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Geography -- Juvenile literature. Education -- Confederate States of America. Textbooks -- Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America -- Juvenile literature. Southern States -- Juvenile literature.
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THE WORLD. .
. DESIGNED TO AID THE STUDENT IN OBTAINING ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INFORMATION UPON ALL GEOGRAPHICAL SUBJECTS. AND SO ARRANGED AS TO AVOID TAXING THE MEMORY WITH UNNECESSARY STATISTICAL DETAILS.STEWART'S COURSE OF GEOGRAPHY: COMPRISING A COMPLETE SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE NATURAL AND POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF THE WORLD.
but. Randolph. and the series of books of which it forms a part. BY THE REV. W. to aid the Teacher in educating his Pupil. for valuable aid in commencing the series of which this volume is the forerunner. . PALMETTO SERIES. inasmuch as all valuable attainments must be the result of labour. John Perkins. Messrs. John Prosser Tabb. It is the design of this book.DCCC. G. Phillips and Gatewood. of Virginia. in learning to observe accurately and systematically. a perfect method in its details cannot always be accomplished. W. M. Rev. ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS. which should be memorized before the Pupil advances further. of Louisiana. but also.A GEOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS. systematic arrangement is preserved as far as practicable. And. VA. and to others. inasmuch as it is merely an introduction to the other volumes. and therefore the Scholar must master certain things in order to attain a knowledge of Geography.LXIV. M.: J. EDUCATION consists not merely in the acquisition of knowledge.D. STEWART. RANDOLPH. as well as to impart useful knowledge. and chiefly.. J. Page v PREFACE. Page vi The Author is indebted to the Hon. RICHMOND. In the present volume. these are given in the concise form of a Dictionary. K.
. 81 30. THE GREAT WATER-SHEDS OF NORTH AMERICA ... MAPS . MINERALS... 19 8. NORTH AMERICA . 67 26. THE SCENERY OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES .... THE FAUNA OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES . 52 24.. THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM . POLITICAL DIVISIONS . 49 22.. NORWAY AND SWEDEN .... 15 5.. HISTORY OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES .. THE EASTERN ALLEGHANY WATER-SHEDS ........... Page vii CONTENTS...... ISLANDS . 18 7........ GENERAL DEFINITIONS . THE MANUFACTURES OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES .. 53 25.. 24 11.... 38 18........ FRANCE ... THE LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA.... 28 13.... 35 16.... RUSSIA . AUSTRIA ... 31 15.... 77 29... except where greater conciseness might be gained. 12 4...... THE FLORA OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES .... 17 6.... 1 2.. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL ... THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE ........... he would state that it has not been his object to depart either from the facts or the words of the best Geographers.. 84 31. METALS.. 29 14........ 11 3.. ITALY . 22 10. THE PRODUCTIONS OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES . THE WESTERN WATER-SHED OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS .. GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND .. GOVERNMENTS . 68 Page viii • • • • • • 27... DIVISIONS OF THE HUMAN RACE . 44 20. 25 12..... EUROPEAN TURKEY AND GREECE . 48 21. MAN . AND ITS INLAND SEAS ... 40 19......... &c.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. 50 23.. 71 28. BIRDS . 36 17. THE CITIES OF THE WORLD . 21 9... 92 ....... 89 32.In acknowledging his obligations to preceding Authors. THE ANIMAL KINGDOM .
.. a description of the strata.. 207 48... THE TERRITORIES ... THE UNITED STATES ...--General Definitions...... caused by the laws of man... PRUSSIA. metals... AND GERMANY . THE NEW ENGLAND STATES . 69 ASIA .. SECTION I. GEOLOGY.. HOLLAND. 147 Page 1 A GEOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS....... of which the earth's crust is composed.. 180 45. or layers of earth... 107 AFRICA .. 165 42. 105 36. caused by the laws of nature--God's handiwork... .. DANISH AMERICA .. CHINA. 221 MAPS.. THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA.. 161 41. &c.. 197 46. 213 49. 127 SOUTH AMERICA . THE MIDDLE STATES . 123 38........ GEOGRAPHY.. 126 39. 173 43..146 40.. SOUTH AMERICA . AND SWITZERLAND . • • • • • NORTH AMERICA . THE WEST INDIES . CENTRAL AMERICA... 200 47... 94 34.... &c. AFRICA . ARABIA... PERSIA.. 13 EUROPE .... . &c.. NATURAL. MEXICO. BELGIUM. 101 35... 112 37.. THE SOUTHERN STATES .. . a description of the surface of the earth. INDIA. 179 44...... . THE WESTERN STATES . DENMARK... &c.. PALESTINE ........ stone.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 33.. POLITICAL. ASIA AND AUSTRALIA........
. a large body of fresh water (rarely salt water). connecting seas or lakes.STRATA AN BROKEN STRATA. SEA. Page 2 CANAL. a wide strait. a large body of water. or water-passage. an artificial water-passage. or water-passage. OCEAN. a large sea--the mother of seas. STRAIT. LAKE. CHANNEL. a narrow channel.
A CANAL. . LOCK. the portion of a canal between two flood-gates.
Page 3 RIVER.A LOCK. a large body of salt water. BAY. a large body of water. GULF. opening into a sea or lake. almost surrounded by land. . a stream of water flowing into the sea.
TIDE. ISLAND. MAP. FRITH. shallow places where there is little depth of water. CREEK. surrounded by water. an estuary. also. a bay or frith.A RIVER. a great inlet of the sea with anchorage. a large tract of land. the semi-daily rise and fall of the sea. a portion of a bay. where ships can find anchorage. a small river. ROADSTEAD. a picture of the earth's surface. a portion of land. SOUND. . CONTINENT. an inlet. SHOALS. a wide mouth of a river.
a large inlet. ISTHMUS. an artificial harbour. BANKS. an arm of the sea projecting into the land. ESTUARY. REEF. an arm of the sea into which rivers flow. a short water-passage between two bodies of water. &c. a narrow neck of land. a group of islands. CAPE. shoals in the sea. . shores of a river. rivers. a low ledge of rocks extending out into the sea. a point of land extending out into the sea. the portion of land that forms the border of seas. a safe shelter for ships. SHORE. Page 4 ARCHIPELAGO.PENINSULA. PROMONTORY. shallow places. land almost surrounded by water. INLET. a high bluff extending towards the sea. DOCK. HARBOUR.
FRESHET. and square sails. a large steamboat. Page 5 SHIP. The land between these branches is called the Delta. DELTA. a boat or vessel of the largest class. The name is applied to any portion of land separated from the main land by a river which has two or more mouths. and obstruct navigation at the mouth of a river. the art of sailing ships. a great rise of a river after heavy rain-falls. a small brig. sometimes they form large islands. and flows into the sea by several branches. an artificial water-passage. but differently rigged. a canal. Some vessels require only two or three feet of water to float them. a structure over a chasm.AQUEDUCT. having three or more masts. SWAMP. SCHOONER. low. a large waterfall. wet land. NAUTICAL. the soil deposited by settlings from the muddy waters of a river. separates. the rushing of water through the chasms of hills. appertaining to the sea. BRIG. CATARACT. a vessel of the 2nd class. a passage over water.* *The word Delta is the name of the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet. having the same sound with D in the English alphabet. having two masts. The River Nile. BRIDGE. capable of bearing ships. NAVIGATION. others require twenty-five feet. These deltas often become bars. from its resembling in shape the Greek . The shape of the letter is like a triangle. a vessel of the 3rd class. SLOOP. just before its entrance into the Mediterranean. NAVIGABLE. . TORRENT.
AND SLOOP. a long series of mountains.A SHIP. a mountain jutting out from a range. MOUNTAIN. a high hill. RIDGE. SPUR. RANGE. BRIG. . CHAIN. the high backbone of hills or mountains.
Page 6 VALLEY. CLIFF. TABLE-LAND. high plains. PEAK.RANGE OF MOUNTAINS. space between hills. PASS. . a road through a range of hills. the summit of a hill.
HILLS AND MOUNTAINS. . a mountain sending forth fire and smoke. VOLCANO.
. STALACTITE. or drop. the molten mass of earths that come from a volcano. violent shaking of the crust of the earth. formed from the roofs of caverns. EARTHQUAKE.A VOLCANO. Page 7 LAVA. a crystalline column.
GLOBE. a round body. SPHERE.AN EARTHQUAKE. a round ball. . representing the world on which we live. every point of its surface equi-distant from its centre.
DIAMETER. the distance north or south of the equator.)* * Greenwich is a south-eastern suburb of London. a straight line through the centre of a circle. HORIZON. NORTH POLE. There is in Greenwich a Royal Observatory. SOUTH POLE. the most noted city in the world. In many Atlases. HIGH LATITUDE. LATITUDE. the extremities of the axis of the earth. the ends of a line passing through the centre of the earth.HEMISPHERE. the line around which a sphere moves. the longitude computed from Greenwich is generally called the longitude from London. the distance through a globe or circle. England. LONGITUDE. . the distant line which terminates the view. CIRCUMFERENCE. AXIS. up towards the poles. the distance around a globe or circle." while in other maps it is expressed as the "Longitude from Greenwich. where astronomical and geographical calculations are made. and the longitude for English navigators is computed from this place. the distance east or west (usually measured from Greenwich. As Greenwich is very near London. the longitude on the map of the world is represented as the "Longitude from London. half a sphere. very far from the equator." Page 8 POLES.
and used to measure distances. belts of the earth's surface. the line which passes around the earth at equal distances between the poles. and north and south. LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES are lines passing round the earth. . MERIDIAN. east and west. that longitude which passes directly over the observer.Axis EQUATOR. ZONES.
CAUCASIANS.2 deg. is the home of the alligator. being very hot. and the hardy kind of firs. a great variety of fruit and flowers. or 2". moderate.ZONES TORRID. cold. 2 min. 2 sec. being more mild. PAGAN. The torrid zone. the white races. 1-60th part of a degree. The climate of the temperate zones. or 2'. MOHAMMEDAN. hot.. &c. and the lion. the false prophet of Mecca. 5280 feet. There the sugar-cane flourishes. the civilized and christianized parts of the world. flowers. MOORS. KNOTS. Page 9 DEGREES are usually expressed thus:-. TEMPERATE. 3 miles. and the deciduous trees. MILE. The climate of the frigid zones is very cold. the winter lasting nine months. . mild. LEAGUE. The principal growth is that of shrubs and moss. or 2°. in geography one minute (1'). the pine-apple. FRIGID. HEATHEN. the boa-constrictor. black people. a superstitious worshipper of idols. MINUTES. nautical miles. SECONDS. MOHAMMED. The fine fruits. the elephant. NEGROES. MALAYS. and trees of the temperate zones cannot live there. is the home of various kinds of grain. the semi-negroes of the East Indies. people of Northern Africa. follower of Mohammed.. CHRISTENDOM.
Page 10 PLAIN. a Mohammedan Church. barley. TON. the vegetable productions peculiar to a country. a level tract of land. wheat. CWT. goods. GRAIN. a Jewish Church. 20 cwt. schools of learning. a temple consecrated to the worship of God. planks. to convey from one place to another. the Church of Scotland. CHURCH. buying and selling merchandise. LUMBER. 112 pounds. CATHEDRAL. traffic. a place where fabrics are made. one who trades with foreign countries. GAME. &c. wild animals. COLLEGE. SEMINARY. TRANSPORT. a people of Asia. MERCHANT. the animals peculiar to a country. KIRK. &c. TRADE.. products of labour in factories. an Episcopal Church. MANUFACTURES. MERCHANDISE. UNIVERSITY. SYNAGOGUE.. FAUNA. FLORA. corn. a wholesale dealer in merchandise.MONGOLIANS. &c. FACTORY. fowls. building material. boards.240 pounds. . commerce. barter of goods. or 2. MOSQUE.
a large natural meadow. a portion of land. a large tract of country. PRAIRIE. PRAIRIE ON FIRE DESERT. . by way of. MEADOW. a tract of barren. REGION. PAMPAS. portions of country belonging to a realm. an extensive wood. VIA. a settlement. through. COLONY. TERRITORY. unfruitful land. a grass field.FOREST.
tornado. PRESIDENT. Commander. PRINCE. usually with rain. Lieutenant-General. PostCaptain. names of different forms of government and nationalities. kings. commanding a division. GRANDDUKE. EMPIRE. Midshipman. Navy--Lord High Admiral. CAPITOL. SENATE. MILITARY OFFICERS. fundamental regulations designed to control and limit the authority of parliaments. ELECTOR. LEGISLATURE. Major. PALACE.:-Army--General.. Admiral. the seat of government. CALIPH. PARLIAMENT. STATE. commanding a company. tempest. commanding parts of a company. &c. an extraordinary storm. COUNCIL. VICEROY. Lieutenant-Colonel. &c. Rear-Admiral. Field-Marshal. DUCHY. &c. commanding a brigade. a royal residence. Major-General. commanding a corps. the great emporium of trade and commerce. REALM. &c.. &c. SULTAN. Page 11 EMPEROR. COMMONWEALTH. CHARTER. METROPOLIS. REPUBLIC. Lieutenant.--Maps. commanding a regiment. Lieutenant. CONGRESS. PRINCIPALITY. commanding-assistant. &c.CAPITAL. MONARCH. a sudden and tempestuous storm. terms designating rulers of nations. GOVERNOR. SQUALL. Sergeant. Captain. KING. Commodore. Brigadier-General. HURRICANE. a very high wind. ." the other "the Western" Hemisphere. the hall of legislation. SECTION II. Commanding-in-Chief.. KINGDOM. national assemblies for making laws. The map of the world shows two hemispheres--one is called "the Eastern. STORM. CONSTITUTION. Colonel. CZAR. DIET. commanding-assistant.
England. The top of the map is north: the right hand. thus at 60° north latitude. a degree of longitude is only 34 1/2 miles long. and the Islands of the Pacific and South Seas.000 miles round at the equator. 3°. each degree at that place being about 69 miles long. &c. the bottom. south. Australia. The circles on the earth's surface are thus divided. But degrees of longitude become less as they approach the poles. the left hand. . every degree of latitude is of that length. Asia. QUESTIONS. and as the earth is nearly 25. The lines of latitude begin at the equator. west. east. 2°. called degrees. &c. the West Indies. The Western Hemisphere contains North and South America. Africa.e 25000/360. and thence count east and west. London.Page 12 The Eastern Hemisphere comprises Europe. or but half the length of a degree at the equator. There are 360 parts in all circles. The lines of longitude begin at Greenwich Observatory. i. they are usually marked thus--1°. and count upwards and downwards towards the poles.
is it as long nearer the poles? At 60°? What is the equator? (see DEFINITIONS.? In which hemisphere is North America? South America? Africa? West Indies? Where do you begin to count the lines of latitude? Longitude? How many degrees in a circle? What is the length of a degree? This is the length at the equator.) The poles? Latitude? Longitude? What is the latitude of Richmond? Charleston? Memphis? What do the marks mean--39° 31' 22" N. which.--North America. They were caused by the action of the internal fires of the earth. Latitude? (see DEFINITIONS. the other. The map of North America shows you two great chains of mountains: one of them is called the Rocky Mountains. the Alleghany Mountains. or S.) Is the eastern hemisphere on the right hand of the map? Is the bottom of the map N. by coming in .) SECTION III.• • • • • • • • What is a hemisphere? (see DEFINITIONS.
NORTH AMERICA. and ready for use. which are very valuable to mankind. are also thus lifted up and exposed for man's use. immense beds of coal are exposed. and silver. By this means. Immense stores of iron. while as yet the surface of the earth was unfit for the use of mankind. and exposed many strata of minerals and rock. and various kinds of stones used in building and agriculture. after the Genesis. and other precious metals. lead. copper. Gold. which Divine Providence had prepared. . and changing them into steam and vapour. burst upwards through the crust of the earth's surface. and many thousands of years before Adam. are thus uplifted. Page 15 contact with water and gases. &c.
The principal branches of the Mississippi. so that. The Richmond coal burns with smoke like tar or bitumen. The Ohio. which adorn and beautify the scenery. is navigable about 800 miles." the other burns without smoke. which empties into the Mississippi.) Bituminous coal? SECTION IV.000 miles above that point. people can change the hot climate of the torrid zone. finds its outlet.--The great Water-Sheds of North America. one of which is found near Richmond. Va. is navigable for 1." the anthracite is also called "hard coal. and the nature of Page 16 the country between them.000 miles from its mouth. The Tennessee. causes also a variety of climate.. which are very numerous. is about 4. and is called "anthracite. This is the longest. nearly all the water that is shed from the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. are the following:-• The RED RIVER. and aid the farmer and the manufacturer in his work. if not the largest. in Texas and Mexico. their great length. that shed the water of the Rocky Mountains. and nearly all that comes from the western slope of the Alleghanies. where the Missouri rises among the Rocky Mountains. &c. to the pleasant air of our spring-time. QUESTIONS.. And its tributaries. .There are two kinds of coal. or where the Mississippi branch approaches the British possessions on the north.000 miles. conduce to health. which empties into the Ohio. and the other in Pennsylvania." The upheaving of these mountain ranges also occasioned all the diversity of hill and valley. The variety of elevation thus produced. to the Gulf of Mexico. and is called "bituminous coal. to the Gulf of Mexico. river of the world. From its extreme sources. are themselves larger than many of the great rivers of other lands. by merely ascending the slope of a mountain or table land. and water-fall. In consequence of the similar direction of the mountain ranges of North America. 1.) What good results to man from mountains? Geology? (see DEFINITIONS. through the Mississippi River. • • • • • • What mountains are in Western America? In Eastern America? Who caused them to be uplifted? By what means? What is a volcano? (see DEFINITIONS.
Name those which rise towards the Lake region. The PLATTE. &c. The KENTUCKY. such as-- • • The CANADIAN. by reason of the rains upon the mountains. With their branches. rises. the whole valley of the Mississippi would be submerged. Arkansaw). --TENNESSEE. --WABASH. it pours a mighty tide of muddy waters downward towards the Gulf. Page 17 to the height of forty and fifty feet above its lower level. viâ the Illinois and Chicago Rivers. If all. --KANAWHA. by a canal. Those which conduct the water from the Allegheny water-shed are the following:-- • • • • • • • • • The ILLINOIS. overflowing the delta which it has deposited along its banks. --OHIO. from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico. . or a greater part. QUESTIONS. THE WHITE RIVER. FRANCIS. And it often happens that that great river. --DESMOINES. extending from 15 to 25 miles in breadth. with Lake Michigan. and. • • • • Which is the longest river in the world? Name the branches of the Mississippi river which rise in the Allegheny mountains. of these rivers were to rise at one time. --MISSOURI.• • • • • --ARKANSAS (pro. --CUMBERLAND. Those that rise among or near the Rocky Mountains. --ALLEGHANY. --MONONGAHELA. which is nearly two miles wide and 100 feet deep. --ST. This river is connected.
--PEDEE. measuring to the bottom of the river. --CONNECTICUT.) What is the length of the Mississippi from its extreme sources to the Gulf of Mexico? SECTION V. . its high tides. which is Page 18 very deep. Lawrence.-• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The ST. There are higher water-falls in other countries. one of the tributaries of the St. The St.• • • How many feet does the Mississippi River rise? How wide is it when it overflows its banks? What is the proper name for a great rise in a river? (see DEFINITIONS. --TOMBIGBEE. &c. The Niagara (the Indian pronunciation is Neeawgaura). --The ROANOKE. The chief rivers of the eastern slope of the Alleghany range are. while the rivers between it and the Gulf of Mexico run southwards. but they do not present such a vast body of water falling continuously from such a height.--The Eastern Allegheny Water-Sheds. --SUSQUEHANNA. --ALABAMA. Its course is north-east. Lawrence river drains the great northern valley or lake region. and is remarkable for its beautiful and varied scenery. --SAVANNAH. --CAPE FEAR. --APALACHICOLA. --JAMES. is remarkable among all the rivers of the globe for its fall from a precipice about 500 feet in height. LAWRENCE. --RAPPAHANNOCK. --NEUSE. its numerous islands. and 160 feet from the top of the fall to the surface of the river below. --POTOMAC. --HUDSON. --DELAWARE.
Which is the greatest water-fall in the world? Describe it. Describe the St. • • • • State the number of rivers of North America emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. Lawrence. and into the Gulf of Mexico east and west of the Mississippi. --SAN JOACHIM. The other rivers of the Pacific coast are inconsiderable in . The principal rivers emptying into the Pacific Ocean are-• • • • • • The COLUMBIA. --FRASER. --GILA. There is also a large stream which empties northwards into the Polar Sea. --SACRAMENTO. SECTION VI. The COLORADO.--The Western Water-Shed of the Rocky Mountains.THE FALLS OF NIAGARA. EXERCISE. called the Mackenzie River.
They also contain plentiful supplies of the finest fish. second. This immense system of lakes and inland seas and bays purifies the air. Lake Michigan is nearly 400 miles in length. Where does the Mackenzie River rise? Where does it empty? SECTION VII. from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains.--Lakes of North America. and moderates the climate. innumerable small lakes and ponds scattered profusely over the country.000 miles in length These lakes are surrounded by fertile lands. • • • State the rivers on the Pacific Coast. Lawrence River. viâ the Mississippi River. • • • 1. Lake Superior spreads over a surface of nearly 50. conveys the rich products of the country to distant markets.Page 19 size. There are three means by which vessels can sail from any port on Lake Superior to the Atlantic Ocean. 3. which is about equal to the whole extent of England. viâ the St. EXERCISES. and forests of the most valuable kinds of timber. in consequence of the nearness of the adjacent range of mountains to the ocean. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISE. 2. North America is remarkable among all the countries of the earth for its beautiful and magnificent lakes and inland seas. and its Inland Seas. of first. You will perceive upon the map a chain of large bodies of fresh water connected by navigable water-courses. and extending over a district of country more than 1. There are. mineral tracts of inexhaustible supply of the most useful metals and stone.000 square miles. and third classes. • You will divide these lakes and seas into three classes:-- . but chiefly confined to the northern latitudes. also. viâ the Hudson River.
) Where is the game..) Where is there a great grain and lumber trade? . more precious than a gem? What is a square-rigged vessel called? (See DEFINITIONS. The lake region also abounds in every variety of beautiful scenery. French Canadians. otters. at finding the most extensive lumber mart of the world. Some of the neighbouring regions have their climates moderated by the Lakes. On Lake Huron the traveller from Europe is frequently surprised at beholding a hundred sail of vessels at one time. How can a vessel sail from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico? Page 20 The foregoing lakes abound in fish and water-fowl of many varieties and superior quality. QUESTIONS. 2. Their shores are also rich in the most valuable kinds of metals and minerals. Their shores and rivers abound with beaver. only more precious and fair. and among the largest markets for pork. • • • • • • • With what do the lakes abound? Of what use are these things? What is a ton? Game? (See DEFINITIONS. full of fishes. Below that size. and of transportation to the merchant. 3. who are fond of a wild and exciting life.. and state the rivers and canals through which they call be approached. lying between Lakes Huron and Michigan is a fine fruit country. which are easy of access to the miner. both in summer and winter. From this cause the State of Michigan. where little lakelets are scattered among the hills and valleys like gems.• • • • • 1. which are trapped or hunted for their fur as well as for food. cattle. which afford an easy and a fascinating mode of living to thousands of Indians. &c. Size of Lake St Clair and upwards. &c. the largest grain market. from the mingled grandeur and beauty of Niagara to the charm and loveliness thrown around the rich and delightful lands of Minnesota. sent? Why is the beautiful little lake. From the size of Lake Huron and upwards. Name the lakes which are open to the navigation of European vessels. fur. deer. and many of them square rigged. &c. and other animals. Nor is he less surprised when he enters Lake Michigan. and persons from all parts of the world. foxes. Hundreds of tons of game are transmitted eastward every fall and winter.
being filled with the luxuriant verdure of a tropical island. the remaining part is a kind of limestone. . being made by insects. QUESTIONS. 147. 133. One of the 2nd kind. lifting them up from beneath the sea. are blooming with flowers of every variety of colour and fragrance. are examples of the last kind. changes its colour into a bright and lovely green. • • • • • • How many kinds of Islands are there? Name one of the 5th kind. 113.--Minerals.• There are many other lakes in other parts of North America.--those which. 4th." was made by the coral insect. 110. interspersed with trees full of fruit. made by other small insects. see pp. 154. fourteen long.e. will you name any that are of the 1st. 64. &c. and 3rd class? Page 21 SECTION VIII. by volcanic action. Metals. or by the changing currents of rivers and seas. &c. easily sawn into blocks. while the town with its coral roofs is white. and used. those. about 300 in number. 169. below the surface of the sea. 2nd. 109. such as have been formed by the delta of rivers. as you approach it through the windings of its intricate harbour. and called "the coral islands. George's a unique appearance. which are the result of volcanic action. and the whole has been lifted up from beneath the sea. For the coral. but is also sawn into tiles one inch thick. Islands are of four kinds:--1st those which date their origin and formation coëval with continents. how far from the equator and from Greenwich? How far from the American coast? Sargasso Sea? Do the same kind of trees and plants grow in Bermuda and Iceland? For other Islands. and its gardens. 2nd." We might add a 5th kind. those which are made by a small insect. not only to construct the walls of houses and churches. The principal portion of these beautiful islands. 3rd. and eleven wide. Page 22 SECTION IX. The coral of those islands is a light friable substance.--Islands. beneath the deep clear water of the sea. with which the people cover their dwellings. The Bermuda or Somers Islands. 3rd kind. 73. This gives the delightful little town of St. What is a delta? What is coral? Do you know of any fish that builds and lives in a marble place? Where are the Bermuda Islands? i. which are the beauty and the glory of the western margin of "the Sargasso Sea. have been subsequently raised up by volcanic action.
Iron is undoubtedly the first in rank both in its usefulness and general distribution. it commands a far higher price than gold.-. . The Lake Superior mineral region presents the same quantities and readiness of access. The iron mines of Great Britain furnish an annual supply of nearly four million tons. and on the strata of slate or other matters that overlie it. The largest quantity of coal annually derived from mines. iron-stone is to be found profusely underlying much of the surface of the earth. in the largest quantities. The Belgian mines yield nearly nine million tons every year. in preparing these substances for man's use. In the State of Missouri there are iron mountains where the whole body of the hills is composed of very pure iron ore. When carbonised and made into watch-wire. America takes the first rank in abundance of supply. The exact impressions of fern leaves--the shape and forms of tropical plants. while it is most easy of access. Man could better part with all other metals than with iron.The most useful metals and minerals have been provided by the omniscient Creator of the world. its vegetable origin. while its iron is more malleable and softer than any other kind in the world. This valuable substance bears stamped upon its face. excellence of quality. as stated by Moses in the book of Genesis. North America combines the three great advantages of possessing the largest amount and the best kinds of iron. in its substance. The next in rank among minerals is Coal. It is equal to about sixty-six million tons. but most generally distributed over the surface of the earth. in the plainest language. and such are not only most easy of access. &c. is that in Great Britain. and readiness of access to coal measures. Coal is almost as extensively provided over the earth's surface Page 23 as iron. In fact. A wise Providence occupied many ages before the creation of man. by any one nation.are frequently to be found both on the coal itself. The iron made in Russia and Austria is justly celebrated for its quality and superiority for manufacturing.
in some cases. The supply is chiefly from the mines of Cornwall. and upon many of the western rivers which empty into the Ohio and Mississippi. On the upper branches of the Delaware river there are extensive mines of anthracite. and in Carolina. The lead regions of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys are inexhaustible. the coal appears in strata of six and eight feet along the sides of the hills. QUESTIONS.. China. The copper region of Lake Superior is a vast substratum of pure copper. In Western Virginia there are inexhaustible beds of cannel coal. in the South Asiatic Archipelago. all over the earth's surface. At such places the coal is delivered at 1. but it must be more than twenty-five million tons. Austria. Zinc: Everywhere. Poland. &c. • • • • Who provided metals. &c. England. and often superficial. where. found in few places. but mines exist in many places.-• • • • Mercury: Mexico. sterling a ton. Mexico. Gold: California. for mankind? Did He provide enough of them? Can they be mined without too much cost? The first in rank? . &c. Brazil. Tin is. &c. The other metals and minerals are distributed as follows. Alabama. Spain. and provide those metals in sufficient quantity for the uses of mankind. mixed with ores of copper and other metals. Australia. Georgia. Silver.It is impossible to state the exact amount mined annually in America. and the Northern Rocky Mountains. Page 24 • Salt: The ocean. This valuable substance is to be found in solid strata. as yet. Siberia. the mines of England. in masses of many tons' weight. 4d. Peru. &c. or hard coal. Copper and lead are not so extensively distributed over the earth.75 dollars. California. it can be mined and thrown directly into the cars and waggons that convey it to market. as well as in sea water. or about 7s. and the Island of Banca.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Does not gold outrank iron? Can iron be made to sell for its weight in gold? Which country of the world mines the most iron? Where is it most abundant? Does any nation of Europe excel in the quality of iron that it makes? Where is the Iron Mountain? Where is the best American Iron? How could it be conveyed to the Mississippi river? Is iron to be found in most countries? How does coal rank? Does it tell of its own origin? How? If God provides these things for man's use, do you think it is any evidence that He loves mankind generally? Is there any other evidence of this? Which can you best rely on for the true history of the world--the books of Moses or geology? Why? Can true science contradict Moses? Why? Is coal provided extensively over the earth's surface? What country is first in rank as to quantity and quality of coal? On what river do you find anthracite or hard coal? Is there any coal in Virginia? On the rivers of Carolina? In the West? Is there enough copper and lead provided for our use? Where most abundant? State where other metals are found. Their uses. Their value.
Section X.--The Vegetable Kingdom.
For the distance of some 23 degrees north and south of the equator there is a zone, or belt of the earth, in which nearly all tropical vegetation flourishes in great luxuriance in the low, rich, wet lands; and to a less extent as you ascend the mountain tracts, until it disappears amid the cold of elevated lands. Here the Palm-tree grows, the Banana, the Oleander, the Magnolia, the Cocoanut-tree, &c.*
*The cocoanut palm affords the people its shade to shelter them from the hot sun; its fruit is their food; its boughs thatch the roofs and sides of their houses; its juice makes a drink for them somewhat like milk; they make baskets out of its wood; its leaves make fans and umbrellas; they make clothes out of its trunk; the shell of its fruit is made into goblets; its fibres are twisted into ropes and fishing-lines; its balsam is used as medicine; and its wood is used in cooking!
This is the home of Page 25 the Coffee, the Cocoa, the Orange, the Lemon, the Fig, the Pomegranate, the Pine-apple, &c.
Thence, vegetation changes as you proceed north and southward; and evergreens and "deciduous" trees (trees whose leaf falls in autumn) flourish up to the 50th, and even as far as the 60th degree of latitude. Here is the home of the Oak, the Chestnut, the Hickory, the Pine, the Cedar, Maple, &c. Here the Apple and the Pear and the Peach choose their dwelling-place, by the laws which God has appointed them. Corn, Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rice, Cotton, Sugar-cane, &c., clothe these regions with luxuriant harvests. Above and beyond these regions is the cold climate of Mosses, and the few trees and shrubs that can stand a polar winter, or vegetate in a short polar summer. Among the few grains of polar regions Buck-wheat is the most prominent.
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Is tropical vegetation luxuriant? Name some of its trees. In what kind of soil do they flourish best? Is there any land of the tropics where these plants will not grow? Why? Of what use is the cocoanut-palm? What do you call a tree that has a fresh set of leaves every spring? Do pine-trees ever cast their leaves? Name an evergreen tree. Where is the home of these? What zone is this called? Name its fruit. Its grain. Do peaches grow in the South Frigid Zone? Why? What does grow there? How many zones are there?
SECTION XI.--The Animal Kingdom.
There are separate and distinct homes accorded to different varieties of the animal kingdom. But many of the higher orders of animals can live in any climate. The Whale prefers the polar seas, but is sometimes found in the lower latitudes. The Bear prefers the temperate zone, but is found occasionally in the warmest climates, and grows to an enormous size in polar regions, where, however he becomes white; but the Walrus and the Penguin are never found except among the Page 26 icebergs of the polar seas; while the Elephant, Rhinoceros, and Alligator, or Crocodile, live only in the tropics, as their food grows there alone.
ANIMALS OF FRIGID ZONE. The Horse finds his home in the temperate zones; but he is found also in the lower regions of polar circles, and in the tropics. The Cat family, to which the lion and the tiger belong, differ in size, colour, &c., according to their climates; but their development is greatest in the plains and jungles of Africa and Asia. Page 27
The Dog family live as well in Greenland, and amid the snows of Siberia, as they do in England or the tropics.
ANIMALS OF TEMPERATE ZONE.
ANIMALS OF TORRID ZONE.
but is swifter and more active in flight." which they seldom transgress. wild ducks. and thus grows to an enormous size. and is long-lived. and which is unerring in its action. The polar regions have no need of the buzzard and the beetle. in Europe. and other sea fowls. which lives amid the cold regions of the higher Andes. chimney martins. mice. Thus you will see the vulture of India. where they were born and raised. and a more noble bird. &c. and the Turkey-buzzard of Carolina. Such are the swan. The Condor. The Eider-duck. find seek the . Can the elephant and the crocodile live in the frigid zone? Why? Do cats ever become wild? Large? Name a large animal of the cat kind. called "birds of passage. reptiles.QUESTIONS. The North American eagle is not so large. which would else destroy the farmers' crops. This bird changes into the Lammer-geyer. Where do this family grow the largest? Do animals of this family ever acquire different colours? Do dogs live near the poles? In the Tropics? Where is the home of the horse? Page 28 SECTION XII. are the most numerous of arctic birds. the wild goose. and they often prey upon snakes.--Birds. The governments of nations whose home is in warm climates often protect them by law. for the carcases of dead animals do not corrupt the air in cold regions. Amid the polar regions birds become fewer in number and kind. or great eagle of the Alps. finds its food in the more fertile region below him. Birds of prey seem to subserve most valuable purposes in the economy of Nature. • • • • • • • • • • Have animals separate and distinct climates allotted to them? Are there any animals that can accommodate themselves to different climates? Name some of them. wild pigeons." that spend the summer in the higher latitudes. Crows and blackbirds consume large quantities of worms and insects. called "instinct. At the appointed season they all leave their northern home. tamely and quietly devouring the dead carcases of animals in the streets of cities. but in the temperate zone the variety is perhaps greater. &c. The Birds of the tropics are generally larger. and the winter nearer the tropics. the soft downy feathers of which are so celebrated. But there are kinds of migratory birds. It is interesting to observe how their Creator has given them a law. and their plumage more beautiful. than those of other regions.
And if they remain too long. And when spring-time comes. and its movements and relations to the sun. north or south? How then do they know when and where to go? Who teaches them? What do you call the law that regulates them? Do animals ever transgress God's laws with impunity? What is the result of transgression? Is man an animal? Can man make wiser regulations for himself than God can? Can man break God's laws with impunity? When do birds of passage go north? Name some of them. The highest and noblest of the Creator's works is Man. causing the . they wing their flight back again Page 29 whence they came. The earth. SECTION XIII. or return too soon. as the Robin sometimes does. they often perish with cold or want of food. the moon. its vegetable and animal kingdoms. What are birds of passage? Have they two homes? In which are they born and raised.unknown regions of a milder climate. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Where are the largest birds found? Where most beautiful? Are there many varieties of birds in the temperate zone? Are buzzards and crows of any use? Is it wise to destroy them? Do they ever become tame? Are they ever protected by law? What do crows eat? Where does the condor live? What at is the name of the Alpine eagle? Why does not the condor feed on the snow-clad peaks of his home? Is the eagle as noble a bird? Is there any work for the beetle and the buzzard at the north pole? Has God shown any wisdom in appointing each to his own sphere? Have any animals softer hair or feathers at the north? Name them. QUESTIONS.--Man. and the stars of heaven. with its treasures of mineral wealth.
and over all the earth." "And God saw everything that he had made. seed-time and harvest." "And on the seventh day. and over the fowl of the air. and sanctified it.grateful changes of night and day. . and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. the rise and fall of tides. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Page 30 And.. the Creator called into being all the higher orders of vegetables and animals. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. was made and prepared by the Creator as a residence and home for man. because that in it he had rested from all his work. When everything was thus prepared. or vegetation. During the successive days of a week." . But for many ages the earth remained an empty black crust of cooling lava. . it was very good. Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. LET THERE BE LIGHT. and. and the darkness he called NIGHT. "God divided the light from the darkness." Day and night are caused by the motion of the earth revolving on its axis. "The earth was without form and void. summer and winter. &c. . and arranged the influences of the heavenly bodies upon the earth. vegetable and animal life also came into being. behold." As soon as God made the light. . and having thus prepared it for man's residence." The heavens were the home of angels. all those changes in the earth's crust were taking place which are now so valuable to man. and over the cattle. and darkness was upon the face of the deep. God ended his work which he had made. there were none of the higher and nobler animals. And God blessed the seventh day." "And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And the evening and the morning were the first day. And God said. But there was no summer or winter. during many ages. And God saw the light that it was good. and God called the light DAY." "And God put man in the garden which he had planted. "GOD MADE MAN IN HIS OWN IMAGE. and there was light. and God said.
and stones in the earth's crust? For whom do the trees. and fruit grow? Have the changes of season any relation to man's comfort? Did God make man's home beautiful? Was there ample provision for our wants? When did God create the earth? The heavens? Who inhabit the heavens? Were the heavens or the earth left void.QUESTIONS."&c. 10-12.) SECTION XIV. flowers. coal. precious metals. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Who or what is God's noblest work? For what purpose did the Creator store away iron. cxxxix. and without form and dark? Can plants or animals live in darkness? Who made the light? Could the angels and God see before the light was made? (Ps. what did He do on the first day? What causes day and night? What next? His last great work? Was there any personal resemblance between Adam and the Messiah? Why? Where did God place man? Has man a right to use animals as he pleases? Is it right to be cruel to them? When did God end His work? Why did he sanctify the seventh day? Are men commanded to cease from their work on that day? Who has a right to say when men shall cease to work? Why does He say so? ("Because in it.--Divisions of the Human Race. .) Why do you suppose that God said of the light "that it was good?" What would grow when the light was made? Could animals live now? Page 31 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Have geologists ever found the marks of plants and animals in the rock strata of those days? Could we have had coal without the light had been created? Why? Could God make bread out of stones? Does He supply us in that way? Were there any of the nobler animals in those days? Peaches? Apples? When God came down to make man.
and their different modes of life. that "He would not again destroy all flesh from off the earth." it became necessary that He should adopt some other means by which to check the universal tendency of mankind to impiety and wickedness. and by the diverse climates in which men live. Page 32 . He therefore divided the speech or languages of men at Babel. and Japheth. Shem. "And of them the whole earth was overspread. But. as well as government.For some two thousand years mankind multiplied exceedingly throughout the earth. Ham. By this means. Noah. and his sons. of different colour. that He sent a deluge upon the earth. in process of time. and with them such animals as God selected. and destroyed man and beast from off the face of the whole earth. And in those days men lived much longer. and grew to a larger size than they do now. and men have become separated into races. were saved in the Ark which God had directed them to build. nations have been kept distinct. men became so wicked and corrupt before God." As God had set His bow in the cloud as a sign and seal of His covenant with Noah.
. The Mongolian.TYPES OF THE HUMAN RACE. 46. Africa 89. The American and Eastern Indians. 425. 70. Europe 272. of which Asia contains about 720.000.000.• • • • The Caucasian race. North and South. and America.000.000. 50. Negro races.000. The estimated total number of all the foregoing and other varieties of the human family is about thirteen hundred millions. but beyond this there are. nearly 200 millions.000.000.000. Men are generally divided into savage and civilized races.
