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Words often fail to express one’s feeling towards others, still I express my sincere gratitude to Shri. Harishchandra , Assistant Station Engineer DOORDARSHAN KENDRA JAIPUR for his valuable guidance without which it would have been difficult for me to complete my training. I also express my gratitude to Shri. O.P. Rajpurohit and Shri SanjayJi, who helped me a lot in understanding the various processes and concepts involved. It was really a great experience working in the DD Kendra and learning from such experienced engineers with hands on experience on the subject.
SURBHI DUBEY B.TECH (E&C), 7th Sem JAIPUR MAIET,
The Doordarshan Kendra Jaipur
Doordarshan Kendra Jaipur is part of the DD India, the largest television network in the world. The first television programme was viewed by the people of Rajasthan on 1st August,1975 under the satellite Instructional Television Experiment in the districts of Kota, Sawai Madhopur & Jaipur. Special educational programme were then produced at Delhi on 1st March,1977, Upgrah Doordarshan Kendra was set up at Delhi. The programmes produced at UDK for Jaipur were relayed. On 1st June 1987 Jaipur Doordarshan Kendra was set up at Jhalana Doongri and transmission started on 6th July 1987. Initially the Kendra produced only 30 min of programming and this was gradually increased to about 4 hrs. From 2nd Oct 1993 the LPTs located at Ajmer, Udaipur and Bikaner and HPT at Bundi were connected with DDK Jaipur via satellite. Doordarshan introduced commerc ial service at Jaipur Kendra on 11th Dec 1993. PRESENT STATUS Doordarshan Jaipur is the only Programme Production Center in the Rajasthan. The studies are housed at Jhala Doongri, Jaipur and the transmitter is located at Nahargarh Fort. As per the census figures of 2001, the channel covers 79% by population and 72% by area of Rajasthan. On 1 May 1995 telecast of DD2 programmes commenced from Jaipur using a 100W LPT. Now DD2 converted as DD NEWS is being telecast from a 10KW HPT set up in 2000. The reach of the NEWS channel is 11% by area and 32% by population. There are 47.58% snf 35.83% cables homes in Urban Rajasthan and 25.69% TV, 7% cables homes in Rural Rajasthan. Presently this Kendra originates over 4hrs of daily programming (25hrs & 30 mins Weekly) in Hindi & Rajasthani. Programmes are
also telecast in Sindhi, Urdu, English & Sanskrit. This kendra originates to News bulletins daily 1 in hindi & 1 in Rajasthani and feeds important stories for the national bulletins including regular contribution in Rajyon Se Samachar at 1740 hrs daily on DD NEWS.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF TRANSMITTING FACILITIES AT DDK, JAIPUR:Doordarshan Kendra, Jaipur is equipped with studio, two terrestrial transmitters and one digital up-link station. The two terrestrial transmitters are of 10 KW power each. One is for DDNational and the other is for DD-News telecasting.
TERRESTRIAL TRANSMITTER PARAMETERS: DD-NEWS :CH #31 (VHF-Band-III) Pictures IF: 551.25 MHz, Sound IF: 556.75 MHz
DOWNLINK PARAMETERS OF DD-NEWS SATELLITE PROGRAMMES
Satellite Position Satellite Uplink Frequency Downlink Frequency Modulation
93.5 degree Insat 3A Transponder 6165.5 MHz (Horizontal) 3940.5 MHz (Vertical) QPSK
The PCR is where the post production activities like minor editing and management of feed during a live program takes place. Its working and other aspects are discussed in detail in .25 Mps 144. The studio has • Camera and lights and other equipment required for production of a feed. The PCR has a vision mixer and an audio mixer. • Camera control unit or CCU It is in the studio that all aspects related to the production of a video takes place. DIGITAL EARTH LINK STATION 6. MAIN SWITCHING ROOM(MSR) 5. The DDK has two large studios and a small studio for news production. PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM (PCR) 3.FEC Symbol rate Azimuth Angle Elevation Angle ¾ 6. STUDIO 2.33 degree Technical Overview DDK Jaipur has the following main departments which manage the production. storage transmission and maintenance of the two DD National channels and the DD Rajasthan channel. TRANSMITTER Each of these departments are discussed in detail with due stress to the relevant engineering aspects.32 degree 52. 1. VIDEO STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION ROOM(VTR) 4. It is in the PCR that we can control all the studio lights and all the microphones and other aspects. The production manager sits in the PCR and directs the camera men and selects the angles sound parameters etc during the production stage in the PCR.
