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Discrimination is a sociological term referring to the prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their membership (whether voluntary or involuntary) in a certain group or category. Discrimination is the actual behavior towards members of another group. It involves excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to other groups. [1] The United Nations explains: "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection." [2] Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination.

Racial discrimination d ifferentiates between individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial differences, and has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa in the apartheid era, and the USA

An African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a courthouse lawn, North Carolina, 1938. In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. [3] As early as 1865, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, ass isting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited. In the UK the inquiry following the murder of Stephen Lawrence accused the police of institutional racism.

Weaver v NATFHE (now part of the UCU) Race/sex discrimination case. An Industrial (Employment) Tribunal in the UK in 1987 decided that a trade union was justified in not assisting a black woman member complaining of racist/sexist harassment, regardles s of the merits of the case, because the accused male would lose his job. The Employment Appeal Tribunal upheld the decision, which still stands today as the definitivelegal precedent in this field. It is also known as the Bournville College Racial Harassment issue.

Within the criminal justice system in some Western countries, minorities are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared with whites. [4][5] In 1998, nearly one out of thre e black men between the ages of 20 -29 were in prison or jail, on probation or parole on any given day in the United States.[6] First Nations make up about 2% of Canada's population, but account for 18% of the federal prison population as of 2000. [7]According to the Australian government's June 2006 publication of prison statistics, indigenous peoples make up 24% of the overall prison population in Australia.[8] In 2004, M ori made up just 15% of the total population of New Zealand but 49.5% of prisoners. M ori were entering prison at 8 times the rate of non-M ori.[9] A quarter of the people in England's prisons are from an ethnic minority. The Equality and Human Rights Commission found that five times more black people than whit e people per head of population in England and Wales are imprisoned. Experts and politicians said over -representation of black men was a result of decades of racial prejudice in the criminal justice system. [10]

hough gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Currently, discrimination based on sex is defined as adverse action against another person, that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. This is considered a form of prejudice and is illegal in certain enumerated circumstances in most countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job

interview. promote or wrongfully terminated an employee based on his or her gender. of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions which may relate to hormones and the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding roles in past primitive lifestyles. the Glass Ceiling Commission. which is the consideration of an employee's gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions. and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference." In its report. for example if one is refused credit or is of fered unequal loan terms based on one¶s gender. sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women. or employers pay unequally bas ed on gender. and if there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one¶s gender. a government -funded group. The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe a perceived bar rier to advancement in employment based on discrimination. stated: "Over half of all Master¶s degrees are now awarded to women. professional. contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on his or her gender. or scholarship due to his or her gender. as a means to end this form of discrimination. opportunity. it recommended affirmative action. [17] However. The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. Socially. In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house. especially sex discrimination. major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women. [18] In 2008. women accounted for 51% of all workers in the high paying management. and related occupations. in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. In the United States in 1995. [15] Another setting where there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to extend his or her credit. or because an employer did not hire. refused approva l of credit/loan process. loan. 97% are white. Of them. program. They outnumbered men . Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking. Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution. yet 95% of senior-level managers. [16] While there are alleged non -physical differences between men and women. student group.

441). even when they pass the same strict background tests and other standards of employment. the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at trandgender individuals nor with women. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as "women's jobs".000 yuan ($6. underachievement. occasionally. [20] The PwC research found that among FTSE 350 companies in the United Kingdom in 2002 almost 40% of senior management posts were occupied by women. as of fall 2009. regardless of the law. the number of senior management posts held by women had fallen to 22%. difficulty in finding a job. or some other faulty.com.women in this case) sometimes will seemingly "justify" whatever they wish to do. to uphold traditional societal roles. often experience problems which often lead to dismissals. compared with 28. both male to female a nd female to male. and human resource managers. [21] Transgender individuals. Affirmative action also leads to white men being discriminated against for entry level and blue collar positions. unethical or illegal prejudicial reasoning. An employer cannot hire a white man with the same "on paper" qualifications over a woman or minority worker or the employer will face prosecution . violent attacks against them. and sheds light on how a workplace dominated by a majority (. Chinahr.201) for women.in such occupations as public relations managers. and. This may be done as an effort at self-protection. [19] The China's leading headhunter. reported in 2007 that the average salary for white-collar men was 44. I t is currently being contended in federal court. social isolation. One such situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA discrimination and a Federal Court Case in Texas.700 yuan ($4. f inancial managers. Nevertheless. When that research was repeated in 2007. The case actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and blacks in childcare.

