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Exp3_SSB|Views: 232|Likes: 4

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**Single Sideband Modulation with Coherent Demodulation
**

Handout

1 Purpose

In this experiment, we will verify the principles of Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation using audio

frequency signals. SSB modulation will be implemented using the phase shift method. The demodulation

method to be investigated will be coherent demodulation. We are going to examine the estimation of side-

band suppression and deﬁnition of peak output power PEP.

Previously we studied standard amplitude modulation (AM). Recall that the equations considered for

AM had the form;

s(t) = A

c

[1 + µm(t)] cos(ω

c

t) (1)

= A

c

cos(ω

c

t) + A

c

µm(t) cos(ω

c

t) (2)

Now, if we let M(f ) be the frequency domain description of the message signal m(t) then the Fourier

transform of the AM signal in (1) can be shown as in Figure 1.

EE 474 Communication Systems Laboratory IS¸IK UNIVERSITY

Single Sideband Modulation with Coherent Demodulation

1 Purpose

In this experiment, we will verify the principles of Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation using audio

frequency signals. SSB modulation will be implemented using the phase shift method. The demodulation

method to be investigated will be coherent demodulation. We are going to examine the estimation of side-

band suppression and deﬁnition of peak output power PEP.

Previously we studied standard amplitude modulation (AM). Recall that the equations considered for

AM had the form;

s(t) = A

c

[1 +µm(t)] cos(ω

c

t) (1)

= A

c

cos(ω

c

t) +A

c

µm(t) cos(ω

c

t) (2)

Now, if we let M(f ) be the frequency domain description of the message signal m(t) then the Fourier

transform of the AM signal in (1) can be shown as in Figure 1.

Ac/2 µ

f

f

M(f)

Sc(f)

Lower Sideband

Upper Sideband

-fc fc

W -W

1

Ac/2

-fc+W -fc-W

fc-W

fc+W

Figure 1: Double Sideband Modulation

We can see that the spectrum consists of impulses at the carrier frequency, f

c

, and has message

components, M(f + f

c

) and M(f − f

c

) on either side of f

c

. The portion of the message spectrum at

frequencies above f

c

is referred to as an upper sideband and the portion at frequencies below f

c

is

referred to as the lower sideband. The relevant parameters, along with the upper and lower sidebands

are illustrated in Fig. 1.

It can be seen from Fig. 1 that there are several forms of ineﬃciency in this type of modulation. These

include:

1. The total bandwidth of the modulated signal is twice that of the baseband message signal.

2. The lower sideband is a mirror image of the upper sideband (repeated information).

3. the impulse response at the carrier frequency contributes nothing to the determination of the signal

m(t).

Thus, this double sideband modulation is wasteful of resources in terms of both bandwidth and power.

In this lab, we consider means to improve the eﬃciency of the amplitude modulation scheme used

in Lab #1. By considering the points of ineﬃciency mentioned above, we do this by ﬁrstly removing

the carrier frequency impulse component. (The resulting modulation scheme is called double side-

band suppressed carrier modulation.) Secondly, we remove one of the sidebands with the resulting

modulation scheme being called single sideband suppressed carrier modulation.

2.3 Single Sideband Modulation (SSB)

Generation of the single sideband signal can be achieved by realizing the following equation

s(t) = A

c

(m(t) cos ω

c

t + ˆ m(t) sin ω

c

t) (6)

where ˆ m(t) is the Hilbert transform of m(t). Please consult section 5-5 (pp 312–316) of Couch for more

information on single sideband modulation.

2.4 Coherent Demodulation

In Lab#1 we used two diﬀerent demodulation methods for the AM signal. These were envelope de-

tection and coherent demodulation. Only signals of the form of (1) are able to be demodulated via

envelope detection. Thus, it is not possible to demodulate single sideband suppressed carrier modulated

signals via envelope detection, so we use only coherent demodulation.

Recall that coherent demodulation (also called synchronous detection) consists of multiplying the

modulated signal by a sinusoid of the same frequency as the carrier and low-pass ﬁltering so that the

resulting higher frequency components are discarded and only a scaled version of the original baseband

message signal remains. (Practical note: for audio signals the higher frequency components would most

likely not be able to be heard anyway, so low-pass ﬁltering might not be absolutely necessary.)

2

Figure 1: Spectrum of a Double Sideband Modulation

We can see that the spectrum consists of impulses at the carrier frequency, f

c

, and has message compo-

nents, M(f + f

c

) and M(f − f

c

) on either side of f

c

. The portion of the message spectrum at frequencies

above f

c

is referred to as an upper sideband and the portion at frequencies below f

c

is referred to as the

lower sideband. The relevant parameters, along with the upper and lower sidebands are illustrated in

Figure 1.