The next station is the earth station which has an uplink chain.the following pages. The earth station is in fully digital domain. It is the MSR which decides what is to go in air. The PCR is where the phone in console and other systems are also kept. The VTR is the next section where copies of all programs are stored. The last stage is the transmitter which has the antenna and facilities for terrestrial transmission. audio processors video processors. Also the VTR plays back all the videos as and when required. modulators etc. Videos of famous people and important events are stored in the central film pool. up converters. all the vision mixer base units and all the audio processor base units are kept in MSR. The monitoring and control of all activities takes place in MSR. All the camera base units. The MSR also performs some additional functions like logo addition etc. . Videos of pre-recorded events are queued up in the VTR and are played back without a break. All the programs shot in the camera are simultaneously recorded in the VTR. The MSR stores all the circuitry of the DDK. The audio chain and video chain of MSR is explained in detail. simulcast transmitters.
Now it is necessary to pick up this information and transmit it.FUNDAMENTAL OF MONOCHROME AND COLOUR TV SYSTEM:Picture formation:A picture can be considered to contain a number of small elementary areas of light or shade which are called PICTURE ELEMENTS. The photoelectric properties of the pick up device convert the optical image to a electric charge image depending on the light and shade of the scene (picture elements). The electron beam scans the image line by line and field by field to provide signal variations in a successive order. Since the frame is divided into 2 fields the flicker reduces. The frame is divided in two fields. Odd lines are scanned first and then the even lines. The odd and even lines are interlaced. Electron beam scans the charge image and produces optical image. The vertical scanning frequency is 50 Hz. The field . The elements thus contain the visual image of the scene. The horizontal scanning frequency is 15. The scanning is both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously. In the case of a TV camera the scene is focused on the photosensitive surface of pick up device and a optical image is formed.625 Hertz.
Therefore the horizontal resolution of the system is 5 MHz.e. Let us also take another factor. resolution improves.A similar calculation for 525 lines system limits the highest frequency to 4 MHz and hence the horizontal resolution of same value. If we go for larger RF channel width the number of channels in the R. It is realistic to aim at equal vertical and horizontal resolution.rate is 50 Hertz. spectrum will be reduced. The frame rate is 25 Hertz (Field rate is the same as power supply frequency). The capability of the system to resolve maximum number of picture elements along scanning lines determines the horizontal resolution. It means there are 528 divided by 2 cyclic changes i. However. 264 cycles. with more no. With lesser number of TV lines per frame the clarity (quality) is poor. .e. of TV lines on the screen the clarity of the picture i. Hence the highest frequency is 5 MHz. the number of alternate black and white dots on line can be 575 x 0. channel width is required.F. In view of the above the horizontal bandwidth of signal in 625 lines system is 5 MHz.69 x 4/3 which is equal to 528. These 264 cycles are there during 52 micro seconds. Number of TV Lines per Frame:If the number of TV lines is high larger bandwidth of video and hence larger R. Therefore. It means how many alternate black and white elements can be there in a line.F.
The PAL Colour Television System:The Colour Television:It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i. Blue and green in a suitable proportion. Additive Colour Mixing The figure 10 shows the effect of projecting red.3 Red + 0.e. 10 Additive Colour Mixing The Colour Television It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i. green.e. Red. Thus it is . red.59 Green + 0. blue beams of light so that they overlap on screen.11 Blue Fig. Y= 0.. blue and green in suitable proportion.