He finds that the owner of the house has a weird behavior. Datuk. First of all. my fellow p anels and members on the floor. Azmi said earlier. Straight to my first question. Today¶s forum as about the short story. A few months later. He find himself in the new environment and lifestyle. Without any further delay. his wife Mala ill come to America and stay with him. The narrator left his motherland. Mohamad Azmi Bin Mat Nawi. As Dr. Ikramuddin also expert in English Literature and now still on duty in University of Warwick. an English expert in the literature. ³The Third and Final Continent´ is written by Jhumpa Lahiri. I am Dr. Datuk Seri Chang Ji Han. and on my left.ISL WEEK 9 FORUM: Chairman: Assalamualaikum and a very good morning to the members on the floor. the Third and Final Continent. India and travelled to England. Chairman: Thank you Tan Sri! Now we move to the next panel. next to him. can you explain the characters in this short story? . ³The Third and Final Continent´. Minister of Education. On my right. could you explain to us the main idea or the synopsis of the short story? Tan Sri Amos : Thank you Dr. Amos Tan. Then the woman died. She loves to shout. He also brought Mala to the old woman. This story was about the life of a man who left his country and travel to others to make a better life. our forum today is about the short story. He faced many new things there and he was able to adapt it and manage to live within the community. Tan Sri Dr. let me introduce myself. Dato¶ Dr. chair person. allow me to introduce our panel. The narrator decided to stay there for good with his wife and their son. A few years passed and then he travelled again to the America. He taught Mala how to live in foreign land. There he rented a house. Tan Sri. United Kingdom. handsome in black shirt. a very good morning to the Mr.

We need to cope ourself in their culture. at that time. Our topic today is µThe Third and Final Continent¶. the salary is generous enough to support his wife. he is thirty-six years old. or we will look weird. India. in Finsbury Park. He watched how people did something and he will learnt from it. he is offered to work in the processing department of a library at M. Croft and Helen (Mrs.. Yes. Chairman: Thank you Datuk Seri. He eventually adapts to the British way of life but does not do so alone. his marriage is arranged by his older brother and his wife. can you explain that? Dr. Croft Daughter). Yes.I. Chairperson. Mrs. Ikram From this short story. The narrator in this short story learnt through observation. There are four characters in this short story. On weekend. he moves to Calcutta to attend his marriage and after a week later. now i have one last question. he fills the day with many sorts of activities In 1969. He is from Calcutta. He attends lecture at L. His fate is very nice. . we can learnt he to live in a foreign country. Speaker two : When he has enough money.Datuk Seri Chang Ji Han: Good morning to my friends. and works at the university library. thanks also to the Mr. in a house occupied entirely by penniless Bengali bachelors like himself. that¶s right. he moves to Boston to start his new carrier there.E. what the moral that we can take from this short story? Dr.T. He left India in 1964 and lived in London. He is an Indian. his wife (mala).S. the characters are the narrator himself. Chairman: Thank you all!! I think we can called it a day! Thanks to the panels and the members on the floor. The main character in the short story is the narrator.

But she did that her daughter sake.ISL WEEK 10 Activity 1: Read the short story ³Two Kinds´ from Amy Tan and answer the questions that follows: 1. Activity 2: . After I read this story. She came here after she lost everything there. The main character in this short story is Jing Mei Chinese girl who lived in America. She loves to push Jing Mei to do this and that. 5. what kind of person the narrator¶s mother is? 5. One more thing. Jing Mei¶s mother is a demanding mother but loving. I can conclude that everyone is gifted. Jing Mei¶s mother came from China. One¶s just need to discover the talent and develop it. Why did the narrator do not agree with her mother to play piano? 4. She came to America with a high hopes. What do you get from this short story? Answers: 1. 3. From your understanding. Where did the narrator¶ s mother come from? 3. From my understanding. all mother wants the best for her kids. Jing Mei argue with her mothe r about the piano thing as she said that she has no talent at all in piano. 2. 4. Who is the main character in the short story? 2.

