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Boat Building Manual

Boat Building Manual

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Published by Les Schmidt

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Published by: Les Schmidt on Jan 11, 2011
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03/10/2015

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A project of Voluntsers

in Ash

Boatbuilding

Manual ._I

by Robert M. Steward

Published by: International Marine Publishing 21 Elm Street Camden, Maine 04843
USA

Company

Available from: same as above

Reproduced by

permission.

Reprodlrction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

2n.d Edibbn

6v

International

Marine Publishing ~.11111,1,‘11. Ii .\ln,u,, 04s

Company

FOREWORD “’ Vlll PREFACE ix PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xi 1 GENERAL 1 2 PLANS 10 3 TOOLS 15 4 WOOD 19 5 FIBERGLASS AND OTHER HULL MATERIALS 6 FASTENINGS 46 7 LINES AND LAYING DOWN 66 8 MOLDS, TEMPLATES, AND THE BACKBONE 9 SETTING IJP 108 10 FRAMING 117 11 PLANKING 130 12 DECK FRAMING 153 13 DECKING 161 14 DECK JOINERWORK 170 15 INTERIOR JOINERWORK 182 16 MISCEELftNEOUS DETAILS 192 17 SAF!?Y STANDARDS 227 RECOMMENDED READING 231 EQUIVALENTS 233 INDEX 236

35

88

l’h ligtlls otrt.11 showt*tl bright lalt* in lht* t~vt*ning 21 rht. ?i!i/zNItlJt) in IIiin1irlglc~l. Nt-w York, anal r2b1il inrlc- 10 (tfj 50 aI :\r~c~t~ortIowri J1c.w in D;hricw. I havv tvijovtd ;L tit’c~linic* intluc-ncxscl tjv I IIt. t;\tk of srnatt 1Jo;iIs 1tit-ir tlc3ign. I tIcA I)uittting. ;~rdl I ticbir us(*. Most rcwarclill,~ of all ;Ispc’( lb. tx.1 tiat~s. arc ItIc* tc*:l(*:s lhdl ccbmc’ ;Itong It.1 I (.I’!? c*ulcJilin,g Itic- <grand c~st)c-ric~ncx-c*n(.oulll~‘lt’(l in ItIt* tJuil(liyg ot ;1 l)Oill! ‘t’hc~rc~ has always Ilt-c-n gr~a’ saridac[ion 3 just itid fcc-tinSg 01 accomplishIlIl’Ill rrbla!td to making things with one’s own hands. in this age of specialization I t)c~tit-v~ hoal huitding can offer t’v~n morr satisfarrion as wctt as rrlaxalion and a c.ti:illc*ngc- (0 individual ahilitv and irigrnuitv. FPw things involvr Itit, manv skills rt*cluirot in \)uil(ting a bcJ;rt c;1( h rxscntial fat- it4 succxsful c~nnplcrion. PlJssibly nothing c*tsc*i5 as rc-wdrttin~g. I;urrht*r. nict-ly tastiiontd. d-t)uilt tJo;tts art* growing mort~ and mor(* t3pt-nsivt-. ‘1‘0 huittt your own rn;iy wt*tl t)c*;I practic,,lt sotulion ;1s wcdt as rc*wirding. Surctv ttw ,jovs of bring krtloar ;ir(b manifoltl, and t host- t3ptGnc-rd ;Il~o;ird ;1 t>bJal you ti;lvt- Luitl

with your 0wI1 hdntls ;iI(’ inimt~dsurabtt-. Hot, Stcwartt. tGng t~sc~t~ptionalt~ welt quatiiicd t)v his tong c~sp~-rit*nix~ in r!ic “world of small stiit~s.” ha5 l)roductd ;I cl~~ai-iy writttbn It’s1 of nici-it and grrat worth. At’tt-r vt*ilrs as an ;~ppr~-ntic~~- ht. work4 in scvc-rat small boat vards btaforc joining rhr highly rcspecrerl office of naval architect Philip 1.. Rho&s. where he spent manv I yrars cn, gagecl in dcsi<gning and planning numc’rous power and sailing vachts. as welt as commt~rciat boats. I’ttt* prriod of World War II found him in an tyginrering c-apacitp working bt-twrlrn vari:jalq vards and &sign off&s. Far morr plcasanl work was . . >tirnrd at the war‘s t%ntI involving vat t.i ax: Bob ac‘\elrtit (! :I lx)sition wirh a Wrs. Coast firm as superint,.-dent of vachr repair anti construction. Somerime ti;Icr tx returnd IO I hc East Coast where a number of vac.hr designs werr proctucxd. ranging from 22 LO 73 ft’et . which required his cxperirn&i supervision of loft in= anti cnnslruction. l‘hc vii

wi! h its slowt~r l)acx.qrt*~~ 01 clulstantling I-cct*ivc-d from riumt~rous in atltliIion rlicb rimt.iI w.E tl~lr-tl~nvIl Dalit~l.tlfltrrrfr/ as ..a< hIS.isitar iivin.r\ t\nc & XI. marrrials wonth-fully prcxn1td.st.~lr iv i~r*is !vi!i! a Floritla whtarl* iIt> is classic.q the d~s~gn~n~ anti supervlslon of Ilumt’rous var.d sourt‘(. scardv a wt.s.rnialt~r. Surt-Iv I his comprt~ht~nsive anti practical will provitlr~ ! ht. has bcbtbn ht*ar-iily Hoh has Inatlt~ antl sIandaids In this larrsl tdition.t-k passe-s wht*n. tJuiltlcr. ant! 13oh ~onrinut~tl his work In~(jlv!rl.viii f~Ol<I-~ II’OHI) cllrne tjt~ckontd.uhlishd.anti t*.boatt~uilrlt~~ arid Itit+ f)roft3sional with .Alhill ?I .lli\ PIt.work co11t warmer- t-rncd wit Ir I ht. I (1~:no1 sii#gt-51 Hofr(hrr/ltl/~rg . Bol) S~vwartl‘s l.~011l1 . and presenr rrgularit~ris revisions daring IO nt-w 10 provicling more* of his marvrial.Ilutd ant1 valid information.01 knowlt~tigc. C:c~nnc~ ricur .g. Intlccd.I worltl 01 v. in wriring It-IIt-1-s I(J hoa huiltlvrs ail ovt’t I IIt* world.ls first p”W”’ . cIt*sign rlntl prc). . SO ~~11 char drawings.

l.jat~lamt ilk. Conli~ct crvdiis the following HIothcrs..1c. 'Ul! .rvc.151 tvlili~.xl105tvI I0 Inilnv hrr//tlt’t/. l)ook. lhtb firms I iwlit~w lha~ Iht* rthacit-r will Iwrwfit fro1n my rt-srilrch ctirc-crly iIlltl lt*ll tht’r11 wlI. Hurkins 311 rdition: tliv Xirrbs ciisision . li. ihca sniall OII(.ti o! flflttr so m. a while portions that of rhe hook.is irit-ncls. 111ort’ p(*iq)It~ 5im..ll~Ilt~tl 1’1~01111t’ 11 . . I1r~.1LT !XX~I! :ic‘i.1ll1uildt~1’~ slaurit~li art hi1cv 14.tv~n.ivt* rt-.icl ~1111 l~i*i~Il gri11ifVilIg I0 mt 3 rhv Iwo vac~hr dt~sign sc~lioo~~ in IIitb I’ S.inv who h. lhis revis and SW nirigazinta articles that for permission IO us{’ appeared in 7‘/1r Rudrf~~r for ho~h phoros that I did years ago for how-to-build thanking her 5 percmr close wiihout 1 ran.tb passtbd since Inic~rnaiional iKl ii1 Tc‘iir Marim.pc a pa. in Brooklin. Mainc~. Gtlugcwl drawings I cannot copy fasrw .tl IO yc*.111 i11ro Ou4int*bs nritl .l~oili +..11iv wt.:.:.gP 31 times rypIng KotitW M.rr.tilrvl ovt*r lilt. Sram- \ 1c)c)k.irtli.icltiilicm.> rlihi . I I\' !Il:lI !-I.au(-1.hoi izcjtr ~11tl dt(’ 111i55t*ill1v mdnv I v~*nl IO llavt* I1t7-Ii t.11-sli. In .II is indt*tvl ditficull IO rt-. I wish 10 \1’il<hr CI~rpIIralion.rlItl Inc. In adtlitic1ri 10 thia fI!lolo and illusrration thank of h11za.irIll f’uhli5hing (:~m1l1.IltrtIrrfl/ It~.arials or firms Zion is noI IO IW vonstrucd svrvicrhs of valur for the products 9~11h menRarhc-r.illii il Il. given in the caarlit-r tditioll. for the ust‘ of photos ancl skrrc-ht-s. thtb Wtbstlawn [ht.Sltward .~ Connc~~it~ut Alfl t11111: _ IVSC material.. sour(‘vs: Inc Srcmann Plastics.q . 10 us ford. !!E! ! !::*:x h. Marks fo1 doing some of thth rt*vision meanin. or sty-vice offtvxvl. names of 1’ac-h1 DrsiRn.of Ilit~ .I. rtyrinrb ~I‘hroqqhout I his hook. FItAla .: Boris f’hil Rhoclt5.lr!il.ctrrrtr/ II 11:*clM’~~ll:I Ir.s.g that she can ‘I. ."I i1ig llii~ tlt~ iidt.ll you Ilt-tvt. fhlfl I I/ lr. c‘arr1 IOOIS a11t1111att. ~onlinuc~ l’acht Dvsign School Insrirurcb. of tht* s(1urcx.tlttr~ Ir-itv1tl.iIili* 1i:i\~l IO flotr//~rrr.t. Ilit. Illill vou will find providtb ijs advvrtising ant1 aildrt~~sc~s of firms lo boatbuildrrs. L. uws rhtk coml)l~tt~ . ior me with rhan Dorothv C.qwaItw .ll.1\.ili/cs rli.i~Iti mosi vt*rs. Illl~.tluirc*cl ltw cxqyighr . c .

l)o(bk $viIS l)uhlislIt~tl itl)Ioatl iII L’I~t~I~t l. iIS Wt.f‘)c.ci BusiIit-ss I.gtt \lillI IL.tinlcVl was clct~iclt4 I Shoultl wriits sonll~ ..Mtrurrrl/. J‘ht- rtw~f>litrIl ol Ihis. rools.~vht*n Ihtb I)ook illusrrarions anti rtwartl scrvtyl IO brrak a language- harrit*I a ficltl lxYwc*t*n hiiI Ill~:11t’lilr~ a l)uiltlt*r. I IIiII I WiIS IIOI SO lIi\l’l)v wirh his l~rodtling inc~lutlt~S IIrIl(’ Ot lht’ .i&m wab in fjo///1lf11’/f1it~ .iIIIt’ movi~r. br*st I can for is I!) givt.tl Mx*rt* \\~t~ll rtxx~ivt~tl Ill. On<* IhaI lingt. wt*r(’ rtG\c~cl from afar.Illiltlt* So inlo il i:ook.11 a5 It~c~tiniilIIt5 in inrcrim. ~LII also l)uilI a I)oaI lrom III\’ plans.tll UIlfOrtLlllillt~l~.lu~-I -Ix-t~tldrrli Of IlIt* hoirl dntl it/ltttlt*r lion ilit- Irtlr* :4\111lL ill ilIlt M.irIit.:urol)t. ‘l‘il~ll ii#i3ill Olin Sl~pht~IlS. ii .I sturic5 of ‘LOc.11 tbtiirion was of \alut* lo him on an ins faIntd yacht ticsi.IO plus a good will lead IO rhc realizaIhc St-a.> .lt-s ill)OUt IlIt- amalt-uI’ . 1)icbt.d lip Oltl.l).-II.rs in IIIV mint1 was frton a l‘urkislt naval oflicc.lriIlg Pillll’rsOIl. slx‘t.Iion lllr* writ) in I.tgc~I~ rty)t7Iivt~ly fintb (. the1.l‘ht> ‘II’W l)ook has t)(bcIl rcwriI~cn. IhaI Ihis or any orhrr hope book can Itsac-h all Ihc-rt. wlit-Ii Iht* midIiighI I 1lilVt’ oil was burniIi~y I)UI illltl ltltb IOW.ii.c with rhr urgt.t~nIhu~i3sm of Boris l)I.in SO sm.itlt*l iI w. ortlt-I . lolcl nit’ how I tic E‘rcnr. build tion MY of plans Assuming thr &mrnts The a boat of a drram I haI Ilao* I)t~t*n accrptcd.isIic.tIl. was c~IiIhusi. -1‘lris (It7 ision It~sulltvl ii: .wirh Ilit. a II lioirgh llit7~~ it IlilVt’ hcbt-Ii Iimt*s.g tiont.l‘hirigs like Ihis al-t..oIIst~ciIlivt* Inorlllllv l)itxx3 I Il.somy guidancr is \erv and desi<gncr. book. niubl.lit~drIt.tIt~rialS DO noI think building. ~llill ~)on .‘.I(1 (~011slruc Illil#il/iIl~‘. IO 1h0:.lVC~ . IOO. htx~au~.h in ~r~tl~(~*tl. . I he numl~t*r of rqutxIs for Ihtb hook showtd I haI a rt*\. Ilol!t~l‘uII.t*1It51S 01 itl)l)IovitI II.i. . nt’w m. with pians and is arm4 an urge IhaI usually from an unt!ersIanding for many who orherwisc set forth non enjov 11~ has Ihr ability of boatbuilding lvith woodworking in this book. experienced could I Irust Ihal I hi.e is no reason whv an amateur X: .gncr.11 I hty wt’rt.is IO know about rewarding.r-ih l.I)ook. qain IlOW \VI’ Il. hc stxxmtlilrv.r who IIOI onI) bouplIr Iht.I Ilic~i~liIl# Etlilor IIlitl ii num!. I Ilt. boaring hnd and boaI. Sll ilb il As Iimt* wt*nI orl. of soIlIt’ VillUt’ I0 lhca l~r0ft~SSiC~IIitl.tIl~l.

BOATi3UILDlNGi'WANUAL .

many is 1101 all squat-c corners. it comes you can :>Farn a great of boat you want. to learn States. to build e\prv tyr:: don’t purport to teach all the skills of an expert boatbuilder. of would-be the craft. shapes Y~I. however small. form Watching provides done. making furniture. It is impossible to coker briefly all the information needed boat. purpose so there of this A number Northwest. a hull hours grow from flat paper vessel is a source is often through the years. discourages them. number learn The with the desire of the United can take reason is to introduce from starting all too few of such is still ample book the great boatbuilders of this splendid on bnatbuilding.Chapte: 1 how IC)use skillfully During the past two decades. people nlaterial building sets that outbuildings.y a stressful carefully a piece over take the finished of furniture. 1 the kind . advantage for books boat the hull until courses boatbuilding principally are located have been in ttre Northeast so that opportunity able to and to the I of drawings after of great and pride flat material day. And are turned off by the thought bending wood or other flat when thev look into boattable of offunnecessarily of making it usually starts with a lines plan and the attrz’riant are GUIVP+ well. These people depriving themselves of a very fascinating and satisfying pastime. mort b and m’)rc people have learned both hand and power tools for household chores and improvements. enough When to live in a boatbuilding down to building area. to the builder. Such are good candidates th. and they often turn out very creditable jobs.lt for boatbuilding. that’s that.e from observation. and dver for plrasurca courses in various Unfortunately. construction water by explaining elementary problems involved first laps at the kee.. something to form dimensions curved the and see that and the like. of lucky put in a corner and soon forgotten. into a shapely When the job is And unlike a boat is used of fun and is super which people parts theraI. deal If you are fortuna:. Constructing the first boat. is an experience not to be soon forgotten.

--L J \i ‘1.< z.s -2. g. 2 f\ . r= s 3 z : 2 2 -T c < -F .I 2 d 5 J i k i 2 i’J ti -.1 . z E I . -g : 3 2 -./ . I L. 2..2 z 52 .c 2 ..-----L ‘/I 3 2 ‘L z 3 . \ .z t. $ s \./I . L4-2 .I/ ’ iI *!t 1.. -.z 2 z . . ‘. 2.Q N E &tz 2-c uk b >. i i = L E . ‘v 1. : !I 9 . .

and round-bottomed hulls. and When build have frames bent right light detail that in the hull: material.41. types hull be a great process will be described as it is entirely of bottom of framing.St. further certain bend the bevel the bending along parts during necessary to have them difficult The to the hull shape working after is twisted in during the bending In fact it can process.\ ner would conform you. the deck on one side to bottomed the deck on the hull shape.. with relatively in more possible planks. Do not let this scare deal of fun.\ 1) J&J/l ~A1Llt.bottomed which are Lines drawings of full-size wide. f3Tl-TOMS L~c. hull drawjust about l-2 is a lines merits argued will admit will never especially be a v-bottomed for a sailing as handsome as a well- round-bottomed Figures l-3 and l-4 show the essential differences between the framing of flat. must of v-bottomed on the boat for them in detail templates relative to fit the shape in the chapter for the various of the there boat. round. Although the lower ends of the frames in the roundboat are shown to install side.l VEE.I~ -ucJl-OLT ROAT DIt. that depending make up a in one piece.IGUf I&TEL +IL~oAT IcigurtbI-1. of pieces . drawing is not unduly a discussion boats.VER. parts.t/fJ//sttf/tl/t. butted them against the keel. vee. that of the hull. and can be mastered wood ends a few attempts.t.//q/Il /YlJlt’fl/ ftl fB/ /lrl/ I’ rllrd rr~rrlrtttlrtltr~ftrtvi trrlll.u~HIN~ j +.GE. construcsuch as the be made are Bending tion alone. by steaming is not restricted to round-bottomed cold hull. it is sometimes extending the number from note possible. but is the making far and hull craft. or boiling will net for a small on lofting. .-&AE DEEP’ \/EE OOMLE ‘cw hrJE ROUND BOTTOMS ? i. FLAT BOTTOMS 3 5COWQE’t ALGE DORY OP 5r(1 i=F AFL i3OiTQt. on the other In contrast. forward limber Figure discussed ings and The everyone designed ZliC .

so the frames are fewer in number.lC./H~YI~(~ttr. work getting material The framing out the backb. to build of this kind is a tougher discouraged when on his own. Figure l-6 shows the lines for a 52-foot hull that was designed with the aid of a computer. and-centerboard-type recommended helped not become (S) curves and there The on a similat in many the latter being or classic keelhe has he will hull. The if the hull shape be covered pieces of.dre spaced farther apart than in a round-bottomed boat.flat the rnaterial program. a hull with developable a computer bination of both.2'l~:R. surfaces. one for each . frames . time needed a hull can be reduced wrinkling. -FLAT Bo-?Tm Y. SaA-‘- 1’ trr~tl /ht Itottotttd ht~tt. and job or has watched of the trames. amateur’s of either very the so-called of shallow attempt at first enough deep draft. or a com- of a flat sheet without ways of designing board or with it is said to be “developable. This boat was built of large fiberglass sheets: one for each side.2’V’Y __ . On the other hand.Figure I-3.~. is more due to reverse the planking on a simpler is such &at is a lot of heavy with large deadwood.” are cylindrical. Figure l-5 is a section through a rather normal sailboat of the cruising ocean racing type and for the is :ypical boats. ‘I‘\. surfaces either If a shape can be formed There graphically on the drawing conical. and the designer must be content with the limitations of these curves.\/r’r~~‘/tott \(v‘ttotr\ ~Irror~glr ygE 4e--q-y. such as plywood. it can are keel or combination unless that This type of boat is not boatbuilding of construction difficult job than *.\ frame for a v-bottomed bodt.4 :i I.

pC 6Orz CgEkiTER63AE~ SAL BOA-l- ty1 4331’“> .6 GENERAL A.rr’li~r~~ ticrrnc ulith sclilhortt rt’zvrsC showing curzv.3. Right: Figure l-5. Above: through Figure ty~G-d 1-4. -f-hip t1lilfStli~)WCtI'OII O/' (111 ~~u. hisnt . nrcnnd Sectiot~s round- hotton~d II ~11s.7pz &E’ -%+-AI s??L’ --.

-11 I P-.g 2 l1illJ.j ‘I -3 i! ‘I 4 iI !I TS .2 i t 73+ 2” 5 ‘2 =: . ‘i / . ^ 9 e P-4” E $4 S-G -2 2 $ 2 ft ----’ _ k1 t ’ 11 ~ i -I j I ‘I’!: .’ wz = .: 2 .‘. 1 /I11 ( iji 11 I 1-t 4-f / I Ii/ -ptc/I1’ I I! / ‘! t.< I 2 *.--I3‘/ j 1-q i ----I--cIi----t-t 4 ‘I ii 4 . -3 iI -1 - 1 - La .c 2 tI 3 $ 2 z h 2 z s 4 .j /!I1 ~ I 2 p ./ + 11: /4 L I(~ . .

resin and ti For instance. wood was the primary As this is written.\U). now.chapter have been labeled with the names of some of the beginner must become familiar with this nomenclature.~~ conttnt~rctu~ Ir\hrrrg bout h 1111 half of the bottom. A chine is obviously between draws matters the side and later. %b’-‘A(LD PPQfLE Fiqurc . and a number of joined strips for the wide chine surface on each stde. Other will be exp‘rained For hundreds Since both sides of a boat are usually material the same.\. the top edge of the hull viewed in profile is the sheet-line./oat . or deck at side.GENER. hm~r’l~ fiwP1i~p1 Oh :I 52. Flat sheets hull cannot successfully be bent in two directions at the same time. On the other hand. Most of the figures principal lines. with hulls and other parts produced in volume from expensive molds and tooling. wood is not dead. the v-bottomed hull in Figure 1-7 cannot be built in this manner./flCl’. for there are concave sections in both the sides and bottom. M.bottomed hull. and now fiberglass boats dominate the standardized boat market. However. used for building boats of fiberglass-reinforced are. of years. Wood is being . different been manufactured for 30 years. the lines bottom of a v. in th’.4L 7 R.Jih~r. one for the transom.~lu. lines in the surface for one side of a hull. l-6. while the same the intersection of a hull only but have a designer hulls. line viewed in plan is the deck line. States Many pleasure and commercial used boats in hulls are still built in the convenof wood in tht: United and elsewhere.

f~l~. amateur must be careful to be >:tre that guidance is provided or available to locate c’omptrnents such as engincss and fuel and watc’r tanks. with all the wood providlocal stock. In addition. become in the construcjoinerwork of the of molded aluminum alloy is for be chosen apj?cyrance boats finishes such and parts. a feeling of the light in the quarters by thr sy Iittlctics. hulls with resin. 65 feet and alloy construction or a welded of the larger with superstructure But here again. are kits that supply fiberglass hulls. 9 tional and manner. IIC cluite largca. motorboats usually with plywood quire but reasonable available are full-size cd by the builder “Hare” fiberglass planking. Also paper patterns and templates for parts.) Buym in Nationcll a good number Recommended of fiberglass hull builders advertise Reading at the end of this book. 1~111 the scheme dons make sense for those with limitrd spare time ot for those who want a particular model of boar that is available in kit form.. Some of thrsc hulls can should not bite off more than he can chew. cold-molded covered and on the outside saturated with resin and reinforced a relatively with synthetic for building fabrics. from scratch. Listings of kit boat manufacturers CZuirfc. built wood that will be discussed farther The techniques of wooden tion of tooling plastic hulls demand of some for fiberglass quality and and “mica” cabins. mostly Then there for powerboats. .‘kit” boat. to avoid have is used for the interior extension welded is usually tha: boats that as for yachts steel hull builders. Fi. boatbuilding new scheme employed antiseptic a logical longer.~~l.I kit boat does not give the same sense of accomplishment as building a boat. See thr are found in boating magazine ads and in the RrW Owner. is small. in ihe better molded fiberglass When the choice the finish achieved fiberglass are extensively Wood the cold. and the atnateur Making .thc~rmcln. ‘l‘hr weights of such items must be positioned so the boat will trim and run properly and safely. are also available. Here is where an from hulls. an introduction are a number to boatbuilding of kits for vbottomed and assembling and sailboats. Most of these are furnished with beveled parts that recare to set up the frames accurately to form the hull. to gain There because it provides of warmth by purchasing can never it is possible a .~I:‘R. on.

Some of the boating of the monthly & Snifing.. and usually there is an idea about the size suitable for the intended spent Knowledge scanning are ample contacted Boutz’ng mechanic more they use. and articies that full-size Ruyws do-it-yourself for the home for sale a choice scale than those “how-to-buiid” practical firms Owners also offer of several l&at over the years. and carry ads for the backyard in some cases Recommended in the original in plans for hulls. The cost of the plans might be considered as insurance that the finished boat wilt be a success. These by the design. When designers do not draw the profusion of details that the novice builder would like to have. . Seldom does one want to build just any boat rather there is an urge to own a certain tvpe. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that good plans are well worth their price. spxialize patterns Guide. articles. this book should be very helpful in filling in snme of the missing information. magazines. sufficiently detailed for you to completely understand the vessel’s construction. by be small architect particularly drawings can Molar be on the search the design for a design will meet of boats can be obtained of the monthly magazines. of the total cost of the boat. 7 :r cost is but a fraction ‘. of power and sailboat plans that have been run as The pians they make avaiiable arc to a iarger. The same magazines buildt=r. and the naval magazines information. Another sailboats. listed elsewhere in this book under Reading. Chapter 2 A Set of plans is needed for a boarbuilding project unless you have decided to build a kit boat. because . lists the names sizes of boats. There of arrangements sections of what some for study for furttlrx offer are several to make feasible is offered sources sure for various boating for plans. either power or sail.. the boat lengths and ample your time should requirements. Regardless of their nnd addresses of many naval architects source is the various class associations try to determine whether the plans who have plans for all for small one-design that interest you are source.

EP. I___ .ee a-- . 2-2. rt$rinled ztvih pt~mi..-. I.cd fornl nlnl.I\ t’i: (’ ti. P .5 .:cc DCSlQhED FOR THE a% ==A RUDDER ~~_~~~~~~LE. Th e a rc hot ~on...~sion..cs I i1i.: / a * W-Y w.:-BE’.19%’ SLOOP ‘TRITON” SAIL PLAN 5CfiE ?h..3 o.\ *j’ i’ .$ 1.’ -PI-7.’ 1(: . ThtJw p/am uvrt’ drnuw by lhr author as part ofTt.-~~-~~. ‘: II” . /. z VEr.I’Gn ../ --~. I!\! . Rudder’s Figures 2-1.! c%.i \\ \ I‘I 1 \A ‘\. :-vi i 1’ / I.5 ’ l’1 3..c..5 ii (1 .e 1948 ikut~ t$ lhl publicalirm.I( \ \)i y._I ‘/ J . 7 _ OL.r.....n / / 4 /.E e3. d /...: IS* .‘. ) .:I..’ w >i .‘\ . 9 ‘/6” I .. .j 1 *. \’I_ . “llou~ fo Build” writes nrrd appeartd in rhc Fvhruary Lnrgr-scale blwprit~h uvw off&-ed by The Rudderjor ust ) by h o nl t>b uild t’ rs. a....’ .T. 2-3./ .Is..x Gf\tzA. (The Rudder.~J.. ___. p .‘:\ I*‘\.I 8: r! / . . 1.NO 2’ C~Ocl lb=-=-+ h”MbER a 0 ‘ii ?i$. d a/ ! :.ic 3.q n rt4atirvly simplr boat lo build./ B “: i ‘\ \.

RD Nz*wz n.a..I:\.-r -.o.L. .-. *.-- _ _/+---: .‘ -.iL __.~.-.. e-7 rJii&m L( SRV.‘.. . .~--~~-p---~~~.. . .-: 0..: n-1 _ ---.*.“rn”lY. -1 .:7-2:.’ ET -L ..r. L0”rn-l P L-L . -*ID vus..I.ll.v Rq Figure 2-2.q L. . rri / ---___ \ L-J’ yrrrrui Dihw..I’ p’-6- SLOOP’TRllON~ L~0ldEq +(. I.___I....a /JY A .’ :r.

. Coast not start routine Office construction is fairly at least obtaining Guard. of there is a great number of boats built to carry whether it be for sightseeing. tion details of the U. Coast the service. changes reduction in the hull lines. The Coast has a book of regulations that spells out the design and equipment They no longer ment bookstore requirements and lists the plans that must be submitted for approval. most likely. In general. or even downright any major of seaworthiness. you should safety. heights Consult of superstrucperthe designer tures. quickly. but they can tell you the location of a governthat stocks the publication. terest should tion. general Guard it should arrangement is to be started of the hull. fishing. be aware that. you will be better from the drawings. building construction Guard. before or locations making plans Such procedures and if he advises can result against in unsatisfactory formance. the route. the equipment regulations If you are contemplating regulated The of passenger-carrying are not unduly approval to consult by the U. that will give you what you want Plans for Boats Carrying Passengers for Hire six or more fare-paying or. offer the book for free. the number be submitted. and of the hull construcwith the closest Marine is made for the if you take the time Inspection inspection ried. strict. drawings of passengers otherwise are necessary to be carif construcand also If there is a complete set of plans. without departing them. off using at least. without simple such and The a craft. dinner and dancing. S. in the inboats is but you Every year passengers. an application of the boat. changes. S.14 PLANS I would warn you against of major making weights.

lf yi. <3? i L..1m-m.. .ZL../ . L...-t9’-6’OOP ‘TRITOW ~ONSTRU~ION PLAN a..d+ -r-L”zle-- ‘“c -se -/ ) f.b i 3. -1. Vn-lm-U-* m-. L 1 --_ j -.-1 n .* *-le.......“.I. . . ..-. e .... .suGii&R pf mol5L4T 6...- --‘-iq 7 ’A 4LCTAT~ . ....TCWbRD Figure 2-3.4 .

starting tools such as a hama hand drill. bullnose plane. Thi: is used for transferring bevels from drawings to the lumber and picking up bevels in many ways. may of home workshop a brace and bits. is an ad- justable sliding bevel such as Stanley Tools No. the usual assortment chisels. a few thread-cutting needed. in a curve. throwaway wood planes. and round-bottom plane are out of the ordinary but very handy in the building of some boats. screwdrivers. tape. The construction of a simple plywood-planked boat. Needless to say. either the “C” or bar type. which There new kind of tool that for some of the little jobs that come a unique up in boatbuilding are two blade holder can be used like regular holders holds the blade one of which a scraper-like . The vises will be used.” two file-like and machinist’s useful featuring holders. It seems as though one never has enough of these. such as a drawknife. calls for a minimum of tools. and useful and not from start to finish. sufficient. It is best to start with a small craft upon the type of project that is to get the feel of the work-. as you will learn.the difference between bqatbuilding and common carpentry. 25 or No. 18. Another handy tool. one that a boatbuilder dies and a die holder will be cannot do without. etc. both is the Stanley holders a short. is a boat is a number of item the amateur not have when clamps. is round. planes. they really :.re indispensable. If not on hand.. The one power tool that is well worth the money in labor saving. spokeshave. a carpenter’s be a cloth compass. Other hand tools. For making square. rule or measuring but it should your own long bolts from rod stock.Chamer 3 The selection of tools needed to build a boat depends being undertaken. pencil tape that are a 24” carpenter’s Also essential is a stretches. dividers. these can be added as the need develops. either as a kit or one started from scratch. with carpenter’s is often that curved “Surform. blade. rabbet plane. for curved rasp-like one of and also blades are 15 A relatively blade. mer. even for the simplest of boats. is a % R electric drill. Essential framing tools for layout a level. One hand a boat. For such saws. work.

slow-turning technique long enough. with the extension You will learn The screws To reduce the drill diameter. The latare preferred because they make it ter. to fit in the drill woods or. and soft metals It takes a lot of fastenings twist drills. the number and counterbores to prevent as the screws are driven. they are more the drills boats there steel and high speed. plastic.16 7‘001.S A 0. a rod onto If the standard drills with ship augers available by welding it up. Be sure to get the because drilling a series of holes in expensive. the drill shank and trueing if necessary. . If auger holes are made with power.I tc. called “barefoot” augers by boatbuilders. with softwoods. Thehc even or metal though heats to make a boat sound. are patented countersinks of separate on the market. into hardmust to be driven electric drill is a must. easier to keep a hole on course. them there the wood from splitting boat construction. motor chuck. carbon and so for the electric drill you will need come in two kinds. Both of these tools first drill a hole for the body of the . a heavy duty.rcl bout t~ctilriirrg tool. good in boat work. particularly such as lead. that a great all be sunk many into wood screws are used in modern drilled drilling holes to enable operations.5 ltlrlt (lrv lrol cllzc~crqs /iJiltld iI1 ttrc tlomiJ wortzstlo~. ADlUmABLE . the carbon steel bits will burn and become These In all but car1 be bored the smaller will be some holes required for long bolts. E. ADIU~-AI~LE Figure 3-l.k?Llobk5 fiEVEL L\PPED ‘c-f CLAMP ADZE CHIP BAL? AUGER CLAMP C. latter kind hardwood useless. them than Some rather builders than and you must develop your own are not like to use a twist drill you must extend smaller an auger. with and without center lead screws. The Surform blades cut wood. %AI=‘EFDoT” D.

of the inexperienced. but it is a tremendous tools is the sander. 17 of the These twice the counterbore baclr-and-forth are shown similar for a wooden valuable adjustment time-savers: the range that do of drills and the necessity on fastenings. from the and really the If exof them. type with curled the grain heavy and. skilled learn under The workman. brand. screws power of anything are to be driven. such as for pqrtlights openings do not buy the cheapest even repuLable in bearings boats mozt saw you can find. hardwoods. of the drill pilot can These twist drills completely tear bits. and L . construction sizes is not as extensive are also some These or less the same job. Boatbuilders ally use the lipped of the blade. pieces who when adze is used diagonally is a wonderful to the limbs under in the hands edges at the ends The adze can so it is best to of adze time of wood. particularly for cutting for cutouts planking the saw is set to cut out little more As in the case of the %-inch Stick to a good grade lines and better Somewhat labor-saver it helps lines. These Unfortunately. some name they the countersink while both have much an then follows drills up by shaping a straight-sided for depth changing in the chapter as might tools drilling drills of hole the hole hole and to take are the head plug. does not as the drill One of the traditional tools of the boatbuildpr is the adze. as you go along. adze. chances not.inch saw with tilting can be a labor-saver. saw but does have some use. to the profile makes have and one about for these and are cheap drills lengths and equal look as though two diameters. By far for boatbuilding jointer. foregoing. be burned expendable. in the rhapter similar are sold is wood thus in sizes for various diameters fastenings. ury for small of the is an electric labor-saving screwdriver. not essential. to control they when of the hole. and they were stamped one for clearance depth drilling out of a steel of the screw and One but on of a screw and have a stop on the shank screw They to the diameter of the screw at the root of the threads. should be 12 or 14” in will do most jobs A portable for out of in depth electric in a good the difof a luxwhen prevent cuts an 8-inch A 4.TOOLS screw. have competitive and and power. hatch A saber saw is invaluable decks. like a usuof a fastening. workshop are more rircular while for a table It can and table common now than which arbor ever before. curved saw is a poor substitute up plywood if the planking panels. of more expensive of working on every hole. has plenty also be dangerous his belt. Old-hand especially nail of screws. For straight in a small circular cutting lumber than drill. gadgets eliminating of available There more sheet shank. but small thus in life expectancy. a hole is to be made the wood for a rivet or clout goes through. I‘his tool is shaped hoe and is still in use in yards that build vessels with heavy timbers. be desired. how to use one of someone some hand of most because is already As we progress. ever with many tools aren’t go ahead pensive and can be bought Power tools in the home one of the most useful size. also be used is not too thick in plywood saber makers the plank and because being thickness. ference quantities One the hull shop. often grind point bits are also shown to a tapered through the wood point boatbuilders when The tapered to a gimlet. screw. but are good and it will be apparerlt mention that start has your been boat your home tools have been that you will equipped these hand omitted need. is the bandsaw. which is a smooth-cutting across tool for working when in the hands the guidance that made workshop anyway.

. during been fiberglass.) Wetzler Clamp Co. illustrated P. listed in alphabetical I27 Vose Farm Inc. Woodcraft Supply Corp. . Wood Wade Co.. Peterborough. New York 11101. Road. Chicago. This familiarity too. (Another house with a nicely Supply. (This ca:alog is so beautifully illustrated it should bc a collertor’s item. One of the largest and best known of course.boredom.1. Brookstone Craftsman Garrett but not everyone knows that they put out a fine tool catalog that order: Here are some others know]! to me. 14117. longer ballast be considered one such up lead a luxury.I.0. Long island City. for wood or fiberglass.. in the introduction. Woburn.. catalog Box that lowers one’s resistance 11200 Menaul NE. 03458. as the S-inch the construction is a lightweight used for smoothing will be said about ability 25 feet long. assumed.4 few places tools. to purchasAlbuquerque. Bax 8767.) 313 Montvalc Avenue. P. R. (They sell the “barefoot” wood auger hits shown in Figure :I. is . power tool that might is used by the pros for smoothing so don’t than skimp. Inc. Massachusetts 01801.. both for woodworking metaiworking. revised annually. the belt sander the orbital is about the best. Service Co.. Warwick. New York. The disc sander is good and for such jobs as cutting sander down the seams of and for sanding Again. 2727 South Mary Strcc:. as mentioned tools has been a certain with woodworking Sources for Tools are mentioned below and that are known for stocking a good selection of is.. Fuller Inc. is an enormous is an electric by Skil. 43-15 11th Street. Sears. tools because. is important of boats in sanders. 02888. ing. made All you need is all that and tool has even keels.) W. This but which plane up joinerwork. New Hampshire Company. New York 10001.) Woodworkrr’s New Mexico Inc... planking whether Another labor-saver plane.O. (A manufacturer of clamps only and will sell direct IO boatbuildcrs.1 . 302 Fifth Avenue. Illinois 60608. X71 12. quality For finishing.

softness.essary iurnber~ard. to obtain the high in the matter rile aid of such a supplier ‘l‘herc should Ihe builder TV”““““.will I)t%commt’n~s OII IIKW kill& tl~a~ have (ltXir. ht. After a tree has the log through it is easy for the lumberman . and ir proft5sionais.Chapter 4 Wood rtlmain:. weakness. tht* grc-at growth in synthctit howcvcr. is of little conse- that have lhe net. onr of I he most of and 1tit-rt. On the orher hand there are rime-tested woods qualities.ll)lt’ qualities sought anal have I he necessary It is beyond our discussions wc~ocl. is advisrd to seek of grade trouble for long hull life. tIrspirt* marerials. to run is GUI from and its orienThe grain’s a saw 19 to do with the suitability trimmed. no compromise of lumber for when the labor the t-xtra ~0sI and Sawing Grain tation been of Lumber is formed has much felled and by the angle depends of the annual upon rings with the face of a hoard of the lumber for use in boats. susceptibility to of growth. even when iimite(1 I0 rhe trees found numher provt’n rlutahit* st rengr h the surface States the scope of this hook 10 morth rhan scrarch in rhe llnited 10 the small 01 commonly on rhts subjrcr woods dlone. orirntation in boards how rhe lumber logs. aimosi but rhese rypes can seldom be found in an every area where boats are built has a yard and the amateur lumber of good needed material quatiry. is consideI~ecl. Fortunately fully untlers:ands the nec~ls of the hoathuiider.asit>st materials a favoritt* of many Not ail woods nrr sui~nblr out of which the amateur can build a boat. is ow of the c. A few reasons for the elimination of cerare brittleness. so as we go along. for bonthuiiding. so I will limit accepted boatbuilding how the lumber is manufactusrri rain woods from boatbuilding dccavq availabltordinary that and shortness lrom logs.

or edge-grain boards. SAWN e. boards are known as rift. as will h showl~.tin sawn boartls arta not tlf3ir. SAWN LOG7 Figure 4-2.joritv 01 tllr~ I)l. the wood is said to be at the fiber F’LAlh. but the ma. It can be seen from Figure 4-2 that a few boards from the nlidtilc clt’ it plain-sawn iog have rift grain just like quarter-sawn lumber. QUARTER SA’NM and cut it into boards as shown in A of Figure 4. -!-his is called plain sawing. A more expensive and more wasteful method of cutting up the log.1. I‘here and absorption into may be as much themselves. . the weight are two ways that by the ceil walls has taken the cell cavities on as much as the cells will hold. B in and the rrsultinp. verFigure 4. Figure PLAIN 4. tical. and all but one or two of the boards sawn from the log in this manner are called slash grain or tlat grain.tblr for I~OilI~~llildil~g.I 1 is ralicd quarter sawing.1. When when thr tree is cut . at which of the log.~ny purpose at a11 must be tlricd time or scbasoned to reduce the content wood contains thr moisture as half abthe moisture.A.tlmost prewnt . Seasoning Wood content or more sorption wood for .

boatbuilding. so . incidentally. process point.s time has the moisture content (if boat material shown 111th drying mctl~od. sliould he between 12 and 16 ptarccnt.oward stability for than with grrater dimensional tlian flat-grain ones (Figure 4 :!H). accepted that air-dried 1 hate cannot seen this being wait too long of days. for determining results. because the normal prodcontent a:. Shrinkage producing of rift-sawn boards lumber tends more t. hoatbuilding level is wanted. and t<br 1hia rcasrjn planking. thus slash-grain boards cup more than rift-sawn ones and appear as shown in Figure reducing 4-YA dfter thickness seasoning. leave and be used properly These decay. swell unduly.: pt-rcentage llldl I’t’gitl-dlt?iS Of Drying boat lumber by this nlethod uct of thr kiln wilt have a moisture cwen dry. not be too green types of planking the moisture The boat or it will shrink the latter content and check could and PXbe they is to of knots the building nyr must it be too dry or it will absorb condition of wood. of the lumber . wood takes placc un:il and this is when further this percentage to about Seasoning is the level for 15 percent.best for boatbuilding. is expressed as . In the case of some made very serious. rift -bdwn lumber is desirable Thrrt* are two methods used for seasoning wood. place-d depending right thickrl:*ss a process It is gt*~lt*rilll~ that can take several years. is tht. Shrinking or swelling is greatest in a direction parallel to the annual rings. There are meters must. and the mention of the merits of one versus the other just might start an argument in the local t)oat shop. moisture to whatever if more is removed and swells if more moisture is taken on.v. There are those wood done who will accept upon I hr only air-dried of the and lumber.)isture. moisture illld the wood. v herc. Drying surface cessively and in a kiln spcbc-ds up thr t-vaporation of m. causing fast drying on the slow drving inside. the wood shrinks. and other boar parts. with many accepting 15 percent as ideal. and is said to affect both the strength and elasticity of Lumber during for boats must period. in a kiln to be dried in a number mus: be done with care. that for correct people best procedure who understand lumber should for the amateur the requirements not have large of the wood or nondurable to the experts sapwood.low as eight percent. hand. the selection checks.he lumber is often on nutnerous modern occasionh production On the other for material. also know .il’OOU 21 saturation percent.. tlccking. width.ight when Moisture c~ontent.. in boatyards. pieces. ot reducing In this condition the moisture shrinks the moisture content content of the wood averages is reduced. After an acceptable it seasons about 25 and no shrinkage material.

panels. strong.4 pounds clamps. (heavy). California. deadwood. but keel. should be green. in good keels. where many tike to think available lands. and time woods. and holds fastenings excrp. of the country. not seasoned.Kinds of Wood In the northeastern this other areas typical other east. as well as material with substitutions experience be yellow would might has been made the list of suitable as a result example. is not of c~fitmfrs.Winter Cutting vs. Coast. Oregon.!I t)ounds (metlium). approxitnate moisture 1 give here a list of good weights content. May very durable.rr be brittle White Weight Oak iItlO~ll al. etc. ~hd thus excellent for frames. scrmctimes importance. backbone or Alaska of wood of satisfactory these for boatbuilding. Douglas fir is often called Oregon pine. stiff. deadwood.) oak. ktbcl. with untried materials time . greater than supply white 01 red oak than white ‘l‘he red varietv is weaker oak and is to br avoided aii possible Douglas Weight utmost and plywood Fir about ‘) .2 l~Oll~~llS (ht’ilt’y). I)Uleat)lt~. Easily steam-bent. the oak such as tionally well.. stem. together with principal by one inch thick) properties and foot (one foot square at 12 percent country parts was long established part of the United born. also as a substitute long lengths Used for in some for stringers. for Sitka sfrruce useful for stringers. choice ings. for spars as it substitute and when light weight planking whtn rift sitwtr. As a guide. and straight-grained. ~‘oI- Strong and straighl-graincd. when 11 should it is at be noted here to tind there and white is a much less durable oak. per board woods. of local with pine Through foreign products woods the years. from which veneer is peeled for manufacture into Logs dre IiligC. Grows it. Green fir is often found in IO house builders and this should not be used without further lumber vards scasoiling. frames members cedar makes States. and for planking if weight is not a factor. (‘11‘. W’ashington. the practice ago. be available . and it is dxilJln~tic’ that the most dtrrablc oak ib from trees felled during the winter when the sit11 is not flowing. Strong. but for this purpose Also used extensivrlv for all !rackbonr members white* oak grows iI1 ?kw Enghnd. being boatbuilding woods lumber added in certain As a and the in was from to of using certain from native has proven its worth. catering Yellow Weight white Pine about oak (Longleaf! 3. (Set. dradwood. white oak in the Northtoo much work to gamble fasten- or Douglas little that mav As tong as it is proven. or not hold difference. be of oak in most fir on the West but a boat rot in a short localities. Summer Cutting following the description of Alaska cedar. involves in the South.

which grows near the Atlantic roast from Maine IO northern Florida and westward along the Gulf coast to L.II~ IN* art~~al~t.lk(* t~lank4 and resistance 10 rot make it excellenr is tow.111Orc*gon .~ntl I. r~tgc*s. about were in yacht 2.C ~c*sis[ant iti rot I!4 for planking and bright finisht*tt decks.l<. M’cighl at)out 2. Moderarely strong.X founds rot. Ilighly rvsisldnl howt ver. Cypress Modvralcly slrcmg. Sapwood lhal is.11i(t nor-rllc~ri CI.s wood. and boat cedar.h \‘.-l puntis (iigilr ).lt)str. for planking. Grows in southern . southern white crdar. years often is mentioned the wide. make makes white ships White pine. swamp cedar. ‘I Iic*sc* “boat hoards” tat)c*r in width sanx.llifornia anti IS d material familiar to thcb tavman been made.1[ art* atrt~rnal4y taycsr is usually wit II or wilhout trunk thin. is also known strong. for boat con- but the dubious this wood undesirable for inlerior White Cedar Weight about 1. Atlantic white cedar.nt)idty.ight is not . making for a h<nil\v boar aflt.I f‘. (rncdiuni’~. and srraight-grained. Llscd for f)ianking wlww wc. Weight ah0ul Z.ight and rnal~riai Red Cedar ahout 1 . -White Pine Weight of which decks because struction.ouisiana. moisturetight as juniper.111its uniformity r. Atmosr always suppliett as “flirches. Has a Wcstcrn Wt. Has been reported as not durable States in fresh water. clear durability (tight)..1 pounds used building. ivatt’r. 10 rol and is soft and availahltweak.v o(t01 ‘t’hih wood wah scarcch in the tare 1!)7Os. ior (his purpose. Genuine seen varieties northern of sailing nowadays.” I)arti on I ht. Grows in sout I)(. ho[h of which qualities in and bum shrinkage I)oals [11. in good widths thus not the ht’st twgr hs for planking. this.9 pounds (tight).r a short heartwood very rtxistanr to low it steaks up water IO a great rime in [ht. pine material enormous ago and quantities for laid here in the construceion is seldom boards of many available joinerwork. Port Orford Cedar clear.ISI rlurnlwr~ 4’ vene!ian b!ind s!a!s have ttisrinc~li~~t~ st1ic. and Gulf but I cannot substantiate Grows in Southern United in Atlantic states.tor hrcausc cxtt’nl.as the tree OUI of the water. are especially It is not Soaks up good for 1.localities. plain-sawn boards . except it a tempting for the amateur.!I f)ounAs (lighl).I~:c~clusly usect for Ilull t)Iankinj=. ‘1‘lli. as tht* woo(1 lrtrm wl1ic. 1 Irartwcxxi VVI-. I.

and interior mahoganies. particularly Stilt available plenty but this is not detrimental quality. Grows on Pacific California it or not.resistant of builders sides and and trim. resistant and availability a narrow craft wooden in long. looking. This Islands is the market that name material difficult Holds for woods known as and and is it is true and is the about laucl~l and tnn~l’lr in the Philippine It is decay. finish to heavy. than more and expensive. and the better considering as “firsts red variety. exterior Honduras material. for this purpose. suitable iz~orcnsis. Rasmussen easier firstnf have all been 10 finish. clear for spars. Honduras. builders African mahoganies are Khava nyankom. States. color vary Hardness inexpens. aircraft when construction. relatively besr grade expensive.swamplands of the United this. io one iarge boatbuilders and seconds” the more Other Weight They quality Mahoganies varies from medium used for planking. Sapeli aboudikro and Niangon they should be acceptable to anyone.0 pounds (medium). in 1980 in airof amateur-built always Spruce (Northern White) High strength for weight. Mexican.4 pounds (tight). high strength for its weight. prefer for color and grain in this country. Germany. and are heavier planking the so-catl?d Philippine or Mexican According mahogany is a favored Lemwerder. Used for deck and hull framing Grows in New England. not very resistant to rot. Philippine Weight trim “Mahogany” 3. Sipo utile. In the that there are other kinds of African mahoganies it is a case of dealing with a reliable supplier of and if this firm uses these kinds past Abeking and Rasmussen stated that arc riot suitable. fmd a supplier who understands Sitka Weight Spruce about strip 2.vt is known darker considerably. where weight-saving is the primary consideration. lengths spars Moderate make shrinkage. so here again woods. Coast in 10 rot. finish. have proper there are Not care. If you wani to use cypress in a boat. it ideal to Alaska. . Weight about 2.4 pounds from because under northern believe (tight). iis qualiiies. to and African joinerwork are better Abeking and mahoganies of flile yachts. of some of the finest yachts in the world. for cabin and an excellent Somewhat more According used by the finest attractive mahoganies. are exlcnsively When srtrc~ed used for planking ior planking 10 finish fastenings than well importer.

