18
animals in each study. Rice straw was treated with two levels of urea and moisture (4% urea, 40%
moisture and 5% urea, 50% moisture and ensiled for one month in cemented silos. Animals were
divided into 3 groups of 6 each and fed wheat straw, group A; urea treated wheat straw (4% urea,
40% moisture), group -; urea treated wheat straw (5% urea, 30% moisture), group C; for a period
of 120 days. Concentrate mixture was fed to all the animals according to their requirements. The
average body weight gain (g/day) was 416 .67±14.75, 562.50±26.42 and 541.67±20.53 in groups A,
B and C respectively. Rice husk was treated with 6% urea, 60% moisture and ensiled in cemented
silos for two months. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 6 each and were fed wheat straw,
group A; 50% wheat straw replaced with urea treated rice husk, group B; 100% wheat straw
replaced with urea treated rice husk, group C; for a period of 135 days. Concentrate mixture was
fed to all the animals according to their requirements. The average body weight gain (g/day) was
492.60±18.39, 428.40±14.75 and 346.91±18.39 in groups A, B and C respectively. Now if the
feeding is compared in the two studies, rice husk was treated with high levels of urea as well as
moisture and the period of ensilement was also double than rice straw, further the feeding was
also done by replacing wheat straw @ 50% and 100% in rice husk study, where as rice straw was
fed @ 100%. The body weight gain and dry matter intake in rice straw study was significantly
higher, whereas in the case of husk study; the gain in body weight was comparable in group B,
but decreased significantly in group C, and the dry matter intake was not affected. On the basis
of above results, it could be concluded that: (i) The urea treatment improved the nutritive value of
low lignified cellulosic feed (rice straw) more efficiently than high lignified cellulosic feed and (ii)
High lignified urea treated cellulosic feed (rice husk) can be fed by mixing with wheat straw at 50
% level.
166 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

270 Effect of protein and energy levels in complete pelleted feeds on growth and carcass
characteristics in goats - P. Baswa Reddy, T.J. Reddy, K.Sivaiah, Y.R. Reddy, B. Ekambaram and
M.Uma, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad

Four complete pelleted rations CR1, CR2, CR3 and CR4 were formulated with CP and TDN
contents of 12 and 55, 12 and 60, 14 and 55 and 14 and 60 percent respectively. All the rations
contained roughage at 60% level. Red gram (Cajanus cajan) straw and dried subabul leaves
formed the roughage component. A growth study was conducted with local Mahaboobngari
goats for a period of 150 days. Animals which were aged 4-5 months were divided into four
groups with eight animals in each group and were fed with respective complete feed pellets.
Three representative animals from each group were slaughtered at the end of the growth trial to
study the carcass evaluation. Mean initial body weights of animals in CR1,CR2,CR3 and CR4 were
11.04, 11.04, 11.05 and 11.03 kg and the mean final body weights at the end of the growth study
were 21.45, 22.01, 21.58, and 23.06 kg with an ADG of 69.42, 73.12, 70.17 and 80.25 g/day
respectively. The average daily DM intake was 616.60, 618.87, 616.86 and 627.50 g and the average
DMI/Kg BW0.75 was 82.22, 81.51, 82.10, and 81.95 gm in CR1, CR2, CR3 and CR4 respectively. The
mean dressing percentages on live weight basis were 49.90, 50.81, 50.70 and 51.57 in CR1, CR2,
CR3 and CR4 respectively where as the respective dressing percentages on empty body weight
basis were 56.97, 58.42, 59.44 and 60.42. The proportion of lean in carcass was higher in CR 2 and
the proportion of bone was higher in CR1 where as fat content was highest (p<0.01) in CR4. It is
concluded that better growth was observed in CR4 where as carcass quality was better in CR2.

271 Meat quality and carcass characteristics of Rams fed raw, processed and supplemented cotton
(Gossypium) seed meal incorporated diets - A. Kannan, V.R.B. Sastry, D.K. Agrawal, V. Anjaneyalu,
A. Mendiratta, A.K. Panda, and Avneesh Kumar, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal
Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Division, IVRI, Izatnagar-243 122 (U.P.)

To study the effect of gossypol on meat quality and carcass characteristics, twenty four
rams of 5-8 months of age and of uniform body weight were divided into four groups of six
animals each in a completely randomized design. Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate
mixtures were formulated, containing 20% soybean meal (Diet I) or 40% raw (Diet II), 40% raw
supplemented with 500 IU of vitamin E per head per day (Diet III) and 40%, 1.5% Ca (OH) 2 treated
cotton seed meal (Diet IV). The rams were fed with respective concentrate mixtures as per
fortnightly body weights to meet 80% CP requirements of NRC (1985) along with ad libitum
wheat straw and clean drinking water through out 510 days of experimental feeding. Daily dry
matter intake and fortnightly body weight changes were recorded. After 510 days of experimental
feeding, animals were sacrificed to study carcass characteristics and meat quality of rams due to
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 167

feeding of raw, Vitamin E supplemented and Ca (OH)2 treated CSM incorporated diets. Carcass
characteristics such as dressing percentage, yield of whole sale cuts, loin eye area and percent of
edible and inedible offal, as well as meat and bone ratio of legs were comparable between
treatments. No significant difference could be noticed with respect to protein, fat and moisture
content of L. dorsi muscle due to dietary variations. However, the percent of total ash was
significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fresh meat of 1.5% Ca (OH)2 treated group as compared to that
of other dietary groups. Feeding of raw CSM containing diet that was supplemented with vitamin
E and 1.5 percent Ca(OH)2 treated CSM incorporated diet significantly (P<0.05) improved both
the texture/ tenderness and juiciness of the meat cooked without salt and only the texture/
tenderness in meat cooked with salt as compared to the feeding of other diets. Rest of the
attributes such as odour, flavour and overall acceptability were found to be comparable across
the diets. From this study it can be concluded that feeding of CSM in the diet of rams did not have
any adverse effect either on meat quality or carcass characteristics.

272 Growth performance of weaned kids fed pelleted diets of different protein and energy levels -
R.N. Dhore and S.D. Jagdale, Department of Animal Nutrition Post Graduate Institute of
Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Akola (M.S.) 444 104 (Maharashtra)

Eighteen local kids of 16.53±0.61 kg weight and 152.55±1.44 days of age were randomly
divided into 3 groups comprising of 4 males and 2 females in each groups and allotted to 3 dietary
treatments as, T1 range feeding, T2 complete pelleted diet of 7% DCP and 60% TDN and T3
complete pelleted diet of 9% DCP and 55% TDN in the ratio of 60:40 roughage to concentrate. The
growth trial of 150 days including metabolic trial of 21 days was conducted. The DMI/100 kg
body weight was 3.34±0.06 in T2 and 3.74±0.11 kg in T3. The average daily gain was 34.69 in T1,
54.16 in T2 and 59.82 g/day in T3. The feed conversion efficiency kg/kg live body weight gain was
10.78±0.24 in T2 and 9.97±0.22 in group T3. The DMD was 63.65±0.57 in T2 and 64.66±0.97
percent in T3. The nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance were positive in T2 and T3 groups.
Rumen liquor and blood biochemical profile revealed non significant difference between T2 and
T3 group, however significantly varied from T1. The cost per kg live body weight gain was
Rs.28.82 in T1, 65.81 in T2 and Rs.63.72 in T3. It was concluded that local goats need concentrates
supplementation to achieve optimum growth.

273 Effect of moong phulsi (Vigna radiata Linn.) on nutrient utilization and growth performance in
kids - B.S.Tewatia and S.S. Khirwar, Department of Animal Nutrition CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana)

Twenty male Beetal kids of about six months of age and weighing on an average 16 kg
were divided into four groups of five animals in each group and stall fed individually. The kids
were offered moong crop straw and one of the concentrate mixtures to meet their nutrients
requirements. Control group (T1) concentrate mixture contained groundnut cake 10, mustard cake
20 , de-oiled rice polish 50 and maize grain 20 parts. Moong phulsi, a moong crop residue
containing 17.20 % CP, 12.74% CF and 53.10% CF was incorporated @ of 30, 60 and 90 parts in the
168 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

concentrate mixture of animals in T2, T3 and T4, respectively by replacing mustard cake and DORP.
Mineral mixture and common salt were added @ 2% and 1% of concentrate mixture in all the
groups. Experimental feeding continued for a period of 120 days followed by a metabolism trial of
5 days duration. Body weight changes were recorded at fortnightly intervals. Dry matter intake
varied between 3.69 and 4.05 per cent of body weight and this variation amongst different
treatment groups was not statistically significant. Crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05)
in T1 group (62.2%) but did not vary among T2 (60.4), T3 (59.0) and T4 (59.0). Digestibility
coefficients of other nutrients did not vary among treatment groups. Nitrogen balance was lower
in T4 as compared to other groups. Nitrogen balance as % of total-N intake and % of N- absorbed
decreased with higher levels of phulsi in concentrate mixture. Nutritive value in terms of DCP and
TDN was 6.47 and 59.57 in T1, while the corresponding values in T2, T3 and T4 were 6.31, 59.70;
6.00, 58.05 and 6.04, 57.44. Average body weight gain (g/day) was 87.7, 90.5, 82.3 and 73.9 in T1, T2,
T3 and T4 groups, respectively and the body weight gain was lower (P<0.05) in T3 and T4 groups.
Results of the present experiment suggest that moong phulsi can be successfully incorporated
up to 60% of concentrate mixture in the ration of growing kids without adversely affecting their
growth and nutrient utilization.

274 Feeding systems and productive performance of Jamunapari and Barbari goat in ravines and
wasteland area of U.P. - H.G. Prakash1 and D.P. Singh, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and
Technology, Kanpur-2 (U.P.)

An investigation on productive performance of Jamunapari and Barbari goat under


different management systems was conducted in 10 villages affected by ravines and wasteland in
encatchment area of river Yamuna by using PRA Tools and Techniques. Three systems of goat
feeding viz. extensive, semi-extensive and intensive were identified. Results reflect that
significantly (P<0.01) higher number of goat growers feeding their goat in semi-extensive system
as compared to extensive and intensive systems. Age at first puberty (433. 0±18.9 days) and
conception (517.8±16.7 days) of Jamunapari breed was significantly (P<0.01) lower in
semi-extensive system whereas these traits of Barbari goat (194.0±3.48 and 313.7±8.31 days) were
significantly (P<0. 01) lower in intensive system. Feeding practices has significantly (P<0.01)
affected the kidding interval of both the breeds. Lower kidding interval was observed in
semi-extensive system and intensive system in Jamunapari (314.2±8.7 days) and Barbari (192.8±4.29
days) goat, respectively. Lactation length (190.0±35.4) and lactation yield (1060.0±73.3g/d) of
Jamunapari were significantly (P<0.01) higher in semi- extensive system whereas these charactes
of Barbari breed (150.2±3.83 days and 703±8.6 g/d) were significantly (P<0.01) more in intensive
system. Feeding system did not effect the birth weight of kids in both the breeds. Study
concludes commercial production of Jamunapari may be beneficial under semi-extensive system
whereas Barbari goat under intensive system.
1
Corresponding Address: Officer Incharge, NARP, CS Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Campus,
Hazaratpur, Post-Ushaini, District - Firozabad - 283 103
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 169

275 Studies on growth and nutrient digestibility in goats fed different levels of protein and energy -
P. Janaiah, K. Sivaiah, T.J. Reddy, B.Ekambaram and M. Uma, Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030

Fifty Mahaboobnagari goat kids were distributed randomly into five groups of ten
animals each (five Males and five females) and fed with Milk and Milk replacer for 42 and 90 days,
respectively and allowed to kid rations containing 18% CP and 65% TDN (T1), 18% CP, 70% TDN
(T2), 20% CP, 65% TDN (T3), 20% CP 70% TDN (T4) and control group containing 16% CP and
75% TDN (T5) for 120 days. The average daily gain (g/d) was significantly (P<0.01) higher in kids
fed T3 and T4 rations (80.31 and 84.08) as compared to those fed with T1, T2, and T5 (63.33, 67,35,
66.90) even though DMI (Kg/100 kg body weight, per kg metabolic body weight) among the
groups did not differ. Significantly higher (P<0.05) dry matter digestibility was observed in T5,
followed by T2 and T4. Digestibilities of OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE did not (P>0.05) show any
significant difference among various treatment groups. The Feed efficiency was highest in T4
group (2.17kg) and lowest in T1 group (2.86 kg).

276 Performance of kids on milk replacer of different protein levels - Deshmukh G.B. and V.A.Itawale
Department of Animal Nutrition Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Akola (M.S.) 444 104 (Maharashtra)

Twenty four new born local kids were randomly allotted to four equal groups fed as T1
(control) on mother milk, T2 (20% CP), T3 (24% CP) and T4 (28% CP) containing milk replacer
along with kid starter and anjan (Hardwickia binata Roxb.) tree leaves for 90 days. The mean
weekly body weight gain was 0.80±0.05 in T1, T2 0.76±0.05, T3 0.65±0.04 and 0.55±0.04 kg in T4.
The significantly higher weight gain was observed in control (T1), and lowest in T4 (28% CP).
The DMI in kids were T1 199.94±14.27, T2 208.80±12.73, T3 205.97±14.44, and 189.14±15.03 g in
T4. The CP intake was 38.53±2.36 in T1, T2 39.61±1.93, T3 14.19±2.39 and 37.50±2.66 g in T4. The
feed conversion efficiency was 2.04±0.19, 2.44±0.28, 2.60±0.29 and 3.39±0.54 in T1, T2, T3 and T4
respectively. The optimum feed conversion efficiency was observed in T1 (mother milk) group
and significantly lower in T4 (28% CP) group. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was
Rs.30.50 in T1, T2 31.29, and T3 39.02 and 42.25 in T4. Mother milk feeding was cheaper than milk
replacer, however 20% CP level was comparable to mother milk fed group. It was concluded that
in the event of multiple kidding where mother milk is insufficient to sustain kids, milk replacer of
20% CP could be the successful alternative in kid rearing.
170 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

277 Response of feeding grass hay (Cenchrus Cillaris) on voluntary feed intake and nutrient
utilization pattern in barbari goats - P.K. Sahoo, and T.K. Dutta, Nutrition, Feed Resources and
Products Technology Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom,
Farah-281 122 (U.P.)

Anjana grass (Cenchrus Ciliaris) was dried by natural drying method. It was estimated
that the OM, CP, CF, NFE, EE and total ash contents of Anjana grass hay were 90.47, 9.18, 40.22,
39.13, 1.94 and 9.53 respectively. The CP is observed to be higher than the CP of the leguminous
straws such as gram straw and arhar (Cajanus Cajan) straw. A metabolism trial was conducted
with collection period of 6 days after 24 days preliminary feeding. The intake performance of DM,
TDN and DCP were computed. The DMI, CPI and TDN intake per 100kg body weight were
estimated as 3.05±0.33 kg, 430.89±44.82 g and 1.46±0.17 kg respectively. The CP intake per kg
metabolic body weight (W 0.75) was found to be 8.68±0.70g. The digestibility coefficients of DM,
OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE were estimated as 59.44±1.75, 61.82±1.70, 58.46±2.24, 31.54±1.72, 78.29±2.15
and 54.79±2.43 respectively. The N-balance, N-retained as percentage of N-absorbed and
N-retained as percentage of N-intake were calculated as 1.76±0.61g, 26.11% and 15.26%
respectively. From the digestibility trial it can be concluded that the Cenchrus hay can be used for
maintenance ration of adult goats.

278 Nutrients availability from mulberry leaves based ration of goats under Intensive system
of feeding - Nawab Singh, V.B. Chaudhary and P.K. Sahoo, Nutrition Feed Resources
and Products Technology Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom
Farah 281 122 (U.P.)

Seven adult male Barbari goats were offered green leaves of Mulberry and Gram straw
ad-lib along with 250g concentrate mixture per animal per day. The concentrate mixture consisted
of Maize (25%) Barley (20%), Ground nut cake (25%), Wheat bran (17%), Sesame cake (10%),
Mineral mixture and salt 1.5% each. Preliminary feeding was done for 21 days followed by a
digestion trial of 5 days collection period. The proximate composition on DM basis of feeds
offered was 21.17, 18.44 and 7.06 per cent crude protein; 4.59, 5.88 and 1.90 percent ether extract;
10.14, 21.49 and 38.71 percent crude fibre; 55.88, 37.76 and 42.53 percent nitrogen free extract; 8.22,
16.43 and 9.79 percent total ash respectively in concentrate mixture Mulberry leaves and Gram
straw. Total dry matter intake per 100 kg live weight was 3.45±0.13 kg during the period of trial and
the proportion of dry matter intake through concentrate, Mulberry leaves and Gram straw was
14.09, 68.15 and 17.16 percent respectively. The digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, EE, CF and
NFE were 64.43±0.85, 66.74±1.05, 71.11±1.16, 65.02±2.23 and 65.59±1.65 respectively. The total
intake of DM, CP and TDN was 1445.37, 244.09 and 884.31g for average body weight of 42.11 kg.
The above type of ration can be recommended for goats under intensive system of feeding for
production purposes.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 171

279 Effect of feeding urea treated roughage based complete rations on performance of Osmanabadi
kids - V.H. Kalbande, S.M. Wankhede, and M.J. Aware, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani-431 401 (Maharashtra)

An experiment was carried out to assess, effect of feeding urea treated roughage based
complete rations on performance of Osmanabadi kids for a period of 180 days. Twenty four native
Osmanabadi kids of 10 months 23 days±0.39 age and 11.93.kg±0.28 body weight were randomly
distributed into four equal groups, control group, and experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 with 1:1
male to female ratio and 6 kids in each group. The kids in control group were fed ad-libitum
control ration C containing untreated roughages mixed with balanced concentrate mixture and
thoroughly blended with sugarcane molasses and those in experimental groups T1, T2 and. T3
were fed ad-libitum experimental ratios CR-1, CR-2 and CR-3 respe tively, containing urea treated
roughages mixed with balanced concentrate mixture and thoroughly blended with sugarcane
molasses. Voluntary feed Intake by kids for a period of 180 days expressed as DMI (kg), DMI (kg),
DMI kg/100 kg body weight and DMI g/kg metabolic body weight (W0.75Kg) in experimental
groups T1, T2 and T3 fed complete rations CR-1, CR-2, and CR-3 respectively were significantly
(P<0.01) higher as compared to those in control group. The kids in experimental groups T1 T2 and
T3 fed complete rations CR-1, CR-2 and CR-3 respectively gained higher (P<0.01) total body
weight (kg) and average daily gain (g), the values, being 11.32, 11.75 and 11.10; 62.91, 65.27 and
61.70 respectively, the corresponding values for control group were 8.36 and 46.20. However, feed
efficiency and cost of ration did not differ significantly among the groups. A conventional diges-
tion trial of 7 days duration was conducted at the end of feeding experiment. The per cent
digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, ADF and NDF were significantly (P<0.01) higher for
kids in experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 as compared to control group.The nutritive value of
experimental complete rations CR-1, CR-2 and CR-3 expressed asDCP and TDN were higher
(P<0.01) as compared to control ration.

280 Effect of feeding urea treated sugarcane by-products and other crop residues based complete
ration on performance of Osmanabadi kids - V.H. Kalbande, S.M. Wankhede and V.K. Mundhe,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani-431 401
(Maharashtra)

Three iso - nitrogenous complete rations CR-l, CR-2 and CR-3 were formulated using
urea treated sugarcane bagasse and straws of wheat and maize, prepared by homogenously
mixing 60 parts with 40 parts balanced concentrate mixture. Twenty four native Osmanabadi kids
of 5.70±0.13 months of age 10.97±0.24 kg body weight were selected and randomly distributed
into 4 groups (control group and experimental groups T1, T2 and T3) 6 kids in each group with a
male to female ratio of 1:1. The kids in experimental groups T1, T2 and T3 were fed complete ration
CR-I, CR-2 and CR-3 ad libitum respectively and those in control group were offered a measured
quantity of concentrate mixture twice in a day at fixed time intervals with ad libitum urea treated
sugarcane bagasse and straws of wheat and maize. Voluntary feed intake expressed in terms of
172 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

daily DM intake (g), DM intake kg./100 kg body weight and DM intake g/kg metabolic body
weight (W0.075kg) for kids in T2 and T3 fed complete ration CR-2 andCR-3 respectively were
significantly (P<0.01) higher as compared to those in experimental group T1 and control group C,
fed complete ration CR-I and control ration respectively. The kids experimental groups T1, T2 and
T3 maintained under feeding method of complete rations (P<0.01) higher average total gain in
body weight (kg) and daily gain in body weight (g) as compared to those in control group C fed
control ration. Feed efficiency kg DM/kg gain in body weight and cost of ration per kg gain in
body weight (Rs.) for all the experimental kids in T1, T2 and T3 and those in control group did not
differ significantly. A conventional digestion trial of 7 days duration was conducted at the end of
feeding experiment. The per cent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, ADF and NDF were
significantly (P<0.01) higher for kids in experimental groups. The nutritive value of experimental
complete rations CR-1,CR-2 and CR-3 as TDN was significantly (P<0.01) higher as compared to
that of control ration the values being 56.39, 59.77 and 56.89 per cent respectively, against control
ration of 49.77 per cent. This respective DCP values were 7.66, 8.13, 9.44 per cent in CR-1 to CR-
3 as against control of 7.89 per cent.

281 Effect of feeding black gram straw based complete diets on the haemato-biochemical parameters
of local bidri goats - Vinayakumar Sangrole and B. Ramachandra, Department of Animal
Nutrition, Veterinary College, Nandinagar Bidar-585 401 (Karnatka)

Twenty-five local Bidri goats were selected and randomly distributed into five groups
according to body weights .The experiment was carried out from 8th day to 100th days of lactation
period. They were fed with black gram straw based complete diets viz., M1 (CP-12.58, TDN-46.70),
M2 (CP-11.24, TDN-55.69), M3 (CP15.78, TDN-64.74), M4 (CP-14.90, TDN-57.38) & M5 (CP-10.76,
TDN-41.05). The haematobiochemical values were analyzed on 0, 30, 60 & 90th days of feeding
trial. The parameters studied were hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, total
serum protein,serum albumin, serum globulin, serum calcium & serum phosphorous. All
haematobiochemical values were within the normal physiological range. Value of hemoglobin
was significantly (P<0.01) higher in M3 group. Significantly (P<0.01) higher blood urea nitrogen
was recorded M4 group. Packed cell volume content was significantly (P<0.01) higher in M2 &
M3 groups. Total serum protein content was significantly (P<0.01) higher in group M2 Value of
serum albumin was significantly (P<0.01) higher in M3 group. Group M2 registered significantly
(P<0.01) higher serum globulin values. Serum calcium and phosphorus values were significantly
(P<0.01) higher in M1 group. From above experimental trial we can conclude that feeding of black
gram straw based complete diets has no adverse effect on haematobiochemical values of local
Bidri goats.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 173

282 Nutrient digestibility of different energy diets in male kids - J.S. Sonwane, P.L. Karanjkar and
L.N. Karanjkar, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Marathwada Agricultural
University, Parbhani 431 401 ( M.S.)

Eighteen weaned Osmanabadi kids were randomly divided into three groups. Each
group was fed ad lib. green dashrath and homemade isoproteinous concentrate mixture
providing either 90 (T1), 100 (T2) or 110 (T3) % of recommended energy. The experiment was
conducted for 56 days including a 7 days digestion trial. The observations recorded on growth
rate, nutrient intake and their digestibility were subjected to RBD. The mean intakes of DM, DCP
and TDN ranged from 0.289 to 0.291 kg, 140 to 149 and 0.538 to 0.609 g, respectively. No
significant differences were observed for these values recorded under T1, T2 and T3. The
digestibility co-efficlent of DM, CP, CF, EE and NEF were 80.07, 62.36, 50.59, 70.21 and 80.17% in
T1 diet; 79.69, 63.14, 49.86, 70.14 and 81.20% in T2 and 78.30, 62.82, 50.52, 69.97 and 80.08% in T3.
No significant differences (P<0.05) were recorded among the values under three treatment diets.
It was concluded that increasing TDN level by 10% did not significantly reflect nutrients
digestibility and satisfactory growth of Osmanobadi weaned kids could be obtained on the ration
providing 70% and 16% TDN and DCP respectively.

283 Selection of good complete diets by in vitro digestibility technique - Vinayakumar Sangrole
and B. Ramachandra, Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary college, Nandinagar
Bidar-585 401(Karnatka)

Concentrates were prepared with (I) CP-18, TDN-65 (ii) CP-18, TDN-70 (iii) CP-20,
TDN-65 (iv) CP-20, TDN-70 and (v) CP- 14, TDN -59. The complete diets were prepared by mixing
above concentrates and black gram straw with different ratios viz. 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60
and 30:70. The complete diet samples were subjected for in vitro digestion by incubating samples
with goat ruminal liquor for 48 hours in quadruplets. After incubation ruminal liquor was analyzed
for in vitro dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acids, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen,
trichloroaceticacid precipitable nitrogen and soluble nitrogen. The selection of complete diet
based on cost of diet, high in vitro dry matter digestibility, low ammonia nitrogen and high total
volatile fatty acids production. From this study the diets selected for in vivo feeding trial were (i)
60:40 (from CP-18, TDN-65) (ii) 60:40 (from CP-18, TDN-70) (iii) 50:50 (from CP-20, TDN-65) (iv)
50:50 (from CP-20, TDN- 70) and (v) 60:40 (from CP14, TDN -59).

284 Effect of different plant extracts on rumen fermentation in vitro -G. Alexander, B. Singh,
A. Sahoo and T.K. Bhat, Indian Veterinaty Research Institute, Regional Station, Palampur- 176 061 (H.P.)

Plant secondary metabolites have been reported to exert positive effect on rumen
fermentation by increasing microbial protein synthesis at the expense of gas production and
decreasing protein degradation. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the effect of
aqueous, aqueous methanol and aqueous acetone extracts of two medicinal plants, Moringa
174 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

oleifera seed and Picrorhiza kurroa root on rumen fermentation by Menke’s In Vitro Gas
Technique. The plant extracts were incorporated at 0,5, and 25 mg in 40 ml incubation medium with
500 mg substrate containing wheat straw: Grewia optiva leaves (500 mg) in the ratio of 4: 1. The
total gas production (m1/24h) and true DM degradability significantly decreased (p<0.01) in the
presence of all the extracts at 25 mg level except the aqueous extract of M. oleifera. The true DM
degradability was less affected by P. kurroa aqueous and Moleifera aqueous methanol extract
than other extracts. M. oleifera aqueous methanol extract showed substantial increase in
partition factor (4.14 Vs 3.46) without exceeding the theoretical level. The ammonia nitrogen (mg/
40ml incubation medium) concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) with Moleifera
aqueous methanol and aqueous acetone extracts and higher with P.kurroa aqueous methanol
and aqueous acetone extracts. The present study shows that M.oleifera aqueous methanol and
P.kurroa aqueous extracts could be selected for further investigation to assess their efficacy on
reducing gaseous emissions and increasing microbial protein synthesis in ruminants.

