DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled CCNA (OSI, TCP/IP Models & Basics of Routing) is an authentic record of my own work carried out at Netmax Technologies, Chandigarh as requirement of six weeks industrial training for the award of B.Tech. Degree in Electronics and Communication, under the guidance of Mr Navdeep Mangal (Director Netmax Technologies, Chd.)

SHAINI SACHDEVA 80406106016 ECE

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of our knowledge & belief.

(Name & Designation) TRAINING & PLACEMENT OFFICER, ECE

The INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Viva-Voce Examination of SHAINI SACHDEVA has been held on ……………….......... and accepted.

(Name & Designation) EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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Abstract
The enterprise network is the lifeblood of any Small to Medium Enterprise (SME) with more than one site or supply chain partner. It enables access to business information and allows for profitable and effective communication flows between employees in different enterprise sites. Network enterprise network equipment is mature and ubiquitous, but the quality of services provided by similar networks varies from city to city and from country to country. In particular, the quality variation gap between most of the cities in some developing nations and their counterparts in advanced nations is very wide. This is due to the lack in developing nations of an adequate IT infrastructure, which is taken for granted in developed nations. Planning an enterprise network in a developing nation is almost like planning it in the middle of a desert. This project briefly discusses the architecture of an enterprise network. It examines the barriers to planning, designing and implementing an enterprise network. This project also covers the methods to implement enterprise level networks. In this project we will start from working basic router configuration then covering the Routing technologies required to route data between branches. After that we have implement WAN and Frame-relay is considered a good choice because it connects multiple location using single interface of router and reduce the hardware costs. For Internet connectivity we are also using frame relay. In this setup NAT is very essential in which we have translate live IP into local and vice-versa. In short we can say a lot of technologies are studied and implemented for the successful completion of the project. Following list of technologies that are required in this project. • • • • • Administration of router Routing Types of routing Benefits of static and dynamic routing Scalability of networks

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LIST OF USED DEVICES & TECHNOLOGIES CONFIGURED • • • • Cisco router Core layer switch Distribution layer switch Access layer switches

TECHNOLOGIES TO CREATE NETWORK • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Router IP Addressing Routing Core Switch VTP server VLAN database Trunk Links Spanning Tree Configuration Configuring IP & Gateway VLAN Port Membership Distribution Switches VTP Client Configuring IP & Gateway Trunk Link Configuration VLAN Port Membership

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Now. benevolent attention the present dissertation work would have remained futile. I am pursued my training at Netmax Technologies. He really has the ability to make a laidback person the foremost one. We should appreciate people for what they are and not thank them for what they do… We should be grateful to people for what they are and not for their acts. They never retraced their steps in the hour of need and were ready with their helping hands for all the times. calm and soothing attitude. Without his unrivalled guidance. going back in the past times and making a big list of names for appreciation and gratitude. I find that the more I get to experience good results. I am deeply grateful to our training and placement officer Mr Inderjeet Singh Gill and all my respected teachers of Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engg. painstaking efforts. Chandigarh. then we are not honoring the principles of the Divine karma. who were brave enough to share their views. They were tolerant and uncomplaining all the times and calmed and supported me. filled with knowledge. Ferozepur for their smile. I salute these grand masters. keen observance. which yielded peace of mind during my busy work hours. Mr Navdeep Mangal (Director. I offer appreciation to all these great people of my life. the more I direct my thoughts positively and feel genuinely thankful. constant encouragement. Through this training the student learns to conduct himself/herself in environment of the industry. & Tech. for what they are. His immense love has been of great value to me. This training is also helpful in acquiring the required technical knowledge. May they all win laurels and their names are glorified and honored. when I needed them the most. patience and above all love. I really feel the deepest gratitude towards my supervisor. support.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanking and feeling obliged indicates that we believe in someone else’s existence rather than in the Divine who rules everything. it is really a long journey. Industrial Training is an important aspect of engineering. Needless to say. keep a vision on my work and who made the task of compiling the dissertation an easy way out for me. SHAINI SACHDEVA 80406106016 2 . I learned a lot at this place. The biggest appreciation and gratitude is towards my seniors. Netmax Technologies). When we feel obliged.

I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures. It covers all the remains uncovered in the classroom i. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. Apart from this. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. And all the credit goes to NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES. It is period in which we are introduced to the industrial environment or in other words we can say that industrial training is provided for the familiarization with the industrial environment. COMPANY PROFILE 2 . CHANDIGARH for providing me the opportunity and facility for the making of this dissertation. which immensely helps them in building their carrier. During this period. It provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving. It enables the student to undergo those experiences which help them later when they join an organization. the students get the real. Industrial training is a major part of course. firsthand experience for working in the actual environment. based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. The training enables the student to work in the future. properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude. Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with.e. A well planned.PREFACE Practical training constitutes an integral part of engineering studies. I was entrusted with a real life project. working on which had finally made me step into the ongoing technology and gradually become a part of it. without it our studies remains ineffective and incomplete. which increased my sphere of knowledge to a great extent. I availed this instance in a very satisfactory manner and think it will be very beneficial for me in building my future. The objective of training is to raise the level of performance on one or more of its aspects and this may be achieved by providing new knowledge and information relevant to a job. perfection and accuracy are inevitable. with the advancement in computer technologies and increased automation in the industries for increasing their production. In organization where Making Things Right in the first instance is the driving motto. The training gives an opportunity to the students to express themselves to the industrial environment which is quite different from the teaching classroom. the students get an opportunity to learn the latest technology.

Our clients for R&D support in field of embedded systems.Netmax Technologies is an organization which is established in the field of Network Support. Netmax Technologies also provide Technical Research & Development support and consultancy to some Electronics companies. Mohali. ltd STPI. KANTA Electrical Ltd. Lotus Machines Pvt. Ltd. TELEBOX India ltd. Chandigarh Emmtel ISP. Impearl Electronics Pvt. We are also NOVELL EDUCATION PARTNER with which we provide NOVELL and SUSE LINUX courses. Netmax Technologies also conduct courses in CADENCE based design tools. Chandigarh. Mohali Premier ISP. Software training and Embedded systems. • • • • • Recorders and Medicare ltd Chandigarh. Ltd. Network training. Chandigarh NIPER. Mohali Glide Internet Services Rana Group IDS HFCL Infotel Ltd. Targus Technologies Pvt. Chandigarh Software Technology Parks India. Chandigarh Innovative Solutions. The partial list of our client for network field is as below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CEDTI. Mohali BBMB The Tribune 4 . Chandigarh. Mohali Navik Technologies. We are authorized Testing Partner of REDHAT & Cisco. In Education we have strategic alliance with Pearson VUE and Parametric.

CISCO CCNA. Security Solutions Netmax-Technologies provide the following Courses in IT & Embedded Systems given below: Network Training a. CCSP. CCSP. SUN SOLARIS d. JAVA and PhP MySql Programming. RHCE. Switches. Design Services (Embedded systems) ✔ a) AVR family ✔ b) MCS 51 ✔ c) ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN 4 . CCNP. 1 year Diploma in System administration & Networking. CISCO devices (Routers. RAS etc) d. WINDOWS 2000. CCNP. CCSA. C. PhP My Sql Programming e. Bandwidth Manager software and hardware e. MCSA & MCSE) e. SUSE LINUX Software Training a. SUN networks c. Firewalls. MCSE. RED HAT LINUX c. C++ b. LINUX / UNIX networks b. JAVA d. C++. Support Area (network solutions) a. CCIE b. programming. 2003 (MCP. We are having more than 15 engineers who are having prestigious certifications like CCNA. Radio Links f. Cache Engine. C c. We have skilled team of engineers who are experienced in design.OUR TEAM Presently we have a strong technical team of certified professionals for catering to these solutions and have presence in Chandigarh and Punjab.

