Asist. univ.

GEORGETA OBILIŞTEANU

Lect. univ. MARIOARA PATEŞAN

CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBĂ ENGLEZĂ – VERBUL – Referenţi ştiinţifici: Lect. univ. drd. CLEMENTINA ALEXANDRA MIHĂILESCU Lect. univ. drd. SORIN ŞTEFĂNESCU Universitatea „Lucian Blaga“ Sibiu, Facultatea de Litere, Istorie şi Jurnalistică CUPRINS
CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE..................................................................................................................................................................2 LECŢIA I...................................................................................................................................................................................2 TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV..................................................................................................................................2 LECŢIA II...............................................................................................................................................................................17 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR........................................................................................................................................17 LECŢIA III..............................................................................................................................................................................21 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE............................................................................................21 LECŢIA IV..............................................................................................................................................................................24 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ.............................................................................................................................24 LECŢIA V................................................................................................................................................................................27 DIATEZA PASIVĂ.................................................................................................................................................................27 LECŢIA VI..............................................................................................................................................................................30 VERBELE MODALE.............................................................................................................................................................30 LECŢIA VII.............................................................................................................................................................................38 MODUL SUBJONCTIV.........................................................................................................................................................38 LECŢIA VIII...........................................................................................................................................................................45 MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE........................................................................................................................................45 CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR.......................................................................................................................................................50 LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE...................................................................................................................................60

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limbă engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română. Cursul se adresează studenţilor începători şi intermediari din anii I şi II de studiu, precum şi cursanţilor adulţi, cu condiţia ca aceştia să aibă cunoştinţe anterioare, chiar sumare, de limbă engleză. Autoarele LECŢIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Interogativ Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Negativ I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma conjugat. -ing a verbului de

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Afirmativ I am working You are working He/she/it is working Negativ

We are working. You are working They are working I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working.

Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working?

Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată. În acest caz, există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exerciţii cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous 1. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: Notă: Verbul „to have”, atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea, a poseda”, ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. I love my brother. 2. She talks too much. 3. I understand you. 4. You play the piano very well. 5. I always believe you. 6. He remembers my phone number. 7. They live in Bucharest. 8. He has a hot bath every day. 9. I trust my friend. 10. I have lunch at one o’clock.
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2. as I (not want) to miss the first act. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Ann is knitting. 4. I (be). 5. 3. 2.2. of course. Eu nu studiez seara. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. The child is learning to play the piano. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). Ce carte citeşti? 10. He is telling the truth. We are studying English. except Saturdays and Sundays. 9. 14. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 1. 7. 16. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. 3. 19. 13. 10. 3. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. Iarna ninge. They are swimming in the river. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. It is raining. 18. You (dream) at night? Yes. 5. Nu-mi place cafeaua. La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). but he is late. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 8. I (dream) every night. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. I always (have) a rest after lunch. as usual. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. You (like) this book? 8. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. I always (write) to him on his birthday. 20. 11. 6. 7. I (not like) that boy. You are typing a letter. 9. 7. 6. 15. 10. 2. In England it often (rain). The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. My mother is resting. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. 9. You (write) to John now? Yes. You (go) to work every day? Yes. Cui îi telefonezi? 4 . 4. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. You (know) what time is it? 4. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 6. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5. My friend is wearing a new dress. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. 12. I am having a walk. 8. 4. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1.

terminată. Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working You were not working We were not working You were not working 5 . Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Ex. cu perfectul compus. forma II. Când merg la mare îmi place sa înot mult. terminată. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. 14. (Ieri am mers la plimbare. to work – worked Dacă verbul este neregulat. Yesterday I went for a walk.Paste Tense. (Anul trecut am călătorit în Anglia.13. de obicei. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul. B. 19. Ea îşi face bagajul. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate.) to speak – spoke – spoken Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex. 16. Se traduce. forma III – participiul trecut. Este timpul de naraţiune. merge pe jos. 17.) Last year I travelled to England. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. Ex. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi.

6. 7. Se traduce. I like to have a coffee in the morning. He translated the text. de obicei. We worked very hard. 4. este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. 7. 9. He came home late. (În timp ce John citea. You ask too many questions. ele arătând acţiuni paralele. 6. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). I sold my car. 2. 8. You speak English well. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. cu imperfectul. I always make cakes on Sundays. 4. în aceeaşi frază. Ex. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. I own two umbrellas. He changed his library book every day. Were we working? Were you working? Were they working? Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. 2. Ex. While John was reading. While I was crossing the street.He/she/it was not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t were not – weren’t Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? They were not working I wasn’t working. I enjoyed travelling. I play football. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1. He meets John on Sundays. sora lui privea la televizor. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). 5. 5. I met John. 6 . 8. That sounds interesting.) Exerciţii cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous 1. de asemenea. 2. I hated him. Este. 3. posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. în plină desfăşurare. He thought about you. This time yesterday. În acest caz. În această situaţie. his sister was watching TV. 9. They drank all the wine. într-un moment trecut. You drink too much.) Adesea. 3. They weren’t working. Ex. 10. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. I was watching TV.

I (watch) a film on TV. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 11. As I (write). În timp ce ploua. 13. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 12. While he (learn) to drive. 3. When you (come in). Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 20. 9. 2. 3. When I (arrive). Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţă? Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. she (have) dinner. El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. 9. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. C. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: 7 . 10. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. This time last Sunday. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. When I (enter) the classroom. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. 19. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. he (work) in a bank. I talk on the phone. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. 10. 3. 2. 4. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. 16. 5. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. someone (ring up). the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 4. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. 4. 17. He forbade her to do this. 7. la care se adaugă forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 8. eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia. 8. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. he (have) an accident. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 15. mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la şcolă. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7.10. When I first (meet) him. 18. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. 6. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. 14. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to have” la prezent. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. 5.

dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . dintrun motiv sau altul.  Ex. this year. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. Ex. Ex. I have seen two films this week. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia. De asemenea. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week.) Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”. ever. Ex. already. începând din) şi for (de. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. never. se foloseşte Past Simple. care are rezultate în prezent sau care.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. I didn’t get up early this morning. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată.) I have known John for two years. I lost my umbrella yesterday. always.  Ex. just.m.arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani. this month. I haven’t got up early this morning. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică. Ex.)  arată o acţiune trecută. interesează în prezent. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiaza. timp de). Ex. ora 2 p. I haven’t seen John for two months. seldom. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni. I must buy a new one. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) 8 . (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. dacă se pune o întrebate referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”.m. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today. În acest caz. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. ora 10 a. I must buy a new one. În acest caz. terminată. arată o acţiune trecută.) I haven’t seen John since September. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta. this week.) I have known John since 1990.

Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare. care continuă în prezent. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. Exerciţii cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous 1. Ex.) După cum se poate observa. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând. 5. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately. we shall have floods. cu accent pe durată. 4. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. He has not (hasn’t) been working.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. Afirmativ I have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. 3. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. Ex. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. (Plouă de trei ore. I have never been to England. Ex. în funcţie de context. I am tired because I have been working all day. You (water) the flowers? He just (leave) home. să continue şi în viitor. yet (în propoziţii negative).No. vom avea inundaţii. 6.) I haven’t seen him lately. Would you like a cake? 9 . între un moment trecut şi prezent. Yes. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut.) We have been working You have been working They have been working De asemene. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua. I have often been to England. If it doesn’t stop soon. 2. fie cu perfectul compus. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. (El nu s-a întors încă acasă. He hasn’t returned home yet. It has been raining for three hours. I (lend) him some money today.

It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. 8. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. I already (see) this film. He (not come) home yet. How many dishes you (cook)? Why you (be) in the garden so long? I (water) the flowers. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet.No. 4. 20. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 10. 3. Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). The radio (play) since 7 a. 5. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). thank you. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 6. 10. You (be) out of work long? I am not out of work now. 9. It’s time we woke him up. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 4. How long you (live) here? I (live) here for one year. You (visit) the Village Museum? 12. 8. 14. 6. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 4. I (lose) my pen. You (see) your mother this week? No. He always (rely on) his friend. You (pay) the telephone bill? 19. 8. 10 . 10. 17. 11. she (try) to make trouble. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 18. 3. You ever (eat) caviar? 13. 3. When are you going to do it? Ever since that woman came to work here. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. How long you (wear) glasses? I (cook) all the morning. 7. 7. 9. It (not rain) since December. 5. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. We (know) each other for several years. You must come and see it. I (not be) to the seaside this year. When you (use) it last? 2. 7. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. I’m tired of it. I haven’t. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 15. You (not see) it anywhere? No. 9. 2. 2. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. He (not go) to bed yet. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. I (get) a job last month. I just (have) one. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. I (buy) a new house.m. You ever (drive) a car? 16. 1.

Ex. 13. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. I had finished writing my homework. Afirmativ I had been working. 14. De când mi-am cumpărat maşină. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. ca şi Present Perfect. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate. Ai mai fost în acest oraş? Da. dar. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5. 15. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? Nu am mers la vot. La ce te-ai uitat? A fost un accident.) Ca sens. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă. acum doi ani. 19. l-am luat la ora 8. 18. echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. 12. terminasem de scris temele. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 17. A plecat John? Da. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. Ninge de două ore. la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă. un verb de relaţie. Este. 16. 9. 6. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. 10. 11 . 11. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute. 20.4. El este ministru de doi ani. am petrecut o lună aici. Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă. Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. (Când mi-ai telefonat. în acest caz. Un copil a spart geamul. 7. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? Da. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.) When you rang me up. Afirmativ I had worked. a plecat acum o oră. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. 8. D.

