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Generally seismic sensors are used at the earthquake prone areas; here in this project we are using this seismic sensor concept for security purposes. Security is required everywhere almost. This project “SEISMIC SENSOR” can detect the vibrations produced by human beings or animals. We use a piezo device here to detect them. We can place these piezo devices inside the floor of the area, so that it will not be visible to the strangers. And when they (animals or humans) step on the floor tile having a piezo device it will detect the vibrations or we can say it will convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy and the piezo buzzer will get turn on. It can be used at the places where the interruption of human or animal is not allowed for example in the bank lockers, jeweler showrooms, high voltage areas and many more. This project can also be extended into the seismometer or the earthquake detectors.
1. INTRODUCTION 2. COMPONENTS USED 3. PIEZO ELEMENT 4. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 5. VARIABLE RESISTOR 6. CAPACITORS 7. BUZZERS 8. RESISTORS 9. TRANSISTOR 10. LED 11. SWITCH 12. BATTERY 13. WORKING 14. APPLICATIONS 15. CONCLUSION 16. REFERENCES
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This circuit simulates the seismic sensor to detect vibrations and sound. It is very sensitive and detects vibrations and caused by movement of human beings and animals. So it can be used to monitor the protected areas to restrict entry of unwanted persons and animals. The circuit uses readily available components and the design is straightforward. A standard piezo sensor is used to detect vibrations/sounds due to pressure changes. The piezo element acts as a small capacitor having a capacitance of a few nanofarads. Like a Capacitor, it can store charge when a potential is applied to its terminals. It discharges through VR1, when it is disturbed.
The circuit uses readily available components and the design is straightforward. A standard piezo sensor is used to detect vibrations/sounds due to pressure changes. The piezo element acts as a small capacitor having a capacitance of a few nanofarads. Like a
capacitor, it can store charge when a potential is applied to its terminals. It discharges through VR1, when it is disturbed.
Components Used :
1. Piezo Element 2. Integrated Circuit (IC1 TL071 & IC2 NE555 ) 3. Variable resistor (1M) 4. Capacitor (.01, 0.1, 10, 100 µ F) 5. Buzzer 6. Resistor ( 100, 10, 1 K & 330, 470Ω ) 7. Transistor 8. LED 9. Switch 10. Battery (9V)
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to
measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical signal.
Piezoelectric sensors have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. Although the piezoelectric effect was discovered by Curie in 1880, it was only in the 1950s that the piezoelectric effect started to be used for industrial sensing applications. Since then, this measuring principle has been increasingly used and can be regarded as a mature technology with an outstanding inherent reliability. It has been successfully used in various applications, such as in medical, aerospace, nuclear instrumentation, and as a pressure sensor in the touch pads of mobile phones. In the automotive industry, piezoelectric elements are used to monitor combustion when developing internal combustion engines. The sensors are either directly mounted into additional holes into the cylinder head or the spark/glow plug is equipped with a built in miniature piezoelectric sensor.
The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of inherent advantages. The high modulus of elasticity of many piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of many metals and goes up to 10e6 N/m². Even though piezoelectric sensors are electromechanical systems that react to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection. This is the reason why piezoelectric sensors are so rugged, have an extremely high natural frequency and an excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range. Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to electromagnetic fields and radiation, enabling measurements under harsh conditions. Some materials used (especially gallium phosphate  or tourmaline) have an extreme stability even at high temperature, enabling sensors to have a working range of up to 1000°C. Tourmaline show spyroelectricity in addition to the piezoelectric effect; this is the ability to generate an electrical signal when the temperature of the crystal changes. This effect is also common topiezo ceramic materials.
One disadvantage of piezoelectric sensors is that they cannot be used for truly static measurements. A static force will result in a fixed amount of charges on the piezoelectric material. While working with conventional readout electronics, imperfect insulating materials, and reduction in internal sensor resistance will result in a constant loss of electrons, and yield a decreasing signal. Elevated temperatures cause an additional drop in internal resistance and sensitivity. The main effect on the piezoelectric effect is that with increasing pressure loads and temperature, the sensitivity is reduced due to twin-formation. While quartz sensors need to be cooled during measurements at temperatures above 300°C, special types of crystals like GaPO4 gallium phosphate do not show any twin formation up to the melting point of the material itself.
However, it is not true that piezoelectric sensors can only be used for very fast processes or at ambient conditions. In fact, there are numerous applications that show quasi-static measurements, while there are other applications with temperatures higher than 500°C. Piezoelectric sensors are also seen in nature. Dry bone is piezoelectric, and is thought by some to act as a biological force sensor.
A piezoelectric transducer has very high DC output impedance and can be modeled as a proportional voltage source and filter network. The voltage V at the source is directly proportional to the applied force, pressure, or strain. The output signal is then related to this mechanical force as if it had passed through the equivalent circuit.
Frequency response of a piezoelectric sensor; output voltage vs applied force
A detailed model includes the effects of the sensor's mechanical construction and other non-idealities. The inductance Lm is due to the seismic mass and inertia of the sensor itself. Ce is inversely proportional to the mechanical elasticity of the sensor. C0 represents the static capacitance of the transducer, resulting from an inertial mass of infinite size. Ri is the insulation leakage resistance of the transducer element. If the sensor is connected to a load resistance, this also acts in parallel with the insulation resistance, both increasing the high-pass cutoff frequency.