+9888435109. We ensure high service levels and prompt support availability leading to lower downtime.Our core strength is our commitment. Head Office NetMax Technologies SCO 58-59 Sector 34A Chandigarh 0172-4644644 Branch Office NetMax Technologies SCO 198-200 Sector 34A Chandigarh 0172-2608351 2 . To meet the demands of Post PC era Netmax provides complete solutions as well as design-to-order services to satisfy our customers. Netmax Technologies is a leader in education services and developer of innovative embedded solutions. technical expertise and cost effective solutions. For NetMax Technologies Navdeep Mangal Sonika Mangal +9888070008.

.. Networking…………………………………………………………………17-23 1.25-27 Layer 5:.17 1.2 2...6 2.1 2.4..25 Layer 3: The Network Layer……………………………………………25 Layer 4: Transport Layer…………………………………………….3 1..4 2....….5 1..17 Devices………………………………………………………………….2 1.3 2.24 Layer 1: The Physical Layer………………………………………….3 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………….…4-5 Acknowledgement………………………………………………….1.6 Preface ……………………………………………………………………………….Contents Page No.1 2.Session Layer………………………………………………27-28 4 ... Declaration…………………………………………………………………………. Hub……………………………………………………………17-18 Switch…………………………………………………………18Bridge…………………………………………………………19-20 Router……………………………………………………………..5 OSI Model………………………………………………………………...20 Lan Card………………………………………………………….4.5 1.....1.1.17 WAN……………………………………………………………………..15 Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………16 1...3 1.17 1.1.4 1..23 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model…………………………………24-29 2.1.2 Certificate…………………………………………………………………………….1 1.4.4 LAN…………………………………………………………………….24-25 Layer 2: The Data Link Layer…………………………………………..7 Company Profile………………………………………………………………….2 19 1.21 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)………………………………………21-23 Administrator model for networking…………………………………….…………….…8-10 List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………14 List of Tables……………………………………………………………………..4....1 Network………………………………………………………………….4.

7.1.40 Console Password………………………………………………..6.6 2..3 ROUTER………………………………………………………………..3.30-32 3.28 Data Encapsulation…………………………………………………….3 4.1..39 Global configuration…………………………………………….. Layer 6: The Presentation Layer……………………………………….33 Routing………………………………………………………………33-34 IP Addressing……………………………………………………………34 4.. IP Routing……………………………………………………………………33-42 4.6.40 Auxiliary Password………………………………………………40 Enable Password…………………………………………………40 Enable Secret Password…………………………………………..3.5 4.2 4.....39 Privileged mode………………………………………………….3.39 Routing configuration mode…………………………………….40 Vty Password……………………………………………………..2.6.6 4.2 4.37 Routing Process…………………………………………………….3 4..7.2.3.5 User mode…………………………………………………….2 4.4 4.41 6 38 4.1 3.7.30 LAYER 2:.1.35 4.. Class D Addresses……………………………………………36-37 IP Routing…………………………………………………………….1 4.3 4..3 LAYER 1:..6.8 3..1.6 Configuring Password……………………………………………………40 .32 4.6.1 TCP/IP MODEL……………………………………………………….5 Class A Addresses……………………………………………34-35 Class C Addresses……………………………………………35-36 Class E Addresses……………………………………………….39 Line configuration mode…………………………………………39 Interface configuration mode…………………………………….7.6.1 4..7.1..30 3.37Router Access Modes……………………………………………………38 4.1 4.3.1 4..5 4.4 4.29 TCP/IP Model………………………………………………………………..4 4..4.1...Transport Layer…………………………………31-32 LAYER 3 Internet Layer………………………………………..7 2.2 3.28 Layer 7: The Application Layer……………………………………….37 4.Application Layer………………………………….7 4. Class B Addresses……………………………………………….

75 8 .1.…66 IP Standard ACL (Numbered)……………………………….……………………………………43-64 5..46 Dynamic Routing……………………………………………………….8 5 Encryption all passwords……………………………………….1.43 Advantages of static routing………………………………….1 ACL……………………………………………………………….2 6.1 5.…61 LSA Flooding in OSPF………………………………………62-64 6 Access Control List………………………………………………………….5 5.3 6..74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………….….4 5..…43 Alternate command to specify static route……………………....3.65-69 6.6 4.4 6.6 Classification Access Control List…………………………….….5 Types of Dynamic Routing Protocols………………………..2 LAN Switching………………………………………………70-71 VLAN (Virtual LAN)……………………………………….47-58 Autonomous system…………………………………………58-59 Open Shortest Path First…………………………………….3 5..2 5.2 5..4.1 7.…65 6.4 5.43 5.…43 Disadvantages of static routing………………………………..1.3.66-67 IP Standard ACL (Named)………………………………….1 Static Routing……………………………………………………………….67-68 IP Extended ACL (Numbered)………………………………68-69 7 LAN Switching………………………………………………………………70-73 7..41-42 Types Of Routing……………………….5 6.3 Steps to perform static routing……………………………….59-61 OSPF Hierarchical Model……………………………………..1 5.…65 Flow chart of Inbound ACL……………………………….3.1.3.41 Managing Configuration…………………………………………….2 5.3 5..44 Backup route or loading static route…………………………44-45 Default Routing……………………………………………………….3..47 5...1...71-73 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….7...

4 1...6 1.23 OSI MODEL……………………………………………………………………...60 OSPF Hierarchical Model………………………………………………………..66 Configuring ACL……………………………………………………………..2 4..2 PCS’ CONNECTED VIA HUB………………………………………………….67 2 .3 1..8 5....9 5.61 LSA Flooding in OSPF………………………………………………………….6 5.1 4..20 DIFFERENT N/Ws CONNECTED VIA ROUTER……………………………20 Internal Network Interface Card…………………………………………………21 PCMCIA Network Interface Card……………………………………………….46 Distance vector routing………………………………………………………….11 5.22 RJ 45 Connector…………………………………………………………………..3 2.3 5..24 Windowing……………………………………………………………………….50 Configuring RIP………………………………………………………………….2 5..62 OSPF……………………………………………………………………………..2 2..38 Router access modes…………………………………………………………….8 1..63 Flow chart of Inbound ACL…………………………………………………….1...5 1.22 Networking Model……………………………………………………………….4 3.19 PCS’ CONNECTED VIA BRIDGE……………………………………………...9 1.18 PCS’ CONNECTED VIA SWITCH…………………………………………….47 Flash updates…………………………………………………………………….………………….21 UTP………………………………………………………………………………21 Cross & Straight Cable………………………………………………………….50 Split horizon…………………………………………………………………….5 5.1 2.7 1.45 Default routing…………………………………………………………………..7 5.52 Autonomous system…………………………………………………………….1 3.27 Connection Oriented Communication……………………………………………28 TCP/IP MODEL…………………………………………………………………..2 5.2 1..4 5...10 5..26 3 Way hand shaking………………………………………….38 Static routing…………………………………………………………………….30 TCP Header………………………………………………………………………31 Routing Process……………………………………………………………….59 Router ID…………………………………………………………………………60 Autonomous system……………………………………………………………..10 2. 1.12 6..1 5...1 6.List of Figures 1.

List of Tables 1.1 Pin Configuration………………………………………………………………22 2 .

ABBREVIATIONS n/w LAN WAN CSMA/CD CSMA/CA ISDN OSI TCP/IP NIC MAC IETF EXEC VTY VLAN BGP EIGRP IGRP OSPF RIP MTU VLSM IOS CLI Network Local Area Network Wide Area Network Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Interface Card Media Access Control Internet Engineering Task Force EXECUTION (Virtual Telet Ype) VIRTUAL Local Area Network Border Gateway Protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Open Shortest Path First Routing Information Protocol Maximum Transmission Unit Variable Length Subnet Mask Internetwork Operating System Command-Line Interface 2 .

