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2010& EMC Test
Filters .....................................................................46 Lightning, Transients & ESD ..........................55 Shielding...............................................................62 Testing & Test Equipment ................................ 8
industries & applications
Design.............................................................46, 74 Military .................................................................... 8 Power .....................................................................74 Telecom .................................................................60
2011 EMC Test Lab Directory.........................20 Consultant Services ..........................................31 Suppliers ...............................................................33
Model FL7060 2 MHz – 60 GHz range
Model FL7040 2 MHz – 40 GHz range
Well actually, yes. These new laser-powered E-Field probes from AR are so versatile; they do the work of multiple probes, with outstanding accuracy and linearity for your demanding field monitoring requirements. They contain an internal microprocessor that provides advanced control and communication functions while automatically correcting for measurement drift caused by ambient temperature variations. Our newest laser probes are available in two models, which cover an exceptionally wide frequency range. Model FL7040 covers the 2 MHz – 40 GHz range while Model FL7060 covers the entire 2 MHz – 60 GHz range. So you don’t have to settle for what they have, but what you want. Being a laser probe you also have the convenience of never having to replace or recharge batteries. In addition, AR provides the largest family of probes in the industry. Like all AR products, our new probes are backed by the best and most comprehensive warranty along with the strongest support in the industry. To learn more, visit www. ar-worldwide.com or call us at 215-723-8181.
NOTE: The FL7040 & FL7060 probes requires an FI7000 for power and communication.
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
Other ar divisions: modular rf • receiver systems • ar europe
USA 215-723-8181. For an applications engineer, call 800-933-8181.
In Europe, call ar United Kingdom 441-908-282766 • ar France 33-1-47-91-75-30 • emv GmbH 89-614-1710 • ar Benelux 31-172-423-000
Copyright © 2010 AR. The orange stripe on AR products is Reg. U.S. Pat. & TM. Off.
. tiM haynes... linD.... are presented as a quick reference guide to EMC testing services.........04m Rod.. Ce test............ jM WooDgate anD assoCiates 2011 EMC TEST LAb dIRECToRy More than 300 EMC Test Laboratories.. Antenna Factor and Received Level in MIL-STD 462/461E Compared to MIL-STD 461F Test Set Up .. CubiC Defense appliCations... beehive eleCtroniCs. paCifiCa international PAGE 20 Managing EMC Performance of a Product as it Ages ... Weston..... arranged by state.... USB Interface on Laboratory Surge Generators ... uDoM vaniCh. sitiMe Corporation 8 18 2 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 .8 DaviD a. ralph MCDiarMiD.....contents 2010 08 TESTING & TEST EQUIPMENT 1.... 42 jeffrey D..... 36 gert greMMen... with details of services offered and contact phone numbers......... SPECIAL FEATURE Effective EMC Troubleshooting with Handheld Probes.......... 46 sassan tabatabaei.... eD priCe....... CoMplianCe West usa 46 EMC dESIGN / FILTERS Clocking Strategies for EMI Reduction .... seleX s&as. eMC Consulting inC.............14 terry noe......... john WooDgate.
cst. and also reduce design risk and improve overall performance and profitability. the No 1 technology for electromagnetic simulation. Involved in EMC/EMI analysis? You can read about how CST technology is used for EMC/EMI analysis at www. Choose the accuracy and speed offered by CST STUDIO SUITE.com/apps. Now even more choice for EMC/EMI simulation. we’ve a wide range of worked application examples live on our website at www. The extensive range of tools integrated in CST STUDIO SUITE enables numerous applications to be analyzed without leaving the familiar CST design environment.com . If you’re more interested in microwave components or signal integrity analysis. Y Get equipped with leading edge EM technology. CST’s tools enable you to characterize.cst. This complete technology approach enables unprecedented simulation reliability and additional security through cross verification.com/emc. Y Grab the latest in simulation technology. design and optimize electromagnetic devices all before going into the lab or measurement chamber. The force is with you CHANGING THE STANDARDS CST of America®. This can help save substantial costs especially for new or cutting edge products. Inc.cst. call (508) 665 4400 | www.Unleash the power of CST STUDIO SUITE®. | To request literature.
materials........407 Regulations .......... Furthermore....20 Index of Advertisers ...... contents may not be reproduced in any form without express permission...............com............ facilities or related fabrication services....... and Interference Technology..... systems... equipment. 55 Yuval hernik..... 6 Test Lab Directory........... InterferenceTechnology—The Annual EMC Guide... 64 76 InterferenceTechnology—The EMC Directory & Design Guide...................... ITEM PublIcaTIons endeavors to offer accurate information.... are copyrighted publications of ITEM PublIcaTIons........ but assumes no liability for errors or omissions in its technical articles....... ITEM.....74 philip keebler.. 60 DaviD a........................... vishaY international inc...... epri lighting laboratorY.......... transIents & esd How Smaller Form Factors Exacerbate ESD Risks and How Foil Resistors Can Help.. The EMC Test & Design Guide and InterferenceTechnology...... specification or procurement of electronic components................ complete the subscription qualification card or subscribe online at InterferenceTechnology...... departments Editorial........... test.... and The EMC Test & Design Guide are distributed annually at no charge to qualified engineers and managers who are engaged in the application............. design..... kermit phipps........... Frank sharp.... The EMC Symposium Guide.......88 60 62 74 teLeCOm Understanding the Changes to FCC 5GHz Part 15.. 4 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 ... 62 michel marDiguian......contents 2010 55 LIGHtnInG..... cisco sYstems sHIeLdInG Differential Transfer Impedance of Shielded Twisted Pairs ........ selection. case.. InterferenceTechnology™—The EMC Directory & Design GuideTM. The EMC Symposium Guide..comTM are trademarks of ITEM PublIcaTIons and may not be used without express permission.. To be placed on the subscriber list. emc consultant pOWer QuaLIty System Compatibility an Essential Ingredient for Achieving Electromagnetic Compatibility and Power Quality for Lighting Control Systems .. the opinions contained herein do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher.................. ITEMTM......com....
It can be due to some malfunctioning instrument or a bad connector or cable? Use the Comb Generator as a reference signal source to quickly verify the OATS or Anechoic chamber. Com-Power Comb Generators are available up to 34 GHz.com-power. OTHER PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Antennas • Spectrum Analyzers & Receivers • Near Field Probes Preamplifiers • LISNs • CDNs • Power Amplifiers • Turntables • Masts & Tripods Contact us at 714.1992 • email@example.com for more details. How many times has it happened? After completing a test or a series of tests.html 114 Olinda Drive.com .com/comb_generators.528. Brea.528.EMI Reference Sources Radiated and Conducted Comb Generators ing tive Pric i Compet elivery Fast D arranty ear W Three-y Validate your radiated and conducted test setup daily in less than 10 minutes.8800 or firstname.lastname@example.org www.com-power.528. a problem is discovered which brings the results into question. Please read the application note on our website www. CA 92823 • tel 714.8800 • fax 714.com/tech-notes.
handset-based navigation usage rose to 24% in 2010 vs. The EMC Symposium Guide. ITEM TM. Ambler circulation Manager Irene H. provide the ESD products and coatings market with growth for years to come.S.S.5 percent . EMC materials and components markets had until recently been considered highly mature. sensed promise that a strong.com chinA. but assumes no liability for errors or omissions. Nugent Product Development Manager Helen S. design. less obvious opportunities are appearing. solar panel. EMI engineers can take heart in their industry’s resiliency.com are copyrighted publications of ITEM PublIcaTIonS. 19% in 2009).jp ITEM PublIcaTIonS endeavors to offer accurate information.interferencetechnology. Information published herein is based on the latest information available at the time of publication. self-sustaining recovery was kicking in. Finally. test. Yet. including the spread of wireless-based navigation systems and electric and hybrid vehicles in the automotive industry. selection. Miho Toshima +81-44-980-2092 E-mail: email@example.com. materials. engineering organizations. and EMI/RFI and electromagnetic pulse concerns in military electronics. InterferenceTechnology™ and InterferenceTechnology. Goldblum ITEM ™ USA 1000 Germantown Pike.com JAPAn TÜV SÜD Ohtama. Furthermore. The makers of conductive coatings also will have the opportunity to capitalize on the growth in e-paper and touch-screen displays and the resurgence of crystalline silicon photovoltaics. Long-term economic growth rate . like every other business sector. tAiwAn. copyright © 2010 • ITEM Publications • ISSn 0190-0943 ITEM. PA 19462 Phone: (484) 688-0300 Fax: (484) 688-0303 info@interferencetechnology. InterferenceTechnology and InterferenceTechnology. in turn. battery and sensor markets. Conductive polymers and nanomaterials are gaining importance in the EMI/ RFI sector and there is a robust market for laminates and tapes. lighting.com www. However. Thus. came over Wifi. S u b s c r i p t i o n s 6 interference technology emc Directory & Design guiDe 2010 . equipment. specification or procurement of electronic components. Subscriptions are available through interferencetechnology. systems. but several market reports released by industry analyst NanoMarkets this year indicate that there are indeed some bright spots for the EMC community.co. hong kong Leadzil Jenny Chen +86-010-65250537 E-mail: service@leadzil. increased miniaturization of PCBs and hard drives coupled with ever smaller devices on computer chips will increase the threats of damage and costs caused by static electricity which will. as government spending to stimulate the economy trailed off and businesses concentrated on rebuilding their inventories.trending at about 2.comTM are trademarks of ITEM PublIcaTIonS and may not be used without express permission. U. up from 22% two years ago. Flood Administrative Assistant Karen Holder Publisher Emeritus Robert D. and 24% of traffic in the U. InterferenceTechnology—The EMC Directory & Design Guide. contents may not be reproduced in any form without express permission. the dramatic increase in the use of radio frequency emitters in the recent past has given a boost to the industry. F-2 Plymouth Meeting. The EMC Test & Design Guide and The Europe EMC Guide are distributed annually at no charge to engineers and managers who are engaged in the application. In addition to the most visible drivers for the EMC protection markets such as the rise of WiFi and 3G mobile communications. the growth rated started to slow – a pattern that continued through the summer. the opinions contained herein do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher. Ltd. with few opportunities for firms that were not well established in this field. (Smartphones generated 46% of traffic in May 2010. Sarah Long Editor 2010 EMC Test & Design Guide President Graham Kilshaw Publisher Paul Salotto Editor Sarah Long graphic Designer Ann Schibik Production coordinator Jacqueline Gentile Business Development Manager Bob Poust Business Development Executives Tim Bretz Daryl McFadyen Leslie Ringe Jan Ward A Administrative Manager Eileen M.from the editor HOLDING STEADY s the economy gained momentum in late 2009 and early 2010. according to mobile advertising marketplace AdMob. facilities or related fabrication services. ITEM. as well as higher value component products. New business revenue opportunities for conductive coatings are emerging from developments in the display. even as uncertainty remains pervasive throughout the global economy.is not much better.
It wa s est abl i shed that both the incident E field and the AF depends on the t ype of source and on the connection of the monopole counterpoise to ground. This provides a high impedance and reduces common mode currents on the antenna cable.2m above the floor ground plane. as per MIL-STD-461E and earlier.S T D 462/461E C o M pa r E D T o MIL. Reference 1 and Reference 2 discuss the measured antenna factor (AF) of the 41 inch (1. This paper shows that measurements made with the counterpoise bonded versus not bonded results in very different received levels. This is connected to a low noise differential input buffer amplifier with an input resistance of 2 Megohms and an input capacitance of approximately 3pF. canada Figure 1. The antenna factor (AF) in dB is defined as 20 log the incident E field in V/m divided by the received level in volts 20*log(E/V). The wiring from bow tie to differential input adds approximately a further 2. MeasureMent set up In all measurements the receiving rod antenna cable was loaded with 28 material cores. M IL-STD-4 62 a nd MIL-STD-461D and E show the counterpoise extended and connected to the table via a bonding strap.S T D 461F TE S T S E T U p 1. ontario.testing & test equipment MIL. introduction his paper shows that the antenna factor of the receiving rod antenna and the E field incident on it. Photo of test set up. i. The differential input is converted to a single sided signal and applied to a detector with a logarithmic response. electrical bonding of the counterpoise is prohibited” and this was the second configuration tested. The measurements were made using different sources. emc test & design guide 2010 8 interference technology . such as a vertical transmission line and a second passive 1. from a standard source of radiation. both change when the counterpoise of the rod is either isolated from the ground plane on the table (new MIL-STD-461F set up). MIL-STD-461F categorically states “For rod antenna measurements. MIL-STD-461F also modifies the rod antenna height so that the center point of the rod is 1. antenna Factor and received Level in MiL-std 462/461e compared to MiL-std 461F test set up david a. The detector allows a very high dynamic range. One of the two configurations tested and reported in this paper was with a metal sheet bonding strap connecting the antenna counterpoise to a ground plane on the table top.2pF of capacitance.04m rod. or connected. ii. as specified in MIL-STD-461E. Weston emc consulting inc.04m monopole.04m) receiving antenna with buffer. This strap is often a T metal sheet with the same width as the monopole counterpoise. measured with the rod removed is made using a 10cm long bow tie antenna. merrickville. The E field incident on the rod antenna. The output of the detector is connected to an A/D converter the output of which is translated to a digital data stream which is the input of a fiber optic driver.
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Although well damped above 50MHz the chamber does exhibit resonances below 50MHz. the RF potential may be developed when sufficient current flows to ground in the strap. Thus the perturbation in the measured E field by the measuring antenna cable and equipment is kept to a minimum. A test method useful from 0. From Reference 4 these resonances are attributable to “ RF current loops between the counterpoise.S T D 462/461E C o M pa r E D T o MIL. Even with the EUT enclosure bonded to the ground plane via a bonding strap. Here we assume that the manufacturer uses the same published far field AF of the rod antenna regardless of the test set up. The electronics and battery are contained in a 6cm x 6cm x 2. These range from one containing the MIL-STD-461F minimum absorber requirements to one containing hybrid absorber in a CISPR 25 compliant chamber. This potential is often the result of common mode currents on cables connected to the EUT.44m x 0. Measured AF of monopole with and without counterpoise bonded and with a simulated EUT as the source. ground plane to chamber connection point (wall to floor). Reference 4 describes the chamber to chamber deviations for five different chambers. 10 interference technology III.38m metal box. chamber floor and the capacitive coupling back to the antenna counterpoise causes resonant conditions”. The box is insulated from the ground plane and connected to the center conductor of an N type connector mounted in the table top ground plane. The measurements were made in a damped anechoic chamber to simulate a typical MIL-STDRE102 test. It also describes measurements made with a MIL-STD 461F set up. Reference 1 describes the test set up in more detail. The bow tie is calibrated under a strip line antenna. a second rod antenna or the enclosure in a MIL-STD-461 RE102 test set up the measured AF is very different from the far field and dependent on the source. MeasureMents Many commercially available 1. The source is a 0. The power cords to the signal generator and spectrum analyzer in the Reference 2 measurement were the only connection to ground and the transmit rod and receive emc test & design guide 2010 . representing the Equipment Under Test (EUT).S T D 461F TE S T S E T U p Measurement without counterpoise bonded Measurement with counterpoise bonded Figure 2. Reference 4 describes a traditional (MIL-STD-461E) monopole antenna set up in five different chambers with different types and amounts of absorber.testing & test equipment MIL. Figure 2 shows the AF measured both with and without the counterpoise bonded to the table. This chamber also contains localized ferrite tiles as well as absorber loads and is described in Reference 3 page 581. The 10cm bow tie is connected to the box using 13cm long thin wires. which simulates far field conditions using a plate antenna is described in Reference 1.04m rod antennas are not calibrated but rely on a purely theoretical value based on antenna and buffer input capacitances. The results using the plate antenna with a commercially available buffered rod antenna correspond well with the manufacturers published data. The front edge of the box is 10cm from the front edge of the table in a typical MIL-STD test set up. The most significant data for manufacturers of equipment is the received level with the same input signal level applied to the same source measured with and without bonding the counterpoise to the table. Reference 1 provides the AF calibrated on a free space range and the large variations seen in Figure 2 below 20MHz are missing indicating that these are due to the anechoic chamber. From 20MHz to 30MHz the AF with the counterpoise not bonded is 6dB higher and this is also seen in the Reference 1 test results.5cm shielded box and the only connection to the box is the non-conductive fiber optic cable. Using the same buffered rod antenna the received level with the monopole counterpoise bonded is up to 18dB higher than with the counterpoise not bonded and this is shown in Figure 4. ground plane. in Reference 2 the measurements with the counterpoises uncoupled on a free space range with no underlying ground plane shows exactly the same dip followed by peak in AF with approximately the same magnitude as References 4 and 5. The signal is injected between the box and ground plane which simulates an EUT with an RF potential between the enclosure and ground plane. As seen in Reference 2 the variation in AF below 20MHz is much greater with the counterpoise not bonded. A photo of the test set up is shown in Figure 1. However. The E field incident on the rod antenna is higher with the counterpoise bonded at most frequencies and this is shown in Figure 3. However when the source of radiation is a vertical transmission line. We measure both the E field incident on the rod antenna with and without bonding the counterpoise to the table as well as the AF of the rod antenna with and without counterpoise bonded. The source of radiation was either a vertical rod above the table top ground plane or a horizontal rod above the table top ground plane.01 to 5MHz.
turntable capable of handling a 55.307.ncpdilab. next to Fort Bragg. state. facility located in the All American Military Business Park in Fayetteville. engineering design. environmental testing.000 sq.000 ft. RF emissions pre-compliance testing. RE102. N.org .Gov’t Only • Network Connectivity • 100 Megabit per second Ethernet connection to the North Carolina Research and Engineering Network (NCREN) and peered networks such as the Internet2. The lab provides electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. ft. and the Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN).C.) Altitude without temperature control. wireless devices • Vehicular-mounted systems • Rack-mounted systems SEMI-ANECHOIC EMI CHAMBER • Dimensions 36’L x 36’W x 18’H • 24 ft. regional government and commercial clients.3007 www. NC 28303 Phone 910. Fayetteville. routers. integration. 100. • Shielded from outside environment • Internally lined with RF absorbing materials • Capable of testing small or large systems • Cell phones. National LambdaRail.PARTNERSHIP FOR DEFENSE INNOVATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT LAB The PDI R&D Lab is a 10.000 ft. RE103 • Frequency Range: 20Hz to 18GHz WE WELCOME BOTH GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL CLIENTS 1104 Civil Court. CE106 • RE101. ENGINEERING SERVICES • Feasibility Studies • Design Engineering • Network Engineering • IT & Communications System Integration • Field Testing • Network Component Testing • End User Security Training. ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING The PDI R&D Lab performs environmental testing utilizing specialized environmental test chambers to include: Vertical Air-to-Air Thermal Shock Chamber • Work Space Volume 9 Cubic feet (225 L) • Temperature Range -75˚C to +190˚C (Cold Chamber) +70˚C to +210˚C (Hot Chamber) • Temperature Stability ±1˚C after recovery period • Dimensions Product Test Area: 25”W x 25”D x 25”H Temperature Humidity Chamber • Work Space Volume 32 cubic feet (905 L) • Temperature Range -73˚C to +190˚C • Humidity Range 10% to 98% RH • Interior Dimensions 38”W x 38”D x 38”H • Shelf Load Capacity • 100 lbs distributed • 55 lbs concentrated Temperature Altitude Chamber • Work Space Volume 32 cubic feet (905 L) • Temperature Range -73˚C to +177˚C (Achievable from site level to 40.3000 | Fax 910.307. and consulting services to local. radio frequency quiet environment. • Temperature Control ±1˚C at site level • Interior Dimensions 38”W x 38”D x 38”H EMC COMPLIANCE TESTING The PDI R&D Lab performs EMI/EMC testing in a large shielded semi-anechoic test chamber which simulates an open field..000 lb payload • MIL-STD 461 Testing • Emissions Measurements: • CE101. CE102.
Reference 5 describes an analysis of the MIL-STD –461E and MIL-STD-461F using a bare room without absorber.com/microwave GORE® Phaseflex 110 GHz Assemblies rod cables were covered in 28 material ferrite.S T D 461F TE S T S E T U p Signal Integrity.testing & test equipment MIL. Whereas Reference 5 shows the theoretical received level to be 10dB higher for MIL-STD-46E versus MILSTD-461F set up. gore.5dB attenuation at 30MHz. Measurements with rod removed and without bonded counterpoise. emc test & design guide 2010 12 interference technology . This means that the received level may be 21dB lower for the MIL-STD-461F versus MIL_STD-46E test set up. 10cm bow tie Figure 3.. Measured E field incident on the antenna counterpoise with the rod removed. 10cm bow tie Measurements with rod removed with counterpoise bonded. Here the prediction is that the resonant frequencies change but the amplitudes remain the same when comparing MIL-STD 461E to F. GORE® Microwave/ RF Cable Assemblies Gore develops a wide range of high-performance cable assemblies.S T D 462/461E C o M pa r E D T o MIL. The same paper shows the room resonances with only 10cm absorber foam but no resonances from 3MHz to 30MHz with 100cm foam exhibiting only 9.. The vertical test set up simulated cables routed down a 18 inch rack. The vertical test set up simulated cables routed down a 18 inch rack. The measurements described in Reference 4 showed the resonance effects to be greater from 10MHz to 30MHz in the MIL-STD-461E set up compared to MIL-STD-461F whereas our measurements showed the resonances to be greater in the MIL-STD461F set up. This report shows 18dB higher received level for the MIL-STD-461E set up. This means that some other mechanism may at least contribute to the dip and peak. Also Reference 2 shows the AF to be 21dB higher at 16MHz for the MIL-STD-461F set up i. Reference 2 also showed the received level from a vertical wire 10cm above a vertical ground plane was higher in the MIL-STD-461E versus MIL-STD-461F test set up.e. Reference 4 shows the received level for a vertically oriented source in a well damped chamber to be from 5 to 8dB higher for MIL-STD-461F and 5-10dB higher for the horizontally oriented source. The major difference in the Reference 2 set up was that the measurements were made on a free space range with and without ground planes under a transmitting rod antenna and a receiving rod antenna. 30dB (with delta in E field from Figure 4 ) – 8dB from Figure 2 = 21dB.
