Argument should always have a clear purpose

Teachers need to plan for Teachers should argument make specific times for argument in lessons

Argument helps pupils to understand scientific ideas

Pupils usually enjoy arguing

Argument in science is especially valuable because it is based on evidence, not feelings Lessons involving argument have a big impact on pupils’ learning

Learning to think is learning to argue

Argument is a more valuable tool for learning than consensus

Shakespeare, Keogh and Naylor, 2003