In which random number is generated.ISDN lines. There are two types of Hub: 2 .Chapter 1 NETWORKING 1. which is used to connect multiple workstations. To connect multiple networks we have to use internetworking devices like router. In multiple accesses each computer has right that they can access each other. in which two local area networks are connected through public n/w. They can share files and resources with each other. We can share the resources with the help of operating system like windows. Now this stop transmitting and they will use back off algorithm. one school or within one lab.2 LAN LAN stands for Local Area Network. 1.1 Network In one network more than one computer connected with each other through centralized device. media access method is used CSMA/CD in which each computer sense the carrier before sending the data over the n/w. Who has short number or small number. The scope of the LAN is within one building. Leased lines etc. layer 3. You can also connect with your remote area through existing Internetwork called Internet. Linux.1 Hub Hub is centralized device. bridge. it may be through telecommunication infrastructure or dedicated lines. In which we can use WAN devices and WAN technology. For e. Networks are the method to share hardware resources and software resources. switches etc. In LAN (Hub).3 WAN WAN stands for Wide Area Network.g. If two computers sense the carrier on same time then the collision occur. 1. Each computer in the network aware about the collision. 1.4.: . If carrier is free then you can transmit otherwise you have to wait or you have to listen. he has first priority to transmit the data over the network and other computers will wait for their turn. This number or algorithm is used by each computer.4 Devices 1. UNIX etc.

if not found 2 . PCS’ CONNECTED VIA HUB It has no special kind of memory. the media access method is used CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). 1. • • Active Hub In Active hub. We cannot perform LAN segmentation using hub. It simply receives the frame (data) and forwards it to all its nodes except the receiving node. 1. Switch is more intelligent than hub. Switch when receives frame. there is one collision domain and one broadcast domain.(i) Active Hub (ii) Passive Hub Fig.4. it receives the frame regenerate and then forward to all its nodes. It always performs broadcasting.2 Switch Switch is also used to connect multiple workstations.1. it reads the destination mac address and consult with its filter table. it simply receives the frame and forward to all its connected nodes. It has special kind of memory called mac address/filter/lookup table. In case of hub. If he has entry in its filter table then he forwards the frame to that particular mac address. Switch reads mac addresses. Switch stores mac addresses in its filter address table. Passive Hub In Passive hub. In case of hub.

which is used to provide LAN segmentation means it is used for break the collision domain. Each port has a own buffer memory. When switch receives the frame.4. In case of switch. We can perform LAN segmentation by using switches. It works on Data Link Layer of OSI model. 1. II. 1. 3 . Manageable switches (can be configured with console cable). It has fewer ports. the frame is received in input queue and forward from output queue. the media access method is used CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance). more speed and security.2 PCS’ CONNECTED VIA SWITCH There are two types of switches: I.then it performs broadcasting to all its connected nodes. Every port has its own buffer memory. It has same functionality as performed by switch. Non-manageable switches. We can use bridge between two different topologies. A port has two queues one is input queue and second is output queue. Fig. It also read mac address and stores it in its filter table. So in case of switch there is no chance or place for collisions.3 Bridge Bridge is a hardware device. In case of bridge there is one broadcast domain. Switches provide more efficiency.

FIG. slow performance.4 Router Router is hardware device. HP. Router performs routing and path determination. It does not perform broadcast information. it has fewer features. 2 .3PCS’ CONNECTED VIA BRIDGE 1. But in case of software routers. II.FIG. which is used to communicate two different networks.4. but you have to enable or configure it.4DIFFERENT N/Ws CONNECTED VIA ROUTER There are two types of routers: I. This feature is by default installed. Software Routers is configured with the help of routing and remote access. They are more efficient. Hardware Routers are developed by Cisco. 1. This feature is offered by Microsoft. 1. Hardware routers are dedicated routers.

1. This led start blinking and also tells us the status of LAN card. RJ45 is used in UTP cable.6 PCMCIA Network interface card 1.5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) 3 .They are not very much efficient. 1.4. LAN card provide us connectivity in the network.5Internal network interface card Fig. 1.5 LAN Card LAN card is media access device. When any activity occurs it may be receiving or transmitting any kind of data. FIG. There is another led which is also called heartbeat of LAN card. There is a RJ45 (Registered Jack) connector space on the LAN card.

1.7UTP Pin Configuration Hub/Switch PC/Router/Online Printer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rx+ RxTx+ NC NC Tx NC NC TABLE 1.FIG.1 Uplink port(Hub/Switch) Tx+ Tx Rx+ NC NC Rx NC NC Tx+ Tx Rx+ NC NC Rx NC NC Pin Configuration 2 .

1.Orange 7 Brown white .Orange 3 Green white .6 Administrator model for networking Server software: .Blue white 6 Green .Software which are used to giving services are server software.Brown white 8 Brown – Brown Cross Cable 1 Orange white .Green white 4 Blue .Orange white 4 Blue . 1.Green white 2 Orange .Blue white 6 Green .Orange white 2 Orange .Brown Fig.8 Cross & Straight Cable Straight Cable 1 Orange white .9 RJ 45 Connector 1.Green 3 Green white .Fig.Blue 5 Blue white . 2 .Brown white 8 Brown .Blue 5 Blue white .Green 7 Brown white .

Outlook Express. Netbeui Cute FTP TFTP Server Send Mail O C O L Stack Fig.Client software: . Yahoo messenger OExchange 2003. Internet IPX/SPX.which gets services.Explorer. RIIS. AppleTalk. 1. TCP/IP. NIC Media Client Software Server Software P Apache.10 Networking Model 4 .

MediaData LayerLayer Software Stack Layer NICPresentation Layer Protocol Link Layer Physical Network Application Layer Transport Session Layer 2 . OSI provides following advantages: (i) Designing of network will be standard base. (iv) Implementation and troubleshooting of network will be easy.1 OSI Model OSI model is the layer approach to design.Chapter 2 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model 2. (iii) Devices from multiple vendors can communicate with each other. develop and implement network. (ii) Development of new technology will be faster.

1 OSI MODEL 2. fiber-optic cabling.1. This layer is responsible for the transmission of the bit stream. This includes the voltage of the electrical current used to transport the signal. Some examples of transmission media are coaxial cabling.2 Layer 2: The Data Link Layer Layer 2 of the OSI reference model is called the data link layer. 2. of the OSI reference model is called the physical layer. Transmission media includes any means of actually transporting signals generated by the OSI's Layer 1 mechanisms. A frame is a structure indigenous to the data link layer that contains enough information to make sure that the data can be successfully sent across a LAN to its destination. These streams are then passed on to the data link layer. It accepts frames of data from Layer 2. Implicit in this definition is that the data link layer contains its own address architecture. the data link layer is responsible for packing instructions---data---into frames. On the transmit side. it has two sets of responsibilities: transmit and receive. It is solely concerned with the physical characteristics of electrical and/or optical signaling techniques.1. and even the physical shape of the connector used to terminate the media. quite literally. one bit at a time. Layer 1 is also responsible for the reception of incoming streams of data.3 Layer 3: The Network Layer The network layer enables internetworking.1 Layer 1: The Physical Layer The bottom layer. the data link layer. It is responsible for providing end-toend validity of the data being transmitted. one bit at a time. the media type and impedance characteristics.Fig. This addressing is only applicable to other networked devices that reside locally on the same data link layer domain. 2. and transmits their structure and content serially. or Layer 1.1. It has no mechanism for determining the significance of the bits it transmits or receives. The physical layer. As all the layers do. operates on only 1s and 0s. and twisted-pair wiring. The protocols at this layer are responsible for 4 . 2.

