This article is the second of a 2-part series on Ancient India s contributions.

To read Part 1, please visit: Impact of Mathematics on Art and Architecture Indian art is highly symbolic. The art and architecture produced on the Indian subcontinent dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. Therefore from that alone it can be determined as to how culturally influenced it must have been. The basic mathematical principals of VaastuShastra were also practiced. The form of the Hindu temple, the contours of the bodies of the Hindu gods and goddesses, and the light, shade, composition, and volume in Indian painting are all used to glorify the mystery that resolves the conflict between life and death, time and eternity. The arts of India expressed in architecture, sculpture, painting, jewelers, pottery, metalwork, and textiles, were spread throughout the Far East with the diffusion of Buddhism and Hinduism and exercised a strong influence on the arts of China, Japan, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, and Java. Interest in arithmetic and geometric series may have also been stimulated by (and influenced) Indian architectural designs (as in temple shikaras, gopurams and corbelled temple ceilings). Of course, the relationship between geometry and architectural decoration was developed to its greatest heights by Central Asian, Persian, Turkish, Arab and Indian architects in a variety of monuments commissioned by the Islamic rulers. Pythagorus theorem used in architecture: The SamratYantra, at Jaipur, designed by Jai Singh, measuring 147 at its base and 90 high could calculate time within two seconds accuracy per day. Recursion in Hindu Temple architecture According to ancient architectural tradition, Hindu temples are symbols of models of the cosmos and their form represents the cosmos symbolically. According to the Sthapatya Veda (the Indian tradition of architecture), the temple and the town should mirror the cosmos. The temple architecture and the city plan are, therefore, related in their conception. The procedures and methods used in the construction of Hindu temples bear a striking resemblance to the procedures of computer graphics, including discretization and extensive use of recursive procedures. Study shows that the instructions given in ancient Vastushastras (texts on architecture) work like general programmes to generate various types of temples. Many studies have shown that these designs date back to the fire altars of the Vedic period which were themselves designed to represent astronomical knowledge (Kak, 1995, 2000, 2002). An assumed equivalence between the outer and the inner cosmos is central to the conception of the temple. It is because of this equivalence that numbers such as 108 and 360 are important in the temple design. Following explains briefly why 108 and 360 are important. 108 and 360-The Universal Measure in Various Domains

The ancient Indians were excellent mathematicians and 108 may be the product of a precise mathematical operation (e.g. 1 power 1 x 2 power 2 x 3 power 3 = 108), which was thought to have special numerological significance. They used the following practice of measurements.

Powers of 1, 2, and 3 in math: 1 to 1st power=1; 2 to 2nd power=4 (2×2); 3 to 3rd power=27 (3×3x3). 1×4x27=108 Sanskrit alphabet: There are 54 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Each has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti. 54 times 2 equals 108. Heart (Anahata) Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown (Sahasrara) chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization. Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are energy intersections like chakras, except they have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body. Time: Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future. 108 names of the God/Goddess 108 dance poses in Classical Indian dance 108 beads in their japamalas. They implement the following formula: 6 x 3 x 2 x3 = 108; 6 senses [sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, thought] 3 aspects of time [past, present, future] 2 condition of heart [pure or impure] 3 possibilities of sentiment [like, dislike, indifference] 108 pilgrimages 10,800 bricks in the altar





y y y

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That list goes on.

Rock-Cut Architecture The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were related to various religious communities. In the beginning, remarkable Buddhist and Jain monuments were produced in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. The best examples of this are Chaityas and monasteries. Inside these rock-cut structures monks carved windows and balconies and gates in the shape of huge arch shaped openings.

Rock-cut architecture occupies a very important place in the history of Indian Architecture. The rock-cut architecture differs from traditional buildings in many ways. The rock-cut art is more similar to sculpture than architecture as structures were produced by cutting out solid rocks. Let's have a look at various specimen of rock-cut architecture in ancient India. Some prominent rock-cut structures of ancient India are Chaityas, Viharas, temples etc.
ChaityasAndViharas Chaityas and Viharas are those rock-cut structures that were hewn out for Buddhist and Jain monks. Chaityas were places of worship whereas Viharas were residence of monks. The Buddhist and Jain monks usually stayed away from the towns therefore they developed Chaityas and Viharas in the hillside. Most of the Chaityas and Viharas were constructed in western India. Some of the prominent places having Chaityas and Viharas are Karle, Nashik, Bhaja and Kanheri. The rugged hills of the Western Ghats were naturally suited to the creation of living space in the hillside. The most remarkable aspect of the rock cut architecture at Karle and other such sites is its close similarity to wood construction. Here, you will find great imitation of every detail of wood in rocks. This throws light on the great skill of Indian craftsmen. The Rathas of Mahabalipuram