It can be seen from Figure 1 that there are several forms of ineﬃciency in this type of modulation. These

include:

1. The total bandwidth of the modulated signal is twice that of the baseband message signal.

2. The lower sideband is a mirror image of the upper sideband (repeated information).

3. The impulse response at the carrier frequency contributes nothing to the determination of the signal

m(t).

Thus, this double sideband modulation is wasteful of resources in terms of both bandwidth and power.

1

Figure 1: Spectrum of a Double Sideband Modulation

We can see that the spectrum consists of impulses at the carrier frequency, f

c

, and has message compo-

nents, M(f + f

c

) and M(f − f

c

) on either side of f

c

. The portion of the message spectrum at frequencies

above f

c

is referred to as an upper sideband and the portion at frequencies below f

c

is referred to as the

lower sideband. The relevant parameters, along with the upper and lower sidebands are illustrated in

Figure 1.

It can be seen from Figure 1 that there are several forms of ineﬃciency in this type of modulation. These

include:

1. The total bandwidth of the modulated signal is twice that of the baseband message signal.

2. The lower sideband is a mirror image of the upper sideband (repeated information).

3. The impulse response at the carrier frequency contributes nothing to the determination of the signal

m(t).

1

Thus, this double sideband modulation is wasteful of resources in terms of both bandwidth and power.

In this lab, we consider means to improve the eﬃciency of the amplitude modulation scheme by considering

the points of ineﬃciency mentioned above. We do this by ﬁrstly removing the carrier frequency impulse

component. (The resulting modulation scheme is called double sideband suppressed carrier modulation.)

Secondly, we remove one of the sidebands with the resulting modulation scheme being called single sideband

suppressed carrier modulation.

2 Preparation

2.1 Deﬁnition of Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation

There are three well-known methods of SSB generation using analog techniques. These are Weaver’s method,

ﬁltering method and phasing method.

Among these methods the ﬁltering method is probably the most common method of SSB generation.

You have already modelled a DSBSC signal. An SSB signal may be derived from this signal by the use of a

suitable bandpass ﬁlter commonly called as an SSB sideband ﬁlter. Mass production has given rise to low

cost, yet high performance ﬁlters. However, these ﬁlters are usually at ’standard’ frequencies (for example

455kHz or 10.7MHz) and SSB generation by the ﬁlter method at other frequencies can be expensive.

The phasing method for SSB generation does not require an expensive ﬁlter, but instead an accurate

phasing network, or quadrature phase splitter (QPS). It is capable of acceptable performance in many appli-

cations. Unlike the ﬁlter ingmethod, the QPS operates at baseband, no matter what the carrier frequency

is. Generation of the single sideband signal via phasing method can be achieved by realizing the following

equation:

s(t) = A

c

m(t)cos(ω

c

t) + A

c

ˆ m(t)sin(ω

c

t) (3)

where ˆ m(t) is the Hilbert transform of m(t).

The phasing method of SSB generation is based on the addition of two DSBSC signals (3), so phased that,

their upper sidebands are identical in phase and amplitude, whilst the other two are of similar amplitude but

opposite phase. The two out-of-phase sidebands will cancel if added; alternatively the in-phase sidebands

will cancel if subtracted.

The principle of the SSB phasing generator is illustrated in Figure 2. Notice that there are two 90

◦

phase

changers. The carrier phase changer operates at a single frequency, ω

c

rad/s. The message is shown as a

single tone at frequency µrad/s. But this can lie anywhere within the frequency range of speech. A network

providing a constant 90

◦

phase shift over this frequency range is very diﬃcult to design. This would be a

wideband phase shifter, or Hilbert transformer.

2.2 Sideband Suppression

A most important characteristic of any SSB generator is the amount of out-of-band energy it produces,

relative to the wanted output. In most cases this is determined by the degree to which the unwanted

sideband is suppressed. A ratio of wanted-to-unwanted output power of at least 60dB is acceptable

commercial performance. To measure the ratio of wanted-to-unwanted sideband suppression directly

requires a SPECTRUM ANALYSER. In commercial practice these instruments are very expensive, and

their purchase cannot always be justiﬁed merely to measure an SSB generaor performance. As always, there

are indirect methods of measurement. One such method depends upon a measurement of the SSB envelope,

as already hinted. It is a simple matter to measure the sideband suppression from peak-to-peak and the

trough-to-trough amplitudes, giving twice P, and twice Q, respectively. Figure 3

sideband suppression = 20 log(

P + Q

P −Q

)dB (4)

2

Figure 2: A block diagram to generate a SSB signal via phasing method

2.2 Sideband Suppression

A most important characteristic of any SSB generator is the amount of out-of-band energy it produces, rela-

tive to the wanted output. In most cases this is determined by the degree to which the unwanted sideband is

suppressed. A ratio of wanted-to-unwanted output power of at least 60dB is acceptable commercial perfor-

mance. To measure the ratio of wanted-to-unwanted sideband suppression directly requires a SPECTRUM