Therefore. Transport layer also performs other functions like (i) (ii) Error checking Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing (iii) (iv) Sequencing Positive Acknowledgement Response (i) Error checking Transport layer generates cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and forward the CRC value to destination along with data. Although some data link layer technologies support reliable delivery. 2. then data is accepted otherwise discard. This layer lacks any native transmission error detection/correction mechanisms and. It is limit for buffer to send data without getting Acknowledgement. (b) Windowing Windowing is the maximum amounts of the data that can be send to destination without receiving Acknowledgement.1. consequently. Layer 3 protocols (such as IP) assume that Layer 4 protocols (such as TCP) will provide this functionality rather than assume Layer 2 will take care of it. is forced to rely on the end-to-end reliable transmission service of either the data link layer or the transport layer. All the data is stored in the buffer memory and when communication ability is available the data is forward to another. many others do not. (ii) Flow Control Flow control is used to control the flow of data during communication. The other end will generate CRC according to data and match the CRC value with received value. For this purpose following methods are used: - (a) Buffer Buffer is the temporary storage area.4 Layer 4: Transport Layer: Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. If both are same. 5 .establishing the route to be used between the source and destination computers.

so that out of sequence data can be detected and rearranged in proper manner. If acknowledgement is not received within a specified time then the data is resend from buffer memory. Connection Oriented Communication 2 . (iv) Positive acknowledgement and Response When data is send to destination.Session Layer: This layer initiate.5 Layer 5:. 2. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time. 2. the destination will reply with acknowledgement to indicate the positive reception of data. (iii) Sequencing Transport layer add sequence number to data.2 Windowing (c) Multiplexing Multiplexing means combining small data segment.1. 1.Fig. maintain and terminate sessions between different applications. which has same destination IP and same destination service.

Fig. 2.3 3 Way hand shaking

Fig. 2.4 Connection Oriented Communication

2. Connection less Communication
SEND SENDER

Receiver

2.1.6 Layer 6: The Presentation Layer
Layer 6, the presentation layer, is responsible for managing the way that data is encoded. Not every computer system uses the same data encoding scheme, and the presentation layer is responsible for providing the translation between otherwise incompatible data encoding schemes, such as American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) and Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC). The presentation layer can be used to mediate differences in floating-point formats, as
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well as to provide encryption and decryption services.

2.1.7 Layer 7: The Application Layer
The top, or seventh, layer in the OSI reference model is the application layer. Despite its name, this layer does not include user applications. Instead, it provides the interface between those applications and the network's services. This layer can be thought of as the reason for initiating the communications session. For example, an email client might generate a request to retrieve new messages from the email server. This client application automatically generates a request to the appropriate Layer 7 protocol(s) and launches a communications session to get the needed files.

2.1.8 Data Encapsulation
Data

Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Data* Data** Data*** Transport Header | Data = Segment Network Header | Segment = Packet Header | Packet | Trailer = Frame 1 0 = Bits

Data => Segment => Packet => Frames => Bits

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CHAPTER 3 TCP/IP MODEL 3.1 TCP/IP MODEL

TCP/IP is the most popular protocol stack, which consist of large no of protocol. According to the OSI model TCP/IP consist of only four layers. TCP/IP model is modified form of DOD (Department of Defense) model.
Network Internet Transport Protocol Application Ph D NLARP Dns Ftp Tftp IGMP RIP OSPF TInternetRARP ICMPLan/Wan Snmp Ssl BGP Http Smtp All commonTelenet Ntp Technologies Rdp & many more A TCP UDP Access Host) (Host to25 53 20 69 23 80 123 443 3389 pop3 imap

P S

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Fig. 3.1 TCP/IP MODEL

3.1.1 LAYER 1:- Application Layer
This layer contains a large no. of protocols. Each protocol is designed to act as server & client. Some of protocol will need connection oriented. TCP and others may need connection less UDP for data transfer. Application layer use port no.’s to identity each application at Transport layer. This layer performs most of functions, which are specified by the Application, Presentation, and Session layer of OSI model.

3.1.2 LAYER 2:- Transport Layer
Two protocols are available on Transport layer 1) Transmission Control Protocol 2) User Datagram Protocol I) Transmission Control Protocol TCP performs connection-oriented communication. Its responsibilities are: i) Error Checking ii) Acknowledgement iii) Sequencing iv) Flow Control v) Windowing

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3.Fig. which is responsible for error checking and identifying applications using port numbers. Bytes 4 4 Source port 16 bits Length 16 bits Data Destination port 16 bits Checksum 16 bits UDP HEADER (8 bytes) 2 .2 TCP Header II) User Datagram Protocol UDP is connection less protocol.

To prevent this. After that it is the job of IP and the various Network Access protocols to get along and work together.3. IP provides one single network interface for the upper layer protocols. Upper or lower protocols have not any functions relating to routing.1. The main protocols are used in Internet layer:1) Internet Protocol (IP) 2) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 3) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 4) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) 5) Proxy ARP 4 .3 LAYER 3 Internet Layer The main function of Internet layer is routing and providing a single network interface to the upper layers protocols.

2 Routing Routers are used to forward packets of data between devices that aren't necessarily connected to the same local network. both of which operate at Layer 3. communicate what is known about available routes. and build tables that contain routing information. The list of these addresses is kept in tables that correlate Layer 3 addresses with the port numbers that they are directly or indirectly connected to. 2 . Routable protocols. Routing is the cumulative processes that discover paths through the network to specific destinations. The router learns about the addresses of machines or networks that are somehow connected via each of its interfaces. they can operate at all layers of the OSI reference model rather than just the first two. also known as routed protocols. These are routable protocols and routing protocols. compare redundant routes mathematically. Routing protocols are used between routers to determine available routes. and forward routed protocol packets along those routes. routers are intelligent. A router uses two types of networking protocols. 4. An example of a routed protocol is IP. This enables them to internetwork multiple LANs by using Layer 3 addressing.CHAPTER 4 IP ROUTING 4. More importantly. A router must have two or more physical interfaces for interconnecting LANs and/or WAN transmission facilities. IP is responsible for encapsulating application data for transport through a network to the appropriate destinations. The purpose of a routing protocol is to provide the router with all the information it needs about the network to route datagram’s.1 ROUTER Unlike most LAN components. are those that encapsulate user information and data into packets.

1 Class A Addresses The Class A IPv4 address was designed to support extremely large networks. The leftmost bit's decimal value of 128 is absent from this equation. 4. A Class A IP address uses only the first octet to indicate the network address. The remaining three are used to create unique host addresses within each network number. an architecture was developed that maximized the possible number of host addresses but severely limited the number of possible Class A networks that could be defined.0. which is the sum of 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1.0. or any other Layer 2 device. The last 24 bits (that is. three dotted-decimal numbers) of a Class A address represent possible host addresses. consisting of the network's address and a host address. 4. The router's real value lies in determining routes to destinations on nonadjacent networks. bridge. This mathematically limits the possible range of the Class A address to 127. The first bit of a Class A address is always a 0.The router's task is easy: It has only two interfaces. the router may well have been replaced by a hub. In this particular case.3 IP Addressing Class A Addresses Class B Addresses Class C Addresses Class D Addresses Class E Addresses IPv4 Address Formats IP addressing is accompanied by a two-tiered network address.0 to 126. The remaining three octets enumerate host addresses. Therefore. Any packets received by one of its interfaces was either delivered to the other interface or discarded as undeliverable. there can only ever be 127 possible Class A IP networks. switch.0. Notice that only the first octet bears a network address number. As the need for very large-scale networks was perceived to be minimal.0.0.3. The range of possible Class A network addresses is from 1. As 2 .

The mathematical logic underlying this class is fairly simple.254. there can only be 16. by far.32. The last 16 bits (two octets) identify potential host addresses.0 to 191.3 Class C Addresses The Class C address space is. This forms the lower mathematical boundary of the Class C address space. 4. Class B Addresses The Class B addresses were designed to support the needs of moderate. but only 254 are usable because 3 . This address space was intended to support a lot of small networks. The first 2 bits sum to a decimal value of 192 (128 + 64). The range of possible Class B network addresses is from 128. This address class can be thought of as the inverse of the Class A address space.0. Whereas the Class A space uses just one octet for network numbering. which is the sum of 128 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1. the Class C space uses three octets for networking addressing and just one octet for host numbering.0. which equals 223.0.3.0. The first 3 bits of the first octet of a Class C address are 110. the range of possible Class C network addresses is from 192. Each Class B address can support 65.such. and the remaining three for host numbering.254.to large-sized networks.1. The first 2 bits of the first octet of a Class B address are 10.0. A Class B IP address uses two of the four octets to indicate the network address.0.3. Each Class C address can support a theoretical maximum of 256 unique host addresses (0 through 255). The remaining 6 bits may be populated with either 1s or 0s. The last octet is used for host addressing. Lacking the capability to use the third digit limits the maximum value of this octet to 255 .2. 4.0.382 Class B networks defined. Therefore. This mathematically limits the possible range of the Class B address space to 191. This number is calculated by multiplying two to the 16th power and subtracting two (values reserved by IP). The other two octets enumerate host addresses.1. the most commonly used of the original IPv4 address classes. Note Technically. 127. Mathematically. However.0 to 223. The third bit equates to a decimal value of 32. it is reserved for loop-back testing and cannot be assigned to a network. they are set to zeroes when describing the range of network numbers.255. Forcing this bit to a value of 0 establishes the upper mathematical boundary of the address space.534 unique host addresses.0 is also a Class A network address.