G & B as per the well known equation : Y = 0.59 G + 0.3 R + 0. G. the reverse compatibility cannot be .11 B Reverse compatibility means that when Black & White TV signal is radiated the colour TV sets should display the Black & White pictures. R. Y is obtained by mixing R. This can then be converted back to the optical image at the picture tube. It is only in between the camera and the picture tube of the receiver we need a system to transmit this information. G and B are easily available to the manufacturers of the picture tube. G and B. This is achieved by sending Y as monochrome information along with the chroma signal. B. Compatibility means that when colour TV signal is radiated the monochrome TV sets should also display Black & White pictures.e.only required to convert optical information of these three colours to electrical signals and transmit it on different carriers to be decoded by the receiver. If we transmit R. So the pick up from the cameras and output for the picture tube should consists of three signals i. The phosphors for all the three colours i. Colour television has the constraint of compatibility and reverse compatibility with the monochrome television system which makes it slightly complicated. R.e.
0.59G + 0. Colour Difference Signals To achieve reverse compatibility.19 B In such a case what happens with a colour TV set when we transmit black and white signal.0.51 R . So reverse compatibility is not achieved. R = B = G) So if we take R .Y . but G gun gets 1.51 (R-Y) . G-Y can be derived electronically in the TV receiver. when we transmit Y.0.11 B 1.achieved.7 Y . Let us see how : If we transmit Y.0. The net result is black & white pictures on a colour TV screen appear as Green pictures.19 B -0. R & B. R and B are zero.7 Y.19 (B-Y) G-Y = Thus.3R + 0. R & B and derive G then : Since G Y = = 0. colour difference signals fulfill the compatibility and reverse compatibility. we do not take G-Y as this will always be much lower than R-Y and B-Y and hence will needs more amplification and will cause more noise into the system.7Y .51 R . R-Y and B-Y instead of Y. In the previous paragraph we have seen G So = 1. Because in this case the colour difference signals are zero if the original signal is monochrome (i.0.e.
This is achieved by transmitting 10 cycles of sub-carrier frequency on the back porch of H synchronizing pulse.R .(0. It is to be noted while R. B-Y and G-Y signals can either be positive or negative or even zero. But sub-carrier is to be generated by a local oscillator.Y = 0 As such colour difference signals are zero for white or any shade of gray whereas. Y carries the entire Luminance information.3 R + 0. This 10 cycles subcarrier signal is known as BURST or colour BURST.Y = R . The R-Y and B .11 R) = 0 Similarly B . . B signals always have positive value R-Y. G. This generated sub-carrier in the receiver must have same frequency as that of transmitted sub-carrier and also the same phase.59 R + 0.Y chrominance signals may be recovered at the television receiver by suitable synchronous demodulation.
VIDEO CHAIN IN A TYPICAL DOORDARSHAN STUDIO:STUDIO CENTRE A Studio centre of Doordarshan has the following objectives: .
and arrangement to pick up picture and sound. outdoor. This knitting or live editing includes generation of special effects and desired transitions between various sources. 4) Routing of mixed programme for recording/transmission via master switching room and Micro Wave to the transmitter or any other desired destinations. film based programs slides. Action in this area includes staging. 3. and 3) Central apparatus room. feed from other kendras.5 cubic meters) are: 1. 2. Very efficient air conditioning because of lot of heat dissipation by studio light and presence of large number of persons including invited audience performing artists and operational crew. lighting. Action area This place requires large space and ceiling as compared to any other technical area. Uniform and even flooring for smooth operation of camera dollies and boom microphone etc. video graphics and characters generator etc. performance by artists.. camera output from studios. 3) Processing/distribution of different sources to various destinations in technical areas. Hardware required for these activities in a studio (typical size 20 x20x8. 2) Production control room. 2) To knit various other sources of programs available at the production desk i. Acoustic treatment Keeping in mind that a television studio is a multi purpose studio with lot of moving person and .1) To originate programmes from studios either for live telecast or for recording on a video tape. playback from pre recorded tape. Activities in a television studio can be divided into three major areas such as : 1) Action area.e.
