# Tutorial for ANSYS®

Release 6.1 Finite Element Analysis Software

For Unix Based Workstations Truss, Frame, and Plate Examples

By Andrew R. Mondi Using examples and revisions from: Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial, January 2000, by Keith M. Mueller Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign May 2003 Corrections: May 18, 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tutorial is based upon Cosmos-Geostar Tutorial written by Dr. Keith M. Mueller in January 2000. The example problems solved in that tutorial are also solved here. I tried to incorporate the strengths of Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial into this ANSYS tutorial, even though the structure and content of each are quite different. I thank Professor David E. Goldberg for his guidance while writing this booklet. He is a skilled manager and leader. I thank Mr. Raja R. Katta for his assistance. His concise and timely explanations of difficult material in ANSYS were essential for swiftly completing this project. Also, I thank Professor Thomas F. Conry for his advice and suggestions for refining and improving this tutorial.

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INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? Helpful Web Links Purpose of this Tutorial Using this Tutorial Effectively Starting up in a Unix System Default View in ANSYS Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. FRAME EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Define Sections Meshing Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Define Frame Constraints Define Frame Loads Apply Solution 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-23 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-9 iv . TRUSS EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing Solution Phase Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing Reaction Forces Member Forces and Axial Stresses Displacements 3.

FRAME EXAMPLE (continued) Post-processing Introduction Reaction Forces Member Forces and Stresses Member Displacements and Rotations 4. PLATE EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing (and refining a mesh) Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing 5. APPENDIX Working with ANSYS in Unix Saving an ANSYS file Opening a previously saved ANSYS file Printing result tables Printing graphical output Managing your EWS Account How to Access EWS files Deleting EWS files in Unix Creating Axisymmetric Models General Notes on Understanding ANSYS 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 v .3.

You may need to wait for a few seconds until the graphicalinterface component of the program launches and you see the graphical interface (Figure 1-4 on the next page): Figure 1-3 Session file window 1-2 . a session file screen (Figure 1-3) will pop-up.Starting up in a Unix System After logging onto the workstation. which creates a new window (Figure 1-2) on the desktop titled “Tansys” with square icons. type ansys. Click the top icon. You should not perform any operations in this window. ANSYS NOW. you will see an x-term window (Figure 1-1) on the desktop: Figure 1-1 x-term window At the prompt in this window. Figure 1-2 Tansys window First. Note: the question-mark icon accesses Help.

and the z-axis pointing out of the screen. You need to know the position. Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS The fastest. easiest and most logical way to use ANSYS is through the Main Menu located on the far left-hand side of the screen (Figure 1-5 at left). you simply need to tell the program this information and it will do the rest for you! Figure 1-5 Main Menu 1-3 . and the constraints on the structure.Figure 1-4 ANSYS with graphical interface Default View in ANSYS The default view in ANSYS is well suited for two-dimensional designs with the x-axis pointing horizontally to the right. and material of the structural members. It may look intimidating at first glance however think about the information that you need to solve for all of the components in a structure. the position. Zoom and repaint (or refresh screen) commands are very similar to those used in most CAD or word processing software. magnitude and direction of all the loads on the structure. y-axis pointing vertically upwards. length. In order to get ANSYS to work properly.

Modeling (define Keypoints and lines and using plot controls) 2. Element Type (2D truss spars) 3. and Post-processing. Preprocessing A. Real Constants (define cross-sectional areas of truss spars) 4. and the three horizontal members will be assumed to be steel and have an area of 10 in2. it will allow for demonstration of modeling a truss containing different materials and member sizes.2. Introduction – several steps will be completed in the Pre Processing stage: 1. Remember: Think about the modeling processing as having 3 major steps: Preprocessing. Meshing (one division per element) 2-1 . Always be thinking about where you are in the modeling process and how the steps you are completing are meaningful and can be used in other problems you will solve in your classes. Solution. TRUSS EXAMPLE Given the following loaded truss. While this creates a somewhat unrealistic truss. This tutorial is built so as to mimic this outline structure. I. ANSYS is constructed in an outline format. find the internal forces in all members and displacements of all joints. there are small sub-steps. the four diagonal members will be assumed to be aluminum and have an area of 30 in2. In each of these major steps. Figure 2-1 Given truss For illustrative purposes.

The first step in designing any structure in ANSYS is to define the Keypoints of the structure. Left click the small plus sign next to Keypoints. b. Another sub-menu of all modeling commands is listed here. You will be creating points and lines. Keypoints . A sub-menu will drop-down listing all of the commands you can use in the Preprocessing stage. Click the small icon next to Active CS. On the Main Menu. Left click the small plus sign next to Create. Modeling 1. The pop-up window will prompt you for a keypoint number and a set of coordinates for that keypoint. These points simulate the joints of the structural members and also serve as endpoints of the members. Left click the small plus sign next to Modeling. c. a. This menu lists all of the objects you can create in ANSYS.Figure 2-2 Main Menu B. d. left click the plus sign next to Preprocessor. Note: This sequence of steps will be summarized using the following notation: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS The Create Keypoints window will appear: Figure 2-3 Create Keypoints window 2-2 .

