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# SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Engineering Materials I
An Introduction to Properties, Applications
and Design, 3rd edn
Solutions to Examples
2.1. (a) For commodity A Pt =C
A
exp
r
A
100
t
and for commodity B Qt =C
B
exp
r
B
100
t
where C
A
and C
B
are the current rates of consumption t =t
0
and Pt and
Qt are the values at t =t . Equating and solving for t gives
t =
100
r
B
−r
A
ln

C
A
C
B

(b) The doubling time, t
D
, is calculated by setting Ct =t =2C
0
, giving
t
D
=
100
r
ln2 ≈
70
r

Substitution of the values given for r in the table into this equation gives the
doubling times as 35, 23 and 18 years respectively.
(c) Using the equation of Answer (a) we find that aluminium overtakes steel
in 201 years; polymers overtake steel in 55 years.
2.2. Principal conservation measures (see Section 2.7):
Substitution
Examples: aluminium for copper as a conductor; reinforced concrete for wood,
stone or cast-iron in construction; plastics for glass or metals as containers. For
many applications, substitutes are easily found at small penalty of cost. But in
certain specific uses, most elements are not easily replaced. Examples: tungsten
in cutting tools and lighting (a fluorescent tube contains more tungsten, as
platinum as a catalyst in chemical processing; etc. A long development time
(up to 25 years) may be needed to find a replacement.
1
2 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
Recycling
The fraction of material recycled is obviously important. Products may be
re-designed to make recycling easier, and new recycling processes developed,
but development time is again important.
More Economic Design
Design to use proportionally smaller amounts of scarce materials, for example,
by building large plant (economy of scale); using high-strength materials; use
of surface coatings to prevent metal loss by corrosion (e.g. in motor cars).
2.3. (a) If the current rate of consumption in tonnes per year is C then exponential
growth means that
dC
dt
=
r
100
C
where r is the fractional rate of growth in % per year. Integrating gives
C =C
0
exp
¸
rt −t
0

100
¸

where C
0
was the consumption rate at time t =t
0
.
(b) Set
Q
2
=

t
1/2
0
Cdt
where
C =C
0
exp
¸
rt
100
¸

Then
Q
2
¸
C
0
100
r
exp
¸
rt
100
¸
¸
t
1/2
0

which gives the desired result.
2.4. See Chapter 2 for discussion with examples.
3.1. (a) Poisson’s ratio, , can be defined as the negative of the ratio of the lateral
strain to the tensile strain in a tensile test.
=−
lateral strain
tensile strain

(Note that the lateral strain, here, is a negative quantity so that is positive.)
The dilatation, , is the change of volume over the whole volume.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 3
(b) Volume change per unit volume (small strains) is
1
+
2
+
3
. But in a
uniaxial extension
2
=−
1
and
3
=−
1
.
Hence =
V
V
=1−2
where ≡
1
is the tensile strain. Clearly is zero if =05.
(c) The dilatations are:
Most metals ≈ 04
Cork =
Rubber = 0
3.2. The solid rubber sole is very resistant to being compressed, because it is
restrained against lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion by being glued to the rela-
tively stiff sole. However, the moulded surface has a much lower resistance to
being compressed, because the lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion of each separate
rubber cube can occur without constraint (provided the gaps between adjacent
cubes do not close-up completely). So your colleague is correct.
3.3. The axial force applied to the cork to push it into the bottle results in a zero
lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion, so it does not become any harder to push the
cork into the neck of the bottle. However, the axial force applied to the rubber
bung results in a large lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion, which can make it
almost impossible to force the bung into the neck of the bottle.
4.1. Refer to Fig. 4.11.
Force F between atoms =
dU
dr

4 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
At the equilibrium distance, r
o
, the energy U is a minimum (i.e. F is zero,
and U is the “dissociation energy” U
o
).
dU
dr
=
mA
r
m+1

nB
r
n+1
=0
or B =
m
n
r
n−m
o
A
U
o
= −
A
r
m
o
+
1
r
n
o
·
m
n
r
n−m
o
A
= −
A
r
m
o

1−
m
n

Now, for r
o
=03nm U
o
=−4eV.
A =4·
5
4
03
2
= 045eV nm
2
= 72×10
−20
J nm
2

B =
1
5
03
8
×045 = 059 ×10
−5
eV nm
10
= 94×10
−25
J nm
10
. Max force
is at
d
2
U
dr
2
=0. i.e. at value of r given by

mm+1A
r
m+2
+
nn +1B
r
n+2
=0 which is r =
¸
B
A
n
m
n +1
m+1
¸ 1
n−m
=
¸
n +1
m+1
¸ 1
n−m
r
o
=

11
3
1
8
×03=0352nm
and Force =
dU
dr
=
mA
r
m+1
¸
1−
r
n−m
o
r
n−m
¸
=
2×045
0352
3
¸
1−
03
8
0352
8
¸
=149eV nm
−1
=
149×1602×10
−19
10
−9
J m
−1
=239×10
−9
N
4.2. The term −A/r
m
is an attractive potential which depends on the type of
bonding. The B/r
n
term is a repulsive potential due to charge-cloud overlap
and diminished screening of the nuclei (see Section 4.2).
4.3. The values of
˜
A are shown below. The mean is 88. The calculated values of
the moduli are
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 5
Material Calculated from 88 k7
N
¡H Measured
Ice 1.0×10
10
N m
−2
7.7 ×10
9
N m
−2
Diamond 9.0×10
11
N m
−2
1.0×10
12
N m
−2
The calculated values, for these extremes of elastic behaviour, are close to the
measured values. The important point is that the moduli are roughly propor-
tional to absolute melting temperatures.
˜
A values: Ni, 98; Cu, 78; Ag, 76; Al, 89; Pb, 51; Fe, 96; V, 61; Cr, 116; Nb,
48; Mo, 138; Ta, 72; W, 127.
5.1. (a) Let the spheres have a diameter of 1. Then (referring to Fig. 5.3) the unit
cell has an edge length

2, and a volume 2

2. It contains 4 atoms, with
a total volume 4/6. Hence the density, , is given by
=
4
62

2
=0740
(b) Glassy nickel is less dense than crystalline nickel by the factor 0.636/0.740.
The density is therefore 8900636/0740 =765Mg m
−3
.
5.2. (a)
6 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
(b)
(c)
(d)
5.3. (a) If the atom diameter is d, then the lattice constant for the f.c.c. structure is
a
1
=
2d
1

2
=03524nm
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 7
(b) The weight of one atom is
Atomic wt
=
5871
6022×10
26
=9752×10
−26
kg
There are 4 atoms per unit cell,
so density =
49752×10
−26

03524×10
−9

3
=891Mg m
−3

(c) If the atom diameter is d
2
, then the lattice constant for the b.c.c. structure is
a
2
=
2d
2

3
=02866nm
(d) One atom weighs
5585
6022×10
26
=9274×10
−26
kg
There are 2 atoms per unit cell.
So density =
29274×10
−26

02866×10
−9

3
=788Mg m
−3

8 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
5.4. (a) Copper
Have 4 atoms per unit cell 8 ×
1
8
from cube corners = 1 +6 ×
1
2
from
cube faces =3
Atoms touch along cube-face diagonal:
This gives atom radius r =

2
4
a.
Required percentage =

4
3
r
3
×100
a
3
=
16
3a
3
·

2 2a
3
×100
16×4
=

2
6
×100 =74%
Answer is same for magnesium — both are close-packed structures.
(b) Copper
Density =
4×m
a
3
where m is atomic mass.
Atomic weight for Cu =6354.
m =
6354kg
6023×10
26
= 1055×10
−26
kg
896Mg m
−3
=
4×1055×10
−26
a
3
kg
a
3
= 471×10
−29
m
3

a =361×10
−10
m or 0361nm
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 9
Magnesium
Have 6 atoms per unit cell 12 ×
1
6
from corners = 2 + 2 ×
1
2
from
end faces =1+3 inside
Volume of unit cell = 3
¸
a
2

3
2
c
¸

Density =
2×6m
3

3a
2
c
=
4m

3a
2
c

m =
2431kg
6023×10
25
=404×10
−26
kg
174 Mg m
−3
=
4×404×10
−26
kg

3a
2
c

a
2
c = 536×10
−29
m
3

In face-centred structure, plane spacing
=

3a
3
where r =

2a
4

Spacing =

3
3
4r

2

10 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
In close-packed-hexagonal structure, plane spacing =
c
2
=

3
3
4r

2
=

3
3
4

2
a
2

c
a
=1633
c =1633a
Using value for a
2
c of 536×10
−29
m
3
we obtain:
a =320×10
−10
m or 0320nm
c =523×10
−10
m or 0523nm
5.5. See Section 5.10.
5.6. Let V be the volume fraction of the polyethylene which is crystalline. Then,
(a) 1014V +0841−V =092, giving V =046, or 46%.
(b) 1014V +0841−V =097, giving V =075, or 75%.
6.1. The two sets of values for the moduli are calculated from the formulae
E
composite
=V
f
E
f
+1−V
f
E
m
(upper values);
E
composite
=
1
V
f
E
f
+
1−V
f
E
m
(lower values);
where V
f
is the volume fraction of glass, E
m
the modulus of epoxy, and E
f
that
of glass.
Values are given in the table and plotted in the figure. The data lie near the
lower level. This is because the approximation from which the lower values are
derived (that the stress is equal in glass and epoxy) is nearer reality than the
approximation from which the upper values are derived (that the strains are
equal in the two components).
Note that the sets of values are widely separated near V
f
= 05. Fibreglass
tested parallel to the fibres, or wood tested parallel to the grain, lie near the
maximum composite modulus. Both materials, tested at right angles to the
fibres or grain lie near the lower modulus. They are, therefore, very anisotropic:
the ratio of the two moduli can be as much as a factor of 4.5 for fibreglass (see
the figure, at V
f
=05); it can be more for woods.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 11
L
compos|te
L
compos|te
Volume fraction L
compos|te
(upper values) (lower values)
of glass, \
[
(CN m
−2
) (CN m
−2
) (CN m
−2
)
0 5.0 5.0 5.0
0.05 5.5 8.8 5.2
0.10 6.4 12.5 5.5
0.15 7.8 16.3 5.8
0.20 9.5 20.0 6.2
0.25 11.5 23.8 6.5
0.30 14.0 27.5 7.0
6.2. E
c
=E
f
V
f
+1−V
f
E
m
.

c
=
f
V
f
+1−V
f

m
.
(a)
c
=05×190Mg m
−3
+05×115Mg m
−3
=153Mg m
−3
.
(b)
c
=05×255Mg m
−3
+05×115Mg m
−3
=185Mg m
−3
.
(c)
c
=002×790Mg m
−3
+098×240Mg m
−3
=251Mg m
−3
.
(a) E
c
=05×390GN m
−2
+05×3GN m
−2
=197GN m
−2
.
(b) E
c
=05×72GN m
−2
+05×3GN m
−2
=375GN m
−2
.
(c) E
c
=002×200GN m
−2
+098×45GN m
−2
=481GN m
−2
.
12 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
6.3.
E

=
¸
V
1
E
1
+
1−V
1

E
2
¸
−1
see Section 6.4
E

= V
1
E
1
+1−V
1
E
2
see Section 6.4
E

E

= V
1
E
1
+1−V
1
E
2

¸
V
1
E
1
+
1−V
1

E
2
¸
= 1−2V
1
+2V
2
1
+1−V
1
V
1
¸
E
1
E
2
+
E
2
E
1
¸

d
dV
1
¸
E

E

¸
= 1−2V
1

¸
E
1
E
2
+
E
2
E
1
−2
¸

For E
1
= E
2

d
dV
¸
E

E

¸
= 0 when V
1
=05 (the only turning point).
6.4. Refer to Chapters 4, 5, 6 and the appropriate References.
7.1. Following eqn (7.6), mass of beam M = wd
c
. Substituting d using the
equation given in the example gives
M =

c
E
1/3
c

F
6
w
2
4

1/3
=K

c
/E
1/3
c

where K is a constant. Values of
c
/E
1/3
c
taken from the answers to Example 6.2
are as follows.
(a) Carbon fibre-epoxy resin =026.
(b) Glass fibre-polyester resin =055.
(c) Steel-concrete =069.
The lightest beam is (a) carbon fibre-epoxy resin.
7.2. (a) Define the bending stiffness of the tube as F/. Then
F