Her mother finally ___11___ with the narrator and never asked the narrator to become a child prodigy anymore. Mr. 2. The narrator always said that she couldn¶t be a ___13___ like what her mother asked. 8. her mother thought that ___2___ could be a ___3___. Gave up ashamed cleaned Confident Church hall Ed Sullivan Show Child prodigy Mr. Chong The narrator Her mother Piano teacher Chinese Shirley Temple 1. You may refer to ³Two Kinds´ text. . One day. The narrator¶s mother got the magazines from people whose houses she ___4___. her mother was watching the ___5___on TV and made she wanted her daughter to try it too. 6. 3. 9.ACTIVITY 2 Fill in the blanks with the most suitable words. 4. The narrator¶s mother asked ___6___to teach the narrator played a piano. 10. 7. Chong is a retired ___7___. ___1___ forced her to be child prodigy. The narrator had made her parents felt ___12___ with her bad performance. 5. The narrator was very ___8___ and because of that her performance in the ___9___ was a disaster. At first.

I just thinking of it but not yet decided about it. Kate Chopin portrays how deceitful a character could b e. After that. Much critical discussion has focused on the significance of Sammy's actions: while many reviewers interpret his behavior as admirably honest and authentic. She wanted that kiss so her lips looked hungry for the kiss. Kate Chopin tells us a self -seeking story." 5) An Ounce Of Cure by Alice Munro . Ö. I think wont have much problem in understand the story to do the research. She choose Brantain because he is very rich. some argue that his inappropriate judgement of his town's standards leads to his isolation and loss at the conclusion." and Emerson's "Self Reliance. Nathalie is in love with Harvey and Brantain at the same time. As I have done analysis on short story "Everythings' Arranged" as for my previous assignment . critical opinion is split between those who declare the piece a work of genius and those who find it devoid of profound content.. But anyway I still have to read the other story "A Question of Dowry" to make comparisons.ISL WEEK 12: 1) The Kiss by Kate Chopin Have a little read: . I much prefer to do on short stories but dont know whether can find information about the author .Bugra Telemez 20300347 101. Nathalie realize that she can't have everything. Commentators have found possible literary sources for the story in Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown. We have to examine them in different ways. and leave the ceremony.38 Tugçe Arikan The Kiss People might appear different than they really are.. While the narrative style of the story has been widely acclaimed. In the story. I think of doing my research paper on short story but not sure yet. They might mislead us. the texts and the authors name. 3) Everything¶s Arranged by Siew Yue Killingley As listed down. and if she marry him she thinks that her live will be better After Nathalie and Brantain's wedding ceremony. 4) A&P by John Updike Critical Reception "A & P" is one of Updike's most anthologized and most popular stories.but suddenly Harvy tells that he've stopped kissing women. In the short story. She reveals that a person should not be judged only by his or her appearance. "The Kiss". Harvy comes and says that Brantain has sent him there to kiss her." Joyce's "Araby.Siew Yue Killingley.

she had her first short sto ry published in 1950. In An Ounce of Cure the story begins discussing a young girl. This is why in addition to this one novel. Unfortunately for the young girl Martin soon breaks up with her and moves on to another girl. In reading several of Munro?s works that theme of discovery becomes clear as the plot of those stories develops. . Born on July 10. As the story continues to develop we see the young girl discover love in t he form of a boy named Martin Collingwood. In an interview for Canadian Fiction Magazine she was quoted as saying ?I don?t see that people develop an d arrive somewhere. Although she wrote one novel in which was published in 1971 entitled Lives of Girls and Women she prefers to write short stories.Analysis Of Alice Munro Alice Munro is a Canadian short story writer. The majority of her short stories are set in southwestern Ontario. I just see people living in flashes. 1931 in Ontario. A constant theme Munro focuses on in many of her works of fiction is female protagonists that have problems they must deal with as they are struggling with life discov eries. she has had another seven books published and they have all been collections of short stories.

