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Emergency response Team Training

Emergency response Team Training

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Published by Subroto Ghosh
Training Presentation for training of ERT members of an organisation
Training Presentation for training of ERT members of an organisation

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Published by: Subroto Ghosh on Jan 09, 2011
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05/28/2013

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Presented by Subroto Ghosh

1

What is an Emergency

An unforeseen combination of circumstances or the resulting state that calls for immediate action. In facility management terms, this means any unplanned event that can cause injury, death, or destruction of property.

2

Types of Emergency

Man-Made Emergency
Bomb threat, Fire Incident, War, Civil Disorder

Natural Emergency
Draught, Flooding, earthquakes

Technical Emergency
Electrical power loss, equipment failure, airconditioning failure

3

4

What is Fire

Fire is a chemical reaction which involves fuel, oxygen and an ignition source.

5

What is Fire

Heat Can be generated by many methods i.e. overloading of electric sockets, careless disposal of cigarettes, portable heaters placed too close to furnishings. Fuel take may form including, paper, furniture, carpets etc. Oxygen is freely available every corner and at every where

6

Fire safety facility at Premises
SMOKE DETECTORS
Fire is best handled by prevention than controlling To achieve this, Smoke detectors are installed in ceilings, which are linked with Fire panel boards. Fire panel board blow siren and also indicate, where smoke is detected.

MANUAL CALL POINTS
The manually operated fire alarm switches are situated at prominent positions in every floor, fixed with glass cover. If activated a general alert alongwith siren is sounded t floor. To activate this, break the glass using hard object and press/pull the button/lever.

Fire Extinguishers
Every Floor has been provided with adequate number of all purpose ABC & CO2 fire extinguishers. These extinguishers can be used in case of small fire, to control it from spreading further. Fire Hydrants alongwith Hose pipe is installed near fire exit door, to be used by professional firemen to control big fire.
7

Facility for Safe Evacuation

Fire Resistant Doors
All Fire exit doors are fire resistant and capable to keep off fire and smoke for about 30 mins. These doors should closed after evacuation, to prevent fire and smoke from spreading into the staircase

Fire Exit Sign and Emergency Lights
These work even if there is a power failure thus assisting in evacuation

Staircases
These are set out in the Floor plan displayed at prominent places at floor.

8

If You Discover a Fire

1. Do Not Panic 2. Operate the alarm button i.e. Manual Call Point 3. Call the Fire Marshal on your floor and if they are not available immediately call emergency number 4. Fight Fire with Fire Extinguishers if it is safe to do so and you are trained and have suitable instructions for its operation.

9

If You Discover a Fire

5. Use the Nearest Exit or as directed by Fire Marshals to leave premises

DO NOT USE LIFT
6. Report to Fire Marshal/officer for a roll call at the designated assembly point.

10

IF a Fire Alarm Is Sounded 1. Try to be calm 2. Stay Alert and listen to the instruction of Fire Marshal. 3. Switch off equipments, place vital records in strong room/safe, if there is adequate time. 4. If the instruction announced is to evacuate
a. b. c. d. DO NOT RUN Leave the premises immediately in a speedy manner and orderly manner to the designated assembly point. Please take care of disabled per son when evacuating and talk to the minimum. DO NOT STOP TO COLLECT BELONGINGS. Personal Safety is of Primary importance.

11

Personal Fire Protection- Key Points

Close Door Behind you when you exit Isolate a fire with a closed door If an exit is blocked by fire, try another exit. DO NOT USE LIFT. STOP, DROP, ROLL to smoother burning clothing Cool Burns with Water To avoid smoke of fumes when exiting stoop low or crawl.

12

Personal Fire Protection- Key Points

Feel Doors for heat and fire on the other side before use. Use a Fire Extinguishers when there is a clear exit to your back. Be accompanied when you go to fight fire. Do not use water or foam based fire extinguishers on an electrical appliance. USE CO2 Fight Fire Only if it is safe to do so or else GET OUT
13

Fire Prevention- Key Points Fire prevention is everybody s responsibility and every staff is expected to be vigilant and follow organization instructions. You must always:
Keep Exits/ passage clear of obstructions Clear Accumulated paper and rubbish from work area Follow NO SMOKING sign. Work areas should be non smoking. Place heaters ways from flammable materials. Refrain From placing vases or drink cups on or near computer terminals, video monitors or other electrical equipments. Switch off all the equipments at end of work day. Never overload electrical sockets. Keep non-essential equipments switched off.

14

Fire Extinguishers

15

The Fire Triangle

Fire Safety, at its most basic, is based upon the principle of keeping fuel sources and ignition sources separate.

