# ECE238 laboratory lecture notes – University of New Mexico

Lab 3 Lecture Notes - Introduction to Arithmetic circuits
Part 1. Introduction to Multiplexers
The multiplexer is one of the basic building blocks of any digital design system. What it does is it takes a number of inputs and multiplexes them onto a single output line. That is, it selects one of the input lines, and passes its state to the output line. The input on the A, B, and C lines tells the multiplexer which one of the inputs 0-7 to pass to the output. In the image above A=0, B=1, and C=0, so the input line selected to be passed to the output would be line 2. This property of multiplexers is very useful. As you will see later on, we can use a multiplexer to implement complex logic functions. In terms of practical lab experience, it allows one chip, the multiplexer, to do the job of several simple logic gates. Later on, you will see how to use the multiplexer to implement binary addition and subtraction. However, before you can do this, you need to know something about binary arithmetic.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 enable Data Selector / Multiplexor Y

A B C

Figure 1: A Multiplexer

Part 2. Digital Arithmetic - Adition
This section discusses the basics of digital addition. Here is a block diagram of a binary adder: From this diagram, you can see that the adder has three inputs and two outputs. This will mean that one must generate two different K-maps, one for each output. Here are the functions each line performs: • • • • A,B - The two numbers to be added K- Carry-in C- Carry-out S- Sum