RF Chamber Influences. EMC Europe. Analysis of MIL-STD-461E and MILSTD-461F RE102 Test Setup Configurations below 100MHz.04m rod antenna to be higher with a MIL-STD-461E test set up than MIL-STD 461F.pdf. A. Received level from the buffered monopole from the same source with and without the antenna counterpoise bonded to the table ground plane. Elite Electronic Engineering Inc.04m) receiving monopole. Weston has worked full time in EMC for the last 30 years. EMC & RadaR TuRnTablEs • • • • Indoor and outdoor applications systems ranging up to 60’ in diameter 100–ton capacities Variable speed control capabilities and positioning accuracy of ±0. He is author of the book “Electromagnetic Compatibility: Principles and Application. Lockheed Martin ©IEEE Symposium on EMC 2008 • • • Measurement without counterpoise bonded Measurement with counterpoise bonded Figure 4. D. Electromagnetic Compatibility Principles and Applications: D. Antenna Height and Counterpoise Grounding (CISPR 25 & MIL-STD-461E vs MIL-STD-461F) Craig W Fanning. depending on the source of radiation.com/docs/1mMono. Feb 22 2009 . . © IEEE EMC Symposium on EMC 2009. RFI.. test products and developments and a Testing Forum. D. Marcel Dekker 2000 .com interference technology 13 . Weston. Wroclaw Poland Wed. many of which are available at emcconsult inginc. Available on the EMC Consulting web site http://www.com. Ontario Canada. A.WESTon testing & test equipment IV.001° • dozens of military and private contractor installations David A.interferencetechnology. n Custom Engineered Antenna and Radar Profiling Positioning Equipment MORE ON OUR wEbsitE Dealing with MIL-STD issues? The Interference Technology website includes a Testing Channel focused on standards. you will find many sources of valuable information at www. STANDARD 5 YEAR WARRANTY ON ALL MACTON PRODUCTS! interferencetechnology. Merrickville. reFerenCes • . He studied at Croydon Technical College from 1960 to 1965. High frequency calibration of the 41 inch (1. A. A member of IEEE and NARTE. From this report and . • EMI. Improving Monopole Radiated Emission Measurement Accuracy. 15/09/2010 . we see it may be up to 18dB lower in the MIL-STD-461F test.com. 5 and this report (above 20MHz) show the output level from a 1. Weston Calibration of the 41 inch (1. Whatever the testing needs of a particular application.s” as well as numerous papers and reports.04m) receiving monopole with and without connecting counterpoises and with different sources. Swanson. This is important information for EMI test personnel and manufacturers of equipment as it means that an EUT which fails RE102 from 10kHz (2MHz) to 30MHz in earlier MILSTD-461E (and lower) measurements may now pass using the MIL-STD-461F test set up. Weston is principle EMC Engineer at EMC Consulting Inc. D. Weston. ConClusIons References 2.emcconsulting. D.
testing & test equipment E f f E c t i v E EMc tr o u b l E s h o o t i n g w i t h h a n d h E l d P r o b E s effective emc Troubleshooting with handheld Probes Terry Noe Beehive electronics sebastopol. just ass he tests whether his product meets its other design requirements. Unfortunately. cA iNTrodUcTioN MC testing is an unavoidable part of the development cycle for electronic products. the 14 interference technology . The emc test & design guide 2010 The TesT-Tweak cycle When a product fails EMC testing. The ideal probes have the following characteristics: • Handheld • Repeatable • Compact • Flexible • Wide frequency response • Sensitive to magnetic or electric fields The probes in the Beehive Electronics 101A EMC probe set have all these characteristics. he makes modifications to the design. esTablishiNg lab-TesT siTe correlaTioN The lab engineer can measure emissions from his product in the R&D lab using handheld EMC probes. practical constraints make this difficult. when schedule pressures are at their highest. the end result is that EMC testing frequently is not done until late in the project development cycle. These changes might include adding shielding to problem circuits. making testing difficult. costs money. As clock frequencies continue to increase. adding filtering to I/O lines. and intuition. designers do not discover EMC failures until late in the development cycle. Even if a company has its own test facilities. To break this loop. these may be booked well in advance. cA Udom VaNich Pacifica international rohnert Park. Most companies don’t have the equipment to do this testing. or other modifications. If the product fails. the R&D engineer would test the emissions from his product early in the design stage and retest frequently as design changes were made. their sensitivity is known and specified. Using measurements. rules of thumb. Either way. The product is then returned to the EMC test site. In an ideal world. As a result. Unlike homebrew probes. as many times as necessary: Each iteration through the loop delays product shipment. this cycle is repeated again. E design engineer brings the product back to the lab and tries to isolate the source of the problem. and adds to frustration. and subcontract it to outside test houses. we need to be able to do two things: To make radiated emissions measurements on the bench. and to be able to establish correlation between measurements in the lab and measurements at the test site. Regulatory requirements dictate that radiated emissions be tested at open sites or in shielded rooms. radiated emissions get harder to control. and the tests are repeated.
and adding test standards is simple. ISO 9001:2008 Certified rf/microwave instrumentation Other ar divisions: modular rf • receiver systems • ar europe USA 215-723-8181.com or call us at 215-723-8181. Pat. FREE Software Available Now! To request your free SW1007 EMC test software. You can change the test standards with just one click. complete the form at www. Actually. Unless. .S. To learn more.ar-worldwide. It’s accurate and it’s free. That’s a win/win/win. & TM. you really enjoy spending all that time running tests manually. call ar United Kingdom 441-908-282766 • ar France 33-1-47-91-75-30 • emv GmbH 89-614-1710 • ar Benelux 31-172-423-000 Copyright © 2008 AR. visit www. ISO/Automotive. New features include: • New user interface that’s easier to navigate • Tracking/notification of equipment calibration dates • Ability to control more equipment • Updated test set-up screen • Improved report control • More calibration options: The SW1007 comes with standards built in: IEC/EN. The orange stripe on AR products is Reg. For an applications engineer. In Europe. Or ask your AR sales associate for a free hard copy.com/SW1007. call 800-933-8181. GR1089. U. Off. it’s a lot less things – including test accuracy and customized test reports. With More Control And A More Intuitive Interface. It’s easy to use. of course. So that’s one less thing you have to worry about. DO160.ar-worldwide. AR’s new SW1007 software performs Radiated Susceptibility and Conducted Immunity tests automatically.Fully Automated EMC Testing Easier & Better Than Ever. MIL-STD-461.
The 100 MHz emissions were approximately 22 dB beyond the specification limit. The Test-Tweak Cycle. This process is both time-consuming and expensive. A problem of this magnitude will usually require several design changes to improve the emissions enough to meet the specification. it was necessary to take a different approach. Since the probes use push-on SMB connectors. Rather than emc test & design guide 2010 Figure 1. 100 MHz peak marked with red arrow). 16 interference technology . The lab bench and test site readings will then be related by a simple frequencydependent offset. the device under test (DUT) failed the specification at a frequency of 100 MHz (Figure 3. The typical approach would be to make a number of design changes to improve the emissions. With repeatable probes. aN examPle of sUccessfUl TroUbleshooTiNg The following example shows how these principles have been successfully used in practice to solve EMC problems by one of the authors. the DUT would be returned to the semi-anechoic room and radiated emissions testing would be repeated. it is easy to calculate it in practice with data from both locations. the dashed red line represent the pass-fail limit for testing in this particular semi-anechoic room. Although it is difficult to predict this offset in advance. it is possible to establish correlation between measurements on the lab bench and measurements at the EMC test site.and electric-field probes. cables won’t kink when twisting the probes to reach tight corners. For this reason. Experience suggests that it is very difficult to improve emissions by over 20 dB without significant design changes. The product in question underwent radiated emissions testing to CISPR 11 specifications. with individual probes optimized for different frequency ranges. This was an alarming problem. In this case. the project schedule would not allow the weeks that might be required to solve the problem. After testing in the semianechoic room (Figure 2). In the graph of Figure 3. After each change.testing & test equipment E f f E c t i v E EMc tr o u b l E s h o o t i n g w i t h h a n d h E l d P r o b E s "The Test-Tweak Cycle” probe set contains both magnetic.
detectors and presets • Compare measured emissions with pass/fail and delta indicators • Use frequency scan to identify. This preliminary testing is called pre-compliance testing. Radiated emissions testing looks for signals broadcast for the EUT through space. Recently. The frequency range for these measurements is between 30 MHz and 1 GHz and based upon the regulation. manufacturers have realized that electromagnetic interference (EMI) compliance testing can be a costly bottle neck in the product development process. can go up to 6 GHz and higher. It is the only pre-compliance test solution that enables you to reduce test margins while ensuring your device meets all regulatory limits.If you are developing prototype electrical devices and need to evaluate the EMI performance of your new designs and devices. request the free application note Making Radiated and Conducted Emissions Measurements at www. These higher test frequencies are based on the highest internal clock frequency of the EUT.com/ﬁnd/emc-int . pre-compliance testing has become an important addition to the development cycle.agilent. Agilent’s N6141A/W6141A EMC measurement application for its X-Series signal analyzers can help complete your compliance testing successfully. Reduce test margins with superior measurement accuracy The concept of getting a new product to market on time and within budget is nothing new. The basic premise is to measure the conducted and radiated emissions performance of a product during the development phase to identify problems early and thereby solving them before moving on to the next phase of development. • Identify low-level signals with excellent sensitivity from X-Series signal analyzers • Ensure more precise signal measurements Easily identify out-of-limit device emissions • See device emissions typically hidden in the noise ﬂoor • Differentiate between ambient and DUT signals using signal list features • Identify intermittent signals using Strip Chart features Conducted and radiated EMI emissions Maximize signals and compare against commercial and MIL-STD limits • Meet test requirements with built-in commercial and MIL-STD compliant bandwidths. To help ensure successful EMI compliance testing. Conducted and radiated emissions testing focuses on unwanted signals that are on the AC mains generated by the equipment under test (EUT). measure and store results Many manufacturers use EMI measurement systems to perform conducted and radiated EMI emissions evaluation prior to sending their product to a test facility for full compliance testing. Pre-compliance testing The frequency range for conducted commercial measurements is from 9 kHz to 30 MHz. depending upon the regulation. To learn more about EMI testing.
each design change would be evaluated on the benchtop in the R&D lab using a small magnetic field loop probe. would reduce emissions by the required 22 dB. Although this was effective. For this reason. coupled onto the LAN cable. the level of the 100 MHz emission was recorded. • The LAN transformer was changed to a model with a built-in EMI suppressor. Back in the lab. The DUT was returned to the semianechoic room with the first two changes. Only when lab measurements showed that the improvements were sufficient to enable the DUT to pass spec would the DUT be returned to the semi-anechoic room for additional (and hopefully final) testing. emissions at 100 MHz were reduced enough to meet the CISPR 11 specification. If the correlation between benchtop and test site measurements was good enough. from there. The 100 MHz emission was the 5th harmonic of the 20 MHz microprocessor clock in the system. Radiated emissions testing in the semi-anechoic room. Several changes to the design were made. Even if the product is shipped with the special LAN cable. Three changes were identified that made significant improvements in the level of radiated emissions: • Ferrites were added to the transmit and receive lines between the LAN transformer module and the RJ45 connector. the next step was to use the probe to evaluate the effectiveness of design changes. 18 interference technology The source was quickly identified as the DUT’s LAN cable. The improvement in radiated emissions would be measured for each design change. The results are shown in Figure 5 (100 MHz peak marked with red arrow).testing & test equipment E f f E c t i v E EMc tr o u b l E s h o o t i n g w i t h h a n d h E l d P r o b E s Figure 2. Benchtop measurements predicted that the first two modifications. and the CISPR 11 test was repeated. and the level of radiated emissions was read using the spectrum analyzer’s markers. With the source of the problem identified. As can be seen from the graph. Results of initial testing. The spectrum analyzer was tuned to a center frequency of 100 MHz. the probe was attached directly to the LAN cable with cable ties (Figure 4). the first step was to identify the source of the emissions. The third fix. repeatability will be improved if the probe location is held constant. changing the LAN cable. This was coupling into the LAN circuitry and. After each design change. Figure 3. there’s nothing to prevent the customer from using an ordinary cable in the field. taken together. • The LAN cable that ships with the product was changed to one that had a ferrite core around it. the DUT’s cover was then removed and further probing was done inside the box. Next. the first test of those improvements emc test & design guide 2010 . Despite the fact that over 20 dB improvement in 100 MHz emissions was needed. it was easy to identify the source of the emissions. only one more pass through the semianechoic room would be necessary. should not be necessary. When ‘sniffing’ for radiated emissions. it raises difficult issues. Using the probe. evaluating each design change in the semi-anechoic room. A small magnetic field loop probe was used to find the location of the strongest 100 MHz emissions. The probe output was monitored on a spectrum analyzer.
TERRY NOE has worked for 25 years in the fields of EMC. and transceiver design. Figure 5 (left). LLC from 2003 to 2006.com MORE ON OUR wEbsitE Handheld probes are just one solution to EMC troubleshooting. Because radiated emissions could be measured effectively on the lab bench. RF electronics. and analog interferencetechnology. Radiated emissions after design changes. Udom Vanich received a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from San Jose State University and a master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Colorado State University in 1987. design. He is currently an RF application engineer for CSR. Get information on the latest news and products on the Testing Channel at www. which produces a line of EMC test equipment. the test-tweak cycle had been broken. He received a BSEE from Virginia Tech in 1985 and a MSEE from Stanford University in 1989. He also provides consulting and custom design services in the fields of EMC. Lab measurement of radiated emissions.noE testing & test equipment Figure 4. RF.com. n resulted in success.interferencetechnology. He is president of Beehive Electronics. He was co-founder of Pacifica International. interference technology 19 .
Inc. Rancho Dominguez Liberty Bel EMC/EMI Services 20 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . National Technical Systems (NTS) CKC Laboratories. Sanesi Associates (818) 597-0600 (714) 778-1726 (714) 993-6112 (714) 579-0500 (800) 270-2516 818-678-4362 (760) 939-4669 (909) 591-3648 (714) 662-1011 (310) 537-4235 (916) 496-1760 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • E. EMC TEMPEST Engineering CKC Laboratories. however. You can also e-mail your additions. Inc. NAWCWD EMI Lab Robinson’s Enterprise Independent Testing Laboratories. EMC Lab Lab-Tech. If you own or work for an EMC test lab and we have missed you or omitted one of your services. we realize that we have not found every lab or listed every service offered.com and following the easy step-by-step instructions. Inc. We have endeavored to make this directory as accurate as possible. aka Flom Test Lab Sypris Test & Measurement General Dynamics Decision Sys. We have created an easy-to-use directory of labs and their services grouped alphabetically by state and city. LLC. Compatible Electronics. revisions. and suggestions to slong@interferencetechnology. National Technical Systems RMS EMI Laboratory (520) 533-5819 (480) 268-9712 (480) 926-3100 (602) 395-5911 (480) 441-5321 (480) 317-0700 (480) 966-5517 (520) 794-5972 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CaLifornia Agoura Anaheim Brea Brea Calabasas Chatsworth China Lake Chino Costa Mesa El Dorado Hills Compatible Electronics. You can add a listing or update your current listing by logging onto www. so that our readers can identify those labs closest to them. Army) Wyle Labs (256) 650-0646 (256) 544-0694 (256) 876-3556 (256) 837-4411 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • arizona Ft.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC E FCC rTIFICA PAr TI o FCC T 15 & NS PAr T 68 18 IM M uN L I G H IT Y TN I N M I L G ST r I -STD KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP V/M AIr E rTC /CALIB TEr A Do rAT IoN SHI -160 ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt 2011 emC test Laboratory Directory Common sense teLLs us that most engineers and designers prefer to use local testing facilities. LLC Compliance Testing. City Company name ContaCt aLabama Huntsville Huntsville Huntsville Huntsville EMC Compliance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Redstone Technical Test Center (U.S.com. please let us know.interferencetechnology. Inc. Inc. Inc. Huachuca Phoenix Phoenix Phoenix Scottsdale Tempe Tempe Tucson EPG Blacktail Canyon Test Facility Compliance Testing.
Parker EMC Engineering Semtronics Scientific Hardware Systems Mitsubishi Digital Electronics America Inc. EMT Labs EMC Compliance Management Group Wyle Labs Wyle Labs Northrop Grumman ESL ITW Richmond Technology G & M Compliance. CKC Laboratories. (949) 448-4100 (323) 937-1562 (408) 399-7000 (209) 966-5240 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • menlo park Milpitas Mountain View Mountain View Mountain View Norco North Highlands Oakland Orange Pico Rivera Pleasanton Poway Redondo Beach Riverside Riverside Sacramento San Clemente intertek testing Services CETECOM. MiCOM Labs APW Electronic Solutions Northrop Grumman Space Tech. Compliance Certification Services Elliott Laboratories Elma Electronics. Sector DnB engineering. Inc. Inc. (650) 463-2900 (408) 586-6200 (650) 965-4000 (650) 988-0900 (650) 969-5500 (909) 737-0871 (916) 570-4340 (510) 655-1263 (714) 628-1020 (562) 949-2727 (925) 462-0304 (858) 679-4550 (949) 454-8295 (310) 812-3162 (800) 282-1462 (951) 781-4540 (916) 570-4340 (949) 361-9189 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rancho St. Northwest EMC Compatible Electronics. inc. inc. Stork Garwood Laboratories.com interference technology 21 . Inc. Inc. • • • • • • • • interferencetechnology. Margarita Aegis Labs. (800) 282-1462 (910) 823-2345 (714) 799-9810 (408) 848-8868 (949) 465-6206 (888) 364-2378 (949) 587-0400 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lake Forest Los Angeles Los Gatos Mariposa intertek testing Services Field Management Services Pulver Laboratories. Global Testing Northrop-Grumman EM Systems Lab Stork Garwood Laboratories. Inc. EMCE Engineering. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. LLC CKC Laboratories. Inc. ContaCt (310) 322-1763 (760) 737-3131 (510) 249-1170 (510) 771-1000 (408) 245-7800 (510) 656-3400 (510) 490-4307 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fullerton Gardena Garden Grove Gilroy Irvine Irvine Lake Forest DnB engineering.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City El Segundo Escondido Fremont Fremont Fremont Fremont Fremont Company name Wyle Laboratories RF Exposure Lab.
Wyle Labs Compatible Electronics. Inc. Inc. Ltd. • • • • • • ConneCtiCut East Haddam East Haddam Middletown Milford Newtown Norwalk Stratford Global Certification Laboratories. Inc. MET Laboratories. Montrose Compliance Services.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Company name Lambda Electronics NEMKO TÜV SÜD America. Inc. Bay Area Compliance Labs. Inc. Inc. ArC Technical resources. Inc. Inc. Sypris Test & Measurement ITC Engineering Services. Inc. Turnkey OATS Construction. Safety Engineering Laboratory Underwriters Laboratories. Sypris Test & Measurement EMC Integrity. Inc. (303) 939-4618 (303) 444-7480 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Boulder Lakewood Littleton Longmont rollinsville intertek testing Services Electro Magnetic Applications. Total Shielding Systems (860) 873-1451 (860) 873-8975 (860) 344-1651 (203) 878-3135 (203) 426-0888 (203) 866-5888 (203) 377-0394 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • diStriCt of ColumBia Washington American European Services. Inc. Inc. Panashield. Lyncole XIT Grounding rFI International MET Laboratories. ATLAS Compliance & Engineering. Inc. Percept Technology Labs. Montrose Compliance Services. Electro-Test. Criterion Technology (303) 786-7999 (719) 522-1402 (303) 980-0070 (303) 798-2243 (888) 423-6275 (303) 258-0100 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Colorado Springs INTErTest Systems. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. LLC Product Safety International Harriman Associates TÜV rheinland of North America. Elliott Laboratories. Inc. Sypris Test & Measurement ContaCt (619) 575-4400 (858) 755-5525 (858) 678-1400 (408) 247-5715 (408) 263-6486 (408) 971-9743 (408) 544-1890 (408) 754-6500 (925) 485-3400 (408) 748-3583 (408) 247-5715 (408) 764-5500 (949) 589-0700 (408) 732-9162 (408) 245-7800 (408) 720-0006 (925) 862-2944 (310) 214-4000 (949) 888-1607 (510) 489-6300 (818) 830-9111 ca San Diego San Diego San Diego Santa Clara San Jose San Jose San Jose San Jose San ramon Santa Clara Santa Clara Santa Clara Silverado Sunnyvale Sunnyvale Sunnyvale Sunol Torrance Trabuco Canyon Union City Van Nuys • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Colorado Boulder Boulder Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (202) 337-3214 • • • • 22 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 .
. U. Raytheon Raytheon Technical Services Co.com interference technology 23 . Inc.. Crane Div. Zero Ground LLC (847) 537-6400 (866) ZERO-GND • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • indiana Crane Fort Wayne Indianapolis Kokomo Naval Surface Warfare Ctr. Harris Corporation EMI/TEMPEST Lab (561) 961-5585 (561) 241-6700 (800) ELITE-11 (352) 588-2209 (352) 588-1033 (561) 776-7339 (800) 615-8378 (727) 530-8637 (321) 951-1710 (888) 472-2424 (800) 839-4959 (407) 313-4230 (321) 727-6209 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GeorGia Alpharetta Alpharetta Buford (Atlanta) Lawrenceville Peachtree EMC Testing Laboratories.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt Florida Boca Raton Boca Raton Cocoa Beach Dade City Dade City Jupiter Lake Mary Largo Melbourne Newberry Orlando Orlando Palm Bay Advanced Compliance Solutions. (630) 620-5800 (630) 495-9770 (630) 897-1950 (847) 918-9886 (847) 272-8800 (847) 934-5300 (309) 578-1213 (815) 566-5655 (815) 315-9250 (815) 293-0772 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Wheeling Woodridge d. A Caterpillar Company LF Research EMC Design & Test Facility Ingenium Testing.S. Motorola Product Testing Services Panasonic Automotive (770) 475-8819 (770) 740-0717 (770) 831-8048 (770) 338-3795 (770) 515-1443 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • idaho Plummer Acme Testing Company (360) 595-2785 • • • • • • • • • • • illinois Addison Downers Grove Montgomery Mundelein Northbrook Palatine Peoria Poplar Grove Rockford Romeoville Sypris Test & Measurement Elite Electronic Engineering. East West Technology Corporation Test Equipment Connection Walshire Labs. Inc. Division of ACS Timco Engineering. Inc. LLC Radiometrics Midwest Corp. E. Inc. Advanced Compliance Solutions. Inc. inc. Midwest EMI Associates. Jaro Components Elite Electronic Engineering Company Product Safety Engineering. Inc. Inc.F. TÜV SÜD America. LLC Rubicom Systems. Inc. Electronics Co. Technologies.s. Inc. Sypris Test & Measurement Qualtest.. Inc.l. Underwriters Laboratories. electronic systems. Inc. Trace Laboratories–EMC EMC Testing Inc. EMI Lab Delphi Delco Electronic Systems (800) 798-2204 (260) 429-4335 (317) 306-8471 (765) 451-5011 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • interferencetechnology.