. 2. wardrobe. Studio cameras (three to four) with one of the cameras fitted with teleprompter system and pressure dolly. 9. 1. Monitoring of output/off air signal.Digital clock display. formal or informal situation. 4. 8. time.Studio warning light and safety devices like fire alarm system and fire fighting equipments etc. 11. depends upon the programme requirement such as establishing a period. audio pick up and special effects etc. 3.equipment during a production. Timing a production/telecast.Cyclorama and curtain tracks for blue and black curtain for chroma keying and limbo lighting respectively. Pick up wall sockets for audio operations. and makeup etc. These requirements for lighting. 12. Production control area Activities in this area are:1. Operational requirement from the technical crew may vary from programme to programme. 3. Editing of different sources available at the production desk. 2. Direction to the production crew by the producer of the programme. 4. Tie lines box for video and audio lines from control room 10. Effective communication facilities for the floor crew with the production control area. Luminaires and suspension system having grids or battens (hand/motorised operation). Supporting facilities like properties. 13.Audio and video monitoring facilities.
The producer directs the cameramen for proper shots on various cameras through intercom and the vision mixer (also called VM engineer) switches shots from the selected camera/cameras with split second accuracy. camera 2. The vision mixer is typically a 10 x 6 or 20 x 10 cross bar switcher selecting anyone of the 10 or 20 input sources to 6 or 10 different output lines. The shots can be switched from one video source to another video source. Vision mixing and switching Unlike films. superimposed.Hardware provided in this area include: • Monitoring facilities for all the input and output sources(audio/video). faded in or faded out electronically with actual switching being done during the vertical intervals between the picture frames. cross faded. VTR2. television media allows switching between different sources simultaneously at the video switcher in Production control room operated by the Vision Mixer on the direction of the program producer. the electronics is located in CAR. camera 3. telecine and library store and special effect (ADO) etc. VTR1. The input sources include: Camera 1. Electronics special effects are also used now days as a transition between the two sources. Telecine 1. The vision mixer provides for the following operational facilities for editing of TV . Telecine 2. in close cooperation with the producer. • Communication facilities with technical areas and studio floor. Vision Mixer (or Video Switcher) Though the video switching is done by the VM at the remote panel. • Remote control for video mixer. Test signal etc.
background. The switcher also provides cue facilities to switch camera tally lights as an indication to the cameraman whether his camera is on output of the switcher. edges etc. Present day PCR’s have: • • • • • 24 input video special effects switchers (CD 680 or CD 682-SP) Character generators Telecine/DLS remote controls Adequate monitoring equipment Character Generator(CG) Character Generator provides titles and credit captions during production in Roman script. with any desired special effect.programs:(i)Take: Selection of any input source or Cut: (ii) switching clearly from one source to another. It provides high resolution characters. test signals etc. At present bilingual and trilingual C. prior to its actual switching. All the picture sources are available on the monitors. The selected output can be monitored in the corresponding preview monitor. (iii) SUPERPOSITION OF TWO SOURCES: Keyed caption when selected inlay is superimposed on the background picture. VTR.G are . The preview monitors can be used for previewing the telecine. different colours for colorizing characters. DISSOLVE: Fading out of one source of video and fading in another source of video. (iv) SPECIAL EFFECTS: A choice of a number of wipe patterns for split screen or wipe effects.
The output of cameras is pre-amplified in the head and then connected to the . This requirement is ensured by the sync pulse generator (SPG). to appear as one of the video sources.. Many pages of scripts can be stored on the disk and recalled when needed.also being used by Doordarshan. by typing the addresses for the stored pages. start and end of each line or all the frames of video sources is concurrent. Various pulses of standard width and frequency are derived from this crystal electronically which form clock for the generation of video signal. SPG consists of highly stable crystal oscillator. SPG is normally duplicated for change over in case of failure. These pulses are fed to all the video generating equipment to achieve this objective of synchronism. pan and tilt head.e. Because of its importance. Character Generator is a microcomputer with Texts along instructions when typed in at the keyboard is stored on a floppy or a Hard disk. video signal pre-amplifier view finder and other associated electronic circuitry are mounted on cameras trolleys and operate inside the studios. Sync Pulse-Generator(SPG) It is essential that all the video sources as input to the switcher are in synchronism i. It provide the following outputs: • • • • • • • Line drive Field drive Mixed blanking Mixed sync colour subcarrier A burst insertion pulse PAL phase Indent pulses Camera Control Unit (CCU) The television cameras which include camera head with its optical focusing lens.
