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Protein transport


• Describe how a protein is synthesised

• Describe how a protein is transcribed

• Understand and identify organelles involved

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): Spreads through the whole cytoplasm, a three

dimensional network of cavities, some are ‘sac like’ and ‘tubular’.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum:

• Much of the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum is covered with

ribosomes; the function of the ribosomes is to make proteins.

• Translation and transcription take place; the new protein is carried within
the ribosome which is found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

• Vesicles pinch off the rough endoplasmic reticulum to fuse with the
flattened sacs-known as the Golgi body.

• It is a stack of flattened cisternae lined with smooth endoplasmic

reticulum. As the proteins travel through the Golgi body they are modified
in various ways. Carbohydrate is added to some proteins to form
glycoproteins such as mucus. Some proteins in the Golgi body are
enzymes; they may be enclosed in the vesicles to form an organelle
known as a lysosome.

• Vesicles/lysosomes containing secretions are pinched off the Golgi body.

• They fuse with the cell surface membrane and release the secretions


Organelles in the cells of your body that become worn out need to be destroyed,
these jobs are the function of the lysosomes. A lysosome may fuse with the outer
cell membrane to release its enzymes outside the cell as extracellular enzymes,
to destroy bacteria or during digestion.

Lysosomes can also self destruct, this is known as apoptosis:

• If an entire cell is damaged or wearing out, its lysosomes may rupture.

• Releasing their enzymes to destroy the entire contents of the cell,

problems can arise if this starts to happen when it shouldn’t.