You will find that there are Delete commands that correspond to all Create commands. Begin by numbering your structure’s members on your paper copy for your own records. This is done for you below: 2-4 . lines represent structural members. if you press “OK”.zero.0.0)! Note: If you need to remove keypoints that you have already created. a. Lines (Defining Members) . Figure 2-5 All keypoints defined 2. ANSYS will define a new point at (0. Now all of the points for our truss have been defined.In ANSYS. You define lines by connecting the keypoints created previously. go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Delete.

200). The Create Straight Line window will appear (at right). c. Move the cursor right to point 2 (200. and List of Items are selected. ANSYS will provide a preview sketch of member 1. 0). Left click once on point 1 (0.Figure 2-6 Given truss with numbered members b. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines> Lines> Straight Line in the Main Menu. we will begin with member 1. A yellow box will highlight this point. Move your mouse cursor to a Keypoint that will serve as the start of the first member you wish to define. This defines the member 1. Single. d. move to the end point and left click once. Left click once near or on point 2. Be sure that the options Pick. 2-5 . Your mouse cursor will appear to be a small vertical arrow pointing upwards. Figure 2-7 Create Straight Line window Figure 2-8 Line (member) 1 defined Note: The process is the same for defining all other members: left click once on the start point.

Figure 2-12 Element Type window 2. Know that you can turn on and off visual components of your model using the options under the Plot and Plot Controls (PlotCtrls) command on the top menu bar. C... Note: Throughout this tutorial you may need to Replot your model several times to get a good visual representation of your model. Now you should be able to see your truss completely numbered. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. The Element Type window will pop-up. Select “Add.” The Element Type Library window will pop-up.Figure 2-11 Numbering window e. Turn on the Keypoint and Line numbers options and select OK. 2-7 . Element Type 1.

Real Constants .. c.Figure 2-13 Element Type Library window 3. this will close the Library window. Figure 2-14 Real Constants window 2. This will force your truss members to be displaced in 2 dimensions. This means that this element will be a truss link. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. 1. D. d. e. Select Add. The Real Constants window will pop-up. so that the Element Type for Real Constants window will popup. 2-8 .. You will return to the Element Types window (Figure 2-12). Click close. Select OK. Select “2D spar” in the right hand box. In this window set the following: a.next you must define the cross-sectional areas for the members of your truss. Select “Link” in the left hand box. b. Leave the default 1 for element reference type number.

Click Apply. Figure 2-16 Set Constants window 4.LINK1" is already highlighted. Set Real Constant Set No. c. Select OK. to 2 e. Initial Strain is 0. The Set Constants window will pop-up. Enter the cross-sectional area for steel (10) [in units of in2]. Enter the following in the Set Constants window: a. This will store the information for aluminum. Initial strain to 0 2-9 . Note that you are in Real Constant Set Number 1.Figure 2-15 Element Type for Real Constants window 3. ANSYS is now prepared to receive the set of real constants for steel (type 2). Note that "Type 1 . b. d. f. Enter the cross-sectional area for Al (30) [in units of in2].

Go to Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models. The box will close and you will return to the Real Constants window. This will launch a new pop-up window Material Properties for Material Number 1. 2-10 . 1. Remember that the diagonal members are aluminum and the horizontal members are steel. Note that “Material 1” has already been created . E. left click on Material 1 so it is highlighted (this may already be done). Click Close in the Real Constants window. In this window.now you must define the materials that make up your truss members. Now there are two real constant sets for cross-sectional area defined (one for each material). Figure 2-18 Material Model Behavior window 2. This window is divided into two regions: Material Models Defined on the left and Material Models Available on the right.ANSYS is waiting for you to define it. On the right hand side double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic. 3. Material Properties . Click OK. h.Figure 2-17 Set Constants window with those for steel g. The Material Behavior window will appear.

Poisson's ratio is not used. Note: we will follow the same steps to define Material 2 (steel) as we did for Material 1 (aluminum).000 ksi). a. Select OK.Figure 2-19 Material Properties for Material Number 1 4.000. Enter 10000000 in the EX box b. For all two-dimensional models (spars). let us make Material 1 behave like aluminum with an Elastic Modulus of 10. PRXY is for Poisson's Ratio. You will return to the Define Material Behavior window. Select the Material drop-down menu in the upper left-hand corner of the window and select New Model. click OK (the default number is sufficient). 2-11 . but it is a good idea to be in the habit of entering it. The box EX is for the Elastic Modulus of the material. For this example.3 in the PRXY box c. In the Material Model Behavior window (Figure 2-18) click on Material 2 in the left hand box so that it is highlighted.000 psi (10. Enter 0. so it doesn’t have to be entered. A pop-up window asking for a Material ID number. Figure 2-20 Material Menu location in Define Material Behavior window Figure 2-21 Material ID window 5. d.