" The racial element of "A Worn Path" has also been a subject of critical discussion. criticizing the sentiment of the work and accusing Welty of failing to "develop her racial portraits with sufficient sensitivity or depth." The presence of secular mythology in the text has also been the subject of discussion by such critics as Dan Donlan. Wordsworth by V." 7) B. Isaacs viewed Phoenix's Christmas journey as a "religious pilgrimage" with an ironic e nd that suggests "greed. who perceived the prominence of the Egyptian myth of the Phoenix in the structure and symbolism of the story. particularly the story's racial.of a man who 'felt like a poet but could never be one' . Now do yourself a favor and read this enjoyable book! Have fun! . Cooley. Naipaul (1959). S." Also emphasizing Christian themes in the work. William Jones commented in 1957 that "[t]he main reason that Miss Welty chose a Negro seems to be that only a relatively simple.6) A Worn Path by Eudora Welty Critical Reception Critical discussion of "A Worn Path" largely has been concerned with thematic interpretation of the work. The "B" is later revealed to stand for black -and the main character is a kind of tramp in one of the Caribbean islands. Frank Ardolino argued for a conflation of mythological and Christian interpretations of the work. particularly for political or sociological issues. as well as her downplaying and even disavowal of racial implications in her stories. of whom Christ is the archetype. Neil D. cynicism. S. who after befri ending the narrator tells him that he was writing the world's greatest poem. in contrast. Sara Treeman pointed to story's theme of self -sacrifice. uncivilized individual is worthy of representing the powerful forces which inspires such love as hers for her grandchild. Wordsworth" is a story by V. argued for a broader social reading of the story. Naipaul "B. and Christian motifs. mythological. Butterworth responded to Cooley's assessment and others with the observation that "[s]uch polemical demythologizings conflict with Welty's persistent refusal to use fiction as a platform. corruption. the most widely read and widely honored Caribbean novelist writing in English. noting that the worn path "is worn because this is the symbolic journey made by all who are capable of self-sacrifice." Nancy K." John R. the cycles of natural imagery presented create the theme of life emerging from death. The story -narrated by a boy. showing how "along with the Christian motifs of rebirth. Focusing predominantly on the story's Christian motifs.

This is a hollow victory of course for the main character. hoping and praying naively that a miracle will deliver magic into her fingers with the pressure of an audience. cultural. when a talent show comes along her instructor and mother sign her up to showcase her burgeoning piano skills for the entire Chinese -American community. She feels she has been fortunate in her mothe r¶s blunder. now thirty. and to the American. 9) Two Kinds by Amy Tan In Amy Tan¶s short story Two Kinds. the mother closes the lid to the piano. Jing-mei rebels against all of her mother¶s fussing. emotional relationship with his first American home. the scene is set for this naughty little girl to fake all of her practice and lessons and waste her time ideally. however. When her mother hires a deaf piano teacher to train her. This short story is taken from Amy Tan¶s critically acclaimed novel The Joy Luck Club. Her mother has passed away and she has decided to keep the piano as a memento of her mother¶s hopes for her. This story¶s positive promise of the easy fulfillment of the American Dream appeals to model minority upper -class South Asian American readers who can identify with the experience. she goes along with the show. While Lahiri admirably depicts how human compassion and caring translate across age. Jing -mei. to educated elite South Asians in the native country wishing to emigrate to the USA. and language barriers. the prodigy can come out. we see the girl returning. Its strength lies in the Bengali man¶s recounting of his subtle. Although unsuccessful in finding some hidden talent. won it in the National Magazine Award for Fiction. . stops the lessons. and admits that her daughter could be a failure. with practice. No magic comes and she completely embarrasses her family.8) The Third and Final Continent by Jhumpa Lahiri ³The Third and Final Continent´ is not only Jhumpa Lahiri¶s attemp at claiming America. howeve r influence her appeal (or lack of it) to varied audiences. The story which was published in 1999 summer fiction issue of the New Yorker. and having the piano serviced. the writer¶s political and aesthetic choices. coming to a verbal battle in which Jing-mei devastates her mother¶s heart by saying²completely out of frustration and embarrassment²that she wishes she was not her daughter. tells how her mother relentlessly drove her to b ecome a child prodigy. The battle between Jing -mei and her mother¶s expectations rages on after this recital. The fun part of the story is that her mother pushes in all kinds of directions while searching for a natural talent that she seems certain must be lying dormant in her little girl. As the short story ends. not understanding that the hope that she has for her daughter stems from a realization that her own l ife will never truly be anything grand. Trapped. her mother settles on piano lessons and hopes that perhaps. With this blow. the American born daughter of Chinese immigrants. but also the American literati¶s means of claiming the immigrant writer.

Stanton When times are bad an' folks are sad An' gloomy day by day. Don't mind how troubles bristle. When red the lightnings play. whistle! A song is worth a world o' sighs. whistle. continued story But still beneath a bend o' blue The world rolls on to glory. The rose comes with the thistle.ISL WEEK 13: Just Whistle by Frank L. Jest take a rose or thistle. Jest take a rose or thistle. whistle. Hold your own An' change your tone An' whistle. whistle! Each day comes with a life that's new. Hold your own An' change your tone An' whistle. Don't mind how troubles bristle. whistle. Hold your own An' change your tone An' whistle. whistle! by Rudyard Kipling . Jest try your best at lookin' glad An' whistle 'em away. Don't mind how troubles bristle. A strange. Look for the rainbow in the skies An' whistle 'em away.

