Best Practices: Table of Contents

Best Practices Configuration Management Migration Procedures Development Techniques Development FAQs Data Cleansing Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Incremental Loads Mapping Design Metadata Reporting and Sharing Naming Conventions Session and Data Partitioning Using Parameters, Variables and Parameter Files Error Handling A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Design Error Handling Infrastructure Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Error Handling Strategies Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Object Management Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Operations

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Updating Repository Statistics Daily Operations Load Validation Third Party Scheduler Event Based Scheduling Repository Administration High Availability Performance Tuning Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Performance Tuning Databases Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Determining Bottlenecks Platform Configuration Advanced Client Configuration Options Advanced Server Configuration Options Platform Sizing Recovery Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Project Management Developing the Business Case Assessing the Business Case Defining and Prioritizing Requirements Developing a WBS Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan Managing the Project Lifecycle Security Configuring Security

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Migration Procedures

Challenge To develop a migration strategy that ensures clean migration between development, test, QA, and production, thereby protecting the integrity of each of these environments as the system evolves. Description In every application deployment, a migration strategy must be formulated to ensure a clean migration between development, test, quality assurance, and production. The migration strategy is largely influenced by the technologies that are deployed to support the development and production environments. These technologies include the databases, the operating systems, and the available hardware. Informatica offers flexible migration techniques that can be adapted to fit the existing technology and architecture of various sites, rather than proposing a single fixed migration strategy. The means to migrate work from development to production depends largely on the repository environment, which is either: • • Standalone PowerCenter, or Distributed PowerCenter

This Best Practice describes several migration strategies, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also discusses an XML method provided in PowerCenter 5.1 to support migration in either a Standalone or a Distributed environment. Standalone PowerMart/PowerCenter In a standalone environment, all work is performed in a single Informatica repository that serves as the shared metadata store. In this standalone environment, segregating the workspaces ensures that the migration from development to production is seamless. Workspace segregation can be achieved by creating separate folders for each work area. For instance, we might build a single data mart for the finance division within a




corporation. In this example, we would create a minimum of four folders to manage our metadata. The folders might look something like the following:

In this scenario, mappings are developed in the FINANCE_DEV folder. As development is completed on particular mappings, they will be copied one at a time to the FINANCE_TEST folder. New sessions will be created or copied for each mapping in the FINANCE_TEST folder. When unit testing has been completed successfully, the mappings are copied into the FINANCE_QA folder. This process continues until the mappings are integrated into the production schedule. At that point, new sessions will be created in the FINANCE_PROD folder, with the database connections adjusted to point to the production environment. Introducing shortcuts in a single standalone environment complicates the migration process, but offers an efficient method for centrally managing sources and targets. A common folder can be used for sharing reusable objects such as shared sources, target definitions, and reusable transformations. If a common folder is used, there should be one common folder for each environment (i.e., SHARED_DEV, SHARED_TEST, SHARED_QA, SHARED_PROD). Migration Example Process Copying the mappings into the next stage enables the user to promote the desired mapping to test, QA, or production at the lowest level of granularity. If the folder where the mapping is to be copied does not contain the referenced source/target tables or transformations, then these objects will automatically be copied along with the mapping. The advantage of this promotion strategy is that individual mappings can be promoted as soon as they are ready for production. However, because only one mapping at a time can be copied, promoting a large number of mappings into production would be very time consuming. Additional time is required to re-create or copy all sessions from scratch, especially if pre- or post-session scripts are used. On the initial move to production, if all mappings are completed, the entire FINANCE_QA folder could be copied and renamed to FINANCE_PROD. With this approach, it is not necessary to promote all mappings and sessions individually. After the initial migration, however, mappings will be promoted on a “case-by-case” basis.




if not using shortcuts. If using shortcuts. Using the newly copied mapping. and drag and drop the mapping from the development folder into the test folder. COMMON_QA. (COMMON_DEV. If using shortcuts. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-3 . However. if not using shortcuts. first follow these substeps. skip to step 2 • • Create four common folders. 3. 4. link all of the output ports to the new shortcut. 2. • In the PowerCenter Designer. Copy the mapping from Development into Test. link all of the input ports to the new shortcut.Follow these steps to copy a mapping from Development to Test: 1. open it in the Designer and bring in the newly copied shortcut. skip to step 4: • • • • Open the mapping that uses shortcuts. Using the old shortcut as a model. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). if any of the objects are active. Copy the shortcut objects into the COMMON_TEST folder. one for each migration stage COMMON_TEST. • If copying the mapping. follow the copy session wizard. open the appropriate test folder. follow these substeps. first delete the old shortcut before linking the output ports. Using the old shortcut as a model. COMMON_PROD).

and Production “environments” are stored in separate folders. In Production. This can have negative performance implications. Implement appropriate security. In Test and Quality Assurance. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. If Development or Test loads are running simultaneously with PAGE BP-4 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .• If creating the mapping. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. the owner of the folders should be a user in the development group. QA. 5. they all reside on the same server. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. Performance Implications in the Single Environment A disadvantage of the single environment approach is that even though the Development. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. Test. such as: • • • • In Development.

and sessions. and then eventually into the Production environment.Production loads. For instance. FINANCE_QA. transformations. the server machine may reach 100 percent utilization and Production performance will suffer. Production loads run late at night. or Production. FINANCE_TEST. there may be 50 mappings in QA but only 40 of them are production-ready. however. Another advantage is the ability to automate this process without having users perform this process. including source and target tables. there are separate. sequences. QA. separate repositories provide the same function as the separate folders in the standalone environment described previously.. This is the preferred method for handling Development to Production migrations.e. etc. Often. The mappings are created in the Development repository. three distinct disadvantages to the repository copy method. The trouble with this is that everything is moved. Distributed PowerCenter In a distributed environment. ready or not. With a fully distributed approach. The 10 unready mappings are moved into production along with the 40 production-ready maps. and most Development and Test loads run during the day so this does not pose a problem. There are three ways to accomplish the Repository Copy method: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-5 . There are three main techniques to migrate from Development to Production. and Production. each involving some advantages and disadvantages: • • • Repository Copy Folder Copy Object Copy Repository Copy The main advantage to this approach is the ability to copy everything at once from one environment to another. Everything will need to be set up correctly on the new server that will now host the repository. work performed in Development cannot impact Test. independent environments (i. in our Finance example we would have four repositories. Test. FINANCE_DEV. The first is that everything is moved at once (also an advantage). However. QA. The final advantage is that everything can be moved without breaking/corrupting any of the objects. which leads to the second disadvantage -. moved into the Test repository. hardware and software) for Development. mappings. There are. Another disadvantage is the need to adjust server variables. and FINANCE_PROD. database connections. situations do arise where performance benchmarking with large volumes or other unusual circumstances can cause test loads to run overnight.namely that maintenance is required to remove any unwanted or excess objects. contending with the pre-scheduled Production runs. Each repository has a similar name for the folders in the standalone environment. For example. parameters/variables. Because each environment is segregated from the others.

go to the File menu in the Repository Manager and select Backup Repository. if a user was copying a repository from DEV to TEST. since the Restore Repository option does not delete the current repository. Repository Backup and Restore The Backup and Restore Repository is another simple method of copying an entire repository. The PMREP utilities can be utilized both from the Informatica Server and from any client machines connected to the server. The following screen shot shows the dialog box used to input the new location information: To successfully perform the copy. then the TEST repository must first be deleted using the Delete option in the Repository Manager to create room for the new repository. Then the Copy Repository routine must be run. PAGE BP-6 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .REP file containing all repository information.REP file to automatically restore the repository in the destination server. To ensure success. To perform this one needs to go the file menu of the Repository Manager and select Copy Repository.• • • Copying the Repository Repository Backup and Restore PMREP Copying the Repository The repository copy command is probably the easiest method of migration. For example. From there the user is prompted to choose the location to which the repository will be copied. This will create a . Select the created . the user must delete the current repository in the new location. PMREP Using the PMREP commands is essentially the same as the Backup and Restore Repository method except that it is run from the command line. be sure to first delete any matching destination repositories. To restore the repository simply open the Repository Manager on the destination server and select Restore Repository from the File menu. To perform this function.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-7 . follow these steps to convert the repository to Production: 1. Delete the sessions in the Server Manager and the mappings in the Designer.The following table documents the available PMREP commands: The following is a sample of the command syntax used within a batch file to connect to and backup a repository. • • Disable the sessions in the Server manager by opening the session properties. restore. and then clearing the Enable checkbox under the General tab. backup. Disable sessions that schedule mappings that are not ready for Production or simply delete the mappings and sessions. Using the code example below as a model. etc: After following one of the above procedures to migrate into Production. scripts can be written to be run on a daily basis to perform functions such as connect.

4. The disadvantages of Folder Copy are: • • User needs to be logged into multiple environments simultaneously. open the session properties. and so forth. everything in the folder must be ready to migrate forward. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. In Test and Quality Assurance. then after the folder is copied. The advantages of Folder Copy are: • • • Easy to move the entire folder and all objects in it Detailed Wizard guides the user through the entire process There’s no need to update or alter any Database Connections. All source and target tables. select Database Connections from the Server Configuration menu. If certain mappings are not ready. for example. otherwise skip to step 2: PAGE BP-8 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If using lookup transformations in the mappings and the connect string is anything other than $SOURCE or $TARGET. then the connect string will need to be modified appropriately. sequences or server variables. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. ensure that the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. developers (or the Repository Administrator) must manually delete these mappings from the new folder. Therefore.and post-session scripts. and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre. follow these steps: 1. Folder Copy Copying an entire folder allows you to quickly promote all of the objects in the Development folder to Test. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. Implement appropriate security. • In the Server Manager. reusable transformations. In Production. mappings. and sessions are promoted at once. such as: • • • • In Development. If using shortcuts. If copying a folder.and post-session commands as necessary. Edit each database connection by changing the connect string to point to the production sources and targets. 3. • • • In the Server Manager.2. The repository is locked while Folder Copy is being performed. Modify the pre. from QA to Production. Modify the database connection strings to point to the Production sources and targets. follow these substeps.

Point the folder to the correct shared folder if one is being used: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-9 . (To copy the entire folder. create a common folder using exactly the same name and case as in the “source” repository.) 3. 4. it must be renamed. If a folder with that name already exists. Open and connect to either the Repository Manager or Designer. Copy the shortcut objects into the common folder in Production and make sure the shortcut has exactly the same name. 2. drag and drop the folder icon just under the repository level. Drag and drop the folder onto the production repository icon within the Navigator tree structure.• • • In each of the dedicated repositories. Follow the Copy Folder Wizard steps.

Object Copy Copying mappings into the next stage within a networked environment has many of the same advantages and disadvantages as in the standalone environment.After performing the Folder Copy method. but the process of handling shortcuts is simplified in the networked environment. be sure to remember the following steps: 1. For additional information.and post-sessions scripts. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. Implement appropriate security: • • • • In Development. In Test and Quality Assurance. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. open the session properties. and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre.and post-session commands as necessary: • In the Server Manager. Additional advantages and disadvantages of Object Copy in a distributed environment include: Advantages: • More granular control over objects PAGE BP-10 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 2. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. Modify the pre. ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. In Production. see the previous description of Object Copy for the standalone environment.

Copy the shortcuts into the common folder in Production making sure the shortcut has the exact same name. connect to both the QA and Production repositories and open the appropriate folders in each. • • If copying the mapping follow the copy session wizard. • • In the Designer. follow these substeps. Drag and drop the mapping from QA into Production. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-11 . otherwise skip to step 2: In each of the dedicated repositories. Copy the mapping from quality assurance (QA) into production. create a common folder with the exact same name and case.Disadvantages: • • 1. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. 2. • • Much more work to deploy an entire group of objects Shortcuts must exist prior to importing/copying mappings If using shortcuts. 3. If creating the mapping.

4. Informatica recommends using the Object Copy method. PAGE BP-12 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . see the steps outlined in the Object Copy section. It ensures that the latest development maps can be moved over manually as they are completed. In Development. In Test and Quality Assurance. ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. For recommendations on performing this copy procedure correctly. This method gives you total granular control over the objects that are being moved. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. • • • • Implement appropriate security. Recommendations Informatica recommends using the following process when running in a three-tiered environment with Development. and Production servers: For migrating from Development into Test. Test/QA. In Production. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group.

all code in the Test server should be frozen and tested. you would export that session to an XML file. copy that text. that XML file can be changed with a text editor to allow more flexibility. (Refer to the steps outlined in the Repository Copy section for recommendations to ensure that this process is successful. After the Test code is cleared for production. use one of the repository copy methods. Before performing this migration. reusable transformations. You would then change the name of the session you just pasted to be unique. Then. The following demonstrates the import/export functionality: 1. and sessions. XML Object Copy Process Another method of copying objects in a distributed (or centralized) environment is to copy objects by utilizing PM/PC’s XML functionality. If similar server and database naming conventions are utilized. When you imported that XML file back into your folder. This method is more useful in the distributed environment because it allows for backup into an XML file to be moved across the network. For example. Once the XML file has been created. you could edit that file to find everything within the <Session> tag. if you had to copy one session many times. and paste that text within the XML file. two sessions will be created. Informatica recommends using the Repository Copy method. The XML Object Copy Process works in a manner very similar to the Repository Copy backup and restore method. mappings. there will be minimal or no changes required to sessions that are created or copied to the production server.). Objects are exported into an XML file: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-13 . targets.When migrating from Test to Production. as it allows you to copy sources.

Sessions can be exported and imported into the Server Manager in the same way (the corresponding mappings must exist for this to work). Objects are imported into a repository from the corresponding XML file: 3.2. PAGE BP-14 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .


e. Not only is it easier to debug a mapping with a limited number of objects. it may be advisable to first load the flat-file into a relational database. but they can also be run concurrently and make use of more system resources. However. While the most effective use of PowerCenter depends on the specific situation.e. if there is an intent to perform intricate transformations before loading to target. name.. Q: How does source format affect performance? (i. including Scheduling. Fixed-width files are faster than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing. It provides answers in a number of areas. Q: What are some considerations when designing the mapping? (i. this Best Practice addresses some questions that are commonly raised by project teams. This minimizes disk seeks and applies to a PAGE BP-16 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Backup Strategies. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL SELECTs where appropriate. Server Administration. and document components of the analytic solution. and Metadata.Development FAQs Challenge Using the PowerCenter product suite to most effectively to develop. it is possible to design a mapping with multiple targets. consider writing to multiple disks or file systems simultaneously. is it more efficient to source from a flat file rather than a database?) In general. You can then load the targets in a specific order using Target Load Ordering. When using multiple output files (targets). Description The following pages summarize some of the questions that typically arise during development and suggest potential resolutions. a flat file that is located on the server machine loads faster than a database located on the server machine. The recommendation is to limit the amount of complex logic in a mapping. Refer to the product guides supplied with PowerCenter for additional information. what is the impact of having multiple targets populated by a single map?) With PowerCenter.

regardless of the number of objects it takes to fulfill the requirement. which simplifies the operations tasks associated with loading the targets. and to multiple sessions running simultaneously.session writing to multiple targets. There are two types of batches: sequential and concurrent. Log File Organization Q: Where is the best place to maintain Session Logs? One often-recommended location is the default /SessLogs/ folder in the Informatica directory. Error information also appears in the PowerCenter Help File within the PowerCenter client applications. The Operations group can then work with twenty batches to load the warehouse. consult your Database User Guide. etc. The business requirement is always the first consideration. and so on. It is best to use filters as early as possible in the mapping to remove rows of data that are not needed. Scheduling Techniques Q: What are the benefits of using batches rather than sessions? Using a batch to group logical sessions minimizes the number of objects that must be managed to successfully load the warehouse. For example. For example. Using the filter condition in the Source Qualifier to filter out the rows at the database level is a good way to increase the performance of the mapping. It's also possible to set up conditions to run the next session only if the previous session was successful. or to stop on errors. keeping all log files in the same directory. Sequential batches help ensure that dependencies are met as needed. This is the SQL equivalent of the WHERE clause. The most expensive use of the DTM is passing unnecessary data through the mapping. Q: What documentation is available for the error codes that appear within the error log files? Log file errors and descriptions appear in Appendix C of the PowerCenter User Guide. o A sequential batch simply runs sessions one at a time. a sequential batch ensures that session1 runs before session2 when session2 is dependent on the load of session1. a hundred individual sessions can be logically grouped into twenty batches. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-17 . Q: What are some considerations for determining how many objects and transformations to include in a single mapping? There are several items to consider when building a mapping. in a linear sequence. For other database-specific errors.


A concurrent batch groups logical sessions together, like a sequential batch, but runs all the sessions at one time. This can reduce the load times into the warehouse, taking advantage of hardware platforms' Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) architecture. A new batch is sequential by default; to make it concurrent, explicitly select the Concurrent check box.

Other batch options, such as nesting batches within batches, can further reduce the complexity of loading the warehouse. However, this capability allows for the creation of very complex and flexible batch streams without the use of a third-party scheduler. Q: Assuming a batch failure, does PowerCenter allow restart from the point of failure? Yes. When a session or sessions in a batch fail, you can perform recovery to complete the batch. The steps to take vary depending on the type of batch: If the batch is sequential, you can recover data from the session that failed and run the remaining sessions in the batch. If a session within a concurrent batch fails, but the rest of the sessions complete successfully, you can recover data from the failed session targets to complete the batch. However, if all sessions in a concurrent batch fail, you might want to truncate all targets and run the batch again. Q: What guidelines exist regarding the execution of multiple concurrent sessions / batches within or across applications? Session/Batch Execution needs to be planned around two main constraints: • • Available system resources Memory and processors

The number of sessions that can run at one time depends on the number of processors available on the server. The load manager is always running as a process. As a general rule, a session will be compute-bound, meaning its throughput is limited by the availability of CPU cycles. Most sessions are transformation intensive, so the DTM always runs. Also, some sessions require more I/O, so they use less processor time. Generally, a session needs about 120 percent of a processor for the DTM, reader, and writer in total. For concurrent sessions: • • One session per processor is about right; you can run more, but all sessions will slow slightly. Remember that other processes may also run on the PowerCenter server machine; overloading a production machine will slow overall performance.

Even after available processors are determined, it is necessary to look at overall system resource usage. Determining memory usage is more difficult




than the processors calculation; it tends to vary according to system load and number of Informatica sessions running. The first step is to estimate memory usage, accounting for: • • • Operating system kernel and miscellaneous processes Database engine Informatica Load Manager

Each session creates three processes: the Reader, Writer, and DTM. • • If multiple sessions run concurrently, each has three processes More memory is allocated for lookups, aggregates, ranks, and heterogeneous joins in addition to the shared memory segment.

At this point, you should have a good idea of what is left for concurrent sessions. It is important to arrange the production run to maximize use of this memory. Remember to account for sessions with large memory requirements; you may be able to run only one large session, or several small sessions concurrently. Load Order Dependencies are also an important consideration because they often create additional constraints. For example, load the dimensions first, then facts. Also, some sources may only be available at specific times, some network links may become saturated if overloaded, and some target tables may need to be available to end users earlier than others. Q: Is it possible to perform two "levels" of event notification? One at the application level, and another at the PowerCenter server level to notify the Server Administrator? The application level of event notification can be accomplished through postsession e-mail. Post-session e-mail allows you to create two different messages, one to be sent upon successful completion of the session, the other to be sent if the session fails. Messages can be a simple notification of session completion or failure, or a more complex notification containing specifics about the session. You can use the following variables in the text of your post-session e-mail: E-mail Variable %s %l %r %e Description Session name Total records loaded Total records rejected Session status





Table details, including read throughput in bytes/second and write throughput in rows/second Session start time Session completion time Session elapsed time (session completion time-session start time) Attaches the session log to the message Attaches the named file. The file must be local to the Informatica Server. The following are valid filenames: %a<c:\data\sales.txt> or %a</users/john/data/sales.txt> On Windows NT, you can attach a file of any type. On UNIX, you can only attach text files. If you attach a non-text file, the send might fail. Note: The filename cannot include the Greater Than character (>) or a line break.

%b %c %i %g %a<filename>

The PowerCenter Server on UNIX uses rmail to send post-session e-mail. The repository user who starts the PowerCenter server must have the rmail tool installed in the path in order to send e-mail. To verify the rmail tool is accessible: 1. Login to the UNIX system as the PowerCenter user who starts the PowerCenter Server. 2. Type rmail <fully qualified email address> at the prompt and press Enter. 3. Type . to indicate the end of the message and press Enter. 4. You should receive a blank e-mail from the PowerCenter user's e-mail account. If not, locate the directory where rmail resides and add that directory to the path. 5. When you have verified that rmail is installed correctly, you are ready to send post-session e-mail. The output should look like the following: Session complete. Session name: sInstrTest Total Rows Loaded = 1 Total Rows Rejected = 0 Completed




Rows Loaded Status 1

Rows Rejected 0

Read Throughput (bytes/sec) 30

Write Throughput Table Name (rows/sec) 1 t_Q3_sales

No errors encountered. Start Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:31 1999 Completion Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:41 1999 Elapsed time: 0:00:10 (h:m:s) This information, or a subset, can also be sent to any text pager that accepts e-mail. Backup Strategy Recommendation Q: Can individual objects within a repository be restored from the back-up or from a prior version? At the present time, individual objects cannot be restored from a back-up using the PowerCenter Server Manager (i.e., you can only restore the entire repository). But, It is possible to restore the back-up repository into a different database and then manually copy the individual objects back into the main repository. Refer to Migration Procedures for details on promoting new or changed objects between development, test, QA, and production environments. Server Administration Q: What built-in functions, does PowerCenter provide to notify someone in the event that the server goes down, or some other significant event occurs? There are no built-in functions in the server to send notification if the server goes down. However, it is possible to implement a shell script that will sense whether the server is running or not. For example, the command "pmcmd pingserver" will give a return code or status which will tell you if the server is up and running. Using the results of this command as a basis, a complex notification script could be built. Q: What system resources should be monitored? What should be considered normal or acceptable server performance levels? The pmprocs utility, which is available for UNIX systems only, shows the currently executing PowerCenter processes. Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands. It is available through Informatica Technical Support. The utility provides the following information: - CPID - Creator PID (process ID)




shows slot in LM shared memory (See Chapter 16 in the PowerCenter Administrator's Guide for additional details. You can also use ps -ef | grep pmserver to see if the server process (the Load Manager) is running. variable. then you should try to start the PowerCenter server. retrieve. The motivation behind the original Metadata Exchange (MX) architecture was to provide an effective and easy-to-use interface to the repository. and manage their metadata in Informatica's central repository. transformations. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column. Today.. you should first check to see if the Repository Database is able to come back up successfully. If this is the case. it is also very time consuming to do so. etc. Therefore. you can enter description information for all repository objects. and MicroStrategy.Semaphores .0 or 1 . even for SELECT access. are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements.LPID . The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines.) Q: What cleanup (if any) should be performed after a UNIX server crash? Or after an Oracle instance crash? If the UNIX server crashes. views have been created to provide access to the metadata stored in the repository. Rather. Informatica does not recommend accessing the repository directly. All of these tools store.used to sync the reader and writer . and primary keys are stored in the repository. You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. Informatica and several key Business Intelligence (BI) vendors. Metadata Q: What recommendations or considerations exist as to naming standards or repository administration for metadata that might be extracted from the PowerCenter repository and used in others? With PowerCenter. expression. including Brio. targets.Last PID that accessed the resource . PAGE BP-22 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . sources. Use the pmserver. Cognos. All information about column size and scale. Business Objects. Q: What procedures exist for extracting metadata from the repository? Informatica offers an extremely rich suite of metadata-driven tools for data warehousing applications. datatypes. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata. etc.err log to check if the server has started correctly.


Provides tools that are run before the data extraction and load process to clean source data. It is primarily used as a query and reporting effective. Available tools are : • • • DMDataFuse . data analysis system that profiles and DMValiData identifies inconsistencies between data and metadata.Data Cleansing Challenge Accuracy is one of the biggest obstacles blocking the success of many data warehousing projects. If users discover data inconsistencies. However. PAGE BP-24 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . these components can be invoked for parsing. and matching of the name and address information during the PowerCenter ETL stage of building a data mart or data warehouse. as Transformation Components. TM . standardization. at the point of entry into the data warehouse or operational data store (ODS). Description Informatica has several partners in the data cleansing arena.a powerful non-compiled scripting language that operates on flat ASCII or delimited files. cleansing. The partners and respective tools include the following: DataMentors . to ensure that the warehouse provides consistent and accurate data for business decision making. the user community may lose faith in the entire warehouse’s data. The challenge is therefore to cleanse data online. using the Informatica External Procedures protocol. The online interface (ACE Library) integrates the TrueName Library and Merge/Purge Library of FirstLogic. it is not unusual to discover that as many as half the records in a database contain some type of information that is incomplete. or incorrect. enhancement. inconsistent. It also provides a way to reformat and summarize files. TM FirstLogic – FirstLogic offers direct interfaces to PowerCenter during the extract and load process as well as providing pre-data extraction data cleansing tools like DataRight and Merge/Purge. Thus. DMUtils .a data cleansing and householding system with the power to accurately standardize and match data.

but no further information is available at this time. flexible data quality system that can repair any type of data (in addition to its name and address) by incorporating custom business rules and logic.. elementizing and standardizing customer data Geocoder: an Internationally-certified postal and census module for address verification and standardization Matcher: a module designed for relationship matching and record linking. FirstLogic – ACE The following graphic illustrates a high level flow diagram of the data cleansing process.e. and discovers metadata/field content discrepancies. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-25 . words. As a result. Delivery of this bridge was originally scheduled for May 2001. Informatica users can invoke Trillium’s four data quality components through an easy-to-use graphical desktop object. Datagration supports relational database systems and flat files as data sources and any application that runs in batch mode. Integration Examples This following sections describe how to integrate two of the tools with PowerCenter. Vality is in the process of developing a "TX Integration" to PowerCenter.Paladyne – The flagship product. It offers data analysis and investigation. reveals undocumented business practices. data elements) into a logical order. which identifies business relationships (such as households) and duplications. and unique probabilistic and fuzzy matching capabilities. Datagration is an open. Trillium – Trillium’s eQuality customer information components (a web enabled tool) are integrated with Informatica’s Transformation Exchange modules and reside on the same server as Informatica’s transformation engine. conditioning. Datagration's Data Discovery Message Gateway feature assesses data cleansing requirements using automated data discovery tools that identify data patterns. Data Discovery enables Datagration to search through a field of free form data and re-arrange the tokens (i. The four components are : • • • • Converter: data analysis and investigation module for discovering word patterns and phrases within free form text Parser: processing engine for data cleansing. Vality – Provides a product called Integrity.

Use the Informatica Advanced External Transformation process to interface with the FirstLogic module by creating a “Matching Link” transformation. That process uses the Informatica Transformation Developer to create a new Advanced External Transformation, which incorporates the properties of the FirstLogic Matching Link files. Once a Matching Link transformation has been created in the Transformation Developer, users can incorporate that transformation into any of their project mappings: it's reusable from the repository. When an Informatica session starts, the transformation is initialized. The initialization sets up the address processing options, allocates memory, and opens the files for processing. This operation is only performed once. As each record is passed into the transformation it is parsed and standardized. Any output components are created and passed to the next transformation. When the session ends, the transformation is terminated. The memory is once again available and the directory files are closed. The available functions / processes are as follows. ACE Processing There are four ACE transformations available to choose from. They will parse, standardize and append address components using Firstlogic’s ACE Library. The transformation choice depends on the input record layout. A fourth transformation can provide optional components. This transformation must be attached to one of the three base transformations. The four transforms are: 1. ACE_discrete - where the input address data is presented in discrete fields 2. ACE_multiline - where the input address data is presented in multiple lines (1-6). 3. ACE_mixed - where the input data is presented with discrete city/state/zip and multiple address lines(1-6). 4. Optional transform – which is attached to one of the three base transforms and outputs the additional components of ACE for enhancement.




All records input into the ACE transformation are returned as output. ACE returns Error/Status Code information during the processing of each address. This allows the end user to invoke additional rules before the final load is completed. TrueName Process TrueName mirrors the ACE transformation options with discrete, multi-line and mixed transformations. A fourth and optional transformation available in this process can be attached to one of the three transformations to provide genderization and match standards enhancements. TrueName will generate error and status codes. Similar to ACE, all records entered as input into the TrueName transformation can be used as output. Matching Process The matching process works through one transformation within the Informatica architecture. The input data is read into the Informatica data flow similar to a batch file. All records are read, the break groups created and, in the last step, matches are identified. Users set-up their own matching transformation through the PowerCenter Designer by creating an advanced external procedure transformation. Users are able to select which records are output from the matching transformations by editing the initialization properties of the transformation. All matching routines are predefined and, if necessary, the configuration files can be accessed for additional tuning. The five predefined matching scenarios include: individual, family, household (the only difference between household and family, is the household doesn't match on last name), firm individual, and firm. Keep in mind that the matching does not do any data parsing, this must be accomplished prior to using this transformation. As with ACE and TrueName, error and status codes are reported. Trillium Integration to Trillium’s data cleansing software is achieved through the Informatica Trillium Advanced External Procedures (AEP) interface. The AEP modules incorporate the following Trillium functional components. • Trillium Converter – The Trillium Converter facilitates data conversion such as EBCDIC to ASCII, integer to character, character length modification, literal constant and increasing values. It may also be used to create unique record identifiers, omit unwanted punctuation, or translate strings based on actual data or mask values. A user-customizable parameter file drives the conversion process. The Trillium Converter is a separate transformation that can be used standalone or in conjunction with the Trillium Parser module. Trillium Parser – The Trillium Parser identifies and/or verifies the components of free-floating or fixed field name and address data. The primary function of the Parser is to partition the input address records




• •

into manageable components in preparation for postal and census geocoding. The parsing process is highly table- driven to allow for customization of name and address identification to specific requirements. Trillium Postal Geocoder – The Trillium Postal Geocoder matches an address database to the ZIP+4 database of the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Trillium Census Geocoder – The Trillium Census Geocoder matches the address database to U.S. Census Bureau information.

Each record that passes through the Trillium Parser external module is first parsed and then, optionally, postal geocoded and census geocoded. The level of geocoding performed is determined by a user-definable initialization property. • Trillium Window Matcher – The Trillium Window Matcher allows the PowerCenter Server to invoke Trillium’s deduplication and house holding functionality. The Window Matcher is a flexible tool designed to compare records to determine the level of likeness between them. The result of the comparisons is considered a passed, a suspect, or a failed match depending upon the likeness of data elements in each record, as well as a scoring of their exceptions.

Input to the Trillium Window Matcher transformation is typically the sorted output of the Trillium Parser transformation. The options for sorting include: • • • Using the Informatica Aggregator transformation as a sort engine. Separate the mappings whenever a sort is required. The sort can be run as a pre/post session command between mappings. Pre/post sessions are configured in the Server Manager. Build a custom AEP Transformation to include in the mapping.




Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server

Challenge Understanding PCISBW to load data into the SAP BW. Description PowerCenter supports SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) as a warehouse target only. PowerCenter Integration Server for BW enables you to include SAP Business Information Warehouse targets in your data mart or data warehouse. PowerCenter uses SAP’s Business Application Program Interface (BAPI), SAP’s strategic technology for linking components into the Business Framework, to exchange metadata with BW. Key Differences of Using PowerCenter to Populate BW Instead of a RDBMS • BW uses the pull model.BW must request data from an external source system, which is PowerCenter before the source system can send data to BW. PowerCenter uses PCISBW to register with BW first, using SAP’s Remote Function Call (RFC) protocol. External source systems provide transfer structures to BW. Data is moved and transformed within BW from one or more transfer structures to a communication structure according to transfer rules. Both, transfer structures and transfer rules, must be defined in BW prior to use. Normally this is done from the BW side. An InfoCube is updated by one communication structure as defined by the update rules. Staging BAPIs (an API published and supported by SAP) is the native interface to communicate with BW. Three PowerCenter product suites use this API. PowerCenter Designer uses the Staging BAPIs to import metadata for the target transfer structures. PCISBW uses the Staging BAPIs to register with BW and receive requests to run sessions. PowerCenter Server uses the Staging BAPIs to perform metadata verification and load data into BW. Programs communicating with BW use the SAP standard saprfc.ini file to communicate with BW. The saprfc.ini file is similar to the tnsnames file in Oracle or the interface file in Sybase. The PowerCenter Designer reads metadata from BW and the PowerCenter Server writes data to BW.




Due to its use of the pull model. Install and Configure PowerCenter and PCISBW Components The PCISBW server must be installed in the same directory as the PowerCenter Server. For more details on installation and configuration refer to the Installation Guide. Loading into the ODS is the fastest since less processing is performed on the data as it is being loaded into BW.ini on both the PowerCenter Server and the PowerCenter Client). The methods have to be chosen in BW. On NT you can have only one PCISBW. (Lots of customers choose this option) You can update the InfoCubes later. 2) ODS only 3) InfoCubes then ODS and 4) InfoCubes and ODS in parallel. 3. BW must control all scheduling. Configure the saprfc. There is no concept of update or deletes through the staging BAPIs. An active structure is the target for PowerCenter mappings loading BW. The definition must be imported to Designer. Start the PCISBW server PAGE BP-30 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 4. Build the BW Components Step 1: Create an External Source System Step 2: Create an InfoSource Step 3: Assign an External Source System Step 4: Activate the InfoSources Hint: You do not normally need to create an external Source System or an InfoSources. The BW administrator or project manager should tell you the name of the external source system and the InfoSource targets. BW supports two different methods for loading data: IDOC and TRFC (Transactional Remote Functional Call). When using IDOC. you have four options for the data target when you execute the InfoPackage: 1) InfoCubes only. all of the processing required to move data from a transfer structure to an InfoCube (transfer structure to transfer rules to communication structure to update rules to InfoCubes) is done synchronously with the InfoPackage. Key Steps To Load Data Into BW 1.ini file Required for PowerCenter and PCISBW to connect to BW. BW invokes the PowerCenter session when the InfoPackage is scheduled to run in BW. 2. BW only supports insertion of data into BW. You need the same saprfc. When using TRFC method. Informatica recommends installing PCISBW client tools in the same directory as the PowerCenter Client.• • • • • • • BW requires that all metadata extensions be defined in the BW Administrator Workbench.