Lights are classified as spot and soft lights. These are suspended from motorized hoists and telescopes. The composite sync signals are then added and these video signals are fed to a distribution amplifier. The peak white level is also clipped to avoid overloading of the following stages and avoiding over modulation in the transmitter. corrected. adjusting and composing the shots. The lighting should also give the depth. H. Light Control The scene to be televised must be well illuminated to produce a clear and noise free picture. D. These remotely control various lights are inside the studios. clamped. The video signal so obtained is amplified. The view-finder signal is also sent over the camera cable to the camera head view-finder for helping the cameraman in proper focusing. A large number of lights are used to meet the needs of ‘key’. equalized for cable delays. The switching on and off the lights at the required time and their dimming is controlled from the light control panel inside a lighting control room using SCR dimmer controls.camera control unit (CCU) through long multi-core cable (35 to 40 cores).F. The up and down movement is remotely controlled. horizontal. All the camera control voltages are fed from the CCU to the camera head over the multi-core camera cable. or triax cable. ‘fill’. The lighting arrangements in a TV studio have to be very elaborate. which normally gives multiple outputs for monitoring etc. and ‘back’ lights etc.C. the correct contrast and artistic display of various shades without multiple shadows. and vertical blanking pulses are added to it. .
a processor which comprises velocity error compensation. sound and video signals are recorded simultaneously on the same tape. sound accompanies the picture. and audio tape/disc replays.e. drop-out compensation and time base correction. Several microphones are generally required for production of complex television programs besides other audio sources also called marred sound from telecine. Most of the TV centers have professional quality B-Format BCN-51 One inch VTRs. It also comprises a digital variable motion unit . phase reversal. Video Tape recorders VTR room is provided at each studio center. VTR. In these recorders. echo send/receive and digital reverberation units at some places Meltron console tape recorders and EMI 938 disc reproducers are provided for playing back/creating audio effects as independent sources (Unmarried) to the switcher. Split second accuracy is required for providing the correct audio source in synchronisation with the picture thus requiring lot of skill from the engineer. For broadcast quality playback it is equipped with correction electronics i. The sounds from different sources are controlled and mixed in accordance with the requirement of the program. It houses a few Broadcast standard Videocassette recorders (VCRs). All these audio sources are connected to the sound control console. Even the level of sound sometimes is varied in accordance with the shot composition called prospective. with a number of inputs. say about 32 inputs is provided in major studio. in television. Audio facilities An audio mixing console. This includes special facilities such as equalisation.Sound mixing and control As a rule. PFL.
e. 5. 3. DVC Pro. may be of different format remotely controlled by the editor. Multi-track audio recorder with time code facilities and remote operation. it should be possible to have any kind of transition. Most of the present day shootings are done on locations using single camera. The actual production is done in these suites. 4. Adding/Mixing sound tracks. slow motion and visible search operation. b. A well equipped post production suite will have:1. Creating special effects. While doing editing with multiple sources. The latest trend all over the world is to have more of fully equipped post production suites than number of studios. Ampex Digital Optics (ADO) for special effects. Audio mixer with remote control from the editor remote panel. New centers are being supplied with Sony U-matic high band VCRs along with ½” Sony Betacam SP VCRs. 2.enabling still reproduction. with control from a remote editor panel. Character generator for titles. The job for a post production suites is:a. Vision mixing with special effect and wipes etc. Five VTRs/VCRs. The concept of live editing on vision mixer is being replaced by “to do it at leisure” in post production suites. Voice over facilities. d. To knit program available on various sources. . 6. Post Production Suites Modern videotape editing has revolutionised the production of television programs over the years. c.