World Cal. Inc.E. Inc. (913) 837-3214 • • • • • • • KentuCKy Lexington Lexmark International EMC Lab (606) 232-7650 • Lexington Lexington intertek testing services dBi Corporation (859) 226-1000 (859) 253-1178 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • maryLand Annapolis Baltimore Beltsville Columbia Columbia Damascus Elkridge Gaithersburg Hunt Valley Patuxent River Rockville Rockville Salisbury Westminster Northrop Grumman Space & Mission Systems MET Laboratories. subsidiary of Bureau Veritas (978) 486-8880 • • • • • 24 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Mondin. Inc. Inc. Inc. Trace Laboratories–East Naval Air Warfare Ctr. Inc. Design Automation. P.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt ia iowa Cedar Falls Kimballton Elk Horn Wyle Labs Liberty Labs. Ltd. Washington Laboratories. Product Safety Society.J. Inc. Ltd. Consultants Spectrum Research & Testing Laboratory. (410) 266-1700 (410) 354-3300 (301) 937-8888 (410) 312-5800 (410) 290-6652 (301) 253-4500 (443) 459-5080 (301) 216-1500 (410) 584-9099 (301) 342-1663 (301) 460-5864 (301) 670-2818 (410) 341-4200 (410) 857-1880 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • massaChusetts Billerica Billerica Quest Engineering Solutions Sypris Test & Measurement (978) 667-7000 (978) 663-2137 • • • Boxborough Boxborough Danvers Foxboro Gloucester Lexington Littleton intertek testing services National Technical Systems (NTS) TUV SUD America Inc. Aircraft Div. (319) 277-9083 (712) 773-2199 (712) 764-2197 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kansas Louisburg Rogers Labs. Filter Networks Electrical Test Instruments. Euroconsult. Antenna Research Associates DRS Advanced Programs PCTest Engineering Lab F-Squared Laboratories ATEC Industries.. P.E. (978) 263-2662 (978) 266-1001 (800) TUV-0123 (508) 543-6599 (978) 282-8890 (781) 862-8998 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Curtis-Straus LLC. Inc. N. Inc.
Inc. Put us to the test and see why for yourself. Pennsylvania & Washington D. Inc. Div. We are proud to have supported our clients at the highest levels with full Electromagnetic Interference and Environmental Simulation testing services. LLC (978) 486-0432 (508) 851-8484 (508) 281-5985 (508) 634-3444 (508) 292-1833 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • IQS. And we’re proud to continually offer the industry’s best lead time scheduling. Retlif’s engineering and educational services have added tangible value both technically and cost-effectively for over 30 years.com • E-mail: sales@retlif. Retlif is independent…and proud of it… a field leader for over 30 years.com Additional locations in New Hampshire. North Carolina. interferencetechnology. Ronkonkoma.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt Littleton Mansfield Marlboro Marlboro Milford Newton intertek testing Services Motorola Test Lab Services Group The Compliance Management Group Test Site Services. international and military…with expertise that expedites the process. NELCO (413) 499-2135 (978) 275-0800 (781) 935-4850 (781) 933-1940 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • miChigan 7233 Retlif ITEM EMC Half_4c Auburn Hills TÜV SÜD America.com interference technology 25 . Thermo Fisher Scientific Chomerics. NY 11779 USA Tel: (631) 737-1500 • Fax: (631) 737-1497 www. 4/30/09 (248) 393-6984 1 11:28 AM Page • Aerospace • Automotive Aviation • Consumer Electronics Homeland Security • Maritime Medical • Military • Rail Retlif has touched many worlds for many years. We seamlessly guide your products through complex regulatory structures… domestic. 795 Marconi Avenue. EMC Test Design.C.retlif. Div. of Parker Hannifin Corp. inc. of The Compliance Management Group (508) 460-1400 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • pittsfield Wilmington Woburn Woburn Lightning technologies.
Inc. Inc. Delphi Steering EMC Lab AHD EMC Lab Detroit Testing Laboratory. International Certification Services. Inc. Environ Laboratories. LLC Honeywell TÜV SÜD America. Inc. Sypris Test & Measurement Underwriters Laboratories. Inc. Paul Taylor Falls intertek testing Services IBM 3M TÜV SÜD America. Inc. Inc. Inc. TÜV SÜD America. LLC Trialon Corporation National Technical Systems ContaCt (734) 252 9785 (810) 341-7931 (800) 946-2687 mi Belleville Burton Detroit • • • • • • • • • • Grand Rapids Holland Milford Novi Novi Plymouth Saginaw Sister Lakes Warren intertek testing Services TÜV SÜD America. Inc. Louis EMC Lab (314) 233-7798 • • • • neBRaSka Lincoln NCEE Labs (402) 472-5880 • • • • • • • • • nevaDa Minden PolyPhaser Corp. TÜV SÜD America. TUV Rheinland of North America. (651) 730-1188 (507) 253-6201 (651) 778-4577 (651) 638-0297 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • miSSouRi St. Jacobs Technology. Alpha EMC. Inc. Inc.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Company name Willow Run Test Labs. (775) 782-2511 • • 26 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Inc. Inc. Louis Boeing-St. Conductive Containers. (888) 364-2378 (320) 864-4444 (763) 315-5012 (507) 798-2483 (763) 561-4410 (800) 826-3710 (612) 951-5773 (651) 631-2487 (763) 537-2090 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • oakdale Rochester St. (800) WoRLDLaB • (616) 546-3902 (248) 676-1101 (248) 305-5200 (248) 427-5300 (734) 455-4841 (989) 797-0318 (269) 313-2433 (586) 754-9000 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • minneSota Brooklyn Park Glencoe Maple Grove Millville Minneapolis Minneapolis Minneapolis New Brighton New Hope Northwest EMC.
Inc.com interference technology 27 . Inc. Advanced Compliance Laboratory. Testing Co.S.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt new HampsHire Goffstown Hudson Sandown retlif testing Laboratories Core Compliance Testing Services Compliance Worldwide. (603) 497-4600 (603) 889-5545 (603) 887-3903 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • new Jersey Annandale Bridgeport Bridgewater Camden Clifton Edison Edison Fairfield Farmingdale Hillsborough NU Laboratories. SGS U. Inc. of I2R Corp. (908) 713-9300 (800) analab-X (908) 541-0213 (856) 338-3000 (973) 546-5393 (732) 287-0800 (732) 417-0501 (800) 777-8378 (732) 919-1100 (908) 927-9288 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • interferencetechnology. Inc. Analab. EMC Technologists. A Div.. Inc. LLC Lichtig EMC Consulting L-3 Communications East NJ-MET Metex Corporation TESEQ.
Inc.E. Underwriters Laboratories. (800) 747-9047 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • new mexiCo Albuquerque White Sands Advanced Testing Services. Inc. Universal Shielding Corp.T. Diversified T. of Parker Hannifin Spec-Hardened Systems (800) TEST-456 (718) 939-4422 (800) 851-1508 (631) 667-7900 (607) 898-4218 (315) 730-5667 (607) 770-3771 (518) 762-2600 (315) 730-5667 (631) 736-5883 (585) 798-3140 (631) 271-6200 (631) 754-1142 (607) 751-2938 (607) 752-2225 (781) 939-4158 (585) 225-2857 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ronkonkoma retlif testing Laboratories (631) 737-1500 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • north CaroLina Cary Fayetteville Greensboro Greenville New Bern Raleigh CertifiGroup Electrical South. Inc. Triangle Pk. LP Lawrence Behr Associates (LBA) iNARTE. Survivability Directorate (505) 292-2032 (575) 678-6107 • • • • • • • • • • • • new york Bohemia College Point Deer Park Deer Park Groton Groton Johnson City Johnstown Liverpool Medford Medina Melville Northport Owego Poughkeepsie Rochester Rochester Dayton T. Inc. Inc. USA WSMR. (ED&D) Res. Mohr.J. Electro-Metrics Source1 Solutions American Environments Co. Inc. Inc. BAE Systems Don HEIRMAN Consultants Telcordia Technologies. Aircraft Div. Sypris Test & Measurement NDI Engineering Company National Technical Systems (NTS) Sypris Test & Measurement ContaCt (732) 332-6000 (732) 323-2085 (732) 364-0049 (732) 741-7723 (800) 521-2673 (732) 721-6116 (856) 848-0033 (732) 936-0800 (973) 628-1363 NJ Holmdel Lakehurst Lakewood Lincroft Piscataway Rutherford Sayreville Thorofare Tinton Falls Wayne • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SGS International Certification Services. TREK. Assoc. MicroCraft Corporation (800) 422-1651 (800) 950-9550 (252) 757-0279 (252) 672-0111 (919) 872-2272 (919) 469-9434 (919) 543-0837 (919) 549-1400 • • • • • • • • Partnership for Defense Innovation R&D Lab (910) 307-3000 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Res.. Inc. Technologies Source 1 Compliance BAE Systems Controls.. R. Triangle Pk. IBM RTP EMC Test Labs Res. Inc. Inc.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Company name Global Products Compliance Laboratory Naval Air Warfare Ctr. Aero Nav Laboratories. Inc.. Educated Design & Dev. Triangle Pk. Underwriters Laboratories. Brown. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 28 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . MCG Surge Protection.S. Inc. Lockheed Martin Federal Systems IBM Corp.. Div. Poughkeepsie EMC Lab Chomerics. Inc.
Inc. Inc. Conshohocken Alion Science & Technology/R&B Lab • • • • • • • • • tennessee Knoxville Knoxville Global Testing Labs LLC Southern Testing Services. LLC Northwest EMC. ElectroMagnetic Investigations. LLC (407) 551-2738 (503) 648-1818 (503) 466-1160 (888) 364-2378 (503) 598-7580 (503) 466-1160 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • pennsylvania Annville Boalsburg Glenside CHAR Services. Seven Mountains Scientific. Electro-Tech Systems. (865) 525-0137 (865) 966-5330 • • • • • interferencetechnology. Inc. Inc. Inc. TÜV SÜD America. BEC Inc. (717) 867-2788 (814) 466-6559 (215) 887-2196 • • • • • • • • • harleysville Hatfield New Castle Norristown Pottstown Willow Grove retlif testing laboratories Laboratory Testing. Inc. Inc. (918) 493-3399 • oregon Beaverton Hillsboro Hillsboro Portland Portland Tillamook tektronix Cascade TEK ElectroMagnetic Investigations. CSA International NASA GRC EMI Lab Smith Electronics Sypris Test & Measurement L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics Pioneer Automotive Technologies (216) 741-7040 (877) 405-1580 (440) 918-1425 (216) 524-4990 (216) 433-2533 (440) 526-4386 (937) 427-3444 (513) 573-6809 (937) 746-6600 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • oklahoma Tulsa Integrated Sciences.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Youngsville Company name Flextronics International EMC Labs ContaCt (919) 554-0901 • • • • • • • • • • • • • ohio Brooklyn Heights Sypris Test & Measurement Burton Chesterland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Fairborn Mason Springboro F-Squared Laboratories. EU Compliance Services. Inc. Inc. Inc. Nelson Design Services (215) 256-4133 (800) 219-9095 (724) 657-9940 (610) 278-0840 (610) 970-6880 (610) 825-1960 (215) 784-9600 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • W. Keystone Compliance LCR Electronics.com interference technology 29 . Inc.
Little Mountain Test Facility (LMTF) (435) 336-4433 (801) 315-2320 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 30 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Inc.E. Jones. inc. Ronald G. P. Southwest Research Institute (972) 202-8800 (972) 231-4443 (512) 244-3371 (210) 684-5111 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Utah Coalville Ogden DnB engineering. Inc.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Company name ContaCt tX texas Austin Austin Cedar Park Euless Houston Lewisville Plano Austin EMC BAE Systems IDS Test Services TDK RF Solutions. DNV Certification Nemko USA National Technical Systems (NTS) (512) 219-6650 (512) 929-2410 (512) 258-9478 (817) 267-1476 (281) 721-6600 (972) 436-9600 (972) 509-2566 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • plano Richardson Round Rock San Antonio intertek testing services Sypris Test & Measurement Professional Testing (EMI).
com interference technology 31 . (360) 595-2785 (425) 402-1717 (888) 364-2378 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • WisConsin Butler Cedarburg genoa City Emission Control.S.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS City Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Company name Communication Certification Laboratory L3 Communication Systems–West ContaCt (801) 972-6146 (801) 594-2560 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vermont Essex Junction Middlebury Huber & Suhner Green Mountain Electromagnetics. St. LLC Rhein Tech Laboratories. Ltd.s. Research D. Inc.L. Inc. (802) 878-0555 (802) 388-3390 • • • • • • • Virginia Falls Church Fredericksburg Herndon McLean Reston Richmond Raytheon Prototype Services Vitatech Engineering. (262) 790-0092 (262) 375-4400 (847) 537-6400 • • • • • • • • • • • Jo Pr Lic 97 Br US +1 FA JF ww N2 628 LeVander Way S. MN 55075 interferencetechnology. inc. (VA) Technology International. Inc. Inc. Inc. electronic systems. (703) 849-1562 (540) 286-1984 (703) 689-0368 (703) 847-4700 (703) 709-9543 (804) 794-4144 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Washington Acme Bothell Sultan Acme Testing Company CKC Laboratories. L. American TCB TEMPEST. Paul. Inc Northwest EMC.
32 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Raymond EMC Enclosures Limited Vican Electronics CSA International Global EMC Inc.com. Inc. (613) 599-6800 (613) 269-4247 (905) 678-7820 (613) 820-2730 (613) 226-2365 (905) 829-1570 (613) 737-2026 (613) 737-9680 (613) 829-0820 (800) EMC-1495 (416) 412-2111 (866) 797-4272 (905) 883-8189 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • QuebeC Montreal Quebec Quebec Centre de Recherche Industrielle du Quebec (514) 383-1550 Comlab. LabTest Certification. Test Establishment (DND) (780) 840-8000 british Columbia Abbotsford Kelowna Pitt Meadows Richmond Protocol EMC Celltech Labs. Inc. We also realize that events move swiftly in the testing sector and that new services are added on a regular basis. please join the effort for accuracy by forwarding the details to slong@interferencetechnology. If. Inc. FISO Technologies (418) 682-3380 (418) 688-8065 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The listings above— Interference Technology’s “2011 EMC Test Lab Directory”—are our effort to provide our readers with accurate and current information on the vast number of testing capabilities available. after reading the Directory. Intertek ETL Semko APREL Laboratories Multilek Inc. Inc. Ultratech Group of Labs ASR Technologies Nemko Power & Controls Engineering Ltd. you notice an inaccurate inclusion or omission. Tranzeo EMC Labs Inc.2011 emc test lab directory BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI TY LI GH TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME rTC CALIB TEr A Do rAT I SHI -160 oN ELD ING TE M PES EFFECT T IVEN ESS City Milwaukee Neenah Company name Curtis Industries/Filter Networks International Compliance Laboratories ContaCt (414) 649-4200 (920) 720-5555 • • • • • • • • • • Canada alberta airdrie Calgary Calgary Medley electronics test Centre - mpb technologies (403) 912-0037 EMSCAN Corporation National Technical Systems (NTS) (403) 291 0313 (403) 568-6605 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aerospace Engrg. (604) 218-1762 (250) 765-7650 (604) 460-4453 (604) 247-0444 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ontario Kanata Merrickville Missisauga Nepean Nepean Oakville Ottawa Ottawa Ottawa Ottawa Scarborough Toronto Toronto electronics test Centre EMC Consulting.
com Suppliers of Shielding Suppliers of Conductive materials Dontech incorporated. 631-467-8400 www. Orange. Bensenville. PA 215-723-8181. Souderton. 888-324-7748 www. N.u n i t e d s tat e s & canada BEL LCo r CB/ E/TEL Cor C AB EMI /TCB DIA SSIo E M P NS /LI G ESD HTNIN G EF FEC Eur TS oC ErT IFIC FCC ATIo PAr FCC T 15 & NS PAr 18 T IMM 68 uNI LI GH T Y TN I N M I L G ST r -STD I KE MIL 188/ -STD 125 NVL 461/4 62 AP/ Pro A2L A A D uC PP r rAD T SAFE oVED TY HA rS0 Z TESTI NG 3> 200 rEP AIr/ V/ME TEr C AL rTC A Do IBrAT -160 IoN SHI ELD TEM ING EF PES FECT T IVEN ESS Suppliers of amplifiers City Company name ContaCt Suppliers of Filters & Ferrites aR Worldwide RF/microwave instrumentation.com interferencetechnology. 800-933-8181.fair-rite. Canada. Doylestown. Ronkonkoma.com Suppliers of antennas Schurter inc. Georgetown.. Bloomfield CT. Ltd.com instruments for industry. ON. CA. PA.com/cmp Fair-Rite products Corp. 860-243-1122 www.com americor electronics.cpii. CA. www. 215-348-5010 www. 818-998-0223 www.com Radius power inc.dontechinc. www. Elk Grove Village.com Swift textile metalizing LLC. NY.com aH Systems.com interference technology 33 . www. 888-766-7800 www. Chatsworth.magnetic-shield. CA 818-764-8222..com magnetic Shield Corporation.AHSystems. 714-289-0055 www. NY.swift-textile. Hollywood.radiuspower. IL.spira-emi.com Spira manufacturing Corporation. Wallkill. IL.com Cpi (Communications & power industries) Canada inc. 847-956-6200 www.schurterinc.ar-worldwide.americor-usa. 905-877-0161... CA. 707-636-3000 www.. Santa Rosa.ifi.
Framingham.interferencetechnology. Plymouth.com 714-528-8800 Com-Power Corporation. Reinach.com Your weeklY eMC update! Interference Technology eNews brings you a weekly dose of: • • • • • • • • • • News Standards Updates New Product Announcements Conferences and Events Contract and Award Announcements Surveys Forums Product and Services Directories Jobs White Papers and Application Notes Spectrum Control.Computer Simulation Technology.com Get all this and more delivered directly to your inbox once a week.Suppliers of Shielding roducts for Your ing Needs www.com 00 • fax 714. +41 61 717 91 91 www. LISNs CDNs Near Field Probes Suppliers of Test Equipment Pricing petitive ry ngle Source Com ive Fast Del arranty liance testing. San Diego. CA. PA. Switzerland. 814-474-2207 www.emtest. Fairview.. 508-747-0300 Suppliers of Software Active Horn Antenna Absorbing Clamps CST .com Tech-Etch. CA.tech-etch. MA.com EM TEST AG.ATECorp . 800-404-ATEC www.528.com Sign up today at www.com-power. Join the growing number of subscribers to stay up to date – subscribe online today.1992 • sales@com-power. ear W ustry. Inc.com 34 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . and very Three-y Advanced Test Equipment Rentals. 508-665 4400 www.spectrumcontrol. Brea.cst.com ntables • Masts & Tripods • Product Safety Accessories power. Horns up to 40 GHz Log Periodic Antenna Passive MA. www.
such as enclosure lifetime under miscellaneous (hards) conditions. caps dry out and metal junctions oxidize. gaskets can deteriorate. I have been involved in developing a simple method of creating a lifetime expectation based on collected statistical data for component lifetimes. john woodgate E MC performance of a product is likely to vary with age as the physical characteristics change. and therefore a definition of the lifetime of a piece of equipment is required. vibration. contact properties related to oxidation. in soldered contacts. Can lifetime reliability be better assured by simulating product aging emc test & design guide 2010 36 interference technology .. but also need to incorporate equipment properties that are not expected to “age”. but are there any requirements or guidance relating to preventing or controlling this change in EMC performance over time? This question posed recently on a product safety forum garnered some interesting responses from EMC and product safety experts. That risk analysis should include the whole spectrum of aging aspects. The analysis also needs to consider changing properties that at first sight do not impact EMC properties. but a lot of data on failure rates is available. such as enclosures of which radiation patterns and resonance properties may change and have a bigger impact on EMI as initially assumed. most products don’t live long enough for aging to be as important as the (usually) very hostile physical environment. but it will need a risk analysis in the design phase to identify the risks associated with aging. and individual components. connectors etc. but that does not include many relevant aspects. ralph mcdiarmid. it is impossible to maintain EMC properties over a long time. etc. cables. such as software. Very little work has been done on the calculation of lifetime for electronics in general. moisture.testing & test equipment EMC P E r f o r M a n C E o v E r a L i f E t i M E emc performance of a product over its lifetime gert gremmen. for example. e. Interference Technology delved a little deeper and asked a panel of experts their thoughts on the topic: Can environmental factors that jeopardize EMC over a product’s lifetime result in performance. ed price. Haynes: Expanding only slightly.g. reliability and even safety implications? gremmen: Yes. Ultimately. from components. tim haynes. One further specific instance is damage to cable / backshell junctions due to abuse by users and/or vibration and shock. PrICe: In the military product area. Obviously. to soldering techniques. the product is designed with the intention of consistent compliance over the life of the product. components can age and affect EMI performance. corrosion can reduce screening at interfaces of boxes.
and try to couple this to EMC properties. humidity types of tests before the system goes to EMC. True. gremmen: I am not aware of simulation software with a view on EMC related to aging. and start collecting events. If a component. some tests (high-G shock. PrICe: In a Qualification test scenario. Haynes: Some requirements (possibly customer requirements in defence/aerospace) need environmental testing (heat cycling / vibration) to be completed before EMC tests are undertaken. No “repairs” are allowed between environmental and EMC testing. transportation shock.com interference technology 37 .in t E rf E r E nC E t E C Hn oL o G Y testing & test equipment to environmental testing specialists. It may be that most products functionally fail and are removed from service before they become an EMC nuisance. we need to lend a ear interferencetechnology. like a power MOSFET. A knowledge base may be created that allows designers to identify potential risks. I think that in order to incorporate aging as a factor in EMC. It’s my experience that EMC problems during operational service of a product designed and verified through type testing to comply with the applicable standards is a rare thing. before EMC testing is done? How can lifetime EMC integrity be assured when equipment is still generally tested only once? Woodgate: It depends on how realistic the simulation is.. operating them well below their maximum stresses and careful overall design (e. then all the specifications are carefully checked and an EMC retest (at least for emissions) may be performed before qualifying the alternate source. blowing rain. mCdIarmId: In my brief experience in private industry (since 1983) I can recall only one legitimate complaint concerning radio interference from a product. assure continued integrity of seams in enclosures). If a product complies with the applicable RF emission and immunity standards. Many companies control the configuration of their products by keeping a list of EMC critical components. it is our practice to run the temp cycling. needs to change manufacturer. high-G centrifuge) are often done on a separate system. vibration. [Lifetime EMC integrity can be assured] by careful selection of components. much like a list of safety critical components for use in UL and CSA compliance. even over its operational lifetime. it will likely never be a problem during its lifetime. given that no simulation can be wholly realistic.g.