If all men count with you. If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you. If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you.and not make dreams your master. for his personal reward he will attain the full stature of manhood.nor lose the common touch. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you. b ut none too much. Or being lied about.which is more . In all things he must hold to the golden mean. he must use each wisely--and push on. If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run. Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it. Or watch the things you gave your life to. If he does. And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them. If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone. If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools. If you can think . and start again at your beginnings And never breathe a word about your loss. "Hold on!" If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue. If you can wait and not be tired by waiting. Or being hated don't give way to hating.and not make thoughts your aim. But make allowance for their doubting too. d on't deal in lies. If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two imposters just the same. nor talk too wise: If you can dream . A man must not lose heart because of doubts or opposition. And yet don't look too good. Or walk with Kings . And . He must not be deceived into thinking either triumph or disaster final. yet he must do his best to see the grounds for both.you'll be a Man. broken. my son! . he will own the world. In extremes lies danger. and even better. And lose.The central idea of this poem is that success comes from self-control and a true sense of the values of things. And stoop and build 'em up with worn out tools: If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch -and-toss.

when I read. till I thought My mind was going numb And then I heard them lift a box. Then space began to toll As all the heavens were a bell. ." Industrious until The thimble weighed too heavy. A book I have. to and fro. treading.-At rest his fingers are. Death Sets a Thing Significant Emily Dickinson Death sets a thing significant The eye had hurried by. solitary. I read not. For interrupting tears Obliterate the etchings Too costly for repairs. till it seemed That sense was breaking through. but an ear. again.ISL WEEK 14: Poems by Emily Dickinson: I felt a funeral in my brain. And when they all were seated. a friend gave. Had notched the place that pleased him. And then 't was put among the dust Upon the closet shelves. And being. Now. Whose pencil. beating. here. Kept treading. Except a perished creature Entreat us tenderly To ponder little workmanships In crayon or in wool. And mourners. And creak across my soul With those same boots of lead. With "This was last her fingers did. here and there. The stitches stopped themselves. And I and Silence some strange Race Wrecked. A service like a drum Kept beating.

Dr.? Professor Amos: Thank you to Mr. Amos Tan. Chang Ji Han a laureate. Straight to my first question. Chairman: Thank you Dr. She then had two wedlock. Maud stayed at home. Sadie and Maud. Assalamualaikum and a very good morning to all members on the floor. Meanwhile. Dr. Chairperson. However Sadie had a unhappy life. this poem has brought a deep meaning to me as a laureate. allow me to introduce our most intelligent list of panels. if we have education. the . what do you think about this poem? Dr. Ikram an English Language expert. Chairman. This poem was so amazing. Her parents were so shamed. a very good morning to members on the floor. Mr. Now. She thought that education can give her happiness the she desired. Professor Dr. Thank to god for his bless and will we are able to gather up here for a forum based on the short story Sadie and Maud. She did not found happiness even she had a proper education. Sadie went to the collage to get the knowledge. But Maud was happy with her life. She wanted to have a better future and a happier live. Dr.ISL WEEK 15: Prepare a forum in groups based on the short story Sadie and Maud. Ch ang. She refused to further her studies. can I say that education is not important in life? This is because Maud was happy even she was not educated? Can you respond about this Prof. and on my left. also an English language expert. It is about life. next to him. Straight to the question. She is happy with her kids. Chang Ji Han: Thank you to Mr. From what you said. Chang. you cannot say that we did not need education! Yes! Even without education we can feel the happiness. and a very good morning to the members on the floor. For me. On my right. My name is Dr. There ar e two sisters. But. Mohamad Azmi bin Mat Nawi will be the speaker for today.