6. After they (finish) dinner. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute. I realized she (have) a party. we (climb) for 7 hours. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. 6. When we reached the top. 3. When I rang her up. 2. When she sat for the exam. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 12 . he (go) downstairs to have dinner. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. When she decided to have a rest. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele. When I left home. (El a spus că plouă de trei zile.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. When we arrived at Sinaia. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 8. 4.) După cum se observă. 8. 10. 7. Exerciţii cu Past Simple şi Continuous 1. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. he got bored. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. At 3 o’clock on Friday. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. ea bătea la maşină de o oră. 2. she (study) the subject for a week. s-a plictisit. 5. De asemenea. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute.) He said it had been raining for three days. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. (Când el a intrat în cameră. she had been typing for one hour. 3. it (rain) for one hour.Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. When I arrived home. 7. I (return) from school. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. 9. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. 2. she felt chilly. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 2. She said she already (be) to England. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. she (write) letters for one hour. 9. 3. When we met them. When he entered the room. 4. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 10. Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 5. Ex. mother (cook) for two hours. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. they drank some coffee. When I called on her unexpectedly. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară.

4. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. se foloseşte numai „shall”. 7. will la persoana II si III. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. Ex. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. E. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau în Franţa din 1980. You will be going. 13 . El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. 9. I (shall) will meet him next week. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. 10. Afirmativ I (shall) will go You will go He/she/it will go Negativ I (shall) will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go We (shall) will go You will go They will go We (shall) will not go You will not go They will not go Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t. 5. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. 2. 8. 9. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română.) Future Continuous Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”.He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. we (realize) we (lose) our way. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. 7. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). After John (leave). 3. 4. 8. 4. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta acasă. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. When I (find out) he (get married). 6. 10. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. am mers la culcare. After we (walked) for an hour. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. 5. 6. a inmânat-o profesorului. 3.

We (shall) will not be going. (Mâine la ora trei voi călători spre Anglia. He/she/it will not be going. You will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will be going. You will not have gone. Ex. You will not have gone. They will have gone.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. I will have reached Predeal.He/she/it will be going. You will have gone.) Future Perfect Continuous 14 . Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. (Mâine până la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. At three o’clock. They will be going. They will not be going. la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will. By three o’clock tomorrow. They will not have gone. Ex. You will have gone. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. He/she/it will not have gone. You will not be going. He/she/it will have gone. You will be going. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. (have + forma III). I will be travelling to England. Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română.

Într-un astfel de context. arată un program precis. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. Ex. He said he would be late. va călători spre Anglia. Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. la ora 3. Este un timp rar folosit. I leave for London tomorrow. Când vei veni tu acasă. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. He said that at 3 o’clock. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. the next day.  15 . atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut. he would be travelling to England. I should (would) be going. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română. I (shall) will have been going. Ex. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. (El a spus că în ziua următoare. bine stabilit. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Ex. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut. When you come home.Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. Arată o intenţie. Afirmativ I (should) would go You would go He/she/it would go Negativ I (should) would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go We (should) would go You would go They would go We (should) would not go You would not go They would not go Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t. (El a spus ca va întârzia.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului  Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală). iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. I will have been studying for three hours. Ex. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive.

(Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. By the end of the month. This time next day. Next year. I am sure I (succeed). By the time you come home. You (be) in London tomorrow. 7. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 8. 2. 5.Ex. 6. I (have) breakfast. 10. I hope I (pass) the exam. 4. I (remember) this day all my life. 2. 10. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. She (watch) TV. it probably (rain). vor fi economisit 5 milioane. I (work) on this paper for a month. 7. I (work) at the office till late at night.  Ex. Exerciţii cu timpurile „Future” 1. He (study) all day tomorrow. 3. When you reach Sinaia. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 7. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. 10. 2.) Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: I (know) the results in three days’ time. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. This time next month. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. 8. He (be) pleased if you invite him. I am sure you (like) this book. 9. 8. 6. I (pay off) all my debts. I am meeting John this morning. I (cook) for two hours. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. 4. In a week’s time. we (climb) the mountain. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside.m. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. 1. 4. If we don’t hurry. I (swim) in the sea. 3. 5. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. 3. Let’s hurry to the beach. 9. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. they (be married) for 25 years. the baby (cry). By the beginning of next week. By 5 o’clock. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. 2. 16 . 2. 3. 6. I am sure when I arrive home.) It is going to rain. I am going to read this book. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? Voi vizita târgul internaţional. we (take) our exam. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. By the end of the season. When I take the exam. 3. Don’t expect me home for dinner. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum.

) He said he was going to school. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! E un obiect frumos. a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta.) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5. (El a spus că merge la şcolă. ci în fraze. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori.) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. 9. Present Tense Continuous.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. desigur. între orele 12 si 1. Present Perfect Simple.) 17 . Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past” Ex. (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi. nu în propoziţii.) She promised her mother she would help her. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple. Ex. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. Vineri. 5. Past Perfect Simple. (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.4. Past Tense Continuous. (Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia. Unde îl vei pune? LECŢIA II CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. 10. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. (El a spus că este bolnav. Propoziţia principală 1. 8. 7.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundară cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. Până la sfârşitul lunii. ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. 6. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. mâine. Până la ora 1. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice timp cerut de sens Propoziţia principală 2. Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare.

) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor 1) când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată. Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor 1. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 18 . dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. Se poate întâlni. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp.) I will have finished studying when you come home. He said he would come to see me when he had time. Pentru moment însă. (Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza. Ex. 3) Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”. 2) când propoziţia secundară este atributivă.Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani.) 3. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Ex. Ex. un timp „future” Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp.) b) Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: a) Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time. cu timpul. de exemplu. Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. cu excepţia propoziţii temporale sau condiţionale.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). Last year I worked more than I have done this year. să ajungă regulă. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă. Ex. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă.

You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. When I heard the main actor was ill. After she (learn) to type. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 5. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. When it started to rain. 8. Looking out of the window. 10. 2. 4. 6. 3. 5. It was clear they (talk) business again. this beach will become very crowded. 14. 7. 3. 2. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). I will lend it to you. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 1. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 5. I was not sure if you (speak) English. He promised he (drive) me home. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). 7. they will have been married for five years. 16. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. 4. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 3. After I (hear) the news. As soon as the holidays (begin). By the time you (finish) translating the text. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. 19 . 10. she will take a job as a secretary. They didn’t know that I (play) football. 2. I shall have typed all the letters. 5. 7. 8.1. When I (finish) the book. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 3. 6. When he finally reached London. 10. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. I congratulated him. 10. 6. we supposed prices (go up). ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: She told me his name after he (leave). 9. 9. 7. the concert already (begin). 2. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. As wages had gone up. 4. too. 11. After he (repair) the car. 9. When their first baby (be born). He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. he will drive to Sinaia. We all believed he (win) the competition. 6. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 3. având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 8. 12. 4. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 2. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. When I arrived. 9. 15. 13. I understood you (be) a painter. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 8. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 4.

9. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. 2. 20 . He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. 6. In 1998. I will do it when I (want) to. 9. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 5. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 20. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 19. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-I răspund. After we have finished dinner. 6. A week ago. I (not decide) yet. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 7. 15. 10. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. precum şi excepţiile: 1. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte. 4. 20. they were listening to music. 13. 3. 7. When we (go) to see them last night. you will feel better. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 16. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. After you (drink) a coffee. not before. ţinând seamă de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. He told me he never (see) the sea. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 5. 10. Maşina pe cae o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 3. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 2. 4. 8. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. He was very upset because I (be) late. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 7. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 18. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 6. 17. 8. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 10. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. You will never know how much I (suffer). they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 2. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. 9. 14. 4. 6. 18. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 5.17. 12. Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. 11. 19. 11. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. he decided he (change) his job. After having visited Italy. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. 7. 8. When I finally arrived home. 5.

ai merge. Past Conditional (condiţional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat).). ar fi mers etc. wouldn’t.12. ar merge etc.). Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? We should/would go You would go They would not go We should/would not go You would not go They would not go Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge. Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers. Afirmativ I should/would go You would go He/she/it would go Negativ I should/would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. 21 . LECŢIA III MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent) Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III. ai fi mers. la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat.

Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale: Tipul 1 Propoziţia principală Future Propoziţia secundară Present

I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună.) I will stay at home if it rains. (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua.) Tipul 2 Propoziţia principală Present Conditional Propoziţia secundară Subjonctiv cu formă de Past Tense

I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună.) I would stay at home if it rained. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua.) Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele, cu excepţia verbului „to be”, unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele. Tipul 3 Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu formă de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat.) Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that), providing, supposing, suppose, in case. What shall we do, supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?) - if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1, în loc de Present Simple, atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă, dar improbabilă. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul. În acest caz, should se traduce cu: în caz că, dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. Ex. If she should ring up, tell her I am out. În caz că telefonează, spune-I că nu sunt acasă.

De asemenea, should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de frază condiţională. Ex. If the police should find out the truth, we would be fined. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/ Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul, noi am fi amendaţi.)