Preventing the fourth bit from being used means that the Class D address is limited to a maximum value of 128 + 64 + 32 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1. one for each destination.255. Therefore. or 239. B. The Class D address space isn't used for internetworking to individual end systems or networks.255. numerous other proposals are being developed that would allow IP multicasting without the complexity of a Class D address space.0. Class D Addresses The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in an IP network. Note In the world of IP addressing. much like the other address spaces. or C). Today. Multicasting has long been deemed a desirable feature in an IP network because it can substantially reduce network traffic. Presetting the first 3 bits of the first octet to 1s means that the address space begins at 128 + 64 + 32. The Class D multicasting mechanisms have seen only limited usage. 4. a single station can simultaneously transmit a single stream of datagram’s to multiple recipients. IP addresses that have all their host address bits set equal to 255 are used to broadcast to all end systems within that network number. The first 4 bits of a Class D address must be 1110. IP addresses that have all their host address bits set equal to 0 identify the local network. A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets with that destination address to predefined groups of IP addresses. is eliminated. There is a reason for this. Therefore. is mathematically constrained.0 and 255 are not valid host numbers. Ordinarily. which equals 224. there isn't a need to allocate octets or bits of the address to separate network and host addresses. the entire address space can be used to identify groups of IP addresses (Classes A.0 to 239.4.0. 4 . this would mean that the octets for both host and network numbers are being used to signify a network number. This range may seem odd because the upper boundary is specified with all four octets. the Class D addresses space ranges from 224. Therefore. Similarly.097.150 different Class C network numbers. There can be 2.254.3. The Class D address space. Class D addresses are used for delivering multicast datagram’s within a private network to groups of IPaddressed end systems. Instead. 0 and 255 are reserved host address values. The need to create separate streams of datagram’s. Routers that support multicasting would duplicate the datagram and forward as needed to the predetermined end systems.

5 Class E Addresses A Class E address has been defined. no Class E addresses have been released for use in the Internet.5 Routing Process (i) The pc has a packet in which destination address is not same as the local n/w address. the range of valid addresses is from 240.0.4. The first 4 bits of a Class E address are always set to 1s. but is reserved by the IETF for its own research. Path determination Packet forwarding 4. The router will be used to perform routing between the networks. Therefore. therefore.0 to 255.3.255. A router will perform following functions for routing. and its use is limited to inside the IETF.4 IP Routing When we want to connect two or more networks using different n/w addresses then we have to use IP Routing technique. There are three different methods to which router can learn path. in which source IP is pc itself. Given that this class was defined for research purposes. destination IP is server. it is not necessary to examine it any further. (iii) The pc will encapsulate data.255.0. The router will perform packet forwarding only if route is available in the routing table. The router will reply to the ARP address and inform its Mac address to pc. i) Automatic detection of directly connected n/w.255. (ii) The pc will send an ARP request for default gateway. • • • (1) Path determination The process of obtaining path in routing table is called path determination. ii) Static & Default routing iii) Dynamic routing (2) Packet forwarding It is a process that is by default enable in router. source Mac is pc’s LAN interface and destination Mac is router’s LAN interface. 6 . 4.

5 S. the packet will encapsulated with new frame and data is send to the output queue of the interface. IP 10.16. When obtain packet from the frame then forward data according to the destination IP of packet.6 Router Access Modes 4 . 4. The router will obtain a route from routing table according to which next hop IP and interface is selected (iv) According to the next hop. MAC R1 The router will receive the frame. 4.oleObject1 Fig.6 D.0. store it into the buffer.0. IP 172. MAC PC1 D.0.1 Routing Process S.

vty and auxiliary.g.6. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work. 4. Enable secret has more priority than enable password. 4.2 Privileged mode In this mode. 4. According to the modes.1 User mode In this mode. configuration. We have to enter enable password or enable secret password to enter in this mode.3 Global configuration This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router.: .2 Router access modes 4. we can display all information. privileges and rights are assigned to the user. 4.When we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity and perform telnet to other devices. There are main types of line that are configured.6. For e.router hostname or access list of router the command enters in this mode is ‘configure terminal’. testing and connectivity with other devices. perform administration task. debugging. The command to enter in this mode is ‘enable’. In this mode we are not enable to manage & configure router. Fig.4 Line configuration mode This mode is used to configure lines like console.6. Global parameters applied to the entire router.6. (i) Console router(config)#line console 0 (ii) Auxiliary router(config)#line aux 0 (iii) Telnet or vty router(config)#line vty 0 4 2 . We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the router.

Ethernet. Serial. For e. BRI etc. Router(config)#interface <type> <number> Router(config)#interface serial 1 4 .4.g:.5 Interface configuration mode This mode is used to configure router interfaces.6.

4.6 Routing configuration mode This mode is used to configure routing protocol like RIP. Router(config)#router <protocol> [<option>] Router(config)#router rip Router(config)#router eigrp 10 4.4 Enable Password router>enable router#configure terminal router(config)#enable password <word> router(config)#exit There are six types of password available in a router 2 .7.7. OSPF etc.7.2 Vty Password router>enable router#configure terminal router(config)#line vty 0 4 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit 4. EIGRP.7.7 Configuring Password 4.3 Auxiliary Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line Aux 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit 4. 4.6.1 Console Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line console 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit to erase password do all steps with no command.

Startup configuration is used to save settings in a router. Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#enable secret <word> Router(config)#exit 4. this command is written in the running configuration. We can encrypt all passwords using level 7 algorithms. The command to encrypt all passwords is Router#configure terminal Router(config)#service password-encryption 4.7. To save configuration Router#copy running-configuration startup-configuration Or Router#write To abort configuration Router#copy startup-configuration running-configuration To display running-configuration Router#show running-configuration To display startup configuration Router#show startup-configuration Configuring HostName 2 .4. (2) Running Configuration is present in the Primary RAM wherever we run a command for configuration.5 Enable Secret Password Enable Password is the clear text password.6 Encryption all passwords All passwords other than enable secret password are clear text password. It is stored as clear text in configuration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password with MD5 (Media Digest 5) algorithm.8 Managing Configuration There are two types of configuration present in a router (1) Startup Configuration (2) Running Configuration (1) Startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM.7.

Configuring IP. We have to use different commands as our requirement to enable and configure the interface. By default. To display interface status Router#show interfaces (to show all interfaces) Router#show interface <type> <no> 4 . all interfaces of Cisco router are in disabled mode. Mask and Enabling the Interface Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#ip address <ip> <mask> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Interface Numbers Interface numbers start from 0 for each type of interface some routers will directly used interface number while other router will use slot no/port no addressing technique.Router#configure terminal Router#hostname <name> <name>#exit or end or /\z Configuring Interfaces Interfaces configuration is one of the most important part of the router configuration.

5. which is directly connected to n/w. (4) Bandwidth of interfaces is not consumed in routing updates.0 255. 2 . The administrator will analyze whole internetwork topology and then specify the route for each n/w that is not directly connected to the router.0. (2) Load balancing is not easily possible.1 Steps to perform static routing (1) Create a list of all n/w present in internetwork.CHAPTER 5 TYPES OF ROUTING 5.3 Disadvantages of static routing (1) More overheads on administrator. (2) Remove the n/w address from list. 5.0. Router(config)#ip route <destination n/w> <mask> <next hop ip> Next hop IP it is the IP address of neighbor router that is directly connected our router.1.168. we have to use IP route commands through which we can specify routes for different networks. (3) Specify each route for each routing n/w by using IP route command.1. (3) Less overhead for router. (3) In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually. (2) More control over selected path. Static Routing Example: Router#conf ter Router(config)#ip route 10.10.0.0 192.0.1 Static Routing In this routing.1.2 5.2 Advantages of static routing (1) Fast and efficient.