but she took care of them on their own. As Maud had a wedlock. That¶s all for today.happiness became more beautiful and meaningful. While Maud had plenty of time to do so. Therefore. Chairman: Thank you to all the panels. I hope we can meet again soon. Chairman: Sorry for my previous question. but we our self were hurt. Chairperson. Same as Maud. one¶s need to be responsible for what he or her done. Next I would like to ask Dr. Related to this poem. As the time passed. But once again. Mr. I learnt that one¶s do not need to pretend to be someone else just to make other person happy or proud. Dr. Mr. she did not abort the babies. From this poem. I said that education is important. Ikram. Then she was lonely. we can make assumption that Saddie were too busy with her study and she did not have time to went into love. Dr. she became too old for love. what you can get from it? I mean the moral values and lesson. She refused to go to the college like everyone. after you went through this poem. Thanks to the audiences for giving the support and came here tonight. Bye. Apart from that. ones need to use the time equally between study and enjoying the life. Ikram: Thank you to Mr. But she was happy with her life. a very good morning to members on the floor. .

The challenge to the Islamic republic has been how to establish popular sovereignty under clerical rule and preserve a government with a divine mission whose real secular task was to run a modern state in a Western-dominated capitalist world. The demonstrations. and that everybody tries to escape when confronted with harm. through its control of resources. known as Saffron Revolution. countries were and some are still struggling for democracies. and occasional repression. In Nepal. The ideological splits that have emerged. This is a plead for democracy to take place in their country. Under Panchayat all . organizations.The mass arrests follow the King's unconstitutional dissolution of Parliament on July 10 and the formation. The expression "civil society" is used today to indicate how private clubs.ISL WEEK 16: FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY Democracy as a political system is attractive to many--if not most--people around the globe. or killed. tortured. Activists fear that the move signals a return to a form of one-party rule similar to the Panchayat system imposed by the King of Nepal in 1960. over 200 prodemocracy protests that took place in 66 cities across Burma were documented. popular rule under the tenets of Islam. autocratic control. by the sacked Prime Minister. on August 19th the Nepalese government arrested some 3000 political activists including the parliamentary representatives and national leaderships of the major opposition parties and the head of the student's federation and the women¶s movement. However. as well as the state's persistent economic problems. Taking a closer example into sight. tens of thousands of monks spearheaded peaceful demonstrations throughout Burma. Consequently. were the largest scale since the 8888 Uprising in 1988. It can be said that "nobody likes to be imprisoned. Between 19 August and 2 October. enjoying rights not shared by people under authoritarian regimes that often do not respect even fundamental human rights. in many parts of the world. But in the absence of organized and vibrant agents of civil society such as labor unions and professional associations. remains overwhelmingly dominant. Tens of thousands of people took part in the third general strike to sweep the country since then." Citizens in Western countries remain fundamentally free from arbitrary and random state repression. The creation of an Islamic republic was beset with difficulties from the start. of an interim council of ministers. These political and civil rights should be not understood as Western or non-Western but rather as universal rights entitling individuals to shape their own future and be protected from abusive government. Iran has so far oscillated among democratic tendencies. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini aimed to replace a tyrannical leader with a just. Therefore. The existence of civil society is correlated with democracy. Take Iran for example. The Asian Center for the Progress of Peoples (ACPP) mentioned that they will not forget the efforts of the courageous people in Burma who are resisting the military regime to call for democracy. society remains susceptible to the authoritarian whims of the ruling elite. have raised doubts about the 'ulama's ability or even legitimacy to direct state affairs. in mid-September 2007. the emergence and effectiveness of civil society is undermined where society itself is underdeveloped or where the state. and groups act as a buffer between state power and the citizen's life.

opposition parties were banned and the Parliament was dissolved. Democratic values and institutions did not arise as a direct contradiction of authoritarian forms of governance. divine right. An oligarchy of military strength. . Rather they emerged by a gradual change in the principles that governed the distribution of power in society. The parliaments of the second were assemblies of rich traders. aristocratic lineage and land gradually gave way to an oligopoly of wealthy merchants. This case is just another act of in desperate need for democracy in the country. The idea of universe human rights and freedoms which we now identify as the essence of democracy was at first cited as a justification for redistribution of power to the commercial class and only much later as a principle for extending rights and privileges to all citizens. The parliaments of the first stage were congresses of feudal lords. This shift continues today in countries around the world and may not yet have reached its acme in any country.