For use as a sensor, the flat region of the frequency response plot is typically used, between the high-pass cutoff and the resonant peak. The load and leakage resistance need to be large enough that low frequencies of interest are not lost. A simplified equivalent circuit model can be used in this region, in which Cs represents the capacitance of the sensor surface itself, determined by the standard formula for capacitance of parallel plates. It can also be modeled as a charge source in parallel with the source capacitance, with the charge directly proportional to the applied force, as above.
Based on piezoelectric technology various physical quantities can be measured; the most common are pressure and acceleration. For pressure sensors, a thin membrane and a massive base is used, ensuring that an applied pressure specifically loads the elements in one direction. For accelerometers, a seismic mass is attached to the crystal elements. When the accelerometer experiences a motion, the invariant seismic mass loads the elements according to Newton’s second law of motion F = ma. The main difference in the working principle between these two cases is the way forces are applied to the sensing elements. In a pressure sensor a thin membrane is used to transfer the force to the elements, while in accelerometers the forces are applied by an attached seismic mass. Sensors often tend to be sensitive to more than one physical quantity. Pressure sensors show false signal when they are exposed to vibrations. Sophisticated pressure sensors therefore use acceleration compensation elements in addition to the pressure sensing elements. By carefully matching those elements, the acceleration signal (released from the compensation element) is subtracted from the combined signal of pressure and acceleration to derive the true pressure information. Vibration sensors can also be used to harvest otherwise wasted energy from mechanical vibrations. This is accomplished by using piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical strain into usable electrical energy.
Metal disks with piezo material, used in buzzers or as contact microphones
Two main groups of materials are used for piezoelectric sensors: piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal materials. The ceramic materials (such as PZT ceramic) have a piezoelectric constant / sensitivity that is roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of single crystal materials and can be produced by inexpensive sintering processes. The piezoeffect in piezoceramics is "trained", so unfortunately their high sensitivity degrades over time. The degradation is highly correlated with temperature. The less sensitive crystal materials (gallium phosphate,quartz, tourmaline) have a much higher – when carefully handled, almost infinite – long term stability.
Integrated Circuit, tiny electronic circuit used to perform a specific electronic function, such as amplification; it is usually combined with other components to form a more complex system. It is formed as a single unit by diffusing impurities into single-crystal silicon, which then serves as a semiconductor material, or by etching the silicon by means of electron beams. Several hundred identical integrated circuits (ICs) are made at a time on a thin wafer several centimeters in diameter, and the wafer is subsequently sliced into individual ICs called chips.
IC NE 555
The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) IC was implementing designed a variety R.
of timer and multivibrator applications.
Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used in typical early implementations, but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. The part is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.
NE555 from Signetics in dual-in-line package
Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and TLC555.
The 7555 is designed to cause less supply glitching than the classic 555 and the
manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a power supply bypass capacitor. The 555 has three operating modes:
Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications
include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc
Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses
include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc.
Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin
is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bouncefree latched switches, etc.
Internal block diagram
Monostable mode In the monostable mode, the 555 timer acts as a “one-shot” pulse generator. The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a signal at the trigger input that falls below a third of the voltage supply. The width of the output pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network, which consists of acapacitor (C) and a resistor (R). The output pulse ends when the charge on the C equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. The output pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C. The output pulse width of time t, which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage, is given by
where t is in seconds, R is in ohms and C is in farads. See RC circuit for an explanation of this effect.
Schematic of a 555 in monostable mode
Bistable Mode In bistable mode, the 555 timer acts as a basic flip-flop. The trigger and reset inputs (pins 2 and 4 respectively on a 555) are held high via pull-up resistors while the threshold input (pin 6) is simply grounded. Thus configured, pulling the trigger momentarily to ground acts as a 'set' and transitions the output pin (pin 3) to Vcc (high state). Pulling the reset input to ground acts as a 'reset' and transitions the output pin to ground (low state). No capacitors are required in a bistable configuration. Pins 5 and 7 (control and discharge) are left floating.
In astable mode, the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2, since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle, therefore discharging the capacitor.
Standard 555 Astable Circuit
In the astable mode, the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1, R2 and C:
The high time from each pulse is given by
and the low time from each pulse is given by
where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads. To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel with R2 towards the capacitor. This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C1. IC TL071 TLO71 is a low-noise JFET input op-amp with low input bias and offset current. The BIFET technology provides fast slew rates. The JFET-input operational amplifiers in the TL07_ series are designed as low-noise versions of the TL08_ series amplifiers with low input bias and offset currents and fast 14
slew rate. The low harmonic distortion and low noise make the TL07_ series ideally suited for high-fidelity and audio preamplifier applications. Each amplifier features JFET inputs (for high input impedance) coupled with bipolar output stages integrated on a single monolithic chip.
The C-suffix devices are characterized for operation from 0C to 70C. The I-suffix devices are characterized for operation from 40°C to 85°C. The M-suffix devices are characterized for operation over the full military temperature range of 55°C to 125°C.