285 Influence of various essential oils on in vitro rumen fermentation pattern - G. Alexander,
B. Singh, A. Sahoo, and T.K. Bhat, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,Regional Station,
Palampur- 176 061 (HP)

Essential oils are volatile plant secondary metabolites consisting mostly of terpenes and
oxygenated derivatives with wide range of anti-microbial activity including on selective rumen
microbes. The present study was carried out to assess the influence of various essential oils on
modulation of rumen fermentation. Six essential oils, traditionally known for their anti-flatulence
activity, such as Acorns calamus,Cymbopogon sp., Foeniculum vulgare, Murraya koenigii,
Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale were evaluated by Menke’s In Vitro Gas
Technique. The essential oils were added at 0, 5, and 25 µl in 40 ml incubation medium with 500 mg
substrate containing wheat straw: Grewia optiva leaves (500 mg) in the ratio of 4: 1. All the
essential oils at 25 µl level significantly (p<0.001) decreased total gas production (ml/24h) and
true DM degradability and increased ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (mg/40ml incubation medium)
concentration. The decrease in gas production was highest for Trachyspermum ammi (97.75%)
and lowest for Zingiber officinale (36.75%). The NH3-N concentration significantly (p<0.001)
reduced without influencing total gas or true DM degradability by the addition of Cymbopogon
sp. essential oil at 5 µ leve1. The partition factor increased as the level of essential oils increased,
but at 25 µl level, the values were above theoretical value of 4.41 except for Morraya koenigii and
Zingiber officinale. The results suggest that essential oils, especially of Trachyspermum ammi
may be used to treat ruminal disorders like bloat, but further study is needed to explore the
possible use of essential oils as rumen manipulating agents to improve nutrient utilization and
reduce gaseous emissions in ruminants.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 175

286 Prediction of dry matter intake in Barbari bucks from NDF concentration in forages -
R.S. Upadhyaya 1, P.A.R Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute,
Jhansi-284 003 (U.P.)

An attempt has been made to study the usefulness of NDF (Neutral detergent fiber)
concentration in different forages for prediction of dry matter intake in Barbari bucks. The data
were compiled from digestibility trials conducted for nutritional evaluation of different forages
namely Bazra (Pennisetum typhoides) straw, Oat (Avena sativa) hay, Leucern (Medicago sativa)
hay, Clitoria ternatea hay, Velvet bean (Stizolobium deerangianum) hay, Siratro (Macroptelium
atropurpureum) hay, Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) hay. The
respective values of NDF concentration in these forages were 77, 74.98, 46.97, 56.02, 57.75, 74.74,
68.15 and 65.28 while the dry matter intake values ranged from 28.24 to 79.84 g/kgw0.75 in Barbari
bucks fed on these forages. The mathematical relationship of DM intake by Barbari bucks and
NDF concentration in forage crops was computed by (a) Linear regression and (b) Polynomial
regression, which have been described as follows : a) Y= - 0.9618X+ 121.96 (R2= 0.4083); b) Y= -
0.1254X2+ 15.014X -372.04(R2=0.8009) Where Y= DM intake (g/kgw0.75) and X=NDF% in forages
on DM basis It appears that both linear and polynomial regression can be used with varying
precision to predict the DM intake of forages from their NDF concentration. It is evident from the
graphical analysis of data that NDF concentration becomes a constraint for DM intake when it is
higher than 55%. These findings can be used for ration formulation for goats maintained on
forage based diets.

287 Effect of feeding different starter rations on voluntary nutrient intake and rumen fermentation
pattern in Barbari kids - T.K. Dutta, P.K. Sahoo, Nawab Singh and Dhiraj Singh, Nutrition and
Feed Resource and Products Technology Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats,
Makhdoom, Farah-281 122 (U.P.)

Thirty two pre-weaning kids were divided equally into four groups having similar male
female ratio. Kids were fed with respective starter rations plus Cajanus straw and available
cultivated green fodder ad lib. Four starter rations contained TDN 65% and CP 18%, TDN 70%
and CP 18%, TDN 65% and CP 20%. TDN 70% and CP 20% in ration I, ration II, ration III and ration
IV respectively. The ingredients composition in four starter rations were sorghum 6, linseed cake
16, til cake 15, Arhar chuni 25, gram chuni 25, wheat bran 10, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1
percent in ration I; maize 12, pearl millet 10, linseed cake 11, til cake 23, Arhar chuni 26, gram chuni
5, wheat bran 10, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 percent in ration II; sorghum 5, mustard cake
10, linseed cake 10, til cake 20, arhar chuni 30, gram chuni 12, wheat bran 10, mineral mixture 2 and
common salt 1 percent in ration III and maize 10, sorghum 5, linseed cake 20, til cake 22, arhar
1
Present Address: NFR & PT Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom, P.O. Farah, Mathura
176 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

chuni 32, wheat bran 8, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 percent in ration IV respectively.
Fortnightly nutrient intake was recorded throughout the experiment. Rumen fermentation pattern
was studied during the last phase of the trial with six animals from each group. Average DM
intake/100 kg body weight of all 6 fortnight was recorded as 4.20, 4.54, 4.36 and 4.56 kg being
significantly (P<0.01) highest in group IV and lowest in group I. Average CP intake/100 kg body
weight of all fortnight was estimated to be 632.19, 671.20, 665.84 and 648.96 g. The difference
among treatments was found significant (P<0.01). Fortnight and interaction effects of these two
parameters (DMI and CPI per 100 kg b. wt.) were also found significant (P<0.01). pH of the rumen
liquor was recorded similar among four treatments. Whereas, total VFA (mmol/100 ml SRL) was
estimated higher (P<0.05) in group I (12.19) followed by group III (11.34), group II (10.69) and
group IV (9.65). Total nitrogen, TCA precipitable-N, NPN and ammonia-N concentrations were
found similar among four treatment groups. Total-N (mg/100 ml SRL) ranged from 98.00 in group
IV to 110.83 in group I. TCA precipitable-N (mg/100 ml SRL) varied from 50.67 (group IV) to 60.90
(group I). Ammonia-N was 20.24, 22.52, 22.75 and 21.76 mg per 100 ml SRL in respective four
groups. Based on these study it may be inferred that these four rations, based on by products of
pulses, were equally good to maintain DM and CP intake for proper growth of these kids. Level of
such rumen metabolites at 5 months of age was sufficient to maintain rumen ecosystem and
growth of kids.

288 Response of by-products based kid starter rations on body measurements, growth and
economics of feeding in early growing Barbari kids - T.K. Dutta, S.B.N Rao, Nawab Singh and
O.R Pachauri, Nutrition and Feed Resource and Products Technology Division, Central lnstitute
for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah-281 122 (U.P.)

Thirty two pre-weaning kids were divided equally into four groups having similar male
female ratio. Kids were fed with respective starter rations plus Cajanus straw and available
cultivated green fodder ad lib. Four starter rations contained TDN 65% and CP 18%, TDN 70%
and CP 18%, TDN 65% and CP 20%, TDN 70% and CP 20% in ration I, ration II, ration III and ration
IV respectively. The ingredients composition in four starter rations were sorghum 6, linseed cake
16, til cake 15, Arhar (Cajnus) chuni 25, gram chuni 25, wheat bran 10, mineral mixture 2 and
common salt 1 percent in ration I; maize 12, pearl millet 10, linseed cake 11, til cake 23, Arhar chuni
26, gram chuni 5, wheat bran 10, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 percent in ration II; sorghum
5, mustard cake 10, linseed cake 10, til cake 20, Arhar chuni 30, gram chuni 12, wheat bran 10,
mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 percent in ration III and maize 10, sorghum 5, linseed cake 20,
til cake 22, Arhar chuni 32, wheat bran 8, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 percent in ration IV
respectively. Therefore, the content of by-products of pulses and oilseeds in the four rations
were 81, 65, 82 and 74 percent, thus tried to use maximum by-products in these rations. Initial
body weight of kids was 4.64, 4.59, 4.64 and 4.69 kg in respective four groups. The growth
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 177

experiment was run from 50 to 175 days of age of kids. Fortnight intake of DM/kgW0.75 was
significant (P<0.01) among treatment groups. The average values of all fortnights were 72.34,
76.32, 75.52 and 75.68 g in groups I, group II, group III and group IV respectively, being lowest
in group I and highest in group II. Final body weight was recorded as 11.80, 10.98, 11.66 and 10.23
kg from group I to group IV respectively. The respective ADG and FCE values were 59.19, 52.79,
58.06 and 45.76 g; and 15.81, 14.12, 15.56, 13.14 percent of total DM intake in the four groups
respectively. Initial and final body weight, ADG and FCE were found non significant among
treatment groups. Although increasing tendency of ADG and FCE were recorded in group I and
group III. Body measurements in respect of height, length, heart girth, punch girth and thigh at
initial and at 90 days of age were found non significant, although there was increasing tendency
of these parameters in group I and III. The cost of feed/kid/day was recorded minimum in group
II, whereas, cost of feed/kg growth was found minimum in group III Cost of feed/kg growth was
rupees 34.19, 30.46, 29.76 and 32.91 in respective four treatment groups. Thus, it was concluded
that kid starter ration III having TDN 65% and CP 20% was found best in terms of cost of feed per
kg gain and this ration had maximum by-products of pulses and oilseeds.

289 Feasibility of rearing patanwadi ewes on salicornia fodder (Salicornia brachiata) based total
mixed rations - Chirag R. Bhatt, S. Parnerkar, A.B. Fulsoundar1, P.U. Gujbhiye2 and M.C. Desai3
Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat
Agricultural University Sardar Krushinagar - 385 506

Salicornia is a leafless halophyte (salt tolerant plant), which grows under wide range of
salinity from 0.5 to 4.5 per cent salt content. There is paucity of information regarding its
nutritional value and the desired level of feeding. A feeding trial of 93 days including 33 days
preliminary feeding was conducted under feedlot system on fifteen Patanwadi ewes. The animals
were assigned to three dietary treatments (T1-T3) on bodyweight basis and were respectively fed
ad. libitum three total mixed rations (TMR-I to TMR-III) comprising of 0, 20 and 40 salicornia
fodder; 40, 35 and 30 compound cattle concentrate and 60, 45 and 30 per cent chaffed wheat straw,
respectively. The average dry matter intake of T1, T2 and T3 groups during entire experimental
period was 93.18±2.54, 84.91±1.88 and 83.01±2.20 g/kg W0.75, respectively. The digestibility coef-
ficient in treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 for dry matter were 58.55±2.64, 51.55±1.90 and 52.24±2.11;
organic matter, 70.71±1.78, 64.58±1.52 and 63.86±1.27; crude protein, 68.95±1.69, 67.25±1.91 and
68.37±2.12; crude fibre, 63.01±4.98, 57.57±1.50 and 55.42±2.14; nitrogen free extract, 74.79±3.16,
66.60±2.41 and 65.58±2.38 and ether extract, 70.51±3.47, 79.09±1.02 and 79.94±1.44. The treatment
group T1 showed statistically higher (P<0.05) digestibilitycoefficient for organic matter than
either T2 or T3 groups. With respect to ether extract digestibility the treatment groups T2 and T3
did not differ from each other but showed statistically higher (P<0.05) values than group T1. The
1 2 3
Associate Director of Extension, GAU, Navsari; Research Scientist, LRS, GAU, S. K. Nagar; Principal,
Veterinary College, GAU, Anand
.
178 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

TMR-I, II and III provided 8.38±0.23, 7.82±0.22 and 7.65±0.19 DCP content, respectively, which
was statistically similar. However, TDN content of TMR-I (64.66±1.67) was statistically higher
(P<0.05) than either TMR-II (56.52±1.30) or TMR-III (53.92±0.90). The average intakes (g/head/
day) in T1, T2 and T3 groups during the entire experimental period worked out as 93.35±2.04,
81.16±2.11 and 74.57±1.72, respectively for DCP and 788.92±16.25, 646.54±1±6.26 and 578.98±9.78
for TDN. When the intake of DCP was expressed as the percent of requirement suggested by
ICAR (1985), it was 279.44±17.59, 230.78±11.54 and 231.42±10.10 for treatment groups T1, T2 and
T3, respectively and the same for TDN worked out as 214.92±13.63, 167.79±8.91 and 164.22±8.21
per cent, respectively.

290 Effect of soaking of Mustard seed cake on nitrogen and mineral balances in sheep - Sangita,
Vishnu Sharma, Sanjita Sharma and G.R. Purohit, Deptt. of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner (Rajasthan)

An experiment was planned and conducted to study the effect of soaking of Mustard
seed cake on mineral balance of sheep. Three isonitrogenous rations viz T1, T2 & T3 were
prepared in which T1 served as control group whereas in T2 and T3 groundnut cake of control
group was replaced by unsoaked and soaked Mustard seed cake. A metabolic trial in randomized
block design was conducted on 12 male Marwari sheep to assess balances of nitrogen and
minerals viz. calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc. All the animals of three treatment groups
were found to have positive nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus copper and zinc balance. The
statistical analysis of data did not reveal any significant effect of treatment on nitrogen, calcium,
phosphorus and zinc balance, except copper balance showing significantly lower retention in T2
as compared to control and T3 group. This phenomenon could be attributed to the possibility of
complex fonnation of glucosinolates and copper ion. The copper retention values in T1, T2 and T3
were found to be 7.49±0.28, 6.12±0.10 and 7.20±0.47 mg/d respectively.

291 Effect of different levels of moong phulsi on nutrient utilization and growth performance of
lambs - V.S. Panwar, Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana)

Twenty finisher lambs were divided into four groups of five animals in each group and
stall fed individually for a period of 120 days followed by a metabolism trial of 5 days duration.
The animals were offered moong crop straw and one of the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures
to meet their nutrient requirements. Control group (T1) concentrate mixture contained GNC 10
parts, mustard cake 20 parts, DORP 50 and maize grain 20 parts. Phulsi, a green gram crop residue
was incorporated @ of 30, 60 and 90 parts in the concentrate mixture of animals in T2, T3 and T4,
respectively. Mineral mixture and common salt were also added @ 2% and 1% of concentrate
mixture in all the groups. Dry matter intake was 1175.6, 1259.1, 1186.6 and 1133.1g/d in T1, T2, T3
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 179

and T 4, respectively and did not vary significantly among different treatment groups.
Digestibility coefficients of proximate nutrients also did not vary among treatment groups.
Nitrogen balance was 7.70, 7.79, 6.40 and 5.54g/d in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Nitrogen
balance was lower (P<0.05) in T3 and T4 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. Nutrients intake in
terms of DCP and TDN was 73.1, 685.3; 80.8, 745.7; 69.7, 670.7 and 65.3, 636.1 in T1, T2, T3 and T4,
respectively. TDN intake did vary but DCP did not vary among different treatment groups.
Average daily body weight gain was 126.20, 129.00, 125.00, 107.00 gm in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups,
respectively and the body weight gain was lower (P<0.05) in T4 group. Results of the present
study clearly suggest that moong phulsi can be successfully incorporated up to 60% of
concentrate mixtures of finisher lambs.

292 Biomass yield and botanical composition of Common grazing land and diet of sheep maintained
on semi arid region of Rajasthan - N. P. Singh, S. K. Sankhyan, A.K. Shinde, R. Bhatta and D.L.
Verma, Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute,
Avikanagar - 304 501 (Rajasthan)

A sheep flock maintained on degraded range land located in the semi arid region of Rajasthan was
monitored in a year long study. The Biomass yield and botanical composition of the grazing land
and the animals' diet was recorded. The biomass, yield of common grazing land was 4.92±0.569 q
DM/ha during monsoon and 1.36±0.238 q DM/ha during winter season. The forage yield of the
stubbles after harvesting of kharif crops was 20.39 q DM/ha. The dominant vegetations were
Tribulus terrestiris, Indigofera cardifolia, Crotolaria burhia, Commenlina bengalensis, Zizyphus
nummularia, Dactyloetenium aegypticum, Eriochloa polystachya, Aristida adscensionis and
Cynodan daetylon and their distribution in the grazing land was 3.57, 12.65, 11.99, 4.60, 2.69,
16.79, 17.71, 14.00 and 16.00% during monsoon. In winter, most of these species withered off as
per thier natural life cycles and turned in to dead litter, which constituted 20.71% of the total
biomass yield. The plant species found in winter season were Zizyphus nummularia (34.91%)
and Tephrosia hemintonia (44.37%). Most of the native grass species sprouted immediately after
first rain and constituted major portion of the diet of grazing sheep. Sheep diet was constituted of
Tribulus terrestiris (8.90%), Indigofera eardifolia (16.24%), Crotolaria burhia (12.64%), Satha
(16.91%), Zizyphus nummularia (11.40%), Dactyloctenium aegyticum (21.18%), Melilotus in-
dica (9.31%) and other native grasses during monsoon. During winter season, Crotolaria
burhia, Zizyphus nummularia, dead litter and Azardirachta indica leaves constituted 9.75, 40.34,
24.61 and 23.94% of the diet. The present study suggested that biomass yield of the grazing lands
was quite low and the native leguminous plant species constituted major portion of the sheep
diet during monsoon and dead litter during winter season.
180 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

293 Nutrient intake and its utilization in sheep maintained under free range system in semi arid
region of Rajasthan - S. K. Sankhyan, A.K. Shinde, N.P. Singh, R. Bhatta and D.L. Verma, Division
of Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304 501 (Rajasthan)

A flock of 60 sheep maintained on degraded range land was monitored in a year long
study. The biomass yield of range land in the monsoon and winter season was 4.92±0.569 and
1.36±0.238 DM q/ha. The forage yield of stubbles after harvesting of kharif crop was 20.39 DM q/
ha. DM, CP, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and Lignin contents of range grasses were 55.01, 10.80, 63.35,
58.05, 16.85 and 10.60 % during monsoon and 85.45, 10.02, 59.48, 48.50, 31.96 and 11.39 % during
winter season respectively. Sheep diet contained DM 56.18, CP 11.28, NDF 56.06, ADF 63.50,
Cellulose 18.20 and Lignin 7.38% during monsoon and 80.12, 9.33, 55.04, 39.73, 26.97 and 10.73 %
during winter season. Dry matter intake of dry, pregnant and lactating sheep was 1195, 1569, and
1081g/day during monsoon and 456, 651 and 505 g/day during winter season. Average digestible
crude protein (DCP) intake of sheep in dry, pregnancy and lactation stages was 45.34, 56.92 and
52.33g/day during monsoon, and 24.02, 39.19 and 27.29g/day during winter. It was concluded
from the study that sheep grazing in semi arid range land during different physiological stages
viz., dry, pregnancy and lactation meet their DM and DCP requirements only during monsoon
season.

294 Production performance of sheep under free range system in semi arid region of Rajasthan -
A.K. Shinde, S.K. Sankhyan, N.P.Singh, R. Bhatta and D.L. Verma, Division of Animal Nutrition,
Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar - 304 501 (Rajasthan)

The production and reproduction traits of a flock of 60 adult ewes managed under
tree-range system in semi arid region were monitored in a year long study. The average birth
weights in male and female lambs were 3.47 and 3.26 kg and subsequent weights at 3 month of age
were 14.11 and 13.47 kg respectively. The average daily gain of male and female lambs was 118 and
113g during 0-3 months of age. Lambs born during autumn and spring seasons attained weaning
weights of 15.80 and 11.70 kg respectively. Initial body weight of adult sheep was 31.9kg in the
month of September. It gradually increased to 32.5 kg in November and then subsequently
declined to 24.4 kg in March. Male and female were kept together in the flock throughout the year
and free mating system was followed. The average lambing percentage on the basis of year round
mating was 83.8. Sheep were shorn three times in a year and the average wool yield per sheep was
407, 295 and 450g in June, September and March clips respectively. The annual wool yield was
1151g providing receipt of Rs. 54.60/sheep. It was concluded from the study that adult sheep
exhibit seasonal changes in their body weight in commensuration with biomass availability thus
requiring supplementation during lean period. Autumn born lambs were heavier than spring born
suggesting that breeding in sheep should be simulated with vegetation availability from grazing land.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 181

295 Effect of detoxified neem seed cake on growth and nutrient utilization in nellore lambs - G.V.N.
Reddy, P. Dipti Wilhelmina and M.S. Reddy, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of
Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030

Five complete diets were formulated with 1. no neem seed cake (NSC, control), 2. raw
NSC, 3. water washed NSC, 4. urea treated NSC and 5 water washed + urea treated NSC and
processed into mash and fed to 30 Nellore ram lambs (4-5 months, 6 in each group) for 6 months.
The average daily gain was significantly (P<0.05) less on diets containing raw NSC and urea
treated NSC. DMI was not significantly different among all the diets. However, DMI was less on
NSC based diets. Digestibility coefficients of all the nutrients except EE were significantly (P<0.05)
higher on diet 5 containing water washed + urea treated NSC compared to other NSC based diets.
Positive N, Ca and P balances were recorded on all the diets. DCP value was significantly (P<0.05)
higher on diet 5 containing water washed + urea treated NSC. TDN value was significantly
(P<0.05) lower on diet 2 containing raw NSC, DM, DCP and TDN intakes were less than
recommended level on diet 2 containing raw NSC and diet 4 containing urea treated NSC.

296 Effect of detoxified rapeseed meal on growth and nutrient utilisation in sheep - G.V.N. Reddy,
G. Alexander and M.S. Reddy, Dept of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30

Five complete diets were formulated using 1. groundnut cake (control) 2. raw rape seed meal
(RSM) 3. CuSO4 (0.5%) treated RSM 4. Pressure cooked (30m in, 15psi, 12I°C) RSM and 5. CuSO4
(0.5%) + Pressure cooked (15min, 15psi, 121°C) RSM and fed to 30 Deccani ram lambs (4-5
months), 6 in each group in a growth cum metabolic experiment. The DMI per 100 kg B.wt was
significantly (P<0.05) different among diets. The DCP and TDN contents were significantly (P<0.05)
higher on diet containing pressure-cooked RSM compared to others. The ADG was significantly
(P<0.05) higher on diet 1 (control) and 4 (containing pressure-cooked RSM) compared to other
diets, which were at par. The feed/kg gain and cost of feed/kg gain were significantly (P<0.05)
lower on diet containing pressure-cooked rapeseed meal. These results indicated that pressure-
cooking of RSM was ideal method for detoxifying RSM. The animals fed on diet containing
pressure-cooked RSM recorded nutrient utilization and growth comparable to that of control diet.

297 Effect of sunflower heads based complete diets on milk and meat production - G.V.N. Reddy and
B. Bhima, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya
N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar Hyderabad 500 030 (Andhra Pradesh)

Two Complete diets containing sunflower (Helianthus annuus) heads at 28.5 and 40%
level were formulated and processed into pellets using expander-extruder. The diet containing
28.5% sunflower heads was fed for 6 months to graded Murrah buffaloes in comparison with a
conventional diet (6 in each group) to study the effect of complete diet on milk production. The
diet containing 40% sunflower heads was compared with a conventional diet by feeding to 12
182 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

Nellore ram lambs and 12 local male kids (3-4 months, 6 in each group) to study the effect of this
diet on meat production. At the end of the experiment, representative animals from each group
were slaughtered to study the effect of complete diet on carcass characteristics. During the
experiment milk yield decreased by 19.2% on conventional diet but increased by 14.3% on
complete diet. The average milk yield was 23.5% higher on complete diet compared to
conventional diet. The DMI/kg milk yield was 37.2% less and the cost of feed/kg milk yield was
25.2% less on complete diet. The ADG was significantly (P<0.05) higher on complete diet com-
pared to conventional diet in both species. Lambs recorded higher (P<0.05) ADG compared to
kids. The cost of feed/kg gain was decreased by 32% in lambs and 21.9 in kids fed on complete
diet compared to conventional diet. The dressing percentage on empty body weight was 3.3
percent units higher in lambs compared to kids. The proportions of wholesale cuts and
proportions of meat and bone were within the normal range in all the groups. These results
indicate that sunflower heads can be used as sole roughage source in complete diets for milch
buffaloes and growing rams and kids without any deleterious effect. Further, lambs and kids can
be recorded intensively on complete diet at times of draught and natural calamities without any
effect on meat production.

298 Effect of legume tree leaves supplementation on nutritional status and growth performances of
goats fed dry mixed grass - U.P. Singh, S.K. Mahanta1, G.N. Lodhi and V.C. Pachauri1, Department
of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Brahmanand Post Graduate College, Rath-210 431 (U.P.)

An experimental feeding of 125 days was done on 12 growing local (non descript) female
goats (11.0±1.2 kg) fed dry mixed grass, to compare the effects of legume tree leaves and
concentrate supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth and blood constituents. Goats were
divided into 3 treatment groups (T1 to T3) of 4 each. Animals of T1 group were fed a concentrate
mixture (barley: groundnut cake: wheat bran: mineral mixture: common salt, 35: 35: 27: 2: 1) to meet
the protein requirement. While others were fed sesbania (Sesbania sesban; T2) and subabul
(Leucaena leucocephala; T3) leaves replacing concentrate mixture on isonitrogenous basis.
Average daily DMI was 416, 445 and 400 g in T1, T2 and T3 group, respectively and the
differences were nonsignificant. Digestibility (%) of DM and OM was higher (P<0.01) in T1 (61.1
& 63.8) than both T2 (52.1 & 54.4) and T3 (50.6 & 51.8). CP digestibility was lower (P<0.01) in T3
(42.4%) than T2 (54.7 %) and T3 (57.5%). But digestibility of EE, NDF, ADF and cellulose remained
unaffected by dietary treatments. All the goats were on similar plane of nutrition consuming (g/
kg W0.75) comparable (P>0.05) amount of CP (8.97-9.65) and TDN (27.9-33.6). The average daily
gain (ADG) was 35.2, 39.0 and 31.6 g in T1, T2 and T3 group, respectively and the variation among
the groups was nonsignificant. Average concentration of haemoglobin, glucose, plasma protein
and urea nitrogen was compareable among the groups ranging from 10.9 to 11.4g, 58.7 to 62.4 mg,
7.7 to 8.2g and 16.2 to 19.4 mg/dl, respectively. Hence, to improve the feeding value of dry mixed
grass, legume tree leaves like sesbania and leucaena can exploited as economical supplements in
local goats.
1
Plant Animal Relationship Division, IGFRI, Jhansi- 284 003 (U.P.)
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 183

299 Influence of different levels of concentrate supplementation on performance of sheep and goats
maintained under rotational system of grazing management - G.H. Pailan, S.K. Mahanta, N.C.
Verma and S.S. Kundu, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 003 (U.P.)

Seventy two female crossbred sheep and Barbari goats were randomly divided into
three equal groups consisting of 12 sheep and 12 goats in each group. All animals were allowed
to graze 7 hours daily from 9.00 am to 4.00 pm following rotational system of grazing
management under 9 plots of 1 ha each. Along with grazing the animals were supplemented with
concentrate mixture (CP 21 %, TDN 72%), @ 0% (G1), 0.5% (G2) and 1.0 % (G3) of body weight.
The pasture selected by goats contained higher CP (10.22%) and lower NDF (53.25%) than
pasture selected by sheep (CP 8.45%, NDF 61.85%) indicating that goats select superior quality
of pasture than sheep while grazing. However, the lignin content of goat’s diet was higher than
sheep diet (9.33 vs. 6.18 %). In sheep DMI (kg/100 kg body weight) was 2.19, 2.66 and 2.78 in G1,
G2 and G3, respectively. The corresponding value for goats was 2.98, 3.11 and 3.52. DM
digestibility varied from 41.78 - 55.49 % in sheep and 47.45 - 56.15 % in goats. The range of CP and
NDF digestibility was 38.01 - 60.28 % and 38.84 - 46.91 % in sheep and 46.96 - 58.81% and 43.11
- 47.37 % in goats, respectively. The data indicated that DM intake both in sheep and goats was
increased with the supplementation of level of concentrate mixture along with grazing and the
values were signitlcantly (P<0.05) different in sheep. Both in sheep and in goats digestibility of
DM, CP and NDF was higher (P<0.01) in G3 than in G1 and G2 however, variation between G1 and
G2 was non-significant. Sheep maintained their adult weight in G3, however, lost their weight by
10.94 % in G1 and 6.45 % in G3 during the total 120 days of experimental period. In goats an
increased weight gain by 3.34 % in G3, maintenance of live weight in G2 and loss of weight by 1.48
% in G1 was observed during the whole experimental period. The results suggested that
supplementation of concentrate @ 1.00% of body weight increases nutrient intake and digestibil-
ity over zero and 0.5% levels of concentrate supplementation and maintained live weight of adult
grazing sheep and goats.