gremmen: There are no such regulations I am aware of. Many EMC-related components can get defective without even being noticed in functional testing. has 12 years experience in power electronics circuit design and simulation .g. aSct. Calif. as far as I am aware. a manufacturer should specify if EMC items should be replaced as part of maintenance (perhaps a particular EMI gasket is good for only a few open/close cycles). high-frequency immunity). However. There may also be requirements in Joint Airworthiness Requirements (JARs) that require a ground-based “golden sample” aircraft to be exposed to more hours of simulated flying than the worstcase flight-cleared aircraft of the type. He became an independent consultant in 1984. Haynes: Yes . are the requirements industry specific? Woodgate: Not for commercial products in Europe. not even for high-end laboratory equipment. 38 EMC P E r f o r M a n C E o v E r a L i f E t i M E GErt GrEmmEn is a senior test engineer in EMC and product safety for electronic and electrical products. low-frequency conducted emissions). with the first line generally not going beyond “pull that box that doesn’t work and put in a new one.but only where there is a conscientious maintainer. in particular EMC issues during design and development of hardware.). even in aerospace and aviation technology. This may be much more important in respect of vehicle maintenance (screening of the engine management unit. high fidelity and video products. while others cannot (e. how many garage mechanics would be trained in “EMC”? PrICe: Military systems have several levels of maintenance. director of ce-test qualified testing bv in the Netherlands and an expert in CE marking. than it would be to have annual maintenance on your TV or washing machine. so this is all defined by the contract. At the depot level. Can a well-defined maintenance schedule help ensure regular surveillance of components that will affect the EMC performance of a product? Woodgate: Possibly: Some EMC characteristics can be checked simply enough for inclusion in a maintenance schedule (e. has worked on space systems. Maintenance has traditionally been focused on functional parameters only. marine and submarine equipment for the defense industry and has employed forensic techniques in resolving problems. This is to identify fatigue failures in the ground-based model before they can happen in the flight-cleared aircraft. At least there are no such for ordinary commercial and residential equipment. avionics. fixing cables or doing other intrusive things. gremmen: Applications that require tight control of EMC properties during a defined lifetime definitely need adequate service. John WooDGatE of J. but this raises safety issues in itself. which is described in the multi-part standard IEC 61508. electromagnetic engineering specialist at SELEX S&AS. PrICe: USA military procurements are controlled by a strict and extremely specific list of contractually obligating “Line Items”.and 10 years experience with regulatory international product approvals. Act 1974 . has worked in the Electromagnetic Compatibility Lab at Cubic Defense Applications in San Diego. braking control. such as in section 6 of the UK Health and Safety at Work Etc. Direct controls of performance are not appropriate for safety-critical applications. as well as product management and marketing of audio. etc. ralph mcDiarmiD. UL and CE. since 1993. so additional testing has to be defined in order to recognize potential failures of this kind.testing & test equipment Are there any regulatory requirements to artificially age a product prior to EMC testing? If so. a NARTE certified EMC engineer. Haynes: There may be some implicit requirements.g.M. including CSA. ED pricE. Each product has its requirements set by following a procedure.” First level people are usually not opening boxes. * Participants’ comments do not necessarily reflect the views of their employers. Woodgate and Associates has a background in the consumer products and sound reinforcement sectors of the electronics industry. tim haynES.converers and inverters to 3kW . There may be other such requirements in legislation (possibly in the Provision and Use of Work Equipment?). Some might think that ESD immunity could be checked in a maintenance process. While emission emc test & design guide 2010 interference technology .Duties Towards Articles Used At Work.
com interference technology 39 . immunity problems will remain unnoticed until a full test suite for immunity has been carried out. If a problem during initial testing is found. The manufacturers of the switchers. Compact Transient Generator ESD EFT / Burst CWG / Surge Magnetic Fields Power Fail Common Mode Save to USB EMC PARTNER W E N Ethernet TRA3000 WebServer A Swiss Company Atmospheric www. As many EMC components have a function towards common mode phenomena. I lately witness a large number of SMPS related problems in EMI where just the ongoing progress in FET developments results in much faster switching times as before. The manufacturer is not bound to notice their customers. Even software can have an impact on EMC. may change emission levels to a high degree. for example. A surge suppressor. A change of manufacturer for a microprocessor. may be connected to the enclosure and not to system signal ground. [This can be avoided by] total encapsulation. the source of the problems is not under control. could changes be made to a product that may compromise its EMC performance? Woodgate: If you mean ‘changes during life’. However. as EMC properties go undocumented. even if the component is pin and specification compatible. and may look connected to nothing from the point of view of traditional automated test sets. The EMC properties of such a component are in general not specified in a datasheet. the answer must be ‘yes’.com The largest range of impulse test equipment up to 100kV and 100kA sales@emc-partner. simple changes in firmware (updates) can create sudden changes in emissions or immunity behavior that are completely outside the view of the software designers. a tabletop spectrum analyzer on a comparative basis (compared to a new piece of equipment). for example.ch interferencetechnology. traditional test techniques that use differential mode signals are not capable of detecting failures in such components. A newer process on chip level. properties may be quickly established using.in t E rf E r E nC E t E C Hn oL o G Y testing & test equipment gremmen: Many EMC properties of equipment are undefined in the design phase. remedial measures such as filters may help controlling emissions. But then how can the heat be dissipated? Heat pipes? Such ‘heroic’ measures are hardly justified.emc-partner. creating substantial interference problems in the 30-200 MHz range. making the product unrepairable. or even change of location of manufacture may impact those properties. Even with regulatory and contractual compliance established at the outset. and not on equipment or even system level. confronted with the problem. told us that they had updated their switching FETS as older (tested) models quickly became obsolete and the FET manufacturer provided them with equivalents and pin compatible models with a faster switching time. In addition to that. commercial test setups for components operate on PCB level. for example.
These requirements must be applied at the outset of DESIGN. And yes. Again. PrICe: I think everybody says it’s good to plan ahead. gremmen: Yes. taking in consideration all these aspects will create benefits for both manufacturers as well as consumers. during testing it is too late. Otherwise implement measures to prevent EMC features being “overridden”. Do you have any anecdotal examples that illustrate the above points or would be helpful to fellow engineers? Haynes: Some radio equipment was EMC tested after vibration and thermal testing had been successfully completed. To limit customer-based changes .interferencetechnology. where they pay a dividend of around 1000%.design products that are actually fit-for-purpose . such changes may even be unnoticed to the manufacturer of the product. n Europe EMC Guide Now Online The online edition of the 2011 Interference Technology Europe EMC Guide will be updated periodically during 2010/2011. If the equipment had not been vibration / thermal tested before the EMC . Subscribe online to receive notification of these edition updates. this time finding connector nuts that were improperly torqued and allowed the connectors to loosen.this failure would not have been found. Too many definite choices have been made at that point already. The cause was “cracked” semi-rigid coax / connector joints where either vibration or thermal expansion had caused the connector to cable-sheath interface to crack. PrICe: Keep close to your customer so they can accidentally show you all the new and exciting things they do with your product. causing the transfer impedance to increase and allow signals into / out of the coax cable. The equipment failed EMC on emissions and immunity. Haynes: There is much greater benefit to be obtained by considering ALL environment and EMC requirements that will apply during the product lifecycle at the very beginning .testing & test equipment Given the fact that modern software development heavily depends on external modules and libraries.at the concept stage of the product/project. www. Is there a benefit to considering environmental and EMC requirements at the outset of testing a product? EMC P E r f o r M a n C E o v E r a L i f E t i M E Woodgate: It’s far too LATE at the onset of testing. The customer can use the equipment with the doors closed but they are always open because he wants to see the flashing lights and alpha/numeric displays to ensure the equipment is working .or should that be fit-for-theusers-purpose. You will learn the most interesting things. Haynes: A rack of equipment installed in an EMC cabinet passes the required tests with the doors closed.eu 40 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 .. EMC properties of the building blocks of electronic are most of the time undocumented. PrICe: Same scenario.. if EMC is recognized to have a substantial impact on reliability and safety.
allow realtime data collection. USB connectivity does not always need to be used for real-time data collection. the existemc test & design guide 2010 . the serial and parallel ports which used to be supplied have been deleted in favor of more USB ports to connect to keyboards. thumb drives and most everything else. he may be more willing to plug it in and enjoy the conveniences that were written into the interface. The convenience lends itself to other uses as well. The advent of USB controlled devices in the laboratory has been a boon in many ways. in addition to the conveniences of the USB interface. operators who are rushed for time may not investigate a non-USB connection because these non-swappable interfaces require research or reboot. and ubiquitous USB connectivity on modern laptops and desktop computers allow powerful data processing to be available easily. noisy lab environments often result in data loss and/or resets of test equipment or host computers. “Plug and play” devices make installation easy. as well as the issue regarding disappearing alternatives. monitors. In addition. the speed advantages of the USB interface are not realized.0 and above. the serial ports on computers are no longer standard. this is not the case at many laboratories and these older installations are still the norm. LinD compliance West. In many cases. As can be seen from Table 1. So. This will allow the lab to utilize the strengths of both the computer’s USB interface and the laboratory equipment's existing serial interface technology. In this case. in which the computer is updated by the test equipment regarding its actions. If an operator is presented with the USB interface. A potential solution to this challenge is the successful implementation of mains power distribution in the lab. cA s any laboratory engineer knows. With this set of features and conveniences.testing & test equipment U S B I n t e r f a c e o n L a B o r at o r y S U r g e g e n e r at o r S USB interface on Laboratory Surge Generators Jeffrey D. usA del mar. the interface between the test equipment and the personal computer is used only for control of the test equipment. and an isolated serial/USB design for laboratory computer systems. which is a known commodity. In most cases. there is a practical requirement to use USB connections because other connection protocols are simply disappearing from personal computers. USB 2. the USB interface should be making RS-232 and GPIB installations obsolete. The hot-swappable feature allows technicians to change setups at will without worrying about restarting the computer. The speed of modern USB connections. However. For simpler installations. taking valuable time. to provide test equipment status for display on the computer 42 interference technology A screen for operator convenience. but the convenience of connection still makes the USB interface a good choice. or for basic housekeeping information. harsh. printers.
if the advantages were not so great.com Need more information? www. hipot testers and other similar equipment. This is a larger problem for USB.emtest. | Michael Hopkins | 3 Northern Blvd. DeSiGn ConSiDerationS Serial interfaces use positive and negative voltages for data transmission.com 43 interferencetechnology. Overview of interface protocols used in laboratory environments. because the data RS-232 • More noise-resistant Parallel • User Familiarity GPIB • Large installed base • Fast • Error-Resistant • • • • • • Fast Plug and Play Available on Personal Computers Hot Swappable Easy Set Up Cheap USB • Reset-Prone • Noise susceptibility Table 1. Unit A-4 | Amherst.LInd testing & test equipment Interface Advantages Disadvantages • 115 kbs max speed • Serial interface not available on many personal computers • 115 kbs max speed • Setup difficult • Parallel interface ports disappearing from personal computers • Interface Card Required • Expensive • Proprietary setups ing laboratory interface protocols all suffer from disadvantages which affect their usefulness in a laboratory environment. THE BEST EMC TEST EQUIPMENT FOR ANY APPLICATION: Automotive +Telecom + Consumer Products + Military + Industrial + Medical + Avionics Your direct line to EM TEST USA is + 1 603 769 3477 EM TEST USA Inc. The usefulness of the USB interface certainly merits work toward making the interface more robust. The USB reset can exhibit loss of communication between the test equipment and the computer. or in some cases a reboot of the personal computer connected to it. so it can be used with interference-causing equipment such as surge generators. so the effects of changes in ground potential are negated. USB can offer distinct advantages but is not robust. These conditions would preclude the USB interface from consideration in a laboratory environment.com interference technology . NH 03031 Telephone: +1 603 769 3477 | Mobile: +1 603 765 3736 | e-mail: sales @ emtest.
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U S B I n t e r f a c e o n L a B o r at o r y S U r g e g e n e r at o r S
Figure 2. The proper method of connecting mains power to a computer-controlled surge tester. The surge tester and the computer are provided with individual paths to ground.
as noise in the laboratory increased. USB communication has many protocols, and many incorporate error checking, which should have been a boon to communication in noisy environments such as laboratories. Unfortunately, USB communication design presents challenges for interface designers and users. Since the difference between a binary zero (+0.3 V maximum) and binary 1 (+2.8V minimum) is only 2.5V, and the because the zero is approximately ground referenced, the USB interface is more susceptible to disconnects and resets, which could result in a complete hardware collapse, where communication between the test equipment and the computer is totally lost. This will result in loss of control of the tester, and loss of data across the link. In general, the designer of the USB interface of the equipment must select a protocol that will detect a disconnect, reconnect the interface, and make sure the USB connection was recovered. Further, its design must include optical interface(s) to prevent varying voltage levels from causing data loss. Some interfaces use a dedicated microprocessor in order to allow even more isolation between the computer and the test equipment. GroUnDinG of teSt eqUipment anD CompUterS Even the most isolated design will still have to deal with the equipment grounding conductor, or ground lead. In the case of a powerful surge generator, the ground plane can be displaced by as much as a few volts, which could cause interface disconnection and data loss. This happens because the surge tester can deliver thousands of amps in a few microseconds and this energy needs to be dissipated to the building ground. Any high resistance connections within the test setup or in the building grounding system itself can cause a rise in potential of the grounding lead for a short time while the energy is dissipated. To combat this problem, it is necessary to make sure the building grounding system and the test setup ground leads are all in working order
emc test & design guide 2010
Figure 3. Improper mains connection method. The surge tester and the computer share a grounding path. If the ground voltage rises due to the surge tester output, the USB connection may suffer a reset, and the computer could be damaged.
transmission uses a positive voltage and ground only. Therefore, noise and ground potential changes have a greater effect, and this is the reason that USB interfaces have to be more carefully implemented for a good result. In the days of RS-232 interface communications, there was 6 volts minimum swing between binary zero (-3V maximum) and binary one (+3V minimum). Since the voltage has to swing through ground potential, a 44
shifting ground voltage had little effect on RS-232 communications. RS232 did not have any error checking protocols but because of the robust hardware solution, it was not needed to make reliable connections. However, even with this robust signal communication, a shielded cable was required, as external noise could overpower the RS-232 communication. Clearly, a more sophisticated protocol with error checking was going to be needed
testing & test equipment
mains voltage of the computer, in accordance with Figure 2 of this article, NOT Figure 3. In addition, an isolated hybrid interface consisting of RS-232 protocol at the test equipment end and USB protocol at the computer end should also be employed. The isolated interface should be located as close to the computer end of the cable as possible.
JEFFREY D. LIND, president of Compliance West, USA, has 33 years of extensive electrical engineering expertise. Lind launched his career in the electrical product safety industry working at Underwriters Laboratories (UL) from 19761982, doing project engineering and follow up services management. He then lent his skills to Atari™ as a product safety engineer for a year. Shortly after moving to San Diego in 1983 to work with Sega Gremlin™, Lind decided to branch out on his own and launched Compliance West. n
and firmly connected together. This step will solve many data loss and reset problems between computers and general test equipment, but in the case of surge test equipment, we recommend separation of the power lines (mains) of the computer and the test equipment, as shown in Figure 2. This step allows the ground current to flow separately from the test equipment to building ground, and not influence the ground potential of the computer. A separate ground for the test equipment will solve most USB reset problems. In order to clearly illustrate the point, Figure 3 presents an incorrect mains implementation, which has a greater chance of causing resets in the USB interface. USB-Serial interfaceS In many cases, it is not possible to run separate mains circuits to laboratory test equipment to prevent resets of the USB interface. There is another method which has solved problems, and that is to employ a hybrid interface, consisting of a RS-232 serial interface on the test equipment with a proprietary circuit which changes the protocol from RS-232 to USB before presented to the computer. This allows all the benefits of the USB interface to be used by the personal computer, and also allows the robust RS-232 interface to be used on the test equipment. Location of the protocol change is important. Because of the strength of the RS-232 communication, the change to USB should be done as close to the computer end of the cable as possible. In addition, optoisolation of the interface change is imperative. This unfortunately leaves most commercial solutions out of consideration, as their unisolated interface changer is located at the RS-232 end of the cable. SolUtion recommendationS We have found that to be absolutely sure the USB interface will be robust, it is necessary to implement separate mains voltage sources for the test equipment, away from the
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emc design / filters
C l o C k i n g S t r at e g i e S f o r eMi r e d u C t i o n
Clocking Strategies for EMI Reduction
sitime corporation sunnyvale, cA
I. INTRODUCTION lectronic devices have to operate in close proximity, whether it is in the home, office, industrial establishment, or outdoors. Each of the devices may radiate electromagnetic energy, which can interfere with the operation of the rest of the devices. To avoid such harmful interference, governments and industry bodies limit the amount of energy that any device can radiate. Environmental compliance standards such as FCC Class A and B specify these limits for different categories of equipment, based on the location of end use. One of the key sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) energy is the clock tree. Good design and layout of the clock tree ensures that the system not only performs well without major timing issues, but also ensures the system passes environmental compliance standards. Careful consideration must be given to the following: • The clock source and associated traces • The circuits that are the driven with the clock. These circuits may consist of a number of discrete devices, but more often than not, it includes a small number of large integrated circuits (ICs) that perform most of the key functions for that application. • The I/O circuitry and traces that exchange data from one IC to another or to external systems. Each trace (clock or data) can be considered a transmission line and different kinds of traces have varying characteristics.
Transmission line theory is well-established in the electronics industry, so we will not go into that detail in this paper. The main reason for EMI radiation is lack of signal return path in transmission lines. This typically occurs when there is a discontinuity in the ground or signal return plane underneath the clock and signal traces. The EMI energy is typically concentrated at the clock frequency and its harmonics. The energy at higher harmonics depends on the clock signal shape. Because most clock signals have near square-wave shape with finite slew rate, the harmonics of the signal do play an important role in EMI. Generally, faster slew rates and overshoots/ undershoots due to inadequate termination result in larger EMI at the frequencies of the harmonics. The main EMI reduction techniques are as follows: 1. Shielding 2. Using solid ground or signal return path for high-speed signals 3. Signal filtering 4. Reducing rise/fall time 5. Using spread-spectrum clocking (SSC) modulation Shielding requires enclosing the system in a grounded conductive box to block the radiation of energy to the outside. In many consumer and computing applications, such enclosures are costly or are impractical due to the physical constraint of the system. The use of a solid ground is a recommended design practice for not only reducing EMI, but also for maintaining good signal integrity in high-speed signal paths. However, small amounts of energy will radiate even in the presence of a solid ground from the top side of the trace. In some high density boards,
emc test & design guide 2010
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This method has the disadvantage of increasing current consumption. but requires the clock device output drive strength to be programmable. The following sections discuss the remaining three techniques in greater detail. SIGNAL FILTERING FOR EMI REDUCTION EMI may radiate from the signal output pins and traces. IV. and • It may not be possible to reduce the rise/fall time sufficiently for highspeed clocks and signals. The filters present resistive and capacitive load to the output drivers. Figure 1 shows the amplitude of clock harmonics as a function of rise/fall time (rise and fall times are assumed to be the same). Examples include programmable oscillators. but they are more bulky and expensive. A RC filter is a single pole filter with 3dB attenuation at its cutoff frequency and 20dB/dec attenuation for frequencies above that. Some clock devices and output buffers in the large ICs allow drive strength adjustment. II. otherwise the signal swing may violate the logic threshold of the receiver digital circuits. This filter is 48 interference technology suitable for reducing EMI at high harmonics. Typically. and small board space requirement. it provides 20dB attenuation at the 11th harmonic of a clock signal. placing the filter on the clock signal may be effective solutions. 3. the short traces in the large IC packages can dominate the EMI at relatively high frequencies (greater than 500 MHz). 2.emc design / filters C l o C k i n g S t r at e g i e S f o r eMi r e d u C t i o n Figure 1. low cost. The main disadvantages of this EMI reduction method are: • It only reduces clock harmonic EMI. the maximum drive capability of the driver and the effective load capacitance define the rise/fall time. where C is the equivalent capacitance at the output. All the rise times are selected to maintain the peak-to-peak clock signal to its maximum value. the data emc test & design guide 2010 . The resistive current can be estimated by dividing the signal DC level by the equivalent resistor at the output. The cutoff frequency has to be approximately twice that of the clock frequency to avoid reducing the signal swing too much. As such. there are two ways to increase the rise/fall time: • Increase the load capacitance. but it is often difficult to identify those signals. In addition to the clock traces. especially at high harmonics. Filtering technique has the following disadvantages: 1. which in turn increase the power consumption. Therefore. and F is the clock frequency. EMI REDUCTION USING SPREAD-SPECTRUM CLOCKING (SSC) Waveform shaping methods. much of such radiation is from the board traces because the board traces are longer than the clock device pins or internal IC traces. This is especially true if separate filters have to be used for multiple signals traces. such as second order ones to attenuate higher harmonics even more. The RC filters take board space and increase the cost. such as LVCMOS. The capacitive current is computed as CVF. This method does not increase the current consumption. the rise/fall time reduction provides better harmonic EMI reduction than RC filters without sacrificing the voltage swing. 4. most harmonics can be reduced by 20dB or greater while maintaining the peak-to-peak clock swing. Rise times are normalized to the clock period. Clock signal harmonic amplitude decreases as the rise/fall time increases. EMI REDUCTION THROUGH RISE/FALL TIME CONTROL Reducing rise/fall time for singleended clocks and signals is an effective way of reducing harmonic EMI. V is the voltage swing. It is possible to design more complex filters. In such circuits. they do not decrease EMI from the chipsets and traces that are driven by buffers without filters or rise/fall time adjustment. Low pass filters do not offer much EMI reduction at the main clock frequency and first two or three harmonics. As this figure shows. The board designer has to place the filters at the dominant EMI signal outputs. III. In designs where one clock source is driving one or two main ICs. it may be difficult to guarantee a solid ground or return path for all signals without adding extra ground layers. such as filtering and rise/fall control are ineffective for reducing the EMI generated at the main harmonic from the clock traces. Most single-ended drivers. Using low pass filters at the highspeed clock and data outputs effectively attenuates the signal frequency content. • Decrease the output current drive. which increases the board cost. Typically. for example. simple RC-based low pass filters are used due to their simplicity. Additionally. consist of push-pull circuits. In some cases.
com/new_emc You don’t have to know everything about sinusoidal filters to select the best solution for your motor drive system. 12 & 16A motor power: 1. but it is more complex to implement. reliability and efficiency? Featuring our new FMAC SINE and FMAC SINE DCL filters designed to output clean sine waves from voltage wave forms produced by your system’s PWM frequency converter: operating voltage: 3x500/288 VAC rated currents: 4. Board designers use slew rate control and proper transmission line design to reduce EMI. That’s our job. The SSC modulation profile can be centered on the non-SSC clock frequency. and the latter down-spread. the residual EMI at main frequency and its harmonics may still be high. screw clamp terminals range that the clock harmonic spreads over after SSC modulation. ASSC(i) is the amplitude of the clock i-th harmonic amplitude after SSC modulation. or be less than the non-SSC clock frequency. 8.com interference technology 49 .schurterinc. which offers optimally flat carrier spectrum. as defined by the federal communication commission (FCC). This profile effectively distributes the carrier frequency energy uniformly over the modulation range and provides a fairly flat spectrum at the clock frequency and its harmonics. and that the percentage harmonic spectrum is fairly flat after SSC nodulation. but it may still exceed acceptable levels because there are typically many more data signals in a system than clock ones. The modulation spreads the clock energy over a larger bandwidth. The f SSC _range is computed as f SSC _ = fclk (i).screw-on mounting. SSCpercentage. Aclk (i) is the clock i-th harmonic amplitude before SSC modulation.5dB less peak EMI than triangular modulation. which reduces the maximum power for a given spectral bandwidth. The most common spectral bandwidth for measuring the peak EMI is 100 kHz. as shown in Figure 2b. Why not go straight to Schurter for filters that improve system performance.5 – 7. the EMI at the higher harmonics of the clock are reduced more than the lower ones. Such energy is attenuated by the random nature of the data signals. The most commonly used modulation profiles is the triangular one. but due to large number of sources. and RBW is the bandwidth for measuring EMI energy. Assuming that the clock frequency is modulated by a given percentage. The former is called center-spread. Sinusoidal modulation does not provide the same flatness due to A) its non-uniform frequency distribution.Ta b aTa b a e i emc design / filters lines may also radiate energy.SSCpercentage. The SSC modulation rate in most applications is 32 kHz to provide fairly flat response in the region over which the carrier frequency is spread. spread spectrum clocking is an effective system-wide EMI reduction solution. SSC is implemented by modulating the clock signal with a low rate frequency modulation.5 kW motor frequency: 0-200 Hz switching frequency: 2-20 kHz FMAC SINE for cable length <=200 m. Figure 2c shows Hershey-Kiss shaped modulation profile. This profile offers 1. the peak energy reduction can be approximated as below: where. The down-spread ensures that the SSC modulation does not cause periods shorter than those interferencetechnology. Therefore. f SSC _range is the frequency EMC SINE wave output filters A) B) U B) U U U U U ---> I I I I I I www. Also. In such cases. the larger the EMI reduction. range the EMI reduction at the i-th harmonic can be computed as below: ASSC(i)(dB) = Aclk(i)(dB) −10log10(SSCpercentage. FMAC SINE with DC Link for cable length <=1000 m . fclk(i)/ RBW ) This equation indicates that the larger the clock frequency.