never give up!" God's Motto: Never give up. I must continue! I know my Goal is ahead. Never give up Your self-transcendence And God-satisfaction-goal! My mind's teeming defects Are unending. For there is nothing In this entire world That is irrevocably unchangeable. I shall never give up! I must continue. My Supreme. Never give up! Man's motto: Alas. my Supreme! Never give up. never give up on me. Never give up on yourself. Where are you? Have you forgotten God's own transcendental Motto: "Never give up"? Therefore. my Supreme.Do Not Give Up I do not give up. I do not know When I should start! Never give up. my Supreme. God is never tired of Giving the same message Over and over again to humanity: Never give up! Poems by Sri Chinmoy .ISL WEEK 17: Poems . never give up! Even if you lose your way A great many times. my Supreme! I shall never give up. And I am destined to reach my Goal. Yet I shall never give up My life's perfection-dream. My Supreme. For it needs God-illumination With your and my help. I never give up. O my aspiration-heart. And specially Never give up on my stupid mind. You must realise that your destination Is sleeplessly expecting your arrival God's philosophy Is simpler than the simplest: "Never give up.

hope I hope that you well get by I hope that you well love me I hope that you well care for me I hope that you and I are happy I hope that the day well came when we meet I hope that you like what you see I hope that you well love me I hope that you and I well always be happy I hope that I well not make you cry I hope that we will last for life I hope that love is what we will see in one other I hope that you well never live me I hope I hope I hope this well came true I hope I hope I can only hope Bradley Stewart .

In Form Five. My father. Truth to be told. In some way. had always have a very peaceful and calm sense about him in the way that he strode and take on life. one step at a time. that will be my father. He makes a good leader because he listens and analyzed before he makes any decision. both my parents were extremely happy because I know deep inside they wanted me to pursue in science. he accepted my decision with an open heart. At first he was not happy with my decision but after a length of explanation. specifically in English (TESL). if people are judging from his appearance the they would not have guess that he is actually much softer with us than our mother. I am more of a guide than a director which I suspect made me wanted to be a teacher. But my interest laid in some other field. Abah never raised a hand in educating his children (well he raised once but it never it hit me ± it was only because I was almost got myself killed). whom I respectfully call µ Abah. then my mother had to be more stern and protective. He believed that his children are specimens of well -nurtured and educated human beings thus there was never a need to use rough approach in raising us and I believed that has done us go od. When I got i n science stream when I was in Form Four. I grew up to be a carefree person and if I become a leader. . If I get to choose an individual that may influence me. I have always tried to instill that trait into me. is and will always be the greatest influence in my life. after God and His Messenger. I confronted my father and told him I wanted to do a degree in education. his µrule¶ had influence a part of me. Since my father is already the one that gives much more freedom for us to make our choices in life. He was.ISL WEEK 18: Choose an individual that may influence you.

A host. when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood. They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance. And then my heart with pleasure fills. Beside the lake. And dances with the daffodils. Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. beneath the trees. When all at once I saw a crowd. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the milky way.ISL WEEK 19: I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud ± William Wordsworth I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills. In such a jocund company: I gazed---and gazed---but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft. . of golden daffodils. but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could not but be gay. The waves beside them danced. They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude.

Robert William Service As I go forth from fair to mart With racket ringing. Who smiling make the same reply To saint and sinner. As I with wonderment survey Their peacock dresses. And nobody takes me to task For distant dreaming. Yet there I dream. As I sit in some raucous pub. A happy hypocrite am I Of ambiance inner. despite the din. Who would divine that in my heart Mad larks are singing. Of God's green spaces. And treat myself to greasy grub I feel quite human. The money-mongers cannot guess How I disdain them. And so I wear my daily mask Of pleasant seeming. Taboo to women. And sweetly dwell the peace within Of sylvan graces. . My mind is wafted far away To wildernesses. As I sweet sympathy express. Lest I should pain them.Detachment . As I sit at some silly tea And flirt and flatter How I abhor society And female chatter.

Cloud. Both poems are using simple an plain English with a few twists and turns to make the reading much more interesting.Both poems have similar theme. Wordsworth and Service did not use heavy words or complexly woven sentences in the stanzas and they are generally easy to be understood as many sentences are straightforward for the readers to grab the meaning. In Detachment by Robert William Service. being an unstable element in both shape and size. It gives a sense of watching the reality from a television screen of some sort. In I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud. detachment. This act shows the detachment the persona was experiencing and it was altogether a bad thing. the persona was walking and observing people without involving himself/herself into the scene. are absolutely alone while looking at everyone else in a solitude perspective. . Wordsworth portrayed the feeling of µdetachment¶ by the persona being a µcloud¶.

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