=
3Er
3
t
l
3

The mass, M, is given by
M =2rtl
Substituting for t in (1) gives
M =
2l
3r
2

F

·

E

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 13
The lightest bicycle (for a given stiffness) is that made of the material
for which /E is least. The table shows data for six possible (and quite
sensible) materials.
Material L (CN m
−2
) µ (Ng m
−3
) ˜ p (\$ tonne
−1
) (
µ
L
) ˜ p(
µ
L
)
Mildsteel 196 7.8 100 39.8×10
−3
3.98
Hardwood 15 0.8 250 53.3×10
−3
13.33
Aluminium alloy 69 2.7 400 39.1×10
−3
15.64
GFRP 40 1.8 1000 45.0×10
−3
45.0
Titanium alloy 120 4.5 10,000 37.5×10
−3
375
CFRP 200 1.5 20,000 7.5×10
−3
150
There is not much to choose between steel, hardwood, aluminium alloy,
GFRP and titanium alloys. But CFRP is much stiffer, for a given weight,
and would permit an immense weight saving — by a factor of at least
5.0 — over other materials.
(b) The frame of minimum material cost is that for which the relative price
M˜ p (where ˜ p is relative the price per tonne) is a minimum — i.e. that
for which ˜ p/E is least. The table shows that steel is by far the most
attractive material: a CFRP frame will cost 38 times more. This is nothing
if it permits you to win the Tour de France — so bicycles can be made of
CFRP.
7.3.
p
b
= 03E

t
r

2

M
b
= 4r
2
t

t
r

2
=
p
b
03E

t
r
=

p
b
03E

1/2

t =

p
b
03E

1/2
r
M
b
=4r
3

p
b
03E

1/2
=229r
3
p
b
1/2

E
1/2

Merit index is

E
1/2

14 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
8.1. Nominal stress =Hardness/3 1+
n
where
n
is the nominal strain as given
in the question plus 0.08.
Data for nominal stress–nominal strain curve
Nominal stress (MN m
−2
) 129 171 197 210 216 217 214 209 188
Nominal strain 0.09 0.18 0.28 0.38 0.48 0.58 0.68 0.78 1.08
8.2. (a) From graph, tensile strength is 217 MN m
−2
(the stress maximum of the
curve).
(b) The strain at the stress maximum is 0.6 approximately.
(c) From eqn. (8.4), A
o
l
o
=Al , and
l
o
l
=
A
A
o
.
l −l
o
/l
o
=06 A/A
o
=1/16
1−
A
A
o
=038 A
o
−A/A
o
=038
Thus percentage reduction in area =38%.
(d) 109 MJ from graph.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 15
8.3. During a tensile test, unstable necks develop when the maximum in the nominal
stress–nominal strain curve is reached. Neck growth then leads rapidly to failure.
Physically, necks become unstable when the material in the elongating neck
work hardens insufficiently to make up for the decrease in load-bearing capacity
at the neck. In rolling, the material is deforming mainly in compression, and
the load-bearing area is always on the increase. Tensile instabilities cannot
therefore form, and failure occurs at the much larger strains required to cause
failure by cracking.
8.4.
(a) Tensile strength =1015 kN/160 mm
2
=634 MN m
−2
.
Working stress =160 MN m
−2
.
16 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
Proof strain =35 kN.
∴ 0.1% Proof stress =219 MN m
−2
.
Working stress =131 MN m
−2
.
8.5. The indentation hardness is defined by
H =
F
a
2

where a is the radius of the circle of indentation. Simple geometry (see figure)
gives
r −h
2
+a
2
=r
2

or
2rh −h
2
=a
2

or
h =
a
2
2r
if h r
Thus H =
F
2rh
.
The indenter penetrates a distance h which is proportional to the load.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 17
8.6. (a) Conservation of energy gives mgh =U
el
, so m =U
el
/gh. Thus
m
max
=
1000N×15m+05×1500N×15m
981×30
=892kg
500N×15m =7500J is dissipated by hysteresis in the rope, compared to
a U
el
of 26250 J. Thus 29% of the energy input is lost. This results in the
jumper rebounding to a position which is well below the bridge deck (this
is obviously essential for a safe jump).
9.1. See Section 9.2.
9.2. The fractional volume change is
V
V
=89323−89321/89323 =224×10
−5

(a) Define the dislocation density as m/m
3
or m
−2
. Then
V
V
=
1
4
b
2

from which
=14×10
15
m
−2

(b) The energy is:
U =
1
2
Gb
2
=2
V
V
·
3
8
E =21MJ m
−3

9.3. See Section 9.3.
10.1. (a) See Section 10.5.
(b) See Section 10.3.
(c) See Section 10.4.
10.2. (a) Balance line tension against force on dislocation (Section 10.4 and
Fig. 10.2(c)):

y
bL = 2T
So
y
=
2T
bL

Gb
L

18 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
10.3. (a) For the alloy:
L = 5×10
−8
m
b = 286×10
−10
m
G = 26×10
9
Nm
−2

So
y
=
Gb
L
=15×10
8
N m
−2

But
y
= 3
y
for polycrystals. Hence

y
≈ 450MN m
−2

(b) New L =15×10
−8
m.
Repeating the calculation
y
=149MN m
−2

Drop in yield strength
y
≈300MN m
−2

10.4. d = 4 × 10
−6
m d
−1/2
= 10
3
/2 = 500m
−1/2
120 − 20 MN m
−2
=
500m
−1/2
=100MN m
−2
/500m
−1/2
=02MN m
−3/2
.
11.1. Suppose first that the shaft yields. The stress in the shaft is F/· 10
2
. If this is
equal to the tensile yield stress
y
, we have
F =100
y
=200k since
y
=2k
where k is the shear-yield strength.
Now consider shearing-off of the head, as shown. At yield
F = 2rtk
= 180k
Thus the head will shear off.
11.2. (a) Lubricated Anvils
Work balance gives, from upper-bound theorem,
Fu ≤ 8×
wL
4

2×k ×
u
2

2 =2wLku
F ≤ 2wLk
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 19
(b) Welded Interfaces
Fu ≤ 2wLku +4×
wL
2
×k ×
u
2
= 2wLku +wLku =3wLku
F ≤ 3wLk
General formula gives, for
w
d
=2,
F
wL
≤ 2k

1+
1
2

=3k
F ≤ 3wLk verification demonstrated
11.3. 4000MN m
−2
=350MN m
−2

1+
w
4d

.
w
4d
= 1043
w
d
= 417
Take
w
d
=42 to produce an integral value of
w
2d
in a safe direction.
d =
w
42
=
20m
42
=048m
(This gives a volume fraction of cobalt of 7.2% — a typical value for a
20 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
11.4. (a) See Section 8.4.
(b) See Section 11.4.
d
d
=
11.5. =350
04
MN m
−2
.
At onset of necking
d
d
=.
350×04
06
= 350
04

or = 04
=350×04
04
MN m
−2
= 2426MN m
−2

Nominal stress
n
=

1+
n

where
n
is the nominal strain
= ln1+
n

Tensile strength
TS
=
2426
antiln04
MN m
−2
=
2426
1492
MN m
−2
= 163MN m
−2

Work =

0
d per unit volume
=

04
0
350
04
d MN m
−2
= 350
¸

14
14
¸
04
0
MN m
−2
= 350
04
14
14
MN m
−2
= 693MJ per 1m
3

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 21
11.6. (a) Given = A
n
. From eqn (11.4),
d
d
= at onset of necking. Thus
d
d
= An
n−1
= A
n
so = n and = An
n
. From eqn (8.13),
TS
=

1+
n

=
An
n
1+
n

.
From eqn (8.15), =ln1+
n
=n.
Thus 1+
n
=e
n
. Finally,
TS
=
An
n
e
n
.
(b) Inserting A = 800MN m
−2
and n = 02 gives
TS
=
80002
02
e
02
=
475MN m
−2
.
=
TS
1+
n
=
TS
e
n
=580MN m
−2

11.7. We have that
y
at 8% plastic strain is H/3 or 200MN m
−2
. Thus
A =
200
ln108
02
=334MN m
−2

Using the result of Example 11.6(a),

TS
=
An
n
e
n
=198MN m
−2

12.1.
p
f
= 2
f

t
r

M
f
= 4r
2
t

t
r

=
p
f
2
f

t =
p
f
r
2
f

M
f
=
4r
3
p
f

2
f
=2r
3
p
f

f

Merit index is

f

22 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
12.2.
M
b
= 229r
3
p
b
1/2

E
1/2

t
b
=
M
b
4r
2

M
f
= 2r
3
p
f

f

t
f
=
M
f
4r
2

Set r =1m and p
b
=p
f
=200MPa. Values for E and
f
are to be taken
from the table of data.
Material N
h
(tonne) t
h
(mm) N
[
(tonne) t
[
(mm) Mechanism
Al
2
O
3
2.02 41 0.98 20 Buckling
Glass 3.18 97 1.63 50 Buckling
Alloy steel 5.51 56 4.90 50 Buckling
Ti alloy 4.39 74 4.92 83 Yielding
Al alloy 3.30 97 6.79 200 Yielding
Optimum material is Al
2
O
3
with a mass of 2.02 tonne. The wall thickness is
41 mm and the limiting failure mechanism is external-pressure buckling.
12.3. When the bolts yield, the connection can be approximated as a mechanism
which hinges at X. The cross-sectional area of one bolt is 125/2
2
in
2
=
123in
2
. The yield load of one bolt is 123in
2
×11tsi =135tons. The moment
at yield is given by
M ≈ 2×135×25 +2×135×19 +2×135×9 +2×135×3
= 1512ton in =126ton ft
The hinge must react the total load from the bolts, which is 108 tons. This
means that in practice the hinge will extend over a finite area of contact. X will
lie in from the outer edge of the flange by about 1 in to 2 in but the effect on
the bending moment will be small.
12.4. The yield load of each link plate in tension is given approximately by the min-
imum cross-sectional area multiplied by the yield strength. The total breaking
load of the two links in parallel is double this figure and is given by
T = 21500N mm
−2
×1mm×45mm
= 135×10
4
N
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 23
From eqn (11.2), the shear yield strength k =
y
/2. k for the pin is therefore
1500/2 =750MN m
−2
.
The yield load of the pin in double shear is obtained by multiplying k by
twice the cross-sectional area of the pin to give
T =2
¸
750N mm
−2
×

35
2

2
mm
2
¸
=144×10
4
N
of the chain is therefore given by the lower figure of 135×10
4
N.
To estimate the tension produced in the chain during use we take moments
about the centre of the chain wheel to give
90kgf ×170mm ≈T ×
190mm
2

T ≈161kgf ≈158×10
3
N
The factor of safety is then given by
135×10
4
N
158×10
3
N
=85
(a) The factor of safety is calculated assuming static loading conditions. The
maximum loadings experienced in service might be twice as much due to
dynamic effects.
(b) The chain must also be designed against fatigue and this is probably why
the factor of safety is apparently so large.
12.5. The cross-sectional area of the pin is
A =2
2
−12
2
mm
2
=80mm
2

The force needed to shear this area is
f
s
=kA =750N mm
−2
×80mm
2
=6000N
Finally, the failure torque is
=2 f
s
×10mm = 2×6000N×10mm =12×10
5
N mm
= 120N m ≈12kgf m
24 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
13.1. The maximum tensile stress at the surface of a beam loaded in three-point
bending (see eqn (12.3)) is
=
3Fl
2bt
2
at the mid-span of the beam. Fracture occurs when

a =K
c

i.e. when
3Fl
2bt
2

a =K
c

Hence, the maximum load which can be sustained by the adhesive joint is
F =
2bt
2
K
c
3l

a

For the joint shown
F =
2· 01
3
· 05
32

· 0001
= 297kN
13.2. Calculate the stress for failure by (a) general yield and (b) fast fracture.
(a) =500MN m
−2
for general yield.
(b) =
K
c

a
=
40

0005
=319MN m
−2

for fast fracture, assuming that a crack on the limit of detection is present. The
plate will fail by fast fracture before it fails by general yield.
13.3. =
pr
t
=006×
7000
2
×
1
3
=70MN m
−2
K
c
=Y

a Y =1.
a =
1

K
c
a

2
=
1

100
70

2
=065m
14.1.
K
c
= Y

a
Y = 1
K
c
=

a
a =
1

K
c

2
=
1

30MPa

m
60MPa

2
=0080m =80mm
2a = 160mm
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 25
14.2. 3 × 10 + 4 = 70MN m
−2
K =

a = 70

×0010 =
124MN m
−3/2
.
This is only 5% less than the value of K
c
obtained from tests. Experimental
scatter in the test data, dynamic loads and errors in the stress analysis are more
than enough to account for this small discrepancy.
14.3. (a) See Sections 14.2 and 14.3. (b) See Section 14.4.
14.4. Classic features of tensile failure by microvoid coalescence. See Fig. 14.2.
14.5. See Fig. 14.3 and Section 14.3, paragraph 2. Atomically flat cleavage planes
can be seen. Many fracture facets have “river markings”, produced by fracture
on multiple parallel cleavage planes.
15.1. From Section 13.3 (“A note on the stress intensity, K ”), K =Y

a.
(a) From Fig. 15.3, a/W =5/10 =05 Y =3 K =3×100

×0005 =
376MN m
−3/2
.
(b) From Section 13.3 (“A note on the stress intensity, K ”), Y =1.
K =1×100

×0020 =251MN m
−3/2

15.2. See Section 15.3 (“Failure analysis” and “Conclusions”). PMMA is a poor
choice of material because it has a very low fracture toughness. Under a tensile
hoop stress, the connector is liable to suffer catastrophic fast fracture from a
small defect.
15.3. Reinforce the foam with polymer fibres. These will bridge any incipient cracks,
and prevent crack propagation. Layers of fibre mesh can be incorporated into
the foam as it is sprayed on.
15.4. Fix each end of the top rail directly to the brick wall, using a steel bracket
bolted to both the top rail and the brick wall.
15.5. The low fracture toughness of wood along the grain allows wood to be split very
easily along the grain. This permits easy splitting of logs into kindling and wood
for fires, production of wood shingles for roofing material, finishing/sizing by
planing, shaping by routing, turning and chiselling, and even pencil sharpening.
16.1. See Section 16.1 Cracks propagate in an unstable way in tension, but in a
stable way in compression.
(a) From eqn (16.1)

TS
=
K
c

a
=
3MPa m
1/2

×30×10
−6
m
=309MPa
(b) From eqn (16.3)

C
≈15
TS
=4635MPa
26 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
16.2. From eqn (16.2)

r
=
6 M
r
bd
2
=6×
F
2
×
l
2
×
1
bd
2
= 6×
330N
2
×
50mm
2
×
1
5
3
mm
3
= 198
N
mm
2
=198MPa
16.3.
V
V
o
=
11/2
2
mm
2
×50mm
5/2
2
mm
2
×25mm
=97.
For the test specimens, eqn (16.7) gives
05 =exp
¸