255.20.0. we will specify higher AD so that this route will be used if primary route is unavailable.16.5 Backup route or loading static route If more than one path is available from our router to destination then we can specify one route as primary and other route as backup route.0. By default static route has AD value of 1.0 25.0.2 Or Router(config)#ip route 172.20.0.To set backup path Router(config)#ip route <dest.5.255.4 Alternate command to specify static route Static route can also specify in following syntax: Router(config)#ip route 172.1.0 160.25.0.0.0.1 8 (below 20) Router(config)#exit Scenario 1 4 AD 0 1 20 90 100 110 120 .0.0 255.0 150.0 255.0 255. Administrator Distance is used to specify one route as primary and other route as backup. With backup path.10.16.0.0 172.10. n/w> <mask> <next hop> <AD> Or <exit interface> Example: Router#conf ter Router(config)#ip route 150. Protocols Directly Connected Static BGP EIGRP IGRP OSPF RIP Syntax: .1.1.255. Router will select lower AD route to forward the traffic.5 Router(config)#ip route 150.0 serial 0 5.0.255.

1 Static routing To display routing table Router#sh ip route To display static routes only Router#sh ip route static 2 .5.oleObject2 Fig.

0. these routes are specify with the help of following syntax: Router(config)#ip route 0.2 Default Routing Default routing means a route for any n/w.0.S 192. Scenario 2: Stub network A n/w which has only one exit interface is called stub network.0.0 0.5 To display connected n/ws only Router#sh ip route connected To check all the interface of a router Router#sh interface brief 5.16.10. 4 .168.0.0.0 <next hop> Or <exit interface> This type of routing is used in following scenario.0/28 [1/0] via 172.

million of n/ws are present. This route will be used when no other routing protocol is available. Internet connectivity On Internet.2 Default routing If there is one next hop then we can use default routing.oleObject3 Fig. Default route is also called gateway of last resort. 5. If there is one next hop then we can use default routing.3 Dynamic Routing 2 . So we have to specify default routing on our router. 5.

OSPF 5. (1) Distance Vector (2) Link State According to the type of area in which protocol is used there are again two types of protocol: (1) Interior Routing Protocol (2) Exterior Routing Protocol (a) Distance Vector Routing The Routing. Some examples of dynamic protocol are: RIP. Operation: (1) Each Router will send its directly connected information to the neighbor router. we will enable a routing protocol on router.In dynamic routing.1 Types of Dynamic Routing Protocols According to the working there are two types of Dynamic Routing Protocols. IGRP.3. EIGRP. This information is send periodically to the neighbors. This protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router. which is based on two parameters. that is distance and direction is called Distance Vector Routing. The routers will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also. The example of Distance Vector Routing is RIP & IGRP. 2 . The neighbors will analyze the information and write new routes to the routing table. If there are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected.

5. (i) Route update timer. in this case the new update will be discard. (ii) If update of a route is received which is already present in routing table then route will be refresh that is route times are reset to zero. There are three types of timers associated with a route. (iv) If update is received with higher metric then the route that is already present in routing table. if there are no updates about the router.3 Distance vector routing (2) The neighbor will receive routing updates and process the route according to following conditions: (i) If update of a new n/w is received then this information is stored in routing table. (3) A timer is associated with each route. which is already present in our routing table. 2 . Invalid route are not forwarded to neighbor routers but it is still used to forward the traffic. if there are no updates for the route. (iii) Route flush timer. It is the time after which the router will send periodic update to the neighbor. The router will discard old route and write the new route in the routing table. (iii) If update is received for a route with lower metric then the route. It is the time after which the route is declared invalid. The router will forward routing information on all interfaces and entire routing table is send to the neighbor.oleObject4 Fig. (ii) Route invalid timer. It is the time after which route is removed from the routing table.

A protocol may use a one or more than one at a time to calculate the distance. Delay Delay is the time period b/w a packet is sent and received by the destination. Different types of metric are: (1) Hop Count (2) Band Width (3) Load (4) Reliability (5) Delay (6) MTU Hop Count It is the no. of Hops (Routers) a packet has to travel for a destination n/w. Paths with lower load and high throughput are used to send data. Bandwidth Bandwidth is the speed of link. The path with higher bandwidth is preferred to send the data. Load Load is the amount of traffic present in the interface. Problems of Distance Vector There are two main problems of distance vector routing • • (i) Bandwidth Consumption Routing Loops Bandwidth Consumption 2 .Metric of Dynamic Routing Metric are the measuring unit to calculate the distance of destination n/w. Reliability Reliability is up time of interface over a period of time. MTU Maximum Transmission Unit It is the maximum size of packet that can be sent in a frame mostly MTU is set to 1500.

Due to this the packet may enter in the loop condition until their TTL is expired. It exchanges b/w different routers. Distance Vector routing is also called routing by Rumor. 4 .The problem of excessive bandwidth consumption is solved out with the help of autonomous system. (ii) Routing Loops It may occur b/w adjacent routers due to wrong routing information. We can also perform route summarization to reduce the traffic.

of hops a packet can travel. (i) Maximum Hop Count This method limits the maximum no. oleObject5 Fig. 2 . will also send the flash updates to the neighbor routers.Method to solve routing loops There are five different methods to solve or reduce the problem of routing loop. Due to this method the end to end size of a n/w is also limited. This method does not solve loop problem. But it reduces the loop size in the n/w.5. The router.4 Flash updates (iii) Split Horizon Split Horizon states routes that update receive from an interface cannot be send back to same interface. (ii) Flash Updates/Triggered Updates In this method a partial update is send to the all neighbors as soon as there is topology change. which receives flash updates.

oleObject6 Fig.255.255) 2 . (v) Hold Down If a route changes frequently then the route is declared in Hold Down state and no updates are received until the Hold Down timer expires.5 Split horizon (iv) Poison Reverse This method is the combination of split Horizon and Flash updates. It implements the rule that information received from the interface can not be sent back to the interface and in case of topology change flash updates will be send to the neighbor.5.255. Routing Information Protocol Features of RIP: * Distance Vector * Open standard * Broadcast Updates (255.

* Metric Hop Count *Timers Update 30 sec Invalid 180 sec Hold 180 sec Flush 240 sec * Loop Control Split Horizon Triggered Updates Maximum Hop Count Hold Down * Maximum Hop Count 15 * Administrative Distance 120 * Equal Path Cost Load Balancing * Maximum Load path 6 Default 4 * Does not support VLSM * Does not support Autonomous system Configuring RIP Router#conf ter Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <own net address> Router(config-router)#network <own net address> Router(config-router)#exit 2 .

1 200.5.0.16.0.100.16.0.0.172.0.0 175.1 172.100.0.0 via 172.5 175.16.0.12 Fig.0 Router(config-router)#network 200.2.100.0.6 4 .6 Configuring RIP Router(config-router)#network 10.1.16.0.100.0 Router(config-router)#network 172.2.6 oleObject7 oleObject8 oleObject9 10.

n/w mask AD Metric Next Hop Timer own Interface RIP advanced configuration (a) Passive Interfaces An interface.168. We can declare an interface as passive with following commands: Router#conf ter Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#Passive-interface <type> <no> Router(config-router)#exit (b) Configuring Timers Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#timers basic <update> <invalid> <hold down> <flush> Router(config-router)#exit Example: Router(conf-router)#timer basic 50 200 210 300 Update 50 sec Invalid 200 sec Hold 210 sec Flush 300 sec (c) To change Administrative Distance Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#distance <value> Router(config-router)#exit 95 or 100 2 .2 00:00:25 serial 1/0 RIP Dest.0/24 [120/5] via 172.0. which is not able to send routing updates but able to receive routing update only is called Passive Interface.30.75.Display RIP Routers Router#sh ip route rip R 192.