Restrictions on Mappings with BW InfoSource Targets • • • • You You You You can not use BW as a lookup table. Create a Database connection Use DEST entry_for A_type of the saprfc. Specifies the BW application server. • Do not use Notepad to edit this file. you have to enter the session_name into BW. Before you can start a session. can use only one transfer structure for each mapping.ini. 6. RFC_INI is used to locate the saprfc. Register the PCISBW as a RFC server at the SAP gateway so it acts as a listener. Windows 2000 and Windows 95/98 machines equal with saprfc. Set RFC_INI environment variable for all Windows NT. open the Scheduler dialog box.Saprfc. Parameter and Connection information file .ini file: • Type A. Use the DEST_for_A_type as connect string.Start PCISBW server only after you start PowerCenter server and before you create InfoPackage in BW.ini file. You can only start a Session from BW (Scheduler in the Administrator Workbench of BW). Used by PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server. To do this. The client uses Type A for importing the transfer structure (table definition) from BW into the Designer.ini PowerCenter uses two types of entries to connect to BW through the saprfc.ini file. Notepad can corrupt the saprfc. The Server uses Type A for verify the tables and writing into BW. cannot partition pipelines with a BW target. Build mappings Import the InfoSource into PowerCenter Warehouse Designer and build a mapping using the InfoSource as a target. cannot execute stored procedure in a BW target.ini as the connect string in the PowerCenter Server Manager 7. Load data Create a session in PowerCenter and an InfoPackage in BW. To start the session go to the last tab. Type R. Pmbwserver [DEST_Entry_for_R_type] [repo_user][repo_passwd][port_for_PowerCenter_Server] Note: The & sign behind the start command doesn’t work when you start up the PCISBW in a Telnet session 5. go to the “Selection 3rd Party Tab and click on the “Selection Refresh” button (symbol is a recycling sign) which then prompts you for the session name. It then can receive the request from BW to run a session on PowerCenter Server. Used by the PowerCenter Integration Server for BW. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-31 .

You can use Update Strategy transformation in a mapping. but the PCISBW Server attempts to insert all records.trc in the PowerCenter Server directory. In some case PCISBW will generate a file with extension *. You cannot build update strategy in a mapping. PAGE BP-32 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .• • You cannot copy fields that are prefaced with /BIC/ from the InfoSource definition into other transformations. even those marked for update or delete. Look for error messages there. Error Messages PCISBW writes error messages to the screen. BW supports only inserts. It does not support updates or deletes.

which can directly import the following information. without using FTP: • • • • • COBOL and PL/1 copybooks Database definitions (DBDs) for IMS Subschemas for IDMS FDTs. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-33 . without having to write complex extract programs. so that as far as PowerCenter is concerned. via “datamaps”. The data can also be compressed and encrypted as it is being moved. called Navigator. PREDICT data and ADA-CMP data for ADABAS Physical file definitions (DDS’s) for AS/400 After the above information has been imported and saved in the datamaps. The PowerConnect client agent and listener work in tandem and. such as VSAM. Description When integrated with PowerCenter. It is an agent-based piece of software infrastructure that must be installed on OS/390 or AS/400 as either a regular batch job or started task. legacy data sources residing on mainframes and AS/400 systems. In addition. as well as to relational sources. flat files.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Challenge Accessing important. PowerConnect for Mainframe and AS400 provides fast and seamless SQL access to non-relational sources. IMS and IDMS. the mainframe or AS400 data is just a regular ODBC data source. using TCP/IP. but difficult to deal with. PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 has a Windows design tool. The ODBC layer works for both Windows and UNIX. the PowerConnect client agent must be installed on the same machine as the PowerCenter client or server. such as DB2. DDMs. PowerCenter uses SQL to access the data – which it sees as relational tables at runtime. move the data at high-speed between the two platforms in either direction. The PowerConnect client agent and PowerCenter communicate via a thin ODBC layer. ADABAS.

Review and edit (if necessary) the default table created. 4. the process is as follows: 1. Installing PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 Note: Be sure to complete the Pre-Install Checklist (included at the end of this document) prior to performing the install. PAGE BP-34 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 4. packed decimal) Ability to handle complex data structures. This is the physical view. such as COBOL OCCURS. The datamap is stored on the mainframe. This includes entering the Windows license key. adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up a client ODBC DSN. This is the logical view. Run the import process. Perform the Windows install. 1. 3. Ping the mainframe or AS/400 from Windows to ensure connectivity.g. This includes entering the mainframe or AS/400 license key and updating the configuration file (dbmover. 2. OCCURS DEPENDING ON. Perform the mainframe or AS/400 install. updating the configuration file (dbmover. Create the datamap (give it a name).Some of the key capabilities of PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 include: • • • • • • • • • Full EBCDIC-ASCII conversion Multiple concurrent data movements Support of all binary mainframe datatypes (e.cfg) to add a node entry for communication between the client and the mainframe or AS/400. 2. Specify the copybook name to be imported. 3.cfg) to change various default settings. 5. A relational table is created. ADABAS MU and PE Support for REDEFINES Date/time field masking Multiple views from single data source Bad data checking Data filtering Steps for Using the Navigator If your objective is to import a COBOL copybook from OS/390. Perform a “row test” to source the data directly from OS/390. Start the Listener on the mainframe or the AS/400 system.

increase the default TIMEOUT setting in the PowerConnect configuration files (dbmover. before importing a source from PowerConnect for the first time. Since the Informatica server communicates with PowerConnect via ODBC.DLL When creating sessions in the Server Manager. apply the PowerCenter-PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 ODBC EBF. Perform the UNIX or NT install. If entering a custom SQL override in the Source Qualifier to filter PowerConnect data.ini file by adding this entry at the end of the ODBCDLL section: DETAIL=EXTODBC. which was created when PowerConnect was installed.1800. modify the Tablename prefix in the Source Options to include the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name). This includes entering the UNIX or NT license key.5.cfg) to change various default settings. • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-35 . updating the configuration file (dbmover. along with the PowerConnect ODBC DSN that was created when PowerConnect was installed. To handle large data sources. a database connection is required to allow the server to communicate with PowerConnect. The “import from database” option in Designer is needed to pull in sources from PowerConnect. an ODBC license key is required. 6.1800).cfg) to (15. In Designer. edit the powermrt. Access sample data in Navigator as a test. the statement must be qualified with the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name). To ensure smooth integration. This should be of type ODBC. adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up the server ODBC DSN. The DSN name and connect string should be the same as PowerConnect’s ODBC DSN. Guidelines for Integrating PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 with PowerCenter • In Server Manager.

MQSeries Message has two components: PAGE BP-36 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . as opposed to a full data set. and Rank transformations because they will only be performed on one queue. and controls queue operation. Message Queue is a destination to which messages can be sent. Queue Manager • • • Informatica connects to Queue Manager to send and receive messages. Certain considerations also necessary when using Aggregators. Description MQSeries Applications communicate by sending each other messages rather than calling each other directly.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Challenge Understanding how to use MQSeries Applications in PowerCenter mappings. this is defined by the application. they can run independently of one another. (2) Message Queue and (3) MQSeries Message. Joiners. Because no open connections are needed between systems. Applications can also request data using a ‘request message’ on a message queue. Not Available to PowerCenter when using MQSeries • • • No Lookup on MQSeries sources. You must use actual server manager session to debug a queue mapping. MQSeries enforces No Structure on the content or format of the message. No Debug ‘Sessions’. Queue Manager administers queues. Every message queue belongs to a Queue Manager. MQSeries Architecture MQSeries architecture has three parts: (1) Queue Manager. creates queues.

which contains data about the queue. etc. Flat File or Binary.• • A header.this is necessary if the file is not binary. XML. MQ SQ can perform the following tasks: • • • • • Select Associated Source Qualifier . you can create and configure sessions in the Server Manager. then add the MQ Source and Source Qualifier after the mapping logic has been tested. Dynamic – Used for binary targets only and when loading data to a message header. MSGID is the primary key. A data component. Use mapping parameters and variables Associated SQ – either an Associated SQ (XML. the queue must be in a form of COBOL. then make all adjustments in the session when using MQ Series. Loading to a Queue There are two types of MQ Targets that can be used in a mapping: Static MQ Targets and Dynamic MQ Targets. • Static MQ Targets – Does not load data to the message header fields. which contains the application data or the ‘message body. XML.e. • Creating and Configuring MQSeries Sessions After you create mappings in the Designer. used for binary. You can create a session with an MQSeries mapping using the Session Wizard in the Server Manager. Set Message Data Size – default 64. MQ SQ is predefined and comes with 29 message headed fields. If an Associated SQ is used.’ Extraction from a Queue In order for PowerCenter to extract from a queue. Design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series. Filter Data – set filter conditions to filter messages using message header ports. test by actually pulling data from the queue. flat file. Note that certain message headers in a MQSeries message require a predefined set of values assigned by IBM. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-37 .000. and control syncpoint queue clean-up. control end of file. Set Tracing Level . You cannot use a MQ SQ to join two MQ sources. Only one type of MQ Target can be used in a single mapping.. (??CORRECT INTERPRETATION??) Use the target definition specific to the format of the message data (i. control incremental extraction. Once the code is working correctly. MQ SQ – Must be used to read data from an MQ source. design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series. COBOL). When extracting from a queue you need to use either of two Source Qualifiers: MQ Source Qualifier (MQ SQ) or Associated Source Qualifier (SQ). normal.verbose. Flat File) or Normalizer (COBOL) is required if the data is not in binary.

XML. select the MQ connection to use for the source message queue. Transformation datatypes are generic datatypes that PowerCenter uses during the transformation process. Note that there are two pages on the Source Options dialog: XML and MQSeries. the Source Type is set to the following: • • Heterogeneous when there is an associated source definition in the mapping. Once this is done. This indicates that the source data is coming from an MQ source. XML and COBOL source definitions. When the target is an XML file or XML message data for a target message queue. or COBOL datatypes associated with an MQSeries message data. the target type is automatically set to XML. Transformation datatypes. • Enter the Format of the Message Data in the Target Queue (ex. • PAGE BP-38 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Appendix Information PowerCenter uses the following datatypes in MQSeries mappings: • • IBM MQSeries datatypes. and the message data is in flat file. Native datatypes. • Be sure to select the MQ checkbox in Target Options for the Associated file type.Configuring MQSeries Sources MQSeries mappings cannot be partitioned if an associated source qualifier is used. MQSTR). • If you load data to a dynamic MQ target. COBOL or XML format. and click OK. • And the number of rows per message(only applies to flat file MQ Targets). Message Queue when there is no associated source definition in the mapping. Native datatypes appear in flat file. Flat file. They appear in all the transformations in the mapping. click Edit Object Properties and enter: • The Connection name of the target message Queue. the target type is automatically set to Message Queue. Configuring MQSeries Targets For Static MQSeries Targets. select File Target type from the list. For MQ Series sources. IBM MQSeries datatypes appear in the MQSeries source and target definitions in a mapping. Native datatypes also appear in flat file and XML target definitions in the mapping. You can alternate between the two pages to set configurations for each. • On the MQSeries page.


PAGE BP-40 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . PowerConnect for PeopleSoft: • • • Imports PeopleSoft source definition metadata via PowerCenter Designer using ODBC to connect to PeopleSoft tables. Also. Extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security features. To begin. Description PowerConnect for PeopleSoft supports extraction from PeopleSoft systems. Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Installation of PowerConnect for PeopleSoft is a multi-step process. The overall process involves: Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Server: • • Installation is simple like other Informatica products. to maintain consistent. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses SQL to communicate with the database server.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Challenge To maintain data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems. Extracts data during a session by directly running against the physical database tables using PowerCenter server. On UNIX. Log onto the Server machine on Windows NT/2000 or UNIX and run the setup program to select and install the PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Server. Certain drivers that enable PowerCenter to extract source data from PeopleSoft systems also need to be installed. reusable metadata across various systems and to understand the process for extracting data and metadata from PeopleSoft sources without having to write and sustain complex SQR extract programs. both the PowerCenter Client and Server have to be set up and configured. make sure to set up the PATH environment variable to include current directory. PeopleSoft saves metadata in tables that provide a description and logical view of data stored in underlying physical database table.

A tree defines the summarization rules for a database field.Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Client: • • Run the setup program and select PowerConnect for PeopleSoft client from the setup list. departments 10700 and 10800 report to the same manager. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft also imports the metadata attached to those PeopleSoft structures. While importing the PeopleSoft objects. PeopleSoft Trees A PeopleSoft tree is an object that defines the groupings and hierarchical relationships between the values of a database field. For example. It specifies how the values of a database file are grouped together for purposes of reporting or for security access. The Designer uses the PS source name as the name of the source definition. • • SQL table. For example. Importing Sources PowerConnect for PeopleSoft aids data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems and by maintaining reusable consistent metadata across various systems. PS_Record_Name. Key columns contain duplicate values. with the option to change the location. The PowerCenter Server uses the underlying database table name to extract source data. When you import a PeopleSoft record. data for the PeopleSoft records AE_REQUEST is saved in the PS_AE_REQUEST database table. the Designer imports both the PeopleSoft source name and the underlying database table name. SQL view. the values of the DEPTID field identify individual departments in your organization. precision. Client installation wizard points to the PowerCenter Client directory for the driver installation as a default. Has one-to-one relationship with underlying physical tables. For example. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts source data from two types of PeopleSoft objects: • • Records Trees PeopleSoft Records A PeopleSoft record is a table-like structure that contains columns with defined datatypes. scale and keys. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft helps in importing from the following PeopleSoft records. PeopleSoft names the underlying database tables after the records. You can use the Tree Manager to define the organizational hierarchy that specifies how each department relates to the other departments. Provides an alternative view of information in one or more database tables. department 20200 is INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-41 .

Node-oriented trees. and so on. Query access trees. The next level is made up of tree nodes that group together the detail values. Summary trees. Types of Trees The Tree Manager enables you to create many kinds of trees for a variety of purposes. but children can/do exist. which provide an alternative way to group nodes from an existing detail tree. and holds detail values. without duplicating the entire tree structure. This kind of tree is called a detail tree. PeopleSoft records are grouped into logical groups. but tree nodes from an existing detail tree. There are no branches in query trees. Flattening trees When you extract data from a PeopleSoft tree. in which database field values appear as tree nodes. Summary Trees: In a summary tree. Winter Trees: Extracts data from loose-level and strict level node-oriented trees.part of a different division. PAGE BP-42 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The tree groups the nodes from a specific level in the detail tree differently from the higher levels in the detail tree itself. in which database field values appear as detail values. and each subsequent level defines a higher level grouping of the tree nodes. It uses either of the following methods to denormalize trees. Winter trees contain no details ranges. the "lowest" level is the level farthest to the right in the Tree Manager window. Query access trees: are used to maintain security within the PeopleSoft implementation. In other words. a query written by a certain logged in user within a group can only access the rows that are part of the records that are assigned to the group the user has access to. which organize record definitions for PeopleSoft Query security. The Departmental Security tree in PeopleSoft HRMS is a good example of a node-oriented tree. the PowerCenter Server denormalizes the tree structure. This way. you build a treethat mirrors the hierarchy. the detail values aren't values from a database field. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strict level summary trees. which are represented as nodes on the tree. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from the following PeopleSoft tree structure types: Detail Trees: In the most basic type of tree. but all trees fall into these major types: • • • • Detail trees. Node Oriented trees: In a node-oriented tree. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strictlevel detail trees with static detail ranges. the tree nodes represent the data values from the database field.

You can use vertical flattening can be used with both strict-level and loose-level trees. configure an ODBC data source to connect to the Oracle database. You can only use horizontal flattening with strict level trees. PowerCenter Client and Server require a database username and password. For example. You need a user with read access to PeopleSoft system to access the PeopleSoft physical and metadata tables via an ODBC connection. configure the data source to connect to the underlying database for the PeopleSoft system. if PeopleSoft system resides on Oracle database.• • Horizontal flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a single row for each final branch node or detail range in the tree. Winter and Summary Trees Extracting Data from PeopleSoft PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security To access PeopleSoft metadata and data. you need to import its source definition. Note: If PeopleSoft already establishes database connection names. Extracting data from PeopleSoft is a three-step process: 1. You can either create separate users for metadata and source extraction or alternatively use one for both. Importing or Creating Source Definitions Before extracting data from a source. To import a PeopleSoft source definition. Vertical flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a row for each node or detail range represented in the tree. Use the Sources-Import command in PowerCenter Designer’s Source Analyzer tools to import PeopleSoft records and strict-level trees. Flattening Method Horizontal Vertical Vertical only Tree Structure Metadata Extraction Method Import Source definition Create Source definition Create Source definition Tree Levels Strict-level tree Strict-level tree Loose-level tree Detail. When creating an ODBC data source. Import or create source definition 2. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-43 . create an ODBC data source for each PeopleSoft system you want to access. Winter and Summary Trees Detail. Create and run a session 1. use the PeopleSoft database connection names. Winter and Summary Trees Detail. Create mapping 3. You can use the database system names for ODBC names.

When you configure the session. Take care when using user-defined primary-foreign key relationships with trees.After you import or create a PeopleSoft record or tree. you connect to an ERP Source Qualifier to represent the records the PowerCenter Server queries from a PeopleSoft source. so an override and a user-defined join will need to be made to correct this. A database for a PeopleTools application contains three major sets of tables: • • • System Catalog Tables store physical attributes of tables and views. Denormalization of the tables that made up the tree will be changed. 2. enter the table owner name in the session as a source table prefix. Panels are referred to as Pages. and a Server Manager database connection to create a session. there are certain tables that are stored on the database without that prefix. An ERP Source Qualifier like the Source Qualifier allows you to use user-defined joins and filters. registered PowerCenter Server. so simply altering the primary-foreign key relationship within Source Analyzer can be dangerous and it is advisable to re-import the whole tree. Application Data Tables house the actual data your users will enter and access through PeopleSoft application windows and panels. PeopleTools Tables contain information that you define using PeopleTools. If the database user is not the owner of the source tables. PeopleTools based applications are table-based systems. However. An ERP Source Qualifier is used for all ERP sources like SAP. since changes made within Tree Manager may alter such relationships. Note: PowerConnect for PeopleSoft works with all versions of PeopleSoft systems. which your database management system uses to optimize performance. Create a Mapping After you import or create the source definition. In PeopleSoft 8. Panels tab. When using the default join option between two PeopleSoft tables. PAGE BP-44 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . select PeopleSoft as the source database type and then select a PeopleSoft database connection as source database. 3. the Navigator displays and organizes sources by the PeopleSoft record or tree name by default. Importing Records You can import records from two tabs in the Import from PeopleSoft dialog box: • • Records tab. PeopleSoft etc. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses the Panels tab to import PeopleSoft 8 Pages. Creating and Running a Session You need a valid mapping. the query created will automatically append a PS_ prefix to the PeopleSoft tables.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-45 .Note: If the mapping contains a Source or ERP Qualifier with a SQL Override. the PowerCenter Server ignores the table name prefix setting for all connected sources. If you need to extract large amount of source data. PowerCenter uses SQL to extract data directly from the physical database tables. Note: You cannot partition an ERP Source Qualifier for PeopleSoft when it is connected to or associated with a PeopleSoft tree. you can partition the sources to improve session performance. performing code page translations when necessary.

All of this is accomplished without writing ABAP code. CPI-C communication protocol enables online data exchange and data conversion between R/3 system and PowerCenter . and run sessions to load SAP R/3 data into data warehouse. PowerConnect extracts data from transparent tables. build mappings. and Human Resources. while the application server stores the logical tables. such as Financial Accounting. SAP R/3 requires information such as the host name of the application server and SAP gateway.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Challenge Understanding how to install PowerConnect for SAP R/3. SAP IDOCs and ABAP function modules. Other interfaces between the two include: • Common Program Interface-Communications (CPI-C). To initialize CPI-C communication with PowerCenter. or ABAP). a language proprietary to SAP. The database server stores the physical tables in the R/3 system. and other applications. Description SAP R/3 is a software system that integrates multiple business applications. analytic applications. hierarchies(Uniform & Non Uniform). Sales and Distribution. extract data from SAP R/3. Pool and cluster tables are logical definitions on the application server that do not have a one-to-one relationship with a physical table on the database server. Communication Interfaces TCP/IP is the native communication interface between PowerCenter and SAP R/3. The R/3 system is programmed in Advance Business Application Programming-Fourth Generation (ABAP/4. cluster tables. PowerConnect for SAP R/3 provides the ability to integrate SAP R/3 data into data warehouses. A transparent table definition on the application server is represented by a single physical table on the database server. pool tables. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Server in a configuration file PAGE BP-46 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Materials Management.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-47 . the SAP protocol for program-toprogram communication. Extraction Process R/3 source definitions can be imported from the logical tables using RFC protocol. and the service name and gateway on the application server. ABAP program variables. SAP R/3 requires information such as the connection type. Stream Mode. installing ABAP program. When creating a mapping using an R/3 source definition. Transport ABAP programs from development to production. Extracting data from R/3 is a four-step process: 1. The transport system in SAP is a mechanism to transfer objects developed on one system to another system. and SAP functions to customize the ABAP program. The PowerCenter server uses parameters in the sideinfo file to connect to R/3 system when running the stream mode sessions. ABAP code blocks. Create a mapping. The PowerCenter server accesses the buffers through CPI-C. You can also use joins. Import source definitions. Extract data to buffers. The PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount.ini. filters.• named sideinfo. Remote Function Call (RFC). To execute remote calls from PowerCenter. Note: if the ABAP programs are installed in the $TMP class then they cannot be transported from development to production. and running file mode sessions. RFC is the remote communication protocol used by SAP and is based on RPC (Remote Procedure Call). PowerCenter makes remote function calls when importing source definitions. The Designer calls a function in the R/3 system to import source definitions. you must use an ERP Source Qualifier. Generate and install ABAP program. you can customize properties of the ABAP program that the R/3 server uses to extract source data. Extract data to file. 3. Transport system. Two ABAP programs can be installed for each mapping: • • File mode. There are two situations when transport system is needed: • • PowerConnect for SAP R/3 installation. Designer connects to the R/3 application server using RFC. In the ERP Source Qualifier. 2. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server in a configuration file named saprfc.

the installed ABAP program creates a file on the application server. When the session runs. • Installation and Configuration Steps For SAP R/3 The R/3 system needs development objects and user profiles established to communicate with PowerCenter. With this method. (File or Stream mode) Stream Mode. Run transport program that generate unique Ids. Preparing R/3 for integration involves the following tasks: • • Transport the development objects on the PowerCenter CD to R/3. the session must be configured to access the file through NFS mount or FTP. When a buffer fills. • Create and Run Session. PAGE BP-48 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . File Mode. the PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount and continues processing the session. The program extracts source data and loads it into the buffers.4. In stream mode. PowerCenter calls these objects each time it makes a request to the R/3 system. PowerCenter Server can process data when it is received. the program streams the data to the PowerCenter Server using CPI-C. the installed ABAP program creates buffers on the application server. When the file is complete. When running a session in file mode. The program extracts source data and loads it into the file.

Required Parameters for sideinfo • • • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system LU – host name of the SAP application server machine TP – set to sapdp<system number> GWHOST – host name of the SAP gateway machine. Create a development class for the ABAP programs that PowerCenter installs on the SAP R/3 system. Configuring the Services File On NT.• • Establish profiles in the R/3 system for PowerCenter users. The saprfc. ASHOST – host name of the SAP R/3 application server. For PowerCenter The PowerCenter Server and Client need drivers and connection files to communicate with SAP R/3. Required Parameters for saprfc. Configure the connection files: The sideinfo file on the PowerCenter Server allows PowerCenter to initiate CPI-C with the R/3 system. it is located in \winnt\system32\drivers\etc On UNIX. Configure FTP connection to access staging file through FTP. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-49 .ini • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system TYPE – set to “A” to indicate connection to specific R/3 system. GWSERV – set to sapgw<system number> PROTOCOL – set to “I” for TCP/IP connection. it is located in /etc • • sapdp<system number> <port# of dispatcher service>/TCP sapgw<system number> <port# of gateway service>/TCP The system number and port numbers are provided by the BASIS administrator. Configure Connections to run Sessions Configure database connections in the Server Manager to access the SAP R/3 system when running a session. SYSNR – system number of the SAP R/3 application server.ini file on the PowerCenter Client and Server allows PowerCenter to connect to the R/3 system as an RFC client. Preparing PowerCenter for integration involves the following tasks: • • • • Run installation programs on PowerCenter Server and Client machines.

The transport process creates a development class called ZERP. Install PowerConnect for SAP R/3 on PowerCenter. Configure the database connection to run session. For example: qualifying table = table1field1 = table2-field2 where the qualifying table is the “last” table in the condition based on the join order. 5. Import IDOCS. you may encounter key constraint errors when you load the data warehouse.Steps to Configure PowerConnect on PowerCenter 1. If you use R/3 source to create target definitions in the Warehouse Designer. production program files. or dev4x transport on a 3. Configure the FTP connection to access staging files through FTP. • • • • • • • • PAGE BP-50 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . such as WordPad. and running sessions. filters. Configure the sideinfo file. Be sure to note the following considerations regarding SAP R/3: You must have proper authorization on the R/3 system to perform integrated tasks.ini file. 4. structure fields or values in the ABAP program Removal of ABAP program Information from SAP R/3 and the repository when a folder is deleted. (MARA = MARA-MATNR = ‘189’) Customization of the ABAP program flow with joins. The R/3 system administrator must use the transport control program tp import. The installation CD includes devinit. 3. do not install the dev3x transport on a 4. edit the keys in the target definition before you build the physical targets. Do not use Notepad to edit saprfc. To avoid these errors.ini Set the RFC_INI environment variable. 2. you cannot install the ABAP program.x system. To avoid problems extracting metadata. to transport these objects files on the R/3 system. dev3x. installing programs. Use of static filters to reduce return rows. dev4x. Use of outer join when two or more sources are joined in the ERP Source Qualifier. If your mapping has hierarchy definitions only. The R/3 administration needs to create authorization.x system. Insert ABAP Code Block to add more functionality to the ABAP program flow. SAP functions and code blocks. R/3 does not always maintain referential integrity between primary key and foreign key relationship. Key Capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 Some key capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 include: • • • • • • Import SAP function in the Source Analyzer. Creation of ABAP Program variables to represent SAP R/3 structures. 6. Use a text editor. Configure the saprfc. profiles and userids for PowerCenter users.

an ABAP program variable and a source filter if the ABAP program flow contains a hierarchy and no other sources. The PowerCenter server also trims trailing blanks for CUKY and UNIT data. add the flag: AllowTrailingBlanksForSAPCHAR=Yes in the pmserver. You cannot use dynamic filters on IDOC source definitions in the ABAP program flow. This causes the session to fail You cannot generate and install ABAP programs from mapping shortcuts. When the PowerCenter extracts CHAR data from SAP R/3. When this ABAP code is generated however. it does not automatically create a transport for the ABAP code that it just generated. If a mapping contains both hierarchies and tables. This allows you to compare R/3 data with other source data without having use the RTRIM function. depending on which environment you’re in. You cannot use an ABAP code block. you have to add that parameter as a string value to the key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\PowerMa rt\Parameters\MiscInfo PowerCenter has the ability to generate the ABAP code for the mapping. you must generate the ABAP program using file mode. you should be able to just switch your mapping to point to either the development or production instance at the session level. So for migration purposes. The transport must need to be created manually within SAP and then transported to the Production environment Given that the development and production SAP systems are identical. SAP R/3 stores all CHAR data with trailing blanks. you may not want the PowerCenter Server to trim the trailing blanks.cfg If PowerCenter server is on NT/2000. If you are upgrading and your mappings use the blanks to compare R/3 data with other data.• • • • • • • • • Do not use the Select Distinct option for LCHR when the length is greater than 2000 and the underlying database is Oracle. To avoid trimming the trailing blanks. all you need to do is change the database connections at the session level. it treats it as VARCHAR data and trims the trailing blanks. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-51 .

Records supplied by the source system include only new or changed records. making the process of loading into the warehouse without compromising its functionality increasingly difficult. Source Analysis Data sources typically fall into the following possible scenarios: • • • Delta Records . The following pages describe several possible load strategies. reloading. updates and delete. The design should allow data to be incrementally added to the data warehouse with minimal impact to the overall system. The goal is to create a load strategy that will minimize downtime for the warehouse and allow quick and robust data management. Slowly changing dimensions– Informatica Wizards for generic mappings (a good start to an incremental load strategy). it is important to understand the impact of a suitable incremental load strategy. Error-un/loading data– strategies for recovering. and unloading data. Data will be loaded into the warehouse based upon the last processing date or the effective date range.Records that include columns that specify the intention of the record to be populated into the warehouse.Incremental Loads Challenge Data warehousing incorporates large volumes of data. Date stamped data . Record Indicator or Flags . all records are generally inserted or updated into the data warehouse. Records can be selected based upon this flag to all for inserts. In this scenario.Data is organized by timestamps. PAGE BP-52 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . History tracking–keeping track of what has been loaded and when. Description As time windows shrink and data volumes increase. Considerations • • • • Incremental Aggregation –loading deltas into an aggregate table.

Take care to ensure that the record exists for updates or deletes or the record can be successfully inserted.Surrogate keys will be created and all data will be inserted into the warehouse based upon validity of the records. inserted as a new record. For example. determine if the record needs to be updated. take care to ensure the data volumes are manageable. If the record does not exist. it is necessary to determine which records will be entered into the warehouse and how. insert the record as a new row. Joins of Sources to Targets. You can use this table for comparison with lookups or joins. This particular strategy requires bulk loads into the warehouse. 2. or removed (deleted from target or filtered out and not added to the warehouse). Here are some considerations: • Compare with the target table. This occurs in cases of delta loads. lookup the keys or critical columns in the target relational database. data must be checked against what has already been entered into the warehouse. Source Based Load Strategies Complete Incremental Loads in a Single File/Table The simplest method of incremental loads is from flat files or a database in which all records will be loaded. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-53 . Record indicators can be beneficial when lookups into the target are not necessary. Loading Method Data can be loaded directly from these locations into the data warehouse. • Determine the Method of Comparison 1. Using the lookup transformation. timestamps. Keep in mind the caches and indexing possibilities 3. keys or surrogate keys. More design effort may be needed to manage errors in these situations. Generate a log table of records that have been already inserted into the target system. Record indicators.When only key values are present. If it does exist. Identify Which Records Need to be Compared Once the sources are identified. Records are directly joined to the target using Source Qualifier join conditions or using joiner transformations after the source qualifiers (for heterogeneous sources).• • Key values are present . No Key values present . store keys in the a separate table and compare source records against this log table to determine load strategy. All values must be checked before entering the warehouse. Lookup on target. Determine if the record exists in the target table. Load table log. with no overhead on processing of the sources or sorting the source records. depending on the need and volume. When using joiner transformations. There is no additional overhead produced in moving these sources into the warehouse.

recovery and update strategy. The alternative is to use control tables to store the date and update the control table after each load. Views can also be created to perform the selection criteria so the processing will not have to be incorporated into the mappings. Load Method It may be possible to do a join with the target tables in which new data can be selected and loaded into the target. If they exist. The mapping will be responsible for error control. A router transformation or a filter can be placed after the source qualifier to remove old records. Non-relational data can be filtered as records are loaded based upon the effective dates or sequenced keys. records that contain key information such as primary keys. To compare the effective dates. For example. refer to Best Practice: Variable and Mapping Parameters. alternate keys etc can be used to determine if they have already been entered into the data warehouse. Loading Method With the use of relational sources.Date Stamped Data This method involves data that has been stamped using effective dates or sequences. The incremental load can be determined by dates greater than the previous load date or data that has an effective key greater than the last key processed. you can use mapping variables to provide the previous date processed. Load into Flat Files and Bulk Load using an External Loader PAGE BP-54 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the records can be selected based on this effective date and only those records past a certain date will be loaded into the warehouse. Target Based Load Strategies Load Directly into the Target Loading directly into the target is possible when the data will be bulk loaded. It may also be feasible to lookup in the target to see if the data exists or not. For detailed instruction on how to select dates. Changed Data based on Keys or Record Information Data that is uniquely identified by keys can be selected based upon selection criteria. Placing the load strategy into the ETL component is much more flexible and controllable by the ETL developers and metadata. you can also check to see if you need to update these records or discard the source record.

This is a very important issue that everyone should understand. state your initial value. An external loader can be invoked at that point to bulk load the data into the target. In the same screen. in this case. This is the date at which the load should start. making the mirror the active database and the active as the mirror. the databases are switched. 'MM-DD-YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Step 3: Use the Mapping Variable in an Expression INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-55 . Using Mapping Variables and Parameter Files A mapping variable can be used to perform incremental loading. Here are the steps involved in this method: Step 1: Create Mapping Variable In the Informatica Designer. The date must follow one of these formats: • • • • MM/DD/RR MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS MM/DD/YYYY MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS Step 2: Use the Mapping Variable in the Source Qualifier The select statement will look like the following: Select * from tableA Where CREATE_DATE > to_date('$$INCREMENT_DATE'. The mapping variable is used in the join condition in order to select only the new data that has been entered based on the create_date or the modify_date. This method reduces the load times (with less downtime for the data warehouse) and also provide a means of maintaining a history of data being loaded into the target. The source system must have a reliable date to use. Typically this method is only used for updates into the warehouse.The mapping will load data directly into flat files. go to the menu and select Mappings.. Name the variable and. select MAX. make your variable a date/time. whichever date can be used to identify a newly inserted record. Load into a Mirror Database The data will be loaded into a mirror database to avoid down time of the active data warehouse. with the mapping designer open. then select Parameters and Values. For the Aggregation option. After data has been loaded.

If all subsequent rows are LESS than that. then 9/1/2001 is preserved. In the expression create a variable port and use the SETMAXVARIABLE variable function and do the following: SETMAXVARIABLE($$INCREMENT_DATE. No table is needed to store the max(date)since the variable takes care of it. You can use the variable functions in the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy The variable constantly holds (per row) the max value between source and variable.For the purpose of this example. then the variable gets that value. The value of the mapping variable and incremental loading is that it allows the session to use only the new rows of data. that is the PERSISTENT value stored in the repository for the next run of your session. So if one row comes through with 9/1/2001. PAGE BP-56 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .CREATE_DATE) CREATE_DATE is the date for which you would like to store the maximum value. After the mapping completes. You can view the value of the mapping variable in the session log file. use an expression to work with the variable functions to set and use the mapping variable.