V
o
V
o

0

m
¸

For the components, eqn (16.7) gives
099 =exp
¸

V
V
o

0

m
¸

Thus
ln05
ln099
=
¸

V
o
V
o

0

m
¸¸

V
o
V

0

m
¸

690 =
1
97

m

m
=
1
669

m

= 0272×120MPa =326MPa
16.4. See Answer to this Example.
16.5. Specimen measuring 100mm×10mm×10mm will have median
TS
of
300 MPa/1.73.
Specimen volume V =10
4
mm
3
. Eqn (16.7) then gives
05 =exp
¸

10
4
mm
3
V
o

o
10

TS
10
¸

Taking natural logs gives
−069 =−
10
4
mm
3
V
o

o
10

TS
10

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 27
Component volume =125×10
3
mm
3
P
f
=10
−6
gives P
s
=1−10
−6
. Thus
1−10
−6
=exp
¸

125×10
3
mm
3
V
o

o
10

10
¸

Taking logs, and assuming that ln1−x =−x for small x, gives
−10
−6
=−
125×10
3
mm
3
V
o

o
10

10

Thus
069
10
−6
=
10
4
mm
3
V
o

o
10

TS
10
×
V
o

10
o
125×10
3
mm
3
1

10
=
10
4
125×10
3

TS

10

10
=
10
4
125×10
3
×
10
−6
069

TS
10

= 321×10
−1

TS
=321×10
−1
×
300MPa
173
= 557MPa
16.6. (a) Weight of material below section at x is
g ×

3
x
2
x
Cross-sectional area =x
2
. Stress = force/area =
1
3
gx.
(b) Integrate over the volume, using disc of thickness dx with volume dV =
x
2
dx. Eqn (16.8) then gives
P
s
L =exp

V

0

m
dV
V
0

=exp

L

0

gx
3
0

m
x
2
dx
V
0

Integrating gives
P
s
L =exp
¸

g
3
0

m

2
L
m+3
m+3V
0
¸

The probability of survival falls with increasing because, although the
stresses are the same, the amount of material which is stressed increases
with , and hence the chances of meeting a critical flaw increase.
28 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
16.7. (a) For the specimen in uniform tension, eqn (16.7) gives
P
st
=05 =exp
¸

r
2

V
0

t

0

m
¸

Setting P
s
L =P
st
gives
exp
¸

g
3
0

m

2
L
m+3
m+3V
0
¸
=exp
¸

r
2

V
0

t

0

m
¸

Thus L =
¸
r
2
m+3

2

3
t
g

m
¸ 1
m+3
.
(b) Flaws induced during sample preparation, maintaining the correct environ-
mental conditions, gripping without causing failure in the grips.
17.1. Catastrophic failure will occur when

a =54MN m
−3/2

or when
a =0029m
Now
da
dN
= 4×10
−13

MN
m
2

−4
m
−1
K
4
= 4×10
−13

MN
m
2

−4
m
−1

4

2
a
2
= 414×10
−3
a
2
m
−1

Integrating from
a =10
−4
m at N =0
to
a =29×10
−2
m at N =N
f
gives
N
f
=
10
3
414
¸
1
10
−4

1
29×10
−2
¸
= 24×10
6
cycles to failure
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 29
17.2. N
f

a
=C.
28010
5

a
= 20010
7

a

280
200
=14 =

10
7
10
5

a
=10
2

a

log 14 = a2 =0146
a = 0073

or
1
137

C = 28010
5

0073
MN m
−2

C = 649 MN m
−2

At 150MN m
−2
N
f
=
C
1/a

1/a
=

649
150

137
=52×10
8
cycles.
17.3. The total strain range is:
= T
= 24×10
−3

The plastic strain range is:

pl
= −
el
=20×10
−3

The cycles to failure are:
N
f
=
¸
02
2×10
−3
¸
2
=10
4

17.4. (a)
working
=
pr
t
=
51×75
004×2
MN m
−2
=478MN m
−2
.
K
c
=
working

a at fracture
a =
1

¸
200MN m
−3/2
478MN m
−2
¸
2
=56×10
−2
m
This critical depth for fast fracture is greater than the wall thickness of
40 mm. The vessel will fail by leaking before the crack length becomes
critical and it fails by fast fracture.
(In practice we should allow for the complicated geometry of the crack,
by looking up the geometry calibration factor Y in a stress intensity factor
handbook. This will be particularly important as the crack approaches the
outside of the wall).
30 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
(b) Rearranging the crack growth equation
da
dN
= 244×10
−14
¸
MN
m
2
¸
−4
m
−1
K
4
= 244×10
−14
¸
MN
m
2
¸
−4
m
−1

4

2
a
2

We can then integrate this, from the initial condition after the proof test
(assuming that a crack of length a
0
is present), to the required end point
where after 3000 cycles the crack has grown out to the wall, where failure
would occur by leakage.
244×10
−14
¸
MN
m
2
¸
−4
m
−1
478
4
¸
MN
m
2
¸
4

2

N
f
0
dN =

40×10
−2
m
a
0
da
a
2
1257×10
−2
m
−1
N
f
=
¸

1
a
¸
40×10
−2
m
a
0
a
0
=0016m
This is the initial flaw size that will penetrate the wall after 3000 loading
cycles.
The proof stress P
proof
must be sufficient to cause flaws of this size to
propagate by fast fracture.
K =
proof

a
0
≥K
c
Where
proof
=
P
proof
r
t
Hence P
proof

tK
c
r

a
0
=
004×200×10
6
75/2

0016
=95MN m
−2

17.5. Each time the iron was moved backwards and forwards the flex would have expe-
rienced a cycle of bending where it emerged fromthe polymer sheath. The sheath
is intended to be fairly flexible to avoid concentrating the bending in one place.
Possibly the sheath was not sufficiently flexible and the flex suffered a significant
bending stress at the location of failure. The number of cycles of bending is well
into the range for high-cycle fatigue and fatigue is the likely cause. The scenario
is that the individual strands in the live conductor broke one by one until the
current became too much for the remaining strands to carry. At this stage the last
strands would have acted as a fuse and melted, causing the fire. If 23 strands are
rated to carry 13 A, then a single strand should carry about 0.57 Asafely. The iron
draws 4.8 A, which is 8.4 times the safe capacity of one strand. It is therefore not
surprising that, when only a few wires were left intact, the flex was no longer able
to take the current without overheating. Failures of this sort have also occurred
with appliances such as vacuum cleaners. However, these tend to have a smaller
current rating and failure does not always result in a fire.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 31
17.6. (a) LHS = 0730 hrs position. RHS = 0600 hrs position.
(b) LHS = 1300 hrs position. RHS = 1200 hrs position.
17.7. The 50m marker at the top of the photograph measures 33 mm in length.
The most distinct striations are located approximately 70 mm up from the
bottom of the photograph and 50 mm in from the left-hand side of then
photograph. 5 spacings =10 mm in this region, giving a striation spacing of
2 mm on the photograph. The spacing is thus 2/33 ×50 = 3m on the
fracture surface itself.
18.1. For 4×10
8
cycles,
N
N
f
=
4×10
8
52×10
8
=077.
Miner’s rule gives:
N
N
f
+
N
1
N
1
f
=1.

N
1
N
1
f
= 1−077 =023
N
1
f
=
N
1
023
=
4×10
8
023
=174×10
8
cycles
For this =
C
N
1 0073
f
=
649MN m
−2
174×10
8

0073
= 137MN m
−2

Decrease =13MN m
−2
18.2. (a) A good surface finish will increase the fatigue life by increasing the time
required for fatigue-crack initiation.
(b) A rivet hole will cause a local stress concentration which will increase
and reduce the fatigue life.
(c) A mean tensile stress will decrease N
f
as in Goodman’s rule (see eqn (17.3)).
(d) Corrosion may reduce the fatigue life by corrosion fatigue, or by creating
pits in the surface from which fatigue cracks can initiate more easily (see
Section 26.5).
18.3. The maximum pressure in the cylinder occurs at the point of admission. The
maximum force acting on the piston is therefore given by
07N mm
−2
×45mm
2
=4453N
The stress in the connecting rod next to the joint is
4453N/28mm×11mm =145N mm
−2

Since the locomotive is double-acting the stress range is twice this value, or
29N mm
−2
.
The number of revolutions that the driving wheel is likely to make in
20 years is 20×6000×1000m/×0235m =16×10
8
.
32 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
Data for the fatigue strengths of welded joints are given in Fig. 18.4. The
type of weld specified is a Class C. The design curve shows that this should be
safe up to a stress range of 33N mm
−2
, which is slightly more than the figure
calculated above. Of course, our calculations have ignored dynamic effects due
to the reciprocating masses of the piston and connecting rod and these should
be investigated as well before taking the design modification any further.
18.4. Data for the fatigue strengths of welds are given in Fig. 18.4. The weld is a
surface detail on the stressed plate and the weld classification is Class F2. We
extrapolate the curve following the dashed line for Class F2 until we hit the
stress range of 8N mm
−2
.
The mean-line fatigue curve gives the data for a 50% chance of cracking.
For the stress range of 8N mm
−2
the cycles to failure are 3 ×10
9
. The time
to failure is 3×10
9
/20×60×60×12×6×52 =11 years.
The design curve gives the data for a 2.3% chance of cracking. The number
of cycles to failure is 10
9
and the time to failure is therefore 4 years.
19.1. (a) Because the end of the crack was subjected to a large tensile stress every time
the cyclist pushed the pedal down. There were clearly enough cycles of stress
of sufficient amplitude to make fatigue cracks initiate andgrowto final failure.
(b) There are two fatigue cracks, one on either side of the hole. They are
smooth and dark in appearance, and are located in the lower half of each
fracture surface. The dark appearance is caused by a compact layer of iron
oxide produced by slow long-term corrosion, indicating that the cracks had
been present for a long time. In addition, the smooth appearance of the
crack surfaces is consistent with high-cycle fatigue.
(c) The final fracture surfaces are grainy and bright in appearance, and are
located in the upper half of each fracture surface. They consist of fresh,
un-corroded metal, indicating that the final fracture was not exposed to a
corrosive environment after failure. In addition, the grainy appearance of
the crack surfaces is consistent with a single overload failure.
(d) The RHS crack probably formed first, because it is larger than the LHS
crack. It probably initiated at the surface of the hole, because the local stress
would have been larger than the average stress over the whole cross-section.
The LHS crack appears to have initiated at the 0630 hrs position, since the
crack appears to radiate from this position.
(e) Moderate, since the fatigue cracks had spread across 50% of the cross-
section on average before they reached the critical size for fast fracture.
19.2. (a) Inthe reduced sectionof the pivot pin, at the lower end of the reduced section.
(b) The horizontal force from the top of the door pulls the bottom of the pivot
pin to the right. As a result, the pin is made to rotate around the point
at which it touches the bottom of the frame housing. This rotation pushes
the top of the pin to the left, against the left-hand wall of the hole in the
frame housing. The reaction to this force at the top of the pin generates
a bending stress in the reduced section of the pin. The maximum value
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 33
of this bending stress occurs at the lower end of the reduced section. In
addition, the sharp change of section at this location introduces a large
SCF
eff
(see Sections 18.3 and 18.4).
(c) The bending stress at the failure location cycled from tension to compression
every time the door swung from one extreme position to the other (e.g.
from fully open inwards to fully open outwards).
(d) When the fracture took place at the lower end of the reduced section, the
length of pivot pin below the fracture fell down into the hole in the door
housing, and came clear of the bottom of the frame housing.
19.3. Do away with the lifting eye altogether, and extend the top of the pulley
block to provide a horizontal hole to take the pin of the shackle. Because the
rotational degree of freedom provided by the lifting eye assembly has now
been lost, it will be necessary to insert an in-line swivel-link (a standard item)
between the shackle and the crane boom.
19.4. See Fig. 17.7, Fig. 17.9 and Section 17.4, paragraph 1.
20.1.
Temperature (

C) 7 (K) 1¡7 (K
−1
) ˙ e (s
−1
) ln ˙ e
618 891 0.00112 1.0×10
−7
−16.12
640 913 0.00110 1.7 ×10
−7
−15.59
660 933 0.00107 4.3×10
−7
−14.66
683 956 0.00105 7.7 ×10
−7
−14.08
707 980 0.00102 2.0×10
−6
−13.12
510 783 0.00128 8.3×10
−10
−20.90
From graph
34 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
The hoop stress in the tube is
=
pr
t
=
6MN m
−2
×20mm
2mm
= 60MN m
−2

at 510

C, ˙ =83×10
−10
s
−1
at =200MN m
−2
Under 60 MN m
−2
, ˙ =83×10
−10
¸
60
200
¸
5
s
−1
.
=20×10
−12
s
−1
.
Strain in 9 years =20×10
−12
×60×60×24×365×9
=57×10
−4
or 000057
Design safe
20.2. At 25MN m
−2
and 620

C ˙ =31×10
−12
s
−1
.
At 30 MN m
−2
and 620

C ˙ =
¸
30
25
¸
5
×31×10
−12
s
−1
= 771×10
−12
s
−1

˙ = A
5
e
−Q/RT

ln ˙
1
−ln ˙
2
= −
Q
R
¸
1
T
1

1
T
2
¸

ln ˙
2
=
Q
R
¸
1
T
1

1
T
2
¸
+ln ˙
1

=
160×10
3
8313
¸
1
893

1
923
¸
+ln771×10
−12
s
−1

= 0700−2558 =−2488
˙
2
= 155×10
−12
s
−1
at 30MN m
−2
and 650

C
˙ = 31×10
−12
s
−1
×
70
100
+155
×10
−12
s
−1
×
30
100
= 682×10
−12
s
−1

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 35
20.3. From Table 20.1, the softening temperature of soda glass is in the range
700–900 K. The operating temperature of window glass is rarely more than
293 K, so T/T
S
is at most 0.42. Ceramics only begin to creep when T/T
M
>04
(see Section 20.1), and then only under a large stress (far greater than the self-
weight stress). Thus the flow marks cannot possibly be due to creep. In fact,
the flow marks come from the rather crude high-temperature processes used
to manufacture panes of glass in the past.
20.4. See Section 20.3.
20.5. See Section 20.4 and Fig. 20.9.
20.6. A major fire would increase the temperature of the steelwork to the point at
which it would creep under the applied loads, and the subsequent deformation
could trigger the collapse of the building. This is why the World Trade Center
towers collapsed on 9/11.
21.1. Measure the rate by the mass injected per second,
M
t
. Then, if this rate follows
an Arhennius Law, we have
M
t
=Aexp
¸