ANALYSER. In commercial practice these instruments are very expensive, and their purchase cannot always

be justiﬁed merely to measure an SSB generaor performance. As always, there are indirect methods of mea-

surement. One such method depends upon a measurement of the SSB envelope, as already hinted. It is a

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

−1

−0.5

0

0.5

1

P

Q

Figure 3: SSB signal with unwanted sideband component

simple matter to measure the sideband suppression from peak-to-peak and the trough-to-trough amplitudes,

giving twice P, and twice Q, respectively. Figure 3

sideband suppression = 20 log(

P + Q

P −Q

)dB (4)

2.3 Coherent Demodulation

In Amplitude Modulation experiment we used two diﬀerent demodulation methods for the AM signal. These

were envelope detection and coherent demodulation. Only signals of the form of (1) are able to be demod-

ulated via envelope detection. Thus, it is not possible to demodulate single sideband suppressed carrier

modulated signals via envelope detection, so we use only coherent demodulation. Recall that coherent

demodulation (also called synchronous detection) consists of multiplying the modulated signal by a sinusoid

of the same frequency as the carrier and low-pass ﬁltering so that the resulting higher frequency components

are discarded and only a scaled version of the original baseband message signal remains. (Practical note:

for audio signals the higher frequency components would most likely not be able to be heard anyway, so

low-pass ﬁltering might not be absolutely necessary.)

3 SSB Modulation With Matlab

In the following exercise you will SSB modulate a signal and examine the result in both the time and

frequency domains. The best part is that the Matlab ﬁle is already written for you, all you have to do is

modify a few variables!

Exercise 1: Edit ssb test.m in a text editor. In Matlab, run the ﬁle and view the resulting plot. It should

resemble the plot shown in Figure 4

Exercise 1:Modify the code in am test.m to create a new signal with a bi-tone message signal. Execute

the m-ﬁle and print the resulting plot.

% ssb_test.m

%

% M-file for SSB modulation experimentation using

3

Figure 3: SSB signal with unwanted sideband component

2.3 Coherent Demodulation

In Amplitude Modulation experiment we used two diﬀerent demodulation methods for the AM signal. These

were envelope detection and coherent demodulation. Only signals of the form of (1) are able to be demod-

ulated via envelope detection. Thus, it is not possible to demodulate single sideband suppressed carrier

modulated signals via envelope detection, so we use only coherent demodulation. Recall that coherent

demodulation (also called synchronous detection) consists of multiplying the modulated signal by a sinusoid

of the same frequency as the carrier and low-pass ﬁltering so that the resulting higher frequency components

are discarded and only a scaled version of the original baseband message signal remains. (Practical note:

for audio signals the higher frequency components would most likely not be able to be heard anyway, so

low-pass ﬁltering might not be absolutely necessary.)

3 SSB Modulation With Matlab

In the following exercise you will SSB modulate a signal and examine the result in both the time and

frequency domains. The best part is that the Matlab ﬁle is already written for you, all you have to do is

modify a few variables!

Exercise 1: Edit ssb test.m in a text editor. In Matlab, run the ﬁle and view the resulting plot. It should

resemble the plot shown in Figure 4

3

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

−2

−1

0

1

2

time (ms)

m(t)

m

hat

(t)

−50 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.2

0.4

frequency (kHz)

M(f)

−50 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

frequency (kHz)

S(f)

Figure 4: SSB example with Matlab

% the SSB formula:

%

% s(t) = A_c[m(t)*cos(2*pi*f_c*t)+ m_hat(t)*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)]

%

% m(t) is a sinusoid message with adjustable frequncy

% m_hat(t) = hilbert transform

% s(t) is the final ampitude modulated signal

%

% EE 474 Communication Lab.

%

%

f_s = 400; % sampling frequency (kHz)

f_0 = 5; % m(t) frequency (kHz)

f_c = 25; % carrier frequency (kHz)

% Total number of samples =

% number of periods desired * number of samples per period.

num_periods = 40; samp_per_period = f_s/f_0; total_samp

=samp_per_period*num_periods;

% Create the discrete time variable ’n’ with length equal to

% the total number of samples, create a time variable ’t’,

% then create the signal m(t) based on the sampling frequency

% and desired signal frequency. m_hat is the hilmery transform

% of m(t)

n = [0:total_samp-1]; t = n/f_s; m = cos(2*pi*f_0*t);

m_hat=imag(hilbert(m));

4

Figure 4: SSB example with Matlab

% ssb_test.m

%

% M-file for SSB modulation experimentation using

% the SSB formula:

%

% s(t) = A_c[m(t)*cos(2*pi*f_c*t)+ m_hat(t)*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)]

%

% m(t) is a sinusoid message with adjustable frequncy

% m_hat(t) = hilbert transform

% s(t) is the final ampitude modulated signal

%

% EE 474 Communication Lab.