Page 33 MOOR. EGYPTIAN. NEGRESS OF SOUDAN. TOOAREEK. SANGARA CHIEF. . TIBBOO.
SPANIARD.SICILIAN. SWISS PEASANT. GREEK MERCHANT. RUSSIAN PEASANT. LAPLANDER. Page 34 .
. N.BRAZILIAN HUNTER. AMERICAN INDIAN. ESQUIMAUX. S. MEXICAN INDIAN. AMERICAN INDIAN.
PERSIAN LADY. TURK. SANDWICH ISLANDER. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Did the old world have many Inhabitants? Long-lived? Wicked? Had God a right to destroy men? How did he do it? Did it take Noah long to prepare the ark? Must it not have been a very large boat to require so long a time to build? Who were saved in it? Are the families of the earth sprung from them? What covenant did God make with Noah? Do you know why He made it? What sign did He select? Where did God confound the speech of men? Has diversity of speech had any effect in keeping up distinct nations? Are all nations now of the same colour and mode of life? . CHINESE SOLDIER.BURMESE PRIEST. Page 35 QUESTIONS. EAST INDIAN GRASSCUTTER.
. Chili. Swedes. . Spanish. Chilians.. . . . . Dutch. . . . . . . Basque. . . . Danish. . . . . . . . Norse. Spanish. . . British Possessions. . . Brazil. . . Spanish. . . . . . . . Belgians. English and Gaelic. . . . . . . . German. . . . . . . . Russians. . Switzerland. . Portuguese. . . Page 36 People. . • • • • • • • • The Confederate States. . Canadians. . . . . . . Americans. French. . . . . France. . Russian Possessions. Scotland. English and French. . Dutchmen. Scotch. . . . . . . . . Denmark. . . . and Italian. • • • Germany. In Europe:-• • • • • • • • • • Norway. German. Italian. . .--Political Divisions. . . Spanish. . England. . Portuguese.• • • • • • Do we not owe the preservation of the Bible to the fact that the Jews have been preserved as a distinct nation? What two great divisions are there among men? Do savage people surpass civilized people in intelligence? In knowledge? In happiness? In wealth? Have they the Bible? Do you suppose that the Bible does any good to the nations? Have any become highly civilized without it? Name the different races. . . . . . . . . . Belgium. . Portugal. . English. . . . . . . . . Americans. French. . . . . Peru. . Sweden. . German and Sclavonic. . Italy. Russ. . . . . . . .&c. . . . . . . . . . . and Italian. . . Holland. . .Swiss. . Danes. . . . Brazilians. . Mexicans. . . . English. . . . . Swedish. . . . The United States. . English. Germans. . Mexico. . . . . . Language. . . English. . Spanish. Spain. . French. . . The division of mankind into nations is as follows:-- In America:-People. . . Their numbers? The total number of mankind? SECTION XV. Norwegians. . Portuguese. . . . Language. . . Peruvians. Italians. Flemish and French. .
Austria. . Modern Greek. . Arabians. .. &c. .• • Ireland. . . German. &c. . . German. . Sclavons. English and Erse. . . . . German. . . &c. Arabia. . Turks . .. to the next nearest relative. . . • o o o • o o o • o o Turkey. . Austria. . . . Russians. &c. Persians. . Turkey. An elective government is one in which the head of the Government is elected by the people. . . &c. . . . or. Sclavons. . Turkey. . . Russ. . . .Turkish. . • Russia. . . . Turkish &c. Turkish &c. laws. . . . Welsh.. &c. . . . . . . . and he is unrestrained by a written constitution. . Arabian and Turkish. . . . Chinese.--Governments A hereditary government is one in which the supreme authority descends from father to son. . . . . QUESTIONS. A limited government is one in which the power of the Page 37 sovereign or supreme magistrate is restrained by a written constitution. . . . English and Welsh. • • • Their political divisions in America? Their languages? In Europe? Their languages? In Asia? Their languages? SECTION XVI. . &c. . . . &c. . . . . . Persian. . . Again. Germans. &c. or by other laws. . . . Persia. . . . . . . Irish. . . In Asia:-• • • China. . or by electors chosen by the people. . . An absolute government is one in which the will of the sovereign is the law of the land. . . if there be no son. . . . . . . Poles. . Chinese. . Russ. . . or fixed principles. Wales. . Greeks. Austria. . governments are divided into absolute and limited. . . . . . . . Greece. . .
the title of the chief magistrate. Page 38 . as in China and Japan.The following table presents the government. as well as the Islands of the Pacific Ocean not colonized by Europeans. Their sovereign princes are called emperors. If he be chosen for a limited period. and are generally either of the Mohammedan or Pagan religion. are under an absolute government. he is called a president or director. Most of the countries in Asia and Africa. sultan. If the head of the government retain his office during his life. pacha. he is called a king. &c. as in Egypt. an emperor. grand duke. and the religion of the principal nations of the world:-- Another distinction in government is founded on the tenure by which the head of the government holds his office. &c. prince.
has moved north and west. thence to London. like the citizens of Norfolk. It has been remarkable for the elegance and refinement of its people. at the head of steamboat navigation. Jerusalem. who. when. Ga. &c. New Orleans.000).. Baltimore. which is now the largest. and commercial city of the world. and other elements of political importance. in importance and power. are the prominent commercial towns of their respective States. she pointed to the Bible. as in Persia. are as hospitable as they are intelligent and noble. Troy. QUESTIONS. Nineveh. Va. Louis. powerful.. Damascus.C...shah.--The Cities of the World. most wealthy. is the capital of the Confederate States of America. . Its first step was from Athens to Rome. C. Tenn. France and America rank next. in answer to the enquiry of some Africans. and other once large and powerful cities. S. Mobile. • • • • • What is an hereditary government? An elective government? An absolute? Limited? What difference is there between a king and a president? State some of the principal forms of government in America? In Europe? What nations rank among the first? What is the true secret of England's greatness? SECTION XVII. in extent of commerce. Savannah. Sidon. Louisville. the first rank. and wealth. Cairo. Cities of the CONFEDERATE STATES of AMERICA:-RICHMOND. Athens. Commerce and manufactures will probably enlarge its wealth and population.. is accorded to Great Britain. chiefs. Babylon.. Ky. (present population about 70. and empire. Maryland. Among all these nations. N. Tyre. as among many of the African nations.. and her Sovereign gave the true reason of her wealth and majesty. colonial possessions. Page 39 Charleston. were all south of 40°. La. Memphis. kings. It is situated on the James River. The progress of civilization. Mo. Wilmington. outranks them all in commercial importance. The great cities of ancient time were south of latitude 40° N. Thebes. where the Falls of the river afford very large water-power for its mills and foundries.. St. thence to Paris. Aa. and railroads and canals connect it with the neighbouring States. Capitals.
London. Milledgeville North Carolina. . . . . . . . . Paris. St. when in the act of seceding from the United States. . . . . Tallahassee A portion of the Legislature of Maryland was arrested and imprisoned by the Federal Government of the Northern States. . 500 4. . . . . . Constantinople. . Jackson Virginia. . . . . 394 12. and empire moved? Were the Romans or the Greeks more ancient in civilization? . 291 10. . . . 385 6. . Vienna. . . Glasgow. Lisbon. .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alabama. . 236 15. . 360 8. . . . . . . .803 2. 258 14. . Amsterdam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond Tennessee. . 443 11. . Berlin. . 207 QUESTIONS. . . . . . . Austin Arkansas. . . . . . . Annapolis Louisiana. Dublin. . . 910 3. . . Liverpool. Madrid. . Little Rock Maryland. . . . 360 7. Frankfort Georgia. New Orleans Florida. wealth. . . Population of the Great Cities of Europe:-Thousands. Montgomery Missouri. Moscow. . 470 5. . . . Petersburg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Columbia Mississippi. Nashville Kentucky. . • • • • • • Were the great cities of ancient time in the higher or lower latitudes? Their names? Were any of them south of the equator? North of 40°? In which directions have civilization. Manchester. . . . Jefferson City South Carolina. . . . . . . . Naples. . . . . . Raleigh Texas. . . 350 9. 250 13. . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.
36°. and Ireland upon certain coins. The State of VIRGINIA was a colony of Great Britain. in the month of May. and as far south as N. She ceded these lands to the United States. Virginia withdrew from the United States in the year 1861. measures were adopted for securing its independence. and a large portion of them have been settled by her surplus population. and from the Atlantic to the Pacific.• • • • • • • • • Which is now the greatest city? The present seat of Government of the Confederate States? Where situated? Has it any manufacturing advantages? Commercial[?] For what has it been remarkable? What effect have commerce and manufacture upon a city? The largest commercial town in the South? The capitals of the Southern States? Other towns of Virginia? Maryland? North Carolina? South Carolina? Georgia? Florida? Alabama? Missouri? Louisiana? Tennessee? Mobile? Kentucky? Name the great cities of Europe? Page 40 SECTION XVIII.D. a few years before the colony at Quebec. Sir Walter Raleigh sent out a colony as early as 1586. south of lat. which. Virginia held the title to all the lands west of Pennsylvania. She was formally received into the Southern Confederacy. . and also refused to allow the troops of the Northern States to pass through her territory to subjugate the other States which had already seceded. then represented in Montgomery. The Colonial Government continued down to the year 1776. It received the term "Old Dominion" during the civil wars in England. when it acted as an independent State. and became the principal seat of the war of Southern Independence. though rare. lat. when. Aa. are still extant. Scotland. and some thirteen years earlier than that of the Puritans in Massachusetts. In the exercise of this reserved right. the Commissioners of the State were directed to annex the condition and reservation of the right to withdraw from the Federation at will. 1607. CAROLINA originally extended from Virginia to Louisiana. and from 6th to 13th of that month. whose first settlement at Jamestown dated A. When Virginia adopted the Federal Constitution of the United States in 1788. in consequence of which King Charles the Second had the arms of Virginia quartered with those of England.--History of the Confederate States. 36°. and refused to recognize the authority of Cromwell..
Huguenots. A Southern colony was formed under Governor Yeamans. In 1666 Governor Stephens was elected. Page 41 OLD STATE HOUSE. resolutions were passed. South Carolina. 1775. . who settled among them. and Irish. declaring the State "free and independent. On the 19th April. Scotch." "Oyster Point. in Mecklenburg county. NORTH CAROLINA. was first occupied by a colony under William Sayle." near Charleston. and the first constitutional assembly held.From that time to 1630 various colonies were attempted. and in 1674 Joseph West was elected the governor of the colony. 1670. North Carolina. The colony received accessions of wealth and character from the Cavaliers. at Charlotte. and the two assumed the titles of NORTH and SOUTH CAROLINA.
from the United States. Switzerland. MARYLAND was an English colony.The first decided outbreak of the Revolution of 1776 occurred in Charleston. attempting to seize. of England. The first collision of the War for Independence of the Southern States occurred at Charleston. at New Smyrna. In 1819 the STATE OF ALABAMA was admitted to the Federal Union. and in 1860-61 it joined in the earliest efforts made to bring about the independence of the South. by the French. Scotland. queen of Charles I. She was among the first States to accept and adopt the cause of Independence and the issues of war. . In 1763 it was ceded to Great Britain. In 1725. on the occasion of the unjustifiable arrest and imprisonment of Robert Cunningham. Mary's. 1512.A. This State joined in the War of Independence in 1861. in the spring of 1861. 1775. which were ceded by her to the Federal Government. in 1634. KENTUCKY. elected by the citizens of the Northern States. in 1861. ARKANSAS. provision. under General Oglethorpe. Alabama. A colony of Greeks. The first settlement was formed at St. visited by Ponce de Leon. in 1769.S. and was occasioned by the President. It was afterwards settled by Spaniards. chiefly from Virginia and Carolina.. and turn their guns upon the city they were designed to protect. Georgia was settled in 1733. The States of MISSISSIPPI and LOUISIANA were settled by the French. and Germany. settled there. and MISSOURI. Page 42 GEORGIA formerly embraced Alabama and Mississippi. afterwards the seat of a French Huguenot colony. Corsicans. by colonists from England. The first Congress C. Fort Alabama was located on the Alabama River. &c. in November. visited by Allyon 1624. were settled from the older States. and her soldiers have ever been found in the front ranks of battle. and occupy the forts in Charleston Harbour. met at Montgomery. by Sebastian Cabot. at Savannah. named after Henrietta Maria. and almost all the European nations. then sailing under the English flag. TEXAS was settled by people from Mexico. TENNESSEE. FLORIDA was discovered in 1497.
afterwards by Dutch and English. Alexander H. Va. these efforts have all failed. under a constitution which had been adopted by the several States. and. as its first President. or immense resources of money and vast armaments on sea and land could accomplish. at vast expense of suffering and blood. and break up the political organization of the Confederacy.. May that God who has graciously blessed their efforts keep them in His most holy faith and fear. was made by the Northern Government to capture the capital and other important places. Every effort that human ingenuity could contrive. In 1862 the Government of the Confederate States was duly established at Richmond. by Swedes and Finns. with the inauguration Page 43 of Jefferson Davis. or Pagan? Where did the Revolution of 1776 break out? Where was the first collision between the President of the United States and the State Government in 1861? Why? Were the forts designed to protect or destroy Charleston? What did Georgia formerly embrace? Did this State hesitate to embrace the issues of the Revolution of 1861? By whom settled? When? When was Florida settled? By whom? Who discovered it? When? Where was Fort Alabama? . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Of Carolina? When settled? When was a Governor elected? Had the colony a constitution? Who formed the colony of South Carolina? When did North Carolina make a declaration of independence? Where? When was the settlement at Charleston made? By whom? Who was elected Governor? Name some of the classes of people who settled South Carolina? Is there any advantage to a State in being settled by a noble race? Are the most noble races Christian. the people of the Southern States have fought their own way to political independence and the respect and amity of the great nations of the world. in 1627. evident and acknowledged aid of the God of Battles and King of Nations. for a term of six years. and long secure to them the blessings of peace and prosperity! QUESTIONS. Mohammedan. But by the constant. Stevens as Vice-President.DELAWARE was settled.
RYE. WHEAT. Tennessee. Arkansas. and other kinds of fruit. which have produced very large quantities of good flour for exportation. Tennessee. in the tobacco growing States. and of very fine varieties.. The term "staple" is used to designate the raw material.--The Productions the Confederate States. and other cereals. currants. Carolina. Va. but corn and wheat are the only grains raised for export. in Maryland. where it affords an easy livelihood to numerous persons who are engaged in making tar and turpentine: the . tobacco. has long been celebrated for its superior quality. in considerable quantity. and along some portions of the Mississippi valley. There are extensive flour-mills on the Potomac River. Delaware? When was the Government of the Confederate States established under its present constitution? How? Where? Did the North try to break it up? How? Has one State a right subjugate another? Did they succeed? Who aided the South? Who is King of Nations? Can a nation fall without His word? What will happen it we forget Him? Page 44 SECTION XIX. OATS.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • When and by whom built? Where is Montgomery? For what noted? Who settled Mississippi and Louisiana? Texas? Kentucky. strawberries. and these are produced chiefly by the tobacco-growing States. figs. TOBACCO is cultivated for export to foreign countries. The live oak grows to a large size in Florida. Missouri? Maryland? After whom was Maryland named? The first settlement. Apples. and Missouri. plums. BUCKWHEAT. The pine flourishes in Carolina. this valuable wood is used in ship-building. The flour made at the extensive mills at Richmond. yet each district has its favourite product. grapes. above Harper's Ferry. are produced in sufficient quantities. Virginia. export large quantities of Indian corn. INDIAN CORN. Kentucky. are grown in all the States. Virginia. peaches. fruit. These States also produce almost every variety of forest trees. as cotton. Tennessee. pears. and other staples of the temperate zones. but only for home consumption. Although these States are capable of producing nearly all the varieties of grain. raised and exported as the usual product of any country. apricots. &c. and Carolina.
and North Carolina. Arkansas. and in the mountainous regions of Virginia. Salt springs are very numerous. The largest quantity of cotton is produced by Alabama: Georgia ranks next in the quantity produced. and in the Gulf States. Kentucky. &c. for exportation: these States also export hides and wool. Florida. have many tropical fruits in abundance for home consumption. then Mississippi. together with Georgia and South Carolina. Georgia. and are of the most delicious flavour. and Missouri raise large numbers of horses. and Georgia. from Florida and the valley of the Mississippi. lemons. The Gulf States. find there a genial climate. Indigo is grown in some parts of the Carolinas. Page 45 RICE is very extensively cultivated. Sweet potatoes are cultivated in all the States. where they are grown for export. &c.000. sheep. Kentucky and Missouri cultivate considerable quantities of flax and hemp. Rock Salt is found in Louisiana in purity and abundance. Alabama. Melons grow to a large size. they are worked to the largest extent along the valley of the Kanawha River. for exportation. on the low rich lands of the Carolinas. bacon and beef. The principal woods exported are cypress shingles and pine flooring. IRON abounds in all the States. pine-apples. Louisiana. where they are useful in building. Tennessee. and hogs. and is exported in large quantities from the Carolinas. from Carolina. Texas. The value of the cotton crop of a single year is more than $100. live oak. bananas. SUGAR is very extensively cultivated in the cotton States. fencing. and chestnut are abundant in the tobacco States. and afford inexhaustible supplies of excellent salt. but excel in flavour and size in Carolina. in every part of the country. GOLD is found in Virginia. Mississippi. the largest quantity is exported from Louisiana. oranges.various kinds of oak. and white oak knees from Virginia. &c. and Tennessee. Arkansas. Page 46 . in Georgia.000. Texas. Kentucky. but Missouri ranks among the most favoured of all lands. cedar. cattle. in this and other mineral products. COTTON is the great staple of the Confederate States. hickory. North Carolina. and in all the cotton States.
COPPER also is found in Missouri. Anthracite coal is found in North Carolina. Naphtha. Rock Oil.LEAD is found in several States. . near the Cape Fear River. LEAD MINES OF MISSOURI. COAL is abundant in nearly all the States. has been found in large quantities along the tributaries of the Ohio River. or Petroleum. but chiefly in Missouri. and in some it is of a superior quality.
and are much resorted to. The Chalybeate Springs of Georgia are celebrated for their excellence. in an elevated healthy region. meet every season in these delightful places of resort. and the "Hot Springs" and the "Alum Springs" of Bath and Rockbridge. which is collected in barrels and sent to market. especially the White Sulphur Springs of Greenbriar County. These springs are resorted to by invalids for their medicinal qualities. They are at Madison. which are sometimes elegantly furnished. • • • • • • • • • • • • • In what zone are the Confederate States? Is there diversity of climate in the same zone? Why? Explain the meaning of the term "Staple?" In what States is tobacco a staple? Wheat and corn? Flour? Name some of the fruits of the Confederate States? Forest trees? Their use? Their home? Where is rice cultivated? Does it grow in the mountains or marshes? What is the great staple of the Confederate States? Which State produces the largest quantity? The next? The value of the cotton crop? I it is so valuable when a staple. to a depth of from 100 to 2. QUESTIONS. When the pressure of the pent-up gases in the rocks below ceases to be sufficient to force the oil to the surface. and fashion.000 feet. Mineral springs are abundant in every part of the country. and September. Those of the mountainous region of Virginia are much celebrated. surrounded with the cottages of wealthy citizens. and are made more cheerful and happy by the presence of Religion. There is generally a large and well-kept hotel. and continues for days or months to pour forth a stream of pure naphtha. August.The process of obtaining it is to bore a hole 5 or 6 inches in diameter. which are heated. far above the surface. it is pumped up by steam engines. and by the people of the low lands for the salubrity of the mountain air and the excellent society that is always congregated around them in the months of July. science. in some cases. and fitted for lamps by chemical process. does its value increase when manufactured? Where is sugar made? . The oil is clarified into kerosine. by the gas which escapes Page 47 from the orifice. which is usually forced up with great violence. Literature. until it strikes a reservoir of oil.
as he passes through the regions where they grow. Lilacs.. the Holly.* * Parasites are among the most wise and useful provisions of nature to regulate the health and productiveness of low moist lands. The Cactus plant is indigenous to the whole country. and the plant takes it from the wood. They fasten themselves upon trees. &c. or gloomy? Does the Almighty take pleasure in the enjoyment of His creatures? Page 48 SECTION XX. Jessamines. are found in prolific abundance in every uncultivated field. The wood a bsorbsit from the air. which. rocks. and they feed upon this miasma. the Cedar. Hyacinths.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Which State produces the largest quantity? Name some of the fruits of the Gulf States? Of Carolina? Other products of the Confederate States? The metals. Do literary men ever go there? Do fashionable people visit these places? Is it proper for religious people to associate with their fellow-men? Should the presence of religion make us cheerful and happy. The Holly-tree is the beauty and glory of Virginia tide-water regions. is prolific in almost all the flowers and plants that are to be found on the American continent. Plants of medicinal virtue exist in rich profusion and great variety throughout every portion of the land. the American Poplar.. and where found? Coal and salt? Naphtha? How is it obtained? Mineral Springs? Their use? Describe them. and on the Gulf. Lilies. wild raspberries. strawberries. Azalias. decaying wood and other substances which contain moisture. while the Magnolia Grandiflora. Blackberries. combine with other vegetation to attract the attention of the stranger. Roses. or is extracted from the decaying wood. and the Cotton-wood. but its larger and more beautiful growth is in Texas. &c. The Mistletoe and other parasites (plants that live upon trees and other plants) hang in luxuriant abundance upon the trees that occupy the banks of streams or grow in moist soil. .--The Flora of the Confederate States. whortleberries. There is great variety and luxuriance of vegetation in this region of country. Tulips. adorn the gardens of every State. They are thus the safeguard and healthpreservers of warm moist climates. &c. the Palmetto and Magnolia are the pride of Carolina. the Palmetto. The Cotton-wood belongs to the delta of the Mississippi. in addition to the fruits and trees already named. which comes to them dissolved in vapour. Violets. or exude miasma. as well as the shady side of hills.
What is a parasite? Name one. are very picturesque. &c. "Rock Mountain" with its tower. at Cunawhee Mountain. and contain many foreign plants. and is very beautiful. although it has been represented as 270 feet by some travellers. Ga. is one thousand feet high. in Rockbridge County. "The Natural Bridge" is a celebrated arch of solid rock. Kentucky. The Falls of the Tullulah. One of these falls is fifty feet. and its descent is broken into falls and rapids. Their use? Wild berries? Medicinal plants? The use of a conservatory? Where used? Are there any well cultivated gardens in the Southern States? SECTION XXI. where the creek flows over a precipice 187 feet high. spanning a chasm. through which Cedar Creek flows." where the stream leaps from a mural precipice that is somewhat remarkable in its character. presents an almost precipitous cliff of one thousand feet in height. • • • • • • • • • The meaning of "Flora"? Is there much variety? Name some of the garden flowers? The peculiar plants of Carolina.-. The private gardens and parks of many citizens of these States are in the highest cultivation. The creek is 300 feet wide. whence the view is very extensive and beautiful. Tockoa Falls are in the State of Georgia. The cataract is about sixty feet. The granite chasm through which the stream rushes down. amid a wild and rough country. Page 49 QUESTIONS. Va. in the same State.In the Cotton States they need no conservatory to protect their flowers in winter. and about the same width.The Scenery of the Confederate States. In South Carolina there is a fine waterfall called "Charashilactay. but these are extensively used in Virginia. or Terrora (which is an Indian word for Terror). the creek is usually but twenty feet wide. are in Habersham County. The Falls of the Towaliga. but when swelled by rains. The bridge is less than 260 feet in height. it presents a large body of water in an unbroken cascade. and Maryland. It is regarded as . These States abound in every variety of scenery. near the Chatahoochee river.
The Mammoth Cave in Kentucky is also one of the great Page 50 natural curiosities of the world. near Chattanooga. The Cat family. and the University of the South has been located amid this grand and impressive scenery. Ga.--The Fauna of the Confederate States. and timid when confronted by man. Nitre or saltpetre is found in this cave. A stage road passes over its arch. upon the Sewanee Mountain. exists here as the panther and cougar. It has been explored for fifteen miles. Rock Mountain? The Natural Bridge? The Mammoth Cave? Why do the fish have no eyes? What substance is found there? The scenery of the Tennessee River? Through what States does this river flow? Where does it empty? How far navigable? What school is located near its banks? What is a prairie? (See DEFINITIONS. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Where are Tockoa falls? Their height? Other falls? Describe them.) SECTION XXII. from the sublimity of the "Peaks of Otter.one of the great natural curiosities of the world. The Dog family becomes the prairie wolf or wild dog. In addition to the animals already mentioned. the wild cat. and having unfathomable depths of dark silent waters. &c. where it forces its way through the Cumberland Hills. and though small in size. and many other remarkable things. which becomes lions and tigers in Africa and Asia. and the large wolf. is . QUESTIONS. The prairie dog is gregarious. The scenery of the Southern States affords every variety of landscape. in which are sightless fish. &c." to the beauty of the prairie. The most beautiful and variegated scenery is found along the banks of the Tennessee River. The scenery is wild and impressive. there are the other varieties peculiar to the zone. and is found to possess vast chambers adorned with immense pendent stalactites.
The swan. the cat-bird. the copper-head. fill the groves Page 52 and hedges with their music. Deer and other wild game are abundant in the valley of the Mississippi. and the humming-bird. wild geese. which would otherwise render human life almost impossible. that they can discover the presence of a small piece of meat at the distance of many miles.very fierce and rapacious when hungry and numerous. The beetle follows in the track of the larger animals. locusts. or chickens. serpents. The bear is a ferocious and destructive animal. occasionally levying a tax upon the farmer's lambs. and form large and populous colonies on the great prairies. amid "the Victoria regia" and other flowers. whose fragrance and beauty are unsurpassed by the flowers of royal gardens. and their own carcases. and they subserve a wise and useful purpose in preying upon vermin and reptiles. whose sight and smell are so wonderfully developed. he basks in the sun. where. with the moccasin. and is a valuable scavenger. with their diversity of plumage. The alligator finds his home amid the swamps and pools of the Gulf regions. which they convey there. endless varieties of earthworms. but also be enriched by the exuviæ of animal and vegetable life. the thrush. with graceful motion and exquisite shape and colours. squirrels. ducks.. and other water-fowl. The whip-poor-will. but confined Page 51 to the mountains and forests. &c. There are many varieties of "the Falcon family. They burrow in the ground. and other venomous snakes. Meanwhile. that it may not only condense the miasma and impurities of the air which thus gets access to it. the martin. the swallow. These birds devour large quantities of mice and rats. builds his nest in the woodbine . enrich and beautify the watercourses. Wild horses and buffaloes range the vast and fertile plains of the West. devour incredible numbers of insects. or when defending their homes. and many other varieties of birds of song. which would destroy the farmer's crops. ants. The crow and the blackbird consume enormous quantities of living as well as dead animals. thus converting that which would become offensive and malarious into a means of cultivating and enriching the soil. &c. &c. and carefully buries and consumes their excrement.." from the noble eagle to the small but swift sparrowhawk. The mocking-bird or nightingale. are constantly employed in tunnelling and turning up the soil. "The vulture" of the East becomes "the Turkey buzzard" of the Southern States. and are invaluable to the farmer.
flour. fixed ammunition. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What animal answers to the Lion of Africa? Describe the dogs. &c. or ignoble. and excellence. North Carolina and Virginia are next. &c. carriages.? The beetle? The earth worm? Birds of song? Water-fowl? The humming-bird? SECTION XXIII. and of superior quality.--Manufactures of the Confederate States. Gunpowder is made in large quantities. These are a few of the fauna of the Confederate States. steam-boats. Page 53 . to do so? What is the difference between barbarian and gentleman? The Turkey-buzzard and its work? The crew and the blackbird? The whip-poor-will. but there is every advantage and facility afforded for the future development of a large manufacturing interest by the combination of three things-first. Missouri and Kentucky also have considerable manufactures. QUESTIONS.. whiskey. &c. paper. Other animals. ships. are made in every variety.. meal. and wine. are produced in increasing quantities.that overhangs the doorways of the people. Does the Creator provide flowers only for the rich and the great? Is time and labour wasted when employed in cultivating flowers and fruit? The Falcon? Name some of them? Their appointed work? Is it cruel in the Almighty to permit them to tear a living victim. furniture. and eat it? Who says "the whole creation travaileth together in pain?" Would it be cruel for man to add to the sufferings of animals? Has man a right to crush worms to death when he digs his garden? Has he a right to catch a fish with a hook? Did one of the Apostles catch a fish with a hook? Which? Have you a right wantonly to destroy an animal life? To make them suffer for your amusement? Is it noble. Georgia is far in advance of all other States in manufactures. artillery. malt liquors. are produced in every part of the country. iron ware. guns. leather. The bear. but only for domestic consumption. There are considerable quantities of cotton and woollen goods made in several of these States.
and from the St. third. In Africa. Lawrence and the Lake region to the polar circle.000. and several of the West India Islands. together with British Guiana. more powerful. &c. Helena. with which the whole country abounds. Arabia. the Orkneys. Guernsey. the ready access to abundant staples. or used its power with more uniform mercy. the islands of Gozo and Malta in the Mediterranean Sea. The seat of Government is at London. a great many States whose political Page 54 existence depends on the power and patronage of the British crown. &c. beyond all these. &c.. New Zealand. and a population of nearly 200. Gibraltar. the style of the kingdom is "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. they embrace various states in Hindostan. • • • • Are there any cotton goods made in the Southern States? Woollen? Army stores? Other things? Where? Are there any inducements offered to manufacturers? Is there a market? Water-power? Steam power? Staples? Name some of the staples? SECTION XXIV. IndoChina. the Falkland. Sierra Leone. New Holland. &c. second. In Oceania. In Europe. Jersey. and no nation or kingdom of ancient or modern times has been more wealthy. In Asia. the colonies of Cape of Good Hope and Natal. Ascension. these constitutions everywhere not only recognize the . the Isle of Man.the great market now open for manufactured goods. the islands of St. Mauritius.000.000 square miles. The imperial territories embrace states and colonies in every part of the world. The possessions of Great Britain in America extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Shetland Islands.000. QUESTIONS." the government is regulated by good and wholesome laws and constitutions. if not justice and forbearance. The empire of Great Britain extends over a territory of about 9. the inexhaustible resources of water-power and coal. in the Atlantic. they also embrace the Bermudas.--Great Britain and Ireland. And. and the Balize.
Scotland. with the exception of titles. which brings with it the warm waters and air of Southern regions. they are far superior to any similar class of other nations. resemble them very much. at the same time. Victoria. the lords lieutenant. changing the cold latitudes of 55° to the climate of 35°. by the diligent use of the treasures of coal. unless it be among men of the same race in the States of America. both are generally characterized by noble and generous natures. her factories are vast in . an important Page 55 and conservative part of the Government. through Jesus Christ our Lord. and power infinite. above all things. may. the members of all other creeds are not only tolerated. who are. large. Her cities are many. The lieutenants and governors represent the Crown in the several states and provinces. all kneeling reverently before the Almighty: "Almighty God. tin. Great Britain could not maintain a tithe of her population but for the Florida stream. and even impious persons. The administration of the government is committed to the Crown. the two houses of Parliament. embodied from the great principles of the book of Leviticus. and are not at all their inferiors. The Crown has secured the affection and confidence of the people. dependent on the wishes of the people. may faithfully obey her in Thee. These nobles are sometimes weak-minded. by the will of the Crown. and wealthy. and a liberal education. her subjects. and other minerals that Providence has stored under her soil.supreme authority of the Almighty. but. refinement of manners. The Crown derives its authority from the acknowledged Supreme Ruler of the universe. and exercises it under the restrictions of a constitution and laws. and in a regulated succession. she has provided employment and sustenance for a very large population. whose kingdom is everlasting. That All-wise Being. and for Thee. while many of them are examples of a highly-cultivated intellect and a devoted piety. and adapted by the experience of ages to the conditions of modern society. and the various States of which the empire is composed. duly considering whose authority she hath. and that we. Parliament and the Legislative Assemblies are elected by the people--with the exception of the House of Lords. who gave and sustains her wealth and power. The common law of Great Britain is a model of just and equitable legislation. iron. governors and legislative assemblies of Ireland. so rule the heart of Thy chosen servant. acting as a check upon hasty and ill-advised legislation. but also the Christian religion as the avowed faith of the people. whose tenure of office is. our queen and governor." by Divine right. sincere respect for religion. and by a ministry. knowing whose servant she is. who. according to Thy blessed word and ordinance. by a sincere piety and a generous and prosperous administration of the Government. immoral. for. seek Thy honour and glory. by hereditary title. also provided other means for its development than the capacity of a good climate. but are protected in the peaceable enjoyment of their worship. as a class of men.* * On every Sunday the people and nobles assemble with the king or queen in their several churches. by usage. that she. while. and the cotton brought by her ships from the Confederate States and other countries. or by right of some high official position. and repeat the following words.
the people are generous and brave. and piety have made the Anglo-Saxon race what it is. is situated on both banks of the Thames. Its mountains are as high as those of the Alleghany range in America. canals. Ben Page 56 Nevis rises to the height of 4. In Wales. and the metropolis and seat of government of the British empire. Counties. her agriculture is economical and productive. and every office and honour is open alike to the people of both countries. fortitude. Area in square miles. the capital city of England. and the method. This city contains many splendid edifices. Population. they rise to 3. gardens.number and extent. the institutions for education. The "Macgillicuddie Reeks" mountain in Ireland. The past of Great Britain belongs to us all. which are the more interesting because they are associated with those giant minds and noble hearts. the same liberty and civil rights that her own people enjoy. is 3. large and valuable libraries.571 feet. The island of Great Britain comprises Scotland on the North. numerous and elegant parks. her fisheries are extensive. In Westmoreland and Cumberland.000. in population. and England in the South and East. Ireland is represented in Parliament. are of the best kind. which is the elevation of Mount Snowdon. Wales in the West. and rapidity of transportation. about 60 miles above its mouth. LONDON. for it was the work of our forefathers. The soil and climate of Ireland are good. 51. it is more than double the whole of the Confederate States: in its internal improvements it surpasses all other lands.406 feet. the island is larger than Virginia. Notwithstanding all the efforts of ambitious and discontented men. Great Britain has succeeded in securing to the citizens of Ireland. and fine scenery adorned with old ruins of churches and castles of former days. In Scotland. whose endurance. &c.166 feet high. and by a tunnel--a passage way built under the bed of the river. The river is here crossed by seven bridges. on the south-western coast.500 feet high. 19. museums. and public roads. ENGLAND. her commerce is far beyond any other state in the world. both by the excellence of its railways. These islands abound in beautiful lakes. 40. and the island promises to take a high rank in the empire. . Scafell is 3. In size. safety.000. her people are generally well informed and industrious.000.
Windsor Castle. is the chief residence of the sovereigns of England. and immense docks.ENGLAND. canals. &c. It is connected with every part of the kingdom by numerous telegraphic wires.000 acres. . It is noted for its magnificent park of nearly 4. about 23 miles from London. abounding with deer. Page 57 conservatories. railroads.
or KINGSTON-UPON-HULL.WINDSOR CASTLE. are noted for being extensively engaged in the exportation of coal. HULL. on the coast. in France. on the north side of the estuary of the Humber. on the Tyne. 18 miles west of Yarmouth. and SUNDERLAND. and horsehair fabrics. is only 21 miles. bombazines. is noted for its manufactures of crape. Dover is also a noted place of embarkation for the continental countries of Europe. and BRIGHTON. The distance from Dover to Calais. for its beautiful cathedral. MARGATE. PORTSMOUTH and PLYMOUTH are important naval stations. NORWICH. on the Wensum. are places of resort in the summer season for bathing. at the head of the Southampton Water (an Page 58 . and other sea-side recreations. DOVER. and is largely engaged in the Baltic trade. is one of the chief seaports of England. NEWCASTLE. SOUTHAMPTON. also. CAMBRIDGE and OXFORD are celebrated for their universities.
a tributary of the Trent. situated on the east bank of the mouth of the Mersey. and thus the oceans on the opposite sides of the kingdom are connected.? Long. YORK. and MACCLESFIELD for its silk goods. is noted for its manufacture of carpets. in point of importance. is situated on a ridge. for its fine cathedral. broad. and NORTHAMPTON. KIDDERMINSTER. LEEDS. is noted for its cotton manufactures.? Climate? The British Empire in Asia? In Africa? In Oceania? In the Mediterranean Sea? Elsewhere? Are there any nations outside of the Empire under the protection of Great Britain? Where is the seat of Government? The Longitude of London? Latitude? Has the Empire good Laws? Does its Constitution recognize the Supremacy of God? Is it Jewish. LIVERPOOL. MANCHESTER. for woollens. is the great port of the cotton manufacturing district of England. and Long. or hill. for hardware. NOTTINGHAM and LEICESTER. BRISTOL. on account of their celebrated mineral springs. about 200 miles distant from London.inlet of the Solent and Spithead Channels). Mohammedan. QUESTIONS. It ranks next to London in commercial importance. This ridge forms a part of the watershed which separates the basin of the Trent from that of the Severn. BIRMINGHAM. for boots and shoes. is it as long as it is broad? Why? How many miles long? Broad? Is this the whole extent of the Empire? What is the style of the Empire? Square miles? Population? How does it compare with other great Empires in wealth? In Power? In Government? Describe the possessions in America? The Islands? Where are they? Lat. for hosiery and lace. is the third seaport city in the kingdom. on the Lower Avon. is the chief station for the Mediterranean and the West India steam-packets. BATH and CHELTENHAM are fashionable places of resort. situated on the Irwell. long and 11 deg. one of the greatest manufacturing towns in England.? If 10 deg. for cutlery. These two basins are united by means of canals. and carries on an immense trade with all parts of the world. or Christian? Is it right for a great nation to recognize the Christian Religion? . on a branch of the Severn. which rises from the small river Rea. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Where is Great Britain? Between what degrees of Lat. BIRMINGHAM. about 80 miles distant from London. SHEFFIELD.
Page 59 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Does the Law tolerate Jews. do the Government ever acknowledge his rank? Does rank always secure men from impiety. Mormons.) Does it enable Great Britain to support a large population? Her cities? Agriculture? Fisheries? Commerce? People? The political divisions? Mountains? Lakes? Ruins? Why interesting? . "By me kings reign?" Does the Crown of Great Britain ever acknowledge His authority? Do the people? Is there any advantage to a Government in reigning by God's authority? Is there anything to limit the power of the Crown? What? Does a Constitution do any good to the people? To the Crown? Could the Crown secure the rights of succession if the Constitution was destroyed? By whom does the Crown administer the Government? Can the People change this Ministry? Who represents the Crown in distant States of the Empire? Whom do Parliament represent? Are the nobles any advantage to the Empire? How many classes of nobles? When God gives a private citizen a great intellect and a noble nature. &c.? Does it protect them? Has a Christian a right in Great Britain to disturb a Turk in his worship? Has the Jew a right to object to the recognition of the Christian religion? Is the common law of England a good code? Whence derived? Who made the best laws? Can they be improved? Who administers the Government? Is Ireland a part of Great Britain? Have Irishmen any share in the Government? Who said.. without title? What distinguishes the highly civilized and noble races from savages? What distinguishes the crown of Great Britain? Is it well for an empire to have a wicked ruler? Does America do anything for the climate of Great Britain? Does nature make men and nations dependent on each other? Has Great Britain any mineral treasures? Does she know how to use them? Does she use any American produce? Does she produce anything that America uses? What is commerce? (See DEFINITIONS. &c. Turks. vice. and crime? Are the nobility of Great Britain generally impious and degraded men? Can there be rank and superiority in education.