Q
RT
¸

Or, combining the constants M and A:
1
t
=B exp
¸

Q
RT
¸

Then, converting temperatures to kelvin:
1
30
= B exp
¸

Q
R450
¸
s
−1

1
815
= B exp
¸

Q
R430
¸
s
−1

Solving for Q and B, using R =831J mol
−1
K
−1
, we have
Q = 804×10
4
J mol
−1

B = 725×10
7
s
−1

We may now calculate the time required to inject the mass M of polymer at
227

C (500 K):
1
t
=725×10
7
exp
¸

804×10
4
8313×500
¸
s
−1

giving t =35 seconds.
36 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
21.2. See Sections 21.2 and 21.4 (“Fast diffusion paths: grain boundary and dislo-
cation core diffusion”).
21.3. See Section 21.4. More specifically,
(a) Carbon forms an interstitial solid solution in iron at room temperature
containing up to 0.007% by weight carbon. Even at this maximum concen-
tration there is a large proportion of alternative interstitial sites remaining
unfilled by carbon. The probability of a carbon atom being next to an
alternative interstitial site is therefore high, and hence the probability of the
carbon atom moving into a different position is also high, i.e. it will diffuse
relatively rapidly. Chromium forms a random substitutional solid solution
in iron at room temperature (that it should not form an interstitial solution
is evident from its large atomic radius, comparable to that of iron). The
probability of a vacancy appearing next to a chromium atom is therefore
small, and the diffusion of chromium is correspondingly slow.
(b) Diffusion in grain boundaries is generally more rapid than in the grains
themselves because of the geometrically more open structure of grain bound-
aries. A small grain size produces a larger contribution from grain boundary
diffusion than does a large grain size, and thus increases the overall diffusion
coefficient of the polycrystal.
21.4. See Section 21.4 (“A useful approximation”).
x =

Dt , so t =x
2
/D.
D = D
o
e
−Q/RT
=95mm
2
s
−1
exp
¸
−159×10
3
J mol
−1
8313J K
−1
mol
−1
1023K
¸
=
95mm
2
s
−1
132×10
8
=720×10
−8
mm
2
s
−1

t =
x
2
D
=
10
−2
mm
2
72×10
−8
mm
2
s
−1
=
10
−4
mm
2
72
×
10
8
mm
2
s
=
10
4
72
s =01389×10
4
s
= 1389s or 23 min
22.1. See Fig. 22.2.
22.2. See Fig. 22.3.
22.3. See eqn (22.1).
22.4. See Fig. 22.4 and eqn (22.2).
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 37
22.5. The rate of bulk vacancy diffusion decreases rapidly with decreasing tempera-
ture because the activation energy Q is large for bulk diffusion (see Table 21.1).
At a sufficiently low temperature, short-circuit diffusion (in this case along dis-
location cores, see Fig. 21.9) takes over from bulk vacancy diffusion. Because
the activation energy Q is small for short-circuit diffusion, the rate of short-
circuit diffusion decreases only slowly with decreasing temperature, so creep
continues to occur at temperatures well below the transition from bulk to
short-circuit diffusion.
22.6. For reasons analogous to those in Example 22.5. However, in the present case,
the short-circuit diffusion takes place along grain boundaries (see Fig. 21.8).
22.7. See Section 22.2 (“Designing metals and ceramics to resist power-law creep”
and “Designing metals and ceramics to resist diffusional flow”).
22.8. See Section 22.3.
23.1. See Section 23.1.
23.2. See Section 23.3, paragraph 4, and Figs 23.4 and 23.5.
23.3. See Section 23.6.
23.4. See Section 23.4.
24.1.
Fick’s first law J =−D
dc
dx
.
m =AJt where A =constant.
m =−A

D
dc
dx

c
1
−c
2
b

t .
38 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
1
−c
2
t .
b =Bm where B = constant.
1
−c
2
t .
B
2
m
2
1
−c
2
t ,
i.e., m
2
=CDt , where C = constant.
At constant temperature m
2
=k
P
t .
24.2. Ohm’s Law V =IR.
m = PIt where P =constant
m = PIt =
PVt
R

Rm = PVt
R = Qb where Q =constant
= Sm where S =constant
Smm = PVt
S
2
m
2
= PVt ie m
2
=k
P
t
24.3.
AT 500

C k
P
= 37 exp
¸

138×10
3
J mol
−1
8313J K
−1
mol
−1
773K
¸
kg
2
m
−4
s
−1
= 174×10
−8
kg
2
m
−4
s
−1

m
2
= k
P
t
= 174×10
−8
kg
2
m
−4
s
−1
×3600×24×365s
= 050kg
2
m
−4

m = 074kg m
−2

i.e., each square metre of metal surface absorbs 0.74 kg of oxygen from the
atmosphere in the form of FeO. Number of oxygen atoms absorbed =
074kg m
−2
16/N
A
, where N
A
∴ Number of iron atoms removed from metal as FeO=
074kg m
−2
16/N
A
.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 39
Weight of iron removed from metal =
074kg m
−2
16/N
A
× 559/N
A
=
259kg m
−2
.
Thickness of metal lost =
259kg m
−2
m
3
7870kg
= 033mm
at 600

C k
P
= 204×10
−7
kg
2
m
−4
s
−1

m
2
= 204×10
−7
×3600×24×365kg
2
m
−4

= 643kg
2
m
−4

m = 254kg m
−2

giving loss = 113mm
24.4. As shown in Table 24.1, gold is the only metal which requires energy to
make it react with oxygen 80kJ mol
−1
of O
2
in fact). It therefore remains as
un-reacted metal.
24.5. If there is any contact resistance across a pair of silver contacts, the surfaces
of the contacts will be heated up by the current passing through the contact
resistance. If the temperature goes above 230

C, any oxide will decompose to
leave pure metal-to-metal contact. Gold contacts would not form an oxide film
at any temperature, but silver is used because it is much cheaper than gold.
24.6. See Section 24.3, paragraphs 1 to 3.
24.7. See Section 24.3, paragraph 4, and Fig. 24.2.
25.1. See Section 25.3, next-to-last paragraph, and Fig. 25.2.
25.2. See Section 25.2, paragraphs 1 and 2. The protective oxide film is Cr
2
O
3
,
produced by the chromium content of the stainless steel.
25.3. See Sections 25.2 and 25.3. Examples are Cr in stainless steel (Cr
2
O
3
film),
Cr in nickel alloys (Cr
2
O
3
film), Al in aluminium bronzes (Al
2
O
3
film).
25.4. See Table 24.2. The refractory metals oxidize very rapidly in air at high
temperature. Lamp filaments are surrounded by a glass bulb, which is either
evacuated or filled with an inert gas to remove any oxygen which would attack
the filament.
25.5. The oxide layer prevents the molten solder or brazing alloy from wetting the
surfaces to be joined. When the copper connection tabs are soldered to pre-
tinned copper wire, the pre-tinning solder melts and this protects the copper
surfaces from oxidation.
40 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
25.6. The chromium and nickel form a protective oxide layer on the wire, which
resists oxidation of the alloy at the high running temperature. Mild steel would
oxidize far too rapidly at the running temperature, and would burn out in a
matter of days (see Table 24.2).
25.7. Many are oxides already, e.g. MgO, SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
(see Table 24.1). Others, e.g.
SiC and Si
3
N
4
form protective oxide layers of SiO
2
when exposed to oxygen
at high temperature.
26.1.
da
dt
∝a at constant 4MN m
−2
.
da
dt

2
at constant a025mm

da
dt
= A
2
a =AK
2
n =2
A =

da
dt

1

2
a
=
03mm year
−1
16MN m
−2

2
025mm
=
0075
MN m
−2

2
year
A =00239m
4
MN
−2
year
−1

26.2 Since water and air were in contact with the surface of the pipe, the cathodic
oxygen-reduction reaction would have taken place easily. The temperature of
the pipe would have varied from approximately 20

C (summer time, heating
off) to 70

C (winter time, heating on). As shown in Fig. 26.7, the corrosion
rate at 70

C will be approximately twice that at 20

C. Thus putting the heating
on will double the rate of external corrosion. The pipe did not rust from the
inside because there is little or no oxygen inside the heating water circuit.
26.3. Pitting attack. See Section 26.5 (“Pitting”) and Fig. 26.12.
26.4. Stress corrosion cracking can lead to complete fracture even though the sur-
face of the component appears free from corrosion. See Section 26.5 (“Stress
corrosion cracking”) and Fig. 26.9. Even if the stress corrosion cracks do not
travel right across the component, they can still propagate to failure by fatigue
or fast fracture.
26.5. Typical applications are as follows.
(a) Plastic water pipes in plumbing and drainage systems.
(b) Plastic gas pipes for underground use.
(c) Rubber hoses in automobile cooling systems, flexible brake hoses, wind-
screen washer hoses.
(d) Plastic containers for storing water, acids, alkalis, etc.
(e) Plastics for exterior architectural use, e.g. window frames, roofing sheets,
rainwater gutters and downpipes.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 41
(f) Plastics for marine use, e.g. boat hulls (matrix of GFRP composite), mooring
buoys, small fittings.
(g) Plastics and rubbers in domestic appliances, e.g. water pumps, washing
machine drums, flexible hoses, seals.
26.6. Stress corrosion cracking. See Section 26.5 (“Stress corrosion cracking”) and
Fig. 26.9. Austenitic stainless steels are prone to SCC in hot chloride solutions.
The solution in the present case was very hot and contained chloride ions from
the zinc chloride corrosion inhibitor. There was also a large tensile stress to
drive the initiation and growth of SCC cracks.
27.1. See Section 26.2 and Fig. 26.2. Because there was no oxygen in the system, the
oxygen-reduction reaction could not take place. Therefore the anodic reaction
could not take place and the steel was protected from corrosion.
27.2. See Section 27.2 (“Sacrificial protection”, paragraph 2) and Fig. 27.2.
27.3. See Section 27.2 (“Sacrificial protection”, paragraphs 1 and 2) and Fig. 27.1.
27.4. Corrosion of zinc:
Zn →Zn
++
+2e
Number of electrons to give a current of 6×10
−3
A m
−2
for 5 years
=
6×10
−3
×5×315×10
7
16×10
−19
=589×10
24
electrons
=
589
2
×10
24
atoms Zn
∴ Mass zinc =
589×10
24
×654
2×602×10
26
=0320kg m
−2

Thickness =
0320
7130
m =45×10
−5
m
= 0045mm
27.5. Following 44, if steel were lost uniformly over a square metre at 2×10
−3
A m
−2
,
thickness lost by reaction:
Fe →Fe
++
+2e
would be 0.0116 mm on each side of the plate.
If this loss is concentrated over 0.5% of the surface, the loss there will be
00116×
100
05
×
995
100
mm =231mm
The sheet will thus rust through.
42 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I
27.6. See Section 27.3, last paragraph, and Fig. 27.6.
27.7. See Section 27.4, last two paragraphs, and Fig. 27.7.
28.1. See Section 28.2.
28.2. If P is the radial pressure that the olive exerts on the outside of the pipe then
we can write

y
=
Pr
t
provided we neglect the strengthening effect of the sections of pipe that lie
outside the olive. If we assume that the end of the pipe far away from the
fitting has an end cap (or a bend that functions as an end cap) then the force
trying to push the pipe out of the fitting is p
w
r
2
. This force is balanced by
the frictional force between the olive and the pipe so we can write
p
w
r
2
=P2rl
Combining the two equations to eliminate P gives
p
w
=2
y

t
r

l
r

Using the data given we get
p
w
=2×015×120MPa

065
75

75
75

=31MPa
The hydrostatic head of water in a seven-floor building is about 2 bar, so the
joint could actually cope with pumping water to the top of a seventy-floor
skyscraper and still have a factor of safety of 1.5. However, the pressure in
water systems frequently exceeds the static head, often substantially, because
of “water hammer”. This is the dynamic overpressure that arises when taps are
suddenly shut off.
28.3. (a) Typical examples are as follows. Car tyres/road surfaces, brake pads/brake
discs, clutches, shoe soles/walking surfaces, climbing shoes/rock faces,
knots in ropes, V-belt drives, interference fits, compression joints (see
Example 28.2).
(b) Typical examples are as follows. Bearings and sliding surfaces in machin-
ery, sledges and skis on snow, actuating mechanisms (e.g. car window
mechanisms), door latches, ceramic discs in water taps, clock and watch
mechanisms.
28.4. (a) Typical examples are as follows. Metal finishing by linishing, grinding and
polishing. Wood finishing by sanding. Removal of surface scale by grit
blasting. Bedding-in of brake pads, clutch linings and plain bearings.
Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 43
(b) Typical examples are as follows. Bearings and sliding surfaces in machin-
ery, car tyres, brake pads and discs, clutch linings, shoe soles, tools for
metalworking and woodworking, grinding wheels and abrasive belts/discs.
29.1. See Sections 28.4 and 29.2, paragraph 1.
29.2. From the slope of the roof, the coefficient of static friction is:

s
=tan24

=045
If the slope of the roof is greater than 24

the static frictional force is exceeded
and the snow will slide off. On a 2

slope, with a ski already moving, it is the
sliding friction which counts:

k
=tan2

=0035
29.3. The work done =2100g
k
=68J.
The melts a volume of water
V =
69
330×10
6
=21×10
−7
m
3

If spread uniformly over the undersurface of two skis this would give a film of
thickness
21×10
−7
2×2×01
m =05m
29.4. See Section 29.4.
29.5. Secondary roads are often covered in ice, because it is uneconomical to treat
them with rock salt. As shown in Example 29.3, as soon as the tyre starts to slide
on the ice, it will melt the surface of the ice, reducing the friction coefficient
to zero. The hard studs bite into the ice, so the (non-zero) friction coefficient
is determined by the resistance of the ice to ploughing (see Fig. 28.8).
29.6. See Section 29.2, paragraphs 1 and 2.
29.7. See Section 29.2, paragraphs 2, 5 and 6.