Good for planking and southeastern Alaska to southern Oregon.4 Shipbuilding wide currency The belief is that C’olurn~ I. Summer Cutting vs. Teak Worms are not fond of teak. about Only 3. (medium). narrow. shrinkage usually moderately strong. as people and thus decks think. from which also natural called larch arc or tamarack. On rhe other and R. Ash about Used 3. Ahrking (twtlind African for small boats and knees are cut from rhc-se crooks. wood dulls White Weight durable. it was something 1957. but extremely shrinkage. of in the in Navy paragraphs In the remarks the old hands winter: Wood: Bureau “An than therefore in boatbuilding. finish Teak that. still given lumber.~sI~~ss~~~ once told nit’ that larch was tht-ir sc:ctmtt choice mahogany) fclr planking. The States equal. lumber is more durable that in is based on the erroneous assumption . and very is as a substitute for oars. for oak where in weight also a favorite Suitable tillers for s:tAam-bending an old standby used for small Hackmarack Weight durable. off. old belief summer-cut For Its I/w As .5 kind pounds is grown (heavy). beatns Straight-grained.S. for sailboat about 3.-I Manual of Ships. Winter about white Cutting oak it was noted the most that in the opinion wood comes Material.6 pounds to decay. are Tough used and crooks made. 25 Has a natural that oil that excludes has minimum are noe coated acceptable in Burma and is so expensive in the opinion in the United as a rule. its use is reserved periodically teak trim paint adding for decks and to a whitish the bottom is rubbed somewhat they are scrubbed Varnished has a rich appearance. Slems hancl. sapwood when seasoned. for boat- huitding.1 the pounds roots. is bright (medium). Minimum where Straight-grainrd. substance that is often used to sheath bottom tools quickly. Not as strong moisture or Thailand trim. so this in case some of the toxic a gritty it.W’OOD Teak Weight durable. desirabtp. heartwood resistant for keels in areas it is grown. reduction frames. U. winier-cut of most. and strong boat for its weight. from if not all. fkartwood yrttow. durable trees felled of a jolt to come across the following . Alaska Weight very used Cedar ahout 2. has no of many.4 pounds for deck and of a keel as protection also contains lo the cost of working anti-fouling (heavy).

4 2. tually.1 2.st~J pounds in per square inch as follows: Est ronl(J Comprt~ssion Parallel to Grain 1466 1066 1466 SptTitJs Ash. piling that ‘the sap is up.” Strength Because below vs. Department of Agriculture.2 3.lat may accelerate Reasonable seasoning the danger to summer-cut material.\.8 2.1 1.9 2. “The ‘the sap is down. Weight a comparison of strengtlis with is of interLast.9 :3. objection and and only in the summer.\l’~g Kt~lrrfi)rwtl I’icls~tr~ ~‘P.~*ly Philippint "nlilhOp~~IlV" it is recommrndcd Iltrrrtlhook under Recommendc. and with grain suitable for the purpose intended.\[rc\.uv/.-I 4.4 2. 0 Cypress Sitka Port White White Western spruce white c-<hda~ cedar pine red ct*dar about wood acquire spruce Orford cedar Northern Alaska 2. ’ while tests have demonstratt-d as in summer.4 2 9 3 . sound by insects felling. t. free of defects adversely affecting its strength.~grr . conclusively to summer-cut fungi. Reading more of the Forcast Products U. ASS Design Stresses for Wood of a few c:f the foregoing the American counterpart woods are listed in the Huks /or LSuilding and of the American of Shipping. a new ( 1978) publication of L!oyd’s Register that the wood be of best quality.d that those who want IO learn Laboratory.‘lns. about tree.S.6 1. whit< Cedar.9 the CVood listed liackmatack llondur-as mahog. methods. in this book. well seasoned. clear. pOU&S White White Yellow Ih~~glas ‘l‘tbak ash oak pint fir 3 . shown. the woods mentioned the weight pound3 per board foot again above are listed in order of strength.!I 3.’ in the living standtng trees contain is that precautions.4 2.26 L1’001) winter. Ac- as much likely checking prompt of to sap in winter deteriorate and such attack after damage sawing lumber temperatures logs are more particularly remove if left exposed to high summer decay good and t. and lists allowable tlt-. Bureau ABS specifies ‘l‘he strength of Shipping. Alaska Fir ~ Douglas FiSer in Rrn ding 1866 1466 2000 .

tion types.tmp5 and fastrnand get the notion pl. that found the bottom this..rnking IOt’i1lt’tl fit on a surface mentioned ings. than boartls of equal thickness even for solne parts weight and sailb. designtar llas speciallv 2. tcsrior joinrrwork in hulls of all construc. Plywood the ctcvelopment of plvwood on a one-off use of completely because the waterproof stock boat hulls. Pine.lf. two thin faces ant I a relatively parallel. line building c~f fibrrglass as decks is still a place bulkheads plywood and fit-ld for suc. Due to t hc* st iftness of plywood that can be of importance* of a number in both powerboats pieces can save a a hull with instead of small with panels thrrc* art’ exceptions. Plywood each other..lI’OO1) Extwvrv Fiht.l1 other. basis.t% can happen If you should wilh thca use of stratt$cally help vou with to have a set of plans for the boat you want that it should be planked with plywood.‘cll. plywood CdnnOt curvature.rieric. shaped the hull for such construcbe bent in two direc:ions at once to in reft~renctI:) the exceptions arc-bottomed (~l. Being made of thirl layers of wood srrurcly bonded are stiffer panels. for instanct-. unless that in Chapter it has been it is not theoretically possible to plank panel5 As nit-ntioned above. rompletelv of wood. Teak * 35 punf1. of boats made a matter can br savc~i and working panel5 dntl have advantages over regular lumber. alwavs plywood. Only has compound However of certain hulls can br niatlt~ of plywood expr. thicker Cheap inner “k” ply. and off a boom by amateurs almost plywootl produc:ion hull building. c’ven though the designer has specified otherit is feasible.r 111 I. Although plvwood tion.t per ~01’~ /ool mini~num uvrght 2330 1866 yellow 2000 1466 l!JOO 1333 1333 1466 1066 1200 white longleaf Sitka Plvwood Panels items awaited composed that werr of layers of wood veneers to be protected and from glued together but wet-e used for man): years for their use for marine adhesives.rr~. manufacturers There supc~rstructure5 This purposes touched gone for inbut mostlv have the weather. t ht. check with him first to see whether major heartbreak. .ssiorl Ihrtlllt~l If) Gruin 27 &~I! tir t1. wise.h parts for limited- and it is extensively used for structural t(r tBa(.g Mahogany’ Oak. This procedure may save you a is made by laying up thin layers of wood with tile grain at right angles to and the number of layers is always cldri so that the <grain of the face plies is The number might of plies have and their thickness are important. is sti!l ttsed for this purpose tc)tally to production in the marinr fibtsrglass boats. Spruce.?ts lot of time.

of Douglas placed thickness. turers. at its desired badly as time sn that thus most of develops the grain is flat g-ain. than now called for boatbuilders wds available for an updatcb on what is availaf)lc gr-ading becausx in the receipt quality. grades A-A and A-B: rnaritle lauan. with (‘ore gaps not to exceed panels rotary art’ offered grades means the back Durapfy” in the following ‘$ “.tir5 in . a in a than to eighteen with no more four (‘ori* gaf)s in any ply. plywood Asking tnanufa(.lywootl is acceptable can make somewhat for interior it difficult by coating work that to achieve a first-class paint job.“8 M’OOD a better weak grade when will have five plies of wood. with water- the veneers are used in thr. A-R ot. e. tlot h gratltb todav.I f. of for Cfertb is . B. with right angle kind bent parallel to the grain paneis. A-A panel A-A and A-2.l tht plywood but even when the plywood in interior joinerwork.I(x. panel It whereas can relatively tain turned ciently hairline readily be seen that construction. I’ntchrs ‘1‘1~ panel cores art‘ of grade it: a ~gratle I3 back are limited B I~ougfas fir or fauan. such as fiberglass and resin.out what is produced including ~l‘hertb is also a choice of either Douglas fir or fauan i‘or(*s. grades both sides are of the same grade of the same plv is of B or . This guarantees that fjroof adhesive. fac(* f)lics are all grade A veneers. (An Kf*f).I? grade of the same species.ch of about the is made fogs are ply. art’ limitt~cl IO ninc* in . greater is exposed plywood wild grain.lir3 are minitnal. .A-2 indicates Champion has a “marine CrrZon overlay on the face and back. peels the veneer Fir also checks in number to the elements. Plvwood for any purpose in a f)oar.lywood sealer Fir f. I1. by a large Building This marine Products.I I)it morr masinlum 4 x 8 pantbl.ht*s. difficult a paint fir. and that Plywood Previous Grading ctlitions of this book carried data furnished Champion rrsuftcd before.S. of eben more has got to be a sign of is a for of plywood around of horrible Mat-inc. while there is a choice grade A or gracfr H backs. of plywood the three-ply will be of the inner The most common the fir veneer against a knife and inexpensive for making edge that called paini become finish. and with none of t hesr gaps types: marine fir. cracks that and in fir it is indeed for a smooth goes on.I -I x K-foot panel. checking Such checking can be alleviated ing. face plies. whether for planking should f)e of nlarine grade.tf. of patches is to be covered or for interior are bonded with a synjoinerwork. Marine A-A and plywood A-2. 01’six vtbnecr f)atl. complete the times. Plvwood ilkformation there Corp.) panel with a paper like resin-impregnated This panel is good for bulkheads and partitions species. although there is little you can do . that a minitnum number voids in thrs inner f.I gratlc* A ~.incll glut>. and marinr ribbon fauan. anrf th:.turt~r. suf~erimf)ost~d. detail.. This situation worst whe. It can also be used for planking and decking that thetic cloth. the fir with a sealer before paintpaint or plywood laminates manufacone such as is to be covered plastic with either matfe by one of the marine of the modern vinvl wall coverings or with one of the durable Formica.To oband suffiis at its is used in a lathe to tame finish equal thickness.-gratis plvwood panels art’ laminated with waterproof phenol-formaldehyde or rc*sorc. using .

‘l‘hr fat-? VCnt’c’rs untft-r.r.iIf)uif~f~*rs ov(*r tfjcs yy.nucltr 4x x Lx* .llc-ti II? *) . Cflampion is a c’ompany f)uiftiing IIIt’ II. al-v f.1 flit t)rl the heavy onfv SOI::~~ her SillC~~comparlv.lH s !Mi I 4x s 96 t I”0 ’ I. mafrcjgany-like: ~la11c.Varirrc I. ChilIll~S~t~Il.plv) IL’(5.:.t!jry of making t~lt’v sUp])lV rt’rail tunittu fflcir f.rwl ~11 spc’cim of fmnt~fs fir. rotar\l fauan. <.roof marinr-gratfc carcvcyf I0 f)o.the trvt-rlay arc* pdich-frcc as Lgratfr GIS.I()* 144* l ‘? (:PpIy) “” (i-f+) 48 s !W ’ I”0 4 I..fjly) -18 Y 96’ 48 x 96 * 120* i-f-f* 16x* 192* !216* ‘L-10’ . grad? B backs.:>rctf.r. . All0ltlt~l' :lIlti rflroughout 1IOWt’Vl’I i.. an(f Bruvn.irh is -f‘fltb kfarBaf~inlc)l-t~ .\I(Irlrrf’ I*‘/1 ‘.imf)itrn (iri- i ).. (3.lY) 4x s 9ri ’ 1 I.f‘f~cv usually c‘arrv il Dutch-made th.. concx’r11 tflal for \va~c~rf. l-101 Kuswff Strt-t-r.pancf will f)c visif)lr.f. . Plywood Panel Sizes ‘f’flf. Duraply ribbon is also made fauan hefortb. rnatc~rials. ‘l‘rv Harbor forot!lcrwisr.Zln rl’ti f* 1)~ rajdy ‘..l(fy A-.‘I (rflib is [flick for a f)urf and knot indications cut niatchcd for color and afic.ro(lucts vard ourftqs wtaif known br.14* 4 I”0 4 l.Iv. f.plv) .” (5.atttqxyi as float.[‘IV) Kihtwll l. (3.> ( 11 .lolfowinq ih 01 f)fvM.fY) 48 s wi* ’ . (II? qratft* B fir and C1 rofarv or thv ventbcr ulltivr I~W C:rc%c.2 is availahfv witi) a choice of horh sidvs of tflc.ll’OI)l) 29 [flat arp to br painlcd.14 ’ I”0 + 1.lil. (7 p!y) 48 s !?(i* - I (i-ply) 4H s 96 + I”0 * I Iq (!I-f. (5.tll/illl ‘( (?I plv) . rlol the IIdS f~fvwooti.A. aff)eit .n <‘an I)c f)ouFlas fir. lvak.]‘I?) “.f‘hr m:lrlrlcs ttbak f>an(*fs matfv teak grain vrnrer) variarions fjfain-slicvcl wilh snlalf lcbak f)\.lV) 4x s !hi’ 4 1”0* + 14-f* ’ Iy (...14 + 4H s 96 4~ 121) + 11 I I”0 + 144 + l-1-f + ‘..( (7.ht3 . Optionally.~l is superbfv nla(fr.S witfl a hi:.if)ft- Iron1 (:h.-pi”) 48 s !)li+ f !“o* t IciH* ItiX* I!)P* “.f.l<cyf witfl I0 lotarv grade 1. f)ac k. Marvlanti 2 1230. . wiLlI a C:rvZon fact.()o~f f)CInt’f sin-s tiic.ur of the fir tan usuaffy fly dtzrcclrtf rflrough a paint as mrntionvcf rhr wild grain fini5fl. C~hnmf~ion X cxmiparcd othrrwist.l ~all~i 4th.fd + I”0 i f-14 ’ ‘.Intf Ifarf)or Salt3 (intfic~arcd fq il rill)lC’ in illt.j is used when .f’fV) -fH s 9ti* Murl’rrf~ I~fll~lrp l.lH s !)(i ’ ‘” (.

lnJ..11 .~thuiltlt~r is ativisc:l against gambling his labor against the \.lwtYl \t-nt’t-t\ th.~nct t‘i1 i\ 0111’ 01 ~IIc*WI~I~I itI ttii\ it3l)t*(‘t.1 h. . thta hc.i single C1 otfcrs with panels width.rfo/n that the panels ar. All in all.r 10 malit.I I).~ss. Panel l+.llt III I hc lesser number of plies is suitable for the job.“. p.l H’.‘SO II 001) Special Both sviclttls Sizes of Plywood (Ihampjon 10 Ml”. length a maximum Exterior Grade Plvwood me.5. .41~c~i ~~lvwo~~tl rt-ntl5 to 5)llinter 011 its undcrlumber hitIt* w ht. I rt-c~orclt~d. Bwaus~ of this.. on tilt. . anti iiar bar Salts\ 0ftc. panels fr-on! ‘b ’ !o I IL’ thick in increments (A friend of mine built several hundred hard-chine t on4stc . hut L huffi< icllt nurnhc*l c~f failures. ills lucling rllar-intgrath~.made with truly waterproof glue.snrl:. ” of $. is not recommended have been unless one is ~lh\ol~/(.bui!dcr IO prevent the entrance of water.trt)or start5 5alt. Champion.ot ht. and ll*ngths ot Sti whmt* topsiti~* l.h. IO Plywood [Iit* rtiili 4. in any length. have SIICc~ssfully usrd exterior grade plywood instead of 1\23Ilv 1)uiltlt-1.g iI1 lllq\t(-l-i.lanking r.xtcricn gra(lt- Cutting IhIt. or i)allc-l5 ill an! at ‘% “. con>. in sites other than stock.ior grade sue_h as delamination. the use ot c.irs s(i feet.1 on each side of about with a maxof H1/2’. us(’ ot f.) imum I hI( kwss width mentions for instance.t. that all voids arc pluggc~l hv the.idc-ring rho tr~~mt~ndous amount ot troub!e that could be caused by failure of this ~I~~JVO()(~ lnatc~rial.l\‘in.l~ c.xrt-r. :I 1)iec.il ~051 .l: Ilidkt’ utl .e of solid Figure 4-4. and that the weaker conSIIEC tion iniltbrc.a’ ti! .iulf h).gainerl i)v 1tI(. pant..

I ‘2 I I.low spars. particularly beams. “ross grain in them if sawn from solid stock..kIil he used cure in hoat at room construction temperature. Laminated thtb time that must be taken to prt*pare the form and strong. the panel must be dried before another part can be laminated IO it.J cr0.t)ottl form5 01 \v(N. rather set for a fine cut and to the edge parallel Bending Plywood Plywood can be bent to curvature either dry or after it has been steamed.I ilrt' parts laminating and so arc ho. block to it. If the latter method is used.lut~cl parts hc-cause Lamination Wood of laminated often solid wood parts or plywood adhesives to be made l. plywood The Cuts should up.oc.nal Builders with an interest in laminating for laminating to a lamination. Ct)llI-rnol~lin~ can be made of small pieces of wood readily obtained and easiiv antI str. Sometimes it is advantageous to dry-bend two panels eat-h of half the desired finished a dry thickness. edges portable saws are handy for just are blades at an angle of plywood are best smoothed with a low angle.il) l)lanking as tit*sc~riI)t~(l latc*r art. be inferior .1l’f~Ol~ 31 c!amped always there panels held Lightweight on the be made underside circular fine of the panel crosscut made than will eliminate when sharp this much splintering. likely to check parts. cheap tluc to are thr hut the parts wood asst~mblies of parallel grain construi~tion.‘. and by a fine-toothed with teeth saw with the face-side this purpose. in A of Figure 4-4 is greater quite ingenious if it were made solid pieces jointed in the conventic. and of the availability of watt-t-proof that allows curved with minimum waste of material means that large parts ha~ltlI(*d. ‘I! ” bend P~~mllt~l to (. plane of the plywood is to be cut. than of ot such as the stem showr.n Cirnitr I . are tnuch laminating laminated that solid sue-h as deck Laminations although an assembly would have trot necfxsarily material. parts that otherwise either strengthwise at conr.rclill 60 72 (W) 24 ‘4 3fi (0”) !Jfi 144 I92 “40 1’: ‘. and split than of the non-laminated wood ICS:. the strength a1111 does not increase the strength manner. . become itself. Pant-l thickness is a guide (not the gospel) to how much and bending radii are in inches. ‘The following chart panel wi!l take. ” II 7” Wi 144 Laminating <.ting forms would be tedious to make or from the standpoint or that wouid of durability.

Co111panv. M. as well as plywood. to b0irtlruilderS and others..&t~ct cl0 t tits plaiting to 01 two sc. scarl)t1ing a wide plyput out by the boat L&1!. of Gclugecul 01 interest Figure to the amateur Llsc-ci with a saw blade -4 1.trf)tis. 19th Street. which is available and probsuch parts if you ask for it. espec-ially 706 and slartin a toot caiteci Inc. shorter luml~c~ (‘a11 is nc)t ol~tainal~lt~ IN* jcbinc*tl with gluecl with a ratio of Ic~t1gth-t(~~thickt~c~ss of 8 or Ilowevet in Figure 4-h. teak. son1cwI1. a lot of f)atience. it is said to cut a clean sc-arph with a single pass Sources for Roatbuilding the I)y Lumber of finding good I~oatlmilding catering wood has been reduced I~ortun.” thick..‘3 9 . to secure in C.le to set up the rig for Street. Company. there before in boating of these sup10603. Another ably from The shape is laid out on a hoard the form it can quite or on the floor.tl buitcling 4X706. of the lamination easily. is fastened in place is shown of a tiller. White (long New York advertising red cedar. and cypress. cnder. the “Scarffer” of good quality. the lamination either type of form Harbor he used for laminating ftom Champion to laminate sharply stock or plywood.tt magarines has been U’estcrn York. supplier New Logan Another plywood!). City. Fir plywood $. \Vctod & Supply ad mentions C. such as the bulwark rails at the bow of a boat No matter in all forms: glued I’hrrt~ have how the form the form must being is constructed. Lumt:rr aware prcrblem IlIt* ~Cl~~t~itist~lll~~IltS of supplirrs . alike. of ltlt~ saw. and A part like this would to which have cross grain and a will be solid as if sawn from of cleats clamped. was such a thing Sitka spruce. rockpit coaming corners. and the like.cnuc. Rome in the Northeast New York Companv.umber and Plywood in long enough llat -scarphs Iry hand lengths for the jot. tbc*cfc~\. as uutvrproof COIK~CJI~ 258 Ferris Avenue. D is a sketch of a form used to . firm is incleed Consc~quentlv Brothers. L 11’001) Fi. has alwhys been of the needs . 1001 I. and a similar . mahogany. f’-/:\/lf~~~tWIl.. if you tta.gluc up right.1tc~lv.and left-hand parts with twist. 1. is an attachment for a portable circular saw. shape If they are not sufficiently to clamping. prior strips except they must thin. One Plains. Michigan in the As shown IO to I Bciat-cls can be tapered wood f~ant~l this way taktx 01w with a rig as shown with a routet-. photograph. can he bent deckhouse roof corners. the “Scarffer” profession..gure series 4-4B shows the lamination one piece of wood. ltlic*rs. Florida 39 West 33601. is John have always had a stock of fir. In the Snutheast. at hand. Harra‘s 301 North of hr?at builders. mail Tampa. be covered there is one thing paper that must be remembered it from that becoming be with waxed to prevent 10 tlte part laminated. for as long as I c-an remember l-hey Hart-a white oak.~fl~r’(J~I(L/ such ‘1s i2’c~JtlcQrt Rf>cit. you will is no rule for the thickness to take the required time holding them thirt encrugh a hard in place Scarphing Wttt-tt Icngtl1s rig just (‘a11 I.

WINI wish to l)uil(t rt4 c. joints by 4-6. .tt.r) Wettbrn nit-ranti.out this method vertical spruct~.~ in plywood . Grt*shatn.O. Ort-gon grain or red in good 97030. put scarph Gougc~or~ Brothers vs~mplifie.Box -126. the The Scarljfer.II’OOD 33 Figure Huilhs 1att. art’ fortunatt~ to havt~ a supplier vtBrric. woodcn fir. 4-5. eirhtbr Silka whit~h is similar mahoganv.In to I’hili.I’his marcrial is scockrd witlrh~ and Irnghs P. Figure out jiirm. hull (mart* grain .rclar. . cu/ting sheets.~pine ‘In” vt’nrer vt=rtical stc)rk.il grain t)y I’ht~ Dr. iI colti-molded for Douglas Lompnv.

of drcav. Wood that be on the order is continuously of a log is the most resistant between temperature. is the siding.anci was copper naphthanate. a. simply abbreviate these words to S and M. to the wet does not rot because of building just waiting of some to avoid the importance and he trapped. referring to Figure 12-l A. vears dn old standby along. . of the preparation. Decay present by fungi certain content be remembered that the heartwood feed on the cellulose of moisture.er. in wooden the stem width. to grow. l~~~t~tit~~t~loro~~ht~t~~~lame c art* rc~aclilv dvailaltlcof these Ic’ht }). preparations in preventing mot-t various chemicals are decay can be used that IO apply. cheap. The adjusted dimension terminology to its usage. a list keel of the hull of scantlings depth and dimensions timbers width. and it should is caused moisture rot. thickness..lv ehdtirittt-d borers as the most effeclivr or dipping. and air must the cell walls of wood. boatbuilding sire and and are called scantlings.rted. It has been noted that quite a few designers.34 lI:OOL) Prevention of Wood Decay of decay that is to select woods that have proven durable in to be of The first step in the prevention boats. while a clamp would he sided 1 t*j ” and molded 4 “. of frames. anal dnd wood-tit~stroyitig ‘l‘hesc~ preset-vatives being are easy to apply pieces. and the Scantling ‘The ciimensions itibtanct’. bv the builder. ship dimension the builder quickly because becomes the fore-and-aft size.-td wood that later on dry does not rot because the lack of moisture. and the air stagnant. deck generally the smaller etc. a deckbeam would be sided I t. will be more where watet to grow. As an example of this. beams dimension. conditions must of 25-30 percent. the temperature there is no For the fungi . apparently tiring over the years of hand lettering the words “sided” and “molded’* on their drawings. is peculiar and the athwartand is the molded to boatbuilding. ‘l’he actual may be given as the “siding. This could be very confusing to the first-tirr. is always F.IIK-~!.” and the “molding. There cabin. ftt~. short the larger preservative parts being for fnotection brusheci like. resistance leaks in deck and temperature precautions are toxic to and they then apand of can enter natural for the right woods easy and the for the fungi In addition against fungi reduce I. c losr. deck beams. the experience miirilw recently ‘I‘B’I‘O (trihutyl tin oxide) names bv marine paint manufacturers I am ~rluCl. For includes spacing sizes of clamps. The dimensions of frames are an exception to the above.” usually a vertical dimension. ” and molded 2 th “.inl Although to recommend with and any one photos as the best. a such container as planking butt blocks. All 01 I hesc art* ~tld under It-oni sulrlrliers.or and many decay These leaks that marine the chances can he taken borers. 1 hdrc against smallerdipped in of boatbuildt~rs portit up TBI‘C) bv brushing I have talked fungi. The 75-90 degrees air present. but now you know. planking stringers.

shrinks and this might and weight cause the covering fastened absorption by itself are those who do not hesitate thick and When to cover old carvel-planked is mt*chanically gain The from latter with fiberglass. The fabric The resin can on by delays in hauling to the overall structures out for bottom ‘l-he weight does not add much the wooden In anything is usually be either and when it is planned can be reduced in size to compensate weight for the weight but very fast boats the added cloth.traditional ease with which material it can for boatbuilding tht-rt* are other and it remains However. for it reduces cleaning. so because depending of the. materials to be considered. but does not count for much and Dyne1 are also used. expensive and more fiberglass polyester polypropylene The latter or epoxy. minimizes the attack of the worries of the for of water. t hp use of covering is a great weight rot. is more 35 . Wood When covering should planking. changes. doub!e and there The to rt=commend hull with planking diagonal moisture is made the type of wood the wood preferably or with be of a stable such as strip planking. or triple plywood. adds strength. is suitable. or other there such is much cloth. and borers. to the hull. of the covering. that can be brought in the design. and hulls swells However.Chapter 5 Wood has bt-cn tht. but the covering prevents against the hull is suitable. with wood. upon the skill and ingenuity somel imt-s in combination of the builtlrr. protects advantage. of the boat. quite leaks worms covering and Fiberglass hull resin Normal construction and fiberglass carve1 type. anyway. planking to crack.relative be worked by the beginmar.

plug 1)~ made. and doul~k t tlis for 20. stripped. 11o1 they will he sot’tent~d by the resin. t IIt.21. and the wood be hauled In the case of a plywood weeks before be used ovet covering. has catered of the home fiberglass they c’arry a large ot p0)vestc. .h as ~J(~lv~)ro~)vl~~rit~ . commerciallv fiberglass hulls are usualiy made from a female ‘l‘his rc-quit-es that a wooden male IJuiltIing iI wooctI~11 hull.s. New Kochelle. cover. using stripplanking hull shape. For many and years I~rlentler lntiusrries.RI:II. foot for IO-ounce to cover old wood. the heads and smoothing for in- out of the water the old finish Epoxy resin is of fastenings. wood OI old. The mold stiffness is thus increased e-reatlv bv soreadine the rrlass skins aoart. figurr To give you an idea of the weight of 2. the core . and put under must cltxaned off the wood.I mixture produce lhe consistency USC’. stronglv New because ho011 attc*r to of v-bottomed a minimum with boats that sides of plywood. fahric.l‘htb shiny. .ovt-ring New \I’ork I OH01 (~iltalo~ alho Itas instruc~tions St I-WI . decks. gouges use and the wood allowed to dry for several 1-t-commrnded for old wood. Anyone there stance. and the like.t WJO~. or makts . I’hen at-y laid up successively rigid molt1 has been made.. Covering covering when sanded Huils is also recommended in cabin work edges covered sides. must cioth. boat’ and of t*l)oxy resin of putty.4 A 7‘k. s11c.plug to will IJC reproducx~tl mat and polyesret- is applied resin stick s1r011g. cloth per square polyester want finish.plug is tlwn covered for every blemish is finished glass cloth and as desired. Rather than hold the mold’s shape.5 time-consuming wood is superior.tion Inc. but its adhesion to the joined under fiberglass Ten-ounce such as at the chines tit-al cabin such covering.I. both including added resin.I ” or so of fibrIglab% hd> brrn laid up against the plug.~nd c-poxy resins. they use a core materiai such as end-grain balsa. 1110Itl. steel. just as though you were or l~lywood..turomot~ile body must putlv. ‘l‘llr ot lIefender is 255 Main Molded Fiberglass Hulls prcduwtl . When ‘l’ht. the shell is rt-inforr-ed 011 wood anti sometimes vertically. Some builders decrease the time needed to build stiffness into the mold by using sandwic h construct ion.L material IO the Kt*Vlilr.3G E-IHER~~l. doubled is often Lil areas used to cover verby one layer of cloth and be to use. If a particular is made hull withdrawn the mold to split relv entirelv upon shell thickness to the outside with a nerwork of rough shape is such that it cannot be on the centerline. wtth %O-ounce leaks is a genuine boon than varnished. For filling which and cracks (41 her il polyester tionetl huildt~r olht-r is very fast drying .ounce who clabbles are certain the boat prt-cautions must or later for I dood job.25 ounces will sooner must be taken be dry. followed by more fiberglass. bvnt ht*tic. and the to the builder joints can be of strain of joints to feather are oitcn to prevent is to be painted rather and made invisible boats. selt*c. 11twIs and can be sanded like Cabosil propor. Taped d paint cloth. due to slower cure at room temperatures. whichever is suitable for thtand when resin and is worked the female so that mold the female to a very is made. After 1. for plywood etc. it. cabin tops.lIlII for (.ASS ND O’l‘Ilk:R lI1 ‘I. ‘l’he address ilIlt glassing IOOIS. oil IJZW fillers . All old finish hull. will not until a with glass cloth a release snloot II I‘iIlish.

1. in mind.-1SS. so that with “planking” spacing varying the weight .FIBERG1.)rmation as thcb wc$$ir lined anal tvpe of glass reinforcement.ouisiana “planking. The molds the hull open-weave method stiffener! upside sag between fiberglass is fairly down. is nt~eded for rht. such sc~hcvllll~* int. etc. IL is then ready in diameter is anything spend for Iayfrom larger actually ing up a hull.” Box 13704. the hull is laid up with fiberglass fabrics known as strand mat until the nectassary thickness hrl+ been reached.Is experience l)ut guiclancth nunlbcr is Rained. of the boar. iLfnr/rrc* Dc~. Sometimes to the mold each end so the mold resin. would tn spend P. and applying The more presumes the resin you can stay out of the sticky the hull will be made the less disiasieful up the laminates the job will he. come the and along time and and figure money C-Flex out a way to build a female 70185.. only devised a method but also invented patented con- sists of parallel rods made of fiberglass-reinforced polyester continuous roving. dinghy and waxed is added laying are repaired. hull Setkmann that without Plastics.. After the gel coat has been wovtw roving and choppt*d llow ble. The A hull strips must form construction and sometimes must be built will not alternating with bundles of by a webbing of two layers is framed with sectional Obviously the C-Flex of the with longitudinal molds the thetn. and contrasting stripes at the waterline and other accent stripes can be sprayed as well when you know what it is all about. 0. When hulls are produced glass fibers can br applied with specialized spray strong The as those laminated high g!oss finish of fiberglass on the outside cloth.-ITERIA LS material flanges.-I IV-II OTHER Hl’1.\/~I~Mnuul. When has been larger that separates removed from than 37 the the the the female for the production and any blemishes disc of wood near and makes a partial it is polished of the boat. of molded in large quantity.omposit ion of rho tiberglass hull laminate. This by laying with roller and brush. does one make Watching not available? thrrc has been applied. beam than acting in much mold the same manner as the web of an I-beam of a hull or steel. laminatc~s.tilitlg the* c. but these hulls are not as hulls or other simiiariy cortttructed parts of the boat results from first spraying a gel coat of resin on the surface of the mold. . in rhr Plans the builder should be out mav develop his of the tiberglass own ith*as about bc~athuiltling. the hull of time the builders the work mostly by hand can be rolled must side to side while working that up the fiberglass laying up and resin size. of lavers. huildt-rs having Inc. this minimizes the amount in the hull while downhand. NVW Orleans. When plug. and lay up a fiberglass do these boat things industry hull if detailed instructions are is the best way. resin and chopped equipment. cloth. let into be spaced the molds. but if this is not possiOne book. and now there are other hooks on tIrt* market writrcbn with the bt*ginnt’t. The gel coat can be of any color desired. with each “plank” being held together of Itghtweight. M. which a not to construct L. l‘h~ laminate (It*t. first artcmpt at [his type of “One-Off” Fiberglass Hulls It was inevitable tiberglass mold. a mold others ale htroks that the bible spell out the techniques. for many I years. simple.

up and about One-nff the amount the C-Flex degree fiberglass of finishing of smoothness to anyone hoarbuilders time depends desired.33 and 0. where thr laminate consists of a core between fiberglass skins. is 12’ wide. When completely hu11. the C-Flex is very strong in the direction of the foot.ltiOt~ is contiriut4 with c~onventional fitWrgliIss miltc~rials until the desired t hic. rior4fu wrlr’vi~ hy I’(.tll.-INU OTIIER III’LL M. rods.. 0.rr.c. use a technique the care taken construction frequently as sandwich struction. which bends lon<gitudinally and sideways. the C-Flex on the hottom.kness has been reach~-d.‘. either polyester or epoxy.I~SS. molrts and c. upon Seemann furnishes interested in the method.nforms rountl-l)nttomett c-ach aclditional v-bottom~~tl sheer and.djac ent width (Figure is applied to the chine and the covering the frame is continued has been to the to the centerline. and t htsti l~ttIlill.\t icvtltI~s OII(’ hiti ri. hdti :I roll ill plw cl/ (:-It1 1’1 / )r~itrg : lurrl dower.5 pounds per square conit’s in lerigtlis of 100’ and 250’ rolls.47’1:RI:Il. hull tI 1 planking is usually.S Figure (lwrrrg 5-l. struction.*<)the sheerline and secured: then 5-1). or any length to order. and Like any similar conto have a fair layinformation condetailed known 13~ the nature of its cwttstruction. is then laid over :he On the framework for a IO the hull shape with little ‘itting. . shape<. The C-FIvu. covered with the C-Flex planking it is wet out with resin.(’ ptlk\I (iT(’ cYrrc~/rlIIy /rrltt(~d C-Flex. For a “plank” is simply butted to the . This type of construction has several advantages over single-skin construction. Probably the biggest .Volr* tlttrt tlrc rrgr1rrr. It is made in two wc+ghts.38 FIRERGL.

I t.S 39 :l.itrs of san(lwic.tnipIr. that skin if a c~)rrd laminate is no worse than is often should made is be completely hull. For this core materials impact and upon clesi.1 111111) .lkt*s st& to build upside down. . Noise sometimes between equal to the single offers hulls stiftncxs weight.lt~:rlinc~ e:~nt that the hull is punctured. a material does not absorb water is desirable. more As a safeguard the inner than of it sanctwich 01 $3sanclwicll has been .l( I. and it tn. lamination Interruptions is loaded When of the laminate a complete bond between the core in the bond will hasten delamination of the to deflect there strength investigate between bond fails upon supports between and this will is a good the skins and for that the affected that laminate part of the hull. fiberglass or non-rxistcmt slmcx. core material in which case a piccc of the way it was con.(l.igurcb 5 3). in a sandwich insitiv arid thtb .tcpit difficult singIt* \kitl.ir~utnst. w.ourbc.as a:~ c~x. Figure 5-2 shows the forward end of a male mold for an X6-foot powtarboai hull.I 5atldivic. irisc~rtc*~l it the hull is to be repaired in the same ~ttu~:tc~~l. ‘I’hcs foam is then cc~vrred wit)1 the specified of the fibt*rglass Careful material sandwich weaken reason and whm workmanshi~~ the the glass skins.h than Other benefits. to ensure through the ribbands from r’nsl’dr>the thickness (l.‘III~.1 .l.made and sandwich ison ttappcns that should is wltat tht.Ibitt’ :2n11r trrar strut-tiotl ~-OIII~. foan~ (‘at1 t)t.t’l.las .h (.. the core.h construction feel is unlikely during the normal life of a boat.h of transverse section and longitudinal strips (usunllv ( allc :! r-ibbands (jr Ijattens) is needed to define the shape of the hull.ttio for a single-skin laminate damaged.It.it tic-rcbrl ilit0 t IIt* acliacc-tit unilatn. some of thcb burden the core itself.. Obviously. stiffness/weight the weight ratio. ot t.I. minimized have a cored and sweating with strength to both sandwich single-skin hull. I hts otttcr 01 lx. 11~~1~. he can reduce save weight the thickness and increase the glass skins and use a sandwic. rhc.. OIlit-IMGW-.I up wtth a thicket-. stiffness..I~H~ as for single-skin hull..t.h hull unless both skins and the core are punctured-something that ad~oc. I Ising loam (or-t. with a lightweight with options: single-skin hull and weight skin. molds . and I he void is filled I’il)c%rgl. a framework tibrt-glass repair..held in place into thta foam outsi& skin (Figurts is t-equired wit11 screws 5-a). construction fiberglass and vibration ‘I’hc interior for which framing the are notorious are also reduced.tg~~i section of thr outer skin is ground away ~i1)1-St4i\.I%(.Itl(.t’l) advantage stifter than is its favorable a single or foam. foam sheets are fitted against the mold (using a the foam pliable where necessary or using “contoured” core heat lamp to makt matc~rial instt-atI) atltl held in place with nails driven through plywood scrap “washers” until tnold tht.ig.KI.‘. I’his fact offers the designer who uses sandwich construction he calI krzp thy same thickness and weight lanlinate as for a similar and can VI. but this is in thr not so of a sandwic.igc~l skin.S!i O’I‘ttER ill ‘1. 1111lt~ t ht.tccitlt~nt irnp. particularly under Iti s1tc. bc. with with (‘on’ will ric~~l to 1)~.~I used in single-skin single-skin hull.tI)st. the single-skin hull will admit water. of or he core such as balsa of the sandwich is not much single skin. additional is hulls con.. A sandwich laminate and is significantly greater than the skin of the same number of laminations.nc~e of thtb transvetscgivt-5 11101 u.tiilzt It totlrn\s.-fTERI.gner must carefully that the available use in boat Ilulls.JS.-lI. than thicker no punctured skin. resists crumbling .ltn. latninate muc-h stiffer laminate designed ligllt hull.ln(l tt4tl thts S. for a the rt*sult of strc-tl XII .lI.I‘I~ I)uil(l .