%

%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Preparation %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

f_0 = 5; % m(t) frequency (Hz)

f_c = 25; % carrier frequency (Hz)

fs = 400; % sampling frequency must be greater than f_0 and f_c (Hz)

dt = 1/fs; % sampling period

Tmx = 5; % End time

t = 0:dt:Tmx; % the t vector is created here in order to

% supply us with the time axis samples

L = length(t); % "L" is the number of elements in vector "t"

% = number of samples

df = fs/L; % sampling interval in frequency domain

Fmx = fs/2; % Frequency range

4

F = -Fmx+df/2 : df : Fmx-df/2;% the F vector is created here in order to

% supply us with the frequency axis samples

%

%%%%%%%%%% End of Preparation %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

%%%%%%%%%%%%% MAIN PROGRAM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

% MODULATION

%

% TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS %

%

m = cos(2*pi*f_0*t); % message signal

m_hat=imag(hilbert(m)); % m_hat is the hilbert transform of m(t)

% to understand usage write "help hilbert" on command window

% create the SSB signal s(t);

s = (m.*cos(2*pi*f_c*t))+(m_hat.*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)); % SSB Modulated signal

%

% FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS %

%

M = fftshift(fft(m))/L; % "M" is the Fast Fourier Transform of message vector "m"

S = fftshift(fft(s))/L; % "S" is the desired, correct Fourier Transform of "s",

% the DSB AM vector.

% COHERENT DEMODULATION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

% demodulated signal r(t) = LPF{s(t)*c(t)}

mr = s.*cos(2*pi*f_c*t); % mr(t)=s(t)*c(t)

%%% Filter Design

F_cut = 10; % choose cut-off Frequency as 10Hz

[B, A] = butter(10, F_cut/Fmx); % B and A, will be the parameters of 10th order

% Butterworth lowpass filter with

% cut-off frequency = F_cut

% Notice that the cut-off frequency is

% normalized with Fmx

% for more.. >> help butter

r = 2.*filter(B,A,mr); % filtered signal

%

%%%%%%%%%% End of Main Program %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Plotting %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

figure(1) %

subplot(4,1,1) %

plot(t,m,t,m_hat,’r-.’) %

grid %

axis([0 1 -1.5 1.5]) %

xlabel(’time (ms)’) %

legend(’m(t)’,’m_{hat}(t)’) %

5

subplot(4,1,2) %

plot(F,abs(M)) %

axis([-30 30 0 0.6]) %

grid %

xlabel(’frequency (Hz)’) %

legend(’M(f)’) %

subplot(4,1,3) %

plot(F,abs(S)) %

axis([-30 30 0 0.6]) %

grid %

xlabel(’frequency (kHz)’) %

legend(’S(f)’) %

subplot(4,1,4) %

plot(t,r) %

axis([0 1 -2 2]) %

xlabel(’time (ms)’) %

legend(’r(t)’) %

grid %

Exercises:

1. Using the ”freqz” command plot the frequency response (Gain and Phase response) of the Butterworth

ﬁlter, used to demodulation. And decide the minimum cut-oﬀ frequency ”F cut”. (in Matlab use help

freqz command to ﬁnd out how)

2. Perform demodulation via diﬀerent ﬁlters using cheby1, cheby2, and ellip, commands. Plot the

frequency responses (Gain and Phase response) of the ﬁlters. Plot and compare(comment on) de-

modulated signals. Do not forget to indicate the extra parameters. (i.e. Ripple in pass-band)

3. Using Matlab, modulate (SSB) the message signal and carrier frequency given below, and plot them.

(Carefully determine the ”fs”, ”Tmx” and appropriate ﬁlter)

m(t) = rect(t −3), fc = 20

6

4 Experiment

4.1 SSB Modulation

You will use the TIMS system to develop a circuit to perform the modulation function in equation (3). You

will need to set up ﬁgure 5 to carry out the ssb modulation part of the laboratory.

1. Use the Audio Oscillator module to provide the message signal m(t) and record its frequency f

m

. In

this case it will simply be a sinusoid in the audio frequency range.

f

m

=

MASTER

SlGNALS

sin( t)

TTL

TTL

sin( t)

100kHz

CARRlER

8.3kHz

SAMPLE

CLOCK

2kHz

MESSAGE

cos( t)

MULTlPLlER

Y kXY

X

AC

DC

ADDER

G

g

B GA+gB

A

MULTlPLlER

Y kXY

X

AC

DC

Ext.