• • • Avoid calculating or testing the same value over and over. a Source Qualifier). General Suggestions for Optimizing 1. use variables to calculate a value used several times. 3.Mapping Design Challenge Use the PowerCenter tool suite to create an efficient execution environment. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-57 . use many times. and set a True/False flag. This is also helpful for maintenance. • • Delete unnecessary links between transformations to minimize the amount of data moved. Only connect what is used. 2.g. Reduce the number of transformations • • There is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations. Use mapplets to leverage the work of critical developers and minimize mistakes when performing similar functions. Session shared memory between 12M and 40MB should suffice. Calculate it once in an expression. Within an expression. most sessions and/or mappings can benefit from the implementation of common objects and optimization procedures.. Description Although PowerCenter environments vary widely. Follow these procedures and rules of thumb when creating mappings to help ensure optimization. if you exchange transformations (e. Consider more shared memory for large number of transformations. particularly in the Source Qualifier. Calculate once.

e. the server reads the source for each Source Qualifier. Facilitate reuse. Remove or reduce field-level stored procedures.024 or less. This typically improves performance by 10-20%. Minimize data type changes between transformations by planning data flow prior to developing the mapping.. • • • The engine automatically converts compatible types.024. and happens on every transformation.048 byte row PAGE BP-58 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . one for delete and one for update/insert). 5. • • Single-pass reading is the server’s ability to use one Source Qualifier to populate multiple targets. Use variables. If the row byte count is more than 1. This is only true if the standard row byte count is 1. use tracing levels to identify which transformation is causing the bottleneck (use the Test Load option in session properties). The rule of thumb is not to cache any table over 500.4. Lookup Transformation Optimizing Tips • • When your source is large. 6.000 rows. Sometimes conversion is excessive. a 2..g. placing filters. aggregators as close to source as possible). When DTM bottlenecks are identified and session optimization has not helped. cache lookup table columns for those lookup tables of 500. PowerMart has to make a call to that stored procedure for every row so performance will be slow. If you have different Source Qualifiers for the same source (e. 7. 8. For any additional Source Qualifier.e.. • • • Plan for reusable transformations upfront. The table with the lesser number of rows should be the driving/master table. Select appropriate driving/master table while using joins. then the 500k rows will have to be adjusted down as the number of bytes increase (i. Only manipulate data that needs to be moved and transformed. If you use field-level stored procedures. Use mapplets to encapsulate multiple reusable transformations. Reducing the number of records used throughout the mapping provides better performance Use active transformations that reduce the number of records as early in the mapping as possible (i. Utilize single-pass reads. the server reads this source.000 rows or less. • • 9. • • • Delete unused ports particularly in Source Qualifier and Lookups. Watch the data types.

g. Replace Aggregate Transformation object with an Expression Transformation object and an Update Strategy Transformation for certain types of Aggregations. cache for more than 5-10 lookup calls. 15. • • • • • • 14. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL Selects where appropriate. • • • Operations and Expression Optimizing Tips Numeric operations are faster than string operations.• • • • can drop the cache row count to 250K – 300K. Suggestions for Using Mapplets INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-59 . less than 5.. 13. consider replacing with an unconnected. 11.e. Examine mappings via Repository Reporting. When using a Lookup Table Transformation. CONCAT). trim spaces before comparing). Optimize char-varchar comparisons (i. 12. Minimize aggregate function calls. uncached lookup Review complex expressions.. If working with data that is not able to return sorted data (e. replace with string.. If caching lookups and performance is poor. so the lookup table will not be cached in this case). Operators are faster than functions (i. For small lookup tables. improve lookup performance by placing all conditions that use the equality operator ‘=’ first in the list of conditions under the condition tab. Replace lookup with decode or IIF (for small sets of values). Fixed-width files are faster to load than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing. Avoid date comparisons in lookup. For fewer number of lookup calls. consider loading first to a source flat file into a relational database. 10.000 rows. Test expression timing by replacing with constant. 11. do not cache if the number of lookup table rows is big. Use Flat Files Using flat files located on the server machine loads faster than a database located in the server machine. Cache only lookup tables if the number of lookup calls is more than 10-20% of the lookup table rows. Web Logs) consider using the Sorter Advanced External Procedure.e. || vs. If processing intricate transformations. Optimize IIF expressions.

2. Active mapplets contain at least one active transformation. The server then runs the session as it would any other session. these include: COBOL source definitions. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. nonreusable sequence generator. add. it expands the mapplet. To pass data out of a mapplet. Sources outside the mapplet. rather than recreate the same lookup logic in each mapping. you can create a mapplet containing a series of Lookup transformations to find each dimension key. all changes made to the parent mapplet logic are inherited by every ‘child’ instance of the mapplet. the mapplet provides source data for the mapping and is the first object in the mapping data flow. Source data for a mapplet can originate from one of two places: • Sources within the mapplet. When the server runs a session using a mapplet. All uses of a mapplet are all tied to the ‘parent’ mapplet. To create a mapplet.or post-session stored procedures. and PowerMart 3. you use an instance of the mapplet.A mapplet is a reusable object that represents a set of transformations. passing data through each transformation in the mapplet as designed. connect. Passive mapplets only contain passive transformations. joiner. and configure transformations to complete the desired transformation logic. 4. Create a mapplet when you want to use a standardized set of transformation logic in several mappings. you can use it in a mapping to represent the transformations within the mapplet. A mapplet can be active or passive depending on the transformations in the mapplet. 3. if you have several fact tables that require a series of dimension keys. target definitions. • 7.5 style lookup functions 5. Being aware of this property when using mapplets can save time when debugging invalid mappings. data passes through the mapplet as part of the mapping data flow. There are several unsupported transformations that should not be used in a mapplet. PAGE BP-60 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . You can then use the mapplet in each fact table mapping. Hence. After you save a mapplet. pre. Use a mapplet Input transformation to define input ports. It allows you to reuse transformation logic and can contain as many transformations as necessary. Use one or more source definitions connected to a Source Qualifier or ERP Source Qualifier transformation. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. When you use a mapplet in a mapping. For example. normalizer. Each port in an Output transformation connected to another transformation in the mapplet becomes a mapplet output port. create mapplet output ports. Do not reuse mapplets if you only need one or two transformations of the mapplet while all other calculated ports and transformations are obsolete 6. 1.

Reduce to one Output Transformation otherwise you need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet.• • Active mapplets with more than one Output transformations. You need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-61 . This means you cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping. You cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping. Passive mapplets with more than one Output transformations.

variable. • Effective with the release of version 5. it will also require a substantial amount of time to do so. Informatica PowerCenter contains a Metadata Reporter. The Metadata Reporter allows report access to every Informatica object stored in the repository. These views can be found in the Informatica Metadata Exchange (MX) Cookbook. sources. Because Informatica does not support or recommend direct reporting access to the repository. and primary keys are stored in the repository. Description The levels of metadata available in the Informatica tool suite are quite extensive.0. Description information can be entered for all repository objects. targets. etc. You also can drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. data types. Also. • Metadata Reporter The need for the Informatica Metadata Reporter arose from the number of clients requesting custom and complete metadata reports from their repositories.Metadata Reporting and Sharing Challenge Using Informatica’s suite of metadata tools effectively in the design of the end-user analysis application. all information about column size and scale. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column. the second way of repository metadata reporting is through the use of views written using Metadata Exchange (MX). Informatica offers two recommended ways for accessing the repository metadata. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata. expression. etc. The Metadata Reporter is a web-based application that allows you to run reports against the repository metadata. with an Internet PAGE BP-62 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . transformations. The architecture of the Metadata Reporter is web-based. The amount of metadata that is entered is dependent on the business requirements. even for Select only queries. Therefore. The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines.

Ex. • • • The Metadata Reporter provides 15 standard reports that can be customized with the use of parameters and wildcards. The Metadata Reporter allows you to set parameters for the metadata objects to include in the report. The reports provide information about all types of metadata objects. Make sure the proper JDBC drivers are installed for your database platform. Syntax .3.3 (Note: The Metadata Reporter will not run directly on Microsoft IIS because IIS does not directly support servlets. The reports are as follows: • • • • Batch Report Executed Session Report Executed Session Report by Date Invalid Mappings Report INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-63 . your sources or targets or PowerMart or PowerCenter The reports in the Metadata Reporter are customizable. As you view a report. the Metadata Reporter has several benefits: • The Metadata Reporter is comprehensive. The Metadata Reporter connects to your Informatica repository using JDBC drivers. You can run reports on any repository.1 Jrun 2. Because the Metadata Reporter is web-based. You do not need direct access to the repository database. you can generate reports for objects on which you need more information. even without the other Informatica Client tools being installed on that computer. The Metadata Reporter is easily accessible. The name of any metadata object that displays on a report links to an associated report. (Note: You can also use the JDBC to ODBC bridge to connect to the repository.3 with Jserv 1. The Metadata Reporter allows you to go easily from one report to another. You can install the Metadata Reporter on a server running either UNIX or Windows that contains a supported web server. The Metadata Reporter contains servlets that must be installed on a web server that runs the Java Virtual Machine and supports the Java Servlet API.jdbc:odbc:<data_source_name>) Although the Repository Manager provides a number of Crystal Reports.1 or higher Apache 1.browser front end. The currently supported web servers are: • • • iPlanet 4.) The Metadata Reporter is accessible from any computer with a browser that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed. you can generate reports from any machine that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed.

The primary requirements and features of MX2 are: Incorporation of object technology in a COM-based API. PAGE BP-64 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Self-contained Software Development Kit (SDK). Extensive metadata content. Although the overall motivation for creating the second generation of MX remains consistent with the original intent. and various relationships. consult the Metadata Reporter Guide included in your PowerCenter Documentation. or Visual Basic. Informatica and several key vendors. the increasing popularity and use of object-oriented software tools require interfaces that can fully take advantage of the object technology. including Brio. C++. the requirements and objectives of MX2 supersede those of MX. MX2 is implemented in C++ and offers an advanced object-based API for accessing and manipulating the PowerCenter Repository from various programming languages. The same requirement also holds for MX2. and MicroStrategy. Java. such as hierarchies. A number of BI tools and upstream data warehouse modeling tools require complex multidimensional metadata. Metadata Exchange: The Second Generation (MX2) The MX architecture was intended primarily for Business Intelligence (BI) vendors who wanted to create a PowerCenter-based data warehouse and then display the warehouse metadata through their own products. The result was a set of relational views that encapsulated the underlying repository tables while exposing the metadata in several categories that were more suitable for external parties. Informatica currently supports the second generation of Metadata Exchange called MX2. Business Objects. Cognos. One of the key advantages of MX views is that they are part of the repository database and thus could be used independent of any of the Informatica’s software products. thus leading to the development of a self-contained API Software Development Kit that can be used independently of the client or server products. Today. it’s not suitable for procedural programming tasks that can be achieved by C. are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata. especially multidimensional models for OLAP. levels.• • • • • • • • • • • Job Report Lookup Table Dependency Report Mapping Report Mapplet Report Object to Mapping/Mapplet Dependency Report Session Report Shortcut Report Source Schema Report Source to Target Dependency Report Target Schema Report Transformation Report For a detailed description of how to run these reports. Furthermore. Although SQL provides a powerful mechanism for accessing and manipulating records of data in a relational paradigm.

MX2 alleviates this problem by offering a set of object-based APIs that are abstracted away from the details of the underlying relational tables. based on the standard Unified Modeling Language (UML). Given that metadata will reside in different databases and files in a distributed software environment. such tasks could only be accomplished by directly manipulating the repository’s relational tables. Ability to write (push) metadata into the repository. The MX2 interfaces provide metadata write capabilities along with the appropriate verification and validation features to ensure the integrity of the metadata in the repository. The object-based technology used in MX2 provides the infrastructure needed to implement automatic metadata synchronization and change propagation across different tools that access the Informatica Repository. The object-based technology of MX2 supports a multi-tier architecture so that a future Informatica Repository Server could be accessed from a variety of thin client programs running on different operating systems. Synchronization of metadata based on changes from up-stream and downstream tools. any existing or future program that is COMcompliant can seamlessly interface with the Informatica Repository by means of MX2. With the advent of the Internet and distributed computing.This type of metadata was specifically designed and implemented in the repository to accommodate the needs of our partners by means of the new MX2 interfaces. synchronizing changes and updates ensures the validity and integrity of the metadata. The Microsoft Repository and its OIM schema. Complete encapsulation of the underlying repository organization by means of an API. Therefore. MX2 interfaces comply with Microsoft’s Component Object Model (COM) interoperability protocol. Interoperability with other COM-based programs and repository interfaces. Integration with third-party tools. multi-tier architectures are becoming more widely accepted for accessing and managing metadata and data. MX2 offers the object-based interfaces needed to develop more sophisticated procedural programs that can tightly integrate the repository with the third-party data warehouse modeling and query/reporting tools. Support for Microsoft’s UML-based Open Information Model (OIM). Framework to support a component-based repository in a multi-tier architecture. This also facilitates robust metadata exchange with the Microsoft Repository and other software that support this repository. Informatica has worked in close cooperation with Microsoft to ensure that the logical object model of MX2 remains consistent with the data warehousing components of the Microsoft Repository. could become a de facto general-purpose repository standard. thus providing an easier mechanism for managing schema evolution. As a result. Because of the limitations associated with relational views. MX could not be used for writing or updating metadata in the Informatica repository. As a result. One of the main challenges with MX views and the interfaces that access the repository tables is that they are directly exposed to any schema changes of the underlying repository database. maintenance of the MX views and direct interfaces becomes a major undertaking with every major upgrade of the repository. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-65 .

extensible API based on the standard COM protocol. or Windows NT using the install program provided with its SDK. After the successful installation of MX2. but also leverages the existing C++ object model to provide an open. The MX2 COM APIs support the PowerCenter XML Import/Export feature and provide a COM based programming interface in which to import and export repository objects.MX2 Architecture MX2 provides a set of COM-based programming interfaces on top of the C++ object model used by the client tools to access and manipulate the underlying repository. PAGE BP-66 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 98. its interfaces are automatically registered and available to any software through standard COM programming techniques. This architecture not only encapsulates the physical repository structure. MX2 can be automatically installed on Windows 95.

g.and sometimes the most difficult in determining naming conventions. given that multiple development groups need to use the PowerCenter server. the suggestions in this document focus on the former. It is important to note that having a good naming convention will help facilitate a smooth migration and improve readability for anyone reviewing the processes. Whenever an object is shared between projects.. FAQs The following paragraphs present some of the questions that typically arise in naming repositories and suggest answers: Q: What are the implications of numerous repositories or numerous folders within a repository. Q: What naming convention is recommended for Repository Folders? • Something specific (e. the object should be stored in a shared work area so each of the individual projects can utilize a shortcut to the object. and each group works independently? • One consideration for naming conventions is how to segregate different projects and data mart objects from one another. Choosing a convention and sticking with it is the key point . Description Repository Naming Conventions Although naming conventions are important for all repository and database objects.Naming Conventions Challenge Choosing a good naming standard for the repository and adhering to it. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-67 . Mappings are listed in alphabetical order. Company_Department_Project-Name_Prod) is appropriate if multiple repositories are expected for various projects and/or departments.

It is not advisable to rename an object that is currently being used in a production environment. The drawback is that when an object needs to be modified to incorporate some other business logic. External Procedure ext_ProcedureName Transform: Filter Transform: fil_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. the name no longer accurately describes the object. mappings.g. Joiner Transform: jnr_SourceTable/FileName1_ SourceTable/FileName2 Lookup Transform: lkp_LookupTableName Mapplet: mplt_Description Mapping Variable: $$Function or Process that is being done Mapping Parameter: $$Function or Process that is being done Normalizer Transform: nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. etc. joiners.g. etc. targets. Transformation Objects Naming Convention Advanced External aep_ProcedureName Procedure Transform: Aggregator Transform: agg_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.Note that incorporating functions in the object name makes the name more descriptive at a higher level. sessions.) and repository objects (e. seq_Function sq_SourceTable1_SourceTable2 SpStoredProcedureName UpdTargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the procession being done Naming Convention m_TargetTable1_TargetTable2 s_MappingName bs_BatchName for a sequential batch and bc_BatchName for a concurrent batch. Normalizer Transform: Sequence Generator: Source Qualifier Transform: Stored Procedure Update Strategy Repository Objects Mapping Name: Session Name: Batch Names: PAGE BP-68 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Use descriptive names cautiously and at a high enough level. sources. lookups. The following tables illustrate some naming conventions for transformation objects (e... Rank Transform: rnk_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. Router: rtr_TARGETTABLE that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done Group Name: Function_TargetTableName(s) (e.g. Expression Transform: exp_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.). INSERT_EMPLOYEE or UPDATE_EMPLOYEE) nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.

A prefix. failed rows. For variables inside a transformation. This helps trace the port value throughout the mapping as it may travel through many other transformations. you should use the prefix 'var_' plus a meaningful name. In that case. the port should be prefixed with the appropriate name. The grouping can be based on project. if a mapping has four instances of CUSTOMER_DIM table according to update strategy (Update. For example. etc. the tables should be named as follows: • • • • CUSTOMER_DIM_UPD CUSTOMER_DIM_INS CUSTOMER_DIM_DEL CUSTOMER_DIM_REJ Port Names Ports names should remain the same as the source unless some other action is performed on the port. such as 'b_' should be used and there should be a suffix indicating if the batch is serial or concurrent.Folder Name Folder names should logically group sessions and mappings. Insert. the port should be prefixed with “IN_”. This will help the user immediately identify the ports that are being inputted without having to line up the ports with the input checkbox. or some combination of these. there will be the several instances with own successful rows. Target Table Names There are often several instances of the same target. Batch init_load incr_load wkly mtly Session Postfixes Initial Load indicates this session should only be used one time to load initial data to the targets. Reject. It is a good idea to prefix generated output ports. usually because of different actions. Batch Names Batch names follow basically the same rules as the session names. Incremental Load is a update of the target and normally run periodically indicates a weekly run of this session / batches indicates a monthly run of this session / batches Shared Objects INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-69 . When looking at a session run. promotion group. subject area. When you bring a source port into a lookup or expression. Delete). targets should be named according to the action being executed on that target. To make observing a session run easier.

testers. If the Database Connection information does not already exist in the folder you are copying to. For example. like an Expression transformation that calculates sales tax. Using a convention like User1_DW allows you to know who the session is logging in as and to what database.TableA in the repository.TableA in the repository. and mapplets. there is a risk of analyzing the same table using different names. to test. These objects are sources. creating confusion for developers. if you are creating a session in your QA repository using connection User1_DW. TableA gets analyzed in on machine 1. session information is also copied. As you migrate objects from dev. the users are allowed to create shortcuts to objects in the folder. do not call it dev_db01. If ODBC DSNs are different across multiple machines. If you have an object that you want to use in several mappings or across multiple folders.Any object within a folder can be shared. For example. and even in your PAGE BP-70 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and potentially end users. ODBC database names should clearly describe the database they reference to ensure that users do not incorrectly point sessions to the wrong databases. Once the folder is shared. SC_DUAL. Database Connection Information A good convention for database connection information is UserName_ConnectString. So. Using this convention will allow for easier migration if you choose to use the Copy Folder method. you can place the object in a shared folder. The result is that the repository may refer to the same object by multiple names. For example. To share objects in a folder. they will eventually wind up in your QA. You can then use the object in other folders by creating a shortcut to the object in this case the naming convention is ‘SC_’ for instance SC_mltCREATION_SESSION. machine1 has ODBS DSN Name0 that points to database1. You should know which DW database. PowerCenter uniquely identifies a source by its Database Data Source (DBDS) and its name. refrain from using environment tokens in the ODBC DSN. The DBDS is the same name as the ODBC DSN since the PowerCenter Client talks to all databases through ODBC. based on which repository environment. TableA is uniquely identified as Name1. Be careful not to include machine names or environment tokens in the Database Connection Name. Database Connection names must be very generic to be understandable and enable a smooth migration. When you use Copy Folder. Machine2 has ODBS DSN Name1 that points to database1. it is also copied. mappings. ODBC Data Source Names Set up all Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) data source names (DSNs) the same way on all client machines. to prod. you are working in. the folder must be designated as shared. if you use connections with names like Dev_DW in your development repository. targets. Also. TableA is uniquely identified as Name0. the session will write to the QA DW database because you are in the QA repository. TableA gets analyzed in on machine 2. transformations. you are likely to wind up with source objects called dev_db01 in the production repository.

Manual intervention would then be necessary to change connection names. when you copy a folder from Dev to QA. your sessions are ready to go into the QA repository with no manual intervention required. and possibly even connect strings. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-71 . user names. Now. your sessions will automatically hook up to the connection that already exists in the QA repository. passwords. Instead. if you have a User1_DW connection in each of your three environments.Production repository as you migrate folders.

Parallel execution benefits systems that have the following characteristics: • Under utilized or intermittently used CPUs. If there are CPU cycles PAGE BP-72 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 1. see the Partitioning Rules and Validation section of the Designer Help). it may be possible to improve performance through parallel execution of the Informatica server engine. COBOL and standard flat files. However. Follow these three steps when partitioning your session. determine if you should partition your session. and by coordinating the interaction between sessions. These considerations include source and target database setup. partitions. Description On hardware systems that are under-utilized. To determine if this is the case. there are several other factors to consider when determining if a session is an ideal candidate for partitioning. The column “ID” displays the percentage utilization of CPU idling during the specified interval without any I/O wait. check the CPU usage of your machine: UNIX–type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line.1. First. the iterative process of adding partitions can begin. parallel execution may impair performance on over-utilized systems or systems with smaller I/O capacity. and mapping design. When these factors have been considered and a partitioned strategy has been selected. (The Designer client tool is used to implement session partitioning. Continue adding partitions to the session until the desired performance threshold is met or degradation in performance is observed. Besides hardware. XML. target type. These strategies take advantage of the enhanced partitioning capabilities in PowerCenter 5. and CPUs.Session and Data Partitioning Challenge Improving performance by identifying strategies for partitioning relational tables.

Sufficient memory. it may be necessary to allocate more memory. The following are selected hints for session setup. PI displays number of pages swapped in from the page space during the specified interval. You can only use • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-73 . the unused capacity of the CPU. The source data should be partitioned into equal sized chunks for each partition. For a session with n partitions. Set DTM Buffer Memory. If too much memory is allocated to your session. To determine if the session is paging. Sufficient I/O. As with any session. The next step is to set up the partition. A notable increase in performance can also be realized when the actual source and target tables are partitioned. 2. To determine the I/O statistics: UNIX– type IOSTAT on the command line. • • • Add one partition at a time. using an external loader may increase session performance. To best monitor performance. this value should be at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session. follow these steps: UNIX – type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line. Partition the source data evenly. The column “%IOWAIT” displays the percentage of CPU time spent idling while waiting for I/O requests. and note your session settings before you add each partition. PO displays the number of pages swapped out to the page space during the specified interval. Set cached values for Sequence Generator. Work with the DBA to discuss the partitioning of source and target tables. if possible. If you must set this value to a value greater than zero.. you will receive a memory allocation error. add one partition at a time. Consider Using External Loader. see the Session and Server Guide for further directions on setting up partitioned sessions. NT – check the task manager performance tab. • NT – check the task manager performance tab. make sure it is at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session.available (twenty percent or more idle time) then this session’s performance may be improved by adding a partition. and the setup of tablespaces. Check to see that you’re using as much memory as you can. For a session with n partitions.e. increase the memory. there should be no need to use the “Number of Cached Values” property of the sequence generator. If these values indicate that paging is occurring. Partition tables. The column “%idle” displays the total percentage of the time that the CPU spends idling (i.) • NT – check the task manager performance tab. If the session is paging.

When you partition a session and there are cached lookups. Check the session statistics to see if you have increased the write throughput. the system may start paging to disk. When you partition a source that uses a static lookup cache. to reduce network overhead and delay. 3. COBOL and XML. All possible indexes are dropped or disabled on relational targets. you must make sure that DTM memory is increased to handle the lookup caches. the memory requirements will grow for each partition. Table Spaces and Database Partitions are properly managed on the target system. If the session performance is improved and the session meets the requirements of step 1. These conditions can help to maximize the benefits that can be achieved through partitioning. • • • • • • • Indexing has been implemented on the partition key when using a relational source.Oracle external loaders for partitioning. • • Write throughput. If the memory is not bumped up. in order to reduce network overhead and delay. Refer to the Session and Server Guide for more information on using and setting up the Oracle external loader for partitioning. Assumptions The following assumptions pertain to the source and target systems of a session that is a candidate for partitioning. Oracle External Loaders are utilized whenever possible (Parallel Mode). Check to see if the session is now causing the system to page. the Informatica Server creates one memory cache for each partition and one disk cache for each transformation. Paging. Target files are written to same physical machine that hosts the PMServer process. causing degradation in performance. add another partition. All possible constraints are dropped or disabled on relational targets. PAGE BP-74 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Source files are located on the same physical machine as the PMServer process when partitioning flat files. The third step is to monitor the session to see if the partition is degrading or improving session performance. Therefore.

Transformation variables were defined as variable ports in a transformation and could only be used in that specific Transformation object (e. it provides built-in parameters for use within Server Manager. This is similar to creating a port in most transformations. Log Files. Informatica added four functions to affect change to mapping variables: • • • • SetVariable SetMaxVariable SetMinVariable SetCountVariable INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-75 . the only variables inherent to the product were defined to specific transformations and to those Server variables that were global in nature. data type. global parameters defined within Server Manager would affect the subdirectories for Source Files. etc.Using Parameters. PowerCenter 5. by definition. these values can change from session-run to session-run. precision and scale. Target Files. Variables and Parameter Files Challenge Understanding how parameters. you use the pop-up window to create a variable by specifying its name. variables. Using parameter files. Aggregator and Rank Transformations).x.g. Mapping Variables You declare mapping variables in PowerCenter Designer using the menu option Mappings -> Parameters and Variables. Variables. Expression. and parameter files work and using them for maximum efficiency.. initial value.x has made variables and parameters available across the entire mapping rather than for a specific transformation object. In addition. Similarly. Description Prior to the release of PowerCenter 5. are objects that can change value dynamically. aggregation type. After mapping variables are selected.

If no initial value is identified. then a data type specific default value is used.A mapping variable can store the last value from a session run in the repository to be used as the starting value for the next session run. Value in session parameter file Value saved in the repository Initial value Default value Mapping Parameters and Variables Since parameter values do not change over the course of the session run. The start value can be a value defined in the parameter file for the variable. Name The name of the variable should be descriptive and be preceded by ‘$$’ (so that it is easily identifiable as a variable). or the default value based on the variable data type. For example. A typical variable name is: $$Procedure_Start_Date. Order of Evaluation The start value is the value of the variable at the start of the session. Is configured for a test load. a value saved in the repository from the previous run of the session. 2. the value stored in the repository would be the max value across ALL session runs until the value is deleted. The PowerCenter Server looks for the start value in the following order: 1. the value used is based on: • • • Value in session parameter file Initial value Default value PAGE BP-76 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Aggregation Type This entry creates specific functionality for the variable and determines how it stores data. a user-defined initial value for the variable. 4. with an aggregation type of Max. Initial Value This value is used during the first session run when there is no corresponding and overriding parameter file. 3. This value is also used if the stored repository value is deleted. Variable values are not stored in the repository when the session: • • • • Fails to complete. Runs in debug mode and is configured to discard session output. Is a debug session.

mapping parameters and variables can be used in the Expression Editor section of the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy Mapping parameters and variables also can be used within the Source Qualifier in the SQL query. The following parameters and variables can be defined or overridden within the parameter file: Parameter & Variable Type Parameter & Variable Name Desired Definition String Mapping Parameter $$State MA Datetime Mapping Variable $$Time 10/1/2000 00:00:00 Source File (Session $InputFile1 Sales. Some parameter file examples: [USER1.Once defined. The naming is case sensitive. user-defined join. and source filter sections.s_m_subscriberstatus_load] $$Post_Date_Var=10/04/2001 [USER1. or to define Server-specific values for a session run. or as a parameter value when utilizing PMCMD command. either within the session properties. A line can be ‘REMed’ out by placing a semicolon at the beginning. at the outer-most batch a session resides in. they are divided into session-specific sections. Parameter Files Parameter files can be used to override values of mapping variables or mapping parameters. Parameter files do not globally assign values. Parameter files have a very simple and defined format. with each section defined within brackets as FOLDER.txt Parameter) Database Connection $DBConnection_Target Sales (database (Session Parameter) connection) Session Log File (Session $PMSessionLogFile d:/session INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-77 .s_test_var1] $$ . Parameters or variables must be defined in the mapping to be used.$$Help_User A parameter file is declared for use by a session.

Process will run once every twenty-four hours. Schema/Owner names within Target Objects/Session Properties. The following example uses a mapping variable. an expression transformation object. From the menu create a new mapping variable named $$Post_Date with the following attributes: • • • • TYPE – Variable DATATYPE – Date/Time AGGREGATION TYPE – MAX INITIAL VALUE – 01/01/1900 PAGE BP-78 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and a parameter file for restarting. Lookup Location (Connection String).txt Lookup SQL Override. Example: Variables and Parameters in an Incremental Strategy Variables and parameters can enhance incremental strategies. Scenario Company X wants to start with an initial load of all data but wants subsequent process runs to select only new information. Sample Solution Create a mapping with source and target objects.Parameter) Parameters and variables cannot be used in the following: • • • logs/firstrun. The environment data has an inherent Post_Date that is defined within a column named Date_Entered that can be used.

The next step is to $$Post_Date and Date_Entered to an Expression transformation. However. In the expression code section place the following function: SETMAXVARIABLE($$Post_Date. hence the need to convert the parameter to a date time. if this value is used within the Source Qualifier SQL. For example: DATE_ENTERED 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 9/2/2000 Resultant POST_DATE 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 10/30/2001 Consider the following with regard to the functionality: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-79 ..--)).DATE_ENTERED) The function evaluates each value for DATE_ENTERED and updates the variable with the Max value to be passed forward.'MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Also note that the initial value 01/01/1900 will be expanded by the PowerCenter Server to 01/01/1900 00:00:00. TO DATE(--.Note that there is no need to encapsulate the INITIAL VALUE with quotation marks. use the following in the Source_Filter Attribute: DATE_ENTERED > to_Date(' $$Post_Date'. An output port named Post_Date is created with data type of date/time. This is where the function for setting the variable will reside. Within the Source Qualifier Transformation. it is necessary to use the native RDBMS function to convert (e.g.

The reason is that that memory will not be instantiated unless it is used in a downstream transformation object.1. It need not go to the target.e. In this case. In order for the function to work correctly.. the Max Date_Entered was 02/03/1998. the variable gets updated to the Max Date_Entered it encounters. but it must go to another Expression Transformation. the rows have to be marked for insert. the port must be connected to a downstream object. 3. To view the current value for a particular variable associated with the session. The following graphic shows that after the initial run. PAGE BP-80 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The next time this session is run. Upon successful completion of the session. In order for the function to assign a value and ultimately store it in the repository. right-click on the session and choose View Persistent Values. then add an ORDER BY clause to the Source Qualifier. only sources where Date_Entered > 02/03/1998 will be processed. If the intent is to store the original Date_Entered per row and not the evaluated date value. but before the Target. That way the dates are processed and set in order and data is preserved. If the mapping is an update only mapping (i. The first time this mapping is run the SQL will select from the source where Date_Entered is > 01/01/1900 providing an initial load. the variable is updated in the Repository for use in the next session run. Treat Rows As is set to Update in the session properties) the function will not work. As data flows through the mapping. make the session Data Driven and add an Update Strategy after the transformation containing the SETMAXVARIABLE function. 2. based on the variable in the Source Qualifier Filter.

To override the variable. Run PMCMD for that session but declare the specific parameter file within the PMCMD command. There are two basic ways to accomplish this: • Create a generic parameter file. If a session run is needed for a specific date. causing the Order of Evaluation to use the Initial Value declared from the mapping. either change. place it on the server. use a parameter file. and the parameter file need not have variables and parameters defined for every session ‘using’ the parameter file. • Parameter files can be declared in Session Properties under the Log & Error Handling Tab. view the persistent value from Server Manager (see graphic above) and press Delete Values.Resetting or Overriding Persistent Values To reset the persistent value to the initial value declared in the mapping. after the initial session is run the parameter file contents may look like: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-81 . In this example. uncomment or delete the variable in the parameter file. and point all sessions to that parameter file. This will delete the stored value from the Repository. A session may (or may not) have a variable.

NULL. NULL. DB Instance ORC1 ORC99 HALC UGLY GORF Schema aardso environ hitme snakepit gmer Table orders orders order_done orders orders User Sam Help Hi Punch Brer Password max me Lois Judy Rabbit Each sales order table has a different name. then a simple Perl Script can update the parameter file to: [Test.4) (28) PAGE BP-82 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the data processing date needs to be set to a specific date (for example: 04/21/2001). If. in the subsequent run. schemas. are required in a multiple database environment. instances. NULL. Scenario Company X maintains five Oracle database instances. NULL. Example: Using Session and Mapping Parameters in Multiple Database Environments Reusable mappings that can source a common table definition across multiple databases. NULL. the variable override is ignored and the Initial Value or Stored Value is used. but the same definition: ORDER_ID DATE_ENTERED DATE_PROMISED DATE_SHIPPED EMPLOYEE_ID CUSTOMER_ID SALES_TAX_RATE STORE_ID Sample Solution NUMBER DATE DATE DATE NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER (28) NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL. but each instance has a unique instance name.[Test.s_Incremental] $$Post_Date=04/21/2001 Upon running the sessions.g. After successful completion. run another script to reset the parameter file. regardless of differing environmental definitions (e.s_Incremental] . NULL. the order of evaluation looks to the parameter file first. user/logins). sees a valid variable and value and uses that value for the session run. NULL (28) (28) (5. All instances have a common table definition for sales orders. schema and login.$$Post_Date= By using the semicolon.

the strings are named according to the DB Instance name. Open the source qualifier and use the mapping parameter in the SQL Override as shown in the following graphic. create multiple connection strings. Then create a Mapping Parameter named $$Source_Schema_Table with the following attributes: Note that the parameter attributes vary based on the specific environment. In this example. Also.Using Server Manager. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-83 . the initial value is not required as this solution will use parameter files. Using Designer create the mapping that sources the commonly defined table.

create a session based on this mapping. In this example. Within the Source Database connection.orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC1 Parmfile2. Using Server Manager.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] PAGE BP-84 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .txt [Test.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=aardso. there will be five separate parameter files. The generated SQL statement will show the columns. Override the table names in the SQL statement with the mapping parameter.Open the Expression Editor and select Generate SQL. Now create the parameter file. Parmfile1.txt [Test. drop down place the following parameter: $DBConnection_SourcePoint the target to the corresponding target and finish.

orders $DBConnection_Source= UGLY Parmfile5.0.txt [Test.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=hitme.txt ‘ 1 1 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-85 .orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC99 Parmfile3.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table= gmer.order_done $DBConnection_Source= HALC Parmfile4.$$Source_Schema_Table=environ.txt [Test.txt [Test.orders $DBConnection_Source= GORF Use PMCMD to run the five sessions in parallel.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=snakepit.0.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\Parmfile1. The syntax for PMCMD for starting sessions is as follows: pmcmd start {user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var} {[TCP/IP:][hostname:]portno | IPX/SPX:ipx/spx_address} [folder_name:]{session_name | batch_name}[:pf=param_file] session_flag wait_flag In this environment there would be five separate commands: pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.