300 Blood Biochemical constituents of female yaks at different physiological status reared under
semi range system - R.Pourouchottamane, A. Chatterjee, Deepak Gogoi and M.Sarkar, National
Research Centre on Yak (ICAR) Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh

The present study was conducted on total number of forty female yaks maintained at
institute farm at nyukmadung (2750 meters above mean sea level). The objective of the study was
to find out the normal values of some important enzymes and other biochemical parameters of
yaks at different physiological status i.e., lactating, nonlactating adult and young females (below
184 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

3 years). The animals were maintained under semi range system and fed with locally available
pasture grasses and tree leaves supplemented with concentrate mixture. Blood samples were
collected at fortnightly interval for three times and serum was separated by centrifugation at 2500
rpm. The serum samples were analyzed for different parameters like glucose, protein, alkaline
phosphates, SGOT, SGPT and acid phosphates as per standard procedure. The values of glucose
and protein were 61.52±9.23 and 6.968± 0.218 g/dl; 58.97±3.086 and 7.412±0.321 gl/dl & 55.186±3.038
and 8.089±0.185 gl/dl respectively for young, lactating and non-lactating female yaks. The values
(IU/L) for alkaline phosphates, SGOT, SGPT and acid phosphates were 163.06±26.67, 44.98±7.852,
24.68±2.27 and 2.01±0.28 for lactating female yaks while the values for non-lactating
female yaks were 160.11±21.91, 25.26±4.19, 12.22±0.921 and 3.175±0.928 respectively. The values
(IU/L) for above parameters in young female yaks were found to be 186.28± 17.46, 31.65±2.88,
17.0±2.29 and 2.387±0.124 respectively. The blood parameters are the indicator of general health
status of animals and hence an attempt has been made to find the normal values of these param-
eters in female of different physiological status.

301 Some serum biochemical parameters in yak (Poephagus grunniens L.) - A.Chatterjee,
R. Pourouchottamane, D.N. Das, and M. Sarkar, National Research Center on Yak (ICAR) Dirang,
Arunachal Pradesh- 790 101, India

In the present experiment the normal values for serum protein and some important
enzymes in male and female yaks have been studied. The study was conducted on a total number
of 42 adult and apparently healthy yaks (18 male and 24 female) raised in the institute’s farm at
Nyukmadong (3000 m above mean sea level) . The animals were maintained on locally available
pasture grasses supplemented with concentrate mixture. Blood samples were collected from the
jugular vein for each animal four times at 15 days interval. Serum was separated by centrifugation
at 2500 rpm. The serum samples were analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as Total
serum protein, Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate
Transaminase (SGPT), AlkalinePhosphates and Acid Phosphates as per standard procedure. The
overall mean values for different parameters were 7.641±0.14 g/dl, 33.41±2.4 IU/L, 19.44±2.29 IU/
L, 127.73±6.76 IU/L and 2.798±0.158 IU/L respectively, for Total serum protein, SGOT, SGPT,
Alkaline Phosphates and Acid Phosphates. However, no significant difference was found
between male and female yaks for the above-mentioned parameters. The serum biochemical
profile of an animal depend on several factors such as age, species, sex, altitude, climate,
production status, level of exercise. The results obtained in this study indicate the normal health
status of the animals and can be considered as a preliminary baseline reference for these serum
biochemical parameters in Yaks.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 185

302 Comparative study of dung management system in Kushinagar (U.P.) and Karnal (Haryana) -
K.K. Singhal, Parasu Ram Singh and Madhu Mohini, National Dairy Research Institute,
Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

A survey was conducted in Kushinagar (D1) district of U.P. and Karnal (D2) district of Haryana
during Sept-Oct 2003 about the prevalent animal waste management system. Twenty five
respondents were selected randomly and classified according to their land holding. Average land
holding in Kushinagar and Karnal district was 1.54 and 2.83 acre. Livestock consisted 24.44 %
cattle, 71.11 % buffalo and 4.44% goat (D1) and 22.94% cattle and 77.06 % buffalo (D2); and dry
matter intake was 9.11 and 9.46 kg/d/adult buffalo unit, in D1 and D2, respectively. In D1 area
46.30% of dung was used for dung cake and 53.70% for manure but in D2 area 38.38 % of dung
was used for dung cake, 55.45% for manure and 6.16% for bio-gas purpose. Storage of dung for
manure purpose was different in both the districts. Majority of farmers (94.41 %) in D1 stored
dung in pits where as in D2 area, dung storage in pits as well as on heap was practiced by similar
proportion of the respondents. Shape and size of the dung cakes also varied between the
districts. In D1 area farmers make about half meter long rod shaped dung structure weighing 2.36
kg on dry basis but in D2 area circular shaped dung cakes were being made each weighing about
0.75 kg on dry basis. Dung cakes utilization as a source of fuel was depending upon the land
holding/economic status of respondents. About 100 % framers in D1 and 96% in D2 areas make
dung cake but in D2 area 60% farmers, mainly small, medium and large utilize LPG contrary to
0.04% in D1 and these were mainly utilizing other sources like kerosene oil, wood and crop
residues for fuel purpose. In D2 area the number of animals increased with land holding. 52%
fanners in D1 area and 98% farmers in D2 area stored the dung cakes out side their home in
specially designed structures. Dung manure was utilized in the month of November in D1 area
and October, May and June in D2 area. Trading of dung cake was not recorded in D1 area,
however, its price varied in the range of Rs. 0.50 to 0.75/piece in D2 area.

303 Green house gases concentration in the air as influenced by the animal waste management
practices - K.K. Singhal, Parasu Ram Singh, and Madhu Mohini, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

Air samples from agricultural farm, cattle yard and from a place where dung is being
disposed off were taken for estimation of concentration of methane and nitrous oxide.
Methane concentration in respective air samples was 0.006, 0.078 and 0.073%,
respectively. The corresponding value for nitrous oxide gas was 0.027, 0.055 and 0.012% during
the month of Aug. Sept. 2003. Mixed dung from cows and buffaloes was mixed with water in the
ratio of 100:00 (T1), 80:20 (T2), 60:40 (T3), 40:60 (T4) and 20:80 (T5) and kept in conical flasks fitted
with cork in duplicate at ambient temperature for 57 days. Flask T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was
186 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

containing 16.11, 12.96, 9.92, 6.48 and 3.24 g organic matter, respectively. Each flask was closed for
24 hr to simulate the an aerobic conditions and after collecting the gas produced, kept open for
next 24 hr to maintain the oxygen supply. Average methane concentration in the sample of
respective flask was 11.42±2.21, 8.92±1.49, 3.7±0.33, 9.97±1.34 and 7.86±1.20%. The corresponding
value for nitrous oxide gas in collected air samples was 0.16±0.09, 0.24±0.15, 0.67±0.61, 1.14±0.42
and 0.24±0.08%. The data indicated that methane concentration was depending upon the quan-
tity of organic matter rather than the moisture, however, nitrous oxide gas concentration was
highest in treatment T4 indicating that under the aerobic condition increase in moisture increased
the nitrous oxide concentration and it was highest when the dung and water ratio was 40:60 at
ambient temperature. Role of methanogenic bacteria, present in the soil, in green house gases
emission from animal dung under farm conditions was also investigated. A known quantity of
material (4kg) I.E. dung (T-1), a mixture of dung and soil in 1:2 ratio (T-2) and soil only (T-3) were
kept under the air sealed inverted funnel (9 inch diameter) and a tube was attached to the end of
funnel stem to collect the gas emitted as a result of fermentation of material during 52 days.
Methane and nitrous gas were emitted up to 10 and 5 days, respectively and thereafter their
concentration did not change. Average methane concentration in the collected gas sample from
treatment T-1, T-2 and T-3 was 0.11, 0.09 and 0.04% and the nitrous oxide concentration was 0.14,
0.11 and 0.00%, respectively. These results indicted that methanogenic bacteria present in soil
did not influence the emission of methane from dung, however, bacteria present in the soil mixed
with dung are responsible for nitrous oxide emission.

304 Effect of various levels of cotton seed feeding on the growth performance of surti buffalo heifers -
J.L. Chaudhary, Hem Raj Jat and C.M. Yadav, Department of Animal production, Rajasthan
College of Agriculture, Udaipur 313 001 (Rajasthan)

A study on 18 growing surti buffalo heifers was conducted for 120 days from February
to June to assess the effect of three levels of (T 1 zero percent, T2 30 percent and T 3 60
percent) cotton seed feeding on nutrient intake, digestibility of nutrients and growth
performance in surti buffalo heifers. Average dry matter intake and daily body weight gain in
groups T1, T2 and T3 were 5.77±0.69, 5.95±0.85 and 6.08±1.02 kg/day; 0.533±19.03, 0.583±21.36 and
654±77.20 kg/day, respectively and variation among groups were non-significant in DMI/day.
But daily body weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 than T2 and T1, heifers.
Digestibility coefficient of DM and OM were higher (P<0.05) in T3 group as compared to T1 group.
There was no difference in digestibility coefficient of these nutrients among T3 and T2 groups.
Similarly, digestibilty coefficient of CP was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 than T2 and T1. The
digestibility of CF, EE and NFE was not affected by different levels of cotton seed feeding. It may
be inferred from this study cotton seed may be fed 60 percent or 30 percent in concentrate mixture
for optimum growth rate and nutrient utilization in growing buffalo heifers.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 187

305 A Demonstration trial of balanced total mixed ration (TMR) vs conventional feeding in lactating
buffaloes on a peri-urban dairy farm - J.P. Sehgal, S.K. Sirohi, Shashi Kant, T.K. Walli and R.C.
Chopra, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, NDRI Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

The balanced total mixed ration feeding technology enables formulating of rations
specific to the nutritional needs of specific category of dairy animals. Thus, a demonstration trial
of balanced total mixed ration formulated on the basis of kearl (1982) requirements for milch
buffaloes, as per their body weight and milk production, was conducted on a private dairy farm in
a peri - urban area. 10 lactating buffaloes in their 3 rd to 4th lactation and yielding on an average 7.0
kg milk having 6.96% fat per day were divided in to two groups of 5 each and were fed in group (I)
a total mixed ration containing 4 kg concentrate mixture, 0.8 kg cottonseed cake; 4.25 kg wheat
straw and 20 kg green maize/jowar fodder (containing 20-25% DM) per buffalo/day. The ration
provided 11.9 kg DM/d/buffalo after thorough mixing, and was offered once in a day only. The
ingredient composition of concentrate mixture was maize 33; GN Cake (expeller) 21; mustard cake
(exp) 12; wheat bran 20; rice polish (de oiled) 11; mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part. No
separate ration was given at the time of milking. The group II lactating buffalos were fed with 45
kg green jowar/maize, 1 kg wheat straw 2.8 kg wheat bran and rice bran mixture and 0.25 kg
cottonseed cake/day/animal separately. In group II, the feed was offered two times in a day. The
experimental period was 60 days. The cost of feeding of the total mixed ration in group I came to
Rs. 50/- per day/lactating buffalo, whereas in conventional ration, it came to Rs. 40/- per day/
buffalo. Daily milk yield of each buffalo was recorded and weekly milk samples were analyzed for
quality parameters. A digestibility trial of 5 days duration was also conducted on all the animals.
The buffaloes in total mixed ration fed group (G-I) gave 2369 kg milk and on conventional separate
feeding 1774 milk; in 60 days. Thus, the buffaloes on an average gave 7.90 kg having 6.99% fat per
day/animal in group I and 5.91 kg having 7.37% fat in group II. Also on the 60th day of feeding
TMR, the buffaloes on an average gave 8.44 kg milk having 7.13 % fat in comparison to 5.52 kg
milk having 7.56% fat in the separate feeding group even though the dry matter digestibility was
56.16 in group I compared to 65.15 in group II which could be due to feeding of higher quantity of
wheat straw in the TMR group. However, this group of animals showed a high plateu of lactation
curve and higher production than conventional separate feeding on a peri - urban dairy.

306 Cooling by mister system : Effects on feed intake, milk production and composition in crossbred
cows during hot-humid season - Anjuli Aggarwal and Mahendra Singh, Dairy Cattle Physiology
Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

To investigate the effect of cooling by mister system, twelve crossbred Karan Fries
cows were selected during early lactation of 50-70 days were divided into two groups of six each.
Cows of Group I were kept without mister cooling (control), while cows of group II were under
188 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

mister cooling system (experimental) from 11.00 A.M. to 4.00 P.M. during the experiment of 30
days. The experiment was conducted during hot humid season when the average maximum
temperature was 33.65oC (30.0-39.0oC) and relative humidity was 81.1% (71-92%). All the cows
were kept under loose housing system and were provided ad lib green fodder -maize and water to
drink. The concentrate mixture having 72% TDN, 20% CP was offered based on milk production
(@ 1.0 kg/2.5 kg milk yield) at the time of machine milking during morning (6 A.M.), noon (12.00
AM.) and evening (7 P.M.). Rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were recorded in
the morning (8.00 A.M.) before providing mister cooling and in the afternoon at 4.00 P.M. after the
cooling. The average feed intake increased (P<0.01) by 8.40% in group II cows as compared to
group I. Milk yield varied (P<0.01) in cows of both groups and was increased (P<0.05) by 0.85 kg/
d in animals of group II. Milk fat, protein, lactose, total solids and plasma glucose levels increased
(P<0.01) and milk NEFA and urea levels decreased (P<0.01) in experimental cows. The values of
protein, lactose, urea, total solids and plasma glucose varied (P<0.01) between the group during
experimental period. The values of physiological responses for rectal temperature, respiration
rate and pulse rate in morning was similar in both the groups of cows but varied (P<0.01) in the
evening. Further, rectal in both the groups varied during different periods of the study (P<0.01).
The values of physiological responses for rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate of
both the groups were similar during morning but varied (P<0.01) in the afternoon. A increase in
respiration rate by 8.16/min. in group I and a decrease by 2.39/min. in group II (P<0.01) was
observed. Average pulse rate in group I cows increased from 54.53/min in the morning to 63.86/
min in afternoon but in group II it decreased from 52.00/min to 48.55/min. It was concluded that
cooling by mister system significantly influence the physiological responses leading to increase
in feed intake and milk yield of cows during hot humid season.

307 Feed intake and milk production performance of buffaloes under two sets of management
during winter - Anjuli Aggarwal and Mahendra Singh, Dairy Cattle Physiology Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana)

To study the effect of micro climatic modification during extreme winter 12 Murrah
buffaloes (II or III parity) were selected at 50-70 days of lactation from the Institute’s herd and
experiment was conducted when the average maximum and minimum temperature was 20.27oC
and 4.72oC and the relative humidity was 87.70%. The animals were divided into two groups of six
each. Group I buffaloes (control group) were kept under open loose housing system while group
II buffaloes (experimental group) were kept in houses with paddy straw bedding. All the
buffaloes were provided ad lib green berseem fodder and water was available all the time. The
concentrate mixture (TDN- 72%, CP- 21%) was offered based on milk production @ 1.0 kg/2.5 kg
milk yield at the time of milking during morning (6 A.M.) and evening milking (7 P.M.). The feed
intake of buffaloes kept in houses increased (P<0.05) by 15.8% as compared to control group.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 189

Milk yield varied (P<0.01) between the buffaloes and between two groups during the experiment
(P<0.01). During the experiment milk yield declined from 9.51 to 8.88 kg in group I buffaloes,
however, in group II buffaloes milk yield increased (P<0.01). Milk fat, protein, lactose, total solids
and blood glucose levels were higher (P<0.01) and milk NEFA and urea levels were lower (P<0.01)
in group II buffaloes. Rectal temperature of buffaloes of both the groups was similar in the
morning but varied (P<0.01) in the afternoon. Further, rectal temperature varied (P<0.01) between
buffaloes, between the two groups and on different days of the study. The average respiration
rate was similar during morning (12.20 vs.11.46/min.) and increased (P<0.01) in the afternoon
(14.83 vs. 16.45/min.) Respiration rate varied between animals however, during different days of
the study, variation was not significant. Skin temperature and pulse rate of both groups was high
(P<0.01) in the afternoon but the increase was more in buffaloes of group II. Further, the changes
in skin temperatures were significant (P<0.01) during different days of experiment. The study
indicated that availability of proper in house shelter helps in sustainement of physiological
responses to normal values and thereby increased feed intake leading to more milk production.

308 Predicting animal performance (Voluntary feed intake) by in vitro gas production
measurement in fecal inoculum - C. Senthamil Pandian, T.J.Reddy, K.Sivaiah and M. Blummel1,
Dept. of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, ANGRAU, Hyderabad-30

In experiment I, fresh fecal inoculum (FI) was used to describe the rate and extent of in
vitro gas production of eight pearl millet and two sorghum stover in nitrogen supplemented (N+)
and un-supplemented (N-) incubation medium and to predict stover organic matter digestibility
(OMD) and nitrogen balance when offered alone and restricted to growing sheep. In multiple
regressions, when using kinetic parameter of gas production alone, the extent and rate of gas
production accounted for 88.8 and 87.2% of the variation in OMD in N+ and N- incubations,
respectively. Rates of gas production accounted for 71.5 (N+) and 66% (N-) of the variation in
nitrogen balances, respectively. In experiment II, 4 pearl millet stover were fed to sheep alone and
ad libitum and also fed supplemented with cowpea hay to provide 8% of crude protein in the diet.
When using kinetic parameter of gas production alone, the rates of gas production accounted for
73.9 (N+) and 74.8% (N-) of the variation in OMD. Halftime of extent of gas production accounted
for 76.5 (N+ ) and 71.1 % (N-) of the variation in nitrogen balances, respectively. Organic matter
intake (OMI) was less predicted and only 50% of its variation was accounted for by halftime of
gas production in both incubation media. However, combination of in vitro true degradabilities,
gas volume measured at half time of gas, partitioning factor and N content of stover and cowpea
hay accounted for approximately 82.00% variation in OMI. OMD and nitrogen balances can be
adequately predicted by kinetic of in vitro gas measurements alone in fecal inoculum. It is also
concluded that the combination of gas volume measurement with concomitant residue
determination of amount of substrate degraded along with nitrogen content of the feed was
found to be a valuable method in predicting voluntary feed intake.
1
ILRI, India, Pantancheru-502 324
190 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

8. Nutritional Strategies for Non-Ruminant Production Systems

309 Biochemical and haematological variation in broilers on the diet supplemented with natural
herbs - Kumui Nring, V.K. Vidyarthi and V.B. Sharma, SASRD , Nagaland University,
Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland

210 day old Hubbard Paterson strain of broilers, divided randomly into 6 groups of 35
birds each on the basis of live weight (mean, 48.58 g) were subjected into six different treatmental
diets, i.e. a standard diet-starter mash from zero to 20 days of age and pellet diet from 21 day
onwards upto 42 days (group 1, control); standard diet plus superliv @ of 0.1 ml/bird/day (group
2) ; standard diet plus zeetress @ of 0.05 g/bird/day (group 3) ; standard diet plus superliv (@ of
0.1 ml) plus zeetress (@ of 0.05 g)/bird/day (group 4) ; standard diet plus superliv @ of 0.2 ml/bird/
day (groups) and standard diet plus zeetress @ of 0.1 g/bird/day (group 6). All the birds were
reared under battery brooder upto 20 days and thereafter shifted to cages as per treatment. Blood
samples were collected on 21 days (before shifting to cages) and on 42 days of age from the wing
vein on the inner side of the elbow joints of the birds and were processed for estimation of
various parameters. Serum glucose level at 21 days of was 167.03, 147.83, 147.23, 149.73, 147.40
and 147.38 mg/dl in the groups 1 to 6, respectively and control group exhibited significantly
(P<0.05 ) higher level of glucose. The corresponding values were 168.90,149.73,149.13,151.60,
149.28 and 149.30 mg/dl at 42 days of age and followed the similar trend. The mean serum
cholesterol was 182.30, 174.88, 167.00, 169.03, 173.00 and 166.88 mg/dl at 21 days and 183.10,
175.63, 167.80,/169.83, 173.30 and 167.68 mg/dl at 42 days of age, respectively. Serum cholesterol
was significantly (P<0.05) lowest in group 6 compared to others. Serum calcium was significantly
(P<0.05) highest (10.38) in group 2 and the least (7.38) in group 1 and other values were in between
these values at 21 days of age; however serum calcium level did not differ at 42 days of age. Serum
phosphorus level (ranging from 8.03 to 9.10 mg/dl) were also nonsignificantly different at 21 or 42
days of age. Serum alkaline phosphatase enzyme was ranging from 483.25 to 499.93 IU/L at the
both periods of experiment and the values in group 6 exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest
followed by groups 5, 4, 2, 3 and the least in group 1. Mean serum total protein ranged from 3.0 to
3.6 g/dl in all the six groups with non-significant variation in both periods of experiment. Serum
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) level ranged from 166.73 to 172.03 IU/L at both
period of experiment in all the six groups and the values were not different significantly. Serum
glutamate pyruvate transminase level ranged from 9.93 to 11.33 IU/L at both period of experiment
in all the six groups and values did not vary significantly.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 191

310 Effect or phytase enzyme supplementation on utilization of rice polish in broiler chicken ration -
J.J. Gupta, S. Doley and B.P.S. Yadav, Animal Nutrition Division, ICAR Research Complex for
NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793 103 (India)

Rice polish and rice bran are important by products in rice mills in the northeastern
region being the major cereal crop. However, it is included not more than 10-15 percent in the diet
of poultry due to the presence of anti-nutritional factor phytin. Therefore, an attempt was made to
utilize maximum level of rice polish with phytase enzyme to economize broiler chicken production.
An experiment of 28 days duration was conducted on 21 days old vencob strain broiler chicks.
Total 162 birds were distributed into 27 groups with 6 birds each under deep litter system. The
experiment was laid out in factorial CRD with 3 level of rice polish (15, 30 and 45Kg/100Kg of feed)
and 3 level of phytase enzyme supplementation (0, 10 and 20 g/100Kg of feed). All the diets were
made isonitrogenous (21% Protein) with the help of GNC, Soya meal and fish mea1. The feed and
water were provided to birds in ad-libitum. The growth rate and feed consumption were recorded
and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed cost per Kg body weight gain was calculated. The
results revealed that as the level of rice polish increased the growth rate reduced. However, there
was no any significant difference in the performance of chicken fed rice polish at 15 or 30% leve1.
The supplementation of phytase enzyme had no affect on the improvement of feeding value of
rice polish in broiler chicken. Thus, it is concluded that rice polish can be fed to a maximum level
of 30% to broiler chicken without phytase enzyme supplementation.

311 Effect of particle size on the performance of broiler chicken - K.K.Yadav, Z.S. Sihag and
R.S. Berwal, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

Three hundred day old broiler chickens were divided into five groups, each having three
replications and each replication was having twenty birds. These five groups of birds were
offered isoproteinous and isocaloric rations (ICAR, 1985) of similar ingredient composition. The
only difference among the different treatments was of feed particle size. These feed particle sizes
were achieved using different hammer mill screen sizes i.e. T1 (2mm); T2 (3mm); T3 (4mm); T4
(5mm); T5 (6mm). From this experiment it was found that weight gain by the birds was
significantly higher in treatment, T2 and T5 as compared to the other treatments. The feed
conversion ratio (FCR) was found to be 2.60, 2.41, 2.32, 2.14 and 2.31 for Treatment T1, T2, T3, T4
and T5, respectively which clearly indicated that with increase in particle size upto 5mm screen
size, the FCR was improved. The FCR was again increased when 6mm screen size feed particles
were offered. Hence it could be concluded from this experiment that the feed particle size resulted
by using 5mm opening screen size in hammer mill was most efficiently utilized by the birds as it
resulted in lowest FCR. The difference in the weight of gizzard, heart, intestine and dressing (as
percent of body weight) was non significant. However, the weight of liver as per cent of total live
weight was significantly higher in case of T1 and T5 as compared to other treatments. By using
5 mm screen size for grinding cakes and grains like maize for mixing in broilers feed we can save
electricity and get better performance of birds.
192 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

312 Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens fed wheat - maize
based diet - Sandeep Gupta and Nand Kishore, Department of Animal Feed Technology,CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment for 42 days was conducted on day old 80 commercial chicks using 2x4x10
factorial design (2 treatments, 4 replications and 10 birds in each replications). The wheat-maize
based diets contained 25% wheat and 29% maize in starter ration and 40% wheat and 26% maize
in finisher ration. One of the two diets was supplemented with multi-enzyme mixture at a level of
0.075% of the diet. Each gram of multi enzyme mixture contained amylase 1900000 untis, cellulose
100000 units, xylanase 375000 units, pectinase 12500 units and phytase 200000 FYT units. Both
the diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and contained sufficient nutrients in starter as well
as finisher rations to meet the requirement of the birds as per BIS (1992). The feed intake was
statistically similar in both the treatments. The body weight and FCR were significantly (P<0.05)
better in enzyme supplemented diet (B.Wt.; 933 Vs 1031 gm and FCR; 2.50 Vs 2.29). The gross
energy metabolizability, dry matter metabolizability and nitrogen retention did not differ
significantly between the groups, however, the values of metabolizable energy was higher, in
enzyme supplemented group (2868 Vs 2934 Kcal/kg). Carcass yield, carcass composition, length
and weight of gut were not affected by enzyme supplementation. However, weight of gizzard was
higher in enzyme supplemented group. The values being 2.08 and 2.32% in the two groups,
respectively.

313 Effect of feed particle sizes on car cass yield, its composition, gut length and gut weight in broler
chickens - Sandeep Gupta and Nand Kishore, Department of Animal Feed Technology, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment of 6 weeks duration was conducted on 160- days old commercial broiler
chicks. The chicks were randomly divided in to four treatments. Each treatment had four
replications with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental diet was ground using hammer mill to
pass through 2, 3 (used in continue), 4 and 6 mm screen and designated as treatments T1, T2, T3
and T4, respectively. All the diets, so formed were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and met out the
nutrient requirements of starter and broiler chicks as specified by BIS, 1992. Five birds were
selected from each treatment for determining carcass yield and its composition. There was no
significant (P<0.05) effect of feed particle sizes on the dressed weight, eviscerated weight, drawn
weight and giblet weight of the birds weight, of gizzard was significantly higher in treatment T4.
Composition of carcass of breast and leg region did not differ significantly among different
treatment groups. Gut length was higher in T4 (174.4 cm) and lower in T1 (159.8 cm). Gut weight was
statistically similar among all the treatments.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 193

314 Effect of feed particle sizes on metabolizability of broiler chickens - Sandeep Gupta and
Nand Kishore, Department of Animal Feed Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

In an experiment of six weeks 160 days-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly
divided into four equal groups with four replications, each replication consisted of 10 chicks.
Experimental diets for starter and finisher birds consisted of maize, wheat, wheat bran, ground nut
cake, fish meal and feed additives and all the ingredients were ground to pass through 3 (used in
routine), 2, 4 and 6 mm screen and designated as C, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. All the diets were
isocaloric and isonitrogenous and sufficient in nutrients to meet out the requirement of starter
and finisher birds as per BIS (1992). A five days metabolic trial was conducted (including three
days collection period) to estimate metabolizable energy and nitrogen metabolizability during
sixth week of experiment. Gross energy metabolizability and dry matter metabolizability were
highest (P<0.05) in group C, 73.61% and 71.82%, respectively and lowest in group T1; 67.13% and
64.63%, respectively. Nitrogen corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) was also highest (P<0.05) in
group C (2867.89 Kcal/kg) and lowest in Group T1 (2627.19 Kcal/kg). Nitrogen metabolizability
value of 48.37% was lowest in group T1. It was concluded that metabolizability was lower with
smaller particle size (2 mm) in comparison to larger particle sizes (3, 4 and 6 mm).