Trig

CH1-A

CH2-A

QUADRATURE

PHASE

SPLlTTER

OUT2 lN2

OUT1 lN1

AUDlO

OSClLLATOR

SYNC cos( t)

f

sin( t)

TTL

CH1-B

Figure 5: Setup to observe AM frequency spectrum

2. Patch up a model of the phasing SSB generator, following the arrangement illustrated in ﬁgure 5.

3. The QUADRATURE PHASE SPLITTER, (QPS) module is supposed to provide the π/2 rad phase shifted

(Hilbert Transform) message signal from ”OUT 2” and the original message signal from ”OUT 1”.

Measure the phase diﬀerence ∆θ of the signals at the QPS outputs, using the XY view mode of the

oscilloscope.

Figure 6: Measurement of phase diﬀerence

∆θ = arcsin(

A

B

)

7

∆θ =

4. Separate DSBSC signals should already exist at the output of each MULTIPLIER. These need to be

of equal amplitudes at the output of the ADDER. You will set this up, at ﬁrst approximately and

independently, then jointly and with precision, to achieve the required output result. Adjust the gains

on the Adder so that both signals are given equal weighting (A

c

). Equalize and record the amplitudes

of separate DSB-SC signals at the output of adder.

A

c

=

5. Write down the Hilbert transform ˆ m(t) for the sinusoidal message signal we are using in this Lab.

ˆ m(t) =

6. Given the m(t) we are using in this Lab, write down the the equation for the single sideband modulated

signal s(t) resulting from this.

s(t) =

7. Observe the single sideband modulated signal s(t) on your oscilloscope and measure its frequency f

s

.

f

s

=

8. Decide the type of single sideband modulation, is it L-SSB or U-SSB why?.

. . . −SSB, because ...

9. The QPS is not a precision device, and a sideband suppression of better than 26dB is unlikely. After

the best balance has been achieved, using Figure 3 as a guide measure the sideband suppression.

sideband suppression =

4.2 SSB Demodulation via Coherent Detection

You will investigate ssb demodulation via coherent detection using an imperfect (or local) carrier. That is,

the receivers carrier is not perfectly matched to the transmitters carrier (as would be the case in practice).

Figure 6: Setup for coherent demodulation of SSB signal

2. Use ﬁgure 6 to demodulate the signal s(t) via coherent detection.

5 Questions

1. Which sideband has been kept in your circuit?

2. How can you modify your circuit (equation) to switch transmitted sidebands?

3. What is the bandwidth of an SSB signal?

4. Give the deﬁnition of Hilbert transform

5. MATLAB Question

Suppose that you received 1 second of your favorite song as a message modulated via Lower Sideband

SSB, with a carrier frequency f

c

equal to 100 − BkHz. (B is the number at the end of your student

id. i.e. if your student id is 9702EE150, then B = 150).

(a) Plot message signal and its spectrum,

(b) Plot the received signal and its spectrum,

(c) Demodulate the received signal plot its spectrum, and record the demodulated message as ssb demod.wav

Note: You can use wavwrite command to record a music ﬁle from Matlab environment. For more

reference, type ”help wavwrite” in command window.

7

Figure 7: Setup for coherent demodulation of SSB signal

8

In addition to the modules used for amplitude modulation, you will need the following setup in ﬁgure 7 to

carry out amplitude demodulation via coherent detection.

1. Write down the equations governing amplitude modulation via coherent detection with a perfect re-

ceiver carrier.

m

received

(t) =

2. Use ﬁgure 7 to demodulate the signal s(t) via coherent detection.

9

EE 474 Communication Systems Laboratory IS¸IK UNIVERSITY

Single Sideband Modulation with Coherent Demodulation Data

Sheet

Name: Date: ../../....

Number:

Section:

Equations:

ˆ m(t) =

s(t) =

m

received

(t) =

Values:

..............Unit

f

m

= ..............

∆θ = ..............

A

c

= ..............

f

s

= ..............

sideband suppression = ..............

. . . −SSB, because...