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Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. were, had, should), este posibilă omiterea lui if, şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. Ex. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come

Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. If I see him, I (greet) him. 2. If you don’t hurry, you (be) late. 3. If she finds out what has happened, she (be) very angry. 4. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. 5. If I tell you something, you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. Unless you study more, you (not pass) the exam. 7. If it (go on) raining, we shall have floods. 8. If you (take) a dog, you will have to look after it. 9. If I like the dress, I (buy) it. 10. Unless you come at 6, you (not find) me at home. 2. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1. If I (know) his phone-number, I would ring him up. 2. If I (move) to the country-side, would you visit me? 3. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. If he were more careful, he (not make) so many mistakes. 5. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. If I (give up) smoking, I would be nervous. 7. If I won the lottery, I (buy) a car. 8. Should he have a headache, he (take) a pill. 9. Were I in your place, I (not do) this. 10. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1. If you had known English, you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 2. If I (work) harder, I would have succeeded. 3. If you had taken my advice, you (not get) into trouble. 4. If I (know) you had no driving licence, I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 5. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 6. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 7. Had I learned English grammar, I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. 8. If he (realize) it was so late, he would have gone home. 9. If I (not tell) him, he would never have known. 10. Had I been at home, I (answer) the phone. 4. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. It (be) better if you had waited. 2. If I (be) you, I would go home immediately. 3. I (answer) your question if I can. 4. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 5. If you (drive) more carefully, you wouldn’t have an accident. 6. If the child is good, he (get) a bar of chocolate. 7. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now.

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8. If I (see) him, I would speak to him. 9. If he had written a letter to me, I (answer) it. 10. You (be) sick if you eat so much. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Dacă va ploua, străzile vor fi ude. 2. Dacă ar ploua, străzile ar fi ude. 3. Dacăar fi plouat, străzile ar fi fost ude. 4. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi. 5. Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. 6. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. 7. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10. Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John?
5.

6. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. 2. Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani, I-ai da? 3. Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? 4. Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. 5. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă. 6. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp, voi mânca la un restaurant. 7. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra, mi-ar fi fost frig. 8. Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână. 9. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni acolo. 10. Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. LECŢIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home” Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă, trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. 1) Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut, ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor, în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present Present perfect Past Future Ex. – past past perfect past perfect future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. He said he was ill. – He said „I have been working hard. He said he had been working hard. – He said „I was ill”. He said he had been ill.

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4) Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: .  He said (that) he was ill. 2.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day. I will stay at home. He said: „She gave me a book”. Ex. 2) Se schimbă pronumele. Ex. should. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă. He said: „I might be late” He said he might be late. “If it had rained. He said he would do the exercise. în funcţie de sens.tipul 1 devine tipul 2: “If it rains. Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. I would stay at home. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”.– He said „I will do the exercise”. could.  He said he would be at home on that day. today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week two years ago now this these here Ex. I would have stayed at home.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. that day the day before/the previous day two days before the next day/the following day in two days’ time the next/the following week two years before then that those there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. ought to. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) 25 . He said: „I am ill”. He said she had given him a book. Ex. 3) Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens.” He said if itrained he would stay at home. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă 1. 5) Verbele modale would.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: “If it rained.

Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. Ex. 12. 1. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară. Ex. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă. If I have enough money. 8. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. ceea ce este o greşeală. 4. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 2. 6. Open the door. I saw this film a week ago. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. 3. Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă 1. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. 5. The weather was fine yesterday. 9. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was. 3.  He told me to go out. 11. Don’t drive so fast! 2. Ex. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb. He asked me where I had been. Write me a letter when you get to England! 26 . Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă). I went to England two years ago. I would have answered the phone. 2. Read the text. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. 7. 10. He said „Don’t go out”  He told me not to go out. on holiday. If I had been at home. please! 4. Where have you been? I’ve been away. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. ordered) me to come in. I will buy a car next year. I am very busy today. He asked me if I liked music. He said „Go out”. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. Ex. 1.Ex. Întrebări Există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. I will go shopping right now. please! 3. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv.

I will be asked. 1. How long have you been learning English? 2. Has the train left? 4. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. Be careful with my books! 7. Do you know what this word means? 5. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. Were you at the library yesterday? 9.5. Would you like a cake? 12. I am asked. Can you speak English? 11. Take this pill! 9. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. Was your mother at home? 6. Do you live in London for a long time? 10. Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. please? 2. Will you help me. În limba română. Ex. I have been asked. Who is this man? 7. How did you travel? LECŢIA V DIATEZA PASIVĂ Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Could you lend me a book. What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. When will you be back? 5. I was asked. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. Don’t smoke so much! 8. I had been asked. Did you drink coffee every day? 8. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. Why is it so dark in this room? 8. 1. 27 . When did the rain stop? 9. please? 4. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat.

complementul indirect şi. 2. 28 . Complement direct  A book was given to him. People play football all over the world. Ex. În aceste situaţii. Ex. He has found your bag. The noise frightened me. I will invite my friend to a party. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. Someone has found the missing child. His coworkers must do something for him. my flat is being painted. în unele cazuri. In this office punctuality is insisted on. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1. They will finish the work today. 2. poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. se omite formularea by. de asemenea. Ex. While I was in hospital. Activ: She looked after the child. A specialist will repair my TV set. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. my flat was being painted. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. when I passed by. În limba engleză. care. iar complementul indirect este him. 6. While I am in hospital. (by me) Complement indirect  He was given a book. Desigur. În multe cazuri. (by me) Subiect Subiect În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality. 5. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Activ: I gave him a book. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. They are building a new house round the corner. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 10. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 7. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri.Ex. 3. complementul prepoziţional. 3. Notă: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 9. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. They have given me a nice present. I teach them English. 4. 2. Unde complementul direct este a book. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv. The policeman will show us the way. 8. Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă 1. 4.

7. 6. 7. English is spoken all over the world. 9. 8. 1. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa. 3. 3. 6. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 10. They will give me a reward. 4. Have you fed the dog? 7. 2. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. 7. 11. The teacher asked me a difficult question. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. 5. They didn’t look after the children properly. 4. Burglars broke into the house. 2. 5. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. 9. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb+prepoziţie: 1. They set fire to the shed. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. Traduceţi în limba engleză: În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. He hates being made fun of. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. The pupils will be told where to sit. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că I se furase portofelul. These books mustn’t be taken away. 3. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 8. This book will soon be forgotten. 6.5. 8. We laughed at John. 10. We called for the doctor. 4. A reception was held in his honour. 5. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. We objected to his proposal. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 3. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. This house has been built out of stone and cement. I was recommended a very good doctor. I have lent John two of my books. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar. 10. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. 4. 8. 2. He hasn’t slept in his bed. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 7. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. 29 . 6. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 9. 9. 6.

He could have been here in time. would. could.) Nu primesc s la persoana III singular.  Nu au toate timpurile. 15. He cannot (can’t) speak English. a fi în stare Ex.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. ought to. prezent 1. can’t Ex. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru. LECŢIA VI VERBELE MODALE Can. Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to.12. I can do this. Ex. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. 30 . Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. 13. N-am putut să vin la tine ieri. Caracteristici generale  Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Ex. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. will. (Pot să fac aceasta. should. Can = infinitiv. Can is a model verb. Ex. America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea. may. 14. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. shall. need. Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. Ex. must. He can speak English. Negativ: cannot. I can make this traslation. might. Ex.   Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”. (Vreau să fac aceasta. Can are sensul de a putea. Could you help me? Ai putea să mă ajuţi? Pentru condiţionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut Ex. prezent. Ex. Se folosesc înlocuitori.

are sensul de a putea. The sun hasn’t set yet. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră? Yes. May/Might – s-ar putea să Ex. He said I might smoke in that room. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. Father. nu e posibil să. Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă. a avea permisiunea Ex.). El e în străinătate. to be permitted to. you may. Ex. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală. Ex. În vorbirea familiară. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. He may/might be at home now. Ex. Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în camera aceea. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. He is abroad. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Take your umbrella. (Ştiu să înot. can I take your car? Tată. s-ar putea să plouă. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. Telefonează-I lui John. I can swim. 3. Ex. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta? 4. se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. It may/might rain. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii.) I can speak English. May 1. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum. Ex. (Da. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Ex. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Soarele nu a apus încă. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să.2. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. 31 . Ring up John. Nu se poate să fie ora 9. Cu acest sens. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Ex. poţi.) Negativ: may not.) Cu acest sens. Ia-ţi umbrela. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. 2. Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea. Se traduce cu a şti să.

Ex. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. Probabil că era târziu. Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. Negativ: must not. noţional. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară. Ex. Ex. A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. De asemenea. May/might pot exprima un reproş. Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. It must have been late. A trebui Ex. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. cu sensul de a avea nevoie  Ex. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ.Ex. I must go home. S-a făcut târziu. John must be at home now. Trebuie să plec acasă. Ex. You may/might help me when I am in need. It’s got late. Must 1. He doesn’t need this book. De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti. Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie. Let’s go home. cu sensul de a fi nevoie Ca verb modal. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. Probabil că e târziu. Ex. El nu are nevoie de această carte. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. Hai să mergem acasă. I was asleep when you arrived home last night.  Need: verb modal. 2. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. 3. Cu acest sens. 32 . I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Need Există două verbe: To need: verb obişnuit. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. Let’s call on him. Probabil că John e acasă acum. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Ex. Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia. Hai să-l vizităm.

The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus. solicitarea unui sfat. Nu. Folosit cu persoana I. Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede.Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1? No. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile. o recomandare. ar fi cazul să. interogativ. Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu. există 2 posibilităţi:  Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. Ex. you needn’t. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”. there is a speed limit here. o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte. Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie să cumpăr? Shall I wait for you? Să te aştept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Să ne întâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II şi III. shall indică viitorul. Ex. Ex. Ex. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. avem destul timp. Ex. poate indica. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă. o obligaţie morală. You needn’t have watered the flowers. ar fi bine să. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă?  Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută. Ex. Shall Folosit cu persoana I. Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. we have enough time. We didn’t need to do this exercise. dar a fost făcută. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. de asemenea. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. you must! (Da. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. nu e nevoie. 33 . You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. aici e limită de viteză. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. se foloseşte verbul must. You mustn’t drive so fast. Ex. Should. shall poate arăta o promisiune. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul Ex. You needn’t drive so fast. o ofertă sau o sugestie. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi.