7. van which contains all the essential production facilities. Now let us follow a CAM-I signal. the signal is then matched/adjusted for quality in CCU and then like any other sources it goes to video switcher via PP (Patch Panel) and respective VDAs(Video Distribution Amplifiers) and optional Hum compensator/Cable equilizers. Video Chain : The block diagram on facing page connects all these sections and it can be observed that the CAR is the nodal area. Output from the switcher goes to stabilizing amplifier via PP and VDAs. 9. Output from the stab. Coverage of Outside events : Outside broadcasts(or OBs) provide an important part of the television programs. One man operation. 8.B. Major events like sports. . CAM-I first goes to a Camera electronics in CAR via a multi-core cable. important functions and performances are covered with an O. Is further distributed to various destinations. Adequate monitoring facilities. Supported by “Offline editing systems” to save time in post production suites.
e. It gives shape and modeling by casting shadows. There is always a tremendous scope for doing experiments to achieve the required effect. gives roundness to the subject and reveals texture. Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation with a visible spectrum from red to violet i. Light Source Any light source has a Luminance intensity (I) which is measured in Candelas. It can also provide catch lights in the eyes. Normally it is hard source. It is treated like "sun" in the sky and it should cast only one shadow. Normally it is a soft source. Normally it is a hard source. Basic Three Point Lighting Key light : This is the principal light source of illumination. Background Light : Separates the person from the background. Back light : Separates the body from the background.TV LIGHTING:GENERAL PRINCIPLES Lighting for television is very exciting and needs creative talent. Fill Light : Controls the lighting contrast by filling in shadows.In three point lighting the ratio of 3/2/1 (Back/Key/Fill) for mono and 3/2/2 for colour . wave length from 700 nm to 380 nm respectively. reveals background interest and shape. Candela is equivalent to an intensity released by standard one candle source of light. However to effectively use the hardware and software connected with lighting it is important to know more about this energy. Normally it is a hard source.
Now let us consider a picture frame made of small picture element. b) A transducer or pick up device : To convert optical image into an electrical signal. . This picture frame can now be focused on to a structure of so many CCD elements. This is the basic principle on which CCD cameras are based. For more sharpness or better resolution we have to increase these elements. : To process output of a to get a CCVS CCD CAMERAS Introduction Any camera will need a device to convert optical image into an electrical signal. All we need now is to have an arrangement to collect this charge and convert it to voltage. Each CCD element will now convert the light information on it to a charge signal.provides good portrait lighting. TV CAMERA:Introduction A TV Camera consists of three sections : a) A Camera lens and optics: To form optical image on the face plate of a pick up device. c) Electronics transducer signal.
50.000 pixel. Block Diagram of a typical Camera HIGH POWER TV TRANSMITTER:Design:- .000 which increased to 20. 850 lines H resolution.00. sensitivity F-8 (2000 lux) etc.000 in 1994 for HDTV application. CCD cameras now offers fully modulated video output at light level as low as 6.00. S/N more than 60 dB. A typical specification for a studio camera now available in market are some thing like 2/3 inch. Noise and aliasing has been reduced to negligible level. FIT.Latest CCD Cameras CCD were launched in 1983 for broadcasting with pixel count from a mere 2.0 lumens. lens on chip CCD with 6.
It contains pre-corrector units both at base band as well as at IF stage. so that after passing through all subsequent transmitter stages. A special group delay equalization circuit is needed in the first case because of errors caused by TV diplexer. Vision and Sound Signal Amplification:In HPTs the vision and sound carriers can be generated. This is common vision and aural amplification. separate amplification is used in HPTs though combined amplification requires fewer amplifier stages. As it is difficult to meet the intermodulation requirements particularly at higher power ratings. They consist of an exciter followed by power amplifiers which boost the exciter power to the required level. Power Amplifier Stages . In the second case the intermodulation products are more prominent and special filters for suppressing them is required. an acceptable signal is available. modulated and amplified separately and then combined in the diplexer at the transmitter output. the characteristics of the pre-correction circuits can be varied over a wide range. Exciter:The exciter stage determines the quality of a transmitter. Since the number and type of amplifier stages.All the TV transmitters have the same basic design. In LPTs. sound and vision are modulated separately but amplified jointly. on the other hand. may differ according to the required output power.