1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile3.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile4.0.0.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile5.0.or post-session script would change the parameter file for the next session.txt ‘ 1 1 Alternatively.0. In this case.0. you could run the sessions in sequence with one parameter file.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.0.0.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.0.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile2. PAGE BP-86 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . a pre.

Another approach is to use mappings to trap data errors. which ones should be captured? What process can capture the possible errors? Should errors be captured before they have a chance to be written to the target database? Should bad files be used? Will any of these errors need to be reloaded or corrected? How will the users know if errors are encountered? How will the errors be stored? Should descriptions be assigned for individual errors? Can a table be designed to store captured errors and the error descriptions? Capturing data errors within a mapping and re-routing these errors to an error table allows for easy analysis for the end users and improves performance.A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Challenge Addressing data content errors within mappings to facilitate re-routing erroneous rows to a target other than the original target table. The first step in using mappings to trap errors is understanding and identifying the error handling requirement. Description Identifying errors and creating an error handling strategy is an essential part of a data warehousing project. data must be checked and validated prior to entry into the data warehouse. This can be accomplished by creating a lookup into a dimension table prior to loading the fact table. if constraint errors are captured within INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-87 . In the production environment. For example. The database still enforces the foreign key constraints. One strategy for handling errors is to maintain database constraints. The following questions should be considered: • • • • • • • • • • What types of errors are likely to be encountered? Of these errors. but erroneous data will not be written to the target table. Also. suppose it is necessary to identify foreign key constraint errors within a mapping. Referential integrity is assured by including this functionality in a mapping.

Any row containing an error (or errors) will be separated from the valid data and uniquely identified with a composite key consisting of a MAPPING_ID and a ROW_ID. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table provides the user with the entire row that was rejected. the two error tables are ERR_DESC_TBL and TARGET_NAME_ERR. and a description of the error.the mapping. The composite key allows developers to trace rows written to the error tables. This approach can be effective for many types of data content errors. Error Handling Example In the following example. including: date conversion. any null value intended for a not null target PAGE BP-88 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the next step is to separate the error from the data flow. The ERR_DESC_TBL table will hold information about the error. null values intended for not null target fields. we want to capture null values before they enter into a target field that does not allow nulls. and incorrect data formats or data types. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table will be an exact replica of the target table with two additional columns: ROW_ID and MAPPING_ID. The MAPPING_ID refers to the mapping name and the ROW_ID is generated by a Sequence Generator. In this example. These two tables might look like the following: The error handling functionality must assigned to a unique description for each error in the rejected row. such as the mapping name. Error tables are important to an error handling strategy because they store the information useful to error identification and troubleshooting. enabling the user to trace the error rows back to the source. After we’ve identified the type of error. Mapping logic can identify data content errors and attach descriptions to the errors. the PowerCenter server will not have to write the error to the session log and the reject/bad file. This table is designed to hold all error descriptions for all mappings within the repository for reporting purposes. Data content errors also can be captured in a mapping. In this example. Use the Router Transformation to create a stream of data that will be the error route. the ROW_ID. These two columns allow the TARGET_NAME_ERR and the ERR_DESC_TBL to be linked.

one row of data may have as many as three errors. but in this case. You can use the Normalizer Transformation A mapping approach to break one row of data into many rows After a single row of data is separated based on the number of possible errors in it. When the row is written to the ERR_DESC_TBL. This step can be done in an Expression Transformation. TARGET_NAME_ERR Column1 NULL Column2 NULL Column3 NULL ROW_ID 1 MAPPING_ID DIM_LOAD ERR_DESC_TBL FOLDER_NAME MAPPING_ID ROW_ID ERROR_DESC LOAD_DATE SOURCE Target CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 1 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 2 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 3 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL The solution example would look like the following in a mapping: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-89 . Focus on the bold selections in both tables. we need to break the error row into several rows. we can link this row to the row in the TARGET_NAME_ERR table using the ROW_ID and the MAPPING_ID. For example. we need to filter the columns within the row that are actually errors. The following chart shows how the two error tables can be linked. After field descriptions are assigned. the row actually has only one error so we need to write only one error with its description to the ERR_DESC_TBL.field will generate an error message such as ‘Column1 is NULL’ or ‘Column2 is NULL’. with each containing the same content except for a different error description.

thereby using the same logic repeatedly within a mapplet. such as a constraint error. Once an error type is identified. A ‘soft’ error can be defined as a data content error. By using the mapping approach to capture identified errors. the error handling logic can be placed anywhere within a mapping. business organizations need to decide if the analysts should fix the data in the reject table or in the source systems. A record flagged as a hard error is written to the error route. while a record flagged as a soft error can be written to the target system and the error tables. This makes error detection easy to implement and manage in a variety of mappings. A ‘hard’ error can be defined as one that would fail when being written to the database. is its flexibility. By adding another layer of complexity within the mappings. This gives business analysts an opportunity to evaluate and correct data imperfections while still allowing the records to be processed for end-user reporting. Ultimately. errors can be flagged as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’.The mapping approach is effective because it takes advantage of reusable objects. PAGE BP-90 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The most important aspect of the mapping approach however. The advantage of the mapping approach is that all errors are identified as either data errors or constraint errors and can be properly addressed. data warehouse operators can effectively communicate data quality issues to the business users. The mapping approach also reports errors based on projects or categories by identifying the mappings that contain errors.

then devise an infrastructure to resolve the errors. Regardless of whether an error requires manual inspection. Stop and restart processes can be managed through the preand post.. Description It important to realize the need for an error handling strategy.Design Error Handling Infrastructure Challenge Understanding the need for an error handling strategy. identifying potential errors.e. Therefore.session shell scripts for each PowerCenter session. Post-session scripts can be written to increase the functionality of the notification process to send detailed messages upon receipt of an error or file. PowerCenter includes a post-session e-mail functionality that can trigger the delivery of e-mail. Although error handling varies from project to project. the owner needs to know if any rows were loaded or changed during the load. correction of data or a rerun of the process. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-91 . Implementing an error handling strategy requires a significant amount of planning and understanding of the load process. and determining an optimal plan for error handling. An error handling strategy should be capable of accounting for unrecoverable errors during the load process and provide crash recovery. provide a place to put the rejected rows. stop. Error handling is an integral part of any load process and directly affects the process when it starts and stops. at some point a record with incorrect data will be introduced into the data warehouse from a source system. and provide a mechanism for reload. it is critical to have a notification process in place. You should prepare a high level data flow design to illustrate the load process and the role that error handling plays in it. dirty date). It also should report on the rows that are rejected by the load process. especially if a response is critical to the continuation of the process. Although source systems vary widely in functionality and data quality standards. and restart capabilities. and set a limit on how many errors can occur before the load process stops. the typical requirement of an error handling system is to address data quality issues (i. The error handling strategy should reject these rows.

The two tables look like the following: PAGE BP-92 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 1) E-mail If the required Tablespace is not available.DAT and . do a rollback of the records loaded in the target. Timer to check if If the . An additional error table. ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL captures descriptions for all errors committed during loading. and notification is sent to the DBA and Production Support. 1) E-mail 2) Page Timer to check if the load has completed by 5:00 If the load has not completed within the 2-hour AM. 1) E-mail 2) Page Tablespace check and Database constraints check for creating Target Tables The rejected record number crosses the error threshold limit OR Informatica PowerCenter session fails for any other reason. named <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD with two additional columns. by 5:00 AM. If they do not match. 1) E-mail 2) Page If the Hash total and the total number of records do not match.The following table presents examples of one company’s error conditions and the associated notification actions: Error Condition Notification Action Arrival of . window. then send an e-mail notification to Product Support.SENT file do not arrive by 3:00 the files have arrived by 3:00 AM for daily loads AM. the system load for all the loads that are part of the system are aborted.SENT Files. send an e-mail notification to Production Support and 2:00 PM Saturday for weekly loads on-call resource. Infrastructure Overview A better way of identifying and trapping errors is to create tables within the mapping to hold the rows that contain errors. A Sample Scenario: Each target table should have an identical error table. rollback the data load and send notification to Production Support. 1) E-mail 2) Page Load the rejected records to a reject file and send an e-mail notification to Production Support. MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID.SENT file. Match the Hash Total and the Column Totals loaded in the target tables with the contents of the .DAT files or .

the error description states that ‘LKP1 was Invalid’. <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD Fields: Values: LKP1 test LKP2 OCC LKP3 VAL ASOF_DT 12/21/00 SEQ_ID 1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL FOLDER_NAME Values: Project_1 Project_1 Project_1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD SEQ_ID 1 1 1 ERROR_DESC LKP1 Invalid LKP2 Invalid LKP3 Invalid LOAD_DATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SOURCE Target DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM LKP_TBL SAL CUST DEPT The TARGET(<TARGET_TABLE_NAME>)_RELOAD captures rows of data that failed the validation tests. The following examples illustrate what is necessary for successful error handling.The <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD table is target specific. The ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL is a target table in each mapping that requires error capturing. Thus. we can determine which values failed the lookup. Since rows in TARGET_RELOAD have a unique SEQ_ID. we can identify that mapping DIM_LOAD with the SEQ_ID of 1 had 3 errors. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-93 . The entire process of defining the error handling strategy within a particular mapping depends on the type of errors that you expect to capture. By using the MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID. By looking at the first row in the ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL. we can determine that the row of data in the TARGET_RELOAD table with the SEQ_ID of 1 had three errors. we can know that (‘test’) is the failed value in LKP1. By looking at the data rows stored in ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL.

Source and target dependencies report (S2t_dep. This means that comments must be included at all levels of a mapping. transformations. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements. and primary keys are stored in the repository. from the mapping itself. datatypes.rpt). but the Informatica mappings must be properly documented to take full advantage of this metadata.Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Challenge Documenting and reporting comments contained in each of the mapping objects. Provides information about executed sessions (such as the number of successful rows) in a particular folder. and comments for each target table. With PowerCenter. These reports are accessible through the Repository Manager. descriptions. it is important to develop a plan for extracting this metadata. down to the objects and ports within the mapping. etc. Executed session report (sessions. One way of doing this is through the generic Crystal Reports that are supplied with PowerCenter. PAGE BP-94 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . All information about column size and scale. Target table report (Trg_tbl.rpt). you can enter description information for all repository objects. PowerCenter provides several ways to access the metadata contained within the repository. targets. Once the mappings and sessions contain the proper metadata.rpt). Provides target field transformation expressions. (Open the Repository Manager.rpt). Shows the source and target dependencies as well as the transformations performed in each mapping. You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. Lists source column and transformation details for each mapping in each folder or repository. and click Reports. sources.) You can choose from the following four reports: Mapping report (map. Description It is crucial to take advantage of the metadata contained in the repository in to document your Informatica mappings.

or create custom SQL view. arrange the mapping in Designer so the full mapping appears on the screen. consult Metadata Reporting and Sharing. For more information on the Metadata Reporter. A printout of the mapping object flow is also useful for clarifying how objects are connected. then use Alt+PrtSc to copy the active window to the clipboard. To produce such a printout. In PowerCenter 5.1. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-95 . The Metadata Reporter allows for customized reporting of all repository information without direct access to the repository itself.Note: If your mappings contain shortcuts. you can develop a metadata access strategy using the Metadata Reporter. You will have to use the MX2 Views to access the repository. Use Ctrl+V to paste the copy into a Word document. or the Metadata Reporter Guide included with the PowerCenter documentation. these will not be displayed in the generic Crystal Reports.

Error Handling Strategies Challenge Efficiently load data into the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) and Data Mart (DM). methods for handling data errors. Description When loading data into an EDW or DM. and alternatives for addressing the most common types of problems. Both approaches present complex issues. This provides a very reliable EDW that the users can count on as being correct. Both dimensional and factual data are rejected when any errors are encountered. an alternate method for identifying data errors. This Best Practice describes various loading scenarios. the factual data will be reprocessed and PAGE BP-96 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the use of data profiles. the process needs to handle the exceptions in an appropriate manner. Data Integration Process Validation In general. The business must decide what is acceptable and prioritize two conflicting goals: • • The need for accurate information The ability to analyze the most complete information with the understanding that errors can exist. the loading process must validate that the data conforms to known rules of the business. The business needs to be aware of the consequences of either permitting invalid data to enter the EDW or rejecting it until it is fixed. although it may not be complete. These errors need to be fixed in the source systems and reloaded on a subsequent load of the EDW. Once the corrected rows have been loaded. Dimensional errors cause valid factual data to be rejected because a foreign key relationship cannot be created. When the source system data does not meet these rules. Reports indicate what the errors are and how they affect the completeness of the data. This is the simplest to implement since all errors are rejected from entering the EDW when they are detected. there are three methods for handling data errors detected in the loading process: • Reject All.

Key elements are required fields that maintain the data integrity of the EDW and allow for hierarchies to be summarized at different levels in the organization. assuming that all errors have been fixed. This approach requires categorizing the data in two ways: 1) as Key Elements or Attributes. All changes that are valid are processed into the EDW to allow for the most complete picture. This approach gives users a complete picture of the data without having to consider data that was not available due to it being rejected during the load process. with detail information being redistributed along different hierarchies. This method provides a balance between missing information and incorrect information. these changes need to be loaded into the DM. After the data is fixed. a new loading process needs to correct both the EDW and DM. Both the EDW and DM may contain incorrect information that can lead to incorrect decisions. resulting in grand total numbers that are correct. restoring backup tapes for each night’s load. Inserts are important for dimensions because subsequent factual data may rely on the existence of the dimension data row in order to load properly. data integrity is intact. Updates do not affect the data integrity as much because the factual data can usually be loaded with the existing dimensional data unless the update is to a Key Element. Rejected elements are reported as errors so that they can be fixed in the source systems and loaded on a subsequent run of the ETL process.loaded. reports may change. and it would then be loaded into the data mart using the normal process. • Reject Critical. With Reject None. and determining the particular data elements to be rejected. Factual data can be allocated to dummy or incorrect dimension rows. This approach involves examining each row of data. Once the EDW is fixed. but incorrect detail numbers. and 2) as Inserts or Updates. This delay may cause some user dissatisfaction since the users need to take into account that the data they are looking at may not be a complete picture of the operational systems until the errors are fixed. which can be a time-consuming effort based on the delay between an error being detected and fixed. since the rejected data can be processed through existing mappings once it has been fixed. but the data may not support correct aggregations. After the errors are corrected. The problem is that the data may not be accurate. • Reject None. Attributes provide additional descriptive information per key element. The development effort required to fix a Reject All scenario is minimal. Minimal additional code may need to be written since the data will only enter the EDW if it is correct. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-97 . The development strategy may include removing information from the EDW. and reprocessing the data. The development effort to fix this scenario is significant.

business management needs to understand that some information may be held out of the EDW. Date 1/1/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 Closed Sunday Field 2 Value Black Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 PAGE BP-98 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The first value passes validation. then the original field value is maintained. this method allows the greatest amount of valid data to enter the EDW on each run of the ETL process. If a field value was invalid. However. The first method produces a new Profile record each time a change is detected in the source. Using Profiles Profiles are tables used to track history of dimensional data in the EDW. Profiles should occur once per change in the source systems. Field 2 is finally fixed to Red. which produces a new Profile record. it is difficult for the ETL process to produce a reflection of data changes since there is now a question whether to update a previous Profile or create a new one. Informatica generally recommends using the Reject Critical strategy to maintain the accuracy of the EDW. and developing logic to update the EDW and flag the fields that are in error. The first row on 1/1/2000 shows the original values. If a third field is changed before the second field is fixed. By providing the most fine-grained analysis of errors. it would be desirable to update the existing Profile rather than creating a new one. while the second value is rejected and is not included in the new Profile. The effort also incorporates some tasks from the Reject None approach in that processes must be developed to fix incorrect data in the EDW and DM. When the second field is fixed. The following hypothetical example represents three field values in a source system. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Field 1 Value Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black BRed BRed Red Field 3 Value Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 24hrs Three methods exist for handling the creation and update of Profiles: 1. On 1/10/2000 Field 3 changes from Open 9-5 to Open 24hrs. On 1/5/2000. the correction process cannot be automated. while at the same time screening out the unverifiable data fields. which is invalid.The development effort for this method is more extensive than Reject All since it involves classifying fields as critical or non-critical. On 1/15/2000. but Field 2 is still invalid. When this error is fixed. As the source systems change. but the logic needed to perform this UPDATE instead of an INSERT is complicated. Problems occur when two fields change in the source system and one of those fields produces an error. Field 1 changes from Closed to Open. and also that some of the information in the EDW may be at least temporarily allocated to the wrong hierarchies. This allows power users to analyze the EDW using either current (As-Is) or past (As-Was) views of dimensional data. and Field 2 changes from Black to BRed. Profile records are created with date stamps that indicate when the change took place.

Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/5/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Open 9 – 5 Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs If we try to apply changes to the existing Profile. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/10/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Red Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 9-5 Open 24hrs If we try to implement a method that updates old Profiles when errors are fixed. in reality. which loses the Profile record for the change to Field 3. when in reality a new Profile record should have been entered. 3. we simplify the process by directly applying all changes to the source system directly to the EDW. as in this method. a mistake was entered on the first change and should be reflected in the first Profile.regardless if it is a fix to a previous error -. we show the third field changed at the same time as the first. even if we create the algorithms to handle these methods. but a new value is applied as a new change that creates a new Profile. This incorrectly shows in the EDW that two changes occurred to the source information when. And. If the third field changes before the second field is fixed. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-99 . If an error is never fixed in the source system. we still have an issue of determining if a value is a correction or a new value. Each change . The second Profile should not have been created. The third method creates only two new Profiles. When the second field was fixed it would also be added to the existing Profile. 2. we would identify it as a previous error. causing an automated process to update old Profile records. we need to create complex algorithms that handle the process correctly. The second method updates the first Profile created on 1/5/2000 until all fields are corrected on 1/15/2000. as in this option. but then causes an update to the Profile records on 1/15/2000 to fix the Field 2 value in both.Date 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black Black Red Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs By applying all corrections as new Profiles in this method. which incorrectly reflects the changes in the source system. It involves being able to determine when an error occurred and examining all Profiles generated since then and updating them appropriately. we run the risk of losing Profile information.

A data quality indicator code is included in the DQ fields corresponding to the original fields in the record where the errors were encountered. While information can be provided to the source system site indicating there are file • PAGE BP-100 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . or invalid data value. However. Once an action is decided. The source file or record is illegible. data quality (DQ) fields will be appended to the end of the record. Records containing a fatal error are stored in a Rejected Record Table and associated to the original file name and record number. The indicators can be append to existing data tables or stored in a separate table linked by the primary key. In this case. one field for every field in the record. Quality indicators can be used to: • • • show the record and field level quality associated with a given record at the time of extract identify data sources and errors encountered in specific records support the resolution of specific record error types via an update and resubmission process. fatal errors (missing primary key value). Data Quality Edits Quality indicators can be used to record definitive statements regarding the quality of the data received and stored in the EDW. Metadata will be saved and used to generate a notice to the sending system indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed. The file or record would be sent to a reject queue. This method only delays the As-Was analysis of the data until the correction method is determined because the current information is reflected in the new Profile. In this way. another process examines the existing Profile records and corrects them as necessary. in the absence of a primary key. Quality indicators may be used to record several types of errors – e.Recommended Method A method exists to track old errors so that we know when a value was rejected.g. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. when the process encounters a new. but the process of fixing old Profile records. If a record contains even one error. Then. This record would be sent to a reject queue. the corrected data enters the EDW as a new Profile record. The following types of errors cannot be processed: • A source record does not contain a valid key. is delayed until the data is examined and an action is decided. correct value it flags it as part of the load strategy as a potential fix that should be applied to old Profile records.. due to the nature of the error. it is likely that individual unique records within the file are not identifiable. These records cannot be loaded to the EDW because they lack a primary key field to be used as a unique record identifier in the EDW. If the file or record is illegible. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. Metadata indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed may or may not be available for a general notice to be sent to the sending system. wrong data type/format. missing data in a required field. and potentially deleting the newly inserted record.

or whether data fixes will be restricted to source systems. In these error types.errors for x number of records. At the same time. This can present credibility problems when trying to track INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-101 . the identified error type is recorded. business process problems and information technology breakdowns. apply a concise indication of the quality of the data within specific fields for every data type. specific problems may not be identifiable on a record-by-record basis. these indicators provide the level of detail necessary for acute quality problems to be remedied in a timely manner. The business needs to decide whether analysts should be allowed to fix data in the reject tables. Quality Indicators (Quality Code Table) The requirement to validate virtually every data element received from the source data systems mandates the development. The value in a field does not fall within the range of acceptable values identified for the field. but they contain errors: • • • A required (non-key) field is missing. the records can be processed. “2”-Missing Data from a Required Field. systemic issues. Although we try to avoid performing a complete database restore and reload from a previous point in time. Reject Tables vs. Typically. capture and maintenance of quality indicators. These indicators provide the opportunity for operations staff. The quality indicators: “0”-No Error. Aggregated and analyzed over time. they are written to a reject file so that business analysts can examine reports of the data and the related error messages indicating the causes of error. data quality analysts and users to readily identify issues potentially impacting the quality of the data. These are used to indicate the quality of incoming data at an elemental level. restoring previous loads from tape. But how often should these corrections be performed? The correction process can be as simple as updating field information to reflect actual values. Source System As errors are encountered. If errors are fixed in the reject tables. The value in a numeric or date field is non-numeric. When an error is detected during ingest and cleansing. “1”-Fatal Error. we cannot rule this out as a possible solution. implementation. “4”-Invalid Data Value and “5”Outdated Reference Table in Use. Handling Data Errors The need to periodically correct data in the EDW is inevitable. a reference table is used for this validation. or as complex as deleting data from the EDW. and then reloading the information correctly. these indicators provide the information necessary to identify acute data quality problems. “3”-Wrong Data Type/Format. the EDW will not be synchronized with the source systems.

This type of error causes a separation of fact data. In many cases. Primary Key Errors The business also needs to decide how to handle new dimensional values such as locations. After a source system value is corrected and passes validation. Attribute errors are typically things like an invalid color or inappropriate characters in the address. to find specific patterns for market research). with some data being attributed to the old primary key and some to the new. If all fixes occur in the source systems. the data integration process is set to populate ‘Null’ into these fields. An analyst would be unable to get a complete picture. Problems occur when the new key is actually an update to an old key in the source system. then the location number is changed due to some source business rule such as: all Warehouses should be in the 5000 range. For example. Fields that are restricted to a limited domain of values (e. Integrating the two rows involves combining the Profile PAGE BP-102 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . (All reference tables contain a value of ‘Unknown’ for this purpose. like numbers. Fixing this type of error involves integrating the two records in the EDW. default values can be assigned to let the new record enter the EDW. When errors are encountered in translating these values. On/Off or Yes/No indicators). then these fixes must be applied correctly to the EDW. Some rules that have been proposed for handling defaults are as follows: Value Types Reference Values Small Value Sets Other Description Default Attributes that are foreign keys to other Unknown tables Y/N indicator fields No Any other type of attribute Null or Business provided value Reference tables are used to normalize the EDW model to prevent the duplication of data.g.) The business should provide default values for each identified attribute. Attribute Errors and Default Values Attributes provide additional descriptive information about a dimension concept. the attributes are most useful as qualifiers and filtering criteria for drilling into the data. Attribute errors can be fixed by waiting for the source system to be corrected and reapplied to the data in the EDW. When a source value does not translate into a reference table value.g. which means “undefined” in the EDW. When attribute errors are encountered for a new dimensional value. Other values. are handled on a case-by-case basis. a location number is assigned and the new location is transferred to the EDW using the normal process. are referred to as small value sets. Attributes include things like the color of a product or the address of a store.the history of changes in the EDW and DM. These types of errors do not generally affect the aggregated facts and statistics in the EDW. it is corrected in the EDW. (e. we use the value that represents off or ‘No’ as the default. we use the ‘Unknown’ value. The process assumes that the change in the primary key is actually a new warehouse and that the old warehouse was deleted. along with the related facts.

we must decide how to handle the facts. New entities in dimensional data include new locations. etc. Data Stewards Data Stewards are generally responsible for maintaining reference tables and translation tables. then the related fact rows must be added together and the originals deleted in order to correct the data. the affected rows can simply be loaded and applied to the DM. and designating one primary data source when multiple sources exist. taking care to coordinate the effective dates of the Profiles to sequence properly. Multiple source data occurs when two source systems can contain different data for the same dimensional entity. we would like to reject the fact until the value is corrected. This involves updating the measures in the DM to reflect the changed data. If we load the facts with the incorrect data. the fix process becomes simpler. then a manual decision is required as to which is correct. we need to create processes that update the DM after the dimensional data is fixed. then when we encounter errors that would cause a fact to be rejected. Initial and periodic analyses should be performed on the errors to determine why they are not being loaded. it is necessary to restore the source information for both dimensions and facts from the point in time at which the error was introduced. If facts were loaded using both primary keys. From a data accuracy view. but used as measures residing on the fact records in the DM. If two Profile records exist for the same day. Each table contains a short code value as a primary key and a long description for reporting purposes. deleting affected records from the EDW and reloading from the restore to correct the errors. Fact Errors If there are no business rules that reject fact records except for relationship errors to dimensional data. If we let the facts enter the EDW and subsequently the DM.information. hierarchies. creating new entities in dimensional data. In this case. After they are loaded. they are populated into the DM as usual. products. The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. two primary keys mapped to the same EDW ID really represent two different IDs). regardless of how the source system stores the data. If we reject the facts when these types of errors are encountered. the process to fix the DM can be time consuming and difficult to implement. we save these rows to a reject table for reprocessing the following night. DM Facts Calculated from EDW Dimensions If information is captured as dimensional data from the source.e. Reference data and translation tables enable the EDW to maintain consistent descriptions across multiple source systems. A translation table is associated with each reference table to map the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-103 . This nightly reprocessing continues until the data successfully enters the EDW. Reference Tables The EDW uses reference tables to maintain consistent descriptions. After the errors are fixed..

) PAGE BP-104 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The data steward would be responsible for entering in the Translation table the following values: Source Value O S W Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE These values are used by the data integration process to correctly load the EDW. The ETL process uses the Reference table to populate the following values into the DM: Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE Code Description Office Retail Store Distribution Warehouse Error handling results when the data steward enters incorrect information for these mappings and needs to correct them after data has been loaded. if the data steward entered ST as translating to OFFICE by mistake).codes to the source system values. this is straightforward. The data steward would make the following entries into the translation table to maintain consistency across systems: Source Value OF ST WH Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE The data stewards are also responsible for maintaining the Reference table that translates the Codes into descriptions. the ETL process can load data from the source systems into the EDW and then load from the EDW into the DM. For location. products may have multiple source system values that map to the same product in the EDW. Using both of these tables. ‘S’ or ‘W’. but over time. Dimensional data uses the same concept of translation as Reference tables. New entities in the EDW may include Locations and Products. (Other similar translation issues may also exist. Dimensional Data New entities in dimensional data present a more complex issue. at a minimum. the SOURCE column in FILE X on System X can contain ‘O’. Processes should be built to handle these types of situations. Correcting the above example could be complex (e. For example.. The only way to determine which rows should be changed is to restore and reload source data from the first time the mistake was entered. The translation tables contain one or more rows for each source value and map the value to a matching row in the reference table. Other source systems that maintain a similar field may use a two-letter abbreviation like ‘OF’. These translation tables map the source system value to the EDW value. ‘ST’ and ‘WH’. include correction of the EDW and DM. but Products serves as a good example for error handling.g.

Either require the data steward to enter the translation data before allowing the dimensional data into the EDW. the two systems then contain different information. When this happens. This requires the data stewards to review the status of new values on a daily basis. This causes additional fact rows to be created. which produces an inaccurate view of the product when reporting.. two products are mapped to the same product. Further. If both sources are allowed to update the shared information.e. A potential solution to this issue is to generate an e-mail each night if there are any translation table entries pending verification. data accuracy and Profile problems are likely to occur. a log of these fixes should be maintained to enable identifying the source of the fixes as manual rather than part of the normal load process. Because they share Store information. including beginning and ending effective dates. If we update the shared information on only one source system. When this is fixed. facts may be rejected or allocated to dummy values. Manual Updates Over time. and subsequently to the DM. or create the translation data through the ETL process and force the data steward to review it. These dates are useful for both Profile and Date Event fixes. The first option requires the data steward to create the translation for new entities. A problem specific to Product is that when it is created as new. If the changed system is loaded into the EDW. A method needs to be established for manually entering fixed data and applying it correctly to the EDW. both sources have the ability to update the same row in the EDW. Facts should be split to allocate the information correctly and dimensions split to generate correct Profile information. it is difficult to decide which source contains the correct information. the fact rows for the various SKU numbers need to be merged and the original rows deleted. This occurs when two sources contain subsets of the required information. while the second lets the ETL process create the translation. The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. requiring manual intervention. any system is likely to encounter errors that are not correctable using source systems. Affected records from the EDW should be deleted and then reloaded from the restore to correctly split the data. The data steward then opens a report that lists them. Multiple Sources The data stewards are also involved when multiple sources exist for the same data. it is really just a changed SKU number.There are two possible methods for loading new dimensional entities. it creates a new Profile indicating the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-105 . For example. it is necessary to restore the source information for all loads since the error was introduced. When the dimensional value is left as ‘Pending Verification’ however. one system may contain Warehouse and Store information while another contains Store and Hub information. Profiles would also have to be merged. but marks the record as ‘Pending Verification’ until the data steward reviews it and changes the status to ‘Verified’ before any facts that reference it can be loaded. In this case. but really represent two different products).

it requires complex logic when creating Profiles. assumes a change occurred and creates another new Profile with the old. However. only if the field changes on the primary source would it be changed. unchanged value. a primary source where information can be shared from multiple sources. at a field level. While this sounds simple. One solution to this problem is to develop a system of record for all sources. To avoid this type of situation. at the field level. this requires additional effort by the data stewards to mark the correct source fields as primary and by the data integration team to customize the load process.information changed. the business analysts and developers need to designate. If the two systems remain different. PAGE BP-106 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Then. Another solution is to indicate. This allows developers to pull the information from the system of record. it compares its old unchanged value to the new Profile. knowing that there are no conflicts for multiple sources. Developers can use the field level information to update only the fields that are marked as primary. When the second system is loaded. because multiple sources can provide information toward the one Profile record created for that day. the process causes two Profiles to be loaded every day until the two source systems are synchronized with the same information. the source that should be considered primary for the field.

use multiple fields/ports selection to copy or link. go into customize toolbars under the tools menu. To use Create Customized Toolbars to tailor a toolbar for the functions you commonly perform. To copy a mapping from a shared folder. press <Alt> <T> then <C>. Alternatively. Be sure the box touches every object you want to select. To use a Docking\UnDocking window such as Repository Navigator. be sure to start in the Foreign Key table and drag the key/field to the Primary Key table. press and hold <Ctrl> and highlight the mapping with the left mouse button. then drag and drop into another folder or mapping and click OK. click on an Open folder icon (rather than double-clicking on it). then scroll down and click on “open”. To expedite mapping development. right click on the folder name. press <F9>. double click on it’s the window’s title bar.Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Challenge Using shortcut keys in PowerCenter Designer to edit repository objects. Description General Suggestions • • To Open a folder with workspace open as well. Set the Key Type value to “NOT A KEY” prior to dragging. To delete customized icons. To quickly select multiple transformations. If possible. From here you can either add new icons to your toolbar by “dragging and dropping” them from the toolbar menu or you can “drag and drop” an icon from the current toolbar if you no longer want to use it. use an icon in the toolbar rather than a command from a drop down menu. • • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-107 . without holding <Ctrl> creates a Shortcut to an object. The same action. When using the "drag & drop" approach to create Foreign Key/Primary Key relationships between tables. To start the Debugger. hold the mouse down and drag to view a box.

press <Alt><O>. press <Ctrl><V>. first highlight an existing field or port. The box must be highlighted in order to check/uncheck the port type. You don't need to press DEL first to remove the ‘NEWFIELD’ text. then press <Alt><v> and click OK). press <F2.. The expression must be highlighted. To add a new field or port.Edit Tables/Transformation • • • • • • • To edit any cell in the grid. then press <Alt><u> and click OK. use the Functions and Ports Tab. then press <Alt><w> and click OK. To validate the Default value. When moving about the expression fields via arrow keys: o Use the SPACE bar to check/uncheck the port type. first highlight it. To copy a selected item in the grid. When adding a new port. just begin typing. To copy a selected row from the grid. just type the first letter on the list to select the item you want. To past a selected item from the Clipboard to the grid. To move the current field in a transformation Down. press <Esc> then click OK. first highlight the port you want to validate. To move the current field in a transformation Up. To cancel an edit in the grid. press <Alt><C>. To paste a selected row from the grid. o Press <F2> then <F3> to quickly open the Expression Editor of an OUT/VAR port. press <Alt><P> . To delete a selected field or port from the grid. For all combo/dropdown list boxes. • • • • • • • Expression Editor • • To expedite the validation of a newly created expression. simply press OK to initiate the parsing/validation of the expression. then click OK when you have finished. then move the cursor to the character you want to edit and click OK. To select PowerCenter functions and ports during expression creation. PAGE BP-108 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . first highlight it. press <Ctrl><C>. then press <Alt><f> to insert the new field/port below it and click OK. then press OK once again in the “Expression parsed successfully” pop-up.

filter. In PowerCenter. These common routines are excellent candidates for reusable objects. carefully consider whether the effort to create. if there is a simple calculation like subtracting a current rate from a budget rate that will be used for two different mappings. and document the common object is worthwhile. creating and testing the object does not save development time or future maintenance. it is simpler to add the calculation to both mappings. For example. filters. including identifying potential economies of scale in loading multiple sources to the same target.g.. Often.) or even a string of transformations (mapplets). Evaluate potential reusable objects by two criteria: • • Is there enough usage and complexity to warrant the development of a common object? Are the data types of the information passing through the reusable object the same from case to case or is it simply the same high-level steps with different fields and data? Common objects are sometimes created just for the sake of creating common components when in reality. The second criterion for a reusable object concerns the data that will pass through the reusable object. reusable objects can be single transformations (lookups. expression.Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Challenge Successfully creating inventories of reusable objects and mappings. test. update strategy) in two INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-109 . etc. Description Reusable Objects The first step in creating an inventory of reusable objects is to review the business requirements and look for any common routines/modules that may appear in more than one data movement. if it was very difficult. if the calculation were to be performed in a number of mappings. Many times developers see a situation where they may perform a certain type of high-level process (e. and if all occurrences would be updated following any change or fix – then this would be an ideal case for a reusable object. However.