Counties. form the leading exports. Its trade is small. but the climate is similar. but agriculture is in a backward state. WALES. resting upon massive pillars of masonry. the largest town in the principality. with mineral produce and cattle. The soil is less fertile and less cultivated than that of England. at an elevation of 100 feet above high water. Iron. MERTHYR TYDVIL. Population. situated on Menai Strait. A short distance from this.200.• • • • Have we any property in them? Size? Population? Improvements? Ireland: its soil? Climate? Political freedom? People? Describe the cities of England. is a noted seat of trade. QUESTIONS. 12. Manufactures are chiefly of woollen goods. descended from the ancient Britons. SWANSEA.000. The mining industry of the country is highly important.112. and a much frequented watering place. Menai Strait is about 14 miles in length. and the scenery is generally very picturesque. Through this tube railcars pass. . The surface of Wales is mountainous and well watered. Page 60 The inhabitants are chiefly of the Celtic race. is a noted bathing-place. 7. of more than a quarter of a mile each in length. BANGOR. It is noted as being in the vicinity of extensive coal and iron mines. and for its numerous iron foundries. It is crossed by a suspension-bridge. which consists of two iron tubes. 1. which. the strait is crossed by a tubular suspension-bridge. and other minerals are abundant. and from 200 yards to 2 miles in width. joined together. coal. is situated on the Taff. as if it were a tunnel through solid rock on land. Most of them still speak the Welsh language. on Swansea Bay. consisting chiefly in the export of slates. beneath which ships of the largest class can sail. Barley and oats are the chief grains raised. Area in square miles.
Population. Counties. 30. from Dunnet Head to the Mull of Galloway.• • • • • • The area of Wales? The number of counties? The surface of the country? Its soil. Scotland is divided into the Highlands and Lowlands. Area in square miles. the former occupy the northern part. 32. is about 300 miles. . The extreme length of Scotland. and the latter the southern. and productions? Its inhabitants? Their language? Their employments? Exports? Describe its cities.000. About two-thirds of the surface is mountainous. 3. SCOTLAND. climate.062.000.
is fertile. and the fisheries are extensive. Sheep and cattle are abundantly reared. are also cultivated. The climate is humid. iron. and lead are abundant. and other grains. barren. Wheat. but in the mountainous districts it is. The staple crop of Scotland consists of oats. for the most part. and coal. potatoes are extensively grown for the supply of the London market. . Page 61 The soil in some of the valleys. and on the east coast. In some parts. and colder than that of England.SCOTLAND.
Two great lines of railway enter Scotland from England--one to Glasgow. as far as Aberdeen. ABERDEEN is a large and handsome city. EDINBURGH. It is noted for its cemetery. The Falls of Clyde. is the remarkable Cave of Fingal. and carries on an extensive export trade in agricultural products. The exports are chiefly manufactured goods. and occupies an area of seven acres. and there are extensive ironworks. and for its University. who are a mixed people. and who speak what is called the Gaelic dialect. One of the principal manufactures is that of cotton goods. The leading pursuits are manufactures and commerce. GLASGOW is the principal seat of Scotch manufactures and commerce. and the fisheries constitute an important and valuable branch of industry. for the ancient royal palace of Holyrood House. and the Lowlanders. which is built on a lofty rock. about two miles from the south bank of the Firth Page 62 of Forth. consisting of three distinct falls of 30. 84 and 80 feet each. which lies a few miles west of the Island of Mull. It is 227 feet long. . which is thence exported to England. including large numbers of cattle. Excellent roads extend through almost every part of the country. which contains a great number of beautiful monuments. MONTROSE is said to export more grain than any other Scottish port. other lines proceed northward. are much noted for their picturesque beauty. the Highlanders. who are of the Celtic race. Linen is also manufactured to some extent. among these. and canals and railroads are numerous. and from 60 to nearly 100 feet in height.In the small island of Staffa. similar to the English.--between which place and London there is an uninterrupted railway communication about 550 miles in length. from 20 to 50 feet broad. The inhabitants form two distinct races. and the other to Edinburgh. the metropolis of Scotland. Agricultural produce is extensively supplied to England. from these cities. DUMFRIES is the great market for the agricultural produce of Southern Scotland. is a mausoleum over the mortal remains of the poet Burns. It is noted for its castle. Steam-vessels ply regularly between this place and London. in a river of the same name. is built on a range of hills. DUNDEE is noted for its extensive exports of linen and hempen goods.
The central part of Ireland consists chiefly of plains. The soil is various. Describe the people of Scotland. being in some parts fertile.000. and oats are the principal crops. barley. IRELAND Area in square miles. The Falls of Clyde. almost encircled by detached groups of mountains. Have they any canals and roads? What are the manufactures and exports? Describe the cities. Among these plains are immense tracts. Population. called bogs. • • • • • • • • • What is the area of Scotland? The number of counties? Its surface? Its soil? Its climate? What is the staple product? Other products? Describe the Island of Staffa. Counties.QUESTIONS. and. though comparatively destitute of trees. 33. Wheat. 5.765. . 32. producing little else but heath and bog-myrtle. and the climate is more moist than that of England. yet the landscape is generally pleasing. The coasts are very irregular. in others exceedingly barren. and their pursuits.000. The country is well watered.
of Coleraine. and is used by the lower classes for fuel. Dairy farms are numerous. about seven miles N. 350 feet. Fruits do not ripen without much care and attention. and its height varies from 1 foot to 30 feet. . iron. Peat is abundant. granite. The Giant's Causeway is situated on the northern coast of Ireland. is about 700 feet.IRELAND. The leading minerals are marble. Its length. and copper. its breadth. which form the staple article of food for the Irish peasantry. Page 63 next to potatoes. from the coast seaward.E.
These. consists of several pieces. chiefly for exportation. being thus traversed in the short space of 13 hours. by a swift. form the leading articles of export. It has considerable foreign trade.000 polygonal pillars of dark-coloured basalt. in itself a distinct piece of workmanship. and its numerous splendid residences. and is extensively engaged in the provision trade. . situated at the head of Belfast Lough. is noted for its linen and cotton manufactures. and as being the great entrepôt for a large extent of country. The roads are generally good. Considerable quantities of cotton goods are manufactured in the vicinity of Belfast. Page 64 Six miles to the eastward of the city. with dairy and a variety of agricultural produce (including vast numbers of live cattle and pigs). with Limerick. from Dublin to the Shannon. with Cork. A large majority of the inhabitants are of the Celtic race. and Irish poplin (a fabric of silk and worsted) is made in Dublin. the mail packet station for communication with Liverpool and Holyhead. Each pillar. BELFAST. the great metropolis of Ireland. and a favourite place of resort for the Dublin citizens. and England. and several others. The traveller is conveyed from Dublin to Holyhead. as well as extensive intercourse by steamers with the chief Scotch and English seaports. steam-packet in about four hours. CORK. and the canals from Lough Neagh to Belfast and Newry. connecting Dublin with Belfast. which entitle it to be regarded as one of the finest cities of Europe. About fourfifths of the population directly depend for subsistence and employment upon the soil. DUBLIN. the seaport for Dublin. There are also railroads. WATERFORD. is distinguished for the number and magnificence of its public buildings. Ireland is mainly a grazing country. separable from all the adjacent columns. the second city in Ireland in size and population. a distance of 70 miles. on the right bank of the Suir. to London. about 12 miles above Cork Harbour. Wales. the Menai Strait. is situated on the Lee. The principal canals are the Royal and Grand Canals. and great numbers of cattle are reared. amounting to 330 miles. on Dublin Bay. and with Galway. situated on both sides of the Liffey. is noted for its fine quay and harbour. thence by railway across the island of Anglesea. the joints of which are articulated with the utmost nicety. is Kingstown. in nine hours: the whole distance between the two cities.It is composed of about 40. The chief and most valuable manufacture is that of linen. It is the chief emporium of the south of Ireland.
and contains 30. distant from Scotland. persons may see to read with ease. Of what race are its inhabitants? Their pursuits? Has the country any roads and canals? Its manufactures and exports? Its cities? ISLANDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. that. owing partly to the highness of the latitude. from 6 to 12 miles. and in May. . soil. The climate of the isles is very variable and humid. or rock islets. night is scarcely known. though in Page 65 several instances only by a few individuals. During about a month at midsummer. is largely engaged in the coasting trade. QUESTIONS. called holms. Upwards of 30 of these islands are inhabited. has not been accurately ascertained.300 square miles.--mere sea-washed and naked stone. of the entire group.--This group. • • • • • • The area of Ireland? Its surface. about 45 miles north-east of the Orkney Isles. on an island in the Shannon. and July. Its noted manufactures are those of lace and fish-hooks. in any great degree. and a great but unascertained number are skerries or rocks. The climate does not partake. and tusk fisheries. large quantities of the latter are exported to America. comprises an area of 600 square miles. ORKNEY ISLES. SHETLAND ISLES. ling. either of summer's heat or winter's cold.LIMERICK. and more than half the population. the light. when the sky is clear. but offer no shelter or sustenance for man. comprises an area of about 5. lying in the North Atlantic. and 132 miles west of Bergen in Norway. and climate? Its productions? Describe the Giant's Causeway. at midnight.500 inhabitants. The long winter nights are often cheered by the aurora borealis. The number of inhabited islands is 29: of small islands.--This group. and contains about 31. and on both banks of that river. and partly to the superior reflecting power of water over the land. situated in the North Atlantic. Mainland contains about half the area. at the nearest points. June. and the number of skerries. about 70 are grazing islets. which afford herbage for cattle and sheep.000 inhabitants. The inhabitants are mainly occupied in the cod. called holms. 38. is so strong.
The island is much celebrated for its black cattle. ANGLESEA.* * Kelp is the calcined ashes of seaweed.000. This group is situated off the north-west coast of France.000. and its population amounts to 59. and the population probably equals 100. and the Solent in its western portion. hides. But six of the islets are inhabited. with Portsmouth and Southampton. by steamboats. numbering 3. from which it is separated by Menai Strait.W. Rabbits and poultry are very numerous. The area of the island is about 270 square miles.--These islands consist of two principal groups. and a population of about 50. are chiefly engaged in fishing and the manufacture of kelp. . forms a county of Wales. HEBRIDES. Considerable trade is carried on in butter. SCILLY ISLES. of Land's End. which are highly prized in the English markets.--This small group. or WESTERN ISLES. used in the manufacture of glass. Guernsey. on the opposite shore. is situated in the Page 66 English Channel off the south coast of England. not including the small islets. The estimated area is 3. the capital of the island. from which it is separated on the north by a channel. containing an area of 136 square miles.--The principal are Jersey. cheese. called Spithead in its eastern half. and contains a population of nearly 100. Newport.000. occupying a space of about 40 square miles.000. WIGHT. and Sark. The island is frequently visited by tourists. herring.180 square miles. lying 30 miles S. of these only 70 are inhabited throughout the year.000. and lobster fishing. situated in the Irish Sea. Great numbers of lobsters are annually shipped for the London market.--This island. about four miles from its mouth. consists of about 100 islets and rocks. Alderney. wax and honey. is located on Medina river. The total number. tallow. also cod. A constant communication is kept up. called the Inner and the Outer Hebrides.--This island.The chief employments of the inhabitants are hunting for wild birds and eggs. The inhabitants. amounts to 160. on account of the picturesque and diversified character of its scenery. CHANNEL ISLANDS.
MAN.Beaumaris. Steamboats ply between this place and Liverpool during nine months of the year. EUROPE. HOLYHEAD is a small island on the west side of Anglesea. the capital. from which it is divided by a strait. containing an area of 280 square miles. occupies a central position in the Irish Sea. is situated at the north entrance of Menai Strait. in some places fordable at low water. Page 67 .--This island. Liverpool. and Belfast. about equidistant from the seaports of Glasgow. The town of Holyhead owes its importance chiefly to the fact that it is the nearest British port to Dublin.
" The surface of Europe is everywhere well watered. is a seaport town and watering-place. Castletown is the capital of the island. corn.000. miles. Man.The population amounts to about 50. is 2. The mountain chains may be divided into four distinct systems. population. What is the occupation of the people? Describe the Orkney Islands. Those that ply between Whitehaven and Dublin touch at the island twice a week. the eastern portions. the Sclavonians. viz. a large proportion of whom are engaged either in the mines. is 2. besides several parallel chains intersecting the Iberian Peninsula. the Alps. About nine-tenths of the population belong to the Caucasian Page 68 race. from Cape North to Cape Matapan. Holyhead. and is called "the Steppes.:--the Teutonic. The Liverpool and Glasgow steamers frequently stop at this port. the Pyrenees. viz. limestone and lead-ore. to the foot of the Uralian Mountains. and are divided into three principal families. Austria. from Astrakan in Russia to Brest on the west coast of France. or German. • • • • • • Where are the Shetland Isles? Describe their size. 3. eggs. on the east coast. SECTION XXV. chiefly inhabiting the northern and central parts of the continent. The greatest length of Europe. QUESTIONS.--The Continent of Europe. the Scilly Isles. &c. number. Germany. Douglas. butter. which stretches along the northern and eastern frontiers of Hungary. Prussia and Russia. 262. Describe the Isle of Wight. The Eastern portion of this plain is prairie. poultry. Anglesea. the Channel Islands. of which most of the mountains of France. Population.860 miles. and the Celtic. some small parts in the west. .400 miles: its extreme breadth. over Northern Germany.000.000. The exports are chiefly herring. and Italy are diverging branches.700. A vast plain extends from the mouth of the Rhine. Turkey. and the Carpathian. between France and Spain. under the names of the Kiölen and Dofrines Mountains. Area in sq. which traverses the peninsula of Norway and Sweden. The Hebrides. or in the herring fishery. cattle.:--the Scandinavian system.000.
Population. France is the most powerful and important of the great empires of the world. • • • • • The area of Europe? Its population? Its length and breadth? Its mountains? Its plains? To what races do its people belong? From what country did they come? The country of Europe first peopled? SECTION XXVI. resulting from the intermarriage of these three great families. was the region earliest peopled in Europe. or Greece. who. without interfering with the religious and spiritual jurisdiction of the Papal court. there are several things in which France ranks above all other nations. His people are justly proud of their ruler as a brave general. the cradle of the human race. and the will of the King of kings. QUESTIONS. but it has been wisely effected. and it is probable that the south-east corner of the continent. The remnant of the population is made up of the Mongolian race: these are the Finns and Laplanders--the Samoiedes and Kalmucks (the former in the northern and the latter in the south-eastern part of Russia)--the Turks. who form the majority of the population of Hungary. . and the Magyars. Departments. Area in square miles. 86. a humane and wise governor. This could not have been done without the consent and aid of Great Britain. has gradually emancipated the people who were under their political thraldom. and the Mohammedan divan.000.The south of Europe is mainly occupied by a mixed race.--France. Next to Great Britain. 36. The present illustrious Emperor has done much to develop and establish the present position of his empire in the face of much opposition.000.000. Indeed. and. The first inhabitants of Europe came from Asia. and a sagacious statesman. 211.
France differs. chemicals. in the one case. they depend on the energies and wisdom of the Executive. silks. cloth. Paris is the first city of the world in some respects. The manufactures of France embrace almost everything that the nations trade in. the Papal and Mohammedan dynasties find themselves divested of the authority to persecute the Jew or the Christian. . from Great Britain in the permanence of her power and political institutions. Page 71 after more than twelve centuries of almost unlimited political power over surrounding nations. They have a large country. watches and jewellery. in the other. gloves. and a location which makes them the natural political centre of Europe. perfumes. the finer varieties of cotton and woollen goods.EUROPE PHYSICAL MAP. for. and second only to London in others. and in some articles they surpass other countries in the cheapness and quality of products. and the superior kinds of chinaware. however. they rest on a permanent national Constitution. are among some of the manufactures in which the French excel. Wine and spirituous liquors. a fine climate. save only by appealing to the passions of mobs.
and level. such as shows. The public fêtes all take place here. extends for about 5 miles along the river Seine (111 miles from its mouth). the capital. in which the Celtic predominates. The public structures of the city are numerous and magnificent. Comtesse de Téba. his empress is Eugénie-Marie de Guzman. but maize is everywhere general. There are also railroads which connect some of the cities in the interior with the capital. from which a dye is obtained. is cultivated in some districts. . More than onehalf the inhabitants are engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the parts bordering on the Rhine. Grain is generally grown on the higher grounds. The chief minerals are iron. are among the most important products. containing large and valuable collections of books and manuscripts. the beet-root. The surface of France is mountainous in the south-eastern and southern portions. music. Paris is noted for its National Library. The high-roads are numerous and good. Of the religious edifices. PARIS. of which the cultivation of the vine forms an important feature. are to be met with here. or undulating.. circuses. Dec. the journey between Paris and London (a distance of 215 miles) is effected in ten hours. the Cathedral of Notre Dame is the most celebrated. and even on ordinary occasions. The forests furnish excellent timber for ship-building and carpentering. a favourite place of resort. 2nd. is extensively raised.000 miles. The principal lines of railways connect Paris with the most important towns on the English Channel and with those on the Belgian frontier. wool." The Champs Elysées. entered by gates or barrières. Among vegetables. and a great variety of fruits. coal. wines. called "Ile de la Cité. and salt. Bees and the silk-worm are extensively reared in the south of France. By means of railroads and steam-navigation. which is here crossed by upwards of twenty bridges. It is situated on one of the islands in the Seine. various attractions. The navigable rivers and canals afford facilities of communication for a distance of about 8.The name of the present emperor is Louis Napoleon. the people are mostly of the Germanic race. Page 72 France is mainly inhabited by a mixed race. Madder. is a sort of public promenade or park lined with trees. The city is surrounded by walls. in the north and north-west. panoramas. Silk. His reign began in the year 1852. from which sugar is obtained. &c. olive-oil.
Denmark.It is the second city in Europe in population. The chief naval stations and dockyards of France are at Cherbourg. &c. Bordeaux. in the West Indies. in Polynesia. Lyons. The vessels come freighted with hemp. a strongly fortified city. Martinique. Lawrence. It communicates regularly by steam-packets with New York. or Strasbourg. Rheims. a part of Guiana. Sweden. tallow. L'Orient. Dieppe. velvets. LYONS is the second city in France in commercial importance. Paris. Amiens. Page 73 CALAIS. in Northern Africa. and educational establishments. BORDEAUX is the great emporium of the wine trade. LE HAVRE is an important commercial city of France. are noted manufacturing places. STRASBURG. and London. owes its importance chiefly to its being the French port nearest to England. Le Havre. Toulon. La Rochelle. Rouen. St. and Russia. in the Gulf of St. Malo. &c. . NANTES carries on considerable trade with Northern Germany. the Island of Bourbon. Nantes. Desirade. The colonial possessions of France are--the Territory of Algeria. Lille. Valenciennes. and Brest. and a few other settlements. in Western Africa. MARSEILLES is extensively engaged in the trade of wines and fruits. Marseilles. literary. noted for its magnificent palace. Nismes. Louis. and Nantes. in Hindostan. Steamers ply between this city and Basle.. Twelve miles west of Paris. and is the great outlet for all the natural and artificial productions of Southern France. in the Indian Ocean. Boulogne. and L'Orient. Metz. Dieppe. Rotterdam. Marseilles. carries on an extensive transit trade. the Marquesas Isles and the Island of Tahiti. in Australasia. a fortified seaport town. Avignon. Pierre and Miquelon. at the mouth of the Senegal. and the chief commercial port on the Bay of Biscay. Guadaloupe. Martin (north part). Pondicherry. and New Caledonia. and carry back the wines and brandies of France. Mariegalante and Les Saintes. Strasburg. Bordeaux. Bayonne. it surpasses other cities. It is celebrated for its cathedral. Grenoble. and also with various ports of Europe. the Islands of St. and the chief seat of the manufactures of silks. in South America. is Versailles. and in reference to its scientific. the small Islands of St. The principal ports for foreign trade are St.
in some places it is so shallow as not to admit of being ploughed. Area in square miles. NORWAY.Page 74 QUESTIONS. abounding in romantic scenery. separated occasionally by deep and narrow valleys. as well as in various other places in high latitudes. as usually represented. and the summers warm. but. or saltwater inlets. and departments of France? Its surface? Its products? Its people.--Norway and Sweden. but of short duration. especially in the south. The surface is mountainous.460.328. Population. and the coast is deeply indented by numerous fiords. vegetation is extremely . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What empire ranks next to Great Britain? In what respects? Is the present Executive a good one? Has he met with any difficulties? Are any of the French people conscious of the advantages of his Government? In what respect is he illustrious? Has he usurped the spiritual jurisdiction of the Pope? Does he allow the Pope's enemies to crush him in his spiritual rights? Where is the seat of Mohammedan power? Can the Turk imprison and kill Jews and Christians now as in former times? Could France effect these things alone? Could France and Great Britain united accomplish these things? Is there any King of Kings? Is He responsible for the Government and the rise and fall of nations? What advantage has Great Britain over France in the stability of her power and glory? Has the Crown of Great Britain ever acknowledged this? What is the first city of the world? The second? The manufactures of France? Is France larger than Great Britain? Climate? Location? The Emperor's name? The Empress's? The length of his reign? The area. The mountains of Norway do not form a continuous chain or ridge. population. 5. The winters are long and cold. Provinces. 1. In this country. a series of broad plateaux. 122. and their pursuits? The roads of France? Its cities? Its colonies? SECTION XXVII.000. The soil is generally poor.
The Norwegians are of Germano-Celtic origin. mining. barley. and potatoes are the chief agricultural products. turpentine. CHRISTIANIA. Fruit-trees are not common in Norway. the capital. Population. The remuneration they are entitled to receive is fixed by the Government. Laens. Nearly one-eighth of the surface is covered with lakes. and chiefly limited to useful articles for domestic life and agricultural purposes. The rivers. timber. is navigable for ships only the distance of 14 miles from its mouth. Area in square miles.000. which present a beautiful appearance when viewed from the city. The Glommen.500. The leading exports are iron. consisting chiefly of beech. Laplanders and Finns inhabit the northern part of the country. and birch. or provinces. 3. oats. SWEDEN. and lakes of the entire peninsula swarm with the greatest abundance of fish. is the chief seat of foreign trade. and no public coaches in the kingdom: to facilitate communication. the longest river in the kingdom. Bergen derives its chief importance from being the entrepôt of the fisheries of the country. At each station the neighbouring farmers are obliged to furnish horses and a driver to carry the traveller to the next station. Page 75 seas. abounding in lakes and small rivers. . 170. In many districts. 24. and fisheries. are extensively exported to Sweden and Great Britain. Rye. The Norwegian horses. copper. stations have been established at distances of from 7 to 10 miles. oak. The surface of Sweden is mostly level.rapid on the return of summer. Drammen is noted for its trade in timber. The bay is dotted with numerous wooded islands. The principal sources of wealth are the mines. and horses. pine. Their leading pursuits are raising cattle. Manufactures are few.300. fish. cod-liver oil. forests. barley is reaped in six or seven weeks after the seed has been sown. and one-fourth with forests. a small but hardy breed. There are no railroads or canals. and fishing. Few of the rivers are navigable for any distance inland. fir.
The soil is not generally good. while. except that in this part of the peninsula a surplus of corn is raised. The people of Sweden and Norway speak different dialects of the same language. in Norway. and the surface of the lakes and rivers forms a firm coating of ice. the former connecting Lakes Wener and Wetter. The winter throughout the greater part of the entire peninsula occupies about seven months of the year. and are of the same origin as the Norwegians. The leading industrial pursuits are rearing of live-stock. about 50 miles distant from Gottenburg. The inhabitants are styled Swedes. By means of these canals a navigable water communication is maintained from the Baltic Sea to the Strait of Cattegat. and the latter overcoming the obstructions in the navigation of the outlet of Lake Wener. and commerce. during which the ground is covered with snow. The main roads to and from Stockholm are generally excellent. across the southern part of Sweden. Its situation is extremely Page 77 picturesque. The exports are mainly timber. It is the greatest fall in Europe of the same volume of water. and only a small part of Page 76 either this country or Norway is under cultivation. is a small town. Steamboats ply on all the principal lakes. Falun. Lobsters are exported to the English market in large numbers. grains. and the produce of the mines. or Fahlun. These islands are united by several bridges. the capital of Norway and Sweden. There are several interesting cataracts in various parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula. noted for the extensive copper mines in its vicinity. the most noted of which are the Falls of Trolhoetta. the inhabitants travel with facility in sledges drawn by horses or by reindeer. STOCKHOLM. which occur in the River Gotha. there is not enough for home consumption. Upon the frozen surface thus everywhere presented. and on such parts of the rivers as are navigable. and it is the chief commercial emporium of Sweden. The products resemble those of Norway. is built on some small islands at the entrance of Lake Malar. The most important canals are those of Gotha and Trolhoetta. . mining.
but the slopes of these are very gradual. The soil is marshy and poor in the north. is about 1. The most extensive iron-works of Russia are near Lake Onega.000. It comprises 58 governments. Fur-bearing animals abound along the borders of the Arctic Ocean. situated on some small islands off the south coast. and provinces of Sweden? Its soil? Products? The public roads of Sweden? Its cities? SECTION XXVIII.--Russia. It is chiefly a plain. there may be said to be only two seasons--summer and winter. potash. Area in square miles about 8. soil. from the south part of the Crimea to the shores of the Arctic Ocean. the Baltic Sea.Carlscrona. and furnish timber. and barley are among the important products. and provinces of Norway? Its surface. and cattle are numerous in every part of the empire. and products? Its inhabitants and manufactures? Its cities? Area. The length of Russia. and carries on considerable commerce. next to the capital. the termination of the heat of summer being immediately followed by the frost and snow of winter. population. In the south. 58. Governments. rye. the most important trading city in the kingdom. including the Province of Finland. pitch. The principal part of the town communicates with the mainland by a bridge. Fruits flourish in the south. a western.700 miles. divided into three parts--a northern. and a southern region--indicated by the respective courses of the rivers toward the Arctic Ocean. In the northern part of the empire.000. Gottenburg is. Population. Malmo is one of the strongest towns in the kingdom.000. and turpentine in abundance. . 70. and the portion of the former Kingdom of Poland which still preserves the name of that country. QUESTIONS.000. population. • • • • • • • • The area. but in the south it is tolerably fertile. Corn. and the Black and Caspian Seas. it is mild and temperate. Page 78 Forests are numerous. is the naval arsenal of Sweden.
hempen fabrics. has lost much of its former importance since the downfall of Polish independence. The foreign trade of Russia consists in the exchange of her native products. while superintending the building of the city.300 yards in width) is defended by strong batteries placed at the extremity of the two points of land that form the north and south horns of the bay. The entrance to the harbour (1. The oldest and perhaps the most noted structure in St. It is now covered with a brick building. It is the chief commercial city of the empire. It was the station for the Russian fleet in the Black Sea. lakes. SEBASTOPOL is a strongly fortified seaport town of Southern Russia. The communication between the different parts of the city is kept up. metal-wares. and partly on the adjacent mainland. corn. PETERSBURG. ST. hemp. and timber. hides. By means of canals. there is an uninterrupted water communication between the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov. WARSAW. and the centre of a great inland commerce. and its lofty and elegant buildings. It is the favourite residence of the wealthiest and most ancient noble families of the empire. for the luxuries and finer manufactures of other countries. by bridges of boats. though it is still the great entrepôt of trade for Russian Poland. furs. during the summer. The Tartars inhabit the south-east part of the empire. the seas. is built partly on islands at the mouth of the river Neva. the capital. MOSCOW is a large city. iron. ODESSA is the southern emporium of Russian commerce.--such as tallow. and by the ice in winter. at which time the boats are removed. By means of the canal which connects the Oka with the Don. at Tula. and is noted for its spacious streets. Page 79 ASTRACHAN is the centre of the maritime commerce of Russia with the countries of Western Asia.The people are chiefly of the Sclavonic race. ARCHANGEL is the chief seaport of the northern provinces of Russia. Manufactures are on the increase. to preserve it from the effects of the weather. the ancient capital of Poland. is the small hut in which Peter the Great dwelt. It is also the chief seat of the fisheries of the Caspian Sea and the Volga. and rivers of the empire are united into a complete system of internal navigation. and leather. . among the most important articles are glass. Much attention has been given of late to internal improvement in the constructing of railroads. Petersburg.
the reindeer is the most valuable to the inhabitants. Georgia is a mountainous country. though but little known region. the greater part of which is known by the name of Georgia. but many of them are now partially engaged in agricultural or trading occupations. Siberia. pomegranates. its horns into glue. the Caucasian Provinces. and the poorer people. the sun is constantly visible for a number of weeks about midsummer.600 miles. belongs partly to Russia.500. a cold and barren country of Northern Europe. The climate is so cold in winter that water is often frozen in the vessel. is low and marshy. the land.000 square miles. With a couple of reindeer attached to a small light sledge. Elias and Fairweather are the loftiest peaks. and invisible for nearly the same period about Christmas. RUSSIAN AMERICA has an area in square miles of about 450. of whom 9. its sinews are made into thread. it forms almost their Page 80 entire wealth.000. flax. between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Its products are grain of various kinds. ASIATIC RUSSIA consists of two parts: 1st. and 2nd. of which Mount St. and its skin into clothing. Siberia occupies the entire northern part of the Asiatic Continent. Indeed. and partly to Sweden. In the parts north of the Arctic Circle. in some parts. and are clothed with the skins of the reindeer and other animals.LAPLAND. except its centre. . from 50 to 100. Between the mountain range and the sea. Their habits are frequently dirty and repulsive. and also into spoons and other domestic utensils. which is traversed by the river Kur. The estimated population is 61. and Russians. It is an extensive. and its breadth about 1. Swedes. Its milk and flesh affords them excellent food. Among the animals of Lapland. The entire population is loosely estimated at 60. Its extreme length is about 3.000 are Laplanders.000. In the south-east part there is a chain of mountains. madder. hemp. Of these useful creatures a wealthy Laplander possesses 1. The Georgians are a remarkably handsome race. It is a Russian penal colony. and other fruits.000 or more. and the remainder Norwegians.800 miles. as a person is in the act of drinking it. The Laplanders live chiefly in tents. lying in the northwest part of North America. but in the summer (which is very short) the heat is sometimes as great as in countries situated some 15° or 20° farther south. a Laplander will travel 50 or 60 miles a day. cotton and wine. The estimated area is about 150.
The remainder of the surface is an undulating region of hills and valleys.000.000. The inhabitants (about 9. Area (of Turkey) in square miles. and their number is not known. it has attracted at various times the commercial enterprise of several of the nations of the earth. Furbearing animals abound. Each boat is made to hold one person.000 miles in length from island to island in their fragile baidares--a kind of light boat. from which a diverging branch passes south into Greece. the Balkan. Grain is produced in the south in very small quantities. volcanic. traverses the central part of Turkey. In summer. for the most part. They belong to Russia. animals with which Russian America abounds. or of fishbones. . TURKEY. and in pursuit of the sea-otter will undertake voyages of 1.500. • • • • • The area. just fitted to the size of his body. population. They are skilful fishers and hunters. The inhabitants are chiefly Esquimaux and Indians. A chain of mountains. and the Dinaric Alps in the northwest. roofed with turf. QUESTIONS. composed of the skins of animals. 210. also fish. and the climate exceedingly cold. and here and there a few trees.The soil is sterile.000) are a mixture of the Mongol Tartars and the North American Indians. in winter. In consequence of the furbearing. who sits in a round hole. on the northern frontier. the inhabitants live in huts. in spacious excavations of the earth. are found on the hills. 12. and. each of which is capable of accommodating from 50 to 150 persons. Page 81 The ALEUTIAN ISLES consist of several groups lying between the Peninsula of Alaska and the Asiatic Continent. and government of Russia? Its length? Surface and soil? Its races? Internal improvements and cities? Its possessions? SECTION XXIX--European Turkey and Greece. The other principal mountains are the Carpathian. mostly pines and birches. and. Population. They are rocky. drawn tightly over a framework of wood.
are generally employed. The commerce of the country consists principally in these articles. is built on a tongue of land on the west side of the Strait of Bosphorus. of the same. Turkey is noted for its abundance of opium and rhubarb. the capital both of European and of Asiatic Turkey. are so muffled and veiled that they cannot be recognized. when they appear in the streets. from which the celebrated attar.The soil is exceedingly fertile. and barley. particularly drugs and fruit. and on an inlet. and flax. are grown in large quantities. or sofa mattresses and carpets. Very few of the roads are practicable for carriages. however. and in its various products in their natural state. known as the "Golden Horn. CONSTANTINOPLE. There are neither canals nor railroads in the country. The Turks. and sleep on the floor on cushions. and dirty streets. The remainder of the population is mainly composed of Greeks. are plentiful in the south. The Danube is the great highway of commerce for all the northern provinces. The southern base of the Balkan range is remarkable for the abundance of its roses. tobacco. are cultivated in the central and Page 82 elevated districts. or bay. cotton. Trout are plentiful in the rivers. The females of Turkey. Page 83 . or mules. but only a small portion is cultivated. to consist of a perfect labyrinth of narrow. is exceedingly beautiful. light and air being derived from interior court-yards. eat. though but a small part of the population. is not as mild as might be supposed from the geographical position of the country. olives. grapes. and the marshes abound with leeches. on examination. Armenians. winding. and the climate in the north is changeable. hemp. and other fruits. and present dead walls to the street. are the ruling people. both for the conveyance of passengers and of goods. and horses. when approached by water. but it is found. which form an important article of export. while in the south it is generally warm and pleasant. or otto. and Jews. The manufactures of Turkey are chiefly those of carpets. Goats are more abundant here than in any other country in Europe. Both men and women sit. In the Principality of Servia. The climate. The houses are generally built of wood. silks. Rice. of roses is distilled. and Turkey leather. oranges. steep. figs." The general aspect of the city.
the most commercial city of European Turkey. SALONICA is. Its mosques and public baths are numerous. Prefectures. interspersed with fine valleys. 10. and the climate is warm and delightful. and of various nations of Sclavonic origin. honey. oil. situated at the eastern extremity of the city. Sophia. Much attention is paid to the culture of the olive and the vine. or Imperial Palace. Population. is situated in one of the most fertile plains in the world. The greatest extent of Greece. and other liquids. ADRIANOPLE. the peninsula of the Morea. dates. Page 84 There are few roads in the interior of the country. formerly the church of St. drugs. is about 200 miles. lying north of the Gulf of Lepanto. and is surrounded by a lofty whitewashed wall. In March the olives bud. The chief divisions of the kingdom are Northern Greece. cotton. Area in square miles. and various islands scattered over the greater part of the Grecian Archipelago. cotton. figs. and the produce of honey is very great. It stands on a hill slope. and dried fruits. A large proportion are shepherds. The flesh of the goats is used for food. GREECE. and a Mohammedan mosque. valonia (a species of acorn used by tanners).000. 18. &c.500. The exports are mainly currants. Bees are abundant. and a few plains of limited extent.000. five miles in circuit. The chief productions are grains. The surface is mountainous. olive oil. rice. and their skins are made into vessels for holding wine. The inhabitants are the mixed offspring of the descendants of the ancient Greeks. The soil is fertile in the valleys. Sheep and goats are numerous. oranges. 1. . connected with the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth.The most noted public buildings are the Seraglio. The winter is short. and in May the grain is reaped. citron. pomegranates. and the almonds are in blossom. next to Constantinople. or Hellas. the second city of Turkey in population. from north to south.
ATHENS. Illyria. and climate? Products. the most celebrated is the Acropolis. 259.850. population. Page 85 The province of Galicia. or Mars' Hill. QUESTIONS. Population. is chiefly celebrated for the numerous remains of its former works of art. To the west of this is the Areopagus. philosophers. in the midst of the city.000. and climate? Its products? Its people and roads? The cities? The area. 490). situated in a small plain near the Gulf of Egina.--Austria. Provinces. Styria. and Dalmatia. and Venice. Hungary. Galicia. celebrated for the great victory gained by the Athenians over their Persian invaders (B. exports. and provinces Turkey? Its surface. was formerly a part of the Kingdom of Poland. the Military Frontier. viz. surface. German Austria includes the following provinces.:--Bohemia. Hungary. Sclavonia. • • • • • • • • The area. warriors. Of its existing antiquities. Silesia. population. Moravia. is the principal seat of the foreign trade of Greece.? The cities? SECTION XXX. the capital. or Temple of Minerva. or citadel. and poets of ancient times. Area in square miles. 37. About twenty miles to the north-east of Athens are the village and plain of Marathon. and Tyrol.C. PATRAS. This empire comprises German Austria. in the north-east section of Austria. Archduchy of Austria. &c. soil. It contains the remains of the ancient Parthenon. the spot from which the Apostle Paul addressed the assembled multitude of ancient Athens. and prefectures of Greece? Its divisions. This city is also noted as having been the birth-place of the most illustrious sages. Transylvania. soil.300. are comprehended under the general name of the Hungarian Countries. 16. Croatia. which crowns the summit of a lofty hill. or Austrian Poland. . on the Gulf of Patras.
to the eastern part of Galicia. and a great variety of fruits. and paper are among the chief articles manufactured. the capital. have been constructed across upwards of sixty of the mountain passes of the empire.000 square miles. wool.Austrian Italy formerly comprised the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom on the south side of the Alps. mining. Leeches are numerous in the marshy districts of the empire. glass. but is now restricted to Venice only. in Italy. The surface of Austria is considerably diversified. and frequently cloudy in the south. and contains an area of about 20. The Danube and its Page 86 navigable tributaries form the great commercial highway of the empire. and cattle. Agriculture. It is traversed by the Alps.000 square miles. Austria ranks among the richest of the countries of Europe. The soil is generally good. an uninterrupted macadamized road. leeches. The inhabitants belong to four principal families:--The German. the most important city in the German Provinces of Austria. hides. wool.100 miles in length. leads. warm. there are numerous other highways. are among the chief agricultural products. Silk. Prague. the heat in summer is very great. is. BOHEMIA is a fertile plain. Sclavonian. enclosed by mountains. In minerals. Roads. Austrian Silesia contains an area of about 2. In the Hungarian countries are extensive plains and marshes. and the climate cool and clear in the north. vines. glass. Grain. but with the two great seaports of the Adriatic. as well as for various branches of mining industry. and several railroads. but moist. or Magyars. cotton. The leading exports are corn. timber. commodious for travelling and commercial purposes. across mountains and rivers. rice. wine. and the raising of sheep form the leading pursuits. which connect the capital not only with nearly all the cities of note in Northern Germany. but Austria is not noted as a manufacturing country. olives. minerals. In the low parts of the empire. . porcelain. hemp. The greater part of the LombardoVenetian kingdom was ceded to Sardinia in 1859. hops. next to Vienna. Carpathian and other mountain ranges. of more than 1. flax. From Pavia. Bohemia is much celebrated for its glass-works. particularly about the Danube. Italian and Hungarian. tobacco. Besides these. flax.