Select OK in the Line Attributes window. 4. 5 and 7 (all the diagonals). Select OK and exit out of this window by clicking on the close box or selecting Exit in the Material Menu. Meshing . 2-12 .3. each with a single left click.6. In the workspace. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Lines. page 5-1. it is difficult to pull it apart so you should save your model NOW (see Appendix. Once this is complete. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 7. Figure 2-22 Pick Line Attributes 2. Define the elastic modulus (EX) to be that of steel for this example (30000000 psi) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to be 0. 8. The properties window for Material Properties for Material Number 2 will pop-up (Figure 2-19). Note: You may want to turn line numbering under PlotCtrls>Numbering to see the line numbers if this is not already done. F. In the right hand box and double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic (this may already be done). Be sure that Pick and Single are selected.the Mesh function is the heart of ANSYS! Meshing is like breaking your structure into small pieces that ANSYS can recognize and then “gluing” these pieces of your model together. Select lines 1. 1. 3. 3. note that the mouse will be a small black upward pointing arrow. if you do not already know how to do this). The Pick Line Attributes window will pop-up.

and 6). Real Constant Number = 1 c. Element type = 1 d. Select with a left mouse click all of the steel members (2.Figure 2-23 Define Line Attributes window for material 1 (aluminum) 5. 4. There is no need to define the Element Section. 7. Real constant number and Element type for the lines that you selected. Now you are ready to define the material properties for the steel members. e. Material Number = 1 b. define these lines accordingly: a. In this window you can set the Material Number. Select Apply so you will return to the Pick Line Window. Select OK on the Line Attributes window. Since you selected all of the aluminum members. Figure 2-24 Define Line Attribute window for material 2 (steel) 2-13 . The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 6.

Element Type = 1 d. Select OK. 9. Set the number of divisions per line (NDIV) to 1. This will close both this window and the Line Attributes window (if you haven't already done so). Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>ManualSize>Lines> All lines. Define these properties for the steel members: a. Real Constant = 2 c. The Element Size window will pop-up. Select OK. Note the lines of your truss will appear shorter than before (see below): Figure 2-26 Truss after number of divisions per element are set to 1 2-14 . this will close the window. 11.8. The other boxes should remain blank. Material Number = 2 b. Figure 2-25 Element Size window 10.

go to Solution> Define Loads >Apply> Structural> Displacement>On Keypoints. B. Apply Constraints 1. Figure 2-29 Analysis Type window 2. Attrib. The Apply U on KP’s window will pop-up. The Analysis Type window will pop-up. Solution Phase – here you will be applying loads and constraints to your truss. A. Analysis Type 1. Figure 2-30 Apply U on KP’s window 2-16 . Be sure that Pick and Single are turned on. Select Static and OK.II. You may want to turn on your element numbering through PlotCtrls>Numbering and setting Elem. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. Next. Numbering to Element Numbers.

Apply Loads 1. Leave KEXPND option as default. In the Apply U on KP’s window.2. this will close the Define Constraints window and the Apply U on KP’s window. The Apply F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. e. 3. Select OK. The Apply U on KP’s window (Figure 2-30) should still be available. 7. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. Figure 2-31 Define Constraints window 4. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Displacement value = 0 d. C. 6. Now select node 5 (far right and bottom of truss). The Define Constraints window will pop-up. Select the following: a. Apply as a constant value c. UY b. e. Select node 1 (coincident with the origin) with a left click near or on the point. Select Apply. this will close the Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31). Set the following: a. Note there is now a small triangle under node 1. Select Apply. The Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31) will pop-up. Apply as a constant value c. UX and UY b. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Force/Moment>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. 2-17 . 5. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. select Apply. Displacement = 0 d. Leave KEXPND option as default. Note there are two small triangles (one horizontal and another vertical) under node 5.

FX b. 5. Apply as constant c. Magnitude = -300 [units of lbf]. This will close both the Define F/M and Apply F/M windows.Figure 2-32 Apply F/M on KP’s window 2. Apply as a constant c. 3. This will close the Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) but will leave the Apply F/M window open. The Define F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. d. Select OK. 6. Magnitude = -400 [units of lbf]. it will be highlighted by a small yellow box as before. Select node 2. Figure 2-33 Define F/M on KP’s window 4. Select Apply. FY b. The Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) will pop-up. 2-18 . Now select node 2 again and Apply in the Apply F/M window (Figure 2-32). Select Apply in the Apply F/M window. Select the following: a. Select the following: a. d.

Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS in the Main Menu. After doing so. your truss should look like the one below. The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. Repeat this process (steps 5 and 6) for node 3 (load = -1000) [units of lbf]. You may close them both. Then ANSYS will solve the truss. Apply Solution 1. 2-19 . Now your truss is fully constrained and loaded.7. Figure 2-34 Fully constrained and loaded truss D. Select OK. It may take a few seconds before both of the following windows appear. Figure 2-35 Solve Current Load Step window 2. You are now ready to have ANSYS actually solve the truss. Figure 2-36 Solution windows.

Reaction Forces 1.This completes the Solution Phase. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. 2-20 . Figure 2-37 Define Element Table window 2. The Define Additional Element Table Items window will pop-up. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Define Table. Select “Add. Member Forces and Axial Stresses 1. The Define Element Table window will pop-up.”. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. III. B. Post-processing . member axial stresses. In this section we will order ANSYS to output internal member forces. You are now ready for the final step. Go to General Postprocessor>List Results>Reaction Solution. A. and node displacements. You can see the node numbering on your truss by going to Plot Controls>Numbering>Nodes (this may not be necessarily the same as the Keypoint numbers).this is the last step of the three major analysis steps in ANSYS.. Post-processing. 2-37 Reaction Solution Table 2.. Note that the reaction solution results are listed by node number.

Set “By sequence num” in the left hand box (may already be done). Select OK. In the “User Label for item” box. c. b. e. Place a “1” after the comma in the Selection box in the lower right. Close element Data Table. e. 4. this will launch the Additional Elements window again. Set the following: a. type “Axial Stress”. d. Select “Add.”.. d. Select SMISC in the right hand box. You will return to the Element Table Data Window. Figure 2-39 Define Additional Element Table window 5. 6. Set the following a. This will close the window. In the left hand box scroll to the bottom and select “By sequence num”. In the User label item set the name to “member forces”. c. 2-21 . b. In the right hand box select LS..Figure 2-38 Define Additional Element Table window 3. Place a 1 next to SMISC in the selection box after the comma. Select OK.

They should be at the top of the listing.the two quantities you defined. 2-22 . You can save it to your EWS account or print the data (if you do not know how to do this. To output this data go to the File at the top of the window. 9. Select OK. The List Element Data window will pop-up. Select Member Forces and Axial stresses by left clicking on each . The element numbers are in the first column followed by the Member Forces and Axial Stresses. Figure 2-40 List Element Data 8. Note how the values are listed. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Plot Elem Table. The Contour Plot of Element Table window will pop-up. This will close the window. Your element table will appear.7. You can also get a visual representation of your truss using some of the graphical results options. see Appendix. Go to General Postproc>Elem Table> List Elem Table. 11. page 5-2). Figure 2-41 Element Table 10.

General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed shape. Figure 2-43 Contour Plot of Truss 14.do not average”.Figure 2-42 Contour Plot of Element Table window 12. The Plot Nodal Solution window will pop-up. Note that along the bottom you can see that the element forces correspond to the certain colors of the plot. 2-42) you can choose what you would like to output. This will close the window. For this example we will plot member forces. C. Figure 2-44 Plot Nodal Solution window 2-23 . Click OK. 13. Leave the lower box as “No . Displacements 1. In the “Item to be plotted” box (Fig. You should now be able to see a deformed truss with the member forces plotted.

2-24 . This will close the window. Figure 2-46 Nodal Solution window 5. Click OK. Click OK. Set DOF solution in the left box and “All dofs” in the right box 6. This will close the window and create a table of displacement results. You should now move on to the FRAME example. Figure 2-47 Displacement Table This completes the Post-processing. Choose your plot preference. To see the values of the deformations go to General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution. for this example plot “deformed and undeformed. Figure 2-45 Deformed and undeformed truss 4.” 3.2. The Nodal Solution window will pop up.

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procedures that are the same or very similar to those in the truss example will not be outlined in much detail. Modeling – none of the principles used in this example are different from the truss. the major difference between trusses and frames is that members are beams and thus can have a reaction moment. Consequently. Sections (new) 6. Preprocessing A. Introduction – think about the steps that you will complete in this section of the tutorial and how they are similar or different from the truss tutorial. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS.beam) 3. Element Type (different . I. Real Constants (similar . The coordinates for the Keypoints are: 3-1 . You will find that many of the steps in this tutorial are similar to those in the truss.3. Material Properties (similar) 5.cross sectional area) 4. The following frame will be constructed: Figure 3-1 Given Frame Once again. FRAME EXAMPLE As you should already know. Modeling (similar) 2. and Post-processing. Solution. a complete finite element analysis in ANSYS has three components: Preprocessing. The greatest differences between the frame and truss examples occur in defining and assigning member properties and applying loads (in this case a distributed load). Meshing (similar) B. 1. The steps to be completed in this phase are listed below. This tutorial assumes that you have already worked through the truss tutorial. 1. Try to complete this without help of the tutorial.

