DESIGNER MILK FAT PRODUCTIONEffective Animal Nutrition for Human Nutrition

Swati Saxena, Mayank Tandon, J.P. Sehgal & S.N. Rai Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India-132001 Email: mayanktandon1@gmail.com

Introduction
Milk fat - Important functions
Major energy component Account for many physical properties Manufacturing characteristics Organoleptic qualities Economic value of dairy products

Recent Interest – functional aspect
Designing milk fat Improve healthfulness and functional properties

Comparison of Fatty Acid Profiles
Fatty Acids PUFA (including ω3) MUFA SFA Ideal Milk Fat 10 % 82 % 8% Typical Milk Fat 5% 25 % 70 % (Grummer,

Health Aspects
  

 FA content of lauric, myristic & palmitic --Hypercholesterolemic effect  content of CLA, butyric acids & sphingolipids – Anti-carcinogenic props.  ω -3 fatty acids  EPA & DHA  Prevention of secondary coronary disease Mono-unsaturated fatty acids –plasma lipoprotein indicators of coronary disease risk

CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

Mixture of positional & geometric isomers of linoleic acid (C 18:2), contain conjugated unsaturated double bonds Produced in rumen -- biohydrogenation process as an intermediate product Most biologically active isomer– cis-9, trans11- octadecadienoic acid
(Kewalramani, 2002)

Conversion of Esterified Plant Lipids to SFA In Rumen
Lipases, Galactosidases, Phospholipases Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids

Esterified Plant Lipids

eg : cis-9, cis- 12, C 18:2

Isomeras e

Cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (CLA)
Reductase (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvence) Reductase

Trans-11 C18:1

C 18:0

(Kewalramani, 2002)

CLA - Key Features
   

Anticarcinogenic Antidiabetic Antiobesity Antiatherosclerotic
(Bauman et al., 2000)

CLA leads to lean meat production

ω-3 Fatty Acids
  

Mother subs. For Prostaglandin production Beneficial effect on CHD 3 separate phenomena
Atherosclerosis  Thrombosis  Vascular spasm

(Sen,1991)

Therapeutic impact  neurological abnormalities (45 mg /kg/d)

Main Sources

ω -3 & ω -6 FA contents of feed and oil seeds % ω-3 fatty acids %ω (Sen,1991) -6 fatty acids

Sunflower seed Safflower seed Maize Rapeseed Linseed oil

0.3 0.5 1.6 10.0 55.0

52 75 50 20.0 17.0

Biochemical Conversion Of LNA To EPA & DHA LNA C18:3(n-3)
∆ 6 desaturase (Allman, 1995)

DHA C22:6 (n-3)
2C chain shortening

C18:4(n-3)
elongase

C20:4(n-3)
∆ 5 desaturase

C24:6 (n-3)
∆ 6 desaturase elongase DPA C22:5 (n-3)

EPA elongase C20:5(n-3)

C24:5 (n-3)

Milk Fat Synthesis
Consists of (g/ Kg milk fat)  Triacylglycerols  1,2 Diacylglycerols  Phospholipids  Cholesterol 960-980g 20-25g 10g 5g

Small quantities of FFA & monoacylglycerols
(Ashes et al., 1997)

3 Stages In Milk Fat Biosynthesis

Accumulation of FA in the mammary cells  de-novo synthesis  absorption from the blood stream Triacylglycerols construction and fat globule assembly Secretion
(Murphy, 2002)

Contd…

Contd…

 

FA having 4-14 C- atoms synthesized de-novo FA having 18 C- atoms (dietary origin) – absorbed from the blood stream

Principle sources of C for FA synthesis – acetate & β – hydroxy butyrate
(Murphy, 2002)

Nutritional Manipulation of Milk Fat Concentration

Change in milk fat concentration achieved by

Altering level of de-novo synthesis in the

mammary gland  Supply of long chain FA in diet

Most effects on milk fat concentration are mediated through rumen fermentation

Dietary Factors Affect Supply of Acetic Acid from the Rumen for De-Novo Synthesis
Fiber quantity & quality Forage : Concentrate ratio Buffer inclusion Concentrate Composition Concentrate feeding frequency
(Chilliard et al., 2001)

Effects of roughage level and supplemental lipid on milk fatty acid composition and yield
High Low Low roughage- roughage- roughage (Grummer,1991) 50% 30% + tallow(3 %) Yield, g/d C6:0 to C14:0 178 76 79 C16:0 262 96 159 C18: 0 61 22 43 C18:1 126 108 257 C18:2 14 18 24 Profile, g/100g C6:0 to C14:0 24 20 12 C16:0 34 25 24 C18: 0 8.2 5.6 6.4 C18:1 17 29 46 C18:2 2 5 4

Properties of fat supplements
     

Lipid composition: Relative conc. of TAG/FFA Fatty Acids Degree of inertness Digestibility Transfer into milk Mammary gland lipogenesis

Per cent Fatty Acid Composition of Some Fats & Oils
Fatt Canol Saf Sun Corn Soybe y a an flowe flowe Acid r r 4:0 14:0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 16:0 3.9 6.6 6.0 9.9 10.3 16:1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 16:2 18:0 1.8 2.5 4.6 2.0 3.9 18:1 58.0 13.9 15.7 28.7 22.1 18:2 21.0 75.5 71.4 56.9 54.1 18:3 11.1 0.1 0.6 1.1 8.3 20:1 1.7 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 20:2 0.1 22:0 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.4 22:1 0.5 24:0 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 24:1 0.3 0.2 Cotto Beef n Tallo seed w 0.8 22.9 0.6 2.5 17.8 54.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 3.3 24.7 4.0 0.7 17.0 42.2 2.0 0.5 0.4