The Rathas at Mahabalipuram are yet another great specimen of rock-cut architecture in ancient India. These Ratha temples at Mahabalipuram were constructed during the reign of Pallava rulers. The Pallavas were founders of the Dravidian Style of temple architecture. At Mahabalipuram, scaled-down replicas of actual temples (known as the Rathas of Mahabalipuram or the 'Seven Pagodas') were created. These rathas were sculpted out of monolithic rocks. The Rathas are not very large, the biggest measuring 42 feet by 35 feet, and the tallest is 40 feet high. Most of the Rathas at Mahabalipuram are modeled on the Buddhist Viharas and Chaityas.

Ancient Indian Architecture
Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the Indus Valley cities. Among India's ancient architectural remains, the most characteristic are the temples, Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures. In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was

a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were related to various religious communities. In the beginning, remarkable Buddhist and Jain monuments were produced in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Chaityas and Viharas are those rock-cut structures that were hewn out for Buddhist and Jain monks. Chaityas were places of worship whereas Viharas were residence of monks. The Rathas at Mahabalipuram are yet another great specimen of rock-cut architecture in ancient India.

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ChehniKothi, Banjar Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

ChehniKothi is a 1500 years old building. It was the fortified residence of RanaDhadhia. Initially it was 15 storeys high but after the earthquake of 1905 only 10 storeys were left. Presently this structure built of stone and wood only (No cement) stands around aprox 60 feet high. The ground floor is bigger in area as compared to the upper storeys giving it a cone like appearance. This place is near Banjar 53 km from Kullu by road, followed by 3 km uphill walk. This is a typical Kullu architecture
Language and Architecture of Ancient India by Neria Harish Hebbar, MD Samskrita, the Language of the Gods The Vedic language (later called as Sanskrit) was akin to languages of the European continent spoken by tribesmen around 2000 B.C.E. The earliest surviving Sanskrit literature is the Rig Veda. As time went on many of the words of the original language were forgotten and became obsolete. In 4th Century B.C.E., Panini (a grammarian in Takshashila) wrote a great grammar work in eight chapters called Ashtadhyayi. This standardization of the language resulted in a perfected language called Samskrita (refined language-anglicized as Sanskrit). This classical Sanskrit became the language of the priestly class and later of the governing class. The popular dialect of the language that developed naturally was called as Prakrit or Prakrita, the unrefined language. Prakrit was the spoken language of India for almost a thousand years between Buddha Period to the Gupta Period. The language of the edicts of Ashoka s time was in Prakrit. Prakrit had several regional dialects. The most popular in the North during Buddha s period was Pali. Several Buddhist texts were written in Pali. Magadhan Empire had a dialect called Magadhi. Another form was Ardha-magadhi (Half Magadhi) that became the sacred language of Mahavira s Jains. Other important Prakrits were Saureshi and Maharastri. Bengali and a language used by Jains of Gujarat in the Middle Ages called Apabrahmsa also are derived from Prakrit. All of the modern vernaculars spoken in Northern India today are direct descendents of Sanskrit and Prakrit. The South however developed its own languages, though Sanskrit influenced them, at a later date. The main languages of the South are: Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Tulu and Malayalam. Collectively these are called Dravidian languages (Panchbhasha). Sanskrit naturally influenced Tulu, Kannanda and Telugu, spoken, in more northern regions of the South, more than Tamil. Malayalam, which is closely related to Tulu and Tamil, became a separate language in the 11th Century. The script of the Prakrit language may be similar to the Harappa scripts, though those scripts have not been deciphered. There are visual resemblances between the two scripts. There are no surviving evidences of any scripts during the assimilation of the Vedas or Upanishads. The first evidence of written script is seen at the Ashoka s inscriptions (written in Brahmi Script). These are from the 3rd Century B.C.E. The inscriptions written on stone pillars not only survived but also demonstrated a sophisticated language of purely Indian descent and led to the belief that the written language had developed in India long before this script. The written language was then spread far and wide, especially to South East Asia

during Ashoka s reign. Whether Brahmi script is related to Harappa script or to the Semitic script is controversial. Local variations to the Brahmi script led to the practice of joining of letters and words together with a line on the top of the letters, like that of today s Hindi script, and came to be known as Devanagari script (script of the City of Gods). In the South written language flourished in the 5th and 6th Centuries with the language taking a more spherical shape as in Tulu, Kannada and Telugu or the angular Tamil. Patanjali wrote a treatise on Panini s grammar. Another grammarian and lexicographer of fame was Amara Simha from the 4th century C.E., the author of Amarakosha, a dictionary of synonyms written in the form of poetry for easy memorization. Temples of India