I cannot translate ten pages a day. I must go soon. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”.  Acţiune repetată: . Used to eate un verb semi-modal. May I walk on the grass? 11. care are numai forma de trecut. . You may leave earlier. Can you help me? 9. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. my mother used to read me fairy tales. She can lend you that book. Will.în trecut When I was a child. 13. 10. 34 . This girl looks very much like Jane.Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal. O fi sora ei. O fi ajuns la Paris până acum. 2. 12. 4. Când eram copil. I must learn English. You may not speak to your mother like that. Exerciţii cu verbe modale 1. He can swim very well. Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor. please?  A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. acolo unde este necesar: 1. Would  Formula de politeţe. 7. You mustn’t do this . This child may have another cake. 6. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane. Ex. 8. This radio won’t work. She will be her sister. 5. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam.în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation.  Notă: În afară de „would”. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti. Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. 3. You may not smoke in this room. my mother would read me fairy tales. Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-I spun. When I was a child.

4. She is probably a very good doctor. 1. It can’t be too late. 16. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 4. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 14. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 9. 19. 16. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 15. 15. 6. 35 . 7. 7. He ought to tell me the truth. there is plenty in the fridge. 6. He probably came home very early. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. holidays will be very different. She can play the piano very well. 4. He should go to school everyday. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. He …even drive on its surface. 2. You might write to me more often. John could be a winner. He must speak English well. 5. 19. He must be delayed at the office. Must you be so rude? 20. You might change your mind about that. 3. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: He probably speaks English well. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly … stay there very long.14. You must have forgotten to lock the door. You probably forgot to lock the door. 5. She can read and write at the age of five. 2. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. John must be ill. It might rain. 11. Model: 1. Everybody may borrow books from this library. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 13. 4. 3. Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 5. 20. 10. 3. 3. 2. Can you speak Chinese? 18. He needn’t buy milk. He may be at home. You might pay more attention to your work. He probably thinks I am wrong. 18. I must look up the words in the dictionary. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. He is probably older than he looks. 17. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: Man …travel through space now. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 8. 12. 8. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. You needn’t do this. 2.

10. It is possible that I come home early. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 6. 7. I don’t think the weather will change. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. 2. 9. 1. 3. 10. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. It may/might snow in the mountains. 6. 9. 10. You have probably forgotten his address. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. it will soon start raining. 6. 3. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 5. You…water the flowers. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. I … return the books before the 1st of September. I’ll give you as much as you want. 6. You … take sleeping pills too often. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. I don’t believe it is his fault. You … take an umbrella. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. but I doubt it. 2. I don’t believe it was his fault. You can’t have been right. 8. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. perhaps it is a good one. perhaps it will rain. I don’t think this is a true story. I don’t believe you were right. 7. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. 4. 2. I don’t believe she has got so fat. I have bought his latest book. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. 5. 1. 7. 10. they are addictive. Take your umbrella. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 9. 4. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. It is possible for her to be very late. 8. You can’t be right. 5. 9. Don’t wait.He was probably late. 36 . I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 7. 5. 8. 4. The sky is clear. You … worry about money. People … speak during the concert. I think she was angry with you. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. 3.

4. You…(lend) him your text – book. I …(leave) it on the bus. … you correct my exercise. 11. the road is dry. I haven’t got my bag with me. 10. We …(wait) too long. 2. 10. 3. You …not go to bed so late at night. 7. 9. If you win the contest. 6. you …re-type it. 4. Încercaţi să găsiţi un sens următorului dialog: “Do you think he will?” 37 . 9. 10. You …do this whether you like it or not. please? 7. which was very convenient. I …(answer) the questions. but I forgot it was Sunday. He …(be) at home. This door … not unlock. I …read one book a day. 8. 5. Go to sleep. It’ll get stale. for once? 3. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. He has one of his own. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. … you help me solve this problem? When I was young. When I was a teenager. 3. 2. he was back soon. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 9. 5. You …not expect everybody to obey you. I am sorry you wasted your time. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. 9. I promise you not …be disturbed. The student …(write) such a long composition. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. He …read for hours on end. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. I locked the door and took the key with me. You …(buy) so much bread. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. I didn’t hear the phone. …you tell me the truth. he is a very poor swimmer. please? 10. She …write an article for this magazine every week. I …wear my hair long. You …(wait) for me. 6. 7. The child … (leave) home. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. You …(lend) him so many books. The light was on in his room. he will never read them all. 2. 6. 4. 8. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must. 6. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 8.8. I wrote him a letter. he is a nice boy. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. This letter is full of mistakes. 3. 5.Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 12. He …(swim) across the Danube. 2. 7. which would have saved me a lot of work. She is away. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. You …(see) Anna yesterday. It …(rain) here. I …(be) in the garden. 9. you…get a nice present. 4. I …(get up) so early today. I …(answer) the questions. 10. I …(see) him for that. 8. John …(do) such a thing. This …be John’s house. 5.

o încuiasem chiar eu. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. Probabil că eram încă la facultate. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. Come what may. 17. 1. 10. 8. Nu a fost nevoie să-I telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. 23.“I think he might. Vreţi. 19. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea. Va trebui să plec curând. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! 38 . Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil. Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. 27. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 13. 20. 6. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. 18. Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de noroi. 29. Traduceţi în limba engleză. Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. exprimând o lozică. 9.” “His family consider he should. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. 21. Ar fi trebuit să insişti. may. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. Fie ce-o fi. 11. 3. Unde mergem acum? 28. o dorinţă sau un blestem. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. 24. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30. 4.” “Yes. Ex. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă. 12. 14. 16. Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă. Nu ştiu să croşetez. but he himself believes he needn’t. Nu. might. 2. o urare. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 5. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect. LECŢIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. am băut deja două astăzi. Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. would + infinitiv. 22. De asemenea. Subjonctiv cu formă de infinitiv a) Apare în propoziţii exclamative. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi. 7. Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. vă rog. 26.” 13. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns.

 Dacă dorinţa se referă la un moment viitor. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent.  Dacă dorinţa se referă la un moment anterior. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Subjonctiv cu formă de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare după următoarele expresii: I wish (mi-aş dori. bine ar fi să)  Dacă dorinţa se referă la momentul prezent. e) După verbe ca: to propose. it is likely that. I wish I were in England now. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. se foloseşte subjonctivul cu formă de Past Tense. Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. Mi-aş dori să fiu în Anglia acum. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. Ex. Mi-aş dori să mă fi născut în Anglia. to order Ex. 39 . Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. it is necessary that. în engleza contemporană. 2. d) După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. Shakespeare: „If this be error”… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving” …the heart is c) Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. to suggest. to insist.Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! b) Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Ex. se foloseşte would. It is necessary that you be present. a) Notă: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du formă de Past Tense. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. în situaţii în care. se foloseşte subjonctivul cu formă de Past Perfect. to demand. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. Toată lumea să părăsească sala. it is desirable that. Ex. Ex. to urge. It is impossible that he do this. Everybody leave the hall. to recommend. Ex. I wish I had been born in England. apare ca were la toate persoanele.

persoana care îşi exprimă preferinţa este diferită de cea care face acţiunea. Ex. It is necessary that you should be present. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. I wish it would stop raining. 40 . e) I would sooner/rather (aş prefera să…) Ex. d)It is time. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi să trăiesc până la o sută de ani! c) As if/though (ca şi cum. Era de mult timpul să începi să studiezi serios. (Era de mult timpul. Există o situaţie în care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv. Ex. I would sooner stay at home tonight. 3. fie că se foloseşte should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. You speak English as if you were an Englishman.) It is high time. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. It is time the child went to bed. b) If only – are aproximativ acelaşi sens cu I wish Ex. fie că se foloseşte în limba engleză subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv. Ex. fie cel cu formă de infinitiv. It is high time you began to study seriously.Ex. it is necessary that. Este vorba de cazul când propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune anterioară celei din principală. Acest tip de construcţii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). You speak English as if you had lived in England. It is impossible that he should have done this. Echivalenţi de subjonctiv a) should – ca şi subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi după construcţii de tipul: It is impossible that.) Ex. Aş prefera să stai acasă în seara asta.ci este necesară introducerea lui should. de parcă) even if/even though (chiar dacă) Ex. În cazul în care persoana care îşi exprimă preferinţa este aceeaşi cu cea care face acţiunea. It is impossible that he should do this. (E timpul. E timpul să meargă copilul la culcare. Vorbeşti engleza de parcă ai fi englez. Este imposibil ca el să fi făcut aceasta. Mi-aş dori să înceteze ploaia. În exemplul de mai sus. Vorbeşti engleza ca şi cum ai fi trăit în Anglia. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first.

în secundară se foloseşte may. may poate apărea în lozinci şi urări: Ex. în această situaţie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted.  După to hope. Nu văd de ce să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. De asemenea. to be afraid Ex. etc. Învaţă serios ca să treci examenul. I hope that he may pass the exam. 41 . to recommend. whatever sau după formulele echivalente no matter who. to insist. might Ca şi subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv. Hurry up lest you miss the train. dacă verbul din propoziţia principală este la timpul prezent. Ex. you have no right to do this. should poate apărea după verbe ca: to propose. Grăbeşte-te ca nu cumva să pierzi trenul. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. No matter who you may/might be. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul să fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie să trăieşti mult şi să fii fericit. why. la fel ca şi subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). you have no right to do this. I was afraid that he might fail the exam.  Întrebări introduse prin how. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. Mi-era teamă să nu cadă la examen. După conjuncţia lest (ca nu cumva să) Ex. to urge. where. no matter when. Ex. fie în vorbirea indirectă. Sper ca el să treacă examenul. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. După cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. fie în vorbirea direcă. Hurry up lest you should miss the train.when. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. to suggest. whichever. in order that Ex. whenever. wherever.  După so that. După cum se observă. Mi-e teamă ca nu cumva să piardă examenul. b) may. Ex.  Ex. Whoever you may/might be. however. în secundară se foloseşte might. Am învăţat serios ca să trec examenul. to demand. How should I know where he is now? De unde să ştiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Notă: În engleza contemporană există tendinţa de a se omite should după lest şi de a se folosi subjonctivul cu formă de infinitiv. iar dacă verbul din propoziţia principală este la timpul trecut.  După whoever.