It consists of a natural forest. coffee-houses. Among the public buildings are the Cathedral of St. Laybach is the capital. which enables large vessels to penetrate within the very heart of the city. Gratz. 1805. This city communicates with the sea by means of a canal. TRIESTE is the chief commercial city of German Austria. This park is crowded with pedestrians and splendid equipages on fête days. and contains deer-parks. Page 87 STYRIA comprises within its limits an area of about 9. by the river Enns. the capital. . TYROL embraces a territory of about 11. Upper Austria.000 square miles.000 square miles. It is surrounded by a wall 40 to 50 feet high. laid out in long paths. the Custom House. the chief of which is the Prater. the capital of the empire. is the capital of the Earldom of Tyrol. It is a pastoral country.MORAVIA contains an area of about 10. on the Inn. the capital. Brunn. and the University. Shipbuilding is here carried on to a great extent. and exported to various parts of Europe. Mining is a chief object of industry. In many parts of the valley of the Inn. is the chief seat of the woollen manufactures of Austria. ILLYRIA contains an area of about 10. and the great seat of the foreign commerce of the entire empire. and the chief wealth of the inhabitants is in their cattle and other live stock.000 square miles. Vienna is noted for its fine public walks and parks. The ARCHDUCHY of AUSTRIA contains an area of about 15.000 square miles. &c. and is entered by 12 gates. The eastern half is called Lower Austria. is extensively engaged in the transit trade between Trieste and Vienna. Stephen. on an island in the Danube. historically noted for the battle of the 2nd of December.000 square miles. and the chief manufacturing city. This city carries on an extensive trade between Germany and Trieste. Innspruck. is the great centre of inland commerce. the Imperial Palace. canary birds are extensively reared. This city was the head-quarters of Napoleon before the battle of Austerlitz. The town of Austerlitz. lies about 14 miles to the east of Brunn. VIENNA. and the western. and is divided into two parts. Three fairs are annually held at Vienna. situated on an affluent of the Drave.
In this region there are extensive marshes. whence the name of the province.000 square miles. and mining. PESTH. which are chiefly wrought by gipsies. There are also several gold mines in different parts of the province.000 square miles. In the valleys of the north. the chief commercial city of Hungary. it is so mild that the finest species of grapes which Europe possesses thrive well. or Magyars. and for its immense numbers of swine and black cattle. which lasts six weeks. snow falls as early as September. HUNGARY includes six provinces. The chief objects of industry are agriculture.000. cattle-rearing. Large quantities of furs are brought here by the Russians from Siberia and Tartary. The surface of Hungary presents very diversified regions and climates. TRANSYLVANIA contains an area of about 20. Hungary is noted for its breed of horses. are the ruling nation. With the exception of France. The salt mines are very productive. . The inhabitants pay great attention to the rearing of cattle and other live stock. the capital of Galicia. It covers a space of about 500 miles in length by 70 in breadth. Mineral produce forms the chief source of wealth. The northwest.000. Tobacco is extensively grown in various parts of the kingdom. These form a total area of 127. The inhabitants belong to several distinct families. The banks of the rivers are densely wooded. is noted for its January Fair.000 square miles. Lemberg. and forms an important article of export.000 square miles. while in the south. north. Galicia and Hungary are noted as being the two principal corn-growing provinces of the empire. though they number only about one-third the total population of the Hungarian countries. The latter city ranks as the capital of Hungary. speaking different languages. Its surface is chiefly a table-land. and north-east parts are traversed by the Carpathian Mountains. Rock salt is exceedingly abundant. and exchanged for the hardware and woollen and cotton goods of Austria. between which and the east and south-east. and embrace a population of about 14. containing an Page 88 area of about 20. communicates by a handsome suspension bridge with BUDA on the opposite bank of the Danube. Hungary produces a greater quantity of wine than any other country in Europe.GALICIA contains an area of about 34. and seldom disappears before the middle of June. extends a vast plain. The Hungarians. which signifies a forest region. a vast bed of which extends from Wallachia through Transylvania to Galicia. sloping towards the west.
Area in square miles. QUESTIONS. and the seat of the superior courts of the two provinces. instigated by the patriot Garibaldi. SECTION XXXI. &c. the capital of the kingdom. Sclavonia. Clausenburg is the capital.700. soil. 24. the States of the Church.000. and Transylvania. Magyars. Provincial Hungary.600 square miles. and the Duchies of Modena and Parma. • • • • The area. In 1860. and exports? Describe its provinces. Agram. the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. SCLAVONIA lies chiefly between the rivers Save and Drave. on condition of military service in peace and war. Gipsies. Szeklers. CROATIA is chiefly inhabited by Sclavonians. but is held by a kind of military fief. is the residence of the Governor. All landed property in this district belongs exclusively to the Government.000 square miles. comprising an area of about 18. Transylvania is inhabited by three distinct nations. the Lipari Isles. The MILITARY FRONTIER. 119.Kronstadt is the manufacturing and commercial town of the province. including islands. Zara. With these there are inter-mixed Page 89 a number of Poles. is noted for its cathedral. The articles here manufactured supply the peasantry of Wallachia and Moldavia.. chose the King of Sardinia for their sole ruler. and products? Its people. the capital. climate. . Jews.650 square miles. the Kingdom of Naples.000. Italy was formerly divided into various states. of 5. Population. Arminians. Greeks. consists of parts of Croatia. The coasting trade and the fisheries employ a great part of the inhabitants. together with the Island of Sicily. and contains an area of 3.800 square miles. comprising the Kingdom of Sardinia. the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom.--Italy. and provinces of Austria? Its surface. viz. roads. Area of Croatia is about 3. under different rulers. population. DALMATIA has an area. under the title of King of Italy. the Italian people. and Saxons.
olive oil. and the Island of Sardinia. but are a mixed race.The surface of the country is generally mountainous. &c. The Italians. viz. Lombardy. are among the other leading articles fabricated. Germans. lava and marble are found in considerable quantities. Genoa. by which communication is carried on with France. lead. are not one of the primitive tribes of Europe. the capital of the Duchy of Genoa. coral. though there are some level districts in the north and west. previous to 1859 Page 91 . kid and lamb skins. in the Mediterranean. and the climate is warm and delightful. TURIN. Lombardy. straw hats. Genoa and Nice. is the chief seaport and naval arsenal. Silk is extensively manufactured. alabaster. Iron. straw hats. cheese. Sardinia embraces several states or provinces. but in Central and Southern Italy they are very defective. Sponges and corals are furnished along the coasts of Sicily. the present capital of Italy. the roads are generally good.:--Piedmont. descendants of Greeks. is situated in a delightful valley on the left side of the River Po. two small provinces which border on the Mediterranean. south of Piedmont. The raw silk is chiefly supplied to France and England. and Tuscany. and Germany. wines. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit. In the north there are numerous passes over the Alps. over these and the other mountain roads of Italy. like the Greeks. in the number and importance of its scientific and literary institutions. anchovies. The chief exports are raw silk. The Neapolitan provinces are noted for their grapes and other fruits. Page 90 The soil is remarkable for its fertility. It ranks first among the cities of Italy. Gauls. fruits. In Sardinia. and perfumery. Switzerland. which extends from the crest of the Alps and the Apennines on the North and South into the great plain of Lombardy on the east. artificial flowers. and musical instruments. an important province of Italy. The principal cities in the north are connected by railroads. Mules are generally used for purposes of transport.
is the most populous city in Italy. Peter's Cathedral is the most magnificent ecclesiastical structure in the world. north of the Papal dominions. ROME. Tuscany. and is noted for the number and splendour of its churches. is noted for its cathedral. is built on 72 small islands. which are joined together by 306 bridges. soil. and roads? Its people and exports? Its cities. Naples. QUESTIONS. is celebrated for its splendid collections of works of art. form the southern portion of the peninsula. called gondolas. both in sculpture and painting. situated on the north-west side of a bay of the same name. The province of Naples. which are partially separated from the sea by a narrow strip of firm sand. and the Lipari Isles. and for its being the largest book-mart in Italy. The chief thoroughfares are canals. the chief city. It covers nearly five acres. lies along the Mediterranean coast. These islands lie in the midst of extensive lagunes.formed part of the Austrian dominions. one of the grandest specimens of architecture extant. Florence. VENICE. a strongly fortified and important maritime city belonging to Austria. &c. The Canal Grande. Shipbuilding is extensively carried on there. population. which separates the city into two nearly equal portions. the capital of the ancient Roman Empire. and the communication between different parts of the city is almost universally carried on by means of small.000 apartments.? Page 92 . Adjacent to it is the Vatican. of which there are 149. Its chief city. and divisions of Italy? Its surface. Leghorn is the principal seaport of Italian commerce. having more than 4. the Island of Sicily. is governed by the Pope. Milan. It is an immense building. • • • The area. a small but fertile province. a palace belonging to the Pope. Venetia and the Pontifical States are now the only portions of Italy not included in the Italian Kingdom. St. is spanned by the bridge of the Rialto. light boats.
nor commerce. and great attention is paid to the culture of the grape. barilla. and the sugarcane. but there are extensive waste lands. wool. Area (of Spain) in square miles. brandies. lead.SECTION XXXII.000. Packets ply monthly Page 93 between this place and Havana. saltpetre. which slope gradually towards the Mediterranean. the olive. and Arabic. . a large library. and the valleys yield rich harvests of corn. 13. There are about 50. quicksilver. 49. but there are several canals. Fruits are abundant. and is surrounded by walls. and gunpowder. also a fine collection of paintings. and every alternate month to La Plata. SPAIN. 183. surrounded by mountains. CORUNNA is noted for its extensive manufacture of cigars. The Spaniards are a mixed race. Population. 27 miles north-west of the city. Agriculture. fruits. and the rivers have generally to be forded. the hills are clothed with forests. is nearly 8 miles in circuit.000 gipsies in different parts of Spain. and mules furnish the chief means of transport. In the north the climate is temperate. and a college. Here the apple-tree flourishes. and the rearing of sheep. MADRID. The manufactures are silks. Gothic. Neither agriculture. and the climate is noted for its dryness. leather. the capital. In the south the climate is warm. manufactures. silk. Roman. The palace of the Escurial. and salt. fire-arms. The soil is generally fertile. In the south and south-east are plains. It is also the seat of the herring fisheries.900. mainly composed of the Celtic. Wheel carriages are but little used. the vine. are in a flourishing condition. but the high plateaux of the centre are destitute of trees. form the leading pursuits. The interior of Spain consists of high table-lands. contains the splendid mausoleums of many of the sovereigns of Spain. and here the inhabitants cultivate the fig. oil.--Spain and Portugal. The exports are wines. and other South American States. There are few railroads. Provinces. or bridges.000.
raisins.000. MALAGA is noted for its trade in the export of wines. 7. CADIZ. a fortress in Africa on the south side of the Strait of Gibraltar. It is generally considered as a neutral and independent state. and various kinds of fruits. while it renders to France double that amount in consideration of certain privileges which it enjoys from her protection. orange. Iron-ore Page 94 is abundant. although it is. It is subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Bishop of Urgel. salt.000. figs. in the West Indies. and other fruit. The vine is especially characteristic of the northern provinces. Agriculture is in a backward state.BARCELONA is the second city in the kingdom in population. in Spain.000. to whom it pays an annual sum of 480 francs.490. Area in square miles. 35. and other fruits of the southern. and the population probably amounts to 18. the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico. drugs. to a certain extent. situated on the southern side of the Central Pyrenees. Population. The surface of Portugal is agreeably diversified. The productions are similar to those of Spain. connected with both France and Spain. and Ceuta. Provinces.--This small independent state comprises three wild and picturesque valleys. ANDORRA. PORTUGAL. The Spanish colonial possessions are a part of the Philippine Isles. and this country (like Spain) abounds in beautiful marbles and building stones. . The making of wine forms the chief branch of industry. and is also an important manufacturing and commercial place. Its area is about 190 square miles. cork. The soil is rich and the climate mild and salubrious. The inhabitants are of the same lineage as those of Spain. The Bay of Cadiz is the grand rendezvous of the Spanish navy. The exports are mainly wines. 3. Seville is noted for its trade in oranges. and gradually slopes towards the Atlantic Ocean. on the Island of Leon (which is connected with continental Spain by a bridge). as are the olive. is an important commercial city. citron. Many of the houses have their fronts adorned with paintings in fresco.
and Germany. COIMBRA is noted for its University--the only one in Portugal. Page 95 The climate is cool and moist. and. in part. Its chief city? What is it noted for? SECTION XXXIII. The coasts are low. flax. and the chief products are grain. hemp. and Cape Verde Isles. hops. the capital. but the industry and skill of the inhabitants have rendered it very productive. the second city in commercial importance. Coal and iron are abunbant. OPORTO. 4. Madeira. Walloons. which extends from North-western France eastward to the Uralian Mountains. 9. and roads? The people and manufactures? The cities? Its possessions? Describe Portugal. where are immense vaults. BELGIUM. of German origin. The area in square miles. Its surface is mostly level. in which the wine is chiefly kept until it is stored.000. requiring dykes to protect them from the sea. and a few small settlements in the East Indies.LISBON. Agriculture and commerce form the leading pursuits. Provinces. clover. and belongs to the great European plain. • • • • • • • The area. beet-root. Holland. A fine suspension bridge connects the city with the suburbs of Villa Nova de Caya. population. QUESTIONS. and provinces of Spain? The surface. three small islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Great attention is paid to horticulture. Portugal possesses the Azores. chicory. . some small settlements on the coast of Senegambia. and tobacco. 11. Population. soil.400.350. Flemings. in part.--Belgium. The Belgians are. The soil is not naturally fertile. descendants of the ancient Belgæ. is an important commercial city of Portugal. in Africa. together with Angola and Mozambique. on the opposite side of the river. is noted for its trade in port wine.
Population. and to the produce of the dairy. fine linens. The productions are similar to those of Belgium. which is in the vicinity of the coal-mines. hardware. or by artificial dykes. Dairy-husbandry is brought to great perfection. and belong to the German stock. and of a large size. and for its manufacture of carriages. memorable for the great battle fought there in 1815.Manufactures are varied and extensive. being below the level of high sea-tides. or the kingdom of the Netherlands. Provinces. The inhabitants are chiefly Dutch. Liege. intersected by numerous canals. Cattle are numerous. is the chief seat of the iron-works of Belgium.000. BRUSSELS. 13. thrown up by the sea. and is connected by numerous lines of railway with the principal cities of Central and Western Europe. the capital. which are said to surpass those of London and Paris in elegance and solidity. The exports are agricultural products.000. There are. About 10 miles to the south of Brussels is the field of Waterloo. is low and flat. . and a great variety of manufactured goods. is celebrated for its lace. are generally severe. &c. The river Scheldt is navigable for largo vessels up to the quay of the city. ANTWERP carries on an extensive trade. Area in square miles. More attention is paid to the rearing of live-stock.000. and usually protected in the more exposed parts by a facing of wicker-work formed of willows interlaced together. is either protected by sandbanks. and numerous canals and railroads. considered the finest in the world. HOLLAND. numerous Jews in the kingdom. 3. paper. however. also. and immense quantities of butter and cheese are made. The business of printing and publishing is extensively carried on in this city. which are Page 96 constructed chiefly of earth and clay. and.--such as laces. OSTEND is an important seaport of Belgium. Belgium enjoys the advantage of having excellent roads. than to tillage. Windmills are much used for motive power. It has regular steam communication with London and Dover. and the climate mild and humid. The winters. The soil is fertile. Holland. 12. and form the chief source of wealth to the inhabitants.
This Confederation comprises one-third of Austria. ROTTERDAM is the second city in the kingdom. . paper. and Celebes. which are connected by means of nearly 300 bridges. Eustatius. Borneo. meet at Frankfort. and is intersected by numerous canals. Utrecht and Arnheim. They run through the principal streets of the cities. Each state exercises a sovereign and independent power over its own territory. nearly all of Prussia. comprising St. There are also railroads. parts of Page 97 Sumatra. 42. Haarlem. is one of the handsomest. and several islands in the West Indies. The general government of the Confederation consists of an assembly called the Diet. Population. The foreign possessions of Holland are Java. and has its own capital city. Buen Ayre. Amsterdam. which contains one of the largest organs in the world. Among the manufactures are linens. gin. and several of the small islands of the East Indies.The trade is carried on by means of canals. in size and commercial importance. which connect the cities of Rotterdam. velvets. is built on piles driven to a depth of 40 or 50 feet. leather. composed of representatives from the several states.000. Martin. butter and cheese. and the Duchy of Luxemburg (belonging partly to Holland and partly to Belgium). and best built cities on the Continent. These form a hundred little islands. GERMANY. the capital of Holland. By means of canals the largest vessels can come up to the warehouses in the heart of the city. the largest city and chief commercial emporium of Holland. in Africa. in Oceania. Area in square miles. some ports on the coast of Guinea. Cuarçoa. These representatives. and Oruba. a part of Denmark (consisting of the Duchies of Holstein and Lauenberg). which in Holland serve the purposes of roads. AMSTERDAM.000. Each species of merchandise has its appropriate canal and quay.000. Baron. THE HAGUE. or plenipotentiaries. earthenware. with Ambonya. in South America. HAARLEM is noted for the cathedral of St. besides 29 independent states and 4 free cities. and extend a complete network over the entire surface of the kingdom. St. 245. a part of Guiana.
Nearly one-fifth of the arable land is used for pasturage. Mecklenburg Schwerin and Strelitz. the capital. the Page 98 Hessian States. GERMANY PROPER. Hanover. Oldenburg. and Schaumburg Lippe. the Duchies of Anhalt. SAXONY. Lubeck.000. Lippe Detmold. and four free cities. 16.Each state is bound to furnish its quota of men for the general army of the Confederation. Population. which are crowded with strangers from the neighbouring cities. but most of them are constitutional monarchies. Liechtenstein. Hamburg. and immense flocks of sheep are raised. the Principalities of Schwarzburg. and Frankfort. and fishing. the wool of which is extensively exported. the Principalities* *The Principalities of Hohenzollern Sigmaringden and Hechingen belong to Prussia. Bavaria. HANOVER comprises an immense plain. is noted as being the residence of the Grand Duke. the Saxon Duchies. forming an upper and a lower house. The Emperor of Austria is the President of the Germanic Diet. and in some there are two chambers. in which the power is divided between the sovereign and a legislative chamber. of Hohenzollern. A large portion of Brunswick is forest land.000. the Principalities of Waldeck. the Reuss Principalities. MECKLENBURG consists of a sandy plain interspersed with forests and lakes. Hanover. sloping from southeast to north-west. Area in square miles. :--Bremen. grazing. Baden. is noted for its semi-annual fairs.--The rearing of cattle forms an important branch of industry. The Grand Duchy of OLDENBURG is nearly surrounded by the Kingdom of Hanover. Mining . the capital. The character of the governments in these numerous states varies considerably. The Duchy of BRUNSWICK Consists of five isolated portions of territory. carries on considerable trade with Bremen. 90. Nassau.000. Brunswick. The chief industrial pursuits of the inhabitants are tillage. Brunswick. Wirtemberg. the capital. viz. Mining forms an important branch of industry. The states of Germany Proper are Oldenburg.
which is floated down the rivers and conveyed by the Danube to Hungary. and its mathematical and optical instruments. the other to a Younger line of the princely house of Reuss. wooden clocks. its numerous scientific and literary institutions. and the beauty of its environs. there being upwards of 500 mines in active operation in the mountainous sections of this kingdom. One of the most important articles of export is wood. The Saxon duchies comprise the Duchies of Saxe-Altenburg. The Principalities of SCHWARZBURG comprise two detached sections about 25 miles apart. musical boxes. and also for its three annual fairs. In many of the valleys the vine is successfully cultivated. is celebrated for the manufacture of musical and mathematical instruments. is noted for its china and porcelain ware. The Duchies of ANHALT rank among the most fertile of the states of Germany. the one to an Elder. a city of Saxony. Nuremberg. MUNICH. and Meiningen. Rhenish Bavaria produces excellent wines. the capital of Bavaria. The Kingdom of BAVARIA comprises two districts of unequal size. CoburgGotha. The Reuss Principalities belong. and toys of various kinds.occupies a large portion of the inhabitants. is celebrated as being the grand emporium of the book trade of Germany. a city of Bavaria. hardware. The Grand Duchy of BADEN. The chief branch of manufacturing industry is the brewing of beer. Page 99 DESSAU and BERNBURG are independent states.000 acres. DRESDEN. . jewellery. Augsburg is noted for its trade in wines.000. and as being the seat of the banking and exchange operations between it and Southern Europe. Wood is a staple production. LEIPSIC. The productions are similar to those of Wirtemberg. the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. and are much noted for their excellent breed of cattle and sheep. the extent of forest land being over 6. Weimar. is noted for its fine collection of paintings. The principal articles manufactured are clocks.--Agriculture is the chief source of wealth to the inhabitants. its gallery of paintings. and organs.
a free city. Darmstadt. the capital of the grand duchy of the same name. It has steam communication several times a day with Frankfort. FRANKFORT. is second only to Hamburg. St. is the seat of the civil and criminal courts of the duchy. The territory of the city contains an area of about 142 square miles. a free city.Carlesruhe. the Electorate of Hesse Cassel. around the Grand Duke's palace. The territory of this city comprises about 106 square miles. and also by steam with Copenhagen. is built in the form of an outspread fan. the capital. from which. and other towns in the vicinity. a free city. . and the chief seat of its banking and other mercantile transactions. Wiesbaden. BREMEN. The representatives of the several states of the Germanic Confederation hold their sittings at this place. is one of the principal watering-places of Germany. one of the most frequented watering-places in Germany. and the Landgraviate of Hesse Homburg. The territory of Frankfort embraces 90 square miles. is the great centre of the inland trade of Germany. as from a centre. HAMBURG. The HESSIAN STATES comprise the Grand Duchy of Hesse Page 100 Darmstadt. Mannheim is the chief commercial town in the Grand Duchy of Baden. Mayence is the chief trading city in the grand duchy. LUBECK. carries on an extensive trade. and other important cities of Northern Europe. It communicates with Hamburg by railway. the principal streets radiate. is one of the most important commercial cities in the world. on this account. Petersburg. Frankfort is styled the capital of Germany. and. Dusseldorf. and by the Trave Canal. and daily with Coblentz. with its port Travemunde by steamboats. The territory of the city comprises about 150 square miles. About 20 miles from this place is the small town of Baden. which is about 18 miles distant. as a seat of German commerce. a free city. Grazing and the cultivation of the vine are here the most important branches of industry. Cologne. The Duchy of NASSAU is noted for its medicinal springs. the capital.
There are three channels of communication between the North Sea and the Baltic. but is mild for its latitude. The roads in Zealand and the other islands are generally good. The pastures of Denmark are its chief source of wealth. . beer.000. besides the passage round the north coast: these are--the Canal of Stecknitz. but in the interior there are large tracts covered with heath. soil. &c. the capital. and the Liim Fiord. The area of Denmark in square miles. These are capable of being used only by the smaller class of vessels. Population. The climate is humid. which reaches entirely across the Peninsula of Jutland. Altona is an important commercial city. Wheat and oats are extensively cultivated in Holstein and Lauenburg. climate.--Denmark. This city communicates by steam-packets with the chief ports of the Baltic. Peat is the principal fuel. The exports are agricultural products. The surface of Denmark is low and level. live stock. but in other parts of Denmark they are poor. • • The area. ducks. 21.000. the Canal of Kiel. and subject to thick fogs. 2. and brandy. DENMARK. In some parts the coast is protected from inundations of the sea by dykes. Fish supply the inhabitants near the coasts with a great part of their food.QUESTIONS.? Page 101 SECTION XXXIV. The soil near the coasts is generally good. fish. has a harbour capable of holding 500 ships. Prussia. and Switzerland. and other birds are numerous--their feathers forming an important article of traffic. Ship-building is here carried on to some extent. COPENHAGEN. which unites the Trave with the Elbe a little above Hamburg. Railroads have been introduced to a limited extent. which connects the River Eyder with the Baltic.600. The inhabitants (called Danes) belong to the Teutonic or German family of nations. and products of these countries? Their political divisions? Cities? Manufactures. Geese. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit. population.
but in some parts of Eastern Prussia they are mostly of Sclavonic origin. 108. and forests cover a large portion of the country. hemp. Saxony. Amber is found on the shores of the Baltic. and Elbe Rivers. bacon. . The inhabitants are chiefly Germans. Mines of copper. In the Rhenish Province.Page 102 The colonial possessions of Denmark are--Iceland and the Faroe Isles. 16. Oder. The territory lying along the banks of the Rhine. About three-fourths of the inhabitants are engaged in the cultivation of the soil. It is divided into Westphalia and the Rhenish Province. raw. west of Hanover and Hesse Cassel. The raising of swine. and is largely exported to Turkey. The climate on the borders of the Baltic is changeable.000. Population. Provinces. and tobacco. Brandenburg. some settlements on the west coast of Greenland. Sheep and bees are extensively reared. Thomas. flax. it is warm enough to produce excellent wine. lying about 40 miles apart. and for other ornamental purposes. in Rhenish Prussia. particularly in the provinces of Westphalia and Pomerania. and separated from each other by the Kingdom of Hanover and the Electorate of Hesse Cassel. hops. St. and St. iron. and the islands of Santa Cruz. in the West Indies. and Pomerania. John. where it is used for mouth-pieces of pipes. but. Area in square miles. and the hams. Jews are Page 103 numerous in nearly all the cities and towns. for the purpose of making sugar. is largely carried on. Prussia consists of two distinct territories. It is divided into six provinces-Prussia Proper. The surface is generally level. and lead are worked to some extent. PRUSSIA. The territory east of Hanover is called East Prussia. Great quantities of beet-root are grown. the soil is fertile: in other parts it is not naturally productive.330. 8. The productions are grain. and sausages made from them form a great part of the animal food of the people. and also along the Vistula. Silesia.000. and foggy. Posen. is styled West Prussia.
Stettin. &c. and send linen-yarn in exchange. STETTIN is. Area in square miles. hemp. Dantzic. The principal street. Brussels. but the chief part of the wealth of Switzerland consists in its excellent pastures. wool. Population. The rivers afford great facilities for inland navigation. hides. Berlin is thus connected with Hamburg. The entire valley of the Wupper is noted for the number and variety of its factories. timber. The vine grows in the valleys. the capital. and hot in valleys. 2. Cantons. Elberfeld is a noted manufacturing town. from the latter. Le Havre. Holland.390. Antwerp.000. temperate on the plains. is an important city of the kingdom. BERLIN. Ostend. The chief characteristics of the surface of Switzerland are its towering mountains and vast glaciers. Cologne is the entrepôt of a considerable trade between Belgium. which afford support to immense numbers of cattle. The inland commerce of Eastern Prussia is chiefly with Austria and Russia.. Dresden. is the chief city for foreign commerce. Cologne.Railroads extend through almost every part of Prussia. next to Dantzic. Leipsic. Boulogne. and is lined on either side with splendid palaces and public buildings. and several other cities of Continental Europe. and for the density of its population. its beautiful lakes and smiling valleys. Breslau. From the former the Prussians receive salt and wine. on the western branch of the Vistula. Paris. The exports are corn. It is celebrated for the dyeing of Turkeyred. It is noted for its Royal Library and its University. and the climate is cold on the mountains. which is exported in very large quantities. The soil is fertile in the valleys. and a great amount of yarn is annually sent here to be dyed from Great Britain and other places. The leading manufactures are linen and woollen goods. and manufactured goods. and the neighbouring ports of Germany.000. about a mile in length. 22. and send linen and woollen goods. Bremen. 15. A celebrated article of manufacture of this city is Cologne-water. the most important seaport of Prussia. Breslau is the second city in Prussia in population and importance. is divided into five avenues by rows of trees. . tallow. Page 104 SWITZERLAND. Flax and hemp are extensively grown. and its numerous Alpine streams and glittering water-falls.
The latter. is situated about 8. and they accomplish their mission with wonderful sagacity. In summer the cattle are attended on the mountains by herdsmen. and falls from a perpendicular height of 850 feet. or rude loghuts. about 36 miles south-east of Berne. who live in châlets. to the task of seeking out travellers who may have lost their way on the mountain. These large dogs are trained by the monks of the Convent of Great St. and many of them are much resorted to by invalids.Of the domestic quadrupeds. They are furnished with the means of rendering assistance to the wayfarer. The cows. goats. to which the persons whose business is to milk the cows . derive their support from the grass which grows on the mountain sides. The inhabitants are mainly of Teutonic and Celtic origin. Mineral springs are numerous. is formed by a tributary of the River Aar. the Alpine spaniels are much celebrated. or partially buried by an avalanche. near the summit of a mountain pass. and sheep. or Hospice. by a basket of provisions fastened round the neck. or been benumbed by the cold. Bernard* *This Convent. The Falls of Schaffhausen in the River Rhine and the Cataract of Staubbach are much celebrated.000 feet above the level of the sea. which form the wealth of the Swiss farmer.
together with cattle. GENEVA is the most populous and industrious city of Switzerland.? SECTION XXXV. BERNE is the capital. the cattle return to the valleys. QUESTIONS. butter. and ribbons. In winter. and jewellery. Area in square miles. &c. cheese. The making of watches. and political divisions of these countries? Their soil. Basle is noted for its numerous literary and scientific institutions. and for being an important entrepôt of trade between France. Population. silkstuffs. climate. The streets are adorned with numerous fountains. the Netherlands. and Switzerland. 15. the Mongolian. productions. its manufacture of ribbons. and Persians are generally considered as belonging to the Caucasian race. Zurich is celebrated for its schools. viz. and also for having been the birthplace of Gessner. The inhabitants comprise three distinct races. 600. and Postalozzi. and the Malay.000 watches. musical boxes. Lavater.552. These articles. annually made in this city. Page 106 . This city is the seat of a university.000. and the houses are built upon arcades. Fuseli. Zimmerman. population.000.--Asia and Australia. : the Caucasian. and the Chinese and Tartars to the Mongolian. are among the leading exports. It is noted in religious history for having been the residence of John Calvin. cities. Steamboats ply on all the principal lakes. chiefly gold. Germany. Page 105 and to make cheese and butter repair for that purpose.000. Excellent roads have been constructed across the mountains. &c. • • • The area. forms an important feature in Swiss manufacturing industry. The Hindoos. It is said that there are about 100. Arabs. which afford a dry and sheltered pavement for foot passengers. and roads? Their manufactures.ASIA.
640 Jihon . . . . . . Bays. . 1. . 2. or Arabian Gulf Levant Carpentaria Botany Java Sea Straits.300 Amour . . 2. 500 Seas. . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kara Sea Obé Sea Anadir Kamtschatka Okhotsk or Lama Sea Japan Sea Yellow Sea Canton Tonquin China Sea Siam Bengal Arabian Sea Cambay Persian Red Sea. . . . 500 Oural . . . . . . . .200 Irrawady . . .100 Wolga . .146 Sihon . . . . 1.200 Tigris . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 2. . 2. . . . 1. . 1.Rivers. . 2. . 800 Irtish . . . .000 Euphrates . . 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Obé . . .800 Cambodia . . . .500 Burrampooter .500 Indus .700 Ganges . . 2. . . &c.000 Hoang-ho or Yellow . 2. . . . . . . .200 Lena . . 1. . . .700 Yenisei . . Miles. . Gulfs.600 Kiang-ku . . . .
. 20. . . . Hindostan and Thibet . . . . .000 Feet. . • • • • • • • • • • Tamura Lopatka Comorin Ras Java Head Pedro Dondra York Wilson's Promontory Maria Van Diemen Mountains. . 10. . . . . . .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bhering's Channel of Tartary Korëa Macassar Malacca Sunda Palk's Ormus Babelmandeb Torres' Bass's Cook's Dardanelles Constantinople Capes. . . .000 Altaian chain .000 * The highest summits of the Himalayas reach an elevation of 28. 20. Central Asia . . . • • • Himalaya Mountains* . Siberia and East Tartary .000 feet. Hindoo Koosh . . . . .
. 4. . . . . Do. . W. . . • • • • • • Avatsha . of Caspian Sea . . . . . 15. . . . 18. . .ASIA PHYSICAL MAP. 9. . . .000 Elburz Peak . of the Caspian . . . . Page 109 Mountains--continued Feet. Voleano. of do. .500 Eastern Ghauts .000 Mount Ararat . . .000 Demavend Peak . Hind.600 Caucasian Chain . . . . . 9. . . .000 . Coromandel . . . . Highest of the Caucasian . . . . . . Russia. . . 10. . . . . Persia. . . W. S. Kamtschatka .
4. or Kiusiu Leoo-Keoo Group LeKoo. 4. This celebrated sea has recently been thoroughly explored by an American exploring party. . • • • • • • • • • • • • Aleutian Group. anciently. . but sends not.900 Mount Ophir . . . The waters of this lake are uncommonly transparent.000 Sumatran Volcano . . . . .500 Mount Egmont . . float on its surface. . . . . . or Loochoo . .000 Chain of Korëa . . . Owyhee . . or mineral pitch. 12. • • • • Caspian Sea Aral Sea Baikal Dead Sea* * There are several names by which Lake Asphalties is distinguished. . . Korëa . . . Sumatra . . and.300 Lakes. and unusually salt. lake Sirbon. . Dead Sea. or Asphaltites. Salt Sea. . as lake Bitumen.400 Otaheitean Peak . . or Fox Islands Oonalaska Bhering's Kurile Group Tchoka. 18. . Peninsulas. . . . . 14. . like other lakes. and large quantities of asphaltum. under the command of Commodore Lynch of the Confederate States Navy. • • • • • • Kamtschatka Korëa Burmah. . . or Seghalien Jesso Japan Empire Niphon Sikoké Ximo. and several other smaller rivers. . . . Sea of Sodom. New Zealand . . .500 Kaah Mountain . . &c. Malacca Hindostan Arabia Islands. Hind. Otaheite . Bahheret-Lut. . . . . It is situated in Palestine. .• • • • • • • Western Ghauts . . a tribute to the ocean. . . . . . . . 10. . . Do. 15. Malabar . or Sea of Lot. . and receives the river Jordan on the north. . Sulphur and bitumen are found on its shores.
Gold.000 miles.• • • • • • • • • • • • Formosa Macao Hainan Mergui's Archipelago Andaman Group Great Andaman Little Andaman Nicobar Group Ceylon Laccadive Group Maldive Socotra Page 110 JAPAN ISLANDS. Boodhism. to whom they bear a considerable resemblance. who have introduced every vegetable which can contribute to their own comfort or the ornament of the country. and are said to be better educated than any other nation in Asia. Jes'so. but they have been rendered exceedingly productive by the industry of the inhabitants. or Sumatran Chain Sumatra Banca . iron is more rare. There are also two systems of religion. or Spice Islands Gilolo Sunda Group. long. Population. They are an intelligent. or Macassar Moluccas. Extent. lie between 30° and 46° N. whose capital is Jeddo. the one temporal. The Japan Islands.000 square miles. Sik'okf. the chief of which are Ni'phon. who resides at Miaco. • • • • • • • • • • • • Borneo Philippine Group Luzon or Luconia Magindanao Palawan Celebesian Group Celebes. and Kiu'siu. In most of their manufactures the inhabitants of Japan rival the Chinese. and copper are found in great abundance. and the other spiritual. lat. they excel particularly in the art of varnishing. 270. and a kind of polytheism. The Japan Islands are not fertile naturally. but they are extremely jealous of foreigners. Length. They have two sovereigns. about 1. ORIENTAL ARCHIPELAGO. enterprising people. silver. and between 129° and 150° E. 25 millions. breadth. from 50 to 200 miles.
and Java. the small island of Bauca abounds in tin. or New Guinea Van Diemen's Land New Ireland New Britain New Georgia or Soloman's New Hebrides New Caledonia New Zealand . The latter belong to Spain.700 miles. Page 111 Sumatra yields pepper. and luxuriant in vegetation. to Holland. coffee. the Moluccas. and Manilla is the capital of the Philippine Islands. such as sugar. Borneo yields gold and diamonds.• Java These islands enjoy a charming climate. rice. or Australia. nutmegs and mace. cloves. a portion of Borneo and Sumatra. sago. Batavia is the chief town of Java. Their productions are very valuable. sugar. and abound in rich productions.000 by 2. the Moluccas. AUSTRALIA AND ISLANDS. Papua. pepper. The natives of these regions are dark-coloured and barbarous. Java. cloves. 2. &c. • • • • • • • • New Holland. nutmegs. the Bandas. The East Indian Islands are generally fertile in soil. rice. and teak timber.
as the kangaroo. while others are fierce and savage. and the platypus. Some of these islands produce the bread-tree. and live almost like wild animals. Many of them are gentle and friendly. a kind of swan which is black. the menura. • • • • • • • • • • • Caroline Group* Pelew Group Navigator's Group Friendly Isles Society Group Otaheite Ladrone Group Sandwich Group Owyhee Marquesas Group Madison's. which leaps fifty feet at a bound.ANIMALS OF AUSTRALIA. yet lays eggs. or Noaheva * All these groups are inhabited by people of a brown colour. the climate is delightful. and has a bill like a duck. which has fur and four legs. somewhat resembling our Indians. POLYNESIA--PACIFIC ISLANDS. In general. which yields a kind of large fruit used for bread. . which resembles the ostrich. which has a tail shaped like a harp. The natives of Australia and New Guinea are a kind of Negroes. In Australia are some very curious creatures. the emu.
but the interior forms a series of high plateaux. instead of oats. filberts. The year is divided into two seasons--the wet and the dry. Persia. Area of Arabia in square miles. olives. China. which forms their chief article of food. and various gums and drugs are produced in some parts in abundance. &c. The horse and the camel of Arabia are highly esteemed. tamarinds. except oats. seas. properly so called. and appear to be very happy. There are no rivers or forests. they use barley and beans. the other grains. are also cultivated to a limited extent.000. dates. The climate is generally hot and the driest in the world. India. Describe the Oriental Archipelago. in Arabia. and the arts of peace. Population. straits. almonds. Among the plants of Arabia.000. Page 112 QUESTIONS. The surface of the country is generally low along the coast. The Arabs are divided into two classes. and the natives have been chiefly converted to Christianity by missionaries. In feeding their horses. 12. 834. • • • • • • • The area and population of Asia? Its inhabitants? Its rivers. &c. but in some parts the dry season is prolonged during the entire year.The Sandwich Islands are an interesting group. The people have adopted many of the arts of civilized life. The Arabs raise a sort of coarse millet. mostly desert. the dwellers in the Page 113 . SECTION XXXVI. and Polynesia. ARABIA. Other missionaries have also been successful in introducing true religion. Springs partly supply the place of the former. capes. In the valleys of the coast mountain region the soil is fertile.000.--Arabia. Australia. among the natives of other groups of the Poly-nesian Islands.? The mountains of Asia? Its peninsulas and islands? Describe the Japan Islands. coffee holds the first place.
and is occupied by the Indian Government as a depôt for the supply of coal to the packet-steamers. goats. Mesopotamia. There are several tribes in Arabia. aloes. the chief of these are Asia Minor. each independent of the others. and rich plains along the sea-coast. Palestine. is the southern part of Syria. Medina is noted as being the burial-place of Mohammed. Asiatic Turkey is divided into several smaller countries. but coffee is the staple article of commerce. they engage in trade. MUSCAT. and the inhabitants of the desert. or chief. from every part of the Mohammedan world. Population. 11. where the tents of travellers are pitched and the camels rest after their day's journey. a part of Page 114 Armenia.000. Arabia. &c. horses. on the completion of the religious ceremonies of the journey. MECCA is celebrated as being the birth-place of Mohammed. in caravans. They live in tents and lead a wandering life.towns. and the capital of a state of the same name. The leading object of industry is the raising of camels. and India. as the only means of securing themselves against robbery and loss of life. and.000. The exports are coffee. For this purpose. myrrh. or the Holy Land. immense quantities of coal are sent thither. and Syria. gum-arabic. or Sultan. ASIATIC TURKEY. which is governed by a sovereign called the Imaum. In Armenia the surface is a succession of high mountain- . and pilgrims annually resort to it. sheep. The caravans of pilgrims and other travellers who cross the Arabian deserts must buy the protection of the various tribes through whose territories they pass.000. dates. and governed by its own sheik. and various drugs. the largest city in Arabia.--the ordinary length of which is from twelve to fourteen miles. These different caravans bring with them the various productions of the countries from which they come. The surface of Asia Minor is mountainous. the latter are called Bedouins. Area in square miles. 437. There are regular halting-places in the deserts. is the chief emporium of trade between Persia. ADEN belongs to the British. with high tableland in the interior.
but warm and delightful in the plains and valleys. SMYRNA is a seaport of Asia Minor. In Asia Minor considerable care is bestowed upon the rearing of live-stock. and a great variety of delicious fruits.chains and elevated valleys. Abasia. Among the productions of Turkish industry are caps of silk and gold thread. Arabs. and the chief commercial emporium of Western Asia. is the name given to those portions of the Russian empire situated near the Caucasian Page 115 mountains. Agriculture and the rearing of cattle are the chief sources of support to the inhabitants. and cloaks. and only one story in height. and other dried fruits. The productions are various. Greeks. silk sashes and cords. &c. and the beauty of their females is no less celebrated than that of the Circassians. Grain. a variety of drugs. They comprise the provinces of Caucasus. and numerous other articles. Imeritia. coffee. silk-gauze shirts. The exports are raw silk. turbans.000. and the plague often visits Smyrna. Jews. Caucasus. Daghestan.000. CAUCASIA. who inhabit a neighbouring province on the north side of the Caucasus Mountains. The population is of a mixed character. or the Caucasian region. Mingrelia. The soil is generally very fertile. Armenians. . The Georgians are a handsome race. but its houses are chiefly of wood. tobacco. and the climate cold and humid in the mountainous regions. in Mesopotamia much of the land is desert. both in the vegetable and animal kingdom. are abundantly produced. tassels. and some articles of native manufacture. This city has a fine appearance when viewed from the sea. raisins. Earthquakes are not unfrequent. Shirvan. of a highly ornamental character. cotton. Agriculture receives but little attention. dyewoods. The date-palm furnishes an important article of food. Georgia. Baths and mosques are numerous. and in Syria the western part is mountainous and the eastern an elevated plain. Cireassia. slippers. Syrians. goat's hair. Population estimated at 2. cotton. embracing Turks. divancovers. but much of these regions is independent of Russia. and Russian Armenia. and its streets are narrow and dirty. veils.