2

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I Recycling The fraction of material recycled is obviously important. Products may be re-designed to make recycling easier, and new recycling processes developed, but development time is again important. More Economic Design Design to use proportionally smaller amounts of scarce materials, for example, by building large plant (economy of scale); using high-strength materials; use of surface coatings to prevent metal loss by corrosion (e.g. in motor cars).
2.3.

(a) If the current rate of consumption in tonnes per year is C then exponential growth means that r dC = C dt 100 where r is the fractional rate of growth in % per year. Integrating gives C = C0 exp r t − t0 100

where C0 was the consumption rate at time t = t0 . (b) Set Q = 2 where C = C0 exp Then rt 100 Q C0 exp 2 r 100 which gives the desired result.
2.4. 3.1.
t1/2 0 t1/2 0

C dt

rt 100

See Chapter 2 for discussion with examples. (a) Poisson’s ratio, , can be defined as the negative of the ratio of the lateral strain to the tensile strain in a tensile test. =− lateral strain tensile strain

(Note that the lateral strain, here, is a negative quantity so that is positive.) The dilatation, , is the change of volume over the whole volume.

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I (b) Volume change per unit volume (small strains) is uniaxial extension 2 = − 1 and 3 = − 1 . Hence = V = 1−2 V is zero if = 0 5.
1

3

+

2

+ 3 . But in a

where ≡ 1 is the tensile strain. Clearly (c) The dilatations are: Cork = Rubber = 0

Most metals ≈ 0 4

3.2.

The solid rubber sole is very resistant to being compressed, because it is restrained against lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion by being glued to the relatively stiff sole. However, the moulded surface has a much lower resistance to being compressed, because the lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion of each separate rubber cube can occur without constraint (provided the gaps between adjacent cubes do not close-up completely). So your colleague is correct. The axial force applied to the cork to push it into the bottle results in a zero lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion, so it does not become any harder to push the cork into the neck of the bottle. However, the axial force applied to the rubber bung results in a large lateral Poisson’s ratio expansion, which can make it almost impossible to force the bung into the neck of the bottle. Refer to Fig. 4.11. Force F between atoms = dU dr

3.3.

4.1.

4

Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I At the equilibrium distance, ro , the energy U is a minimum (i.e. F is zero, and U is the “dissociation energy” Uo ). mA nB dU = m+1 − n+1 = 0 dr r r m n−m or B = ro A n A 1 m n−m Uo = − m + n · ro A ro ro n A m = − m 1− ro n Now, for ro = 0 3 nm Uo = −4 eV. A = 4· 5 03 4
2

= 0 45 eV nm2 = 7 2 × 10−20 J nm2

B=

0 3 8 × 0 45 = 0 59 × 10−5 eV nm10 = 9 4 × 10−25 J nm10 . Max force d2 U is at = 0. i.e. at value of r given by dr 2
1 5

m m+1 A n n+1 B B n n+1 + − = 0 which is r = m+2 n+2 r r A m m+1 n+1 = m+1 and Force =
1 n−m

1 n−m

ro =

11 3

1 8

× 0 3 = 0 352 nm

mA r n−m dU = m+1 1 − o dr r r n−m = = 2 × 0 45 03 8 1− = 14 9 eV nm−1 0 352 3 0 352 8 14 9 × 1 602 × 10−19 J m−1 10−9

= 2 39 × 10−9 N
4.2.

The term −A/r m is an attractive potential which depends on the type of bonding. The B/r n term is a repulsive potential due to charge-cloud overlap and diminished screening of the nuclei (see Section 4.2). ˜ The values of A are shown below. The mean is 88. The calculated values of the moduli are

4.3.

with a total volume 4 /6.1. Ta. (a) Let the spheres have a diameter of 1. W. Al. 116. Pb. 48. 127.740. 96.636/0. 78. (a) . . Cr. Hence the density. 89. for these extremes of elastic behaviour. V. 5. The important point is that the moduli are roughly proportional to absolute melting temperatures. ˜ A values: Ni. are close to the measured values. 51. 5. 138. It contains 4 atoms. Mo. 98.3) the unit √ √ cell has an edge length 2. is given by = 4 √ = 0 740 62 2 (b) Glassy nickel is less dense than crystalline nickel by the factor 0. Then (referring to Fig. 5.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 5 Material Ice Diamond Calculated from 88 kTM / 1 0 × 1010 N m−2 9 0 × 1011 N m−2 Measured 7 7 × 109 N m−2 1 0 × 1012 N m−2 The calculated values. and a volume 2 2. 76. Fe. Ag. 72. The density is therefore 8 90 0 636/0 740 = 7 65 Mg m−3 . Cu. Nb. 61.2.

then the lattice constant for the f. (a) If the atom diameter is d .c.c.6 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I (b) (c) (d) 5. structure is 2d a1 = √ 1 = 0 3524 nm 2 .3.

so density = 4 9 752 × 10−26 = 8 91 Mg m−3 0 3524 × 10−9 3 (c) If the atom diameter is d2 . So density = 2 9 274 × 10−26 = 7 88 Mg m−3 0 2866 × 10−9 3 .c. then the lattice constant for the b. structure is 2d a2 = √ 2 = 0 2866 nm 3 (d) One atom weighs 55 85 = 9 274 × 10−26 kg 6 022 × 1026 There are 2 atoms per unit cell.c.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 7 (b) The weight of one atom is 58 71 Atomic wt = = 9 752 × 10−26 kg Avogadro’s number 6 022 × 1026 There are 4 atoms per unit cell.

(b) Copper 4×m Density = where m is atomic mass. 4 Required percentage = 4× 4 3 √ r × 100 16 2 2a 3 × 100 3 = · 3a 3 16 × 4 a3 √ 2 × 100 = 74% = 6 Answer is same for magnesium — both are close-packed structures. m= 63 54 kg = 10 55 × 10−26 kg 6 023 × 1026 4 × 10 55 × 10−26 8 96 Mg m−3 = kg a3 a 3 = 4 71 × 10−29 m3 a = 3 61 × 10−10 m or 0 361 nm . (a) Copper 1 1 Have 4 atoms per unit cell 8 × from cube corners = 1 + 6 × from 8 2 cube faces = 3 Atoms touch along cube-face diagonal: This gives atom radius r = √ 2 a.8 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 5. a3 Atomic weight for Cu = 63 54.4.

plane spacing √ 2a 3a where r = 3 4 √ 3 4r Spacing = √ 3 2 √ = .Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 9 Magnesium Have 6 atoms per unit cell end faces = 1 + 3 inside 12 × 1 1 from corners = 2 + 2 × from 6 2 √ Volume of unit cell = 3 a 2 3 c 2 4m 2 × 6m Density = √ 2 = √ 2 3a c 3 3a c 24 31 kg = 4 04 × 10−26 kg m= 6 023 × 1025 4 × 4 04 × 10−26 kg 1 74 Mg m−3 = √ 2 3a c a 2 c = 5 36 × 10−29 m3 In face-centred structure.

or 46%. very anisotropic: the ratio of the two moduli can be as much as a factor of 4. Let V be the volume fraction of the polyethylene which is crystalline. giving V = 0 75.10. Fibreglass tested parallel to the fibres. Ecomposite = 1 Vf Ef + 1−Vf E m (lower values). 5. at Vf = 0 5). plane spacing = √ = 2 3 2 √ 3 4 a √ 3 22 c = 1 633 a c = 1 633a Using value for a 2 c of 5 36 × 10−29 m3 we obtain: a = 3 20 × 10−10 m or 0 320 nm c = 5 23 × 10−10 m or 0 523 nm See Section 5. or wood tested parallel to the grain.6. Both materials. The two sets of values for the moduli are calculated from the formulae Ecomposite = Vf Ef + 1 − Vf Em (upper values). therefore.1. This is because the approximation from which the lower values are derived (that the stress is equal in glass and epoxy) is nearer reality than the approximation from which the upper values are derived (that the strains are equal in the two components). Values are given in the table and plotted in the figure. (a) 1 014V + 0 84 1 − V = 0 92. lie near the maximum composite modulus. Note that the sets of values are widely separated near Vf = 0 5. giving V = 0 46. . and Ef that of glass. They are.5 for fibreglass (see the figure. 5. Then. Em the modulus of epoxy. it can be more for woods. (b) 1 014V + 0 84 1 − V = 0 97. The data lie near the lower level. tested at right angles to the fibres or grain lie near the lower modulus. or 75%.5. 6. where Vf is the volume fraction of glass.10 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I √ 3 4r c = In close-packed-hexagonal structure.

(c) Ec = 0 02 × 200 GN m−2 + 0 98 × 45 GN m−2 = 48 1 GN m−2 .0 6.5 7.15 0.8 9. (b) Ec = 0 5 × 72 GN m−2 + 0 5 × 3 GN m−2 = 37 5 GN m−2 . Ec = Ef Vf + 1 − Vf Em .2 6. Vf 0 0.5 14.5 11.3 20. (a) (b) (c) c c c = 0 5 × 1 90 Mg m−3 + 0 5 × 1 15 Mg m−3 = 1 53 Mg m−3 .20 0. = 0 5 × 2 55 Mg m−3 + 0 5 × 1 15 Mg m−3 = 1 85 Mg m−3 .5 5. = 0 02 × 7 90 Mg m−3 + 0 98 × 2 40 Mg m−3 = 2 51 Mg m−3 .4 7.30 Ecomposite GN m−2 5.5 Ecomposite (lower values) GN m−2 5. .8 12.0 5.0 5.05 0. c = f Vf + 1 − Vf m.25 0.5 6. (a) Ec = 0 5 × 390 GN m−2 + 0 5 × 3 GN m−2 = 197 GN m−2 .Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 11 Volume fraction of glass.2.0 8.5 16.8 27.0 23.0 Ecomposite (upper values) GN m−2 5.10 0.2 5.8 6.

dV E⊥ 6. E⊥ = V1 1 − V1 + E1 E2 −1 see Section 6. is given by M = 2 rtl Substituting for t in (1) gives M= 2l 3r 2 F · E = 3 Er 3 t l3 . taken from the answers to Example 6.2. Following eqn (7.4 E = V1 E1 + 1 − V1 E2 E⊥ V1 1 − V1 + E1 E2 E1 E2 + E2 E1 = 1 − 2V1 + 2V12 + 1 − V1 V1 d dV1 E E1 E2 = 1 − 2V1 + −2 E⊥ E2 E1 For E1 = E2 E d = 0 when V1 = 0 5 (the only turning point).1. Refer to Chapters 4. (c) Steel-concrete = 0 69.2 (a) Carbon fibre-epoxy resin = 0 26.4 E = V1 E1 + 1 − V1 E2 see Section 6. mass of beam M = wd c . (b) Glass fibre-polyester resin = 0 55. The lightest beam is (a) carbon fibre-epoxy resin. (a) Define the bending stiffness of the tube as F/ . 6 and the appropriate References. 5. M . Substituting d using the equation given in the example gives M= c 1/3 Ec F 6w2 4 1/3 c /Ec 1/3 =K 1/3 c /Ec where K is a constant.12 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 6. Values of are as follows.4.6).3. 7. 7. Then F The mass.

33 15. The table shows that steel is by far the most attractive material: a CFRP frame will cost 38 times more.5 Mg m−3 ) ˜ p \$ tonne−1 100 250 400 1000 10.5 1.000 ˜ p −3 Material Mildsteel Hardwood Aluminium alloy GFRP Titanium alloy CFRP E E 39 8 × 10 53 3 × 10−3 39 1 × 10−3 45 0 × 10−3 37 5 × 10−3 7 5 × 10−3 3.0 — over other materials. GFRP and titanium alloys.3. 7. for a given weight. and would permit an immense weight saving — by a factor of at least 5.e.64 45.7 1. pb = 0 3 E Mb = 4 r 2 t pb t 2 = r 0 3E t = r t = Mb = 4 r 3 t r 2 pb 0 3E pb 0 3E 1/2 1/2 1/2 r pb 0 3E E 1/2 = 22 9r 3 pb 1/2 E 1/2 Merit index is .000 20. that ˜ for which p /E is least. E GN m−2 ) 196 15 69 40 120 200 7. hardwood. aluminium alloy. (b) The frame of minimum material cost is that for which the relative price ˜ ˜ M p (where p is relative the price per tonne) is a minimum — i.0 375 150 There is not much to choose between steel.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 13 The lightest bicycle (for a given stiffness) is that made of the material for which /E is least.8 2. This is nothing if it permits you to win the Tour de France — so bicycles can be made of CFRP. But CFRP is much stiffer.8 0.98 13. The table shows data for six possible (and quite sensible) materials.8 4.