(Robart Ackman, 1996)

The Yields (Mmol/D) of the Major Groups of Fatty Acids & Derived Parameters when Cows Consumed Diets Containing Soya Oil or Soya Oil Fatty Acids in Various Forms

Fatty acid group 4:0 MCFA C 18:0 18:1cis 18:1trans 18:2+  in output of C18 acids relative to control C18 Propn of acids*of Propn 18:2+18:3*

Control. no added 265 oil 828 795 132 274 41 65

Oil 357 668 594 268 428 121 97 402 0.27 0.03

Free Fatty acid 276 591 595 221 386 129 97 321 0.20 0.03

Protected Oil Fatty acid 337 303 719 668 618 646 270 231 448 410 50 66 272 80 528 275 0.35 0.18 0.18 0.01

Yields.mmol/d * transferred from dietary Supplement to milk

(William et al., 1990)

Fatty acid composition (g/100g of fatty acids) of butter, made from cows fed on diets supplemented with or without sunflower oil (5.2% dm)
Fatty acid C4:0 C6:0 C8:0 C10:0 C12:0 C14:0 C14:1 C15:0 C16:0 C16:1 C17:0 C18:0 cis-9C18:1 trans C18:1 cis-9, cis-12, C18:2 C18:3 CLA (all isomers) Others Control diet 3.99 2.33 1.38 3.15 3.61 11.44 1.22 1.08 30.93 1.49 0.48 9.32 18.11 5.04 2.59 0.36 0.53 2.95 Sunflower oil diet 5.36 1.40 0.71 1.45 1.69 7.37 0.94 0.59 17.84 1.72 0.34 11.27 24.17 15.04 2.85 0.21 4.07 2.98 ( Bauman et al.,

Fatty Acid Composition of Milk Fat of Cows Fed on Diets Supplemented with or without Corn Distillers Grains
Fatty acid 4:0 10:0 12:0 14:0 14:1 15:0 15:1 16:0 16:1 17:0 17:1 18:0 18:1 Saturated Unsaturated Milk Composition Control (0 %) CDG (31 %) 3.5 4.0 3.5 2.8 4.0 3.0 11.7 9.2 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.3 0.3 28.8 23.2 2.8 2.8 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 11.5 14.7 19.8 25.6 68.7 27.5 61.9 34.1 (Schingoethe et al., 1999)

Effect of feeding protected canola supplement (PCS) on the fatty acid composition of cow milk
Fatty acid C12:0 C14:0 C16:0( 13%) C16:1 C18:0 C18:1( 69%) C18:2 C18:3 Content Control 4.3 11.8 26.7 4.5 7.1 23.8 2.2 1.6 PCS 3.6 9.5 19.9 3.3 9.2 29.2 4.9 2.6 (% Total) 39.9 107.8 247.4 40.1 66.4 217.3 20.5 14.8 Yield Control (g/d) 39.0 102.1 216.4 36.3 99.7 315.8 52.4 27.8
(Ashes et al., 1999)

PCS

Transfer efficiency

Effects of Supplementation of Different Levels of Concentrate as Well as Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Composition of Cows Milk
Fatty acid 4:0 14:1 16:0 18:0 T 18:1 C18:1 18:2 18:2 Contro l 150 g/kg 44 57 15 342 81 4 206 1.9 14 15 313 80 3 212 3.3 15 1.0 0.6 Fish oil 300 g/kg 50 13 305 76 20 219 5.3 18 1.5 1.2 450 g/kg 49 11 300 70 50 199 6.5 19 5.3 1.7 Concentrate 5kg/d 55 13 317 73 19 207 4.7 16 1.6 0.1 10kg/d 47 13 314 78 24 200 3.8 18 2.1 0.1

20:5n-3 0.7 22:6n-3 0.5

(Keady et al.2000)

FATTY ACID PROFILE AND AMOUNT OF TOTAL FATTY ACID IN DIET
Diets and Treatment Fatty acids reported (%) Total fatty acids C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 g/100gD

C14:0 Experiment NC HOC 0.65 0.65

C16:0

C16:1

21.1 20.2

0.86 0.81

2.67 3.00

17.6 19.9

43.8 41.2

12.9 12.7

3.43 4.38

(Dhiman et al. , 1999)

Supplementation of Corn Oil on Feed Intake, Milk Yield & Fatty Acid Composition of Milk Dhiman etal.,
Item Feed intake,kg/d Milk yield, kg/d 3.5% FCM Yield, kg/d Milk fat% Milk protein % Milk fat yield, kg/d Fatty acid composition,mg/g C10:0 C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C16:1 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 CLA C18:3 SFA UFA Others NC 27.7 40.4 40.7 3.60 3.07 1.44 30.7 41.0 130 325 16.8 93 206 35.6 3.8 7.6 620 269 111 HOC 28.4 43.5 40.7 3.10 2. 90 1.34 27.1 35.2 120 301 14.3 119 228 36.4 3.9 6.6 602 290 109 1999 SEM 1.1 2.4 2.3 0.26 0.08 0.08 1.3 1.6 3.0 9.0 0.6 4.0 6.0 1.3 0.3 0.3 11.0 7.0 4.0 P 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

CONCLUSIONS

The fatty acid concentration and composition of milk fat can be altered by nutritional manipulation CLA, ω- 3 and MUFA have therapeutic impact. Low roughage with supplemented tallow enhance the C 18:1 concentration. Soya oil and canola seeds in protected form enhance CLA conc. in

Cont.

CDG and sunflower oil enhance unsaturated fatty acid content of milk fat.  conc. Of fish oil in diet ,  ω-3 FA in milk fat. For public health and well-being the consumption of dairy products need to be increased.