Page 116 The Afghans are a bold and warlike people.000. Area in square miles. compose the bulk of the population.Teflis. It is subdivided into the three principalities of Cabul. The chief cities are Cabul. but that of the valleys is very fertile. Tartars. the heats of summer are almost insupportable. rice. Estimated area in square miles. 160. and sheep and cattle are numerous. 500. Candahar. is an important seat of trade. corn.000. Trade with foreign countries is chiefly carried on with India and Persia. yet are said to be hospitable. Jews are numerous in all the towns. Candahar.000. cotton. In the north. about 225. the capital of Georgia. &c. Persia is one of the oldest kingdoms of the world.120. Jellalabad. Population. and various fruits.. Turks. Rock salt is abundant. AFGHANISTAN. Population. 450. particularly along the Persian Gulf. and is noted for its hot baths. but is now independent. Hemp. Herat. Water is scarce. Cabul is supposed to excel all other cities in the excellence of its fruits. The interior of Persia is an elevated plateau.000.000.000. There are schools in every town and village.000. and Ghuzui. BELOOCHISTAN. In the north-eastern part of the country are some famous mines of turquoise--a gem peculiar to Persia. in the south. . PERSIA. Area in square miles. The soil of the tablelands is barren. Armenians. are here produced. 5. Arabs. drugs and gums. Population. and Herat. silk. 9. This country formerly constituted part of the Persian Empire. the climate is cool. tobacco. a large portion of which is desert.
The principal native ruler in Beloochistan is the Khan of Kelat. 720. INDEPENDENT TURKESTAN. sugarcane.000. TARTARY. The camel is the chief beast of burden. toward the north-east part of the country. often robbing people. and deficient in water. Agriculture is not much pursued. and the Empires of Anam and Burmah. Besides these. 4. and carrying them into captivity. cotton. Russian Asia. and many of the tribes are independent of his control. Their captives are usually sold as slaves. and rear large numbers of goats and black cattle. 22. Trade is carried on mainly by means of caravans. belonging to Great Britain. the capital. called the Tenasserim Provinces. Indo-China is divided into three states. 1. They dwell principally in rude tents made of goats' or camels' hair.000.000. and a succession of mountain chains.000. which is absorbed by its deserts. The Indo-Chinese peninsula is diversified by long river-valleys. Independent Turkestan comprises a vast territory between Persia. the Khirgiz territory. stewed in rancid butter. but his power is limited. there are some small Malay states occupying the Malay Peninsula. Population. and indigo are raised. like the Arabs. rice.Its surface is rugged and elevated. the latter is eaten by the inhabitants. viz. is built on an elevated plateau about 6. In the low and watered plains of the north-east. Kelat. Page 117 INDIA BEYOND THE GANGES.000. Rhubarb and the assafoetida plant abound in some districts. Estimated area. The Brahoes inhabit the mountains. Area in square miles.000 feet above the level of the sea. and Kafiristan. . In this portion of Asia are a number of large cities. and China. of which Samarcand and Bokhara are the principal. :--the Kingdom of Siam. and a long narrow strip of territory. Khiva. The inhabitants consist chiefly of Belooches and Brahoes. tobacco. the chief of which are Bokhara. Population. Kokan. OR. and is divided into a number of small states. Khoondooz.000. with horses and camels. Many of the inhabitants wander about.000 square miles.
The soil is fertile, and the climate hot and moist, but generally healthy. Forests are numerous, and yield much valuable timber, among which are many woods used as dyes, and perfumes. Rice is the chief crop, and cotton, indigo, tobacco, and the sugar-cane, are extensively grown. Marble, amber, also sapphires and other gems, are found in various parts of the peninsula. Wild animals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, &c., are numerous.
TROPICAL ANIMALS OF ASIA. The inhabitants, except those of the Malay Peninsula, bear a resemblance to the Hindoos and Chinese. Agriculture is pursued, though in a very imperfect manner. The houses are generally constructed of bamboo and matting, covered with thatch, and resting several feet above the ground Page 118 on a foundation of piles. In all the countries of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula (as, indeed, throughout Asia), a great portion of the laborious occupations, is performed by females. The people of Burmah excel in gilding, and are also noted for the casting of bells, designed for the service of their numerous temples.
The exports are--timber, embracing a variety of ornamental wood, raw silk, cotton, ivory, gums, cardamom seeds, and edible birds'-nests. These are the nests of a species of swallow, a native of some of the islands of the Asiatic Archipelago. They are composed of a sort of glutinous substance, and are eaten as a luxury by the Chinese. HUÉ, the capital of the Empire of Anam, is noted for its fortress, which is considered the strongest in Asia. BANGKOK, the capital of Siam, is a large city, and the chief trading port of the kingdom. Malacca, together with an adjacent territory extending about 40 miles along the coast and 30 miles inland, belongs to Great Britain. MOULMAIN is the most important town of the Tenasserim Provinces. The capital of Burmah has been transferred from Ava to Mandalay. Rangoon, the chief port of Burmah, belongs to the British. The king is despotic, and the people in a partial state of servitude.
HINDOSTAN. Area in square miles, 1,500,000. Population, 162,000,000.
The chief divisions of Hindostan are, the British Territories, the Protected States, and the Independent States. The British Territories comprise three presidencies--Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, The Protected States still retain their own forms of government, though they are under either the protection or control of the British. The Independent States comprise Nepaul, Bhotan, and Cashmere, and are governed by native sovereigns. Page 119 The surface of Hindostan consists of a vast plain in the north, and of high plateaux, bordered by mountain chains, in the centre and south. The west, or Malabar coast, is high and bold, and the east, or Coromandel coast, is low and sandy. There are some barren tracts in the interior table-lands, that are deficient in water; but the valleys of the Ganges and the Indus are very fertile. In the south and middle regions, the heat is very great, and the year is divided into two seasons--the wet and the dry. Hurricanes are common.
The woods and jungles, in every part of India, abound in ferocious animals, and birds and insects are very numerous. The trees are sometimes so completely covered with a beautiful insect called the fire-fly, as to appear like "pyramids of light." One of the most remarkable productions of India is the banyan, or Indian fig-tree, whose branches extend to the earth, take root, and form new trunks. The largest and most celebrated of this kind of tree, grows on the banks of the Nerbudda. It has more than 3,000 trunks, or stems, and covers an area of about seven acres. The vegetable and mineral productions of India are both rich and varied. Cocoanuts, pomegranates, citrons, dates, tamarinds, pine-apples, bananas, and many other tropical fruits grow here in great profusion. Indigo and opium are extensively cultivated. Diamonds and other precious stones are also among the native products. About six-sevenths of the inhabitants are included under the general name of Hindoos; the remainder consist of various foreigners settled in India. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit, but is conducted in the most unskilful manner. Cotton and silk fabrics, and Cashmere shawls, are the most important manufactures. The leading exports are indigo, opium, cotton, wool, silk, drugs, perfumes, and precious stones. The commerce of India is considerable. CALCUTTA, the capital of the Bengal Presidency and of British India, is the seat of an immense trade. The English live in Page 120 a particular quarter of the city called "Chowringhee," and the natives in another, called the "Black-town." The market of Calcutta is probably the largest one in the world. BENARES, the holy city of the Hindoos, and the capital of a province of the Bengal Presidency, is a noted place of resort, on the occasion of certain festivals, for pilgrims from all parts of India. It is also celebrated for its trade in diamonds. Madras, the capital of the Madras Presidency, is the chief commercial port on the east, or Coromandel coast. Pondicherry is the capital of the French possessions in India. Goa is the capital of the Portuguese possessions in India. BOMBAY is the capital of the presidency of the same name. Its trade is second only to that of Calcutta. Hydrabad is noted for the manufacture of matchlocks, swords, spears, and shields, and also for embroidered silk and cotton goods.
The Hindoos are of a dark complexion, and are divided into castes, or classes, which do not marry, or even eat, with one another. It was once common for mothers to drown their children in the river Ganges, and for widows to be burned on the funeral pile with their dead husbands, it being imagined that those things pleased their gods. Christian missionaries have converted some of those people from their idolatries. Hindostan was divided among a number of chiefs, called rajahs, or nabobs. The British have conquered most of these, and now rule over the greater part of Hindostan; including Ceylon, a fine island at the southern point of this country.
THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Area in square miles, 5,200,000. Population, 380,000,000.
The Chinese empire occupies a vast territory in the middle and eastern portions of Asia. It embraces not only China, but Chinese Tartary, Corea, and Thibet. The Chinese empire is by far the most populous in the world. Many learned men suppose it to contain 380,000,000 of people. Page 121 China is very celebrated as being the country that produces tea. Sixty millions of pounds of this are carried every year to England and America.
CHINA PROPER. Area in square miles, 1,500,000. Population, 367 000,000.
China forms the south-eastern part of the Chinese Empire. Its surface is considerably diversified. The greater part presents a succession of river-valleys, divided by ranges of high lands. In the north-east is an extensive and fertile plain. The soil is fertile, highly cultivated, and well watered; and the climate cold in the north, but mild in the south. Among the native productions, the tea-plant is the most noted. Of grain, rice is the staple product. The sugar-cane, cotton, hemp, tobacco, rhubarb, indigo, varnish-tree, camphor-tree, tallow-tree, and cinnamon, are among the trees and shrubs most common in the fields and gardens. Olives, oranges, pine-apples, &c. are abundant. The mulberry is extensively reared for the purpose of the silkworm. The Chinese are of Mongolian origin. Agriculture and manufactures form the leading pursuits. Trade, both inland and maritime, is extensive.
the capital of Thibet. articles of ivory. by the Tartars and the Chinese. &c. and earthenware. population. the capital of the empire. THIBET. and inhabited. Chang-chu-fu is situated about thirty-six miles south-west of its port. They are noted also for their skill in the carving of ivory. Nankin is one of the principal seats of the silk. tortoiseshell. which is used in making Cashmere shawls. Ningpo. or Fou-tchou-foo. respectively. Fu-chu-fu. Musk-deer are found in great numbers among the mountains. consists of two contiguous cities. and cotton manufactures of China. and export? The cities? The area. and other ornamental articles. are exported. Page 122 Silk and nankeen stuffs. divisions and surface of Asiatic Turkey? . surface. and Canton. and also for the taste they display in the arts of embroidery. and the attention of the people is directed mainly to the rearing of sheep and goats. The climate of this country is cold. from Pekin to Hangchou-foo. lacquered wares. dyeing. is largely exported. who come to do him homage and offer costly presents. PEKIN. are the chief commercial ports of China. porcelain.Travelling and traffic are carried on chiefly by means of the numerous rivers and canals. The Imperial Canal runs through the eastern part of China. each encircled by lofty walls. Shanghae. Amoy. mode of travel. Amoy. and papers of fine tissue. is distinguished as being the residence of the Grand Lama. or Hangtcheou. The fine hair of the latter. The Tartar city contains the Imperial palace. and the making of artificial flowers. and climate of Arabia? The inhabitants. QUESTIONS. the Chinese have attained great eminence. paper. Lassa. a distance of about 700 miles. • • • • The area. with the interruption of but a single day's journey over a mountain-chain that intervenes. In the manufacture of silk and cotton cloths. and is usually crowded with noble personages from various parts of Asia. soil. population. By means of another Canal the navigation is continued to Canton. mother-of-pearl.
Hence when." "Then. population. The Mohammedan regards Palestine as sacred. when all "nations shall beat their swords into plough-shares. "the commander of the faithful. as it is also the most important country of the world. and bless it. to receive in person . and taught the advantages of peace. This is the most interesting. mounted on a red camel. the last of the Christian patriarchs who governed Jerusalem. Describe the Caucasian region." was advised that Sophronius. and the land where the prophets promise to God's people a future national existence. Page 123 SECTION XXXVII. Omar. and learn war no more. people. 637.D. "God shall visit the earth. and their spears into pruninghooks." says the ancient Jewish poet. the scene of the magnificence of his country in the time of Solomon and the kings. the residence of the prophet. was about to capitulate and deliver the city up to his besieging armies. and that he should worship the God of Abraham. The area. as the scene of all the glorious events of the Old Testament Scriptures. The Jew regards it with veneration.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Its soil. from Mecca. climate. under the favour and protection of the Great King. and the earth shall bring forth her increase. because the Koran teaches him that the Jewish Scriptures are true. and the nations shall praise Him. in the year A. England or Persia? Describe Afghanistan? Beloochistan? What country is between Persia and Russian Asia? Are there any large towns there? What? The habits of the people? What does India include? Is Hindostan populous? The character of the people? The government? What great European nation owns the greater part of Hindostan? The Burman government? The capital? Where is the Chinese empire? What does it embrace? Is it populous? Name one of its productions? Describe Thibet.--Palestine. surface and soil of Persia? Its products? Which is the oldest. and attended by the grandees of the realm. and Jacob. and products? Describe Symrna. he proceeded to that place." Mankind should honour a people through whom the world has been blessed with the sacred oracles. a successor of Mohammed. in its associations with all that is sacred in religion and venerable in antiquity. and Isaac.
silver. and became obedient unto death. ceilings. " it was here that He became incarnate. and be judged. and yet justify the sinner. until He shall come a second time to judge the world. The dome is canopied with Damascus silks. called "The Page 124 Mosque of Omar. as was spoken by Daniel the prophet. and hence. and handed him the keys of the city. in the Greek language. This railing is composed of gold. &c. "and was made man. Page 125 Mohammed taught his followers that. and the lame. To the Christian this is the most sacred of all lands. there to reign as King over all nations. that we might be righteous before God. It is supposed that the Ark of the Covenant is concealed in an arch under this church. were in bondage through fear of death. It was here that the Christ. porphyry. Here He raised the dead. all their lifetime. . and floors are of various kinds of the most beautiful and rare marble. even death upon the cross. that by His death He might deliver them who. and that God might be just. There is a large and massive railing built around a portion of rock that projects from the ground under the dome of the mosque (the rock is about the size of an ordinary cottage). the Father and the Holy Ghost) "no man hath seen at any time. from the summit of Mount Olivet. and dwelt among us. and the dumb." On that spot Omar built a magnificent temple. and was Himself crucified. and buried here." For more than twelve centuries. for He who knew no sin became sin for us. under pain of death. the man Christ Jesus.the keys of the city: "For." "whom" (i. in Him. and the deaf. and being found in fashion as a man. and who alone has brought men to the knowledge of "the Father" and "the Holy Ghost. "it is holy ground." As the patriarch met the Caliph on the site of the ancient Temple.e. dead. and is of immense value. whom the Christian worships as the only God. and copper." said he. The pillars. at the end of the world. Here He taught and helped the poor and the ignorant. nor can see." Here He lived as a child and as a man. he ascended up to the heaven of heavens. and it becomes us to honour so great a city. who was revealed to Moses and the prophets. Of late years several persons have been admitted to view the interior of this mosque. the son of Mary. The Jews and the Freemasons have traditions to this effect. between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. all the dead are to assemble in the valley of Jehoshaphat. Jews and Christians have been excluded from the Temple grounds. Here He healed the blind. He humbled Himself. of great value and gorgeous colours. the Great Messiah. "Now the abomination that maketh desolate stands in the holy place. he said.
compared with the early period of the Christian era. and into which the river Jordan empties. and shall come forth. The population is therefore very sparse. whose tenure upon the soil and its produce is so uncertain that they have little encouragement to improve the land. Among its remarkable natural features is the Dead Sea. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Which is the most interesting of all lands? Why? Is Palestine older than Great Britain? Why does the Jew venerate it? Were the Jews ever a populous and wealthy nation? When? Is God able to restore them to their own land? Who says that He is? What blessing has the Jew conferred on the nations? How does the Mohammedan regard Palestine? Why? When did Omar live? Who was he? What did he do? Who was it that met him at Jerusalem? What did he say? Are the Mohammedans Gentiles? Did any prophet ever measure the court of the temple. in the most simple but sublime words. but even with the best cultivation it is not as productive now as it was in former times. and it is very poorly cultivated. whose surface is many hundred feet below the surface of the ocean. and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of damnation. This sea has no outlet.The Christian Scriptures say. "The hour is coming when all that are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of Man. QUESTIONS. when the rains were more regular and abundant." Palestine is now inhabited by Arabs and mixed races. and deliver it to be trodden under foot of the Gentiles for twelve hundred years? Did the Turk allow Jews and Christians to visit the courts of the temple? How long has he had the custody of the temple? Describe the interior of the mosque? Who made the Ark of the Covenant? What became of it? How do Christians regard this land? Why? Who was Christ? What did He do? Why? From what place did He ascend? Will He ever return? For what purpose? Where does Mohammed say the judgment will take place? Is Mohammedanism true? Is it mixed with truth? Is there any advantage from being born in a Christian land? Why? . they that have done good unto the resurrection of life.
.800 miles. . . 1. . . Area in square miles. -Tecazzé . . .000 White. The inhabitants of Northern Africa belong chiefly to the Caucasian race. unbroken by any large peninsulas. . from Cape Guardafui on the Indian Ocean to Cape Verde on the Atlantic. throughout its whole extent of coast-line. and its breadth.000. . .--Africa.-Yeou . . -Blue. 1. -- Seas.500 Zambesi . . or gulfs. Bays. . . . . . . or Bahr-el-Abiad . . 1. . or Red Sea Delagoa . . . . 89. . 700 Zaire. . . • • • • • • • Mediterranean Sea Sidra Guinea Bight of Biafra Benin Arabian Gulf. . It contains a greater portion of desert land than either of the other grand divisions of the earth. .000 Senegal . The length of Africa. Rivers. Africa presents. .000 Orange .000 miles. . bays.-Niger . . . 2. Gulfs. is about 4. . or Congo . . Miles. .000. from Cape Bon on the north to Cape Agulhas on the south. . . is about 5. a very regular contour. &c.000 Gambia .000. . .000. . . . • • • • • • • • • • • Nile . Population. or Bahr-el-Azrek . . 13. .• • Has the Mohammedan improved the country? One of its remarkable features? Page 126 SECTION XXXVIII. 3.
• • • • Geesh Mountains . Central Africa .Straits. . . . .-- . .000 Atlas Chain . Morocco . . . . Feet. 15. . . . . . Do . . • • • Gibraltar Mozambique Babelmandeb Capes. . . . . . . . Mary Mountains. . . .-Mountains of the Moon . . . .500 Kong Mountains . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bon Serrel Spartel Blanco Verde Palmas Negro Voltas Good Hope Aguillas Natal Corrientes Delgado Guardafui St. . . 12. . . . Abyssinia .
. -Brenas Mountains . . . . . . . Teneriffe . . . . . . . . . .000 Peak of Teneriffe* . . . . 12. 11. . Madagascar . Southern Africa . . or Snowy Mountains Do. . -Nieuwveld. . . . . Feet. . . 10. .000 . . . Eastern Africa . . Page 129 Mountains--continued.300 Red Mountains . .AFRICA. . • • • • • Lupata Mountains . . . .
000. Helena Madagascar (900 miles by 200) Bourbon Mauritius. breadth. Population.500. It appears that this curious rock was thrown up by a volcano. surface. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Delta Madeira Porto Santo Canary Islands:--Teneriffe--Fuerté-Ventura--Grand Canary--Palma--Lancerota-Gomera--Ferro Cape de Verde Islands: St Iago--St.*The ascent of this peak is a very bold affair. • • • • • • • Dibbé Fittré Dembëa Maravi Bahr-Heimed Bahr-Dwi Tchad Islands. and soil? Lakes. or Isle of France Comora Islands :--Comora--Mohilla--Joanna--Mayotta QUESTIONS. Vincent--St. Lucia--St. to a boundless extent. • • • • • The area and population of Africa? How do these compare with other Divisions of the world? Its length. spreading out in all directions. and the ocean.? Its rivers? Mountains? Islands? THE EMPIRE OF MOROCCO. . they have a splendid view of the island. 8. Lakes. Nicholas Sal onavista Mayo Fogo Brava St. When the adventurers reach the top.000. Area in square miles. 200. &c.
and the climate. skins. stands in the midst of a fertile plain. This is also the case with the other States of Barbary. . interspersed in some parts with fine plains and valleys. in the higher parts of the country. Jews. leaving behind considerable quantities of salt. sugar-cane. the Berbers are engaged in agriculture. and for the manufacture of silk and gold sashes. is mountainous. The dry and rocky table-lands of the interior abound in groves of cork trees and ever-green oaks. and the Arabs generally lead a wandering life on the plains. Carpets. is 6 miles in circuit. earthenware. The streets are narrow. Mequinez is noted as containing a palace. and on the sea-coasts. The inhabitants are Moors. is mild Page 130 and healthy. Inland commerce is carried on by means of caravans. Berbers. Along the coasts are some shallow pools. and subsist on their herds and flocks. Mogador is the chief seaport of the empire. gum. salt. which evaporate in the hot season. The Jews and Moors inhabit the cities. MOROCCO. the capital of the empire. and some silk fabrics are articles of manufacture. Minerals are not abundant. and conduct the mercantile transactions. Some of the merchants are largely engaged in trade with Arabia. Horses. cotton. Agriculture is rudely conducted. leather. Tangier is engaged in trading with ports on the Spanish coast. Mosques are numerous. and the houses are of one story and white-washed. The exports are fruits. Timber suitable for building purposes is scarce. leather. and is surrounded by a wall 30 feet in height. and leeches. indigo. olive-oil. the most important of the Barbary States. carpets. and also with the Negro tribes south of the Desert of Sahara. wax. hides. The surface is watered by streams. and goats are numerous. Olive trees and fruits of almost every kind are abundant. Fez is celebrated for its trade in red and yellow morocco leather. sheep. most of which become dry in hot weather. Grain. and Arabs. in which the emperor occasionally resides. and noted for their architectural beauty. The soil is celebrated for its fertility. cloth-caps. wool.Morocco. and tobacco are cultivated.
mining. oil. Population. The manufactures are linen. is temperate and healthy. Between the principal mountain chain and the coast are fertile valleys. The surface is mountainous. 100. Area in square miles. .000 miles of good road. woollen. Since the country has been under French domination. hardware goods. • • • • The area and population of Morocco? Its surface. The climate.600. The natives are ignorant and indolent. soil and climate? Its products and people? Its exports and cities? Page 131 ALGIERS. saddles. and the coast is deficient in good ports. is the seat of the governor-general of the colony. and coarse pottery.QUESTIONS. together with some French and other European settlers. The productions are similar to those of Morocco. Pomegranates are abundant. skins. with the exception of sugar-cane and cotton. The French have constructed about 5. ostrich feathers. the capital. 2. and one of the Barbary States. The exports are coral. wax. Algiers is a colony of France. and Negroes. This city has regular steam communication with Marseilles and several other ports of Southern Europe.000. bones. copper. Jews. Iron. QUESTIONS.000. and manufactures. wool. horns. and barks for tanning purposes. The coral and sponge fisheries on the coast are valuable. more attention has been paid to agriculture. and lead are the chief minerals. Turks. Moors. north of the mountains. The ore taken from the mines is shipped to France to be smelted. ALGIERS. and silk fabrics. Arabs. carpets. Constantine carries on a trade in the products of Central Africa. The inhabitants are Berbers.
The inhabitants consist of Arabs. Population. bringing slaves. are cultivated. and is. and essences. spices. Tunis is one of the Barbary states. red caps. styled a Beylik. 70. and towns? TUNIS. senna. gunpowder. embroidery. boots. Drugs. form the exports. surface. Population.000.000. and essences. indigo. Kairwan is noted for its manufactures. and products? The inhabitants. 2. &c. wood. the capital. .000. It is under the government of a Bey. Oil. gum. The soil is fertile and the climate temperate and healthful. Mules and camels are used as beasts of burden. The manufactures are red woollen caps. therefore. and ostrich feathers. Turks. Area in square miles. and manufactures? The exports. olives. TUNIS. • • • The area and population of Tunis? Its location. is the largest commercial city of Barbary. soil. Jews. Many of the people lead a pastoral life. and saffron. slippers. soap. dyes. soap.000. together with the surplus produce received from Central Africa. soil. and products? The inhabitants. Date plantations furnish the chief food of the people. Page 132 The productions are grain. sponges. roads. leather. Area in square miles. and the fruits that are common in Southern Europe. gold dust. 1. tobacco. 140. ivory. cotton. and Moors. which are exchanged for manufactured goods.500. Agriculture is much neglected.500. Caravans come annually from Central Africa.• • • • The area and population of Algiers? The surface. mode of travelling. QUESTIONS. and cities? TRIPOLI.
are plentiful. pomegranates. Figs. The productions are similar to those of Tunis. soil. Egypt. to whom he pays an annual tribute. one of the Barbary States. sheep. and garden vegetables. Some are as black as Negroes and others are as white as the Moors on the Barbary coast. leather. Droughts prevail from May to September. surface. includes Barca and the district of Fezzan. articles made of goat's Page 133 hair. a State of Northern Africa. The soil is fertile. In the eastern part are extensive tracts of almost barren sands. together with manufactured goods. and cattle. and carries on trade with the interior of Africa. The Fezzaneers. diversified. It is governed by a pasha. TRIPOLI is the capital of the pashalic of Tripoli. The towns are inhabited by Moors and Jews. QUESTIONS. amount to about 75. Dates form not only the chief produce of the country. Rock salt is an article of export. the surface is mountainous.Tripoli. and during this period the heat is intense. and in the western. and products. the capital. who appear to be a mixed race intermediate between the Arab and the Negro. is noted as being the place of rendezvous for caravans to and from the Barbary States. MOURZOUK. FEZZAN. cloaks.000. who holds his dominions as tributary to the Pasha of Tripoli. BARCA is inhabited by Bedouin Arabs. and Central Africa. is ruled by a Sultan. The manufactures are carpets. Its manufactures and exports? Its people and cities? Its location? . potash. who is nominally subject to the Turkish Empire. in the southern. but the principal food of its inhabitants. and poultry are sent to Malta. while the rural population consists of Arabs. and coarse earthenware. The exports consist of the products of the date and olive plantations. • • • • • The area and population of Tripoli? Describe its political divisions. lemons.
are the chief productions. together with a variety of sculptures and paintings on the walls of temples.896.EGYPT. Population. its dried pith is used as starch.000. and also serve as food for the camels. and its base covers eleven acres of ground." is 480 feet in height. The latter are sold boiled in all public places. colossal statues. The largest. being shut in by high rocks. they spread themselves over the banks of the Nile during the day in quest of food. is the small town of Ghizeh. without which the whole country would be a desert. The Nile abounds in fish. its stalk is eaten green like the sugar-cane. and caves cut out of the rocks. The soil of the valley of the Nile is rendered exceedingly fertile by the annual inundations of the river. temples. and various kinds of drugs and fruits. cotton. The climate of Egypt is hot and dry. The great feature of Egypt is the River Nile. and sphinxes. being previously roasted in the fire. Sheep and goats are extensively reared. on the opposite bank of the Nile. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit. 2. rice. and the leaves serve as food for cattle. about five miles to the south-west of which are the three principal Egyptian pyramids. Area in square miles. and rain is of rare occurrence. Bees are kept in great numbers in boats. The valley of this river is narrow. The manufacture of jars and porous earthenware is a branch of industry. obelisks. Page 134 Dhourra (a kind of grain) is extensively cultivated. Plantations of mulberry-trees have been recently made for the purpose of rearing the silkworm. In parts of Western Egypt roses are plentiful. beyond which on either side it is mostly desert. . This grain and beans are objects of culture. indigo. 224. It is sometimes eaten like Indian corn. upon either side of the river's course. It never snows. Turks. South-west of Cairo. embracing pyramids. The majority of the inhabitants (called Fellahs) are of Arabic descent. called the "Pyramid of Cheops. Greeks. Grain. and return regularly to the boats every evening. In ascending the Nile the traveller beholds here and there specimens of ancient art. The Turks hold the principal offices under government. Jews. &c.000. and from these rose-water is distilled. and are engaged as peasants and labourers: the remainder embrace Copts.
jewellery.580. wheat. The manufactures are linen goods. climate. and a vast ship canal is in course of completion.? The soil. coffee. with which it communicates by canal and railway. Nubia is under the dominion of Egypt. and his successors. and thence by railway across the desert to Suez. &c. touching on the way at Aden (a station in the southern part of Arabia) for a fresh supply of coal. between Europe and India.? Its roads? Its exports? Its cities? What is the "Overland Route?" NUBIA.000. is by steamers which proceed up the Mediterranean Sea to Alexandria. dates. ALEXANDRIA is a celebrated city and seaport of Egypt. It is about 100 miles from Cairo. silk handkerchiefs. many of them not being wide enough to admit of two camels' passing abreast. Area in square miles. • • • • • • The area and population of Egypt? Describe the Nile. Roads and railways have been constructed. . where the route by steamers is resumed to the various ports of India. and carpets. Page 135 The Overland route. Of these cotton is the most important. porous earthen jars. 320. Between the White and Blue Rivers are extensive fertile plains. and its surface is similar to that country. Population. indigo. thence to Cairo. The exports are cotton. and pottery. and products? The people. CAIRO is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in Africa.Great attention has been given by Mehemet Ali. matting. &c. uniting the Mediterranean and Red Seas. antiquities. its advantages. QUESTIONS. Damietta is engaged in the coasting trade with the ports of Syria. Cosseir is noted as being the entrepôt of the trade between Egypt and Arabia. rice. The streets of the city are very narrow. senna. rose-water. opium. 500. to internal improvements. as it is called. carpets. gums.
such as the horse. indigo. and the residence of the viceroy.The soil and climate are also like those of Egypt. The Nubians belong to the Arabian and Negro races. Nubia Page 136 has the giraffe. the ostrich.. the traffic in slaves being the most important. &c. cotton. camel. KHARTOOM. and is an important station for pilgrims passing to and from Arabia. The productions are dhourra. . the capital of Nubia. Dhourra is almost the only grain cultivated. and with the fruit of the date forms the chief article of subsistence. From the leaves of the date-tree they form mats and bowls. coffee. Ebony-trees are numerous. Some trade with the interior is carried on. and dates. with these the women weave very coarse woollen and cotton cloth. Besides the animals found in Egypt. senna. mule. Souakin has a good harbour. The camel is the beast of burden. is a place of rendezvous for the slave caravans from Soudan and Abyssinia. Small looms are sometimes seen in the houses. and several species of antelopes and birds which are common in Central Africa. barley. HUNTING AN OSTRICH.
Most of the wild animals indigenous to Africa are found in the mountains of Abyssinia. ivory. and products? Its inhabitants? Manufactures.QUESTIONS. &c. sugar. Abyssinia is divided into several states. The exports are gold dust. climate. and coffee are cultivated. without cultivation. is the favourite article of food. however. The inhabitants embrace many distinct tribes. Its capital? ABYSSINIA. Page 137 The soil is remarkable for its fertility. and furnishes. The exports consist of rice. and are in a barbarous condition.000. elephants' teeth. The trade is in the hands of the Arabs.000. Cotton. 3. The Abyssinians embraced Christianity in the time of Constantine: at the present day. Zauguebar is partly subject to the Sultan or Imaum of Muscat. many of the finest vegetable productions of the torrid zone. but in the elevated districts it is mild. Population. Teff (a herbaceous plant). • • • • The area and population of Nubia? Its soil. They are now debased by savage practices. from which bread is made.000. Great numbers of hippopotamuses are killed annually on the shores of Lake Dembea. EASTERN AFRICA. and partly governed by native princes. there are but few traces of their former faith left. . and ostrich feathers. The climate is intensely hot in the valleys. Crocodiles infest the rivers. Bees are numerous. The ferocious Gallas have overrun portions of the country and possessed themselves of some of its finest provinces. and slaves. and their honey forms an important article of food. 280. Area in square miles. flax. gums. Its surface is mountainous and well watered.
Quilimane is the capital of a government of the Portuguese possessions in Mozambique. hyenas. The surface is undulating and well watered. Magadoxa. and King William's Town is the capital. and the sugar-cane grow wild. War. indigo. and coffee. Quilimane. the climate changeable. &c. Sofala. gold. Cape Colony. and have frizzled hair. The Caffres are of a dark brown complexion. A part of Caffraria is now under the control of the British. Ivory is the staple article of trade. Page 138 The chief settlements on this line of coast are Mozambique. Cape Colony is a dependency of Great Britain. The Zoolabs belong to the Caffre race. hippopotamuses. . These towns are in possession of the Portuguese. though hot. is the chief commercial port between Cape Guardafui and Juba. and is also engaged in commerce with some of the countries of Southern Asia. Quiloa is the residence of a governor under the Imaum of Muscat. and the Country of the Bechuanas. Hottentots' Country.Zanzibar is the capital and metropolis of the Sultan's possessions in Eastern Africa. carries on a caravan trade with the interior. and the capital of the Portuguese possessions in Eastern Africa. The town of Mozambique is the residence of the Portuguese governor. and the climate. Natal is a colony of Great Britain. the soil fertile. while the women build the huts and till the land. and tending cattle are the employments of the men. ivory. SOUTHERN AFRICA. Oxen are used for purposes of draught. Natal Colony. which is said to be less woolly than that of the Negro. and Sofala. Caffraria. The exports are slaves. hunting. Wild animals. such as lions. rhinoceroses. capital of a state of the same name. The divisions of Southern Africa are--the Zoolu Country. and fruits are plentiful. owing to the extreme irregularity of the rains.. is the capital of a government. particularly in the northern districts. capital of a state of its own name. are numerous. The soil along the coast is fertile. and carries on considerable export trade. Cotton. and convey the produce from the interior to Cape Town and other ports for shipment. also. Melinda. is said to be healthy.
known by the name of Hottentots.The inhabitants consist of British settlers. Guinea is divided into Upper and Lower Guinea. Some of them live upon gums.--The inhabitants are divided into various tribes. &c. It is the chief seaport. The Hottentots' Country is inhabited by various tribes. Loango. They cultivate the soil. who commonly resides in the largest town that belongs to his particular tribe. and the produce of the chase. roots. from the interior to the settlements on the coast. which the natives use with their food. CAPE TOWN is the capital of the colony.. The commerce of the colony is considerable: the chief exports are corn. when young. and subdivided into several states: the chief of these are--Benin. palm oil. well-constructed houses. and exchange them for beads. live in comfortable. Its nuts. tobacco. brought in vessels from various countries of the civilized world. From the trunk of the tree is drawn a species of wine. wine. Page 140 . They are said to excel the other tribes of Southern Africa in arts and civilization. and Benguela. and butter. Cattle-rearing forms the Page 139 important branch of rural industry. are eaten roasted.. and from them. firearms. &c. gunpowder. and of the leaves are made ropes. Abomey Coomassie. and a kind of bread which they make from the pith of the palm-tree. WESTERN AFRICA. &c. Biafra. when old. an oil is extracted. and vessels frequently stop at the town for the purpose of obtaining water and other refreshments. ivory. ivory. and Caffres. Angola. The Country of the Bechuanas. wool. The better sort live upon the milk and flesh of their cattle. nets. Congo. Hottentots. hides. gold dust. slaves. Among the productions of Guinea the palm-tree is the most useful. and each has its hereditary chief or king. horns. and have several large towns in their territory. The negro traders bring ebony. Dutch farmers or Boors.
The British have some settlements on the coast of Upper Guinea. of which Cape Coast Castle is the capital. The westerly caravan route is from Timbuctoo on the south. &c. occupies the central part of Northern Africa. The climate is intensely hot. is divided into several states. Benowm is the capital of Ludamar. and commerce is increasing. a state of Senegambia. To the west of the route between Timbuctoo and Fez. Sierra Leone. and the Mandingo States are situated on the Senegal. contains an area of 232 square miles. As no portion of their . ostrich feathers. and the productions are varied and abundant. a colonial possession of Great Britain. an extensive region of Western Africa. and to the east of it are the Tooareeks. but there are a few fertile spots called oases. to the north and east of the Jaloof States. European manufactures. was established by the American Colonization Society in 1821. Both the soil and the climate are unfavourable to vegetation. The exports from this seaport town consist of palm-oil. gold dust. and thence to Fez. in Egypt. The Moors of the Desert are represented as being very different from the Moors who inhabit the towns in the Barbary States. In the south there are some salt-mines. a Negro republic. on the north. The SAHARA. to Page 141 Tatta. to Siout. The French. and tortoise-shell. The Jaloof States are in the neighbourhood of the Senegal River and Cape Verde: the Foulah States lie higher up the same river. or the Great Desert. maize. is established a commerce which is carried on by caravans consisting of from two hundred to five hundred persons and several hundred camels. Agriculture is extensively pursued.. slaves. English. Between the countries south and those north of the Desert. in Morocco. The merchants bring from Soudan gold. and Portuguese have some small settlements on the rivers. and take. extends from Wara in Darfur. in return. and one still farther east. and consequently afford very sparingly the means of sustaining animal life. LIBERIA. Timbo is the capital of Foota Jallou. a north-eastern state of Senegambia. SENEGAMBIA. The inhabitants are chiefly negroes. Another route is from Lake Tsad to Mourzouk. as a place of refuge for free blacks. live the Moors. ivory.