They indicate that the EMI at higher harmonics are reduced more than that of lower harmonics. Service. third. we are the superlative EMI solutions provider. The advantage is easier buffer management in the I/O systems. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the EMI reduction for the first. and worldwide ISO9001 manufacturing. regulate and govern electronic performance. Value. BATAVIA ST. the user has to ensure that the processor and state machines are rated for the maximum frequency of the clock with SSC. SSC modulation profiles. These figures clearly show that the higher the clock frequency. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the EMI reduction for the measured main harmonic of 12 MHz and 125 MHz clocks. however. manufacturer & distributor of EMI filters and magnetic products. The down-spread. Radius Power is a leader in the design & manufacture of power products used to condition. leads to an average frequency that can vary over a large range.g. This is especially important for processor applications to ensure that that clock period does not violate the critical path timing in the internal state machines of the processor. Such large average frequency variation may result in buffer overflow in some I/O systems. a few hundred parts per million (ppm). of the clock without the SSC modulation.emc design / filters C l o C k i n g S t r at e g i e S f o r eMi r e d u C t i o n Figure 2. The company provides a broad line of EMI Filters. Power Transformers & Inductors to meet front-end requirements for AC & DC power line applications. but leads to short periods. Comprehensive EMI Solutions. For center-spread modulation.. Power Entry Modules. Call Radius today. It is this commitment to total solutions without compromise that has led to our established position as a premier designer. fifth. e. The center-spread guarantees more accurate average frequency. The modulation range is 2% and modulation profile is triangular in both cases. Plug into our comprehensive solutions. The cornerstones of our mission are simple: Quality. 714-289-0055 PH 714-289-2149 FAX www. quick-turn protos. and seventh harmonics of a 100 MHz clocks with 2% down-spread triangular modulation.radiuspower.com 1751 N. On Time & On Budget From design. We offer free pre-compliance testing for conducted emissions at our labs or yours! Bring us your EMI challenge & we will provide an optimized solution usually within 48 hours. CA 92865 50 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . the larger the EMI reduction. Integrity. ORANGE. respectively.
filtemc. Main harmonic spectrum for a 12 MHz clock with and without 2% down-spread triangular SSC modulation. such as printers and microcontroller applications because it offers the following advantages: 1. the oscillator can be replaced with SSC ones to reduce EMI without changing anything else in the system. Flexibility: A system may be designed with non-SSC clocks. If the EMI testing shows EMI issues. which lead to EMI radiation from some traces. waveform shaping.com interference technology 51 . Product range: ▪ AC single-phase filter ▪ AC three. One solution is to add ground plane layers. b. 3.com | Website: www.Ta b aTa b a e i emc design / filters SSC is used widely in certain applications. 2.250032. but that adds board cost.5 TO 1200A EMI FILTER FOR BETTER POWER QUALITY In our ISO 9001:2000-certificated factory. No need to use expensive shielding techniques. Ltd.Tianqiao Industrial Area. SSC technique can reduce EMI and save additional ground planes. Reduced cost: a. telecom and machinery etc in China.phase filter ▪ Inverter input/output filter ▪ Photovoltaic inverter system filter ▪ Household appliance filter ▪ Medical appliance filter ▪ Terminal block series filter ▪ IEC inlet filter/power entry modules ▪ DC filter ▪ PCB filter JINAN Filtemc Electronic Equipment Co. It may be difficult to ensure that all data and clock signals have uninterrupted ground plane underneath. # 9 Lanxiang Road. ground plane continuity. System-wide EMI reduction. such as filtering. and shielding reduce EMI at the specific places where this techniques are used. In 0.Shandong. Jinan. This will minimize Figure 3. the SSC percentage may be adjusted to the minimum needed to meet EMI goals.com RoHS interferencetechnology.. automation. Also. Other EMI reduction approaches. Recued ground layers. Please contact us for a catalog. Most products have UL/CUL and CE certifications and comply with the RoHS Directive.China Tel: 0086-531-85738859 | Fax: 0086-531-85717366 Email: filtemc@filtemc. the impact on the system timing margins. FILTEMC design and manufacture emi/emc filter for consumer goods. or inquire your OEM/ODM needs.
SSC modulation. We have an experienced team of engineers to assist you with new designs.0 standard includes SSC as a mandatory feature. some periods are shorter than the ones without SSC. a processor. in 100MHz clock with 1% SSC modulation. PCI-Express. and local distributors.. Ferrite Machining and Antenna/RFID Applications. the sink may ignore or insert some bits between transmission packets to adjust the rate difference dynamically. Deeper I/O buffers and more complex buffer management required. Wallkill. Please visit www. SSC clock jitter performance is often specified using the concept of cycle-to-cycle jitter. 1 Commercial Row. The more recent USB3. You can also easily contact applications engineers. To avoid this issue.com /www. adding SSC to the clock.emc design / filters C l o C k i n g S t r at e g i e S f o r eMi r e d u C t i o n Figure 4. the peakto-peak period jitter increase by 1% of the clock period. reduces EMI from all signals that are synchronous with that clock regardless of their locations. the sink needs to buffer received data and avoid loosing data. Since the clocks are not synchronous. When SSC is used. PCI.fair-rite. 2. Fair-Rite manufactures a comprehensive line of ferrite components for EMI Suppression. When center-spread is used. Serial ATA (SATA). and data sink. peripheral device.fair-rite. The I/O standard that allow such protocols optionally include DDR2. however. Main harmonic spectrum for a 125 MHz clock with and without 2% down-spread triangular SSC modulation.com contrast. C2C jitter is defined as the variation of one cycle of a clock signal relative to its adjacent emc test & design guide 2010 52 interference technology .. e. Fair-Rite is the first US soft ferrite manufacturer to receive ISO/TS 16949 certification. NY 12589 USA (888) FAIRRITE (324-7748) / (845) 895-2055 / Fax (845) 895-2629 ferrites@fair-rite. PCI-X. which may violate the critical path timing in digital circuits. Be sure to bookmark our website as your source for ferrite information. down-spread is often the preferred SSC type because it guarantees that no clock period becomes shorter than the ones without SSC. sales representatives. Using SSC modulation for other types of I/O that do not include specific buffering features is generally not recommended. or 100ps. SSC modulation increases period jitter. fully-buffered DIMM (FBDIMM). For example. the sink has to include some type of buffer management protocol to ensure it can adjust for the rate difference between its clock and the source one. Also. DDR3. e.com to view our online catalog and find a variety of new help tools and search features. For example. the buffer depth and management protocol has to be able to accommodate significant variable difference between source and sink clock rate. PO Box 288. Custom Cores. Many systems use two different clocks at the data source. Power Applications. is not always a solution to EMI problems in the following situations: 1.g.g.
the impact of the SSC on two adjacent cycles is very similar. Solutions. V. This ensures that C2C capture the jitter at higher frequency offsets and excludes SSCinduced jitter. it captures the impact of clock jitter in terms of critical path timing more effectively.. Captor’s superior engineering and design has meant quality.com interference technology 53 . To ensure multiple systems can operate properly in close proximity. Quality. Because the SSC modulation rate is typically very low.captorcorp. economy. Need an EMI Filter? Do you need help meeting your EMI/EMC requirements? Did you just fail your EMI test? Is physical size a limitation? IT’S TIME TO GET WHAT YOU NEED. Major EMI reduction Figure 5. Expertise. and hence their difference is very insensitive to the SSC modulation. As such. Custom filters in any shape/size/configuration Any voltage/frequency/current/power Prototypes through production Visit Us Online! www. EMI radiation from each system has to meet limits defined by industry or government bodies. It can be shown that the SSC-induced phase modulation is filtered with a filter response that has a 3dB corner frequency and ¼ of the clock frequency and attenuation rate of 40dB/dec at low frequency offset . First and third harmonic spectrum for a 100 MHz clock with and without 2% downspread triangular SSC modulation. CONCLUSIONS EMI radiation may result in significant interference of one electronic system to other systems close by. and outstanding service. Tipp City.com © 2007 Captor Corporation interferencetechnology. County Rd.captorcorp.Ta b aTa b a e i emc design / filters cycle.com For over 40 years. Ohio 45371 • Phone: (937) 667-8484 • Fax: (937) 667-5133 www. Call now for more details. 5040 S.
It also reduces EMI at both main harmonics and high harmonics.  H. Reducing rise/fall time 5. Using spread-spectrum clocking (SSC) modulation The shielding can be costly. REFERENCES •  Office of Engineering and Technology. Ensuring solid ground is an effective method. non-licensed transmitters”. SSC modulation reduces EMI system-wide because the modulation is distributed to all the signal that stem from the SSC clock. from the University of British Columbia. it cannot be used for Ethernet and high-speed USB2. Rise/fall time reduction is a very effective method for reducing EMI at high harmonics without increasing power consumption or requiring additional board components. Skinner. Harding. Prior to that. he held executive and technical management positions at Guide Technology. 45. Vancouver. which increases cost. and can also increase power consumption. However. 63. 2001. Vol. and sometimes difficult to accommodate due to the physical constraints of the system. it is not always a practical solution because it can lead to more ground plane layers. The main drawback of SSC modulation is that its use is limited to system that use I/O interfaces that include buffer management features required for handling the dynamic rate variations caused by the SSC modulation. Using solid ground or signal return path for high-speed signals 4. IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. n 54 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Oglesbee. “Investigation into the interference potential of spread-spectrum clock generation to broadband digital communications”. R.D. “Understanding the FCC regulations for low-power. 1. February 2003. which should be followed as a good board layout design practice. A. All the methods above are localized to the specific traces. In contrast. F. Shielding 2. K. Federal Communication Commission. No. • • SASSAN TABATABAEI has held the position of Director of Strategic Applications at SiTime Corporation since 2008. regardless of where that are located. He received his Ph.emc design / filters C l o C k i n g S t r at e g i e S f o r eMi r e d u C t i o n techniques include: 1.0 I/Os. and Vector12. OET Bulletin. such method is only possible if the clock and data buffers and I/Os provide rise/ Figure 6. No. However. IEEE Transaction on Electromagnetic Compatibility. “Why spread spectrum clocking of computing devices is not cheating”. October 1993. Virage Logic. Fifth and seventh harmonic spectrum for a 100 MHz clock with and without fall time adjustment.  K. For example. Slattery. Fisher. 2% downspread triangular SSC modulation. BC. Signal filtering 3. Canada in Electrical Engineering in 2000. Signal filtering requires additional board space and components.
From the human body’s point of view.in an attempt to become electrically neutral. from interferencetechnology. but now we know that passive components such as resistors can sometimes be more sensitive to ESD than active components. The most common cause of ESD damage is direct transfer of an electric charge from either a human body or a charged material to an ESD-sensitive (ESDS) device. When this energy is concentrated in a small area of a resistor’s active element. such as the affinity of the two bodies and the air humidity. For many years it was thought that semiconductor components such as diodes and transistors were particularly susceptible to ESD. so any discharge that can be felt is above this voltage level. The smaller the resistor. the net energy is small compared to the size of the human body over which it is spread. Resistance changes due to ESD damage. like load-induced changes.2 ppm/°C ESD damage can occur at any stage of a 30Ω to 3 MΩ Thin Film 10 ppm/°C component’s life. transients & esd How smaller Form Factors Exacerbate Esd Risks and How Foil Resistors Can Help YUVAL HERNIK Vishay Precision group Malvern. Because the duration of this high voltage spike is less than a microsecond long. are becoming smaller and smaller. physical construction and thickness. arcing. PA or most of us. REsIstoRs ANd Esd In resistors. causing them to be more prone to ESD damage. the relative energy density is so great that RANGE OF OHMIC many components can PRODUCT BEST TCR. value.” the resistive element may heat up to the point of sustaining irreversible damage. ESD can be defined as a rapid transfer of charge between bodies at different electrical potentials . With the growing trend of miniaturization. 5Ω to 150 kΩ Bulk Metal Foil 0. The human threshold for feeling an ESD is only around 3000 V. electrostatic discharge (ESD) and static electricity are little more than the shocks received when touching a metal doorknob after walking along a carpeted floor. are permanent and can either increase or decrease the device’s resistance value depending upon the resistor’s design and technology. But when the discharge is across a small electronic deTABLE 1 .either by direct contact. ESD does no harm. and in particular where there is a high current density or “hot spot. ESD sensitivity is a function of size. including resistors. Unless specific precautions are taken. electronic devices. the less space there is to spread the energy caused by an ESD pulse. these “harmless” shocks can reach values over 25. RANGE SIZES levels as low as 3000 V or even 500 V. or induction . interference technology 55 . a wide range of electronic components can be damaged by ESD.000 V. Even so.ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF FOIL AND THIN FILM CHIPS vice.H E RNIK lightning.com F manufacturing to service. VALUES. or when opening a car door. The level of the voltage produced depends on a number of factors. ALL CHIP be damaged by ESD at TECHNOLOGY MIL.
This severely limits the device’s capability to withstand the energy that is passed through it during an electrostatic discharge. TABLE 2 . and in resistors is generally exhibited by a change in the electrical resistance of the device. Current through the resistor follows along the random contacts formed among the metal particles. Thin Film resistors are sensitive to energy and can experience value changes of up to 5 % before the ESD causes the film to rupture or to melt.169 0. The susceptibility to change does not stop at manufacture and the resistor is subject to similar changes every time the resistor experiences an ESD event. load life.2 10 ESD TEST VOLTAGE  (V) 500 1000 1500 2000 3000 ESD ENERGY [EmJ] 0. the molecular structure of the resistance element is the same as the base alloy and therefore has the same metallurgical stability and the same ability to withstand power surges and long-term drift. and it is no longer suitable for its original function. thus a parametric failure may be present even if the device is still functional. The foil is 100 times thicker than Thin Film.094 0.5 x 0.675 ENERGY DENSITY (E mJ/mm 2 ) 0. As a foil.019 0. the load life of the device has been dramatically reduced. Each has specific characteristics related to ESD sensitivity. since it is very difficult to detect by re-measurement or by visual inspection. • Bulk Metal Foil resistors have a number of characteristics that make them superior to both Thin and Thick Film when it comes to withstanding ESD. Bulk Metal Foil resistors are comprised of a single layer of special metal alloy rolled into a foil and mounted on a high thermal conductivity ceramic substrate with maximum foil-ceramic interface contact for maximum eduction of heat. transients & esd Three CaTegories of esD Damage • Parametric Failure: Parametric failure occurs when the ESD event alters one or more device parameters (resistance in the case of resistors). ASSIGNED ESD TEST VOLTAGE AND ENERGY DENSITY STYLE METRIC RR1005M RR1608M RR2012M RR3216M RR5025M INCHES RR0402 RR0603 RR0805 RR1206 RR2010 RESISTIVE LAYER’S DIMENTIONS (mm) 0.6 4 x 2. This is especially crucial in resistors requiring high precision and reliability.068 NOTES:  Approximate dimensions of the part of chip’s surface occupied by the pattern.8 1. This may occur after one or a number of ESD events with diverse causes.100 0. H o w S m a l l e r F o r m F a c t o r S e x a c e r b at e e S D r i S k S The three most common resistor technologies are Thin Film. usually ceramic.5 1 x 0. But now its parameters have been altered. As a result. ESD-induced changes while in service can cause resistance changes up to 50%. The consequences of such changes may not be immediately apparent but rather may manifest themselves only during circuit temperature excursions. • Thick Film resistors are comprised of a random dispersion of conducting metal particles within a non-conducting particulate medium. Thick Film. causing it to be very sensitive to ESD damage.4 x 1.CHIP RESISTOR STYLES. However. as the device appears to be functioning correctly. or any other parametric-shifting influence that would normally be accommodated through error-envelope planning for net accumulated shift limitations.076 0. Damage to an ESDS device depends on the device’s ability to dissipate energy and withstand the energy of the voltage levels involved. in mm  Per draft Iinternational Standard prEN140401-801:200X emc test & design guide 2010 56 interference technology .2 2 x 1. which typically ranges from 5% to 20%. • Thin Film resistors are composed of a metal layer that is only a few hundred angstroms thick. which is easily sufficient to cause a malfunction. and therefore the heat capacity of the resistive foil layer is much higher compared to the Thin Film resistive layer.075 0.25 0.lightning. Power surges cause breakdowns in some of the inter-particulate isolation. For example. such as human body discharge or the mere presence of an electrostatic field. • Catastrophic Damage: Catastrophic damage has occurred when the ESD event causes the device to immediately stop functioning. Latent damage is the source for greatest concern. hence they are also known as “cermet” resistors.5 LAYER’S AREA (mm 2 ) 0. if a 10 kΩ resistor with a 1 % tolerance undergoes an ESD event that changes its resistance to 11 kΩ (a 10 % deviation). the device would still be able to function as a resistor. which is not noticeable. resisTor TeChnologies anD esD sensiTiviTy Different resistor technologies exhibit various levels of sensitivity to ESD damage.8 1.300 0. causing it to shift from its required tolerance.7 3. • Latent Damage: Latent damage has occurred when the ESD event causes moderate damage to the device. This fact is so well established that Thick Film manufacturers use controlled power surges to tune the resistors to the required resistance and tolerance. and further degradation caused by operating stresses may cause the device to fail during service. and Bulk Metal Foil. thermal shocks.094 0. Thus. thereby reducing resistance by establishing new additional current paths. since damage may have occurred under the external coating. ESD surges almost always cause a reduction in resistance. This failure does not directly pertain to functionality.
The superiority of Bulk Metal® foil precision resistors over Thin Film. while Thin Film chip resistors have been seen to undergo catastrophic failures at electric potentials as low as 3000 V and parametric failures at even lower voltages. rolled to a thickness between 2 and 10 microns. A typical thickness of the Thin Film layer is about 1/100 of the Bulk Metal Foil. However.All in one design (no base unit) . Thin Film. Thin Film chip production involves deposition (by evaporation. mainly nickel-chromium or Tantalum Nitride.linkedin. to a ceramic substrate. and provide outstanding performance due to the high quality design by the pioneers of EMC test equipment.Modular .Smart multi-function key www.com email@example.com and 30kV contact and air discharge .hipotronics. ConClusions • When it comes to withstanding ESD. Tests show that Bulk Metal Foil chip resistors can withstand ESD events above 25 000 V. in rectangular shapes. the results depend also on the test method used. Thin Film is created through particle deposition processes (evaporation or sputtering).com interference technology 57 . is attributed mainly to their greater thickness (foil is typically 100 times thicker than Thin Film). Tables 3.Battery and mains operation . the ESD of precision chip resistors depends on the following: • Resistive material • Production technology (Thick Film. If the application is likely to confront the resistor with ESD pulses of significant magnitude.com Electrostatic Discharge Simulator www. and therefore the heat capacity of the resistive foil layer is much higher compared to the Thin Film layer. 4. • The standard for ESD protection in chip resistors ranges from 1 kV to TesTing ResisToRs foR esD sensiTiviTy Manufacturers test for ESD sensitivity (ESDS) per customer request. designed to ensure the highest level of comfort when testing.Meets all the latest standards . Table 2 represents chips which are made in standardized sizes.com/companies/hipotronics ITEMTDGuideFall10 interferencetechnology. when subjected to ESD.Touch screen . connected on two sides to two termination pads. Table 1 shows typical specifications for two main technologies used in production of high precision surface mounted chip resistors: Bulk Metal Foil and Thin Film. and 5 show the results of ESD tests on Thin Film. Thick Film. In the middle of the rectangle is a pattern formed in the resistive layer of foil or Thin Film. sputtering or similar methods) on a ceramic substrate of a film. Bulk Metal Foil chips are produced by cementing a nickel-chromium alloy Introducing our latest advancement in EMC technology The most ergonomic ESD guns on the market. and Foil resistor chips. . • Foil chips can handle an order of magnitude more ESD energy than Thin Film chips without experiencing a change in their resistance. while foil is a bulk alloy with a crystalline structure created through hot and cold rolling of the melt. or Foil) • Chip size • Ohmic value • Resistive layer’s thickness • Resistor’s construction • Design of the resistive pattern In testing the influence of above factors.com join our group! www.Ergonomic design and operation .Optical interface . the best resistor choice is Bulk Metal Foil. Foil resistors have a clear advantage over Thin Film chips.haefely-onyx. but usually do not publish ESDS specifications in their data sheets.H E RNIK lightning. transients & esd foil.