5 (1 r(‘.40 FIBERGLASS A Nil OTIIER IiULL M. . FOAM\ // I ( i i t I i : ? / h i Figure 5-3.-l TERIALS Figure Note> 5-2. how ‘X‘ht.st*lv pouw~‘rhoclt. .spncd thrb rib- Airex-corrd. tnult’ ~101rf for on X6jiwt clo. h(l trtl.

Ridgewood.~n.L MATERIAIS /-OUTER FIBERGLASS 41 Some iiircu o!‘ the most (closed-cell by l’clrin. by Baltek Grapevine. partly %oley polyvinyl St. cell foam. h’lrgt~c~~ll (closed Cotttourkorr by American 10 Fairway Corp. New . Box 195. in balsa New Jersey I cannot still upside while construction. Thr laminate is simply hulls can also be used for molding to include a core. I 204 NoJ:~. This involves the use of a holding cradle the hull as it is overturned is completed.S. to calculate molds that Female the mold can be how many have been hulls can built for a sandwich used for additional of economics a female is justified. before is a “one-off” It is a matter mold fiberglass changed and which with Airex foam cores is shown in Figure fitted to the upside-down hull to support of the boat the hull sits in while the construction method of hull construction. Inc. popular cores are: and C. 100 perrcnt polyvinyl chloride l’oam). manufactured 07647. go into all the construction details.Jrrsey 07450.FIRERCL:lSS . core a cored you with it.r Klegrcell Court. chloride). marketed in the U.. North :ale. it is still possible C)verturning before the inner fiberglass to the laminate One method used by several builders of hulls 5-5.5 Sht2ridan ‘I’crracr. Texas manufactured 7605 1. Although be produced the aforesaid hulls. wood). the sandwich.td. 12. (end-gr. ... the production of single-skin hull. Corp. but suffice it to say that while the hull is down the nutside fiberglass skin should be smoothed to the extent desired to work downhand.1h’D OTIIER HC’1. manufacturers hull can is a trying skin is added If you wish more supply procedure because information the shell to complete on sandwich is quite limber the.

the years of steel construction as well) is that inner tom integral fuc*l and water tanks ran be built in. using larger capacities to be carried than in wooden hulls. hut (and for small craft with a saving in weight over olddisadvantage of steel is its low resistanre to corhave brought must construction about improved coatings to An botthe coatings aluminum be tcrnstantly maintained.11. . equipment. pieces very inrxit can be by electric any shape of joining welding makes it a suitabltx material fashioned riveted construction.-l 7‘1.dh’l) 07’111:R 111‘1.:I!iS . probably because it is cheaper to do this than to expend the labor needed to smooth the plating by heating and quenching. One rosion protect advantage by sea water. The worst fault the hull plating.S CARPET STR\fS f=\=e- GLA4$Ep -R’ HULL Figure 5-5.42 I~‘IHER(~I. the necessary equipment. steel against Fortunately. steel is a remarkable other desired.1. However.111:1 1. did it again and both builders would the hulls they did have metalworking experience and of these boats was the humps and hollows in they had gained experience so that if they said that not be so rough. Steel When pensive worked you stop to think when rornl~ar~*d to almost about with it. Steel is not a material for too long for the average beginner 1 can remember two good-sized auxiliary the hull for one side. corrosion. sailboats who had not built a boat before. and with ease ‘I’he relative material. metals. Rough plating of steel hulls is often disguised by skillful application of trowel cement. The roughness of the plating is caused . proper it is strong. enabling but without of steel built reflecting by people by any means.

have invented today rhan The is of importance so that steel hulls in this respect. Manv builders of steel boars have converted 10 aluminum construction with little need to change cquipmenr rsce11~ for welding. are alloys are relatively high in strcngl h and corrosion A fair amount supply of rhis meral the increasingly vessels.h as dinghies over malts molds I0 Orht-rwise. and huildrrs. It is imperative that weld areas be absolutely clean if good welds are to be made. Aluminum Alloys A few of the many satisfacror-y resistance yacht oftshore aluminum alloys.01 otht-1 nlart-ria1. construt.tion or an increase Besides ils light aluminum the carrying deadweight of achieving Iht* fitt’r (haI huitttt7h with less horsepower. it is not a nlaterial for the bt*ginnt~r.1n enrirt. .t~l. 011~ very imptlfi~~rtn~ problem area encc. notably alloy 5086 in rhe United States. weight weight.osion. Welding aluminum is quite different than welding steel.. steel is an old material. or the possilasts well but speak aluminum in speed. rhe marine paint makers have special systems for and instructions for cleaning it before coating. This can the marine departments to stray electrical ~~JtY’tWltVi. which for quite a while.un~rrtd with aluminum construction is galvanit found when be t.111svi‘rst~ tongil utlinal or ~rrircrio~i.tt. cannot over rhar of steel. operators boats either commercial Iongeviry.ll:I 7‘l~:HI:~l.lkt-s up for the fact rhar rhe wt+.tl welding I’O~I~ IIIOII-. When it the surface.KII1 ‘1.sS . hull is exposed the methods for the boat. currcrfts and etc.(u. comes IO painting coating aluminum hull rakes aluminum should the aluminum manufacturers can provide assistance.hdlf 1~-. stay in place .i‘his permits bililv long. The highest quality a lot of labor: a really smooth yacht finish on the topsiJes of a welded yacht hull requires fairing of the surface with fairing compounds. anti also occurs in anchorages. all spt~lleti OUI in the plans and specitit. ‘i‘his mortb than m.-l.VI) 1)771t~.S -IS by stresses ser up when sequence of higtler of welding strength Even though welding the plating to the frames research can be built and one plate 10 another. bv stretch-ft.2 large part or . be consulred Welding ant1 the preparation of the finished surface are also areas that require care. for doing can so are preferably for help. technicians lighter new alloys ever before. for no1 onlv tlot~s IlIt* atunlinunl ilst4t CXN more pt. dissimilar metals in sut. is consumed by large fleet of and can be satisfactorilv oil field crew transports of more welded. but bv far rhe most of it is used IO build platform reduce terms. These for.c)rl. of pleasure are using Ijuilti for irs anlicif)a’t-d Several . hull rutitlcrs.r INNI~~I than ~~t. Atulliinulil Lramiiig t~c~nstrut~tion 0~1 is used ant1 c.ovt*red wirh than plaling sleel COIIalso in- is nio~t.rming p&t* of 01it- and runabouts of aluminum are made I)rotluct.l.t.l~~lHt:K~~I. or have a line of 5ut. regular i1S in t~1a~5 in atltlition IO Ihost.. rl~e .ations of the aluminum If you lack this information.11 fitrings the aluminum and prt)pt-llers.1.boalhuilding.sl)t*nsivt- steel t~~ns~~ut~~ion. If you are in need of information about welding. alloys of aluminum speed In general .s.$lt of aluminum volved in a particular project will always be less than the weight of the steel required. ‘I‘his oct’urs as sea cocks. but like steel. manufacturers hetwern the aluminum shafts.rluniinuni only in dluminum Small of craft sheets ~TWial.

resin combination the standard mat ‘woven roving’resin not used throughout material.1. and that under for hulls It is understood the basically magazine there that rage. five times fiberglass-reinforced in fiber Graphite. and development in form. that the powerboat manufacturer referred to earlier was able to one considers . the use of such exotic materials will certainly lead to an increase in cost. hardly under out plans In the years actively earlier rngaged an issue of a boating construction.YI) C)7/lt-X III . pound for was as much as seven times more expensive combination. I. F2sotic. material. then there with is a wave of enthusiasm consists cement applied abdL-t cl=nstructing of concrete the steelwork that great heavy weight hulls of ferrocereinforcing rod inis completely care must be of the con- the system of a framework to it so that and not exposed makes it impractical 1967-68 turning to the atmosphere. to eliminate voids in the cement. wltirh the standard boatbuilding glass fabrics Kevlar fabric. such exotic there are other spccializrd factors made of both these materials come with aircraft. is that When a hull... Panels fil~t~rglass skins. an indication the method is not as easy as the enthusiasts had broadcast.J-1 t~‘Il~t*~t~(~I.lppear hulls were a number for the then current to be any mention at all. are made tllan is steel. plastic. light weight consideration If they arr to be used properly. I~latt~riiIlS rquirc- For example.1. plywood tion of rc~lat~vc*ly stiff marine to the bulkheads as a bulkhead i.‘-Iss . and did not carry some menof designers does A decade later there tion of ferrocement not .. two other or decorative staving surpassed tnatt-rials that art’ stiffer and much lighter. t ht4r high builder cost. stiffer for its weight is another lightwri<ght their plywood made material bulkheads of vertical has been havca also found way into bulkheads.41.-t 7‘1:K1. to make a general but only as a substitute laminate for laminate designs differ from boat to boat. N. it is hard exotic fibers. Although c. It is three S glass. the in:roducstep forward by at least in strength panels. is muctl stronger and tram I)upont aramid tihers. then. About all that can i. 30 feet in length. which is twice as than stt-cl. Exotic Hull Materials a number than of matt+als and developed recently that have higher strengths ‘Tht-re have been and this lower art’s weights is bound fishing wood to continup. with wirr. One type of core is endmaterial where Another called Nomex. is a these is of a DuPont matet ials can work out well. and thry are used in large transport grain balsa and the other is a honeycomb which is used in helicopter bladrs.. was a giant wood Years ago.ike~visr. a of high-speed powerboats who uses this material once told me that.~ Ferrocement Every now and ment.-I. As for Kevlar. and techniques knowledge. esperially to consider. terlaced embedded taken struction Essentially. has been used in super- liglttw4ght strong rods and in highly stiffer E: glass from timc*s stronger and strtmssc4 areas of racing sailboat hulls. a Kevlar.onsidrration. S glass is twice as expensive as E glass. Since these exotic materials for strength-contributing about the cost of building comment hulls than are using pound. materials as compared Now. high.i! said.strrngth as the common matlt-.

-I ‘4 7’EKI.21.:1. changing. cost is.XG L.I. .S ND 0 7-tIl~.ii1I1!l. those the extra however. and there are always so new materials them to who will try to apply boatbuilding. .S. in most will cases.!.IRk.J1. The state of the art is constantly developed. always 45 not be warranted.s effect a weight saving of only 5 to 7 percent.

the old-time iron nails in molten which zinc. Inc. almost all fastenings to a and in task importance builder. of special-purpose of fasteners: is what to say about the zinc coating . are most regarding fastenings likely of today of mild the old timers the fastenings steel. by hot dipping. to coating Nail. fastenings whereas are not the galvanized galvanized proved just the opposite. to offer contradictory evidence it doesn’t. The available galvanized today of yesterday. When bared of their protective nearly as much resistance to corrosion and trners that teners Here rods cannot have were always coated today are zinc coated be compared no place Independent coatings. Thus the innumerable as a primary according should holding I‘hcy bc sized maximum to their always power. that Although the above would appear clurability simply used of galvanized iron. fasfashas results in a relatively thin coating by hot dipping by electroplating. contribution be driven seaworthy drilled fastenings thought by the designer holes of proper size to ensure Galvanized The builder iron Iron of a wooden hull boat can save a considerable Old timers hand. this point.Chapter ___- 6 &mpared modern holding tight. All to be lightly should boats of the old days. fastenings of mild steel do not have as do iron ones. built. I examined about 10 years after it was built.. have passed there and indeed amount down of money that by using galgalvanizedthat seem beached the vanized fastened to prove fastenings. located carefully the with with craft parts the heavily constructed assume extra and wooden can be considered together boat. a manufacturer In fact these in a boat. On the other are hulls here and there a wrecked boat. the word shrimp boats will last a lifetime. fastenings. In the first place. Many “galvanized” “zinc-plated” nails. Second.

are dipped. to be refastened to do so is a good frequently wood clogged at the end were inferior galvanized of the fastening. Tumbler.” Galvanized planking without frames separate throughout going and boat on the surface. nails and through lighter When is clinched because sign with over on the it is bent. In the case of the smaller-sized zinc when reducing around the hole. corrosion that from the nail where the length exposing Renailing Many boats have had progressed with. zinc coatings wood very thin and galvanized should frame. should are mechanical alloys are not particularly Brass is all right be taken it is easy to break hull. for the manufacture as 30 percent. This is called dezinc in exzinc into brass hard too. of such nail been goes used galvanizmore than may be contaminated ing e. woods. A frame the be at least With inside. boat.. whose surface with iron right hot-galvanized produce nails is. process from which the coating Electra and mechanical for appearance often the nails metal. of screws and bolts an electrolyte copper zincifiration so reduced and is very high in zinc content. in strength There sucl~ as sea water. The being high driven can he expected strong: alloy is used that contains off screws cess 01 16 percent. pure zinc. poor the bare if a nail is to be buried through the zinc are used. are the the job. and of major importance. and Even if he has had sotne good experiences in the past with galvanized builder is advised to be sure of his fastenings by using a better metal for fastenings that are to be constantly in water. is an expensive the fastenings hot-dipped they holding or inadequate wood screws.. Although more expensive initially.tch generally for performance. of a bronze-fastened and galvanized steel fastenings resale to be remembered is the higher . has turned out each to bc generally refer a poorly understood adjective.s s ‘* ‘Galvanized’ best hot-tumbler. power. serving have screws to fasten in it the will to frames. 17 The type is a hot-dip. but care not to use it in thr Silicon For Bronze structural called wrung fastening Everdur. for practical to a tumbler purposes. started 1 t/2 ” thick frames. The copper ings are seldom with the brasses to corrosion from sea water. that the fastening is practically when a copper disadvantages. the best fastenings are cheap in the end. but the use of brass for fastenings Brass as furnished perhaps as much exposed be advised too strongly. and the necessity to start the threads they tear fastenings.l’Ih’ . when driven. the zinc ieaves the alloy. it is highly use of this metal removes the risks involved and is well worth value the difference in cost. for the fastening such as joinerwork. Brass If a decision alternative water cannot is made would against against using galvanized fastenings it might seem that a good to salt and in be brass fastenings.-I 7‘E. of interior parts What remains is a spongy useless.‘.I. off when in a boat being it is hard to beat and a copper is so strong silicon that alloy fasten- every sometimes resistant A point It is about 96 percent driven.

systtm propeller is also used for only when wire ropts rigging used in a boat. or galvanic action.4s TENINGS ‘L nickel copper but alloy It can ranks be used above and silicon made bronze from with in silicon Monel strength bronze IS often propellers saving and too high without corrosion for most fear of Monel This people much tact. freedom Without water. the cost of screws action between shaft struts and stiffness fastening (See Threaded will be mentioned bolts it is much to afford. vou know Mixture thr and rigging As with many it is brst to Iravtb experimentation application has been it yourself of Metals used term “electrolysis” of metals of metals is blamed is applied on electrolysis. Othc*r than as a fastener hll p“‘s. Stainless ‘I‘here merals vast galvanic assutanct~. unless used alloy It IS recommended by someone and boat. by the average boatman to the corrosion usually the of the other The loosely and erosion destruction by electrolysis. For instance. used in hulls with light lapstrake planking. and of Monel Nails. resistance in the deck same hardware.4 corrosion thtn USC’ stainless of f’asrening alloy window steel should aluminum above frames. for hull fastenings materials being you are guided who has of corrosion be limit. parts. galvanic propeller in conjunction Monel purposes Monel shafts make the metals. to others. to applications that these from such It is and not he considered cxpt-rirnce action metal ste&. If you can find one of these material. of thr high-qualitv yacht builders . fittings such fasrt-tiings. due to lack of knowledge . used more hardware. stainless sailhoat and on spars. but because of its scftness it is suitable mostly for fastenings in the form of flat-head nails that are used as rivets or for clout nails sometimes. hardware. S~I‘VLYS st’curC%stainless sterl half-oval to Il~ads.48 F. he might steel is being specialty shafting. and it very satisfactory of the labor has many as a metal for Anchorfast uses in boat for some because Copper Copper has excellent corrosion resistance. the OIW known as Typo but finding fastenings 316 seems to be the most corrosion-resistant in a of this alloy may take some doing. for it avoids of the alloy parts. driving struction resistance. the bt-st aluminum stainless arc Steel many alloys and with for under satisfactory other 1his common proof heading. used for fastenin direct it offers conboat over con- ing bronze have bronze The strength a popular screws. Of the many salt atmosphere. cavitation. proven. stanchions. Stainless materials using and tlotahly engine cxhausr drrk stanchions that might Ijulpits. nails. special ordered Type 316 wood rub strips to minimize be happy “bleeding” to reduce of the screw his stock of more for and be builders. in the past.) further. One or two have.

but where a mixture notably silicon bronze for all of the is the most practical. Cupro-nickttl Cupro-nickel Coml)osition Composition Incclnel Mont. fastenings in a wooden hull. (#?A (885.. 39”:. zinc. 3’!{. rinc) 35% Lint) brass brass (act ivr ) Yrllow Aluminum Red brass (H5S. copper. I I/? ?A Icad) G bronzts M bronze copper. silicon. 6061 wrought iron Galvanized Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Mild steel Wrought iron Cast iron 1% H Stainless 18-H Stainltsss Lead ‘I‘in MangantbscNaval I ncm1~4 steel ‘I’ypc 304 (active) sttst-I ‘I’ypt* 316. molybdenum (passive) It might he possible to use only one metal. SU’. follow: in the galvanic series in sea water of some metals Anodic Zinc or Least Noble steel or galvanized alloy alloy alloy alloy 5456 5086 5052 356. coppt*r.‘/0 zinc. copper. copper.. Copper Silicon hronrr (904h (704’. 10% tin) 61~2“4. to the cathode. fitting or fastening galvanic positions corroof the Sea water will flow from intensity will be attacked The termed relative in the galvanic posi:ions or masses of the metals.F.Sl‘EIL’INC. 10% 30% nickel) nickel) 2’.1 IX-R Stainless 18-H Stainless Titanium Cathodic or Most Nobte copper. (passive) steel Type steel Type 304 (passive) 316. (65% bronze IS?:.4.S 49 causes. that is. Except for discussing is an electrolyte in contact :he anode gradually of the attack series and galvanic that action will between an fastenings. electric the subject to flow is beyond between the scope dissimilar currtznt sion. zinc) copper. molybdenum (active hronzt~ (60’+{. the anndic destroyed will vary also upon by what is properly to the areas according the relative When this occurs. the metals used . cause current metals when and or close proximity to each other. metals The of :his work. SS’.

and they Monet. Belts These madr are ordinary machine al-r made in silicon bronze.. Many boats with’bronze hull fastenings have been built with cast iron ballast keels. s. the same material are used under the head and nut. a drift They are made from a piece of rod and driven like a large nail. The the other has a washer or clinch ring under one end is pointed slightly by hammering. The passivated passivation. paint The outside of the iron should have several coats of a to act as a nonmetailic barricsr to galvanic action. Note that stainless understand formation ished. and then the iron was attacked until the bearing finally came loose. screwing and pruning over the end of the rod to prevent the head nut from turning. . etc. and galvanized iron. it is best tc treat such metals as if the metal’s corrosion resistance will be uncertain. they were not passivated. the corrosion and it is best to avoid the use of these metals for underwater fastenbut the treatment has been destroyed or altered. If the surface has been treated. and shape. Longer bolts can be homeon one end. but I have seen Monet fasteners in throw-away work rathrr than and screws. a nut as a head by t breading a pirre of rod on both ends.. ings. close together in the galvanic scale. The dissimilar of setting up o first the zinc disap. after is more reduced. l know of a case wh: re a bronze iron tag screws a perfect example metals were in contact in sea water. many backbone parts and have to be tightener. that will never be part of a boat. bracing. the surface of the steel is passivated thoroughly Without by chemical and the steel has been resistant degreased. Screw hoits are used tor fastening bolts of being able the advantage over drift bolts with square or hexagonal heads and nuts. usually for a flat head.eared. They sometimes the end of the rod is heated and forged to Drift Bolts be very long and a through-bolt is not practical or necessary. and are reasonably Monet.ih~ss to say. only the Icast cxpc*nsive ritrt~i fastcsners should be used in the construction of molds.4 -**hen the wood shrinks. to hasten has been resistance of one As I the finis should silicon Ail of these metals are used to manufacture in two different treatmen: working and sort or another. fasteners positions.50 FASTENINGS be ones that bronze. the iron keel. surface severely and of oxide. steels are shown This can be donr to corrosion. When bolts must bolt can be used. in the series above after ail machining cleaned it. hoatyarti It may sc-em ridi?ulous enipioyec3 use bronze for stcsrI nails and anti-corrosivtb to even mention something like this. head their own tong bolts. but in this case I he comparatively huge mass of anodic material. would show the keel cdn be of hot-dipped signs of attack slowly due to its bulk. visit tht* stockroom Erlww ____. stern bearing casting was fastened with galvanized maivanic corrosion... N~~t-. The bolts securing galvanized vinyl-lvpc wrought iron or Monrl. . Drilled holes should tliamt~ter as the bolt. Washers of be the same Welt-equipped professional huiiders have a die. jigs. such as copper. plugs for fiberglass parts.

I’l\is is not possible to manufacture. lIrij/ hoit.1) which locks the parts together vanizeii Carriage Thesr and it on.c~o. Be careful the hole must be less than of the bolt for a tight. or she!ves. by roiling of these bolts possibly they rolled inis be Fastenings tnust stead smatter tight but used. a driving diameters head shorter formed than by riveting the end of the rod. be tight of cutting i~oirs. . it is best to drive them at an angle (Figure 6. if the bolts have what are catted unthreaded thrtwds. silicon bronze. . this is sridc~m the outside of the threads.4 S TENiNGS 51 Figure 6-1.10 lock /ilc. /)nrt. and are made in si!teon b:onze. They are available from iron. when structure. and are also produced of Monel for fastening planking stock made of galvanized and stainless steel. Bolts of this type are common are cheaper than in diameter in the hole. Threads are used to hold parts together in their and keep them today because The from threads moving: formed shank therefore. driving not to henci the bolt above the timber when driving it. When a pair or a series of drift bolts is caiiecl for. Drift bolts are made of bronze or gai- are screw under the head that keeps the bolt from turning in tnany jrarts of the structure such as to fasten dnd frames and iron. stringers to clamps.F. and should The hole is made about two the bolt to be driven the diameter have smooth sides. brass. Carriage bolts are used frames to floors. not be so roiled-thread Wood Screws Fiat-head screws are used extensively in wooden boatbuilding and decking and many other parts.\ (II’V tlrl’z~rl (11 (III (III~IP /‘IIorrlvr. The size of fit.q. deck and beams stainless to (‘lamps steel.rc~t/t~~r. so the shargk cannot the fastening Bolts of this type are ail right the case in the hull is in tension bolts should only. Bolts bolts with a round button head and a square neck on the shank just enables thrtn to resist strains. galvanized Bolt in the wood.

30 ‘%A’ do.&\a. (Such Indeed. I8 70 I’ 2 $f do. bronze nails are available must bc made they usually nail of the same length.zo OrJE . the gauge greater planking is meant tion built The preciable Anchorfast of any one of the screws nails and Stronghoid fastenings. 37 %s” 743” I.2613” do. I4 2 &” do. plans.n-” ““‘““‘h *h-m ~nm past :hei: driven planked through boat. 2” . for hulls with an ordinary boat Unlike common wilt be obvious. 10 3” tJo. from sprtngtng in a for!. The a screw can be used and if you compare accompanying 6-2. Monet in heavy gauges suitable for to order. the boat nails. the the hull is being in place.52 F/l S TENI NC3 FOR I” $fc. but to pre~en: direction seams when function of fastenings is not to keep . but the table service.X.lo. REDUCED HAeDv\/ooP GAUGE FOR DECti1t&3 6-2.. fastenings. hole When by a gauge 6-2 to be on the heavy side. L.2lG7 .242” . “l*rnrL.. Figure work resisting of nails is thicker is a strong for a given table. W-8 9 . for a screw rule the screw’s A general to follow for determining the lead hole size is 90 per- . shows the screw sizes have been accepted screw thickness but that over the years for planking and decking. one. I 13/4” I2 hlo. This because a thin Here the area of the wood puts more for using wood to screws in- a thick fastening argument length.-and-aft of leaking the most important otf.l. is the cause against in a conventionally job of hu!i fastenings the fastenings than stresses than is to hold the parts is very important. withdrawal resistance of screws used as plank fastenings theoretically the planks neighbors working primary that bears stead that that not too critical. The Some wilt consider sizes may be reduced for sheltered sizes specified.. however. and other boats of tight construcby the fastening power to an ap- to rigorous building affects or so for powerboats from size of a drilled extent. such as ocean be guided holding crttising. that screws with sharp. 13 ‘Jo. 4 s/a” 3/dIt 1g ’ MAYBE -12 FOR Figure Tests powc. I& I Y4” ’ 7/6A” do.320” 9/s” %L /-lo. thin threads develop the greatest holding is have shown in tension.) seas. 25 ‘/2 ” l/z’( do. However. the screw sizes in Figure wilt be subiect waters. as planking a nail.29d” . IG3” * 176” “hd p.

especially the driving labor. and lightly glue. tapped or varnish home of counter-bore for wood parallel The plugs is to have a natural of the planking. set in the counterbored possibly If hit too hard. waterproof finish). the surface. scraps for the in thick or oak. For many Marine a plug when driving into hardwood. This acts as In thr best yacht (Figure in thinner practice planks the screw holes in 5/H”planking are set slightly invisible but modern teak. and over are counterbored while the heads the heads “Wood cutter puttied lead or supyears white Dough” hardware with wood as the planking.<PLUG (SEE TEwl-) FZOUbJD HEAr> SCREW F 1 FLAT HEAD SClBti AUP LAG OVAL Id PLAWX HEAP SCREd SCIZEW FVAME at= MOC’ERhJ PROFbR-rIO~S Figure 6-3. The lead hole drill sizes in the table are a guide for fastening for hardwood. because frame. you should drill through the plank with a body drill that is slightly under the actual screw diameter. It is recommended that either laundry soap or beeswax be rubbed a lubricant and plugged of screws putty pliers press The thickness. of the is sunk in samples but it is best to check Most builders sizes by driving a few screws wood to be used. cent of the diameter the threaded at the root of the screw part of a screw the table used threads in hardwoods planking and 70 percent into in the softwoods. If splitting does occur. use just one drill for screws in mahogany or white cedar planking and oak frames and rhib is satisfactory if the plank does not split in way of the unthreaded screw shank. the plug may be crushed and it may swell later. The sizes for these are also shown in Figure 6-2. hull. recommended with mer. be about one-third of the plank (the latter holes breaking with a hampaint. buy one of the many auto body putty or you can should for a drill of wood. plugs below 6-3) with plugs of the same the fasicnings polyester your on the finished material compounds was used for this purpose. . such as oak. the grain over to make in the threads and rt-duces of screws. own from are dipped that to that like Duratite is better. sell plugs and make depth of mahogany.

screws are started the lend hole. The two shown in Figure 6-4 are suitable for drilling part and countersinking then should for flat-head below Warwick.) ‘I’he latter is used most tm-ause unnt’twwry to c. Ordinarily these items are difficult to find locally. In most cases the screw Inc. 7 Cypress countersinks.ountcrsink for a flat-head screw that is to have a plug over it. wootl~ so the lrit shown years on the left is best. film or at least then cut presenting flush an unsightly with the surface Rather. This can be overcome it or by size. be driven Street. and taper-point industry. a day or so to Do not try to run of and have the plugs a sharp flush off the plug with one cut of the chisel. 02HHH. take light cuts to determine of the plank the grain: then you will not chip off the plug to start all ovt’r again. the screw show and for securing as steering screws are used repeated con- are removed located washers to time other In these places holes do not become oval-head with finishing too worn from steel screws labelled 18-8 have become easily available in the standard . rigging fastenings tangs must to such to wooden hole. for exsince fastening W. with Give the bond chisel. crowded where the holes where planking wid:h strakes are narrow. look. a hole for the shank. round-head for securing where screws are used in boats. lrv the c~outttcrsink by counterboring can below the surface for the plug with a bit and then boring with separate that patented bits or with bits that comdrill the lead hole followed that drill the lead it is par- be done and arc patented head countersinks ccmnterbores followed by the hole for the plug. Holes tot. Fuller. will permit the plank enough is least. counterbores.lht~ opt7ations.L..51 F:l S7‘I*:l~VIN(. (See Figure 6-3.. plug cutters. has been supplying drills to the hoarbuilding l‘hcre ample. hy carefully the gauge staggering if the width of the frame of the screw just to use a plug of the next smaller Hardware stores stock several types of wood screw pilot bits made for use in $!t 0 electric hand drills and made for screws up to about 2” Number 12. For IIMII~ of the screw. Stainless they are the logical of which are only used that items arc only a few places where the thin metal a tang is made from behind so that time will not permit for access Oval-head gear in light joinerwork joinerwork. screws. masts. l‘hesr operations l‘htw for the screw hint. screws panels and use.s Figure 6-4 the paint harden. Plugs ticularlv either reducing can near sorncrimcs the strakrs’ become ends. the surface Rhode drilling finishing of the Island first a lead hole for the threaded with a countersink. a countersunk things but.

round. can threads diarnt~tcr nlatlt* in be turned Periodic can wear in the wood lost. or practical. experience are basically are threaded for bearing therefore they should type screws be considered but I am reluctant Stainless sheet-metal for the entire loads.-lS7‘F. then the up with an iron while a copper burr is driven over the point of fit over the The burr is be backed the nail. where be drilled laps to one another in lapstrake are light construction. Hanger Rolts having the upper for fastening or head propeller end of the shank shaft stuffing threatled for a nut. A burr is simply a washer and it is important that it be a driving . ma& IIanger of brass lrolts are turned anti silicon in witlt a wrench applied either to a nut run down They to the end of the threads or to two nuts bronrc*. The to frames the planking hole for the nail shouid as small as possible it is being dt-iven. are also easy to find. which is nothing but a length of steel rod with a hole in the end slightly larger than the diameter of the nail. It is possible that until these will be for fastenThese they than 1 have greater sold for less than ing joinerwork. With nippers. brass. wood power of the screw head that the I. a wrench. silicon and oval head bronze screws. ‘I’hese are ldg screws ‘I‘hev art‘ used principally boxes and stern ings and for holding tlown engines to beds. Bv bat king off the hanger holt nut. fasteners length to use them steel “tapping” but can of the shank. the riveting with many Again with the head of the nail backed up with the iron. for the length and silicon of the unthreaded be sized the same as for a regular bronze.5 figurations of flat.~I.ia t~‘. stringers planking They are almost for fastening to floors. head must without it being so small that the parts split or the nail bends while Drive the nail all the way in to draw the parts together. through-bolts until the holding are large wood screws with a square tightening of a lag screw is gradually shank screw. are usually Copper Copper used both planking Wire nails Nails are made exclusively and in the form as rivets frames of common wire frames nails and with flat heads. to frames.ag screws. wood screws. driven up against the wood with a set. do light blows with the peen end of a machinist’s Heavy . below the waterline with them. bear. Normally rather be used in fiberglass so they are best in tension Lag Screws sometimes in with callecl lag bolts. in size. hammer.iail or else it will dance all over the place when the rivet is being formed. parts. these fat. lot krd together on the threads.S 5.v~. therefore and the hole are lags are only used where for the thread should are not possible A hole of the same Lag screws as the lag screw is bored ~galvariiztd it-on. cut off the point of the nail so that a length equal to one to one and a half times the diameter of the nail is left for riveting.repair or rt~plactmenr without disturbing the screw in the parts mav ire rtmoved wood.

Wood Nails are also thinner See Figure Screws. Screws should be used the size of the frame will permit them to be completely than screws for the same wire job. A bent blows rivet form tends to straighten and under draw stress. nails. 134” 200 Figure 6-5. loose fastening.4 IL ~IZTE~ . a point discussed under 6-5 for sizes of copper . the nail inside the wood. in a weak. Light the head the wood Copper rivets are excellent for fastening planking when sunk. for light work but are rather soft. roq” . 56 E.‘I.4S7XNINC5 1 r\lO@-FERFZous bi . blows will bend resulting together.

entirely To prevent A nail the must the frame. point. be made with the grain. fastenings have project and not too much button life can be exchiselthe will are before. 31 percent more than a clinched boat nail. the chisel the nail are buried or the zinc coating. and figures show that some yards have reduced their planking labor by . Galvanized As mentioned prcred shank pointed and nail clinch used from Boat Nails rhesc nails are cheap are forged.gure 6-6. Some boatbuilders have used these nails for their one planking. Threaded A relatively wedges Nails new type of fastening the grooves the shank for a boat is a nail with a unique shape the wood fibers (See Figure 6-6.u Al MOhlEL ANCHORFAST NAIL tztf2zY ‘?. quarter. nails are driven so that the points across ‘/j H to :!i” through splitting of acceptable Blunt-pointed frame. As these nails are avail ble in non-ferrous material. within of either Whether be driven or not below cut- the holes are countcrbored the surface ting of the planking the coating for plugs. Thr a peculiar about head. that grip on the shank into countless It is claimed minute to resist withdrawal. that AS it the nail is driven.I0 Poltrr -2 &HIsEL POINT GAL’s! BOAT NAIL BLUNT PItiT GAL\/ BOA-I. takes 65 percent more force to pull this threaded nail than an unclinched boat nail. and 3 percent more galvanized than a wood screw.) annular thread. the objection to nails because of corrosion has been overcome.hIAlL Fi. the grain. rectangular the frames quality nails and cithrr are clinched is driven without in heavier with a blunt against cracking frames or a chisel the frame edge either and In frames up to about 1 t/i R thick. rhcm. the heads type nail must with a nail set and an attempt a set shaped to prevent of zinc by using to fit over the entire head of the natl.

Pilot holes a!.. The pilot hole size recommended is 50-70 percent of the nail diameter. are quite Tests a few kinds by the people of threzded that make The when nails on the market. is used only nails of other that are stiffer the threaded of Monel. choice be limited bronze. the silicon to bending For fastening planking.58 I. made them be identified by an anchor materials second than also makes The Monel and calls them Stronghold. but if Monel of silicon more resis- is not used bronze. of the nail. rolled tional chorfast drpendent 6-i’. nails should be the same diameter as the screws they replace. nails including and Independent is owned are made on the head to those making by the some made Nail Inc. form nails. AnIn- have shown Massachusetts Co. . depending upon the hardness of the wood. and about 80 percent of the nail length. tant it is recommended nails when driven. and can the importance 02324. of the thread Anchorfast name Anchorfast stamped one of the best is Interna- on the nail Nickel nails Bridgewater. or else more of them should be used. recommended by the manufacturer should be drilled for all but the smallest sizes..4 SI‘ENINGS Figure There abroad.

of standard nail and screw gauges as a guide Figure 6-8 nail sizes for various sizes. and decking are tabulated. apply be used with discretion. case.FASTENINGS 59 F&we 6-8. of course. as they do not necessarily . must for those wishing types of planking to substitute nails for screws. In Figure nails usually 6-5 are shown found the sizes of Monel Anchorfast Figure and Stronghold S-7 is a comparison silicon bronze and in These to every in the stocks of distributors.

AS rhe nail is driven is held against is flush longer the hook and This outside completes with the wood. CIt~rr~~Irirrg 11 c t~f)/o~r clr~trt IIC. work ltw lo thin. a clcnc-hrd through. flat frames such as seen in canoes. are used only held against the point to know liails ensure [he inside where a good bond. are glued When rogether and the ttr-ive the nails against the iron a heavy the layers of planking by a helper.ichetl at a fast rate. earlier is about for riveting to enter copper is turned thpractice be compared point over by holding driving arl iron against the wood the the how the nail until to determine process plank- ‘l‘he point primary ing and rivet nails. and of double In the case of the latter. ‘l‘hcst* can t-arlier. are used as a wire of the nail where is flush wirh the wood.tgonal ICI struction for fastening ing the laps of clinker the layers nails iron erly. Iw there are two othtxr copper a pIact coppt. ” in thit.II the copper nails that wire nails have ust (1 ds rivers. the point and forming a snug hole as described the point When the man all takes a hook. used with hardwoods. of rhe nail without than is turned adhesives. rhe wood but clout nails fasreners ‘l‘his works all right in the laps of softwood nail. Figure and some trials of the clenching of the trail should to rhe thickness of the parts beand the ing fastened 6-Y shows the elements . “clour” as mentioned nail. ‘l‘he most common of thcsc used in light con- is rlie squart-cuI planking planking di. and for “quilt” fastening planking between frames. the length together. but once the routine when whrn the next will be driven. of the planking turns 90 degrees nail some builders is held propIt takes teamis established.S Figure Unusual Otller unusual than nails Nail Fasteners 6-9.STEKIh'(. iron head much with softwoocl rcliahlr franles first drill it into like those of canoes.60 FA .kness.1 in boatbui!cting. is more For clench-nailing. back into art’ c~lf:. for fastenup to about 1.

chrome-plated guns. 7‘rtrfilt~orrfrl \i/tiilrt \hi. then. through tap drills. pieces pensive for many applied other of wood when and oval heads. Figure will he times are made with flat... round. llq”) Lot-lb 61 3/4% (by I + 2. and for screws bronze. ultimate they can he of inex- positioning or Monel musl or other The such jobs. ::P. 1aminatir. Road. ‘l’hc heads planking. ‘I’rtmonr is also a tiistril)utor for ~rirditi0Ilal square sllaf>t* and tlishetl power of a square “roves” which have the same C‘UI copper nail is a great deal more Elm Street. Machine screws are bolts and are non-corrosive for light work. hc countt~rsunk into the 111~ hutking be suitably Miscellaneous Fasteners tyl)es ot fasrencrs that have some uses in hoat construction when materials.1.4 . funcrion traditional use of square nails i\ as rivets.10 should shaped./YlNGS s-k?xr2” LorcrG 2. Usual sizes arr from Numbt-r 6 (a fat 5/n”) up 6. As with copper wire nail rivets. If the staples are to be removed steel. Cannan Wareham. Thert~ are ‘1 few other I hey useful i1IY made of prol)t-r as through-fastt.04X49.” a round The wirr nail.11 is a rahle showing when vou will find and in brass. Maim. ~hrrefore of nails shown iron in Figure must 6. colnvillt~.S7‘f-. staple that and I have later. for when the dished side is toward the wood. hole sizes for clearance this very handy. Machine brass. sion 111~rivt. can he used IO hold thin woven materials. and stainless sterl. 21 Kl.7 hh ml* thick ‘/4” -KJ 3v (by ‘I49 3 +icK Figure C-10. LinI head holding but the nails with a distinctive as our “burrs.. ir serves 10 ten‘I’he di:hetl rove is unique. Staples.g. t-tc. with hand.F.trk Ooml rrtlr%S nail lengths available from ‘I‘remonl Nail Co. a snug hole should be drilled and ht~ading should he done with light blows of the peen hammer. elecrri.I) boat than Massat~husc~~~s 0257 1 antI 1)uck ~l‘rap Woodworking. bronze or air-operated fiberglass be used.2-4.ners 1 1 ” in diametrr. otherwise .

.20 32 t&u2 ‘14” 5hkl if 1 .3125 -375 7 %3” I 11 I2 Figure G-1 1. the surface of fir plywood. F do2(/64” 2 0 u ’ yzff 250 .ting remained a method of fastening used only by professional the edges and many UNLX!L? HEY PtJD D UNDiS AU 5)QUARE IdeAD MACHINE BOLT (HEY! HEAd MACHIClE l3OL-r (FLAT HtAC’) 04? WAE.62 F/l S-I’ENINGS BODY $ -I-A9 DIAM. Bolts in corn-6ouI - .” seen is a rather with staples an air have gun.500 16 13 QR 5/1df 23/64’ ‘3/g. Driven been ttlc’ staple head will sink below used to fasten plywood decking otht1-r similar plywood parts. long Monel wire staple with coated legs that defy withdrawal. r&i DRILL-5 sCfEb&T -M?EAD~ pf3z INCH 72 @R USa ~TYWDARP 4 @oLTS “‘ZEtTAf DlzlLL MACHINE SIZE tb. 6 . For many years rivc.ry3 b40.Uf3-E HANr3EE -LT CLINCH Figure 6-12. 111 Iv usd 011 huilrting. These that is glued to beams and around Stapling is the fastest method of securing parts and is quite satisfactory when used in conjunction with an adhesive. 30 do.a6 1 32 20 10 I &I. i3 I Jo.

allov.estensivcly is in securing the deck. because hole and srcur-cd from the samt d~~ck tha: The latter side without fiberglass is usually employed a molded and rub rail. However.I’his kind of fastening is a one-man job. silicon fittings Although grt it. galvanized with stainless steel or Monel.4SI‘E:NINGS 63 Figure 6-13. fasten bron7r Fastening ‘1’0 avoid bearings. are some of the best fasteners.F.. hull. parts.ISYSfor clcctrical switc. and generally for fastening thin Their use should be limited to above the say an assemblv having a total thickness such as aluminum of no greater than “h “. deck.I drilletl application together f’op rivets arc. alloy C. ‘l‘ht~ fmrut~ o/ II /into nusiliu. will find that pop rivets make the job go a lot easier and faster.trctlirg /At*u. untlc7water shaft f)arts such struts with as shaft silicon logs. used either alonr or in conjunction it must with mechanic-al that fasteners. Those who make their own metal enclosures. serted back-up.~o/ bolts mt’n- but due to the invention of “pop” rivets.need boatbuilding. thfh yclt~ht. it is not easy to find. On rudderposts. . seacocks. you should use ‘Type 316 stainless you can Adhesives Adhesives. and aluminum alloy fittings with stainless steel when steel.rated riveters. minor riveting rivets jobs can handfor any A rivet alloy the now be done by opc. Metal galvanic Fittings corrosion.w. and propeller fasten stainless steel trim and hardware with stainless steel. Marinium bronze. bronztb fittings with fittings with hot -dipped galvanized fastenings. stern bronze. be remembered an adhesive is not a cure-all . in production and pop rivets are intht. fi:s <ii’er the hull. illu.y Iiorltd iI1 Ilrts tvxt. unto . an aluminum extrusion and the rivets are of a 4milar water. typical holding Most hardware stores carry these amatfaur. metalworking shops.hhoards.

available of West have several such adare other E-154 are thev will he glad pastes epoxy suited adhesive and epoxy to tell you about. adhesives development consumers of a resorcinol is also marketed by Borden It is packaged for small in two Waterproof parts. bond. or diagonally mixtuie that are thick enough for strip that is a 1: 1 ratio compound On the other hand. II there were only from water-rclsistant strength it must be used temperature as directed. heavy clamping.~:~. to put together 1: 1 ratio can be used in temp:>ratures is IJnipoxy high-strength . CLCUwit11 The modern counterpart is marketed Plastic Resin Glue (formerly Cascomite). shelf with months.‘-’ finish coating. Epoxy and is extremely pressure and the makers strong. Described great benefit excess rest hrought as a ltrea-formaltirhytic to boatbuilders on by mixing resin. This urea resin glue.S that for it to provide the adhesive period. resorcinol additivrs that Not needing for laminations that can For instance. be used to thicken to proper from running. with water. life. Arcon E. being by varnish Water-resistant glue still has a place and that consists types. glut* for use during of cold-molded is another waterproof Aerolite used IO secure Aerolite to aircraft builders as well. a dark purple resin and a light-colored powder.. breakthrough as Elmer’s by Borden as Elmer’s has joinerwork that is not subject is prote-*-:-’ . a strong joint ( epoxy planking r&n viscosity layers. then the This ‘I‘he paste catalvst. adhesive. rather and to mixclamping (when and is two-part). very easy to mix and apply. there for use as is. One part is a powder that is mixed with water to the consistency of an easy spreading paste. and provides is less expensive a joint that than the waterwhen the good wnrking from is colorless canoe with of a powder properly The water-resistant resin glue. Glue to waterproof which (formerly Cascophen). The powder has a shelf life of two years.S’l‘E:NIN(. Resorcarethe time hulls. and with attention working time. glued wetting which proof it. but the joints should cinol he well fitted glue and pressure must be applied until curing has taken should place. surfaces are then liquid and catalyst. It will produce a joint strnnger than the surrounding wood. fitted. and is best mixed by weight as instructed. that is mixed time. Until l-)ro~/ curing War fact This World ones.152 and Arcon planked hulls or any other down glue.I‘hcy can even be used for joining wood and polyester fiberglass parts to polyester achieve than various ditives epoxies Tech simpler fiberglass. glue of is a two-part sets up quickly Rcsorcinol glue in hot climates is often and . of resin-to-hardener epoxy spreadable T-88 use. so the instructions too much planking Glue be studied fully to avoid available. the The second The part two is a water-like on one surface. up with adhesives of hollow than booms &laterwere to notwithstanding. the paste’s shelf life is one to three which other adhesive has an unlimited surface is wetted down is strong. . e\‘cll without to 60°F. without it is gap-filling. if used thick to ensure hulls with multiple epoxy 105 epoxy it does enough not require SC)that pressure to a good it is gap-filling it does not run is easier There to prevent to use are it out of the joints. pressure. heat. and it can be used in temperatures Some of tl~r epoxy resins are among the best adhesives for use in building wooden boats and parts. is spread mated. Chem not be Another that could to 35°F. protected in boat construction thousands moisture for interior masts or paint.64 and ture l.