The oldest surviving structures of ancient India are its temples. It gives us a glimpse of the glory of architecture that was taken to its summit with solid stone structures that even today stand as monuments to the richness of the imaginations of the ancient Indians. Glorious temples built by great dynasties of the past stand in proof of one of the greatest civilizations of the world. Though temples have been built in the early history of India, none of them have survived as they were built from wood and clay rather than stone. Cave temples were the first temples that have survived for more than thousand years. Hindu temples were built in stone architecture from about 8th Century on up to 16th Century, especially in the Peninsula. Ornate pillars with stone carved towers stand as monuments of glory to their builders. As the North was already under the influence of the Muslim rule, the independent South took the lead in building glorious architectural masterpieces dedicated to the gods of their belief. Cave temples and Rock-cut temples

Earliest temples that have survived today are mainly the cave temples. Starting from the Mauryan period with their simple designs, the cave temples began to be more complex and sophisticated as time went on. Intricately sculpted pillars, animals and godheads were carved in solid rocks, frequently on hillsides, systematically from front to back and top to bottom. Some glorious sculptures such as the Rathas or chariots for gods were carved from single freestanding rocks (monolithic).

The most famous of the cave temples are in Ajanta, where there are no less than twenty seven caves that were first carved on the hillside as early as 2nd Century B.C.E and as late as 7th Century C.E., depicting mainly Buddhist teachings. About thirty miles north is the massive Ellora caves, where there are about thirty-four caves, carved between 5th and 8th Centuries C.E. The Rashtrakuta emperor, Krishna I (757-773 C.E.), built the great Kailasa temple here. Also in the 7th Century C.E. seventeen rock-cut temples were built in Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram), near Chennai by the Pallava kings. Narasimhavarman II Rajasimha added the famous Shore temple in Mamllapuram around 700 C.E. The famous seven pagodas are seen here. In an island off the shores of Mumbai one can see the cave temple called as the Elephanta caves. The colossal Trimurthy figure of Shiva is carved in one of the caves.

Pallavas built temples in Mamallapuram and the Kailasanath temple in Kanchipuram in the 6th and 8th Centuries. Kailasanatha temple of Kanchipuram has a pyramidal tower like a stupa (of Buddhism) over the shrine. The Chalukyas were busy with their own temples in Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal. Two remarkable temples in Pattadakal were built by two sisters in commemoration of the victories of their husband, ChalukyaVikramaditya II over the Pallavas. These are the Mallikarjuna and Virupaksha temples of Pattadakal. The Nataraja temple in Chidambaram was built between 6th and 8th Centuries. The great Bhrihadishvara temple of Tanjavur was built by RajarajaChola (985-1014). His son, RajendraChola built the temple near Kumbakonam. Both these temples contain elaborate pillars and halls with beautiful designs. In addition they have glorious pyramidal towers (Shikara or Vimana) of carved stone, rising two hundred feet into the air over the sanctum sanctorum (garbhagriha). The Pandya kings, who supplanted the Chola dynasty, built fortified temples with colossal towers at the entrance way (called the gopuram) rather than over the shrine itself. They added to Pallava temples or built new ones as in Madurai and in Srirangam. At the same time the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra (11th to 14th Century C.E.), built temples of a different style in Belurand Halebidand later in Somnathpur. These were temples without the entrance towers and shaped in a polygonal or stellate form rather than the rectangular base. Beautiful carvings of stone were incorporated in the walls and ornate stone pillars surrounded the inner hall. The famous Shila-balika (stone-woman) can be seen here with all the intricately carved details. The Vijayanagara Empire (14th to 16th Century) contributed to the art of temple building with the Vittala temple in Hampi with its exuberantly carved pillars and decorative imagination unsurpassed. Krishna Deva Raya was also the builder of temple in Kanchipuram. Vijayanagara Empire also added a tower (gopuram) to the temple at

Belur at a later date to commemorate the defeat of Muslims. The Nayaks after the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire built the bulk of the great temple complex of Madurai dedicated to Meenakshi, the consort of Shiva, as well as the Rock temple in Tirchirapalli.