Rest all communication will remain same in RIP version 2.9 Support authentication Commands to enable RIP version 2 We have to change RIP version 1 to RIP version 2. of paths. If multiple paths are available with equal Hop Count for the destination then RIP will balance load equally on all paths. It can use simultaneously by following command: Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#maximum-path <1-6> (e) To display RIP parameters Router#sh ip protocol This command display following parameters: (i) RIP Timers (ii) RIP Version (iii) Route filtering (iv) Route redistribution (v) Interfaces on which update send (vi) And receive (vii) Advertise n/w (viii) Passive interface (ix) Neighbor RIP (i) Routing information sources (ii) Administrative Distance RIP version 2 RIP version 2 supports following new features: (1) Support VLSM (send mask in updates) (2) Multicast updates using address 224.0.(d) To configure Load Balance RIP is able to perform equal path cost Load Balancing. Router(config)#Router RIP 2 . We can change the no. Load Balancing is enabled by default 4 paths.0.

Hello packets are send periodically to maintain the neighbor table. which use link state routing.0. (2) More hardware resources required that is processor and memory (RAM) The routing protocols.Router(config-router)#version 2 Router(config-router)#exit To debug RIP routing Router#debug ip rip To disable debug routing Router#no debug ip rip (b) Link State Routing This type of routing is based on link state. Its working is explain as under (1) Each router will send Hello packets to all neighbors using all interfaces. (5) The router will use best path algorithm to store the path in routing table. Link state information from one neighbor is also forwarded to other neighbor. are: OSPF (ii) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol * Cisco proprietary * Hybrid protocol Link State Distance Vector * Multicast Updates using Address 224. (2) The router from which Hello reply receive are stored in the neighbor ship table. (3) The router will send link state information to the all neighbors. (i) Problems of Link State Routing The main problems of link state routing are: (1) High bandwidth consumption. (4) Each router will maintain its link state database created from link state advertisement received from different routers.10 2 Features: - .0.

IP Routing TCP/IP IPX Routing IPX/SPX Appletalk Routing Appletalk 4 . IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.* Support AS * Support VLSM * Automatic Route Summarization * Unequal path cost load balancing * Metric (32 bit composite) Bandwidth Delay Load Reliability MTU * Neighbor Recovery * Partial updates * Triggered updates * Backup Route * Multi Protocol Routing (iii) EIGRP Protocols & Modules (1) Protocol depended module This module is used to perform multi protocol routing that is the router will maintain 3 routing table for TCP/IP.

(v) Configuring EIGRP Router(config)#router eigrp <as no> Router(config-router)#network <net addr.> Router(config-router)#network <net addr. (3) Partial updates (4) No updates are sending if there is no topology change.(iv) Reliable Transport Protocol (Quiet Protocol) RTP is used to exchange routing updates with neighbor routers.10) (2) Neighbor recovery If neighbor stops responding to the Hello packets then RTP will send unicast Hello packet for that neighbor.> Router(config-router)#exit (vi) Advanced Configuration EIGRP Configuring following options are same as configuring IGRP (1) Bandwidth on Interfaces (2) Neighbor (3) Load balancing Max path Variance (vii) Configuring EIGRP Metric If we want our router to use additional metric then we can use following command: Router(config)#Router eigrp <as no> Router(config-router)#metric weights 0 <k1> <k2> <k3> <k4> <k5> Type of service (default) 1 Router(config-router)#exit Metric Bandwidth K K1 Default value 1 2 0 1 0 0 . RTP has following features: (1) Multicast updates (224. It will also maintain neighbor relationship with the help of Hello packet.0.0.

2 Autonomous system Autonomous system is the group of contiguous routers and n/w.if there are 1000 n/ws then size of update will be 200*1000 = 200000 bytes The routing information is send periodically so it may consume a large amount of bandwidth in our n/w.Load Delay Reliability MTU K2 K3 K4 K5 0 1 0 0 All routers exchanging update with each other must have same AS no. and same K value. Update for each n/w may take 150 – 200 bytes information. Router#sh ip eigrp topology It shows topology database. 4 . If all routers are in single domain and they share their information directly with each other then the size of routing updates will depend on the no. which will share their routing information directly with each other. of n/w present in the Internetwork.3. For example: . Router#sh ip eigrp neighbor It shows neighbor table Debug EIGRP Router#debug ip eigrp 5.

0.6 * Support VLSM * Support Area similar to AS 2 .0.7 Autonomous system Protocols Interior Routing RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF Exterior Routing BGP EXEIGRP 5.0.3.5 224. 5.3 Open Shortest Path First Features: * Link State * Open standard * Multicast updates 224.0.oleObject10 Fig.

This id is used as the identity of the router.* Manual Route Summarization * Hierarchical model * Metric Bandwidth *Equal path cost load balancing * Support authentication *Unlimited hop count OSPF Terminology (1) Hello packets (2) LSA (Link State Advertisement) (3) Neighbor (4) Neighbor table (5) Topology table (LSA database) Router ID Router ID is the highest IP address of router interfaces. 5. If logical interface is not present then highest IP of physical interface is selected as router id. ROUTER ID oleObject11 Fig. The first preference for selecting router ID is given to the Logical interfaces.8 Router ID 4 . It maintains link state databases.

which can share their routing information directly with each other. OSPF Area Characteristics: . We can also say adjacency relationship is formed between the routers.Area Area is the group of routers & n/ws. 5.3.9 Autonomous system Adjacency A router is called adjacency when neighbor relationship is established.Minimizes routing table entries. . .Detailed LSA flooding stops at the area boundary.4 OSPF Hierarchical Model 4 .Requires a hierarchical network design. 5. .Localizes impact of a topology change within an area. Fig.

All other areas must connect to the backbone area for communication. which has all interfaces members of area 0. is called area router. Backbone Router A router. 5. Backbone Area Area 0 is called backbone area. which has all interfaces member of single area. 2 . is called backbone router.oleObject12 Fig.10 OSPF Hierarchical Model Area Router (Autonomous System Border Router – ASBR) A router.

Designated Router A router with highest RID (router id) will be designated router for a particular interface. 5. of LSA generated by the router and they can choke bandwidth of the network. 5.11 LSA Flooding in OSPF This problem is solved with the help of electing a router as designated router and backup designated router. which connects an area with area 0. oleObject13 Fig. This router is responsible for receiving LSA from non-DR router and forward LSA to the all DR router. is called area border router. 4 .Area Border Router A router.3.5 LSA Flooding in OSPF If there are multiple OSPF routers on multi access n/w then there will be excessive no.

255 subnet mask wild mask 4 .255. Commands to configure OSPF Router#conf ter Router(config)#router ospf <process no> Router(config-router)#network <net address> <wild mask> area <area id> Router(config-router)#network <net address> <wild mask> area <area id> Router(config-router)#exit Wild Mask – Complement of subnet mask Example 255.255.0 0.Subnet mask Wild mask 255.255 .0.255.255.255. it will receive all information but do not forward this information to other non-DR router.255 255.Backup Designated Router This router will work as backup for the designated router.255.0 0.255 .255.0.0.63.255.192. In BDR mode.

255.0.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#network 50.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#network 40.255.255.0 0.255.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 10.0.0 0.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 30.255.0.0 0. 5.255 area 0 R2 Router(config-router)#network 20.oleObject14 Fig.0 0.0.0 0.255.255 area 1 Command: Router(config)#interface loopback <no> 2 .255.0.0.0 0.0.255.0.255.255.0.255.0.255.12 OSPF R1 Router(config-router)#network 20.255 area 1 R3 Router(config-router)#network 40.0.0.255.0 0.0.255.0.

Router(config-if)#ip address 200.255.100.255.1 255.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Command to display OSPF parameter Router#show ip protocol 4 .100.