A resistor may have one or more fixed tapping points so that the resistance can be changed by moving the connecting wires to different terminals. Some wirewound power resistors have a tapping point that can slide along the resistance element, allowing a larger or smaller part of the resistance to be used. Where continuous adjustment of the resistance value during operation of equipment is required, the sliding resistance tap can be connected to a knob accessible to an operator. Such a device is called a rheostat and has two terminals.
A common element in electronic devices is a three-terminal resistor with a continuously adjustable tapping point controlled by rotation of a shaft or knob. These variable resistors are known as potentiometers when all three terminals are present, since they act as a continuously adjustable voltage divider. A common example is a volume control for a radio receiver. Accurate, high-resolution panel-mounted potentiometers (or "pots") have resistance elements typically wire wound on a helical mandrel, although some include a conductiveplastic resistance coating over the wire to improve resolution. These typically offer ten turns of their shafts to cover their full range. They are usually set with dials that include a simple turns counter and a graduated dial. Electronic analog computers used them in quantity for setting coefficients, and delayed-sweep oscilloscopes of recent decades included one on their panels.
Resistance decade boxes
A resistance decade box or resistor substitution box is a unit containing resistors of many values, with one or more mechanical switches which allow any one of various discrete resistances offered by the box to be dialed in. Usually the resistance is accurate to high precision, ranging from laboratory/calibration grade accuracy of 20 parts per million, to field grade at 1%. Inexpensive boxes with lesser accuracy are also available. All types offer a convenient way of selecting and quickly changing a resistance in laboratory, experimental and development work without needing to attach resistors one by one, or even stock each value. The range of resistance provided, the maximum resolution, and the accuracy characterize the box. For example, one box offers resistances from 0 to 24 megohms, maximum resolution 0.1 ohm, accuracy 0.1%.
There are various devices whose resistance changes with various quantities. The resistance of thermistors exhibit a strong negative temperature coefficient, making them useful for measuring temperatures. Since their resistance can be large until they are allowed to heat up due to the passage of current, they are also commonly used to prevent excessive current
surges when equipment is powered on. Metal oxide varistors drop to a very low resistance when a high voltage is applied, making them useful for protecting electronic equipment by absorbing dangerous voltage surges. One sort of photo detector, the photo resistor, has a resistance which varies with illumination. The strain gauge, invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, is a type of resistor that changes value with applied strain. A single resistor may be used, or a pair (half bridge), or four resistors connected in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. The strain resistor is bonded with adhesive to an object that will be subjected to mechanical strain. With the strain gauge and a filter, amplifier, and analog/digital converter, the strain on an object can be measured. A related but more recent invention uses a Quantum Tunnelling Composite to sense mechanical stress. It passes a current whose magnitude can vary by a factor of 1012 in response to changes in applied pressure.
Capacitor, device for storing an electrical charge, sometimes called a condenser. In its simplest form a capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a non-conducting layer called the dielectric. The dielectric may be air, plastic, waxed paper, or another substance such as the mineral mica. When one plate of a capacitor is charged using a battery or other source of direct current, the other plate becomes charged with the opposite sign; that is, positive if the original charge is negative, and negative if the original charge is positive.
The electrical size of a capacitor is its capacitance, that is the amount of electric charge it can hold per unit potential difference across its plates—C = Q/V. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad (F). Because this is such a large unit, capacitors commonly have their size expressed in µF (1 microfarad = 10-6 F) or pF (1 picofarad = 10-9 F). The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor can be calculated from the relationship:
where A is the area of the plates, d is the distance between them, ε0 is the permittivity of free space, and εr is the relative permittivity of the dielectric between the two plates. Capacitors can hold a limited amount of electric charge. As more and more charge is added to the plates of a capacitor, the potential difference between the plates increases. Eventually this potential difference becomes so great that the atomic structure of the dielectric breaks down, and charge “leaks” through it. Capacitors can conduct direct current for only an instant but are able to act as conductors in alternating-current circuits, as they constantly charge and discharge as the direction of the current constantly changes. This property makes them useful when direct current must be prevented from entering some part of an electric circuit. Fixed-capacity and variable-capacity capacitors are used with coils in resonant circuits in radios and other electronic equipment. Because the dielectric of a capacitor may break down, there is a limit to the potential difference that may be applied across a capacitor. Capacitors are therefore labelled not only with their capacitance but also with their working potential difference in order to prevent breakdown of the dielectric in use.
A buzzer or beeper is
an audio signaling
be mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarms, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.
Piezoelectric disk beepe
Mechanical: A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer. Electromechanical: Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric
bell without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical buzzers made. Electronic A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source. Sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep. Electronic buzzers find many applications in modern days.
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric currentthrough it in accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
A typical axial-lead resistor
Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickelchrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, the maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals), are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.
Partially exposed Tesla TR-212 1 kΩ carbon film resistor
UNITS The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x10−3), kilohm (1x103), and megohm (1x106).