Mi-aş dori să pot vorbi engleza/să fiu în stare să vorbesc engleza. I regret I have no children. I regret I can’t go to the concert. Este posibil ca el să ajungă aici la timp. 7. verbele respective aduc în propoziţie şi sensul lor iniţial. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I wish the weather were fine. 5. Ex. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 42 . 1. Transformaţi următoarele propoziţii. I will ring you up. Notă: După cum se poate observa. 10. Oriunde aş fi. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. Wherever I may/might be. Transformaţi următoarele propoziţii. 8. I regret I have only one child. It is possible that he may be here in time. 4. 6. I was sorry you were out when I called. Era posibil ca el să fi ajuns aici la timp. it was possible Ex. I am sorry you live so far away. 5. 10. I regret I am not a student. It was possible that he might be here in time. Exisă situaţii când se pot folosi şi alte verbe modale decât cele expuse în acest capitol ca echivalenţi de subjonctiv. 8. I am sorry you had an accident. I wish I might borrow your car. 6. I am sorry my friend is ill. nu ai dreptul să faci asta. 7. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I was late for the party. 4. I am sorry books are so expensive. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. I was sorry you had got a fine. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 2. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 3. echivalenţii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. 2. astfel încât să înceapă cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I wish I could speak English.Oricine ai fi. Mi-aş dori să pot/să am permisiunea de a împrumuta maşina ta. îţi voi telefona. 2.  După it is possible. I am sorry it rains so often. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 1. 9. iar în aceste cazuri. 3. astfel încât să înceapă cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. 9. Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv 1.

I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 7. 9. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 7. E ora 10! Nu crezi că era demult timpul să te scoli şi să te apuci de lucru? 43 . 13. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 16. Bine ar fi să fii mai ordonată! 5. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. 3. E timpul să-mi înapoiezi banii pe care ţi I-am împrumutat. 10. am putea merge la plajă! 6. 10. 8. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. Era demult timpul să începi să citeşti cărţile cerute pentru examenul de literatură română. Bine ar fi să nu fi făcut atâtea greşeli la lucrarea de control. If only my telephone (work)! 11. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 14. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. 9. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. 17. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday.3. Aş prefera să te scoli mai devreme. 12. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. You behave as if you (own) the place. Ţi-ai dori să fi fost invitată la petrecerea lui John? 7. astfel încât să înceapă cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la forma corectă de subjonctiv: 1. 5. 6. 2. 15. 3. I wish he would take my advice. 10. Transformaţi următoarele propoziţii. Aş prefera să mergi la teatru. 4. 6. 5. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. 12. Mi-aş dori să încetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar în acest moment. Ce păcat că plouă! Dacă n-ar ploua. 4. 4. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. 3. Aş prefera să mă scol mai devreme. If only I (become) a millionaire. I would rather you (close) that window. Mi-aş dori să încetezi să te mai văicăreşti pentru că am şi eu necazurile mele. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 2. 14. 1. 13. It’s time we (go) home. 2. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 8. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 11. I am cold. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. Ce păcat că nu mai sunt tânăr! 8. 20. Aş prefera să merg la teatru. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence.

Este posibil ca ea să fie plecată din oraş. 2. 18. nu te pot crede. 6. Este imposibil ca el să se fi întors atât de devreme. Vorbeşti ca şi cum ai fi supărată pe mine. Este probabil ca fiul meu să fi luat examenul. 6. El mi-a vorbit ca şi cum nu se întâmplase nimic între noi. 8. Oricare ar fi motivul. nu ar trebui să mă minţi. Era ciudat ca el să nu fi citit această carte. Oricât te-ai strădui. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 3. 5. Insist ca tu să accepţi această slujbă. 9. Vrei să spui că este probabil să ne petrecem concediul în Bucureşti? 10. Ea se poartă cu el de parcă ar fi soţul ei. El a intrat în casă fără zgomot. Înlocuiţi infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 5. Directorul a cerut ca toată lumea să fie prezentă la ora 8. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. Este necesar să fiu prezent la această şedinţă? 7. 9. 4. Prietenul meu a insistat să merg cu el la concert. la ţară. 19. eu voi fi acasă şi te voi aştepta. 6. 4. 3. Dă-te la o parte ca să văd (astfel încât să pot vedea) ecranul. dar eu prefer să mergi la bunicul. Este foarte important ca acest contract să fie semnat foarte curând. Oricine ţi-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 17. 7. 7. 16. 9. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. Ea arată de parcă ar fi manechin. Este imposibil ca el să se întoarcă atât de devreme. 5. 8. Este important ca tu să ştii engleza bine. 7. 2. 4. 8. 6. 3. Ştiu că tu ţi-ai dori să-ţi petreci vacanţa într-o tabără. Este enervant ca tu să fi uitat să-mi aduci cartea înapoi. 4. 8. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 10. you should remember your own phone number. 7. Am sugerat să-l alegem preşedinte. nu ar fi trebuit să crezi. nu poţi câştiga un astfel de concurs. Orice mi-ai spune. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 2. Este necesar să fii informat despre ce se întâmplă în ţară. 44 . 5. 3. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. Oricând te vei întoarce. Profesorul sugerează ca noi să citim această carte. Jane şi-ar dori să-mi petrec sfârşitul de săptămână cu ea. 6. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. Directorul a propus ca eu să lucrez în alt sector. Am făcut un împrumut ca să (astfel încât să) pot să-mi cumpăr casa. 2.15. astfel încât să nu-l aud eu. El a sugerat ca noi să cumpărăm această casă. Mama a hotărât ca noi să stăm acasă. Vorbeşte mai tare ca să te aud (asfel încât să te pot auzi). 8. 20.

I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 19. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 20.9. 11. I wish I (find) another.) Există câteva tipuri de verbe care acceptă acest tip de construcţii: 45 . The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. el reprezintă forma a III-a: . It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. Diateza activă – infinitiv prezent simplu: to call – infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling – infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called – infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasivă – infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called – infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. 15. modurile nepersonale sunt următoarele: infinitivul. 10. 17. Participiul prezent şi gerunziul pot avea timpuri şi diateză. Ex. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECŢIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE În limba engleză. 12. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Constă dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv în acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. I have such a boring job. I wish I (be) there when it happened. The road is wet. 13. I suggested that we (take) a taxi.to go – went – gone Construcţii cu infinitivul 1. All success (attend) you! 18. Atât participiul prezent cât şi gerunziul se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). în cazul verbelor neregulate. I want you to go now.to call – called – called . 16. (Vreau ca tu să pleci acum. Diateza activă – nedefinit: calling – perfect: having called Diateza pasivă – nedefinit: being called – perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei -ed la verbele regulate. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. 14. diateză şi timpuri. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. forma -ing (gerunziul şi participiul prezent) şi participiul trecut.

) 2.) I expected him to come in time. (M-am aşteptat ca el să vină la timp.) b) verbe exprimând percepţia senzorială: to see. to consider. to suppose. I’d like him to come with me. to suppose. Ex. Nominativ cu infinitiv Constă dintr-un subiect în nominativ + un verb la diateza pasivă sau activă + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. to say. Ex. I saw him leave the room. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fără to). to dislike. to wish.) They declared him to be the man of the year. to feel. to expect.a) adverbe exprimând dorinţa sau voinţa: to want. (El a recunoscut că ştirile erau false. (Aş vrea ca el să vină cu mine.) d) verbe exprimând percepţia mentală: to think. to order. to make. a) folosit cu verbe la diateza pasivă: to see. to know. Ex. to watch. Ex. Ex. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) I let him go out and play. I consider him to be a good student. (L-am făcut să înveţe engleza. Ex. to declare. to hear. (L-am văzut că părăseşte camera/părăsind camera. to admit. (L-am lăsat să iasă afară să joace fotbal. to hate. to consider.) c) verbe exprimând un ordin. to know. to hear.) 46 . to believe. (Vreau ca John să facă aceasta. He admitted the news to be false. Verbele to make şi to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fără to). to cause.) e) verbe declarative: to state. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. (Se spune că el este un bun scriitor.) He ordered the door to be locked. to understand. to believe. to allow. (Mă bazez pe tine să faci aceasta. (Consider că el este un bun student. I made him study English. to count upon/on . I rely on you to do this. (El a ordonat să se încuie uşa. He is said to be a good writer.) f) cu anumite verbe urmate de prepoziţii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to like.) I want John to do this. to expect.

tradusă cu o expresie personală în limba engleză.) Notă: Din nou avem în limba engleză o expresie personală care se traduce în româneşte cu o expresie impersonală.) It is necessary for me to go there. She is sure to come in time.) If I happen to meet him.Sunt situaţii în care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprimă o formulare pasivă a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to prove. Acuzativ cu participiu 47 . He considered the news to be false. It is necessary that I (should) go there. They declared him to be the man of the year. (E sigur că ea va veni la timp. to appear la diateza activă: Ex. Ex. Dacă vrem să traducem expresia personală: „Ea e sigură că va veni la timp” o redăm în modul următor: „She is sure the she will come in time”. (S-a întâmplat să-l întâlnesc pe stradă. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. It is easy for me to do this. He proved to be a good journalist. de obicei. (Aceasta rămâne să o decidă el. I consider him to be a good student. 3. to seem. to turn out.) Notă: Trebuie remarcat faptul că expresia impersonală din limba română se întâmplă să este. Construcţii cu participiul prezent 1. b) cu verbele: to happen.) Notă: Ultimele două propoziţii se se pot reda în limba engleză şi cu ajutorul subjonctivului. He was declared to be the man of the year. (E uşor să fac asta. (Dacă se va întâmpla să-l întâlnesc.) It is impossible for him to come. I made him study English. For – phrase Constă din propoziţia for + un substantiv sau pronume în acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. c) cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. I will tell him where you are. He was made to study English. (Este necesar ca eu să merg acolo. He is considered to be a good student. îi voi spune unde eşti. The news was considered to be false.) This remains for him to decide. It is impossible that I (should) come. (Este imposibil ca el să vină.) I happened to meet him in the street.