315 Effect of feed particle sizes on the growth performance of broiler chickens - Sandeep Gupta and
Nand Kishore, Department of Animal Feed Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)

An experiment on day-old 160 broiler chicks was conducts using 4x4x10 factorial design
(4 treatments, 4 replication and 10 birds in each replication) to evaluate the effect of feed particle
sizes on their growth performance for 42 days. Starter and finisher experimental diets consisted of
maize, wheat, wheat bran, groundnut cake, fish meal, common salt, mineral mixture and feed
additives so as to meet the requirements as per BIS (1992). The ingredients were ground to pass
through 2 mm, 3 mm (used in routine), 4 mm and 6 mm screen using a hammer mill and designated
as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. All the diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous.
Feed intake in the broiler chicks was 1771.7, 2121.0, 2245.2 and 2156 gm in treatments T1, T2, T3, T4,
respectively. The intake in T1 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than T2, T3 and T4. The body weight
attained in treatment T4 (1055 g) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than T1, (725 g), T2 (903 g) and
T3 (932 g). Feed conversion was also significantly (P<0.05) better in T4 comparison to the T1, T2,
T3 treatments, values being 2.13, 2.57, 2.44 and 2.50, respectively. From the above study it was
concluded that the birds performed better on a diet with larger particle size (6 mm) in comparison
to smaller particle sizes (2, 3 and 4 mm).
194 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

316 Effects of chromium supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on nutrient
utilization in broiler chicken - J. L Amatya, S. Haldar and T. K. Ghosh, Department of Animal
Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

Day old Vencoob chicks (100) were randomly distributed into four dietary groups viz., C
(control), T1, T2 and T3 consisting of 5 replicates of 5 birds each. The diet in group C was
completely devoid of any supplemental source of Cr while those in groups T1, T2 and T3 were
supplemented with 0.2 mg Cr/Kg diet in the form of K-chromate, Cr-chloride and Cr-yeast complex
respectively. A metabolic trial was conducted in the last week of the experiment to assess the
effects of supplemental Cr on the utilization pattern of different organic nutrients. Dry matter
(DM) intake in different experimental groups varied (P>0.05) from 118.89±2.27 in T1 to 119.89±0.57
in T3. Intake of organic matter (OM), on the other hand, ranged from 110.15±1.01 in T1 to 110.40±0.56
in T3 and that of crude protein (CP) in different groups ranged trom 23.54±0.23 in T1 to 23.80±0.08
in T3. Hardly any difference could be detected in the level of fat intake in the experimental birds of
different groups. Cr supplementation enhanced nutrient utilization with a varying extent. DM
metabolizability (g/g intake), which was 0.672±0.003 in C group increased significantly (P<0.01) in
T1 (0.726±0.005), T2 (0.739±0.002) and T3 (0.747±0.001) and the performance of T3 group of birds
were better (P<0.001) than that of T1and T3 groups of birds. Metabolizability of OM also followed
a trend similar to DM metabolizability (0.839±0.002, 0.855±0.003, 0.874±0.001 and 0.882±0.001) in
C, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. CP metabolizability increased significantly (P<0.01) from 0.772±0.008
in group C to 0.789±0.002, 0.791±0.002 and 0.826±0.001 in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Fat metabo-
lizability was found to be 0.912±0.002 in C group, which increased significantly (P<0.001) due to
Cr supplementation in T1 (0.937±0.002), T2 (0.932±0.002) and T3 (0.934±0.003) groups of birds.
However the difference between T1, T2 and T3 in this regards was nonsignificant. The study has
revealed Cr supplementation at the present dose level can enhance utilization of organic nutri-
ents in broiler chicken.

317 Status of chromium and some other trace elements in commonly used poultry feed ingredients-
J.L Amatya, S. Haldar and T.K.Ghosh, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of
Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

In order to assess the chromium content of various feed ingredients commonly used in
preparation of concentrate feed for broiler birds a survey work was conduced during which
approximately 100 g of different feed ingredients were collected from various sources and
analyzed for their Cr and other trace element (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) status. Cr concentrations in
maize, soybean, rice bran, mustard cake, deoiled rice bran, til cake, meat meal, fishmeal and broiler
feed were 4.88±1.06, 3.80±0.54, 1.16±0.15, 14.76±1.22, 77.00±0.71, 5.23±1.51 and 5.52±0.10 mg
Kg-1 DM respectively. Cu concentration was estimated to be 3.10±0.10, 22.40±0.75, 12.97±0.06,
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 195

14.72±0.59, 26.44±0.13, 1.60±0.06, 16.72±2.32, 15.20±1.56 in the corresponding feed ingredients.


Zn was estimated to be 18.24±0.35, 40.60±0.60, 30.80±0.38, 40.80±0.06, 32.88±4.24, 90.93±0.04,
44.20±3.22, 43.88±10.50 and 22.28±0.10 mg/Kg DM in maize, soybean, rice bran, mustard cake,
DORB, til cake, meat meal, fishmeal and broiler feed respectively. Considering the minimum critical
level of Zn as 40 mg Kg -1 DM, moderate to marginal Zn deficiency was observed in maize, rice
bran and deoiled rice bran. Fe was estimated to be 67.84±0.75, 122.12±0.79, 6.20±0.54, 47.04±5.27,
8.45±0.07, 93.12±1.04, 257.48±33.50, 346.34±45.70 and 85.88±0.69 mg /Kg DM in maize, soybean,
rice bran, mustard cake, DORB, til cake, meat meal, fishmeal and broiler feed respectively. It
becomes evident from the present survey that almost all the feed ingredients except rice bran and
deoiled rice bran contained fairly high concentration of Fe. Concentration of Mn was estimated to
be 15.40±0.32, 29.00±0.14, 255.88±2.54, 66.00±5.29, 284.40±1.72, 35.60±0.51, 61.30±5.44, 70.20±6.33
and 33.52±0.61 mg per Kg dry matter in maize, soybean, rice bran, mustard cake, DORB, til cake,
meat meal, fishmeal and broiler feed respectively. The bran was found to be the richest source
compared to other ingredients, where as lower concentration of Mn was detected in cereal grains.
The study reveals that animal protein supplements like meat meal and fishmeal were rich in Cr
while rice bran was found to be the poorest source. Til cake and mustard cake, on the other hand,
were found to contain a substantial quantity of Cr.

318 Effects of chromium supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on feed utilization
efficiency in broiler chicken - J.L. Amatya, S. Haldar and T. K. Ghosh, Department of Animal
Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037
(West Bengal)

Day old Vencoob chicks (100) were randomly distributed into four dietary groups viz., C
(control), T1, T2 and T3 consisting of 5 replicates of 5 birds each. The diet in group C was
completely devoid of any supplemental source of Cr while those in groups T1, T2 and T3 were
supplemented with 0.2 mg Cr/Kg diet in the form of K-chromate, Cr-chloride and Cr-yeast
complex respectively. The body weight of the birds in different experimental groups increased
(P<0.001) almost linearly in every week and the final body weight after 35 days feeding trial was
1244.00±16.00, 1323.33±23.33, 1350.00±26.82 and 1293.33±7.99 g in C, T1, T2 and T3 groups
respectively. Live weight gain also increased up to the 3rd week in all the experimental groups and
a depression in live weight gain occurred during the 4th week. This depression might be caused
by some thermal stress exerted on the birds during this period of time due to sudden rise in
ambient temperature by about 4° C. Live weight gain in the final week of the trial was 276.00±11.76
g in group C and that in T1, T2 and T3 was 416.67±23.33, 423.33±9.1 1 and 410.00±8.16 g
respectively. The performance of the birds in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR) and gain: feed
intake ratio also showed declining trend during the 4 th week in all the experimental groups
196 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

including C group which improved again in the 5th week in groups T1, T2 and T3 but not in C group.
Overall FCR was 1.74±0.13, 1.62±0.02, 1.66±0.12 and 1.63±0.12 in C, T1, T2, and T3 groups
respectively. It appears that FCR was particularly better in T1and T3 groups supplemented with K-
chromate and Cr yeast complex. Gain feed intake ratio was also significantly better (P<0.01) in T1
group (0.74±0.04) compared to groups C (0.65±0.04), T2 (0.65±0.05) and T3 (0.67±0.05). It becomes
evident from the present study that K-chromate enhanced the efficiency of feed utilization in
terms of FCR and per unit body weight gain in the broiler chicken compared to Cr-chloride and
Cr- yeast complex.

319 Effect of chromium supplementation on carcass quality of broiler chicken - J. L. Amatya,


S. Haldar and T. K. Ghosh, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal
and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

Day old Vencoob chicks (100) were randomly distributed into four dietary groups viz., C
(control), T1, T2 and T3 consisting of 5 replicates of 5 birds each. The diet in group C was
completely devoid of any supplemental source of Cr while those in groups T1, T2 and T3 were
supplemented with 0.2 mg Cr/Kg diet in the form of K-chromate, Cr-chloride and Cr-yeast complex
respectively. The birds were slaughtered at the end of 35 days of feeding to study the different
carcass quality parameters. Meat protein (g/100 g) in the carcass was 20.09±0.12, 20.85±0.54,
23.12±0.90 and 22.36±1.24 in C, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Fat (g/100 g) in the carcass of the
corresponding groups was 15.43±1.62, 10.63±1.94, 12.05±0.78 and 10.07±0.57 respectively. The
data indicates that protein content in the carcass increase (P>0.05) in T2 and T3 while fat content
reduced (P>0.05) in the same groups. Muscle pH varied (P>0.05) between 6.10±0.10 in C to
6.40±0.10 in T1 group of birds. Water holding capacity improved significantly (P<0.001) in T3
(63.30±0.30) compared to that in C (54.10±0.10), T1 (57.5±0.40) and T2 (52.80±0.30). Fiber diameter
and sarcomere length were higher (P<0.001) in T3 (61.70±0.30 µm and 4.30±0.01 µm respectively).
Fiber diameter in C, T1 and T2 groups was 38.30±0.20, 38.00±1.40 and 42.00±0.30 respectively.
Sarcomere length in the corresponding groups was 2.40±0.10, 2.60±0.10 and 3.70±0.70
respectively. Though the dressing percentage in the C group (65.87±0.016) was lower marginally
(P>0.05) than that in T1 and T3, in T2 the dressing percentage was found to be the lowest (62.90±0.012)
(P<0.001). Breast weight in T2 group of bird was also comparatively lower (p>0.05) than that in T1
and T3 groups. Drumstick and breast generally add most of the bulk to the carcass weight and
dressing percentage and lower dressed weight of these parameters in T2 might be responsible for
the lower dressing percentage in this group. The sensory evaluation scores in C, T1, T2 and T3
groups were 3.10±0.10, 3.70±0.40, 4.30±0.10 and 4.40±0.10 respectively which indicates that Cr
supplementation improved (P<0.05) the quality of broiler meat.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 197

320 Intake and retention of chromium and other trace elements in broiler birds supplemented with
inorganic and organic chromium sources - J.L. Amatya, S. Haldar and T.K. Ghosh, Department
of Animal Nutrition,West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037
(West Bengal)

Day old Vencoob chicks (100) were randomly distributed into four dietary groups viz., C
(control), T1, T2 and T3 consisting of 5 replicates of 5 birds each. The diet in group C was
completely devoid of any supplemental source of Cr while those in groups T1, T2 and T3 were
supplemented with 0.2 mg Cr/Kg diet in the form of K-chromate, Cr-chloride and Cr-yeast complex
respectively. A metabolic trial was conducted during day 30-35 of the study to ascertain the effect
of supplemental Cr on the intake and retention of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Negative retention of Cr
(mg/mg intake) was observed in the birds of C group (-0.06±0.019). In T1 and T2 excretion of Cr
was reduced (P<0.001) and the retention figures were increased towards the positive side to
0.036±0.018 and 0.033±0.009 respectively. Cr-yeast supplementation has been found to reduce
(P<0.00) Cr excretion further in T3 and the retention was also higher in this group (0.048±0.009).
Intake of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn showed little variation (P>0.05) amongst different groups. Cu intake
(mg/day/bird) was 1.94±0.014, 1.93±0.014, 1.94±0.049 and 1.94±0.008 respectively in C, T1, T2 and
T3 groups. Intake of Zn in the corresponding groups was 11.61±0.073, 11.60±0.089, 11.63±0.070
and 11.63±0.049 respectively. Intake of Fe ranged between 19.69±0.151, in T1 to 19.73±0.119 in T2.
Mn intake was found to be almost constatnt in all the groups (16.14±0.10, 14.14±0.13, 16.16±0.09
and 16.16±0.07 in T1, T2 and T3 respectively). Intake of all these trace elements fulfilled the
minimum critical level suggested by the NRC (1994). Retention of all these trace elements was
significantly influenced by Cr supplementation. Retention of Cu (mg/mg intake) was 0.168±0.006
in C group, which increased to 0.337±0.005 in T1, 0.334±0.004 in T2 and 0.358±0.003 in T3. The
highest Zn retention was observed in T3 (0.385±0.003). Zn retention in T1 (0.365±0.005) and T2
(0.371±0.004) was lower (P<0.001) than that in T3. Zn retention in the C group was the lowest
(P<0.001) in all the experimental groups. Fe retention increased (P<0.001) in the Cr supplemented
groups. The lowest value being observed in the C group (0.135±0.005) and the highest in T3
(0.333±0.003). Fe retention in T1 (0.311±0.005) and T2 (0.318±0.004) were also higher (P<0.01) than
the control group but lower (P<0.05) than the level observed in T3. Birds in the C group had been
found to be suffering from negative Mn balance (-0.147±0.007). Cr supplementation improved Mn
retention in all the supplemented groups. As was observed with other trace elements, the highest
(P<0.01) retention of Mn was found in T3 group (0.114±0.004). In T1 and T2 Mn retention was
0.086+0.007 and 0.094±0.004 respectively. It becomes evident from the present observation that
Cr supplementation significantly improved retention of trace elements.
198 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

321 Distribution of Cr and some other trace elements in vital tissues of broiler chicken - J. L.
Amatya. S. Haldar and T. K. Ghosh, Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of
Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037 (West Bengal)

Cr concentration was assessed in thigh and breast muscles as well as liver of broiler
chicken through a survey work conduced at different abattoirs in Kolkata and Nadia district of
West Bengal. Cr and other trace elements viz., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn contents were estimated form
these samples on fresh basis. Concentration of Cr was estimated to be 0.037±0.004, 0.039±0.004
and 0.085±0.001 mg/Kg fresh weight (FW) in liver, breast and thigh muscles respectively. It was
higher (P<0.05) in the thigh muscle vis-a-vis that in the breast muscle and liver. Copper
concentration was observed to be 10.83±0.08, 0.226±0.03 and 12.70±0.18 mg/kg FW in liver, breast
and thigh muscle respectively. Zn, on the other hand, was 100.59±0.15,1.54±0.11 and 12.70±0.18
mg/kg FW in the respective organs. Like Cr, the concentration of Zn was also higher in the thigh
muscle compared to that in the breast muscle (P<0.01). Fe and Mn concentrations in the liver of
the broiler birds were 120.05±0.16 and 4.30±0.006 respectively. The present investigation
therefore indicates that there was deficiency in these trace elements prevailing in the broiler
chicken. It was observed from the present investigation that Cr had a tendency to be deposited
in the heavy muscles of breast and leg compared to that in the liver.

322 Performance of broilers fed limewater treated, polyethylene glycol or tannase enzyme
supplemented mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel based diets - P.Vasantha Kumar, R. Ravi,
B.Mohan and M.R. Purushothaman, Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College and
Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal

A broiler trial was conducted by assigning the chicks (243 numbers) randomly to 9
dietary treatment groups and fed control (T1), lime water treated Mango Seed Kernel (MSK) at 10
(T2) and 15% (T3) levels in broiler starter and 15 (T4) and 20 % (T5) levels in broiler finisher rations
replacing maize. The birds under treatment groups T6 and T7 were fed diets containing raw MSK
at 10 and 15% levels during starter phase (0-3 weeks) and 15 and 20 % levels during finisher phase
(4-6 weeks) supplemented with polyethylene glycol-PEG (0.50%). Similar1y, the birds under
treatment groups T8 and T9 were fed rations containing same level of raw MSK supplemented
with the enzyme tannase (0.30%). All the diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The mean
body weight gain (g) was 593.08, 547.04, 498.08, 578.15, 559.21, 586.80, 558.46, 565.00 and 519.19 in
T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9 groups, respectively during 0-3 weeks of age. Significantly
(P<0.01) lower weight gain was observed in T2, T3 and T9 groups as compared to control (T1)
group. Better feed efficiency (P<0.01) was observed in T4, T5, T6 and T8 groups as compared to T2
and T3 groups. The mean gain in weight was 1016.93, 984.80, 948.00, 1012.22, 1001.60, 1017.08,
999.21, 995.00 and 949.94 g in T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9 groups, respectively. Significantly
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 199

(P<0.01) depressed weight gain and poor feed efficiency were recorded in T3 and T9 groups as
compared to T1 group. The feed consumption was not affected significantly both during starter
and finisher phases. Blood parameters and organoleptic evaluation of meat did not show
significant variation among various treatment groups. From this study, it can be inferred that lime
water treated and PEG supplemented (0.5% of the ration) MSK could be included up to a level of
15% in the broiler rations replacing maize. The adverse effects of raw MSK on weight gain and
feed efficiency were reduced by feeding broilers with processed (lime water treated) or PEG
supplemented MSK.

323 Influence of dietary supplementation of Esterified-glucomannan on broiler chicken exposed to


aflatoxicosis - M.V.L.N. Raju, S.V. Rama Rao, K. Radhika and G. Shyamsunder, Project Directorate
on Poultry (ICAR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030

Esterified-glucomannan (EGM), an extract from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisae,


was tested for its ability in countering the adverse effects of aflatoxin in commercial broilers. Four
experimental diets were prepared by adding EGM (0 or 0.1%) or aflatoxin (0 or 400 ppb) to the
basal diet in a 2x2 factorial manner and were fed to 120 broiler chicks from 0 to 42 days of age.
Body weight (1008g) and feed intake (1873g) of birds were significantly depressed by aflatoxin
than in comparison to control (1670 and 3150g, resp.). Supplementation of EGM significantly
increased the body weight (1115g) and feed intake (2046g), which were intermediate to those of
control and the aflatoxin groups. The activity of gamma glutamyl transferase in serum was the
highest in the toxin fed group and was intermediate in the group fed EGM-supplemented aflatoxin
feed. EGM showed no effect on serum protein concentration while cholesterol level was
improved moderately (58 vs. 34 mg% in control). The size of liver, gizzard, giblets and kidneys
increased while weight of thymus and ready to cook yields decreased with aflatoxin. No effect of
aflatoxin was seen on abdominal fat content and weights of bursa, spleen and adrenals.
Esterified-glucomannan increased the thymus weight in aflatoxin group, which was intermediate
to those of aflatoxin and control groups and showed no influence on any other slaughter
parameter. EGM showed no effects on liver and muscle fat content, ash content and strength of
tibia bone. It is concluded that the supplementation of EGM may be helpful in partially alleviating
the toxic effects of aflatoxin in commercial broilers.

324 Replacement of maize with pearl millet on weight nutrient basis in broiler chicken diet -
S.V. Rama Rao, M.V.L.N. Raju,M.S.B. Sailaja and R.P.Sharma,Project Directorate on Poultry,
Hyderabad 500 030; (svramaraol@rediffmai1.com)

An experiment was conducted to study performance, carcass traits, serum lipid profile
and immunecompetence in broilers (2 to 35d of age) fed diets containing graded levels (25, 50, 75
and 100%) of pearl millet (PM) (Pennisetum typhoides) replacing yellow maize (YM) on weight
(PMWB) and iso-nutrient (PMNB) basis. Each diet was fed to 10 groups of chicks (5 broilers/
200 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

group) housed in battery brooders. PM contained more protein (10.30 vs 7.33%) and less ME
(3439 vs 3494 kal/kg) fibre (2.46 vs 2.57%), fat (4.31 vs 4.48%), and soluble carbohydrates (1.63 vs
3.39%) compared to YM. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were not affected by replacing YM
with PMWB. On iso-nutrient replacement of YM with PM, growth and feed efficiency were
increased with increased dietary levels of PM compared to those fed the YM reference diet
(YMRD) at 21 d of age. At d 35, growth was significantly higher in broilers fed (1621g) 100% PM
compared to other treatments (1503-1561g), but feed efficiency was not affected due to
treatments employed. The relative weight of gizzard, length of intestine, serum LDL and total
cholesterol contents decreased, while deposition of abdominal fat and serum triglycerides
increased in broilers fed PMNB diets compared to those fed the YMRD). Fat deposition in thigh
muscle decreased when fed PMWB diet but increased when incorporated on nutrient basis. Fat
deposition in liver increased significantly in broilers fed 75 and 100% (14.19 and 17.50 g/kg,
respectively) PMWB compared to those fed the YMRD (8.70g/kg). Protein content in liver
increased significantly at all levels of PM incorporation on nutrient basis. Based on the results, it
may be concluded that on can be replaced in toto with PM on weight basis with out affecting
growth, feed efficiency, carcass traits and immunity. Incorporation of PM on nutrient basis
increased growth and feed efficiency especially at higher levels of incorporation. The
concentrations of LDL and total cholesterol in serum decreased, while abdominal fat and serum
triglycerides increased with incorporation of PM in broiler diet.

325 Studies on the effect of biocholine supplementation in commercial broilers - B. Muthukumarasamy,


B.K.Sahu and R.K. Swain, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 003

Three hundred day-old straight-run Cobb broiler chicks with body weights ranging
from 40.5 to 42.2 g were randomly distributed in to six groups of fifty each. The dietary treatments
were : Control ration prepared as per IS 1347/92 specifications (C; T1), C+60% Choline chloride @
1kg/ton of ration (T2), C+Biocholine @ 0.5 kg/ton of ration (T3), C+25 g of Palm oil/kg of ration (T4)
, C+ 25g of Palm oil/kg of ration + 60% Choline chloride @ 1.5 kg/ton of ration (T5) and C+ 25g of
Palm oil/kg ration + Biocholine @ 750g/ton of ration (T6). Starter ration was fed ad libitum up to
4th week and finisher ration during 5th and 6th week of age. The body weights of broilers after sixth
week of age were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T6 compare to all other groups supplemented
with or without fat or choline chloride. Better feed conversion efficiency was noticed in T6
compare to other treatments. The cost of production per kilogram live weight was lowest in T6
(Rs.30.86) and highest in the T1 (Rs. 36.82). The serum concentration of SGOT (units/ml), SGPT
(units/ml), ALP (KA units), cholesterol (mg%) and HDL cholesterol (mg%) and liver lipid (mg/g
liver on DM basis) content were significantly lower (P<0.05) in T6 compared to T4 supplemented
with oil and similar to other treatments. Where as the serum triglycerides were not significant
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 201

among the treatments. Carcass characteristics study revealed that abdominal fat yield (%) and
liver weight (g/g of b.wt.) significantly (P<0.05) higher in T 4 compare to other treatments. The
other carcass characteristics viz., dressing, eviscerated, giblet, neck, wings, breast, back, thighs
and drumsticks yield were not affected by dietary treatments. In the histo-pathological study of
livers revealed acute cell swelling, focal infiltration of inflammatory cells and disorganisation of
hepatic cords in T4, where as, no change was observed in other treatments. It was concluded that
supplementation of Biocholine to commercial broiler diet with high fat increased the performance
of commercial broiler birds.

326 Effect of processing of feeds by pelleting, extrusion cooking and expander extrusion on the
performance of layers - A.R. Nageswara, V. Ramasubba Reddy and A.S. Keshav Reddy, Dept. of
Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural
University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30

The effect of processing of feed by pelleting, extrusion cooking and expander extrusion
on the performance of layers was studied in three experiments under cage management.
Maize-SBM diet (Expt. 1) and Maize-SBM-PKM diet (Expt. 2) were fed to 10 groups of 4 layers (21-
36 wks age) each and maize-SFM diet (Expt. 3) was fed to 4 groups of 11 layers (24-40 wks of age)
each for each of 4 treatments, viz. reference (unprocessed), pelleting, extrusion cooking and
expander extrusion. Feed and water were offered ad lib. Feeding processed maize-SBM and
maize-SBM-PKM diets did not influence the performance of layers evaluated in terms of egg
production, feed intake, feed/12 eggs: egg weight, shell thickness and internal egg quality. But
body weights were significantly (P<0.05) lower on pellet maize-SBM based diet. Processed maize-
SFM diet significantly (P<0.05) influenced the performance. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.05)
lower on extruded diet than reference diet. Pellet diet significantly (P<0.05) improved egg weight
than reference diet. Feed/12 eggs was significantly (P<0.05) lower on extruded diet than reference
diet, while it was significantly (P<0.05) higher on pellet and expander extrusion diets than
reference diet. It is concluded that processing of maize-SBM and maize-SBM-PKM diets were not
beneficial in improving the performance of layers. Extrusion processing of maize SFM diet
improved feed efficiency of layers.

327 Effect of processing of feeds by pelleting, extrusion cooking and expander extrusion on the
performance of broilers - A.R. Nageswara, V. Ramasubba Reddy and A.S. Keshav Reddy,
Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga
Agricultural University,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad -30

The effect of feed processing by pelleting, extrusion cooking and expander extrusion in
comparison to reference (unprocessed mash) feed on the performance of broilers (1-42 d age) was
studied in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, the experimental diets were based on maize-soy and 10
replicates of 7 chicks for each treatment were maintained. In experiment 2, the experimental diets
were based on maize-SFM and 8 replicates of 7 chicks for each treatment were maintained. In
202 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

experiment 3, the experimental diets were based on maize- soy - PKM and 8 replicates of 7 chicks
for each treatment were maintained. Pelleting of diets did not improve the performance of broilers.
Extrusion cooking or expander extrusion of maize-soy or maize - soy - PKM based diets
significantly (p<0.05) decreased weight gain. However, with maize - SFM diet, growth on
processed feeds was comparable to that on reference. Pellet diet did not influence feed intake. But
it was significantly (p<0.05) lower on expander extrusion and extrusion cooked maize-soy and
maize- soy - PKM based diets compared to that on reference. Feed intake on maize - SFM based
processed diets was comparable to that on reference. Feed/gain on any processed diet in all
experiments was comparable to that on reference. Livability and dressing percentage were
comparable among the treatments in all experiments. It is concluded that processing of diets by
pelleting, extrusion cooking and expander extrusion could not improve the performance of
broilers.