Theory of operation Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:
Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:
This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance. This formulation is often used in practice. For example, if V is 12 volts and R is 400 ohms, a current of 12 / 400 = 0.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R. Series and parallel resistors Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). To find their total equivalent resistance (Req):
The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) to simplify equations. For two resistors,
The current through resistors in series stays the same, but the voltage across each resistor can be different. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. To find their total resistance:
A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. For instance,
However, many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way. Consider a cube, each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. For example, determining the resistance between two opposite vertices requires additional transforms, such as the Y-Δ transform, or else matrix methods must be used for the general case. However, if all twelve resistors are equal, the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them. The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any non-standard value can be obtained by connecting standard values in series or in parallel.
Power dissipation The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated using the following:
All three equations are equivalent. The first is derived from Joule's first law. Ohm’s Law derives the other two from that. The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time:
If the average power dissipated is more than the resistor can safely dissipate, the resistor may depart from its nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it burns out, which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient temperature, and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power 23
dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. Inside an equipment case at 60 °C, rated dissipation will be significantly less; a resistor dissipating a bit less than the maximum figure given by the manufacturer may still be outside the safe operating areaand may prematurely fail.
Through-hole components typically have leads leaving the body axially. Others have leads coming off their body radially instead of parallel to the resistor axis. Other components may be SMT (surface mount technology) while high power resistors may have one of their leads designed into the heat sink.
Carbon composition resistors consist of a solid cylindrical resistive element with embedded wire leads or metal end caps to which the lead wires are attached. The body of the resistor is protected with paint or plastic. Early 20th-century carbon composition resistors had uninsulated bodies; the lead wires were wrapped around the ends of the resistance element rod and soldered. The completed resistor was painted for color coding of its value.
A single in line (SIL) resistor package with 8 individual, 47 ohm resistors. One end of each resistor is connected to a separate pin and the other ends are all connected together to the remaining (common) pin - pin 1, at the end identified by the white dot.
The resistive element is made from a mixture of finely ground (powdered) carbon and an insulating material (usually ceramic). A resin holds the mixture together. The resistance is determined by the ratio of the fill material (the powdered ceramic) to the carbon. Higher concentrations of carbon, a weak conductor, result in lower resistance. Carbon composition
resistors were commonly used in the 1960s and earlier, but are not so popular for general use now as other types have better specifications, such as tolerance, voltage dependence, and stress (carbon composition resistors will change value when stressed with overvoltages). Moreover, if internal moisture content (from exposure for some length of time to a humid environment) is significant, soldering heat will create a non-reversible change in resistance value. These resistors, however, if never subjected to overvoltage nor overheating were remarkably reliable considering the component's size  They are still available, but comparatively quite costly. Values ranged from fractions of an ohm to 22 megohms. Because of the high price, these resistors are no longer used in most applications. However, carbon resistors are used in power supplies and welding controls.
Resistors with wire leads for through-hole mounting
A carbon film is deposited on an insulating substrate, and a helix cut in it to create a long, narrow resistive path. Varying shapes, coupled with the resistivity of carbon, (ranging from 90 to 400 nΩm) can provide a variety of resistances. Carbon film resistors feature a power rating range of 0.125 W to 5 W at 70 °C. Resistances available range from 1 ohm to 10 megohm. The carbon film resistor has an operating temperature range of -55 °C to 155 °C. It has 200 to 600 volts maximum working voltage range. Special carbon film resistors are used in applications requiring high pulse stability.
Thick and thin film
Thick film resistors became popular during the 1970s, and most SMD (surface mount device) resistors today are of this type. The principal difference between thin film and thick
film resistors is not the actual thickness of the film, but rather how the film is applied to the cylinder (axial resistors) or the surface (SMD resistors). Thin film resistors are made by sputtering (a method of vacuum deposition) the resistive material onto an insulating substrate. The film is then etched in a similar manner to the old (subtractive) process for making printed circuit boards; that is, the surface is coated with a photo-sensitive material, then covered by a pattern film, irradiated with ultraviolet light, and then the exposed photo-sensitive coating is developed, and underlying thin film is etched away. Thick film resistors are manufactured using screen and stencil printing processes. Because the time during which the sputtering is performed can be controlled, the thickness of the thin film can be accurately controlled. The type of material is also usually different consisting of one or more ceramic (cermet) conductors such as tantalum nitride (TaN), ruthenium dioxide (RuO2), lead oxide (PbO), bismuth
ruthenate (Bi2Ru2O7), nickel chromium(NiCr), and/or bismuth iridate (Bi2Ir2O7). The resistance of both thin and thick film resistors after manufacture is not highly accurate; they are usually trimmed to an accurate value by abrasive or laser trimming. Thin film resistors are usually specified with tolerances of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, or 1%, and with temperature coefficients of 5 to 25 ppm/K. Thick film resistors may use the same conductive ceramics, but they are mixed with sintered (powdered) glass and some kind of liquid so that the composite can be screen-printed. This composite of glass and conductive ceramic (cermet) material is then fused (baked) in an oven at about 850 °C. Thick film resistors, when first manufactured, had tolerances of 5%, but standard tolerances have improved to 2% or 1% in the last few decades. Temperature coefficients of thick film resistors are high, typically ±200 or ±250 ppm/K; a 40 kelvin (70 °F) temperature change can change the resistance by 1%. Thin film resistors are usually far more expensive than thick film resistors. For example, SMD thin film resistors, with 0.5% tolerances, and with 25 ppm/K temperature
coefficients, when bought in full size reel quantities, are about twice the cost of 1%, 250 ppm/K thick film resistors.