10

ﬁltering method and phasing method.1 Preparation Deﬁnition of Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation There are three well-known methods of SSB generation using analog techniques. To measure the ratio of wanted-to-unwanted sideband suppression directly requires a SPECTRUM ANALYSER. and twice Q. (The resulting modulation scheme is called double sideband suppressed carrier modulation. Among these methods the ﬁltering method is probably the most common method of SSB generation. Figure 3 sideband suppression = 20 log( P +Q )dB P −Q (4) 2 . their upper sidebands are identical in phase and amplitude. relative to the wanted output. ˆ The phasing method of SSB generation is based on the addition of two DSBSC signals (3). yet high performance ﬁlters.Thus. Unlike the ﬁlter ingmethod. We do this by ﬁrstly removing the carrier frequency impulse component. or quadrature phase splitter (QPS). In this lab. The principle of the SSB phasing generator is illustrated in Figure 2. or Hilbert transformer. It is capable of acceptable performance in many applications. and their purchase cannot always be justiﬁed merely to measure an SSB generaor performance. these ﬁlters are usually at ’standard’ frequencies (for example 455kHz or 10. alternatively the in-phase sidebands will cancel if subtracted. The phasing method for SSB generation does not require an expensive ﬁlter. whilst the other two are of similar amplitude but opposite phase. we consider means to improve the eﬃciency of the amplitude modulation scheme by considering the points of ineﬃciency mentioned above. An SSB signal may be derived from this signal by the use of a suitable bandpass ﬁlter commonly called as an SSB sideband ﬁlter. no matter what the carrier frequency is. It is a simple matter to measure the sideband suppression from peak-to-peak and the trough-to-trough amplitudes. so phased that. The message is shown as a single tone at frequency µrad/s. 2. there are indirect methods of measurement. respectively. Notice that there are two 90◦ phase changers. The two out-of-phase sidebands will cancel if added. You have already modelled a DSBSC signal. In most cases this is determined by the degree to which the unwanted sideband is suppressed. A ratio of wanted-to-unwanted output power of at least 60dB is acceptable commercial performance. Generation of the single sideband signal via phasing method can be achieved by realizing the following equation: s(t) = Ac m(t)cos(ωc t) + Ac m(t)sin(ωc t) ˆ (3) where m(t) is the Hilbert transform of m(t). This would be a wideband phase shifter. Mass production has given rise to low cost. As always. we remove one of the sidebands with the resulting modulation scheme being called single sideband suppressed carrier modulation. A network providing a constant 90◦ phase shift over this frequency range is very diﬃcult to design. giving twice P. However. as already hinted. but instead an accurate phasing network. ωc rad/s.7M Hz) and SSB generation by the ﬁlter method at other frequencies can be expensive.2 Sideband Suppression A most important characteristic of any SSB generator is the amount of out-of-band energy it produces. the QPS operates at baseband.) Secondly. 2 2. One such method depends upon a measurement of the SSB envelope. this double sideband modulation is wasteful of resources in terms of both bandwidth and power. These are Weaver’s method. But this can lie anywhere within the frequency range of speech. In commercial practice these instruments are very expensive. The carrier phase changer operates at a single frequency.

These )dB (4) sideband suppression = 20 log( P of were envelope detection and coherent demodulation. 2. so Modulation With Matlab for audio be able to be low-pass ﬁltering might not be absolutely necessary. One such method depends upon a measurement of the SSB envelope. it is not possible to demodulate single sideband suppressed carrier 2. so audio signals the higher frequency components would most likely not be able to be heard coherent low-pass ﬁltering(also called synchronous detection) consists of multiplying the modulated signal by a sinusoid demodulation might not be absolutely necessary.6 0. versionit isthe original baseband message signal remains. of not possible to demodulate single sideband suppressed carrier for modulated signals via envelope detection. giving twice P. Thus. It is a 1 0. respectively. A ratio of wanted-to-unwanted output power of at least 60dB is acceptable commercial performance.) In the following exercise you will SSB modulate a signal and examine the result in both the time and frequency domains.m in a text editor. and their purchase cannot always Figure 2: A block diagram to performance.3 Coherent envelope detection.2 0. and twice Q. relative to the wanted output. The best part is that the Matlab ﬁle is already written for you.m . run the ﬁle and view the resulting plot. Only signals− Qthe form of (1) are able to be demodulated via envelope detection. In most cases this is determined by the degree to which the unwanted sideband is suppressed. Recall that anyway. In commercial practice these instruments are very expensive. run the ﬁle and view the resulting plot. (Practical note: discarded and only a scaled Thus. It should resemble the plot shown in Figure 4 3 Exercise 1:Modify the code in am test. To measure the ratio of wanted-to-unwanted sideband suppression directly requires a SPECTRUM ANALYSER. Execute the m-ﬁle and print the resulting plot.2 Sideband Suppression A most important characteristic of any SSB generator is the amount of out-of-band energy it produces.2. as already hinted.5 −1 0 0. so we use only coherent demodulation. The best part is that the Matlab ﬁle is already written for you. % ssb_test.3 Coherent Demodulation Figure 3 P +Q In Amplitude Modulation experiment we used two diﬀerent demodulation methods for the AM signal. there are method be justiﬁed merely to measure an SSB generaorgenerate a SSB signal via phasingindirect methods of measurement.4 0. It should In the following exercise you will resemble the plot shown in Figure 4 SSB modulate a signal and examine the result in both the time and frequency domains. Only signals of the form of (1) are able to be demodlow-pass ﬁltering so that the resulting higher frequency components were envelope detection and coherent areulated via envelope detection. all you have to do is modify a few variables! 3 SSB Modulation With Matlab Exercise 1: Edit ssb test. In Matlab. all you have to do is modify a few variables! Exercise 1: Edit ssb test.) of the same frequency as the carrier and low-pass ﬁltering so that the resulting higher frequency components discarded and only a scaled version of the original baseband message (Practical note: 3 areSSB signals the higher frequency components would most likely not signal remains.8 1 Figure 3: SSB signal with unwanted sideband component Figure 3: SSB signal with unwanted sideband component simple matter to measure the sideband suppression from peak-to-peak and the trough-to-trough amplitudes. These of the same frequency as the carrier anddemodulation.m to create a new signal with a bi-tone message signal. As always.m in a text editor. Recall that coherent demodulation (also called synchronous detection) consists of multiplying the modulated signal by a sinusoid In Amplitude Modulation experiment we used two diﬀerent demodulation methods for the AM signal.heard anyway. In Matlab. modulated signals via Demodulation so we use only coherent demodulation.5 Q P 0 −0.