38 216 0. (d) 109 MJ from graph.6 approximately.18 197 0.1.78 188 1. o l − lo /lo = 0 6 A/Ao = 1/1 6 A = 0 38 Ao − A /Ao = 0 38 1− Ao Thus percentage reduction in area = 38%.58 214 0. (a) From graph. tensile strength is 217 MN m−2 (the stress maximum of the curve). (8. (b) The strain at the stress maximum is 0. Ao lo = Al . Nominal stress = Hardness/3 1 + in the question plus 0.4). and llo = A .2.28 210 0.08 8.08. n where n is the nominal strain as given Data for nominal stress–nominal strain curve Nominal stress MN m−2 Nominal strain 129 0.14 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 8.09 171 0. A (c) From eqn.48 217 0.68 209 0. .

4.3. and failure occurs at the much larger strains required to cause failure by cracking. the material is deforming mainly in compression. necks become unstable when the material in the elongating neck work hardens insufficiently to make up for the decrease in load-bearing capacity at the neck. . (a) Tensile strength Working stress = 101 5 kN/160 mm2 = 634 MN m−2 . = 160 MN m−2 . In rolling. unstable necks develop when the maximum in the nominal stress–nominal strain curve is reached. 15 During a tensile test.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 8. 8. Neck growth then leads rapidly to failure. Physically. Tensile instabilities cannot therefore form. and the load-bearing area is always on the increase.

16 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I (b) ∴ Load corresponding to 0. 8. = 131 MN m−2 . 2 rh a2 if h 2r r The indenter penetrates a distance h which is proportional to the load.1% Proof strain 0.1% Proof stress Working stress = 35 kN. .5. The indentation hardness is defined by H= F a2 where a is the radius of the circle of indentation. Simple geometry (see figure) gives r − h 2 + a2 = r 2 or 2rh − h 2 = a 2 or h= Thus H = F . = 219 MN m−2 .

2. Thus mmax = 1000 N × 15 m + 0 5 × 1500 N × 15 m = 89 2 kg 9 81 × 30 (b) Taking the maximum extension.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 8. (a) Balance line tension against force on dislocation (Section 10.2.1. = 2T = Gb 2T ≈ bL L So y . 9. (b) See Section 10. See Section 9. so m = U el /gh.6. in one cycle of loading/unloading.3. This results in the jumper rebounding to a position which is well below the bridge deck (this is obviously essential for a safe jump). Then 1 V = b2 V 4 from which = 1 4 × 1015 m−2 (b) The energy is: V 3 1 U = Gb 2 = 2 · E = 2 1 MJ m−3 2 V 8 9. 17 (a) Conservation of energy gives mgh = U el . 10.1. See Section 9.2(c)): y bL 10.3. compared to a U el of 26250 J. 500 N × 15 m = 7500 J is dissipated by hysteresis in the rope. 10.4. (a) See Section 10. (c) See Section 10.3.2. Thus 29% of the energy input is lost. 9.5.4 and Fig. The fractional volume change is V = 8 9323 − 8 9321 /8 9323 = 2 24 × 10−5 V (a) Define the dislocation density as m/m3 or m−2 .

11. Repeating the calculation Drop in yield strength 10.18 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 10. as shown. Hence y ≈ 450 MN m−2 = 149 MN m−2 MN m−2 = (b) New L = 15 × 10−8 m.4. (a) For the alloy: L = 5 × 10−8 m b = 2 86 × 10−10 m G = 26 × 109 N m−2 Gb So y = = 1 5 × 108 N m−2 L But y = 3 y for polycrystals. 11.1. Now consider shearing-off of the head. Suppose first that the shaft yields. At yield F = 2 rtk = 180 k Thus the head will shear off. If this is equal to the tensile yield stress y .2. Fu ≤ 8 × wL √ u√ 2×k × 2 = 2wLku 4 2 F ≤ 2wLk .3. y y ≈ 300 MN m−2 d = 4 × 10−6 m d −1/2 = 103 /2 = 500 m−1/2 120 − 20 500 m−1/2 = 100 MN m−2 /500 m−1/2 = 0 2 MN m−3/2 . (a) Lubricated Anvils Work balance gives. we have F = 100 y = 200 k since y = 2k where k is the shear-yield strength. from upper-bound theorem. The stress in the shaft is F/ · 102 .

for w = 2. d 2d d = w 20 m = = 0 48 m 42 42 (This gives a volume fraction of cobalt of 7. 4000 MN m−2 = 350 MN m−2 1+ w .2% — a typical value for a rock-drilling grade of WC-Co cement. d wL u ×k × 2 2 = 2wLku + wLku = 3wLku F 1 ≤ 2k 1 + = 3k wL 2 F ≤ 3wLk verification demonstrated 11.) .3. 4d w = 10 43 4d w = 41 7 d Take w w = 42 to produce an integral value of in a safe direction.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 19 (b) Welded Interfaces Fu ≤ 2wLku + 4 × F ≤ 3wLk General formula gives.

5.4. = 350 0 4 MN m−2 .20 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 11. d = d 11.4. At onset of necking d 350 × 0 4 or = 350 × 0 4 Nominal stress n 04 06 = 350 = 04 04 MN m −2 = 242 6 MN m−2 n = 1+ where n n is the nominal strain = ln 1 + Tensile strength TS 242 6 MN m−2 antiln 0 4 242 6 = MN m−2 1 492 = 163 MN m−2 = d per unit volume 0 04 Work = = 350 0 14 04 d MN m−2 MN m−2 04 = 350 14 0 0 4 14 = 350 MN m−2 14 = 69 3 MJ per 1m3 . (a) See Section 8.4. d = . (b) See Section 11.

= TS 1+ n = TS e n = 580 MN m−2 11.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 21 11. TS = d Ann = .7. 1+ n 1+ n From eqn (8. We have that y at 8% plastic strain is H/3 or 200 MN m−2 . From eqn (8. t r 2 Mf = 4 r t t p = f r 2 f pr t = f 2 f pf = 2 f Mf = 4 r 3 pf 2 f = 2 r 3 pf f Merit index is f . TS = n .15). = at onset of necking. e 800 0 2 0 2 −2 = (b) Inserting A = 800 MN m and n = 0 2 gives TS = e0 2 −2 475 MN m . Thus A= 200 ln 1 08 = 334 MN m−2 02 Using the result of Example 11.13).6(a).1. d (a) Given = A n .4).6. = ln 1 + n = n. Finally. Thus d d = An n−1 = A n so = n and = Ann . From eqn (11. = Ann = 198 MN m−2 n e TS 12. Ann Thus 1 + n = e n .

The yield load of one bolt is 1 23 in2 ×11 tsi = 13 5 tons. which is 108 tons. Values for from the table of data. When the bolts yield.51 4.63 4.39 3. This means that in practice the hinge will extend over a finite area of contact. The wall thickness is 41 mm and the limiting failure mechanism is external-pressure buckling.90 4. Mb = 22 9r 3 pb 1/2 tb = Mb 4 r2 f E 1/2 Mf = 2 r 3 pf Mf tf = 4 r2 Set r = 1 m and pb = pf = 200 MPa.98 1.4.3.02 tonne. X will lie in from the outer edge of the flange by about 1 in to 2 in but the effect on the bending moment will be small. The yield load of each link plate in tension is given approximately by the minimum cross-sectional area multiplied by the yield strength. 12.2.30 tb (mm) 41 97 56 74 97 Mf (tonne) 0. Material Al2 O3 Glass Alloy steel Ti alloy Al alloy Mb (tonne) 2.02 3.22 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 12. the connection can be approximated as a mechanism which hinges at X. The total breaking load of the two links in parallel is double this figure and is given by T = 2 1500 N mm−2 × 1 mm × 4 5 mm = 1 35 × 104 N . 12. The moment at yield is given by M ≈ 2 × 13 5 × 25 + 2 × 13 5 × 19 + 2 × 13 5 × 9 + 2 × 13 5 × 3 = 1512 ton in = 126 ton ft The hinge must react the total load from the bolts.18 5.79 E and f are to be taken tf (mm) 20 50 50 83 200 Mechanism Buckling Buckling Buckling Yielding Yielding Optimum material is Al2 O3 with a mass of 2. The cross-sectional area of one bolt is 1 25/2 2 in2 = 1 23 in2 .92 6.

The yield load of the pin in double shear is obtained by multiplying k by twice the cross-sectional area of the pin to give T = 2 750 N mm−2 × 35 2 2 mm2 = 1 44 × 104 N This load is 7% greater than the load needed to yield the links and the strength of the chain is therefore given by the lower figure of 1 35 × 104 N. To estimate the tension produced in the chain during use we take moments about the centre of the chain wheel to give 90 kgf × 170 mm ≈ T × 190 mm 2 T ≈ 161 kgf ≈ 1 58 × 103 N The factor of safety is then given by 1 35 × 104 N =85 1 58 × 103 N Comments (a) The factor of safety is calculated assuming static loading conditions.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 23 From eqn (11. the failure torque is = 2 fs × 10 mm = 2 × 6000 N × 10 mm = 1 2 × 105 N mm = 120 N m ≈ 12 kgf m . The cross-sectional area of the pin is A= 22 − 1 22 mm2 = 8 0 mm2 The force needed to shear this area is fs = kA = 750 N mm−2 × 8 0 mm2 = 6000 N Finally. The maximum loadings experienced in service might be twice as much due to dynamic effects. 12.2). (b) The chain must also be designed against fatigue and this is probably why the factor of safety is apparently so large.5. the shear yield strength k = y /2. k for the pin is therefore 1500/2 = 750 MN m−2 .

1 Kc a 2 = √ 1 100 70 2 = 0 65 m Kc = Y Y =1 Kc = 2 a a √ a= 1 Kc √ 30 MPa m = 60 MPa 2a = 160 mm 1 2 = 0 080 m = 80 mm . Fracture occurs when √ a = Kc 3Fl √ a = Kc 2bt 2 Hence.3)) is 3Fl = 2bt 2 at the mid-span of the beam.24 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 13. (a) (b) = 500 MN m−2 for general yield. the maximum load which can be sustained by the adhesive joint is F= For the joint shown F = 2· 0 1 3 ·0 5 √ 32 · 0 001 = 2 97 kN 2bt 2 Kc √ 3l a i.e.1. The plate will fail by fast fracture before it fails by general yield. when 13.1. t 2 3 a= 14.2. = 0 06 × × = 70 MN m−2 Kc = Y = a Y = 1.3. assuming that a crack on the limit of detection is present. Calculate the stress for failure by (a) general yield and (b) fast fracture. √ 7000 1 pr 13. K 40 =√c =√ = 319 MN m−2 a 0 005 for fast fracture. The maximum tensile stress at the surface of a beam loaded in three-point bending (see eqn (12.

14.4. the connector is liable to suffer catastrophic fast fracture from a small defect. 15. 14. Classic features of tensile failure by microvoid coalescence.3) C 15. but in a stable way in compression. This permits easy splitting of logs into kindling and wood for fires. produced by fracture on multiple parallel cleavage planes.2. dynamic loads and errors in the stress analysis are more than enough to account for this small discrepancy. See Fig. K ”). Layers of fibre mesh can be incorporated into the foam as it is sprayed on.3 (“Failure analysis” and “Conclusions”).4. (b) See Section 14. √ × 0 020 = 25 1 MN m−3/2 K = 1 × 100 15.1) K 3 MPa m1/2 = 309 MPa =√c =√ TS a × 30 × 10−6 m (b) From eqn (16.3.1. √ (a) From Fig. shaping by routing.3.3. production of wood shingles for roofing material. Many fracture facets have “river markings”. Atomically flat cleavage planes can be seen.5.3. The low fracture toughness of wood along the grain allows wood to be split very easily along the grain. (a) See Sections 14. 15.2.3 and Section 14.5. Reinforce the foam with polymer fibres.1 Cracks propagate in an unstable way in tension. These will bridge any incipient cracks. See Section 16. turning and chiselling. See Section 15. K = Y a. 14. 25 √ √ 3 × 1 0 + 4 = 7 0 MN m−2 K = a = 70 × 0 010 = 1 24 MN m−3/2 .Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 14. (b) From Section 13. 15. finishing/sizing by planing. See Fig. using a steel bracket bolted to both the top rail and the brick wall.3. and prevent crack propagation. Experimental scatter in the test data.3 (“A note on the stress intensity.1. and even pencil sharpening.2 and 14. 16. Y = 1. This is only 5% less than the value of Kc obtained from tests. (a) From eqn (16. paragraph 2.4. Under a tensile hoop stress. Fix each end of the top rail directly to the brick wall. ≈ 15 TS = 4635 MPa . √ 15. 14. From Section 13.3 (“A note on the stress intensity. PMMA is a poor choice of material because it has a very low fracture toughness. a/W = 5/10 = 0 5 Y = 3 K = 3 × 100 × 0 005 = 37 6 MN m−3/2 . K ”). 14.2.

73.2.3.7) then gives 0 5 = exp − Taking natural logs gives −0 69 = − 104 mm3 Vo o 10 10 TS TS of 104 mm3 Vo o 10 10 TS . 16. V 11/2 2 mm2 × 50 mm = = 9 7. From eqn (16. eqn (16. eqn (16. Eqn (16.7) gives V 0 99 = exp − Vo Thus m ln 0 5 V V 0 = − o − o ln 0 99 Vo V 0 m 1 69 0 = 97 1 m m = 669 = 0 272 × 120 MPa = 32 6 MPa m m 0 Vo Vo m 0 16. See Answer to this Example.7) gives 0 5 = exp − For the components.2) r 6 Mr 1 F l = 6× × × 2 2 bd 2 2 bd 330 N 50 mm 1 × = 6× × 3 2 2 5 mm3 N = 198 = 198 MPa mm2 = 16. Vo 5/2 2 mm2 × 25 mm For the test specimens. Specimen volume V = 104 mm3 .4.5.26 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 16. Specimen measuring 100 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm will have median 300 MPa/1.