Este de asemenea să apară situaţii în care acţiunea exprimată de participiul trecut este făcută de altcineva în detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect.) I will have my hair done. (Dacă vremea va permite.) În cazul verbelor de percepţie.) I heard her singing. we went home. vom merge la plajă.) Weather permitting. I saw him leaving (L-am văzut plecând. to hear. to watch. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul construcţiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. (Orele fiind terminate. Exerciţii cu construcţiile verbale 1. She had two sons killed in the war. (Am auzit-o cântând. (Am lăsat-o / găsit-o plângând. we shall go to the beach. Ex.) Această construcţie arată că acţiunea este făcută de către altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. Ex.) I left / found her crying.Se foloseşte cu verbe exprimând percepţie senzorial: to see. I-au fost ucişi doi fii în război. 2. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind construcţia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 48 . (Voi merge să mă coafez. precum şi cu verbele to find. to leave. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. Nominativul absolut Este o construcţie participială care are un subiect al ei propriu. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. Diferenţa de sens între cele două construcţii este următoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe acţiunea propriu-zisă. Ex: The classes being over. am mers acasă. I had my bedroom window broken. (Ea a fost auzită cântând.) 3.) She was heard singing. În timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am văzut-o plecând.) Construcţie cu participiul trecut Este formată din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. această construcţie este asemănătoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am văzut-o că pleacă sau Am văzut-o plecând. to smell. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. în timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arată acţiunea în desfăşurare. (El a fost văzut plecând.

It is necessary that he be present. 7. Am văzut câţiva copii jucându-se în parc. at once. 6. L-am văzut vorbind cu prietena lui. 9. You should take it. 9. John a recunoscut că vina era a lui. 7. The people were impatient. 12. 4. You should read it. M-am aşteptat să vii mai devreme. 11. 3. 4. 1. 2. Reformulaţi următoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind construcţia „forphrase”: Model: It is important that I should know the truth. It is possible that I might buy a car. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind construcţia „for-phrase”: Model: This translation is easy. You should bear it in mind. 8. 8. I can’t solve it. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 1. I-am privit jucând fotbal. 2. 10. Ştiam că el e un om foarte ocupat. 15. Mă bazez pe tine să-mi împrumuţi nişte bani. 4. Mama ar vrea ca eu să devin doctor. 6. 3. Cred că el e un soţ bun. 3. Ea m-a făcut să înţeleg ce se întâmplase. The time has come. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. This fact is important. 9. Înţeleg că ea e o profesoară foarte bună.1. It is advisable that you should resign. This is a good book. 5. Presupuneam că el ştie să conducă maşina. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. We should have a heart to heart talk. She was thought to be a gifted child. This is the main thing. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 7. 10. I have closed the window. 4. I ordered a taxi. This problem is too difficult. It is important that you should come to the office. Reformulaţi următoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind construcţia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 8. 3. 13. I can’t believe she said that. 2. 5. 14. This translation is easy for me to make. I don’t want you to catch a cold. Folosiţi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. It is impossible that he should have said that. El m-a făcut să pierd trenul. It is important to know the truth. 10. I didn’t want her to miss the train. This is a strange thing. Am auzit-o certându-şi copilul. I cam make it. El voia ca eu să-l ajut. 5. 6. It’s time we met again. This is a valuable piece of advice. 49 . The match was about to begin. We should do it now. 2.

4. 8. Traduceţi în limba română următoarele propoziţii cu construcţia Nominativul absolut: 1. I don’t love. 6. 3. I don’t always believe. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. Do they live? 8. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. we were seared about having floods. It was proved that she was a liar. Do I always believe? 6. 3. The rain having stopped. we sat down to dinner. Do I have? 50 . Everybody. 7. They said she was ill. 10. 2. 5. The mud having ruined my shoes. Does she talk? 3. 6. I don’t understand. 10. I found the boy breaking the window. He doesn’t remember. 6. You don’t play. She doesn’t talk. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. The plane having taken off. 3. Does he remember? 7. I found her digging in the garden. I went shopping. I saw her fainting. Do you play? 5. 4. I saw her lying on the beach. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. The letter being written. I had to change them. 9. Everybody being at home. I could hear her typing. Do I understand? 4. 8. I went home relaxed. I saw the peasants working in the field. Expected that he would resign. I saw the plane landing. I stopped smoking. The river having risen in the night. 7. transformându-le în Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. I thought she was unable to win the contest. The dog was heard barking. we hurried to the beach. 5. 8. CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR LECŢIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exerciţii cu Present Simple şi Continuous Exerciţiul l: 1. The concert being over. I don’t have. Do I love? 2. They don’t live. 10. The decision being taken in my favour. He doesn’t have. I don’t trust. 2. It is sure they have had an argument. 6. Does he have? 9. The sun having risen. 9. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele construcţii Acuzativ cu Participiu.1. She heard the hunters shooting. 9. Do I trust? 10. She heard the baby crying. I heard the child breaking the vase. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 2. 7. Weather permitting. l. They heard him repeat it several times. 5. the audience left the hali. 5. 4. I went to post it.

19. 3. 7. I am not having. do you do? 3. 7. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. We aren’t studying. Is the child learning? Exerciţiul 3: l. Are they swimming? 6. What are you speaking about? Exerciţii cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous Exerciţiul 1: 1. I entered. 8. It snows in winter. Did he come? 8. go. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 19. Did you sleep well last night? 3. he walks. 1 liked. You asked. 9. don’t understand. The secretary is just typing a report. Do you usually get. I was writing. Is my mother resting? 8. 10. 5. 8. 7. 18. I arrived. He didn’t translate. 9. 15.Exerciţiul 2: l. Did he forbid? Exerciţiul 3: 1. While I was looking for my passport. He didn’t change. On Sundays. I don’t like coffee. someone rang up. you came in. 2. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. Did I enjoy? 9. 11. 6. Yesterday I lost my gloves. my friends played chess. remembers. am. You aren’t typing. am taking. I was watching. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. I found this old photo. I am not going. I slept. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. 9. Yesterday I got up early. he realized. This time yesterday it was raining. Exerciţiul 4: 1. Is Ann knitting? 10. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I do not study in the evening. Whom are you ringing up? 13. 5. What do you do on your free days? 12. Exerciţiul 2: 1. 17. 4. I didn’t sell. Did I hate? 4. 2. 2. They aren’t swimming. I met. Are we studying? 9. 13. he was working. Did they drink? 3. You drank. She goes shopping on Saturdays. 2. are you thinking? I am thinking. 10. 4. He didn’t come. Are you writing. He sat for his first exam last week. You spoke. 1 am cooking. When did you buy this TV set? 12. He met. Now I am doing my homework in English. While it was raining. he was-learning. he had. 10. 20. 8. he doesn’t get up early. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. It isn’t raining. When I go to the seaside. 14. That sounded. I got up late yesterday morning. are you hurrying? I don’t want. 6. 19. I had breakfast and then I left for school. He didn’t forbid. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 16. Ann isn’t knitting. 9. Did he change? 5. They didn’t drink. Do you smoke? 17. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. it is raining. Is he telling? 4. 18. Do you dream? I dream 9. 1 first met. speaks. I always have. I always made. I was driving to Sinaia. I didn’t hate. 8. 20. He didn’t think. 3. 10. 14. 12. What were you doing last Tuesday. drinks. Is my friend wearing? 7. 6. I like to swim a lot. 4. 14. 3. 2. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. he wasn’t wearing. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. 16. 1 don’t like. were you doing? 7. 17. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Yesterday. are you waiting? I am waiting. Do you like? 8. I owned. What book are you reading? 10. Did he think? 2. it often rains. 4. The child isn’t learning. were you going. the teacher was writing. 13. Last Sunday. He isn’t telling. is drinking. How often do you write to your parents? 18. I played. 5. Is it raining? 2. Do you know? Exerciţiul 4: l. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. Are you typing? 5. 4. always borrow/is always borrowing. 6. 7. Last night. she was having. Did I sell? 6. We didn’t work. Do you go? 16. My friend isn’t wearing. When did you return from the mountains? 11. Did he translate? 10. 5. Did we work? 7. I often read English books. 6. Why are you opening the window? I5. My mother isn’t resting. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. She is packing her luggage. write. he is having. Am I having? 3. 51 . I was talking. I didn’t enjoy.