1% to 0. THIN FILM DISTRIBUTION OF 20 CHIPS BY % OF DEVIATION AFTER ESD DISCHARGE TYPE AND VALUE FOIL. -16.2 % 0 3 0 0.5 % 0 0 0.5 % 0 12 0 0 20 20 0.01 % 13 0 4 20 0 0 TABLE 4 . -4.01 % 1 20 Complete Compliance EMI & ANTISTATIC PROTECTION From Large to Small Projects All new MODULAR Compact Immunity Tester TRA3000 Modular Plug and Play design.1 % 1 0 0.2% to 0.lightning. 1000 Ω >0. No soldering.com emc test & design guide 2010 58 interference technology .02% to 0. Conductive & Anti-Static Fabric Assemblies.2kV ESD DISCHARGE . FOIL VS.02 % 6 0 4 0 0 0 <0. -8.05 % 1 0 8 0 0 0 0. -5. even over your LAN! USB and RS232 interfaces included.05% to 0.05 % 14 0 0.02 % 3 0 <0. FOIL VS.1% to 0.artech2000. -11. -9.02 % 8 0 <0.05 % 1 1 0 0.1 % 0 2 0 0.5 % 0 4 0 0. Conﬁgure as needed now. 1000 Ω TF2.5 % 0 10 0 0.2% to 0.1 % 0 0 2 0 0 0 0.24kV ESD DISCHARGE . CA 92334 (909) 829-4444 www.2% to 0. 30 Ω FOIL 1000 Ω TF1. 30 Ω FOIL. Complete solution to IEC 61000-4-16 continuous and short duration test requirements. transients & esd H o w S m a l l e r F o r m F a c t o r S e x a c e r b at e e S D r i S k S TABLE 3 .01% to 0.01% to 0.01 % 11 20 TABLE 5 . add more circuits later using just a screw driver.5 % 0 0 0. FOIL VS. Clean Rooms & Designed Cable Wrap Assemblies Call Today 703-365-2330 www.hvtechnologies.05% to 0.1% to 0.5 % 0 8 1 0 0 0 0.com • emcsales@hvtechnologies. Conﬁgure with available accessories to meet some or all of the following CE MARK requirements: IEC 61000-4-2. THIN FILM DISTRIBUTION OF 20 CHIPS BY % OF DEVIATION AFTER ESD DISCHARGE TYPE AND VALUE FOIL 30 Ω TF1.COMPARISON OF DEVIATIONS.2 % 0 0 1 0 0 0 0. Ethernet interface with on-board web server and I/P addressing enables computer control from any computer with a web browser. Full line of AUTOMATED three phase and I/O line CDN’s up 100 Amps per phase. 1000 Ω >0.2 % 1 0 0.05% to 0. 30 Ω FOIL. 1000 Ω >0.3kV ESD DISCHARGE . -29 Protective Covers Thermal & Acoustical Insulation Assemblies EMI.02% to 0.COMPARISON OF DEVIATIONS. 30 Ω TF2.1% to 0.02% to 0.COMPARISON OF DEVIATIONS. Fontana.com 16246 Valley Blvd. THIN FILM DISTRIBUTION OF 20 CHIPS BY % OF DEVIATION AFTER ESD DISCHARGE TYPE AND VALUE FOIL 30 Ω TF2.
4.5 CV2 is discharged into two resistors connected in series: discharge resistor RDIS of 330 Ω representing the resistance of a human body and RDUT .lightningtech. n 3 kV. Zandman et al. No. • RC time constant = (330 + 2) x 150 x 10-12 Ω x (s/Ω) = 49.com 10 Downing Industrial Parkway Pittsfield.12.H E RNIK lightning. ENErgy of ESD AbSorbED by A rESIStor ChIP • The ESD is simulated by charging a capacitor of C = 150 pF to a specified voltage V.05 Ω. or a non-uniform film deposition process.Sc in electrical engineering from the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology).8 x ns (compared to 150 ns. has been involved in the certification of virtually every type of aircraft flying today.5 % + 0.of the DUT. but Bulk Metal Foil resistors can handle ESD pulses up to 24 kV with no significant shift in resistance (measured shifts were less than 0. Lightning Technologies.01 % for a 1000-Ω resistor) • Thin film chips from different sources and with different values show non-uniform behavior with respect to ESD. and Manufacturing Technology. in our case the tested chip. • A test simulator generates an adjustable voltage ESD pulse by discharging a 150 pF capacitor to the device under Lightning Technologies. The limit of allowed change of resistance is set for all chip stability levels at 0. As a result. •  International Standard EN 140401-801:2002 •  F. Hybrids. Lightning Protection Certification and Engineering Services Direct and Indirect Effects Testing Professional Training Courses Research Projects interferencetechnology. 2002 •  Technical Note “ESD Sensitivity of Precision Chip Resistors Comparison between Foil and thin Film Chips” By Joseph Szwarc. He has been a director of application engineering at Vishay Precision Group— Bulk Metal Foil resistors—since 2008. • The ESD exponential waveform which was calibrated with a discharge resistance of 330 + 2 Ω will have a time constant which is twice as long when the DUT is a resistor of 332 Ω and much longer with a high ohmic value DUT.: Resistor Theory and Technology. • The stored energy E = 0. 2008 •  Vishay Technical Note “Resistor Sensitivity to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)” By Yuval Hernik 2007 YUVAL HERNIK holds a B. SciTek Publishing.1 % for a 30-Ω resistor and less than 0.com lti@lightningtech. This may be due to a pattern design that was not optimized for ESD. MA 01201-3890 USA Telephone (413) 499-2135 FAX (413) 499-2503 www. Over its 27 years of aerospace lightningprotection services. Vol. IEEE Transactions on Components. or a substrate material that was not of the best quality. Inc. per ANSI standard).com photo © 2002 peter menzel interference technology 59 . Inc. transients & esd test (DUT) with a discharge resistor of 330 Ω connected in series. APPENDIX Standards for ESD Testing Of Chip Resistors • The international standard IEC 61340-3-1 describes the testing of electronic components for ESD compatibility by using the Human Body Model (HBM). Inc. December 1989. Test voltages are listed in table 2. the following voltage VDUT and energy EDUT are applied to the chip: • VDUT = V x RDUT /(330 + RDUT) • EDUT = E x RDUT /(330 + RDUT) rEfErENCES •  Thiet The Lai: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitivity of thin-Film Hybrid Passive Components.
the FCC has turned on the certification process for systems that operate in the 5GHz DFS bands and operate outdoors. there was some discussion on RLAN possibly interfering with radar systems despite DFS. including RLAN systems . However. Since the systems causing the interference were outdoor systems. Interference was to the TDWRs from RLAN operating in the 5600-5650 MHz band specifically. the users could select different country settings and actually turn off DFS. It was discovered that. In April of 2009. in some cases. The following year the FCC updated its Part 15. the International Telecommunications Union – Radio adopted Recommendation 229. As part of sharing the bands with other services on a non-interference basis. oh I n July of 2003. no further approvals would 60 interference technology . Additional information can be found in the FCC KDB 443999. The requirements for the indoor systems operating in the 5470-5725 MHz are as follows per FCC KDB 443999: 1) The device must not be able to operate on the 5600–5650 MHz band 2) The device must be marketed and sold for indoor use only 3) The information on indoor use only in the 5470-5725 MHz needs to be in the manual or on a label on the device emc test & design guide 2010 david a. the device could only detect the very specific waveforms of the test procedure. intERim Solution An ad-hoc industry workgroup was formed by interested parties and after a series of discussions with member companies. the RLAN systems are required to use TPC (Transmitter Power Control) and DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection).S T D 461F TE S T S E T U p understanding the Changes to fCC 5 Ghz part 15.S T D 462/461E C o M pa r E D T o MIL. REpoRtEd pRoblEmS in thE fiEld During discussions on CRS /SDR issues at WP5a in late 2008. be granted for these systems.407 regulations to include the 54705725 MHz band. CaSE cisco systems richfield. in other cases.407 Regulations As of October 15. both Cognitive Radio Techniques . allocating the 5150-5350 MHz and 5470-5725 MHz bands to mobile service.telecom MIL. based on discussions with members of the industry. In discussions with the FCC lab. the FCC released in October 2009 an interim procedure for approving master devices operating in these bands indoors. the problem told to industry was that there were a number of FAA Terminal Doppler Weather Radars that were being interfered with by RLAN systems and that until the investigation was complete and a possible solution found. as well as require changes for devices that operate in the 5250-5350 MHz band. it was reported that the FCC was holding up applications for new grants for 5GHz systems specifically in the DFS bands. as well as some interference from systems operating on the channels adjacent to this band. nothing concrete was presented at these meetings.
operators and all such installers with specific instructions in their user’s manual on requirements to avoid interference TDWR and information that meet the following instructions: • Any installation within 35 km of a TDWR location shall be separated by at least 30 MHz (center-tocenter) from TDWR operating frequency (as shown in the attached table).aspx). This document was sent out for comments and the comments are now being reviewed by the FCC. fines were assessed. as follows: • Devices must be professionally installed when operating in the 5470 – 5725 MHz band. the FCC issued a Public Notice from OET and Enforcement Bureau asking all manufacturers to reach out to their customers and inform them of this issue. In cases where the systems were compliant. for Cisco Systems Inc. and • Procedures must be provided for the installers and the operators on how to register the devices in the industry-sponsored database with the appropriate information regarding the location and operation of the device and installer information in that database. Devices intended for outdoor use will be further restricted. corporate compliance EMC standards and operations. Ohio. country code settings or other options to modify DFS functions) may be provided to change the frequency of operations to any frequency other than those specified on the grant of certification for US operation. interferencetechnology.com interference technology 61 . Devices will not permit operation on channels which overlap the 5600 – 5650 MHz band. n 4) The end user cannot have access to controls set to other regulatory domains or country settings nor be able to turn off DFS The above FCC KDB allowed the process for indoor-only devices to be turned on and then the focus was on outdoor devices.CaSE Frequency band 5470-5725 MHz 5470-5725 MHz TDWR >35 km 5600-5650 MHz band off Registration not required TDWR <35 km 5600-5650 MHz band off Register in Database telecom • Devices must meet all of the other requirements specified in Section 15. spectrumbridge. • All applications must clearly show compliance with all of the technical requirements under worse case parameters under user or operator control based on frame rates. As the issues progresses it is best to check with the FCC lab on status of approvals of outdoor systems and also to keep up to date on changes via possibly new FCC KDB’s. To this effort the industry. CASE. • The next phase will be to develop new radar waveforms for the DFS testing which would test the ability of the systems to detect these TDWR systems.com/udia/home. The third solution is to work towards a goal to allow the approvals of outdoor RLAN operating in the 54705725 MHz band to go forward. a voluntary database has been developed that allows operators and installers to register the location information of the UNII devices operating outdoors in the 5470–5725 MHz band when they are installed within 35 km of any TDWR location. 4. In some cases where either the products were non compliant or that the operator made unauthorized changes. This issue was addressed in a several tier approach. the FCC and NTIA are meeting to discuss and review requirements. The manufacturers are conducting an outreach to their customers as part of this effort to help resolve the interference issues.com. He can be reached at davecase@cisco. The first is the interim procedure which is the next revision of KDB 443999. listen/talk ratios and user data transfer conditions. (See http://www. NCE. DAVID A. Further NTIA will be doing some additional testing of the WLAN systems against the new radar wave forms. This is being done in a multi-step solution. NCT. and no configuration controls (e. is senior regulatory engineer. The proposal is as follows as extracted from FCC KDB: 1. • Grantees must provide owners. in Richfield. Second. the systems were set to other frequencies to avoid causing problems. 2.407. The first was that the FAA and FCC were investigating the interference and tracking down these systems. As part of this effort.g.
while H-field (loop antenna) will produce overly severe results. to the remaining field when the shield is in place. privileged a parameter that is intrinsic to the cable shield and to nothing else. measured by a radiated method could vary widely from one test configuration to another. The transfer impedance relates the current flowing on a shield surface to the voltage it develops on the other side of this surface. since long. as frequency increases) and to the leakage inductance through the braid’s holes. Furthermore. the less the longitudinal shield’s voltage. a brilliant concept introduced by Schelkunoff around 1934-38.room. leaving the user with a SE figure which may not be transposable to his specific application. Brush-up on Transfer Impedance Zt Until a few decades ago. with a shielded cable. This is accomplished by the Transfer Impedance (Zt). the effects of the incident field are measured instead: that is the voltage (or current) induced on an unshielded wire illuminated by a given field. This latter is more specifically addressed here. as the ratio of the E (or H) field outside to the E (or H ) field inside. emc test & design guide 2010 62 interference technology . 6 dB). the Shielding Effectiveness (SE) of a cable was defined more or less in the same manner as for a Faraday cage or any shielded enclosure. the measured SE will depend on the type of antenna being used : E-field illumination will give flattering results. Like any radiated EMC measurement. as well as to Shielded Twisted Pairs (STP). the measurement itself is not so easy.shielding D i f f e r e n t i a l tr a n s f e r i m p e D a n c e o f s h i e l D e D t w i s t e D p a i r s differential Transfer impedance of Shielded Twisted Pairs Michel Mardiguian Private emc consultant st rémy lès chevreuse. More exactly. in a shielded . test variables like the cable height and its terminating resistors are introducing poorly controlled effects. requiring the making of a strong electromagnetic field. Although the principle looks sound and simple. In such case. hence a set of RF amplifiers and antennas. In summary. Schelkunoff in 1934. through the concept of Differential Transfer Impedance (Ztd). this diffusion rapidly becomes unmeasurable. is a very convenient parameter for prediction & control of EMI coupling through cable shields. for 1m antenna distance. In practice. the EMC Community has. the field that would exist at a given point if the shield was not there. to the voltage (or current) on a shielded version of a similar conductor. france T he concept of Shield Transfer Impedance Zt. the test falls in near-field conditions. the SE of a same sample. Although widely applied to coaxial cables against EMI susceptility problems. The better the quality of the braid. This voltage is due to a current coupling through the shield thickness (if the shield is a solid tube. aggravated by the fact that below 50MHz. due to skin effect. the Zt parameter can be easily extended to coaxial cables EMI emissions problems. introduced by S. Instead of an SE figure which is installation-dependent. it is plagued with a substantial uncertainty ( typ.preferrably anechoic. providing a SE figure in dB. i.
For a good single layer braid. Because of shield imperfections (shield resistance and braiding interstices) a small voltage appears in the inner space between the center conductor and the shield.shielding D i f f e r e n t i a l tr a n s f e r i m p e D a n c e o f s h i e l D e D t w i s t e D p a i r s Figure 1. connected to a Spectrum Analyzer or Oscilloscope input. Zt. This voltage. Zt remains constant. A current Is (Figure 1) forced on the shield by a generator or current clamp inserted in the cableto-ground loop. So. less prone to errors and unaccuracies than a radiated test. such as: Zt (Ω/m) = Vi (Volt) / (Ish x l m) (1) where. The concept of transfer impedance. uSing Zt in SuScePTiBiliTy PredicTion for a coaxial caBle Initially. Zt increases with frequency. 64 interference technology . being merely the shield’s ohmic resistance. each end takes one half of the full induced voltage Vi. Lt ranges around 1nH /m. using a conducted injection set-up. Below about 100kHz. causing a noise current to circulate in the center conductor Ish = external current injected into the shield by the EMI source If the cable is terminated at both ends in loads R L matched to its characteristic impedance. Finally: Zt (Ω/m) = 2 x V L/ ( Ish x lm ) Typical values of Z t for various coaxial cables are shown in Figure 2. If the shield is grounded by pigtails (a poor practice) the pigtails impedances must be added to Zt. Z t was conceived for susceptibility calculations against a known EMI threat. Above 1 MHz. typically for a single braid. Typical values of transfer impedance. The result is normalized to a 1 meter long sample. due to the leakage inductance Lt between the overall braid and the inner conductor. for instance an ambient field illuminating the emc test & design guide 2010 Figure 2. and to the loop impedance calculations. is measured at the end of the cable. Zt is easy to measure. or a fraction of it. Vi = longitudinal voltage induced inside the shield over length « l ». Zt can be expressed in the frequency domain as: Zt (Ω/m) = Rsh (Ω/m) + j ωLt (Henry/m) ii.
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Example 1: A 4m single braid coaxial cable. is illuminated by an ambient RF field of 10V/m @ 15MHz.shielding D i f f e r e n t i a l tr a n s f e r i m p e D a n c e o f s h i e l D e D t w i s t e D p a i r s Figure 3. Figure 2 indicates Zt @ 15MHz = 0. Tel: +46 582 88900. The impedance of this external loop.15 x 4 x 0. RF signals. Zt can then be used straightforward to estimate the voltage appearing inside the shield : Conductive silicone for EMI-shielding We are offering unique conductive material. emc test & design guide 2010 Nolato Silikonteknik AB. for a single-braid coaxial with an outer diameter in the 5 to 15 mm range. V L = 18mV x 50 / (50 + 50) = 9mV If the receiving endwas terminated in a high impedance. Vi = (Zt x lm) x Ish (3) If the EMI frequency is such as the cable length exceeds λ/2. calculated by Equation 2: Zext = (0.johansson@nolato. one could grade the reduction factor gained via the shield as the ratio of the loop bulk voltage to the voltage appearing internally: Kr = 9V / 18. that is 54dB ii. fast prototypes and production world wide through our EMC Production Center network. www. like 5kΩ : V L = 18mV x 5000 / (5000 + 50) ≈ 18mV Incidentally. this ground-loop impedance can be used to calculate the loop current Ish circulating on the shield.15Ω/m. cable-to-ground loop area. What is the voltage appearing at the receiver end of the cable? External loop impedance. then the physical length « l » should be replaced by λ/2 in the bracket term of Equation 3.se. like RG58.01 + j 5 x 15 MHz) x 4m = 300Ω The calculated loop current is: Ish = 9V / 300Ω = 0. causing 9V of open loop induced voltage. uSing Zt for PredicTing radiaTed rf eMiSSionS froM a coaxial caBle The principle of Zt is perfectly reciprocal and can be applied to emissions as well.10 -3 V = 500.03A For a single braid coax. and at a height of 50 to 500 mm above ground can be approximated by: (2) Zext = ( 10 mΩ + j 5 Ω x FMHz) per meter length If the field-to-loop induced voltage is known. The signal current I0 returning by the shield’s inner side is causing an EMI voltage to appear along the outer side. The induced voltage on the coax center conductor is: Vi = Zt x l m x I = 0. baseband video.03 = 18mV Assuming that the cable is terminated in 50Ω both ends.1 percent above a few MHz) returns by paths other than the shield itself (Figure 3). Knowing Ish. E-mail: mailto:magnus.3 to 0. and preferably also to the chassis by the coaxial connectors.se/silikonteknik 66 interference technology . some LAN links and other high-frequency signals are carried over coaxial cables. installed 0.nolato. A very small fraction of the intentional signal current (typically 0.75m above ground. Principle of coaxial cable driven into radiation. This assumes that the shield is at least correctly tied to the ground references at both ends.
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Although their contribution to Zext is usually minimal. the shield becomes an electrically driven radiator.S. since the current is not uniform along the cable shield. Honeycomb Vents use lightweight extruded aluminum frames for increased strength. plus custom designs. manufacturer of EMI shielding. they can seriously deteriorate the shield transfer impedance. A default approximation is to consider that the maximum amplitudes of the shield voltages distributed along the shield are: EMI/RFI Shielding Solutions Work directly with the leading U. Eventually. Product Engineers are always available to assist in product selection or answer shielding questions. Download New Interactive PDF EMI Shielding Products Catalog Interactive 52-page Catalog lets the user jump from page-to-page with a click of the mouse and even download interactive sales drawings of over 150 shielding products including BeCu gaskets.. Equivalent circuit to predict coaxial cable radiation.tech-etch. Zt (Ω/m) no longer can be multiplied by the length. hence radiating a small field that can be associated with the quality of the shield and its installation. and board level shielding. with Vext.com/shield ISO 9001:2000 REGISTERED TECH-ETCH. an extensive free sample program enables functional testing of the part speciﬁed. For estimating the E and H field from this low-impedance loop (see Figure 4). Made in USA Two state-of-the-art facilities in Massachusetts are ready to manufacture your next order. Download Interactive Shielding Products Catalog at www. Samples typically ship in a few days. INC. the external shield current can be found by: Iext = Vext / Zext where Zext is the same as the one calculated for susceptibility case. Tech-Etch offers a complete line of standard and custom products. this voltage Vext is causing an external current to excite the antenna formed by the cable-to-ground loop. Many standard designs are available. pigtail or connector impedances have to be incorporated into Zext. Board Level Shielding manufactured using photoetching eliminates the expense of forming tools. Expert Customer Service Experienced Customer Service Representatives provide fast computerized quotations. RoHS compliant Metalized Fabric Gaskets provide excellent shielding with very low compression forces and less than 3% compression set. In addition. When the cable becomes electrically long. 45 Aldrin Road. MA 02360 • TEL 508-747-0300 • FAX 508-746-9639 68 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . Tech-Etch manufactures over 120 standard proﬁles for immediate delivery. If the shield is floated from the chassis. for a good shield. BeCu Fingerstock Gaskets are offered to close gaps as narrow as . A printed version is also offered.010". plus improves design ﬂexibility and delivery time. This voltage is given by: Vext = Zt (Ω/m) x l (m) x I0 (4) = Zt (Ω/m) x l (m) x V0 / ZL In turn. Plymouth. since Zt must be hundreds or thousands of times smaller than Zext.shielding D i f f e r e n t i a l tr a n s f e r i m p e D a n c e o f s h i e l D e D t w i s t e D p a i r s Figure 4. as an input. The radiated field can be calculated using monopole or dipole equations. Fast Delivery Tech-Etch maintains a large inventory of standard ﬁngerstock shielding for immediate delivery. fan vents. metalized fabric.