. Chagrin Strecr.. but who were unhappy.. fyxy ‘1’-H8. Chem-Tech atlhcsivc. must hardeners.L. 313 by Aircraft and Ave. to wood and metal. so beware! seen others for Adhesives and marine Glue laminatts hardware stores carry The Elmer’s of contact Elmer’s Plastic cement glues Street. Kristal 900 Fourth Palmetto. in the> lJ.. glue. Ohio City. Box 424.S 65 Caution So much principaily especically to Epoxy is written Users about epoxy that resins and the material be remiss Avoid is so valuable not to warn contact to boatbuilders. Inc. Wrsr Michigan 33561. 92632.tssachust*tts 02 189. Acrolire Specialty (‘astern as well as the various by Harbor Sales brands Co.0. California is available Montvalr firms Massac~huscc IS 0 I HOI Following mm1 arc* the* names anti addrf~ssrs of thy Corp.S. (:he~rn-Tech 44U22. it would be used with caution. from product distributrci Supply Corp.ing iont~tl: Resin Nj9 Wcymouth Road..~‘:I. I~ancl~r Inc. Ilnipoxv ’ I05 -18706. with unprotected and breathing manufacturers’ I have Sources the fumes released by epoxies as they cure.ST~:. Resin Glue and Elmer’s Formicalarger than Maryland Spruce and in the Woburn. Most general Waterproof type plastic quarts 21230. Brothers. Woodcraft Fullerton.. skin as an adhesive.. M.S. 706 Martin Street.. Florida . Industrial Falls. I have never had a problem. These words are to reinforce directions that are often taken lightly.. P. Bay Arcon I+ I52 and Arcon E-15-1. the epoxies Park. in quantities are handled 1401 Russell is a (:iba-Geigy CI. Chugwn Inc. for sticking Baltimore. that epoxy resins.(. Allied East W~~ymouth. L1.‘L’I. Kraft. produ(.

so to speak. from l)lans. almost ” “laying a workshop of some sort. fixed batten sometimes having dull black.full-size board. Lines work of enlarging of the floor there served Hull The to provide maximum light. an absolute and on one edge was a permanently the plans from the scale of the blueprints to full size is termed . edge that thr mold loft was preferably wt‘rc taken and “taking off. ‘I’ht. trussed. it is true that be assured that the combuilding is time well spent and templates from the same conform plans are on hand one becomes impatient. or for the construction close dimensional trace thr history on the ” trrold loft” always consisted down. sional boatbuilders. Either way. but the hull lines has been the job and part of the construction to thr point of monotony IO the successful plan in com- be (11awn ‘l’his fact articles. The full-size drawings from which molds are made are especially valuable when more than one boat is to be built plans.full-si?tof a floor above off the full-size to obstruct drawing drawings. of shipbuilding to discover why tht.” or templates of a one-design tolerances. but few hours used to properly prepare for the actual and will never be rqretted. repeated IO build” is so important pit-tic)11 of a boat that instructions drscription of thr work involved. sufficiently The floor was painted as a baseline. the terms shipyard lofting. so t herr were no columnss and there were windows floor was level of hard-soled straight sides and o\~tAratl smooth. thus it was a “moldon all and shoes.Chapter 7 ‘1‘0 properly must countless build “how a boat full sire. it IO be fascinating work. even among profes. The wooden sacred so somt~ vards prohibited the wraring flat white or light gray. but otIlcrs find once the paratively in boatbuilding would br incomplete without a Thp job is distasteful to some. hence class boat where to reasonably OIW must “laitl loft.” ‘I‘hr roof above the work. ctown” Molds the hull must hull lines are in a floor-.

outboard drawn horizontal as many are located and and signifirant parallel these are to each load waterline. vessel’s shape in skeletal form has been established. define Figure construction of deck Of course. Then of the boat Finally. centerline centerline.lh’ES :IND L-I k.I. a in while and . these drawings lines that plan Some molds should are made for the shape and of the hull and various beginner reading under edge above these from. diagonal. for the . establish for the builder the three lines. Sections may be compared to slices of bread. :hen. When these are set up at each section’s respective station the same as called for in the lines drawing. are also called waterlines there and the they are vertical conveniently of inclined diagonal planes spaced called horizontal planes which. LQIl be transm:tted c-:nto three-dimensional form by making full-size templates of the sections. He also needs the hull shape that buttocks. of yachting in boatyards that really the side. and diagonals. the shape of the edge of the hole would be the same as the shape of the boat at the surface architect convenient want then of the water. If a hull could be lifted straight up out of the water without the resulting hole filling in with water. diagonals. lines drawn by the designer as seen the profile of the bottom the waterline lines as seen from the side at the same time the sheerline they are not sufficient between these lines.I. that for it is from other parts. The vessel’s shape is represented this manner just as a loaf of bread would be if every other slice was removed. or shapes diagonal transverse intersecting sections. shape is ever-changing from end to end. to make the job more of the lines and interesting. conveniently points for dimensions. show waterline. on the on the surface formed actually drawn CI(‘~OSS the hull have been by vertical fore-and-aft a section planes intersects the fore-and-aft A point lines. Just as is the case with the sections on a shapely boat. it is one of the most important divides spaces. points although having vertical outlines tical. the slices through an old-fashioned rye loaf are all different. the architect cuts the hull into pieces These are called on planes waterlines. are called wherever points one of the fore-and-aft for the builder and by means of intersection it is possible to make molds for the exact of the hull as the architect has it designed. to construct To provide planes Altholtgh are important. the different to aid the from hulls or ends and a hull points to because around constitute the desibm the architect’s sections or stored from be understood. because they are parallel buttocks. prowling from 7-1 has been magazines characterize most of you are familiar a hull. by the designer. are obvious. (the outline These with the first three are the sheerline and is viewed). because evenly to the side of thr edges planes to provide are drawn vertical like the others.VIi 110 Wh’ 67 mold lines lofting. for the boatbuilder it has been points planes and are located as is possible. keeping the spacing of the remaining slices Figure 7-1 has been included to pictorially the same. a gull’s eye view of the outline the shape of the boat between of the hull as seen from above. above dimensioned of the hull. prepared. . For further of the huil above of something and draws the edges of additional better. the depth On the boat. the horizontal. lines running these lines no usable to intersect planes the length are drawn points for the purpose are established lines. lines drawn this line is called dnd beiow the load waterline subdivision the load waterline and the into for the to the to the called planes. simply the deck line. buttock. established the many shape ‘l‘hese planes. and of until The verhull is of All of the aforesaid lines are fore-and-aft mentioned that of the hull. A vessel’s shapr.

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and with the a boat out for are inangle of curved in sec- on the hull or waterline are shown is intersected all the lines by an athwartship for the same in the and (Incidentally. Fr. B. Because of the nature it is possible of diagonals. over all of load waterline L. L.B. Dimensions and they are always drawing taken from a line of reference such as a baseline view of the lines. W.L. to define dimensions of dimensions out all the fore-and-aft can only be indicated without is.G. 7-1. and it is a help for the Centerline Waterline Buttock Diagonal Baseline Station Frame Deck Length Length Section Displacement Pounds Longitudinal Center of gravity Offsets An offset is simply straight another name for a dimension. of the stem. Butt. spacing on this plan to reproduce Note a table that do not attempt not been buttocks. that and stations for the profile as well as offsets for the profile board.B. it should for words with them. as they are purely for illustration any specific dicated. the sheer.L. from which and to make the frames or molds.) and lines drawing them. Dk. or butt’k Diag. and/or profile provide a sufficient number of points lines. plan. in Figure together worked to build 69 on planes. C. chine. such as in Figure l-7. This eliminates further the need on. for the elevation or the centerline because it is obvi- in the case of the plan are tabulated .L. of waterlines. it may The shapes of the planes are shown by the shaded is created sectional hull shown foregoing have and on the a buttock. or L. tion. Figure necessary from planes as though be seen a solid block how a point half model of a hull were sawn into pieces areas. In the case of a really simple hull with straight-line sections (see Figure 7-3).L.-IYING DOWN sectional the various body plan diagonal. C.W. Sect. Sta.A.C.O. ior waterbuttocks. wherever plane. on the body Sometimes the shape the use of diagonals. deck line. the stern lines. bc pointed out that many sets of lines plans for hulls have abbreviations to be familiar used thus far in this chapter.LINES AND L. these lines. Displ. as will be explained a little Abbreviations Before reader we go any furtlirr. their For laying location of a hull mentioned 7-2 is the architect’s dimensions purpose. diagonals. fl center of buoyancy C.

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sawn frames are drawn loftsman from shaped of all of which must be The lines for metal ships or large wooden vessels with built-up to the inside of the plating deducting before The the thickness to save the mold from the full-size drawing of every frame.JEc- VEE 6OTTOM LINES --- loor PLIH Figure ously impossible To eliminate 7-3. hull lines discussed buttocks. (You will find that you will read them automatically pride themselves to one-sixteenth on the accuracy of an inch. a multitude to write offsets in feet-inches-eighths five and three-eighths inches. and diagonals the size of the boat. to write them all on a lines plan and not have them become confused. namely. Slrai~tll-sectrhncd boats ham> simple lines. Consequently skin. for each frame is individually boat. Figure 7-Y shows an ordinary flat-bottomed rowboat having but four fore-and-aft lines. and two views of the .&. the deck and sheer. the offset table by a plus sign or lV$after the “eighth” numeral. the thickness fiberglass or steel p!ating or planking must be deducted in order from the molds edges. Other hull types have fewer lines. installation.LINES AND LAYING DOWN 71 - FLAT tkTTOM L. of inches. of fractional dimensions. it has been made general practice 2-5-3 means two feet. above are for a round-bottomed involved depending upon the number waterlines. drawn when sawn or metal frames are employed. One of these days metric offset tables will make life a lot simpler than strugfurther along.) Some architects lines and offsets and read some dimensions 2-5-31/j. gling with feet. of their or For example. this is shown in thus we get 2-5-3+ once you have tried a few. and all those 64 fractions of an inch. but at this time it would of the wood or The use of the offset table will be explained surface of the ht. inches. or aluminum be well to note that the lines for a vessel’s hull are almost always drawn to the outside when molds are made.

For marking . and the rule can also be used to lay off many short dimensions. an amateur level space. available up to 48 ” and 54” in width. is needed for drawing lines perpendicular ” to other lines. in rolls of 10. as will be shown later. so the next best alternative would be a such as a floor or platform. but the amateur builder will probably not be able to cope with the cost of this 72” wide material. For measuring. Lofting Tools To draw sharp lines. In each case it was purchased from a paper goods supply house in a nearby city. in standard-size panels that may be arranged edge to if several pieces are used to edge to make any size desired. have such facilities at his disposal. long. either as manufactured or homemade out of :‘/Hor % ” wood. and diagonals. The drawing supply people make a buff detail paper of acceptable quality. Each roll is said to weigh between 500 and 6Otl pounds -.a lifetime supply indeed. Whatever the material.72 LJNES A ND LA YING DOWN which is the corner at the intersection profile. Some of the paper-faced building panels are also all right. established boat having lines similar to a flattie except for the addition boat consist of straight and these would be The sections of this particular buttocks. The Mold Loft Although we have said that the builder’s first step is lofting the hull. a steel tape is ideal for long lengths. A few years PRO while visiting boatyards I noticed lofting being done on a very heavy. or more feet longer than the boat in one direction. which you can make yourself from a piece of thin wood. or top of cabin if for just this purpose that is It is too much to ask that on all sides for working use a level wooden floor maintained sanded smooth and coated with flat light gray or white paint. The in. equipped plus some space boatyards At a minimum. flat carpenter’s to make it easier to distinguish pencils between but an or- The tools for lofting are few and simple. as mentioned above. Also shown are lines. and 50 yards and priced reasonably. other points would be needed to draw the sections. A large carpenter’s square. in reality the first the space should be at least four while in the other it must be equal around the drawing. the pieces must be secured against movement. The adjustable as will a straightedge six or eight feet the really bevel shown in Figure 3-1 will be found handy. Well- thing is to find a place to do the job. the lines for a v-bottomed of a bottom were curved. to the dist-rnce from the baseline there is one. 12 square feet per pound. where paper or plywood may be used to lay down the lines. You may also erect perpendiculars or improvised beam compass. This material was 200. If they chine. are used. make up the required size. formation about the paper is given here.pound “Alexandritr” template paper. of the side and bottom. by waterlines. pencils may also be used to advantage types of lines. light bplge paper that was also being used for patterns for one-off parts. sharpened Colored different to a chisel point so a thin line may be drawn for a long distance. to the highest point of the sheer. such as for station lines in relation with a regular to the base and waterlines. dinary folding six-foot rule will do. and SO is plywood. 20.

A batten is held in place wiih finishing it. of about three feet. Not necessary contrast by any means. diagonals. for the it is buttocks. straight line stretched intervals base and waterlines. to be connected later with a straightedge. which are nothing more white pine or other such wood. should be at least two feet longer at each end stock isn’t long enough for the job. sheer. you should use as stiff a batten over the length of a couple of stations. is shown in Figure 7-4. and profile curves are laid out on the station Therefore. nails driven on both sides of it. the straight the table of offsets. These than the line to be drawn. ripping such as sections. pieced if you make sure there is a fair overlap For best results. is a coat of flat black paint. it will be seen that dimensions and out from the centerline. For curves in the plan view. The Grid By examining waterlines. This group of lines. where the curve is least. such as around the turn of the bilge. you must have a square-edged pieces of clear than straight. something like I$$” x 1 Mor th ” x 1 t. Battens Fair curves have no bumps and are pleasing set of battens. start by making the strips narrower the battens on the as needed. probably ‘j/H” and 14 ” square. A batten 14 ” to $1 ” thick by 1 th ” to 2” wide used on the flat is suggested relatively easy curves like the sheerline. strong fishing under the cord at marking in points directly ing the line on the floor before the chalk rubs off. not through from the standpoint of readily but very desirable in the middle in order to make a fair curve that touches all the sighting the shape of a batten when sprung to a curve. curves it may be necessary to taper with ail the taper cut on one edge. also known as the half-breadth tried. If you have a table saw. The of the dark batten against the light-colored floor or paper will help detect a line that is not fair. the grid. and inasmuch as these curves sometimes have harder bends in the middle than at the ends. the stem profile. For certain the battens at the ends somewhat. making a tapered to the eye. selection heavy side until you get the hang of it. they may have to be tapered points. Figure 7-2. by Or the line itself may be all the points on the When the available tens can be made up of two pieces connected glue splice of about 18” to 2’ in length. Like a lot of boatbuilding of batten plan. or :?t ” square and untapered might be operations.4 ” used on the flat. accumulated experience will aid in the Curves sizes. To draw them. for a stiff batten will tend to fair itself unless unduly forced.LINES AND LA YING DOWN long. tightly between 73 you should use either a mason’s chalk line. whereas a supple batten can be passed through all the points and not lie fair. batin the middle. possibly tapered at the ends. and similar shapes will be drawn with shorter battens. as the correct size depends so much on the length of for the lint and the character of the curve. or a length two nails. as will go through curve. It is difficult to say just what size battens should be used. pencilof light. You will note in Figure 7-5 that the grid is set up in a . called lines and are measured above the baseline lines that must be laid down in the beginning.

. m .floor. .! A SCRtES OF b4VER Pear J-r5 CURL7 11ol-n srR./. JfRCTCntV bCTwee~ t-JAILS -DRAV/ltdG D a..I \ 6 -THE i .. BA5E BA7-t-d (OPTlOtiAL) + . The grid for full-sized out on a suita ble.ocl5 cdcq “...i L.“‘I[.-. ‘\ .LO. “GRID”- Figure 7-4.‘“L” T 4 T y lfJ?tCTLY FLOOR. .j I \ 1._ t ..F 0 . \ al ( I . jZIXj ‘.. AIL --VJlTb-4 5HARP POdT A STPAIGHT LINE- -BEAM I K-f-l COMF’ASS I t a e 1 SHCCR *Al-&~ . hull lines is comprised of straight lines and is laid ..MAUI.

/T met6. The lofied hull lines are arranged d$ferently.from plan in order to save space on the mold lqft floor. those on an architect Ys .w mctt FOE CLAEWy HAL/E THE DIAGo~IALS BEt?!d AtiD 5HOWd BUlTOC< I hJOl- L HALF BUEAOTH OF 5l-EM FACE Figure 7-5.

Station 0. to each side of point A. and again one or two stations the two end stations with a straightedge. strike an arc B equidistant the baseline. Starting which the table of offsets. Station 3 of the drive nails to hold the batten in place.) the baseline dicular to it. from the ends and draw them in As mentioned above. the table Either the sheerline For the sake of argument 7-2.76 LINES AND LA YING DOWN form relative to the paper plans: the half-breadth plan is superimposed save themselves from on low The compressed over the profile drawing to save space and to minimize crawling around the loft floor by building Thus the grid is started the distances one must crawl on hands and knees when laying the lines down. lines With the exception of the load view of the spacing on The spacing waterline waterline. With amidships. above the baseline. to say the least. or it can be used at only one. The line CA is perpendicular to the base. eleven inches above the base on Station 0 and make a mark.. To be sure of this and to save time. Some of the dimensions will be long enough that you will not be able to tell readily whether the end of your rule is exactly on the line or not. we will select the sheerline. lnstead of a batten. Mark a point A (Station in Figure 7-4). then at Station towards the ends of the boat un- . Therefore. The process is repeated similarly at all of the stations. Figure at the bow. some builders nail a batten against the under side of the baseline as shown in Figure 7-4. the batten at Station 2. Lengthen C draw a straight has been used as a practical then using the compass with A as the arm of the arcs above strike two intersecting a center. it is time to select a batten with which to draw the sheerline. using each of the points B as a center. Move the rule over to Station 1. easier on the knees. With all the points marked. a nail may be driven at each intersection of a station with the base. with a set of trammel points. to the baseline. This method can be used at each station. shows is dimensioned reads 2-11-O for the height of the sheer: so with the rule against the nail or batten measure up two feet. 4. it is not usually necessary except at the ends of the boat. the offsets for the curves are dimensioned as heights above the baseline or distances out from the centerline as the case may be. alternating Now fasten one edge of the batten against the sheer point on a station boat we are using as an example. line through A on the base. for the profile view and the centerline spacing of the stations is laid off along this line and the stations are drawn in perpenThe perpendiculars beam compass. The end of the rule can then be butted against it when making measurements. of the straight is taken from the architect’s to draw the profile mark off the waterline plan and they are drawn in parallel for reference. and is done as follows. with the resulting right angle used to build a large square for drawing in the remainder of the stations waterlines perpendicular in profile to the base. a regular 2 or an improvised one. You will find either way to be very helpful and. Sheerline and Deck line or the deck line will be the first curved line to be drawn and faired. (Some professionals swivel casters. may be drawn either example by drawing a straight a dolly of padded plywood mounted for the half-breadth line that doubles both as plan. read 2-7-2 from the table and make a mark 2’7%” above the base. placing it so that it extends beyond the length of the boat at each end. From the intersection compass and.

the buttocks parallel to the centerline and the diagonals exactly as dimensioned on the lines plan. the bow. to hold it in place. although it may or may not exist in other types of wooden hull construction. a similar line may be referred to by some other name. a sweet and true curve without out from the centerline. drawing and fairing the profile (bottom of keel). this should be drawn in for the rabbet.0 ensure that the two sets of curves will meet fairly is to extend the point of tangency 7-5. then draw the centerline perpendicular to the base. are any unfair or lumpy spots in the curve. and it avoids confusion of lines on the floor. After the batten to the unfairness should be sprung at all the points. as little as possible are bound thus errors that the batten should be shifted hard spots. The batten’s to extend length.LINES AND LA YING DOWN til the batten is sprung to and fastened ject beyond the boat. Needless to say. In any rasc. Referring to the body plan for the lines in Figure 7. pull other nails and make adjustments. For these latter hulls. Such a board is easy to move around to suit making molds. you can see that the board or paper used for the sections must be somewhat wider than the boat and at least as high as the distance from the baseline to the sheer at Station 0. which pro- the curve fairly and then nailed. Begin by drawing the baseline. If so.2. You may expect has drawn the lines to a small to creep into the work. The rabbet line is normally found in traditional wooden construction. pull the nails at the stations adjacent If the batten points and still does not appear to be fair. the batten is bent against the nails. The deck line is faired in the same manner after it has been laid down from offsets Profile and Rabbet After the deck line has been drawn in and faired. The profile and rabbet must be faired in so that they will meet the relatively curves of the stem and stem rabbet. Body Plan Sections It is strongly recommended that the body plan be drawn on a separate portable board. trouble . to obtain measured it must be remembered because to the full-size job. 77 ends. You will The stem profile and the stem rabbet are drawn with a thin batten. the architect line is pleasing to the eye. the best and with the stem and its rabbet. sight along it to see whether there moves very far from one of the giv- is secured for the entire and note the result. The waterlines are drawn in parallel to the base. as mentioned previously. the lines plan will make all this clear. the stem. When points for the stem curves have been marked in from the dimensions on the lines plans. or in fiberglass or metal hulls. profile forward beyond way 1. you can continue working on the profile plan. and other nails are driven on the opposite side of the batten If your particular plans give a half-siding next before going on to the body plan. a nail is driven at each spot. and the rabbet. note that this has been done in Figure the rabbet quick INith these bow curves not yet drawn in. ing here and taking there until the resulting points to be out of line occasionally scale compared However.

offsets for the sections in the stern half of the boat. Now to fill in some of the points in between. Place the rule on Buttock I from the offset table.) drawing. stick against to each station. precisely architect. With this fact in mind. remember that points established by lines crossing other lines at right angles. at an acute angle it is difficult consequently to tell at which spot on a line the crossing occurs. it is possible for the to misread offsets taken from such init is readily seen that for the flat . With the end of the pick-up stick at the baseline of the sheer and rabbet and with the pick-up width corresponding points. go on to the buttocks. II. from ‘/. Then a batten is bent 7-6. true curve. and from the offset table under Station 1 mark off l-l-2. using a batten long enough to extend 6” or so above as shown in Figure the rabbet at the centerline. Do the same with the offsets for the other waterlines.b”to ‘/B”thick for use in and the sheer and rabbet heights carefully identifying each one 7-5.78 LINES AND LA YING DOWN and the buttocks of the body plan are not spaced exactly the and profile plans. tersections. At each intersection small cross and label it with the station the sheer height/deck Each section now has two definite and the intersection Nail a batten width intersection. to get a smooth. the nails of each section. are more accurate than those established by crossings at acute angles. if necessary.1 for Statinn With the waterlines Follow with Buttock again Move the batten and diagonal done. Rdy Plan Battens Nails are driven around the sheer point at all the reference and beyond marks on each section. end of the rule at the base and mark all the heights for Buttock lay the rule along the diagonal at the centerline and lay off all the diagonal offsets along the diagonal to the left side of the centerline and lay out all the waterline.9. When two lines intersect working from his small-scale (See Figure 7-7. Butt the end of a strip against the baseline and heights on the stick. These measuring up position with a symbol and the station number. against one side of the with its end against from the offset put a little circle 1. of the body plan. examine the batten carefully and shift it. point and draw in the width of the rabbet. wood anywhere will result if the waterlines same as they were laid out on the half-breadth Cut some narrow strips of straight transferring and mark or battens to the body plan the deck half-breadths the half-breadths from the already faired lines on the floor. In the end. all the layout and transfer of measurements should be done with utmost care and accuracy. and so on. or nearly so. then mark I with the 2A to the right of the on the body plan and with the rule laid on a waterline mark points for all the waterline lay the rule on waterline half-breadths table and label each one. For instance. sticks are called pick-up sticks at Station 4 in Figure and one is shown in the picking on the centerline. Then 2. the time spent to this end will speed the job to completion faster than if the work is done in a slipshod manner. buttock. of your body plan. height and width. around it with a 1 next to it to show it is a point on the section at Station 1. with the end of the rule lines. Needless to say. centerline the centerline centerline batten. Holding the sheer and rabbet points as definitely fixed by the previous fairing of these lines. Before doing any shifting. mark the heights lines at each rabbet mark the deck lines at each sheer height of sheer and deck draw a of the rabbet Draw short horizontal Draw horizontal the centerline number.

technique. The waterlines but on the other give the most unreliable in the architect’s diagonal. to be out by the same amount. hand. all the points on one line. sur- part of the bottom sections. . mark and identify all the points where it crosses the sections.LINES AND LA YING DOWN 79 3A Figure 7-6. may appear Points may also be out due to mistakes In such a situation these points As a result. the other points being Faking Diagonals first. Lay a pick-up batten along a diagonal in the body plan. the best points are given by the buttocks. The Figure 7-7. may be ignored. scaling points for the same parts of the sections. such as a held if they give a fair section or line.\criuc board. Tfz~ body P/UHis best drawn on a portable lCrct>called a . because they are laid out to cross the majority of the sections at Fair the diagonals a good angle. then move the batten to the halfbreadth plan and mark each diagonal half-breadth on its proper station. they are the best for the topside sections.

5d?C3 =erJv em7 P-.aciO~. as indicated endings are also quite simple.. it is necessary is fairly simple.. If the batten will not go through all the points and at the same time produce a fair line. 11 f \ Pa UCc. Four steps in finding o/the? stern. When drawing the waterlines those on stations are established 7-5 illustrates Buttock how the crossing II in plan gives another in the profile view as shown at C fairing points in addition to II in profile projected to and a buttock cross. in Figure 7-5. ILTeeSC:l~O*i OF c.// . which should be selfexplanatory. . to terminate them correctly.=g5-/---f _---/! ii kc* . ~~ .b’“D” 3”” ’ . .z : --.xkh~~ _ /’ 4 % b--% x 5: + Ka i 1._u_ . b.I.L.W.* --$-Q+ / 0 -“-<.. lBE. D in Figure in plan.C cl!. with one of the waterlines is a definite the stem profile point in the profile plan.i> oinr..2w:. Bearing in mind not to make more changes than are necessary.e .--.z”Y y$&. I.4 2*’ / . .Azy‘LL&+ 9+x:“. It is obvious that in ends within the boat at the stern..rcI~~ ____ ?.. The aft endings are done exactly at B in the stern end of the same figure. is drawn in plan is projected to the sheer.L. and Buttock The determination of a diagonal ending at the stem is somewhat more difficult to understand. again proceeding as described for the sheerline.I ~.. cross the section the same way. therefore the steps taken are shown in Figure 7-8..-. and buttocks.‘A vrl ?.4. ...G Figure 7-8. because the 6..& p13.. / -p&cd ~~ yl . ~_ t -WI3 PLAtJ- t S. Long When Line Endings the long fore-and-aft of waterline endings lines. and the corresponding point in the half-breadth plan is found simply by projecting the intersection in the profile down to the line ~spresenting the half siding of the stem face in the half-breadth this particular other waterlines Buttock tersection plan as shown in A in Figure 7-5.W.se ‘X’ A. point on the L.I 1 :. and then the point of crossing with the sheer is the ending of the buttock wherever a waterline of the L.. 73 c _ CF .* _ .. to cross the deck line. the usual adjustments must be made... &.W. Each intersection of the stem has been faired and drawn permanently.x1PCD FrzDV 1 1 bL. *a CL” &.dl er U~. of fairing The location the profile Considering the bow in Figure 7-5. The inA short length of a buttock at Station design only the L.__?Li+--~-~ @PpDoJcc”5rp~I .i \=’ z \ pq&f +-if+ -.uec -3.80 LINES AND LA YING DOWN 2 ?I *. the correct ending ofa diagonal that crosses the face diagonai is then faired.L. the sections on the body plan are then corrected accordingly. ._‘.:-’ ‘i 3.Jv3? * UC 10 Lx.I ..~ 7+J! PJL +.

the spacing must be carefully of the transom. in which case the section More often. The same is true of the plan it may be useful for obtaining transom The only way that a true view. shape of the transom. the transom with the result that its true This view is meaningless full size on the mold loft floor. of the true shape of the transom or stern board of the boat. The 12’ rowboat shapts development For c35c has a flat transom is shown in Figure 7-9. given on the architect’s is not necessary has bren drawn at the stern end of the lines in Figure 7-9. and its transom lines plan. Points on the transom are taken from the waterlines and buttocks the same as ordinary sections: it is merely a matter of picking up the waterline half-breadths and buttock heights at the right places and transferring at the end of your lines. tween the waterlines Therefore.LINES AND LAYING DOWN 81 The preceding explanation of lofting a round-bottomed boat is modified for other types such as v. The transom is just thr same as any section. thr dcvelopmrnt throughout must locate the grid for the transom remember will not fit as it should. but there is nothing really mysterious about the work. although it is time to consider the development the transom is the and station is actually to the builder bevels. in profile are projected and rabbet intersecti(Jns for this rowboat.. all boats except double-enders have one additional lofting problem and that is the development of the transom or stern board. as shown in in the diagram. and thus a pattern. With a flat transom. grid has been drawn parallel with projections to the rake and the sheer with the transom of the buttock as in the design across the centerline face. drawing is exactly as indicated plan elsewhere. apart above the L. in common. drawn at the transom is raked.. if you there is one important point to thcqm to the development If you have space Figurr drawing. you can lay off the spacing of rhe buttocks the same as they are on the . measured along In Figure 7-9 the centerline of the transom. shape does not appear need not be reproduced view of the transom. in the body plan. the transom grid the distance greater than drawn across is obviously when laying out the grid. of course. the On the profile drawing of the lines the waterlines but due to the profile angle of the transom. of a raked transom can be gotten is if its shape is projected square off its centerline in the profi!e view. for the transom and tt. or you may end up with a stern board that are spaced 5 ” be5”. rake of the transom developed transom in profile has. Projected Transom After the sections have been faired satisfactorily. but this on a separate and it may be located board or piece of paper.and arc-bottomed hulls. Sometimes. the latter types are easier to loft. plumb verticai. However. However.en the intersections with the transom’s of waterlines togetht.L. The drawn from dimensions the centerline for the . W. generally speaking. for the transom 7-9. centerline the development. Flat Transom Development of the simplest Development of the shape of thr transom type. is sometimes puzzling to the builder. except that it is located at an angle with the baseline instead of perperldicular to it. been previously of illustration.

P. From the aesthetic and although viewpoint. is very handsome. Ikwloprnent body and the half-breadth rcnterline. R. the proa. from the buttocks Two points. becomes a necessity. 7-9. a A curved transom the development curved transom when the transom’s is more involved than for the flat type. A pat- The planks forming with a radius perpendicular to the after side of the transom . to the transom where the butLay off d. and C on the corresponding lines in the grid. B. plans. but for good looks is an absolute type is the most difficult to sltirn. If you must draw the transom on a separate sheet. and complete Curved Transom location of points as described above. draw in the transom with a batten the same as you did the regular sections. o/ a Jlat transom. are established to locate another tocks thus drawn cross the lines projected width of the rabbet. b. as shown in Figure . and buttocks development in profile. With all the points spotted. Development on either a sailboat finished appearance necessary or powerboat is considered. This above this range the curved transom must on a hut1 with an overhanging develop. the extra work is worthwhile is not generally on small craft up to 20 or 25 feet overall. and draw them in the grid parallel on the transom point. transom due to the combination in profile. The waterline and c are picked up with a batten and laid off as points A. Now project the intersections of the waterlines with the transom half-breadths file down to the centerline of the half-breadth plan. very carefully pick up the spacing of the intersections along the profile of the transom on a batten.82 LINES AND LAYING DOWN Figure 7-9. counter of the radius to which it is built and the angle of the such a transom are bent to the arc of a circle as seen in profile.

station more nearly at right angles than do lines plan are not the only ones it is number. Project buttocks parallel to the centerline. with the exception for the expansion. you make proper extra buttocks is attempted. Project the buttocks in profile to the grid to obtain points on the edge of the transom as was done in the flat transom. and draw a centerline perpendicular to it. the arstern and then cuts it off at the above. same as in the half-breadth the expanded measured measurements transom.-l YING DO Wh’ as thougtl G rvlinder principally 83 :~~~-~:Y 7-10 is developed with butwith but- tocks. select convenient above the centerline the half-breadth the auxiliary breadth ferred the points of intersectior? projection. the stern in Figure to another. around The halfthe arc and duly transwhere the deck line intersects from the centerline at the deck is located to the grid. to develrp of the tramt. There clo-Fly as needed 7-10 has been curately. Figure 7-9. are an infinite tocks and must realize that those on the architect’s possible to have on a hull.-- . Before the transom usually to a staticn chitect desired designs to a vertical angle in profile and in a radius in the plan view as mentioned There are undoubtedly many methods of transom development in use and sworn to by their advocates. This is the curve to which the transom planking spaced the the intersections the buttocks the buttocks of the burtocks with the arc out from the centerline plan.-- -- ----- --.- I cut and rolled out flat. In order to find the point where the transom line is drawn in the auxiliary in this view. The corner of the transom the arc of the transom. Now prepare the grid for These tran- Figure 7-lOB. because they cross the edges of the transom and thus are the most accurate. will be bent when it is built. transf+=rr?d tn is run rhrough them. of the point is measured . The widths of the deck at these points are lifted. proportioned as shown in Figure Li tern for the shape must be made. of their spacing in the grid Figure swing Extend the after side of the transom in profile up clear of other drawings. After following of the buttocks in Figure 7-10 is obvious. For clarity only one buttock. for development those shown on the lines plan. Buttock II.m for parts By this time you are familiar templates buttocks drawn with enough but ordinarily. and they may be spaced as The stern in Figure the transom acmust be added faired full size. centerline. To draw the deck line square them and then square points (P) along the projection’s to the stations and also down to cross the sheer on the profile: with the sheer parallel and a batten to cross the deck line in plan. However. the hull lines have been completely at the extreme beyord the transom. 7-lOA.-. has been used as an example in Figure 7-10. Tangent to the intersection. To be sure of the shape of his hull. when the cylindrical as down to cross the corresponding around in the profile view. the deck shown in Figure 7-10A. projection terminates at the sheerline. the system illustrated here will at least help the reader understand smalier the principle. an arc of radius as shown on the plans. spacing between the arc instead of as laid out in the half-breadth give the true distances som is rolled out flat. Draw the buttocks plan. the use To avoid confusion. and this is accomplished 2% AND L. between purposely to hc!c. than usual to clarify the drawing. A transom the waterlines. -. the profile and half-breadth plans of 7-1C have been drawn separated and the transom radius made Dashed lines show the projection of the flat transom of one view the development in Figure 7-9.

RADl U5 OF TRA?450M - CE~NTWZ AINC . -- ’ - \ yy~~.L E!%PANoeo Figure 7-10. .gNSO~ . Steps in the development of a curved transom.

Figure on the grid are spaced as measured . Draw the profile profile Holding jected angle of the transom or buttock radius constant and project every intersection of it with the plan.G Ml IZ’N 85 Figure 7-l 1.‘D L. ProyWc: lines in that the points on the centeriine intersections (using the C. view of a waterline the specified up to the centeriine throughout.1. Figure 7-12B. as will be explained. as shown in Figures 7-10 and 7-11. The complete devehpment of the curved transom started in Figure 7. as center for the radius) until th: arc crosses the 1. in the half-breadth swing an arc from each of tht proto the line in profile. with the arcs back down to the corresponding Of course it is important the arc.J?. A small amount of rake may be neglected in the development of the transom. The powerboat stem shown in Figure 7-12 is not typical of many present day boats in that the topside sections do not tumble home.LINES .4 S1.~~ on the half-breadth the half-breadth profile buttocks plan corresponding 7-12A. around and then across to the grid.L. and the radius can be drawn directly on the half-breadth plan.10. Powerboat Sailboat Transoms transoms often have considerable rake. This avoids having waterlines that pile up on top of one another and makes the transom development easier to understand. but there is usually little angle to those on modem power cruisers.

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manship. Herreshoff. (It is easy to lay out offsets in feet and decimals foot folding A logica! of computer-aided drawing of the body plan.. Inc. in corrected rule. RD and Hullforms. which causes the transom to be larger on the inside than on the outside face. and this is discussed in the next chapter.LINES AND 1 1 YING DOWN 87 The development is the shape of the outside edge of the transom planking. 3667 Woodland #3. Baldwinsville. Bristol. Inc. 25 Hallett Hill Road. 18 Burnside Drive. Such lofting is available from Justin E. thickness must be deducted before When making the allowance the transom frame. Rhode Bristolcomp. is to correct errors in the a small-scale The purpose of much of the work described architect’s drawing. mold-making. lines by computer. Weston. Computer-Aided Lines Fairing in this chapter the offsets. hull lines drawing. Massachusetts Street. New York . c/o Halsey C. due to mistakes made in reading Errors creep in due to the necessity of making and because to depart from the time-tested of sloppy draftsmethods of lofting It may not pay an amateur ani. 13027. Ketwin.) offsets reading to one-sixteenth extension of an inch or one hundredth with an ordinary lines fairing of a surveyor’s sixis the full size foot. Island 02809. I have used firms supplying computer-guided lofting for hulls up to 78 feet in length.. :he planking for beveling can be made. but allowance must be made for the bevel on the edges. resulting but the professional should certainly investigate services that fair Such computers fair the lines from the table of offsets. 02193.

they are hull or a male plug for a fiberglass or cold-molded ready to start cutting wood. frames and the full-size lines are lofted accordingly. A rough guide is XV for boats to 16’ . of the planking boats are made only after the thickness of planking has been deducted. to make a permanent for further and the mold is removed the outside of planking the frames the thickness When a number of boats are to be built alike it is mold. exboat and strips of wood called ribbands the molds similar to planking. and 1 rror 1 ‘igNfor Z&footers. the builder is at last boat or for molds for a wooden hull. the ways of getting the . the molds are set up on the backbone are bent around There or keel of the boat.Chapter 8 S. up the frame frames are bent inside the ribbands. framing. It should be obvious after you have studied construction that to make a mold for a round-bottomed bined thickness boat with the frames bent on the outside of the ribbands. Any lumber except hardwood is suitable. be it for frames for a sawn-frame Molds are made from the body plan. % ” for 16 to 24 ’ . have spaces between them. and ribbands must be deducted the comfrom the sec- tions that are drawn to the outside of the planking. of planking. The frames for a round-bottomed are bent to shape against the ribbands. the thickness of the molds varying with the size of the boat.2. than that used for the boat parts. like those for all small boats. in which case the frames are bent outside use when the hull has been planked. has been deducted. are drawn to the molds for the sections are made only after Similarly. For methods 88 other than conventional wooden construction. For setups where for v-bottomed The lines for the 12-footer in Figure 7. AND THE BACKBONE Upon completion round-bottomed of the full size drawings of the lines for the hull. experience advantageous is gained that setting are two schools of thought as to whether but it will be observed as when the for the boat is simplified the frames should be bent inside or outside of the ribbands. and because made from lower grade lumber they are only temporary. TEMPLATES. are bent inside the ribbands. As you will see further cept that ribbands along.

the planking wouid measure only q the . only the thickness of sandwich thickness hull as described must be equal to plus the ribband must be equal or To make a male mold (or plug or the deduction and Other Hull Materials. TEMPLATES. and the thickness correctly of the in the hole. Let me try to simplify planking this. Howtqler. the deduction plus the thickness of the mold planking Countless boats have been built from molds where planking thickness was deducted by simply drawing lines inside the sections by the amount of the planking thickness. To make a male plug that will be used to form a female mold for a fiberglass the plug planking jigin the chapter thickness. one-off call it what you will) for a so-called on Fiberglass skin thickness fiberglass hull. If a hole was drilled was measured through the planking. this method is only acceptable when the planking is thin. need be deducted. Plajrking thickucss can 6~ deducted by sin~ply drawing a parullel wction insido the IWP sections by thr amou. AND THE RACfiLDNE 89 MAW THICdNES5 OF PlAhi~lbJB AT C?EQUEtdT ItdTERL’ALS RAOlYS= OF THIC~(NE l=LANC(\NG -BOD)/ PLANFigure 8-l. the outer fiberglass to the total thickness ribbands. plus the core material To make a male mold for a cold-molded of the hull planking hull. However. this is not a zltq accurate method.MOLDS.tt o/‘ planking thickncss. deductions depend upon the peculiarities or covering of each construction type.

but as the waterlines break away sharply toward the centerline as one progresses become increasingly inaccurate. all the points to get tire inside of planking.4 CKROh’E Figure 8-2. . When all the sections have been redrawn to the inside of planking. in addition to those shown on the lines plan.4ND THE l-3.) By the a truly accurate deduction when the hole itselj lies in the same athwartships plane as the stations. Turn the wood over.-_ 4-n’ L same token. Normally the mold should be extended a half foot or so above the sheerline. Rather than use this procedure.ole would only represent deductions proximately would be fairly accurate parallel hole were at right angles (n. use a batten to connect the marks made by the tack heads. -TmaI) to the surface o/‘the it&i. IJnless the planking deduct planking correct. It is not practical to use boards wide enough to get out an entire half mold all in one piece. Once you have done this for a few points the work will go quite rapidly. the molds for a round-bottomed boat can be made. it is best to take a little more time and make an effort to snore accurately. but if it is planned to build the boat upside down-a logical method for small craft-the molds should be extended to a straight baseline above the sheer that represents planked the building floor. and laidout in anyconvenient manner to suit the lumber stock.. To make the thickness deduction even to the extent almost of adding it should be done on the diagonals. the mold is made in asmany parts asnecessary. Therefore. Figure 8-3. the inverted baseline is made parailel to the waterline and at a height so the greater part of the hull may be fastening them from a normal standing position. in a shapely hull. where the pian view waterlines run ap- to the hull’s centerline. Thus. Depending on the size of the boat. absolutely diagonals parallel thickness to the ends of the hull. laying it off normal to the section. Lay the mold parts on the sections of the body plan while carefully . TEMF’LA TES. then pick up this thickness along take a batten and draw through most cases.90 ‘JO LDS. but this chore is not necessary in at each station layoff the planking thickness (See in the p!an view of the lines. AEC’ CL . Just remember that the mold must not be too flimsy. (See Figure 8-2. Do this for each station. Figure 8-4 shows typical mold construction and Figure 8-l shows how the shape of the section is transferred to the mold stock by pressing the lumber down against closely spaced tacks with their heads laid on the line to be reproduced. such a h. to the waterlines the station line and transfer it to the body plan.P:-h . the deductions would is thin. then work the board to the line.) When this has been done at each waterline. the amidships.