Eqn (16. and hence the chances of meeting a critical flaw increase. using disc of thickness dx with volume dV = x 2 dx. TS = 3 21 × 10−1 × 300 MPa 1 73 (a) Weight of material below section at x is g× 3 x 2x Cross-sectional area = x 2 . Thus 1 − 10−6 = exp − 1 25 × 103 mm3 Vo o 10 10 Taking logs.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 27 Component volume = 1 25 × 103 mm3 Pf = 10−6 gives Ps = 1 − 10−6 . and assuming that ln 1 − x = −x for small x. the amount of material which is stressed increases with . . gives −10−6 = − Thus 0 69 104 mm3 = 10−6 Vo o 10 = 10 10 TS 1 25 × 103 mm3 Vo o 10 10 × 10 1 Vo o 3 mm3 10 1 25 × 10 10 104 TS 3 1 25 × 10 104 10−6 = × 1 25 × 103 0 69 10 TS = 3 21 × 10−1 = 55 7 MPa 16.6.8) then gives ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎧ m m ⎨ L ⎨ dV ⎬ x 2 dx ⎬ gx Ps L = exp = exp − − ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ V0 ⎭ 3 0 V0 0 V 0 Integrating gives Ps L = exp − g 3 0 m L m + 3 V0 2 m+3 The probability of survival falls with increasing because. although the stresses are the same. Stress = force/area = 1 gx. 3 (b) Integrate over the volume.

7) gives Pst = 0 5 = exp − Setting Ps L = Pst gives exp − Thus L = g 3 2 0 m r2 V0 m t 0 L r2 = exp − m + 3 V0 V0 3 g m t 1 m+3 2 m+3 m t 0 r2 m + 3 . gripping without causing failure in the grips.1. maintaining the correct environmental conditions. (b) Flaws induced during sample preparation. 17.28 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 16. Catastrophic failure will occur when √ a = 54 MN m−3/2 or when a = 0 029 m Now MN da = 4 × 10−13 dN m2 = 4 × 10 −13 −4 m−1 m−1 K 4 MN m2 −4 4 2 2 a = 4 14 × 10−3 a 2 m−1 Integrating from a = 10−4 m at N = 0 to a = 2 9 × 10−2 m at N = Nf gives Nf = 103 1 1 − −4 4 14 10 2 9 × 10−2 = 2 4 × 106 cycles to failure . eqn (16. (a) For the specimen in uniform tension.7.

29 Nf a = C.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 17. t 0 04 × 2 √ Kc = working a at fracture = a= 1 200 MN m−3/2 478 MN m−2 2 = 5 6 × 10−2 m This critical depth for fast fracture is greater than the wall thickness of 40 mm. This will be particularly important as the crack approaches the outside of the wall). The total strain range is: = 2 4 × 10−3 The plastic strain range is: pl = − el = 2 0 × 10−3 The cycles to failure are: Nf = 02 2 × 10−3 2 = 104 17. (In practice we should allow for the complicated geometry of the crack.4. C 1/a 1/a = 649 150 = T 13 7 = 5 2 × 108 cycles. (a) working 5 1×7 5 pr = MN m−2 = 478 MN m−2 . by looking up the geometry calibration factor Y in a stress intensity factor handbook. . 280 105 a = 200 107 a a 107 280 =14 = = 102 200 105 log 1 4 = a2 = 0 146 a = 0 073 C = 280 105 or 1 13 7 a 0 073 MN m−2 C = 649 MN m−2 At 150 MN m−2 Nf = 17. The vessel will fail by leaking before the crack length becomes critical and it fails by fast fracture.2.3.

these tend to have a smaller current rating and failure does not always result in a fire. when only a few wires were left intact. The sheath is intended to be fairly flexible to avoid concentrating the bending in one place. where failure would occur by leakage. which is 8. However. Possibly the sheath was not sufficiently flexible and the flex suffered a significant bending stress at the location of failure. Failures of this sort have also occurred with appliances such as vacuum cleaners. the flex was no longer able to take the current without overheating. 2 44 × 10−14 MN m2 −4 m−1 478 4 MN m2 4 2 0 Nf dN = 4 0×10−2 m a0 da a2 1 257 × 10−2 m−1 Nf = − a0 = 0 016 m 1 a 4 0×10−2 m a0 This is the initial flaw size that will penetrate the wall after 3000 loading cycles. causing the fire. to the required end point where after 3000 cycles the crack has grown out to the wall. The proof stress Pproof must be sufficient to cause flaws of this size to propagate by fast fracture.57 A safely.30 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I (b) Rearranging the crack growth equation MN da = 2 44 × 10−14 dN m2 = 2 44 × 10−14 MN m2 −4 m−1 m−1 K 4 −4 4 2 2 a We can then integrate this. then a single strand should carry about 0. The iron draws 4. √ a0 ≥ Kc K = proof Where proof = Pproof r Hence Pproof 17.8 A. The scenario is that the individual strands in the live conductor broke one by one until the current became too much for the remaining strands to carry. If 23 strands are rated to carry 13 A. At this stage the last strands would have acted as a fuse and melted.4 times the safe capacity of one strand. .5. from the initial condition after the proof test (assuming that a crack of length a0 is present). It is therefore not surprising that. The number of cycles of bending is well into the range for high-cycle fatigue and fatigue is the likely cause. t tK 0 04 × 200 × 106 ≥ √ c = = 9 5 MN m−2 √ r a0 7 5/2 0 016 Each time the iron was moved backwards and forwards the flex would have experienced a cycle of bending where it emerged from the polymer sheath.

RHS = 1200 hrs position. giving a striation spacing of 2 mm on the photograph.2. N1 4 × 108 = = 17 4 × 108 cycles 0 23 0 23 C 649 MN m−2 = 1 0 073 = 17 4 × 108 0 073 Nf = 137 MN m−2 18. (d) Corrosion may reduce the fatigue life by corrosion fatigue. or 29 N mm−2 . N 4 × 108 For 4 × 108 cycles. The stress in the connecting rod next to the joint is 4453 N/ 28 mm × 11 mm = 14 5 N mm−2 Since the locomotive is double-acting the stress range is twice this value. The maximum force acting on the piston is therefore given by 0 7 N mm−2 × 45 mm 2 = 4453 N 18. The 50 m marker at the top of the photograph measures 33 mm in length. . (c) A mean tensile stress will decrease Nf as in Goodman’s rule (see eqn (17.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 17. The spacing is thus 2/33 × 50 = 3 m on the fracture surface itself.6.5). 31 (a) LHS = 0730 hrs position.7. Nf 5 2 × 108 Miner’s rule gives: ∴ N N1 + 1 = 1. = = 0 77. RHS = 0600 hrs position. 17. The most distinct striations are located approximately 70 mm up from the bottom of the photograph and 50 mm in from the left-hand side of then photograph. The maximum pressure in the cylinder occurs at the point of admission.1. or by creating pits in the surface from which fatigue cracks can initiate more easily (see Section 26. 5 spacings = 10 mm in this region. (b) LHS = 1300 hrs position.3)). (b) A rivet hole will cause a local stress concentration which will increase and reduce the fatigue life. Nf Nf N1 = 1 − 0 77 = 0 23 Nf1 Nf1 = For this Decrease = 13 MN m −2 18. The number of revolutions that the driving wheel is likely to make in 20 years is 20 × 6000 × 1000 m / × 0 235 m = 1 6 × 108 . (a) A good surface finish will increase the fatigue life by increasing the time required for fatigue-crack initiation.3.

since the fatigue cracks had spread across 50% of the crosssection on average before they reached the critical size for fast fracture. It probably initiated at the surface of the hole. The reaction to this force at the top of the pin generates a bending stress in the reduced section of the pin. indicating that the final fracture was not exposed to a corrosive environment after failure. The mean-line fatigue curve gives the data for a 50% chance of cracking. In addition. against the left-hand wall of the hole in the frame housing. (c) The final fracture surfaces are grainy and bright in appearance. indicating that the cracks had been present for a long time. 18. (a) Because the end of the crack was subjected to a large tensile stress every time the cyclist pushed the pedal down. (a) In the reduced section of the pivot pin. 19. The time to failure is 3 × 109 / 20 × 60 × 60 × 12 × 6 × 52 = 11 years. the pin is made to rotate around the point at which it touches the bottom of the frame housing. because the local stress would have been larger than the average stress over the whole cross-section. (d) The RHS crack probably formed first. our calculations have ignored dynamic effects due to the reciprocating masses of the piston and connecting rod and these should be investigated as well before taking the design modification any further. one on either side of the hole. In addition. which is slightly more than the figure calculated above.3% chance of cracking. There were clearly enough cycles of stress of sufficient amplitude to make fatigue cracks initiate and grow to final failure. because it is larger than the LHS crack. The maximum value 19. (b) There are two fatigue cracks. (b) The horizontal force from the top of the door pulls the bottom of the pivot pin to the right.2. This rotation pushes the top of the pin to the left. As a result. at the lower end of the reduced section. un-corroded metal. 18. The type of weld specified is a Class C. The number of cycles to failure is 109 and the time to failure is therefore 4 years. since the crack appears to radiate from this position. 18. . The design curve gives the data for a 2.4.4. The LHS crack appears to have initiated at the 0630 hrs position. (e) Moderate. The weld is a surface detail on the stressed plate and the weld classification is Class F2. and are located in the lower half of each fracture surface.1. They consist of fresh. We extrapolate the curve following the dashed line for Class F2 until we hit the stress range of 8 N mm−2 . the grainy appearance of the crack surfaces is consistent with a single overload failure. the smooth appearance of the crack surfaces is consistent with high-cycle fatigue.32 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I Data for the fatigue strengths of welded joints are given in Fig. The design curve shows that this should be safe up to a stress range of 33 N mm−2 . and are located in the upper half of each fracture surface. The dark appearance is caused by a compact layer of iron oxide produced by slow long-term corrosion. They are smooth and dark in appearance.4. For the stress range of 8 N mm−2 the cycles to failure are 3 × 109 . Of course. Data for the fatigue strengths of welds are given in Fig.

the length of pivot pin below the fracture fell down into the hole in the door housing.00105 0. 20.3. Fig. See Fig. (c) The bending stress at the failure location cycled from tension to compression every time the door swung from one extreme position to the other (e.9 and Section 17. from fully open inwards to fully open outwards). 19.4).00107 0.00112 0.00128 ˙ s−1 1 0 × 10−7 1 7 × 10−7 4 3 × 10−7 7 7 × 10−7 2 0 × 10−6 8 3 × 10−10 From graph ln ˙ −16 12 −15 59 −14 66 −14 08 −13 12 −20 90 19.3 and 18. (d) When the fracture took place at the lower end of the reduced section. 17.1.00110 0. 17. and extend the top of the pulley block to provide a horizontal hole to take the pin of the shackle.00102 0.4.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 33 of this bending stress occurs at the lower end of the reduced section. Because the rotational degree of freedom provided by the lifting eye assembly has now been lost. Temperature 618 640 660 683 707 510 C T K 891 913 933 956 980 783 1/T K −1 0.4. and came clear of the bottom of the frame housing. paragraph 1. Do away with the lifting eye altogether. the sharp change of section at this location introduces a large SCFeff (see Sections 18. . In addition.7.g. it will be necessary to insert an in-line swivel-link (a standard item) between the shackle and the crane boom.

= 200 MN m−2 s−1 . = 2 0 × 10−12 s−1 . = 2 0 × 10−12 × 60 × 60 × 24 × 365 × 9 = 5 7 × 10−4 or 0 00057 At 25 MN m−2 and 620 C ˙ = 3 1 × 10−12 s−1 . Under 60 MN m−2 .34 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I The hoop stress in the tube is = 6 MN m−2 × 20 mm pr = t 2 mm = 60 MN m−2 ˙ = 8 3 × 10−10 s−1 at ˙ = 8 3 × 10−10 60 200 5 at 510 C. Strain in 9 years Design safe 20.2. At 30 MN m−2 and 620 C ˙ = 30 25 e 5 × 3 1 × 10−12 s−1 = 7 71 × 10−12 s−1 ˙ =A ln ˙ 1 − ln ˙ 2 = − ln ˙ 2 = = Q R 5 −Q/RT Q R 1 1 − T1 T2 1 1 + ln ˙ 1 − T1 T2 1 1 − 893 923 160 × 103 8 313 + ln 7 71 × 10−12 s−1 = 0 700 − 25 58 = −24 88 ˙ 2 = 15 5 × 10−12 s−1 at 30 MN m−2 and 650 C ˙ = 3 1 × 10−12 s−1 × ×10−12 s−1 × = 6 82 × 10−12 30 100 s−1 70 + 15 5 100 .

1. . M 21. s−1 . and the subsequent deformation could trigger the collapse of the building.4 and Fig. A major fire would increase the temperature of the steelwork to the point at which it would creep under the applied loads.1.3. 20. 20. if this rate follows t an Arhennius Law. Measure the rate by the mass injected per second. This is why the World Trade Center towers collapsed on 9/11. we have Q = 8 04 × 104 J mol−1 B = 7 25 × 107 s−1 We may now calculate the time required to inject the mass M of polymer at 227 C (500 K): 8 04 × 104 1 = 7 25 × 107 exp − t 8 313 × 500 giving t = 3 5 seconds. the flow marks come from the rather crude high-temperature processes used to manufacture panes of glass in the past.9. 35 From Table 20. combining the constants M and A: 1 Q = B exp − t RT Then. Ceramics only begin to creep when T/TM > 0 4 (see Section 20. See Section 20. we have M Q = A exp − t RT Or. so T/TS is at most 0. the softening temperature of soda glass is in the range 700–900 K. 20.4. See Section 20.5. converting temperatures to kelvin: 1 Q = B exp − 30 R450 1 Q = B exp − 81 5 R430 s−1 s−1 Solving for Q and B. Then.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 20.6. In fact.3. Thus the flow marks cannot possibly be due to creep.42. 20. using R = 8 31 J mol−1 K −1 . The operating temperature of window glass is rarely more than 293 K. and then only under a large stress (far greater than the selfweight stress).1).