328 Effect of dietary supplementation of commercial enzymes on performance of broilers - A.R.


Nageswara, V. Ramasubba Reddy, A.R. Reddy and A.S. Keshav Reddy, Department of
Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural
University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30

The influence of dietary supplementation of enzymes on performance of commercial


broilers (1-42 d age) was studied in two experiments. On each treatment, 4 replicates of 8 broilers
(Vencob male) in experiment 1 and 8 replicates of 6 broilers (Hubbard male) in experiment 2 were
maintained in battery brooders under standard management. The efficacy of 8 commercial
enzymes in experiment 1, and two commercial enzymes and two formulated enzyme preparations
in experiment 2 were evaluated in broilers fed with dietary supplemented enzymes to corn-soy
diet. The performance of broilers were evaluated in terms of body weight gain, feed intake, feed/
gain, livability and dressing yield. None of the enzyme preparations tested could improve the
performance of broilers.

329 Effect of inclusion of dried tomato(Lycopersicon Esculentum) Pomace with or without enzyme
supplementation on broiler performance - P. Kavitha, J.V. Ramana, J. Rama Prasad, P.S. Reddy
and P.V.V.S. Reddy, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, ANGRAU
Tirupati - 517502 (Andhra Pradesh)

The dried tomato pomace (DTP) is a by-product obtained during processing of


tomatoes, contained 22 percent of CP, 12 percent of EE and 2193 kcal/kg of true metabolizable
energy (TME). Iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher (5-6 weeks) broiler
diets were formulated by incorporating DTP at 0, 5, 10 and 15 % without (T1, T3, T5 and T7) and
with (T2, T4, T6 and T8) enzyme supplementation and were offered to 240 male broiler chicks
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 203

distributed to 8 treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). The body weight gains did
not differ significantly when diets containing DTP with or without enzyme supplementation were
fed. The feed intake differed significantly (P<0.05) in broilers fed diets containing DTP at different
levels, where as the feed efficiency decreased (from 2.04 to 2.14) significantly (P<0.01). The feed
cost per kg gain decreased significantly (P<0.01) with increase in DTP level. The nitrogen
utilization decreased significantly (P<0.01) with increase in the level of DTP from 5 to 15 percent
and significantly (P<0.01) increased with enzyme supplementation in both the phases of growth.
The DTP inclusion in broiler diets did not show any significant difference on calcium and
phosphorus utilization in both the phases of growth. The carcass characteristics revealed that
there was no significant effect of DTP inclusion on ready-to-cook yield (%) and percent giblet
weight. Present experiment indicated that DTP could be included up to 15 percent in broiler diets
without affecting their growth performance.

330 Effect of homoeopathic preparations on performance of commercial broilers in hot humid


season of Gujarat - M.R. Vahora, S.S. Jagtap, H.B. Desai1, Kuldeep Khanna, Poultry Complex,
Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand-388 001

An experiment was conducted to know the effect of homoeopathic preparations


(Immune promoter-Growth promoter) on the performance of commercial broilers. Homoeopathic
drugs act on vital force probably through hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis thereby regulating
hunger, thirst, thermoregulation and metabolism. For this purpose, day old 300 commercial broiler
chicks were randomly distributed equally in two groups T1 and T2 with ten replications each.
Group T1 was maintained as control and group T2 was treated with heat regulating homoeopathic
preparations @1gm/lit. in drinking water for first two weeks and then @2gm/lit. throughout the
experiment. Feed given to both the groups was same. Live body weights, feed consumption, feed
conversion efficiency and mortality were recorded. At six weeks of age six birds from each group
were sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Live body weights at forty-two days were 1.569±0.023 kg
in T1 and 1.607±0.019 in T2; feed consumptions were 3.082±0.049 and 3.117±0.049 kg while feed
conversion efficiencies were 1.97±0.012 and 1.94±0.016 in T1 and T2 respectively. Mortality in
both the groups were same (three). In carcass traits, for T1 and T2 dressing percentage were
76.78±0.71 and 77.20±0.38 %; while eviscerated body weights were 59.84±0.64 and 62.42±0.39%
respectively. Weight of the vital organs in percentage to live body weights were 0.20±0.025 and
0.13±0.004 % for spleen; 0.44±0.019 and 0.41±0.018 % for heart; 2.11±0.13 and 1.86±0.07 % for liver
in T1 and T2 respectively. Length of intestine and caeca were 180.27±3.50 and 18.17±0.91 cm in T1
while in T2 they were 188.01±5.0 and 20.33±0.62 cm respectively. Overall results indicated that
homoeopathic preparations help in increasing body weight and improving feed conversion
efficiency.
1
Professor and Head, Dept. of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, GAU,Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
204 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

331 Effect of heat regulating homoeopathic preparations on performance of commercial broilers in


hot humid season of Gujarat - S.S. Jagtap, M.R.Vahora, Kuldeep Khannaand H.B. Desai1, Poultry
Complex, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand-388 001

In addition to the usual nutrients certain growth promoting substances are often added
to broiler ration. In this regard an experiment was conducted to know the effect of homoeopathic
preparations (Heat regulating) in alleviation of heat stress in commercial broilers. Homoeopathic
drugs act on vital force probably through hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis thereby regulating
hunger, thirst, thermoregulation and metabolism. For this purpose, day old 300 commercial broiler
chicks were randomly distributed in each. Group T1 (control) and T2 (treated with heat regulating
homoeopathic preparation @2gm/lit. of drinking water) with ten replications. Feed (mash form)
given to both the groups was same. Live body weights, feed consumption, feed conversion
efficiency and mortality were recorded. At six weeks of age six birds from each group were
sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Live body weights at forty-two days were 1.569±0.023 Kg in T1
and 1.615±0.010 Kg in T2, feed consumption were 3.082±0.049 and 3.102±0.019 Kg; while feed
conversion efficiencies were 1.970±0.012 and 1.921±0.009 in T1 and T2 respectively. Mortality in
T1 was 3 while in T2 it was only 1. In carcass traits, dressing percentage were 76.8±0.71 and
77.6±0.74 % respectively; while eviscerated body weight percentage were 59.84±0.64 and 63.4±0.28
% in T1 and T2 respectively. Weight of the vital organs in percentage to live body weights were
0.20±0.025 and 0.14±0.013 for spleen; 0.43±0.019 and 0.40±0.008 for heart; 2.11±0.13 and 1.82±0.069
% for liver in T1 and T2 respectively. Length of intestine and caeca were 180.27±3.50 and 18.17±0.91
cm in T1 while in T2 they were 188.06±4.18 and 20.33±0.76 cm, respectively. Overall results
indicated that homoeopathic preparations help in increasing body weights, improving feed
conversion efficiency and reducing mortality thus alleviating the effects of heat stress.

332 Effect of using coarse cereals instead of maize on egg quality traits of WLH birds - S.K. Singh,
R.P.S. Baghel, R.S. Gupta, and R.K.Tiwari, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.)

In an experiment on layers of 40 weeks age raised on mash containing coarse cereals


instead of maize allotted to 7 dietary treatments each with 3 replicates, eggs were collected for egg
quality traits. Control diet (T1) was composed of maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean extraction,
fishmeal, minerals and vitamin supplements. Other diets were formulated using sorghum at 50%,
75% and 100% (T2, T3 and T4) and Kodo (Paspalum scorbiculatum) at 25%, 50% and 75% (T5, T6
and T7) instead of corn. All the birds were raised replicate wise separately in deep litter system
with a common system of feeding and management. Eight eggs from each replicates were
1
Professor and Head, Dept. of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, GAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 205

collected for study of egg quality traits (Weight, shape index, albumin index, yolk index, shell
thickness, and haugh unit). Egg weight of birds reduced significantly (P<0.05) due to use of
sorghum or kodo partially or completely instead of maize in layer mash. Average egg weight was
maximum (52.6g) in birds allotted T1, diet. While, it was minimum in those assigned T4 diet. Shape
index of eggs was significantly higher in birds offered T7 diet. While, it was significantly lower in
those allotted T6 diet. Other dietary treatments had no significant influence on it. The albumin
index, which was maximum in birds allotted T3 diet, was statistically similar to birds allotted T1 or
T2 and T4 diet. Conversely, the eggs produced from birds fed kodo diets (T 5, T6, T7) were
significantly lower than those fed T1 or T3 diet. Lowest albumin index was noted in eggs of birds
allotted T7 diet, The yolk index was maximum in birds allotted T1 diet. Birds assigned T3, T4 and T5
diets produced eggs having lower yolk index. Significantly, lower yolk index was observed in
birds fed either T6 or T7 diet. Shell thickness of eggs did not differ significantly due to dietary
treatments. However, it was maximum in eggs produced by birds offered T2 diet. The Haugh unit
was significantly higher in eggs laid by birds offered T3 diet. It was higher in birds fed sorghum
or maize diets.

333 Effect of feed restriction on the production performance of WLH birds - R.P.S. Baghel,
and R.K. Tiwari, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV,
Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Present experiment was undertaken to study the effects of feed restriction on egg
production performance of White leghorn birds. In this study, control or restricted feeding was
adopted. In case of control (T1) ad lib feeding was practiced. While, in case of restricted groups
(T2 and T3), restricted feeding was made for 6 and 12 hours. Total 600 birds of 35 weeks age were
distributed to 15 replicates and five of the replicates were allotted to one dietary regime. The 6
hours dietary restriction was made from 11.0 a.m. to 5.0 p.m. while 12 hours restriction was made
from 7.0 a.m. to 7.0 p.m. The experiment was undertaken for 15 weeks. During this period feed
consumption, egg production, egg mass and cost of feed required for egg production was
calculated. The pooled data revealed that the egg production in T3 was significantly higher
(73.1%) as compared to T1 (68.8%) and T2 (65.5%). While, the egg mass did not differ
significantly among the birds of different groups. Feed consumed/dozen egg was 1.623, 1.627 and
1.478 kg and per kg egg mass were 2.701, 2.693 and 2.389 kg, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 groups.
Thus, feed consumed per unit of egg production was significantly low in birds of T3 groups. The
cost of feed/dozen egg was Rs. 10.79, 10.81 and 9.93 while per kg egg mass was Rs. 17.96, 17.90
and 15.89, in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. Thus, it is concluded that feed restriction in
birds during summer season was beneficial and economical only when it was done for longer
period (12 hrs.). Conversely, it was uneconomical when practiced for lesser duration (6 hrs.)
206 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

334 Performance of broilers offered diets with and without cobalt, iron and copper - G.G. Barley,
M.M. Mathur and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science
and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Ninety day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments (T1 to T5)
having 3 replicates of 6 chicks each and reared up to 42 days. In T1 and T2 commercial mineral
mixture (Supplemin) and L.R. grade mineral mixture were used @ 2.5% in the ration. In T3, T4 and
T5 L.R. grade mineral supplements were used from which cobalt (T3); iron (T4) and copper (T5)
were excluded. The starter diets contained 22% CP and 2800 kcal ME while finisher diets
contained 20% CP and 2800 kcal ME/kg. Perusal of the data indicated that during 0-4 weeks feed
intake, gain in body weight and feed efficiency ratio in birds allotted T3, T4 and T5 diet was not
significantly, different from those allotted T2 diet. While, the performance index was significantly
lower in groups allotted T4 diet than those assigned T2 and T5 diet. No significant adverse effect
on feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and performance index was observed in
birds during 4-6 and 0-6 days.

335 Performance of broilers offered diets without and with Ionophore - G.G. Barley, M.M. Mathur,
and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Seventy two day old broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments (T1 to T4)
having 3 replicates of 6 chicks each and reared up to 42 d. The experimental diets contained
22%CP and 2800 kcal ME/kg for starter and 20%CP and 2800kcal ME/kg for finisher. In T1 and T2
commercial mineral mixture (Supplemin) and laboratory reagent grade mineral mixture were used
@ 2.5% in the ration. In T3 and T4, an ionophere maduramycin was supplemented @ 20g per
2.5kg of mineral mixture. During 0-4 weeks, the gain of body weigh in T2 (799.28±9.33) was
significantly more (P<0.05) than T1 (726.17±21.89) significantly, the performance index was
significantly more in T2 than T1 (436.59±9.87 vs. 373.15±11.25). The feed intake and feed
efficiency ratio was not affected between 0-4, weeks of age. Further, the supplementation of
maduramycin in T3 and T4 did not improve the performance of chicks during 4-6 or 0-6 weeks of age.

336 Effects of using different combinations of coarse cereals instead of maize in chick ration -
R.K. Tiwari, S.K. Singh, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)
An experiment consisting of 150, day old WLH chicks of identical weights was
conducted to see the effect of coarse cereals instead of maize in chick ration. These chicks were
randomly allotted to five dietary treatments. Control diet-I (T1) was formulated using maize,
deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, fishmeal, minerals and vitamin supplements. While, control
diet-II (T2) was devoid of fishmeal. In T1 and T2, soybean meal was used exclusively as vegetable
protein supplement. Diets 3, 4 and 5 were formulated replacing maize of T2 at 70% (T3), 85% (T4)
and 100% (T5) level using sorghum and ragi in equal proportions. All these diets were
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 207

iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric containing a minimum level of lysine as per BIS (1992). During the
8 weeks study, weekly record of body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and performance
index was observed. Studies indicated that dietary treatments had no significant effect on the
body weight gain of birds. However, their feed intake was significantly influenced. It was
significantly higher in birds allotted T1 and T2 diet while significantly lower feed consumption
was noted in those assigned T3, T4 and T5 diets. The feed conversion ratio was maximum and
significantly higher in birds assigned T1 diet. It was significantly lower in groups allotted T3, T4
and T5 diet. While performance index (PI) was minimum and significantly lower in birds assigned
T1 diet. Maximum PI noted in birds allotted T3 diet was statistically similar to the PI of birds
allotted diets other than T1. Thus, it was concluded that maize could be completely replaced by
using a combination of sorghum and ragi in equal proportion in starting chicks of egg laying
strain.

337 Studies on utilization of coarse cereals along with oil seed meals with or without fish meal -
R.K. Tiwari, S.K. Singh, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

An experiment was conducted using 150, day old WLH chicks of identical body weights
to see the effect of coarse cereals along with oil seed meals with or without fishmeal. These chicks
were allotted randomly to five dietary treatments. Control diet-I (T1) was formulated using maize,
deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, fishmeal, minerals and vitamin supplements. While, control
diet-II (T2) was formulated without fishmeal. In T1 and T2, soybean meal was used exclusively as
vegetable protein supplement. Diet 3 was formulated to contain approximately an equal
proportion of maize, sorghum and ragi & soybean meal. Niger cake and sesame cake (T3). Diet 4
was formulated to contain equal proportion of maize and ragi & Niger cake and sesame cake (T4).
While, Diet 5 was formulated to contain approximately an equal proportion of sorghum and ragi
& Niger cake and sesame cake (T5). All the diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric containing
a minimum level of lysine as per BIS (1992). During 8 weeks study, weekly body weight, feed
intake, feed conversion rate and performance index was recorded. Study revealed that body
weight gain of chicks allotted T1, T2 and T3 diet was statistical similar and higher to those allotted
T4 and T5 diet. While, feed intake was significantly higher in chicks allotted T1 and T2 diet. It was
significantly lower in groups allotted T4 and T5 diets. However, FCR was maximum and
significantly higher in chicks allotted T1 diet. In other groups it was statistical similar but
significantly lower to T1. The performance index of birds assigned T1, T2 and T3 diet was
statistical similar and higher to those allotted T4 and T5 diets. Thus, study clearly revealed that
with maize soybean meal diet, addition of fishmeal was not essential. However, without soybean
meal use of coarse cereals along with Niger and sesame cake in equal proportions were
responsible for poor performance in birds even though the level of lysine was maintained as per
BIS (1992). Thus, with maize, sorghum or/and Ragi use of Niger and Sesame meals without
fishmeal did not produce better performance hence its addition was found essential with these
types of diets.
208 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

338 Use of different combinations of oil seed meals on egg quality traits of WLH birds - R.P.S.
Baghel, S.K. Singh, R.S.Gupta, and R.K. Tiwari, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

In an experiment on layers of 40 weeks age allotted 9 dietary treatments each with three
replicates having a minimum of 14 birds in each eggs were egg quality traits. Control diet (T1) was
formulated using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean extraction (SE), fishmeal, minerals and
vitamin supplements. While, diets 2 and 3 (T2 and T3) were formulated using GNC and RTC and
diets 4 and 5 (T4 and T5) were prepared using 50% and 25% GNC instead of SE. Similarly, diets 6
and 7 (T6 and T7) were prepared using RTC at 50% and 25% level instead of SE and diets 8 and 9
(T8 and T9) were formulated using GNC at 50% and 25% level instead of SE. All the birds were
raised in deep litter system of housing with a common system of feeding and management. Eight
eggs from different replicates were collected for study of egg quality traits (Egg weight, shape
index, albumin index, yolk index, shell thickness, and Haugh unit). The egg weights were
maximum in birds assigned SE (T1). Use of GNC alone (T2) or with RTC in equal ratio (T8) or use of
SE and RTC in 75:25 ratio (T7) caused significant reduction in egg weight as compared to T1. Egg
weight of birds assigned diets containing GNC and RTC alone or in different combinations or
even combinations with SE (T2 to T9), did not differ significantly (p<0.05). Minimum egg weight
was noticed in birds allotted T7 diet. The shape index of eggs, which was maximum in birds,
offered T2 diet was statistically similar to those assigned T4, T5, T6, and T9 diets. Among three oil
seed meals used in layer mash, GNC was responsible for significantly higher shape index. The
albumin index was maximum in eggs produced by birds allotted T1 diet. However, statistically it
was similar to those allotted RTC alone in the diet (T3). Use of SE in combination with GNC (T4 and
T5) or RTC (T6 and T7) was responsible for significant reduction in albumin index. Use of GNC with
RTC in 50:50 ratio (T8) although did not influence the albumin index but when the ratio of GNC was
increased to 75:25 (T9), there was improvement in it. As compared to SE and RTC diet (T1 and T3),
use of SE and GNC in 50:50 (T4) and SE-RTC in 75:25 ratio (T7) was responsible for significant
lower albumin index. The yolk index was maximum in birds fed T1 diet. Eggs laid by the birds
offered T2 or T3 diet although had lower yolk index but differences were not significant. Use of SE
in combination with GNC (T4, T5) improved the yolk index. Further, uses of SE and RTC (T6 and T7)
and GNC and RTC (T8 and T9) in either 50:50 or 75:25 ratios were responsible for reduction in the
yolk index. The shell thickness of eggs was significantly higher in birds offered diet containing
SE and RTC in 50:50 ratio (T6). However, it was higher only in comparison to eggs produced by
birds assigned diet containing SE or GNC along with RTC in 75:25 ration (T 7, T9). Among most of
the groups, shell thickness did not differ significantly. The Haugh unit of eggs was maximum in
birds assigned M-SE diet (T1). However, it was statistically similar to those assigned T2, T3, T8 and
T9 diets. Minimum Haugh unit was recorded in birds fed SE-GNC in 50:50 ratio (T4). Thus, use of
oil seed meals alone was responsible for superior Haugh unit. However, when soybean meal was
used in combination with either GNC or RTC in 50:50 (T4 & T6) or 75:25 (T5 & T7) ratio it reduced
the Haugh unit of eggs significantly. Use, of GNC and RTC in combination also reduced it
however, differences were not significant.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 209

339 Production performance of layers fed various combinations of oil seed meals - R.P.S. Baghel,
S.K. Singh and R.K. Tiwari, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Three hundred ninety layers of 30 weeks age already maintained on mash containing
different combinations of oil seed meals were used in the study. These were, allotted to 27
replicates of 9 treatments having a minimum of 14 birds in each replicate, Control diet (T1) was
formulated using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean extraction (SE), fishmeal, minerals and vita-
min supplements. While, diets 2 and 3 (T2 and T3) were formulated using GNC and RTC as
vegetable protein supplement, respectively and diets 4 and 5 (T4 and T5) were prepared using
50% and 25% GNC instead of SE. Similarly, diets 6 and 7 (T6 andT7) were prepared using RTC at
50% and 25% level instead of SE and diets 8 and 9 (T8 and T9) were formulated using GNC at 50%
and 25% level instead of SE. All the birds were raised in deep litter system of housing separately
with a common system of management. The average body weights of birds at 32nd week were
significantly influenced due to dietary treatments. Significantly, higher weight was recorded in
birds allotted T7 diet. While, it was lower in birds assigned T3 diet. At 36th weeks, significantly
higher weight was noticed in broilers offered control diet. It was significantly lower in groups fed
T9 diet. At 44th weeks, significantly higher weight was recorded in birds assigned T5 diet and was
significantly lower in those allotted T8 diet containing GNC-RTC in 50:50 ratio. Feed intake was
significantly influenced due to diets. It was maximum and significantly higher in birds assigned
Soybean meal diet (T1). While, significantly lower intake was registered in birds allotted T4 diet.
Use of SE and GNC in equal ratio was responsible for significant reduction in it. However, when
proportion of GNC was reduced to 25%, feed intake improved significantly. Using a combination
of SE and RTC or GNC and RTC in 50:50 (T6, T8) or 75:25 (T7, T9) ratio did not influence the feed
intake of birds significantly among each other. However, these were significantly lower than SE
diet (T1). The percent hen day egg production was maximum and significantly higher in birds
allotted T1 diet. Use of GNC or RTC either alone or in different combinations in between or with
soybean, meal reduced the egg production significantly. Use of RTC alone was responsible for
significantly lower egg production. While, use of GNC alone produced significantly higher egg
production in comparison to RTC. Use of SE in combination with GNC reduced the egg produc-
tion significantly. Drastic reduction was noted in birds offered SE with GNC in equal ratio. Use of
RTC in combination with GNC reduced egg production in comparison to use of GNC alone. FCR/
dozen eggs was maximum in birds allotted diet-containing RTC alone. While, it was minimum in
groups allotted GNC alone as protein supplement. Birds fed SE diet (T1) have FCR significantly
lower than those fed RTC alone but higher than those fed GNC diet. Cost of feed per dozen eggs
was maximum in birds allotted GNC (T2). While, it was maximum in birds assigned RTC (T3). Use
of RTC in combination with SE (T6 and T7) was responsible for significant lower feed cost than
those fed RTC alone as protein supplement. Further, use of RTC with SE in 25:75 ratio (T7) was
most economical among RTC combinations.
210 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

340 Production performance of layers fed coarse cereals instead of maize - S.K. Singh, R.P.S.
Baghel and R.K. Tiwari,Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

Three hundred seven, layers of 30 weeks age already maintained on mash containing
coarse cereals instead of maize were continued in the experiment. These were allotted to 7 dietary
treatments each with 3 replicates having an average of 14 birds in each. Control diet (T1) was
formulated using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean extraction, fishmeal, minerals and vitamin
supplements. The diets 2, 3 and 4 were formulated using sorghum in place of corn at 50%, 75%
and 100% (T2, T3 and T4). While, diets 5, 6 and 7 were formulated using Kodo (Paspalum
scorbiculatum) instead of corn at 25%, 50% and 75% (T5, T6 and T7). All the birds were
maintained replicate wise in deep litter system of housing with a common system of management.
The experimental data in terms of body weight gain, feed intake, egg production, egg conversion
ratio and cost of feed for egg production for 31-46 weeks has been pooled and presented. The
average body weight of birds at 32nd weeks of age was influenced significantly due to dietary
treatments maximum weight was registered in broilers allotted 25% kodo instead of maize. While
it was minimum in groups assigned 75% sorghum instead of maize. Similarly, during 36 weeks,
also these birds had significantly lower body weights but maximum weight was attained by the
birds allotted control diet. At 44 th week, body weight of birds did not differ significantly.
Incorporation of Sorghum or Kodo reduced the feed intake significantly. Maximum and
significantly higher intake was recorded in birds fed maize based diet. While, it was significantly
lower in groups allotted 75% Sorghum or Kodo instead of maize in their diet. The percent hen day
egg production was maximum and significantly higher in birds allotted maize based diet (T1).
Inclusion of higher level of sorghum had erratic trend on egg production while Kodo had
reducing effect. Significantly, lower egg production was recorded in birds allotted 75% sorghum
or kodo instead of maize in their diets. Feed conversion ratio in terms of either kg feed/dozen egg
or/kg egg mass had similar effect due to incorporation of coarse cereals. FCR/dozen egg was
significantly higher in birds fed control diet. However, statistically it was similar to groups
assigned 75% or 100%. sorghum instead of maize. While, FCR/kg egg mass was maximum in birds
allotted complete sorghum diet. However, statistically it was similar to groups assigned maize
based diet or 75% sorghum and 25% maize diet. The cost of feed for egg production (per dozen or
per kg egg mass) was significantly lower in birds assigned 50% sorghum instead of maize while
significantly higher cost was noted in groups fed 75% kodo diet. The cost of feed per kg egg mass
was also minimum in birds fed diet containing 50% sorghum instead of maize. However, it was true
only in comparison to those allotted 50% or 75% Kodo instead of maize in their diet. Thus, it was
concluded that use of 50% sorghum instead of maize was most beneficial. However, as compared
to maize, use of 75% sorghum or 25% Kodo was also economical.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 211

341 Effects of using enzyme on the performance of chicks -R.K. Tiwari, S.K. Singh and R.P.S. Baghel,
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V.,
Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

An experiment including 180, day old WLH chicks of identical body weights was
conducted to study the effect of using enzymes in chick rations containing various combinations
of coarse cereals and oil seed meals. These chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary
treatments. Control diet-I (T1) was prepared using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean meal,
fishmeal, minerals and vitamin supplements. While, control diet-II (T2) was same as T1 except it
was devoid of fishmeal. Further, in diets T1 and T2 maize was exclusively used as cereal and
soybean meal as vegetable protein supplement. While in diet T3, 85% of maize and 70% of SM
was replaced by using equal proportions of sorghum and ragi and Niger and sesame cakes,
respectively. In diet T4, 56.4% of maize was replaced by using sorghum and ragi in approximately
1:3 ratio and SM was completely replaced by incorporating Niger and sesame cake in equal
proportion. While, in diet T5, maize as well as SM was completely replaced by using sorghum and
ragi & Niger cake and sesame in equal ratio. In diet T6, 85% of maize and 70% of SM was replaced
by using an equal combination of sorghum and ragi & Niger and sesame cake, respectively. Diet
T3 and T6 were same except in T6 lysine was not supplemented. In diets T4, T5 and T6 enzyme
Beetazymes (B-D glycosidase, Celluloses, Proteases, Amylases, Phytases) was added @ 50g/Q.
All these diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric (BIS, 1992). During the 8 weeks study, weekly
record of body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and performance index was observed.
The treatment means clearly revealed that body weight gain of chicks allotted T1, T2 and T3 diets
was significantly higher as compared to other groups in which similar weight gain was registered
in between them. While, feed intake was maximum in birds allotted T1 and T2 diet and was
significantly lower in groups assigned T4, T5 and T6 diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was
maximum in birds assigned T1 and T5 diet. While, it was significantly low in birds assigned T3
diet. The performance index was significantly higher in birds assigned T3 diet however,
statistically it was similar to those allotted T1 and T2 diet. Significantly lower PI was noted in
birds allotted T6 diet followed by those assigned T4 and T5 diets. Thus, studies indicated that
80% of maize and 70% of SM could be replaced by using sorghum and ragi & Niger and sesame
cakes, respectively in equal proportions. Supplementation of lysine was desired to maintain its
optimum level in the diets devoid of fish meal having a combination of SM, Niger and Sesame
cake in 30: 35: 35 ratio. Further, use of Beetazymes did not produce any beneficial effect on the
performance of birds.