!vlOl. Molds must bc wll~fastened und braced to re- .W. 0 -rPa.l’E . L. DS.L.~~:‘.I 0 L&WcTFF PLaNa. lain their shape when set up.*. 7’his rtto~hod ojdPducting shown in Figure 8.CT.-i‘llif R.‘i.1.(~5L l-0 9cJoy fLAti (WC@) Figure 8-3.Aw...s n-n. Tvt)icnl mold ronstrurtion.~l7‘i-.r -7” CLhESS =-r--i@ CM-SIDE c.-lCKi~O.+.PRRFRRAR~s’ vJIl-bl5ceRNs - &Ails HEIGHT ARR”&<~Mt A0Ovk bhXCI+ KCfL MOLD -TO CohlSRU Figure 8-4. h t- 1 I‘T. TntCuiNtSs 2 Pmc* UP o.~:clPI.F P-IUICIHG LAY OFF ‘l-0 %aA-4 NORM&L LC*I A * A-‘ -I * <TI. Od MoLD 7 \I I \\ ‘rl’ 9lMPLlFl~D IF ALL \ SECURELY FATTEd MOLD T+*RTcTs-.-l.L.RND bI3’o+lD MOLD 5ucCR It I li SWttR. planking thic knvss is ntow ncrurn~c~ than that - 01 AOOhlnL LAccclRFZ ORACRS MOLOS Od IMALI< l?$‘T.VI) 9I yP. 4 c. 7‘~.

a lamination is often the easiest way made of easily worked softwood representing the shapes of the parts. Spalls on all molds should be level. to match fcr reference the first half of the mold over so thar. AND THf BACKBONE with screws and butt blocks. for who does not usually count labor. lacking dimensions. a stem for a small craft like a dinghy should be made from a natural hackmatack or oak crook as they were some years ago. and then narrows again toward the stern. The nomenclature and bearding shown on the section through Points half-breadth the stem drawn on waterline in profile and connected to plot these lines on the profile are projected plan to the waterlines The lines . at or near the at the same or base. templates transferred with tacks as explained of the parts are made. Templates are usually Besides !/i r. Figure in the Note in Figure S-5 that the half-breadth half-breadth the thickness has been drawn as well as the half siding of the face of the stem. language of the material from widths scaled from the construction Ideally. to select a crook with a shape similar nobody seems to bother to the stem. and on lines to which the material must be cut. called a spall. while setting up and building. Connect the two halves at the bottom with a block. The profile struction and fairness. the thickness of planking method that consumes the stem rabbet. and even though it is shown.W. and if they all are located Stem and Rabbet The stem assembly struction In boatbuilding the thickness is drawn on the full-size lines. or y8” thick or of plywood or hardboard. the widths of the stem are the molded dimensions.92 MOLDS. the lines being for the molds in Figure 8. and so it is with how to lay out the rabbet by a by the most accurate I will discuss this first and then explain but little more time. it should be checked full size for accuracy The width or half-breadth retains line is generally width throughout siding of the stem and either boat or swells in width toward amidships It was mentioned before that countless not deducting more precise the thickness) each waterline rabbet 8-5. Most often the stem is too large to get out of a natural crook. so an assembly of wood will be made up as illustrated in Figure 8-5 or the stem assembly will be laminated. from the waterlines with a batten. A template of the stem would be taken to the dealer in this material builders.1. TEMPLATES. rsefore the half mold is lifted from the plan. whereas plan or. When the mold is aswmbled. For the amateur. height above the waterline keel or floor. Turn together mark it at the deck line and L. out. When an assembly of parts is used. the butt blocks will then all be on the same side. of the stem (the “half siding” or one-half of planking has been drawn to get the back is 4A in the profile. deck line. of the rabbet line may or may not be dimensioned of the rabbet a constant on the lines or conthe same as the the length of the plan. the butt blocks are down and make a second half it. which should be notched if reand fasten a crosepiece. either as dimensioned on the conplan. for the stem is the sided dimension. the templates must also provide guidelines rabbeting the stem assembly to receive the planking. but except for the island with this any more.L. the molds will be easier to align when set up on the quired by the keel construction. boats have been built from molds made by method.

Figure 8-5. all the waterlines. cotton wicking caulking bedding generously before centerline centerline. cuts on the waterlines. put the stem together pound between Whether precaution of the joints in the assembled position. Cut and plane the parts to shape (if too heavy for your equipment have a mill do this for you) and lay them out on the full-size lines to check the alignment line. The templates to the template material are laid out on the stem material and arranged so that there will be a minimum of cross grain in the finished part. Referring of the rabbet material the bolt is driven to go around the bolt a couple of times.mplate of stiff cardboard Use the temp!ates the rabbet The to cut a short length by working away the may be cut wrth and then complete or thin wood for the rabbet between at each waterline. and plugged. you should take an extra This is a ptece of and the centerlines the faying surfaces or not the bolt heads are countersunk to make the bolt holes watertight long enough by using a grommet. t hiokol. Apply After assembly of the stem. then bore the bolt holes and with thick white lead. mark the to the wicking and wind it around the bolt just under the head just all the way home. for the rabbet and the outline of stem parts are all transferred at the same time. Mark the sheerof the bolts. of the boat on the stem and the width of the stem face on each side of the to the half-breadth at the waterlines. rabbet . the templated plan in the figure. or sc rne other good bedding com(the surfaces that touch each other) of the joints. make a tc.

To save time tions should than be drawn right on the lines profile. :I. In many cases this is because they have learned from exthat their rabhet is not as accurate 7 it was stated as it might that be.S.: i=C>-T Figure 8-6.V~ r.D.VIj TIIE RrlCKR0. or nearly reason so. The designer get the true.just a little shallow and complete it when fitting ribbands at the boat is set up. The sections should be spaced at intervals close enough so that there is no question about having enough of the plotted points for the rabbet. the better off he will be. but it should In the beginning vals throughout realized that sections can be drawn through the hull at any angle. often does this while drawing the construction plan to diagonal planes. For the same face. of Chapter r!re length vertical of the boat to define the shape of the hull. Here is how you can make sections are drawn at intcrbe acc’trate.-I 7'E. However. or the tical planes of the stations and buttocks. even some pro- leave the rabbet . TEMPI. drawn normal are the most accurate sizes of parts such as the stem assured. rc~nficienc~ fessionals the time perience it more if the full-six drawing IS accrlrc!ta and complete. for clarity as in Section A-A. not only at the verthe horizontal planes of the waterlines.S. separately as was done in Section back rabbet.94 M0I. assembly: only when a section is Since the waterlines and buttocks pays to draw auxiliary sections at right angles through the strm of the boat in order to more accurately cut the rabbet. rather B-B of Figure . bearding fines (see Figure 8-5) to ensure a fair line. it certainly to the part out-of-normal is full accuracy at the bow. bevels should be taken off lines that are normal to the hull sur- Figure 8-6 has been prepared to show how easy it is to draw sections through the stem. and and effort.. The less dubbing that the amateur must face after he sets up the boat. the sec8-6..

1~ grid for dmwing stern sections in p/arc on /he prqfi[~ First enough draw waterlines waterline lustration place.L.) Next the half-breadths at these points up as in the plan view and laid off on the perpendiculars 10 establish the points for the section to the outside of planking.MOLDS. 5=3-lO~. is drawn For normal to the face of the stem. to give a number of points so a batten can be set up to the centerline for Section A-A intersects two perpendiculars and can TO this centerline in the stem off when be laid are drawn assembly. make for the more accurate as illustrated . from the back rabbet. Instead method profile of making shown by Figure this sets up the points for the them 8-6. n L@&WE*IDICULA(ZS To INTW~ECTIO~~ C&‘SnP @lr’ -j-HE C. TEMPL 4TES. LAY OFF ON -rwz QERPEwIcuLALJ -WE HALF ~%EAD*!: 3~ me ku~-rERLlrJEr t: WnocrCC cZ$O5<-. Then instance. plan drawn and the in the on the templates by Figure half-breadth sections 8-5. and bearding line. a centerline buttocks a fair and section. at the in at the joints (For an ilis drawn are picked and buttock of how these see Figure intersections perpendiculars the section of intersection 8-7. !G~lt~~~ 111 1 ‘. OF THE. 4‘ PJAT’=LINEC DUAWJ -IiWJ Figure 8-7. After the section line has been drawn. rabbet for the rabbet.!m. long enough to cross and waterlines a huttork.L. EFAMPLE: BUTT. AND THE BACKBONE 95 W. the thickness of planking is set off. 1 AVOVE- OF BuTrocK C. 9.

are beveled so the planking Figure (See A of Figure cases the bevel . . Y‘EMPLATES.96 MOLDS. the body is used to make arc-bottomed will bear 8-10. l-4 in Chapter are shown thickness views do not reveal In many tom and side pieces the frames.Ei AT CHINE =F h 0Ei’EL AT KEEL -_ . Any durable softwood such as white pine or cedar there are so few of them that they can be whittled out of scrap. l-3 and Instead. that they in joints in the backbone of stopwaters wherever to prevent is important crosses water fcr a from leaking the hull along it is imperative The location be placed full effectiveness: the rabbet joint in the backbone. AND THE BACh’RONE REVEL 4=-n AT DE& rT===+ ITAMES AFT OF STAT-Id5 - I CFRAME?: FC+?‘DOF STATIO~JS i-lAiF 0READTH I’LAbJ BE\. will do.i-u BOTTOM FRAME I Figure 8-8.and the construction of v-bottomed that become frames the entire that hull against and arcin of hulls. and V-Bottomed Temporary bottomed nent Figure part Frames molds are not necessary plan Typical 1.) these sectional frames a permathe botis not the of the structure. FPAME 4 (~~%ING AFT) Stopwaters Softwood dowels into called stopwaters are fitted the joints. but 8-8 and for v.

TEMPLATES. At Section This makes for more work. of the deck line and chine.. the frames as indicatedline between have some For a simple be measured plan and with straight the side frame those for the bottom curve. &- . off the to and clamps At that time. at chine and keel in the profile. this is very important should be thickness the keel the keel. the bevels can in the half-breadth The bevels above are at deck and chine chine aft of B-B. the amount approximately bevel needed. This can be done by the method shown in Figure 8-9. from points Bevels similarly frames deck and chine the bevels and keel respectively. of bevel. adjustments are made To determine time saving measured previously accuracy. . sections frames like that shown bevels in Figure 8-8. are just at major plan. as it is at the chine. and between points as described cut in a straight If the frames the same.. are chines. forward must be beveled. 4 -.. parallel f-fowever.irrd Figure 8-9. The square ~- --. as the deck and chine curve in toward the centerline. but those for the side frames in the chine when bevel with half-breadth and the later in and bevels at points the waterlines between or cut are run for the notches between the deck and chine are taken. however in the larger hulls with a good number of frames) the bevels much like the deduction for planking normal to the surface. boat or curvature. and B-B in Figure 8-8.DS. where the deck line and chine are it can be seen that there is practically no to the centerline. dnd those for the bottom frames at from the buttocks in the profile.. AND THE BACKBONE 97 same at the sheer hulls. by planing (and are fitted are taken battens for fairing the frames..MOl. discussed. but this is the nature etc. taken in which the boat more is set up. determines of boat The character.~ Id” .

The bevels should be taken along mal as possible to all the frames crossed.$ rr wide along it off. zero to about board 30 degrees. you will understand the principle. to shape Once gotand with the on the body in degrees be sawn for reference proper bevel. the left edge of the bevel it lines up with one of the angles as When a bevel is marked on a piece of stock t o be sawn. it must be designated either under or standing.A TES. This is most important. diagonals laid out to be as close to nor- Bevel Board Instead yourself bevel read of using a simple and a protractor bevel board mark off angles to measure as shown from a bevel each 8-9(a).4 ND T1i 'E BACKBOh'E ‘\I j I -DE ef11 / -2% L RE\JEL BOAED Figure 8-9(a) can be made ten. marking the piece UB or SB. make about and the adjustable in Figure until Use a piece of plyood 3 I.98 MOLDS. TEMP1. then the bevels marked up by the builder should be marked on the actual and applied right frame material as shown so that to measure plan it can the bevels. time you take Slide one off. and after you have ruined a few pieces. . .

and the develop- has been the bevels on the tran- som edges. the outside. be applied that how the An explanabevels as you bevels than will be furnished. the edges of the transom must is larger the construction Consequently. these.MOLDS. are by Computer hull lines with dealt the shape Earlier to make the aid of a computer of the hull. you understand drawings. because the like the frames of a the planks to lie to allow . too. If lofting order given the hull (spaced most with deductions or frames the outside by computer bevels from of the lofting Be certain in the yard that for the edges of the molds by the computer along just There’s spacing will not be available to the section times but better the computer should people. with probably two or three compurer. too few! The hulls partitions mold no stopping for round-bottomed intervals. Therefore. The simplest method is to let the side planking overlap the transom and to then cut it flush with the after side. The molds and the stem have been illustrated. v-bottomed boat. to shape the of the set of lines fiberglass. however. either from A computer-guided or unequally) is avoided. . The best practice. arc not located as molds or frames. to you. those in the same place is usually at uniform Sometimes of joiner dividing accommodations. the cabin and the frame the location etc. TEMP1. or for with enlarging to full size the designer’s it was explained on which on which justifies scale drawing it be wood. and depending upon the type of construction.A TES. If full-size plied by the computer service. it may or may not represent the actual size of the finished transom. ment of the transom the station shape the boat can be set up. and that hulls molds is where fairing plotter at any but the you of the outside in this chapter a male that for round-bottomed to build the boat. shell can supply plating. hulls really need.. Figure 8-10A shows that the inside of the transom at the top edge where the shape depends upon boat narrows from amidships to the transom. the stem. In this case the plank thickness is subtracted from the edges of the transom. full-size be ordered so the drawings for the thickness Transom and Transom Bevels molds. frames Here chapter. boats bulkhead drawings are desired. equally needed framework project v-bottomed by computer 1oc::tion bevels must bevels tion hulls frames sections complete are needed through is used. be beveled detnirr. of the hull. to shape with a from flat For this type of construction which to cut the frames with the deduction the computer of the are built drawings should of the same marerial. pays off if your the expense. of welded from steel or aluminum alloy framing. for v-bottomed bulkheads. and the transom explained You also need are needed before As will bc seen later. except Both methods are shown in Figure 8-10. was mentioned whether in the previous metal.4MD THE BACKBONE 99 Lofting Fairing which defining otherwise. as many too many spacing can draw full-size desired. is to make the transom to the outside of planking and rabbet the edge thaii f-rr the planking. Many of the larger skin or shell plating service material. Remember that the developed shape of the transom is to the outside of the planking. can be supand once again you should ask for the edge bevels.

‘ELE3 -i%. flat.ri70K A. transoms If single planked. the seams are usually the seams backed of transom with battens. also have a series of vertical hull planking or thicker share of the p!‘~k fastenings. the transom to the keel or horn timber. ETABBE?FD fLAh. because boat transoms and waterproof can be properly plywood. The bevels waterlines profile curate Small doweled planks marine Larger drawing. AND THE BACKBONE NC BE . TEMPLATES. .100 MOLDS. The fastened the hull by the method of wide boards whose edges are splined or should be sufficiently thick so that the hull can also be made of to the edge. Such transoms made boards with cheek pieces around the edges to take the plank fastenings. . like that shown in Figure 8-lOC. are taken from the full-size plan and it should in Figure lines as shown be remembered it has not been 8-9. For the planks Wide are not caulked.JSOM /X-T- Figure i3-10. transoms. are made the same thickness as the and have a frame or cheek pieces on the inside edges to take a is usually a vertical member on the centerline. are generally glued. There where a wood or metal knee connects sake of appearance.those for the sides from the from the buttocks in the of that this is not the most acdone normal to the surface in the half-breadth But once again shown those for the bottom way to take the beve!s off.‘E (ILcoeeECT: RE .

the preference 8-12. Most transoms cold. of the architect. . CErJTER0OAKb N Ti?UNK LOGS UT RA00ET Figure 8-l 1. stiffeners outboard engine stringers./- TeA&. of a particular locality. to the transom the planks frame. Keel and Deadwood There The and are quite a number of keel construction and sometimes for methods. do not have enough that so they will bend These radius are sometimes to prevent spaced the planks to take the ends of from being bent do not have a lot of radius. Tyjical small boat keels. In transoms wet rags or steamed of the centerline. with the custom types most likely Needless to be encountered by the amateur are illustrated in Figures 8-l 1 only sound timber should go into the longevity. to say. can be soaked with hot.OM FXluhJD &TTTOtvl !ZUK’BOA~ OR SAlLlhlC DlUGHb’ 5-rTtM -4 TWO-PIECE PARBETEP PLAIJlC tit& PLANK lCEEL ARC BOTTOM SCM 8’ .FLAT TeAd5OM ________ I___ L- B0l-K PM 5KlFF ~_-- i rtiee~s~~ A EWTTOM 1 PLAN<:lNG \ . varying with the type of boat.

..~ailboats.-~ -._ +. t\--~.c.~.)*AFT .T <ccl. . L Figure 8-12..-.&z~&LL.qj r Bea”LL ~cI%cP L Fe*=._-pig=.. many possible backbone structures.TCV 4 .-ctf r. .LAP Lo \ --~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. A.POWER WOOD BOAT SHAFT WITH LOG dMCI % I lk y*. -.few qflhc ccnti .::. ?’ .--k-’ __-L-.~ -.-_ $ ..~~“~~.. .-y+-’ Eau.--------&.4OPC~~CLL .~~~~~_~~=lb~=f -4 -_-_ --.. . #‘\ ---A I(*lec .-+ *g. .-- l- wve._.~ _.C. .for powerboats .4 BOAT t PL “c.~.

for the keelson. one on the centerline. The horn aft is rabbctcd. l. of rod. of the splines they are made with with bolts function is to swell and prevent of softwood so long as the bolt may leaks in the same manner just to align as well as when and length. the shaft fittrd aft and of mention. can the bottom in the not scen as much A two-piece the wooden because a log in a single for splines the shaft hole in each half can be saw or with It is all right The splines shaft grooves be cut on a small such as white holes are not cut. of the keel may be cut away or of the rudder. cut a slot for the skeg on the centerline of two pieces. have someone the needed in a piece It is very important . There to exclude shown in the pieces together after first beveling composition be thick white lead or other such All backbone joints are so treated. Figure strongly thr frame board to make the two-piece between a rabbet. AND THE BACKBONE 103 backbone members. is very common. inner two. but other the boat White wood oak is the usual shown material in Figure for keel 8-11A and other backbone When are the up the As for can be used the forms as dictated are notched by local practice. then the bottom twin keelsons fastening made The flat-bottomed is cross planked skiff construction upside down. as formerly. Powerboat The Keels shown in Figure 8-12A is typical of many modern powerboats. log in Figure this is easier 8-12B is for the a plow that to cut swell shaft section: table pine. are against cut the shank be devised auger length of sufficient by welding Therefore. members. to make out and ‘l’he purpose do. building used. for a great be cut a continuous to form many for the stem and then The in Figure the rabbet the stations it easier at each station fair rabbet from cut away between amateur will find over the molds the planking. A batten bent into place on top forms a back rabbet for the planking. should water. care should butt at the centerline. The side planks to the inner. The rabbeted was done templates keel in Figure stem. and the splines the bolts log is bored a jig must made and than packing is installed for water- leaves the hull. sailboats but B-11C. timber tightness continued Although worthy amateur worked plane. keel if he fastens the rabbet. through against piece because mercially add stopwaters The where rabbet is cut the same A bronze shaft as for the little log with The bottom boat in Figure gland B-11B.MOLDS. the hole. to the frames the frames connecting through be well fastened In way of the ccnter- slot in the kzcl. Straight one on each of a single rabbeting.11 B is typical 8-5. plank be taken the floor and keel. If the frames because the pieces like that to attach timbers A few of the one-design use a keel without the garboard (the one next to the keel on each side) is not fastened to the keel. as shown. then to avoid and the outer are frequently with sealant are cut off flush with the between boats. construction should to make them Before keel. stem is fastened 8. Sometimes stems and the keel fitted side instead on top of the planking. TEMPLATES. thr bed logs should be thick to make for good fastening rhe keel. This is all right.ight. hole in a onefinding that a comand the shaft an auger be troublesome The chances for the inexperienced. The keel structure keel is usually the same thickness throughout and is cut to shape from a template made from the full-size profile. The with a skeg to support log is shown piece. halves must to the keel. aft.

spacing up from a batten. a lot of effort should be put into the deadwood to make it smooth and fair. of the bolting from between in order frames. shaped they terminate for by the lines. The aft edge of the sternpost forward edge of the rudder. the after side of the sternpost enough the sides just Large Sailboat The backbone Keels in Figure sailboats of the 8-12D same is typical thickness of most from keel sailboats end to end. to cut the as for cutting. the length. as shown or combination but varying keel and centerboard is a thick throughout tical position the heights is drawn plank upwards of 20 feet on the waterline. TEMPLJTES. for it to be fastened To prevent with light with tacks. not only for the sake of appearance but also to offer a minimum of resistance as the boat moves through and can paint the water. and although it requires hard work by hand. along A centerline to be used for the keel. the keel being over. Probably down with keels thick and the fin the easiest way to build over the molds boat of this type is upside keel added Attention the fin. and floors. sheet it is impossible of marine brought growth. The carefully must ballast be given although as called the hull is turned keel bolts usually sometimes to the sequence keel. will give the constantly at each section sides of the keel. this type of construction.104 MOLDS. enough Sailboats sailboats up to about even larger steaming 30 feet may have bent have had the keel to shape. of the bottom before. the keel is sawn and the to the sure it of the top of the keel are picked of the keel with a centerline and similarly the sections and laid off on the of the top edge. around on stock to the rounded be painted the concave the forward to each copper accumulation edge of the rudder by alternately edge of the sternpost. AND THE BACKBONE hole be lined around and stuffing with box. shape aligns The with outline of the keel at the stations. it crosses are transferred to the corresponding spacing is picked tions in the body plan to obtain on the piece of lumber the full-size the baseline the outline draw along Draw and laid off from the spacing half-breadths keel stock. on the underside changing ternplated of the keel. It is rabbeted of the keel in the hull structure of the keel at the stations the half-widths profile in on the full-size profile. for the planking is drawn The keel in such boats in width The verthen secup than in the section. to properly fasten is extend the casting through the deadwood. making bevel to which as a guide the one on top. The rabbet mentioned . the station (the station because the keel is at an angle After the keel is greater with the base). a light copper tube or lead are flanged pipe to exclude water from the wood bearing the hole. The deadwood bent keels like that shown in Figure a Indeed to need after boats to bend down. The ends of the tube under the bases of the stern Fin-Keel Fin-keel 8-12C. lay off the half-breadths is then of the keel bottom. swinging is sheathed it hard is gouged While over out to take the rudder side.

few turns Very often least it is advisable of cotton this treatment Wicking the parts will prevent is stringy woven have been leaks that otherwise would be troublesome mentioned annoying. to obtain and pieces of wood long enough sufficient for the keel. in some types to a stem. Figure that particularly members the joint are the type shown out in wood be made thickness three to prevent The hooked in Figure by means are often up with types 8-12D. Knees plans. rot the timbers. possible clamps. fitted It will be seen as you go along they pass through until in and are finally at marine composition bolts in the structure or to collect the bolts in balls later. rabbet timber connects Both the the keel or sternpost horizontal to the transom is taken from of power sailboats. keels more often than for the’other parts. 8-13 illustrates The joint shown clamps. AND THE BACKBONE 105 Gripe and Horn Timber The gripe gripe fasten tion and is the piece horn horn timber timber clear that connects the keel to the stem.rd the horn and plan. after does not resemble are fitted the familiar The stopwaters Scarphs It is not always bilge stringers. that it should when from by the other employed under thick scarphs. deadwood. also be poured down the and drift bolts. Nowaday:< these joints should are staggered all have and when nibs of lumber of scarphs one part scarph. at this time and white some of the bolts cannot bolted together Under floor timbers All parts so to a start in the joints to wind home. Bolts noted strain. the investment but prior to fastening them These together. at length in Chapter 6. described plan will go together be driven must are not made have thick bolt holes before the fastenings are driven. or heavy and the If not paint. for their rot preventive preparations The li- and well worth qualities. in A is the very common is extensively for stringers B. lengths may be found for shelves. are very similar members for the comparatively are used to construc- in the body Much the various work is made backbone of the backbone by construction on the architect’s Backbone After Bolting members are shaped. be used pieced of through-bolted waterproof-glued the usual permits. long glued. The a. called measure. or at and earlier lead or other and drift before available wicking. possibly driven suppliers on the construction so the assembly 8-12A. even though an extensive search is required. Fortunately. When it cannot joints for good white lead be avoided. no crevices are left for water the washers soaked wicking to seep through of through in paint cotton lamp bolted. The backbone requires enough work of the builder without his having to splice the keel. are made and fitted and the fastenings because must be studied for that properly. the sections to each sections other. C) that for the boat.MOLDS. it is all the backbone that recommended are inexpensive quid should Through-bolts as shown sequence (Figures being that they be given two coats of a wood preservative. commonly slipping plain scarph in use. is sometimes in backbone . TEMPLATES.

and easier to make. while builder suitable should rule for the scarph to locate a piece should is six times the depth the keys and nibs or a competent for use with up to one-fourth of the depth.jtu’Gu.y lorlg rnCnl hers suck us ktds. PLA\h) SCARPH B. H03ti SCARPH - c.106 /iI (ILDS. is the key scarph scarph mortised to take a tightly fitted rectangular like white driven oak or black from both locust. members. The drawings the timber. scarphs most scarphed wood as effective. Just simply a plain durable made foot. clrld striuprs. ‘4 ND ‘I-II/i HACKLWNl: FEATHER EDGE v ROLTS STAGGEPED TH ICtiNE5S KnE’d PEiZM’T5 A.lnnlj!~s. r. KEY SCARPH Figure 8-13. preferably of the key is sometimes one-half and inch shown to the on the of If the infor the of of two wedges time and cut off flush with the sides of the timbers. In large timbers of about planned length sides at the same with a taper are carefully shown in C. not be able of wood large enough be consulted the designer for the layout the available material. Such wedges and their A rough are made fastenings are made boatbuilder joints by the architect. This is key. experienced keel. . ~~OUIUIOII scarphs JOT . TEM PLrl TES.

s. with the pieces.~lI:KHo:v’E 107 Tenons The mortise-and-tenon perpendicular S-12D joint is sometimes When the case. only part together. TE. way across Whatever white between the keel in Figure are fitted put together the wood is not too thin.21 PI. are typical. A ND 1. parts and to each other. the joint be made the tenon is made that is. called The joints upon to lock adjoining the vertical members sternposts when havand the ing grain blind. it is not visible as snug as possible lead on the mating .M 01.*1 TES..1IE R. and therefore must parts.13.

Chapter

9

SETTING UP

With

the

backbone

and

molds

made,

the

builder

is ready

to set

up

the

boat

preparatory to framing the hull. Just as much care and accuracy work of setting up as went into the mold loft work and construction Continued later. hull, much The but merit. attrntion method in general, to detail of setting most at this stage of the game up depends small craft upon are best built the size, type. upside

should go into the of the backbone. in time saved of the that has

will pay dividends down,

and construction a method

Upside Down or Right Side Up?
Although boat hull the majority of boats, excluding small stock boats produced the bottom on a mass basis, in building a planks with the

are constructrd

right side up, it would skiff when

be impractical

to copy this routine

like a flat.bottomcd

it is so easy to fasten

inverted. By the same reasoning, flat-sectioned boats like v- and arc-bottomed boats hulls are also set up and built upside down. The same is true of small lapstrake that are planked over molds. In this case, the fitting of the lapped plank scams is very hulls, on which the much simplified with the hull upside down. Smail. strip-planked planking is started at the keel and worked toward the sheer, are best built right side up, because it is much easier to nail downhand. and if it has been decided to bend the frames of a round-bottomed boat on the inside of the ribbands as mentioned under Molds in Chapter 8, the boat should be built right side up in order to readily bend the frames. Any other method will be too heavy or bulky upright. would be impractical. In other instances the finished hull for the amateur to turn over and should therefore be built

SETTING

LIP

109

Building
Considering during cover rafters. hand builders somewhat provides

Under Cover
that weather spare means construction from and difficult A building can be a drawback time also permits of overhead is ideal whether site can experience, weather can work bracing be made although bring if it should your to be done of molds to serve the task be cold hull and evenings and windy be built under or rainy under and lights

your

precious

for boatbuilding,

should

if possible. convenient an. outdoor have more

backbone smooth. as many

to the roof On the other amateur frame is the

A good solid floor found

or not it is level and

well,

of bracing

work to a halt

for weeks at a time.

Building
When

Upside Down
upside down, The a grid must following be established and the framework positioned

building

on top of it accordingly. in Figure 9-1 might

is a description of how the 12.foot skiff shown A centerline is first drawn in on the be set up in such a manner. off are of for

floor, the station spacing laid off along the centerline. and the station lines squared from the centerline. As previously described, the molds for upside down building extended the boat convenient beyond working the sheer above height. to ~II a~ bitrary the highest The molds inverted baseline parailel to the baseline calculated and located point forward of the sheer by an amount of amidships

are set up on the aft side side of the station are applied. If the will be forced Figure centerline them out of 9-2. on the securely

of the station lines, and those aft of amidships on the forward lines. The reason for this system will be obvious when the ribbands molds their floor, and-aft against 8 that molds: and are set on the wrong proper position line to align Fasten be helpful sides of the station the centerline lines, the ribbands as shown the upper due to the shape of the hull,

in the sketch, part and

Use a plumb direction.

of a mold

with the boat

and also ‘rse the plumb fore-and-aft it would it is now that movement.

line or a level to align to the floor cross spalls where care You will remember

of a mold in a forebrace out in Chapter level on all level, the the floor

the molds

with blocks were fitted

that it was pointed

if the mold

at the same

this fact is realized. to bring that them

If the building to the proper should

floor is not perfectly between height. be taken to align

line of the spalls can be used to determine the ends of the molds be emphasized It must the utmost

shims must be fitted

the backbone

and molds properly. ribbands are fitted, will not be the centerline

An extra hour or two spent on this job will be appreciated when frames are bent, and planking is shaped and fastened. The boat on both sides if the setting up is not done accurately. lines, The waterlines and station lines are all straight and as such,

same

and baseline,

enable the builder to erect the backbone and molds with the use of vertical and horizontal lines just as the designer laid out his lines plan and construction drawings. Shores structure and braces of sufficient The number braces must may be fitted to prevent lumber movement of the in any direction. be of low-quality of any kind.

To continue setting up, drop the keel, with stem, transom, and knee attached, into position over the molds and screw the assembly to blocks on each mold. Secure the

-7 I

.III

110

SETTING

UP

Figure 9-1. The typical
shown before

setup,for building a small the installation q/the ribbands.

hull upside

down,

head of the stem to the building som after making sure it is raked

floor with blocks to the correct

to hold it in position. angle and square

Brace the tranthe boat. If

across

everything has been done accurately, the station lines marked cide with the molds. If not, the frame is not properly alignzd One test of fairness bet, around the sheer. The ribbands If not, is to bend The test and adjust a long batten until batten, should until with its forward test fair when touches the molds the molds. should tried

on the ‘n.eel should coinand must be corrected. end laid in the stem rabanywhere aligned from keel to forcing.

the batten

all the molds without have been

not be installed

to your com-

plete satisfaction.

Building
When probably substantial

Outdoors
boats outdoors, longer than there are many down These arrangements building should that are workable, to the ground but on

building

the most timbers

satisfactory

for upside the boat.

is to use as a base a pair of be secured on the molds are fastened

both sides of the centerline

and made

level. The cross spalls

to the parallr1 timbers. Crosspieces are fastened between the timbers to take the stem head and the transom braces. For building right side up outdoors, timbers are placed on the ground athwartships at stations and staked solidly against movement. Keel sup-

::F!?Ei-

M~LW~ej LyM

Figure 9-2.

LINE5-

7

SETTING

UP

111

<.;“,
:‘h5’4JC’~Oh

F em
&EL 5 ;, ,

2 c,‘-Trce \yb /

1

Figure 9-3.
ports mold are built laterally. up with blocks to the proper height, and shores are used to brace the

(SW Figure

9-3.)

Building

Right Side Up
manner as described that are for building erected upside right down, a centerline narrow The and station keels, like bc posts must

In the same those

lines are drawn

for boats

are to be built

side up. Relatively at each station.

for motorboats,

set on posts

securely nailed IO the floor and braced against movement, as shown in Figures 9-3 and 9-4. The heights of the posts arc- carefully measured from the full-size profile and

Figure 9-4. Cow WO?I jbrms

of ktd

posls

which shows husky keel blocks being used to preSuch keel blocks must be large enough to take subvent shifting of the structure. Posts are also used in sailboat are often built on their flat keels. planking is lift the hull Sailboats added raised off the posts when as this action tends to both but only to shore eye bolts in the keel and fastening from forced into any place with shores upward and tilt it to one side. and deadwood the ballast keel casting after the hull is planked up. it was pointed and properly Ribbands out that they braced. and wedges. set up between prevents the Quite hull frequently. the shores to prevent side movement of the backbone. with the stems. checked turnbuckles Such with the keel template. Or the complete backbone may be finished before setting up. as in the auxiliary in Figure 9-5. construction. where . stantial fastenings to the floor and to take the considerable weight of a boat of this type. Note the husky blocks under the deadwood.designed ketch. Ribbands After the backbone under and Molds all molds to hold in Chapter have been set up accurately in position. The backbone q/a Rhodcs. are long the ribbands mentioned are applied the parts rigidly were briefly 8. and the transonl bracing to overhead.112 SETTING UP Figure g-5. being keels are held down on such posts by floor near each end of the keel.

bent against them. iP SE?‘I‘ING UP 113 Figure 9-6. in order Figure they to provide a form against which to bend be it is the wood. The a~~~emnre of the ribbauds i. The function of molds pressure and ribbands is needed hard should because by the photograph.from the stern qu. Boats vary to such an extent that there They must be stiff to retain the hull shape but not so heavy that they are hard to bend is no general rule for when the frames are and hold in place or that they force the molds of the hull.frantes have been bent inside the ribbarldb. the ribbands generally bent out of alignment.~ .v nbozw the keel are correctly spliced. Note the excellent bracing qf molds and sternpost. pine. be of moderately and strong such as fir or yellow size of the ribbands. Ribbands are like 1% n x 1% “. or on the flat from stock .3. which is a rare treat up with As considerable to clamp to the ribbands.arter qf a double-ended auxiliary after. As a safeguard against distorting the shape are applied alternately port and starboard.?. scaffolding. aud the third and fourth ri0tmnd.r pleasing as well as practical. it is best that 9-6. and spaced about 10 rr apart. The tv’cur. (Rosenfeld) strips of wood bent the frames made not frames cluttered to shape clear perfectly around between the molds the molds. / .

0th . .sloop. Thh nlold cross s/~uIls on t bra cent c~rliw q f‘ the hr.i>ld brarcjs to thcJ mftcsrs ofthc buildi?zg nlld the strongbd (Roscw/dd). Below.fk thr backgrou~ld. Above: ?‘irv mm ut right arc’ fitting riblmndJ prior tojiwmirl. molds aw stackrd h nlold i.Figure 9-7. Figure 9-8. Note n.s /wing sat up cind rclwfilllv chrckcd itlig” nl(‘rlt.g (1 raciq O?IIO/I of Ihc .

II II I SETTING lj Figure 9-9..) - . (Courtesy of Hz&ins Yacht Corp.Jw”..~“< ‘/. A v-bottomed hull completeiy set up with snwn~fram~ and ready for double-dia~gonul planking.

on the part into position like a frame on the inside all of them in a fair curve. for now is the last job before and the hull in this conof the builder. be spliced as shown in Figures 9-3 and 9-6. and made rigid with the same care. various types can be seen in Figures heavy cruising sloop. There is no point in doing an accurate job of laying down and mold making unless the setting up and the following work follow the same standard. A sample should hull definitely be tried around the 1%” x 2” spaced molds The 9-6 and before differences getting for all the ribbands. washers will contribute toward The their heads. The ribbands are spaced frames closer where the frames flat. out the stock in ribband framed. mold with screws having be removed Screws will permit top ribbands should go on first. but as a further precaution against hard should be located where bends in the ribbands toward securing are easiest. . Put them on by to each to the ribbands the ribbands and close spacing first and. Running dition the shape and still remain of the ribbands is the cause fair. This type of splice tends to flat spots in the ribbands. The rest of them should be run in fair lines similar to strakes of planking and as illustrated in Figure 9-6. a fair boat. will be bent to the sharpest curves than where the will be fairly as the planking is fitted. Figure been 9-6 shows the hull Figure has already of the ribband 9-7 shows the setup in the two pictures should for a racing indicates sizes for the boats light frames. that the racing lengths have relatively wise they should eliminate unfair spots. of the hull may be appreciated. If considerable to see if it touches of excited anticipation trouble is encountered while bent fairing the ribit will pay to check the ribbands usually the sections by bending framing a batten is started. the splices ribbands Husky fastening the middle easily working under the ends.116 SETTING UP about a foot apart. auxiliary that A comparison sloop will otherfor a moderately sizes between 9-7. fitted parallel to the sheer and a few inches above it. aligned. Careful mold loft work and setting up will make running ribbands an easy job and will eliminate the task of trimming and shimming molds to get the ribbands co touch all molds bands. The ribbands be in single if possible. V-Bottomed It should Hulls be understood without mention that hulls other Than the round-bottomed type must be set up.

In this book discussion craft certain likely to be built a craft before starting undertaking is limited kinds to the two types of framing bent of more frames complex framing. For the longitudinal the quite hull. but are longitudinals spaced use a combination in general. V-Bottom The lofting Frames and construction to Figures l-3 and of frames l-4 and for a v-bottomed the explanation boat should be understood 8. natural oriented athwartships. frames non-existent.) Sawn as islands to both in the Bahamas. 10-l. boards have and made the bent such frames frames. such frames wooden hulls sawn” hulls is Transverse framing is the most common and being have become known as “ribs. than of sawn system apart transverse framing frames are used to shape Fore-and-aft can get boats of welded for the size of frames. and are sawn from crooks or douof crooks.Chapter 10 FRAMING There are two basic systems for framing a hull.” Transverse frames are either pieces from usually bent from one piece. as in Figures sawn from although bent on top of each other. complicated but is well suited for metal suitable construction. are used to build for construction up the necessary in wood. Some designers their v-bottomed hulls. and bent (See Figure l-3 for frames hulls are shown in Figures ble sawn according the size of the boat and the supply for v-bottomed and builders framing farther arc-bottomed and l-4. The frames if are 117 you refer in Chapter . Before be should This system in the transverse strength. crooks where laminated of wood. by the amateurwith other that he is aware and sawn v-bottom the builder of what is involved. for round-bottomed l-5. transverse and longitudinal. Small material l-4 and from two or more or “double to moderate for bent up of two layers with staggered in places the frames joints. system.

plank for not only will it bend fastenings of theory. but for bending the tight curves found in frames. the wood’s tendency Speciftcations However. because abroad. in Canada and responsible is suitable needs should a plank only use unseasoned and stock have proven because oak with a moisture free from surface content checks. The material most commonly used for bent frames in the United States is white oak. to split for some from the through minimized. it may be quickly first attempted. so a good compromise as it is fore and bend aft and in practice in the direction if it does not readily . heat while elm is used that extensively properly. to bend are driven a frame dimension the frame. Bent Frames The peace dispel small bending of mind this fear. re- as low as 12 percent the amateur rapidly. agencies wood. crossways size such easier this way but it is then strength great. frame for bending to bend if handled rather than it is recommended of moisture it is usually the addition and by dry wood. made bear from the full-size The sections and must be beveled frames on the edges so the planking in preceding will properly. the wood must be both wet and hot. It is best to bend the framing stock on the flat of the grain (Figures 6-3 and when boats when Then turned lo-2). boat having of frames for a round-bottomed the construction it is recommended in order to gain boat seems of such that experience to disturb a hull. Sawn and double-sawer round-bottomed are not easy fir the amateur lo construct.118 FRAMING SAWN FPAME -(A&XT 50% REtiT CEAdlEbZ THAti Fb?AME) Figure 10-l. process of picking up bevels is explained chapters. We all know that any piece of dry wood may be picked from the lumber pile and sprung to a curve of large radius. start the amateur’s should with a fairly the mental as he contemplates For this reason. . be as straight-grained with the grain and then as possible sawing this is sometimes parallel to by splitting out the frames the split edges. light frames but a trial the novice and overcome block that is the principal obstacle to frame bending. call for a flat frame its athwartships it is just as strong on its other edge as 1 R x 1% rr bent on the flat. The stock should be about a foot or so longer than the finished length of the frame. that heats quired The achieved of its durability Although and strength. standpoint be impossible is a transverse is relatively member and thus does its job best If this were carried too far it would is to make the frame square.

on forms the this system first mark and then fitted to the boat cold. Frames should be bent on the J2at o/ the Steaming Arrangements You may have seen the steam box at a local boatyard in action. box is wooden. per inch of frame thickness. and the cracks are packed with rags to prevent steam from leaking out. or bent shapely. piped to work./ I‘ . Light length end. the source of steam does not have to be elaborate when only one boat is to be built. There must be a door at one end. It may be generated rigged of water the water necessary. Handle the frames with cot ton work gloves. possible in an old hot water must be ample boiler from a house. Others for pulling and the upper end of the pipe should with rags to retain arrangements in Figure on the same order by the builder. the pipe’s lower well because. of pipe set at an angle This scheme drying works the frames. the box should be located close to the boat. should with a fire built in the pipe. Bending Frames frames should the Frames may either for your be bent to shape in the boat heavy agains: the ribbands method. However. A rough rule for steaming is one hour A few trials will have to be made to get the hang of it. with the ground. Strings are shown with water be stuffed be tied to the frames 10-3. for the period The steam one or two other steaming them in place. to bend and that for a half dozen It is under it and the steam of time you plan to the box. the frame positions on all the ribbands and at the keel. 10-2. The former boat are relatively Guided by the frame is by far the easier layout and unless or the hull is extremely on the construction be followed. marking both edges with a thin batten the same width as a frame and making sure the marks are made at right angles . because bending calls for fast work before the frames become too cool. unduly steaming improvised frames are sometimes made supple in boiling water by placing under there is little the steam. 4) _ I FRAMING 119 WRONG RIGHT Figure grain. The supply this point. plan. or any similar Watch device for if so a wood fire may be built goes fast. large enough the garboard made and as steam tight as possible frames and planks by caulking some room will need with cotton to spare. opposite to the end with the steam supply pipe. so make the box large enough for this job. a large kettle. them danger them may Typical be in a of out. Needless to say.

. to the centerline.. the boat be done quickly two men should once the frame has been rework on the bending while a in one piece from sheer to the box.:. one on a side. Figure 10-3. like that shown By pulling can be flattened in Figure against to aid in 1s you on the it to You the ribbands. will soon moved third tends learn that the bending box.. 8-12D is called. each working from the keel toward the sheer. give it a downward wallop head to make sure that it touches all the ribbands. However. procedure by pulling against and goes as follows. -. there must absolutely be two men bending. should be In the interest of fair lines.j . iO-4A may be employed to the ribbands twisting in the bevel If plenty of hands bend it. otherwise should it be troublesome. A gadget on the head with hands as you progresthe frame sively force the frame to lie flat more than or feet. it in place.. and then temporarily toenail the ribbands so that your clamps will be ready for further duty on the next frame. D of Figure due to the necessity of this. inboard cut the heel of the frame the ribbands it then a frame out of the steam as possible to fit the keel and nail of the frame inboard. the frame it at the topmost can be clamped clamp ribband. Start framing amidships where the bends progresses Take are likely to be easy.. In many in full-bowed sketch angles against frames ender .120 FRAMING KEEP WATER . done very carefully if bumps . in a short boats all the frames and those Because S-12 are often may be bent along the horn troublesome as described timber above. it is permissible bow and from The same forward to the centerline the planking and are shown in the extreme so they slope in Figure lo-4B. the frames of stern to lie naturally are called in a double- frames Cold-Fitted Frames as the type of stern in Figure and hollows are to be avoided. are available. the will the bending against enough..: .. When is designed with frames sheer. aft of the waterline to depart to allow is true keel to sheer.: ‘. in order that the frame can be completely bent before it cools. of twisting from These bending the frames in hulls like in a bevel at right cant hulls length. must from the steam If possible. Steaming arrangements. all the while twisting the head and forced into position the ribbands. This toward the ends where box allows your experience sharp bends are likely The Then frame bend actual start bending and as rapidly to accumulate as the work to be encountered. . Framing the counter stern. .. .