It consists of : a) b) c) d) Input Equipment Rack Monitoring Equipment Rack Control Console Indoor Co-axial Equipment comprising of : • U-link Rack with U-link panel A and B. BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision transmitter chain and two valves (BEL 450 CX and BEL 4500 CX) in aural transmitter chain. e) . T-Transformer and 10 kW Dummy Load.In BEL mark I & II transmitters three valve stages (BEL 450 CX. BEL 10 kW TV TRANSMITTER A block diagram of BEL 10 kW TV Transmitter is shown in Fig. Aural transmitter chain is fully solid state in Mark III transmitter. feeder cables etc. 10. Antenna system with junction box. • Aural Harmonic Filter. In BEL mark III transmitter only two valve stages (BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision transmitter chain. • CIN Diplexer • Aural Notch Filter and Band Pass Filter.
70oC. Thermostat on heat sink is connected in series with thermostat or 80 W Amp and provides thermal protection. (Operating temp. Provides A DC output corresponding to sync peak out put for vision monitoring unit.) . Sample of output is available at front panel for RF monitoring. Each capable of delivering 10 W. Gets 28 V power supply through relay in 80 W ARAJASTHAN.Block Diagram of 10kW TV Transmitter SOLID STATE POWER AMPLIFIERS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Has got two identical sections.
(MCS) Back-up Control System (BCS) . 1.TX. 2. The XTR control unit (TCU) has two independent system viz. Block Diagram Vision Chain of Exciter TRANSMITTER CONTROL SYSTEM:The transmitter control unit performs the task of transmitter interlocking and control. Also it supports operation from control console. Main control system.
It also pre-distorts the video for compensating group delay errors introduced in the subsequent stages and diplexer. DP/DG Corrector This is also used in the exciter preceding LPF (mark III) for precorrecting the differential gain and differential phase errors . Delay equalizer and receiver pre-corrector precede the video processor. In VHF transmitters LPF. Delay Equalizer : Group delay introduced by LPF is corrected.System Description of Exciter : Block Diagram of TV Exciter Video Chain:-The input video signal is fed to a video processor. Low Pass Filter : Limits incoming video signal to 5 MHz. Receiver pre-corrector : Pre-distorts the signal providing partial compensation of GD which occurs in domestic receivers.Both the delay equaliser and receiver precorrector are combined in the delay equaliser module in Mark III version.
occurring in the transmitter. 5 Functions . 4 and schematic diagram is shown in fig. Video Processor The block diagram of video processor is given in fig. 3. Functions • Amplification of Video signal • Clamping at back porch of video signal. Clamping gives constant peak power. Zero volt reference line is steady irrespective of video signal pattern when clamping takes place otherwise the base line starts an excursion about the zero reference depending on the video signal. Block Diagram of Video Processor Vision Modulator The block diagram of Vision modulator is given in fig.
• Amplification of Vision IF at 38.9 MHz. Modulator A balanced modulator using two IS-1993 diodes is used in the modulator. Band pass amplifier Modulated signal is amplified to 10 mW in double tuned amplifier which provides a flat response within 0. It operates as an amplitude limiter for maintaining constant output. • Linear amplitude modulation of Vision IF by video from the video processor in a balanced modulator. IF Amplifier IF is amplified to provide sufficient level to the modulator.5 dB in 7 MHz band. Block Diagram of Vision Modulator .
Schematic Diagram of Vision Modulator VSBF and Mixer : The block diagram of VSBF and Mixer is given in fig. It consists of following stages : • • • • • VSB filter ALC amplifier Mixer Helical Filter Mixer Amplfier . 6.
7.Filter .Block Diagram of VSBF Mixer VSB Filter Surface Acoustic wave (SAW) filter provide a very steep side band response with high attenuation outside designated channel. It has a linear phase characteristic with a low amplitude and group delay ripple.S.B. (Fig.) Block Diagram of V. .
The block diagram of Aural modulator is given in fig. Fine freq. Block Diagram of Local Oscillator AUDIO CHAIN:Aural Modulator The aural modulator unit consists of audio amplifier. control is done by VC1. 8. mixer and APC.Local Oscillator The block diagram of Local Oscillator is given in fig. VCO. This unit has 3 sub units. LO Mixer/Power divider : Here the above fc/4 frequency is multiplied by four to obtain channel frequency of fc and then mixed with fvif. It supplies three equal outputs of + 8 dBm each at a frequency of fv + fvif. (1) (2) fc/4 oscillator : Generates frequency which is 1/4 of desired channel frequency. 9. Power divider is also incorporated to provide three isolated outputs of equal level. .