= 5. % "L" is the number of elements in vector "t" % = number of samples n = [0:total_samp-1]. % m(t) frequency (kHz) % f_c = 25.3 0.5 time (ms) 0. % the t vector is created here in order to % then create the signal m(t) based on the sampling frequency % supply us with the time axis samples % and desired signal frequency.2 0. frequency (kHz) f_0 = 5. fs = 400. EE 474 Communication Lab.2 1 0 −1 −2 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0 −50 1 m(t) mhat(t) −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 frequency (kHz) 20 30 40 50 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 frequency (kHz) 20 30 40 50 Figure 4: SSB example Figure 4: SSB example with Matlab the SSB formula: %% ssb_test.2 0 −50 0.m % % s(t) = SSB modulation experimentation using %% M-file forA_c[m(t)*cos(2*pi*f_c*t)+ m_hat(t)*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)] % the SSB formula: % %% m(t) is a sinusoid message with adjustable frequncy %% m_hat(t) A_c[m(t)*cos(2*pi*f_c*t)+ m_hat(t)*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)] s(t) = = hilbert transform % s(t) is the final ampitude modulated signal % %% m(t) is a sinusoid message with adjustable frequncy EE 474 = hilbert transform %% m_hat(t)Communication Lab. % m(t) frequency (Hz) num_periods = 40. % sampling frequency must be greater than f_0 and f_c (Hz) dt = 1/fs. total_samp f_c = 25. % carrier frequency (kHz) % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Preparation %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% Total number of samples = % f_0number of periods desired * number of samples per period. % sampling interval in frequency domain m_hat=imag(hilbert(m)). m_hat is the hilmery transform % of m(t) L = length(t).7 0.1 0.6 0.4 0. create a time variable ’t’. Fmx = fs/2. t = 0:dt:Tmx. % s(t) is the final ampitude modulated signal % %% % sampling %f_s = 400. samp_per_period = f_s/f_0.8 0. df = fs/L.9 M(f) 0.6 S(f) 0. % Frequency range 4 4 . % sampling period % Create the discrete time variable ’n’ with length equal to Tmx = 5. m = cos(2*pi*f_0*t). % End time % the total number of samples. t = n/f_s. % carrier frequency (Hz) =samp_per_period*num_periods.

*filter(B.*cos(2*pi*f_c*t). % filtered signal % %%%%%%%%%% End of Main Program %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Plotting %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% figure(1) % subplot(4. will be the parameters of 10th order Butterworth lowpass filter with cut-off frequency = F_cut Notice that the cut-off frequency is normalized with Fmx for more. A] = butter(10.*sin(2*pi*f_c*t)). % % % % % % r = 2. % mr(t)=s(t)*c(t) % choose cut-off Frequency as 10Hz B and A.5 1. % message signal m_hat=imag(hilbert(m)).t.’r-. % m_hat is the hilbert transform of m(t) % to understand usage write "help hilbert" on command window % create the SSB signal s(t).m.m_hat. % SSB Modulated signal % % FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS % % M = fftshift(fft(m))/L.A.*cos(2*pi*f_c*t))+(m_hat. correct Fourier Transform of "s". % COHERENT DEMODULATION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! % demodulated signal r(t) = LPF{s(t)*c(t)} mr = s.% the F vector is created here in order to % supply us with the frequency axis samples % %%%%%%%%%% End of Preparation %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % %%%%%%%%%%%%% MAIN PROGRAM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % % MODULATION % % TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS % % m = cos(2*pi*f_0*t). % "M" is the Fast Fourier Transform of message vector "m" S = fftshift(fft(s))/L.1.’) % grid % axis([0 1 -1..mr).5]) % xlabel(’time (ms)’) % legend(’m(t)’. F_cut/Fmx). % "S" is the desired. s = (m.F = -Fmx+df/2 : df : Fmx-df/2. >> help butter [B.’m_{hat}(t)’) % 5 .1) % plot(t. %%% Filter Design F_cut = 10. % the DSB AM vector.