Their country is the best part of the desert. They carry on trade with the caravans which pass through their territory. The entire region extends from Sahara on the north to Page 142 about the sixth parallel of north latitude on the south. and from Kordofan on the east to Senegambia on the west. but in tents. and Bambarra. Central Africa comprises the interior regions of Africa. from the Great Desert on the north to the country of the Bechuanas on the south.territory is fit for cultivation. Kanem. ANIMALS OF AFRICA. Its states are Houssa. to find sufficient herbage for their flocks. The Tibboos occupy a territory lying along the route from Lake Tsad to Mourzouk. Soudan is a vast country divided into numerous states or kingdoms. Adamana. of whose limits we have no accurate account. Begharmi. Yarriba. Bergoo. . They do not live in fixed habitations. they depend on the produce of their herds. Bournou. CENTRAL AFRICA. Darfur. which they remove from one place to another. as it contains several oases.
is a large and flourishing town. and carries on considerable trade. and their principal wealth consists in slaves and cattle. on the west bank of Lake Tsad. It is sometimes called Ethiopia. which thickens into . millet. Arabs. Obeid is the capital. fruits. tamarinds. The inhabitants possess numerous herds of horses and cattle. Cobbe is the capital town. tobacco. yielding a milky juice. Timbuctoo. he was killed in 1805. its capital. Kouka. is the capital town. Page 143 MADAGASCAR. is a large but imperfectly known state. with rich pasturage and magnificent forests. The Island of Madagascar is divided by a ridge of mountains which extends from north to south. an important trading city of Soudan. Kanem is a large state situated north of Lake Tsad. on the same river. It has numerous mosques. &c. The Gallas are divided into numerous tribes. They are described as being ferocious and cruel. Kordofan is inhabited by Negroes. and are dispersed in great numbers over the adjoining countries. Bournou occupies an extensive plain.Houssa is inhabited by Fellahs. or Niger. The chief products are rice. The inhabitants are negroes. cotton. and at Boussa. They are an industrious as well as a warlike race. Wara is the capital town. on the border of the Great Desert. This country was subdued by the Pasha of Egypt. Bergoo. dates. particularly on the coasts. It was at this place that Mungo Park first saw the Joliba. and the country yields wheat. or Waday. and emigrants from Dongola. but the climate is hot and unhealthy. The inhabitants carry on some trade with Egypt by means of caravans. vegetables. is engaged in the caravan trade. maize.--The inhabitants are a mixture of Arabs and Negroes. The forests contain a variety of beautiful and useful trees. Bambarra is a fine plain watered by the Niger. Darfur. Kano is the capital town. and Sego. and it therefore forms a part of the Egyptian dominions. and indigo. A vast extent of unexplored country lies south of Soudan. among which is a wild fig-tree. The soil is fertile.
Some persons ascended it. Madagascar is larger than the island of Great Britain. fruit-trees. The wood serves for planks. Silk-worms are reared. and saltpetre. and honey and wax are found in abundance in the woods. is situated in the Indian Ocean. . silver. spices. precious stones. and its flowers afford a gummy substance.an elastic gum. iron. On the top of a lofty mountain. St. The island is divided into several provinces. the top part of the tree. Page 144 The ISLE OF FRANCE. there is a curious rock 350 feet high. serves as an article of food. Their number is supposed to be three or four millions. or Mauritius. taken by the English in 1810. It was. BOURBON. copper. and produces sugar. The raven. The exports are sugar. a species of palm-tree. the ribs of the leaves are used for partition walls. honey. cattle. is peculiar to this island. coffee. with the leaves the people thatch their dwellings. the latter forming about one-half the entire population. for the first time. a French colonial possession. called Peter Botte's Mountain. each having a chief. Bourbon has a fine climate. who is subject to one common sovereign. somewhat resembling honey. a few years since. No venomous serpents are found on the island. which is a kind of cabbage. Tananarivo is the capital. The inhabitants consist of whites. dyewoods. Denis is the capital. Minerals are abundant. and produces excellent coffee. Of this the natives make flambeaux for various purposes. and black--and are in an almost savage state. tawny. and slaves. on this island. but particularly for fishing during the night. is celebrated for its strong fortifications. The inhabitants are mixed races--white. creoles. or make plates and other dishes. cast of Madagascar. and it still belongs to them. and tin. The island is very fertile. however.
HELENA. lies in the Atlantic Ocean. about 1.--This small island.PETER BOTTE'S MOUNTAIN. the capital. Port Louis. The climate is warm. is a strongly fortified town. is for ever Page 145 . unimportant in itself. containing only about 48 square miles. ST. The surface is well watered. but healthy. Helena. and the soil in the valleys fertile.200 miles from the west coast of the south part of Africa. The island of St. The interior is an elevated table-land.
Emperor of France. There are few good harbours in the islands. lies in a narrow ravine on the north-west coast. and a variety of delicious fruits. Jamestown. The group consists of Madeira. soil. and also a great variety of fish. after six years' imprisonment.--This solitary island lies about 800 miles northwest of St. The vine is the leading article of culture. The products are grain.--This group consists of seven principal islands and a few small isles. oil. Turtles and birds' eggs form articles of export. people. Helena. • • • • • • The area and population of Abyssinia? Its surface. after his abdication. ASCENSION. Their surface. Porto Santo. Funchal. expired there in 1821. This island belongs to the British. sugar. products. CANARY ISLES. Describe Southern Africa. The MADEIRA Isles belong to Portugal. and serves as a place of rendezvous for their African squadron. and also the place of his death. the capital.rendered celebrated by its being the prison of Napoleon. and. Page 146 QUESTIONS. Fruits are abundant. He was banished to that island in 1815. The AZORES (about nine islands) belong to Portugal. The inhabitants are of European origin. and products? Its people? Describe Eastern Africa. and buried by his countrymen with great pomp and solemnity. The islands belong to Spain. lemons. CAPE VERDE ISLES. and turtles are numerous. Amber is found along the coasts. The climate is remarkably uniform throughout the year. The exports are wine. The body of Napoleon. or oranges. The inhabitants are a mixture of Portuguese and Negroes. Numerous singing-birds are found on these islands. the capital. mostly Spaniards. brandy. salted pork. soil. Tropical fruits are abundant. wine. and export? The Sahara? . escribe Western and Central Africa. is the emporium of the wine trade. after lying in a humble grave near his prison-house for nineteen years. and a few islets.--This group consists of about 14 islands. and venomous reptiles are unknown. It is in possession of the British. The islands belong to Portugal. and is celebrated for its salubrity. and beef. was carried to France in 1840.
which stretch along the western coast.000. Three great mountain systems diversify the surface. products. Spain took possession of a part of the northern and almost all the western coasts. mostly Spaniards and Portuguese. besides large tracts in the interior. Between the Andes on the one side. Nearly the whole of South America. Population.:--The Andes. which spread over the lower portion of the basin of the Amazon. for about three centuries antecedent to the present. and others are still in a savage state. separating the plains of the Orinoco from those of the Rio Negro. 17. 6. and the Brazilian Mountains. and the region of the Pampas of La Plata. the region of the Selvas. from southern Patagonia to the Isthmus of Panama. &c. and Portugal. the Parima Mountains. or Savannahs (prairies). extends a vast plain. The ruling people are the descendants of Europeans. and products of Madagascar? Its location? Describe the isles of Bourbon and Mauritius.000. their location. with several diverging chains.000. or forest plains. Brazil is under the . which occupy a great part of the basin of the Orinoco.--the region of the Llanos.--South America. Area in square miles. viz. a distance of about 600 miles. Helena? For what is it noted? Describe the other islands.• • • • • The size. SECTION XXXIX. population. was under the control of European Governments. which extend along the southern border of Venezuela. as far as the annual inundations of that river extend.500. The Spanish portions have become independent. Where is St. and the mountain systems of Southern Venezuela and Brazil upon the other. This great plain may be divided into three parts. some of these are semi-civilized. consisting of two great ranges running parallel to the coast of Brazil. The greater part of the inhabitants are descendants of the native Indians. soil. of the present Empire of Brazil.
700 La Plata and its head . . Rivers. .450 Madeira . Page 149 dominion of a sovereign. . . • • • • Amazon .800 . . . . 4. and Holland. . 4. and Guiana is a colonial possession established by Great Britain. Miles. France. . . . .SOUTH AMERICA. .000 Amazon. 1. . . 2. and its head . .
. . . . . . . . . 800 Uruguay . . Matthias St. . . . .400 Orinoco . 1. . . 1. .000 Pilcomayo . 1. • • • Magellan Le Maire Carlos Capes.• • • • • • • • • • • • Negro . 1. &c. . . . . .380 Tocantins . . . . . 1. . . Francisco . . . .200 Paraguay . • • • • • • • • De la Véla St. . . • • • • • • • • • Darien All Saints St. 1. Antonio Blanco Tres Montes Pilares Horn Peninsulas. . George Bonaventura Guayaquil Archip. 600 Gulfs. . . . de Toledo Venezuela Straits.000 St. 700 Salado . .200 Araguay . . . Roque Santa Maria St. . . . 800 Vermejo . . . . 1. Joseph Tres Montes . • • St. Bays. .000 Parana . de Chonos Archip. .000 Magdalena . 1.
. ditto . . . . . . . . . . Chili . . .000 Longavi peak . . ditto . . . . . . . . . . • • Maracaybo Titicaca Islands. 11. 19. . .000 Chimborazo peak . ditto . . .000 Descabezado peak . Feet. . . . . . 21. ditto . . . . . . . .000 Tupungato peak . . 20. .000 Blanquillo peak . ditto . . .000 Page 150 Lakes. . 20. . . . . . . 20.000 Pitchinca volcano . . . . . Patagonia . . . . . . . 19. . ditto . . . Bolivia . • The area. . . Equadór . . West Coast S. . 10. . and surface of South America? Its inhabitants? .000 Corcobado peak . 20. . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . ditto .000 Cotopaxi volcano . . . .000 Antisana peak . . 20. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Andes chain . . .000 Manflos Peak . . .000 Quito city . .Mountains. 24. . . . . . population. . . 20. . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Group of the Little Antilles Trinidad Juan de Marajo South Shetland Solidad Staten Land Juan Fernandez Gallipagos Group Madré de Dios Tierra del Fuego Falkland Group Great Falkland Georgia Chiloé QUESTIONS.500 Potosi city . ditto .000 Chilian peak . . . . . America . . 16. ditto . . . . . . . . . . .
• • The ruling race? Its rivers. &c. are the emerald mines. and mixed races. The farmers are chiefly occupied in raising live stock. and in the river basins. North-east of and near the city of Bogota. platina. The articles of export are hides. 2.000. Steamboats now ply on the Magdalena. cotton.000. indigo. and the width of the stream 36 feet. The largest consists of a natural arch of stone 50 feet long. All the houses are low. and individuals are carried on a kind of basket-chair on the backs of porters. or plains. specie. Minerals are abundant. spans the Isthmus of Panama. Indians. and is pulled safely over. BOGOTA. silver.243. Area in square miles. In the mountainous districts there are no roads. In other parts.000 feet above the level of the sea. and rock salt. mountains. is the Cataract of Tequendama. The method of crossing streams is by ropes stretched from one side to the other with sling and basket. The soil is fertile. coffee. About 50 miles north of Bogota. and along the coasts. in which the traveller seats himself. recently built. and the forests are rich in dye and cabinet woods. which will much facilitate the development of the country. and tropical fruits. The natural bridges of Icononzo are much celebrated. nearly 9. and bullion. particularly gold. cocoa. Negroes. East of the mountains are extensive llanos. Population.? THE REPUBLIC OF NEW GRANADA. is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Bogota. mules form the chief means of conveyance. in the River Bogota--a branch of the Magdalena. and 40 wide. In the uplands wheat and other grains are produced. Several chains of the Andes based upon elevated table-lands overspread a large portion of the country. and the climate is hot and unhealthy. in . 522. Page 151 The population is composed of Whites. tobacco. except on the elevated tableland. sugar. together with various medicinal herbs. The llanos afford pasturage for immense herds of cattle and horses. and a railroad. stretching over a chasm (through which rolls a swift torrent) at an elevation of 318 feet above the surface of the water. Agriculture is in a rude state. which supply a great part of the world with this precious stone. the capital city. The height of this cataract is about 570 feet.
and mixed races. CARACCAS. • • • • • The area. Travelling and inland commerce are carried on by means of mules and lamas. . QUESTIONS. There are mountain ridges in the south and west.000. Animals and insects are numerous. Area in square miles. Carthagena is the seaport and naval arsenal of the republic. population. The tropical products grow here luxuriantly. Popayan lies in a fertile plain near the Cauca River. whitewashed and covered with tiles. and as there is little variety of surface. The whites are engaged in agricultural and commercial pursuits. Page 152 The population is of three classes--Whites. The soil is productive. a high temperature prevails. The year is divided into two seasons--the wet and the dry. The greater part of the surface is a vast plain. and soil of New Granada? Its location? Describe its famous cataract and bridges. Population. 1. Indians. La Guayra and Cumana are seaports on the Caribbean Sea. about 12 miles distant from its port. The climate is warm. together with cattle. It is connected with the Magdalena by a canal. Maracaybo carries on an active trade with the interior. The modes of travel? The cities? THE REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA.000. surface.consequence of the apprehension of earthquakes. Churches and convents cover nearly half the city. and the several articles of trade which they yield. La Guayra. lies in a valley. This city is noted as having been the birth-place of General Bolivar. 427. and pearloysters are found along the coast. the capital. The inhabitants are chiefly mulattoes and negroes.324. The exports consist of a variety of tropical plants. and are built of sun-dried brick.
The climate is hot. The coast and settled districts are occupied by European settlers. except in the British and French colonies. rum. Insects are numerous. population. . It is level for some distance inland. called respectively French. Page 153 The interior is inhabited by various Indian tribes. soil. PARAMARIBO is the capital of Dutch Guiana. QUESTIONS. and climate of Venezuela? The people? The exports and towns? THE COLONIES OF GUIANA. and spices.Angostura is the chief place of trade in the valley of the Orinoco. sugar. Dutch. during the year. upon approaching it. lemon. 141. Ant-hillocks have been seen as high as 15 or 20 feet. spices. indigo. The streets are traversed by canals. Area in square miles. GEORGETOWN is the capital of British Guiana. Canals are being constructed in some parts. The exports are coffee. and two dry seasons. like a line of trees growing out of the water. fruits. • • The area. and fruits and plants peculiar to tropical countries. and in the south it is hilly and mountainous. and mixed races. and Great Britain. Most of the negroes are slaves. The streets of the town are ornamented with rows of orange. and nearly 100 feet in circumference. Vegetation is luxuriant. in consequence of being covered with water during the rainy season. molasses. so that the country appears. The mode of travelling is by boats on the various rivers which traverse the country. and British Guiana. 214 000. The object of pursuit among the settlers is the cultivation of sugar and coffee-plantations. The soil is rich. negroes. or rainy seasons. Along the coast the land is low and flat. Population.000. surface. Dye. and other valuable woods. This portion of Northern South America consists of three colonies belonging to France. are plentiful. On the coast there are two winters. Holland. and tamarind trees.
800. but gradually rise to the mountainous region which runs parallel to the coast. exports. The northern part of Brazil consists chiefly of a vast plain. and the flour of the Cassava root is used by the less wealthy classes. It is noted for its trade in Cayenne pepper. Along the watercourses are dense and almost impenetrable forests. some elevated. In Brazil. The climate may be characterized as mild and agreeable. The shores of the east coast are low. surface. . • • The area. January and February are their hottest months. The banana forms part of the food of the Indians. December.956. as in all other regions south of the equator.200. Population. Minor ranges intersect the other parts of the empire. enclosing tracts. and vegetation luxuriant. through which flow the Amazon and its tributaries. QUESTIONS. and climate of Guiana? Its political divisions? Its people.700 miles in length. 6. and others low-lying plains. except in the Page 154 north. from 20 to 150 miles inland. soil.CAYENNE is the capital of French Guiana. the order of the seasons is the reverse of ours. The forests abound with useful and ornamental woods. The soil is fertile. population.000. Area in square miles. Other tropical fruits and plants are abundant. and towns? THE EMPIRE OF BRAZIL. This vast empire possesses a coast line of 3. 3.
tallow. coffee. is the seat of the foreign commerce of the empire. supplied by means of a magnificent aqueduct.TROPICAL ANIMALS OF SOUTH AMERICA. hides. The houses are built of granite. the plains afford pasturage for herds of wild cattle. cabinet and dye woods. The diamond mines of Brazil are valuable. are Page 155 numerous. . RIO JANEIRO. which conducts the water from the adjacent mountains. The cultivation of the soil. The inhabitants consist of whites. drugs. horns. The environs of the city are exceedingly picturesque and beautiful. are performed by the negro slaves. cotton. and diamonds. negroes. jerked beef. mixed races. the capital city. of Portuguese descent. The exports are sugar. as scarcely any part of the empire is passable for carriages. Fountains. gold. and the labour in the mines. The forests swarm with wild animals and a variety of birds of the richest plumage. and several savage tribes of native Indians. Goods are transported either on the backs of mules or horses.
OR THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. though damp. Maldonado is a well-fortified seaport town. Pernambuco is a commercial city of importance. soil. 70. or india-rubber.000.000. about 100 miles distant from Buenos Ayres. Population. some civilized. hair. population. Bahia is a large and flourishing commercial city. rice and drugs. population. • • • • QUESTIONS. 250. and almost destitute of trees. The exports are hides.000. and feathers. has a good port on the left side of the estuary of the La Plata. • • • The area. and climate of Brazil? Its products and people? Its exports and towns? THE REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY.Para carries on a considerable trade in exporting cocoa. Area in square miles. and others in a savage state. and climate of Uruguay? The inhabitants of Uruguay? Its exports and towns? LA PLATA. The majority of the inhabitants are Indians. soil. and the rest of the territory undulating. caoutchouc. 920. Population. The surface in the north and west is mountainous. isinglass. . surface. Cattle and horses form the wealth of the inhabitants. QUESTIONS. beef. and the climate. The area. is temperate and salubrious. 754. much resembling the prairies of Western North America. butter. MONTE VIDEO. in the centre mountainous. The surface along the coast is level. The soil is good. and is the chief city of the republic. and the central and southern parts are vast pampas. the capital. surface. Area in square miles.000.
horns. or shepherds of the pampas. or hurricanes.000. horsehair. and the articles of traffic obtained from them. and the eastern consists of a succession of terraces. The population consists of Spaniards. The roads are better than in most parts of South America. Hides. The city of Mendoza. 300. Population. The guachos. sometimes sweep over the pampas. BUENOS AYRES. Creoles. horses. population. lead a wandering life. the climate is mild. mules. which they manage with dexterity. is built with great regularity. Salta is noted for its trade in hides and mules. hunting wild cattle. They anchor about seven miles distant. They take them by means of a lasso. native Indians and negroes. soil. and on the coast. exports. ostrich feathers and salted meats. 120. and cities? Its capital? PATAGONIA. The rivers of La Plata afford facilities for transportation. Page 156 Fruits and plants common to both the temperate and tropical climes are here produced. and neatness. QUESTIONS. are the chief dependence. which was the entrepôt of a flourishing trade with Chili and La Plata. Ships drawing 16 feet water cannot approach the city. taste. and climate of La Plata? Its products. wool. but cattle. Destructive winds. was destroyed in 1861 by an earthquake.The soil is good. the harbour being obstructed by sand-banks. Area in square miles. the capital.000. are articles of export. and load and unload by means of lighters. The western part of Patagonia is traversed by the Andes. In the mountainous regions. people. surface. and carries on an extensive trade. . • • • The area.
1. Indian corn. They lead a nomadic life. and volcanoes are numerous. The inhabitants are chiefly Spaniards. soap. SANTIAGO is the capital. Population. Area in square miles. compared with the entire surface. the land is level. The exports are metals. The four seasons here are in reversed order. tallow. the land rises in successive terraces from the coast. pumas. in the middle part of Chili.000. the branches of the Andes cross the country. The soil of the midland vales is rich. and foxes are among the wild animals. but dews are frequent and heavy. THE REPUBLIC OF CHILI. hides. Water-fowl and seals. are cultivated. and other grains. forming numerous valleys.209. In the north. in Wales. Mestizoes and Indians. is immense. The climate is temperate and healthy. as are also the condor and ibis. their habitations are small and moveable. The tracks through the valleys and ravines are passable only by mules. Earthquakes often occur. who are as barbarous as the country is desolate. The manufactures are earthenware jars.000. 84. Page 157 consisting of a framework of stakes covered with the skins of animals. years pass without rain. The sea-coast of Chili. wheat. in great numbers. consequently.On and near the Rio Negro the soil is adapted to wheat and other grains. The figs and olives of Chili are said to be of superior flavour. Guanacos. Agriculture and mining form the leading pursuits. and the grape is cultivated with success. hempen cloths. The climate is generally cold. cordage. in other parts it is sandy and dry. and affords several good harbours. leather and brandy. wheat. in the south. Much grain is sent to California. wool and hemp. In some parts of Northern Chili. The country is thinly inhabited by Indian tribes. . Minerals are abundant--silver and copper are the most profitable. Large quantities of the ore of the latter are annually shipped to Swansea. and terminate abruptly at the coast. jerked beef. The houses are built low. frequent the rocky shores. owing to the earthquakes.
Valparaiso is the chief seaport of Chili, and one of the seats of trade on the west coast of South America. Coquimbo is noted for its trade in minerals and chinchilla skins. Page 158
THE REPUBLIC OF BOLIVIA. Area in square miles, 450,000. Population, 1,700,000.
The western part is traversed by ridges of the Andes, and in the east are extensiveplains. The coast district is a sterile desert. The great plateau, where lake Titicaca is situated, is 12,000 feet above the level of the Pacific. The soil is fertile, and the climate varies much in different parts of the country, according to the elevation and the distance from the equator. In the more elevated parts Indian corn, wheat, and other grains are cultivated; and in the lower districts tropical fruits and plants are raised to some extent. Cinchona trees, from which Peruvian bark is obtained, are numerous. Nearly three-fourths of the people are either Indians or mixed races. Some of the native Indian tribes are intelligent and industrious, and others are still in a savage state. Agriculture and mining form the chief pursuits. Goods are transported on the backs of mules and other beasts of burden. Cotton goods, and cloths of llama and alpaca hair, glass wares, leather, silver, and hats of vicuna wool, are made to a limited extent. The exports are precious metals, wool, hats, and Peruvian bark. CHUQUISACA, or SUCRE, the capital, lies in a fine valley upon the table-land of the interior, about 9,500 feet above the level of the sea. It has a large and handsome cathedral. Cochabambra is situated in a rich and well-cultivated district, on the south side of a spur of the Andes. La Paz is the chief city of Bolivia, and carries on an extensive transit trade.
THE REPUBLIC OF PERU. Area in square miles, 520,000. Population, 2,107,000.
The surface embraces three distinct regions,--the mountainous, or central region, the narrow plain, between the Andes and the ocean, and the great plains, which extend
Page 159 eastward from the Andes to the interior of Brazil. Volcanoes are numerous. The soil is fertile in some parts, and the climate varies according to the elevation. In the mountain region it is cold, and here and in the eastern plains, the rains are abundant during six months of the year, while on the coast it is uniformly hot, and no rain ever falls, though dense mists are of frequent occurrence. Grains and rice flourish in the temperate districts, and the warmer valleys supply abundant crops of tropical plants and fruits. The mountain region abounds in minerals. The coca plant, which supplies the place of the tobacco leaf, is cultivated both in Peru and Bolivia. Guano, which is extensively used both in Europe and our own country as a manure, has been largely exported from the little group of the Chincha Islands, lying off the coast of Peru, about 150 miles from Lima. The Whites do not equal one-seventh of the entire population. The Indians of Peru are the descendants of races who had attained considerable civilization prior to the discovery of the New World. Agriculture is the chief employment, and mining receives some attention. Coarse cotton and woollen cloths, leather cloaks, and jewellery are manufactured to some extent. The exports consist of bullion, chinchilla skins, Peruvian bark, cotton, copper-ore, vicuna, alpaca and sheep's wool, hides and sugar. The exports of guano in 1852 amounted to 220,500 tons, 32,000 of which were sent to our own country, and the rest to Europe. LIMA is the capital and largest city. Like most of the Spanish cities, Lima has a large square in the centre, where all the streets terminate. It was long the grand commercial entrepôt for all the west coast of South America. Cuzco is the chief city in the mountain region, and the second in the country in size and population. Arica is a small seaport both for Peru and Bolivia. Page 160
THE REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR. Area in square miles, 320,000. Population, 620,000.
The western part is traversed by the Andes, and the eastern forms part of the great central plain of South America. The soil is fertile, and the climate on the coast is hot, while in the elevated tablelands it is that of perpetual spring, though the country lies in the centre of the torrid zone. The productions are similar to those of New Granada. Turtles abound in the Amazon, and fish are plentiful on the coast of the Pacific. Indians and Mestizoes form the bulk of the population. Agriculture and mining are the chief employments. QUITO, the capital, lies nearly under the line of the equator, on a slope of the volcano of Pichincha, at an elevation of 9,000 feet above the sea. Owing to the inequalities of the ground on which this city is built, its streets are irregular and uneven; and so numerous are the crevices of the mountain, that many of the houses are built on arches. Guayaquil, the chief seaport, is divided into two towns connected by it bridge. The appearance of the town is pleasing, but its streets are dirty, and the place is infested with insects. Water is brought to the city from a distance in earthen jars. The harbour is good, and large ships can ascend to the town.
THE REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY. Area in square miles, 84,000. Population, 300,000.
The surface is generally level. A mountain chain traverses the centre of the territory, forming a watershed for several small streams, and causing them to flow in opposite directions. The soil is fertile, and the climate moist and temperate. Grain, rice, cotton, tobacco, sugar, and the yerba mate or Paraguay tea, are the chief products. Various drugs,--such as sarsaparilla, rhubarb, jalap, nux vomica, and Peruvian bark--are abundant. Page 161 A majority of the inhabitants are Indians, partially civilized; the whites are, however, the ruling people. Agriculture, and raising cattle, form the leading pursuits. The exports are cattle, and the articles of trade they yield, horses and Paraguay tea.
Assumption, the capital, carries on considerable trade, chiefly in tea, hides, and timber.
• • • • • • •
Describe Patagonia. Describe Chili, Bolivia, and Peru. Their products and exports? Their inhabitants and towns? The area, population, surface, soil, and climate of Ecuador and Paraguay? Their products and exports? Their people and cities?
SECTION XL.--Mexico, Central America, &c. MEXICO. Area in square miles, 856,000. Population, 7,660,000. States, 22. Territories, 3.
The surface is diversified by mountain ranges and lofty peaks, some of which are volcanoes. The interior is an elevated table-land, sloping gradually to the coasts, which are low. The soil is fertile, and the climate hot and sickly on the coasts; but healthy and agreeable in the interior. On the table-lands of the Sierra Madre the climate is cold; in all the regions situated on the slopes of the mountains it is temperate; and on the coasts it is hot. The productions vary at different elevations; so that in Mexico may be found the fruits, vegetables and plants peculiar to almost every clime. Indian corn and the banana are the staple products. The maguey, a variety of the agave, or American aloe, furnishes a beverage called pulque, of which the inhabitants consume a great quantity. A species of the cactus plant (noted as being the abode of the cochineal insect) is abundant. This insect is valuable for the red dye which it affords. Minerals are abundant, particularly gold and silver. Horned Page 162 cattle are numerous, and supply hides, &c., in great quantities. Nearly one-half of the inhabitants are Indians; the remainder are divided between the Creoles, or people descended from European parents (almost wholly Spanish), and the Mestizoes, or mixed races. Tillage and mining form the chief pursuits.
cattle. under General Forey. the largest and most interesting city of Mexico. Beeswax is extensively collected. Mexico. . The chief seaports of Mexico are Tampico. Departments. The products are logwood. except in the south. Dye-woods. Area in square miles. the land is inundated. Mazatlan. The city is in the form of a square (each side of which is about 9. gunpowder. The form of government is republican. The exports are--metals. and the climate hot and unhealthy. cotton. and deficient in regular supplies of water. olive-oil. It is noted for its churches. 473. rice. enclosed by lofty mountains. mahogany. which greatly impedes agriculture. Acapulco. which are in much request. Guadalaxara is. the capital. Page 163 The soil is poor. and medicinal herbs. in the adjacent lakes. The manufactures are brandy. tobacco. The surface is mostly level. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit. and placed the Archduke Maximilian of Austria on the throne. glass. the latter are cultivated on the chinampas. Population. 56. maize. La Puebla is noted for its churches. paper. and hides form the exports. Cattle are numerous. about two miles from Lake Tezcuco. next to the capital. cochineal. hides. and Guaymas. The inhabitants are chiefly whites. and its manufactures of soap. Mules are used for the transport both of passengers and merchandise. is situated in a vast plain of carefully cultivated fields. sugar.000 feet in length). conquered Mexico. The city markets are supplied with animal and vegetable productions.000.000. dyewoods. and is enclosed by high walls.The only two carriage-roads deserving of note lead from the capital to the port of Vera Cruz. convents. THE REPUBLIC OF YUCATAN. iron. The natives of this city manufacture a kind of jars of scented earth. or floating islands. and squares. 5. and soap. glassware. Vera Cruz. though there are among them numerous Indians. In summer. mahogany. In 1863 the French. and steel. and sugar-cane.
Area in square miles. sugar. Campeche is the principal seaport of Yucatan. Costa Rica. Forests are abundant. which contains the storehouses and residences of the merchants. Cattle are numerous. many of them in an active state. mahogany. Population. Indigo. The exports are mahogany and other hard cabinet woods cochineal. during the wet season. Population.000. 2. and the Republics of Nicaragua. In the east are Page 164 extensive plains and low flats. consists of a long street bordering on the river. Indian corn. along the line of the Pacific coast. and the climate. Balize. Lofty table-lands extend along the western coast. and cocoa-nuts. The town is surrounded by cocoa-nut plantations.Merida. 200. CENTRAL AMERICA. The country is a colonial possession of Great Britain. beans.000. The surface of the coast is low and swampy. OR BRITISH HONDURAS. The soil is rich and fertile. and form the staple food of the inhabitants. cotton. The soil is poor. Central America includes the State of Honduras.000. between the months of June and September. from which the country descends in terraces. is unhealthy. The inhabitants are Indians and Negroes. Area in square miles. rice. San Salvador. particularly in Nicaragua and Honduras. is connected with its port Sisal by a good road. sarsaparilla. 15. the capital of the colony.000. and is crossed by several inferior streets. The climate varies according to the elevation. and supply mahogany and other timber. BALIZE. 10. and logwood are the products. tortoise-shell. There are numerous volcanoes. on the coast plains it is hot. the capital. cocoa. but the interior is hilly. . and plantains are raised. birds. and Guatemala. Wild animals. and turtles are numerous.200.
&c. but it is rudely conducted. and minerals are abundant. QUESTIONS. surface.000. one-half Indians.--The West Indies.? Why is the climate of the city of Mexico like that of the temperate zones? Page 165 SECTION XLI. Agriculture forms the leading pursuit. The houses are built only one story in height. the capital of the Republic of Guatemala. The Mosquito Territory is inhabited by a race of Indians. San Salvador. cities. San José is the capital of the Republic of Costa Rica. Birds of brilliant plumage are plentiful. • • • • The area. 90. is about 45 miles distant from the coast of the Pacific. Bahama and Caribbean Isles. The climate is more healthy than that of the West India Islands. New Guatemala. They regard their country as an independent state. 3. Leon is the capital city of the Republic of Nicaragua. was almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1854. About one-fourth of the inhabitants are whites. Comayagua is the capital of the State of Honduras. and climate of Mexico. the capital of the Republic of San Salvador. They are divided into the Greater and Lesser Antilles. on account of earthquakes. the largest of the States of Central America. who have succeeded in maintaining their independence of Spanish power.590. and the States of Central America ? Their products and exports? Their inhabitants.000. under the protection of the British Government.The wooded coasts of the Pacific are infested with reptiles. The West Indies are an archipelago of islands. soil. which extend from the Gulf of Florida to the Gulf of Paria. Total area in square miles. population. Group of the Great Antilles. Total population. and the rest mixed races. • Cuba (700 miles long) .
With the exception of Hayti. and Los Roques. one of the Bahama Islands. Thomas Santa Cruz Group of the Bahamas. cotton. The Bermudas or Somers Islands were formerly classed with the West Indies. . October 12. • • • • Guadaloupe Martinico Barbadoes Trinidad Group of the Little Antilles. and the climate of the whole is tropical. coffee. and the islands of Margarita. • • • • • Bahama Abaco Eleuthera Providence Guanahani. but modified by the elevated surface of some of them. dyewoods. (Coral). or Cat* *San Salvador. They are a group of about 300 small islands belonging to Great Britain. Domingo. Danish. Swedish. French. and spices are the products and exports. 1492. Group of the Caribbees. Blanquilla. Dutch. or Hispaniola (480 miles long) Jamacia Porto Rico Group of the Virgin Islands. Salvador. the West India Islands are subject to the British. or Hayti. and then nearly west to America. Sugar. • • St. was the first land discovered by Columbus. • • Margarita Curaçoa Many of the islands are of volcanic origin. Tortuga.• • • St. His course from Spain was first southerly to the Canary Isles. and Spanish. Orchilla. or St. His armament consisted of three small vessels and ninety men.
and the former are for the most part wreckers and fishermen.000 13. . . . called the Bahama Banks. 35. . . are rendered cool and agreeable by the northwest breezes.000 18.000 12. . Jamaica. . Tobago. . . . . . . . .000 10. during the winter months. The shores and creeks of many of the islands abound in turtles and fish. Grenada (including the Grenadines). . Dominica.000. The surface of the islands is low and level.000 14. The latter are employed as labourers. . 21. . . Nevis. . . . . . . .000. The inhabitants consist of Creoles and Negroes. .000 16. 60. . . . . St. Antigua. 27. 29. 27. . . 10. . The soil is light and sandy. . 131. 800. . Sq. .000.000 7.500. . . . turtles. . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. 280. . 3.000 9. The chief article cultivated is cotton. The northern isles.000 2. . . . Barbuda. . . . . . . . . 2. .Page 166 THE BRITISH ANTILLES. 200 4. . . 139. .000 17. Total population. . 275.000 5.000 3. . . . .000 The Bahama Isles number about 500. 47. . 4. Barbadoes.000 15. . . . Pop. mahogany. . . . . . 5. . . . 8. . . Lucia. 29. . . Cattle and sheep thrive in the islands. . . . . . Trinidad. 13. . . . and the fruits of tropical regions grow on the islands. . . 164.000. . 38. . . Bahamas. . . 380. . . . . . . 107. miles. 13. 7. 122. . fruits. Anegada. Tortola. . . 8. . St. . .000 6. dye-woods. . . St. . 24. . . . . . Turk's Island is noted for its salt ponds. . . . . . 23. 36. . 68. . . . . . 500 8. . . vegetables. . Montserrat. . and are uninhabitable. . many of them are mere coral rocks. 120. The exports are cotton. . 72. .000 11. 30. . . . Kitts. Anguilla. and coffee. Vincent. . . . Virgin Gorda. . . The chief islands lie on the flats. . . Nassau is the capital and seat of government. Total area in square miles. . . . Guinea and Indian corn. . 15.
Sugar. The island is a dependency of the island of St. and alligators. molasses. cotton. tobacco. Steamers plying between Aspinwall and New York frequently stop at Kingston to get a supply of coal. The island is held under a long lease from the crown of England by the Codrington family. Cotton. form the leading exports. cotton. On the south side the shores are abrupt. Christopher. The population amounts to 500 negroes. indigo. indigo.--Some of this group are colonial possessions of Great Britain. Anguilla. A railroad connects this place with the capital.The island of JAMAICA lies in the Caribbean Sea. Charleston is the capital. lizards. A regular communication is kept up between this port and several other of the West India ports.--This island is traversed through the centre by a mountain range. molasses. luxuriant vegetation. Spanish Town is the capital. Corn. and fruits. are the products. The principal of these are Anegada. cotton. The climate is hot. The products are sugar. Barbuda. Monkeys. &c.--The surface of the island is covered with a thick. and the coasts contain excellent harbours. from which the land gradually slopes to the sea. The Virgin Isles. rum. sugar. The soil is fertile and highly cultivated. and irregularly shaped. Kitts. Page 167 In the valleys and level tracts the soil is fertile. The Blue Mountains traverse the island from east to west.--The surface of this island is low. or St. By far the greater part of the inhabitants are blacks. are the productions. . The soil is good. and with England. and tobacco are the products. rum. It is well watered. coffee. Turtle and fish abound on the coasts. coffee. St. Sugar. flat. inhabit this island. Virgin Gorda. and Tortola. Kingston is the chief commercial city of Jamaica. Kitts. and tropical fruits. and the climate healthy. and other fruits. while on the north the land is undulating. arrowroot. about 90 miles south-west of Hayti. Nevis is a small island. The staple product is sugar. oranges. molasses. and cattle. shaddocks. salt.
and the exports are sugar. The Grenadines are a cluster of about twenty small islands. Carenage is the capital town of the island. Hogs. when the sky is clear. molasses. and these. and Trinidad. Kitts. may be seen by the naked eye. on the top of which are several small lakes. form the articles of export. poultry. Plymouth is the capital. St.Antigua. molasses. Vincent. rum.--The inhabitants of this island are blacks. and molasses. George.--A chain of mountains traverses this island from north to south. has an excellent harbour. Dominica is of volcanic origin. Vincent. arrowroot. bees. Grenada. St. coffee. Montserrat produces some of the best coffee and sugar in the West Indies. The soil is fertile. the climate hot and unhealthy. with arrowroot and tamarinds. from whose summit. Grenada. St. Montserrat. is situated partly on a high rock. the capital. Bridgetown. has been selected by the Royal Mail Packet Steam Company as a coal depôt. Guadaloupe. John. dependent on Grenada. the capital. The governor and commanderin-chief of this island is also governor-general of the islands of St. and cotton. aloes. with rugged mountains and fertile intervening valleys. Lucia. the capital. the capital. is well built and surrounded by fine plantations. and game.--About two-fifths of the surface of this island is under cultivation for sugar. Lucia.--Sugar is the chief article cultivated on this island. cocoa. rum. Page 168 St. and St. The climate is unhealthy. are plentiful. St. The productions are sugar. Tobago. BARBADOES is the oldest colony of Great Britain. Roseau. which are watered by numerous streams. . Tobago. Nevis. and ginger. Kingstown is the capital. The exports are sugar.--Scarborough is the capital. tamarinds.
Total area in square miles. . The island formerly belonged to Great Britain. . the capital of the island. . . BARTHOLOMEW. cotton. 14. 4. . Total population 41. • • • St. . . . . . . 380.Trinidad. . 1. . 12. . . The government of the island is under a governor-general. . . John. Total area in square miles. . and the West Indies. . . . is of greater importance in extent and fertility. .000 . . whose jurisdiction extends to the other Danish colonies of the group. . Thomas. Area in sq. 30. . Population. .800 St. .--Sugar and cotton are the chief exports. . Population. and 18. 185. . . ST. . . . .600 St.500. miles. 1. 250. • • • • • • St. 43. Total population. .600 Santa Cruz. . contains an area of about 35 square miles. Thomas in commerce. a colonial possession of Sweden. . 60. 42. 1. . Thomas. Martin*.500 Marie Galante. . consequently the inhabitants are English in customs and in language. . Area in square miles. . . .000 inhabitants. . . . . . is a free port. . . . .000. St. in England. Thomas. . . Santa Cruz. . . .--This island. . sugar. and hides. . . . .000 Martinique. Page 169 THE DANISH ANTILLES.000 Les Saintes. . . 2. 100. . 112. . Port Spain is the capital. . coffee.000 La Desirade. . It is the only island in the West Indies that belongs to the Swedes. 5. 17.026. The exports are cocoa. 534. . THE FRENCH ANTILLES. 25. .--The elevated parts of this island are covered with dense forests. . 118.000 Gualdaloupe. though inferior to St. . and the chief station of the steam-packets between Southampton.