Curvature out of a frame after it has cooled and set. the ribwill fit properly.FRAMING 121 v /- CANT FfZAMES c TWhSTlhki BE\/EL Figure 10-4. you must make over which to bend can be taken one or two forms rethe ribbands To get an idea of the curves a piece of soft iron rod or lead wire against and use it as a guide to build a form. the frames. bend frames cannot be avoided. . then Leave the frames on the form at least overthe bending is done with a steady pressure. night so they will cool and set properly and not lose too much shape when removed. as described or oversized edge is finally are similar stock is overbent on the ribbands. and the form can be padded to vary the shape. but none may be added. inner frames The straightened stringers for such sterns frame to the proper and clamps dre either bent over a mold outside of the boat. The curve. the frames later. the end of the frame is slipped under the pipe shown in the figure and wedged. If the use of cold-fitted similar quired to Figure lo-5A for the forms. When ready to bend. the ribbands. after which it is removed. by padding in Figure so that beveled 10-l. beveled to be installed first bent into in cross-section to the double-sawn the frame illustrated excess curvature is accomplished bands with short lengths of wood in way of the frame location. The frames must always be bent to more curve than necessary. and then beveled to lie against to correspond later to that on the outside These frame of the frame cold-fitted.

in which like those in the S frames forward of the case the frame stock may be split with a SPLIT BEf.122 FRAMING OWNG USE OF 5TEEL S-t-HAP IGHT EIJOUGH To bEUD EA’. The strap shown in Figure and is very handy. some practice you will be only extend of the bilge able to judge which bends may Rive trouble. frame 10 5~ is typical is also present curves. In most somewhat more than the length After of the hard bend. The tendency to split sharp. and then nailing braces across the curve to hold the shape while the reverse is being bent.J-7 FRAME Figure . Reverse curves can be made at a time. the outer fibers of a frame will tend to split when the curve is or a corner one curve found long ago that but someone is a very successful way to combat of the simple when bending similar to that need the turn scheme a metal strap bent along the outside of the this breakage. Figure When 10-5. counter of boats like Figure 8-12D. If you find some bad illustrated may be devised to do the same job. allowing the first bend to set weil. I& FORQ CO wO& Rlb’ETED TO STICAFI Figure lo-6 on a bench on thr form by bending thr frames can be straightened with a device like of the shop building.ME Ul. ILY) l=‘b?ELk.Cd FORM SUCH AS ABOVE 0. thrre is too much CUI’W.l-f SPLlTTlhlG OF FVA. of a motorboat. Due to tensile stress. a strap CaSes the strap such as around involved sharp curves against ribbands.

not as much The of a chore in v-bottomed thickness there as it is with bent-frame be as specified In bent-frame boats. The latter picture in Figure 9-8 that floors have already been fitted to the pracwith to tl-. are not so many of them to the breaking section drawn at the floor can be being an essenwith that so the lofting of is in position. possible.. usually oak. in Figures of frames be noted There are always two bolts practice through to the keel where or four fastenings the width of the on and good calls for three to the frame each side. although the boat has not yet been framed. the hull would is securely fastened to the backbone.--ltive They ends are made of the boat to have full contact the floors with the frames. 9-5. 1-5. 8-8. You will see plans for some powerboats and light centerboard sailboats with floors located at only every other frame. 6-1. on the plans hulls most and is usually of the floors simultaneously to make. alongside every frame but there are certain to ensure that exceptions to this rule. reluctance. are the strength severe strains and the frames the garboard ably not remain each frame fastenings are generally the rabbet.e floors.. the shape is obtained hulls. permits. and where the frames twist in the A-A in are beveled off to fit tightly as shown in Section . It should backbone. because and this system. and tial part of each frame. Like all joints in a well-built boat. point. whether sail or power. a strap is not difficult to to. but in the interest of safety. As a matter the in the hull inside the frames is resorted are bent outside of the ribbands. it is impt. This method is common but would be recommended to the amateur tice for the professional builder. correct bevels In v-bottomed However. each bolted With frame. 9-8 and 10-8. the frame should be fastened in way of the cut as soon as Floor Timbers One of the most These important members of the hull material. that floors be carefully fitted. Floors in way of ballast keels arc Jored for bolts through of the bolts. Without along placed floors. and 8-12D and areclearwell illustrates the b. If splitting in Figure than using 10-6 to permit a strap when the bend the frames to be made are bent easily.! 1. Those under the mast steps and engine beds in both type boats are made heavier to take the extra strains found in those areas and to accept the fastenings that run through the adjoining parts at these the keel casting and points. are of a siding equal to the ordinary flour: nlus the diameter . Fastenings or copper backbone ly visible bolting rivets. each frame being built. When use. and their Floors planks tight. floors must also be preshaped. of floors should the same as are the same the frames thickness or shghtly less than the thickness of the frame. between pieces of f!at-grained and backbone. Floors are shnwn in Figures l-3. do not omit any of them.FRAMING 123 fine saw cut as shown of fact this is easier ribbands. Floors are set on edge on top of the backbone structure and drift or through-bolted to frames are either bolts to it. depending upon their location in the boat. the mold loft work involved might try his patience each floor must be preshaped from a full-size must be cut on three edges before hulls. frame is the so-called would floor or floor connection on probbe imposed timber. 1-4. most boats of the cruiser type.

Figure ships.fastening of floors are important. They in place of the and the before clatnps hull the are con- fore-and-aft they on is all or partially edge fitted be considered frames. at the option forward and on the aft side of otherwise the frames An occasional of the designer. or a short batten The outboard edges of the floors are This bevel may be obtained from a ribaround the adjacent frames for may be sprung Longitudinal Although hull planks because Strength Members stringers planked. the same purpose. placed 10-7. tapered in width and be carefully oak where weight the clamps a maximum and clamps fastened. other about shown than To save weight the smallest the width and make are installation of the boat. BAT7-d (OR USE RlBbV%?) AT LE‘-‘EL OF TOP OF FLOOR TY MEASURE 0Ek’EL Od OLIT0CARD EQGE cBEtEL FLOOR ‘ro FIT TIGHTAGAI~~YT ‘OR72 FRAME -. Limber holes are cut on the bottom or bilge water will drain to the 10~7A) so rain low point of the bilge for removal by pumping. and many proinch or so over the keel to aid in preventing is stressed. beveled so the planking will bear against them. is not obin to to and stringers. they may be pieced in Figure 8-13. Due to the hull curving the twist from in the frames amidships or another on the forward in toward the centerline the ends. If material is not available install these pieces in single in Chapter 8 and as shown lengths. on the and they or not inside clamps may of the may not be fastened part is decked. hull framing arc used whether the boat Stringers strengthen siderahly and to be most effective they should fit snugly They a . amidships one-half at the ends of the workboat Stringers are clearly as described in the photograph 10-8. out with scarphs . of amidships forward consequently and aft of amidthe floors are will bc toward side of the frames to the stern.e made of hard pine or Douglas fir and sometimes jectionable.FRAMING KEEL. in Figure easier.PLACE FLOORS CM I= 51 DE OF FRAMES FCR’D 015 MbSHll: Od AFT SIDE AFT OF Ii4lMHIP Figure 10-7. The beveling and . from hulls. floor may be located for one reason The bottom edge of a floor is beveled fessionals prefer to notch them a half movement of the parts when installation the hull edges of floors before (Figure to fit the member it rests upon. band in the vicinity.

and plugged corners strakes. thickness in quarters. chamfered stringers in heavy construction. the screws are counterthe upper be located or shored on a machine of the stringers by professional shown or beaded appearance depending should sprung to the position upon run as far fore and aft as is practical. the strakes are wedged is fastened to each frame with staggered flat-head where bolts are used.FRAMING 125 Figure 10-8. give valuable the smallest They support ones. and in found in are not if a boat should tightly together. (Roscwfihi) T1zi.r photo~gru# shoua why bent jLarnes nw often cnllpd “ribs” Bilgr stringers powerboats v-bottomed run aground there boats are used in all round-bottomed may because be severai :rn each side of the clrne. the relative of the piece. In some boais and where they will be visible are sometimes builders. . and when multiple. There is usually one stringer on each side made _ up of one or more The bilge stringer cept bored board possible and fastening. exand lower infor as for as closely in place and lay over on her side. Stringers boats except of the hull. The on the drawings. wood screws.

After the molds are taken out of the hull. In. Scr&ions showing sht~?r The Figure sheer clamp is located on the inside of the frames as shown in Figure 10-9.atl 4 a:~n to show :hat in decked boats the upper edge of !O. with The clamps should the bolts are bolted go ahead have would to the frames to extend for maxiplank the if the amateur the plank and completely through the clamp sheerline mum the hull planking.FIZAMEF Figure sheer. the top edge of the clamp is placed below the . planks and in place temporarily and until fastened to adjacent planking for good.r is set down of the deck beams. although One way is to fasten the upper two since planking will be discussed in the next chapter. This means installing interfering that the from the sheer line a distance equal to the thickness of decking It is important to keep this point in mind or else the height.!(! has been espe-.. then heights from the two planks replaced the molds are taken off to enable the fitting and bolting of the clamps possibly The other method is to transfer the sheer then cut away enough of the molds to in- OEck 0EAM SHEER LitJE-TRAt-&FEP THlS HEIGHT FROM MOLDS TO FEAMES -i-H~tJrclER CLAMP lhl HU HAdtdG DECK SHELF PLAdE l-C’ FIT AGA IhITi. There are two ways of gerting around this.-. is completed. clamps. r. frames. IO-IO. before will not be at the right fastenings. I am a little ahead of myself. decked hulls.y . plus the depth strength.126 FRAMING oPEh1 ROUND BOTTOM DECdED CHIME BOATS dam/E Figure 10-g.

Lmm-..~~~~~~r~~~1.~ -YY ‘J ~~~~~~~I:~~~~~~ai’“~~~~.TdD FLOOCS ENGIJE STLlhlGtP ‘--5TQ t..~il~_ii~~._------<G&E E\G’UE Figure 10-11._ ll-~$g!===-~----. .rJ ENGINE \ -4% Jj j\m!-J_ ii.STRlhlGte TWItOUQH 00l. _.i.~2z:~~~~71~_ -7.-.iGEk5 Ob’EQ hOTbtE_7 8 =L~OZZ% F PA’. .-~i~~ ‘! 1 ~~ml~e_IT.-~~:~~~-l~~~_a_-al _------_-_----5 ~~.r•r . se: e0.l. Engine stringers and beds in a powerboat hull. _ _--.--m z iI:::-T~~3?.‘ES SINGLE EtiGlNE TW. J I( 1) 11 ..~m ~~~s~. .

drawings forward to permit This applies them to extend stringers further and still be securely boat for twin-engine They fastened and on top of the floors. Auxiliary sailboat engine bed installation. but if necessary fastenings. the stringers are run as far fore and aft as possible. of hull stringers are found in all properly Sometimes of oak.128 FRAMING Figure 10-12. to distribute engine the weight of the engine. Like the bilge or beaded for looks. To accomplish this. are used to hold the frames in alignment.) The stringers is laid out from the engine figured from the horizontal bolts. and with the chines. before planking. frames. and through or drift to the the being The stringers ‘/R to % n over the floors and U stringers not resting equally centerline spaced of the propeller to the floors. the clamps are more often screwed than bolted. with allowances made center-to-center for the thickness distance of the engine holding-down of the engine bed material. due to the curving lengths. be used for another boat without The clamps are run from to the stem and the outside in straight-sided boats. Because of the depth of v-bottom frames. necessary if the clamp has much depth lower inside corners are sometimes this is always stringers. . of course. rebuilding. and also to aid in elimination de+ed motorboats. and cannot being be as long as the inner in single to avoid conflicting hull shape. the chamfered Clamps in v-bottomed hulls are installed and fastened when the frames are set up. 10-10). in a single-engine stringers to the ininstallaare run It is in a twin-rngine The outboard members too far out to catch the floors and are set on the frames. to have the stringers planned are notched Outboard they may be scarphed. stall the clamps during this work. they are occasionally pulled toward the centerline board straight desirable the joints bolted frames. shaft side. stringers tions are usually to both craft. The uppermost cannot Except (Figure the transom ribbands hold the frames in position some faces are The molds. planed to fit snugly against the frames. Engine Stringers In order vibration. but more often of such woods as fir or yellow pine. (Sep Figure and on floors are through-bolted to each the distance 10-l 1.

bolts are used to transfer the The present custom of having itself to the installation boited must of to them. If enough notches are not necessary. (See Figure sulted centerline Anywhere hardwood is fitted in an auxiliary 10-12. the engine stringers. . and In motorboats may or may not be notched engine thrust to the stringers.) of the from over the floors.34 FRAMING 129 Engine Beds the engine beds are bolted to the engine stringers. be conto the beds. of as far aft as possible the installation position in order between is aligned does not lend diagram to determine and in this case the beds are notched In all boats the vertical propeller shaft over the floors and drift for the engine the top shaft. Figure 10-11. to determine of the bottom of the bolt lugs in relation edge of the V4“to 14 ” is allowed the engine that the lugs and the beds for the insertion with the propeller unless shims when with mounts the engine have a vertical adjustment.

Chapter

11

PLANKING

Planking

a hull

is often

the most aspects and

difficult

part

of boatbuilding seams,

for the amateur has trouble the expert and while

and laying does

always one of the simplest out the width not learn seem teaching. The of the planks it much stumbling to give

for the professional. the run of the planking due

The beginner experience because in words.

thought

to accumulated is understandable, the subject

first-hand sug-

of an amateur

it is not easy to It is strongly

planking

from a book or even

to explain

gested that he study the planking Through the ages a good many

on boats in yards, especially of the type he will build. methods of planking have been devised, but only the and for appearance and swelling, should tight. they should be nicely ap-

most common ones will be discussed here. The individual planks are called strakes, proportioned, tion. Seams pearance, will become shaped open especially unsightly and shut a little

so the lines of the seams are pleasing due to shrinking the strakes to keep on the topsides,

to the eye from every direcand for well-kept not be too wide or the seams

as well as difficult

Carve1 Planking
It will be well to discuss most common, and smooth planking is said at first (Figure about tight carve1 11-l). planking as this method is the

much

of what

a round-bottomed on the outside bevel on the on the be

boat will apply also to other methods. Carve1 planking is made with the seams to receive seams outside
130

on the inside

and open The

cotton

caulking,

which (Figure

makes 11 -lA)

the planking and should The thickness.

watertight. be made planking

is called is about

“out-gauge”

so the opening material

x6” per inch

of plank

should

PLANhING

131

‘de. Ihe edge ma, be 5w3=, 3 the nc,e 3- *ne 3--er

Figure 1 l-l.
ordered and 1 I -1B). somewhat thicker than planking

Cam4

planking. dimension than to allow for planing on sharp turns (Figure !/A”for finishing, will determine to build, as choose

the specified

finished more

sandpapering,

also for hollowing may require having more.

the inside

face of planks

Most of the hull Figure a boat

will not need

an extra

but that on the turns the amount, his first boat,

A straightedge that is less than

held on a frame r& ” thick.

1 l- 1C. It is not recommended planking

that an amateur

Butts in Planking
Some small boats can be planked with full-length strakes. but inasmuch as the usual of two feet, From the be laid Rather a

available lengths of planking material are from 12 to 20 feet in intervals the strakes will ordinarily consist of two or three pieces hutted end-to-end. standpoint out before than rough of strength, the location taking the butts of butts is important, of the boat, and a plan the work is started, as a guide. a satisfactory way of laying space three without and out the butts, without frame three spaces and into consideration the material it is much

should at hand.

try to visualize diagram 11-2 shows strakes block

on the frame

easier

to make that and Butts

Figure adjacent are made mahogany blocks snugly drain

you will note between, them.

no two of them should should midway

be in the same frame not have butts a pair as the frame and might requires should shorter lead, of frames,

strakes between

between as thick

the joint wider than the frames, their

being backed by an oak or the strake of planking. Butt planed on the outside corners Using used chamfered a butt for the normal marine to fit to block

should against water

be sawn that the

to length

to fit between have be trapped

the planking, otherwise frame

outboard than those

on top of the block.

thinner than planking. Set the butt sealers,

fastenings find

blocks

in white

if you can

it, or one of the modern 11-2.

but don’t

clog the drains

shown

in Figure

132

PLA NRING

pi-Ah-e,

,-

ComerS TIT dn’r wa-2r
- FF?A WE-5 i ? * I + + , I i I : L iI

--~----- ~~ t P-F-T=

I

*

+ ,

LACCT

2= PLAti!vi.hiG 3’dT-r5
for thm5 diagram)

Figure 1 l-2.

(hi0

sco e ne~esor\l

Planking

Procedure
carve1 planking strake first, a simple 7. The then round-bottomed normal planking and boat like the 12.footer for the amateur broad strakes, one plank used is

Let us consider to illustrate to fashion and strake under

loft work in Chapter the sheer planking about

sequence to then

the garboard. of the bilge,

the two adjoining with the shutter,

the bottom coming

to the turn midway

alternately

the sheer strake

and one on the bottom,

as the last plank

is called.

Figure 1 l-l.) fairly straight, The widths

b-+- -12 n the bottom planking and the sheer. (See Because it is difficult to clamp the shutter, it should be a plank that is without twist, and . hat does not require steaming. is the tot:J the turn number The of strakes garboard to be used, will determined by the and the at the longest toward frame. be the widest, strakes

first consideration amidships

widths will decrease

of the bilge,

with the topside

the narrowest the rest of the you: in-

and all about the s&me width. The sheer strake can be a little wider than topside planks because of the rub rail often used. As to exactly how wide to make the planks on a given boat, spection of other boats can help. The following is offered as a general tion: 6” to 8” for the garboard, diminishing to 4th * for the topsides the sheer for good Naturally, boat are pearance, Bend strake. These sizes are not hard and fast, but it should appearance,

this is where

guide to proporand 5” to 6” for that

be remembered

the topside strakes should not be over 4 th m wide amidships. these widths apply only at amidships, as the frame girths at the snds of the less, and the planks must taper in width toward the ends. Again for apthe taper a thin batten should around be uniform. the midship frame, mark the length from the keel rab-

PLANKING bet to the sheer, sheer for tapered pearance strake the purpose a little and lay out the plank frame and and widths. run and edge the Then lay off the width batten plank. must The be fair. desired plank When

133 for the be ap-

on the midship of obtaining at the bow

a full-length of the batten

around

the frames should the

the bottom stern mark

of the line is satisfactory, and remove is the sheerline,

the edge of the plank Of course, the thickness and must

at the boat’s ends and that the top edge if any, must be

on all the frames, of the plank deducted. With must the shape

the batten. from which strake

it is understood of the decking, marked into

of the sheer to a plank

determined This (springing

out on the frames, accurately, place). so the plank The procedure

it

be transferred

for cutting.

be done

will fit properly for doing

without

“cdgesetting” as spiling.

edgewise

this is known

Spiling
The shape is obtained longer Several batten for its entire than with the aid of a spiting strakc, should be on hand, to the franles; to be made. edge. from batten, because make edgewise. This which is a piece of softwood

somewhat thickness. use. The frames a little sprung

any individual or tacked

about

4” to 6” wide, sure

such battens is clamped width

and Y/1,,” less in or they will be mutilated with it lies flat against edge should that whole the be Its upper

and that it is not sprung to the plank made

below the top edge of the plank will be parallel and batten is to place between lie more on edge. the plank

does not mean

the edge been idea of the d[p

of the batten the spiling accuracy batten

If it is. the batten to he made and

has probably

the spiling

will not fit. The

it like the plank a batten

so determine

,~;VIJI~CPin shape should

the edge of the batten than a couple of inches

and thr edge of the plank. with a curved from pencil edge should marks. the plank compass

For greater if the

on hulls with a lot of sheer,

be made

To USC the spiling batten, a gap about 4.1” more than plank marks on the frames. point 11-S.) frame lettrrcd on the batten Repeat numbers circle and square at every frame

take your carpenter’s

and set the legs with and the make a with or on.

the greatest space between the edge of the batten With one leg of the compass on the plank mark, down from the line of the top edge of the plank. and at the ends confused of the plank, with points labeling plank for other all points for the particular

(See Figure

the points planks later

identifying

with a numbered

so they will not become

Do not change the opening of the compass while spiling the plank. Mark cuts across the batten for the butt, the stern ending, or the stem rabbet, as the case may be. Now take the batten l l-3B). Before the points then tack off the boat Still making and lay it on the board the compass on a point test with marks, that is to be used for the plank reverse the procedure, mark and in order points and on the (Figure this time, board. until width: not changing any actual against opening,

with one leg of the compass

on the batten, the compass as possible

shift the batten to not waste

will be as close to the edge of the plank the batten movement.

Mark all the points and the endings of the plank. Remove the spiling batten and run a fairing batten through all the points and draw the edge of the plank with a pencil. Do not worry if the shape of the line is peculiar. If the spiling has been done correctly,

through them If the boat is decked. although its on the hull is taken for the lower edge by the method dethat the spiting batten should be cut so that it is This is especially true at the stem. pick off the width of the sheer strake that and marked on the frames. This is the general form. Now at each frame on the boat. Figure 1 l-3. At the corresponding the plank the plank. the garboard end than at amidships. because and if it were to be tapered dip down./i I t3oordin Denbf . and they are made plumb vertical from the rabaet. When transferring the spiting to the board for the plank. pressure side of thr boat. Unless there is something obviously wrong it can be used as a pattern for the same plank scarring plank that from rdge. draw an . at its forward twisted into place at its forward end. than amidships the upper edge might application depends entirely To get out the garboard.& e&cd mm . The spiling marks must be close together where the curve is pronounced. was previously laid out with a batten frame marks on the board. c * \ I l wmdhen sP~h?q wmemzeecw S”. to start the tapering of the remaining planks. I- . lay out to draw a line for the lower edge of edge for the crown of on the upper allow a little extra Plane the upper edge for the crown and the lower edge square and clamp the plank in place. widths then and run a batten saw out the plank.-I:. but once sets this strake it is apart garboard in place the remainder all the easier to fit. it can be fastened for caulking. always After that.134 PLANKING -1 tiotc opcnsnq of compllss me same durvnq +ransfcras to 17 i . In order to have a nice. with the exception close to being an actual pattern narrower forward rule. the plank will fit in place when bent around the frames. where for the plank. the end of the garboard will be well rounded to fit in the rabbet. the deck. a spiting scribed previously.L .. This is net unusual. has to have outgauge just as with a and a clamp use a block of wood between Garboard The fitted Strake plank is likely to be the most will scrm is determined troublesome plank of all. on the othrr Incidentally. What from the rest is that its shape rolr as a starting edge from which wider by the contour of the rabbet and also by its fair upper might be the plank is point for the rest of the planking. the plank in place. Bear so in tnind the butt end of a plank will not occur.

forward so it is open will probably on the outside for the seam end of the garboard need steaming to get it in place. Broad Strakes The spiting next plank to go on is the one above of the edge edge. the rabbet is fair and you look at it. a spiting against As before. square. While the plank is steaming. to be wider Now run the batten appearance the bottom of the sheer strake of the first broad by the planned on the frames. between for the upper wit1 be straight tween frame. and that is right. such should little placed less than and plane receive The take be fairly The that width of the garboard edge of the sheer strake. wider) will be too much but skiff. Gttt the plank the frames to the floor. being a point. ends of you have not be overdone. test is to sight and see that the line it makes at amidships.foot mark of the edge. lucky. the plank this time mark the forward only the width look at the line from all directions. and drive a wedge between the top of the shore and the plank. at the ends curvature or there As stated when strakes. When ready. it may it will not need Don’t be discouraged. then as quickly flat against as possible the plank in place while it is still limber. midship Start the garboard. run a batten so it is tangent to the arcs. assemble at hand plenty of clamps. Before running so the remaining by counting and at every and a batten planks beor so At and at when a is taken will lie against the garboard. and that you have to decide easy to make. clamp a piece of oak to the frames above crushed. to straighten It may be that end in order it or give it a more pleasing . the fit corrected. fit the forward bend with shores end of the plank in the rabbet first it. the plank Fasten and drive a wedge wedges directly in place when ateaming against against a block on the plank edge there to move is nothing If you are for in a even cost you it sideways. plank on your edge and frames. frame and to draw and. forward any excessive straight run a batten of the garboard is removed. Saw out the edge on all the frames. possible that this will be the only plank on the boat that will need such treatment. If the bottom edge does not tic properly in the rabhet. at the forward the batten however. 135 the edge of the at the midship and so that like you did for the strakes should be will on the frames for the top edge of the garof the strakes the two broad the remainder This curve they are flat before before. the plank. a little plane remove the top edge the edge caulking. and or the edge will be the plank more if it fits satisfactorily. the garboard is the most difficult material before you produce one plank to fit. and material for shores and clamp to the floor. to do except normal boat some wasted to let it cool. it can be removed for replacement. upward straightening. In the case of the 12.PLANKING arc with the compass (Figure 1 l-3C) instead ofjust plank. Never drive the edge of a plank. called the first broad. board of strakes and how to taper by tapering This layout it in proportion to the space third the garboard shown called the sheer strake. Cut a shore toe nail it to the floor. a little short. the the remaining the garboard pleasing the width will probably in appearance at the transom be as wide (or a from wherever will be a little the batten. wedges. If it doesn’t. Lay out the width bottom board. planking dividing the number the spiting the distance the top edge of the garnumber will want of strakes. bent. the plank is done batten. and to it is as it is amidships.

Now find the number on the scale. and plane the plank to shape. and label when at that 41$$ ” into of eighths Divide them the two girth 11-4.$ “. system so that when the turn tween there and the sheer The next two or three planks are lined out with the same of the bilge is reached. and with it you can go as you like for reference widths of the frames . When the line and saw the frames. viewed satisfies. make remove it a little the batten. the work can be made easier if you use a planking scale made with a batten about ‘/R x U I “. take a spiting for the top edge. If so. from mark forward. wider. wherever Then aritilmeticaiiy Do the same responding between between the greatest the shortest marks of strakes still to go on. to make on as many applied frame. the corare S”. Mark I.!!ddie of on the batten the boat. the remainder of the planks bemay ail be of uniform width and taper. will give the width a few minutes’ the plank of the strake a planking scale. 12 equal spaces 12 in this case. However. the shortest distance and.) takes note on the scale girth so each one represents to the unpianked (See Figure any frame. by the number the which it will be near may be. therefore call the corresponding assuming mark on the scale 4!$ “. strake Width Scale for Remaining The planks between Planks planks and the sheer strake may be lined the last of the bottom out by dividing the unpianked girth at each spiting frame into equal spaces. call the space of an inch there on the scale 3 “. of Let us say the answer mark 3” and is 4 I. answer is 3”. It only along and You will see that time the scale. but don’t overdo it. divide with the greatest and also the girth girth space still to be planked. girth divided b\/&3= 4k” 'I @w 3" 15 04 lr/?“= 12 eighths a" 4!q’-3”= Divide space between girth nvlrKs on scale batten into IZqual part5 Scak applied to any frame will give plank width at that frame. Figure 1 I-4. space.136 PLANKING PLANKING E%cample: A~ume Greakst Least SCALE 6straKe5 remaining.

up. turned in preceding 1 l-5 after girth known to be planked as stealers. clearly forward located at a well aft of amidships. fit a plank. in the process the keel. again. requires with and planks the greatest planks end at varying necessary photograph.1 B. it is unnecessary if you find to straighten an interference planks for words.) plank are too pointed to take a fastening. of the keel rabbet There are numerous a study pointers the job. frame where the wo at each frame Normal is secured per plaL~k at each the bottom. the remaining ribbands than redivide The boat space are only removed becoming As you on opposite other. at the rabbct will show as the turn along upon that mold. of the hull. (Referring that I t-5. short These generally in the sternpost the number these short positions of the sternthe remaining post. To keep the hull from on the that remembering for instance. running In this particular type of planking variations. must be spiled. of a hull built shows the shape of over a permanent the stealers and their board lustrated urged ballast to avoid of being to remarks chap: ers. coming making although the remainder each plank of the strakes. strakes. Figure 1 l. This gauge and roughly round will save work later. stealers are nibbed into there is no garto have one as iland it is strongly on a boat similar keel will be fitted ends (SW Figure for the length I I-6B. thickness nn the edges with a marking before fastening it into position. sides are not exact duplicates to a pair Hollowing Hollowing bottom.) Often.PLANKING 137 when tens. and Rounding of planks. be com- the pl. but it still is possible possible can of the planking in Figure that before be made to the one being for whatever be picked Plank Fastenings The width type of fastening planking of the plank will be as specified with three will permit. neighbors. depending of stealers The and the shape are A study of such of the bilge is reached. such as throughout in the narrow topside width of the frames. a batten the seams out as they should. the face of the plank Stealer Planks The frame start a hull planks typical auxiliary sailboat hull. to straighten Figlut over. on the plans fastenings or according and to your own choice. the deadwood it is right side up.anks are not truly the planks of shoes. pared do not put more opposite. is best done with a wooden plane having mark a rounded the finished After a plank is hollowed to fit the curve of the frames. beginning built to the hull in Figure l l -6A. side. . on one side of the the opposite and may due to hollowing. it is best to run once From now on. as they become distorted. The fastenings are staggered to the extent allowed by the and planks that cross floors have an additional fastening or two The butts are fastened with five in each plank end as shown in . to making a plank. driven into the floor. make a mate In other that things to run batare not then out and However.

you are liable to plane hollow down with palm and finger for preliminary smoothing. the remainingstmkes as the Figure ings and 11-Z. Drilling for fasten- are discussed After planking. at On the is ‘/8H or under. Carve1 Planking the hull further. of balls from for use in nar- row seams and plank butts or for adding a piece to a double strand for use where the seam is wide. to smooth off high areas. or else you will have to pick wood chips and pieces of trash Start a little off the strands sticking as you use them. and into tuck an end of the cotton strand in the seam. high spots that done by planing with a With a shorter smooth Rubbing the hull up and seen with the tips will reveal are not readily Caulking Before tight. wicking making obtainable strands. into let this discourage the plank planking supply floor They unfold break thickness must have the seams you from tackling the job.138 PLANKING Figure 1 l-5. Now take two strands single strands at a time and roll them in a hall. The entire job of correct caulking is a skilled art. Butts plugging in larger size auxiliaries in Chapter are frequently 6. the hull is ready jack plane and using long strokes plane eye. Keep the cotton clean. Also make up of folds of multiple of the strands. Stealer planks are used to straighten turn of‘ the bilge is reached. areas in the planking. separate may be iron. By caulking too hard it is possible pull the plank lightly driven. if the caulking is too it will he forced out of the seam by the swelling of the planks when wet. here is a good place to do so. Just the right fastenings and force a plank away from the frames. and if the amateur plans to employ professional help with his boat at any stage of construction. to the full them a couple so handle with care. then with a caulking wheel or driven caulking made length cotton packages stores in one-pound the bundle easily. regular a strand or two of cotton with a thin-edged in the seams. Don’t When rolled Thicker marine a clean strands. bolted. the plank seams are caulked to make them waterto smoothing This is a verv critical step in hull building. amount of caulking adds considerable stiffness to the planking. however. then gather leaving the cotthe seam at the end of the plank: at one end of a seam out to drive L .

the seam. the size of the loop just right so that the and this will necessarily to make vary if go for room you have driven is being enough fitting done a few feet of loops. the unfair portions will show up when paint is applied. the work with a dumb iron to a minimum. Thus. If not perfectly at this time. in Figure drive a will reduce When 11-7. All the while. determined and the right edges at in Figure of the strand to make forget to caulk hut also by the size of the loops. in hardwood planking like of cotton hulk. formed be in the middle of the seam depth. in a tight rope-shaped strand which should Heavier blows with the caulking mahogany. ‘/. Next to the first loop drive a second. but for wider 7. smooth the hull again with a plane. The finished cotton being should driven. a depression tools the butts. off any paint on the outside of the planking doing the seams. After This in the seam and so on down the seams the seam trick is to make have not been composition to the beginning the cotton far enough is put in later. When the seams are dry. If at any point the seam should not he open Careful to take the caulking. ton in a small Normally seams hulk hack loop with the caulking another iron you will use one with a blade iron about The madr drive for the width uniform. good caulking not only by the thickness pressure Don’t make a slight depression mallet will he needed calls for the right the strand force amount for itself in the plank edges. set for a firer cut this time to get the remainder of the high spots. by the caulker of the seam. of mallet depth. not be driven all the it shoulrl way to the bottom of the seam. paint Wipe the seams with thickish that paint.6” thick at the working edge. amount the right 1 l-8. of the planking dumb iron into the seam to spread it wider. the hull must be left as is or else a part of the job must be done over. Caulking in the plank are shown Smoothing After caulking. is correct and that you may need of the cotton and drive it in the seam with a making iron. Sand- . rr thick.PLANKING 139 A 0 Figure 11-6. Two methods of using stealer planks. rub the palm of your smoothed and then hand diagonally across the planking to find the bumps and hollows. gets using a narrow seam brush made while for the purpose.

Too paper the hull after planing. clean. that. Caulking is looped just muck caulking can harm planking. Garnet paper is better than sandpaper. is partly and also are exfor of expense. less of it will be needed if the seam filled It is my understanding proper adhesion certainly would seam sides are Douglas fir. This is no problem with a new hull.140 PLANKING Figure 1 l-7. seam A tinr~ finish made can be obtained for this purpose. it cuts faster and lasts longer. Give the hull the first coat of paint composition fill the seams with hull More About Caulking The today pound hands caulking procedure described above materials caulking is the old standby permit tightens the method. but it take a lot of work to prepare the seams of an old boat. for that reason new compounds with cotton. but woods such as teak and and perhaps pine. enough to property /ill tile seam. deed caulked the matter pensive. gradually using finer grit until it is as smooth as you want it. with a diagonal and carefully scraper if you are skilled with this tool. although more expensive. and in the seam is required of the modern compound. These wood the whole and even permit the cotton that hull structure. for the seams have sworn boats but modern the cotton I would that the use of a different to be omitted. an oil that impairs adhesion conse- .3. and have been so satisfactory stay with absolutely for so long. The cotton and not painted in the yellow old-fashioned have way. bare caulking method and is as good filling So many and comold in- as it ever was.

my word that house paints firms have descriptive all of them to protect booklets and Most of the marine are different tell you how to do a good There it is recommended good nowadays. that you stick to the rules. paints is cheap paint finished.. Sca~n caulking whrel when planking pools. planking nothing Lapstrake Planking Sometimes planking. instructions f~urd iI1 should be followed carefully. Hull Painting while Good the boat is bring about pin. insurance. because lapstrake planking bent is very different of the planking in place strake when without from carve1 to is in In the first Secondly. inasmuch and the frames as one upward laps over the next. place.PI. so sanding may be done but the width Lap- after planking The strakes the same when as for carve1 planking. out the widths of the laps must laying of the planks.KI~J!G WHEEL Figure 11-8.c d / H ‘i :/. and before painting. are lined out and spiled be taken into account after completion. efficient smoothing but a light final must at the garboard proceed to the sheer nature of the planking prevents is planed before final installation. order. need coating with compounds. If you do want acts as a primer. and beautify that A few remarks your hard are in order. The only suggestion I have that may not be d paint company bookiet is to cover the entire inside of the framework and (except where visible in quarters) to paint later.1 Nh’ING 14 1 ? J P // 7 . so use only marine to finish. job from the hull can br given Take paint start systems. is rollcgd into seams with the quently sulfide priming. of the stiffness being plank it is possible the p!anking any change the planking directly the molds. Cot&m is Y8” thick or ltm. plank start completed. and a priming paints coat will For preservation of paint. work. The each plank called over clinker planking. Check The polysulfide a special primer made by the manufacturers of the polythe makers’ recommendations carefully in regard to seam compounds are a two-part mix. with two coats of a wood the preservative preservative and else. the silicones are not. I i CAU. not do for boats. .

“I nl-nL. are hoisted for boats like yacht tenders and lifeboats cruisers. or mold.. The bevel varies from one end of the plank bevel specific little to scratch may wider width to the other be gauged due to the shape of the sections. but the minimum on the plank becomes W ” on planking gauge as the plank the lap width or spiling with a marking or mark it with a pencil. cuts at any frame is increased. As a guide is about Figure Your when l l-9A plans as thin beveling.. .. . length At each mold the plank. that For this reason. with an equal can be done set for the width of the plank ..npmlrc /hnkirrg cic*trcils. Vd/inTH OF PLA)rll(:IdJsOE EDGE’ A 0 LAP BEVEL rV&DGE Figure 11-9. by changing beveled builders rabbet rabbet prefer plane (Figure l l-9B) in order joint.c--. . fishing resulting skiffs and for small in a saving sport boats where light weight edam --b-v is preferred. the correct bench as guides. out of the water for high-speed The section in Figure 11-9 shows how the upper edge of each plank is beveled so the next one will fit tight against it for the width of the lap. . riarn tn &.ae a the ic . strake material utilized planking can is used principally be turd.. .L. The job then using the short work to cut the bevel for the entire The planks must be flush where they fit in the stem rabbet or against This is done. aned th_innpr of weight.” .0 -othnJ nf y. the bevel to a Some of the planks by a Stanley all beveling of edge on the outside. helpful of an of as t/t 0 and a with a rule thickness frame. the method for is and lI...L.:.“U L. Naturally the transom.142 PIA NKINC.. .. I.” f-actpninm . This l l-9C. should of lap..L.” .. shows how the call for a it i. beginning about two feet from the plank end. ..I -~PPI~ rtiff.nm . u. to avoid finishing a feather a tapering lap like Figure with its gauge half-lap off at the very ends quickly and neatly lap.-*- of the laps.I.‘b . bevel is cut on the plank for the length inch or so.

The garboard plank is usually made single so that it can be replaced easily if necessary. bet. over frames in the conventional smooth planking. left-hand. is the primary and when with as for single is lined out and spiled except that there are two consideration. laps are copper in position. necessary. the planks or so will be to hold the planks while the edges manner. of pianking easy to maintain. does not permit If the boat workmanship the clamp is to use a caulked it to clamp is lapstrake A half dozen The shallow so builders needed have devised in Figure are riveted. the of planking. Before lay be spaced fastening up to about experts 3” in %-inch of the planks.9D. If the lapstrake boat is being planked on the keel and on each frame positions riveted and as each completion are then discussed planks. the frames 6. inner fitted. throat of the neat a length the plank The wicking sealers of the modern Unlike This depth carve1 planking. the laps. is relatively job is really and easier It insures done watertightness Double without planking periodic is ex- recaulking. lightweight wood. spacing riveted is marked between 6-6. On the other hand. such as white or Port Orford cedar. and lap. notwithstanding The total that each layer planking is thilmer normal thicknessof is the same as single planking. sit akes ate fastened for there is actually with small quantity of metal used to fasten the two layers together between the sufficiently to the frames fitted tightly are the same together it is first coated on the inside without outgauge. the outer strakes Before planking planking. outgauge. planked is not recommended of ordinary C clamps for the amateur alternative 11. The seams of the inner layer are arranged layers. pensive. Double The Planking of double and because a sleek planking finish are clamped to the frame* just like purpose is twofold. a double The are each comis the same as for a carve] job. are bent. the marks about and fasteners At the stem of cotton marine (See Figure for guides. used to fasten bedded eliminate bet without capable the plank ends in the stem rabin the (but tightly builder rabbet. some of the weight saving is offset by the additional frames. the fastenings strake is fastened. required. Between frames the layers of planking screws along the edges of the inner strakes are fastened together from the inside with and also along each side of the middle of the to come at the middle Of course. but weight can be saved over a single-plarlked mahogany job by planking the inner layer with a good. strakes The planking no difference screws.) The The planks in Yl -inch to the frames for lapstrake lap rivets should planks. shown ends are fitted in the rabhe is seam. 1 Id rr apart transom. in Chapter the ends white plank plank is made at each over molds. the planking than twice. and Always sides of the hull.) planking screws 143 how rapidly remember the bevels off the After are are of the work goes along experience is the same are made has been on both right- of any one plank In other words. generally or one lead.PLANKING laps must this part that while be carefully the shape done or leaky seams once will result. as no caulking . to apply. the planks are opposite. The placed using (Rivet the frame as it is fitted. the sheer strake and the first broad are also single thickness but are rabbeted for the outer layer as shown in Figure 11-10. outer pound. to not glue) unless lapstrake in thick caulking. but it is surprising gained. are All seams the width of the outer of the outer strakes.

inner strakcs to fasten the edgrs headed screws with washers under two layers enough would of I ‘I.ANKING 1dhh5R SEAM AT MIDDie OF IhiPslER PLAJK - Figure 1 l-10. IhuI~l~ pltr~~kiu~ rklnils. in place. the v-bottomed The seam battens hull is set up with are then clamped to the frames. of layer thickness a finished are roundbecause the be thick thickness proportion must be a ‘7. Figure 11-12 shows a well-built frame ready Marine eliminate batten caulking seam glue is applied the seams. as shown in Figure 11-11. by the to is fairly One of this country’s for many. the best aplargest many producers years. out the plank The frames may be spaced relatively wider because battens.” outer Batten Seam Planking This planking system owes its name to the fact that its seams are backed on the inside by battens Although plication has been to which the planks are fastened along it is possible to plank round-bottomed is for v-bottomed used seam popular hulls. chines between is not the garboard well named and the unlike and keel is caulked ordinary glue. boats in this manner. edges of v-bottomed and the method simple. a boat by this method. l!n” inner Naturally An example planking. . it remains and fastened to the battens the seam glue the planking for planking. although as usual. just before is stiffened fastening the planks plank because. are so complctrly the screws layer tied from against to takr of the outer strakes. batten construction because the edges. To clamps build fitted The batten seam pliable indefinitely. lining stock cruisers with amateurs.144 P1. the outer making layer the inside. These fastenings the hrads. The whole job is very strong together.