and plot them.1.4) plot(t.abs(M)) axis([-30 30 0 0. commands. Using the ”freqz” command plot the frequency response (Gain and Phase response) of the Butterworth ﬁlter.2) plot(F. Plot and compare(comment on) demodulated signals. (i. and ellip.6]) grid xlabel(’frequency (Hz)’) legend(’M(f)’) subplot(4. Perform demodulation via diﬀerent ﬁlters using cheby1. cheby2.e.abs(S)) axis([-30 30 0 0. (Carefully determine the ”fs”.1. Using Matlab. used to demodulation.1.6]) grid xlabel(’frequency (kHz)’) legend(’S(f)’) subplot(4.3) plot(F. Ripple in pass-band) 3.r) axis([0 1 -2 2]) xlabel(’time (ms)’) legend(’r(t)’) grid Exercises: % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 1. ”Tmx” and appropriate ﬁlter) m(t) = rect(t − 3). f c = 20 6 . modulate (SSB) the message signal and carrier frequency given below. Plot the frequency responses (Gain and Phase response) of the ﬁlters.subplot(4. And decide the minimum cut-oﬀ frequency ”F cut”. Do not forget to indicate the extra parameters. (in Matlab use help freqz command to ﬁnd out how) 2.

Patch up a model of the phasing SSB generator. $ % ! & ' %& ! *& # " #" * Figure 5: Setup to observe AM frequency spectrum 2. 1. Use the Audio Oscillator module to provide the message signal m(t) and record its frequency fm . You will need to set up ﬁgure 5 to carry out the ssb modulation part of the laboratory. The QUADRATURE PHASE SPLITTER. fm = ! * ( )% $ # ! $ + ! $ ! $ $ " " #" ! .1 Experiment SSB Modulation You will use the TIMS system to develop a circuit to perform the modulation function in equation (3). following the arrangement illustrated in ﬁgure 5. (QPS) module is supposed to provide the π/2 rad phase shifted (Hilbert Transform) message signal from ”OUT 2” and the original message signal from ”OUT 1”. In this case it will simply be a sinusoid in the audio frequency range. Figure 6: Measurement of phase diﬀerence ∆θ = 7 arcsin( A ) B . 3. using the XY view mode of the oscilloscope.4 4. Measure the phase diﬀerence ∆θ of the signals at the QPS outputs.

− SSB.. Ac = 5. ˆ m(t) = ˆ 6. write down the the equation for the single sideband modulated signal s(t) resulting from this. Given the m(t) we are using in this Lab. Decide the type of single sideband modulation. . You will set this up. 8 5 Questions 1. .. That is. Use ﬁgure 6 to demodulate the signal s(t) via coherent detection. . These need to be of equal amplitudes at the output of the ADDER. the receivers carrier is not perfectly matched to the transmitters carrier (as would be the case in practice). then jointly and with precision. The QPS is not a precision device. s(t) = 7. because .2 SSB Demodulation via Coherent Detection You will investigate ssb demodulation via coherent detection using an imperfect (or local) carrier. Observe the single sideband modulated signal s(t) on your oscilloscope and measure its frequency fs . sideband suppression = 4. Adjust the gains on the Adder so that both signals are given equal weighting (Ac ). to achieve the required output result. Equalize and record the amplitudes of separate DSB-SC signals at the output of adder. Which sideband has been kept in your circuit? . 9. Separate DSBSC signals should already exist at the output of each MULTIPLIER. After the best balance has been achieved. using Figure 3 as a guide measure the sideband suppression. fs = 8. is it L-SSB or U-SSB why?. Write down the Hilbert transform m(t) for the sinusoidal message signal we are using in this Lab. at ﬁrst approximately and independently.∆θ = 4. Figure 6: Setup for coherent demodulation of SSB signal Figure 7: Setup for coherent demodulation of SSB signal 2. and a sideband suppression of better than 26dB is unlikely.

you will need the following setup in ﬁgure 7 to carry out amplitude demodulation via coherent detection. 9 . Use ﬁgure 7 to demodulate the signal s(t) via coherent detection. mreceived (t) = 2. Write down the equations governing amplitude modulation via coherent detection with a perfect receiver carrier.In addition to the modules used for amplitude modulation. 1.

......... ...../........... ... .... fm ∆θ Ac fs sideband suppression = = = = = ../... − SSB...EE 474 Communication Systems Laboratory ISIK UNIVERSITY ¸ Single Sideband Modulation with Coherent Demodulation Data Sheet Name: Number: Section: Date: .............. Equations: m(t) = ˆ s(t) = mreceived (t) = Values: .... ......................U nit ........ 10 ........ because.. . .

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Matlab Communication

AC MATLAB Lab Programs

PC CONTROLLED MILITARY ROBOT USING ZIGBEE

Single Sideband Systems

Assignment.02

Zigbee

Modulation Methods SSB and DSB

M.E MANUAL

Single Side Band Techniques

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