As mentioned earlier the temples in the North India vanished during the Middle Ages and even the holy temple at Varanasi was desecrated during the Muslim rule in the North. However, some temples withstood the Muslim assault and miraculously escaped destruction. There is the temple at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh built by the Chandella kings of Bundelkhand (late 9th Century). Khajuraho temple demonstrated vivid sculptures of couples in embrace, and with its sexual mysticism was thought to be the center of Tantric cult long ago. During the medieval period temples flourished in Orissa (between 10th and 13th Century), finest of them being the famous Lingaraja temple in Bhubaneswar. In addition there are the Jagannath temple at Puri and the Sun temple at Konarak, built in the 13th Century. Like Khajuraho, evidence of Tantric worship is seen in Konarak. In the Western India the Chaulukyas or Solankis of Gujarat built the famous Jain and Hindu temples in Mount Abu between 11th and13th Centuries. Sculptures made of marble with its cold lifelessness with extremely decorated ceilings, perhaps influenced by the Muslim architecture, are the hallmarks of Mt. Abu. Innumerable temples exist in India and every one of them has its own charm and pious deity. The most holy ones are not necessarily architectural masterpieces. Thus the holy temples of Varanasi, Badrinath, and Gaya do not exhibit any special characteristics in their building structures. Krishna temple in Udipi, the center of Madhva culture or the Sringeritemple in Karnataka do not boast of great buildings that house the deities. Being pantheistic, Hindu religion has multitudes of recognized godheads. Consequently there are thousands of temples in India that are considered to be holy with a powerful deity in the sanctum sanctorum and it is not possible to enumerate them all in this article

One definition of a great civilization is the magnificence of its architectural legacy, and India is surely among the foremost. The country is dotted with the remains of ages gone by, many world famous like the Taj and QutabMinar, and some still cloaked in obscurity, off the tourist circuit, waiting to be 'discovered', but architectural gems nevertheless. Architecture of India - is an attempt to present the Indian architecture for what it is: an intelligent, innovative response to local conditions. Other Examples of architectures and significance Hindu temples represented the outer and the inner cosmos. The outer cosmos is expressed in terms of various astronomical connections between the temple structure and the motions of the sun, the moon, and the planets. The inner cosmos is represented in terms of the consciousness at the womb of the temple and various levels of the superstructure that correspond to the states of consciousness. Dholavira city map

A late example of a city designed according to the Vedic precepts is Jaipur. Vidyadhara, who designed the plan of the city, used the pithapada mandala as the basis. In this mandala of nine squares that represent the universe, earth occupies the central square. In the city, which consists of nine large squares, the central square is assigned to the royal palace. They calculated and planned city map using recursion:

Length of City / Length of Middle Town : 771.1/340.5 2.26; Length of Middle Town / Length of Castle: 340.5/151 2.26 ConclusionIndia s contributions to mathematics played a pivotal role not only in the modern art, architecture and industrial revolutions, but also in the scientific developments that have occurred since. No other branch of science is complete without mathematics. India provided vital elements of mathematics and scientific foundation without which humanity could not have entered this modern age of science and high technology. References Boudhik Sessions of Hindu SwayamsevakSangh; taken from several speech, discussion sessions Jagadguru Swami Sri BharatiKrisnaTirthajiMaharaja,Book on Sixteen Simple Mathematical Formulae from the Vedas The original introduction to Vedic Mathematics; 1965 (various reprints). Paperback, 367 pages, A5 in size.ISBN 82 208 0163 4. Kak, Subhash. An Overview of Ancient Indian Science .In T. R. N. Rao and SubhashKak, eds. Computing Science in Ancient India, pp. 6-21. Kak, Subhash. Codes and Ciphers in Indian Mathematics, Art, and Architecture , keynote presentation made in RSA 06-SFO conference. Kak, The axis and the perimeter of the Hindu temple.Mankind Quarterly, 2006.

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ChehniKothi, Banjar Valley, Himachal

Pradesh, India
Alongside this Kothi is another interesting building which houses a temple devoted to lord Krishna.

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