Hobbs Yacht Sales) batten seam planking.BATJE~ SEAM l=iANG(rhl~ ------ William 11-R A Ilull framed for G. (Photo courtesy of .

screws.146 PLANKING been than located with by dividing carve1 planking. In Florida passenger-carrying guess one rould skilled boats with strip-planked was common old-fashioned building. the strips are best laid with the grain running in the direction shown in Figure the thickness. just of design.lst be done as with carve1 planking. the length say that in canoe hulls. a fairand to from is no clamp may sprung along the planking by spiling at the sheer. is clamped are drawn but remember width spacing edges of the batten of the plank from deducted and there ing batten the battens the shape is obtained. of equal parts. Thus and of 6” amidships. as possible.) stable materials. of one and one- The dimensions anvwhere half times of the ztrips are a matter from the same There but they are usually up to a width is an advantage to using square strips. adhesives. the framework fitted. that this type of planking planked. The structure skin that (Strip planking from was also pracof plankedgewith modern ticed before ing had fastening fiberglass the era of waterproof a dimensionally such synthetic but the fits between resulting lends the strakes to be as near produce4 or other itself to sheathing Strip planking can be used to build either round even seen strip-planked trunk cabin sides. having greater sighted depending on the width for appearance. frame. transom each the top and bottom the inside where when they cross the frames. Unless keel to of the hull (and nbrmally they will not be by more to strip planking a hull just like it. edge of the plank. Strip planking sheer are the same the shape girths of the hull dictating of the hull from complications there strip will be encountered. and I have I have seen a number of 65-foot 1 was told by the owner lsland area of North wooden canoes were of one 1 be just strip Carolina. . easy for the amateur. The the spacing may be are they and in the be battens so that stem. Screw fasten the planking Strip Blanking Strip planking enjoyed popularity planking a hull with narrow areas edge-fastened years. pencil so half so the battens are fastened along must will be flush notch A plank width of the planking one or two flat-head so it overlaps is to the middle to) each against from the inside. in width than just nailing one that when the girths at least l/z M something and m. Due LO the natural of wood. and strips of solid lumber-has the interest has become in certain for many greater with the use of fiberglass or other synthetic fabrics and resin to cover the outside of these hulls. or v-bottomed hulls. the top edge as in the boat in Figure of the sheer strake to the frames the sheerline be preserved around the edges. the net of the batten. in the Harkers and canvas-covered precise but this lightweight is reasonably throughout. and that is it expansion and contraction gives the chance to select the best grain. and when edges the battens each frame into a number material. look fair. with with With of the available planking The plank if necessary. the frames. the batten (or added If the frame is very wide 11-l 1. a batten. The edge-fastening consists of an adhesive plus nails to hold the strips together during the curing perfect cycle of the adhesive. is notched The lines battens widths say an average they have been are marked removed. It is easy to understand to compensate dimension for this. is usually LOanother type of boat requires workmanship and should left to those how many any means). adjusted. thick. parallel-sided vary.

of sorts for doing radial Scarphs The strips. When or Stronghold in the wood. the strips must amount of cur1 l-13A. length be glued of thi either nails Moncl down You can make on a bench the strip of the scarph sltould five times on the workbench.13C. sufficient getting to use hot-dipped not exposed to clamp the strips galvanized wire nails. be seen with. to remain fair when sprung to the shapr of the hull. . tightly a matter silicon of economics. If cost does are the first comin place The spac- choicr of metal is largely it is all right matter. ‘l’hickness hull without stiff enough Sections vature Note is governed by the shape of the hull---the strips must bend on the be coming close to breaking. Thr should length l’hc this by hand. Strik plcmkin~ ridails 1 l. not mon choice. one edge the relative the other Some ll-13B. If the hull should mold contains bulkheads to such or other permanent with a nail framing. it needs pressure during every other strip or so be fastened a member Before epoxy resins became available. number because of nails while the adhesive cures. hollow box regulates in Figure strips. be done be about (See Figure The smaller the boat.gure 11-13. The the amount around of beveling curvature to eliminate they must should or the cutting required.PLANKING 147 Fi. two and one-quarter times bronze the width nails to water.13. be just they are buried should not on the boat. builders the open seams the greater and round of the bilge on the unbeveled to be reckoned beveling. glue was used between the edges of however. can be scarphed. of the If the strips are not long enough. Nail heads are set slightly below the surface of the wood with a nail set. At the other end of the scale.) a miter saw or with a thickness. through strip planking the turn are drawn in Figure as can I 1. be about for the nails Anchorfast to pennies. ing and saw. resorcinol strip planking. Some like to drive the nails at an angle to the strip for a locking action. Resorcinol is a very good adhesive. or screw.

will run out of the seam. Bates. A few of his strip-planked deepkeel sailboats parallel-sided where Wiley perfect advance would much simple eliminates glue take that I saw were planked with mahogany strips about 1% 0 square. of the joint over which if the fit is less than to build of frames over a hull with that would reduced. the tapering beveled strip started stop planking at the keel and was planned and the parallel-sided than thicker ‘/R” is just in too would strips to determine of a job form In my opinion. thickening perfect. The over. There be needed the frames are options normally might when it comes for the same be omitted which do not the adhesive nail close or the resorcinol need so it won’t to setting thickness altogether. Bulkheads and a few frames. let us look at a layout designer-builder II. of course. can be added to the structure later. enough The hull is best built with plenty that there right side up. then tapered the strakes suitably and worked the edges to bevels for fits. frightens by Fred Referring unduly. or bulkheads can be part of the setup and left in the hull. 10 A in Figure strips are laid starting Figure 11-14. The strips extended from the sheer and ran to well below the waterline. if needed. planking where was. position. much pressure. for the first attempt used by the amateur. and is best set up in a building off the floor of overhead so that the keel can be high is a minimum Some of the best strip planking workmanship ever turned out was done by Ralph Wiley in his yard on the eastern shore of Maryland. planking for strip planking hulls of that at of Damariscotta. temporary Or up a mold strip planking.~~ \ ’ : 148 PLANKING time and is not noted for its ability to fill gaps.9 ~‘~~~. . Maine. unless clearance of working it is to be quite in a stooped large. The edge-fastened skin is so stiff that with the number hull carve1 planking the is drastically planked transverse molds of suitable number to shape the hull.14. Before tapering tapering. added. run out In strip planking the fits between and to which there is suffithe adjacent Now be a filler can curing cient pressure possible from the strakes of planking must be pretty there are epoxies. but fastenings.

or waterproof with just a few screws toward to hold it. should either be fastened marine with just enough and then. These more has a good scheme :‘d N plywood.!d can for only be used to plank be bent plywood in only one axis at a time and generally consist of developable thus should with its limitations curves that consist of portions of cylinders and cones. are per- with glue and fastenings. cut to the tine. to plank it with you should review the plans of your boat carefully Plywood is a stiff material: with conventional wooden areas quickly. lumber for the inner They layer of a doubtein curvature. are cut the depth L. widths by springing location. was no tapering in Figure seen was a method A good number they started ran out at the sheer. standard plywood panels wit! be too short for you to plank in one panel from bow to stern. glued are generally White it in place. II-14B. of the panel the tit is satisfactory. of which drilling so they remove on again. with a slot width were built There of slightly the strip parallel Still strips pearance thickness.PLANKING the keel and are temporarily equal a tine carefully manently parallel-sided Fred makes from a dozen scrap to a number is drawn marked replaced strips of strip for exact on the strips held in place. that plywood the methods panels. to the sheer. glue screws to hold on the rabbet. as fast as possible and countersinking invisible builders hull. butt blocks. therefore. the ends. screws. However. which should be detailed on the plans. Also an advantage can be less than it would be is its ability to cover large used just about defy written description. before Suffice deciding it to say then. If so. use plywood the remaining the surface are a great be made from the middle the heads surfacing of solid of the panel marine instead even when there is considerable . specifications frames. Often. for keeping varying The remainder of planking of the hull is planked aligned while nailing. of the glue. the points. where hull apstrips another with rounded at the keel and version hollowed planking This strake into the hull. that by a Great Lakes yard using of the strips. with good-size wiih screws the plywood apply because These joints. of Rhodes-designed and sailboats edges. either special panels must be ordered or else the regular panels and must be butted made fitied. Working there can for screws Some planked etc. and bend many. The sec- fact that a hull is v-bottomed plywood: of vessels plywood design. It should not go uncurves noted that experienced builders have succeeded where theory dictates the impossible.. as one looked arrangement in a herringbone Plywood The with tions Planking does not automatically without distortion hulls designed construction mean that it can be planked in mind. as indicated resulted of strip down I have were laid on diagonally. apply the plywood depending to chines. the strips clamps or so of the horseshoe sketched in Figure 11-13. the plywood Work with for the boat. slightly the panel again drive below putty. being The joints should be waterproof well fastened When or rivets. Then The and 149 a distance and are with He than strips is laid off from the sheer at each frame or mold. planking thickness planking. end to end. then not permanently a batten removed through and fastened.

Stilt another method a skeletal there arc is strip-planked applications. which build are The resorcinots and for the term cold-molding. to the second. --set down. of cold-molded been beyond stability a tough. and developmem. A hull the hull work with strength-to-wright approaching of aluminum. thus the reason Although methods. attractions. method up a hull on a male the finished a strip-planked structure and structural plug or a form does not become membc~rs. are laid on diagonally. the hull very tight because hull construction is easier of the stiffness by laminating entails method. temperatures. desired needed materials. methods. planking closely to this is the availability the dimensional to build To cap it all off. to construct for many Tied Either chosen. number number and weight of internal strengthening members. is laid up diagonally the centerline 90 degrees times White modern of the mo!d or frame. removed waterproof the strakes the glue are secured sometimes in the section on adhesives. its shape. cold-molding can has several be built with a cold-motded skin can be built way. are installed combines thcsc two: the first layer of planking framework Each and method then successive layers of planking has definite advantages as necessary. by most and which up at room all cold-molded method which bulkheads spaced usually they can be built a skin transverse Another over forms by various a skeletal (some of is to a amateurs longitudinal is to laminate stringers. the glue is curing. lighter Tht of the laminated up to a that has been with light particularly means than a very stiff hull a wooden because by the traditional interest high quality to achieve of the superb when working adhesives. may be either off the form. construction mind. which are the the third 45 degrees to each adhesive to form to the first. framework. the first layer etc. of planking layers. or strips Generally. and the The designer draws up his and its purpose of much in scienthat who built for particular variations within each method as to skin thickness. that Thus. of some sort of backbone. hull that might it is possible for the amateur strong. hulls consists frames) mold. of laminated for protection tong-lived the outside have hulls can be fiberglassed his ability with other from abrasion. have been able Brothers.4NKING pieces as large planking as will bend on the hull and in this way save labor over the usual doubte- method. at 90 degrees architect’s specifications. rhickness. tific research to specify specifications with the intended the cold-molding srantlings The end result In the last decade. The leader in this field has been the firm devclopc~tt the WEST (Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique) Whatever planking.150 PL. as many of thin are used to build with staples. the epoxies. hull consists bonded of multiple other of strips layers of thin with a waterproof layer upon veneers (as thin at about as x6” for small a stiff. the supporting shell is lifted part of the hull: as bulkheads and transverse frames.gners ratios of Gougcon System. has been has been the subject that desi. as five layers after glues the second Depending strakes sets up. Cold-molding A cold-molded boats) skin. heightened the method or if desired. over and such with closely In this case. strong to the at somethickness. hull construction process vessel’s size. As noted epoxies upside up the desired nails or screws. are built used and ribbands. otherwise .

*. (I~~lf~lf~ f~orcrtf~sy o/‘. Gougcon of experience cold-molding that such craftsman. to build a cotdroutine for each layer. for skill and care in any facet of boatbuilding. a [rue and sturdy to bc done Indeed./ohli tiowever. patient There by John learned by those are two excellent at considerable and Guzzwrtt about books listed length. 11 /irlnrcwork t~rrz:u~fdl. and perhaps as many some hI1tt shaprs can amount not Reading Yacht of trouble.$kor hvl’trfi rlpp/ivd If. by be attempted that that thy hull is ptankrd tricky as five times. hulls with reverse seem to give a great hulls should and onr professional builder has stated anyone less than a realty skilled. l~rrllrhfwtls. ccrrrl .) o/ mfdds. amount boar. the planks is no substitute lofted. @” * 4 .strr’ugf*r.>. In addition. which the details of cold-molding books. the number curves but at least three of layers.s. although strips tht:rr great against molded meaning prove is child’s might play compared and it SWIII to the amateur that laminating up a hull of thin to bending frames and spiting and cutting out planks. The tines must stilt There to butt is stilt a tightly mold must be constructed. must upon to get the joints between be accurately of spiling a huitdcr depending to build: one another. some professionals have opined go through a complete planking not just once. under Recommended are Moduw on Boat these deal with can be These Wocldrn Construction Much Thr deal Brothers from wirh Construclion. have been written with a great this type of construction. ‘i’hv /i’rst . . that. PLANKING 15 1 Figure t l-15.

by sanding. 2” of cold-molding. chines. frames The planking and transverse together is generally with longitu- in some cases. of transverse planking The with must or bulkheads 11-16. using What and thickness. the planks approximately is also edge-glued the angle is not in place beThe as long second frames. is made or nails of diagonal upon is shown planking glue and in Figure material screws and can be seen to be of uniform to frames. chines. is much now. and and keel or sheer Toward thr topsides amidships. clamps. to eliminate over the heads is smoothed on the outside has cured. the planks IO change brings is glued as the planks layer as the convergence out of parallel into line. . that are thicker Because of the greater where that it often that two layers this method on v-bottomed to a framework a fever powerboats. in shape hulls. and planking To provide outer strakes from pressure nailed. and frames. is secured depending clamp. waterproof glue between as was formerly it a bit different consists each of only is used en(or in a waterproofing veneers strake to br a form of cold-molding. is that mostly counters fastened the planking Planking it predates cold-molding In fact. When can of the inner and fastened clamping are clout the inside with screws to the keel. layers it can bc considered it employs strakes of planking. dinals). The tween clout tenings puttying planking with the edges the angle of the strakes be tapered. tends Tapering the size of the hull. * the adhesive the fasthe be wood screws of the hull. also being too much to one another. instrad of fabric by quite as it is practiced soaked than some time. the intersections the framing are then countersunk. back of the planks frames.152 PLANKING Figure 11-16. glued width. than consisting number the change strake frames less severe on round-bottomed of keel. of the bottom with those the bow. diagonal agent makes planking is very to cold-molding. nails between cross several to the first and clamps. critical. The scheme similar angle to that to 4” wide. The first layer is laid up at a 45-degree to the keel and chine. Diagonal Although similar done. strakes driven After are 5/H thick or more.

of them. on each side of the boat. craft. its position ends. To lessen the are fastened on edge to in screws through once the boat is decked. which not only provide The latter The many support for the deck but also help to hold the sides of the hull together. powerboats and sailboats that are strength to do without the stiffening hulls the thwarts do double duty aspect is impor. which of the same a greater screws of the clamp. able to be tightened beams.) They pieces in place or. beams.1.Chapter 12 DECK FRAMING The tant decking of a boat is laid on transverse to be decked. shelves if necessary. The shelves so that with the joints but the outer must be fitted will 153 the ends of the boat. types of small not decked must be designed to have enough that the deck structure provides. in several The inner against joined by scarphs. the clamps. As hulls increase or deck shelf. are sprung concentration the clamps single located edges with lengths. material landing area for the beam are used as fastenings. as hull Clamps and Shelves The deck beams must be of good size and strongly required (Figure a shelf. beams to the camber of the deck the beams . necessary. be planed corresponding to fit snugly edges may be left square. in all boats designed especially in sailboats. 12-1A and B). In small is fitted and connected to the hull if they are to to the clamp stifthe The shelf through are in size. toward should a pitch in the vicinity of the deck 12. advantage beams are not accessible (See Figure but in larger of being vessels through-bolts Bolts have the extra of fastenings between when frames. In many such stiffening. as the clamp. an additional on the flat against are fastened contribute fening clamp the strength heads callrd boats they are fastened and the frame member provides is generally it instead In small always whereas used.

the twosides with The a to them.) When member found should the clamp great having entire edges and width. . on top of the shelves used the same knees.w H~YQER WITH CAMBER l3Eb~L Old OUrEi2 OF SHELF EDGE Figure 12-2. this connection of the deck. which at the stern A piece of plywood or metal way is also suitable. bear on the shelves’ few deck beams every station.BEAL4 BEAL4 ca.154 DECKFRAMlh'G -M / / ‘1 ‘1 2---EebA-r 2 ---EebA-r V-A-F. strength Such structural members out of them.5.J lee CDL*5-e. angle. deck the connection is more difficult. set a (See in place so the bevels of the shelves shelf are and or at least at to the proper form a single bolted stiffness.4EcTlahj~ ca.+. The Figure 12-2A. of course. are sawn from crooks cross framing curve The shelf/clamp in place must join one another via the transom. plate either is a knee of sorts fitted out of a natural is a piece assemblies of oak the shelves At the bow this is done of oak or hackmatack. through-bolted For a flat at the In this as well. C’~cd) 4 SHELF DECK BEAll K’iTi K’IT+ @ CLAMP Figure 12-l. between crook.4EcTlahj~ V-A-F- /yq /yq DECK CLAMP ROLTS sceEv. and bolted underside Unless Just as a connection 12-3A). case the knees fit the transom you are a skilled who can work out the intersection of the deck FPAMCS AS rs CUT OFF SHOWIJ CiAMP &EAM cc BEAM MOLD TtMlWLAClLy ‘TU MEASVeE 5~IELF BEVELAT 5TATlOd5 ‘AICE FeOM T 5tEi. breasthook. hook is often good (Figure transom. be planed they every is to temporarily few feet.F BE&L PLAt45 CLAMP CLAMP 4 A 0 LOCATI& m AGREE 0E. and bolted and on both sides of a vessel.C’~Od) CDL*5-e. and to get every bit of benefit be fastened which sawn together at the ends wood laid of the boat. The best way to get the bevel may can be measured then together. takes the form With mold a curved loftsman of quarter and against camber on top of the shelves have the proper the transom and transom. angle-shaped are.

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156

DECK

FRAMING

5’ET II410C’L~ OF c&.K~~Z-,

I. D,,,de AB A:( c ‘17 r-o A~J*Ico~~s. STEP Z cl, ,‘i Al, C-D c-c mo*e *se 35 sbwr and dmr. ~ornkr wr,e yr(+r 0 m*+en.

Figure 12-4.

and boat.

transom The

on the floor, view shape shape

it is best to make of the knees

these

pieces

by the cut-and-try on the boat. at intervals

method. plan for the the or its aft of the the Install of three

The plan deck beams four inches batten each

is easy to obtain,

as it is shown

on the deck framing and

of the top edge

is best obtained a batten

for thr* five or six feet ahead on each time side of the centerline, the inside the batten of the transom. is clamped;

of the transom clamp

on top of the beams, at the underside will represent the marks

edge just touching

Mark the transom a line through

underside of the decking as well as the top curve of the quarter knees. The battens can also be used to measure the bevel needed for the aft edges of the knees. Shaped as they are in every dimension, these pieces are really quite a job for the amateur.

Deck The bility beam cessive, curved

Beams deck beams should be made of oak or ash where where comes When lightness aboard. there be cambered, Where an especially is severe maximum strength There and should durabe a exwith in

are desired, at each

and of spruce that

is a consideration. both the camber good camber, method

frame,

and they should

for strength

and so the deck when boards

will quickly grains

shed any water are obtainable.

is not unusually found

the beams

can be sawn to shape,

such as is often

DECK

FRAMING;

157

cabin bent

tops, the beams to approximate merit because

can either form and

be steam-bent strength

to shape, to shape.

or over-width Another

stock can be one that the

then sawn exactly

method,

has much

of the resulting

of the deck beams,

is to laminate

glue. Beam construction beams of three or more pieces over a form, using waterproof is shown in Figure 12-4A. Most of the beams will have the same siding, but at hatches, mast partners, than and the ends of cabin the t,egular beams. trunks, the beams 12-3.) should be heavier by about 75 percent (See Figure

Although it is customary to represent the beams and frames on the plans in the manner shown in Figure 12-3, Figure 12-3E shows that the beams must be beveled to fit against planking, combination must This the frame which heads. This is because the centerline and flaring 12-3F. the frames toward are twisted the ends the inboard to lie flat against of the boat. corner instead the curves toward Due to a of a point.

of deck camber in Figure

hull sections, will land

of the clamp

sometimes is sketched

be cut away so the beams

on a flat surface

Deck Beam Camber
The depth beam. Figure method and should method, length amount of camber a beam is given pattern, 12.4C. on the plans for a given or a beam may or in the specifications and is stated as a using the length of the longest length, mold shown beam board, length as it is called, with in Figure 12-48 the thr procrdure mechanical in bc laid out easily is needed,

of curve To make shown you run three and one

of so many

inches

12-4B is followed, in Figure when into nails battens,

or the camber

The method curve top where of the

is self-explanatory and very useful camber. end of thr Then arc. In this beam two are

is suitable

only one camber a cabin are driven center each

but C is faster has a different one beam at each

each

in the pattern beam than

at the

at the top of the

straight-edged

longer

the required

by at least two feet,

placed snugly against the nails the angle between the battens. batten always assembly holding from the battens

as shown and tacked together rigidly enough to hold The camber curve can then be drawn by sliding the to one with end of the beam and then to the other, the nails at the ends.

the centerline in contact

Half Beams and Headers
At the sides of deck beams. Figure practice shown space The opening headers The fore-and-aft openings is bounded into which old-timers today, The the beams are short (Figure 12-3) and and beams, are termed and half the in this of

by the strong the half beams always dovetailed the connection

beams

mentioned

previously fastened and

are notched the half

as shown although

12-1A.

is still followed in the sketches. between

is more often made be elevated to coincide molds, of beam from

by the easier method with the camber clamp them in the (See half

headers beams,

must then pull

the beams,

and the procedure the strong

is to make

a couple

the header

up to the mold. the centerline side decks,

all the while

springing the header Figure 12-2B.) In powerboats and

to its planned small sailboats

dimensions with very

of the boat. the normal

narrow

158

Db:CK

E;RAMI,YG

beams heads.

are sometimes a filler on which

replaced piece

by a shelf fitted as thick or a covering the usual

on top of the clamp. beams, board. clamp notched fitted

The shelf in this around the frame only

case is simply for the length (See Figure

as the deck

is laid the decking

This kind of shelf extends being

of the narrow 12-3D.)

side deck,

from bow to stern.

Deck Tie Rods and Lodging
When framing headers between masts. the decking is stiffened (Figure header These and consists with half

Knees
rather than between large pieces of plywood, or clamps may the deck and the

of planks tie rods beams. fastenings For

running

frame stiffening

heads there openings

12-3C). frame

These

also take some of the load off the connections additional be “lodging” on top to at ends of large or oak crooks or riveted in the deck or at and shelf or

knees in the derk knees

to provide

strength hackmatack They

are sawn from

and are planed to the beams

conform with the deck camber. clamp. (SPP Figure 12-3.)

are bolted

Deck Blocking
Wherever blocks wood there are fittings on deck such as cleats and and tackle blocks, The there should be in

fitted

between

the beams to bear

to take through-fastenings. against, they distribute

blocks

provide

more

for the fastenings

the load to the beams

I he case of shearing forces, and over a greater area of decking when upward encountered. The blocks can be of oak. mahogany, or plywood and should on top to conform possible Blocks to the deck are camber best framing. and sawn Figure to a tight 12-3. fit between Whenever bolts. the blocks if through-fastened to the beams

strains are be planed beams. with long

arp shown

in the deck

Mast Partners
‘The deck the cabin beams. framing trunk, These blocks plan in Figure 12-3 is for a sloop has large made blocks as the depth of hardwood having mast and its mast stepped partners fitted between whether or lodging is laid. through between which located knees, This The sup.

the top of which are always and they are always

called

as thick

of the deck beams mast partners, as blocking

they are fitted,

through-bolted.

plcmentary sketrh, Figure 12-3G, shows a set of typical in thr trunk top or the main deck. All comparatively should be coated serves to keep large with thick deck white frame lead there surfaces. or other such bedding

as the decking

out water

should

be a leak in the vicinity.

Haqging

Knees
on a boat by seas and by masts in sailboats work to collapse to the way that a packing box from which the ends have a hull in been re-

The forces exerted a manner similar

DECti

FRAMING

159

+iAC<MATACk.
P OArC KdEE5

HANCLING

tNEE.5

Figure 12-5.

movt-d at thr

collapses deck

when and

a man

stands

on it. These

forces

try to hinge

the hull structure sized and located

corner

are only one of the

reasons

why properly

fastenings are important if long hull life is to be expected. Brackets called hanging knees are fitted for resisting such sideways strains. Like lodging knees, they are made of natural Metal, kners knees crook oak or hackmatack plates, and plates are and through-fastened angles, or castings, at the ends knees trunk. insofar as possible. used for of in the form are grnrrally of flanged is often

and has the advantage Figure

of not splitting 12 5 shows typical stepped

with age as wood is liable and singly wooden hanging

to do. Hanging and midlength at the mast part-

used in pairs at the masts its mast

long deck openings.

ners of a sloop having

through

the cabin

Modern Construction
The quarter knees, price 04622.) hackmatack. plates. lodging The for them. It should craft Knees knees, problem (According be realized and hanging knees described magazine, earlier them are used in

traditional a reasonable field, niques flanged Maine

construction.

with such knees is to find to Woodr~z~onf that there

and then to pay a longtime Morse, suptechof Cherryand

plier of hackmatack available metal

knees was still in business

in late 1979. He is Frank are modern the need for traditional of wood or plywood

materials

for small

that can eliminate can be laminated

crook knees or be made stiffening

of oak and

Or. knees need

not be used at all due to the enormous

provided by modern materials: of lodging knees, and properly the place of hanging knees.

a well-fitted and secure plywood secured plywood interior joiner

deck can do the work bulkheads often take

a deck be supported with by these bulka few transverse of unsupported it is necessary to reduce . just span in a labor savings. packed etc..designer should provide and as is of the structure in way of masts of bulkheads cruisers of plywood a minimum where panel material joiner head framingthe can is used for weight partitions enclosures.160 DECKFRAMING In any details case. together deck of other glued hull. be guided by the plans for your when boat. The. If there are a number common consisting heads beams areas. and or in many partitions longitudinals power of two layers and full-height full of cabins.

The only covering . first. permits the deck to be quickly built. A cheaper dcckislands. unseasoned in the first place. remember to comfort advantage. Tongue-and-Groove Tongue-and-groove material. with fabric it is logical to make to make such a deck of waterproof plywood and cover ing.) Depending economic smallest tightness. enough The sometimes other covered with canvas. and minimize consists of a wooden rot.1 B). Where the materials deck covered are available. is made of tongur-and-groovrsometimes then there not: the latter of narrow is a short-lived strakes sandwich thick deck either waterof both types. the latter has an or aesthetic. and quick to rot if the deck groove covering tends leaks. the deck Regardless of the decking the double to safety. to warp The straight-run deck is not (Figure as strong that as other types and the for a 161 tongue-and-groove construction between has the disadvantage the fastenings the thin upper edge of the 13. deck. Very often these decks are made of non-durable material. whirh it watertight there are really only two basic kinds of decking for a wooden boat. anywhere Deck boards from make an inexpensive deck because the width of the 4”to 6”. are variations (The builder of a boat with a fiberglass hull might opt for a lightweight having fiberglass skins over an end-grain balsa or foam core. laid deck made to be caulked for watcartightness.-DECKING In general. is the so-called And type of deck it with fiberglass cloth. one still used in areas like the Caribbean type boards. with the boards parallel to the centerline of the boat as in Figure IS-IA. strength and that in all but the and rot preven- of providing Both these aspects contribute as well. serves each type purpose of deck chosen. The can be the lightest. tion boats upon your viewpoint.

162

DECKING

“-%.ac~ BeT*CCr UkDEP BUT--

rEC& *i 3CCu.

9EA.4, kc%

TO”riGj’E ~__

4‘ GPOOVE

DE&K

Figure

C>ECh *.PltJL 5-3 \+.. .VCP SrEieP-p,f~L’” ml!,‘P7 h, . --11\ -~ ...BLOC* \,-neo *3-, .
deck of wide boards canvas duck. life is shortened that will come and go easily with the moisture shows through the ridges. and the to the canvas along The groove by wearing warping

tongut~-and-grnovc~ as ridges and

in the air is old-fashioned the canvas

Unless the boards are laid in single lengths, these should be scattered as much as possible. butt beam. planking age, leak. drive. cost. these ends must Instead, butt have be well fastened, the ends blocks. decks are fastened upward and better nails. and are fastened between

there must be joints in the decking, For strength and to prevent curling, to make beams such a butt to blocks nails, the deck similar

it is not practical

on a deck

Most tongue-and-groove Calvanizcd Better and

with common poking and holes

galvanized

and with making it to low

a way of working

in the canvas,

wood screws are much threaded deck really

are inexpcnaivr, to recommend

but cost more it except

still are bronze even

A tongue-and-groove in time

cloes not have much

this is doubtful.

Strip-Built The strip-built

Deck type of decking shown in Figure 13.IC is strong, rather quickly laid,

and suitable perhaps just sprung

when the deck is *c, ” thick or better. The strakes are usually square, or a little wider than their thickness, and for maximum rigidity they are of the deck edge. It is best to cut any laid decking from rift-sawn

to the curve

DECKING

163

boards shrinking finishing bronze The beams surface edge

and

lay it with and swelling

the edge-grain across and

up,

for this way there of the deck. (See because

will be a minimum Figure 4-3.) Galvanized they are hidden nonferrous and toenailed slightly when Monel

of and or

the width

nails nails strakes as shown

are used for fastening at many times

are satisfactory of course, eliminate between practice deck

not exposed

to sea water.

The fastidious, the cost and to each 13-1D.

can substitute all misgivings. the beams

are fastened in Figure Around strake deck

other

to the the to the hull

It is good The

to set the nails off smooth

below finished.

of the wood. of the sheer

the edge of the deck, with waterproof-glued

the outermost is planed seams

strip is fastened like a strip-planked

of planking. is built

If a strip-built

(Chapter ll), it will be enormously strong if the seams are fitted reasonably tight. After being planed smooth and sanded, such a deck can either be painted or covered with light fiberglass cloth and then painted.

Plywood
A main rangement strength openings panels under tioned.

Deck
deck or cabin for the deck in the deck top of marine of plywood and plywood must cockpit, at masts is strong, light, and quickly to provide into with taking laid. The armaximum consideration the size of the of lodging racking knees was mcn-

of the pieces

be planned waste and cabin,

with care together

for minimum chapter,

of material,

for hatches, and

available. Following

In the previous the same

the function to minimize

in construction horizontal

the deck at openings

reasoning.

the plywood should be cut so scams do not come The butts should the beams whrrr Joint locabeams, beams the putty, with Monet oak. due

at the ends of large openings in the drck as shown in Figure 13-2. overlap as shown in thP skctrh. and joints should be located bctwern the panel tions because The with ends can this adds deck rlosrly panels spaced br sccurety scirw if thr considerably should flat-head fastened to a butt is waterproof strength. the edges and along nails. block are not as important plywood glued

underneath.

to the deck the deck Countersink

to the horizontal be fastened screws around or annularly

threaded

fastening heads slightly below the surface non-oil base if the deck is to be covered A well-fitted non-ferrous staples driven plywood staples. deck properly up to Plywood

and cover them over with a surfacing with fiberglass cloth and resin. to the deck framing can be fastened The coating staplers. can be fastened with coated increases

glued

I,$ ” thick

by compressed-air-powered

the staples’

holding power so it is just about impossible to withdraw these staples from whitr When a plywood deck is specified to be :?$ R in thickness or more, the curvature to camber ficult and sheer might make laying the deck in a single that thickness either or even impossible. which As soon as it is obvious be done should by using be waterproof the flat panels thickness, together

very difof

will not conform the most

to the surface,

the job must

a double glued

such as two layers to provide

%” or x” plywood, st rengt 4.

Canvas Covering
Plywood and laid economics--

Decks
with fiberglass, covered with of decks but inasmuch is still worthy as I recently of mention. saw both plywood of

is best covered decks being canvas

canvas

in the Caribbean-~

;)robabiy

because

covering

_I\I in- -I-

164

DECKING

FAGi CANV’AS oa WlTCI
Fi0EeGLA55,

C

COVEk3ZD

DECK

PLANICSHEEEZ
cCn.,VAS ob? FtBCKGLAS5

r eATTeN 1”.,.,-Ccl -,_ /___C4NdA5 JR
FlBEtZqLA55

-

-,

PLnuwLFuEER

.\ * COPAMOk, At&
I I _____ •t

;

0

i

ifn

~

~.-~ V4PN’GED)

lUTED

062

l’-rvjoJD

JR

TOtiirLJE

4 GE% -5. t3EaMr -l-o OF DECICZ -I’

M&,ODTYPE ~~DEC< ‘;
I

---___----_

0LOCF.l RETIGEEN SurrJar eDG5

.AWtchinq

ml4

lldil

,

- Seun-

THE ,,ECk< -r\6U\E bltaY WAti’E E,TnBa T,.‘E pL.--“. .--cm -

I

kc,ITlri OVTrr KIT* iLnrE:Y , ‘4iED 5rEtr.S RLOCL TO DECV.IUG IbT’r.2E.d RE4W “ECr. C”TFl?Oh\ pL,bQ,-..o i’AriELS ,h

FOPM&h OMULI STCEIIGTcl

Figure

13-2.

Canvas piece suitable together

for covering width so that cannot there

should be had,

be bought width

wide enough to turn down or other

to go over the entire canvas fold. worker Seams boats

deck in one If a to

if possible,

allowing

enough

over the edge of the deck. of the boat. When unable

get a sailmaker

to sew two strips are shown to lothere and in the even which

will be a seam down

the centerline with a double 8-ounce that

use sewn canvas, tack it on the centerline skctrhcs in Figure 13.2B. The 12-ounce cements weight of the that canvas varies from for decks are liable

for small wear. you use plain

to get considerable

Although

are canvas

on the market,

it is recommended

marine

paint,

should bc applied to the deck immediately paint is smooth so there will be no lumps reason, be sure the canvas moist the is clean. that Select risk of applying loose covering. First stretch stretched canvas

before you lay the canvas. to show under the canvas.

Make sure the For the same

a dry day for the laying, or else you run the in a will stretch later, when it dries out, resulting aft this along the centerline. a two-man The job. canvas should be ac-

canvas

fore and and

as tight

as possible,

is at least

It is better

DECKING

165

complished worked edges should spaced After the boat the edges.

by rolling and

the ends secure

of the canvas

around which

sticks so that

more

area can be down over the Tacks

on than be copper in order and

can be handled or Mone!, for them

by just your two hands. it with tacks, steel or even galvanized, the pressure. working until amidships, the canvas for cabin

Pull the canvas and should pulling from

of the boat

will be hidden

by moldings.

never to hold start

be very closely opposite fastened sides of around 4” in-

the ends are fastened, tacking Where the canvas stretch has been Believe before deck

as you go along it tightly, structures completely

is completely and hatches,

covers openings later

cut it about to the boat.

side of the openings, will be turned When coat further paint flat paint an effort canvas the canvas shrink

and temporarily fastened, painting.

tack it to headers it is a good idea

and beams; it the first to and in

up inside

as they are added

to apply

of flat paint. the surface

it or not,

one of the best methods is dry. At any time it will start later,

is to wet the canvas brush is applied

and stretch

it just before the canvas then

Do this with a scrubbing If too much paint

one or two more coats of and will also cause the

can be added,

a final coat of deck paint.

to get a slick, glossy surface, to crack.

to crack early

Covering
1 am going such disagreement

Surfaces with Fiberglass Cloth
to touch about only on covering panels or diagonally covering the most dimensionally planked should hulls stable wooden structures. is often

as plywood

(Chapter

11). ‘There

t hcsr surfaces:

the cloth be laid on bare wood and

then saturated with resin, or should the bare wood be coated with resin. and the glass cloth laid in the tacky resin, smoothed. and immediately saturated with another coat of resin? applied There adherence Ask an experienced covering that supplier of these materials from or someone you know who has has not delaminated the wood.

seems to be no disagreement over the fact that epoxy resin has the best to wood nr over the fact that the wood surface must be clenrr. Any oil-based of fastenings or in cracks must be removed to bare wood and material. A materials supplier can sell you powders to mix with it for use as a putty. can be mixed with like plywood surface For instance, the resin. with a single sanded. smooth, a fiberglass primer bright, etc., being the layer with of cloth, with corstrips. The boat, reinforced doubling for an epoxy putty, a white

putty over the heads replaced with another the resin Stable ners, such adhesion to thicken called Cabosil surfaces powder

can be coveted is improved after items being as hatch the

as thr chines of the wood decks

of a v-bottomed

if rough sanded

Fiberglass used first. If the cabin decks should everything the fabric tapering The

are painted such

sides and be covered

coamings of “feather” These

are to be finished the deck the cabin, job. strips that

before

installation method

joinerwork.

When and turn by for

is to be painted, up against are and it with the sander

the watertight

is to build

it for an inch also available

or two and in tape form.

the edge narrow joints

of the covering are great

so it is not visible watertight exterior

in the finished woodwork

fabrics

strengthening

making

v~ill be painted.

the joints block it is steamed 13-2D). To prevent this. decks. because flat grain will eventually lift and splintera condition that is both unsightly and hard cedar. but the outer cdgcx of a tongue-and-groove deck would bc sprung downward if stepped canvas splitting on brt ween fiberglass the edge when. there perhaps to the extent of tearing the a tongue-and-groove deck is not recommended-and and also to support the ends of the must be blocks fitted between the of the decking. is obtained variation as illustrated from by laying the edge unless of the completely or contrasting by Figure and the canvas-covered colored This segments covering piece. the conbefore. be rabbeted the fabric down into the groove tacked. for the narrow strakes are twofold: the narrow material will not shrink must be clear and should The reasons they may bc sprung without too much trouble. are joined 13-2C. otherwise draw in the tapered width with When the deck is sufficiently screw fastened the planksheer stopped planksheer can from is fairly narrow. fabric-covered around scarphs. Suitable teak. rhey run out at the edges. and on bare Burma feet. apart in adjacent strakes. by a varnished board with a and -wide boards a board Its shape on the deck as shown by the dotted Then case it is in the figure line is drawn of the planking it is a tapered needed. Port Orford by far is the best and. deck called is a a A very attractive. the deck. The wood for a laid deck Any joints are located so they are quite far be in long lengths. deck weight is important. In smaller boats. and the groove filled with a tightly fittt=d batten of wood planksheer. planksheer. beams covering where unsupported. In larger yachts. the edgr of a fabric-covered deck with a half-round to match the the planksheer toe rail is fasmost common mahogany or The outermost strakc of a stx-ip-built deck is edge fastened to the planksheer for support. Figure mc~thod of finishing oak molding. them in which for the width. best to cut the outer edge on all the pieces assemble on the deck. . lines parallel the planksheer. to shape run bent they are is the top to a butt of the planksheer (Figure underneath In some cases where The fabric edge inner of the and on edge.166 DECKING Decks with Planksheer old-fashioned deck edge is sawn bounded to shape and marking of the deck. where weight does not make is laid. Caulked There wherr Decks are IWO types of caulked difference. and are edge-bolted. deck planks deck beams. Another way is to employ a toe rail set al the inner edge of as shown in Figure 13-2E. Douglas fir. The at the edge in either of two ways. heavy. like most good things. The fabric is tacked along the edge and the 13-2F shows the tened over the fabric with plugged screws. and and swell much or check. 1” thick and upward is laid over a sub-deck of marine plywood. a batten. too much planking thinner decking A tyllical laid and caulked deck is drawn in Figure 13-3 for a sailboat and The planksheer is fitted first as described struction also applies to powerboats. The woods last named are good white pine. on the underside. The wood must be rift sawn so the grain can be laid on edge. thtsn thy narrow strakes are sprung parallel to the edge of the planksheer.

Raft .awn. .--. . CL.CA0lhi SIDE J ICAL b’AiCpE d-IV SCAMS Ruti -CAUU&D LAID DECK’-L-- -ObCdcldDER l’D -YAK?? FA5TEhlldG5 Iti hhS ErlDS L STCA&S HERRNG 00dtD AT %-rz~P-BUILT DECK) BR tJIbbE!D IIJ-IU STCAIGW OR TAPCREO IdlhJO PLAhJ< -.ckr drcwiog I-? PLbtiB3HCLR ac SEAM FOR rHlOISOL COMPOUhlD •~AG~CRED FASTCdWG5 hJ0CMA.L SCAM od ALL bWEL cue CWE -GAULIcIdG SEAMS- Uh 6Erc ---_ ._. (sac Figure 13-3.

The decking is similar to constructing being fastened exception the strakes are not to deck of proportions. Quite in Figure to take fastenings. Figure 6-2. this. very long. there is no deck quite but since so much antiseptic put on the market. Either next It is noted the strip-built blocks under seams made wider. The seams are over-filled and the excess filler is cut off with after the thiokol has completely cured a few days after paying. the open caulked heated sealers with cotton. Your plans you use flat-head screws as and plugged with bungs of the same wood as the decking. boats to offset their otherwise systems and treatment is being has been on fiberglass job and appearance. The seam as shown to bevel the edges by the enlarged “paying” simple. in the sun will it out to a whitish color so that. both requiring the planksheer straight the cabin under as well as the aft. in Figure deck resulting or nibbed in a smaller into a king bung plank at times. It is suggested listed in the table. and due to the size of the plug. ” a preparation thiokol-based tape. Note in Figure 6-2 that the screw gauge may be reduced for decking. and with its long life. You will find entire the method of the plywood deck used in Figure is complete4. nibthe cabin 13-3 is sanded a a lot of fitting as the taper plank that on some of the nib ends will be fore and (unless Still another into run and way of decking and and fastening is pleasing then the is to run the planks around ends the plank the planksheer a margin too. the strake into It is not desirable to the cabin strakes to let deck run under sides. decks It has a natural oil that seems to make Scrubbing with together the deck everlasting. and to make it run for away after in and is laid that can be run applied The seams were over-filled Now there seams are available with like the one shown are masked and the excess was scraped After filler the decking is then in the figure. “seam to make them The seams were glue. is planed not only common to the eye. as would be covered with a 5/gn a 3/gti fir plywood sub-deck .3-3 that the strakes may be herringboned the deck at the centerline cabin as drawn sides. for caulking 13-3. secured. with the beams. 1. bing sides. Sometimes to be nibbed is needed. and to avoid the ends 13-3. A 1 ‘/R or 114 0 thick * deck will have strakes about 1 W II wide. When surface of marine that a laid deck over a sub-deck laid deck. are straight) but to blocks planking the deck where the seams and the lengths are caulked smooth. up new seam compounds. with a household-type caulking gun.168 DECKING the most expensive. should be thicker than the plywood sub-deck. there will be room for just one fastening at each deck beam. of teak cleaners got busy making of them Until do a good the chemists are easy to use. regular keeping of the deck strakes sections in Figure was called space was left for what the seams. payed. The screws will be countersunk and this proportion in larger boats. does not have bleach equal Teak trim there to teak. practice teak Most was do get dirty used a flood do not look well if neglected. about right as the thickness of the decking becomes greater that will specify what your architect wants. salt water and it to be varnished or painted. Planking conventional directly an example out at the sides. the decking are run to the cabin king plank. at the centerline way there must opening parallel like be is as drawn. standard watertight. Care must be taken to avoid air bubbles by the tip of the cartridge at the root of the seam so it is filled from the bottom a very sharp chisel is up. square seams the glue hardened.

pc~’ ! I I DECKING 169 thick teak overlay. screw the “/eWthickness mentioned above manner. be taken before with to prevent strakes. thiokol be a leak in the seams of the teak cloth be laid covered but effective cover the plywood ttle teak it to cure.. holes in the conventional . some the teak to the plywood the sub-decking builders (without cient As an alternate. laying job. compound is suffi- If the teak strakes for counterboring are not back-screwed. and with lo-ounce can of course)-a plugging the teak deck. allowing from underneath. Plugging should there fastening holes can be avoided Pains fiberglass on plywood messy must if desired by back-screwing rotting of In fact.

with Varnish the finest yachts had vast areas of varnished reasons. though. A discussion about finishing follows. natural These woods have an filler is used for teak. varnished Teak wood and (“brightwork”) mahogany is limited to trim hard initially moldings and resistant used to accent fore-and-aft but either of lines such as the sheer of the hull. woodwork. while larger yachts Open might daysailers be done hull. your watertight because. for Pr0pf. hit of the exposed deck Finishing Traditionally. and visitor will vary with the type of boat. Clear. work should cockpit. or scarred and btb judged by its cover. This regardless of how well you have the occasional will make on thr appearancr* of the deck structures. peeling varnish. will havcb simple carefully a deckhouse. are moderately Their to scarring. them can be dented and such a finish open grain 170 that must by abuse. for various most likely to he faces of plywood rather than solid lumber.Chapter 14 The boats have built amount likr and character cabin of deck joinerwork cockpit neatly trunk. . hatches. any large areas deck joinerwork of varnished fine of teak or woods are Today. nothing looks wet-se than bare and stained dirty paint. about the ultimate appearance while doing ever). has appeal to many. coamings. and bulwark rail. natural appearance. is necessary. Nowadays. mahogany. because the builder must keep thinking joinerwork. Even though it is said that a snap appraisal of your boat based too.r maintenant-c*. and hopefully the faces are of veneers thick enough to survive a few refinishings to bare wood. finish. my ad- a book cannot \ice is to take a great deal of care when finishing parts that meet the eye and to keep them shipshape. takes work to produce he ftlled for a smooth and to maintain.

the highly marketed previous reasonably touted 10 years form the affluent. and sanding the essentials in between the gloss. it should you will have be clean amount area must free of dust about The waterfront out an enormous more ture remain of brands. only in a sprayahle will leave not at all adaptable (“painter” for amateur is really are brave use of the polyurethanes button-bursting Cabin Trunk The plans and Cockpit Coaming boat will show you the kind of cabin and coamings (along with of your heights and half-breadths). practice. this high-gloss. apply a second undercoater. The work and this is dry.* painting . you. and cabin side on deck is a continua- of the cabin it will he best and easiest . Start that apply as well as easy to maintain. yachts were when Use only compound glaze coat. putty will do as glazing is thin. details in or deckhouse. people who freely hand brand.. applicator two-part polyurethane coatings used on airin brushable form by several or so.. be sanded a finish and with a fine-grade while what abrasive. and sand lightly and carefully before painting the first finish to kill the gloss. nished. such as Philipinstead of varn:-’ ’ fir or Duraply plywood. lightly again in mid-1979. in Chapter 16. or a mixcoats to kill kind to use. depending tion The largest side. because well.. filling: then The wood must thinned to at which be sanded brushing after When or more work to a perfectly ‘i 2 filler. of desired smooth is spread color are applied finish before on and allowed to the mahoganies. may also swear by a particular of the kind absence of varnish of moisture. craft marine hren If you superior again Sand and of marine with an undercoater. a paint countersinking a good with a polyester is an advantage to smooth if necessary. Finishing There th-:. then apply a second coat of finish. below grade out and indeed an all-paint finish can be very attractive as if it were to be varneed not be plugged. can not result in a truly proper) Starting trade.aurni you may he painting wood deck joinerwork. appearance. the same: and boatyards are full of highly of advice and more experienced. But regardless cleanliness. but 1 merely want to point out here abr. with Paint Jy. irregularities. the wood must be just as smooth the heads of screw fastenings the surface working paint. coaming upon the design. As you become of varnishing to show off. pine wood. or fiberglass-covered mahogany (solid fJr plywood). structure you will tackle is the to make cabin both trunk. to dry to a dull time the excess is wiped a little and off across the grain with clean cotton waste or rags. Repeat for six coats that you will be proud varnishing. type of toe or bulwark rail. finish. This is easy After a day of drying. is a section For the finest With This appearance. firms catering to the durable coating had application. size and location and other related information: the best 1 can do is discuss joinerwork general. opinionated of varnish used. too. If the curve of the cockpit coaming of hatches. the first coat of varnish can be applied. available finish For the and that proud.~“” I I DECK JOINERWORK 171 while paste filler stains consistency. and covering with sand material smooth.

the width can be made up by edge joining standard the board glued splines.2B. make assembly. being vertical. pleasing.. the deck edge to ensure only when watertightness. piece as in Figure 14-1A. the corners that was truly to the camber of thin Remember whether wood it is to rest on the deck or held in place extra at the from the mold a little loft floor. is best obtained it was laid old-timers carefully The top edge is taken to leave top. Long. -~ almost of the trunk of the trunk a sight rabheted the corner edge so it can dovetailed unbelievably whtle general time-consuming to behold-- nowadays the rahhet is to fit the ends into suitably (See Figure deeper by ‘/. as sketched and caulked the best way is to make a rabbeted sill piece job is a real challenge. should from appearing inboard are often headers to lean more posts. wide longer mahogany than boards are usually with these panels. If the cabin care must great and the fabric be taken Thus. the cabin sides against deck side for a couple sides are to be finished to fit and bed With a laid it is best to set the in Figure impractical.‘I or so than posts and to fasten making cabin corner sides. of the glue and plugged 14-1B and C.JOINER WORK COAM !hiG Figure 14-1. out of one available long for this. work off the radius corner The sides of the cabin. than in Figure This can be a chore It is easy to fit but such turned a 14. inboard Sometimes sides are sloped but the results beam considerably. on the top exacting practice them and with after toward for it. the cabin cabin 14-2C. edge of the cabin side.. up against reasons sides for the amateur is difficult making to keep them the cabin builder. to say the least. can be made The shape overlap drrk where The and opening If the cabin side is to be of plywood up in the same way.172 DECK . covered sides as shown This the deck is canvas or fiberglassed. from the plans. inside be sloped outboard. rather than fhc ccn(erlr’~c~ slightly aesthetic the cabin joint bright. the deck as shown to keep watertight turned-up fabric unless the deck is fiberglassed of inches. of the bottom and scribed down be planed work screws. with a template to the shape. but if not.) When thickness to a perfect fit. .

against which the strips were clamped very strong.l-RIPS Figure 14-3. Sometimes curve whether bend solution the intersection like that edges. . When fastened trunk sides of solid lumber Drilling must are specified beam to be as thick header. With is usually that fastened had stripdiswas cabin for a sailboat as planking thr mast stepped has to be strong athwartships: and this is one way to do it easily. Strangely built through counting enough. forms and the trunk In the one case that I saw. so. plank . trunk of this type. or even more it might in plan be impossible of the cabin shown especially or double with considerable upon to give a quick at the edges. female were set up.P BE2. 1 have seen only one the samr top. When the cabin and the coaming are not in a continuous to the cabin sides through a rabbcted block. the cabin labor. the coaming Figure i4-1E. done as 1 ‘/I “. to the plywood is to strip in Figure planked. make it out of a separate piece and let it into the trunk dt the after end as shown in Figure 14-1D.. they should to ruin the lumber. sides.Sli / N eoaer -FA~~E~~~~GsTKz. be very carefully When the cockpit coaming is thinner than the cabin side. nailed the trunk amateur and glued curve.+JAiiED the work went quickly roof and sides is desi.DECKJOINERWORK 173 . be in- with bolts through the deck and with the bolts countersunk so as not to the top edge. Depending the roof is single in view of the curve view.NS K’!-Ed Fe cafqr: SlmE l-rritd 15 LIA0LE m ICAti Figure 14-2.gned 14-3. 4 &LuED . In this case a the edge as shown.