13. 10. 8. I spent a month here. she had been writing. 19. had eaten. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. 4. 7. We have known. How long have you been learning English? 5. Has John left? Yes. 2. 15. 8. I had met. 7. 10. What did you look at? It was an accident. I have’ been shopping. The radio has been playing. had been swimming. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 5. had spread. they had been. 7. she had already been. 5. two years ago. He has been a Minister for two years. I entered. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 4. Have you lived? I have lived. 8. 2. 9. I had returned. 20. I saw. we had been walking. 3. 2. had been climbing. began. 6. 4. 7. I was. Have you watered? 3. Exerciţiul 3: I. I have been watering. The child has been playing. I returned. Have you ever driven? 16. 4. We have been walking since 3 o clock. he told. I have been doing. 20. Have you ever tried? I tried. Have you been? I have been. 5. He has been fishing. 10. He has always relied. I have seldom walked to my office. He has just left. 9. He has been. 6. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 6. A child has broken the window. Since I bought a car. 8. had been having. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 2. 6. 17. 4. Exerciţiul 4: 52 . they had been waiting. Have you read? 18. had listened. he had thought. we realized. The weather has got warmer lately. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 11. I got up. I rang him up. we asked. I have bought. 14. 5. I have been cooking. I have lent. I have already seen. Exerciţiul 2: l. he has caught. 9. 3. 8. 5. 3. I have been wearing. 3. she told. It has been raining. have you been wearing? 6. he went. I got. 8. Have you paid? 19. she had been cleaning and dusting. 14. congratulated. 4. 10. I have been asking. I have lost. 3. she has been trying. 4. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. 12. I didn’t succeed. he had been. have you cooked? 7.Exerciţii cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous Exerciţiul 1: l. he had learned/he had been learning. I haven’t written. 9. I have just had. Have you seen? she left. 11 . Exerciţiul 4: 1. 9. Have you ever eaten? 13. 6. had been speaking. Exerciţii cu Past Perfect Simple şi Continuous Exerciţiul 1: 1. We have walked 10 km so far. 1t hasn’t rained. 5. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. I haven’t been. 10. She has changed. he had got married. I had it at 8 o’clock. Have you been to this town before? Yes. She had just gone out. they had finished. it had been raining. we had lost. she had not passed. the engine – drivers have gone. 10. We must replace it. have you been. It has been snowing for two hours. 7. 9. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. it had been raining. He hasn’t come. I5. Have you been. 8. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. I called. had been cooking. he left an hour ago. He hasn’t gone. 18. He has been sleeping. I found out. 10. Exerciţiul 3: 1. 9. Exerciţiul 2: 1. Have you visited? 12. had not told. he had visited. it had been raining. he went. she had been studying. 7. he had caught. 2. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 6. we left. had left.

I realized I had left my bag at home. 5. Will you recognize? 4. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. I had heard. 10. begin. 8. between twelve and one o’clock. Exerciţiul 3: 1. I went to bed. We shall/will have taken. 3. 7. Exerciţiul 3: 1. 2. will be crying. he has repaired. I was sorry I had hurt him. 7. Wil1 you remember? 9. 5. you spoke. did not remember. 7. he had left. 9. You will have seen. 10. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object.1. 3. 7. would end. I shall/will have read 8. 6. You will not/won’t find. he would win. She will be watching. it will probably be raining. 4. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 4. 8. had already begun. He will be. you were. 8. I shall/will pass. 11. Where will you put it? LECŢIA II Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor Exerciţiul 1: 1. 10. 7. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. 10. you finish. 2. I shall/will be swimming. I shall/will know. he has 53 . 10. Exerciţii cu timpurile „Future” Exerciţiul 1: 1. I shall/will have been working. I had lost. they will be having their last English class. she has changed. 2. Exerciţiul 4: 1. he had stolen. he would give. you were. he would finish. 10. I shall/will have been cooking. I shall/will succeed. 6. 5. he tells. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 6. he had just left. they were talking. He thanked me for what I had done for him. I would remain. he had been travelling. 7. you see. Exerciţiut 2: 1. 7. Exerciţiul 2: 1. 4. I had read. 3. 5. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 6. 10. Will you be needing? 5. 2. 5. By this time next year. 9. 5. 2. I shall/will have finished. 4. they will have been married. 8. 6. 8. You will like. 7. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 3. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. He will be studying. he would drive. 6. 5. 8. I have received. 3. 7. he would pass. 8. 6. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 4. 8. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. arrive. 2. As soon as the guests had left. 5. 3. 2. 3. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. I shall/will be having. 9. When I arrived at the bus stop. 9. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. I shall/will have paid off. was shining. On Friday. 3. 4. I had done. she looks. 9. prices would go up. I played/I was playing. he handed it to the teacher. you would soon have. 3. he wanted. will/shall will be climbing. would be cancelled. I shall/will be working. 4. You will be. I had not enjoyed. 9. 6. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. I have. 2. 10. I shall/will remember. I usually read. they would remain. 2. she has learnt. 10. 9. will have spent. You had to type. 9. wilt be rising. we had been digging. will have risen. 4. you see. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad.

What would you have done if you had met John? Exerciţiul 6: 54 . LECŢIA III Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale Exerciţiul 1: l. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. 5. 7. I was. 3. 10. is. he had to write. melts. will soon move. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 2. you have just told. 10. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 4. I moved. 9. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. you had invited. 4. I have been reading. 3. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. you had been wearing. I would have answered. 9. 2. 8. the streets would be wet. 6. I gave up. 6. we went. you have drunk. If it had rained. the streets will be wet. 3. 16. 7. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. he would take. 8. I will answer. I had not decided. he would have. 10. 5. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. he would have told. you see. 2. 9. 17. do not eat. I knew you were in Bucharest. you will not find. I will lend. 17. 4. you will not pass. I were. 15. I would buy. he trusted. Exerciţiul 4: l. I had worked. they have been. I read. 9. I will earn/will be earning. I have suffered. the streets would have been wet. 16. 6. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. Exerciţiul 2: 1. there are. 4. I would have answered. you have read. 13. If it rains. you are reading. 3. I had known. Would you buy? 4. he had eaten. 5. 3. I was. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. he had never seen. 6. The secretary told me the manager was busy. I knew. 10. they had been listening. he hoped. 12. 7. it would not be raining when I arrived. I work/I worked. I saw. I would spend. would you go? Exerciţiul 3: l. I want. Exerciţiul 5: 1. 18. had failed. 4. 5. 4. I will buy. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 7. If it rained. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 5. 7. 19. he had tried. 8. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany.arrived. you will be. 8. 6. is born. It would have been. Exerciţiul 7: l. 10. she notices you have broken. I will greet 2. 2. 9. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. 5. we reach. you take. he had realized. 11. we will drink. 13. you had driven. 9. 15. 6. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 4. What would you do if you meet John? 12. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. 14. Exerciţiul 5: 1. 3. is. he would not make. he would not remember. 11. 20. you wouldn’t have got. he will get. he leaves. I wouldn’t do. 19. 7. I had not told. 5. they have done. 9. you will be. 7. you would have read. I finish. 6. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. 8. he would change. 5. will you promise? 6. 20. 12. 3. 2. 2. 14. they had known. I finish. you do. you were. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. 12. 3. 2. 18. would not go. Exerciţiul 6: 1. is. I would not have made. 10. 7. he had not expected. 10. I had not eaten. 8. it goes on. 8. she will be.

5. I would like the play more if it were shorter. He said he was very busy on that day. 10. 7. He said he had gone to England two years before. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 2. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He asked me how I had travelled. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 10. would you give him some? 3.l. Your bag has been found (by him). 3. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 3. 7. 10. 2. 6. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. The missing child has been found (by someone). He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 6. Exerciţiul 4: 1. 5. He asked me if I would help him. He asked me who that man was. 8. 6. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. 4. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 9. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. 7. 10. LECŢIA V Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă Exerciţiul 1: 1. 8. 7. He asked me when the rain had stopped. He told me to open the door. 12. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. He asked me if I would like a cake. 8. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 2. He asked me when I would be back. I will eat at a restaurant. 9. 5. 4. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 9. when I passed by. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 9. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 2. 3. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. 9. 4. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. The work will be finished today (by them). 6. 9. 3. He said he had seen that film a week before. He told me to take that pill. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 5. 4. He asked me if the train had left. 10. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. He said she would go shopping right then. 5. 11. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before.English. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. Exerciţiul 2: 1. 2. He asked me if I could lend him a book. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). 4. 5. 7. 12. Exerciţiul 3: 1. LECŢIA IV Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi indirectă Exerciţiul 1: 1. He told me to read that text. If dinner is not ready in time. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 8. 7. 6. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. 8. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). He asked me how long I had been learning . 8. He told me to be careful with his books. 2. 3. I was frightened by the noise. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 11. If a beggar asked you for money. You will see him if you wait. Football is played all over the world. He told me not to smoke so much. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 55 . 6.

9.Exerciţiul 2: 1. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). We were asked to show our passports. 11. I will be given a reward (by them). 6. I had to go. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 2.: 3. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 9. 6. He will be able to swim. People mustn’t take away these books. Exerciţiul 3: 1. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. You were allowed/permitted to leave. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. 8. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. LECŢIA VI Exerciţii cu verbe modale Exerciţiul 1: 1. 5. People will soon forget this book. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 4. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. She could lend. 9. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). 6. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. Has the dog been fed? 7. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. They held a reception in his honour. His proposal was objected to (by us). Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). The house was broken into (by burglars). Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. The museum was closed for repairs. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 10. 13. John has been lent two of my books (by me). 4. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. Were you told about the meeting? 9. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. 8. 8. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 3. We were told very interesting things at the conference. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 12. 15. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 5. 2. 2. 14. Many new blocks are being built in our district. 10. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 5. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). The doctor was called for (by us). 3. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 7. 5. 2. 4. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. The child will be 56 . Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 6. He hates people making fun of him. 3. She will be able to lend. People speak English all over the world. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). He could swim. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). John was laughed at (by us). 8. Exerciţiul 6: l. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. English is taught to them (by me). 7. Exerciţiul 4: 1. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). I have been given a nice present (by them). 7. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 7. 4. 2. We will be shown the way by the policeman. 3. I will have to go. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exerciţiul 5: 1. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 5. The child was allowed/permitted to have. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanţa. 10. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. 9. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 4. A reward will be given to me (by them). A nice present has been given to me (by them). The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). They are taught English (by me). When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. Fire was set to the shed (by them).