6. permit (2) Permit. Prioritize traffic and interesting traffic for ISDN. ACLs are used in features like QOS (Quality of Service). We can also use ACL to classify the traffic. deny Types of ACL based on direction of implementation: (1) Inbound ACL (2) Outbound ACL 2 . Most of time our network may have servers and clients for which traffic control is required.CHAPTER 6 Access Control List 6.1 ACL ACL are the basic security feature that is required in any network to control the flow of traffic.2 Classification Access Control List: Types of ACL based on Protocol: (1) IP Access Control List (2) IPX Access Control List (3) AppleTalk Access Control List Types of ACL based on Feature: (1) Standard ACL (2) Extended ACL Types of ACL based on Access mode: (1) Numbered ACL (2) Named ACL Types of ACL based on Order of rules: (1) Deny.

3 Flow chart of Inbound ACL Yes packed is Noany matching Theit permit?applied AIs packet Is there any Packet is receivedin ACL from top. The syntax to create IP standard ACL are: Router#conf ter Router(config)#access-list <no> <permit|deny> <source> Router(config)#exit 2 .down order? Is there Access listis rule on interface in inbound direction? dropped passed to is passed to Routing RE Engine Fig. we are only able to specify source address for the filtering of packets.4 IP Standard ACL (Numbered) In Standard ACL.1 Flow chart of Inbound ACL 6. 6.6.

0.100.100.0.100.5 0.168.0 N/w 200.10.15 All any 4 .5 192.0.0.255 Subnet 200.32 0.10.168.100.0 0.168.<source> Single pc host 192.10.0.0.5 192.

16.5 IP Standard ACL (Named) In Numbered ACL editing feature is not available that is we are not able to delete single rule from the ACL.17 Router(config)#access-list 30 deny 172.0.16. Router#config ter Router(config)#ip access-list standard <name> Router(config-std-nacl)#<deny|permit> <source> 2 .> <in|out> Router(config-if)#exit Rule for applying ACL Only one ACL can be applied on each interface.2 Configuring ACL Router#conf ter Router(config)#access-list 30 deny 172. in each direction for each protocol.172.16. 6.0.Example: . In Named ACL editing feature is available.0.18 Router(config)#access-list 30 permit any Router(config)#exit Applying ACL on interface Router#conf ter Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#ip access-group <ACL no.16. 6. Fig. rest of all other pc should access Internet.16 – 18 should not access Internet.0.16 Router(config)#access-list 30 deny 172.

16 Router(config-std-nacl)#deny 172.6 IP Extended ACL (Numbered) Extended ACL are advanced ACL.168.5 Router(config)#access-list 50 permit 192.Router(config-std-nacl)#exit Router#conf ter Router(config)#ip access-list standard abc Router(config-std-nacl)#deny 172. ACL.30 Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#access-class 50 in Router(config)#exit 6.0.30 pc.168.16.16.10.suppose we want to allow telnet to our router from 192.18 Router(config-std-nacl)#permit any To modify the ACL Router#conf ter Router(config)#ip access-list standard abc Router(config-std-nacl)#no deny 172.0.168.168.10.10.0.17 Router(config-std-nacl)#exit To control Telnet access using ACL If we want to control telnet with the help of ACL then we can create a standard ACL and apply this ACL on vty port.5 & 192.16.0.17 Router(config-std-nacl)#deny 172. Router#conf ter Router(config)#access-list 50 permit 192.10.16. which can control traffic flow on the basis of five different parameters that are: (i) Source address (ii) Destination address (iii) Source port (iv) Destination port (v) Protocol (layer 3/layer 4) Router(config-std-nacl)#exit 4 . Example: . The ACL that we will create for vty will be permit – deny order.

To display ACL Router#show access-lists or Router#show access-list <no> To display ACL applied on interface Router#show ip interface Router#show ip interface <type> <no> Router#show ip interface Ethernet 0 2 .

Switches maintain a Mac Addressee table in which mac addresses and port no’s used to perform switching decision. (4) Adaptive cut-through it changes its mode according the condition. (3) Fragment-free this switch receives 64 bytes of the frame. Working of bridge and switch is similar to each other. perform error checking and then start forwarding data. If it sees there are errors in many frames then it changes to Store & Forward mode from Cut through or Fragment-free. Switches forward the traffic on the basis of MAC address. Classification of switches Switches are classified according to the following criteria: Types of switches based on working (1) Store & Forward This switch receives entire frame then perform error checking and start forwarding data to the destination.Chapter 7 LAN Switching 7. Types of switches based on management (1) Manageable switches (2) Non-Manageable switches (3) Semi-Manageable switches Types of switches based on OSI layer (1) Layer 2 switches (only switching) (2) Layer 3 switches (switching & routing) Types of switches based on command mode (only in Cisco) (1) IOS based (2) CLI based 2 . (2) Cut through this switch starts forwarding frame as soon as first six bytes of the frame are received.1 LAN Switching Ethernet switches are used in LAN to create Ethernet n/ws.

No.Switching or wire speed or throughput Configuring IP and Gateway on switch We can configure IP address on switch for web access or telnet IP address is required for the administration of the switch.2 VLAN (Virtual LAN) VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation of Broadcast Domain in the network. Commands to create Vlan Switch#config ter Switch(config)#vlan <no> [name <word>] Switch(config)#exit optional 2 . Vlan provides following advantages: (1) Logical Segmentation of network (2) Enhance network security Creating port based Vlan In port based Vlan. The devices. of ports .Type of media . first we have to create a Vlan on manageable switch then we have to add ports to the Vlan. So that different Vlan devices will use different n/w addresses. If we have to access switch from remote n/w then we will configure default gateway in addition to IP address.Type of switches based on hierarchical model (1) Core layer switches (2) Distribution layer switches (3) Access layer switches Qualities of switch . IP address is assigned to the logical interface of switch with following command:Switch(config)#interface vlan 1 Switch(config)#IP address <ip> <mask> Switch(config)#no sh Switch(config)#exit 7. are able to communicate with each other.Speed of ports . which are member of same Vlan. The devices of different Vlan may communicate with each other with routing.

Suppose we want to add interface fast Ethernet 0/10 to 0/18 in vlan5 Switch#config ter Switch(config)#interface range fastethernet 0/10 – 18 Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 5 Switchconfig-if#exit To Disable web access in switch Switch#config ter Switch(config)#no ip http server To display mac address table Switch#sh mac-address-table To Display Vlan and port membership Switch#sh vlan VTP server VTP server is a switch in which we can create. all ports are member of single vlan that is Vlan1. Switch#conf ter Switch(config)#interface <type> <no> Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan <no> Switch(config-if)#exit Commands to configure multiple ports in a vlan Switch#conf ter Switch(config)#interface range <type> <slot/port no (space)–(space) port no> Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan <no> Switch(config-if)#exit Example: .Or Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan <no> [name <word>] Switch(vlan)#exit Commands to configure ports for a Vlan By default. 4 . We can change vlan membership according to our requirement. The server will send periodic updates for VTP clients. delete or modify Vlans.

The client will create same Vlans as defined in vtp update. Commands Switch#conf ter Switch(config)#vtp domain <name> Switch(config)#vtp password <word> Switch(config)#vtp mode <server|client|transparent> Switch(config)#exit By default in cisco switches the VTP mode is set as VTP server with no domain and no password.VTP client On VTP client. To display VTP status Switch#sh vtp status 2 . The client will receive and forward vtp updates. we are not able to create. modify or delete Vlans.

it helps students differentiate themselves in the marketplace. I feel that CCNA Security Course help to meet the growing demand for network security skills. as I feel. 2 . I am crisply stating the main take away points from my work. It provides the blended curriculum which provides a hands-on and carrier oriented introduction to come security concepts. Develop students for network security carrier opportunities. The course is highly beneficial. It enhances specialized security skills.CONCLUSION CCNA training has made me learn 21st century skills such as complex problem solving and critical thinking. To conclude one can say that CCNA training was really beneficial for me and making report for such a great training is not being written just for the sake of writing.

cisco. www. 2 3 Course book on CCNA by Todd Lammle.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.com Daily Diary 2 .

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