VCO output is frequency modulated by the audio signal.Block Diagram of Aural Modulator Audio Amplifier A balanced audio signal at + 10 dBm from studio is converted to unbalanced signal by audio transformer T4. in one or the other form are common at VHF frequencies where as slot antennae are mostly used at UHF frequencies. Dipole antenna elements. Output level is 0 dBm. Transistor TR-17 forms the oscillator. VCO This is a varactor tuned oscillator. A 50 micro second pre-emphasis is also provided. power dividers. The polarization of the radiation as adopted by Doordarshan is linear horizontal. The system is installed on a supporting tower and consists of antenna panels. Its frequency can be varied by coil L4. Omni directional radiation pattern is obtained by arranging the dipoles in the form of . TV TRANSMITTER ANTENNA SYSTEM:TV Antenna System is that part of the Broadcasting Network which accepts RF Energy from transmitter and launches electromagnetic waves in space. The output of this is taken through potentiometer to the input of Hybrid Audio Amp BMC 1003. baluns. branch feeder cable. junction boxes and main feeder cables.
turnstile (Fig. As a result of stacking. most of the RF energy is directed in the horizontal plane. Radiation in vertical plane is minimized. Desired gain is obtained by stacking the dipoles in vertical plane. It should offer proper impedance to the main feeder cable and thereby to the transmitter so that optimum RF energy is transferred into space. It should have desired horizontal radiation pattern and directivity for serving the planned area of interest. The radiation pattern should be omni directional if the location of the transmitting station is at the center of the service area and directional one. if the location is otherwise.15) and exciting the same in quadrature phase. c) Turnstile Antenna and its Horizontal Pattern Radiation Pattern and Gain . Impedance mismatch results into reflection of power and formation of standing waves. The installed antenna system should fulfil the following requirements : a) b) It should have required gain and provide desired field strength at the point of reception. The standard RF impedance at VHF/UHF is 50 ohms.
Using such large transmission BW will limit the number of channels in the spectrum allotted for TV transmission. the minimum transmission channel bandwidth should be around 11 MHz taking into account the space for sound carrier and a small guard band of around 0. To accommodate large number of channels in the allotted spectrum. because in principle one side band of the double side band (DSB) AM could be suppressed. 19 and 20. Fig. If normal amplitude modulation technique is used for picture transmission. 19 Typical Horizontal radiation pattern VESTIGIAL SIDE BAND TRANSMISSION:Another feature of present day TV Transmitters is vestigial side band transmission. reduction in transmission BW was considered necessary.The horizontal and vertical radiation pattern are shown in fig. of stacks as given in table-1. The total gain depends upon the type of the antenna panel and no. .25 MHz. The transmission BW could be reduced to around 5.75 MHz by using single side band (SSB) AM technique. since the two side bands have the same signal content.
The radiated signal thus contains full upper side band together with carrier and the vestige (remaining part) of the partially suppressed LSB.e. at LF) but • Phase errors become difficult to see on small details (i. it causes objectionable phase distortion at these frequencies which will affect picture quality. Various other standards are given in Table 1.25 MHz.5 MHz 7 MHz (B) in VHF OR 8 MHz .e.It was not considered feasible to suppress one complete side band in the case of TV signal as most of the energy is contained in lower frequencies and these frequencies contain the most important information of the picture. If these frequencies are removed. • Standards The characteristics of the TV signal is sections 1 and 2 refer to CCIR B/G standards. Thus low modulating frequencies must minimize phase distortion where as high frequencies are tolerant of phase distortions as they are very difficult to see.75 MHz with a slope of 0. Thus as a compromise only a part of lower side band is suppressed while taking full advantage of the fact that: Visual disturbance due to phase errors are severe and unacceptable where large picture areas are concerned (i.5 MHz so that the final cut off is at 1. Table 1 Frequency Range Vision sound carrier spacing Channel width Vision/sound carrier spacing channel width 5. in HF region) in the picture. The lower side band contains frequencies up to 0.
(G) in UHF Sound Modulation FM deviation (maximum) FM + 50 kHz .