A common type of axial resistor today is referred to as a metal-film resistor. Metal electrode leadless face (MELF) resistors often use the same technology, but are a cylindrically shaped resistor designed for surface mounting. Note that other types of resistors (e.g., carbon composition) are also available in MELF packages. Metal film resistors are usually coated with nickel chromium (NiCr), but might be coated with any of the cermet materials listed above for thin film resistors. Unlike thin film resistors, the material may be applied using different techniques than sputtering (though that is one such technique). Also, unlike thin-film resistors, the resistance value is determined by cutting a helix through the coating rather than by etching. (This is similar to the way carbon resistors are made.) The result is a reasonable tolerance (0.5, 1, or 2%) and a temperature coefficient that is generally between 50 and 100 ppm/K.. Metal film resistors possess good noise characteristics and low non-linearity due to a low voltage coefficient. Also beneficial are the components efficient tolerance, temperature coefficient and stability.
Metal Oxide film
Metal-Oxide film resistors resemble Metal film types, but are made of metal oxides such as tin oxide. This results in a higher operating temperature and greater stability/reliability than Metal film. They are used in applications with high endurance demands.
Wire wound resistors are commonly made by winding a metal wire, usually nichrome, around a ceramic, plastic, or fiberglass core. The ends of the wire are soldered or welded to two caps or rings, attached to the ends of the core. The assembly is protected with a layer of paint, molded plastic, or an enamel coating baked at high temperature. Because of the very high surface temperature these resistors can withstand temperatures of up to +450 °C. Wire leads in low power wirewound resistors are usually between 0.6 and
0.8 mm in diameter and tinned for ease of soldering. For higher power wirewound resistors, either a ceramic outer case or an aluminum outer case on top of an insulating layer is used. The aluminum-cased types are designed to be attached to a heat sink to dissipate the heat; the rated power is dependent on being used with a suitable heat sink, e.g., a 50 W power rated resistor will overheat at a fraction of the power dissipation if not used with a heat sink. Large wirewound resistors may be rated for 1,000 watts or more. Types of windings in wire resistors: 1 - Common 2 - Bifilar 3 - Common on a thin former 4 - Ayrton-Perry
Because wirewound resistors are coils they have more undesirable inductance than other types of resistor, although winding the wire in sections with alternately reversed direction can minimize inductance. Other techniques employ bifilar winding, or a flat thin former (to reduce cross-section area of the coil). For most demanding circuits resistors with AyrtonPerry winding are used. Applications of wirewound resistors are similar to those of composition resistors with the exception of the high frequency. The high frequency of wirewound resistors is substantially worse than that of a composition resistor.
The primary resistance element of a foil resistor is a special alloy foil several micrometres thick. Since their introduction in the 1960s, foil resistors have had the best precision and stability of any resistor available. One of the important parameters influencing stability is the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). The TCR of foil resistors is extremely low, and has been further improved over the years. One range of ultra-precision foil resistors offers a TCR of 0.14 ppm/°C, tolerance ±0.005%, long-term stability (1 year) 25 ppm, (3 year) 50 ppm (further improved 5-fold by hermetic sealing), stability under load (2000 hours) 0.03%, thermal EMF 0.1 μV/°C, noise -42 dB, voltage coefficient 0.1 ppm/V, inductance 0.08 μH, capacitance 0.5 pF.
An ammeter shunt is a special type of current-sensing resistor, having four terminals and a value in milliohms or even micro-ohms. Current-measuring instruments, by themselves, can usually accept only limited currents. To measure high currents, the current passes through the shunt, where the voltage drop is measured and interpreted as current. A typical shunt consists of two solid metal blocks, sometimes brass, mounted on to an insulating base. Between the blocks, and soldered or brazed to them, are one or more strips of low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) manganin alloy. Large bolts threaded into the blocks make the current connections, while much-smaller screws provide voltage connections. Shunts are rated by full-scale current, and often have a voltage drop of 50 mV at rated current. Such meters are adapted to the shunt full current rating by using an appropriately marked dial face; no change need be made to the other parts of the meter.
In heavy-duty industrial high-current applications, a grid resistor is a large convectioncooled lattice of stamped metal alloy strips connected in rows between two electrodes. Such industrial grade resistors can be as large as a refrigerator; some designs can handle over 500 amperes of current, with a range of resistances extending lower than 0.04 ohms. They are used in applications such as dynamic braking and load banking for locomotives and trams, neutral grounding for industrial AC distribution,
control loads for cranes and heavy equipment, load testing of generators and harmonic filtering for electric substations. The term grid resistor is sometimes used to describe a resistor of any type connected to the control grid of a vacuum tube. This is not a resistor technology; it is an electronic circuit topology.