shield-to-ground loop has reached its maximum asymptote. For a same reason, the external loop impedance is approaching its maximum, that is the characteristic impedance : ZC = 60 log n (4 x 30 / 5) = 330 Ω The internal signal current returning by the shield is: I0 (45MHz) = V0 /75 Ω = 3.3 / 75 = 44mA The external shield voltage, due to transfer impedance Zt is : Vext (45MHz) = I0. Zt(Ω/m) x 2m, where Zt (45MHz) is given by Figure 2 = 0,4 Ω/m Vext = 44.10 -3 . 0.4 . 2m = 35. 10 -3 V This voltage, in turn, is driving an external current onto the loop: Iext = Vext / ZC = 35. 10 -3 V / 330Ω = 107.10 -6A From this current, the radiated field at 3 m (far field conditions) can be quickly estimated  by : E (µV/m) = [ 1.3 . Acm2 . Iamp . F(MHz) 2 ] 1/D E (µV/m) = 560 µV/m , or 55dBµV/m (*Note: Since the whole calculation has been carried in peak values, 3dB should be subtracted for peak-to-rms conversion, but they are apprximately offset by the ground plane reflection of the CISPR/FCC test set-up.) Although this radiated level is about 500 times lower than if a bare wire were carrying the same current with a return by the ground plane, FCC Class B limit is exceeded
Vext (max) = Iext. Zt (Ω/m) x λ/2 (5) So, as Zt increases with frequency, the effective length which multiplies Zt decreases with frequency. At the same time, the cable-to-ground external impedance needs to be replaced by ZC, the corresponding characteristic impedance, using the following formula: ZC = 60 logn (4h/d) (6) Example 2 A 2 meter piece of RG-58 coax is connecting two cabinets, with BNC connectors at both ends. The electrical parameters are: Useful signal: 15 MHz video Load resistance: 75Ω V0 spectrum amplitudes: fundamental (15MHz) = 10 Vpk harmonic #3 ( 45MHz) = 3.3 Vpk harmonic #5 ( 75MHz) = 2 Vpk The geometry is: Cable diameter= 0.5 cm, height above ground = 30 cm Calculate the radiated field at 3 m due to harmonic #3. Solution First, we need to determine the area of the radiating loop: A = 2 m x 0.3 m = 0.6 m2 = 6,000 cm2 For 45MHz, λ = 6.70m, so the 2m length of cable is already exceeding λ/4 , approaching λ/2. We can consider that the radiation efficiency of the antenna formed by the
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by 15 dB @ 45MHz, with other limit violations at 75, 105 MHz and so on. Several possibilities exist to reduce the radiated field: • Select a coaxial cable with a lower Zt, like “optimized” braided shields (thicker, denser braid) or double-braid shield. • Slip a large ferrite bead over the cable shield. It will take an added series impedance of about 1,200Ω to achieve the required attenuation, for instance passing the cable twice into a large ferrite toroïd. • Reduce the cable height above ground. iii. iMPorTance of The Shield connecTionS As important as a shield with low Zt is its low-impedance termination to the equipment metal boxes. The connection by which the shield itself is grounded to the equipment box (or PCB) has its own impedance, too. This impedance consist of the shield-to-backshell contact, the connector-to-receptacle impedance (that may include some seam leakage inductance) and the receptacleto-chassis contact resistance. This connection impedance Z ct is directly in the signal current return path, in series with Zt. Therefore, Zct can increase seriously the voltage Vext, which excites the cable-to-ground radiating loop. At contrast with cable
shield Zt which is a distributed parameter (Ω/m), Zct is a localized element. Of course, if the shield is grounded by a piece of wire, or « pigtail » ( a very poor practice), the connecting impedance is simply the self-inductance of this wire tail. The following Table values can be taken for typical impedances of one single shield connection: dc to 10mhz
Bnc connector n or sma (threaded) ordinary multipin connector (metallic shell, just pluggable, or non-threaded bayonet style) 1 to 3 mΩ < 0.1mΩ
10 mΩ 1 mΩ
10 to 50 mΩ
10 to 50 mΩ
pigtail, 2.5 cm
Z = 1.5 mΩ + j. 0.15Ω x fmhz
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emc test & design guide 2010
iV. The differenTial TranSfer iMPedance (Ztd) wiTh Shielded PairS or MulTiconducTor caBleS The concept of transfer impedance, used for radiated susceptibility or emission modeling of a coaxial cable, is transposable to shielded twisted pairs (STP). However, there is a noticeable difference: the shield is no longer an active return conductor. 4.1 Susceptibility prediction using Ztd for a shielded pair The induced voltage Vi appearing in the shield (see Figure 5) due to the loop current is not directly seen as a differential voltage across the wire pair. Two situations may arise: a) General case If the link is a true balanced one, using differential drivers / receivers and wire pairs, we can start from the voltage Vi appearing inside the shield due to the loop induced current Ish (see Equation 3). Each wire 1 and 2 is exposed to the same voltage Vi, such as if the symmetry was perfect, the difference Vi(1) – Vi(2) would be null. Since there is a certain percentage of unbalance in the wires resistances, capacitance to shield and leakage inductance vs the shield, the differential voltage will be : Vdm = Vi . X% . R L / (Rs + R L) where X% is the unbalance percentage of the pair. Depending on the quality of the balanced link, X may range anywhere from 1 to 10 percent, with typical (default) value being 5 percent, for high speed data links. Thus, replacing Vi by its expression for a coaxial cable configuration, we get: Vdm = [Zt (Ω/m). l (m). I sh] . X% (R L/ (Rs + R L)) (7) We can therefore define a Differential Transfer Impedance Ztd that will include the shield Zt times the pair unbalance, augmented eventually by the shielded connector Ztc and its own unbalance ( the contacts balance vs the metallic connector shell is not perfect either and can deteriorate the whole link symmetry). This new parameter Ztd will allow a single pass calculation of Vdm, from a given sheath current. b) Case of unbalanced links using a STP. If the associated Transmitter // Receiver circuits are of the unbalanced type (single-ended), without Bal.to. Unbal. conversion devices, one wire of the pair will be tied to the 0V reference at both ends and the whole STP behaves as a pseudo-coaxial link. The only small advantage being that the return wire dc resistance is paralleling the cable shield, or that the Electronic Reference ( 0V) could be eventually floated from chassis, yet the shield being chassis-grounded. Example 3 A high speed differential link is using a STP, with following parameters : LVDS Receiver: differential detection threshold: 100mV STP: 0.80m long, good quality braided shield, pair unbalance ratio: 5%
Figure 5. STP equivalent circuit for susceptibility to field coupling and its mode conversion inside the shield.
System EMC specifications require a Bulk Cable Injection (BCI) test: 200mA rms, 30MHz – 200MHz What will be the differential voltage seen at the receiving end? Solution Calculations are carried at 100MHz, which is about the worst case frequency region for 0.80m cable length. 1) Zt for a single braid @ 100MHz (Figure 2): 1Ω /m Corresponding Ztd for 5% unbalance : 5.10 -2 Ω /m Vdm for 0.80m cable ( Equ.7) : Vdm = 0.80 . 1 Ω /m. 5.10 -2 x 200mA = 8 mVrms Since fast digital circuits (receivers, comparators) tend to respond to the peak value of modulated RF, the actual EMI voltage will be: Vdm = 8.√2 = 11 mV, augmented eventually by a modulation coefficient. Thus, based on shield coupling alone, the received voltage is 20dB below the LVDS detection threshold 2) The STP is terminated by plastic RJ45 plugs, with the shield grounded both ends via 12.5mm ( 0.5’’) pigtails. What is the new value of Vdm? The total self-inductance for two pigtails ( typ. value 1nH/mm) is: Lp = 2 x 12.5 x 1nH = 25nH Corresponding parasitic impedance added in series to Zt, at 100MHz: Zp = Lω = 16Ω New value of Vdm, with the contribution of 2 pigtails (taking into account a same 5% unbal. as for the pair) Vdm = [(0.80 . 1 Ω /m . 5.10-2) + 16 . 5.10-2] x 200mA
maximum differential output: 1000mV to isolate signal or power cables from influencing or being influenced by other components or systems. this unbalanced configuration cannot radiate more D i f f e r e n t i a l tr a n s f e r i m p e D a n c e o f s h i e l D e D t w i s t e D p a i r s Figure 6.8389 ©2010 Zero Ground Made in the USA.dbzshield. Cage Code 4GXD9 emc test & design guide 2010 72 interference technology .com 401. STP equivalent circuit for radiated emission. the signal returns being grounded at both ends). a larger portion of the signal current will use the shield as a fortuitous return. if the wire pair is interfacing circuits that are not balanced (e. like with case 4.377. the radiated field is reduced by a factor equal to X percent. This portion is difficult to predict. reciprocal to susceptibility case of Figure 5.1. the unwanted share of current returning by the shield is. Zt (Ω/m) x l (m) x V0 / Z L (8) Thus.g. using usual Fourier series formulas for 50% duty cycle: Shield Effectiveness Now Tested from 10KHz to18GHz www. To the contrary. or 235 mVpk This is more than twice (6dB) the LVDS detection threshold. compared to a coaxial cable situation. than the coaxial case. In this case.. with following parameters: LVDS Driver .80m long. If the transmission link is balanced with X percent tolerance. At worst. the current returning by the shield is only prorated to the percentage of asymmetry in the pair.5 cm height above ground = 75 cm Solution 100MHz fundamental voltage. Metallic connectors insuring an integral shield grounding are necessary. Example 4 Using the same high speed differential link as example 3. 4. The COTS Alternative to Mil Spec Conduit Shielded Flexible Conduit for EMI/RFI 100 Ω STP : 0. calculate the field radiated at 3m by the fundamental component of a 100MHz data stream. good quality copper braid shield unbalance ratio: 5% cable diameter= 0. The pigtails have deteriorated the transfer impedance of a fairly good braid by more than 20 times ( 26 dB). Equation 4 becomes: Vext = X% . only X% of the total current. for the worst possible combination of tolerances.b).2 application of Ztd to an eMi radiated emission case With true differential links using differential drivers / receivers and wire pairs.shielding = 170 mVrms.
1934 . he was also the French delegate to the CISPR Working Grp on computer RFI.France. F(MHz) 2 ] 1/D E (µV/m) = 18 µV/m. acTual MeaSureMenTS reSulTS wiTh good qualiTy eTherneT STP Figure 5 shows an example of unbalance measurements on an Ethernet type STP. Figure 7. born in Paris. Acm 2 .8m ) = 260.5) = 380Ω External current driven into the cable-to-ground loop by Vext: Iext = V ext / Zc = 0. near Nice. If the shield grounding was made by the same pigtails as example 3. For instance. Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design.5 dBµV/m) exceeding the limit by 5 dB. the root document for FCC 15-J and European EN 55022. the worst unbalance being – 30dB ( 3%) at 100MHz.h/d) = 60 Logn (4 x 75 /0. Kluwer Academics. MSEE. Schelkunoff. MICHEL MARDIGUIAN. becoming Director of Training. After military service in the French Air Force. Mardiguian started his EMC career in 1974 as the local IBM EMC specialist... the Balun transformer. he joined Don White Consultants (later re-named ICT ) in Gainesville. Electromagnetic Theory of coaxial lines and cylindrical shells. Mardiguian. working in the packaging of modems and digital PABXs. 2001 • GORE® Electronic Materials Enhance the performance and improve the reliability in your electronic device with the latest EMI shielding materials. Moved to the IBM R&D Lab. The balance is better than -40dB up to 30MHz.USA. Measured results for good quality STP.10 -2 x 0. worked for Dassault Aviation. Virginia. participating to what was to become CISPR 22. (Courtesy of Alain Charoy. using Ztd (Ztd is taken from example 3 @ 100MHz): Vext = Id . 10 -6 V Characteristic impedance Zc of the cable. Such measurements require a rigorous instrumentation set-up to prevent parasitic effects from obscurinterferencetechnology. 5. He developed the market of EMC seminars.10 -6 A Loop area = 80 x 75 = 6000 cm2 Radiated field at 3m ( see Example 2) E (µV/m) = [ 1. then VP Engineering. 2nd Edition.7. or 25 dBµV/m This is about 22 dB below the FCC Class B limit. 1941.4. 1965 to1968.com ing the results. having close ties with his US counterparts at IBM/ Kingston. graduated electrical engineer BSEE. AEMC / France) 1000 mVolt x 2/ π = 640mV Differential current. referenceS • . assuming matched load at receiving end: 640mV / 100Ω = 6.3 .marDiguian shielding Eliminate Interference. must have at least a balance 14 dB better than the best pair being evaluated. Iamp .com/emi EMI GASKETS interference technology 73 . Ztd x lm = 6. converting the symetrical 100Ω outpout to the unbalanced 50Ω input of the Spectrum Analyzer. n gore. From 1976 to 80. In 1980. V. M. S. 75cm above ground: Zc = 60 Logn (4. IEEE Senior Member. 10 -3 (1 Ω /m . Technical Journal. Bell Syst. This would just grant a < 2dB uncertainty of the results.4mA Corresponding shield external voltage. teaching himself more than 160 classes in the US and worldwide. their deterioration of Ztd would raise the field to 380 µV/m ( 51.
to utilize emc test & design guide 2010 74 interference technology . and verification of savings before rebates and incentives are issued. With lighting representing as much as 23% of the grid load. Other types of light sources were either not dimmable or did not provide the color performance needed for television cameras or live audiences. The federal government and other supporters of green initiatives are putting pressure on building designers. utilities. the need to provide dimmable lighting systems in more types of customer spaces is different today. and LED devices and other advanced lighting systems. lighting systems have been operating as stand-alone loads without the use of sophisticated lighting controls for energy savings in all types of facilities—residential. how much energy savings can be achieved without interrupting the customers’ business. and if implemented correctly. can be employed without introducing lighting and power quality problems into customer facilities. systems that were used only when mood or special effects lighting was needed. Commercial facilities are probing deeper into new applications for dimmable light sources and lighting control systems in efforts to improve energy savings. with many customer spaces characteristic of over illuminated conditions. Some installations are even making better use of outdoor light as they strive to harvest as much daylight as possible to offset their energy usage for lighting systems. Dimmable lighting device designs are finding more application in electronic F high-intensity discharge (HID).power quality A c h i e v i n g eMc. commercial. luxury. however. Lighting researchers are discovering more ways to optimize lighting levels in various spaces by incorporating the use of dimmable light sources and lighting control systems. end users are finding more applications for dimmable light sources paired with more sophisticated lighting control systems. induction. Dimming is no longer limited to incandescent and electronic fluorescent systems. and. and end users to improve energy savings in various types of facilities. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S system compatibility: an essential ingredient for achieving electromagnetic compatibility and Power Quality for lighting control systems PhiliP Keebler Kermit PhiPPs FranK sharP ePri lighting laboratory introduction or years. Although two industries—broadcast and theatrics— have relied on dimmable lighting and basic lighting control systems for years as a part of their stage and set lighting. systems were very simple and traditionally dimmed only incandescent lamps. Utilities and end users viewed lighting controls in the past as. Today. Utilities are experimenting with various dimmable light sources and various types of lighting control systems through EPRI demonstration and other projects while examining customer perceptions. With the help of lighting designers and energy researchers. and industrial. Lighting is one of those load types where energy savings is very achievable.
*Late papers will NOT be accepted. 2011 Acceptance Notification: March 15. 2010 . Technical Papers are the essence of our Technical Program.2011 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility August 14-19. 2011 • Long Beach Convention Center CALIFORNIA 1 210 10 Call for Papers EMC 2011 is a Technical Symposium. Original.January 15. 110 405 Important Dates Preliminary Full Paper Manuscript: November 1.org . 2011 Final Paper and Workshop/Tutorial Material Due: May 1. 2011 www.emc2011. unpublished papers on all aspects of electromagnetic compatibility are invited.
analog control • Line-side.power quality daylight to offset the need for electric lighting.) • Complete failure of lighting controller The sources of electrical and electromagnetic disturbances that can affect lighting controls include many types of industry defined waveform disturbances and random waveform disturbances that extend from a few tens of hertz up to hundreds of megahertz. Utilities and customers expect new systems to work well together and to function properly in their expected electrical environments regardless of facility type. random turn ‘on’. HID. • Inability to turn light source on when an ‘on’ command is sent • Inability to turn light source off when an ‘off’ command is sent • Inability to dim light source up (increase intensity) when a ‘dim up’ command is sent • Inability to dim light source down (decrease intensity) when a ‘dim down’ command is sent • Complete malfunction of lighting controller (light sources will not respond to any end-user initiated commands) • Unstable operation of light sources (flickering lamps. Utilities and end users must endure increased pressure to improve building performance and reduce lighting energy costs while controlling facility budgets. low-voltage. For example. Lighting control systems may use various types of communication links in essentially all types of lighting devices—fluorescent. Such disturbances can be generated from a wide variety of end-use equipment and operation of electrical equipment inside a residential.g. even lighting problems can grossly affect the customer’s business operations regardless of which type of lighting device—fluorescent. comPatibility Problems with lighting controls Regardless of the type of communication link used to communicate with controllable light sources. The complexity of these systems and the demand for complete functionality warrants the need for improving the compatibility between lighting devices and control systems and their electrical environments. ovens. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S understanding PQ and EMC barriers that typically occur with lighting devices and control systems. 0 – 10 volt DC. their networks spread out across a facility and penetrating the electrical and electromagnetic environment. but to harden lighting controls systems and to continue hardening electronic lighting devices. Lighting control systems should function properly regardless of what other neighboring loads are used in a facility. refrigerators. low-voltage. Several of these problems resulted from compromised lighting device and controls performance caused by poor power quality (PQ) and poor electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). They are aware of some problems that have occurred when pairing dimmable light sources with lighting control systems in common everyday electrical environments. when an electrical fast transient (EFT) is coupled into a lighting control circuit. DALI (Digita l ly Addressable Lighting Interface) control. Example sources include the following • Transients generated by the switching ‘on’ and ‘off’ of large loads such as heat pumps. or LED— is used. line-voltage control • Line-side. etc. When compatibility problems occur with lighting devices and/or control systems. HID. this voltage anomaly is carried to the electronic inside the lighting device. commercial or industrial facility.. there is much opportunity to reduce energy usage and demand with the use of dimmable light sources and lighting control systems. Past EPRI research in the area of system compatibility has been applied to many types of electronic lighting devices. low-voltage. dryers. The application of EPRI's system compatibility concept can be used for lighting control systems not only to document energy. the types of equipment that can generate these disturbances in residential settings is increasing as end users acquire more non-linear electronic loads like high-definition televisions and electronically controlled appliances including those with adjustable speed drives (ASDs). Some problems are severe enough to cause facility shutdown until action can be taken to disable the lighting control system. and even induction cooking appliances • Conducted noise generated on the power line by electronic loads including electronic lighting devices using electronic ballasts and by failing power supplies in computers. audio and video equipment. Penetration of the communications circuit inside the lighting device further exposes the other electronics inside the lighting device to malfunction and upset. and LED: • Hard-wired. Zigbee) • Line-side. Although the number of disturbance sources is not as many in residential settings as in commercial and industrial settings. These problems can result in lost downtime and re-installation costs that can add up to the thousands of dollars. emissions and immunit y performance. washers. all of which have been witnessed in the field by EPRI and various end users. and in gaming equipment • Voltage notching generated by the operation of highly-inductive loads (appliances that contain ASDs and motors) emc test & design guide 2010 . The electrical and electromagnetic environment can both interact with each of these communication systems to cause any of the following compatibility problems. This ar ticle seeks out to describe the importance of achieving compatibility between lighting devices and control systems and the electrical environment while 76 interference technology A c h i e v i n g eMc. random turn ‘off’. Utilities and customers alike who do engage in using dimmable light sources and lighting control systems do so today with many reservations and concerns.. pumps. Each method of communication requires dedicated electronic circuits inside the lighting device. three-wire control • Wireless (e. etc. power-line carrier control • Hard-wired.
. But most of our subscribers just like to know what’s happening in the EMC community Electromagnetic News Report For 38 years in Print and now also Online Subscribe today www.com/enr ..7ms.Some people read ENR just for laughs.
Electrical and electromagnetic disturbances that can impinge upon a lighting controller. Example of lighting control system with multiple circuits. 78 interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 . P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S Figure 1.power quality A c h i e v i n g eMc. Figure 2.
15 . and how they are designed to withstand these influences.ITEM ™ Environmental Test & Design (ETD) shock vibration temperature acoustics HALT eco design waste HASS sustainability news standards compliance Visit www. Bob Poust email@example.com | 484-688-0300 ext. » Qualification and analysis of electronic products from a lifecycle perspective and the use of HALT. please contact our Business Development Manager.etdnews. and other emissions. temperature and acoustics on electronic products. HASS. » The impact of electronic products upon their environments in terms of acoustical noise.com to subscribe today An electronic newsletter that focuses on the inter-relationship between electronic products. systems and devices and their environments. ESS testing and other screening methods. vibration. vibrations. For more information. get to know ETD coverage includes: » The impact of shock.
The line input port is a line-voltage power port usually rated at 120 volts AC but may also be rated at a universal voltage (e. These ports deliver a very small power to the dimming control circuit of a dimmable lighting device. other controllers may have fewer or more of these ports) are low-voltage ports and usually rated for up to 10 volts DC.g.power quality A c h i e v i n g eMc. etc. Most lighting controllers have two or more sensor ports which may be used to support one or a series of remote sensors located somewhere out in a facility at a considerable distance from the controller. or miles (in some cases).. 1 2 Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of the primary ports commonly used on a lighting controller and how they can act as entries for electrical and electromagnetic disturbances. wireless devices. these are the photocell (daylight sensor) port and the occupancy sensor port. Dimming port. or 24 volts DC. The dimming control ports (four shown in Figure 1. In almost all cases. of control cable is exposed to electric fields generated by transients and emissions and may cause distortion or corruption of control signals. Cross-reference between electrical and electromagnetic disturbances and malfunctions or failures of lighting control systems. but for network signals where multiple conductors which can be Ethernet. a separate DC supply voltage is required—usually 12. or other low-voltage port Includes ring wave. The communications port is also a low-voltage port. combination wave. • Voltage distortion generated by increasing penetration levels of electronic appliances that inject harmonic currents into the customer wiring system • Electrical noise on the branch circuits generated by radiated emissions from radio transmitters. 230 Vac) in European applications.g. 15. To operate these sensors. The thousands of feet. sensor port. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S Malfunction or Malfunction or Failure with Lighting Controls Electrical or Electromagnetic Disturbance Interruption Potential Damage to Front End Circuitry Potential Damage to Low-Voltage Input 1 Complete System Shutdown System Lockup Overheating of Power Supply Component Loss of System Settings Dimming Malfunction Sensor Malfunction • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sags Swells Distortion • • • • • • • • Notching Transients & Surges 2 (Conducted Emissions) Electrical Noise Table 1. 120 to 277 Vac) or higher AC line voltage (e. capacitor switching. these cables are either not shielded or contain the very minimum amount of cable shielding due to the added expense of shielded cables.. • Transients (surges) generated by thunderstorms and lightning strikes and also transients picked up by automatic lawn sprinkler systems Moreover. In Figure 1. with the use of lighting controllers there is another opportunity for control system upset caused by radiated transients and high-frequency radiated emissions that can also be coupled onto any one of the hard-wired communications links. and electrical fast transients (EFTs) interference technology emc test & design guide 2010 80 .
P h i P P S. S h A r P power quality Figure 3. Zigbee) or closed architecture. or RS-485 are used. Inc. commercial. MOV failure caused by thermal runaway and internal equipment fire in another lighting controller. any disturbance that causes permanent damage must be resolved without delay. Obviously.g. cause the lighting controller to malfunction. The question is “How susceptible are lighting controllers to the electrical and electromagnetic disturbances that commonly occur in the customer’s electrical (facility) environment?” The only way to definitively determine their susceptibility is to test them in a controlled laboratory environment capable of generating industry standardized. Clancy Ct.com • sales@tri-mag. Filters are built in the USA. all of TriMag. various manufacturers and end users. cross-reFerencing disturbances and Failures with lighting control systems Because of the nature of lighting control systems and the electrical and electromagnetic disturbances that occur in environments where multi-port systems must live. at some level and frequency. The wireless port is one that is showing up more on lighting controllers..com and failures that may occur with lighting controls. these present Tri-Mag.g. or be damaged. can build standard and custom design EMI filters for any industry: MEDICAL. random. ROHS Compliance Military Medical Medical Industrial 1601 N. whether the facility is a residential.tri-mag. HID.K e e b l e r. RS-232. a computer) which also uses control and signals ports and control cables. Figure 2 illustrates several scenarios where disturbances can impinge upon the hard-wired and wireless ports of any lighting controller used to control any lighting device—fluorescent. Visalia. CA 93291 • Phone: (559) 651-2222 • Fax: (559) 651-0188 www. Regardless. Performance improvements are based on which disturbances impact which part of a lighting control system and the severity of the malfunction or upset. Table 1 lists various types of malfunctions interferencetechnology. This port and the network port(s) may be of an open (e.com interference technology 81 . or LED. Figure 4. and this susceptibility will. Some of these may be resolved with a system reset and some require hardware replacement. Each one of these has occurred in the field as reported by utilities. there is significant opportunity to improve their performance. Inc. MILITARY & INDUSTRIAL EMI FILTERS Single-Phase Filters • Three-Phase filters • Power Entry Modules • IEC Inlet Filters In addition to our wide range of standard products and our capabilities of building custom products to fit any application. is subject to the same exposure to electrical and electromagnetic disturbances as any other piece of networked electronic equipment (e. exPosure to electrical and electromagnetic disturbances A lighting controller installed in a facility. or industrial one. and field documented disturbances. Others may require a circuit enhancement in the lighting controller to improve the immunity of the system to a specific disturbance. MOV failure caused by thermal runaway and internal equipment fire in a lighting controller. be upset. Each port essentially has some susceptibility to these disturbances.
