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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

Question No. Level Mark

1(03) 4 6

2(05) 4 6

3(99) 6 5

4(95) 6 3

5(03) 7 4

6(97) 7 6

7(05) 7 5

8(99) 8 5

9(97) 8 6

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

1. (a) The photograph below shows a team of dogs called huskies pulling a sledge
across the ice.

Huskies need to survive in a cold climate. They must be able to pull a heavy
sledge for a long time each day.

Which two features would a dog breeder look for when choosing huskies to breed
from?
Choose from the list of features below and give the reason for each choice.

blue eyes fierce nature long tail

thick fur short legs strong muscles

1. feature .........................................................................................................
1 mark
reason .........................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................
1 mark
2. feature .........................................................................................................
1 mark
reason .........................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................
1 mark

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)
(b) The drawings below show three dogs. They all look different.

(i) Which word describes the differences between these dogs?


Tick the correct box.

adaptation reproduction

vaccination variation

1 mark

(ii) The drawing below shows a puppy. Dog C is the puppy's mother.

Why does the puppy look like his mother?


Tick the correct box.

Information passed from the mother in an egg.

Information passed from the mother in a sperm.

Information passed from the mother in milk.

Information passed from the mother in blood.

1 mark
Maximum 6 marks

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

2. Some pupils visited a deer park.


A poster showed different types of deer.

adult male adult female young

Red
deer

Fallow
deer

Roe
deer

(a) Emily said, ‘I saw a male deer’.

Look at the drawings in the poster.


How would Emily know that the deer was male?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
1 mark

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

(b) Jimmy made some notes about a young deer.

Give one reason why he cannot identify the type of young deer from his notes.

...............................................................................................................................
1 mark
(c) Dan drew one of the deer.

He said it was an adult male red deer.

Give two pieces of evidence from his drawing which suggest that he got the
name wrong.

1. ...........................................................................................................................
1 mark

2. ...........................................................................................................................
1 mark

(d) Michael saw a deer like this.

What two pieces of evidence show it was not one of the deer on the poster?

1. ...........................................................................................................................
1 mark

2. ...........................................................................................................................

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)
1 mark
maximum 6 marks

3. (a) The drawings below show a stoat in summer and in winter.

stoat in summer stoat in winter

In winter the ground is often covered by snow or frost. During this part of the
year a stoat’s fur is white.
Suggest two ways its white coat helps a stoat to survive in the winter.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
2 marks

(b) The diagram shows the family tree for a family of rabbits.

Use words from the list below to complete the sentences.

adapt cytoplasm genes grow inherit

letters membrane mutate nuclei

Rabbits have the same fur colour all year round.

Young rabbits ............................................ fur colour from their parents.

Information about fur colour is passed on from one generation to

the next in the form of ................................... in the ..................................... of

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)
an egg and sperm.
3 marks
Maximum 5 marks

4. Uganda is a country close to the equator in Africa. Most Ugandan bred cows
produce only 1 litre of milk each day. In Britain, some cows can produce nearly
30 litres of milk each day. The milk yield of British cows exported to Uganda
drops dramatically, even though they get sufficient food.

(a) Suggest why a British cow exported to Uganda would be less likely to
produce 30 litres of milk each day.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
1 mark

By selectively breeding British and Ugandan cattle, it is possible to breed cows


which produce 10 litres of milk each day.

(b) A Ugandan farmer wishes to continue the breeding programme to improve


his herd of cows further. When he is choosing which cows to use for
breeding, milk production is an important quality. Give two other important
qualities he could consider.

1. ..................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................
2 marks
Maximum 3 marks

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

5. A group of pupils recorded some different characteristics of pupils in their class.

The table below shows their results.

name gender height, mass, hand arm span, eye colour


in cm in kg span, in cm
in cm

Julie girl 152 48 17.2 160 blue

Laura girl 157 54 15.0 141 green

Aftab boy 159 49 18.4 172 brown

Jenna girl 144 46 17.4 161 hazel

Barry boy 148 49 17.4 162 blue

Oliver boy 172 57 21.5 204 brown

Safina girl 155 48 16.8 158 brown

Maria girl 154 50 17.9 166 green

Amanat girl 162 46 16.2 150 brown

Thomas boy 157 49 19.9 186 blue

(a) Oliver concluded that boys do not have green eyes.

Explain why his conclusion is not justified.

.....................................................................................................................
1 mark

(b) Name two continuous variables in their table.

1. .....................................................

2. .....................................................
1 mark

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

(c) Look at the scatter graphs below.

g ra p h A g ra p h B
210 210
× ×
200 200
19 0 × 19 0
a rm a rm ×
18 0 18 0
span, span,
× ×
in c m 1 7 0
×
in c m 1 7 0 ×
× × ×
16 0 × × 16 0 × ××
150 × 150 ×
× ×
140 140
140 150 160 170 180 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
h e ig h t , in c m h a n d s p a n , in c m

g ra p h C g ra p h D
22 220
×
21 210
×
20 × 200
19 190 ×
hand × a rm
span, 18 × span, 180
× × × ×
in c m 17 × in c m 1 7 0
×
× ×× ×
16 160 ×
15 × 150 ×
14 140 ×
140 150 160 170 180 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60
h e ig h t , in c m m a s s , in k g

Use the data in the scatter graphs to show whether each of the conclusions below
is true, false or you cannot tell.

conclusions true or false or cannot tell

Graph C shows that the shortest pupil


has the smallest hand span. ........................................