In a typical warehouse or data mart model. While the business may consider a fact table and its three related dimensions as a single ‘object’ in the data mart or warehouse. in each mapping using the mapplet or reusable transformation object. The detailed design will occur in a future subtask. Keep in mind that it will be impossible to identify 100 percent of the reusable objects at this point. Remember. Sometimes multiple sources of data need to be combined to create a target table. and hopefully the most difficult ones.or more mappings. The latter is especially true for mainframe data sources where COBOL OCCURS statements litter the landscape. providing a high-level description of what each object will accomplish. create two rows for the target each with the same number. with an assumption that each target table has its own mapping. Consider whether there is a practical way to generalize the common logic. each from a different source system). the challenge is to think in individual components of data movement. in another column. The goal here is to create an inventory of the mappings needed for the project. Efficiencies can sometimes be realized by loading multiple tables from a single source. this seems like a great candidate for a mapplet. the actual object will be replicated in one to many mappings. the focus is on the target tables. Typically. While often true. The remainder will be discovered while building the data integration processes. Create a column with a number next to each Target table. The Table would look similar to the following: PAGE BP-110 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . thus making the use of a mapplet impractical. if a single source of data populates multiple tables. the goal here is to create an inventory of as many as possible. However. when creating an inventory of mappings. a single source table would populate a single target table. Mappings A mapping is an individual movement of data from a source system to a target system. each OCCURS statement decomposes to a separate table. In the case of multiple source tables per target. in practice. list the source file or table that will be used to populate the table. and sometimes a single source of data creates many target tables. these efficiencies can be overlooked. However. this is usually not the case. one for each of the dimension tables and two for the fact table. or sometimes multiple mappings. Thus. when creating a reusable object. and list the additional source(s) of data. however. the developers may realize that the actual data or ports passing through the high level logic are totally different from case to case..e. For this exercise. the same size and number of ports must pass into and out of the mapping/reusable object. after performing half of the mapplet work. this approach yields multiple mappings. In a simple world. For each of the target tables. but at this point the intent is to identify the number and functionality of reusable objects that will be built for the project. Document the list of the reusable objects that pass this criteria test. five mappings may be needed to populate the corresponding star schema with data (i. By simply focusing on the target tables. so that it can be successfully applied to multiple cases. at first look. A more comprehensive approach to creating the inventory of mappings is to create a spreadsheet listing all of the target tables.

merge the data back into a single row to generate the inventory of mappings. it is often helpful to record some additional information about each mapping to help with planning and maintenance.Number 1 2 3 4 4 Target Table Customers Products Customer_Type Orders_Item Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Cust_File Tickets Ticket_Items When completed. the spreadsheet can be sorted either by target table or source table.000 rows High – 100.000 rows Med – 10. Sorting by source table can help determine potential mappings that create multiple targets. In this example. give each mapping a name. Medium. These names can then be used to distinguish mappings from each other and also can be put on the project plan as individual tasks. The mapping will always load two or more target tables from the source. give both targets the same number. be sure to keep restartabilty/reloadability in mind.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ARCHITECTURE. Then. When using a source to populate multiple tables at once for efficiency. so there will be no easy way to rerun a single table. For example. The inventory would look similar to the following: Number 1 2 4 Target Table Customers Customer_Type Products Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Tickets Ticket_Items At this point. Apply the naming standards generated in 2. in a warehouse where dimension tables are likely to number in the thousands and fact tables in the hundred thousands. potentially the Customers table and the Customer_Type tables can be loaded in the same mapping.000 to 100. or Low number of target rows. re-sort the spreadsheet by number.000 rows + INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-111 . When merging targets into one mapping in this manner. For the mappings with multiple sources or targets. Next. determine for the project a threshold for a High. First. with each number representing a separate mapping. the following thresholds might apply: Low – 1 to 10.

resource (developer) assigned. actual completion time. or complexity rating. these mappings will be the first candidates for performance tuning.Assign a likely row volume (High. Med or Low) to each of the mappings based on the expected volume of data to pass through the mapping. Add any other columns of information that might be useful to capture about each mapping. These high level estimates will help to determine how many mappings are of ‘High’ volume. PAGE BP-112 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . initial estimate. such as a high-level description of the mapping functionality.

choosing a sub-optimal query plan can drastically affect performance. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-113 .' from user_indexes where INDEX_NAME like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: 'ANALYZETABLE' TABLE_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. the repository becomes slower and slower over time. and nearly all use one or more indexes to speed up queries. Description The Database Administrator needs to continually update the database statistics to ensure that they remain up-to-date.' analyze table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP compute statistics. INDEX_NAME.' from user_tables where table_name like 'OPB_%' select 'analyze index '. ' compute statistics. The frequency of updating depends on how heavily the repository is used. Most databases keep and use column distribution statistics to determine which index to use in order to optimally execute SQL queries. ' compute statistics. The following information is useful for generating scripts to update distribution statistics. Database servers do not update these statistics continuously. As a result. so they quickly become outdated in frequently-used repositories. For the repository tables. and SQL query optimizers may choose a less-than-optimal query plan. Because the statistics need to be updated table by table. it is useful for Database Administrators to create scripts to automate the task. analyze table OPB_ATTR compute statistics.Updating Repository Statistics Challenge The PowerCenter repository has more than eighty tables. In large repositories. Oracle Run the following queries: select 'analyze table '. table_name. it is helpful to understand that all PowerCenter repository tables and index names begin with "OPB_" or "REP_".

e. . .' Run this as a SQL script. . analyze index OPB_EXPR_IDX compute statistics. . the lines that look like: 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS.' analyze index OPB_DBD_IDX compute statistics. .. This updates statistics for the repository tables. then edit the file and remove the header information (i. Sybase Run the following query: select 'update statistics '.. name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like : name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT . Run this as a SQL script. . Save the output to a file. the top two lines) and add a 'go' at the end of the file. analyze index OPB_DIM_LEVEL compute statistics. (i. Save the output to a file. edit the file and remove all the headers.e. Then. name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT PAGE BP-114 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . This updates statistics for the repository tables. MS SQL Server Run the following query: select 'update statistics '.analyze table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT compute statistics. 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS.

(rtrim(tabschema)||'. Run this as a SQL script.e. . This updates statistics for the repository tables. tabname..e. ' . runstats on table PARTH.' from systables where tabname like 'opb_%' or tabname like 'OPB_%'.OPB_ANALYZE_DEP and indexes all. the top two lines). runstats on table PARTH. the top line that looks like: (constant) tabname (constant) Run this as a SQL script.OPB_ATTR and indexes all. Save the output to a file.tables where tabname like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: runstats on table PARTH. This will produce output like : (constant) tabname (constant) update statistics low for table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP . and add a 'go' at the end of the file. This updates statistics for the repository tables. . then remove the header information (i. . . update statistics low for table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT . then edit the file and remove the header information (i. DB2 Run the following query : select 'runstats on table '.' from sysstat.')||tabname. Informix Run the following query: select 'update statistics low for table '.. update statistics low for table OPB_ATTR .. ' and indexes all. Save the output to a file. .OPB_BATCH_OBJECT INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-115 .

. PAGE BP-116 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Run this as a SQL script to update statistics for the repository tables. . Save the output to a file. .and indexes all.

it should contain the following information: • • • • • • • Times when the system should be available to users Scheduled maintenance window Who is expected to monitor the operating system Who is expected to monitor the database Who is expected to monitor the Informatica sessions How quickly the support team is expected to respond to notifications of system failures Escalation procedures that include data warehouse team contacts in the event that the support team cannot resolve the system failure Operations Manual INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-117 .Daily Operations Challenge Once the data warehouse has been moved to production. the day-to-day operation of the data warehouse is the responsibility of a Production Support Team. the most important task is keeping the system running and available for the end users. This team is typically involved with the support of other systems and has expertise in database systems and various operating systems. Service Level Agreement The Service Level agreement outlines how the overall data warehouse system will be maintained. becomes in effect. and identifies the groups responsible for monitoring the various components of the system. The Data Warehouse Development team. a Service Level Agreement and an Operations Manual. the Production Support team needs two documents. Description In most organizations. This is a high-level document that discusses the system to be maintained. the components of the system. a customer to the Production Support team. At a minimum. To that end. to help in the support of the production data warehouse.

At a minimum.). This manual should contain information on how to maintain all components of the data warehouse system. This manual should be self-contained. weekly. their frequency (daily. monthly. etc. the Operations Manual should contain: • • • • • Information on how to stop and re-start the various components of the system Ids and passwords (or how to obtain passwords) for the system components Information on how to re-start failed PowerCenter sessions A listing of all jobs that are run. providing all of the information necessary for a production support operator to maintain the system and resolve most problems that may arise. and the average run times Who to call in the event of a component failure that cannot be resolved by the Production Support team PAGE BP-118 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .The Operations Manual is crucial to the Production Support team because it provides the information needed to perform the maintenance of the data warehouse system.

The first step is to determine what information you need for load validation (e. However. depending on the extent of error checking.g. The following paragraphs describe three possible solutions for load validation. Description Methods for validating the load process range from simple to complex.Load Validation Challenge Knowing that all data for the current load cycle has loaded correctly is essential for good data warehouse management. All this information is stored as metadata in the repository. successful rows and failed rows). beginning with a fairly simple solution and moving toward the more complex: 1. session names. Do you want it stored as a flat file? Do you want it e-mailed to you? Do you want it available in a relational table. session start times. Finally. you must determine how you want this information presented to you. but you must have a means of extracting this information. Then. you must determine the source of this information. session completion times. the need for load validation varies. data validation or data cleansing functionality inherent in the your mappings. so that history easily be preserved? All of these factors weigh in finding the correct solution for you. under the General tab and ‘Session Commands’ A number of variables are available to simplify the text of the e-mail: %s Session name %e Session status %b Session start time %c Session completion time %i Session elapsed time %l Total records loaded INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-119 . batch names.. Post-session e-mails on either success or failure Post-session e-mail is configured in the session.

- %r Total records rejected %t Target table details %m Name of the mapping used in the session %n Name of the folder containing the session %d Name of the repository containing the session %g Attach the session log to the message TIP: One practical application of this functionality is the situation in which a key business user waits for completion of a session to run a report.actual_start) * 24 * 60 * 60 from rep_sess_log a where session_timestamp = (select max(session_timestamp) from rep_sess_log where session_name =a. The MX view. session name. session_name The sample output would look like this: Folder Name Web Analytics Web Analytics Finance Finance HR Session Name Session End Time 5/8/2001 7:49:18 AM 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 7:53:01 8:06:01 8:10:32 8:15:27 AM AM AM AM Successful Rows 12900 125000 35987 45 5 Failed Session Rows Duration (sec’s) 0 0 0 0 0 126 478 178 12 10 S M W DYNMIC KEYS FILE LOAD SMW LOAD WEB FACT SMW NEW LOANS SMW UPD LOANS SMW NEW PERSONNEL 3. (session_timestamp . The following sample query shows how to extract folder name. session_timestamp. You can do this by sourcing the MX view REP_SESS_LOG and then performing lookups to other repository tables or views for additional information. Query the repository Almost any query can be put together to retrieve data about the load execution from the repository. is to create a PowerCenter mapping to populate a table or flat file with desired information. is a great place to start . session end time. You can configure email to this user. The following graphic illustrates a sample mapping: PAGE BP-120 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and the most customizable. REP_SESS_LOG.session_name) order by subject_area. successful rows and session duration: select subject_area. This view is likely to contain all the information you need. successful_rows. Use a mapping A more complex approach. 2. session_name. notifying him/her that the session was successful and the report can run.

This mapping selects data from REP_SESS_LOG and performs lookups to retrieve the absolute minimum and maximum run times for that particular session. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-121 . This enables you to compare the current execution time with to the minimum and maximum durations.

Medium Level. A third-party scheduler can start and stop an Informatica session or batch using the PMCMD commands. That initial PowerCenter process subsequently kicks off the rest of the sessions and batches. PAGE BP-122 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . In this level of integration. This type of integration is very simple and should only be used as a loophole to fulfill a corporate mandate on a standard scheduler. The third-party scheduler is not adding any functionality that cannot be handled by the PowerCenter scheduler. The PowerCenter scheduler handles all processes and dependencies after the third-party scheduler has kicked off the initial batch or session. Because PowerCenter has a scheduler. The correct level of integration depends on the complexity of the batch/schedule and level and type of production support. many companies require the use of a third-party scheduler that is the company standard. nearly all control lies with the PowerCenter scheduler.Third Party Scheduler Challenge Successfully integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. there are several levels at which to integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. Third Party Scheduler Integration Levels In general. Low Level Low level integration refers to a third-party scheduler kicking off only one Informatica session or a batch. there are three levels of integration between a third-party scheduler and Informatica: Low Level. Description When moving into production. This Best Practice describes various levels to integrate a third-party scheduler. A low level of integration is very simple to implement because the third-party scheduler kicks off only one process. and High Level.

Because the Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. Thus. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. the Production Support personnel are usually able to determine the exact breakpoint. High level integration allows the Production Support personnel to have only limited knowledge of PowerCenter. Because Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. the third-party scheduler controls all dependencies among the sessions.Low level integration requires production support personnel to have a thorough knowledge of PowerCenter. the production support burden is shared between the Project Development team and the Production Support team. PowerCenter is controlling the dependencies within those batches. Medium Level Medium level integration is when a third-party scheduler kicks off many different batches or sessions. This type of integration is more complex than low level integration because there is much more interaction between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. High Level High level integration is when a third-party scheduler has full control of scheduling and kicks off all PowerCenter sessions. but not all sessions. one significant disadvantage of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. Thus. one of the main disadvantages of this level of integration is that if a batch fails at some point. PowerCenter may have several sessions defined with dependencies. A third-party scheduler may kick off several PowerCenter batches and sessions but within those batches. to reduce total amount of work required to integrate the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. The thirdparty scheduler controls all dependencies between the sessions. In this level of integration. but not necessarily the specific session. the majority of the production support burden falls back on the Project Development team. They are probably able to determine the general area. This reduces the integration chores because the third-party scheduler is only communicating with a limited number of PowerCenter batches. This type of integration is the most complex to implement because there are many more interactions between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. the production support burden lies with the Production Support team. Therefore. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. the control is shared between PowerCenter and a third-party scheduler. Thus. Thus. one of the main advantages of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. Because many companies only have Production Support personnel with knowledge in the company’s standard scheduler. Medium level integration requires Production Support personnel to have a fairly good knowledge of PowerCenter. Because the PowerCenter sessions are not part of any batches. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-123 . many of the PowerCenter sessions may be left in batches. However.


The file used as the indicator file must be able to be located by the PowerCenter Server. If the session is waiting on its source file to be FTP’ed from another server. The mere existence of the dummy file is enough to indicate that the session should start. The dummy file will be removed immediately after it is located. the PowerCenter Server will look for the existence of this file and will remove it when it sees it. It is. therefore. file. the start of a session needs to be triggered by another session or other event. When the session starts. the FTP process should be scripted so that it creates the indicator file upon successful completion of the source file FTP. or dummy. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-125 . essential that you do not use your flat file source as the indicator file. under advanced options. much like a flat file source. Description The indicator file configuration is specified in the session configuration.Event Based Scheduling Challenge In an operational environment. is the use of indicator files. This file can be an empty. The best method of event-based scheduling with the PowerCenter Server.

Repository Administration Challenge The task of managing the repository. The native PowerCenter backup is required. you may need to analyze the tables in the repository to facilitate data retrieval. execute the following select statement to retrieve the sessions with the most entries in OPB_SESSION_LOG: PAGE BP-126 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . are slowing down . Description The following paragraphs describe several of the key tasks involved in managing the repository: Backing Up the Repository Two back-up methods are advisable for repository backup: (1) either the PowerCenter Repository Manager or ‘pmrep’ command line utility. if folder copies are taking an unusually long time. A number of best practices are available to facilitate the tasks involved with this responsibility. To determine which logs to eliminate. If database corruption occurs. although both are not essential. thereby increasing performance. and (2) the traditional database backup method. Analyzing Tables in the Repository If operations in any of the client tools. either in development or production. the OPB_SESSION_LOG and/or OPB_SESS_TARG_LOG tables may be being transferred. the native PowerCenter backup provides a clean backup that can be restored to a new database. including connectivity to the PowerCenter repository. and Informatica recommends using both methods. Removing unnecessary data from these tables will expedite the repository backup process as well as the folder copy operation. Purging Old Session Log Information Similarly. is extremely important.

session_id and b. This mode invokes and exits each time a command is issued. then delete original session. all of the session logs will appear on the righthand side of the screen. sessname order by count(*) desc 1. The following examples illustrate the use of pmrep: Example 1: Script to backup PowerCenter Repository echo Connecting to repository <Informatica Repository Name>. It is a standalone utility that installs in the PowerCenter Client installation directory. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Starting Repository Backup. It is not currently available for UNIX. count(*) from opb_session_log a. opb_subject b. The pmrep utility has two modes: command line and interactive mode...session_id=c. the entries in the tables are deleted. Log into Repository Manager and expand the sessions in a particular folder. then selecting Delete from the Edit menu. • • Command line mode lets you execute pmrep commands from the windows command line. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-127 . Copy the original session. sessname. When you delete the session. the entries in the repository tables do not duplicate. Respond ‘Yes’ when the system prompts you with the question “‘Delete these logs from the Repository?” pmrep Utility The pmrep utility was introduced in PowerCenter 5.0 to facilitate repository administration and server level administration. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep backup -o Output File Name> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Repository Backup is Complete.. eliminating all rows for an individual session. You can manually delete any of these by highlighting a particular log... When you select one of the sessions. Interactive mode invokes pmrep and allows you to issue a series of commands from a pmrep prompt without exiting after each subj_name. This utility is a command-line program for Windows 95/98 or Windows NT/2000 to update session-related parameters in a PowerCenter repository. 2. Command line mode is useful for batch files or scripts. opb_load_session c where a.subj_id group by subj_name.subj_id=c. When a session is copied.

. Be sure to have the appropriate data source configured under the exact same name as the registry you are going to import. for each imported DSN. the connection fails. and then import it to a different client machine (as long as both machines use the same operating system). PAGE BP-128 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Begin Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep updatedbconfig –d <Database Connection Name> –u <New Database Username> –p <New Database Password> –c <New Database Connection String> -t <Database Type> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Completed Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… Export and Import Registry The Repository Manager saves repository connection information in the registry. you can export the connection information. To simplify the process of setting up client machines.Example 2: Script to update database connection information echo Connecting to repository Informatica Repository <Informatica Repository Name>. If you import a registry containing a DSN that does not exist on that client system.. The section of the registry that you can import and export contains the following repository connection information: • • • • Repository name Database username and password (must be in US-ASCII) Repository username and password (must be in US-ASCII) ODBC data source name (DSN) The registry does not include the ODBC data source.

the Sun highavailability software changes the ownership of the disk where the PowerCenter Server is installed from the primary server to the secondary server.High Availability Challenge In a highly available environment. To facilitate this. another machine must recognize this and start another Server and assume responsibility for running the sessions and batches.cfg file is needed. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-129 . running Solaris OS Sun High-Availability Clustering Software External EMC storage. the Sun high-availability software automatically starts the PowerCenter Server on the secondary server using the basic auto start/stop scripts that are used in many UNIX environments to automatically start the PowerCenter Server whenever a host is rebooted. with each server owning specific disks PowerCenter installed on a separate disk that is accessible by both servers in the cluster. Under normal operations. Thus. In addition. Description While there are many types of hardware and many ways to configure a clustered environment. If the machine hosting the PowerCenter Server goes down. although it is physically located on its own server. a logical IP address can be created specifically for the PowerCenter Server. The PowerCenter Server must be running at all times. When the primary server goes down. this example is based on the following hardware and software characteristics: • • • • 2 Sun 4500. but only by one server at a time One of the Sun 4500’s serves as the primary data integration server. This is best accomplished in a clustered environment.cfg file instead of the physical IP addresses of the servers. only one pmserver. load schedules cannot be impacted by the failure of physical hardware. the PowerCenter Server ‘thinks’ it is physically hosted by the primary server and uses the resources of the primary server. while the other server in the cluster is the secondary server. This logical IP address is specified in the pmserver.


INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-131 . 1. re-run the session to determine the impact of the changes. and target have been tuned to their peak performance should the mapping be analyzed for tuning. Only minor tuning of the session can be conducted at this point and usually has only a minor effect.. Tune the source system and target system based on the performance details. the DTM should be the slowest portion of the session details. Only after the server. 3. 6. If the system is paging. This is the optimum desired performance. correcting the system to prevent paging (e. After the tuning achieves a desired level of performance. This time look at the details and watch for the Buffer Input and Outputs for the sources and targets. 5. Monitor the server. Benchmark the sessions to set a baseline to measure improvements against 2. Use the performance details. it should immediately be apparent if the system is paging memory or if the CPU load is too high for the number of available processors. When the source and target are optimized. Perform Benchmarking. Re-run the session and monitor the performance details. and the actual application of the business rules is the slowest portion. the target is inserting the data quickly. Description Performance tuning procedures consist of the following steps in a pre-determined order to pinpoint where tuning efforts should be focused. 4.g.Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Challenge Efficient and effective performance tuning for PowerCenter products. By running a session and monitoring the server. This indicates that the source data is arriving quickly. source. increasing the physical memory available on the machine) can greatly improve performance.

optimizing one or two sessions to run quickly can have a disastrous effect on another mapping and care should be taken to ensure that this does not occur. Finally. comparing the new performance with the old performance. In some cases.7. PAGE BP-132 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . re-run the sessions that have been identified as the benchmark.

This Best Practice covers tips on tuning several databases: Oracle. SQL Server and Teradata.Performance Tuning Databases Challenge Database tuning can result in tremendous improvement in loading performance. The SQL in a source qualifier or in a lookup that is running INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-133 . Keep in mind that querying these views impacts database performance. Oracle Performance Tuning Tools Oracle offers many tools for tuning an Oracle instance. Explain Plan allows the DBA or developer to determine the execution path of a block of SQL code. enabling the DBA to draw conclusions about database performance. SQL Trace. Using the SELECT ANY TABLE option requires the ‘O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY’ parameter be set to ‘TRUE’. You can grant viewing privileges with either the ‘SELECT’ privilege. Because SYS is the owner of these views. and TKPROF are powerful tools for revealing bottlenecks and developing a strategy to avoid them. carefully consider which users should be granted the privilege to query these views. With this in mind. only SYS can query them. so we’ve included only a short description of some of the major ones here. • V$ Views V$ views are dynamic performance views that provide real-time information on database activity. • Explain Plan Explain Plan. Most DBAs are already familiar with these tools. which allows a user to view for individual V$ views or the ‘SELECT ANY TABLE’ privilege. which allows the user to view all V$ views. which allows the ‘ANY’ keyword to apply to SYS owned objects. with each query having an immediate hit.

ora file. Rollback files should be separated onto their own disks because they have significant disk I/O. ‘UTLESTAT’ ends the statistics collection process and generates an output file called ‘report.for a long time should be generated and copied to SQL*PLUS or other SQL tool and tested to avoid inefficient execution of these statements. the payoff is well worth the effort in terms of performance gains. Disk I/O Disk I/O at the database level provides the highest level of performance gain in most systems. Co-locate tables that are heavily used with tables that are rarely used to help minimize disk contention. both loading and querying). Because each database is different and requires an experienced DBA to analyze and tune it for optimal performance.txt. this. This utility is run for a session with the ‘ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE’ statement. so you need to run this utility for a long while and through several operations (i. Also be sure to implement disk striping. Run this utility after the database has been up and running (for hours or days). Accumulating statistics may take time.. PAGE BP-134 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Database files should be separated and identified. Separate indexes so that when queries run indexes and tables. Review the PowerCenter session log for long initialization time (an indicator that the source qualifier may need tuning) and the time it takes to build a lookup cache to determine if the SQL for these transformations should be tested.’ This report should give the DBA a fairly complete idea about the level of usage the database experiences and reveal areas that should be addressed. a standard set of parameters to optimize PowerCenter is not practical and will probably never exist. TKPROF formats this dump file into a more understandable report. While this type of planning is time consuming. • UTLBSTAT & UTLESTAT Executing ‘UTLBSTAT’ creates tables to store dynamic performance statistics and begins the statistics collection process. they are not fighting for the same resource. • SQL Trace SQL Trace extends the functionality of Explain Plan by providing statistical information about the SQL statements executed in a session that has tracing enabled. Memory and Processing Memory and processing configuration is done in the init. • TKPROF The output of SQL Trace is provided in a dump file that is difficult to read.e. or RAID technology can help immensely in reducing disk contention.

The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command. The settings presented here are those used in a 4-CPU AIX server running Oracle 7. If this parameter is not set.3. Use of a FIRST_ROWS hint or optimizer mode overrides a nonzero setting of OPTIMIZER_PERCENT_PARALLEL. The default of 0 means that the optimizer chooses the best serial plan. (Note: ALTER SESSION refers to the Database Administration command issued at the svrmgr command prompt. A value of 100 means that the optimizer uses each object's degree of parallelism in computing the cost of a full table scan operation. o The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command. • HASH_AREA_SIZE = 16777216 o Default value: 2 times the value of SORT_AREA_SIZE o Range of values: any integer o This parameter specifies the maximum amount of memory. Cost-based optimization is always used for queries that reference an object with a nonzero degree of parallelism. Use svrmgr to issue the commands “shutdown” and “startup” (eventually “shutdown immediate”) to the instance.ora file will take effect after a restart of the instance. For such queries. in bytes.4 set to make use of the parallel query option to facilitate parallel processing of queries and indexes. o Initially not set on Install. We’ve also included the descriptions and documentation from Oracle for each setting to help DBAs of other (nonOracle) systems to determine what the commands do in the Oracle environment to facilitate setting their native database commands and settings in a similar fashion. Parallel_min_servers=8 o Used to enable parallel query.TIP: Changes made in the init.) Optimizer_percent_parallel=33 This parameter defines the amount of parallelism that the optimizer uses in its cost functions. • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-135 . • parallel_max_servers=40 o Used to enable parallel query. its value defaults to twice the value of the SORT_AREA_SIZE parameter. while high values favor table scans. Low values favor indexes. a RULE hint or optimizer mode or goal is ignored. to be used for the hash join. o Maximum number of query servers or parallel recovery processes for an instance.

• SORT_AREA_SIZE=8388608 o Default value: Operating system-dependent o Minimum value: the value equivalent to two database blocks o This parameter specifies the maximum amount. IPC as an Alternative to TCP/IP on UNIX On an HP/UX server with Oracle as a target (i. This is also the number of query server processes Oracle creates when the instance is started.e. For example. not to the operating system. if very large indexes are created.000 rows from a table was taking 19 minutes. PMServer and Oracle target on same box).000 row write (array inserts). After the sort is complete and all that remains to do is to fetch the rows out. then an increased value for this parameter may speed the import. there is only one memory area of SORT_AREA_SIZE for each user process at any time. all memory is freed.armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL =TCP) (HOST = armafix) (PORT = 1526) ) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW) ) ) PAGE BP-136 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 500. In one case. a fact mapping that was using a lookup to get five columns (including a foreign key) and about 500. particularly the CREATE INDEX statements. of Program Global Area (PGA) memory to use for a sort. Multiple allocations never exist. Minimum number of query server processes for an instance. in bytes. o The default is usually adequate for most database operations. However. The memory is released back to the PGA. this parameter may need to be adjusted. using an IPC connection can significantly reduce the time it takes to build a lookup cache.. if one process is doing all database access. primary key with unique index in place. In another mapping. After the last row is fetched out. o Increasing SORT_AREA_SIZE size improves the efficiency of large sorts. the total time decreased from 24 minutes to 8 minutes for ~120130 bytes/row. Changing the connection type to IPC reduced this to 45 seconds. as in a full database import.ora would look like this: DW.o o Initially not set on Install. A normal tcp (network tcp/ip) connection in tnsnames. Performance went from about 2Mb/min (280 rows/sec) to about 10Mb/min (1360 rows/sec). the memory is released down to the size specified by SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE.

and use it for connection to the local Oracle instance: DWIPC. With this in mind. writing a SQL statement to drop each index. For example. Run the following to generate output to disable the foreign keys in the data warehouse: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '.' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'R' This produces output that looks like: ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011077 . then writing another SQL statement to rebuild it can be a very tedious process.Make a new entry in the tnsnames like this. Oracle stores the name of each index in a table that can be queried. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. it is an easy matter to write a SQL statement that queries this table.CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011060 . Oracle 7 (and above) offers an alternative to dropping and rebuilding indexes by allowing you to disable and re-enable existing indexes. then generate SQL statements as output to disable and enable these indexes.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011075 .armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=ipc) (KEY=DW) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW)) ) Improving Data Load Performance • Alternative to Dropping and Reloading Indexes Dropping and reloading indexes during very large loads to a data warehouse is often recommended but there is seldom any easy way to do this.' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE CONSTRAINT ' || CONSTRAINT_NAME || ' . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-137 .


bypassing all SQL INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-139 .SQL’ and run it as a post-session command. merely add ‘OPTIONS (OPTION = TRUE) to beginning of the control file. rerun these queries after replacing ‘DISABLE’ with ‘ENABLE. you can exclude the index that will be used for the lookup from your script. The DIRECT path obtains an exclusive lock on the table being loaded and writes the data blocks directly to the database files. SQL*Loader has several options that can improve data loading performance and are easy to implement. SQL*Loader • Loader Options SQL*Loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the Oracle database. and evaluates constraints. These options are: • • • • DIRECT PARALLEL SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE UNRECOVERABLE A control file normally has the following format: LOAD DATA INFILE <dataFile> APPEND INTO TABLE <tableName> FIELDS TERMINATED BY '<separator>' (<list of all attribute names to load>) To use any of these options. such as ‘OPTIONS (DIRECT = TRUE)’. TIP: Dropping or disabling foreign keys will often boost loading. and re-enable primary keys before foreign keys. which specifies how data should be loaded into the database.’ Save the results in another file with a name such as ‘ENABLE. If you use lookups and updates (especially on large tables). You may want to experiment to determine which method is faster. but this also slows queries (such as lookups) and updates. fires triggers. To use the Oracle bulk loader. you need a control file. The CONVENTIONAL path is the default method for SQL*Loader. If you do not use lookups or updates on your target tables you should get a boost by using this SQL statement to generate scripts. This performs like a typical INSERT statement that updates indexes.To re-enable the indexes. Re-enable the unique constraints first. Re-enable constraints in the reverse order that you disabled them.

Recoverability should not be an issue since the data file still exists. Since most dimension tables in a warehouse have nearly every column indexed. If the CONVENTIONAL path must be used (i. Note that no other users can write to the loading table due to this exclusive lock and no SQL transformations can be made in the control file during the load. If the partitions are located on separate disks. If you don’t specify an index type when creating an index. transformations are performed during the load. Loading Partitioned Sessions To improve performance when loading data to an Oracle database using a partitioned session. but overall performance may improve significantly. bitmaps will be smaller and faster to create than a b-tree index on the same column. The PARALLEL option can be used with the DIRECT option when loading multiple partitions of the same table. Bitmap indexes are suited to data warehousing because of their performance. The DIRECT option automatically disables CHECK and foreign key REFERENCES constraints. that b-tree indexing is still the Oracle default.x. The UNRECOVERABLE option in the control file allows you to redo log writes during a CONVENTIONAL load. the space savings is dramatic. and ability to create and drop very quickly. then you can bypass index updates by using the SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE option. for example). Oracle added bitmap indexing to supplement the traditional b-tree index. by create the Oracle target table with the same number of partitions as the session. This kind of data is an excellent candidate for a bitmap index. A typical example of a low cardinality field is gender – it is either male or female (or possibly unknown). Keep in mind. but not PRIMARY KEY.e. A b-tree index can greatly improve query performance on data that has high cardinality or contains mostly unique values. however. but is not much help for low cardinality/highly duplicated data and may even increase query time. and can significantly improve query performance. But it is important to note that when a bitmap-indexed column is PAGE BP-140 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . size. UNIQUE KEY and NOT NULL constraints. Disabling these constraints with the SQL scripts described earlier will benefit performance when loading data into a target warehouse.3. the performance time can be reduced to that of loading a single partition.processing. Optimizing Query Performance • Oracle Bitmap Indexing With version 7.. You will have to rebuild the indexes after the load. Oracle will default to btree. Also note that for certain columns.

0 # or higher event = "10111 trace name context forever" event = "10112 trace name context forever" INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-141 . create bitmap index emp_active_bit on emp (active_flag). create index emp_active on emp (active_flag). add the word ‘bitmap’ between ‘create’ and ‘index’.0. inserts and updates). drop index emp_gender. Creating bitmap indexes is similar to creating b-tree indexes.. • Bitmap indexes: drop index emp_active_bit. With a bitmapped index on the Fact table. To enable bitmap indexes.ora file and if there are single column bitmapped indexes on the fact table foreign keys. create index emp_gender on emp (gender). bitmap indexes are rebuilt after each DML statement (e. a query processes by joining all the Dimension tables in a Cartesian product based on the WHERE clause.2. To specify a bitmap index. avoiding a Cartesian product of all possible Dimension attributes. Also.’ Bitmap indexes cannot be unique. you must set the following items in the instance initialization file: • • • compatible = 7. it is a good idea to drop or disable bitmap indexes prior to the load and recreate or re-enable them after the load.3. All other syntax is identical. create bitmap index emp_gender_bit on emp (gender). This ‘star query’ access method is only used if the STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED parameter is equal to TRUE in the init. a ‘star query’ may be created that accesses the Fact table first followed by the Dimension table joins. Information for bitmap indexes in stored in the data dictionary in dba_indexes. which can make loads very slow. every row associated with that bitmap entry is locked. all_indexes. For this reason. drop index emp_gender_bit. The relationship between Fact and Dimension keys is another example of low cardinality.g. With a b-tree index on the Fact table. and user_indexes with the word ‘BITMAP’ in the Uniqueness column rather than the word ‘UNIQUE. then joins back to the Fact table. making bitmap indexing a poor choice for OLTP database tables with constant insert and update traffic. • B-tree indexes: drop index emp_active.updated.

the keyword ‘bitmap’ won't be recognized. a syntax error will appear in your SQL statement. the word ‘parallel’ appears in the banner text. The following will improve query results on Fact and Dimension tables (including appending and updating records) by updating the table and index statistics for the data warehouse: The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the tables in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE TABLE ' || TABLE_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS. The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the indexes in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE INDEX ' || INDEX_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS.' FROM USER_TABLES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE TABLE CUSTOMER_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. start and log into SQL*Plus. ANALYZE TABLE VENDOR_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. Index Statistics • Table Method Index statistics are used by Oracle to determine the best method to access tables and should be updated periodically as normal DBA procedures. • TIP: To check if the parallel query option is installed. If you try to create bitmap indexes without the parallel query option. ANALYZE TABLE MARKET_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS.' FROM USER_INDEXES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011125 COMPUTE STATISTICS.• event = "10114 trace name context forever" Also note that the parallel query option must be installed in order to create bitmap indexes. PAGE BP-142 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If the parallel query option is installed.

ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011105 COMPUTE STATISTICS. If you find the exact computation of the statistics consumes too much time. Save these results as a SQL script to be executed before or after a load. The degree of parallelism should be identified based on the number of processors and disk drives on the server. SELECT /*+ PARALLEL_INDEX(order_fact. BDB is the schema for which the statistics should be updated. Use ‘estimate’ instead of ‘compute’ in the above examples. be sure to use this alias in the hint. then you can use the following command to update the statistics: EXECUTE SYS. Otherwise. it is often acceptable to estimate the statistics rather than compute them. The following examples demonstrate how to utilize four processors: SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(order_fact. Example of improper use of alias: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-143 .Analyze_Schema ('BDB'. especially for very large tables. we recommend running them at off-peak times when no other process is using the database. with the number of processors being the minimum degree. In this example. If data warehouse indexes are the only indexes located in a single schema. and you will not receive an error message. Parallelism Parallel execution can be implemented at the SQL statement. order_fact_ixl.4) */ …. database object. For this reason. TIP: When using a table alias in the SQL Statement.DBMS_UTILITY. • Schema Method Another way to update index statistics is to compute indexes by schema rather than by table. the hint will not be used. • SQL Level Parallelism Hints are used to define parallelism at the SQL statement level. Note that the DBA must grant the execution privilege for dbms_utility to the database user executing this command.4) */ …. TIP: These SQL statements can be very resource intensive.ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011119 COMPUTE STATISTICS. or instance level for many SQL operations. 'compute').

. use the operating system’s authentication to log onto the database instance.sql For example. the parallel hint will not be used because of the used alias “A” for table EMP. the Informatica id “pmuser” is used to log onto the Oracle database.SQL In some environments. Additional Tips • Executing Oracle SQL Scripts as Pre and Post Session Commands on UNIX You can execute queries as both pre. ENAME FROM EMP A Here. 4) */ EMPNO. this may be a security issue since both username and password are hard-coded and unencrypted. 4) */ EMPNO. ENAME FROM EMP A • Table Level Parallelism Parallelism can also be defined at the table and index level. In the following example. to execute the ENABLE. you would execute the following as a post-session command: sqlplus -s pmuser/pmuser@infadb @ /informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE.SQL file created earlier (assuming the data warehouse is on a database named ‘infadb’). the format of the command is: sqlplus –s user_id/password@database @ script_name. . .SELECT /*+PARALLEL (EMP. The following example demonstrates how to set a table’s degree of parallelism to four for all eligible SQL statements on this table: ALTER TABLE order_fact PARALLEL 4.and post-session commands. Create the Oracle user “pmuser” with the following SQL statement: CREATE USER PMUSER IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY DEFAULT TABLESPACE . PAGE BP-144 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . For a UNIX environment. Ensure that Oracle is not contending with other processes for these resources or you may end up with degraded performance due to resource contention. To avoid this. . TEMPORARY TABLESPACE . The correct way is: SELECT /*+PARALLEL (A.

“pmuser” (the id Informatica is logged onto the operating system as) is automatically passed from the operating system to the database and used to execute the script: sqlplus -s /@infadb @/informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE. If database I/O (input/output operations to the physical disk subsystem) can be reduced to the minimal required set of data and index pages. • • • • • • Manage system memory usage (RAM caching) Create and maintain good indexes Partition large data sets and indexes Monitor disk I/O subsystem performance Tune applications and queries Optimize active data Manage RAM Caching Managing random access memory (RAM) buffer cache is a major consideration in any database server environment. The primary goal of performance tuning is to reduce I/O so that buffer cache is best utilized. you want to join two source tables (A and B) together.In the following pre-session command. For example. • DRIVING_SITE ‘Hint’ If the source and target are on separate instances. the Source Qualifier transformation should be executed on the target instance.SQL You may want to use the init. then processes everything on the target instance. Accessing data in RAM cache is much faster than accessing the same Information from disk. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-145 . which may reduce the number of selected rows. this causes a great deal of network traffic. use the ‘Generate SQL’ option in the source qualifier and include the ‘driving_site’ hint in the SQL statement as: SELECT /*+ DRIVING_SITE */ …. Managing performance on an SQL Server encompasses the following points. Oracle fetches all of the data from both tables. To force the Oracle optimizer to process the join on the source instance. If either data source is large.ora parameter “os_authent_prefix” to distinguish between “normal” oracle-users and “external-identified” ones. Too much unneeded data and index information flowing into buffer cache quickly pushes out valuable pages. However. moves the data across the network to the target instance. these pages will stay in RAM longer. SQL Server Description Proper tuning of the source and target database is a very important consideration to the scalability and usability of a business analytical environment.

Setting ‘set working set’ size means the operating system will not attempt to swap out SQL Server pages even if they can be used more readily by another process when SQL Server is idle. Note that this setting is automated in SQL Server 2000 SQL Server allows several selectable models for database recovery. which is a priority base of seven. Priority Boost Option Use this option to specify whether SQL Server should run at a higher scheduling priority than other processors on the same computer. Max Degree of Parallelism Option Use this option to limit the number of processors (a max of 32) to use in parallel plan execution. these include: Full Recovery Bulk-Logged Recovery Simple Recovery Cost Threshold for Parallelism Option Use this option to specify the threshold where SQL Server creates and executes parallel plans. Set this option to 1 to suppress parallel plan generation. The server memory setting is configured automatically by SQL Server based on workload and available resources. If you set this option to one. Optimizing Disk I/O Performance PAGE BP-146 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . It will vary dynamically between min server memory and max server memory. Set the value to a number greater than 1 to restrict the maximum number of processors used by a single query execution . SQL Server runs at a priority base of 13. which uses the actual number of available CPUs. Set Working Set Size Option Use this option to reserve physical memory space for SQL Server that is equal to the server memory setting.Several settings in SQL Server can be adjusted to take advantage of SQL Server RAM usage: • • Max async I/O is used to specify the number of simultaneous disk I/O operations (???) that SQL Server can submit to the operating system. Only set cost threshold for parallelism on symmetric multiprocessors (SMP). The default is 0. The cost refers to an estimated elapsed time in seconds required to execute the serial plan on a specific hardware configuration. SQL Server creates and executes a parallel plan for a query only when the estimated cost to execute a serial plan for the same query is higher than the value set in cost threshold for parallelism. The default value is 0.

. Unlike bcp. BULK INSERT can only pull data into SQL Server. The second is the BULK INSERT statement. The first mechanism is the bcp utility. Partitioning for Performance For SQL Server databases that are stored on multiple disk drives. To build larger SQL Server databases however. it is necessary to drive configuration around maximizing SQL Server disk I/O performance by load-balancing across multiple hard drives.999 rows will need to be rolled back out of the database before you attempt to reload the data.000. SQL Server commits all rows to be loaded as a single batch. you attempt to load 1. Partitioning can be done using a variety of techniques. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-147 . Methods for creating and managing partitions include configuring your storage subsystem (i. it is good to get in the habit of specifying a batch size for recoverability reasons. • • Bcp is a command prompt utility that copies data into or out of SQL Server. because SQL Server would have only had to rollback 9999 rows instead of 999. disk. The server suddenly loses power just as it finishes processing row number 999. which will contain hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of data and/or that can sustain heavy read/write activity (as in a DSS application). TIP: Both of these mechanisms enable you to exercise control over the batch size. those 999.999.e. performance can be improved by partitioning the data to increase the amount of disk I/O parallelism. If none is specified. Unless you are working with small volumes of data. you need not be particularly concerned with the subject of disk I/O and balancing of SQL Server I/O activity across hard drives for maximum performance. An advantage of using BULK INSERT is that it can copy data into instances of SQL Server using a Transact-SQL statement. For example.When configuring a SQL Server that will contain only a few gigabytes of data and not sustain heavy read or write activity. file groups. When the server recovers.999.000 you could have saved significant recovery time. rather than having to shell out to the command prompt. BULK INSERT is a Transact-SQL statement that can be executed from within the database environment. Some possible candidates for partitioning include: • • • • • Transaction log Tempdb Database Tables Non-clustered indexes Using bcp and BULK INSERT Two mechanisms exist inside SQL Server to address the need for bulk movement of data. By specifying a batch size of 10. tables and views.000 rows of new data into a table. RAID partitioning) and applying various data configuration mechanisms in SQL Server such as files.

MultiLoad supports inserts.x several aspects of tuning can be controlled by setting MultiLoad parameters to maximize write throughput. This best practice will focus on MultiLoad since PowerCenter 5. MultiLoad. FastLoad is used for loading inserts into an empty table. such as online users modifying the database during bulk loads. and TPump.0. and “upserts” to any table. the data is first written to file. updates.x can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts and invoke the MultiLoad utility per PowerCenter target. the Informatica server transfers data via a UNIX named pipe to MultiLoad. Other areas to analyze when performing a MultiLoad job include estimating space requirements and monitoring MultiLoad performance. whereas in PowerCenter 5. One of TPump’s advantages is that it does not lock the table that is being loaded. MultiLoad Parameters PAGE BP-148 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Tuning MultiLoad There are many aspects to tuning a Teradata database. deletes. Teradata Description Teradata offers several bulk load utilities including FastLoad. · Change from Full to Bulk-Logged Recovery mode unless there is an overriding need to preserve a point–in time recovery.1.General Guidelines for Initial Data Loads While loading data: • • • • • • Remove indexes Use Bulk INSERT or bcp Parallel load using partitioned data files into partitioned tables Run one load stream for each available CPU Set Bulk-Logged or Simple Recovery model Use TABLOCK option While loading data • • • Create indexes Switch to the appropriate recovery model Perform backups General Guidelines for Incremental Data Loads • • Load Data with indexes in place Performance and concurrency requirements should determine locking granularity (sp_indexoption). Read operations should not affect bulk loads. With PowerCenter 5. Note: In PowerCenter 5.

and no non-unique secondary indexes: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-149 . Date Format. A client based operand that is part of the logon string. Allows you to specify whether to drop or retain the three error tables for a MultiLoad session. By using permanent space for the MultiLoad tables. Interval in hours between MultiLoad attempts to log on to the database when the maximum number of sessions are already running. Available only in PowerCenter 5. it represents the interval in minutes between checkpoint operations. Spool space is freed at each restart.1. In addition to the space that may be required by target tables. Also validate that your date format is compatible with the date format specified in the Teradata database. Available only in PowerCenter 5.x. Also remember to account for the size of error tables since error tables are generated for each target table. no journals. Sleep. Checkpoint. Work tables. This not only enhances development. Here are the MultiLoad-specific parameters that are available in PowerCenter: • • TDPID. assuming no fallback protection. Available load methods include Insert. Ensure that the date format used in your target flat file is equivalent to the date format parameter in your MultiLoad script. error tables. this parameter specifies the number of minutes that MultiLoad waits before retrying a logon operation. require a lot of extra permanent space. Consider creating separate external loader connections for each method. Drop Error Tables. • • • • • • Estimating Space Requirements for MultiLoad Jobs Always estimate the final size of your MultiLoad target tables and make sure the destination has enough space to complete your MultiLoad job. but also allows you to set performance options. Set this parameter to 1 to drop error tables or 0 to retain error tables.With PowerCenter 5. To maximize write speed to the database. Max Sessions.1. data is preserved for restart operations after a system failure. in particular. Update. this parameter specifies the maximum number of sessions that are allowed to log on to the database. When you set the checkpoint value to less than 60. and Upsert. you can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts. Delete. Load Mode. This value should not exceed one per working amp (Access Module Process). or the restart log table. Use the following formula to prepare the preliminary space estimate for one target table. selecting the one that will be most efficient for each target table. it represents the number of records to write before performing a checkpoint operation. A checkpoint interval is similar to a commit interval for other databases. try to limit the number of checkpoint operations that are performed. Tenacity. If the checkpoint is set to a value greater than 60. each MultiLoad job needs permanent space for: • • • Work tables Error tables Restart Log table Note: Spool space cannot be used for MultiLoad work tables.

NUSIs degrade MultiLoad performance because the utility builds a separate NUSI change row to be applied to each NUSI sub-table after all of the rows have been applied to the primary table. as data is applied to the target tables. Use the Teradata RDBMS Query Session utility to monitor the progress of the MultiLoad job. Check the DBC. • If the performance bottleneck is during the acquisition phase. 5. Monitoring MultiLoad Performance Here are some tips for analyzing MultiLoad performance: 1. as data is acquired from the client system. PAGE BP-150 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Check the size of the error tables. such as data bus or CPU capacities at or near 100 percent for one or more processors. 4. 7.Resusage table for problem areas. then the issue may be with the client system. • 2.PERM = (using data size + 38) x (number of rows processed) x (number of apply conditions satisfied) x (number of Teradata SQL statements within the applied DML) Make adjustments to your preliminary space estimates according to the requirements and expectations of your MultiLoad job. Write operations to the fallback error tables are performed at normal SQL speed. Save these listings for evaluation. Verify that the primary index is unique. Determine whether the target tables have non-unique secondary indexes (NUSIs). The MultiLoad job output lists the job phases and other useful information. 3. Determine which phase of the MultiLoad job is causing poor performance. 6. which is much slower than normal MultiLoad tasks. Non-unique primary indexes can cause severe MultiLoad performance problems. Check for locks on the MultiLoad target tables and error tables. then the issue is not likely to be with the client system. If it is during the application phase.

Some swapping will normally occur regardless of the tuning settings. increase memory to prevent swapping. you can get a snapshot of page swapping. What processes are using most of the CPU? This may help you distribute the workload better. causes a major performance decrease and increased I/O. use pstat and swap. it should be increased. If the swap space is too small for the intended applications. Check the system to ensure that swapping does not occur at any time during the session processing. all are worthy of consideration. Description Running ps-axu Run ps-axu to check for the following items: • • • • Are there any processes waiting for disk access or for paging? If so check the I/O and memory subsystems. To check swap space availability. on any database system.Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Challenge The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning UNIX-based machines. Swapping. On a memory-starved and I/O-bound server. This occurs because some processes use the swap space by their design. While some of these tips will be more helpful than others in a particular environment. Identifying and Resolving Memory Issues Use vmstat or sar to check swapping actions. this can effectively shut down the PowerCenter process and any databases running on the server. If page swapping does occur at any time. By using sar 5 10 or vmstat 1 10. What processes are using most of the memory? This may help you distribute the workload better. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-151 . Does ps show that your system is running many memory-intensive jobs? Look for jobs with a large set (RSS) or a high storage integral.

Use your fastest disk drive and controller for your root filesystem. Long bursts of swap-outs mean that active jobs are probably falling victim and indicate extreme memory shortage. These should ALWAYS be zero. Iostat can be used to monitor the I/O load on the disks on the UNIX server. or in two welldefined peaks at opposite ends (bad)? • • • Reorganize your file systems and disks to distribute I/O activity as evenly as possible. This may not help the memory problems. Try to limit the time spent running sendmail. BSD systems swap-out inactive jobs. etc. Put performance-critical files on a filesystem with a large block size: 16KB or 32KB (BSD). Are there a high number of address translation faults? (System V only) This suggests a memory shortage. as well as CPU load. Are swap-outs occurring consistently? If so. Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory in a batch queue. but you may not care about them as much. This may limit the system’s capacity (number of files. If it is not. put performance-critical files into one filesystem and use the fastest drive for that filesystem. Alternatively. Using symbolic links helps to keep the directory structure the same throughout while still moving the data files that are causing I/O contention. this will almost certainly have the heaviest activity. if your system has one. If memory seems to be the bottleneck of the system. if single-file throughput is important. which is a memory hog. reduce the number of large (2048.4 and SunOS 4. are the most active disks also the fastest disks? Run sadp to get a seek histogram of disk activity. add more memory. Occasional swap-outs are normal. Is activity concentrated in one area of the disk (good). your system may perform satisfactorily. you are extremely short of memory. Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory at night. If you don’t have vmsta –S. This may reduce network performance.). If you have statically allocated STREAMS buffers. spread evenly across the disk (tolerable).Run vmstate 5 (sar –wpgr ) for SunOS. Making the buffer cache smaller will hurt disk I/O performance. If only one memory-intensive job is running at a time. try following remedial steps: • • • • • • • Reduce the size of the buffer cache. vmstat –S 5 to detect and confirm memory problems and check for the following: • • • Are pages-outs occurring consistently? If so. Reduce the size of your kernel’s tables. but netstat-m should give you an idea of how many buffers you really need. Take notice of how fairly disk activity is distributed among the system disks. number of processes. by decreasing BUFPAGES. you are short of memory. If you don’t see any significant improvement.and 4096-byte) buffers.X systems. The buffer cache is not used in system V. Identifying and Resolving Disk I/O Issues Use iostat to check i/o load and utilization. Using iostat permits monitoring the load on specific disks. • PAGE BP-152 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . look at the w and de fields of vmstat.

without letup? It is good for the CPU to be busy. Get users to run jobs at night with at or any queuing system that’s available always for help. You don’t have local disk I/O problems. A target goal should be %usr + %sys= 80 and %wio = 10 leaving %idle at 10. If you are using NFS and using remote files. If your workload grows. the disk and I/O contention should be investigated to eliminate I/O bottleneck on the UNIX server. In general though. This points to CPU overload. it is necessary to make memory changes to reduce the load on the system server. In this case. it will soon become insufficient. • • • Eliminate unnecessary daemon processes.• • • • Increase the size of the buffer cache by increasing BUFPAGES (BSD). and %idle (% of idle time). Use nice to lower the priority of CPU-bound jobs will improve interactive performance. You may not care if the CPU (or the memory or I/O system) is overloaded at night. you have memory problems. using nice is really only a temporary solution. If the system shows a heavy load of %sys. rwhod and routed are particularly likely to be performance problems. build a new filesystem. This provides the %usr (user). this is indicative of memory and contention of swapping/paging problems. If %wio is higher. object modules. source code files. work must be piling up somewhere. replacing it. If your system is paging or swapping consistently. use the disk quota system to prevent individual users from gathering too much storage. editor backup and auto-save files. and small data files).. Swapping makes performance worse. Consider upgrading your system. If you are running BSD UNIX or V. fix memory problem first. also observe for CPU idle time. Rebuild your file systems periodically to eliminate fragmentation (backup. Run the script through cron. or buying another system to share the load. %wio (waiting on I/O). but any savings will help. Check memory statistics again by running vmstat 5 (sar-rwpg).g. Identifying and Resolving CPU Overload Issues Use sar –u to check for CPU loading. try the following actions: • • • Write a find script that detects old core dumps.4. but if it is always busy 100 percent of the time. and other trash and deletes it automatically. %sys (system). provided the work is done in the morning. Is the idle time always 0. If your system has disk capacity problem and is constantly running out of disk space. This may hurt your system’s memory performance. Use a smaller block size on file systems that are mostly small files (e. Also. When you run iostat 5above. Identifying and Resolving Network Issues INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-153 . using nice to raise the priority of CPU-bound jobs will expedite them but will hurt interactive performance. look at your network situation. and %usr has a high %idle. and restore).

Use systems with good network performance as file servers.intensive programs across the network. some part of the network between the NFS client and server is overloaded and dropping packets. If timeoutand retrans are high. suspect an overloaded network. at least one NFS server is overloaded. If you are short of STREAMS data buffers and are running Sun OS 4. If the increase of UDP socket full drops (as indicated by netstat) is equal to or greater than the number of drop packets that spray reports. If the number of collisions is large. Try to prevent users from running I/O. If timeout is high. If the retransfield is more than 5 percent of calls. the remote system most likely cannot respond to incoming data fast enough. or one or more servers may have crashed. If collisions and network hardware are not a problem. Look to see if there are CPU. Avoid ps. If the number of input or output errors is large. PAGE BP-154 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . look for network errors. If the number of dropped packets is large. have users log into the remote system to do their work.3 (or earlier).0 or System V. Look at netsat-i. Use vi or a native window editor rather than emacs. If badmixis roughly equal to timeout. memory or disk I/O problems on the remote system. A large number of output errors suggests problems with your system and its interface to the network.You can suspect problems with network capacity or with data integrity if users experience slow performance when they are using rlogin or when they are accessing files via NFS. at least one NFS server is overloaded. Run nfsstat and look at the client RPC data. Run netstat-s on the remote system. Reorganize the computers and disks on your network so that as many users as possible can do as much work as possible on a local system. reconfigure the kernel with more buffers. the system may just not be able to tolerate heavy network workloads. Use spray to send a large burst of packets to the slow system. the remote system is slow network server If the increase of socket full drops is less than the number of dropped packets. suspect hardware problems. figure out which system appears to be slow. If not. A large number of dropped packets may also indicate data corruption. avoid long search paths. the network or an NFS server is overloaded. but badxidis low. General Tips and Summary of Other Useful Commands • • • • • Use dirs instead of pwd. then spray the remote system from the local system and run netstat-s again. A large number of input errors indicate problems somewhere on the network. Instead. the network may be faulty. Minimize the number of files per directory. The greputility is a good example of an I/O intensive program. Try to reorganize the network so that this system isn’t a file server. If you use sh.

Current PowerMart processes ---------------> UID PID PPID C powermar 2711 1421 289406976 powermar 2713 2711 289406976 powermar 1421 1 powermar 2712 2711 289406976 powermar 2714 1421 289406976 powermar 2721 2714 289406976 powermar 2722 2714 289406976 STIME TTY TIME CMD 16 18:13:11 ? 0:07 dtm pmserver.powermar pm4 5000000 1421 2714 m 8003 00000000 --rw------. Maxuproc is the setting to determine the maximum level of user background dba 20979712 1254 1273 m 1 0x0927e9b2 --rw-rw---. Avoid raw devices. Typical choices include: s5. this is defaulted to 40 but should be increased to 250 on most systems. ufs. Of particular attention is maxuproc. and lastly raw devices that. in reality are not a file system at all.cfg 0 202 0:04 dtm pmserver. Use PMProcs Utility ( PowerCenter Utility).cfg 1 202 - <-----------. lsattr –E –l sys0 is used to determine some current settings on most UNIX environments.cfg 1 202 0:02 dtm pmserver.• • • Use egrep rather than grep: it’s faster. On most UNIX environments. In general.oradba dba 21749760 1331 2478 m 202 00000000 --rw------.cfg 1 202 0:04 dtm pmserver.intensive applications across NFS. The Veritas File System. vxfs. Don’t run grep or other I/O. The “UNIX File System” derived from Berkeley (BSD).powermar pm4 25000000 2711 2711 m 4 00000000 --rw------.Current Shared Memory Resources ---------------> IPC status from <running system> as of Tue Feb 16 18:13:55 1999 T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP SEGSZ CPID LPID Shared Memory: m 0 0x094e64a5 --rw-rw---.cfg 0 202 1:30 pmserver 0:08 dtm pmserver. Be sure to check the database vendor documentation to determine the best file system for the specific machine. to view the current Informatica processes.powermar pm4 25000000 2714 2714 <-----------. Use rlogin rather than NFS to access files on remote systems.cfg 0 202 11 18:13:17 ? 1 08:39:19 ? 17 18:13:17 ? 11 18:13:20 ? 12 18:13:27 ? 8 18:13:27 ? 0:05 dtm pmserver. For example: harmon 125: pmprocs <-----------.Current Semaphore Resources ---------------> INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-155 . proprietary file systems from the UNIX vendor are most efficient and well suited for database work when tuned properly. The UNIX System V File System.

Most database systems provide a special tuning supplement for each specific version of UNIX.There are 19 Semaphores held by PowerMart processes • • • • • • Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands Only available for UNIX CPID . by tuning the server to support the database.3 running on AIX 4. Because PowerCenter processes data in a similar fashion as SMP databases. there is a specific IBM Redbook for Oracle 7. For detailed information on each of the parameters discussed here and much more on performance tuning of the applications running on UNIX-based systems refer this book. References: System Performance Tuning (from O’Reilly Publishing) by Mike Loukid. For example.Creator PID LPID . you also tune the system for PowerCenter. the general rule of thumb is to tune the server for a major database system.shows slot in LM shared memory Finally.used to sync the reader and writer 0 or 1 . PAGE BP-156 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .Last PID that accessed the resource Semaphores .3. is the main reference book for this Best Practice. when tuning UNIX environments.

The Performance tab (hit ctrl+alt+del. NT scalability is quite limited. with differences for Windows 2000 noted in the last section. While some are likely to be more helpful than others in any particular environment. it may be necessary to add processing power to the server. Thus.e. For SMP environments you need to add one monitor for each CPU. look for these performance indicators to check: Processor: percent processor time. but offers limited performance options. There is currently no solution for optimizing this situation. one CPU may be at 100% utilization while the other CPUs are at 0% utilization. If the number is much higher. Note: Tuning is essentially the same for both NT and 2000 based systems.Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Challenge The Microsoft Windows NT/2000 environment is easier to tune than UNIX environments. If the system is “maxed out” (i. The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning NT-based machines. However. When using the Performance Monitor. Unfortunately. running at 100 percent for all CPUs). In this comparison. this does not mean that the NT system administrator is entirely free from performance improvement responsibilities. Description The two places to begin when tuning an NT server are: • • The Performance Monitor. a number of five pages per second or less is acceptable. choose task manager. although Microsoft is working on the problem. especially in comparison with UNIX environments. there is a need to tune the memory INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-157 . Memory: pages/second. Also keep in mind NT’s inability to split processes across multiple CPUs. and click on the Performance tab). all are worthy of consideration. NT is considered a “selftuning” operating system because it attempts to configure and tune memory to the best of its ability.

Memory and services. This setting is used to determine the number of users sitting idle waiting for access to the same disk device. This is. PAGE BP-158 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the load on the database can be leveled across multiple disks. Server: bytes total/second. can eliminate bottlenecks and improve throughput of network traffic at a magnitude of 10 to 1000 times depending on the hardware. files should be moved to less utilized disk devices to optimize overall performance. Physical disks: percent time. I/O Optimization. If this number is greater than two. In situations where there are multiple controllers. By analyzing the disk I/O. making it difficult to identify real problems. Remember that this is only a guideline. This is a very nebulous performance indicator. and very possibly resulting in a false sense of security. be sure to level the load across the controllers too. It is nebulous because it bundles multiple network connections together. and some background processes. Although adding memory to NT is always a good solution. This is the best place to tune database performance within NT environments. Some connections may be fast while others are slow. Careful analysis of the network card (or cards) and their settings. If necessary. the best tuning option for database applications in the NT environment. moving files to less frequently used disk devices should level the load of the disk device. Load reasonableness. and hubstacks is critical for optimal server performance when moving data across the network. Assume that some software will not be well coded. connections. Device Drivers. check the Services in Control Panel because many background applications do not uninstall the old service when installing a new update or version. The device drivers for some types of hardware are notorious for wasting CPU clock cycles. it is also expensive and usually must be planned to support the BANK system for EISA and PCI architectures. It monitors the server network connection. High I/O settings indicate possible contention for I/O. Resolving Typical NT Problems The following paragraphs describe some common performance problems in an NT environment and suggest tuning make better use of hardware rather than virtual memory. Be sure to get the latest drivers from the hardware vendor to minimize this problem. such as a mail server or web server running on the same machine. Thus. Intimate knowledge of the network card. level the load across the disk devices by moving files. both the unused old service and the new service may be using valuable CPU memory resources. Off-loading CPU hogs may be the only recourse. Physical disks: queue length. by far. and the recommended setting may be too high for some systems. combined with the use of a Network Analyzer. Before adding memory. can potentially starve the CPUs on the machine.

page faults. and reading and writing of data. sets the disk device priority low. be sure to implement disk stripping to split single data files across multiple disk drives and take advantage of RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks) technology. you can use system monitor in the Performance Console of the administrative tools. The System Monitor is portable. Also increase the priority of the disk devices on the NT server. This is useful in monitoring other systems that require administration. or thread activity. not Performance Monitor. running a program. Change the disk priority setting in the Registry at service\lanman\server\parameters and add a key for ThreadPriority of type DWORD with a value of 2. The alerting function allows you to define a counter value that will trigger actions such as sending a network message. You can copy counter paths and settings from the System Monitor display to the Clipboard and paste counter paths from Web pages or other sources into the System Monitor display. Typing perfmon. The System Monitor displays a graph which is flexible and configurable. Data in counter logs can be saved as comma-separated or tab-separated files that are easily viewed with Excel. or system tools in the task manager. and network level. joiner. Windows 2000 provides the following tools (accessible under the Control Panel/Administration Tools/Performance) for monitoring resource usage on your computer: • • System Monitor Performance Logs and Alerts These Windows 2000 monitoring tools enable you to analyze usage and detect bottlenecks at the disk. Trace logs collect event traces that measure performance statistics associated with events such as disk and file I/O. and fragmentation can be eliminated by using a Windows NT/2000 disk defragmentation product. rank. Counter logs record sampled data about hardware resources and system services based on performance objects and counters in the same manner as System Monitor. Alerts are INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-159 . by default. With Windows 2000. to monitor the amount of system resources used by the Informatica server and to identify system bottlenecks. on NT servers.exe at the command prompt causes the system to start System Monitor. session execution. The Performance Logs and Alerts tool provides two types of performance-related logs—counter logs and trace logs—and an alerting function. Finally. The Informatica server also uses system memory for other data such as aggregate. Using this type of product is a good idea whether the disk is formatted for FAT or NTFS. or starting a log.Using electrostatic devices and fast-wide SCSI can also help to increase performance. Monitoring System Performance In Windows 2000 In Windows 2000 the Informatica server uses system resources to process transformation. Therefore they can be viewed in System Monitor. processor. memory. NT. and cached lookup tables.

after manual start-up. If you want to create your own log setting press the right mouse on one of the log types. are configured to create a binary log that. PhysicalDisk(_Total)\Avg. data is saved to the Perflogs folder on the root directory and includes the counters: Memory\ Pages/sec. Some other useful counters include Physical Disk: Reads/sec and Writes/sec and Memory: Available Bytes and Cache Bytes. PAGE BP-160 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and Processor(_Total)\ % Processor Time. updates every 15 seconds and logs continuously until it achieves a maximum size. If you start logging with these settings. Disk Queue Length.) The predefined log settings under Counter Logs named System Overview. but want to be notified when it exceeds or falls below a specified value so that you can investigate and determine the cause of the change. Note:You must have Full Control access to a subkey in the registry in order to create or modify a log configuration. You might want to set alerts based on established performance baseline values for your system. (The subkey is HKEY_CURRENT_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SysmonLog\Log_Qu eries.useful if you are not actively monitoring a particular counter threshold value.

be sure the SQL statement is tuned. a PowerCenter mapping is the biggest ‘bottleneck’ in the load process as business rules determine the number and complexity of transformations in a mapping. if a function is used in several mappings. Consolidate separate mappings into one mapping with either a single Source Qualifier Transformation or one set of Source Qualifier Transformations as the data source for the separate data flows.Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Challenge In general. consider a single-pass reading. Lookup Transformation. When these conversions are performed unnecessarily performance slows. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-161 . if a mapping moves data from an Integer port to a Decimal port. Consider Single-Pass Reading If several mappings use the same data source. Similarly. Optimize SQL Overrides When SQL overrides are required in a Source Qualifier. Scrutinize Datatype Conversions PowerCenter Server automatically makes conversions between compatible datatypes. then back to an Integer port. For example. This Best Practice offers some guidelines for tuning mappings. the conversion may be unnecessary. The extent to which and how SQL can be tuned depends on the underlying source or target database system. a single-pass reading will reduce the number of times that function will be called in the session. or in the update override of a target object. Description Analyze mappings for tuning only after you have tuned the system. source and target for peak performance.

In general. Practices regarding memory and cache sizing for Lookup transformations are covered in Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance.In some instances however. removes the row causing the error from the data flow. lookup caching should be enabled. For example. and so on. datatype conversions can help improve performance. In Mapping X. When to Cache Lookups When caching is enabled. Any source of errors should be traced and eliminated. NOTE: All the tuning options mentioned in this Best Practice assume that memory and cache sizing for lookups are sufficient to ensure that caches will not page to disks. During transformation errors. any condition that is specifically set up as an error. consider the following example. the PowerCenter Server engine pauses to determine the cause of the error. conflicting mapping logic. A better rule of thumb than memory size is to determine the ‘size’ of the potential lookup cache with regard to the number of rows expected to be processed. When this option is not enabled. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table on a row-by-row basis. Eliminate Transformation Errors Large numbers of evaluation errors significantly slow performance of the PowerCenter Server. If errors recur consistently for certain transformations. Transformation errors can be caused by many things including: conversion errors. the PowerCenter Server caches the lookup table and queries the lookup cache during the session. the source and lookup contain the following number of records: ITEMS (source): MANUFACTURER: DIM_ITEMS: Number of Disk Reads 5000 records 200 records 100000 records PAGE BP-162 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . if the lookup table needs less than 300MB of memory. and logs the error in the session log. re-evaluate the constraints for these transformation. The session log can help point out the cause of these errors. This is especially true when integer values are used in place of other datatypes for performing comparisons using Lookup and Filter transformations. Optimize Lookup Transformations There are a number of ways to optimize lookup transformations that are setup in a mapping.

Thus the lookup should not be cached. Note this time in seconds: LOOKUP TIME IN SECONDS = LS. it will result in 105. Run the mapping with caching turned off and save the log. If the lookup table is cached. take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into number or rows being processed: CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = CRS. take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into the number or rows being processed: NON-CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = NRS. the number of records in the lookup table is small in comparison with the number of times the lookup is executed. In this case the number of records in the lookup table is not small in comparison with the number of times the lookup will be executed. 4. Code the lookup into the mapping.000 total disk reads to build and execute the lookup. In this case. If your expected source records is more than X. Use the following formula to find the breakeven row point: (LS*NRS*CRS)/(CRS-NRS) = X Where X is the breakeven point. If your expected source records is less than X. add a where clause on a relational source to load a sample 10. This is the more likely scenario. Select a standard set of data from the source. For example. In the cached log. Use the following eight step method to determine if a lookup should be cached: 1. it is better to cache the lookup. it is better to not cache the lookup. it will take a total of 5200 disk reads to build the cache and execute the lookup.000 total disk reads to execute the lookup. 2. then the disk reads would total 10. If the lookup table is not cached. 5. If the lookup table is cached. So this lookup should be cached. If the lookup table is not cached. Consider the case where DIM_ITEMS is the lookup table. Look in the cached lookup log and determine how long it takes to cache the lookup object. Run the mapping with caching turned on and save the log to a different name than the log created in step 3.000 rows.000. 7.Cached Lookup LKP_Manufacturer Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads LKP_DIM_ITEMS Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads 100000 5000 0 105000 200 5000 0 5200 Un-cached Lookup 0 5000 5000 100000 0 5000 5000 10000 Consider the case where MANUFACTURER is the lookup table. 3. In the non-cached log. then it will take a total of 10. 6. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-163 . 8.