Measurement The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter, which may be one function of a multimeter. Usually, probes on the ends of test leads connect to the resistor. A simpleohmmeter may apply a voltage from a battery across the unknown resistor (with an internal resistor of a known value in series) producing a current which drives a meter movement. The current flow, in accordance with Ohm's Law, is inversely proportional to the sum of the internal resistance and the resistor being tested, resulting in an analog meter scale which is very non-linear, calibrated from infinity to 0 ohms. A digital multimeter, using active electronics, may instead pass a specified current through the test resistance. The voltage generated across the test resistance in that case is linearly proportional to its resistance, which is measured and displayed. In either case the low-resistance ranges of the meter pass much more current through the test leads than do high-resistance ranges, in order for the voltages present to be at reasonable levels (generally below 10 volts) but still measurable. Measuring low-value resistors, such as fractional-ohm resistors, with acceptable accuracy requires four-terminal connections. One pair of terminals applies a known, calibrated current to the resistor, while the other pair senses the voltage drop across the resistor. Some laboratory quality ohmmeters, especially milliohmmeters, and even some of the better digital multimeters sense using four input terminals for this purpose, which may be used with special test leads. Each of the two so-called Kelvin clips has a pair of jaws insulated from each other. One side of each clip applies the measuring current, while the other connections are only to sense the voltage drop. The resistance is again calculated using Ohm's Law as the measured voltage divided by the applied current.
Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. Surfacemount resistors are marked numerically, if they are big enough to permit marking; morerecent small sizes are impractical to mark. Cases are usually tan, brown, blue, or green, though other colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray. Early 20th century resistors, essentially uninsulated, were dipped in paint to cover their entire body for color coding. A second color of paint was applied to one end of the element, and a color dot (or band) in the middle provided the third digit. The rule was "body, tip, dot", providing two significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier, in that sequence. Default tolerance was ±20%. Closer-tolerance resistors had silver (±10%) or gold-colored (±5%) paint on the other end. Four-band resistors Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on resistors. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The first two bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-often multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or acceptable error, of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the spacing to the fourth band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must be distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits. For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An easier description can be as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 10 4, which adds four 0's to the end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes to 560 kΩ ±2% (as a kilo- is 103). Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to lighter colors, as shown in the chart below.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
Assorted discrete transistors. Packages in order from top to bottom: TO-3, TO-126, TO-92, SOT-23
The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionised the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, amongst other things. History Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed the first patent for a transistor in Canada in 1925, describing a device similar to a Field Effect Transistor or "FET". However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices, nor did his patent cite any examples of devices actually constructed. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device. From 1942 Herbert Mataré experimented with so-called Duodiodes while working on a detector for a Doppler RADAR system. The duodiodes built by him had two separate but very close metal contacts on the semiconductor substrate. He discovered effects that could not be explained by two independently operating diodes and thus formed the basic idea for the later point contact transistor. In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in the United
States observed that when electrical contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, the
output power was larger than the input. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, and over the next few months worked to greatly expand the knowledge of semiconductors. The term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce.
According to physicist/historian Robert Arns, legal papers from the Bell Labs patent
show that William Shockley and Gerald Pearson had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents, yet they never referenced this work in any of their later research papers or historical articles.
A replica of the first working transistor.
The name transistor is a portmanteau of the term "transfer resistor". The first silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in 1954. This was the work of Gordon Teal, an expert in growing crystals of high purity, who had previously worked at Bell Labs. The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla at Bell Labs in 1960. Importance The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics, and is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low pertransistor costs. Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year, the vast majority of transistors now produced are
to IC, microchips or
with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components, to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 2.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs). "About 60 million transistors were built this year  ... for [each] man, woman, and child on Earth." The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function. Uses The bipolar junction transistor, or BJT, was the most commonly used transistor in the 1960s and 70s. Even after MOSFETs became widely available, the BJT remained the transistor of choice for many analog circuits such as simple amplifiers because of their greater linearity and ease of manufacture. Desirable properties of MOSFETs, such as their utility in low-power devices, usually in the CMOS configuration, allowed them to capture nearly all market share for digital circuits; more recently MOSFETs have captured most analog and power applications as well, including modern clocked analog circuits, voltage regulators, amplifiers, power transmitters, motor drivers, etc.
BC 548 transistor
The BC548 is a general purpose silicon, NPN, bipolar junction transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment. It is electrically has similar to the North American 2N3904 and Japanese 2SC1815 but different lead assignments.
If the TO-92 package is held in front of one's face with the flat side facing toward you and the leads downward, (see picture) the order of the leads, from left to right is collector,
base, emitter. Note that the pin assignment of the complementary PNP device BC558 is exactly the same.