342 Effects of using combinations of oil seed meals instead of soybean meal in chick ration - R.K.
Tiwari, S.K. Singh, and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

An experiment including 150, day old WLH chicks of identical body weights was
undertaken to study the effect of coarse cereals instead of maize in chick ration. These chicks
were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments. Control diet-I (T1) was prepared using maize,
212 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, fishmeal, minerals and vitamin supplements. While, control
diet-II (T2) was same as T1 except it was devoid of fishmeal. In T1 and T2, soybean meal was used
exclusively as vegetable protein supplement. Diets 3, 4 and 5 were formulated replacing soybean
meal of T2 at 50% (T3), 60% (T4) and 70% (T5) level using Niger cake and sesame cake in equal
proportions. All these diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric containing a minimum level of
lysine as per BIS (1992). During the 8 weeks study, weekly record of body weight, feed intake,
feed conversion ratio and performance index was observed. Perusal of the data recorded in the
study revealed that body weight gain of the chicks did not differ significantly due to dietary
treatments. Feed intake was statistically similar in birds assigned T1 and T2 diet. However, it was
significantly lower in birds assigned T3, T4 and T5 diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was
maximum and significantly higher in birds assigned T1 diet. It was significantly lower in birds
assigned T3, T4 and T5 diets. The performance index (PI) was significantly lower in birds
assigned T1 diet as compared to other groups. Hence, it was concluded that soybean meal in
starting mash could be replaced by using an equal combination of Niger and sesame cake up to the
extent of 70%.
343 Effects of Ionophore on utilization of single super phosphate in broilers - R.K. Mishra and
R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)
In a study conducted on ninety-six broiler chicks of similar body weights, six dietary
treatments were tested each on two replicates of eight chicks to study the effect of Maduramycine
as Ionophore on utilization of single super phosphate (SSP) instead of dica1cium phosphate
(DCP) on the performance of broilers. These were offered starter diet containing 22% CP and 2800
Kcal ME/kg and finisher diet containing 20% CP along with 2900 Kcal ME/kg for 0-4 and 4-6
weeks. In these diets 2% mineral mixture (MM) was used. In experimental diets, DCP of MM was
replaced by DAP at 0%(T1), 20% (T2), 40% (T3), 60% (T4), 80% (T5), and 100% (T6) level. In all
these diets Maduramycine (Maducox) was added @ 20g/Q diet. All the chicks were raised in
battery brooders replicate wise with a common system of feeding and management. The
performance of broilers during 0-4 weeks indicated that broilers allotted T1 diet gained maximum
and significantly higher weight. Use of SSP along with Maduramycine reduced the weight gain of
broilers significantly Feed intake was also significantly higher in T1 groups of broilers. However,
FER that was maximum in groups allotted T1 diet was statistically similar to those allotted T2 and
T3 diets. The PI was maximum and significantly higher in broilers assigned T1 diet. During 4-6
weeks maximum weight gain attained by the broilers allotted T2 diet was statistically similar to
those allotted T3 and T5 diets. Feed intake was also significantly higher in broilers allotted T2
diet. While, FER was maximum and significantly higher in broilers assigned T4 diet. The PI was
also highest in groups assigned T4 diet however it was similar to those allotted T5 diet. Overall
performance for 0-6 weeks clearly indicated that broilers assigned T1 diet gained maximum weight.
While maximum feed intake was noted in broilers assigned T2 diet. The FER was maximum and
significantly higher in T4 groups. While, the PI was maximum and significantly higher in broilers
assigned T1 diet. Broilers assigned T2, T3 and T4 diet had statistically similar PI among each
other. It was significantly lower in groups assigned T5 and T6 diets. Thus, along with
maduramycine SSP did not produce beneficial effect over DAP.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 213

344 Effects of Ionophore on utilization of diammonium phosphate in broilers - K.V. Sharma and
R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

In an experiment on ninety-six broiler chicks of identical body weight, six dietary


treatments were tested each on two replicates of eight chicks to study the effect of using
Maduramycine as Ionophore on the utilization of diamonium phosphate (DAP) instead of dicalcium
phosphate (DCP) on the performance of broilers. These chicks were offered starter diet contain-
ing 22% CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg and finisher diet containing 20% CP along with 2900 Kcal ME/
kg for 0-4 and 4-6 weeks. In these diets 3% mineral mixture (MM) was used. In experimental diets,
DCP of MM was replaced by DAP at 0% (T1), 20% (T2), 40% (T3), 60% (T4), 80% (T5), and 100%
(T6) level. In all these diets Maduramycine (Maducox) was added @ 20g/Q diet. All the chicks
were raised in battery brooders replicate wise with a common system of feeding and management.
The performance of broilers during 0-4 weeks revealed that broilers assigned T4 diet gained
maximum weight, however statistically it was similar to those allotted T2, T5 and T6 diets. Feed
intake of broilers allotted T4 diet was also maximum Best FER was noted in broilers assigned T5
diet however; it was statistically similar to broilers allotted T3 diet. While, the performance Index
(PI) of broilers allotted T4 diet was highest but statistically similar to groups assigned T4 and T6
diet. During 4-6 weeks maximum weight gain was attained by the broilers offered T1 diet while
feed intake was highest in broilers receiving T5 diet. Maximum FER noted in broilers assigned T1
diet was statistically similar to those assigned T3 diet. Similarly, PI was significantly higher in
broilers allotted T1 and T3 diet as compared to other groups. Overall performance of broilers for
0-6 weeks clearly indicated that broilers allotted T4 diet attained maximum weight. However FER
was maximum in broilers assigned T3 diet. While, PI of broilers assigned T4 and T5 diet was
maximum but statistically it was similar to groups allotted T2, T3 and T6 groups. Thus, along with
ionophore utilization of phosphorus from DAP was better and the performance of broilers was
significantly higher than those receiving DAP as a source of supplemental phosphorus.

345 Studies on utilization of single super phosphate as a source of phosphorus in broilers - R.K.
Mishra and R.P.S. Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

The experiment containing ninety-six broiler chicks of similar body weights were
assigned to six dietary treatments each with two replicates of eight chicks each. These chicks
were assigned starter and finisher diets for a period of 0-4 and 4-6 weeks. Diets were formulated
using maize, rice polish, soybean meal, fish meal, minerals and vitamin supplements to supply
22% CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg in starter and 20% CP along with 2900 Kcal ME/kg in finishing
broilers. In these diets 2%, mineral mixture was used. In the experimental diets, dicalcium
214 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

phosphate (DCP) of mineral mixture was replaced by single super phosphate (SSP) at 0 (T1), 20
(T2), 40 (T3), 60 (T4), 80 (T5), and 100% (T6) level. All the chicks were raised in identical
conditions in battery brooders separately replicate wise with a common system of feeding and
management. The performance of broilers during 0-4 weeks indicated that broilers allotted T3 diet
gained maximum and significantly higher weight. Use of 20% SSP instead of DCP did not
influence the weight gain significantly but when its level was increased to 40% increased the
weight gain significantly. Further increase in level of SSP to 60% reduced the weight gain but it
did nod differ significantly with those assigned with groups assigned T3 diet. However, further
increase in the level of SSP reduced the weight gain of broilers significantly. Similarly trends were
noted with feed intake, FER as well as PI of broilers. The PI was maximum and significantly higher
in broilers assigned T3 diet. During 4-6 weeks although maximum body weight gain was recorded
in broilers allotted T3 diet but it was statistically similar with those allotted T1 and T2 diet. Use of
SSP above 40% reduced the weight gains of broilers significantly. Feed intake was significantly
higher in broilers allotted T2 and T3 diets. While the FER and PI was best in broilers assigned T1
diet. Overall, performance of broilers for 0-6 weeks clearly indicated that broilers allotted T3 diet
attained maximum weight but consumed comparatively higher quantity of feed in comparison to
control. FER of broilers assigned T3 diet was also significantly lower than those allotted T1 diet.
However, the PI of broilers assigned T1 and T3 diets was statistically similar but superior to other
group of broilers. Surprisingly a 20% SSP diet produced weight gain similar to control but was
responsible for significantly poor FER and PI. While, use of 40% SSP instead of DCP produced
significantly higher weight gain even than the control and was responsible for performance index
similar to control group. Use of SSP over 40% of DCP was responsible for significantly poor
performance in broilers. Hence, it was concluded that 40% DCP can be replaced by SSP in the
mineral mixture of broilers.

346 Studies on utilization of diammonium phosphate as source of phosphorus in broilers - K.V.


Sharma and R.P.S.Baghel, Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482 001 (M.P.)

An experiment containing ninety-six broiler chicks of identical body weights were


distributed to six treatments each with two replicates of eight chicks. These chicks were offered
starter and finisher diets for a period of 0-4 and 4-6 weeks. Diets were formulated using maize,
soybean extraction, fish meal, minerals and vitamin supplements to supply 22% CP and 2800 Kcal
ME/kg in starter and 20% CP along with 2900 Kcal ME/kg in finishing broilers. In these diets 3%
mineral mixture (MM) was used. In the experimental diets, dicalcium phosphate (DCP) of mineral
mixture was replaced by diammonium phosphate (DAP) at 0%(T1), 20% (T2), 40% (T3), 60% (T4),
80% (T5), and 100% (T6) level. All the chicks were raised in battery brooders separately replicate
wise with a common system of feeding and management. The performance of broilers during
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 215

0-4 weeks revealed that broilers assigned T4 diet gained maximum weight, which was however
statistically similar to those assigned T3 diets. Other groups of broilers attained statistically
similar weights among each other lower than those assigned T4 diet. The, feed intake of broilers
allotted T4 diet was also maximum and statistically similar to those allotted T3, T5 and T6 diet.
Minimum feed intake was registered in T2 groups of broilers. Best FER was noted in broilers
assigned T4 diet however; it was comparable with broilers allotted T2 and T3 diet. While, the
performance Index (PI) was highest in groups allotted T4 diet but was statistically similar with
those assigned T3 diet. During 4-6 weeks maximum body weight gain and feed intake was
observed in broilers T3 diet although FER of these broilers was poor. While, PI was highest in
broilers allotted T4 diet and it was comparable to those assigned T3 diet. Overall performance of
broilers for 0-6 weeks clearly revealed that broilers allotted T4 diet attained maximum weight and
had best FER and PI. Thus, increase in the level of DAP from 0 to 60% in the MM of broilers
increased the performance of broilers being excellent in groups assigned 60% DAP instead of
DCP. Use of higher level of DAP reduced the performance of broilers still it was significantly
better than those receiving control diet containing 100% DCP. Hence, it was concluded that DCP
can be completely replaced by DAP in the mineral mixture of broilers.

347 Effect of feeding different phosphorus levels and depletion biochemical of finishing broilers -
Chandra Deo, H.P. Shrivastava, N.B. Singh and T.S. Johri, Central Avian Research Institute,
Izatnagar -243 122

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding different phosphorus (P)
levels and depletion on growth performance of finishing (22-46 d) broilers. Initially, three test
diets were prepared from the basal diet containing practical feedstuffs supplemented with
variable dicalcium phosphate to achieve 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% available phosphorus (AP) and were
tested during starting phase (0-21 d) period by introducing each diet in twelve groups having 9
chicks per group. Additionally, seven more test diets were also prepared by depleting 0, 25, 50 and
75% of P levels of each diet that had been tested during starting phase. During finishing phase
(22-42 d) a total 10 test diets were introduced in such a way that it made twelve treatments (T1-
T12) by depleting P at four levels in each diet tested during starting period. At the termination of
feeding trial, 72 birds (6 per treatment) were randomly sacrificed to collect the serum samples for
estimation. Results indicated that serum alkaline phosphatase activity and serum calcium did not
vary due to different levels of P and interaction between P levels and depletion. Whereas, serum
alkaline phosphatase activity, serum calcium and serum phosphorus differed significantly (P<0.05)
due to different levels of P depletion. Serum phosphorus concentration increased (P<0.01) as the
level of P was increased in the diet. Similarly, serum phosphorus level was significantly decreased
in the depleted P levels (25 to 75%) group fed diet from the undepleted P level diet. However, the
serum phosphorus concentration remained uninfluenced due to interaction
216 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

between P levels and depletion in the diet. From the results it is therefore, concluded that the
phosphorus level in broiler finisher diet can be kept upto 50% depletion irrespective of 0.3, 0.4
and 0.5% available phosphorus levels. Further, the broiler need 0.15-0.25% available phosphorus
during finishing phase (22-42 d) for optimum blood biochemical parameters.

348 Interaction of amino acids and energy on growth performance, development of digestive organs
and meat yield of multicoloured broilers during 21 to 42 days of age - S.K. Bhanja and A.B.
Mandal, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India

An experiment was conducted in winter months with 21day-old multicoloured broilers


(n=342) involving three levels of AA (115, 100 and 85% AA of NRC, 1994) and three levels of
energy (2800, 3000, 3200) each either as total or digestible in a 2x3x3 factorial design to assess the
optimum energy to AA ratio during finishing period (21-42 d). The 42nd d body weight (1143 g,
P<0.023), 21-42 d body weight gain (831 g, P<0.041) and feed consumption (2033g) were higher in
the birds fed diets formulated on total AA, numerically better FCR, CP and ME efficiency were
observed in groups fed diets based on digestible AA. The live weight did not differ between high
and medium level of AA. The FCR was better at medium (2.39) as well as high level of AA (2.33) in
compassion to low (2.58) AA level. There was also better CP & ME efficiency in high AA diets.
Body weight was higher (P<0.001) in high energy diet. Though the feed intake was not affected
by dietary energy levels, the FCR and efficiency of CP utilization improved linearly with increase
in dietary energy level. BW differences of 55 g (in AA groups) and 64 g (in ME groups) during
finishing stage indicate that ME levels are more critical than AA during this period. There was no
difference in liver and pancreas weight in different dietary treatments, but the gizzard weight was
higher low energy (P<0.022) diets and proventriculus weight was higher (P<0.011) in low AA diet.
Length and weight of small intestine and caeca were numerically higher in low AA and low energy
diets. The dressing yield was higher (P<0.006) in both high and low AA diets, however the
energy levels did not affect the dressing yields. The abdominal fat deposition and breast yield
was numerically higher in low AA diets, whereas significantly higher fat deposition (P<0.006) was
recorded in high energy diet. It may be concluded from the above study that 100% AA of NRC,
1994 and 3000 kcal ME/ kg diet may be optimum for growth and meat yield of multicoloured
broilers during 21-42 d period.

349 Serum biochemical and enzyme profile of broiler chicken fed processed Karanj cake as partial
protein supplement - A. K. Panda, V. R. B. Sastry, A.B. Mandal, S.K. Saha and A. Kumar, Division
of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122 (U.P.)

Serum biochemical and enzyme profile in broiler chickens was evaluated on


isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing soybean meal (reference diet) and diet containing
NaOH (1.5%, w/w) treated solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) at 6.43, 12.86 and 25.72 % (test
diets) replacing soybean meal protein of reference diet at 12.5, 25 and 50%, respectively. Chicks
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 217

were maintained under uniform managemental conditions throughout the experimental period
from 0 to 56 days of age. At the end of experimental feeding, about 5ml of blood was collected from
6 representative birds of each dietary groups (two from each replicate of 8 birds) and serum was
separated for analyzing biochemical constituents like protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid and
cholesterol and activities of enzymes such as AST, ALT, LDH and ALP. Similarly blood smears
from the same birds were taken on the same day and stained with Giemsa to count the heterophils
and lymphocytes to a fixed number in order to obtain their ratio (H : L). Serum protein concentra-
tion was found to be similar across the chicks fed reference and 6.43 % processed SKC (12.5%
replacement) containing diets. Further replacement at either 25 or 50% N of soybean meal led to
a significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum protein content. Similar trend was noticed for globulin.
However, no difference could be noticed in the concentration of albumin or uric acid. The compa-
rable serum cholesterol concentration among the chicks fed diets containing 12.86 or 25.72%
processed SKC was observed to be significantly lower (P<0.05) than in those fed soybean meal
and 6.43% processed SKC containing diets. The activity of enzymes such as AST, ALT, LDH and
ALP were similar among all the groups. Replacement of soybean meal protein by processed SKC
at either 25 or 50% resulted in a significant (P>0.05) increase in proportion of heterophils per unit
lymphocytes. Though dietary variations did not influence enzyme profile, the concentration of
serum protein and globulin were depressed and H : L ratio was narrowed, indicating a dietary
stress in broiler chickens when soybean meal protein was replaced by karanj cake beyond 12.5 %
level even after processing.

350 Physico-chemical carcass characteristics and sensory attributes of meat of broiler chickens
fed diets in corporated with processed Karanj cake - A. K. Panda, V.R.B. Sastry, A.B. Mandal,
S.K. Saha and A. Kumar, Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122 (U.P.)

Studies were conducted to find out the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal
protein with processed solvent extracted karanj cake (1.5% NaOH, w/w) on physicochemical
carcass characteristics and sensory attributes of meat of broiler chicken by feeding (isonitrogenous
and isocaloric) diet containing soybean meal (reference diet) and diet containing NaOH treated
solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) at 6.43, 12.86 and 25.72% (test diets) replacing soybean meal
protein of reference diet at 12.5, 25 and 50%, respectively from 0 to 56 days of age. Chicks were
kept under uniform management conditions throughout the experimental period. At the end of
experimental feedings, four birds of each dietary group were sacrificed through cervical
dislocation in order to record carcass characteristics such as dressing weight and weight of liver,
heart, gizzard, abdominal fat and primal cuts such as breast, thigh, drumstick, back, wing and
218 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

neck. Meat samples from thigh region were collected for estimating the chemical composition
such as moisture, protein, ether extract and ash. Another 200 g of meat was collected from thigh
and breast regions for organoleptic evaluation. The dressing percentage and percent yield of
liver, heart, gizzard, giblet, abdominal fat and primal cuts on live weight were tended to be similar
among the birds fed reference and test diets containing 6.43 and 12.86 % processed SKC. On the
other hand, replacement of soybean meal protein with processed SKC at 50% level reduced
dressing percentage and percent yield of breast, thigh and drumsticks. No difference could,
however, be observed in the chemical composition of meat, except in the intramuscular fat which
was more in birds fed 25.72 % processed karanj cake in the diet. No untoward taste or abnormal
qualities with regard to appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were
revealed in pressure cooked meat (1.5% salt, w/w) of birds fed different diets, when subjected to
organoleptic evaluation by semi trained taste panel using 7 point hedonic scale. Most of the
carcass characteristics were, therefore, adversely affected on replacing soybean meal protein at
50% level by processed karanj cake.

351 Utilization of pearl millet along with rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal in the diets of
broiler chickens - Praveen K. Tyagi, A. B. Mandal, A.V. Elangovan, Pramod K. Tyagi, S. Kaur and
A. Johri, Central Avian Research Institute, lzatnagar 243 122

Day old broiler chicks (n=168) were divided into 28 groups of 6 chicks each. Seven
dietary treatments were formulated viz. D1 (maize + soybean meal-SBM based control diet), D2
(maize + SBM + RSM 10% + SSM 10%), D3 (50% maize +50% pearl millet + SSM), D4 (50% maize
+ 50% pearl millet + SBM + RSM 5% + SSM 5%), D5 (50% maize +50% pearl millet+ SBM + RSM
5% + SSM 10%), D6 (50% maize + 50% pearl milet + SBM + RSM 10% + SSM 5%) and D7 (50%
maize +50% pearl millet + SBM + RSM 10% + SSM 10%), replacing maize and SBM of control diet
partially for 0-4 wk starting and 4-7 wk finishing phases separately. A balance trial was conducted
at 6 weeks of age to study utilization of nitrogen and energy. Body weight gain did not differ due
to dietary treatment both at 0-4, 4-7 or 0-7 weeks of growth phases. Numerically greater gain at 7
wk of age at low cost was observed in dietary treatment containing maize + pearl millet (50:50)
along with RSM (5%) and SSM (5% or 10%) or RSM 10% and SSM 10% replacing SBM partly.
Feed efficiency did not differ due to dietary treatments. Meat yield did not differ significantly. It
was concluded that inclusion of 30% pearl millet, 5% rapeseed meal and 5% sunflower seed meal
or 30% pearl millet, rapeseed meal 5% and 10% sunflower seed meal or 30% pearl millet, 10%
rapeseed meal and 10% sunflower seed meal replacing maize and soybean meal partly rendered
economic broiler production without affecting feed utilization and growth rate.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 219

352 Utilization of sorghum along with rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal in the maize-soy
based diets of broiler chickens - Pramod K. Tyagi, A.B. Mandal, A.V. Elangovan, Praveen
K. Tyagi, A. Johri and S. Kaur, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122

Day old broiler chicks (n=144) were divided into 24 groups of 6 chicks each. Six dietary
treatments were formulated viz. D1 (maize + soybean meal-SBM based control diet), D2 (25% maize
+ 75% sorghum+ SBM), D3 (25% maize + 75% sorghum + SBM + RSM 5% + SSM 5%), D4 (25%
maize + 75% sorghum+ SBM + RSM 5% + SSM 10%), D5 (25% maize + 75% sorghum + SBM +
RSM 10% + SSM 5%) and D6 (25% maize + 75% sorghum + SBM + RSM 10% + SSM 10%) for
0-4 wk growing phase and 4-7 wk finishing phases. Body weight gain, feed conversion and
carcass traits at 7 weeks of age did not differ due to dietary treatments. Energy and protein
utilization efficiency also did not differ due to dietary treatments. The cost of feed for one kg gain
in live weight was lower in D4, D5 and D6 when compared to maize based control. The results
indicated that use of sorghum replacing 75% of dietary maize and RSM (5% or 10% w/w) and SSM
(5% or 10% w/w) replacing soybean meal partly supported optimum gain and feed efficiency to
that of maize-soy based control. Inclusion of sorghum (replacing 75% maize) along with 10%
rapeseed meal and 5% sunflower seed meal or 10% rapeseed meal and 10% sunflower seed meal
(w/w) resulted in economic broiler production.

353 Effect of dietary supplementation zinc bacitracin, ascorbic acid and sodium bicabonate on the
performance of cari sonali hens during hot weather - A.V. Elangovan, A.B. Mandal, Praveen K.
Tyagi, Pramod K. Tyagi and Saroj Toppo, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122

An experiment was conducted involving CARl Sonali layers (n=105) of 55-62 weeks of
age (50 days egg collection period) to evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of
additives (zinc bacitracin, ascorbic acid and sodium bi-carbonate) on egg production under heat
stress. Six dietary treatments consisted of one control diet (D1), two levels of zinc bacitracin (D2,
100mg/kg and D3, 200mg/kg), ascorbic acid, 300mg/kg (D4) and sodium bi carbonate, 0.5% in diet
(D5) were formulated following completely randomized design. Each dietary treatment was
assigned to 21 hens caged individually. The temperature in house during the experimental period
recorded a minimum of 25 to 34°C (mean 31.8±0.34°C) and maximum of 31 to 38°C (mean 35.8±0.35°C).
No significant difference in hen-day egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body
weight change was observed between dietary treatments. Net FCR (including the gain in body
weight and egg mass) also showed similar trend to that of FCR. The egg quality parameters viz.
shape index shell weight, shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index and ICU also remained similar
in all the dietary treatments. The study indicated that a diet supplemented with zinc bacitracin and
ascorbic acid would not be much beneficial for laying hens with a in house temperature below
38°c. However, an apparent improvement observed in shell thickness and egg production could
be exploited in commercial feeding as the input cost is meager.
220 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

354 Egg production performance of assel layers as influenced by varying levels of dietary energy,
protein and critical amino acid levels - C. Deo, A.V. Elangovan, A.B. Mandal, D.P. Singh and H.P.
Shrivastava, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122

An experiment was conducted involving laying Aseel hens (n = 108) during 29-40 weeks
of age (84 days feeding trial) to evaluate of effect of dietary energy and protein levels for egg
production performance. Six dietary treatments with two levels of energy (2600 kcal and 2400 kcal
ME/kg) and three levels of protein (16.0, 14.0 and 12.0%) at each energy level following factorial
CRD were tested. Feed intake, hen-day production, egg-weight, feed conversion efficiency and
egg quality parameters did not differ statistically due to either dietary energy or protein levels.
However, hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio differed (P<0.01) due to their
interaction. Higher (P<0.01) hen -day egg production and feed conversion ratio were recorded
from 2600 kcal ME/kg with 14% protein. Therefore, a dietary level of 2600 kcal ME/kg, 14.0% CP,
0.70% lysine, 0.30% methionine and 0.54% threonine was optimum for egg production
performance of Aseel layers during 29 to 40weeks of age.

355 Optimizing energy, protein and amino acid needs in diet of Kadaknath (26-40 weeks of age)
hens - A.B. Mandal, C. Deo, A.V. Elangovan, D.P. Singh, and H.P. Shrivastava, Central Avian
Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122

An experiment was conducted involving 108 laying kadaknath hens during 26-40 (100
days) weeks of age to evaluate of effect of dietary energy and protein levels for egg production
performance. Six dietary treatments with two levels of energy (2600 kcal and 2400 kcal ME/kg) and
three levels of protein (16.0, 14.0 and 12.0%) at each energy level following factorial design were
tested. Feed intake, hen-day production, egg-weight and feed conversion efficiency did not
differ statistically due to either dietary protein levels or protein and energy interaction. However,
significantly higher (P<0.05) egg production was recorded at 2600 kcal ME/kg diet. Higher body
weight gain resulted in both higher dietary energy and protein levels. A non-significant decrease
in egg production with decreased level of protein was observed. Moreover, though egg
production did not differ due to interaction of energy and protein but higher (66.06%) egg
production was recorded with better FCR (3.82). Therefore, a dietary level of 2600 kcal ME/kg and
16.0% CP, 0.86% lysine, 0.31% methionine and 0.63% threonine was recommended for optimum
egg production performance of Kadaknath layers.

356 Optimization of energy and protein requirements laying hens (Cari-Sonali) during first phase
(20-36 weeks) of egg production - S. Toppo, A.B. Mandal and A.V. Elangovan, Central Avian
Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243 122

CARl Sonali strain, crosses of WLW male and RIR females, basically developed for egg
purpose. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate energy & protein requirements of
CARl Sonali laying hens during early winter months. Six experimental diets with two energy levels
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 221

(2400 and 2600 kcal ME/kg) and three protein levels (14, 16 and 18% CP) were fed to 140 birds from
18 weeks of age. Feed offered and egg production was recorded daily. Weight of eggs was
recorded regularly. Body weight changes were recorded at 4 weeks interval. Results of 20-36
weeks egg production phase indicated that the hen-day egg production, FCR & Net FCR were
better (P<0.05) on diets with 2600 kcal ME/kg. But body weight changes and egg weight were not
affected due to levels of energy. Hen-day egg production did not differ due to dietary protein
levels. However, protein levels showed significant effect on egg weight being statistically higher
(P<0.05) at 16% CP level. The birds grew 308 to 336 g during this phase in different protein
regimen. The birds receiving 16% CP diet consumed more feed (P<0.01) than in 18 or 14% CP
levels. FCR (feed/egg mass) was also significantly higher at 16% CP diet. Net FCR improved
significantly at 14% CP diet. The results indicated that CARI Sonali laying hens require a diet with
14% protein and a minimum level of 2600 kcal ME/kg for optimum production performance during
first phase (20-36 weeks).