7. 3 It might have rained. Exerciţiul 6: 1. He needn’t have bought. He must be older. 2. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. Exerciţiul 2: 1. 5. mustn’t. 10. John could have been. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. You can’t have been. shall. She can’t have married. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 18. will. He could read and write. 8. 14. shall. 10. mustn’t. You didn’t have to do. 3. Exerciţiul 10: 57 . 7. 9. 8. He must think. 2. You might have changed. would. It must have taken a long time. 11. This must be the best. 3. 10. will. He must have been. 9. I had to learn. You can’t miss the train. would. can. needn’t. 6. John must have been. He must have come home. Exerciţiul 8: l. 6. 17. mustn’t. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. can’t. needn’t. 6. needn’t. You might have paid. 6. would. 6. The weather can’t change. Exerciţiul 5: 1. would. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 5. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. You won’t have to do. 2. Exerciţiul 4: l. She could play. It must have been. 8. will. 15. She can’t have got. can. 7. 10. I couldn’t translate. shall. It may/might be a good one. I will have to learn. 3. 5. 19. You must have left your umbrella. Exerciţiul 9: 1. 6. would. You must have known the lesson. 9. 6. 20. should. 3. 5. He must have been delayed. can. 13. You should have visited. 4. would. He was not allowed/permitted to come. Exerciţiul 3: 1. 13. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. She will be able to read and write. will. should. 7. You shouldn’t have gone. Exerciţiul 7: 1. He can’t have passed. 4. needn’t. He may/might have done. You can’t have seen. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 9. 5. 8. 10. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 2. 9. 3. mustn’t. 3. I had to look up. 4: She must be a very good doctor. She will be able to play. You needn’t have done. mustn’t. I will have to look up. can. 12. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 6. 5. 19. 8. 9. 5. 7. She can’t have learned English. He should have gone. He may have been. He may/might have been right. 16. 8. 7. 4. 10. It can’t be his fault. 4.allowed/permitted to have. You must have forgotten. 16. 2. 4. He ought to have told. She may/might have been angry. 4. It can t have been. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 5. 8. can’t. 6. He must have been late. should. 7. should. 2. I may/might come home. 4. will. 3. It can’t have been his fault. shall. She may/might have been out. 9. I won t be able to translate. This can’t be a true story. S. He can’t be at the office. She may/might have returned. It can’t have been. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 2. will. 10. 12. You might have written. 7. 10. 15. She may/might be very late. needn’t. 14. 2. It may/might rain.

I wish I had money to buy that painting. I can’t knit. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. needn’t have bought. 5. Where shall we go now? 28. 7. I wish I were a student. 3. I wish he would accept my proposal. didn’t need to wait. 11. 10. 16. 25. I wish you didn’t live so far away. must have left. Exerciţiul 2: l. 7. 5. I wish they would sign the contract. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. 8. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 10. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 17. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 4.1. needn’t have lent. No. can’t have left. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 4. didn’t need to see. I wish you would take a driving licence. 13. 9. 3. 7. You can’t have found the door open. S. Exerciţiul 3: 1. 10. I must have been still at the faculty. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 3. 5. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. needn’t have answered. 29. 9. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 2. I will have to leave soon. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 8. 10. 20. 2. 3. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. You ought to/should have insisted. can’t have swum. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?”. 5. I rang you up and nobody answered. 14. I wish I could pay the piano. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 7. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. you shall have the book tomorrow. I wish I lived in Bucharest. Exerciţiul 11: 1. I wish I could go to the concert. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. I wish my friend weren’t ill. can’t have seen. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 7. 8. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. needn’t have lent. I promise you. Will you. 4. I could play the piano when I was a child. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 9. All the students can and must write this paper. 4. today. LECŢIA VII Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv Exerciţiul 1: 1. 9. must have taken. I wish you would come on holiday with me. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. I have already drunk two. 6. I didn’t need to say „thank you” when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. please. 2. 10. You will have to help me more today. 8. 22. Exerciţiul 13: 1. 2. 23. must have been. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. needn’t have written. 10. You needn’t have made coffee for me. 4. must have been. needn’t have got up. You may not speak during the exam. 2. needn’t have waited. 3. didn’t need to buy. 12. didn’t need to answer. 6. 4. „Do you think he will marry that girl?” etc. 9. 7. 58 . I wish it didn’t rain so often. 6. 21. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. Exerciţiul 12: 1. I had locked it myself 27. 9. 8. 24. 26. a porter could help you. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 5. 8. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 6. 6. 19. can’t have done. wait for a few minutes? 30. 6. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 2. 3. 1 wish I had children. can’t have rained. 18. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. I wish you had won the competition.

I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 11. he took. Exerciţiul 6: 1. 17. 12. you can’t win such a competition. 4. 16. 7. 14. I had entered. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exerciţiul 7: 1. you retired. 5. hadn’t broken down. 8. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 9. 4. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. you may/might understand. 20. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. you started. it should get. you owned. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. I stayed. 14. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 3. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 6. should have told. 12. he were. It is important that you (should) know English well. 2. we (should) leave. 16. 4. No matter how hard you may/might try. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. 15. 7. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. Whenever you may/might return. he were. 3. 8. 17. 8. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 9. 10. we should take. You speak as if you were angry with me. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 19. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. It is possible that she might be away. 2. I would rather you went to the theatre. he would have. Whatever the reason may/might be. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Braşov? 10. too. 14. 9. my telephone worked. 11. 11. they (should) divorce. 2. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 2. 59 . He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. I can’t believe you. you closed. 18. I were. 9. 5. S. she should have left. may attend. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. 18. Whatever you may/might tell me. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. 5. 13. we went. 17. 4. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 12. Exerciţiul 9: 1. Exerciţiul 8: 1. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. I would rather you got up earlier. 4. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 10. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. watched. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 9. 20. I would find. I had. we could go to the beach. 7. 2. his book would become. you were. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 18. 7. 15. 8. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. I were. you shouldn’t have believed it. 20. hadn’t caught a cold. his daughter didn’t get married. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 10. you should have. I insist that you (should) accept this job. you shouldn’t lie to me. 6. I will be at home waiting for you. 13. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 3. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7.Exerciţiul 4: 1. you may/might be. 16. he told. you didn’t waste. 3. 8. 6. 6. 3. I got. 5. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. stopped. 13. 19. Exerciţiul 5: l. 19. 4. I would become. it might not get. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 10. (should) have. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. might prosper. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 6. 6. I had been. 7. She looks as if she were a model. I hadn’t forgotten.

1 knew him to be a very busy man. ne-am aşezat la cină. Dacă vremea va permite. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 5. The peasants were seen working in the field. Decizia fiind luată în favoarea mea. I think him to be a good husband. 8. 9. 8. publicul a părăsit sala. 6. 8. 3. Scrisoarea fiind scrisă. The hunters were heard shooting. I rely on you to lend me some money. 10. a trebuit să-i schimb. 14. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. Întrucât ploaia încetase. The child was heard breaking the vase. I saw some children playing in the park. John admitted the fault to be his. 15. He wanted me to help him. 4. He was expected to resign. 11. 7. I saw him speaking to his friend. I watched them playing football. 9. Exerciţiul 5: 1. 4. 9. I expected you to come earlier. 8. The baby was heard crying. 6. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 6. 5. vom urca până la vârful muntelui. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. The people were impatient for the match to begin. am plecat la cumpărături. Concertul fiind terminat. She could be heard typing. Întrucât soarele răsărise. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 5. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 3. 7. 4. 6. She was seen fainting.LECŢIA VIII Exerciţii cu construcţiile verbale Exerciţiul 1: 1. He was heard to repeat it several times. 8. He made me miss the train. 10. She was said to be ill. 2. 2. This is a good book for you to read. 7. 2. 5. 10. 9. to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE was. 10. 8. 10. Exerciţiul 6: 1. It is impossible for him to have said that. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 5. 7. They are sure to have had an argument. 5. am plecat acasă liniştit. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 6. It’s time for us to meet again. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 10. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 12. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. Întrucât râul crescuse în timpul nopţii. were been bore borne. She was found digging in the garden. 2. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. După ce avionul a decolat am încetat să fumez. 4. 4. I heard her scold/scolding her child. This is the main thing for us to do. 2. It is possible for me to buy a car. The boy was found breaking the window. born beat beaten became become began begun bent bent 60 . This is a strange thing for her to have said. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 7. ne-am grăbit spre plajă. 9. She was seen lying on the beach. It is advisable for you to resign. She made me understand what had happened. 7. The plane was seen landing. Mother would like me to become a doctor. Întrucât noroiul îmi stricase pantofii. 4. am mers să o pun la poştă. She (was) proved to be a liar. Toată lumea fiind acasă. Exerciţiul 3: 1. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. ne era teamă să nu avem inundaţii. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 3. It is necessary for him to be present. 2. 9. 13. She seemed to be satisfied with me. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 3. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 3. 6. 3. Exerciţiul 4: 1. Exerciţiul 2: 1.

learned left lent let lain lost 61 .to bite to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to lose bit blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lay lost bitten blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt.

to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood 62 .

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