The Define Element type window will appear. The Real Constants for a Beam window will appear. Select OK. 3. 2.. Select OK. X coord. D. 2. 1. Define the Element Type – this frame is composed of beams. Another window will appear prompting for which beam to select. The Real Constants window will pop-up.. 3-2 . Connect the Keypoints with lines from Preprecessor>Modeling>Create> Lines>Lines>Straight lines. the Library of Element Types window will pop-up. Select Beam in the left-hand box and 2D Elastic in the right. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete on the Main Menu. Define Real Constants 1. Close this window as well. You will only have one choice since you have only defined one type of beam. C. Y coord. Select Add. Figure 3-2 Library of Element Types Window 3. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. 4. Click Add. This will close the window and return you to the Element Types window.Table 3-1 Keypoint Locations KP No. 1 0 0 2 0 144 3 180 0 4 180 144 5 360 0 6 360 144 2.

Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. lbf and lbm have the same numerical value. Real Constant set number 1 will correspond to the W8x42 beam used for members 1 and 5. Just like entering in Keypoint coordinates. Select Apply. Initial strain = 0 g. Added mass/unit length = 42 lbm/ft./in. Define this beam: a. Real Constant Set No. Moment of Inertia = 8000 d. 5. ANSYS is now ready to accept the constants for the second and third types of beams. Often tables will report these values in other unit sets such as “Added mass/unit length” in lbm/ft. (In British units. Once you are complete select OK and close out of the Real Constants boxes. Pay close attention to your units! Also. Height = 8 e. Note: Remember that you are working this problem in lbf and INCHES. in the British system.5 lbm. = 1 b.) h. In this window you define all of the constants for members 1 and 5. Shear deflection constant = 0 f.Figure 3-3 Define Real Constants for a Beam 4. 3-3 . Cross-sectional area = 20 c. = 3. units of force are in lbf and units of mass are in lbm.

5 E. Enter E (EX=30000000) and Poisson's Ratio (PRXY=0. 1. The Define Material Properties window will appear.5 4 W12x54 3 30 12000 12 0 0 4. Define Material Properties 1. Figure 3-4 Beam Tool 3-4 . Define Sections – this section tells ANSYS what sort of beam you are using. Double click in right hand box Structural>Linear> Elastic>Isotropic.Table 3-2 Real Constant Values Corresponding Beam W8x42 W10x48 RC Set No. In this example we will use traditional I beams.3) and Exit. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models in the Main Menu. The Beam Tool window will appear. Go to Preprocessor>Sections>Beam>Common Sectns. 2. Define the material just as you defined steel or aluminum in the truss example. F. 1 2 Cross-sectional area 20 25 Moment of intertia 8000 10000 Height 8 10 Shear deflctn. constant 0 0 Initial strain 0 0 Added mass/unit length 3.

Meshing 1. Set the number of divisions (ndiv) to 25. For the truss. Offset to centroid e. This will save the information for the W 8x42 beam. For the W 8x42 beam (Real Constant set 1) enter the following: a. and other structural properties so we need several elements per part to get accurate results. This is also why it is so important to save often while conducting your analysis and especially before Meshing! 3-5 . Thus we have selected 25 divisions per element as a good manageable value. Leave the other boxes blank and select OK. Note: all of these dimension values are expressed in units of inches. Table 3-3 Section Definitions ID 1 2 3 Name W8x42 W10x48 W12x54 Sub Type I I I Offset Centroid Centroid Centroid W1. T2. Just remember that your results may be less accurate with fewer finite elements. T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 g. 3. Sub Type = I (from drop-down menu) d. rotations. For clarity. Name = W8x42 c. Note: The ndiv function divides the element into small pieces. “finite elements”. W3 8 10 12 T1. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Lines>All lines in the Main Menu. W2. Also note that you could choose a different number of divisions per element. ID = 1 b. However. The Element Size box will appear. For this frame example (and for all structures that have members with internal forces that vary with position. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Once you are complete select OK. we set the number of divisions per element to 1. Your frame will now appear to be of dashed lines.2. T3 1 1 1 G. Select Apply. It was not necessary for any further divisions because in a truss there are no internal moments or rotations that need to be calculated. W1 = W2 = W3 = 8 f. do not create too many elements as your analysis will become computationally more expensive possibly causing the program to crash or freeze. such as beams) we need to be able to calculate internal moments. let us have the dimensions of each beam correspond with the same Real Constant Set.

Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. Select Apply in the pick lines box. Select all of the lines and OK. This will close the Line Attributes window. Go to Preprocessing>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked lines. 5.W10x48 3 . Set the following: a. Select lines 1 and 5 with a single left click. 1 1 1 Real Constant No. Real Constant number = 1 c. If the mesh was successful the frame will made of blue-green solid lines. 3-6 .2.W8x42 2 . 1 1 1 Element Section 1 . It is always a good idea to save your project before meshing – do this now. The Line Attributes box will appear. Figure 3-5 Line Attributes window 4. Repeat this process for the other members in the frame assigning the following constants: Table 3-4 Line Attribute Assignments Member No. Element type number = 1 d. Select Apply. 1 2 3 Element Type No. Element section = W8x42 e. 1 and 5 3 2 and 4 Material No. 7.W12x54 6. a select lines box will appear. 3. The members will be highlighted. Material number = 1 b.

Select All Degrees of Freedom (All DOF) since all of the free ends are fixed and constrained in the x. you will need to apply a distributed load to the frame. This will be simulated by applying a load to each node.II. 4. Solution A. 1. Select the first option. Just as with the truss tutorial. this is a static analysis. a selection box will appear. The Apply Constraints box will appear. Static.distributed) 4. Select OK. Apply as a constant value of 0. 3-7 . Define Frame Loads (different . Define Frame Constraints (different . Define Frame Loads – unlike in the truss that contained all point loads. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. 1. The Apply Pressure on Beams selection window will appear. 5. Analysis Type – just like in the truss tutorial. Figure 3-6 Apply Constraints window 3. D. Define Frame Constraints – we will fix the three bottom ends of the frame. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Beams. Single left click on all three bottom nodes. Select OK in the selection box. 1. The Analysis Type window will appear. and OK. C. y and rotational directions. 2. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu.static) 2. Introduction – the most significant change from the truss tutorial is the presence of the distributed load.three fixed ends) 3. 1. You should see two small green triangles and little red crosses indicating these are constrained in all three directions at each end. 2. Analysis Type (similar . Apply Solution (similar) B. each will be highlighted by small yellow boxes.

Undoubtedly. select OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes window. change the Pick option (at the top) to Unpick and the Box option to Single. In the workspace. thus you must deselect these locations. highlight all of the nodes on the top of the frame where the distributed load will be applied by enclosing this area in a box. 3. Once you are certain that only the nodes where the load should be applied are highlighted. 5. In the Apply Pressure on Beams selection window (Figure 3-7). Figure 3-8 ANSYS workspace window after the top of the frame is selected for application of a distributed load 4. In this case change the select style option to BOX (not Single). you will select some of the vertical supports where you do not want to apply the distributed load. 3-8 . You make the box by holding down the left mouse button and dragging. The define pressure on beams window will appear. Then individually left click on the each small yellow box on the vertical supports where no load should be applied.Figure 3-7 Apply Pressure on Beams selection window 2.

etc. Select OK. you can zoom in on your model display by PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate.1 (page 3-5) recall that by setting the number of divisions per node (ndiv = 25) we broke the beams into small pieces or “finite elements”. Keypoints. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. Post-processing A. III. 1. Just as with the truss. and 102 (from left to right respectively). 52. Also. To see you nodal numbering go to PlotCntrls>Numbering.Figure 3-9 Apply Pressure on Beams window 6. In the numbering window turn node numbers to ON. The other boxes may remain blank.. Introduction – as discussed in the notes of section I. it is good to see the numbers assigned to each of your nodes so you can make a meaningful interpretation of this data. Set the pressure value to 100. Before beginning your Post-processing.G. Remember this load was given in 100 lb/in. 3. It would be a good idea to “Save As…” before Post-processing. ANSYS will return data tabulated for these small pieces (finite elements) that ANSYS calls nodes. but you would need to convert this value if this were given in lb/ft. the nodes at the fixed points (bottom of vertical members) are 1. Select OK. ANSYS assigns a number to each node and reports Postprocessing information according to this nodal number. if you have trouble seeing your nodal numbers. 3-9 . For this example. 2. close all of the pop-up boxes. You numbering might be different and is dependent upon the precise order you created lines. A tool box will appear. or other set of units! E. For most of the Post-processing functions we will use in this section. Apply the Solution 1. Select Solve in the pop-up window. THESE NODES ARE DIFFERENT FROM KEYPOINTS.