357 Effect of inclusion of dried tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) pomace with or without enzyme
supplementation on broiler performance - P. Kavitha, J.V. Ramana, J. Rama Prasad, P.S. Reddy
and P.V.V.S. Reddy, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, ANGRAU
Tirupati - 517 502 (Andhra Pradesh)

The dried tomato pomace (DTP) is a by-product obtained during processing of


tomatoes, contained 22 percent of CP, 12 percent of EE and 2193 kcal/kg of true metabolizable
energy (TME). Iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher (5-6 weeks) broiler
diets were formulated by incorporating DTP at 0, 5, 10 and 15% without (T1, T3, T5 and T7) and
with (T2, T4, T6 and T8) enzyme supplementation and were offered to 240 male broiler chicks
distributed to 8 treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). The body weight gains did
not differ significantly when diets containing DTP with or without enzyme supplementation were
fed. The feed intake differed significantly (P<0.05) in broilers fed diets
containing DTP at different levels, where as the feed efficiency decreased (from 2.04 to 2.14)
significantly (P<0.01). The feed cost per kg gain decreased significantly (P<0.01) with increase in
DTP level. The nitrogen utilization decreased significantly (P<0.01) with increase in the level of
DTP from 5 to 15 percent and significantly (P<0.01) increased with enzyme supplementation in
both the phases of growth. The DTP inclusion in broiler diets did not show any significant
difference on calcium and phosphorus utilization in both the phases of growth. The carcass
characteristics revealed that there was no significant effect of DTP inclusion on ready-to-cook
yield (%) and percent giblet weight. Present experiment indicated that DTP could be included up
to 15 percent in broiler diets without affecting their growth performance.
222 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

358 Effect of high fibre diet incorporated with enzymes on the performance of broiler chicks -
B.L.Saraswat, Sujeet Singh and S.P. Srivastava, Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying,
Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi-221 002 (U.P.)

For the maximum utilization of nutrients particularly crude fibre in the diet of broilers
with the help of exogenous enzyme mixture (Amylase 7500 units, Cellulase 450 units, Lipase 450
units and protease 250 units), an experiment was conducted with three replications. 250 one day
old chicks were divided into 5 groups of 50 each and allowed to feed broiler ration containing 6%
CF (G1), broiler ration containing 8% CF (G2), broiler ration containing 8% CF + enzyme mixture@
1.5g/Kg feed (G3), broiler ration containing 10% CF + enzyme mixture@ 2.5g/Kg feed (G4) and
broiler ration containing 12% CF + enzyme mixture@ 4g/Kg feed (G5) upto the age of 6 weeks. The
observations recorded during the study reveals that chicks of G4 group consumed lowest amount
of feed and DM but gained highest body weight which reflects better utilization of feed nutrients.
Lowest FCR observed in G4 group further justifies a fact that chicks of this group consumed
lowest amount of feed to gain per unit body weight. The quality and quantity of carcass of the
chick of G3 and G4 groups showed better response over the other groups under study. Similarly,
margin of profit was also maximum (Rs. 27.70%) in G4 group as compared to the other groups. The
findings, in general, indicate that incorporation of enzyme mixture reduced feed intake, increased
body weight and improved feed efficiency. It may be concluded that incorporation of enzyme
mixture @ 2.5g/Kg feed to broiler ration containing 10% CF may be treated as most suitable feed
combination so far as overall performance of broiler chicks is concerned.

359 Synergistic effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on growth performance in broiler chicken -
T.Hariharan, P.Gangadevi, T.V. Viswanathan and K.M. Syam Mohan, Department of Animal
Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Trichur, Kerala- 680 651

An investigation spread over a period of eight weeks was carried out to study the effect
of citric acid and microbial phytase (Natuphos®-5000G) on growth performance in broiler chicken.
One hundred and ninety two day-old broiler chicks (Vencob) were divided into four identical
groups having four replicates in each group with 12 birds in each replicate and allotted randomly
into four dietary treatments viz., T1, T2, T3 and T4. The treatments consisted of a standard broiler
ration (SBR) with 0.5 per cent available P (T1), low available P broiler ration having 0.3 per cent
available P (LAPBR) and 3.0 per cent citric acid (T2), LAPBR supplemented with 700 U of phytase/
kg feed (T3) and LAPBR with 1.5 per cent citric acid and 350 U of phytase/kg feed (T4). All the
rations were formulated as per BIS specifications except in the level of available P. The highest
body weight and weight gain was recorded in T4. The mean body weight of birds were 1867.29,
1974.55, 1938.44 and 2071.56 g at sixth week (P<0.01) and 2545.12, 2797.99, 2662.73 and 2806.59 g
at eighth week (P<0.05), respectively. The cumulative body weight gain recorded 5.89, 3.83 and
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 223

11.19 per cent higher (P<0.01) at sixth week and to 10.10, 4.60 and 10.45 per cent higher (P<0.05) at
eighth week for T2, T3 and T4, respectively than control group (T1). The cumulative feed intake
showed 2.34, 2.74 and 6.77 per cent higher (P<0.01) at sixth week and 7.39, 2.22 and 7.33 per cent
higher (P<0.01) at eight week of age for T2, T3 and T4, respectively than control group (T1). The
cumulative feed conversion efficiency did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between treatments.
The values were 2.09, 2.02, 2.07 and 2.01 at sixth week and 2.36, 2.30, 2.30 and 2.29 at eighth week
for the treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The per cent livability was not influenced by
the different dietary treatments, even though the birds maintained on low P diet in T2, T3 and T4.
Overall evaluation of the results of the present study revealed that combination citric acid and
microbial phytase in low available P diet (0.3 per cent) could synergistically improve growth
performance in broiler chicken.

360 Replacement of maize with wheat or bajra for meat production in quails - Sanjeev Kumar and
S.C. Gupta, Livestock Production & Management CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar -125 004 (Haryana)

The main objective of this study was to find out the effect of replacing maize with wheat
or bajra as an alternative source of energy on the cost of meat production in Japanese quails
(Coturnix coturnix japonica). For this purpose, 480 day old chicks were procured and
distributed randomly into five treatment groups i.e. control (T1), replacing maize with 50 per cent
bajra (T2) and 75 per cent bajra (T3) replacing maize with 50 per cent (T4) wheat and 75 percent
wheat (T5) There were three replications. Standard managemental practices were followed to raise
the birds in the battery upto six weeks of age. The carcass yield (eviscerated percentage and
giblet weights) was not affected by replacement of maize by bajra or wheat upto the level of 75
percent in the diet. Feeding cost of producing 100g live weight at 6 weeks in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5
groups was Rs. 3.29, 3.00, 2.86, 3.31 and 3.38 respectively. These corresponding values for
producing 100g eviscerated weight was Rs. 4.78, 4.37, 4.26, 4.94 and 5.15. Since the 75 percent
replacement of maize with bajra in the diet had reduced the feeding cost of 100g live weight by 13
per cent. So it may be recommended that 75 percent maize may be replaced by bajra for economic
quail meat production.

361 Effect of feeding different calcium sources on the performanced of Japanese quail - V. Lalzarzova,
D. Rajendran, T.K. Ghosal and G. Samanta, Department of Animal Nutrition, W. Bengal
University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700 037

A study was carried out to assess the bio-availability of calcium from different calcium
sources on Japanese Quail. Day -old 182 nos Japanese Quail chicks were randomly distributed in
seven groups with a replicate and supplemented with different calcium sources viz; T1 (bone
meal ), T2 (oyster shell ), T3 ( dicalcimn phosphate) , T4 ( lime stone ), T5 ( calcium carbonate), T6
(tricalcium phosphate) and T7 (calcium hydrogen phosphate) respectively. The total body weight
224 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

gain for six weeks experimental period showed that highest gain (224.2±0.97g) in T7 followed by
222.06±0.30, 215.55±0.95, 214.87±0.99, 214.48±0.35, 213.66 ±1.09 and 212.42±1.39g in T3, T2, T5,
T4, T1 and T6 groups respectively. Superior feed efficiency ratio was observed in di calcium
phosphate group (3.62±0.05) followed by T4, T5, T2, T1, T7 and T6 groups. Different calcium
supplementation did not significantly affect the carcass characteristics and the plasma calcium
and phosphorus concentration, through the highest bone ash and bone calcium percentage was
found in calcium hydrogen phosphate supplemented group followed by dicalcium phosphate,
oyster shell, CaCo3 lime stone, bone meal and tri-calcilum phosphate treated groups. Lime. stone,
CaCO3 and calcium hydrogen phosphate treated groups showed significantly higher (p<0.05)
shell weight percent than other groups. From the above study it may be inferred that bioavailability
of calcium for bone formulation was highest from calcium hydrogen phosphate followed by di-
calcium phosphate, oyster shell, CaCO3, limestone, bone meal and tricalcium phosphate groups
whereas bio-availability of calcium for egg shell formation was observed highest from
calcium hydrogen phosphate followed by di-calcium phosphate, CaCO3,bone meal, lime stone,
tri-calcium phosphate and oyster shell respectively.

362 Effect of dietary manganese on egg production performance of Japanese quails - Chandra Deo,
H.P. Shrivastava, Praveen K. Tyagi, R.K. Roy, R. Narayan and T.S. Johri, Central Avian Research
Institute, Izatnagar -243 122

An experiment was conducted involving CARI Uttam (Pure line) meat type line of
Japanese quail layer breeder (56-161 d) to evaluate optimum dietary manganese (Mn) levels for
egg production performance and egg quality traits. Five dietary Mn levels (27, 40, 60, 80 and 100
mg/kg diet) were formulated. Each dietary treatment was offered ad libitum to 20 quail layers
reared individually. Egg production was recorded daily, feed intake was recorded weekly and
body weight changes were recorded on every 35 days interval of the experiment i.e. on 91, 126 and
161 d of age. Eggs were weighed during 33-35 d interval of each period i.e. on 89-91, 124-126 and
159-161 d of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) in terms of feed intake/egg mass and net FCR (Feed
intake/egg mass-loss in body weight) were calculated. Overall cumulative feed intake, hen day
egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and net FCR were
significantly different due to variable dietary Mn levels. Significantly higher egg production was
observed in diet fed 27 mg Mn/kg than 100 mg Mn/kg but the group fed 40 to 80 mg Mn/kg did not
differ significantly from each other. Similarly, the diets receiving 27, 40 and 80 mg Mn/kg also did
not differ significantly from each other. Egg weight did not differ significantly amongst groups
fed 40-100 mg Mn/kg, but significantly higher egg weight was observed in diet receiving 27 mg
Mn/kg. Feed intake was significantly higher in diet fed 27 and 100 mg Mn/kg than other dietary
groups. Feed conversion ratio and Net FCR were significantly poor in diet fed 100 mg Mn/kg than
other dietary groups. Changes in body weight did not differ significantly due to different dietary
Mn levels. Overviewing several traits of the present experiment suggests that the level of 27 mg
Mn/kg diet made available through practical feed ingredients such as maize, soybean and fish
meal without additional manganese supplementation found adequate for optimum egg
production in CARI Uttam line of Japanese quails.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 225

363 Effect of cold process pellet feed on feed intake and digestibility of Angora rabbit - Debasis De,
Asit Das and Ramesh Chandra, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, Tadong,
Gangtok 737 102

Thirty weaner (60 d) angora rabbits were randomly divided in to three groups of ten
each. Animals of groups I, II and III were fed concentrate mixture, hot process pellet feed and cold
process pellet (CPP) feed ad lib., respectively, along with ad lib. mixed jungle grass. Animal were
housed individually in mesh wire cages with facilities for feeding watering and excreta collection
in a well ventilated house. After six months of feeding a metabolism trial was conducted to study
the feed intake and digestibility. It was found that dry matter (DM), digestible dry matter (DDM),
digestible organic matter (DOM) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake did not differ
significantly among the groups. DMI (% bw) and DMI(g/kg W0.75) were significantly (p<0.01)
higher in rabbit fed cold process pellet feed as compared to those of rabbit fed conc. mix./hot
process pellet. But DM, OM, CP, NDF and EE digestibility did not differ significantly between the
groups. So, it can be concluded that cold process pellet feed can replace concentrate mixture/hot
process pellet feed without affecting feed intake and digestibility in angora rabbit.

364 Effect of cold process pellet feed on dry matter intake, body weight gain and wool production in
Angora rabbit - Debasis De, Asit Das and Ramesh Chandra, ICAR Research Complex for NEH
Region, Sikkim Centre, Tadong, Gangtok 737 102

Thirty weaner (60 d) angora rabbits were randomly divided in to three groups of ten
each. Animals of groups I, II and III were fed concentrate mixture, hot process pellet feed and cold
process pellet (CPP) feed ad lib., respectively, along with ad lib. mixed jungle grass. Animal were
housed individually in mesh wire cages with facilities for feeding watering and excreta collection
in a well ventilated house. Shearing was done three months interval. After compilation of data of
four shearing it has been found that average dry matter (DM) intake (g/d) and total DM intake
(kg) from weaning to fourth shearing were significantly (p<0.01) higher in group III (161.35, 55.83)
as compared to those of group I (143.15, 49.53) and II (131.40, 45.47). Total live weight gain (g) and
average daily gain (g/d) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group II ( 1948.00, 5.63) as compared
to those of group I (1824.00, 5.27) and group III (1682.00, 4.86). DM intake (kg) per kg weight gain
was significantly (p<0.01) lower in group II (23.60) as compared to that of group I (27.23) which
was again significantly (p<0.01) lower than that of group III (33.27). However, no significant
difference was observed in wool production and DM intake per kg of wool production among the
groups. From this study it is clear that ad libitum cold process pellet feed along with mixed jungle
grass can produce wool yield at par with that of rabbit fed ad libitum concentrate mixture/hot
process pellet feed along with mixed jungle grass. So, it can be concluded that cold process pellet
feed can completely replace concentrate mixture/hot process pellet feed without affecting wool
production in angora rabbit.
226 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

365 Growth performance of crossbred chinchilla rabbits with agro waste incorporated feed -
R.N.S. Sundaram, E.B. Chakurkar and B.K Swain, ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa,
Goa - 403 402

Feeding is the major expenditure for maintenance of rabbits under cage rearing. With a
view to identify economic feeding practices experimental rabbit feed was formulated
incorporating locally available agro wastes. About 8000 mt of dried cashew apple waste(CAW)
and 1200 mt of Brewery grain waste (BDG) are available locally per annum. Two
experimental rabbit diets were formulated incorporating these agro wastes viz., cashew apple
waste (CAW) or Brewery grain waste (BDG) at 25% level as replacement of wheat bran. CP
content of control (T1),CAW(T2) and BDG(T3) incorporated feed was 16.4%, 16.52% and 17.9%
respectively. Feeding trial was conducted on 18 young chinchilla crossbred rabbits(3 x 6) for a
period of 3 months. Average daily weight gain for control (T1), CAW (T2) and BDG (T3) feed was
17.87g, 15.06g and 15.84g respectively. Percent DM digestibility was 66.78, 66.09 and 73.05 for T1,
T2 and T3 respectively. Feed intake/kg body weight was 5.05%, 5.25% and 5.17% for T1, T2 and
T3 indicating that there is no adverse effect on digestibility when CAW/BDG was incorporated at 25%
level in the concentrate feed.

366 Utilization of Kachnar (Bauhimia variegata) and willow (Salix Latifolia) leaves in Angora
rabbit feeding - R.S. Bhatt, Davendra Kumar, R.B. Sharma and K.S. Risam, North Temperate
Regional Station (Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) Garsa, Via Bhuntar,
Kullu-175 141(H.P.)
An experiment was conducted on 48 adult German Angora rabbits from July to September. The
rabbits were divided into three groups having 16 animals of almost equal sex ratio in each group.
The rabbits in T1 group were offered the conventional grasses available during season whereas
those in T2 and T3 were given Kachnar (Bauhimia variegate) and Willow (Salix latifolia) leaves,
respectively, as roughage. Concentrate in all the groups was offered @ 150 g/d with the
standardized scoop and water ad lib. Initial body weight in T1, T2 and T3 groups were 2.97±0.05,
3.12±0.06 and 3.15±0.05 Kg, respectively, whereas the final weights in these respective groups
remained as 3.23±0.03, 3.23±0.06 and 3.24±0.04 Kg. Wool yield was 123.3±5.2, 116.1±8.8 and
146.8±5.1 Kg in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively, which when expressed per,Kg W 0.75
metabolic body weight came out as 51.2, 48.2 and 60.8 g in the respective groups. Wool analysis
data revealed 5.54±0.13, 5.28±0.12 and 5.1±0.18 cm as staple length in T1, T2 and T3 groups
whereas the respective value for fiber diameters were 14.30±0.27, 14.51±0.34 and 14.74±0.36
microns. The medullation estimates were 88.55±1.23, 87.7±1.8 and 84.9±1.41 per cent in T1, T2 and
T3 groups, respectively. Plane of nutrition revealed 80.7±11.8, 87.8±4.5 and 76.2±10.1 g
concentrate intake/day whereas the roughage intake was 69.5±5.9, 59.7±9.6 and 82.5±4.7 g /day in
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 227

T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The total dry matter intake/day was highest in T3 (158.7±5.9 g)
group followed by T1 (150.2±17.6 g) and T2 (147.5±12.5 g). Proportion of roughage in dry matter
intake was highest with willow leaves (52.0%) followed by conventional grass (46.3 %) and
Kachnar leaves (40.5%). Dry matter consumed for producing 100 g wool was lowest in T3 (8.1 Kg),
which increased to 9.47 Kg in T2 and was highest in T1 (9.72 Kg) group. Digestibility of dry matter
was highest (68.96±2.53 %) in T3 group and lowest in (62.32±0.94 %) in T2 group. The digestibility
of crude protein remained higher in control group and decreased in test groups. The digestibility
of crude fibre and ether extract was lower in kachnar fed group. There was not much difference in
the digestibility of NFF, ADF and cellulose in different groups. From this experiment, it is
concluded that kachnar and willow leaves may form a good roughage sources for rabbits,
however, willow is better roughage as compare to kachnar leaves.

367 Roughage as maintenance feed of adult rabbits - J.J. Gupta and B.P.S. Yadav, Animal Nutrition
Division, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793 103

Rabbits by nature are herbivorous animal and they normally fed on plant materials. But
in recent past, rabbits are introduced as a new farm animal under intensive rearing on
concentrate feeding. Therefore, it is needed to assess different locally available roughages as
maintenance feed to adjust the quantity of concentrate feeding for different purposes of rabbit
rearing. The experiment on 24 adult male New Zealand White rabbits (l969±119 g) was conducted
for the period of 30 days. Four green roughages viz. rice bean, sweet potato tuber with vines,
broom leaves and ficus leaves were fed twice (morning and evening) in ad libitum through cut
and carry methods. The rabbits fed on rice bean fodder and sweet potato sustained their health
and achieved a growth rate of 9.58±1.58 and 5.00±1.18 g/d respectively with an average DM
intake of 130±10.00 and 84±5.72 g/d. However, the rabbits fed on broom and ficus leaves lost their
weight and showed negative growth rate of 18.75±1.25 and 14.58±1.25 g/d, respectively with DM
intake of 105±0.25 and 59±6.56 g/d due to poor palatability. Thus, it is concluded that rice bean
and sweet potato tuber with vines are good maintenance feed of adult rabbits.

368 Evaluation of roughage based ration in rabbit production - J.J. Gupta, B.P.S. Yadav and A. Das1,
Animal Nutrition Division, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam. Meghalaya - 793 103

Roughages are of immense use and economical in rabbit feeding. Rabbit can transform
roughages efficiently into high quality nutritious meat. An attempt was made on roughage based
feeding system for rabbit production. Twenty (24) numbers of 50±5 days old New Zealand white
(NZW) rabbits in equal sex ratio with average body weight 970±53.36 g were randomly divided
into 4 groups and allotted 4 treatments for 50 days. A concentrate mash of 19% crude protein was
wet in water in ratio of 1: 1 (w/v) and offered to rabbits in ball form only once in morning hours in
ad-libitum. In the evening hours four green forages viz. congosignal, rice bean, soybean and
1
Principal Scientist, Animal Production Division
228 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

job’s tear were offered in ad-libitum. The performance parameters and nutrient utilization were
recorded during the feeding experiments.The results revealed that rabbits achieved significantly
(P<0.01) higher growth rate of 15.38±0.73 and 17.70±2.16 g/d on rice bean and soybean fodder
respectively than congosignal (7.92±0.81) and job’s tears (8.63±0.96) fodder and it saved 51 and
60 per cents concentrate feed. Most of the nutrients showed better digestibility coefficients on
rice bean and soybean fodder feeding. It can be concluded that almost 50% concentrate feed can
be saved in rabbit ration by feeding of rice bean or soybean green fodder.

369 Chemical evaluation of certain unconventional feed stuffs for incorporation in the diets of
broiler rabbits - A.S. Rajendiran1, B.S. Venkatarami Reddy2 and R.G. Glori Doss3, Department of
Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, UAS, Hebbal Bangalore - 560 024

Soyabean hulls being the byproduct of processed Soyabeans for oil or meal, contained
(%DM) TA-6.03, CF-39.79, CP-11.02, EE-2.95, NFE 40.21, cell contents 34.05, NDF-65.95, ADF-
44.82, HC-21.13, C-44.24, ADL-0.49, ADA-0.10 and Gross Energy 4193 Kcal/Kg DM. The
corresponding values for Sunflower extractions were 5.82, 26.80, 31.47, 1.30, 34.61, 58.79, 41.21,
35.55, 5.66, 24.90, 10.45, 0.20 and 5217 Kcal/Kg DM in that order, while the third unconventional
feedstuff Tapioca meal contained 2.39, 0.83, 1.49, 0.93, 94.36, 55.23, 44.77, 2.92, 41.85, 2.63, 0.19,
0.10 and 4647 Kcal/Kg DM, respectively. The SBH, SFE and TPM having been chemically
evaluated do appear to be potential unconventional feedstuffs for compounding the all purpose
pelleted rabbit diets and great scope exists for their effective utilization.

370 Performance of broiler rabits fed on low cost balanced complete-diets containing certain
unconventional feed stuffs with or without feed enzymes supplementation -A.S. Rajendiran1, B.S.
Venkatarami Reddy and R.G. Glori Doss, Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College,
UAS, Hebbal Bangalore - 560 024

Four isonitrogenous and isocalorific diets comprising T 1 (control) T2 (20% SBH), T3


(25% SFE) and T4 (25% TPM) along with their corresponding enzyme supplemented diets (T5 to
T8) were formulated and fed to WG and SC broiler rabbits of both sexes. During the 49-day
experimental period, the cumulative daily feed intake (g/head) was 120.2, 97.0, 102.5, 136.7, 125.4,
98.4, 104.4 and 135.8 for T1 through T8 groups. The cumulative daily weight gain (g/head) were
20.3, 17.4, 17.4, 24.7, 23.5, 18.6, 17.7 and 25.1 from T1 through T8 while the cumulative FCR ranged
from 5.3 (T6) to 5.9 (T1). The cost (Rs./Kg) of diets were 8.06, 7.25, 6.82, 7.98, 8.28, 7.47, 7.04 and
8.20 respectively from T1 to T8. The net profits (Rs./rabbit) were 12.1, 16.6, 16.9, and 19.2 for T1 to
T4, respectively. The corresponding values under enzyme fortified groups were 18.1, 18.6, 15.8,
19.2 in that order. Enzyme addition had non-significantly improved the feed intake, weight gain,
FCR and net profit. The WG rabbits had better feed intake, weight gain and net profit. Female
rabbits had higher weight gain, FCR and net profit. It is concluded that the SBH, SFE and TPM are
potential feedstuffs for rabbits and that there is great scope for their effective utilization with
enzyme addition in rabbit diets.
Present Address: 1. Scientist, SRRC (CSWRI), Kodaikanal- 624 103, Tamil Nadu.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 229

371 Nutrition and feeding of rabbits for commercial meat production - N.P. Singh and R. Prasad,
Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar
Jaipur-304 501

Rabbits were found in India as wild animals and hunted for their meat. They are now
being reared as farm animals for production of wool, meat and fur. Meat rabbits (broilers) are
adapted right from a kitchen to a large commercial enterprise. Their meat is pearly white, low in fat
and cholesterol and is eaten all over in all the seasons with no religious taboos. The nutritional
requirements of broiler rabbits during different physiological stages (growth, gestation and
lactation) have been worked out and reported in the paper. Supplementary and complete feed
formulations both in mesh and pellet form and feeding schedules for different categories have
also been developed and included in the paper. Green fodders (Lucerne, Berseem, Cowpea and
Grasses), tree leaves (Mulberry and Ardu) and vegetables (Cabbage, Spinach, Radish and
Carrot) have been successfully used as roughage sources for broiler rabbits. Finishing live
weights of 2.0 kg with 30% feed conversion efficiency at 12 weeks of age has been achieved on
complete feed pellet ration containing 18% crude protein and 2500 kcal of digestible energy per kg
of feed. Economic analysis of broiler rabbit production revealed a net profit of Rs. 32 on an
investment of Rs.100. A package of practices on feeding management for commercial production
of meat rabbits has been developed and recommended for adoption by the progressive farmers
and entrepreneurs.

372 Utilization of Kachnar (Bauhimia variegata) and willow (Salix latifolia) leaves in Angora
rabbit feeding - R.S. Bhatt, Davendra Kumar, R.B. Sharma and K.S. Risam, North Temperate
Regional Station (Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) Garsa, Via Bhuntar, Kullu
(H.P.) -175 141

An experiment was conducted on 48 adult German Angora rabbits from July to


September. The rabbits were divided into three groups having 16 animals of almost equal sex ratio
in each group. The rabbits in T1 group were offered the conventional grasses available during
season whereas those in T2 and T3 were given Kachnar (Bauhimia variegate) and Willow (Salix
latifolia) leaves, respectively, as roughage. Concentrate in all the groups was offered @ 150 g/d
with the standardized scoop and water ad lib. Initial body weight in T1, T2 and T3 groups were
2.97±0.05, 3.12±0.06 and 3.15±0.05 Kg, respectively, whereas the final weights in these respective
groups remained as 3.23±0.03, 3.23±0.06 and 3.24±0.04 Kg. Wool yield was 123.3±5.2, 116.1±8.8
and 146.8±5.1 Kg in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively, which when expressed per Kg W 0.75
metabolic body weight came out as 51.2, 48.2 and 60.8 g in therespective groups. Wool analysis
data revealed 5.54±0.13, 5.28±0.12 and 5.1±0.18 cm as staple length in T1, T2 and T3 groups
whereas the respective value for fiber diameters were 14.30±0.27, 14.51±0.34 and 14.74±0.36
230 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

microns. The medullation estimates were 88.55±1.23, 87.7±1.8 and 84.9±1.41 per cent in T1, T2 and
T3 groups, respectively. Plane of nutrition revealed 80.7±11.8, 87.8±4.5 and 76.2±10.1 g
concentrate intake/day whereas the roughage intake was 69.5±5.9, 59.7±9.6 and 82.5±4.7 g/day in
T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The total dry matter intake/day was highest in T3 (158.7±5.9 g)
group followed by T1 (150.2±17.6 g) and T2 (147.5±12.5 g). Proportion of roughage in dry matter
intake was highest with willow leaves (52.0 %) followed by conventional grass (46.3 %) and
Kachnar leaves (40.5%). Dry matter consumed for producing 100 g wool was lowest in T3 (8.1 Kg),
which increased to 9.47 Kg in T2 and was highest in T1 (9.72 Kg) group.Digestibility of dry matter
was highest (68.96±2.53 %) in T3 group and lowest in (62.32±0.94 %) m T2 group. The digestibility
of crude protein remained higher in control group and decreased in test groups. The digestibility
of crude fibre and ether extract was lower in kachnar fed group. There was not much difference in
the digestibility of NFF, ADF and cellulose in different groups. From this experiment, it is
concluded that kachnar and willow leaves may form a good roughage sources for rabbits,
however, willow is better roughage as compare to kachnar leaves.