16

The Fire Triangle
Three things must be present at the same time to produce fire:

1. Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion 2. Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature 3. Some FUEL or combustible material
Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire
Take away any of these things and the fire will be extinguished

17

Fuel Classifications

‡ Fires are classified according to the type of fuel that is burning. ‡ If you use the wrong type of fire extinguisher on the wrong class of fire, you might make matters worse. ‡ Its very important to understand the four different fire (fuel) classifications«

18

Fuel Classifications
Class A: Wood, paper, cloth, trash, plastics³solids that are not metals. Class B: Flammable liquids³gasoline, oil, grease, acetone. Includes flammable gases. Class C: Electrical³energized electrical equipment. As long as it·s ´plugged in.µ Class D: Metals³potassium, sodium, aluminum, magnesium. Requires Metal-X, foam, and other special extinguishing agents.

19

Fuel Classifications

Most fire extinguishers will have a pictograph label telling you which types of fire the extinguisher is designed to fight. For example, a simple water extinguisher might have a label like this«

«which means it should only be used on Class A fires.

20

Types of Fire Extinguishers
Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different classes of fire. The 3 most common types of fire extinguishers are:
1. Water (APW) 2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 3. Dry Chemical (ABC, BC, DC)

21

Types of Fire Extinguishers 1. Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers

APW stands for ´Air-Pressurized Water.µ Filled with ordinary tap water and pressurized air, they are essentially large squirt guns.

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Types of Fire Extinguishers 1. Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers

APW·s extinguish fire by taking away the ´heatµ element of the Fire Triangle.

23

Types of Fire Extinguishers 1. Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers
APW·s are designed for Class A fires only: Wood, paper, cloth.

Using water on a flammable liquid fire could cause the fire to spread. Using water on an electrical fire increases the risk of electrocution. If you have no choice but to use an APW on an electrical fire, make sure the electrical equipment is un-plugged or de-energized.

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Types of Fire Extinguishers 2. Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers
The pressure in a CO2 extinguisher is so great, bits of dry ice may shoot out of the horn!

25

Types of Fire Extinguishers 2. Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers

CO2·s are designed for Class B and C (Flammable Liquids and Electrical sources) fires only!

26

Types of Fire Extinguishers 2. Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers
Carbon dioxide is a nonflammable gas that takes away the oxygen element of the fire triangle. Without oxygen, there is no fire.

CO2 is very cold as it comes out of the extinguisher, so it cools the fuel as well.

27

Types of Fire Extinguishers 3. Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers
Dry chemical extinguishers put out fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of dust. This separates the fuel from the oxygen in the air.
The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction of fire. These extinguishers are very effective at putting out fire.

28

Types of Fire Extinguishers 3. Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers
It is extremely important to identify which types of dry chemical extinguishers are located in your area!

An ´ABCµ extinguisher will have a label like this, indicating it may be used on Class A, B and C fires.
You don·t want to mistakenly use a ´BCµ extinguisher on a Class A fire thinking that it was an ´ABCµ extinguisher.

29

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher
It·s easy to remember how to use a fire extinguisher if you remember the acronym PASS: 

Pull  Aim  Squeeze  Sweep
30

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

Pull the pin«

This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher
31

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

Aim at the base of the fire«

Hit the fuel. If you aim at the flames...
« the extinguishing agent will fly right through and do no good.
32

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

Squeeze the top handle«

This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent.
33

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

Sweep from side to side«

Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then slowly move forward. Once the fire is out, keep an eye on the area in case it re-ignites.
34

35

Rules for Fighting Fires
Do not fight the fire if: 
You don·t have adequate or appropriate equipment. If you don·t have the correct type or large enough extinguisher, it is best not to try fighting the fire.  You might inhale toxic smoke. When synthetic materials such as the nylon in carpeting or foam padding in a sofa burn, they can produce hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, and ammonia in addition to carbon monoxide. These gases can be fatal in very small amounts.  Your instincts tell you not to. If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, just let the fire department do their job.

36

Rules for Fighting Fires
The final rule is to always position yourself with an exit or means of escape at your back before you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire.

In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly. You don·t want to become trapped.

37

Emergency Response Team : Role and Responsibility

38

Emergency Organogram

39

Emergency Controller

Facility Manager / Project Manager shall be discharging the responsibilities of Emergency Controller in co-ordination with Client s co-coordinator.