22. 22. Even at this maximum concentration there is a large proportion of alternative interstitial sites remaining unfilled by carbon.4.e. i. and thus increases the overall diffusion coefficient of the polycrystal. See eqn (22. A small grain size produces a larger contribution from grain boundary diffusion than does a large grain size.4 (“A useful approximation”). See Section 21.2 and 21.007% by weight carbon. More specifically.4 and eqn (22. so t = x 2 /D. See Fig.2). 21.4. See Section 21. The probability of a carbon atom being next to an alternative interstitial site is therefore high.2. 22. and hence the probability of the carbon atom moving into a different position is also high. See Sections 21. Chromium forms a random substitutional solid solution in iron at room temperature (that it should not form an interstitial solution is evident from its large atomic radius.3.36 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 21. .3. it will diffuse relatively rapidly.3. 21. D = Do e −Q/RT = 9 5 mm2 s−1 exp = t = = = = −159 × 103 J mol−1 8 313 J K −1 mol−1 1023 K 9 5 mm2 s−1 = 7 20 × 10−8 mm2 s−1 1 32 × 108 x2 10−2 mm 2 = D 7 2 × 10−8 mm2 s−1 108 10−4 mm2 × s 72 mm2 104 s = 0 1389 × 104 s 72 1389 s or 23 min 22. 22.4. √ x = Dt .1).1. and the diffusion of chromium is correspondingly slow.2.4 (“Fast diffusion paths: grain boundary and dislocation core diffusion”). See Fig. 22. (a) Carbon forms an interstitial solid solution in iron at room temperature containing up to 0. (b) Diffusion in grain boundaries is generally more rapid than in the grains themselves because of the geometrically more open structure of grain boundaries.2. The probability of a vacancy appearing next to a chromium atom is therefore small. 22. See Fig. comparable to that of iron).

See Section 23. 23. see Fig.8). At a sufficiently low temperature. For reasons analogous to those in Example 22.9) takes over from bulk vacancy diffusion.2. 23.5.1. dx m = AJ t where A = constant. See Section 22.3.5. paragraph 4.4. 22.5.1). the short-circuit diffusion takes place along grain boundaries (see Fig. 23.8. See Section 22. 21. Fick’s first law J = −D dc .2 (“Designing metals and ceramics to resist power-law creep” and “Designing metals and ceramics to resist diffusional flow”).6. 24.3. See Section 23.6. and Figs 23. However. 22. See Section 23. the rate of shortcircuit diffusion decreases only slowly with decreasing temperature.1. See Section 23.4. in the present case. so creep continues to occur at temperatures well below the transition from bulk to short-circuit diffusion. 21.4 and 23. 22.3.1. short-circuit diffusion (in this case along dislocation cores. 23. dc c −c m = −A D t = AD 1 2 dx b t. 37 The rate of bulk vacancy diffusion decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature because the activation energy Q is large for bulk diffusion (see Table 21. . Because the activation energy Q is small for short-circuit diffusion.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 22.7.

b = B m where B = constant. each square metre of metal surface absorbs 0.e. B m m = AD c1 − c2 t . 24. m 2 = CDt .. where NA is Avogadro’s number. Number of oxygen atoms absorbed = 0 74 kg m−2 . 16/NA . B m 2 = AD c1 − c2 t . AT 500 C kP = 37 exp − 138 × 103 J mol−1 8 313 J K −1 mol−1 773 K kg 2 m−4 s−1 = 1 74 × 10−8 kg 2 m−4 s−1 m 2 = kP t = 1 74 × 10−8 kg 2 m−4 s−1 × 3600 × 24 × 365 s = 0 50 kg 2 m−4 m = 0 74 kg m−2 i.2. where C = constant. m = PI t where P = constant PV t m = PI t = R m = PV t R = Qb where Q = constant = S m where S = constant S m S 2 m = PV t m 2 R = PVt i e m 2 = kP t 24.38 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I b m = AD c1 − c2 t . 16/NA 0 74 kg m−2 ∴ Number of iron atoms removed from metal as FeO = . 2 i.74 kg of oxygen from the atmosphere in the form of FeO..e.3. Ohm’s Law V = IR. At constant temperature m 2 = kP t .

produced by the chromium content of the stainless steel. paragraphs 1 to 3. Gold contacts would not form an oxide film at any temperature. When the copper connection tabs are soldered to pretinned copper wire.1. 24. The oxide layer prevents the molten solder or brazing alloy from wetting the surfaces to be joined. 25.3. The protective oxide film is Cr2 O3 .3. and Fig. Thickness of metal lost = 2 59 kg m−2 m3 7870 kg = 0 33 mm −4 at 600 C kP = 2 04 × 10−7 kg 2 m m 2 s−1 −4 = 2 04 × 10−7 × 3600 × 24 × 365 kg 2 m = 6 43 kg 2 m −4 m = 2 54 kg m−2 giving 24. gold is the only metal which requires energy to make it react with oxygen 80 kJ mol−1 of O2 in fact). Examples are Cr in stainless steel (Cr2 O3 film).3. the pre-tinning solder melts and this protects the copper surfaces from oxidation. See Section 25. Lamp filaments are surrounded by a glass bulb. 24. If there is any contact resistance across a pair of silver contacts.1. If the temperature goes above 230 C. The refractory metals oxidize very rapidly in air at high temperature.2. and Fig. paragraphs 1 and 2. which is either evacuated or filled with an inert gas to remove any oxygen which would attack the filament.5. Cr in nickel alloys (Cr2 O3 film). See Section 25. paragraph 4.2. See Section 24.3. the surfaces of the contacts will be heated up by the current passing through the contact resistance. See Sections 25.2.2. Al in aluminium bronzes (Al2 O3 film). loss = 1 13 mm As shown in Table 24. 24. 25.7. . It therefore remains as un-reacted metal. but silver is used because it is much cheaper than gold.5. 25.2 and 25. next-to-last paragraph. See Table 24.4.6. any oxide will decompose to leave pure metal-to-metal contact.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 39 0 74 kg m−2 Weight of iron removed from metal = × 55 9/NA = 16/NA −2 2 59 kg m . 24. 25. 25.2. 25.4.3. See Section 24.

See Section 26. Mild steel would oxidize far too rapidly at the running temperature. 26.g. da ∝ a at constant dt 4 MN m−2 .7. (c) Rubber hoses in automobile cooling systems. MgO.5.1). . 26. e. heating off) to 70 C (winter time. As shown in Fig. Typical applications are as follows. 26.12. e. which resists oxidation of the alloy at the high running temperature. e.2 da dt 1 2a = 0 3 mm year−1 16 MN m−2 2 0 25 mm 0 075 −2 A = 0 0239 m4 MN year−1 −2 2 MN m year Since water and air were in contact with the surface of the pipe. etc. the corrosion rate at 70 C will be approximately twice that at 20 C. Thus putting the heating on will double the rate of external corrosion. Many are oxides already. alkalis. windscreen washer hoses.g.5 (“Pitting”) and Fig. roofing sheets. The pipe did not rust from the inside because there is little or no oxygen inside the heating water circuit.40 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 25. flexible brake hoses.1.3. window frames. The chromium and nickel form a protective oxide layer on the wire.6. 26. the cathodic oxygen-reduction reaction would have taken place easily. The temperature of the pipe would have varied from approximately 20 C (summer time. (e) Plastics for exterior architectural use. Pitting attack. rainwater gutters and downpipes.5 (“Stress corrosion cracking”) and Fig. they can still propagate to failure by fatigue or fast fracture. and would burn out in a matter of days (see Table 24. 26. (b) Plastic gas pipes for underground use. 25. heating on). (a) Plastic water pipes in plumbing and drainage systems. Stress corrosion cracking can lead to complete fracture even though the surface of the component appears free from corrosion. da ∝ 2 at constant a 0 25 mm dt da ∴ = A 2 a = AK 2 n = 2 dt A= = 26. 26.2). See Section 26.7. 26. Others. (d) Plastic containers for storing water.9.g. SiC and Si3 N4 form protective oxide layers of SiO2 when exposed to oxygen at high temperature. SiO2 Al2 O3 (see Table 24.4. Even if the stress corrosion cracks do not travel right across the component. acids.

5. if steel were lost uniformly over a square metre at 2×10−3 A m−2 .g.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 41 (f) Plastics for marine use. Because there was no oxygen in the system. Austenitic stainless steels are prone to SCC in hot chloride solutions. There was also a large tensile stress to drive the initiation and growth of SCC cracks. 26.0116 mm on each side of the plate.2.1.2. boat hulls (matrix of GFRP composite). water pumps.2 (“Sacrificial protection”. 27. See Section 26. (g) Plastics and rubbers in domestic appliances.5% of the surface. thickness lost by reaction: Fe → Fe++ + 2e would be 0. See Section 27. 26. Corrosion of zinc: Zn → Zn++ + 2e Number of electrons to give a current of 6 × 10−3 A m−2 for 5 years = = ∴ Mass zinc = Thickness = = 6 × 10−3 × 5 × 3 15 × 107 = 5 89 × 1024 electrons 1 6 × 10−19 5 89 × 1024 atoms Zn 2 5 89 × 1024 × 65 4 = 0 320 kg m−2 2 × 6 02 × 1026 0 320 m = 4 5 × 10−5 m 7130 0 045 mm 27. . 27. 27.g. 27. 27. washing machine drums.9. small fittings. 26.3. e. flexible hoses.6. See Section 27. Therefore the anodic reaction could not take place and the steel was protected from corrosion. If this loss is concentrated over 0.2 and Fig. The solution in the present case was very hot and contained chloride ions from the zinc chloride corrosion inhibitor.4. See Section 26. Stress corrosion cracking. Following 44. the loss there will be 0 0116 × 100 99 5 × mm = 2 31 mm 05 100 The sheet will thus rust through. e.5 (“Stress corrosion cracking”) and Fig. seals. paragraphs 1 and 2) and Fig. 27. paragraph 2) and Fig.2. mooring buoys.2 (“Sacrificial protection”.1. the oxygen-reduction reaction could not take place.

so the joint could actually cope with pumping water to the top of a seventy-floor skyscraper and still have a factor of safety of 1. car window mechanisms).1.6.4. and Fig. actuating mechanisms (e. shoe soles/walking surfaces. clutch linings and plain bearings. often substantially. See Section 27.42 Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 27. clock and watch mechanisms. See Section 28.2. If we assume that the end of the pipe far away from the fitting has an end cap (or a bend that functions as an end cap) then the force trying to push the pipe out of the fitting is pw r 2 . Metal finishing by linishing.5. If P is the radial pressure that the olive exerts on the outside of the pipe then we can write y = Pr t provided we neglect the strengthening effect of the sections of pipe that lie outside the olive. 27. last two paragraphs. Wood finishing by sanding. 28.2).4. climbing shoes/rock faces. This is the dynamic overpressure that arises when taps are suddenly shut off. . 28. the pressure in water systems frequently exceeds the static head. (a) Typical examples are as follows. 27. compression joints (see Example 28. interference fits. V-belt drives.7. knots in ropes. door latches. (b) Typical examples are as follows. last paragraph. 27. ceramic discs in water taps. 28. (a) Typical examples are as follows. and Fig.7. sledges and skis on snow. grinding and polishing.g. This force is balanced by the frictional force between the olive and the pipe so we can write pw r 2 = P2 rl Combining the two equations to eliminate P gives pw = 2 Using the data given we get pw = 2 × 0 15 × 120 MPa 0 65 75 75 75 = 3 1 MPa y t r l r The hydrostatic head of water in a seven-floor building is about 2 bar. brake pads/brake discs. Bedding-in of brake pads. See Section 27. Car tyres/road surfaces. However. Bearings and sliding surfaces in machinery. clutches. because of “water hammer”. Removal of surface scale by grit blasting.6.2. 28.3.3.

2. reducing the friction coefficient to zero. tools for metalworking and woodworking.4. See Section 29. See Section 29. brake pads and discs. grinding wheels and abrasive belts/discs.5.Solutions Manual: Engineering Materials I 43 (b) Typical examples are as follows.2.2. it will melt the surface of the ice. 28. clutch linings. 29. paragraphs 2. See Section 29.4.3. As shown in Example 29. Secondary roads are often covered in ice. 29. so the (non-zero) friction coefficient is determined by the resistance of the ice to ploughing (see Fig. 5 and 6. because it is uneconomical to treat them with rock salt. car tyres. with a ski already moving. The hard studs bite into the ice. as soon as the tyre starts to slide on the ice. the coefficient of static friction is: s = tan 24 = 0 45 If the slope of the roof is greater than 24 the static frictional force is exceeded and the snow will slide off. Bearings and sliding surfaces in machinery. paragraph 1. . From the slope of the roof. See Sections 28. The work done = 2 100 g k = 68 J. 29. On a 2 slope.1. shoe soles.4 and 29.3.8).6. The melts a volume of water V = 69 = 2 1 × 10−7 m3 330 × 106 If spread uniformly over the undersurface of two skis this would give a film of thickness 2 1 × 10−7 m=05 m 2×2×0 1 29. 29. paragraphs 1 and 2.2. it is the sliding friction which counts: k = tan 2 = 0 035 29.7. 29.

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