If investigators discover this type of MOV failure surrounded by other burned insulation and electronic components. Or perhaps you don’t have to imagine if you use magnetic HID ballasts with metal halide lamps and have been left in the dark for 15 to 20 minutes before the lamps cool down enough to restrike. they apply the same thinking to lighting controllers as well as electronic lighting devices. . transmitted. A few minutes later. Every year. down time. aPPlying Power Quality and comPatibility to lighting controls Power quality is the concept of powering and grounding electronic equipment in a manner that is suitable to the operation of that equipment as defined by the IEEE Standard 1100. more use of electronic microcircuits and more use of low-voltage ports for network. .. If just a few of those cycles are disturbed. which are embedded within a facility’s electrical system. Without even a basic understanding of power quality. As buildings become more intelligent. A split second later. 3) the increased frequency of use (i. These susceptibilities. In both examples. Or 82 interference technology this.. . they often think of quality power as power that contains absolutely no imperfections. One area where failures have increased is in the protection of the AC power port against voltage surges. Imagine this type of problem when your lights are connected to a lighting controller. In visually inspecting MOV failures in lighting controls. an MOV’s exposure to a long-term overvoltage may be higher than the MOV’s maximum allowable voltage. more compatibility problems will surface and render equipment inoperable. The fire from the MOV damaged other nearby electronic components and the enclosure for the lighting controller. . The fluorescent lights connected to a lighting controller in a manufacturing facility blink. industrial equipment may shut down. system comPatibility and Power Quality What is a power quality problem? Imagine this. the high-intensity discharge (HID) lights drop out. or weak links in the design of these lighting controllers. and scrap material gathers on the floor of the now dimly lit manufacturing facility. Each wired port on a lighting controller is a “door” for an electrical or electromagnetic disturbance to enter the controller.S. The good news is that the performance of lighting control systems can be improved with the application of EPRI’s System Compatibility concept. With facilities becoming more cluttered with electronic equipment. adjustable-speed drives that control process motors trip. the indoor LED lighting devices begin to oscillate. an electrical engineer unfamiliar with the power quality concept may think of quality power with a ‘perfect sine wave’ with no irregular waveshapes or distortion whatsoever and a data string as a perfect stream of zeroes and ones. end users are using them more often in applications where lighting control is needed or required to meet certain specific energy savings goals) of lighting control systems. and distributed to utility customers and consumers by electrical and electronic equipment. In some situations. The increase in compatibility problems among lighting control systems can be attributed to four causes: 1) the increased complexity of lighting control systems (i. The lighting controller is in full command of the lights. Both of these are incorrect perceptions of power quality as the input power to lighting controllers and the data they must deliver and receive contain artifacts emc test & design guide 2010 . The uninterruptible power supplies connected to the computer systems switch on. computers in commercial offices may crash. The Emerald Book. and delayed orders. Every year. The light from the overhead dimmable fluorescent lighting system fades as about one-third of the fixtures go out. control and signal functions. Figures 4 and 5 show two examples of MOVs in lighting controllers. Discussions with manufacturers of lighting controls and end users who have installed them in the past several years have revealed that the nature of compatibility problems as listed in Table 1. electric utilities produce and deliver almost two billion cycles of electricity. With lighting controls. and 4) the increased development of new electronic lighting devices and their increased use. .power quality A c h i e v i n g eMc. 2) the increased complexity of the electrical and electromagnetic environments where systems are installed. Compatibility problems are indeed occurring and increasing with some communication methods. equipment in one facility may cause other equipment in the same facility or in a neighboring facility to malfunction. problems with electricity and electrical equipment cost U. Thermal runaway may occur if an MOV with too low of a maximum allowable voltage is applied in lighting control equipment in efforts to provide protection against voltage surges. which failed as a result of thermal runaway.e. but the lights cannot be turned back on because the controller already says they are on. Lightning strikes near a telemarketing facility.e. (Early EPRI research in the area of system compatibility provided many contributions to this publication.) Power quality is a concept that was developed to study and improve the quality of electric power as it is generated. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S problems to the end user that will likely interrupt the nature of their business and function of the lighting control system. indicating that the voltage has briefly dipped. these problems become even more compounded. their disturbance levels (both low and high frequency) are increasing. Manufacturers and consumers often misapply the definition of power quality. Similarly. and thermal runaway of the MOV may occur without blowing the line fuse. companies billions of dollars in scrap material. the MOV ignited and a significant part of the MOV material was burned by the fire caused by its own thermal runaway. disrupting data processing and vaporizing data. the frequency of occurrence for disturbances. Mistakenly. In such a case. and entire processes may grind to a halt. then thermal runaway can be suspected. Moreover. causing the illumination to rise and fall slowly. even when the quality of delivered power is perfect. . thermal runaway has been increasingly observed. can be identified through compatibility analysis and testing at the EPRI Lighting Laboratory. damaged data. the interruption will present safety issues to the facility or its occupants as well. but some of the computers lock up.
a non-linear load). in this case the problematic lighting controller has an immunity low enough to allow this problem to occur while other controllers had a higher immunity to these emissions at these frequencies. power system engineers and system compatibility engineers (engineers who study the compatibility between the power system and end-use electrical and electronic equipment) have been able to determine how equipment responds to each type of variation and disturbance.. In order to better understand power quality and system compatibility and how it can be applied to the characterization of end-use equipment like lighting controls. The operation of the ASDs (i. were in part developed through actual power quality studies conducted at EPRI on various power systems across the United States in the last 15 to 20 years. P h i P P S. resulting from the occurrence of electrical and electromagnetic disturbances in customer facilities. IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. This indicates a couple of major points for concern: 1) the shielding of the control cable was insufficient to protect the data signal inside the cable from the radiated electric field and 2) the port of the lighting controller could not filter out this noise in the 83 . These definitions.com everyday electrical environment. but the shielding material failed. generally a load.K e e b l e r. Because these emissions are associated with the electrical branch circuit inside a building. These emissions were being coupled into the daylight sensor control cable as the cable was run in parallel and too close to the branch circuit powering the ASD. A rising data pulse (going from zero to one) corrupted with conducted noise. Because the lighting controller is susceptible to these emissions. This pulse is supposed to be a digital zero traversing to a digital one (e. same types of lighting control channels with the same daylighting control functions) and this problem may never have occurred. EPRI has developed a detailed concept called system compatibility which can be applied to any electronic device including lighting controls. One might ask.. same input power requirements. created the problem on the branch circuit. S h A r P power quality data signal and caused the controller to lockup. which are now standardized and part of an IEEE standard 1159-1995 (R2001). The lighting controller was rendered inoperable as a result of this compatibility problem and was removed from the facility.g. what is system comPatibility? When equipment and appliances get along in the same electrical environment. The pulse contains high-frequency conducted noise. The shield did not reduce the noise current in the shield that resulted from the in flux of a high-frequency radiated electric field present in the building. This is considered to be a system compatibility problem. The quality of the voltage on this circuit is corrupted by the presence of these high-frequency emissions. Figure 5 illustrates a rising data pulse captured on a port of a lighting controller that receives a command from a daylighting sensor. The immunity of the daylight sensor input when used with a specific control cable and daylight sensor will vary among lighting controller. One could remove the problematic lighting controller and replace it with one that had the exact same design (i. emissions. they are said to be in a state of system compatibility. The emissions levels among ASDs do vary with ASD manufacturer and model as well as the impedance and length of the branch circuit and some other variables.. to function satisfactorily with respect to its power-supply electrical environment without introducing intolerable electrical disturbances to anything in that environinterference technology Figure 5. are these emissions really common in a commercial or industrial electrical environment where the compatibility problem occurred? All ASDs produce some conducted emissions on their input circuitry which travel out of the ASD up the branch circuit. An EPRI test procedure exists which allows each type of electrical and electromagnetic disturbance to be applied to the proper ports of a lighting control. and immunity performance for each power and signal port and the product as a whole. equipment or system. This noise has entered the control cable that runs from the controller to the daylight sensor with timing and amplitude characteristics limits set by the manufacturer.e.e. the controller is deemed to have a compatibility problem with its common interferencetechnology. A series of system compatibility tests can be applied to a lighting controller to determine its energy. The electric field was generated by a set of input power cables running from an electrical panel to the input of a set of adjustable speed drives. However. Through having developed a thorough understanding of power quality. The low-frequency disturbances are derived from definitions for each type of voltage variation and disturbance that occurs on the power system and inside customer facilities. The cable was shielded. System compatibility is defined as the ability of a device. 0 volts traversing to 5 volts) in an attempt to activate dimming of a bank of dimmable lighting fixtures connected to one of the dimming ports of a lighting controller.
Lighting devices and lighting control systems which are not compatible with the electrical environment will increase the risk of an accident occurring. air-conditioning. Photometry Compatibility can also impact the photometrics of a lighting system. Industrial plants that rely on process reliability also rely on quality lighting control systems. especially for multiport systems like lighting controllers where compatibility must be applied to each port. Moreover. A compatibility problem may cause a lighting control system to render one of the following problems to a dimmable lighting device. However. Reliable and compatible lighting systems play a vital role in maintaining safety. one of the primary benefits of using electronics in lighting emc test & design guide 2010 Figure 6. but verification of that request indicated otherwise. the controller may or may not initiate the request properly. A quality lighting system includes the following. The design process with integrated system compatibility testing. In lighting control applications. in today’s complex and diverse electrical environment. ment. Aside from increased efficiency. modern industrial processes rely on sophisticated electronics for precise and continuous process control. An increasing number of lighting controllers rely on feedback from daylighting sensors spread throughout a facility to determine what appropriate levels of light are needed in task areas where sensors (and windows) are located. These general performance requirements are not only important to lighting controllers but are also important to demand response activities. Regardless. it is important that a dimmable lighting device response as intended to a lighting control command. some of which are directly influenced by a lighting controller. compatibility. When these plants apply demand response. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S tion. A situation where a request called for the dimming of certain lights may actually have occurred. the controller (or a separate monitoring device) may or may not be able to verify that the request was actually carried out. For example. and Power Quality Safety must be the first priority in any facility regardless of the business activity.power quality A c h i e v i n g eMc. Demand response requests will utilize lighting controllers to initiate commands to make adjustments in lighting loads by turning dimmable lighting devices ‘on’ or ‘off’ or change dimming levels. compatibility problems with lighting controllers may leave the utility (and the customer) in a state of unknown when it comes to load reduction and energy savings. • Providing an unstable arc (discharge) inside an HID lamp at some dimming level because the wrong dimming level was reached • Providing a sable DC current for an LED fixture (a driver function) • Providing an incorrect amount of foot-candles targeted toward an area where the light is needed • Providing an incorrect color of light where light of a different color is needed • Making an inappropriate adjustment (too low or too high) light levels based on how much ambient light enters a room or space safety. Commercial facilities are characteristic of the same types of disturbances and operation of disturbance-generating loads like ASDs more commonly 84 interference technology used in heating. If disruption to a lighting controller occurs in a demand response applica- . achieving system compatibility is often a steep challenge for any product designer. There is more to the quality of a lighting system than measuring the photometrics of the light. and malfunction and upset of these electronics can jeopardize process reliability. utilities will be relying on reliable communication and operation of lighting control systems to shave load when required to ensure power system stability. and ventilation systems. The converse problem may also occur.
Listed below are some examples of why lighting is critical to safety. When the customer makes an investment to purchase and install a modern lighting system such as one that uses high-frequency HID or LEDs. However. Pay back periods for lighting upgrades usually run from about one year to as long as three to four years depending on a variety of factors. then safety-related performance will likely be compromised. if the electronic ballast (or driver) is not compatible with the electrical environment. The next two bullets are related to the performance of the lamp-ballast or LED-driver system. and overall system. the first two categories in the above list are centered around the lamp and the fixture. reliability and economics Electronic lighting devices and lightinterferencetechnology. devices is to enhance safety-related performance. S h A r P power quality Figure 7.com ing control systems require a capital investment. that customer expects the system to operate interference technology 85 . projected costs must be maintained within their estimate to avoid stretching out the pay back period. P h i P P S. • Keeping the lights on when they are needed • Minimizing the number of lamp drop outs • Maintaining as much lumen output for the life of the lamp as possible – called lumen depreciation – to avoid light levels that are too low before lamps reach the end of their expected life • Avoid i ng l a mp f l icker a s t he load inside and outside a facility changes – f lickering lamps may cause rotating machinery to appear 'standing still' compatibility. EPRI research indicates that LEDdriver systems combined with lighting controls may be more susceptible to common everyday electrical and electromagnetic disturbances than lampballast systems combined with the same controls. Utilization of lighting controls typically shortens the pay back period.K e e b l e r. Compatibility concept applied to lighting controller. Listed below are examples of some cost-related expectations: • Maintaining efficacy (efficiency) for the expected life of the ballast and lamp or the driver and LED • Achieving enough lamp and ballast or LED and driver reliability to achieve a return on the investment that the customer has made in purchasing and installing the modern lighting system • Ensuring that the lighting control system of an electronic ballast or electronic driver remains fully operational over the life of the ballast/ driver so that lighting load can be adjusted according to customer needs or the utility’s desire to reduce peak load in future demand response applications Each of the above categories involves the use of a lighting control. To reap the return on investment (ROI). Considering a few examples. This performance also depends on how the lamp-ballast or LED-driver system responds to variations or disturbances in the AC line voltage powering the lighting system. demand response system.
lighting systems from the days of Thomas Edison were of the incandescent type. The lighting specifier. a small fluctuation incident on the AC input of a lamp-ballast system. Some will indicate that what may be defined by some as a mild lamp flicker will actually cause severe headaches. Compatibility tests conducted on incandescent lamps have shown that the reliability of lamp filaments are affected by disturbances such as voltage sags. failures and malfunctions in lamps are also possible and can actually be initiated by malfunctions in lighting controllers. W hile the human perceptionrelated performance issues in lighting systems can gain much attention from utility customers. pour hot potting material over the circuit. Powerline monitoring of the lighting branch circuit. Early f luorescent-based lighting systems were developed by leading manufacturers soon became popular lighting products for end users of all types. All types of lamps and lamp-ballast systems have their own characteristic response to various types of voltage fluctuations—the type of line-side disturbance that causes lamp flicker. and install it into a lighting fixture. will result in a large change in light output. the lamp and ballast (or LEDs and driver) life may be shortened possibly causing premature failure. Lamp flicker studies have been conducted on many types of incandescent and fluorescent lamps and ballasts with the results varying among lamp and ballast models as expected. Many lessons regarding circuit design. Manufacturers may not honor the warranty if extreme events occur. and/or a forensic analysis on a failed ballast (or driver) or lighting controller by EPRI may reveal the cause of an early failure. If the facility environment reaches a high ambient temperature. populate a printed circuit board with components rated for an elevated operating temperature. These fluctuations in light output are called lamp flicker. solder them to the board. P o w e r Q u A l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l S y S t e M S of a magnetic ballast were connected to a fluorescent lamp. place that board inside a metal can. emc test & design guide 2010 . Manufacturers of electronic fluorescent ballasts learned about performance and reliability the hard way. lighting specifiers. A severe electrical event. This simply means that the incandescent lamp is under direct influence of disturbances that occur on the power system. This is because their perception to lamp flicker varies from person to person. These systems through the use 86 interference technology A c h i e v i n g eMc. each human eye also has a distinct frequency response to lamp flicker. The same is true for lighting controllers—disturbances initiated at the line input may find their way through the lighting controller and into the signal that controls the light output of electronic ballasts. retrofitter. or a larger than expected number of sags may occur during the warranty period. professionals in the lighting industry traditionally focus on lamp and ballast performance and reliability.power quality reliably. No energy conversion device was needed between the power system and the lamp. facility electrical designers. Why Apply SyStem CompAtibility to lighting SyStemS? Traditionally. the ballast will allow an increase in illumination with an overvoltage or a voltage swell and a decrease in illumination with a voltage sag. the magnetic ballast is a simple core-and-coil type of device with no sophisticated electronic components for controlling lamp performance. These ballasts also respond to various types of steady-state and transient power-line disturbances. and lamp and ballast designers. With respect to the end user. Each strive to 1) provide lighting systems that maintain acceptable light output for the majority of the life of the lighting system and 2) provide lighting systems that function at an acceptable level for at least the term of the product warranty. These professional groups include architects. Many of them did not understand the whole-system performance: how to design a high-frequency inverter type of power supply. and no lighting controls were used. With vary little voltage regulation built into a magnetic ballast. voltage swells. As more lighting systems become electronic. a facility power quality audit. lamp flicker studies will continue to gain more attention. Each of these groups strives to provide acceptable lighting systems for their customers that meet their expectations in terms of lamp and ballast performance and reliability. The warranty period offered by the lamp. high voltage distortion. In magnetic fluorescent lighting systems. When acting as an amplifier. Some people can notice a lamp f lickering when others cannot. The purpose of a ballast is to produce enough energy to ignite a lamp and then control its illumination through either voltage or current control. Reliable operation should last for at least a minimum of the warranty period. ballast and fixture manufacturer will likely be different. the core and coil of a magnetic ballast system have the distinct advantage of having a more-thanacceptable immunity to voltage surges. especially for systems operating at higher lamp wattages such as HID lamps where a small amount of flicker in a fluorescent lamp may not be very noticeable as compared to that same amount of flicker in an HID lamp that may be more noticeable. With lighting control systems. and voltage surges. lighting engineers. With respect to end users. This does not mean that disturbances in the power system did not affect incandescent lamps. However. for example. Each component of the lamp-ballast system plays a different role in determining the extent to which the lamp-ballast system acts as an amplifier or attenuator of fluctuations. end users often complain about issues other than ballast failures such as noticeable variations in light fluctuations. Although this type of immunity helps to increase ballast reliability. such as a near lightning strike. Lamps and lamp-ballast systems may act as amplifiers of voltage fluctuations or they may act as attenuators to fluctuations. and/or installer can help one understand the nature and design of warranties and their periods. a change in illumination is usually noticeable with these disturbances until the lamp fails to produce light when the filament is severed. thus preventing users from functioning in a work environment.
S h A r P power quality manufacturers and applied the compatibility concept to their products. and during electrical disturbances initiated by the utility. Lighting control designers may even want to consider integrating intelligence into the control that alerts the end user when an adverse condition exists such as the presence of a high level of electrical noise on one of the communication or port channels. Manufacturers of LED drivers and LED lighting systems are just beginning to recognize the importance of EPRI compatibility testing for their products. many controllers will continue to be used as individual systems separate from demand response (DR) systems. lights in a facility were just turned ‘on’ at the beginning of a day and turned ‘off’ at the end of a day. Compatibility testing would not have had much of an effect on manufacturing defects including soldering. during many of the forensic studies that were conducted on failed electronic fluorescent ballasts. Lighting control designers can learn to apply the compatibility concept (See Figure 7) just as easy as ballast manufacturers have done. whether they produce or use fluorescent. Phipps is a NARTE Certified engineer and conducts tests and evaluations of equipment performance in accordance with the EPRI System Compatibility Test Protocols for EPRI. EPRI has worked with dozens of ballast interferencetechnology. specifications. component manufacturers were also not familiar with applying their devices in ballasts. If facilities are to engage in energy savings using lighting controls.K e e b l e r. while the compatibility of a DR system is just as important as the compatibility of a lighting control system. P h i P P S. Frank Sharp is a Senior Project Engineer / Scientist at EPRI in Knoxville. However. Tenn. EPRI maintains expertise in solving compatibility problems with lighting controls. facilities are having to become more intelligent and vary light levels according to occupant usage. Resolving a compatibility problem with a lighting controller before it shuts the building lighting system down would be very valuable. must have a keen awareness of the compatibility of these systems with the power system. Compatibility testing on such samples prior to production would have resulted in the identification of ballast reliability issues prior to the installation of thousands of ballasts that eventually failed when powered in a normal electrical environment. For these reasons. EPRI is positioned to further the maturity of lighting devices and controls through its research and testing in its Lighting Laboratory. some with fairly mature designs. HID lamp-ballast. space purpose. At the time when the first electronic fluorescent ballasts were being designed. it was found that disturbances which would not normally affect a well-designed electronic ballast would have a much more negative effect on the performance and reliability of a ballast with design problems. Kermit O. during electrical disturbances initiated by the public. This process served as the guideline during the development and testing of the many electronic ballast products. many of the lessons to be learned regarding compatibility for lighting controllers will also be applicable to DR systems.com 87 . many manufacturers did not have enough data to reasonably design and specify their warranty programs. how comPatibility enables lighting control to be demand resPonsive With basic lighting controllers having been developed several years ago. The electrical environment of the facility. Figure 6 illustrates the design process with integrated system compatibility testing. With some knowledge about ballast reliability and the warranty term. Component engineering combined with a temperature-based compatibility study might have helped reduce the number of failures cause by the overheating of electronic components. Lighting controllers will need to function during thunderstorms. but the results will be different and just as valuable. Many are integrating compatibility testing into their ballast design processes with the goal of identifying compatibility problems long before the start of production. Interestingly enough. or LED systems. EMC audits are conducted and EMI solutions are identified. Now. Both manufacturers and end users experienced significant financial losses from poor lamp and ballast reliability. lighting controls are becoming a key part of a facility’s operating system. end-use devices are tested for EMC. and potting were learned. End users simply cannot work in the dark. including emissions and disturbances generated by the lighting devices themselves. soldering. and ambient light levels. conclusion: system comPatibility is imPortant For lighting controls As stated earlier. Prior to the use of lighting control. If lighting controls are to be a key part of a facility’s lighting system to help reduce energy usage. the overall compatibility of a combined DR-lighting control system will be critical for facilities that begin to rely on them. manufacturers and end users of electronic ballasts. Keebler manages the Lighting and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Group at EPRI where EMC site surveys are conducted. then the same needs to happen for all lighting controllers. Disturbances such as voltage transients and voltage sags were found to cause premature failure of ballast circuits and the component lead-to-solder joint junction. The process is basically the same. or under poor lighting conditions and in some conditions the failure of a lighting control system would present safety problems requiring the building to be evacuated. Philip F. then the controls that they use must be hardened to the point where facility manages and occupants can expect them to function as desired in all types of electrical environments and building operating conditions. Figure 7 illustrates this concept. Expertise in this area can be used to further understand compatibility problems with lighting devices and control systems. Many have asked how system compatibility testing could have prevented much of these financial losses. must not impact the operation of lighting control systems. n interference technology component reliability. However.
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