Historical roots Before the silicon "BC" devices were developed, the older germanium technology "OC" series devices were used. These generally date between about 1958-1970. The most commonly encountered are the glass encapsulated OC44, OC45, OC71 and OC75. These were very low power devices with a Vcbo generally in the 12-16 volt range and Ic values of less than 50mA. The OC44 and OC45 were the first common British/European radio frequency devices with an ft around 1 MHz. The OC71 and OC75 were audio devices with an ft of about 150 kHz. A "power" version, the OC25, with an Ic of 3 Amperes was sometimes seen in a TO-3 package. All of these earlier germanium devices were generally PNP, although NPN versions were made. These older germanium devices contained indium, a metal with a very low melting point which limited the power dissipation of the devices to a very low level and rendered them unreliable in harsh environments, such as use in aircraft where wide temperature variations are encountered. The silicon technology based "BC" devices appeared and superseded the older germanium based devices. The doped silicon from which the newer devices were fabricated could withstand much greater temperature variations and allowed much greater power dissipations. The main limiting factor of the newer silicon BJTs was thermal runaway, a condition where the current gain ("beta") of a BJT increases as it gets hotter. This increases the collector current (Ic) despite the base current being constant. An increase in Ic makes
the chip "die" hotter, increasing the "beta" and thus Ic, and so on until the transistor is cooled externally or it burns out. This thermal runaway can be overcome by using an emitter resistor in combination with a voltage divider providing the base bias current, or by using a resistor between the collector and the base (sliding bias), we call all these measures against thermal runaway Bipolar transistor biasing. Specification The exact specs of a given device depend on the manufacturer. It is important to check the datasheet for the exact device and brand you are dealing with. Philips and Telefunken are two manufacturers of the BC548. Vcbo = 30 Volts, Ic = 100mA, Ptotal = 50 mW and ft = 300 MHz Relationship to the family of BC devices The BC548 is a member of a larger group of similarly numbered transistors. Its complement is the BC558, which is similar to the North American 2N3906 and the Japanese 2SA1015. The BC548 is flanked by two similar transistors, the BC547 and the BC549. These are similar to the BC548 but the 547 has a greater Vcbo of 50 volts and the 549 has the same Vcbo of 30 volts but a lower noise figure. The 547 and 549 have complementary PNP versions numbered 557 and 559. A 556 device also exists with a Vcbo of 80 volts, which device finds extensive use in the current mirror input stages of medium quality audio amplifiers with relatively high rail voltages. A family of older "BC" transistors predates the TO-92 BC54x series, the BC107, 108 and 109, (with complements BC177, 178 and 179). These are generally housed in the TO-18 metal package, the same as what the North American 2N2222 uses. These older transistors have similar characteristics as the TO-92 BC5xx devices and are generally interchangeable. For example, a damaged BC178 could be replaced with a BC558, taking the usual precautions to ensure that the three leads are correctly oriented. The BC337, 338 and 339 are a range of higher current, slower devices with complementary PNP versions BC327, 328 and 329. These are similar to the North American 2N2222 and 2N2907 in Ic and ft values and have the same Vcbo ratings as the BC547, 548 and 549. The BC635, 637 and 639 possess an Ic value of 1A, a Vcbo of between 45 and 80 volts and an ft of 50 to 130 MHz. These devices have a different lead configuration, with the 37
collector lead in the middle. The complementary PNP versions are BC636, BC638 and BC640. There are many other devices based on the BC54x family, such as the surfacemount versions of the BC547, 548 and 549, the BC847, 848 and 849. Advantages The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are
Small size and minimal weight, allowing the development of miniaturized Highly automated manufacturing processes, resulting in low per-unit cost. Lower possible operating voltages, making transistors suitable for small, batteryNo warm-up period for cathode heaters required after power application. Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness. Extremely long life. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than Complementary devices available, facilitating the design of complementaryInsensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration, thus avoiding the problem
symmetry circuits, something not possible with vacuum tubes.
of microphonics in audio applications. Limitations
1,000 volts (SiC devices can be operated as high as 3,000 volts). In contrast, electron tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts.
High power, high frequency operation, such as that used in over-the-air television
broadcasting, is better achieved in electron tubes due to improved electron mobility in a vacuum.
Silicon transistors are much
more vulnerable than
an electromagnetic pulse generated by a high-altitude nuclear explosion.
A light-emitting diode (LED) (pronounced /ˌɛl iː ˈdiː/, L-E-D) is
a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962,
early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across forward effect is biased (switched on), electrons are the color of the able light
the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a lightemitting diode is of photons. This to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form called electroluminescence and (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The compact size, the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.
In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated and nonconducting.
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically-operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called arelay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be pad-locked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock. In Circuit Theory In electronics engineering, an ideal switch describes a switch that:
has no current limit during its ON state has infinite resistance during its OFF state has no voltage drop across the switch during its ON state has no voltage limit during its OFF state has zero rise time and fall time during state changes switches only once without "bouncing" between on and off positions
Practical switches have loss and limitations. The ideal switch is often used in circuit analysis as it greatly simplifies the system of equations to be solved, however this can lead to a less accurate solution. Contacts In the simplest case, a switch has two conductive pieces, often metal, called contacts that touch to complete (make) a circuit, and separate to open (break) the circuit. The contact material is chosen for its resistance to corrosion, because most metals
form insulating oxides that would prevent the switch from working. Contact materials are also chosen on the basis of electrical conductivity, hardness (resistance to abrasive wear), mechanical strength, low cost and low toxicity. Sometimes the contacts are plated with noble metals. They may be designed to wipe against each other to clean off any contamination. Nonmetallic conductors, such as conductive plastic, are sometimes used.