The formula would result in: (166*147*232)/(232-147) = 66. Thus. the use of a named persistent cache allows sharing of an existing cache file. Assume with a cached lookup the load is 232 rows per second (CRS=232). Across sessions of the same mapping.603 records. set the conditions with an equal sign first in order to optimize lookup performance. PAGE BP-164 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Sharing Lookup Caches There are a number of methods for sharing lookup caches. Options can be added to the WHERE clause to reduce the set of records included in the resulting cache. NOTE: If you use a SQL override in a lookup.603 records. Bringing back a common set of columns may reduce the number of disk reads. the memory cache created for the lookup during the initial run is saved to the PowerCenter Server. the PowerCenter Server will re-use the cache for the multiple instances of the lookup. Using the same lookup multiple times in the mapping will be more resource intensive with each successive instance. it may be better to setup the multiple lookups to bring back the same columns even though not all return ports are used in all lookups.603. the lookup should not be cached. This can improve performance because the Server builds the memory cache from cache files instead of the database. If it has more than 66. This feature should only be used when the lookup table is not expected to change between session runs. Optimizing the Lookup Condition In the case where a lookup uses more than one lookup condition. If multiple cached lookups are from the same table but are expected to return different columns of data.For example: Assume the lookup takes 166 seconds to cache (LS=166). if the source has less than 66. If the option of creating a persistent cache is set in the lookup properties. Assume with a non-cached lookup the load is 147 rows per second (NRS = 147). • • Reducing the Number of Cached Rows There is an option to use a SQL override in the creation of a lookup cache. Across different mappings and sessions. • Within a specific session run for a mapping. the use of an unnamed persistent cache allows multiple runs to use an existing cache file stored on the PowerCenter Server. if the same lookup is used multiple times in a mapping. then the lookup should be cached. the lookup must be cached.

Use simple columns in the group by condition to make the Aggregator Transformation more efficient. especially in GROUP BY ports. Use of the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-165 . ¨ In the case of a cached lookup. This can improve performance for both cached and un-cached lookups. since a SQL statement created for each row passing into the lookup transformation. When possible. Filter transformations are most effective when a simple integer or TRUE/FALSE expression is used in the filter condition. As a result. sort and compare values in the lookup condition columns. use numbers instead of strings or dates in the GROUP BY columns. This option requires that data sent to the aggregator be sorted in the order in which the ports are used in the aggregator’s group by. The Sorted Input option decreases the use of aggregate caches. the PowerCenter Server assumes all data is sorted by group and. Instead of using a Filter Transformation to remove a sizeable number of rows in the middle or end of a mapping. as a group is passed through an aggregator. ¨ In the case of an un-cached lookup. Optimize Aggregator Transformations Aggregator Transformations often slow performance because they must group data before processing it. Filters or routers should also be used to drop rejected rows from an Update Strategy transformation if rejected rows do not need to be saved. use a filter on the Source Qualifier or a Filter Transformation immediately after the source qualifier to improve performance. This reduces the number of transformations in the mapping and makes the mapping easier to follow. Without sorted input. indexes on the database table should include every column used in a lookup condition. Also avoid complex expressions in the Aggregator expressions. When it is used. an ORDER BY condition is issued in the SQL statement used to create the cache. Avoid complex expressions when creating the filter condition. Columns used in the ORDER BY condition should be indexed. Use the Sorted Input option in the aggregator. the Server must wait for all rows of data before processing aggregate calculations. Replace multiple filter transformations with a router transformation. Optimize Filter and Router Transformations Filtering data as early as possible in the data flow improves the efficiency of a mapping. The session log will contain the ORDER BY statement.Indexing the Lookup Table The PowerCenter Server must query. calculations can be performed and information passed on to the next transformation. performance can be helped by indexing columns in the lookup condition.

the use of variable ports is required to hold data from the previous row of data processed. If possible. using this option assumes that a mapping is using an Aggregator with Sorted Input option. Optimize Joiner Transformations Joiner transformations can slow performance because they need additional space in memory at run time to hold intermediate results. so a SQL override or a join condition should be used when joining multiple tables from the same database schema. This property determines the number of values the Informatica Server caches at one time. the smaller set of data should be cached and thus set as Master. if the row is a part of the current group. Define the rows from the smaller set of data in the joiner as the Master rows. when it is called next time. The premise is to use the previous row of data to determine whether the current row is a part of the current group or is the beginning of a new group. then its data would be used to continue calculating the current group function. thus increasing the Number of Cached Values property can increase performance. Database systems usually can perform the join more quickly than the Informatica Server. An Update Strategy Transformation would follow the Expression Transformation and set the first row of a new group to insert and the following rows to update. which include Stored Procedures. Optimize Sequence Generator Transformations Sequence Generator transformations need to determine the next available sequence number. Thus. Further. This technique can only be used if the source data can be sorted. Configuring the Number of Cached Values to a value greater than 1000 should be considered. External Procedures and Advanced External Procedures. making calls to external procedures slows down a session. Use the database to do the join when sourcing data from the same database schema. to give the next set of cache values. Normal joins are faster than outer joins and the resulting set of data is also smaller. In the Expression Transformation. Use an Expression and Update Strategy instead of an Aggregator Transformation.Sorted Inputs option is usually accompanied by a Source Qualifier which uses the Number of Sorted Ports option. If it is set to cache no values then the Informatica Server must query the Informatica repository each time to determine what is the next number which can be used. Use Normal joins whenever possible. Avoid External Procedure Transformations For the most part. It should be noted any cached values not used in the course of a session are ‘lost’ since the sequence generator value in the repository is set. In order to minimize memory requirements. PAGE BP-166 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . avoid the use of these Transformations. The Master rows are cached to memory and the detail records are then compared to rows in the cache of the Master rows.

moving the task upstream in the mapping may allow the logic to be done just once. Run and time the edited session. 4. focus on complex expressions for possible simplification. Instead of performing the lookup right before each target. Use the target table mapping reports or the Metadata Reporter to examine the transformations.Field Level Transformation Optimization As a final step in the tuning process. If the transformation expressions are complex. a mapping has five target tables. the Informatica Server must search and group the data. Its often possible to get a 10. Minimize Function Calls Anytime a function is called it takes resources to process. Run and time the edited session. Processing field level transformations takes time. 5. expressions used in transformations can be tuned. For example. Keep in mind that there may be more than one field causing performance problems. 3. do the following: 1. 2. Aggregate function calls can sometime be reduced. Make another copy of the mapping and replace the other half of the complex expressions with a constant. then processing will be slower. There are several common examples where function calls can be reduced or eliminated. Copy the mapping and replace half the complex expressions with a constant. Time the session with the original expression. If a mapping performs the same logic multiple times in a mapping. Each target requires a Social Security Number lookup. Thus the following expression: SUM(Column A) + SUM(Column B) Can be optimized to: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-167 . Likely candidates for optimization are the fields with the most complex expressions. To help isolate slow expressions. move the lookup to a position before the data flow splits.20% performance improvement by optimizing complex field level transformations. Factoring out Common Logic This can reduce the number of times a mapping performs the same logic. When examining expressions. In the case of each aggregate function call.

VAL_A+VAL_C. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’. not just a logical test.0) + IIF(FLG_C=’Y’. 'yes'.0)))))))) Can be optimized to: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’. VAL_A. VAL_B. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’. For example if you have an expression which involves a CONCAT function such as: CONCAT(CONCAT(FIRST_NAME. 16 ANDs and 24 comparisons.’ ‘). Be creative in making expressions more efficient. 0. The optimized expression results in 3 IIFs.SUM(Column A + Column B) In general. VAL_A. so operators should be used whenever possible. For example: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’. VAL_A+VAL_B+VAL_C. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’. This allows many logical statements to be written in a more compact fashion. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’. VAL_B+VAL_C. 'no') PAGE BP-168 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’.0) The original expression had 8 IIFs. VAL_C. operators are faster than functions. VAL_B. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’.0) + IIF(FLG_B=’Y’. VAL_A+VAL_B. 0. 3 comparisons and two additions. LAST_NAME) It can be optimized to: FIRST_NAME || ‘ ‘ || LAST_NAME Remember that IIF() is a function that returns a value. The following is an example of rework of an expression which eliminates three comparisons down to one: For example: IIF(X=1 OR X=5 OR X=9. VAL_C.

Thus. This is especially important with data being pulled from the Source Qualifier Transformation. using DECODE may improve performance. As there is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations. For example. Use DECODE instead of LOOKUP When a LOOKUP function is used. The Treat CHAR as CHAR On Read option can be set in the Informatica Server setup so that the Informatica Server does not trim trailing spaces from the end of CHAR source fields. If the same subexpression is used several times in a transformation.Can be optimized to: IIF(MOD(X. When a DECODE function is used. 'no') Calculate Once. if a lookup is done on a large amount of data on two columns. Reduce the Number of Transformations in a Mapping Whenever possible the number of transformations should be reduced. 'yes'. when looking up a small set of unchanging values. Use Many Times Avoid calculating or testing the same value multiple times. The local variable can be used only within the transformation but by calculating the variable only once can speed performance. Along the same lines. it slows each time it finds trailing blank spaces in the row. Optimizing Char-Char and Char-Varchar Comparisons When the Informatica Server performs comparisons between CHAR and VARCHAR columns. EMPLOYEE_NAME and EMPLOYEE_ID. unnecessary links between transformations should be removed to minimize the amount of data moved. Choose Numeric versus String Operations The Informatica Server processes numeric operations faster than string operations. the Informatica Server must lookup a table in the database. the lookup values are incorporated into the expression itself so the Informatica Server does not need to lookup a separate table. consider making the subexpression a local variable. configuring the lookup around EMPLOYEE_ID improves performance. 4) = 1. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-169 .

Joiner. Rank and/or Lookup transformations can point to a session bottleneck. Review the memory cache settings for sessions where the mappings contain any of these transformations. Joiner. target database and mappings. Because index and data caches are created for each of these transformations. this should not be the major or only area of focus when implementing performance tuning. it may also create cache files. . The Aggregator. you should review the sessions for performance optimization. depending on the factors discussed in the following paragraphs. both the index cache and data cache sizes may affect performance. Any value other than zero for these counters may indicate a bottleneck. Rank and Lookup Transformations use caches. Description When you have finished optimizing the sources.Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Challenge Running sessions is where ‘the pedal hits the metal’. A common misconception is that this is the area where most tuning should occur. Caches The greatest area for improvement at the session level usually involves tweaking memory cache settings. When performance details are collected for a session. information about readfromdisk and writetodisk counters for Aggregator. While it is true that various specific session options can be modified to improve performance. When the PowerCenter Server creates memory caches. Both index and data cache files can be created for the following transformations in a mapping: • • • • Aggregator transformation (without sorted ports) Joiner transformation Rank transformation Lookup transformation (with caching enabled) PAGE BP-170 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

and the Informatica Server runs the session for the first time. an aggregate data cache file would be named PMAGG31_19. When creating these files. If the PowerCenter Server requires more memory than the configured cache size. The naming convention used by the PowerCenter Server for these files is PM [type of widget] [generated number]. Informatica recommends that the cache directory be local to the PowerCenter Server. Since paging to disk can slow session performance.dat or . Cache files may also remain if the session does not complete successfully. When a session is run. For example. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to use a persistent lookup cache. index and data files may exist in the cache directory if the session is configured for either incremental aggregation or to use a persistent lookup cache. the PowerCenter Server writes a message in the session log indicating the cache file name and the transformation name. $PMCacheDir. The PowerCenter Server writes to the index and data cache files during a session in the following cases: • • • • The mapping contains one or more Aggregator transformations.dat. • • Allocate at least enough space to hold at least one row in each aggregate group. it stores the overflow values in these cache files. Remember that you only need to configure cache memory for an Aggregator transformation that does NOT use sorted ports. The cache directory may be changed however. If a cache file handles more than 2 gigabytes of data. The number of index and data files is limited only by the amount of disk space available in the cache directory. When a session completes.idx2. try to configure the index and data cache sizes to store the appropriate amount of data in memory. The session fails if the local directory runs out of disk space. However. the DTM generally deletes the overflow index and data cache files. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to initialize the persistent lookup cache. if disk space is a constraint.The PowerCenter Server creates the index and data cache files by default in the PowerCenter Server variable directory. the PowerCenter Server appends a number to the end of the filename. The DTM may create multiple files when processing large amounts of data.idx.idx1 and PMAGG*. Refer to Chapter 9: Session Caches in the Informatica Session and Server Guide for detailed information on determining cache sizes. You may encounter performance or reliability problems when you cache large quantities of data on a mapped or mounted drive. such as PMAGG*. The PowerCenter Server uses memory to process an INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-171 . o Aggregator Caches Keep the following items in mind when configuring the aggregate memory cache sizes. The DTM runs out of cache memory and pages to the local cache files. the PowerCenter Server creates multiple index and data files. and the session is configured for incremental aggregation.

the PowerCenter Server aligns all data for lookup caches on an eight-byte boundary which helps increase the performance of the lookup.idx and saves them to the cache directory. which helps increase the performance of the join. Just like for a joiner.dat and PMAGG*. When the Lookup transformation is not configured for caching. Lookup cache files are saved after a session which has a lookup that uses a persistent cache is run for the first time. Incremental aggregation can improve session performance. The PowerCenter Server names these files PMAGG*. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table for each input row. However. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table instead of the lookup cache. Using a lookup cache can sometimes increase session performance. Also. you must be sure to set the Recache from Database option to ensure that the lookup cache files will be rebuilt. The next time the session runs. When it is used. the PowerCenter Server reads all the rows from the master source and builds memory caches based on the master rows. bypassing the querying of the database for the lookup. • • PAGE BP-172 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . • Lookup Caches Several options can be explored when dealing with lookup transformation caches. regardless of whether the lookup table is cached or not. • Joiner Caches The source with fewer records should be specified as the master source because only the master source records are read into cache. not cache memory. when the transformation is configured to not cache. The result of the Lookup query and processing is the same. If the lookup table changes. Mappings that have sessions which use incremental aggregation should be set up so that only new detail records are read with each subsequent run. Refer to Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance to determine when lookups should be cached. the PowerCenter Server reads the rows from the detail source and performs the joins. When a session is run with a Joiner transformation. • Persistent caches should be used when lookup data is not expected to change often. Lookup caching should be enabled for relatively small tables. the PowerCenter Server automatically aligns all data for joiner caches on an eight-byte boundary. the PowerCenter Server uses this historical information to perform the incremental aggregation. the PowerCenter Server saves index and data cache information to disk at the end of the session. These files are reused for subsequent runs. After the memory caches are built.• Aggregator transformation with sorted ports.

then it was not a factor in session performance. it allocates blocks of memory to hold source and target data. If a session is part of a concurrent batch. use the number of groups in the XML source or target in the total calculation for the total number of sources and targets. which results in different numbers of rows that can be fit into one memory block. Row size INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-173 . You can tweak session properties to increase the number of available memory blocks by adjusting: • • DTM Buffer Pool Size – the default setting is 12. Each source. • Optimizing the Buffer Block Size Within a session. If a session’s performance details show low numbers for your source and target BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters. Increasing DTM buffer memory allocation generally causes performance to improve initially and then level off. the combined DTM buffer memory allocated for the sessions or batches must not exceed the total memory for the PowerCenter Server system. to create the required number of session blocks. increasing the DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. • Increasing the DTM Buffer Pool Size The DTM Buffer Pool Size setting specifies the amount of memory the PowerCenter Server uses as DTM buffer memory. The PowerCenter Server uses DTM buffer memory to create the internal data structures and buffer blocks used to bring data into and out of the Server. If there are XML sources and targets in the mappings. first determine the number of memory blocks the PowerCenter Server requires to initialize the session.000. which can improve performance during momentary slowdowns. the PowerCenter Server creates more buffer blocks. Then you can calculate the buffer pool size and/or the buffer block size based on the default settings. you may modify the buffer block size by changing it in the Advanced Parameters section. the total memory available on the PowerCenter Server needs to be evaluated. When the DTM buffer memory is increased. each transformation. Sessions that use a large number of source and targets may require additional memory blocks.000 bytes Default Buffer Block Size – the default size is 64. and each target may have a different row size. If you don’t see a significant performance increase after increasing DTM buffer memory.Allocating Buffer Memory When the PowerCenter Server initializes a session. This specifies the size of a memory block that is used to move data throughout the pipeline. When the DTM buffer memory allocation is increased.000 bytes To configure these settings.

Therefore. and CPU). This technique should only be employed on servers with multiple CPUs available. block size should be configured so that it can hold roughly 100 rows. If there is a complex mapping with multiple sources.. The default is determined in the server.. they can be placed in a concurrent batch and run at the same time.e. and a maximum of 1 CPU for each additional session. Running Concurrent Batches Performance can sometimes be improved by creating a concurrent batch to run several sessions in parallel on one PowerCenter Server. Each concurrent session will use a maximum of 1. and therefore use a lot less processing power than a full CPU. disk. When calculating this.4 CPUs for the first session. it has been noted that simple mappings (i. Increasing the Target Commit Interval One method of resolving target database bottlenecks is to increase the commit interval. their datatypes and precisions. plus or minus a factor of ten. This enables you to place the sessions for each of the mappings in a concurrent batch to be run in parallel. and writing. When increasing the commit interval at the session level. and the slower the overall performance. The PowerCenter Server will spawn a Read and Write thread for each partition. memory. Partitioning Sessions If large amounts of data are being processed with PowerCenter 5. the DTM buffer pool size is split among all partitions. so it may need to be increased for optimal performance. data can be processed in parallel with a single session by partitioning the source via the source qualifier. Ideally. use the source or target with the largest row size. If there are independent sessions that use separate sources and mappings to populate different targets. Also.x. Each time the PowerCenter Server commits. Also. mappings with only a few transformations) do not make the engine “CPU bound” . the number of times the PowerCenter Server commits decreases and performance may improve. the smaller the commit interval. If you increase the commit interval. you must remember to increase the size of the database rollback segments to accommodate this larger PAGE BP-174 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Partitioning allows you to break a single source into multiple sources and to run each in parallel. performance slows.e.e. The buffer block size does not become a factor in session performance until the number of rows falls below 10 or goes above 1000. more than 20 transformations). you can separate it into several simpler mappings with separate sources. the more often the PowerCenter Server writes to the target database. Informatica recommends that the size of the shared memory (which determines the number of buffers available to the session) should not be increased at all unless the mapping is “complex” (i. so make sure that the hardware and memory are sufficient to support a parallel session.. based on number of ports. processing. Keep in mind that each partition will compete for the same resources (i. thus allowing for simultaneous reading.

However. As an additional debug option (beyond the PowerCenter Debugger).number of rows. This can decrease performance. you may be able to improve performance by reducing the amount of data the PowerCenter Server writes to the session log. those with a precision of greater than 28) can slow the PowerCenter Server. At this tracing level. it must be configured so that the PowerCenter Server recognizes this datatype by selecting Enable Decimal Arithmetic in the session property sheet. you may want to consider leaving the tracing level at Normal and focus your efforts on reducing the number of transformation errors. you may set the tracing level to Verbose to see the flow of data between transformations. you should see an increase in performance. If you increase both the commit interval and the database rollback segments.. Reducing Error Tracing If a session contains a large number of transformation errors. However. if terse is not an acceptable level of detail.e. The PowerCenter Server setup can be set to disable session recovery.000 is to accommodate the default rollback segment / extent size of most databases. Disabling Decimal Arithmetic If a session runs with decimal arithmetic enabled. But be sure to weigh the importance of improved session performance against the ability to recover an incomplete session when considering this option. the PowerCenter Server does not write error messages or row-level information for reject data. The PowerCenter Server writes recovery information in the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table during each commit. since reading and manipulating a highprecision datatype (i. In some cases though. To reduce the amount of time spent writing to the session log file. To use a high-precision Decimal datatype in a session. Terse tracing should only be set if the sessions run without problems and session details are not required. Note that the tracing level must be set to Normal in order to use the reject loading utility. Disabling Session Recovery You can improve performance by turning off session recovery. disabling decimal arithmetic may improve session performance. The Decimal datatype is a numeric datatype with a maximum precision of 28. Do not use Verbose tracing INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-175 . just increasing the commit interval without making the appropriate database changes may cause the session to fail part way through (you may get a database error like “unable to extend rollback segments” in Oracle). However. One of the major reasons that Informatica has set the default commit interval to 10. set the tracing level to Terse. session performance may be improved by disabling decimal arithmetic. this will significantly affect the session performance.

Because there are only a handful of reasons why transformation errors occur. The session tracing level overrides any transformation-specific tracing levels within the mapping. it makes sense to fix and prevent any recurring transformation errors. PAGE BP-176 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Always remember to switch tracing back to Normal after the testing is complete.except when testing sessions. Informatica does not recommend reducing error tracing as a long-term response to high levels of transformation errors.

Write Read Mapping Session System Before you begin. then tune the copy before making changes to the original. you should establish an approach for identifying performance bottlenecks. Make a temporary copy of the mapping and/or session that is to be tuned. 4. Implement only one change at a time and test for any performance improvements to gauge which tuning methods work most effectively in the environment. The actual execution time may be used as a performance metric. To begin.Determining Bottlenecks Challenge Because there are many variables involved in identifying and rectifying performance bottlenecks. 2. You should be able to compare the session’s original performance with that of the tuned session’s performance. 4. Carefully consider the following five areas to determine where bottlenecks exist. attempt to isolate the problem by running test sessions. 3. The swap method is very useful for determining the most common bottlenecks. an efficient method for determining where bottlenecks exist is crucial to good data warehouse management. Document the change made to the mapping/and or session and the performance metrics achieved as a result of the change. Description The first step in performance tuning is to identify performance bottlenecks. 5. 2. 3. Make appropriate tuning changes to mappings and/or sessions. use a process of elimination. investigating each area in the order indicated: 1. It involves the following five steps: 1. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-177 . 5. Delete the temporary sessions upon completion of performance tuning.

Create a session for the test mapping. PAGE BP-178 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If the local flat file is very large. Using a Test Session with a Flat File Source 1. you probably do not have a write bottleneck. 2.Write Bottlenecks Relational Targets The most common performance bottleneck occurs when the PowerCenter Server writes to a target database. You can optimize session performance by writing to a flat file target local to the PowerCenter server. Measure the query execution time and the time it takes for the query to return the first row. you have a read bottleneck. Create a test mapping that contains only the flat file source. Copy the read query directly from the session log. If the test session’s performance increases significantly. Create a mapping and session that writes the source table data to a flat file. the source qualifier. Run the query against the source database with a query tool such as SQL Plus. 2. Using a Database Query To identify a source bottlenecks by executing a read query directly against the source database. Make a copy of the original session Configure the test session to write to a flat file If the session performance is significantly increased when writing to a flat file. You may also use a database query to indicate if a read bottleneck exists. Flat File Targets If the session targets a flat file. Read Bottlenecks Relational Sources If the session reads from a relational source. you should first use a read test session with a flat file as the source in the test session. 3. you can optimize the write process by dividing it among several physical drives. and the target table. 3. 2. you have a write bottleneck. follow these steps: 1. This type of bottleneck can easily be identified with the following procedure: 1.

Connect the source qualifiers to the target. you probably do not have a read bottleneck. For further details on eliminating mapping bottlenecks. Remove all transformations. Tuning the Line Sequential Buffer Length to a size large enough to hold approximately four to eight rows of data at a time (for flat files) may help when reading flat file sources. Make a copy of the original mapping 2. source qualifiers. High Rowsinlookupcache and Errorrows counters indicate mapping bottlenecks. 4. Mapping Bottlenecks If you have eliminated the reading and writing of data as bottlenecks. and any custom joins or queries 3. If a session has large numbers in any of the Transformation_errorrows counters. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Session Bottlenecks Session performance details can be used to flag other problem areas in the session Advanced Options Parameters or in the mapping. High Rowsinlookupcache counters: Multiple lookups can slow the session. High Errorrows counters: Transformation errors affect session performance. Flat File Sources If your session reads from a flat file source.If there is a long delay between the two time measurements. you may have a mapping bottleneck. Use the swap method to determine if the bottleneck is in the mapping. You may improve session performance by locating the largest lookup tables and tuning those lookup expressions. you may improve performance by eliminating the errors. you can use the session’s performance details to determine if mapping bottlenecks exist. Ensure the flat file source is local to the PowerCenter Server. After using the swap method. In the copied mapping. you have a source bottleneck. retain only the sources. Low Buffer Input and Buffer Output Counters INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-179 . Follow these steps to identify mapping bottlenecks: Using a Test Mapping without transformations 1.

Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. Rank. target. or Joiner transformations. For further information regarding system tuning. Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a free buffer when passing data to the writer. mapping. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. Note that these can only be found in the Session Performance Details file.If the BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters are low for all sources and targets. you may also consider tuning the system hosting the PowerCenter Server. Percentage reflecting how seldom the Informatica server waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance. examine each Trasnformation_readfromdisk and Transformation_writetodisk counter. Aggregator. Rank. If these counters display any number other than zero. you can improve session performance by increasing the index and data cache sizes. BufferOutput_Efficiency Target BufferInput_Efficiency BufferOutput_Efficiency Aggregator and Rank Aggregator/Rank_readfromdisk PAGE BP-180 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . use system tools like vmstat and iostat to monitor such items as system performance and disk swapping actions. Windows NT/2000 Use system tools such as the Performance tab in the Task Manager or the Performance Monitor to view CPU usage and total memory usage. increasing the session DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. Transformation Source Qualifier and Normalizer Transformations Counters BufferInput_Efficiency Description Percentage reflecting how seldom the reader waited for a free buffer when passing data to the DTM. refer to the Best Practices: Performance Tuning UNIX-Based Systems and Performance Tuning NT/2000-Based Systems. The following table details the Performance Counters that can be used to flag session and mapping bottlenecks. System Bottlenecks After tuning the source. and session. instead of using cached data. For further details on eliminating session bottlenecks. UNIX On UNIX. and Joiner Readfromdisk and Writetodisk Counters If a session contains Aggregator.

instead of using cached data. instead of using cached data. instead of using cached data. Number of rows stored in the lookup cache. Number of rows in which the Infor matica Server encountered an error Note: The PowerCenter Server generates two sets of performance counters for a Joiner transformation. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. The second set of counters refers to the detail source. The first set of counters refers to the master source.Transformations Aggregator/Rank_writetodisk Joiner Transformation (see Note below) Joiner_readfromdisk Joiner_writetodisk Lookup Transformation All Transformations Lookup_rowsinlookupcache Transformation_errorrows Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-181 . The Joiner transformation does not generate output row counters associated with the master source.

the Administrator can create a single "official" set of data sources.Advanced Client Configuration Options Challenge Setting the Registry in order to ensure consistent client installations. The user who attempts to log in using the normal ‘nonadministrator’ userid will be unable to start the PowerCenter Client tools.0 or Windows 2000 with a userid other than ‘Administrator. Instead. choose Export Registry from the Tools drop down menu. the software will display the message indicating that the license key is missing or invalid. You can then distribute this file and import the connection information for each client machine. and subsequently a user with a non-administrator ID attempts to run the tools. then use the Repository Manager to export that connection information to a file. Description Ensuring Consistent Data Source Names To ensure the use of consistent data source names for the same data sources across the domain.’ This problem also occurs when the client software tools are installed under the Administrator account. Solution • • From Repository Manager. resolve potential missing or invalid license key issues and change the Server Manager Session Log Editor to your preferred editor. PAGE BP-182 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Resolving the Missing or Invalid License Key Issue The “missing or invalid license key” error occurs when attempting to install PowerCenter Client tools on NT 4. For all subsequent client installs. simply choose Import Registry from the Tools drop down menu.

A window appears the first time a session log is viewed from the PowerCenter Server Manager. typically WordPad. Move to registry path location: HKEY_CURRENT_USER Software\Informatica\PowerMart Client Tools\[CLIENT VERSION]\Server Manager\Session Files. Select Registry --> Exit from the menu bar to save the entry. select View Tree and Data. and grant read access to the users that should be permitted to use the PowerMart Client. Select the Log File Editor entry by double clicking on it. (Note that the registry entries for both PowerMart and PowerCenter server and client tools are stored as PowerMart Server and PowerMart Client tools. Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. From the menu bar. select Security/Permissions. • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-183 . use regedt32 to edit the registry.exe. Replace the entry with the appropriate editor entry.e.exe or Write.Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. prompting the user to enter the full path name of the editor to be used to view the logs. i. Under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE open Software/Informatica/PowerMart Client Tools/. From the menu bar. use regedt32 to go into the registry. Users often set this parameter incorrectly and must access the registry to change it.) Changing the Server Manager Session Log Editor The session log editor is not automatically determined when the PowerCenter Client tools are installed.

try adjusting the throttle reader. Solution: To limit the number of reader buffers using Throttle Reader in NT/2000: • • Access file hkey_local_machine\system\currentcontrolset\services\powermart\parameter s\miscinfo.x and above ONLY: If a session is hanging and it is partitioned. This parameter closely manages buffer blocks in memory by restricting the number of blocks that can be utilized by the Reader. Description Configuring the Throttle Reader If problems occur when running sessions. it is best to remove the partitions before adjusting the throttle reader. When a session is partitioned. and configuring server variables. This is particularly effective if your mapping contains many target tables.Advanced Server Configuration Options Challenge Configuring the Throttle Reader and File Debugging options. or if the session employs constraint-based loading. Note for PowerCenter 5.cfg file: ThrottleReader=10 PAGE BP-184 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If the session still hangs. One technique that often helps resolve “hanging” sessions is to limit the number of reader buffers that use Throttle Reader. Create a new String value with value name of 'ThrottleReader' and value data of '10'. To do the same thing in UNIX: • • Add this line to . some adjustments at the Server level can help to alleviate issues or isolate problems. adjusting semaphore settings in the Unix environment. the server makes separate connections to the source and target for every partition. This will cause the server to manage many buffer blocks.

The number of semaphores required to run a session is 7. Select Start. Insert "4" as the value 5. Repeat steps 4 and 5. if you set these parameters too high. Select edit. depending on the number of sessions the server runs concurrently. Go to hkey_local_machine. but use "DebugWriter". Most installations require between 64 and 128 available semaphores. powermart. current_control_set. You may need to increase these semaphore settings before installing the server. system.cfg file: • • • • DebugScrubber=4 DebugWriter=1 DebugReader=1 DebugDTM=1 Adjusting Semaphore Settings The UNIX version of the PowerCenter Server uses operating system semaphores for synchronization. AIX: Use smit to change the parameters. with a limit per user and system. This is in addition to any semaphores required by other software. Refer to the operating system documentation for parameter limits: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-185 . Setting Shared Memory and Semaphore Parameters Informatica recommends setting the following parameters as high as possible for the operating system. The total number of available operating system semaphores is an operating system configuration parameter.Configuring File Debugging Options If problems occur when running sessions or if the PowerCenter Server has a stability issue. such as database servers. Place "DebugScrubber" as the value then hit OK. miscInfo 3. then add value 4. However. Solaris: Use admintool or edit /etc/system to change the parameters. services. help technical support to resolve the issue by supplying them with Debug files. the machine may not boot. and type “regedit” 2. "DebugDTM" with all three set to "1" To do the same in UNIX: Insert the following entries in the pmserver. Run. The method used to change the parameter depends on the operating system: • • • HP/UX: Use sam (1M) to change the parameters. "DebugReader". To set the debug options on for NT/2000: 1.

Number of semaphores in the system. Must be equal to the maximum number of processes. SEMMNI determines the number of semaphores that can be created at any one time. PAGE BP-186 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you might add the following lines to the Solaris /etc/system file to configure the UNIX kernel: set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax = 4294967295 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmin = 1 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni = 100 set shmsys:shminfo_shmseg = 10 set semsys:shminfo_semmns = 200 set semsys:shminfo_semmni = 70 Always reboot the system after configuring the UNIX kernel. Number of semaphore set identifiers in the system. Number of shared memory identifiers.Parameter SHMMAX SHMMIN SHMMNI SHMSEG Recommended Value for Solaris 4294967295 1 100 10 Description Maximum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. Benefits of using server variables: • • Ease of deployment from development environment to production environment. Maximum number of semaphores in one semaphore set. Ease of switching sessions from one server machine to another without manually editing all the sessions to change directory paths. Configuring Server Variables One configuration best practice is to properly configure and leverage Server variables. Maximum number of shared memory segments that can be attached by a process. Minimum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. SEMMNS SEMMNI 200 70 SEMMSL equal to or greater than the value of the PROCESSES initialization parameter For example.

The variable will be expanded only if it is explicitly referenced from another location. (The variable $PMSessionLogDir will be unused so it does not matter what the value of the variable is set to). Note that this location may be different on every server. the user can choose to use it or not. then the logs are put in that location. What if a variable is not referenced in the session or mapping? • The variable is just a convenience. bad file directory.g. Each registered server has its own set of variables. External Procedure attribute for ‘Location’ Does every session and mapping have to use these variables (are they mandatory)? • No.• All the variables are related to directory paths used by server. Server Variable $PMRootDir $PMSessionLogDir $PMBadFileDir $PMCacheDir $PMTargetFileDir $PMSourceFileDir $PMExtProcDir $PMSuccessEmailUser $PMFailureEmailUser $PMSessionLogCount $PMSessionErrorThreshold Value (no default – user must insert a path) $PMRootDir/SessLogs $PMRootDir/BadFiles $PMRootDir/Cache $PMRootDir/TargetFiles $PMRootDir/SourceFiles $PMRootDir/ExtProc (no default – user must insert a path) (no default – user must insert a path) 0 0 Where are these variables referenced? • • Server manager session editor: anywhere in the fields for session log directory. Approach In Server Manager. If you remove any variable reference from the session or the widget attributes then the server does not use that variable. ‘/home/john/logs’. The list is fixed. not userextensible. This is in fact a primary purpose for utilizing variables. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-187 . But if the session log directory field is changed to designate a specific location. etc. edit the server configuration to set or change the variables. then the session logs will instead be placed in the directory location as designated. If the session log directory is specified as $PMSessionLogDir. e. Designer: Aggregator/Rank/Joiner attribute for ‘Cache Directory’.