Graph B shows the strongest correlation


between two variables. ........................................

Graph A looks similar to graph C because of


the high correlation of arm span to hand span. ........................................

Boys are generally taller than girls. ........................................


2 marks
Maximum 4 marks

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

6. Suzie keeps five chickens in her garden. During the night they are locked in a
shed. The table shows details of Suzie’s chickens.

n a m e o f c h ic k e n sex n u m b e r o f e g g s la id la s t y e a r

M o lly f e m a le 160

E m ily f e m a le 190

S k in n y f e m a le 150

Lucy f e m a le 200

E lv is m a le –

(a) Suzie wants each of her hens to lay as many eggs as possible.
She changes their food and water to give them the best recommended
balanced diet.
Suggest two other ways she could change the hens’ living conditions to
encourage them to lay more eggs.

1 .................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

2 .................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................
2 marks

(b) Suzie plans a selective breeding programme to get chickens which lay high
numbers of eggs each year.
(i) Which hen should she choose as a mate for Elvis at the beginning of
her breeding programme?

..........................................................................................................
1 mark
(ii) How should Suzie choose hens from the offspring to continue her
breeding programme?

..........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................
1 mark

(c) All Suzie’s chickens belong to a breed called Rhode Island Red. Their living
conditions do not affect the colour of the pigment in their feathers.
What does determine the colour of the pigment in their feathers?

....................................................................................................................
1 mark
(d) A hen’s egg contains all the food and water the developing embryo needs
until it hatches.
The eggshell has very many tiny holes making it porous.
Why must the eggshell be porous?

....................................................................................................................
1 mark

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)
Maximum 6 marks

7. The graph below shows how a population of fish in a lake changed over a period of
time.

(a) In which time interval, A, B, C, D or E, did the population of fish increase most
quickly?
..............
How can you tell this from the graph?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
1 mark
(b) Which part of the graph shows when the fish began to compete with each other
for food?
Give the letter.

..............

How can you tell this from the graph?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
1 mark

(c) What does part D of the graph show about the birth rate and the death rate of the
fish?
...............................................................................................................................
How can you tell this from the graph?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
1 mark
(d) Part E of the graph shows a population crash when all the fish died.
Suggest two reasons why a population might crash in this way.

1. ...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
1 mark
2. ...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)
1 mark
maximum 5 marks

8. (a) In producing high yields of cereal many farmers use very large machinery
and rely heavily on fertilisers and pesticides.

Describe three ways in which these agricultural methods can damage


ecosystems.

1. .................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

2. .................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................

3. .................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................
3 marks

(b) Intensively reared cattle eat grain to produce animal protein in milk and
meat. For every ten kilojoules of energy in the cereals grown as cattle food,
about one kilojoule is stored in cattle.

Give two reasons why the amount of energy stored in cattle is so much
lower than the amount of energy in the cereal crop.

1. .................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

2. .................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................
2 marks
Maximum 5 marks

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

9. Human twins may result from:

either the fertilisation of two separate eggs, released together;

or the fertilisation of a single egg which then divides into two cells,
each cell developing into a baby.

The table below gives information about three sets of twins.

set of nam e b lo o d e y e c o lo u r m a s s in sex


t w in s g ro u p kg

set 1 Sasha A b ro w n 37 f e m a le
N in v a t a AB b ro w n 37 f e m a le

set 2 Lucy O b ro w n 38 f e m a le
To m O b ro w n 32 m a le

set 3 F re d O b lu e 34 m a le
Jack O b lu e 36 m a le

(a) Which one of the characteristics below cannot be used to decide whether
twins have come from a single egg or two eggs?
Tick the correct box.

blood group mass

eye colour sex

1 mark

(b) (i) Use the information in the table to suggest which set of twins could have
come from a single egg.

.............................................................................................................
1 mark

(ii) Explain why you have suggested this set of twins.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................
1 mark

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Unit 9A (Inheritance and Selection)

(c) The graph shows the number of sets of single-egg and two-egg twins born
to mothers of different ages.

1 .6
1 .4
1 .2

1 .0 tw o - e g g tw in s

n u m b e r o f s e ts o f t w in s 0 . 8
p e r 1 0 0 p r e g n a n c ie s
0 .6
0 .4
s in g le - e g g tw in s
0 .2

<20 2 0 -2 4 2 5 -2 9 3 0 -3 4 3 5 -3 9
a g e o f m o th e r in y e a r s
-

Two hormones, produced by the pituitary gland, cause eggs to develop in


the ovary.

Which statement could explain the results shown on the graph?


Tick the correct box.

A s w o m e n g e t o ld e r, t h e ir A s w o m e n g e t o ld e r, t h e y a r e
o v a r ie s d o n o t r e s p o n d t o le s s lik e ly t o g iv e b ir t h t o s in g le -
e it h e r o f t h e h o r m o n e s . e g g t w in s .
A s w o m e n g e t o ld e r, t h e y A s w o m e n g e t o ld e r, t h e ir
p ro d u c e m o re o f e a c h o v a r ie s r e le a s e t w o e g g s e v e r y
h o rm o n e . m o n th .
1 mark

(d) There are two types of cell division, meiosis and mitosis.

(i) Why are eggs and sperms produced by meiosis?

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................
1 mark

(ii) Why does a fertilised egg divide by mitosis?

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................
1 mark
Maximum 6 marks

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