.* The north part belongs to the French. coffee. or Guadaloupe Proper. Basso Terre. . . cocoa. 24. . and the islands La Desirade. that on the north is called Grand Cul-deSac. 80. In the south. . olive oil. . . coffee. and tobacco. . Passe Terre is the seat of government of Guadaloupe Proper. or channel. and cotton. Total population. and Les Saintes. .000. . salt. and the western. Pierre is the most populous and important town on the island. THE DUTCH ANTILLES. 30. 27. Population. . . but St. . The capital of the colony is Fort Royal. Martinique is mountainous. ginger. 6. The products are sugar. • • • • St. Area in sq. and cocoa.000 Saba. rum. . cloves. . . . Mariegalante. . . Page 170 there are lagoons. 450. logwood. . . 2. . 15. Martin. . The products are sugar. Point à Pitre is the capital of Grand Terre. . from which much salt is obtained. Martin. . rum. are dependencies of Guadaloupe. GUADALOUPE is the largest and most valuable of the Caribbean Isles. The area of the whole island is about 30 square miles. . It is divided into two parts by La Riviere Salee. and that on the south Petit Cul-de-Sac.000 . This river. The north part of St. is 50 yards in breadth. . .000 Buen Ayre. . The productions are sugar.500 St. Martin. and communicates with the sea by a bay at each end. . The eastern section of this island is called Grand Terre.--About one-third of the French part of the island is under cultivation. the south to Holland. . 1. or Dutch portion. Total area in square miles. Eustatius. 2. St. . and about one-fourth of its surface is covered with dense forests. miles.
Curacoa. . . . . 300. . . . . 15,000
St. Eustatius.--The coasts are steep, and the island is subject to frequent hurricanes and earthquakes. Pigs, goats, and poultry are reared for export as well as for local use. The island of Saba is a dependency of St. Eustatius. Buell Ayre abounds in timber, and has salt and lime works. Curaçoa owes its importance to its commercial facilities. Page 171 Williamstadt, the capital, is the centre of commerce of the Dutch West India colonies.
THE SPANISH ANTILLES. Are in square miles, 46,120. Population, 1,587,000. Area in sq. miles. Population.
Cuba. . . . . 42,380. . . . . 1,207,000 Porto Rico. . . . . 3,740. . . . . 380,000
CUBA.--The south-east part of the island is intersected by a mountain range, which extends along the greater part of the entire length of the island. The northern portion is generally level, with rich valleys and plains. Owing to the shape of Cuba, and the direction of its mountains, there is but little space left for rivers. The mountain torrents, which flow into the sea during the rainy season, dry up when the rains cease; thus causing in some parts severe droughts. The soil is fertile, and the climate warm, but healthy. The greatest quantity of rain falls during May, June, and July, which are the hottest months. Snow never falls. Tobacco, cotton, sugar, coffee, and various kinds of fruits, are produced. Many varieties of hard-wood trees, such as mahogany, cedar, ebony, &c., are to be met with in the mountain districts. Amphibious animals, such as are usually found in tropical climes, and birds of beautiful plumage, are numerous, while the coasts swarm with fish. The inhabitants are chiefly Creole whites, blacks, and mulattoes (both slaves and free), Spaniards, and other foreigners. The island is under the government of a captaingeneral, appointed by the Spanish crown.
Some railroads have been constructed, by means of which Havana is connected with the agricultural and commercial districts. Steam-vessels also ply between Havana and other parts of the coast. The manufactures consist of coarse woollens, straw hats, cigars, &c. The exports are sugar, coffee, molasses, spirits, tobacco, cigars, wax, honey, copper-ore, hard woods, &c. Page 172 HAVANA is the capital of Cuba, and an important commercial city and port. The entrance to the harbour is defended by two castles, Moro and Punto. The streets of the city are narrow and badly paved. The principal edifices are the cathedral, containing the tomb of Columbus; the palace of the governor, the arsenal, the general post-office, and a number of churches, convents, charitable and other institutions. Matanzas is an important seaport. PORTO RICO.--This island is beautifully diversified with woods, hills, and valleys, and well watered by small streams from the mountains, which traverse the centre of the island from east to west. The soil is rich and fertile. The climate is unusually fine. Sugar, coffee, maize, and rice are the staple products. St. John's, or San Juan de Porto Rico, is the capital, and chief seaport.
THE ISLAND OF HAYTI, OR SAN DOMINGO. Area in square miles, 29,400. Population, 700,000.
The centre of this island is traversed by mountain ranges. The east shore is swampy, but the other shores are bold, and afford good harbours. The rivers are numerous and rapid. The soil is fertile, and the climate hot and unhealthy to foreigners. The products of this island are coffee, tobacco, cotton, cocoa, sugar, bees'-wax, cochineal, and ginger. Mahogany, satinwood, logwood, and other valuable trees, form articles of export. Hayti formerly belonged to France and Spain; the former holding the western, or Haytien part of the island, and the latter the eastern, or Dominican. It is now divided into two independent states, and governed by free blacks. The government of the Haytien part is despotic, while the Spanish portion is republican.
Port au Prince is the capital of the Empire of Hayti, and the principal seat of its foreign trade. Page 173 San Domingo is the capital of the Dominican republic.
• • • • • •
The area, population, surface, soil, and climate of the West India Islands? Their products and exports? Their inhabitants and cities? Their political divisions? The names and location of the principal islands? Describe the Island of Cuba.
SECTION XLII.--The British Possessions in North America. Area in square miles, 3,000,000. Population, 3,300,000.
VANCOUVER ISLAND contains all area of 14,000 square miles. Its population is 12,000. Its surface is diversified; its soil is fertile; and its climate milder than that of England. The island has good harbours. From this island to Canada West the territories abound in game, forests, and minerals. Gold is extensively mined on Fraser River. There are increasing settlements on the Red River of the North. Lines of steamboats have been established on this river.
CANADA WEST. Area in square miles, 148,000. Population, 952,000.
This province extends westward from the Ottawa River to the head waters of those rivers which flow into Like Superior. It is diversified by ridges of table-land. A large tract of country lying between Georgian Bay and the upper part of the Ottawa River, is elevated. The eastern part of the province is level, gradually sloping down towards the Ottawa on the one side, and the St. Lawrence on the other. The soil is fertile, and the climate more mild than that of the eastern part of the province; still it is colder than those countries in Europe which are situated in similar latitude. Fruits and grain are among the productions. Wild animals abound in the forests; many of them valuable for their fur. Maple trees are numerous, from which sugar is obtained.
Kingston is the depôt of the government steamers, and of the boats employed on the Rideau Canal. It possesses an Page 174 excellent harbour, and is the naval arsenal of Great Britain in this quarter. TORONTO, the capital of British America, is extensively engaged in trade, and maintains a constant steamboat intercourse, during the season of navigation, with the various ports on the great lakes and the river St. Lawrence. By means of the electric telegraph, this city communicates with the chief towns and cities of Canada, and it is connected by railroads with nearly all the cities of note in North America. Hamilton is an important commercial city of Western Canada. It is on the line of the Great Western railroad, which extends across the province, from the Niagara to Detroit River.
CANADA EAST. Area, 200,000 square miles. Population, 1,600,000. Districts, 4. Counties, 40.
The surface is diversified; the soil is light; the climate is severe in winter, and warm in summer. The productions are grain, timber, furs, fish, minerals, flax, hemp, and potash; all of which are exports. Railroads and canals have been constructed throughout the length of Canada, from Quebec to Lake Superior, and afford every facility for commerce. A short distance above the spot where the Montmorency discharges itself into the St. Lawrence, are the celebrated and beautiful Falls of Montmorency. The Montmorency is a small river, which, in its onward course to join the St. Lawrence, descends a precipice of about 250 feet. QUEBEC, a strongly fortified city, styled "the Gibraltar of America," is situated partly on a plain, along the left bank of the St. Lawrence, and partly on a promontory, 350 feet in height. By this means, Quebec is divided into two parts, called respectively, Upper and Lower Town. The harbour is accessible for ships of the line, and vessels of the largest burden can come up to its wharves. This city carries on regular intercourse (during the season of navigation), by means of steamers, with Montreal and other ports on the Page 175
and connecting it with all the great cities of British America and the United States. and is capable of containing 10. Lawrence. The island is 32 miles in length and 10 in breadth. FRENCH CANADIANS. This spot is memorable in history for the battle fought in 1759. There are numerous other railways leading from the city." is the name given to the entire promontory lying between the Charles and St.000 persons. which resulted in the loss of the two generals--Wolfe and Montcalm.St. opposite Montreal. "The Plains. The city is the emporium of trade between Canada and the United States. has six towers. A railroad extends from Longueil. Lawrence. a small place on the St. Lawrence. The Roman Catholic cathedral in this city is the finest edifice in British America. at the east extremity of which the citadel of Quebec stands. and also with Halifax and other cities on the Atlantic coast. Page 176 . to Portland in Maine. It is faced with stone. a distance of about 300 miles. The principal edifices of Quebec are in the upper and fortified part of the city. Lawrence. MONTREAL is pleasantly located on an island of the same name in the St. or Heights of Abraham.
The interior forms a table-land of moderate elevation. Fogs are frequent along the line of the Atlantic coast. The exports are timber. St. some of which form excellent harbours. but the chief employments are the timber trade and the fisheries. The inhabitants are mostly of French descent. except during winter. Between these two places steamers ply frequently. Area in square miles. dried fish. the climate and productions are similar to those of Canada. No portion of the peninsula exceeds an elevation of 700 feet above the Page 177 level of the sea. Population. 194. gypsum. as land is cheap. Population. FREDERICKTON is the capital of the province. and the tract along the Bay of Fundy is rocky and uneven. The streets are spacious. and. John stands on a steep slope separated by a projecting rock into two portions. The surface is considerably varied. John. The winters are very severe. Its harbour is fine and ably defended by several forts. The land is covered with dense forests. Along the shores of the Gulf the country is level. and the fisheries are highly important.700.000.--The St.THREE RIVERS. NEW BRUNSWICK. when the communication is maintained by means of sledges drawn by horses over the ice. .000. much space is devoted to garden plats throughout the city. and has extensive docks for shipbuilding. Shipbuilding is carried on at St. Manganese and iron are abundant. and grindstones. and the summers short and hot. and it is one of the oldest towns in Canada. and only a very small part of the peninsula is under cultivation.700. Area in square miles. 18. The soil is fertile. The merchants obtain their goods mostly from St. It is the entrepôt of a wide extent of country. 276. There are highly fertile districts. 27. and well watered. but these are of limited extent. It ranks next to Quebec and Montreal in importance. John. The surface is greatly diversified. NOVA SCOTIA. Potatoes are the chief article of culture. Maurice River divides into three channels at its mouth-hence the name of this town. The coasts contain inlets. and coal is plentiful.
The surface of this island is marshy. grindstones. coal. and spread over between 600 and 700 miles in length. and fogs are very prevalent. and during a great part of the year the atmosphere is humid. fish. which lie in the Atlantic to the south of the island. The wharves are lined with vessels. the capital of Nova Scotia. and the dwelling-houses and public buildings rear their heads over each other as they stretch along and up the sides of the hill on which the city is built. The pursuits of the inhabitants are agriculture. and other neighbouring towns.000. Area in square miles. of which the cod fishery is the most important. and the resources of the inhabitants are in the fisheries. John in New Brunswick. The fish here caught are whales. A steam communication is kept up between Halifax and St. and the shores are deeply indented by numerous bays. Several hundred schooners come annually to the east coast of Labrador from the neighbouring provinces.000 men for the purpose of fishing off the coast. and herring. At these banks are the fishing- . 100. salmon. and the coasting trade. Timber is scarce. and the fisheries. gypsum. The appearance of the city from the water is peculiar and prepossessing. whale and seal oil and furs.000. HALIFAX. NEWFOUNDLAND. is the chief naval station for the British North American colonies. cod. bringing with them not less than 20. Pasturage is plentiful. The banks of Newfoundland are extensive submarine elevations. LABRADOR is included in the government of Newfoundland. Coal of excellent quality abounds. Page 178 The soil is ill suited to agriculture.Grain and potatoes form the staple crops. the crews of about 400 United States vessels visit this coast during the same time. The exports are lumber. and grindstones are very extensively quarried. 36. plaster and coal trade. The resident inhabitants are occupied as furriers and seal-catchers. The depths of water on these vary from 15 to 80 fathoms. Population. and the plains abound with deer. Mail steamers from England and the United States stop at this place. the lumber business. The climate in the winter is severe. The resources of the colony are the timber. Besides these.
The inhabitants are emigrants from the Scottish Hebrides.100. dry and pickled fish.000. is much resorted to during the fishing season. or undulating. but the materials are imported from New Brunswick. for manufactures and other articles of consumption. Charlottetown is the capital. timber. Fishing is the leading object of pursuit. 55. In the vicinity are extensive beds of bituminous coal.000. The surface is level. and the climate is not so rigorous as in the continental colonies. The pastures are rich. The inhabitants are chiefly Irish. being indented by numerous bays.100. and the climate is milder than that of the neighbouring colonies. and well watered. and the commerce of the island consists in the exchange of its agricultural products. Sydney is the capital. and their descendants. and is the only town worthy of note on the island. THE ISLAND OF CAPE BRETON. The chief pursuit is agriculture. but French and American fishermen to these quarters. 2. The surface is broken and hilly.grounds that have for many years attracted. St. 3. Many of the inhabitants are extensively engaged in shipbuilding. Area in square miles. 63. and almost intersected by an arm of the sea. called Bras d'Or. not only English. JOHN'S. The exports are the produce of the fisheries. the capital of the island. and the fisheries are extensive. Area in square miles. Page 179 PRINCE EDWARD'S ISLAND. Population. Population. The inhabitants are Acadian French settlers and Highland Scotch. and the island is very irregularly shaped. The soil is fertile. Shipbuilding is carried on to a small extent. A steamer plies between this place and Halifax during the summer. Fish and coal are the articles of export. timber is abundant. the soil fertile. .
On the southwestern point of the island stands a lofty and magnificent lighthouse.Anticosti is a desert island. lying near their coasts. • • Describe Greenland and Iceland. Iceland is a wildly magnificent island. in the vicinity of the group. Danish America comprises Greenland and Iceland. location.000 square miles. from twenty to forty miles in width. and cities? Internal improvements? Rivers? Lakes? SECTION XLIII. The interior is little known. 69. the chief of the latter is Hekla. They are inhabited by about 2. and divisions of Canada. whose dependence is upon the cod and mackerel fish on the banks. soil. • • • • • The area. QUESTIONS. abounding with natural fountains of boiling water (geysirs) and volcanoes.000 inhabitants.000 persons. but is supposed to be one vast field of ice. Greenland contains about 9. The Magdalen Isles consist of a chain of islands. population. 60. Lawrence. 40. together with some lesser islands. Total area in square miles. Total population.000. QUESTIONS. Lawrence.--Danish America. ICELAND. surface. 860. and live by farming and fishing. The island belongs to Canada East. situated in the Gulf of St. containing an area of about 2. The inhabitants are of Norwegian and Danish origin. and other British possessions? Their productions and exports? Their scenery. Population.000. the greater number of whom Page 180 are Esquimaux engaged in hunting and fishing.000. Area. chiefly French Acadians. which is visible for a distance of twenty-five miles. situated at the mouth of the St. climate. Their climate? . about seventy miles west of Newfoundland.600 square miles. dividing the river into two channels.
This ridge. Frederick City ranks second in the state in wealth and commercial importance. Population. The valley of Monocacy River is remarkable. where it is hilly. The surface." is level. John's College is also located here. except in the northern part. flour. Population. 21. Annapolis contains a fine State House. from the city of Baltimore westward. but for its agricultural resources and its mineral wealth. The soil is fertile.000. the climate is mild. 100. Area.000 square miles. The climate is mild. abounds in swamps. the old Continental Congress held some of its sessions.120 square miles. both on the "eastern and western shores.• • • Latitude? Longitude? In what zone? How do the inhabitants subsist? SECTION XLIV. and peaches. grain. and iron. Cumberland is noted for its trade in coal. DELAWARE. 2. it is not surpassed by any other city in the state except Baltimore. and the produce of the dairies and market gardens. The exports are gunpowder. less than 100 feet high. Counties. The following details are given concerning the several Southern States. it is hilly and mountainous.000. In the State House. coal. Frederick is the depôt of this district. and the Senate Chamber. at the close of the Revolutionary war. St. where General Washington resigned his commission. which are articles of export. Page 181 The staples--tobacco. not only for its beauty. 3. traverses the state from north to south. MARYLAND. and separates the streams which empty into the Atlantic from those which flow into the bays. The soil is fertile. In respect to population. and third in population. has been preserved unaltered.--The Southern States. A ridge. Counties. and the staples are grain. in addition to the more general statements in the former article. or table-land. The surface is level. 11. . and carries on a large trade. and a Naval Academy. But. 660. Area.
It is one of the largest. bordering on Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. and sandy plain. 1. third. and between the mountains and the Ohio the soil is productive only in the valleys. westward to the Blue Ridge. 19. Coal and iron are abundant.422. situated on the south bank of Appomattox River. and busy towns in the state. and is ornamented with numerous monuments and fountains. the tide-water district. tobacco. the valley Page 182 district is fertile. the valley between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany. second. level. This state is naturally divided into three distinct physical sections. The surface is divided into four sections:--First. In the tide-water district. which extends from the head of tide-water on the rivers. is a handsome and flourishing town. It is called "The Monumental City. LYNCHBURG is finely situated on elevated ground. abounding . Area in square miles. 23. Area in square miles.350. is pleasantly situated on slightly undulating ground around a bay. most wealthy. 45. the soil is good. on the south bank of James River. 61. The extent of the state and its varied topography produce a great variety of climate. the eastern. or seaward section. The staple products are wheat.000. the Trans-Alleghany district. 869. and cotton. the metropolis of the state. 82. consisting for the most part of a low." It is a great market for tobacco and flour. Population. Along the coast it is hot and moist. and tobacco. Counties. while it is cool and salubrious in the mountainous districts. the Piedmont section is well adapted to the growth of Indian corn. Inhabitants to a square mile.BALTIMORE. corn. NORTH CAROLINA. Population. Counties. especially along the banks of the rivers. and salt and sulphur springs are very numerous.000. comprising all that part of the state westward of the Alleghany Mountains. the Piedmont district. Petersburg.500. Large quantities of flour and tobacco are exported from this place. and fourth. VIRGINIA. Inhabitants to a square mile. 140.
tobacco. part of this state and partly in Virginia. &c. In the interior of the state the soil is productive and highly favourable to agricultural pursuits. The staple products are Indian corn. a splendid building. and sweet potatoes. turpentine. Newbern is a place of considerable trade. The town possesses ample water power. and resin. grain. and cypress trees. and indigo grow well in the eastern lowlands. recently established at this place. turpentine. surrounded by shoals. The Great Dismal Swamp. This state is rich in minerals. that furnish not only lumber. Page 183 The climate is hot and unhealthy in the summer. which is hilly. is covered with vast forests of pitch pine. the higher grounds are adapted to the growth of grains.in marshes. and is near the gold mines. partly in the N. This swamp is mostly covered with cedar. sandy islands. Much of the low sandy section. on the coast. especially gold. in which stands the State House. and has considerable trade. and the western section. fruits. E. In the centre of the city is Union Square. and turpentine are exported in large quantities. A Mint is established here for the purpose of coining the gold. but large quantities of tar. pitch. The North Carolina Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. the middle section. covers a surface of 100. which extends from the coast about sixty miles inland. Cotton. is also worthy of notice. Fayetteville is the centre of an extensive trade. pine. . which is employed in the manufacture of cotton and flour. The exports are lumber. rice. Charlotte is one of the principal towns in the western part of the state. Raleigh is the capital. tar. The coast of North Carolina is skirted by a range of low.000 acres. and interspersed here and there with shallow lakes. which render navigation exceedingly dangerous. but cooler and more salubrious in the more elevated districts. The articles of export are the products of the pine. built after the model of the Parthenon at Athens in Greece. WILMINGTON is the largest and most commercial city in the state. Its situation is both elevated and healthy. pitch. and resin. SOUTH CAROLINA. or gently undulating. Beaufort is noted as possessing the best harbour in the state. a mountainous region forming an elevated table-land. Tar.
The exports are cotton and rice. 29. interspersed with numerous swampy tracts. Many of the houses are beautifully ornamented with verandahs. literary. Population. reaching from the ground to the roof. is noted for its coasting trade. The South Carolina College is located at this place. lined with the "Pride of India" and other trees. Georgia. &c. is situated on a peninsula between Ashley and Cooper Rivers. among which are the State Medical College. it partakes in a greater degree of the tropical character. magnolias. iron. Georgetown. and the Orphan Asylum. Hamburg is a noted cotton mart. is beautifully ornamented with numerous trees. the Charleston College. in some quarters. gold. the metropolis and principal seaport. 28. This city contains several educational.Area in square miles. from 80 to 100 miles inland. The streets are. The climate is similar to that of North Carolina. affording extensive views of the surrounding country. It lies opposite Augusta. There is more rice exported from this state than from all the other states together.000. Cotton and rice are the great staples. CHARLESTON. 669. palmettos. The site of the city is considerably elevated. a port of entry. is covered with forests of pitch pine. and has a large inland trade. profusely adorned with orange trees. and other institutions. but the state being further south. which is chiefly a cotton and corn region. and lead are the most important. This city has been made remarkable among all the cities of the world. North Carolina. the City Hall. Inhabitants to a square mile. the capital. The coast. and surrounded by gardens. by the important military events that have transpired there during the war for the independence of the South. The gold is obtained from the same belt (extending from the Rappahannock River to the Coosa) in which the gold of Virginia. Districts. in the highest state of culture. 23. and Georgia is found. Lumber and naval stores are also largely exported. with which it is connected by a bridge which crosses the Savannah at this place. .000. about seven miles from the ocean. Of Page 184 the minerals. Columbia. which unite below the city and form a spacious harbour.
This state has made considerable advances in the establishment of manufactures. may be divided into three sections. 15. which are covered with rich plantations.Camden. cranes. iron. extending inland to the lower falls of the rivers. lizards. cotton. and sweet potatoes are cultivated. Indian corn. the long staple cotton. Those of cotton. called Sea Island cotton. which extends over the border into Florida. surrounded by a beautiful and fertile cotton country. and tropical fruits and plants are produced in some sections of the state.000. like South Carolina. The middle region is well adapted to the production of tobacco. and is the centre of a considerable trade. the sand-hill belt. viz. 906. the capital. or pine barrens. The staple product is cotton. which are valuable chiefly for the timber annually yielded. 58. sugar. The articles of export are cotton. and produce. This swamp is the abode of numerous alligators. Of minerals. Area in square miles. in the south are the tide and swamp lands favourable to the growth of rice. and about 60 or 70 miles from the coast are the pine lands. frogs. and grain. The State House and State . August. Rice. but the summers are very hot. and September. &c. and gunpowder are the most important. and iron-ore in various parts of the state. gold is found in the north. Population. a flourishing town. Milledgeville. is remarkable for the battles fought in its vicinity during the Revolution of 1776. Along the southern line of Georgia is Okefonokee Swamp.000.: the alluvial flats which extend from the ocean inland about 100 miles. 112. The Blue Ridge crosses near the western edge of the state. The sickly season is during the months of July. in great quantities. and naval stores. Page 185 GEORGIA. Counties. Coffee. Inhabitants to a square mile. In the north part of the state the valleys are exceedingly rich. lumber. is built on elevated ground. The coast is lined with a succession of low islands. This state. The winters are pleasant. and the hilly or mountainous tract of the north and north-west. tobacco. rice.
There is much marshy soil. between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Columbus is the third city of the state in population and wealth. A large amount of cotton is shipped from this place. ranks the second in the state in population. SAVANNAH. The streets are regularly laid out. after every second street there is a public square. near the centre of the city. Macon is a flourishing city. It is generally level.Page 186 Arsenal situated in State House Square. A large number of steamboats ply on the river. lies on the right or west bank of Savannah River. and for the space of 30 or 40 miles from the coast there is scarcely to be seen a stone weighing more than two or three pounds. consisting chiefly of tobacco and cotton. Area in square miles. This state occupies a peninsula south of Alabama and Georgia. The soil presents a rich and fertile appearance on the banks Page 187 of the rivers. These are generally enclosed and ornamented with the China tree. a range of low hills extends through the peninsula. Population. situated on a high bluff on the left bank of the Chattahoochee River. and from 50 to 250 wide. but the . Inhabitants to a square mile. They are like a vast lake studded with thousands of islands.260. It is the depot of an extensive and fertile country. is sent by railway to Charleston. Counties. 59. about 18 miles above its mouth. A bridge crosses the river at this place. carrying cotton and other produce to the sea-board and to New Orleans. being marshy thickets interspersed with meadows and ponds. Fort Gaines. Augusta. or is carried down the river to Savannah.000. The Everglades in the south of Florida cover an extent of about 160 miles in length by 60 in breadth. 1. 30. FLORIDA. It is 385 miles long. the largest and most commercial city in the state.000 miles. 87. are the prominent public buildings. is the mart for the sale and shipment of cotton in that section of the state. Though the length of sea-coast is above 1. situated on the west bank of the Savannah 231 miles from its mouth. yet there are but few good harbours. the produce of which.
ALABAMA. covering nearly eighty acres of ground. &c. The harbour is accessible by steamboats from the gulf. about 20 miles north of its port. the capital. nor is the cold so severe as to injure even the orange trees. PENSACOLA. . Tallahassee. sugar-cane. St. and ninety miles nearer. This town is of importance. so that it is by many years the oldest settlement in the American States. and large quantities of cotton are shipped at this place. About six miles below the city is the navy yard. The principal business transacted here is derived from the salvages and other perquisites of wrecked vessels. As this state approaches within a degree and a half of the torrid zone. than round the Tortugas group. The town of St. with which it is connected by railroad. is situated on a commanding eminence. rice. The air is pure and free from fogs. or mounds. on an inlet called Matanzas Sound. pomegranates. lemons. The fruits are varied and abundant. being the key to the northern passage to the Gulf of Mexico. oranges. The hummocks. and gnats and mosquitoes are both numerous and troublesome. its climate possesses many tropical characteristics. Mark's. and enclosed by a high brick wall. Appalachicola is located on a bluff at the west side of the mouth of Appalachicola River. It is situated about two miles distant from the ocean. It very rarely freezes. which is safer. and tobacco. Key West is situated on an island of the same name. figs. grapes. The whole country abounds in various kinds of game. Considerable quantities of salt are manufactured on the island. The mildness of the climate and the refreshing seabreezes render this a place of great resort for invalids during the winter season. olives. Alligators are abundant on the shores of the inlets and rivers.pine-barrens constitute a great portion of the country. but the dews are generally excessive. Augustine was settled in 1564. Among the productions are cotton. is situated Page 188 on the west shore of Pensacola Bay. and sponges are procured and exported in large numbers. one of the group called the Florida Keys. among the pines are usually fertile. and the surrounding waters yield the finest fish. Indian corn. pine-apples. the principal port and city in Florida.
oats. Running water is rarely ever frozen. Counties. The surrounding country is one of the richest cotton regions of the state. and does an extensive business in proportion to the population. at the western termination of the Page 189 Montgomery and West Point Railroad. live stock. . The Alleghany Range terminates in this section of the state. Cotton manufactures have been introduced with considerable success. at the head of steamboat navigation. Cotton is the great staple. Montgomery. The climate is similar to that of Georgia. and the southern consists of prairies and pine-barrens. The commerce of the state consists chiefly in the exportation of articles of domestic produce. on the left bank of Alabama River. South of the mountainous district the surface gradually declines to the Gulf of Mexico. The sugar-cane grows in the south-west part of the state. on the north bank of Tennessee River. and its breadth varies from 140 to 210 miles. it is the chief port for the export of cotton. is a principal shipping port in the north. Population. 15. Inhabitants to a square mile. chiefly in cotton. is situated on a high bluff. wheat. Length of sea-coast about 60 miles. Next to New Orleans. rice. the capital.000. The central part of the state is occupied chiefly by fertile prairies.Area in square miles.700. The length of the state is about 330 miles. 772. and marble. and sweet potatoes are produced in large quantities. The northern part is mountainous. 50. The mineral resources consist of iron. Eufaula is a place of considerable trade. Indian corn. MOBILE is the principal commercial mart of the state. and cattle require no shelter. In the flats between the low mountains on the north the soil is good. coal. 52. and large quantities of this article are shipped from this port. interspersed with alluvial river bottoms of great fertility. The extreme southern portions of the state are level and but little elevated above the surface of the ocean. butter. though not very elevated. Florence.
Counties. sweet Page 190 potatoes. tar. About 30. interspersed with cypress swamps. The commerce (which is carried on mostly through the port of New Orleans) consists chiefly in the export of cotton and other agricultural products. Jackson. the State Penitentiary. Area in square miles. and resin. 47. and a great variety of fruits. together with wool. at the head of steamboat navigation. and live stock.Steamboats ply between this port and New Orleans. and its average breadth about 150. The valleys of the northern and central portions of the state are exceedingly fertile. Cotton is the staple. Its greatest length is about 400 miles. turpentine.000. by way of Lakes Borgne and Pontchartrain. in the eastern and central parts it is a kind of table-land. The forests are beginning to be turned to account in the production of lumber. The University of Alabama is located here.150. descending towards the Mississippi. sometimes approaching close to the river's brink and overhanging it in precipices of from one to two hundred feet in height. Numerous ranges of hills give to a part of the surface an undulating and diversified character. In the south for about 100 miles from the Gulf of Mexico it is mostly level. It contains a handsome State House. covered with pine forests. Population. prairies. . Inhabitants to a square mile. Indian corn. In the north the land is hilly and broken.000 bales of cotton are annually shipped at this place. is situated on the right or west bank of the Pearl River. and the State Lunatic Asylum. on the left bank of Black Warrior River. and a few low hills. interspersed with a few fertile tracts. butter. is noted for its literary institutions and for its active trade. are among the productions. the capital of the state. MISSISSIPPI. In the south-east the soil is mostly sandy. 12. pitch. but the winters are several degrees colder than in the Atlantic States of the same latitude. bananas. The summers are long and hot. The general slope of the state is south-west. rice. Tuscaloosa. 60. 607.
000 bales are annually exported. present an elegant appearance. Vicksburg is built on a high bluff on the east bank of the Mississippi. elevated more than ten feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. is situated on a bluff. It has been made memorable by its siege and heroic defence in 1863. and extending over about one-fourth part of the state. Inhabitants to a square mile. on both sides. having piazzas and balconies. with some hilly ranges in the western part. for the most part. Many of the houses. A fine bridge crosses the river at Columbus. The surface is mostly level. Alligators and turtles are exceedingly numerous. Cotton and sugar are the staples of the state. .000. Area in square miles. and its breadth about 250. and extending from 150 miles above. New Orleans. the most populous and commercial city of the state. about 200 feet in height. Its length from east to west is about 300 miles. The river is navigable for steamboats. are abundant. included within the Atchafalaya and the Amite. of which about 100. Population. which make frequent passages between this place and Mobile.340. This town is also an important mart for cotton. figs. to about 100 miles below. lying along the Mississippi. 12. though built of wood. Columbus. No part of the surface attains an elevation of more than 200 Page 191 feet. is the depôt of an extensive country. LOUISIANA.. on the east bank of the Mississippi River.Holly Springs is noted for the number and excellence of its educational institutions. The great delta of the Mississippi. 41. is not. Cotton is the article of export. Only about one-twentieth part of the surface of the state is under cultivation. and is annually inundated by the spring floods. from one to two miles in width. 48. and surrounded by beautiful gardens and orange groves. The richest tract in the state is a narrow belt of land. peaches. &c. Parishes. on the left bank of the Tambigby. about 400 miles from New Orleans. The climate is similar to that of Mississippi. 518. NATCHEZ. oranges.
The State House. pleasantly situated on the Red River.000. splendid villas. Bâton Rouge.520. Inhabitants about 2 to every 3 square miles. . and numerous groves of tropical fruit-trees. about 100 miles from its mouth. is situated on a bluff about thirty feet in height. and of an average width of 100 feet. NEW ORLEANS. has still a large French population. 325. except the Capitol at Washington. Opposite to the city. and magnolia trees. and Bâton Rouge College are among its prominent public buildings. being the most important cotton depôt on that river. Counties. The dwellings in the suburbs. and connected with it by a ferry. Natchitoches. Population. TEXAS. the commercial emporium of the Mississippi valley.000. The Custom House of this city is the largest building in the South. particularly in Lafayette. Alexandria. lemon. lies on the north bank of Mississippi River. are surrounded by gardens. The city is built around a bend in the river. the capital. 92. four miles in length. This state. on the east or left bank of Mississippi River. is the town of Algiers. a place of considerable trade. is situated on the Red River." The Levee of New Orleans is an embankment constructed along the margin of the river. Area in square miles. first settled by the French. and many of the churches are magnificent structures.In 1762 France ceded the territory of Louisiana to Spain. the Louisiana Penitentiary. is a place of much trade. This was built to prevent the inundation of the city by the river at high water. Below the city the river passes through a plain occupied by rich plantations of sugarcane. and on this account it is frequently called the "Crescent City. 213. Agriculture and commerce form the leading industrial pursuits. and in 1803 purchased by the United States for $15.000. It was retroceded to France in 1800. about 500 miles from New Orleans. decorated with the orange. The benevolent institutions of the city are worthy of note. forming one continuous landing-place Page 192 or quay.
There are few countries. and indigo is indigenous to the state. the level. the undulating succeeds this. Texas also abounds in useful minerals. is 800 miles. freed from the extremes of both the torrid and temperate zones. The soil. Texas is divided into three regions. which is followed by the mountainous or hilly tract of the north and north-west. . and rice are cultivated. with an average breadth of two miles. possessing as little unproductive land as Texas. Agriculture and the rearing of live-stock form the chief pursuits of the inhabitants. or hilly. salt. about 750.Its length from N. The island. and the mountainous. but achieved its independence in 1836. Page 193 The sugar-cane thrives well in the level country. Fruits are plentiful. Brownsville. extending from thirty to sixty miles into the interior. is about thirty-six miles in length. corn. Vast herds of buffaloes and wild horses wander over the prairies. Cattle. KENTUCKY. GALVESTON. The coast is lined with a chain of low islands. woodland or prairie. whether upland or lowland. to S. at the mouth of Galveston Bay. the undulating.E. The general character of the soil is that of fertility. The level region occupies the coast. on which the city is located. Tobacco flourishes with but little care. Snow is seldom seen except on the mountains. The climate. Austin is the capital of the state. seems admirably adapted to its culture. from east to west. is situated on the island of Galveston. is mild and salubrious.W. carries on an extensive trade with Mexico. deer and fish are abundant. Texas was first settled by the Spanish in 1692. of the same extent. on the left bank of the Rio Grande. Matagorda is a place of considerable trade. and embraces a belt of land of about 200 miles in width. and its greatest breadth. Cotton is the great staple of the state. It was a Mexican province. the most populous and commercial city of Texas. Wheat. and cotton are exported.
Lexington is the oldest town in the state. a canal. situated on the rapids of the Ohio. and the climate is mild and salubrious. The staple products are Indian corn. is an important and growing place. thirty-five miles south of Frankfort. and honey. flax. form the articles of export. 22. The surface in the eastern section is hilly and mountainous. about two miles and a half in length. and its breadth 180 miles. capable of accommodating the largest boats. to which steam ferry-boats ply hourly. together with cotton bagging and hemp cordage.000. TENNESSEE. Counties. the capital.000. situated on the Licking River opposite Covington. 100. 44. in the west it is generally level. Population.000. are much celebrated. 80.003. Covington. Counties. bees'-wax. Page 194 Cattle. rye. wool. LOUISVILLE. The length of the state is 300. Area in square miles. butter. is the largest city in the state. Newport. hemp.000 square miles. is the centre of an active trade. To obviate the bar to navigation caused by the rapids at this place. and sent to the neighbouring states for sale.Area. and swine are raised. Harrodsburg Springs. these. 38. About a mile and a half from the city is Ashland. is built on a beautiful plain. of the latter. . and salt and mineral springs are numerous. directly opposite Cincinnati. oats. 1. which is facilitated by railroads and by the navigation of the river. memorable as having been the residence of Henry Clay. a flourishing city. This state was first explored by Colonel Boone and his compeers in 1770. Lexington is distinguished for its literary and scientific institutions. 1. Coal and iron are abundant. Inhabitants to a square mile. Population. and tobacco. wheat. mules. Frankfort. at the mouth of Licking River. has been constructed. The soil of the greater part of the state is celebrated for its fertility.000. horses.
200. Immense numbers of swine and mules are raised in this state. It originally formed a part of the possessions of North Carolina. and the latter undulating or hilly.E. The Cumberland is here crossed by a magnificent wire suspension bridge. Area in square miles. The former is mountainous. built on a high bluff that overlooks the Mississippi. Louis and New Orleans. gypsum. Hot . iron. situated on the left bank of Cumberland River. in other parts it is sterile. 210. particularly in the middle and western sections of the state. is a handsome city. The surface is low. The mineral resources are iron. lead. Inhabitants to a square mile. on the right bank of the Holston. of Nashville. 54.000. Murfreesboro' is located in the midst of a fertile plain. and cotton. and live stock. The climate is healthy and temperate in the west. In some parts there are extensive prairies. and the summers are free from the intense heat of the states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. but much of the land is well wooded. the capital. and the climate is mild and genial. copper. undulating in the interior. The winters are short. The soil is fertile. for the distance of about a hundred miles. grass. Its railroad and river facilities render it the seat of an active trade. and mountainous in the west. Large quantities of cotton are annually shipped at this port. The staple products are Indian corn. tobacco. Nashville. and fruit are abundant. about thirty miles S. zinc. manganese. Population. level. This state is divided by the Cumberland Mountains into East and West Tennessee. and marshy in the east. 52. Indian corn. Counties. Page 195 This state was settled by the English. copper. MEMPHIS. in the east and south it is moist and unhealthy. The chief mineral resources are coal. about 200 miles above its entrance into the Ohio. Grain. On the margin of the rivers the soil is very fertile. and salt. and is the oldest of the Western States. and its breadth about 100. ARKANSAS. 4. and coal. The staple productions are cotton. is the most important city on that river between St. Knoxville is situated at the head of steamboat navigation.Its length is 400 miles.
lead. the former supply excellent pasturage for immense numbers of cattle. Van Buren. The soil is fertile. about a hundred in number. Helena. on the left bank of White River. It is the business depôt of a wide extent of country. and wolves. The chief exports are live stock. Arkansas is still the abode of numerous wild animals. MISSOURI. Area in square miles. 682. about 400 miles above its mouth. Inhabitants to a square mile. wheat. 106.000. and tobacco. the capital. and tobacco. particularly along the margin of the rivers. situated on the west bank of the Mississippi.000. then stretching away into a vast sea of prairies. pork. carries on a considerable trade with the northern section of the state.W. Population. such as deer. The surface. It is located on a rocky bluff. the entire state is well timbered. is the chief commercial city. About sixty miles S. Missouri is rich in minerals. elks. Fruits grow in great profusion. situated on the north bank of the Arkansas. sometimes rising into picturesque hills. north of the Missouri. is healthy. where it is low and marshy. 10. this state is second only to Kentucky. 64. flour. The staple productions are Indian corn. These springs. except in the south-east. The temperature of the waters varies from 135° to 160° of Fahrenheit. is mostly level or undulating. about 150 feet above the river. . is situated on the south bank of the Arkansas.springs are numerous along the Washita River. Page 196 Arkansas was originally settled by the French. Missouri was originally settled by the French. though variable. are much resorted to by invalids. Except on the prairies. of Little Rock are the celebrated Hot Springs. The climate. hemp. In the amount of hemp produced. and here and there interspersed with beautiful shady groves. Batesville. is the most important town in the north-east part of the state. bears. South of the river the surface is hilly and mountainous. under the name of Louisiana. and formed a part of the tract purchased from the French in 1803. about 300 miles above its mouth. Counties. LITTLE ROCK. and the summers are very warm.