Be sure to consider all mandatory server software components. Please consult the appropriate PowerCenter manuals for explanation of these terms where necessary. This shared memory setting is important. let us review the PowerCenter engine and its associated resource needs. Certain terms used within this Best Practice are specific to Informatica’s PowerCenter. This is important to remember if sessions will be executed concurrently. It also discusses some potential questions and pitfalls that may arise when migrating to Production. Environmental configurations may very greatly with regard to hardware and software sizing. as it will dictate the amount of RAM required when running concurrent sessions. and will also be used to provide a level of performance that meets your needs. including the operating system and all of its components. Technical Information Before delving into key sizing questions. Sizing may not be an easy task because it may be necessary to configure a single server to support numerous applications.Platform Sizing Challenge Determining the appropriate platform size to support PowerCenter. considering specific environmental and processing requirements. the database engine. Regardless of whether or not the server is shared. other applications may share the server. front-end engines. PowerCenter provides session parameters that can be set to specify the amount of required shared memory per session. etc. Description This Best Practice provides general guidance for sizing computing environments. Uses up to 140% of CPU resources. it will be necessary to research the requirements of these additional software components when estimating the size of the overall environment. Each session: • Represents an active task that performs data loading. • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-189 . In addition to requirements for PowerCenter.

memory. or joins.• • Requires 20-30 MB of memory per session if there are no aggregations. disk space will need to be carefully considered: • • • • Data is staged to flat files on the PowerCenter server. and offers general guidance for estimating session resources. cache the master table. the volume of data moved per session. Key Questions The goal of this analysis is to size the machine so that the ETL processes can complete within the specified load window. lookups. result in memory consumption commensurate with the size of the tables involved. when cached in full. or heterogeneous data joins contained within the mapping. memory consumed depends on the size of the master. Use these estimates along with recommendations in the preceding Technical Information section to determine the required number of processors. May require additional memory for the caching of aggregations. if the following conditions exist. Consider the following questions when estimating the required number of sessions. In a join. Data does not need to be stripped to prevent head contention. more memory is used if there are more groups. Requires additional memory when caching for aggregation. This includes all types of data such as flat files and database tables. The Performance Tuning section provides additional information on factors that typically affect session performance. and disk space to achieve the required performance to meet the load window. or joins. PAGE BP-190 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Note: It may be helpful to refer to the Performance Tuning section in Phase 4 of the Informatica Methodology when determining memory settings. and the caching requirements for the session’s lookup tables. However. and heterogeneous joins. Disk space is not a factor if the machine is dedicated exclusively to the server engine. The amount of memory can be calculated per session. Temporary space is not used like a database on disk. Refer to the Session and Server guide to determine the exact amount of memory necessary per session. lookups. The space consumed is about the size of the data aggregated. lookups. because: • • • Lookup tables. Aggregate caches store the individual groups. Note: Sorting the input to aggregations will greatly reduce the need for memory. The PowerCenter engine: Requires 20-30 MB of memory for the main server engine for session coordination. aggregation. Data is stored in incremental aggregation files for adding data to aggregates. unless the cache requires it after filling system memory.

to maximize throughput by reading and writing data in parallel? When considering the server engine size.) and what tools will you use to implement this access? What other applications or services. what is the ratio of source/target rows for the largest result set? How large is the result set (bytes and rows)? INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-191 . or will they be accessed via a network connection? What kind of network connection exists? Have you decided on the target environment (database/hardware/operating system)? If so. or both? If data is being aggregated. and load processes in place? If so. transform. via flat file processing or relational tables? What is the load strategy. With these additional processing requirements in mind.Please note that the hardware sizing analysis is highly dependent on the environment in which the server is deployed. what are the processes. ad-hoc query tool. is the data updated. what is it? Have you decided on the PowerCenter server environment (hardware/operating system)? Is it possible for the PowerCenter server to be on the same machine as the target? How will information be accessed for reporting purposes (e. or driven by external events? Is there a "modified" timestamp on the source table rows. the query/analysis tool often drives the hardware requirements. run on the PowerCenter server? Has the database table space been distributed across controllers. and how long do they take? What is the total volume of data that must be moved. where possible.g. other applications may be vying for server resources. PowerCenter commonly runs on a server that also hosts a database engine plus query/analysis tools. if the ETL processing is performed after business hours. incrementally loaded. In an environment where PowerCenter runs in parallel with all of these tools. consider platform size in light of the following questions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What sources are accessed by the mappings? How do you currently access those sources? Do the sources reside locally. answer the following questions: Are there currently extract. cube. etc. enabling incremental load strategies? What is the size of the batch window that is available for the load? Does the load process populate detail data. if necessary? How will the data be moved. in bytes? What is the largest table (bytes and rows)? Is there any key on this table that could be used to partition load sessions. if any. or will all tables be truncated and reloaded? Will the data processing require staging areas? What is the load plan? Are there dependencies between facts and dimensions? How often will the data be refreshed? Will the refresh be scheduled at a certain time. However. aggregations. the query/analysis tool requirements may not impose a sizing limitation.. It is very important to understand the performance characteristics of the environment before making any sizing conclusions. It is vitally important to remember that in addition to PowerCenter.

8GB of data. In this test scenario.5 million rows. Please note that these performance tests were run on a previous version of PowerCenter. 22 sessions ran in parallel. The source and target were both hosted locally on the ETL Server. These results are offered as one example of throughput. populating a large product sales table. This website contains benchmarking reports that will help you fine tune your environment and may assist in determining processing power required. Lookup and Aggregation transformations. The source and target database used in the tests was Oracle. Links The following link may prove helpful when determining the platform size:www.1. focus on large. PAGE BP-192 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . populating various summarization tables based on the product sales table. A Sample Performance Result The following is a testimonial from a customer configuration. "critical path" jobs that drive the resource All of the mappings were complex. To simplify the analysis. in less than 54 minutes.The answers to these questions will provide insight into the factors that impact PowerCenter's resource requirements. results will definitely vary by installation because each environment has a unique architecture and unique data characteristics. The performance tests were performed on a 4-processor Sun E4500 with 2GB of memory. which did not include the performance and functional enhancements in release 5. This processor handled just under 20. However. and more than 2.tpc. joining several sources and utilizing several Expression. Four sessions ran after the set of 22.

The server can only perform recovery on relational tables. the server notes the row id of the last row committed to the target database. if the server commits 1000 rows before the session fails. as if the session completed successfully with one run. When necessary. the server cannot recover sessions configured to bulk load targets. Since bulk loading bypasses database logging. and then passes data to the Data Transformation Manager (DTM) starting from row 1001. even if the session does not complete. The server can recover committed target data if the following three criteria are met: • All session targets are relational. The server then reads all sources again. the server can recover the same session more than once. but only processes from the subsequent row id. Rather than processing the first half of the source again. the server cannot perform recovery. and run the session again. This technique is called performing recovery. you can tell the server to keep data already committed to the target database and process the rest of the source. For example. But that is not the only option. when you run the session in recovery mode. This results in accurate and complete target data. The server uses database logging to perform recovery. Description When a network or other problem causes a session whose source contains a million rows to fail after only half of the rows are committed to the target. If the session has file targets. the server reads all source tables. you can re-run the session in recovery mode until the session completes successfully. This is called nested recovery. delete the files. That is. one option is to truncate the target and run the session again from the beginning. If a session writing to file targets fails. Although recovering a large session can be more efficient • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-193 .Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Challenge Use PowerCenter standard functionality to recover data that is committed to a session's targets. if a session fails while running in recovery mode. When you run a session in recovery mode. The session is configured for a normal (not bulk) target load.

The server appends rejected rows from the recovery session (or sessions) to the session reject file. Reject Files When performing recovery. the server does not write information to that table. When configuring session properties for sessions processing large amounts of data. bulk loading increases general session performance. and the Normalizer generates primary keys. The mapping consists of: Source Qualifier: SQ_LINEITEM Expression transformation: EXP_TRANS Target: T_LINEITEM The session is configured to save 5 session logs. the server creates a single reject file. Changes in source files or tables can result in inaccurate data. When you configure a session to load in bulk. the server does not create the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in the target database to store recovery-related information. a Microsoft SQL Server database. If the table already exists.than running the session again. In addition. updating. Example Session “s_recovery” reads from a Sybase source and writes to a target table in “production_target”. the server logs a message in the session log stating that recovery is not supported. Therefore. The mapping used in the session does not use a Sequence Generator or Normalizer. If the session is not configured to archive session logs. sessions using these transformations are not guaranteed to return the same values when performing recovery. weigh the importance of performing recovery when choosing a target load type. This includes inserting. This session is configured for a normal load. the server overwrites the existing log when you recover the session. Session Logs If a session is configured to archive session logs. When the Disable Recovery option is checked. PAGE BP-194 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . • The server configuration parameter Disable Recovery is not selected. the server creates a new session log for the recovery session. This allows you to correct and load all rejected rows from the completed session. the server creates a new log for each session run. If you perform nested recovery. the following must be true: • • Source data does not change before performing recovery. and deleting source data. Both the Sequence Generator and the Normalizer transformations generate source values: the Sequence Generator generates sequences. to ensure accurate results from the recovery.

] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1022 Database driver error. it creates the table.. CMN_1022 [Function Name : Execute SqlStmt : SELECT SESSION_ID FROM OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY] WRT_8017 Created OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in target database.. the server appends the date and time to the log file name.) The server also creates a reject file for the target table named t_lineitem.. bulk mode [OFF] . Start loading table [T_LINEITEM] at: Thu Jan 14 18:42:50 1999 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:43:59 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 10125 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-195 . CMN_1053 Writer: Target is database [TOMDB@PRODUCTION_TARGET].log. The following section of the session log shows the server preparing to load normally to the production_target database.. CMN_1039 SQL Server Event CMN_1039 [01/14/99 18:42:44 SQL Server Message 208 : Invalid object name 'OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY'. As the following session log show... Since the server cannot find OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY.bad. TM_6095 Starting Transformation Engine.First Run The first time the session runs. (If the session is configured to save logs by timestamp. the server creates a session log named s_recovery. user [lchen]. the server performs six target -based commits before the session fails.] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1040 SQL Server Event CMN_1040 [01/14/99 18:42:44 DB-Library Error 10007 : General SQL Server error: Check messages from the SQL Server.

Rows Applied: 10125 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:45:09 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 20250 Rows Applied: 20250 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:46:25 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 30375 Rows Applied: 30375 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:47:31 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 40500 Rows Applied: 40500 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:48:35 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 50625 Rows Applied: 50625 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:49:41 1999 ============================================= PAGE BP-196 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

It opens the existing reject file and begins processing with the next row. or choose Save Session Log By Timestamp option on the Log Files tab. since the server committed more than 60. and then passes data to the DTM beginning with the first uncommitted row. you can configure the session to recover the committed rows. the server notes the session is in recovery mode.log. To archive the existing session log. Running a Recovery Session To run a recovery session. the server reads the source. rather than running the whole session again. The server reopens the existing reject file (t_lineitem. Since the session is configured to save multiple logs. and writes all new session information in s_recovery. … TM_6026 Recovering from row [60751] for target instance [T_LINEITEM]. or if necessary.bad) and appends any rejected rows to that file. In the session log below.. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-197 . When performing recovery.000 rows to the target. edit the session schedule and reschedule the session.e. either increase the number of session logs saved. the server creates a new session log. Second Run (Recovery Session) When you run the session in recovery mode. Start the session. the server sets row 60751 as the row from which to recover. row 60751. the server provides more detailed information about the session.0. As seen below.log. When running the session with the Verbose Data tracing level. Note: Setting the tracing level to Verbose Data slows the server's performance and is not recommended for most production sessions. 60752. it renames the existing log s_recovery.) TM_6098 Session [s_recovery] running in recovery mode. you can truncate the target and run the entire session again. and states the row at which it will begin recovery (i. check the Perform Recovery option on the Log Files tab of the session property sheet. However.Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 60750 Rows Applied: 60750 Rows Rejected: 0 When a session fails.

Returning to Normal Session After successfully recovering a session. return the session to its normal schedule and reschedule the session.CMN_1053 SetRecoveryInfo for transform(T_LINEITEM): Rows To Recover From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [SQ_lineitem]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [T_LINEITEM]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Writer: Opened bad (reject) file [C:\winnt\system32\BadFiles\t_lineitem. You can run the session in recovery mode as many times as necessary to complete the session's target tables. you can run the session in recovery mode again. The server runs the session as it did the earlier recovery sessions. creating a new session log and appending bad data to the reject file. PAGE BP-198 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . You will need to have “create table” permissions in the target database in order to create this table. This means the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table will not be created.bad] Third Run (Nested Recovery) If the recovery session fails before completing. the DisableRecovery server initialization flag defaults to Yes.1. you must edit the session properties to clear the Perform Recovery option. as if the session completed in a single run. Things to Consider In PowerCenter 5. If necessary. When the server completes loading target tables. it performs any configured postsession stored procedures or commands normally. and ‘Perform Recovery’ will not be possible unless this flag is changed to No during server configuration.

Deliverable . INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-199 .Interview project sponsor to identify beneficiaries. The next step in creating the project scope is defining the business goals and objectives for the project and detailing them in a comprehensive Statement of Project Goals and Objectives. and their business information requirements. Again. using individual interviews or general meetings to elicit the information. • • Activity .Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding problems and needs related to project. This statement should be a high-level expression of the desired business solution (e.Problem/Need Statement 3. The next step in establishing the business scope is to understand the business problem or need that the project addresses.) and should avoid any technical considerations at this point. In many cases. This information can then be summarized in an organization chart that is useful for ensuring that all project team members understand the corporate/business organization. 1. 2. is key to defining and scoping the project. Description The following four steps summarize business case development and lay a good foundation f or proceeding into detailed business requirements for the project. The best way to gather this type of information is by interviewing the Project Sponsor and/or the project beneficiaries.Organization chart of corporate beneficiaries and participants.. Understanding these individuals. • Activity .g. the Project Sponsor can help to identify the beneficiaries and the various departments they represent.Developing the Business Case Challenge Identifying the departments and individuals that are likely to benefit directly from the project implementation. One of the first steps in establishing the business scope is identifying the project beneficiaries and understanding their business roles and project participation. using business terms to describe the problem. Deliverable . This information should be clearly defined in a Problem/Needs Statement. define their business roles and project participation.Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding business goals and objectives for the project. the problem may be expressed as "a lack of information" rather than "a lack of technology" and should detail the business decisions or analysis that is required to resolve the lack of information. • • Activity . For example. what strategic or tactical benefits does the business expect to gain from the project. It may be practical to combine information gathering for the needs assessment and goals definition. the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries are the best sources for this type of information.

Deliverable - Statement of Project Goals and Objectives

4. The final step is creating a Project Scope and Assumptions statement that clearly defines the boundaries of the project based on the Statement of Project Goals and Objective and the associated project assumptions. This statement should focus on the type of information or analysis that will be included in the project rather than what will not. The assumptions statements are optional and may include qualifiers on the scope, such as ass umptions of feasibility, specific roles and responsibilities, or availability of resources or data.

• •

Activity - Business Analyst develops Project Scope and Assumptions statement for presentation to the Project Sponsor.
Deliverable - Project Scope and Assumptions statement




Assessing the Business Case

Developing a solid business case for the project that includes both the tangible and intangible potential benefits of the project.

The Business Case should include both qualitative and quantitative assessments of the project. The Qualitative Assessment portion of the Business Case is based on the Statement of Problem/Need and the Statement of Project Goals and Objectives (both generated in Subtask 1.1.1) and focuses on d iscussions with the project beneficiaries of expected benefits in terms of problem alleviation, cost savings or controls, and increased efficiencies and opportunities. The Quantitative Assessment portion of the Business Case provides specific measurable details of the proposed project, such as the estimated ROI, which may involve the following calculations:

Cash flow analysis- Projects positive and negative cash flows for the anticipated life of the project. Typically, ROI measurements use the cash flow formula to depict results. Net present value - Evaluates cash flow according to the long-term value of current investment. Net present value shows how much capital needs to be invested currently, at an assumed interest rate, in order to create a stream of payments over time. For instance, to generate an income stream of $500 per month over six months at an interest rate of eight percent would require an investment-a net present value-of $2,311.44. Return on investment - Calculates net present value of total incremental cost savings and revenue divided by the net present value of total costs multiplied by 100. This type of ROI calculation is frequently referred to as return of equity or return on capital employed. Payback - Determines how much time will pass before an initial capital investment is recovered.

The following are steps to calculate the quantitative business case or ROI:




Step 1. Develop Enterprise Deployment Map. This is a model of the project phases over a timeline, estimating as specifically as possible customer participation (e.g., by department and location), subject area and type of information/analysis, numbers of users, numbers of data marts and data sources, types of sources, and size of data set. Step 2. Analyze Potential Benefits. Discussions with representative managers and users or the Project Sponsor should reveal the tangible and intangible benefits of the project. The most effective format for presenting this analysis is often a "before" and "after" format that compares the current situation to the project expectations. Step 3. Calculate Net Present Value for all Benefits. Information gathered in this step should help the customer representatives to understand how the expected benefits will be allocated throughout the organization over time, using the enterprise deployment map as a guide. Step 4. Define Overall Costs. Customers need specific cost information in order to assess the dollar impact of the project. Cost estimates should address the following fundamental cost components:

• • • • • • • • •

Hardware Networks RDBMS software Back-end tools Query/reporting tools Internal labor External labor Ongoing support Training

Step 5. Calculate Net Present Value for all Costs. Use either actual cost estimates or percentage-of-cost values (based on cost allocation assumptions) to calculate costs for each cost component, projected over the timeline of the enterprise deployment map. Actual cost estimates are more accurate than percentage-of-cost allocations, but much more time-consuming. The percentage-of-cost allocation process may be valuable for initial ROI snapshots until costs can be more clearly predicted. Step 6. Assess Risk, Adjust Costs and Benefits Accordingly. Review potential risks to the project and make corresponding adjustments to the costs and/or benefits. Some of the major risks to consider are:

• • • •

Scope creep, which can be mitigated by thorough planning and tight project scope Integration complexity, which can be reduced by standardizing on vendors with integrated product sets or open architectures Architectural strategy that is inappropriate Other miscellaneous risks from management or end users who may withhold project support; from the entanglements of internal politics; and from technologies that don't function as promised

Step 7. Determine Overall ROI. When all other portions of the business case are complete, calculate the project's "bottom line". Determining the overall ROI is simply a matter of subtracting net present value of total costs from net present value of (total incremental revenue plus cost savings). For more detail on these steps, refer to the Informatica White Paper: 7 Steps to Calculating Data Warehousing ROI.




Defining and Prioritizing Requirements

Defining and prioritizing business and functional requirements is often accomplished through a combination of interviews and facilitated meetings (i.e., workshops) between the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries and the Project Manager and Business Analyst.

The following three steps are key for successfully defining and prioritizing requirements:

Step 1: Discovery
During individual (or small group) interviews with high-level management, there is often focus and clarity of vision that for some, may be hindered in large meetings or not available from lower-level management. On the other hand, detailed review of existing reports and current analysis from the company's "information providers" can fill in helpful details. As part of the initial "discovery" process, Informatica generally recommends several interviews at the Project Sponsor and/or upper management level and a few with those acquainted with current reporting and analysis processes. A few peer group forums can also be valuable. However, this part of the process must be focused and brief or it can become unwieldy as much time can be expended trying to coordinate calendars between worthy forum participants. Set a time period and target list of participants with the Project Sponsor, but avoid lengthening the process if some participants aren't available. Questioning during these session should include the following:

• • • •

What are the target business functions, roles, and responsibilities? What are the key relevant business strategies, decisions, and processes (in brief)? What information is important to drive, support, and measure success for those strategies/processes? What key metrics? What dimensions for those metrics? What current reporting and analysis is applicable? Who provides it? How is it presented? How is it used?

Step 2: Validation and Prioritization
The Business Analyst, with the help of the Project Architect, documents the findings of the discovery process. The resulting Business Requirements Specification includes a matrix linking the specific business requirements to their functional requirements.




This document. "roadmap" for the project (Project Roadmap). Step 3: The Incremental Roadmap Concurrent with the validation of the business requirements. PAGE BP-204 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Thus. they develop a phased. Business Analyst. As general technical feasibility is compared to the prioritization from Step 2. or incremental.At this time also. based on the business requirements findings. will facilitate discussion of informational details and provide the starting point for the target model definition. the Architect begins the Functional Requirements Specification providing details on the technical requirements for the project. the Architect develops the Information Requirements Specification in order to clearly represent the structure of the information requirements. the Project Manager. The detailed business requirements and information requirements should be reviewed with the project beneficiaries and prioritized based on business need and the stated project objectives and scope. and Architect develop consensus on a project "phasing" approach. Items of secondary priority and those with poor near-term feasibility are relegated to subsequent phases of the project. This is presented to the Project Sponsor for approval and becomes the first "Increment" or starting point for the Project Plan.

the BUILD phase is not complete until tasks 4. Many projects will require the addition of detailed steps to accurately represent the development effort. Tasks. One general guideline is to keep task detail to a duration of at least a day. it is not necessary to determine the critical path for completing these tasks. Because project time and resource estimates are typically based on the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).3).3.4 may have sequential requirements that force us to complete them in order. The end result is the Project Plan.7 are complete. it is critical to develop a thorough. However. Tasks in the hierarchy are often completed in parallel. One challenge in developing a good WBS is obtaining the correct balance between enough detail. and too much detail. This sample is a Microsoft Project file that has been "pre-loaded" with the Phases. If the Project Manager chooses not to use Microsoft completed in parallel if they do not have sequential requirements..3. When the estimate is complete. For example. accurate WBS. subtasks required to complete the project.3.and should . tasks. So.1 through 4. The phases. 4.1 through 4. but some work can (and should) begin for the DEPLOY phase long before the BUILD phase is complete. but should review it carefully to ensure that it corresponds to the specific development effort.1 through 4. and Subtasks that make up the Informatica Methodology.3. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-205 . an Excel version of the Work Breakdown Structure is available. the Project Manager can begin to estimate the level of effort involved in completing each of the steps. but it does need to break the tasks down to a manageable level of detail.Developing a WBS Challenge Developing a comprehensive work breakdown structure that clearly depicts all of the various tasks.7 under task 4. For example. simplifying the effort to develop the WBS.5 through 4. subtasks 4. we may have multiple subtasks under a task (e. although subtasks 4. After the WBS has been loaded into the selected project management tool and refined for the specific project needs. Description A WBS is a tool for identifying and organizing the tasks that need to be completed in a project.3.g.3. removing any steps that aren't relevant or adding steps as necessary. The Project Plan provides a starting point for further development of the project WBS. The Project Manager can use this WBS as a starting point. and subtasks can be exported from Excel into many other project management tools. the goal is to list every task that must be completed. The WBS serves as a starting point for both the project estimate and the project plan. individual resources can be assigned and scheduled. At this stage of project planning. it is important to remember that a task is not complete until all of its corresponding subtasks are completed whether sequentially or in parallel.7 can . The WBS shouldn't be a 'grocery list' of every minor detail in the project. It is also important to remember that the WBS is not necessarily a sequential document. Refer to Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan for further information about the project plan.

Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan

Developing the first-pass of a project plan that incorporates all of the necessary components but which is sufficiently flexible to accept the inevitable changes.

Use the following steps as a guide for developing the initial project plan:

• • •

Define the project's major milestones based on the Project Scope. Break the milestones down into major tasks and activities. The Project Plan should be helpful as a starting point or for recommending tasks for inclusion. Continue the detail breakdown, if possible, to a level at which tasks are of about one to three days' duration. This level provides satisfactory detail to facilitate estimation and tracking. If the detail tasks are too broad in scope, estimates are much less likely to be accurate. Confer with technical personnel to review the task definitions and effort estimates (or even to help define them, if applicable). Establish the dependencies among tasks, where one task cannot be started until another is completed (or must start or complete concurrently with another). Define the resources based on the role definitions and estimated number of resources needed for each role. Assign resources to each task. If a resource will only be part-time on a task, indicate this in the plan.

• • • •

At this point, especially when using Microsoft Project, it is advisable to create dependencies (i.e., predecessor relationships) between tasks assigned to the same resource in order to indicate the sequence of that person's activities. The initial definition of tasks and effort and the resulting schedule should be an exercise in pragmatic feasibility unfettered by concerns about ideal completion dates. In other words, be as realistic as possible in your initial estimations, even if the resulting scheduling is likely to be a hard sell to c ompany management. This initial schedule becomes a starting point. Expect to review and rework it, perhaps several times. Look for opportunities for parallel activities, perhaps adding resources, if necessary, to improve the schedule.




When a satisfactory initial plan is complete, review it with the Project Sponsor and discuss the assumptions, dependencies, assignments, milestone dates, and such. Expect to modify the plan as a result of this review.

Reviewing and Revising the Project Plan
Once the Project Sponsor and company managers agree to the initial plan, it becomes the basis for assigning tasks to individuals on the project team and for setting expectations regarding delivery dates. The planning activity then shifts to tracking tasks against the schedule and updating the plan based on status and changes to assumptions. One approach is to establish a baseline schedule (and budget, if applicable) and then track changes against it. With Microsoft Project, this involves creating a "Baseline" that remain s static as changes are applied to the schedule. If company and project management do not require tracking against a baseline, simply maintain the plan through updates without a baseline. Regular status reporting should include any changes to the schedule, beginning with team members' notification that dates for task completions are likely to change or have already been exceeded. These status report updates should trigger a regular plan update so that project management can track the effect on the overall schedule and budget. Be sure to evaluate any changes to scope (see 1.2.4 Manage Project and Scope Change Assessment ), or changes in priority or approach, as they arise to determine if they impact the plan. It may be necessary to modify the plan if changes in scope or priority require rearranging task assignments or delivery sequences, or if they add new tasks or postpone existing ones.




Managing the Project Lifecycle

Providing a structure for on-going management throughout the project lifecycle.

It is important to remember that the quality of a project can be directly correlated to the amount of review that occurs during its lifecycle.

Project Status and Plan Reviews
In addition to the initial project plan review with the Project Sponsor, schedule regular status meetings with the sponsor and project team to review status, issues, scope changes and schedule updates. Gather status, issues and schedule update information from the team one day before the status meeting in order to compile and distribute the Status Report .

Project Content Reviews
The Project Manager should coordinate, if not facilitate, reviews of requirements, plans and deliverables with company management, including business requirements reviews with business personnel and technical reviews with project technical personnel. Set a process in place beforehand to ensure appropriate personnel are invited, any relevant documents are distributed at least 24 hours in advance, and that reviews focus on questions and issues (rather than a laborious "reading of the code"). Reviews may include:

• • • • • • • • •

Project scope and business case review Business requirements review Source analysis and business rules reviews Data architecture review Technical infrastructure review (hardware and software capacity and configuration pla nning) Data integration logic review (source to target mappings, cleansing and transformation logic, etc.) Source extraction process review Operations review (operations and maintenance of load sessions, etc.) Reviews of operations plan, QA plan, deployment and support plan




Change Management
Directly address and evaluate any changes to the planned project activities, priorities, or staffing as they arise, or are proposed, in terms of their impact on the project plan.

• • •

Use the Scope Change Assessment to record the background problem or requirement and the recommended resolution that constitutes the potential scope change. Review each potential change with the technical team to assess its impact on the project, evaluating the effect in terms of schedule, budget, staffing requirements, and so forth. Present the Scope Change Assessment to the Project Sponsor for acceptance (with formal sign-off, if applicable). Discuss the assumptions involved in the impact estimate and any potential risks to the project.

The Project Manager should institute this type of change management process in response to any issue or request that appears to add or alter expected activities and has the potential to affect the plan. Even if there is no evident effect on the schedule, it is important to document these changes because they may affect project direction and it may become necessary, later in the project cycle, to justify these changes to management.

Issues Management
Any questions, problems, or issues that arise and are not immediately resolved should be tracked to ensure that someone is accountable for resolving them so that their effect can also be visible. Use the Issues Tracking template, or something similar, to track issues, their owner, and dates of entry and resolution as well as the details of the issue and of its solution. Significant or "showstopper" issues should also be mentioned on the status report.

Project Acceptance and Close
Rather than simply walking away from a project when it seems complete, there should be an explicit close procedure. For most projects this involves a meeting where the Project Sponsor and/or department managers acknowledge completion or sign a statement of satisfactory completion.

• •

Even for relatively short projects, use the Project Close Report to finalize the project with a final status report detailing: o What was accomplished o Any justification for tasks expected but not completed o Recommendations Prepare for the close by considering what the project team has learned about the environments, procedures, data integration design, data architecture, and other project plans. Formulate the recommendations based on issues or problems that need to be addressed. Succinctly describe each problem or recommendation and if applicable, briefly describe a recommended approach.




Description Configuring security is one of the most important components of building a Data Warehouse. PAGE BP-210 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . batches. has a security administrator been identified? What levels of permissions are appropriate for the developers? Do they need access to all the folders? Who needs to start sessions manually? Who is allowed to start and stop the Informatica Server? How will PowerCenter security be administered? Will it be the same as the database security scheme? Do we need to restrict access to Global Objects? The following pages offer some answers to the these questions and some suggestions for assigning user groups and access privileges. There should be a limit to the number of administrator accounts for PowerCenter. the administrator takes care of maintaining the Repository. Before implementing security measures. Knowledge of PowerCenter’s security facilities is also a prerequisite to security design. Security should be implemented with the goals of easy maintenance and scalability. While this is less important in a development/unit test environment. In most implementations. it is imperative to answer the following basic questions: • • • • • • • • Who needs access to the Repository? What do they need the ability to do? Is a central administrator required? What permissions are appropriate for him/her? Is the central administrator responsible for designing and configuring the repository security? If not. and end users’ access requirements. and data – in order to ensure system integrity and data confidentiality. folders. it is critical for protecting the production environment.Configuring Security Challenge Configuring a PowerCenter security scheme to prevent unauthorized access to mappings. data content. Determining an optimal security configuration for a PowerCenter environment requires a thorough understanding of business requirements. sessions. repositories.

FTP Connections and External Loader Connections. and the command line program. The internal security enables multi-user development through management of users. Can configure connections on the server and INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-211 . in addition to privileges and permissions assigned using the Repository Manager. Choosing the Enable Security option activates the following set of default privileges: User Owner Owner Group World Default Global Object Permissions Read. Can create and modify folders. pmcmd. since there are generally few groups and many users. These are PowerCenter users. It is used to assign read.PowerCenter’s security approach is similar to database security environments. modify. all password information is encrypted and stored in the repository. with users then added to each group. This means that the permissions for Global Objects can be changed after enabling Enhanced Security. All security management is performed through the Repository Manager. The Repository may be connected to sources/targets that contain sensitive information. privileges are commonly assigned to groups. privileges. The Server Manager provides another level of security for this purpose. Although privileges can be assigned to users or groups. write. the Repository Manager. and delete sessions and batches in Server Manager. and folders. not database users. The following table summarizes some possible privileges that may be granted: Privilege Session Operator Use Designer Browse Repository Create Sessions and Batches Administer Repository Administer Server Description Can run any sessions or batches. regardless of folder level permissions. The Server Manager also offers an enhanced security option that allows you to specify a default set of privileges that applies restricted access controls for Global Objects. Can edit metadata in the Designer. affect the ability to perform tasks in the Server Manager. and execute permissions for global objects. This approach is simpler than assigning privileges on a user-by-user basis. Only the owner of the Object or a Super User can manage permissions for a Global Object. Global Object permissions. Every user ID must be assigned to one or more groups. Can browse repository contents through the Repository Manager. groups. Global Objects include Database Connections. and any user can belong to more than one group. Write and Execute Read and Execute No Permissions Enabling Enhanced Security does not lock the restricted access settings for Global Objects. Can create.

and Execute: Privilege Read Description Can read. transformations. and mappings.Privilege Super User Description stop the server through the Server Manager or the command-line interface. this property cannot be changed.e. privileges are set for the owner. which must identify a folder owner and group. any user). Use Designer. group. Privileges Session Operator. Browse Repository Super User Administrator Users with Administer Repository or Super User privileges may edit folder properties. A recommended practice is to create only one shareable folder per repository. Operations department that runs and maintains the environment in production.. Data warehouse Administrators who maintain the entire warehouse environment. Users without read permissions cannot see the folder. When other folders create a shortcut from a shareable folder. Can edit metadata in the folder. Create Sessions and Batches Browse Repository End User Operator Session Operator. Administer Server. The following table details the three folder level privileges: Read. and repository (i. so changes to common logic or elements can be managed more efficiently. copy. Business end users who run reports off of the data warehouse. Can perform all tasks with the repository and the server The next table suggests a common set of initial groups and the privileges that may be associated with them: Group Developer Description PowerCenter developers who are creating the mappings. that folder inherits the properties of the object. and to place all reusable objects within that sharable folder. and create shortcuts to repository objects in the folder. and also determine whether the folder is shareable. thereby enabling object reuse. For each folder. meaning that shortcuts can be created pointing to objects within the folder. PAGE BP-212 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Can run sessions using mappings in the folder. Browse Repository. Write Execute Allowing shortcuts enables other folders in the same repository to share objects such as source/target tables. Write. After a folder is flagged as shareable.

Locks thus prevent repository corruption by preventing simultaneous uncoordinated updates. if any at all. or possibly all three levels. you may assign group level security for all of the ABC folders to the ABC group. the three levels of privileges. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-213 . it cannot be opened and modified by anyone but that user. while everyone else should have the appropriate privileges within the folders they use. For example. This enables you to assign folder level security to the group and keep the two projects from accidentally working in folders that belong to the other project team. only members of the ABC group can make changes to those folders. the group assigned to the folder. depending on the desired level of security. if you have two projects. regardless of folder level permissions. and the Allow Shortcuts option. Informatica recommends creating individual User IDs for all developers and administrators on the system rather than using a single shared ID. Repository privileges should be restricted to Read permissions only. if multiple individuals share a common login ID. In this example. Tight security is recommended in the production environment to ensure that the developers and other users do not accidentally make changes to production. However members within the folder’s group may contain only Read/Write. Only a few people should have Administer Repository or Super User privileges. When a session is in use by a developer. You might also wish to add a group specific to each application if there are many application development tasks being performed within the same repository.Users who own a folder or have Administer Repository or Super User privileges can edit folder properties to change the owner. Also. it may be appropriate to create a group for ABC developers and another for XYZ developers. A folder owner should be allowed all three folder level permissions. One of the most important reasons for this is session level locking. Note that users with the Session Operator privilege can run sessions or batches. it is difficult to identify which developer is making (or has made) changes to an object. In this way. ABC and XYZ.


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