9 lbf in the y direction and a moment of –76121 lbf-in. Your solution may be somewhat different from the one given here. See the printing section (near the end of this booklet) on how to do this. The List Nodal Solution window will pop-up. in the x direction and 8807. Similarly. See section III. If you desire.9 lbf in the y directions and a moment of 76121 lb-in. D.B (in the Post-processing section) in the truss tutorial while keeping in mind that the output will be listed by NODE and not Keypoint as explained previously in the Reaction Forces section.4 lbf in the x direction.000 lbf (since 100lbf /in. Go to General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution.000 lbf were applied) and the moments sum to 0 lbf-in. 3. This is a good fast way to check that your model is correct. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. 8807. the y forces sum to 36. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. Member Displacements and Rotations 1.) = 36.2. You can see that the forces at node 1 (which in this example are coincident with Keypoint number 1) are 2025. * (180in. Also note that the sum of all the reaction forces are listed at the bottom under total values. C. Take note of the nodal numbers in significant places such as those at the ends of each beam. Reaction Forces 1. Figure 3-10 Reaction Solution window 2. 4. B. Note that the x forces sum to 0 lbs. the forces at node 102 (which corresponds to Keypoint number 5) are –2025. 3-10 . Member Forces and Stresses – reporting this data is no different from the truss tutorial. Go to General Post-processing>List Results>Nodal Solution>DOF Soln.+180in. Note that the nodal numbering will increase or decrease linearly from one end of a beam to another. (since none were applied). you should print these results now.4 lbf.

the plate tutorial. 3-11 . This concludes the frame tutorial. The solution will appear in tabular form. In this window select All DOFs (degrees of freedom) and OK. the displacement in the x and y direction and the rotation of each node is listed. In this window. With your nodal numbering turned on. At the bottom of the list maximum values for each parameter are reported. Figure 3-12 Nodal Solution Table 3. you should be able to find the corresponding node to the Keypoint or other member location of interest.Figure 3-11 List Nodal Solution window 2. Proceed to Chapter 4.

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Although it has a thickness. PLATE EXAMPLE For this example we will model the plate below. Preprocessing A. we will take advantage of its SYMMETRY. Introduction – below is an overview of the steps we will complete in this example and how those steps compare to the previous examples: 4-1 . 20” steel square plate with 4” diameter hole thickness = . Below is the geometry that we will define in ANSYS: Figure 4-2 Model of plate that takes advantage of symmetry I. ANSYS allows us to model it as a two dimensional representation.1” uniform tensile loading of 8 psi Figure 4-1 Steel plate with hole in center When we model this plate. it is always good to take advantage of symmetry because it allows for your analysis to be smaller and subsequently more specific.4. As a rule of thumb. We can see symmetry by dividing the plate into 4 parts about the center of the hole and then apply constraints to edges of this divided part.

1. Modeling (different – defining areas and using Boolean operations) 2. Element Type (different – plate with thickness) 3. Real Constants (similar - define element thickness) 4. Material Properties (no changes here) 5. Meshing (different – mesh areas and refine mesh) B. Modeling 1. Begin by going to: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Rectangle>By 2 Corners, the Create Rectangle by 2 corners window will appear.

Figure 4-3 Create Rectangle by 2 Corners window 2. The boxes WX and WY specify the coordinates of one corner of the rectangle. Enter 0 in both boxes and width and length of 10 (we will be working this problem in inches and pounds). 3. Now we must create the hole in the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Create>Areas>Circle>Solid Circle. The Create Solid Circular Area window will pop up.

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Figure 4-4 Create Solid Circular Area window 4. The WP X and WP Y boxes specify the center point of the circle. Our circle will be centered at (0,0) and has a radius of 2. Your model should be as below:

Figure 4-5 Model after defining both rectangular and circular areas. 5. Just like when using a CAD program, you must perform a Boolean operation to remove the circle from the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Areas. The Subtract Area selection window will appear.

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Figure 4-6 Subtract Area selection window 6. Single left click on the rectangle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area that is occupied ONLY BY THE RECTANGLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the rectangle and the circle. The rectangle should now appear pink or purple. 7. Select OK in the Subtract Area window (Figure 4-6). You have now defined the area that we will be subtracting from. 8. Single left click on the circle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area occupied ONLY BY THE CIRCLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the circle and the rectangle. The circle should now be highlighted. 9. Select OK in the Subtract Area selection window. You have now defined all of your geometry. C. Element Type 1. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete. The Define Element Type window will appear just as in the previous tutorials (Figure 2-17). Select Add... The Element Type Library window will appear. 2. In the left hand box select Structural Solid. In the right hand box select Quad 4 node (42). This will define the elements to be small quadrilaterals each with 4 nodes from which the location of each square will be calculated. 3. Select OK. Note that the Element Types window will still be open. Be sure that the element type is highlighted and select Options. The Element Type Options window will appear:

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Set the thickness to .be sure that the correct (and only) element type is highlighted (Type 1 Plane 42) and select OK. Real Constants 1. The Real Constants window will appear. Keep the type number as the default (1). 4-5 . A new window will appear .1. The other options may remain as default. Select OK and Close the Element Type window. In the Element Behavior box select “Plane Stress with Thk”. select Add. Figure 4-8 Define Real Constants Set window 2. The Define Real Constants Set window will appear. Close out of the Real Constants windows. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete.Figure 4-7 Element Type Options 4. D. Select OK.