Battery, device that converts energy stored in chemicals into energy in the form of electricity. It consists of two or more electric cells connected in series or parallel. A number of new types of batteries have been designed for use in electric vehicles. Improved versions of conventional storage batteries have been developed for electric cars, but they still suffer the drawbacks of either short range, high expense, bulkiness, or environmental problems. Advanced batteries that show promise for use in electric vehicles include lithium-iron sulphide, zinc-chlorine, nickel metal hydride, and sodium-sulphur. Such batteries are also being developed by electricity supply companies to be used for “load levelling”, to compensate for momentary system load fluctuations. Such battery modules could be installed close to sites of variable demand. They cause few environmental problems and occupy little space.
Nine volt battery A nine-volt battery, also called a PP3 battery, is shaped as a rounded rectangular prism and has a nominal output of nine volts. Its nominal dimensions are 48 mm × 25 mm × 15 mm. 9v batteries are commonly used in pocket transistor radios, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide alarms, guitar effect units, and radio-controlled
vehicle controllers. They are also used as backup power to keep the time in digital clocks and alarm clocks.
Connectors The connector (snap) consists of two connectors: one smaller circular (male) and one larger, typically either hexagonal or octagonal (female). The connectors on the battery are the same as on the connector itself; the smaller one connects to the larger one and vice versa. History The PP3 appeared when portable transistorized radio receivers became common, and is still called a "transistor" battery by some manufacturers. The Eveready company claims that it introduced this battery type in 1956. Technical specification The battery has both the positive and negative terminals on one end. The negative terminal is fashioned into a snap fitting which mechanically and electrically connects to a mating terminal on the power connector. The power connector has a similar snap fitting on its positive terminal which mates to the battery. This makes battery polarization obvious since mechanical connection is only possible in one configuration. The clips on the 9-volt battery can be used to connect several 9-volt batteries in series. One problem with this style of connection is that it is very easy to connect two batteries together in a short circuit, which quickly discharges both batteries, generating heat and possibly a fire. Multiple 9 volt batteries can be snapped together in series to create higher voltage.
Inside a PP3 there are six cells, either cylindrical alkaline or flat carbon-zinc type, connected in series. Some brands use welded tabs internally to attach to the cells, others press foil strips against the ends of the cells. Rechargeable NiCd and NiMH batteries have various numbers of 1.2 volt cells. Lithium versions use three 3.2 V cells - there is a rechargeable lithium polymer version. There is also a Hybrid NiMH version that has a very low self- discharge rate (85% of capacity after 1 year of storage). Formerly, mercury batteries were made in this size. They had higher capacity than carbonzinc types, a nominal voltage of 8.4 volts, and very stable voltage output. Once used in photographic and measuring instruments or long-life applications, they are now unavailable due to environmental restrictions.
Open 9-Volt 'transistor' battery showing five of six AAAA cells, which are commonly used in medical equipment.
Self discharge An alkaline battery that is unused or used with extremely low power consumption devices (transistor leak current, etc.) can be expected to last approximately for 6 years, essentially the shelf-life of a new battery.
WORKING OF SEISMIC SENSOR In the circuit, IC TLO71 (IC1) is wired as a differential amplifier with both its inverting and non-inverting inputs tied to the negative rail through a resistive network comprising R1, R2 and R3. Under idle conditions (as adjusted by VR1), both the inputs receive. almost equal voltages, which keeps the output low. TLO71 is a low-noise JFET input opamp with low input bias and offset current. The BIFET technology provides fast slew rates. Capacitor C1 is provided in the circuit to keep the differential input of IC1 for better performance. When the piezo element is disturbed (by even a slight movement), it discharges the stored charge. This alters the voltage level at the inputs of IC1 and the output momentarily swings high as indicated by green LED1. This high output is used to trigger switching transistor T1, which triggers monostable IC2. The timing period of IC2 is determined by R7 and C5. With the shown values, it will be around two minutes. The high output from IC2 activates T2 and the buzzer starts beeping along with red light indication from LED2. Assemble the circuit on a common PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Connect the piezo element to the PCB using single-core shielded wire. Enclose the piezo element inside a rustproof, small aluminum box. The piezo element should be firmly glued to the enclosure facing the fine side towards the case. Fix the sensor assembly on the back side of a ceramic tile or granite tile with good adhesive. Fix the tile (or bury it in the earth) near the entrance with the sensor assembly facing downwards. Whenever a pressure change develops near the sensor, the circuit will be activated.
APPLICATIONS OF SEISMIC SENSOR
1. It can be used at all the places where we require a lot of security eg in Bank lockers, in jeweler showrooms etc 2. It can also be used at the areas where human or any animal enrty is not allowed (eg. Danger zones).
This project “SEISMIC SENSOR” can detect the vibrations produced by human beings or animals. We use a piezo device here to detect them. We can place these piezo devices inside the floor of the area, so that it will not be visible to the strangers. And when they (animals or humans) step on the floor tile having a piezo device it will detect the vibrations or we can say it will convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy and the piezo buzzer will get turn on. This is a low budget project so any one can use it easily. It can be used at the places where the interruption of human or animal is not allowed for example in the bank lockers, jeweler showrooms, high voltage areas and many more. It will help in many ways if we use a high efficiency piezo element and piezo buzzer. This project can also be extended into the seismometer or the earthquake detectors.
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