Genevieve. St. procure their outfit. and cities. • • • Describe the area.000. soil. Louis. Louis. located about five miles south of Missouri River. SECTION XLV. St. Number of inhabitants to a square mile. Hannibal. but of the entire valley of the Mississippi. Louis. on their way to Oregon or California. It extends along the river for about seven miles. staples. The city is well built. about 500 miles. is located on the right bank of Missouri River. fauna. manufactures. In what zone are they located? Describe their flora. EXERCISES. Charles is finely situated on the north bank of Missouri River. and 1. Length from east to west. at this place. surface. 13. Area in square miles. 7. located on the west bank of Mississippi River.000. the capital. north to south. situated on the Mississippi. carries on a considerable trade. Large quantities of copper. population. is crossed by ferry-boats. about 3. Population. commerce. the last article is extensively used in the glass works of Pittsburg and Boston.--The United States. . which.000 miles. is rapidly increasing in commercial importance. 17. and location of each of the Southern States.Jefferson City. about sixty miles below St. Independence. lead. Number of states. about Page 197 150 miles above St. is a large and important commercial city not only of Missouri.000.000. and presents an imposing appearance when approached from the water. is the shipping port for the products of the iron works at Iron Mountain. are exported from this place. and contains numerous costly public edifices. Louis. about 20 miles below the mouth of the Missouri. situated on the west side of the Mississippi.200 miles distant from New Orleans. Breadth. and white sand. being the place where many of the emigrants. St. 2. about 150 miles by water from St.
Page 198 The Atlantic Slope extends from the ocean. and form the greater part of the population. including indentations. 1788. Virginia. New York. South Carolina.. THE ORIGINAL THIRTEEN STATES. John's River to the Delaware Bay. 9th January. such as bays. 21st Nov. Rhode Island. 6th February. WITH THE DATE WHEN EACH RATIFIED THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION. New Jersey. 1790. 1787.. and the Pacific Slope. 23d May. 1787. 26th July. 7th Decem. Connecticut.. The whites are of European descent. The United States may be divided into three regions. and gradually increases in elevation till it terminates in the Alleghenies. 1787.620 miles. Maryland. 21st June. Georgia. New Hampshire. which separate the waters that flow westwardly to the Mississippi from those which flow eastwardly to the Atlantic. The English is the language of the country. 1788. 1788. 26th June. Pennsylvania. This slope is considerably diversified by many minor mountain ranges and numerous hills. &c. 1789. . The Valley of the Mississippi comprises that portion of the United States lying between the Alleghany Ridge and the Rocky Mountains. measures 2. and finds its outlet in the Gulf of Mexico. 12th Decem.000 miles. there it begins to rise. 1788. Massachusetts. 1788. The central part of that valley is intersected by the Mississippi River. The negroes are of African descent. from St. sounds.. which flows through the Confederate States in a southerly direction. The inhabitants consist of whites. 18th Decem.The Atlantic coast. the Valley of the Mississippi River. the Atlantic Slope. The Pacific Slope extends westward from the Rocky Mountain Range to the Pacific Ocean.. part being a level country for some 50 or 100 miles inland. negroes and Indians.. 2d January. 1788. viz. 29th May. 1788. and the Indians are the aboriginals. 1788. North Carolina. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Delaware. The shore-line of the great northern lakes is estimated at 3. 28th April.
in their respective states. Wisconsin. 28th December. &c. Page 199 The government is a republic. with the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate. The electors meet at the proper time. The chief officer is styled the President of the United States. The legislative power is vested in Congress. who has the right to debate on all matters pertaining to his territory. 29th November. 26th January. These persons are chosen by popular vote. 1791. Ohio. 1837. to appoint civil and military officers. He has power. 1802. but cannot vote. • • • • • • • • • Vermont. 29th May. 11th December. Each state is entitled to one representative for every 93. 1846. Each state is entitled to at least one representative. or by the legislature of the state. 1848.700 inhabitants. 9th December. Illinois. California. . 1850. Michigan. 1818. The President is commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. 1816. Maine. Each organized territory is permitted to send one delegate to Congress. elected by the legislatures of the same. 1820. and vote by ballot for President and VicePresident. though the population be less than the number above stated. The President and Vice-President of the United States are elected by persons called electors. Indiana. Iowa. 3rd December. The Senate is composed of two members from each state. One-third of the whole body is renewed biennially. to make treaties. Each state is entitled to as many electors as it has members of Congress. which consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives.THE NEW STATES WITH THE DATE WHEN EACH WAS ADMITTED INTO THE UNION. levy war. 15th March. respectively. for six years. conclude peace. The members comprising the House of Representatives are chosen by the people of the several states every second year. These two officers are chosen for the term of four years. 4th March.
of Massachusetts. judges.. of New Hampshire. James Buchanan. the Federal Government of these states. of New York. of Ohio. B. the Secretary of the Treasury. 1831. of Louisiana. of Virginia. Millard. 1767. B. in office from 1853 to 1857. B. B. judge of. elected by a sectional minority of 1. Page 200 judiciary. in office from 1841--1 month. d. in office from 1849 to 1850.The administrative affairs of the nation are conducted by the Secretary of State. d. Zachary Taylor. the Postmaster-general. of Massachusetts. 1758. 1795. It is the highest judicial tribunal of the United States. These officers form the President's cabinet. . B. in office from 1801 to 1809. in office from 1797 to 1801.1743. Fillmore. B. 1789. Wm. of Tennessee. The states are divided into counties. In the year 1861. d. Harrison. d.000 (out of a total vote of 5. 1767. in office from 1789 to 1797. 1784. B. all laws pertaining to the state. John Adams. This occasioned the final separation of those states. B. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • George Washington.000). in office from 1809 to 1817. 1848. The chief officer is styled the Governor of the State. Polk. d. B. died 1799. B. 1826. 1800. Martin Van Buren. d. B. a governor. John Q. 1782. John Tyler. in office from 1837 to 1841. in office from 1841 to 1845. SECTION XLVI. of Virginia. of Virginia.700. in office from 1850 to 1853. Adams. d. James K. in office from 1825 to 1829. Born 1732. H. The judicial power of the United States is vested in a Supreme Court. of Virginia. 1773.--The New England States. of Virginia. d. 1750. 1735. and execute. 1804. B. in office from 1817 to 1825. Each state has its own separate and independent legislative. and the Attorney-general. d. and the formation of "The Confederate States of America" as an independent Government. and the counties into townships. of Tennessee. excepting such as are conceded to belong to the general government. 1850. the Secretary of War. 1845. of New York. B. 1836. from 1857 to 1861. PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. &c. the Secretary of the Interior. attempted to subjugate the Southern States by military occupation. Franklin Pierce. Thomas Jefferson. the Secretary of the Navy. who have the power to make. consisting of a Senate and a House of Assembly. and executive government. James Monroe. Andrew Jackson. 1841. in office from 1845 to 1849. 1849.000. James Madison. in office from 1829 to 1837.1826.
VERMONT. The exports are mineral products. The staple productions are wheat. Middlebury is an important manufacturing town. It is the seat of Middlebury College. mountain. is remarkable for its active trade. From the verdant aspect of the mountains the state received its name. The State House is a magnificent granite structure. marble. Iron. The state has an abundance of water power.000. Montpelier. 39. Area in square miles. Verd. and granite are the mineral products. The surface is mountainous. the capital of Vermont. and the hills and mountains that are not arable afford pasturage. and live stock. 14. but healthy. in the French. Marble. Fertile and picturesque valleys intersect the range here and there. and mont. and the summits of the mountains are covered with green mosses and several species of winter grasses. Counties. wool. Inhabitants to a square mile. is wrought and exported. and wooded. 314. separating Page 201 the streams which flow into Lake Champlain from those which flow into the Connecticut. The climate is variable and cold. 8. obtained from a quarry near the town. butter. . Snow lies on the ground during four or five months of the year. The Vermont State Prison is located here. It carries on a trade by means of the Connecticut. in which a detachment of General Burgoyne's army was defeated by General Stark. and maple sugar. signifying green. and is in the vicinity of the agricultural and woolgrowing section of the state. live stock. The base of this mountain range is from ten to fifteen miles in width. Bennington is memorable for the battle fought there in 1777.000. cheese. cheese. The soil in the valleys is fertile. The Green Mountains traverse the state from north to south. Brattleboro' is noted for its manufactures. maple sugar. Population. Windsor is noted for its fine site and the beauty of the surrounding scenery. slate.
Manufactures of cotton.000. pot and pearl ashes. New Hampshire has eighteen miles of sea-coast. Population. in 1623. the oldest town in the state. 318. cheese. is favourably situated for trade and manufactures of cotton goods. The soil is not fertile. and the hills afford very fine pasturage. fish." Mount Washington is the loftiest peak. and granite. The winters are long. hilly. Counties. manufactures." The minerals are iron and tin. the springs damp and foggy. The industrial pursuits are agriculture. The University of Vermont is located at this place. The best lands are in the valleys. and one good harbour. The surface is mountainous. and broken. and lumbering. and on this account New Hampshire is often styled the "Switzerland of America. The exports are lumber. The dwellings are surrounded with gardens ornamented with shrubbery and shade trees. butter. with the exception of the south-east part. 10.Burlington is the most populous town in the state. Area in square miles. Inhabitants to a square mile. wool. The inhabitants are of English descent. and the summers are of short duration. wool. 8. and is the centre of several railroads. Dover. particularly in the vicinity of the White Mountians. which is either level or gently undulating. maple sugar.000. near Portsmouth. Granite abounds. The first settlements were made by members of the Plymouth Company. 39. The climate is severe yet healthy. and honey. potatoes. leather. and iron are extensive. The scenery. Page 202 NEW HAMPSHIRE. . The productions are grain. live stock. CONCORD is the capital of the state. is full of grandeur and wild magnificence. bees'-wax. and New Hampshire is styled "the Granite State. wool.
some northwardly to the St. the winters are long and severe. John's. 15. The fertile portions lie along the valley of the St. and honey. MAINE. . potatoes. The staple product is lumber. the lakes being covered with ice from December to April. are manufacturing towns. the coasting trade. Hanover is the seat of Dartmouth College. Near the sea-coast the lands are sandy and unsuited to agriculture. and is connected by bridges with Kittery in Maine. The inhabitants are of British descent. A bridge crosses the Connecticut at this place to Norwich in Vermont. bees'-wax. Eastport is a lumber depôt. 583. is noted for its manufactures. Area in square miles. cheese. butter. 35. A few of the aboriginals still inhabit some of the islands in the Penobscot. Dover. others southwardly to the Atlantic. and one-tenth of the surface of the state is covered with water. lumbering. lime. The industrial pursuits are agriculture. Population. The minerals are iron. lumber.Portsmouth. Augusta is the capital. the most important city of the state. 16. Manchester. and is extensively engaged in the fisheries and coast trade. The soil is best adapted for grazing. is built on a beautiful peninsula formed by the river. The climate is subject to extremes of heat and cold.000. John's.000. From this section the principal rivers flow. Numerous detached elevations extend along the western side of Maine. The productions are grain. Nashua. and the fisheries.E. opposite Portsmouth. There is a United States Page 203 navy yard on an island in the Piscataqua. Counties. and ice form the exports. cheese. and slate. granite. wool. and then cross the state in a N. and between the Penobscot and Kennebec Rivers. Inhabitants to a square mile. Fish. The first settlement was made at Bristol in 1625. and Exeter. butter. Maine is the great ship-building state. the only seaport of New Hampshire. limestone. direction terminating at Mars Hill. Maine abounds in lakes.
7. MASSACHUSETTS. 1. level and sandy. and fish are exported. The state abounds in picturesque scenery. and the second commercial city in the Union. . manufactures. 14. whale oil. The summers are pleasant. 137. it ranks first in the state. The products are Indian corn. oats.Page 204 Belfast is engaged in ship-building.000. on the right bank of the Penobscot. eastern. The north-eastern. butter. This state was first settled by a company of English Puritans at Plymouth. The view of the Connecticut River and Valley. December 20th. The objects of pursuit are commerce. PORTLAND is engaged in commerce with Europe and the West Indies. and marble and limestone in the western. boots and shoes. easterly. and commerce. the south-eastern. The Green Mountain Range enters Massachusetts from Vermont. wooden-ware. In manufactures Massachusetts exceeds any of the other states in the Union. and in the coasting trade. granite. Population. mountainous. leather. The most fertile portions are in the centre of the state and along the valleys of the Connecticut and Housatonic. Sienite and granite abound in the eastern and middle parts. and in the coast trade. 1620. and middle portions are hilly and broken. Counties. foreign commerce. Cotton and woollen goods. Inhabitants to a square Mille. carpeting.000. ice. Bath ranks the seventh in the United States in the importance of its shipping. The climate is severe in winter. and cheese. Bangor. Area in square miles. marble. from Mount Holyoke. is a large. and in the spring. In population. is beautiful. chilly winds prevail. and the western.250. tinware. wealth. In commerce this state ranks second only to New York. the fisheries. BOSTON is the largest seaport in the New England States. and the fisheries. lumber mart. potatoes. and forms two ridges which run parallel to each other southwardly into Connecticut. paper. The surface is hilly and rugged.
Counties. The climate. are found in different parts of the state. Springfield is the site of the United States arsenal. is rendered less severe than that of Massachusetts. but in the west and north-west it is hilly and rocky. Faneuil Hall. 5. Population. Lynn is celebrated for the manufacture of shoes. iron. called the Common. by Roger Williams. butter and cheese. is styled the "Cradle of Liberty. sheep. There are no mountains in the state and no extensive forests. The soil is in some parts poor and difficult of cultivation. but along the bay and on the islands it is fertile. who was driven from Massachusetts by religious Page 206 . Worcester is one of the most important thoroughfares in the state." Lawrence is engaged in manufactures. It is supplied with numerous small streams.000. Lowell. and ranks high among the cities of New England in commercial importance. The products are cattle. Inhabitants to a square mile." from the fact that patriotic meetings were held there during the Revolution. The State House stands on the summit of Beacon Hill.Page 205 It is the literary as well as commercial metropolis of New England. is styled "the Manchester of America. Coal. The wharves and warehouses of Boston are on a scale of great magnitude. On the coast it is level. Area in square miles. RHODE ISLAND. This state was first settled at Providence in 1636. 1. limestone and marble.200. in front of a beautiful park of about fifty acres. which is applied to manufacturing purposes. affording ample waterpower. 148. an ancient brick edifice in Dock Square. New Bedford has a greater amount of tonnage employed in the whale fishery than any other port in the Union. from the amount and variety of its manufactures. from the proximity of the state to the sea. 122. Salem has a good harbour.
Counties. on which the city is situated. yet it is remarkably Page 207 salubrious. NEWPORT and PROVIDENCE are the capitals of the state. cheese and apples. Rhode Island ranks high in the product of her cotton and woollen manufactures. Cattle rearing and the dairy occupy the attention of the farmers. 8. 4. Inhabitants to a square mile. On the east of the Connecticut Valley. and is engaged in the coasting trade and the fisheries. Population. 78. and is engaged in manufactures of cotton goods and machinery. The state is abundantly supplied with water-power. Rhode Island. This state is crossed by a succession of groups and eminences rather than by a continuous range. The Green Mountain range from Vermont and Massachusetts crosses the state and terminates near New Haven. Bristol has a good harbour. Vegetation commences earlier in the spring than in most of the New England states. The objects of pursuit are manufactures. 371. The climate is similar to that of Rhode Island. The exports are cotton and woollen goods. CONNECTICUT. Providence is distinguished for its literary and educational institutions. The soil is fertile. The surface is hilly and rugged. and in the eastern and north-western parts is adapted to grazing. The harbour of Newport is one of the best on the United States coast. commerce and agriculture. from its beauty and fertility. Its sea air and attractive scenery render it one of the most celebrated watering-places in the Union. and is engaged in commerce.000. . both in Massachusetts and Connecticut. is styled the "Eden of America. though but few of the rivers are navigable. there are some eminences which appear to be a continuation of the White Mountains of New Hampshire.750." Pawtucket lies partly in this state and partly in Massachusetts.persecution. Though subject to sudden changes. butter. Area in square miles.
Hartford ranks high. and in the west by the proximity of the great lakes. and the western sections of the state. copper. Norwich is noted for its manufactures.The productions are Indian corn. from the streams which empty into the Hudson. HARTFORD and NEW HAVEN are the capitals of the state.. coaches.000. . Page 208 The fertile districts are the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk. potatoes. oats.000. 67. tin and brass ware. separating the rivers which flow southwardly to Delaware and Chesapeake. and New Haven by emigrants from England in 1638. Lake Chautauque is about 2. tobacco. New York presents a variety of surface.--The Middle States. from those which flow into Lake Champlain and the Hudson River. New Haven is also noted for being the seat of Yale College. manufactures. shoes. Bays. Inhabitants to a square mile. 60. iron. The Adirondack Mountains on the northeast separate the waters which flow into Lake Ontario and the St. The pursuits are agriculture. 46. combs. and is noted for being largely engaged in the coasting trade and whale fisheries. live stock. NEW YORK. cheese. hardware. rises gradually from Lake Ontario till it attains its greatest elevation near the border of Pennsylvania. The western section of the state. Wooden. In the northern part of New York the winter is long and severe.000. New London has a very fine harbour. Hartford was settled in 1635. 3. SECTION XLVII. South of the valley of the Mohawk. lead. Area in square miles.000 feet above the level of the sea. butter. are articles of manufacture and export. are the Catskill and Shawangunk Mountains. Population. Counties. by emigrants from Massachusetts. in the south-east the cold and heat are modified by sea air. and the whale fishery. hats. buttons. &c. iron. Lawrence. copper and marble. As a manufacturing city. beyond the central group of lakes.
Iron. consisting of three successive perpendicular falls). is situated at the southern extremity of the city. is used by mills and factories. which form the principal business establishments of the city. in the year 1609. The Battery. is the Park.000. barley. This island is 13 1/2 miles in length. and livestock. at Rochester. The mineral springs of Balston and Saratoga are celebrated for their medicinal properties. The Hudson River was discovered by Henry Hudson. directly in front of the harbour. Oswego is engaged in trade with Canada. and 110 feet each. machinery. but chiefly by flouring-mills. about three-quarters of a mile from the Battery. and hardware constitute the manufactures.--The transhipment of goods forms the principal commercial business of this place. beautifully shaded with trees. The exports in the year 1850 amounted to upwards of $40. now Albany. Rochester. The Genesee Falls. an open space of about 10 acres. 90. grass-seeds. It is also connected by railway with many important cities and towns. A United States arsenal is situated at West Troy. the commercial emporium of the United States. dairy produce. In 1614 the Dutch founded Fort Orange. Iron-ore is abundant. an Englishman. within the city limits. From this park extends Broadway. an enclosure of about . rye. has a descent of nearly 300 feet. honey. ALBANY is the capital. The city occupies about 10 miles of the southern portion of the island. and its greatest breadth a little over 2. in the Dutch service. bees'-wax. It is connected by the Erie Canal with the western lakes. now called New York city. an avenue of business and a fashionable promenade. consist of three distinct falls of 60. buckwheat. and New Amsterdam. Poughkeepsie is engaged in manufactures and trade. wool.000. Troy.--The water-power afforded by the Genesee River (which. and salt springs are numerous. orchard products: maple sugar. Page 209 NEW YORK.Wheat is the staple production. is situated on Manhattan Island. On this street. and by the Hudson River with the ocean. Other products are oats potatoes. The Cohoes Falls are romantic and beautiful.
and distributed to the city. 14 miles. Counties. clams. 210. traverses the island from east to west.000. 15. The surface north of the ridge is considerably broken. BROOKLYN is a finely built and pleasantly located city. Population. STATEN ISLAND (STATE OF NEW YORK). a distance of over 40 miles. a handsome edifice of white marble. Utica is a trading and manufacturing city. LONG ISLAND (STATE OF NEW YORK). &c. Length. Buffalo is the great entrepôt between the north-west and the states of the Atlantic sea-board. by means of which the city is abundantly supplied with water. It is brought from the Croton River. oysters.ten acres. 115 miles. A ridge or chain of hills. and the bays that indent the coast abound in fine fish. Breadth from 4 to 8 miles. surrounded by a highly productive and populous country. Area in square miles. In the centre of the Park stands the City Hall.450. This island is important for its market products. Syracuse is noted as the seat of extensive salt works. Page 210 The river between this city and New York is crossed every few minutes by steam ferry-boats. 1. 3. The wharfs on both sides of the city are crowded with vessels from every civilized maritime nation on the globe. nowhere exceeding 300 feet in height. Counties.000. 20 miles. Length. One of the most important works in the state is the Croton Aqueduct. 1. Several other parks ornament the city. Greatest breadth. A United States navy yard is located there. while on the south side it forms a gently sloping plain to the Atlantic. 63. Area in square miles. Population. .
The northern portion is fertile. Railroads render the state a great thoroughfare. The railroad and steamboat connections of this city render it a great thoroughfare. Trenton is the capital. Steam ferries connect the island with New York city. It possesses abundant waterpower from the Falls of the Delaware. wool. or mountainous. The industrial pursuits are agriculture. The climate is milder than that of New York. The soil varies materially with the topography of the country. broken here and there by small inlets--back of which the surface is. and marl. .The northern part of the island. Apple and peach orchards are numerous. orchard and market products. cider. and well adapted both to tillage and pasturage. is elevated about 300 feet above the ocean. The oyster-beds and the shad fisheries along the Atlantic coast and the Delaware River are extensive. Area in square miles. The productions are grain. The minerals are bog-iron ore. manufactures. The Passaic Falls are about 70 feet in perpendicular height. 71 Counties. paper. and the centre of an extensive trade. The rivers are small. hilly. butter. 500.000. The manufactures are cotton. zinc. cheese.850. and earthenware. for the most part. The villages along the shores of the island contain many splendid country seats of New York citizens. owing to the influence of the sea air. The eastern coast from Sandy Hook to Cape May consists of a line of sandy beaches. Population. either marshy or sandy. and livestock. 20. In the central and northern parts the surface is undulating. and mining. called Richmond Hill. and is a manufacturing place. leather. brick. The fisheries on the coast are valuable. Inhabitants to a square mile. NEW JERSEY. The scenery in the vicinity is picturesque and beautiful. The central and southern sections of the state are light and sandy. iron. glass. This state was settled by the Dutch at Bergen about the Page 211 year 1614. 6.
000. the great western table-land. which lies on the opposite bank of the river. and the various fabrics of leather and india-rubber. The great Alleghanian Chain. and conciliated the aborigines by purchasing their territory.000. butter. Countries.500.Paterson is the second city of the state in population and manufactures. carriages. and the mountainous region of the centre. viz. 300 miles. potatoes.. divides the state into three regions. Camden is a suburb of Philadelphia. 49. clothing. and has considerable trade and manufactures. Pennsylvania has abundance of coal and iron. Among the productions are grain. Breadth. Area in square miles. and live-stock. wool. PENNSYLVANIA. is healthy. Several large ferryboats ply between this city and New York. The surface of the state is well watered.. among which are paper-hangings. He settled the state in 1682. in 1681. The Susquehanna River is navigable in the spring and fall. particularly in the valleys. Length. grapes. the eastern. with which it communicates by several steam ferries. NEWARK is the largest and most flourishing city in the state. though variable. of England. 47. by James II. and is extensively engaged in manufactures. The Cunard line of ocean steamships run from this port to Liverpool. The climate. when large quantities of timber are floated down it in rafts. or Atlantic slope. Inhabitants to a square mile. Page 212 The soil is good. New Brunswick is in a fertile district. It is the seat of Rutgers College. consequently the settlers were secured from the Indian wars which greatly harassed most of the other colonies. 160 miles. 64. By means of the Morris Canal it communicates with the Atlantic ports and the Delaware River. Jersey city is a part of New York. Population. which passes through this state in several distinct ridges. orchard fruits. 2. The territory of Pennsylvania was granted to William Penn. a celebrated Friend. and by railway with Jersey city and New York. In the mountainous districts the land is valuable for pasture. The first settlement was made where . declining toward the Ohio.
Both rivers are spanned by bridges. or Independence Hall. the building in which the Colonial Congress on July 4th. and several other towns. Tacony. 1776. with several steam ferryboats. The State House. the most important being Alleghany city. It is "the . The city limits include Manayunk. during the year 1850. butter. Lancaster is a place of trade and commerce between the seaboard and the interior. supply the city with water. Frankford. coal. on the Schuylkill. and Birmingham. is remarkable for the regularity and cleanliness of its streets and for the neatness of its private dwellings. forming flourishing towns. which afford great facilities for the importation and exportation of produce. religious and educational institutions of the city are numerous and excellent. which. The industrial pursuits are agriculture. on the left bank of the Monongahela. Pittsburg is situated at the head of the Ohio. commerce and manufactures of Philadelphia are extensive. is situated on Chestnut-street. mining and manufactures. A United States navy yard is located in this city. and form the Ohio. and is the seat of extensive manufactories. iron. lard. The exports are flour. declared the independence of the United States. It is situated at the junction of several canals. Germantown. The city is surrounded by a very fertile. the metropolis of Pennsylvania. which here unite. Page 213 The benevolent. The Fairmount and Spring Garden water-works. Easton has a commerce between the coal and iron regions of Pennsylvania and the eastern markets. inclosed by the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers. Indian corn. The trade.Philadelphia now stands. Nearly half the iron produced in the United States. PHILADELPHIA. Harrisburg is the capital. &c. Pennsylvania has extensive manufactures and commerce. on a triangular piece of land. It has abundance of waterpower. Holmesburg. This city is largely engaged in manufactures. on the opposite side of the Alleghany River. The population extended itself to the opposite shores of the rivers. highly cultivated and populous country. connect Pittsburg with the suburbs. was manufactured in this state.
The "oak openings" (lands covered with a scattered growth of oak) comprise a large portion of the best land in the state.. Inhabitants to a square mile. Counties. The products are wheat. West and north of Wisconsin River. and form an important and picturesque feature in the landscape. WISCONSIN.000. which separates the waters that flow into Lake Superior from those that empty into the Mississippi. SECTION XLVIII. and a third ridge separates the waters that flow into Green Bay from those that empty into Lake Michigan. like Birmingham in Europe." and with the Atlantic seaboard. Fox and Wisconsin rivers communicate. consisting of prairie and timber land. The soil of the prairie land is adapted to agricultural purposes. is regular and healthful. there is a range of high hills. 500. 5. and live-stock. Reading ranks third in the State in population and manufactures. Page 214 Eastward of the Wisconsin is another range of hills. being one of the best and safest on the lakes. and a settlement was made by the French in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The surface is level in the southern and central parts. &c. The commerce of Pittsburg is extensive.920.--The Western States.Birmingham of America. It remained under the French until 1763. railroads. 53. . Area in square miles. Indian corn. a noted manufacturing place. Population. Erie has a fine harbour. oats. When the streams are unusually full. and its breadth is about 250 miles. Lead and copper ore are found in the south-west part of the state. though severe in winter. 50. This state was first visited by French missionaries in 1660. when it was ceded to the English. though they run in opposite directions." being. The climate. forming the slope drained by Rock River and its tributaries. canals. By the rivers. this city is connected with all the cities of the "far west. potatoes. It is nearly 300 miles in length. butter.
at Detroit. Area in square miles. Copper is found along the southern shore of Lake Superior. The staple products are grain.000 miles in length. 500. Eastward of the central part. the land rises into an irregular ridge. These rocks extend nearly 12 miles. Population. &c. MICHIGAN. Racine is the second city in the state in population and commerce. Wild rice grows in abundance in the north-west." situated about 60 miles west of the Strait of St. and the most populous of Wisconsin. the mines of which are the richest in the world. Its harbour is one of the best on the lake. cheese. The shores along Lake Superior are composed of sandstone rock. hay. butter. in 1763. and for the superior quality of the bricks manufactured there.The exports are wheat and other grains. Michigan was settled by the French. 56. Mary. wool. lumber. though severe. The soil of the north is rugged and poor. which has been worn by the action of the wind and water into fancied resemblances of ruined temples. abounding in lofty forests. with the other French possessions in North America. Milwaukee is the commercial mart of a rich and rapidly improving country.000. and rise 300 feet above the level of the lake. Madison is the capital. in 1670. Vegetation in the summer comes forward rapidly. . except Chicago. which serves to separate Page 215 the waters that empty into the lakes on the east from those which flow into Lake Michigan on the west. It was ceded to Great Britain. 73. The University of Wisconsin is located there. The most beautiful specimens of this character are the "Pictured Rocks. is noted for its splendid blocks of buildings. Inhabitants to a square mile. and lead. The lake coast of Michigan is more than 1.240. Fish and minerals abound. maple sugar and live-stock. The surface is diversified. garden vegetables. MILWAUKEE. especially on the Kewenaw peninsula. the most important city on Lake Michigan. 7. is moderated by the proximity of the state to the lakes. The climate. They are of a delicate cream or straw colour. castles. that of the south is fertile. Counties.
50 feet above the level of Grand River. Several manufactories have been established at Kalamazoo. 88. OHIO. and is admirably situated for internal trade. DETROIT. divides the waters flowing north into Lake Erie from those which flow south to the Ohio. Grand Rapids is one of the important towns in Michigan. possessing advantages for commerce and inland trade. the temperature is as rigorous as in the same latitude near the seaboard. .000 feet above the level of the sea. in which it is extensively engaged. 40. Adrian is the centre of an active trade. but in the south it is much more mild. north of the middle of the state.Michigan is an agricultural state. freighted with merchandise. Counties. The central part of the state is a high table-land. are constantly arriving. The surface is undulating and diversified. the commercial emporium of the state. live-stock. about 1. a handsome edifice. is situated on an eminence. Among the public buildings may be mentioned the old State House.000. and trade with British America. Lansing. 2. Steam-packets. Monroe is the principal market for the wheat produced in the vicinity. The State House. Inhabitants to a square mile.000. which Page 216 commands a fine view of Lake St.000. the capital. The water-power here afforded is used by various mills. The State university is located at the latter place. 49. is the centre of trade. A ridge of highlands. Area in square miles. is admirably situated for commerce. Population. and other grains. Clair and the Canadian shore. The exports are wheat. and with emigrants from various nations. In the north. wool and copper. Kalamazoo and Ann Arbor are flourishing places.
. 4. Marietta is the oldest town in the state. Iron and coal are abundant in the south-eastern part of the state. cheese. Steamboats ply regularly between this place and Pittsburg. with a company of New Englanders. Dayton is noted for the extent and variety of its manufactures. grain. Ohio city is included within the limits of Cleveland. is located in a beautiful valley. This state produces large amounts of Indian corn and wool. pork. Agriculture. is a place of considerable business. the northern commercial emporium of Ohio. 300. from Buffalo. wool. iron. 98. being surrounded by a rich and populous country. Vineyards are extensively cultivated in the vicinity of the city. cheese. made the first white settlement at Marietta. General Putnam. surrounded by hills. containing the country-seats of persons doing business in the city.The staple products are grain. manufactures. and commerce receive considerable attention. and possesses manufacturing advantages in the abundance of water-power here afforded.000. commerce. Counties. tobacco. Zanesville is a flourishing city. Steubenville is a place of trade. and live stock.000. and lard. wool. The manufactures are woollen. and about 200 miles by water. A short distance from the city are two beautiful villages. CINCINNATI. It is distinguished for its manufactures. IOWA. and its literary and benevolent institutions. Columbus. the most populous city of the Western States. and the commercial metropolis of Ohio. The exports are flour. Area in square miles. and the seat of several manufactories. and the wine produced is good. maple sugar. is Page 217 255 miles from Cincinnati. butter. Cleveland. butter. and in the rich bituminous coal mines of the adjacent hills. and also to Cincinnati. and leather. 51. Inhabitants to a square mile. the capital. Population. orchard products.
000. The surface abounds in large and fertile prairies. Area in square miles. A tract of table-land extends through a considerable part of the state. Cold. The exports are grain. Agriculture is the leading pursuit. are abundant. and originally formed a part of the Louisiana purchase. Inhabitants to a square mile. which is navigable by steamboats from its mouth to this place. which is about 200 miles distant. except in the northeast. dividing the waters which flow into the Mississippi from those which flow into the Missouri. It is connected with the Illinois shore by a steam ferry. lies on the left bank of Iowa River.The surface is a high-rolling prairie. The greater part of the state is a table-land from 300 to 800 feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. and copper. Dubuque is the central depôt of the mineral region of Iowa. a distance of about 80 miles. as the course of the rivers indicates. 55. which are here and there skirted with wood. Burlington is a place of considerable commerce. and decked with beautiful wild flowers of almost every hue. ILLINOIS. The staple products are Indian corn. The lead mines in the vicinity of Dubuque are among the richest in the United States. The climate is temperate and healthful. 100. sloping toward the south. Iowa city. Louis. Steam-packets ply daily between this place and St. iron ore. the capital. Population. and live-stock. Page 218 Iowa was settled by the French. Much attention is paid to the production of wool and the raising of swine for market. flour. lead. The soil is fertile and easily cultivated. Counties. 1. and pork. immediately above the mouth of the Des Moines.000. The banks of the streams are skirted with wood. These prairies are gently undulating. where it is rugged and rocky.400. 15. wheat. Keokuk lies at the foot of what are called the lower rapids of the Mississippi. .
Chicago is the great shipping depôt of an immense and fertile region. The general inclination of the surface is toward the Ohio. fruits. 29. and 230 miles south-west of Chicago. Counties. oats. Berries and table-fruits are abundant. and communicates by a daily line of steamers with Buffalo. is built on a level plain.000. At the close of the war which gave to Great Britain the province of Canada. butter. exist in the southern part of the state. oats.000. and the climate is similar to that of Illinois. and maple sugar. the most populous and commercial city in the state. coal and iron-ore are the most important. about three miles south of the Sangamon. 91. 1. Other products are wheat. Area in square miles. Galena is the metropolis of the lead region of northern Illinois. the capital. interspersed here and there with extensive prairies and rich bottom-lands. Peoria is an important commercial city of Illinois. A drawbridge (2. coal. is located on the border of a large and beautiful prairie. live-stock. The remainder of the state is level. potatoes. wheat. elevated about five feet above the surface of the lake. and the capabilities of the State in this respect are unsurpassed by any other State in the Union. Salt springs. This state was settled by the French. CHICAGO. wool. Page 219 Agriculture is the leading pursuit. Of minerals. . and other intermediate ports on the lakes. hay. Lead.The soil is fertile. and potatoes. 34. from which large quantities of salt are manufactured. butter. Illinois was ceded by France to the English. Indian corn is the staple product. the climate is healthy and milder than in the Atlantic states lying in the same latitude.000. Springfield. thickly studded with forests. The southern part is hilly. The soil is fertile. cheese. and iron-ore are abundant. The staple products of this state are Indian corn. INDIANA.500 feet long) spans the Illinois River at this place. Population. Inhabitants to a square mile.
On the western slope of the former are the gold mines of California.This state was settled by the French. and. the capital. NEW ALBANY is a commercial city. and the year is divided into two seasons--the wet and the dry. wheat.000. The climate is noted for its periodical changes. Agriculture forms the chief employment. Fort Wayne is the business depôt of a fertile section of country. 300. pork. potatoes and fruits. beef. lard. The soil in the valleys is fertile. In the southeastern part of the state. together with Illinois. CALIFORNIA. Fish are fine and abundant. and grapes flourish in all parts of the state. was erected into the Indian territory. Indian corn. sixteen years after. The valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin extends from north to south about 500 miles. Steamboat building is more extensively carried on at this place than at any other port on the Ohio. is the terminus of several railroads. and wool. Indianapolis. The wet season (in the latitude of San Francisco) lasts from the middle of November to the middle of May. wheat. 1. 36. Wild animals inhabit some sections of the state. 189. Area in square miles.000. Madison is a place of commercial importance. Population. with an average breadth of about sixty miles. it. . Oats grow wild. the vine is successfully cultivated by a company of Swiss settlers. and on the west by the Coast Range of mountains. A bridge spans the river White at this place. was admitted into the Union as an independent state. The products are barley. It is noted for its extensive establishments for packing pork. Counties. In 1800. The articles of export are live-stock. La Fayette is the principal grain market in the state. Page 220 Indiana carries on an active lake and river trade. Inhabitants to a square mile. A portion of the state is traversed by mountain ranges. This valley is bounded on the east by the Sierra Nevada.
000. particularly of gold. and constantly eject water. the capital. Population.820. These prairies . situated about ninety miles north of Benicia. situated on the left bank of Sacramento River. being accessible for steamers and vessels of a large size.In the abundance of its minerals. The soil is fertile. California was colonized by the Spanish." Benicia. to the height of ten or fifteen feet. in a boiling state. except in the mountain districts. Manufactures are few. and in 1848. They are from one to nine feet in diameter. Page 221 Among the most remarkable curiosities are the hot sulphur springs.720. Area in square miles. a navy yard. for the repairing and refitting of steamers. Mining is the leading industrial pursuit. From the Missouri westward to the base of the Rocky Mountain Range the surface is one vast rolling prairie. called the "Golden Gate. 10.000. is a convenient place of resort for the miners during the rainy season. 113. THE TERRITORY OF WASHINGTON. on the right bank of Yuba River. lies on the west side of San Francisco Bay. is probably the richest in the world. the great commercial metropolis of California. 529. California is rich. The quicksilver mine of New Almaden. SECTION XLIX. SAN FRANCISCO. and large docks. Sacramento city. about one mile in width and four miles long. It was formerly a part of Oregon. here and there diversified by a stream of water. and the climate is remarkably mild for so high a latitude. is a noted commercial port of California. In 1822. Commerce receives considerable attention. about thirteen miles south of San José. THE TERRITORY OF NEBRASKA. became a province of the Republic of Mexico. Mexico ceded it to the United States. situated on Karquenas Strait. Marysville.--The Territories. Its commerce is extensive. which connects the waters of San Pablo and Suisun Bays. contains an arsenal. 50. Population. The entrance to this city from the ocean is through a narrow strait. Area in square miles.
100. Countless herds of bison. but most of the land is barren. live stock.000. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. Paul. One peculiarity of this section is.000 miles distant from the Gulf of Mexico. the entire descent in one mile is estimated at sixty-five feet. 141. • • The area. and fourteen miles below the celebrated Falls of St. about 2. It is the most elevated tract of land between the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay. Anthony. that all its rivers terminate within its limits.920. Its surface is an elevated table-land.000. Population. 20. The exports are lumber. Salem is one of the most important towns in the territory. THE TERRITORY OF MINNESOTA. 187. Area in square miles. and flour. The surface is mountainous. That part of the territory lying west of the valley of the Colorado is denominated the Great Basin. and forms a distinct region. The perpendicular pitch of these Falls is seventeen feet. mostly occupied by prairies. The soil is adapted to agricultural purposes.840.000. 227. but it abounds in fertile valleys. The inhabitants are chiefly Mormons. THE TERRITORY OF UTAH. in lakes that have no visible outlets. but including the rapids above and below. THE TERRITORY OF OREGON.afford an inexhaustible supply of pasturage for cattle. is situated at the head of steam navigation on the Mississippi. Area in square miles. watered by numerous streams and lakes. Population. St. An island at the brow of the precipice divides the current into two parts. surface. The valleys are fertile. elk and deer are to be found in this territory. Grain and garden vegetables are the products. the capital of the territory. Wheat is the staple production. 25. population. soil. Area in square miles. Oregon is noted for forests of gigantic pine trees. and climate of each of the United States? The Government of the country? . the larger of which passes on the west side of the island. Population.640.
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