Left click and hold down on the control bar and slide it to the right to level 8 (the level is denoted above the bar). In the pop up window set the modulus of elasticity (EX) to 290000000 (remember we are working in pounds and inches so this number is in psi!) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to 0. A Mesh Selection box will appear. Turn on the Smart Size option at the top of the MeshTool. Left click once on the plate geometry so that it is highlighted. 2. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. Figure 4-9 MeshTool window 2. 4.note nothing in this section has changed from previous tutorials – try doing this on your own! 1. F. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool. On the Fine to Coarse bar directly below the Smart Size box controls the size of your finite elements. The MeshTool box will appear. 3. Meshing – be sure to save right now! 1. Then select Mesh (towards the bottom of the window).E. Material Properties . This will make fairly large finite elements. In the Define Material Properties window select Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. The MeshTool is a convenient and quick way to mesh an object and refine an object that is already meshed.3. 4-6 .

5. Figure 4-10 Refining the mesh near the hole 8. 6. On the MeshTool select Refine (near the bottom of the MeshTool). Select OK in the Mesh Selection window. There is no need to Refine the mesh elsewhere since other stresses in the plate are not as important. Consequently. Now your element has been meshed and should appear to be divided into quadrilaterals. 4-7 . we know that the most important stresses in this plate are near the hole. The Refine Mesh at Element window will pop up. 7. Single left click on all of the finite elements adjacent to the hole (see below). we should Refine our mesh in this area. A Refine Selection box will appear just like the Mesh Selection box. Then select OK in the Refine Selection box. Note that the MeshTool is already set to refine at elements (directly above the refine button). However.

are very small and will give a better approximation of the plate’s behavior there. II. move on to the Solution Phase. Analysis Type (no changes – static) 2. then ANSYS may crash or give incomplete results. Apply Pressure (similar – pressure on lines) B. 4-8 . from the computer. Once you are satisfied with your mesh. You can select the defaults (minimal refinement) in this window. You can even REFINE your mesh after you run the solution and look at post-processing output. Note: now the elements near the hole. Apply Constraints (similar – X and Y direction on lines) 3. 10. The Apply Constraints window will appear. You might be thinking. 1. Introduction – no radically new concepts are employed in this section that were not used in previous examples. C. Solution Phase A. it will require a large amount of memory etc. Apply Constraints 1. Analysis Type – go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. thus the approximation in that region will not be as accurate. “Why don’t I use the most accurate mesh everywhere in the element?” This is generally not a good idea because when ANSYS tries to solve the plate. Go to: Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Lines. The elements elsewhere in the plate are large. Select OK. It is usually good to have your mesh change gradually so that you do not have disjointed elements. However this is not cause for concern since the stresses there are unimportant and uninteresting. Note that you can refine your mesh several times until you have finite elements in your region of interest that are small enough to your satisfaction. The Define Constraints window will appear. Select the bottom edge only and OK in the pick box. The New Analysis window will appear. where the most important and interesting stresses are located. Select Static and OK. If ANSYS requires more memory than the computer can give.Figure 4-11 Refine Mesh at Element 9.

D. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Lines. 3. Displacement value = 0.Figure 4-12 Apply Constraints window 2. 4-9 . The Define Pressure on Lines box will appear. d. Apply Loads 1. Apply as constant c. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the left edge with a zero-displacement constraint in the X direction. Set the following: a. Select the right hand vertical line and OK. UY b. Click on OK. Another pick box will appear.

Post-processing – The major difference between post-processing with the plate and with the other examples is that you will probably find the graphical outputs most helpful. Set a constant value pressure of -8 and select OK (since negative pressure points AWAY from its application point). rotation. The graphical output will likely be the easiest and most meaningful for your analysis. Apply Solution . Results will be generated in the workspace. 4-10 . If you desire. you can refer to the Truss Example tutorial Post-processing section to review this process.Figure 4-13 Apply Pressure on Lines 2. This set of commands will output the stress.now all the loads are applied and you are ready to solve. You are now ready for post-processing. III. displacement. tabular output will list far too many nodes to be helpful. All graphical outputs that you will need can be accessed from: General Postproc> Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu. As you might guess. E. Select OK in the series of boxes that appear just as in the other tutorials. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. energy or any other relevant outputs.