373 Production performance of angora rabbits fed on white clover and rye grass as roughage sources -
R.S. Bhatt, Davendra Kumar, R.B. Sharma and K.S.Risam, North Temperate Regional Station
(Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) Garsa, Via Bhuntar, Kullu (H.P.)-175 141

An experiment was conducted on 48 adult German Angora rabbits from March to May to
assess the effect of selected fodder on production performance as compared to conventional
grasses. Sixteen rabbits with equal sex ratio were kept in each group. The rabbits in T1 group were
offered the conventional grasses available during season whereas those in T2 were offered white
clover (Trifolium repens) and T3 were given rye grass (Lolium perenae) as a roughage source.
The concentrate was offered @ 150 g/d with the standardized scoop. The experiment was
conducted for 75 days (one shearing) with a digestibility trial for 4 days at the end. The average
initial body weights of rabbit were 2.82±0.08, 3.15±0.07 and 3.03±0.05 Kg in T1, T2 and T3 groups,
respectively. Final body weights in these groups were 2.88±0.08, 3.07±0.08 and 3.04±0.06 Kg,
respectively. Wool yield/shearing in T1, T2 and T3 were 101.2±5.47, 108.1±5.11 and 112.8±4.05 g
that came out to 44.7, 46.6 and 49.0 g when expressed on per Kg metabolic body weight (W0.75
Kg). Wool analysis data revealed 5.27±0.1, 5.12±0.09 and 5.26±0.28 cm as staple length in T1, T2
and T3 groups whereas the respective value for fiber diameters were 13.78±0.22, 14.84±0.21 and
14.16±0.24 microns. The medullation estimates were 89.38±0.72, 88.8±1.4 and 88.0±1.4 per cent in
T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. Plane of nutrition indicated highest concentrate intake (90.0±4.2
g) in T3 group followed by T1 (86.5±7.6 g) and T2 (61.3±10.4 g) groups whereas roughage intake
was highest (77.9±4.8 g) in Tl followed by T3 (70.1±3.2 g) and T2 (67.9±2.4 g) groups. As a result
total dry matter intake/day was lowest in T2 (129.2±9.4 g) group that increased to 160.1±4.2 g in T3
and 164.4±5.6 g in T1 Highest replacement of concentrate in dry matter intake was made by white
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 231

clover (52.55%) followed by conventional (47.39%) and rye grass (43.78%) indicating better
palatability and nutritive value of white clover as compare to rye grass. Dry matter used/100 g
wool produced was lowest in white clover fed group (8.96 Kg), which increased to 10.64 Kg in rye
grass group and was highest in conventional grass fed (12.18 Kg) indicating T2 group as most
economical. Digestibility of nutrients indicated highest digestibility of DM, CP, NFE and Acid
detergent fibre (65.98±2.31, 78.91±1.30, 72.20±1.85 and 45.29±4.77 %, respectively) in white clover
fed group whereas the digestibility of crude fibre and cellulose remained higher (45.56±3.05 and
55.64±0.78 %) in rye grass fed group. From this experiment, it is concluded that white clover is a
better roughage source for angora rabbit as compare to rye grass and conventional local grass as
far as wool production and utilization of nutrients is concerned.

374 Effect of dietary potassium diformate on growth performance in pigs - M. Suresh, and
T.V. Viswanathan, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala-680 651

A study was carried out to assess the influence of potassium diformate on growth
performance. digestibility of nutrients and carcass quality in Large White Yorkshire pigs. Thirty
weaned male piglings with an average live weight of 13.0 kg were divided into three equal groups
as uniform as possible with regard to age and body weight. Pigs were
maintained on three experimental diets viz.. T1 - control standard grower (18 per cent crude protein
and 3150 kcal/kg ME) and finisher ration (15.5 per cent crude protein and 3100 kca1/kg ME). T2 -
control diet supplemented with 0.75 per cent potassium diformate and T3 - control diet
supplemented with 1.5 per cent potassium diformate. The average daily gain of 465, 494 and 519
g were recorded for the groups T1, T2 and T3. respectively. There was no significant difference
(P>0.05) between the supplemented group and the group fed control diet. However, there was a
trend for a higher growth rate of 6.2.per cent and 11.7 per cent, reported for T 2 and T3 over those
fed control diet. The average cumulative feed conversion efficiency were 3.97, 3.74 and 3.55 for
the groups T1, T2 and T3 respectively.Addition of potassium diformate at 0.75 and 1.5 per cent
level in the diet of growing-finishing pigs had a higher (p<0.01) feed conversion efficiency over
those fed control diet. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the supplemented
groups. However, there was a trend for a higher feed efficiency for those fed 1.5 per cent
potassium diformate supplemented diet. The digestibility coefficients for dry matter, ether extract,
crude protein and nitrogen free extract were significantly higher (P<0.01) for pigs fed with diet
supplemented with potassium diformate at both the levels (0.75 and 1.5 per cent). There was no
significant difference between the supplemented groups. Dressing percentage, carcass length,
back fat thickness. loin eye area and others were not significantly influenced (P>0.05). by the
inclusion of potassium diformate at different levels. The costs of feed per kg live weight gain of
pigs were Rs. 32.82. 32.05 and 31.50, respectively for T1, T2 and T3. The above results indicate that
potassium diformate can be economically incorporated at 1.5 per cent level in the diet of Large
White Yorkshire pigs.
232 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

375 Effect of Baker’s yeast on growth and nutrient utilization in crossbred pigs - M. Sekar and
T.V. Viswanathan, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala-680 651

A study was carried out to assess the influence of baker’s yeast culture on growth
performance, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics in Large White Yorkshire x Desi
(75:25) crossbred pigs. Thirty weaned piglets (15 barrows and 15 gilts) with an average body
weight of 13.5 kg were divided into three homogeneous groups with regard to age, sex and body
weight. Ten piglets in each group were randomly distributed into five replicates of two piglets
each. The three groups were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments viz.. T1-control
(standard ration), T2-control diet supplemented with 0.25 per cent baker’s yeast culture and T3-
control diet supplemented with 0.5 per cent baker’s yeast culture. The piglets were fed on their
respective grower rations which contained 18 per cent crude protein and 3200 kcal digestible
energy per kg until they attained an average body weight of 50 kg and thereafter changed to
finisher rations which contained 14 per cent crude protein and 3100 kcal digestible energy per kg
until the pigs were slaughtered. Average daily gain of 352, 383 and 405 g were recorded for the
groups T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The pigs fed with diet containing 0.5 per cent baker’s yeast (T3)
had higher (P<0.05) average daily gain than those fed with unsupplemented diet (T1). But, there
was no significant difference between T1 and T2 as well as T2 and T3. However, there was a trend
for a higher average daily gain for those fed 0.25 per cent yeast culture (T2) over those fed control
diet (T1). Feed conversion efficiency was 4.36. 4.05 and 3.83 for the groups T1, T2 and T3
respectively. The pigs fed with diets containing 0.25 (T2) and 0.5 per cent baker’s yeast (T3) had
higher (P<0.01) feed conversion efficiency than those fed with unsupplemented diet (T1). The
digestibility coefficient for dry matter and ether extract were significantly higher (p<0.05)
for pigs fed 0.5 per cent yeast culture than those fed with unsupplemented diet and there was no
significant difference between T1 and T2 or T2 and T3. Pigs fed diets containing 0.5 per cent
baker’s yeast had higher (P<0.05) crude fibre digestibility than those fed with the diets containing
0 and 0.25 per cent yeast culture. Crude protein and nitrogen free extract digestibilities were not
differ significantly among the treatments. Study of the carcass characteristics revealed that the
dressing percentage, carcass length, back fat thickness and loin eye area were not significantly
influenced by the inclusion of yeast culture at different levels. The cost of feed per kg live weight
gain was Rs. 36.63, 35.52 and 34.99, respectively for the treatments T1, T2, and T3. Feed cost per kg
live weight gain was lower in T3 compared to other treatments. It is concluded that baker’s yeast
can be economically included at 0.5 per cent level in the diet for better growth and feed
conversion efficiency in crossbred pigs.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 233

376 Effect of different levels of tapioca (Manihot esculenta) meal in complete feed on the
performance of crossbred (Hampshire x Indigenous) pigs - R. Bhuyan, D. Medhi and K.K.
Baruah, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara
Guwahati- 781 022

Twenty four crossbred (Hampshire X Indigenous) growing pigs of average body


weight15.55 Kg were randomly divided into four groups i.e group I to IV and were offered a
complete feed containing 0, 10, 20 and 30 per cent Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) meal. The
feeding trial was conducted for a period of 84 days. A digestibility trial was conducted at the last
week of the experiment. The growth rate was found to be 391.01, 380.95, 350.21 and 301.67 g per
day in group I to IV, respectively. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain,
feed conversion and digestibility of nutrients due to inclusion of Tapioca meal up to 20 per cent
level. The cost per Kg weight gain was also found to be lower in groups fed complete feed
containing Tapioca meal. The results thus indicated that Tapioca meal could be included up to 20
per cent level in the complete feed of growing pigs with distinct economic advantage.

377 Performance of growing pigs on kashu (Colocasia esculenta) based ration - D. Medhi,
R. Bhuyan, B.N. Saikia, J.K. Saikia, and K.K. Baruah, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of
Veterinary Science, AAU, Guwahati- 781 022

An experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing cross bred


(Hampshire X Assam local) pigs of Assam on Kashu based ration. Twenty four growing cross
bred (Hampshire x Assam local) pigs of average body weight 12.5 Kg were divided in to four
groups of six animals each. Four ration were prepared with conventional feed ingredients where
Kashu tubers was incorporated at 10, 20 and 30 per cent level on DM basis in treatment T1, T2 and
T3 respectively. T0 was considered as control group where no Kashu tuber was incorporated. The
feeding trial was conducted for 84 days. A digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the
feeding trial. Average daily gain was 342.26, 318.10, 313.69 and 302.38g and the efficiency of feed
utilization was 4.01, 4.47, 4.72 and 5.09 Kg feed per Kg gain in body weight in treatments T0, T1, T2
and T3, respectively. The cost per Kg gain was lower in T3 followed by T2, T1 and T0, respectively.
It was concluded that Kashu tuber could be incorporated at the level of 30 per cent in the ration
of growing pig without any adverse affect.

378 Performance of growing pigs on tapioca Manihot esculenta) based ration - R. Bhuyan,
D. Medhi, B.N. Saikia, J.K. Saikia, AK. Gohain and K.K. Baruah, Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Guwahati-781 022 (Assam)

An experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing local pigs of Assam
on Tapioca based ration. Twenty four local growing pigs of Assam of Average body weight 12.5
Kg were divided in to four groups of six animals each. Four ration were prepared with
234 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

conventional feed ingredients where Maize was replaced by tapioca tubers at 10, 20 and 30 per
cent level on DM basis in treatment T2, T3 and T4 respectively. T1 was considered as control
group without Tapioca. The feeding trial was conducted for 90 days. A digestibility trial was
conducted at the end of the experiment. Average daily gain (ADG) was 336.31, 326.19, 316.67 and
304.76g and efficiency of feed utilization was 3.82, 4.02, 4.25 and 4.71 Kg feed per Kg gain in body
weight in treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The cost per Kg gain was lower in T4 followed
by T3, T2 and T1 respectively. It was concluded that Tapioca tuber could replace 30% maize in the
ration of growing pig with distinct economic advantage.

379 Caecal fermentation and carcass characteristics of pigs on replacement of maize with deoiled
rice polish with or without enzyme supplementation - S.K. Samoo1, B.K. Konwar2, B.P.S. Yadav
and K.K. Baruah2, Division of AnImal Nutrition ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,
Umroi Road, Umiam - 793103, Meghalaya

Thirty crossbred (Hampshire x Local) weaned piglets with male and female ratio of 1:2
were randomly divided into five groups. They fed on experimental rations by replacing maize of
control (T1) ration at 50% (T2 & T3) and 100% (T4 & T5) level with deoiled rice polish. However, the
rations of T3& T5 were supplemented with a multienzyme preparation called Anizyme @ 65g/
100kg of feed. After 154 days of experimental feeding one pig from each group was sacrificed to
study the composition of caecal content and its fermentation pattern and also the carcass
characteristics in different groups. The DM content of caecal contents were ranged from 16.18 to
21.48%, with lower values for the groups having higher levels of deoiled rice polish with slightly
higher values for the groups having Anizyme than the corresponding group. The CP content
varies between 11.02 to 13.37% with higher values for the enzyme supplemented groups. The CF,
EE and Mineral matter were increased with increased level of deoiled rice polish. The values for
pH and TVFA were ranged from 5.5 to 6.7 and 12.00 to 19.00 m eq./100g caecal contents,
respectively. The pH values were decreased and the TVFA values were increased levels of
replacement and enzyme supplementation. The ammonia nitrogen and urea nitrogen values were
ranged from 7.00 to 10.50 and 50.56 to 66.59 mg/100g caecal contents. The higher microbial protein
content and enzymatic activity of Cellulase, Amylase and Protease were observed in groups
containing higher levels of deoiled rice polish and also with enzyme supplementation. The length
of small and large intestines were increased with increased levels of supplementation. Similar
trend was also observed in case of stomach. The dressing percentages of carcass were ranged
from 68.62 to 71.76%. It was observed that the dressing percentages were decreased linearly with
increased level of replacement with little improvement on Anizyme supplementation. It was
concluded that replacement of maize with deoiled rice polish at 50 & 100% level, increased the
microbial activity of caecal contents and decreased dressing percentages with little beneficial
effects on multienzyme supplementation.
Address for Correspondence: 1 Regional Center, CARl A-6/HIG, Baramunda H.B. Colony Bhubaneswar-751
003 Orissa; 2 Animal Nutrition Department, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Khanapara,
Guwahati, Assam;
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 235

380 Effect of feeding various probiotics on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of exotic
piglets - J. Bera, T.K. Ghoshal and G. Samanta, Department of Animal Nutrition, W.B. University
of Animaland Fishery Sciences, Kolkata - 700 037

A feeding trial was carried out with different probiotics on Large White Yorkshire
piglets for 90 days. Forty piglets (one month old) were randomly divided into four groups of 10
each viz. control group (T0) without probiotics, treatment group (T1) with pure yeast culture @
100 g/100 kg feed, Lactobacillus + yeast culture @ 15g/100 kg feed (T2) and pure yeast culture @
50g/100 kg feed + mannan oligo-saccharides (MOS) @ 50g/100 kg feed (T3) respectively. The
average body weight gain (kg) in pre-weaning period (0-30 days) were 4.505, 3.496, 6.785 and
8.222 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups and the feed efficiency ratio were 2.285, 2.174, 1.520 and 1.678
for the respective groups. The performance index were 1.972, 1.608, 4.464 and 4.899 in T0, T1, T2
and T3 groups respectively. In the post-weaning period (0-60 days), the average body weight
gain (kg) were 16.86±0.08, 22.51±0.03, 26.28±0.15 and 29.74±0.19 and the feed efficiency ratio were
3.40±0.00, 2.93±0.00, 2.69±0.01 and 2.50±0.00 in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The
performance index were 4.96±0.02, 7.08±0.01, 9.76±0.07 and 11.90±0.09 in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups
respectively. The digestibility of different nutrients in different treatment groups indicated that
the DM, CP and CF digestibility were highest in T3 and were 80.64±0.03, 78.89±0.09 and 47.16±0.39
respectively followed by T2, T1 and T0 with the exception of higher digestibility of EE in T2 (63.
93±0.66). From the above study, it may be inferred that supplementation of different probiotics
had definite advantage with the exotic piglets on body weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and
nutrient digestibility. The superior performance was observed with probiotics combination of
yeast along with mannan oligo-saccharide (T3) followed by lactobacillus with yeast culture (T2)
and pure yeast culture alone (T1).

381 Effect of floor space on the performance of crossbred grower pigs - R.Yedukondalu, D. Srinivasa
Rao and A. Ravi, All India Coordinated Research Project on Pigs, College of Veterinary
Science, A.N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati - 517 502 (A.P.)

A total of 72 crossbred (L WY X Indigenous) growing pigs with a mean weight of 22.75


kg were used in a randomized block design incorporating three treatments with three replicates
The pens used were with a covered floor space of 8.96 m2 (3.2m X 2.8m) and the pigs were housed
in 10, 8 and 6 nos per pen getting a floor space of 0.9m2 (T-l), 1.125m2 (T-2) and 1.5m2 (T-3) per pig.
The feeding and water space was similar for all the treatments.The experimental period was 42
days and pigs were weighed individually at weekly intervals. All the pigs were fed with the same
grower ration providing 160 g C.P and 3000 kcal DE per kg. The ADG (g/d) and Feed/kg gain (kg)
were calculated for the experimental period and data was analyzed statistically. The feed offered
was similar for all the treatments. The ADG (g) and feed/kg gain (kg) over 42 d experimental period
were 252, 5.93; 269, 5.60 and 264, 5.70 g respectively for T-1 to T-3 and the differences among the
treatments were non significant. Based on the results it can be concluded that a covered floor
236 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

space of 0.9 m2 per pig is optimum during grower period under Indian conditions for economic pig
production.

382 Effect of soaking or cooking Tamarind Seed Kernel on growth, nutrient utilization and carcass
characteristics of pigs - A. Ravi, D. Srinivasa Rao, and R.Yedukondalu, All India Coordinated
Research Project On Pigs, College of Veterinary Science, A.N.G. Ranga Agricultural
University, Tirupati- 517 502

The effect of replacing maize (R1) with unprocessed (R2), soaked (R3) or cooked (R4)
tamarind seed kernel was studied in a completely randomized design using 24 finishing (35 to 60
kg live weight) pigs. The ADG (g) and feed 1 kg gain (kg) were 320, 5.95 (R1); 293, 7.09(R2); 313,
6.30 (R3) and 294, 6.76 (R4) respectively. The differences in ADG were non significant while the
feed/kg gain was lower (P<0.01) in R1 or R3 fed pigs than in pigs fed R2 or R4. The total tannin
content was reduced from 2.57% in the unprocessed tamarind seed kernel to 0.89% by soaking it
overnight in water or by cooking. The digestibility of DM, CP and EE were higher (P<0.01) in pigs
fed on R1 or R3 than in pigs fed on R2 or R4. The N retention (g/d) was 20.0, 18.7, 20.2 and 18.5 in
pigs fed on rations R1 to R4, respectively and was not significantly different among the
treatments. No significant differences were observed among the treatments in the carcass charac-
teristics studied. It is concluded that soaking of tamarind seed kernel in water overnight is
beneficial compared to unprocessed or cooked tamarind seed kernel and tamarind seed kernel can
be used as a economic source of energy in diets of pigs.

383 Effect of green gram (Vigna radiata) chuni inclusion in finisher rations of cross bred pigs on
their performance and carcass characterstics - D. Srinivasa Rao, A. Ravi, and R.Yedukondalu,
All India Coordinated Research Project On Pigs, College of Veterinary Science, A.N.G. Ranga
Agricultural University, Tirupati- 517 502

Twenty-four crossbred (LWY X Indigenous) entire male pigs were randomly divided
into three groups and allotted to one of the finisher rations containing 0 (R-1), 15 (R-2) and 30%
(R-3) green gram (Vigna radiata) chuni during 35-70 kg body weight. All the pigs were housed
individually, fed ad libitum, weighed at weekly intervals and slaughtered after attaining 70 kg
body weight. The daily feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) and average daily gain was
significantly lower (P<0.05) in pigs fed R-3 than those fed R-1 and R-2. Also, Significantly higher
feed/kg gain (P<0.01) and cost of feed/kg gain (P<0.05) were observed with pigs fed R-3 than
those fed R-1 and R-2. There were no significant differences in the carcass characteristics among
the pigs fed the experimental rations. It is concluded that green gram (Vigna radiata) chuni can
be included at 15% level in the rations of crossbred finishing pigs for effective utilization of
locally available feed resources.
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 237

384 Replacement of concentrates by pea (Pisum sativum) haulm in the diet of pigs - Asit Das,
Debasis De, Saroj Toppo and N. Haque, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Sikkim
Centre, Tadong- 737 102, Gangtok

A digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate replacement value of pea (Pisum


sativum).Ten Hampshire pigs were distributed into 2 groups of 5 each in a completely randomized
design. Animals in group I received concentrate to meet their nutrient requirements. However,
20% of the concentrate was replaced with pea haulm in group II. Results showed that Total DM
intake and digestibility were non-significant between the two groups. From the results, it was
concluded that pea haulm can be incorporated up to 20% in the grower ration of pig.

385 Replacement of concentrates by squash leaves in the diet of growing pigs - Asit Das, Debasis De,
Saroj Toppo and N. Haque, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre,
Tadong-737 102, Gangtok

Twelve Hampshire piglets of 13 to 19 kg body weight were randomly distributed into 3


groups of 4 each in an experiment based on RBD. Piglets in group I received concentrate to meet
their nutrient requirements. Ten percent of concentrate was replaced with incorporation of either
500 (II) or 1000g (III) of fresh squash leaves. The dry matter intake was 742.6±42.2, 724.0±21.80
and 797.8±1.73 in groups I, II and III respectively. However, there was no significant difference
among different groups. The dry matter digestibility was 85.1±1.79, 77.8±2.51 and 86.5±0.81
percent in respective groups without any significant difference. The average daily gain (ADG)
was 266.5±9.54, 205.0±l6.95 and 241.7±25.46 g per day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. From
the results it was concluded that about 10% of the concentrates can be replaced with inclusion of
about 1 kg of fresh squash leaf meal (i.e. to replace 1 part of concentrate DM two parts of squash
leaf meal DM will be required) without any adverse effect on growth performance.

386 Various forms of trace minerals on the performance of exotic pigs - A. Mishra, S. Bhattacharya
and G. Samanta, Department of Animal Nutrition, W. Bengal University of Animal and Fishery
Sciences

A growth study was carried out with twenty seven pre-weaning (30 days old) large
White Yolkshire piglets for 90 days. The piglets with mother were kept in three different groups
and the starter ration was supplemented with trace minerals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and
manganese (Mn) in three different forms viz; conventional (T1) inorganic chelaled trace mineral
(T2) and organic che1ated trace mineral (T3) respectively. A pre-weaning 30 days experimental
period showed that body weight was highest in inorganic chelated group (T2) followed by
organic chelated group (T3) and conventional mineral (T1) but the differences was not
statistically significant (p>0.05), The highest feed consumption was observed in T3 followed by
238 Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004

T1 and T2. However, superior feed efficiency was observed in T2 followed by T3 and T1. The
performance index (PI) in the pre weaning period was highest in Y2 followed by T3 and T1 groups.
In the post weaning stage, 60 days experimental period showed that the piglets maintained
superior trend of growth with chelated minerals than conventional but the differences were
statistically non-significant (P>0.05), The inorganic chelated mineral supplemented group (T2)
although consumed more amount of feed but it was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The feed
efficiency ratio in post-weaning period was found to be best in the organic chelated group (T3)
followed by T2 and T1 groups. The performance index in the post weaning period was higher in
organic chelated group (T3) followed by T2 and T1 groups. The overall performance of piglets for
pre and postweaning period (0-90 days) showed that both inorganic and organic chelated trace
minerals (T2 and T3 groups) have superior body weight gain, better feed efficiency ratio, higher
performance index and digestibility of nutrients than conventional trace minerals (T1).
Economics of feeding showed the highest profit was obtained with inorganic chelated group
(T2) followed by organic chelate (T3) and conventional trace mineral (T1) on the performance of
piglets.

387 Economics of rearing broilers on orange pomace based diets supplemented with enzymes - M.R.
Jawale, A.A. Zanzad, R.J. Kukde, B.N. Ramteke and G.B. Deshmukh, Department of Animal
Nutrition, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University,
Nagpur - 440 006

Orange pomace, a unconventional agro industrial byproducts contained 8.22 percent


crude protein, 4.97 percent ether extract, 13.45 percent crude fiber, 64.20 percent Nitrogen Free
Extract, 9.31 percent total ash. Inclusion of orange pomace in broiler diets replacing maize at 15
percent levels proved economical. To have maximum utilization of nutrient from the available
feedstuffs enzyme was supplemented. At 15 percent replacement with enzyme supplementation
the average feed consumption was higher in enzyme treated groups than control group. The
higher body weights were achieved in enzyme treated groups. Feed cost (Rs/kg) and Feed cost/
kg bird (Rs.) was reduced in treated groups. It could be concluded that the costly ingredient of
poultry diet i. e. maize can be successfully partially replaced with orange pomace and also low
cost feed can be formulated by this method. Also rearing broilers on diets with 15 per cent
replaced maize by orange pomace proved economical and can be used in broiler ration.

388 Effect of multienzymes with probiotics on production efficiency of broilers - R.S. Kamble, R.J.
Kukde, A.A. Zanzad, B.N. Ramteke and A.D. Deshmukh, Department of Animal Nutrition Nagpur
Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur - 440 006

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Multienzymes with Probiotics


supplementation on production efficiency of broilers on low energy diets. Ninety-six day-old
chicks were randomly distributed equally to six dietary treatments. Three different diets were
prepared in such a way that metabolizable energy of these diets were 3000, 2850 and 2700 kcal
Proc. XI Animal Nutrition Conference, Jabalpur, 2004 239

ME/kg diet in T0, T1 and T2 groups respectively. Similarly, three more diets (T3-T5) were prepared
having 3000, 2850 and 2700 kcal ME/kg, but supplemented with Multienzymes and Probiotics
mixture @ 75 g/100 kg diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in same managemental
conditions. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. Multienzymes with
Probiotics supplemented resulted in higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain than
unsupplemented group, though the results were non-significant. The average feed consumption
and feed efficiency were higher in groups supplemented with multienzymes and probiotics. Thus
multienzymes with probiotics supplementation resulted in better perfonnance and profit per kg
bird ranged between 0.01 to 0.36. However, there was marginal loss in low energy and high fiber
groups, which were not supplemented with multienzymes and probiotics.

389 Dietary Vitamin E requirement of mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) fry - B.N. Paul,
S. Sarkar, A.K. Sahu and S.N. Mohanty, Fish and Shellfish Nutrition Division, Central Institute
of Freshwater Aquaculture,Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751 002 (Orissa)

A 90 days feeding experiment was conducted using flow-through system to determine


the dietary vitamin E requirement of mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala fry. Five semi-purified diets supple-
mented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg vitamin E/kg dry diet were fed to mrigal fry (av. wt.±S.E=
0.68±0.01g) in triplicate groups. The average net weight gains were 6.17±0.08, 6.42±0.04, 7.22±0.12,
6.98±0.1 0 and 6.68±0.04 (g/90 d) respectively for diets 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg vitamin E/kg. The net
weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fish given 100 mg vitamin E/kg diet. The other
nutritional indices like FCR, SGR and PER also followed the similar pattern in the above diet
group.