40

Role of Emergency Controller
Assist the client during any evacuation of site. Organize his team and provide direction. He shall make best effort to keep people calm and control panic. Assist the staff in mustering at the designated assembly points. Check for any trapped persons inside the affected areas and ensure that first aid is provided to the injured. Supervise the emergency evacuation team and the Fire fighting team to fight the fire / any other emergency effectively. Stay in the premises, till the situation is under control, to do an evaluation of the premises and the assets. Maintain continuous communication with the Fire fighting team, Security team and fire evacuation team. Review the situation continuously and co-ordinate with client for further actions.
41

Role of Emergency Controller

Decontrol Access control system (if not done automatically). Cordon off affected area and prevent interested onlookers from heading in that direction. Co-ordinate with government officials as directed by Client coordinator Co-ordinate to operate / stop the utility machinery as needed. Conduct periodic evacuation drill (no less than annually)

42

Roles of Fire Marshal
He should be familiar with the fire safety plan of the building in general and for his respective area/floor in particular. He must know about the fire protection arrangements, alarm system, location of exits, escape routes and alternative means of escape. He shall keep himself abreast with information on various types of fire extinguishers installed on his floor. In case of emergency, the floor Marshall will take charge of the situation and direct emergency control operation and/or evacuation of the staff & contractors.

43

Roles of Fire Marshal
He shall maintain constant contact with Emergency Controller, for prompt compliance of the instruction received during emergency control /rescue operation. When evacuation is ordered, the floor Marshall, shall arrange for search of the all areas, including toilets and other not frequently used places for any occupants and assists them in quick escape. He should ensure orderly evacuation. Floor Marshall shall count heads and confirm that all have been evacuated at assembly point. He will ensure speedy first aid to the injured. He will be the last person to leave the floor.

44

Evacuation Drill: What is it all about

The human interface with the fire protection is a critical factor in the provision of an acceptable level of life safety in the event of a fire. Building occupants must know what the evacuation alarm sounds like, where the exits are, and the proper response during an emergency. Emergency plans and workplace fire drills address the human element in the protection of lives in the event of fire.
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Reasons for Evacuation Drill To educate building occupants about the procedures to follow in the event of an emergency that requires evacuation. To provide an opportunity for occupants to locate and use alternative routes under nonthreatening conditions. identify potential issues with the building s means of entrance and exit.

46

Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill

The goal of workplace fire drills is to familiarize employees with emergency procedures and the location of means of egress components provided within the facility. The fire drill is a tool that is used to ensure that occupants react properly in the event of an actual emergency within a facility.

47

Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill

Pre-Drill Assessment
Before conducting an evacuation drill in the workplace, the drill coordinator should conduct a pre-drill assessment of the evacuation routes and assembly points. The pre-drill assessment is intended to verify that all exit components (stairs, doors, etc.) are in proper order and that occupants can use them safely. For example, the assessment might confirm that exits are clearly marked and that corridors are free of obstructions.

48

Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill

Fire Evacuation process
The occupant will recognize the evacuation alarm. On receiving the evacuation signal, the occupant will take appropriate actions, including the shutdown of machinery or processes. The occupant will immediately begin the evacuation process using routes prescribed by the facility emergency plan. The occupant will provide assistance to visitors or individuals who are experiencing difficulty. The occupant will take evasive action if the means of exit that is selected is determined to be unsafe. The occupant will report to the assembly area monitor at the assigned assembly point.
49

Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill

Nature of Drill : Announced or Surprise
Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that can occur in an actual emergency Drills should be carefully planned to simulate actual fire conditions. Not only should drills be held at varying times, but different means of exit or relocation areas should be used, based on an assumption that fire or smoke might prevent the use of normal egress and relocation avenues.
50

Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill Announced DRILL:
An announced drill allows occupants to prepare before the evacuation. Announced drills should be structured learning exercises in which the occupants walk through the actions they are to take when the evacuation alarm sounds. An announced drill allows businesses to prepare for the downtime that will occur while employees leave the building. The announced drill is the least threatening type of exercise and can be used to introduce occupants to a new emergency plan or revised evacuation routes. During announced drills, assigned staff members can direct occupants to alternate egress routes.
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Essentials of Fire Evacuation Drill

Surprise DRILL:
Surprise drill might be considered to be disruptive, it is the best indication of what will occur under actual emergency conditions. With no announced warning, occupants might choose not to react to the alarm or might demonstrate behaviours that could be dangerous under actual emergency conditions. During the surprise drill, signage may be used to cause occupants to seek alternative exit routes or take evasive actions such as crawling under a smoke layer in a corridor.

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Summary

Companies use fire drills to enhance employee safety. Fire drills educate building occupants, help in evaluating the company s emergency plans, and identify unsafe conditions that would hinder Exit. Fire evacuation drill objectives involve the occupants recognizing the alarm, taking the appropriate actions, providing assistance to others who need help, and so on.
53

Thanks You All

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