-. always 14-4B.- n-s c‘s Figure 14-4. as mentioned in Chapter 13. Where jcints are necessary. are tapered rails may be of the same Small they taper. screw fastened and plugged. sheer thickness being so that as well as practical. cut at and near The the low point face. The forward end of the rail is fitted stem rabbet. Details every are shown IS” through in Figure rails are secured drift bolts run about with a neatly for economy. then the bottom of the rail scuppers must be at the deck level to drain rainwater. and Figure 14-4B. tapered Bulwark in height strake. Bulwark Larger tapered Rail have what is called a bulwark rail. with plugged rails are either of the deck edge or at the inboard The under rainwater edge of the covering board.:<: \. (” I- :I by I .J”- . the heights edge of the rails has scuppers but more height plan. long use. through the If no deck scuphull near the water overboard waterline) are fitted. the bottom of the cuts in the rail are placed scuppers about tm ” above the deck so that ordinary rainwater and across will not run the transom through into as shown the the in to streak the topsides with dirt. throughout. and usually by boats in thickness. When there are deck scuppers. The cap is sometimes omitted Joints in both rail and cap are always scarphrd and the bottom of the rail to drain that drain water that otherwise from the would deck be trapped on deck. but frequently !. on the inside rails may be of constant shown on the lines end to end. . and the butting pieces are screws. the cap is shaped at the stem . I 174 DECK JOINER WORK Toe Rail Small foothold sailboats when are fitted with toe rails on deck and from The (Figure 14-4A) that inboard are used as a the boat is heeled. is scuppered pers (pipes the deck into the sheer and are topped shaped cap. have come set slightly to be looked on as be- ing decorative are fastened scarphed. of the toe and spray will drain often from they overboard.

hatch to take the weight but looks much it. Jigs from the cabin thus the bottom edge bevel constantly coamings and across the fore and after decks must be devised to hold the template in place. The edge only. making friction project it necessary is minimized slightly. to the hull sections. either one or two layers. the rail is to fit the edge of the deck. to sheathe by having them to prevent between wear of the surface. as well as prevent to the beams A common while leaks. and the molding on the edge of the cover makes it adaptable to canvas covering. shaped to hold that on the botare laid out the template Bear in is. It is very likely that at least the forward section of the rail will need steaming to get it in place. glued The which tongues tected The that and which stiffen the top piecrs to make ends the hatch are fastened than others. some of A with brass with screws. in a heavy Figure can 14-4C. laminating laminate requires bulwarks a jig. changes. as shown in Figure 14-5. and then the rail while fastening. The joints with plugged in Figure in sketch are waterproof 14-5. The edge of the cover is prothe tops of the logs are sheathed to keep spray out of the hatch opening. laminating can eliminate some of the heavy work. SO In C the sliding contact is at one shown and it should an angle the brass strips.) is to be built. logs may be constructed are easier with on the beam in a variety of styles as shown slide is shown to slide in grooves brass tubing. In certain cases. The cover is made on a pair of beams sawn to the camber.DECK JOiNERWORK 175 Installation builder. a short monkey rail forward. joints and much care must be taken to fair the rail sections into each other at the so they will be smooth. Bulwarks for the larger boats can indeed try the patience of the inexperienced builder. Then for some ingenuity and on the part of the Templates should be of thin sprung in place. with the split tubing in the logs. the outside face of the rail conforms It will be a problem with the type of boat. a piece of split that interlock brass strips arrangement in sketch B is similar in operation. for the covers slide directly on the logs. The logs shown in sketches C and D do not have grooves. and the magnitude vertically on the rail heights will vary at the stations and a batten is run to fair the top of the rail. The top of the log may be sheathed if desired. so the wooden cover will not touch arrangements . Monkey Powerboats handy chocks Rail are dressed and up with dock lines. or standing on like the deck. In D there is a piece of brass let into the cover at the ends only. The cover may be flat across. ” thick and about 3” wide. the log. This is as a foothold for anchor when handling an anchor sea and be fitted with Sliding A sliding The Hatch hatch must is necessary be rugged to give headroom enough over companion of a man better ladders sitting and elsewhere. which when more takes some planning than one boat and time to construct: (See Figure it is best to 4-4D. of the problem a normal sides and boat. when cambered It can be of plywood. having a rabbeted beam header slides in the log groove. tom edge in place mind not that installed of the bulwark rail will call wood. with the butting pine splines. but is usually made of solid lumber. using edges grooved for soft white material ‘/. However.

headers the logs are finished with an ogee curve. . by the distance are typical is quite and others easy to work.176 DECh’ ~J~~i!VER WORK Figure 14-5. The metal parts can be stainless at the centerline from the aftermost and of the logs as they extend the required length. to circu’late are sometimes the boat when for the drop sill is fitted to keep water off the slides or main Hatches Openings At sea. boards or a way of closing guides. hatches Inc. Bomar. hatches with hatches that leak are made an to be watertight or reasonably making so. Figure the companionway to the forward screws. be fitted.. A shaped deck into the cabin. in the sketches steel. in the deck are covered particularly. but brass length Beyond An elevation 14. hatches made hatches. The opening. holes or louvers on the deck doors Double top slide should it is locked panels. sliding edges of the can be devised. running locking air through from substituted tongue that slide between cabinet lock may in Figure 14-5. match in styling the deck Companicmway The simplest take a brass Closure the opening as shown screwed The in the aft end of the trunk to the bottom of the hatch is to fit drop cover beam. South West Street. it can sometimes be less costly to buy aluminum companionway Charlestown. for unspeakable nuisance. is determined end of the hatch Fasten water. such New Hampshire by Bomar and as those made by 03603. of a sliding hatch hatch beyond cover beam with plugged is illustrated by sketch E. A slot can be cut in the top slide to also have ventilation up.5. The sliding others. The bottom to drain trapped alloy and Lexan the logs to the deck beams logs just forward of the apron must have scuppers cut in them In the end.

and it is very important that joint is parallel piece that the detail 14-6 be followed. The hatch coamings either through-bolted corners as shown In fact. Use either Sketch although modified of the hatch in sketch bedding vary in detail according to preference or practice. if the half lap is reversed the corner the end screws in the top pieces are in the side frame the swelling screws across of the top in width the width will force of the top must to the top pieces. (here.DECK JOINERWORK 177 6-l ’ A5SEM0W 54 SWELLING ‘L-OFUWEP wiLL td0r FOfZCE FRAME HPAR-I- hATCH CDAMI~G CDPdElZ HATCH COAM Ihb -I I D 0 COU LIGHT CRUDE b-l ‘L ryPf!z HUSlc’\/ HAl-Ctl BROhlzE HlblGE SECT: -l-HRU HATCH bWl72? WA-I. The the cover are preferably the cover is which so that all I in used from apart. and too light to be any good and should be and is fairly watertight when will stay together . and set in marine is used to keep out water bedding sealant compound eveything G. Figure compound marine a time-tested B illustrates frames like into something such as 3M Number 5200 or a thiokol- base compound. which hatch not very suitable for a yacht. discomfort splined half sketch consider during the watch below.TYPE l%uSH HAl-lW 0 II Figure 14-6. a crude workboat-type C are used. The coamings are dovetai!ed together or rabbeted bedding under and screw fastened on the deck. words. dovetails that shown In other for the sliding the old professionals to be too difficult A of Figure for the amateur). but all are or fastened from the bottom with long. pieces forming hatch. 14-6. be in the same of frame. so every effort The companion again. they are like D. should be exerted frame to construct around them so they fit well and function as described lapped at the corners satisfactorily. fitted on deck. husky screws.

J6.: .l are considerablv more expensive. Through-bolt the hinges wherever possible.. 8. dogged gasket. Some both hooks like to hinge hinges and the hatches and after sides. UA435 I2 . satisfactory. are locked located builder priced by fitting brass two sets of hinges and replacing rod to engage in sketch on the desired from marine eyes.178 DECK -JOINER WORK I_ : #LE. Some of these hatches are designed with sailboats in mind and have a minimum number of protrusions so that sails can be hurriedly passed through the hatch without Some complain that the plastic-topped hatches sweat. 4 Ig . of making mostly of which are good are made of molded p!Lstic. RF?. -re r ?Y z j*. This material is optional. 1-A’ 2. hardware the best of the lot and Flimsy they must It is a mistake just do not stand up to the abuse The hinges shown are made by a couple of the marine satisfactory.--k’>W -E- -----I SECTlOPJ T-KU *AT‘=* CC‘AW’hs * CdEq Figure 14-7.f cast aluminum alloy frames with strong lights of polycarbonate sheet such as Lexa.. .. hatch jump with with a plastic Unless top. I’ AL41 $. or dogged with a bronze concerns) where The lowest a gasket of the type shown opposite down.rT’” c AC.. If a light hardware firms and are quite Note that the hatch in Figure a lot of light a crewman in a wooden to spaces is liable main to is used. and this is also true of metal . a hatch.A”. a strong such as Lexan deck of a sailboat force. 1. 14-7 is shown like the galley. which with a removable from below fastener must hatches. *(a’.‘A.> C. When plywoodforward individual covers the deck joinerwork if fir-is fiberglassed pins one with a bronze is to is effected with cast be all like the one shown hatch cover of painted.’ **‘l I’CC. no-w has the option of buying hatches value.. take. The type shown in sketch E has the coaming shown grooved in Figure to make for a rubber 14-7. down but it admits a plastic top on the main with considerable on the hatch is wanted frame. Hatches :. 4. be pulled some F (available hardware at the corners the hinges. ‘. bSE. of this is the hatch n3t too difficult hatches and hatch construction to build.. catching on anything. it is safer to use a round hatch section in Figure 14-6. which the parts is of A refinement too light.-r PEec f> 777 . Such fasteners instead are especially them. 7. hatches down. where it is a bit risky to use a deck in the marine at both the The tight good The side.

drain the easiest Above rapidly is to buy ta. probably outfits.l a sea break l’he cockpit sole is laid on beams that may extend to the hull sides.) Two types of water tables around the edges of the sole are shown. must They etc. of the helmsman. out of one of the older it is possible tc make minimum-sweating Flush Cockpits washdown This usual sha!low enough at least. materials reduced . H. whether the port scupper discharges through the hull on the starboarrt side and vice versa. attached and having to the hatch opening overboard framing. and storage spaces and often spray. and on the way. Hatches usually water method gutters have from flush hatches over engines. that is. with hinged exhaust doors for piping. and whether <eck level or bare or not as fitted water.:sh-fitting should aboitrd.DECK . plan The require the with deck level (Figure doghouse. Figure the lowered and seats wilh care headers not to restrict the visibility are secured lines. and may be arranged Seats Hinged This and Locker Lids seats and in both locker lids on deck are prone to warp due to changes in moisture.) Sloped seats must be scuppered with copper hinged sections over storage spaces. say 1%U channel-shaped to project the opening.JOlNER WORK 179 hatches. it bf: from rain or heavy spray and seas. tirely Sweating of the metal granulated hatch hatches can he considerably Of course. 14-8B) for Ihe it gives. One way to minimize this is to make . Watertight A watertight with scuppers of the cockpit teak. are constructed as shown in sketch 14-6. which in turn are suspended from the main deck headers by long rods with threaded ends for nuts. water. the scuppers be generously shoul1. There arc various ways to fit scuppers flush with the cockpit marine cockpit sole. in an effort and dripping to keep rain. or it may be supported by beam headers. The sole be fiberglass-covered should provide details ifor the cockpit scuppers they should be crossed. scuppers from one of the sized so that the hardware well would all. a occurs solid lumber and plywood. the latter tubing of which to drain at the ends of the cockpit. either of which may be used with a caulked sole. 1478B. The boat Self-Bailing cockpit to drain can plans Cockpit in sailboats whether is simply plywood. a well sunk preferably below made main non-skid. to blocks under are most comfortable deck beams with a slanted (See dotted for support. running dirt metal into the bilges poor because gutters on equipment is pretty sheet under or much it does not take much water to overflow the A better method is to use a system of to clog the drain. wide a good-sized line. Figure tanks.wood. or stopped ena by applying cork to the underside. The cockpit access Many feeling seats beams main to storage prefer of security ceiling spaces cockpit may be permanently not occupied seats lowered If the boat in order if sloped by fuel below instaiied and water the main or fitted tanks. has a raised and fitted the architect lazyback. (See Figure 14-&I.

une.. cxn vary from a simple zvl boats to a izirly heavy. The latter at the sheer of the boa?.c .-i.ir5 _ -CLL..EC LIP I sau -_rl -_ . built-up guard for larger to make and install.180 DECK JOINERWORK r7f’l-lobJAL: f$T. series of cuts parallel done Figure on a table 14-9.Ed=?D RCA -I?2 H FAORiC CdEKEO OF? CAULIdPC’ Sod CAULVfSP SdE 5-CUPPER 0 0 Figure 14-8. are fitted This is in saw or with a portable as shown Sheer Guards The hull guard half round hulls. to the long direction and on the underside circular saw..w crrr ilr -. considering the shape of the GY rectangle . &GPCE \ i i-E 3’ t.. Cleats of :he piece. for smaller type can be difficult if it is deslgneA U L.YT 63 ll Figure 14-9.

the hull and must not come loose when called home (hull wider hulls at the stern where there is tumble upon the construction are preferably below the sheer than at the sheer) take some hard knocks at times and also must be Depending guards. of the hull and deck at the sheer. sawn to the bevel of the sections.DECK JOINERWORK 181 deck in plan and the changing bevel of the sections of the boat from bow to stern. which. The having a full deck line for they to the shape of the dec : line and most difficult job is to install a guard at the bow of a powerboat forward and a lot of flare: a guard must be laminated are there for the purpose of protecting upon to do some work. the sheer guard sometimes for heavy-duty needs blocking between the frames to take the fastenings. Lower guards to protect securely fastened. . through-bolts. The fastenl’ng of guards is very important.

few bulkheads and fronts. so the time spent in fitting off iiith the satisfaction of a job well done. in case these be as plain should drawings the interior are lacking or sparse. joinerwork of this manual it has been assumed that the builder is familiar and skilled with woodworking this experience. in a fraction of the time formerly needed to make material.an-d-large p+tions are a good exam-’ . attractive of these finish. stained down 182 with mahogany. or other such veneers finished with multiple coats wool between coats. and plywood is by all means basic types. having undertaken joinerwork should prove basic household projto be the easiest task in or as fancy show details as of the construction The boat commensurate designer’s construction The joints and finish can with the ability of the builder. a ple. finished and lockers. the cabin of the boat. will be used. is a real the finish wood plywood Can be of any of several This can be achieved most. of sections but rhrough methods. or natural. and sandpaper teak. With desired. -.Chapter 15 INTERIOR JOINERWORK From the beginning reasonably ects. drawers. the all-important pushing carpentry in the nature work is enhanced a smooth finish. Waterproof this material than fabricated plywood makes interior saves labor by permitting from narrow boards. I will show some typical structural details to be planned. joints really Even in a hull large enough doors. methods. available in waterproof of varnish. time around. and parts and persons consisting by neat-fitting sandpaper there are only a tops Any and pays the rest of the interior the galley of cabinet of berth ice box. made of plyivobd work much easier than in years past because parts to be quick!y cut from large sheets rather Bulkheads --. as these cati’be them either more The Assuming attractive that than of paneling or of tongue-and-groove the latter. tools.-. by using plywood faced panels. each rubbed Natural wood can also be with fine or bronze . In a small craft there are not too many different although there might seem to be a multitude of them the first to sleep four or more joinerwork work top.

the plywood can be of less exskill. color. Moldings of the same shelves. thus they may are larger The simplest be heavier than than normal. so they must be carefully positioned. minor partitions over can be k ” or t. exposed wood finish. or it can be painted Still another as practical The reader on both horizontal and should realize that the word Formica is a trade name for but one of a number of brands of phenolic finishing materials available. to be cemented. The natural wood decor is for the perfectionist throughout.f paint most of the surfaces flats that receive other helps kiil the grain it is practical Formica. the slip sheet helps reduce is pulled out from between the surfaces there so the parts can be the weight that hulls. as the plywood selected. In such cases. the horizontal The trim can surfaces or painted. they are stuck for good. of the wood. jomts the like are best covered who has the time. hard wear with plywood like Duraply to cover because Even though and it will save one or more coats t. One method of preventing of brown premature paper contact is to use what is known part as a slip sheet.a be natural vertical covered wood surfaces. and of paint fir. high strength can be achieved with plywood structures. before the surfaces are joined. A third choice is to cover most of the vertical washable vinyl wall coverings and to paint the parts a harmonizing Formir. or wood surfaces with one of the tough. should tung oil. finish either is to use Formica in colors as much grains. that are not practical to cover with that take wear to match and tear should be or contrast. or a combination finish. the galley counter natural For a painted the use of faced will be painted. one plywood panel. Plywood specify l. and strip of plywood glued or partitions can be cut from way is to use a butt . wool and ings. where but if they don’t. the excess then for trim species The being tung oil liquids off soon openface with with bronze can be applied with a soaked the luster of solid wiped be allowed lumber to dry for a day. and for the boat should for bulkheads need not be of the plywood. Again. Shelves in lockers and elsewhere sense. oil varnish. Be guided by common glued and screwed parts. and buffed around recoated Flats such is pleasing. saving over strength. It is a little tricky IO work with until you get used to it. The panels are adhered to clean plywood to set up with so-called is applied to both surfaces and allowed dry to the touch. and then while holding the parts aligned. made The of a piece the same size as the Formica cement-coated surfaces ate allowed to set up dry to finger touch. finish.f’!TERIOR JCIA’ER WORh’ 181 finished afterward.$ ” depending is desired. is recommended. tops.. Formica pensive patience Another with and as table the natural perfect-fitting trim. counters. the slip sheet is laid on the wood while the Formica is lined up perfectly. In some cases the bulkheads in the immediate vicinity of the mast are used for this purpose: When bulkheads the pieces must be joined. ” ( & :t:. Sometimes in sailboats the mast is stepped on deck and somehow the thrust must be carried to the hull. because with the area. or tung rag or a brush.. painted finish is to go with a completely such as mahogany. of joinerwork. with wax-based by hand surface until be made The must to match to make choice wood material. joined.. but an attractive and unusually contact durable cement. Once the two cement-coated surfaces contact each other. locker etc. is no sense in installing The plans a general guide weight is in the fortn of furniture the thickness U in the larger t/s ” in any boat is needlessly dresser weight upon tops. finish which results.

184 INTERIOR JOINER WORK ‘I I \\ r Figure 15-l. the shape the points to the centerline when scribing part + and level when for a bulkhead. 15-l. If these procedures are not followed. but this does not look good unless it can be concealed from view. space shown good have Another rails that cleaned should portable do it for you. have cutting This the woodworking Still another in Figure the scarph is shown machinery to cut two for the rabbets plywood a portable Sections bulkheads. when framing a boat. be required. In such cases.li \ F screwed to the buikhead pieces. normal cardboard the template while Similarly. and the edges of bulkheads and partitions lie their edges are curved and must be fitted by a process similar to spilThis requires the accurate be held use of heavy part. Where berth against the hull. ing planking. Thus. or light board wood must for making be held of dividers points level or a for a In the case of a horizontal for the most compass must to the centerline scribing the template board for a bulkhead be held normal of the hull. be about radio. The toe it takes to construct. templates. or have them but you must a mill together. lJ 0 . lun!ess the flame is not plumb vertical. it pays to be particu- . is to scarph with an attachment saw called a “Scarffer. 15-2. athwartships must carpenter’s horizontal platforms. using a glued panels plywood accurately circular spline. the parts will not be correctly shaped. Fastening a to a frame The template board is cut to the scribed line and used as a pattern. Sea rails are used to keep things from falling to retain off counters something 1” high. way to join 4-6. The neatest butt is made with a splint as shown in section A of Figure 15-l.” B through E in Figure 15-l show different while F is a vertical section through a galley at the base of the counter detail been to incorporate brought down or even is well worth in sketch is shown to counter higher when ways of building corners for or bathroom counter. The bevels for the parts can be taken off at intervals and marked on the template (See Figure Bulkheads bulkhead board.) are often located on one side or another of a frame. and further fitting will. results. shelves. whi. the frame must be shimmed to true up the bulkhead.ch is often the case -when the frames are bent rather than sawn. is simple . This shows sea dirt to be and like a tg enable G of Figure ends the trouble level at their you want out of corners.

~?CRlRlkl~ OF FQR !?ULIdHHF. To OF BOA-l-- TCRI~ING Q-~APE FotZ Figure 15-2.rlD ~HAPC t4017MAL C.L. .

186 INl-ERIGR JOINER WoRK . Where nails are used. them is too much or bend 15-3A. opening t. located can a strip for Figure 15-3. unless can and Glue be hidden plugged or spar economize joinerwork fastening of the fastenings are counterbored set below Plastic hardware. at sea. the wood. of the planking. or lock sets.Ler plated-steel in a boat. e. you must in a strip where it by numerous saw cuts on its inside by trial (See Figure The spacing of the cuts is determined be visible are have 15-X Drawers They must best made like this is best placed in the cabin.A FACE -: OIUIWCP CAM flC LIFTED -0 CLLAe WEOGE I l7~~hEC CcL. In varnished by matching in varnished such as tempered backs rabbeted Figure never trim. larly careful between be fastened can be bent made won’t pliable to have the bulkhead a strip similar IO the inside steam to the hull.$ ” sides. of solid to prevent detail steel woodwork with 191” for the fronts. plain or chrome-plated such as hinges. pulls.‘. and for a bottom a device of t/t ” plywood section nails or hardboard through they Masonite.) this. (See Figure 15-3B. so that there the bulkhead shape In v-bottomed bend hulls and in some round-bottomed to shape. cold either frames to a frame be as true as possible./CLEAI?AUCE ‘. and error. and a strip using from frames.T~UCT IOtd B 0 For bulkheads ones. putty shows a typical falsely many holes Fastenings plywood the in interior are screws for the most part.) a berth. drawer expensive. to be brass or should galvanized. Although Resin if the fastenings are nails Elmer’s the surface of the wood. In are hot-dipped by the trim. . must be installed but where saw a frame edge. work are set in either Do not expect survive for long bronze. the hardware or stainless steel. 6r concealed Plugs varnish. lumber.

of materials other than wood are sometimes extremely and musty which . bulkheads and where are watertight. Passage of air must the boat devices water the boat Other from entering may be kept than developed patented in Chapter and lockers. un- by a roof. is the cowl ventilator IG. This after the boat on a box having in air from There must as illustrated (the hull lining) the out- but air must in ceilings be able to flow through it gets inside. and cupboards should have vents for passage of air at top and botof the hull. items that will con‘ribute for at all times. trapped. A few suggestions for locker not only for the preservation ventilation and typical door frame Ventilation is also of importance minimize ficult the chance of mildew to remove. openings practical against be provided and becoming made all the for most of its life at a mooring of molded mounted will bring or a slip. each compartment Doors to lockers tom. will have a chance must be provided with a source of air for ventilation. and stop details in boats built odors. to be the a be the long lift of a wooden remembered protected most baffle side.) ventilator water. (It must etc. plastic.. are shown in Figure 15-4. they but also so clothes and other stowed gear door to difto dry out before mildew.INTERIOR JOINFB WORK 187 Meta I qril Ia Loud-e5 JXXX &tXlfsAT~Oti Figure 15-4 I Ventilation Proper while ventilation keeping fresh that of the hull is one of the most important boat.

light. The inside of fiberglass hulls. For the latof the are of the thickness it. Small and excessive nails where This with thickness boat ceiling gear stowed under berths and in the botbilge water when the boat is heeled down seams should cedar in Figure must be tight. they would at least the cabin I he fastenings the sheer boats. be slatted be visible type of ceiling light ceiling sole. For this purpose can with be used.JOINER WORK 1 .. pressing is sometimes your used for the sake of apthe ceiling of the best discomfort of frames reasons for ceiling m small boats is to protect tom of lockers from being wetted by sloshing in a lump and-groove strength. or there are “hull backing.r c--r 03 Figure 15-5. liners” now made for this purpose. inside valves. and edges the strakes For appearance. It must have tanks. to an inch or at the top being At the outboard against left for the circulation side of a bunk.---*-- e. is usually 40 percent the hull f. fastened into place. or decking piping.. body. is decorative structuralparticularly where motorboats-light plywood lining used to hide structures can be painted or covered with vinyl fabric or Formica-type material. members. it. two brlow In snlall pearance prevents the the seams form a vee on the inside. or to strengthen ter purpose.~-s. or treated upward bored and plugged from where and before of each strake This is painted extends the space with a wood preservative. In the finest ing are lightly the outside yachts quarters.~+ r. cgp =e . hull with an adhesive. a sheet-type the latter than being ceiling either is bent plain or in for it adds the ceiling is useless. the hull. In small boats a . These materials are vinyl with a foam Cabin Sole Cabin hatches sole is the proper to enable ready name access for the flooring to the bilge.! ce’. ~VZ? requires structural the hull. the inner of the ceilfastening. perforated In boats In boats of a sea.--. but one ‘/:1” to ‘4” thick if desired.c-Jr-cl ‘c‘ S z--e. and may are counter clamp. and thin tonguelittle be kept 15-5. etc. particularly can be covered with carpeting stuck to the forward where hull curvature is greatest. rather holes such as pegboard. Ceiling plywood White or pine is suitable and may be or screws. the shape is shown of the topsides will permit can be of light many the small ceiling or hardboard. in the of air.188 INTERIOR . Ceiling Ceiling is a lining on the inside of the hull that is used to conceal to protect stowed gear from sloshing bilge water. planking. wedged tightly in larger It is spiled together bevelrd yachts to shape before so that the ceiling when fastening.

can or covered but make Plywood for there material frustrating to get at.f~. Other headliner having decorative finishes. and light covering. Headliners Headlining like homes pose. Icebox The much about icebox. not but it requires be used near should on the feet on a chilly shipshape. The easiest kind to use is a type having a thin face of white plastic material on what is meant to be the down side.is a covering for the underside headlini *. ii . deck beams and stapled in place. I: INTERIOR JOiNER WORK 189 removable sure of this.qy%yg~*p g&~~&. say. to the final however. 4. They are all plastic . lightweight fiberglass insulation on the underside of decks and cabin tops adds to comfort both summer and winter and whether or not air conditioning is installed in the boat. ty adding and stainless too tight.5 cubic feet. acoustical tileboard. <‘. and hardboards vinyl . a sea cock: lack of access can be downright for the sole because can be painted pieces.a -719 - <-. though. which looks so simple when used. away from the deck above. which There are several makes on the market with a capacity of amounts to abont 50 pounds of ice. not being labor finish. difficult to construct. cleaning hatchways.. either bindings The plywood dangerous is an excellent flooring It savrrc much There a hatch A bare be fitted in with vinyl steel for for the simplest in one piece or laid in squares. It is light sole is the first of the that will not absorb moisture. leaking large hatch panel on the centerline is nothing is usually more sufficient than to serve all purposes.unheard of until people starred making than boats -.. is very expensive where it will hold a carpet and will be used. material made just for that purmaterials are plywood with The most popular the best ones have an anti-mildew treatment. grease teak sole is nonskid: only one coat of paint. It can be cut to fit between cent. is very time consuming boxes suit your and boat. A carpet to be it but it is practical. with a vacuum open Indoor-outdoor made of synthetic fibers with boatmen.L :/. The only way to make it look deis to cover it over with headlining. r-‘% I I 4. will swell just it is practical It is not pretty. In addition. :x. locations. if any of the ready-made you will be better off buying one. or Formica-type Thermal Insulation Inexpensive.. for use with the vinyl coverings. and it must be it must be ade- interior carefully planned quately supported ahead to establish the hatch by beams and headers.~ ~>*“.~. Do not make the hatches a compound the plywood In a sailboat coat of paint. has become very enough to be taken up and cleaned on the dock.g material is a vinyl fabric the insides of boats look more of deck beams and cabin tops. and enough to make to make are aluminum bind. popular The a sole nonskid stains. For this reason.“~>~. In cabins is warm properly carpet. the sole needs morning. able and in an emergency. joinerwork to go in the hull.

in between passage and of air. and shore lines that are needed for even the service conditions can vary so widely. joints smoothing easy. refrigerators. It is an invitation to rot to drain fresh water into the bilges of a wooden hull. line the box with tar felt paper laid with overlapping joints. and here plywood simplifies the job. Basically the box consists of an inner and outer shell. it must lead either overboard or. side should should and be shaped limited to make an icebox should are some important be treated somewhat for the circulawith a wood to the hull the most of the tion of air. Then coat the inside of the outer box with bitumastic paint and while it is still wet. with soidercd. also made as electric generators. a watertight liner inside. again permits. can refrigerators. These into the the boxes smallest points dnd two of them be placed side-by-side are of to batteries. When remember. making sure box first. the box top. and part of the hull Space or paint. if the bottom of the box is below the waterline. can be fiberglassed making to fit between even though cleaning final finish should . ICE -- and have polyurethane if space chargers. The insulation the corner ~. into a wooden that boat there be left between is always the outboard the hull and the box structure will be hidden in a boat. preservative area allotted form. foam available in planks-is then cut Next make the inner plywood box. it to the hull. and brace with insulation not to obstruct Make the outside termediate stiffeners as noted above.190 INTERIOR JOINER WORK ~t5310td A-A <ECTION -rkieu %7X Figure 15-6. Of course the drain should be at the low point of the bottom Before stead. because Space building that insulation. This is a vapor barrier. Add posts in the corners and inand sides to support the inner shell and to take its fastenings. The section in Figure 15-G is typical of the situation in many boats. the liner is ideal.I suggest posts and polyurethane the stiffeners. The sump tank can be removable for dumping overboard or piped with a two-way valve to the bilge pump. The A liner plywood of stainless steel sheet inbe smooth watertight but the inner is tedious. They but are built I am for under-counter or stacked. to the icebox. to make of the box. the corners must be fitted. leaving on bottom the top off. As for the drain. to get not going installation. to a sump tank.

2965 East Harcourt . boxes. finished right is unavoidable. Compton. In fact. box is significant. the inside the inside and wooden on the insulation. rails and binocular and gratings I have seen a set of doors made boat manufacturer and they were first class. light from gratings in the bottom. Inc. you can use in Caliand book and house. and weight a top opening Sometimes of a built-in is best for the icebox. wooden ice. California 90221. Woodwork.INTERIOR JOINER WORK 191 Whenever when pour The fiberglass Finish tions possible. tillers. Limit so will the contents to 3/g”. fit adjustable food the box with to separate Ready-made If you want ready-made fornia racks. you might the outside I. louvered is an outfit a complete for a Florida line of dish. less cold air is lost but the cold air will of the box to box and parti- the box is opened. magazine.. made among as your boatbuilding up by a mail other things. out quickly. that grab Woodwork to save time parts makes. The name of the firm is H & L Marine Street. There doors. order paneled project supply and nears completion.$ U thickness. a front door when rolling omit because at sea.

for doing everya to any thing. and permanent pintles. of all types and of construction. aprrturr floors when tanks there is the rudder casting. 40.Chapter 16 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS There seem to be optional ways. finishes for aluminum also offers good paint Anodizing . light a few items that are special. The inspect coupled job. Here the and having a foundry pour the castings. some of them good and some bad. will soon reveal if one is to produce of every opportunity Such observation. Cast parts. bronze. different alloys. the best way to handle Patterns for Castiqs While a great many fittings for boats may be purchased from the stocks of marine hardware amateur To came jibstay gudgeons under peller manufacturers. too. Some and transom platform brackets. floor. a few of the fittings usually and sometimes struts cast bronze are located the cabin shaft bearing Parts usually made of cast material it is seldom that off-the-shelf for powerboats include prostruts fit properlyrudders. boats with opinions that there is no compromise in quality reader is again urged to take advantage to study the details of the cxpcrienced.000 water. ranging are usually in tensile made are several strength pounds per square inch to upwards of 100. special propeller for the sailboat. can save money fitting. Above is important. there are always by making patterns that backstay are fitting. nf manganese from about inch. Some of the standard fittings but this does not always pay unless you have time to burn. and there especially for use underwater. makers should and protective be used.000 pounds per square aluminum alloy castings are sometimes used where saving weight of these alloys are not very resistant put out by some of the marine 192 to salt water. can be homemade. Just remember seaworthy boat.

during cooling. or with a metal coats of shellac the pattern it so it will not stick in the molding give the sides of the pattern the mold called by the molder. processes experience and casting fittings.-l.MI. corners on patterns thin per foot of length. when or with a dowel.fl shrinkage and for ease larger 249. better Also. ‘J. alloys peoAny is Alcoa and pattern-making of wood for will be but briefly wilt know it is given is drawn than is made rather metalworking all about may hc used hrcausr will shrink The rules for patterns provided a smooth a pencil)..-IILS 193 sprrre / w’. meaTtire Large. ovcrsizr and but soft using fine the of of in pine is prcfrrred accuracy metal it is easy to work.~~O~~S IET. is simply pattern a slight This is a with paraffin the soft wax and work it Give the finished or they may job you can get along making it uniform steel ball on a handle. of $“. rubbed For a small sections. so it may be easily removed from understood by referring to B of Figure 16. taper. a molding called draft. A two-foot strength other rule made for Y. (See Figure 16-1A. (pattern-makers shrinkage can use a knife of bronze Because by the amount if any amount to make and are made expected.. finish. tool. with smooth to smooth you should and fastened Knead a fillet rod.I...SC~~l.) Fillets may be purchased from house in wax strips. such as boat fittings. n be purchased hardware work is to be done. several sand. shrinkage he obtained The fitting the pattern rule should at good on the wood. protection for sand The kind lines molten shrinkage work ple with if applicable castings wood to the alloy of your Almag 35. etc. a small For smali p!atform board will . One of the best aluminum outlined. “. easier. a two-foot the layout stores. have fillets to provide at an angle in the castings sections to each have proportionately fillets than thicker-walled a pattern-maker’s supply fillet into tool as shown. shrinkages will actually Inside of molding..1.“4 PATTEW FILLET-5 Figure 16-1.. or varnish is made. work. them as many already. in place which with glue. Such is Y{h per foot. the corners.“. which are stuck in place with a heated be made and of leather wax.

is more 16-1 is easy to remove.S Figure 16-2. The finished the drag. and some small is removed from sockets on the drag and keep the two in alignment. and on it will be placed a box without ends to retain mold. tilled with sand.l~. The sprue is cut off the finished procedure study of the mold shown in Figure 16-2 will indicate that to produce a casting shaped like the pattern.5inl~~l~~ hollouf rrtsling. Then the rope is added. and the sprite. as shown in Figure shape. be usrd. is made by ramming the hollow area must be kept free of molten metal. The pattern sides have proper draft. but a block pattern in Figure on the drag. ‘l’hv /)cl/lrr. for the simple The casting is ready to be poured when the casting by the foundry. called the cope and is called a flask. leaving A flat pattern unless the pattern cope is replaced The molding with a complicated a space to be filled with metal. con’. nnd mold Ibr u . box until full and then baking the sand to this is done with a core of sand shaped like the desired hollow. The cope is lifted off and turned over.~NEOL'S LXI~AI%. 16-1B is easy. the surface of the sand is coated with a powder so that when more sand is added. the pattern would have to be split along the centerline.r. and covered with sand of such a nature the drag is then turnrd over. difficult but a deeper one. Dowel pins on the cope fit into The pattern is placed in the drag that when packed hard it will stick together: the two surfaces will part. if the cpsting is to have a hollow portion. or one breaking the sand to take uut without vent holes to carry off gases arc cut with molder’s tools. Further. and rammed solid. metal. a passage for pouring the molten the drag.194 MISCEl. and togrther the assembly the sand used for the mold consists of two boxes one upon the other. A simple core as shown sand into an open-top . With the pattern still in the mold.

a centerboard slot is also cored. When required. with model building can see that the “bread and butter” through tion may be used here by drawing waterlines the keel. The iron casting should.VEC’L’S !?ET. foot for cast iron and figured by the for the keel are is made with a 710 for lead -~ the size and location must be carefully Templates the keel pattern is VH” per foot. A core box is made only for the longest core needed. of lead and iron castings The boatbuilder can make the pattern for a cast iron ballast keel. always taking shrinkage core in the bottom of the keel is enlarged depth to cement over the nut to close the hole in the casting. allowing enough to the bolt spacing. l’he to take the nut. of the casting so the imprint of the core extension mold will support the core. for a lead keel. spaced the same as the of wood used. but the casting must be done by an iron foundry becauve of the high temperatures required. Shrinkage reproduced by the builder. as the molder can break cores off to proper length for the shorter ones. as it is called. For a more shapely keel the pattern nears the finished shape. bronze or Everdur iron or Monei bolts and on the inside of the boat are set up on heavy washers under which are grommets of a few turns of cotton wicking soaked in red lead. 16-t3A) the job is quite simple. is painted black so the molder will understand the core. and sawing each layer roughly to shape bcforc an iron keel are cored. !95 Cores of irthe core is exin the shape are molded in a split box with dowel pins. The pattern entails more work. in diameter The holes for bolts through the cores in relation and care must be taken to locate into account.A. The core print. be given a coat or two of red lead before it starts . as preferred by the architect. Ballast The Keel keel casting for sailboats will be of cast iron or lead and will be bolted ballast either through the keel or through both the keel and floors. This is shown in the figure. In the pattern. When the casting has cooled and been taken from the mold. They are made of rods threaded on both ends for nuts. Bolts will be shown on the plans and are the largest -diameter fastenings used in the construction consisting of the boat. Because designer made shrinkage of the weight of the metals --~ 450 pounds per cubic of the ballast and just as carefully rule. Tobin wrought bolts are used to hold lead keels. if possible. while good galvanized are used when the keel is cast iron. as noted earlier. from the mold loft lines and. On the other hand.MISC’EI-L. and for a rectangular be constantly checked for accuracy keel as the Those the keel is iron.d!LS make regular tended it hard and strong beyond the length enough to withstand the pouring of the lead. Cast Iron When (Figure pattern familiar thickness together. the amateur or professional boatbuilder can make the mold clrttl pour the casting. and in either case the sections should for a shaped keel is made of layers of method of construcfastening them pine anywhere from 1” to 2” thick that are screw fastened and glued together. Keel the pattern is made of soft pine. the core is easily broken out.

5--e” ker v13c~ -SE'. -I-HRL’ OWhi w5” VOLT ~A-3E -EL EL LEAF l-H 4 c2A-r mbn5rEE &EL 3.:._ ‘. either for one-off or production castings. by applying coats of trowel cement and sanding it Lead Keel distance. . to rust.atrr on it can be finished smooth.(.-:?I. Keel Makers can be contacted at 101 New Bern Street.-b b ---TU6 ‘T--!=‘Ft? *EEL E+.FJP Ah’ ATEJrZ -LEADkiEiz ----.-__while a had keel Figure 16-3. . One firm named Keel Makers solicits this business.-fj\ES-.. L. cnn hc ccrst I’)) N mold nt /kc Suilding site. AH irm kvcl must h sand-cast in aloundry.“A “~1 I I 196 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS _5ECT:Sh. boatbuilders sometimes make When a willing foundry is within a reasonable a male pattern for a sand-cast lead keel and let the foundry make the mold and pour the casting.?lf _ i. Making the pattern is a relatively easy job as compared to making the sand mold at the boat shop.

11746. if you have a local foundry important that will do the job you are in luck. The casting will reflect Lead. to make (Figure cast iron weighs about 16-3B).26 North Carolina 28203. Eirhk r drill must be frequently withdrawn to clear the lead shavings. patterns As a comparison. you will need a large pot. iron melting the degree of smoothness point. Add pigs to the pot as you pour. fillets used to shape the corners when and this requires It must be remembered that the keel will be heavy. supported under it. may be burned. Where necessary. the outside of the keel is smoothed with coats of trowel cement. The top of the open mold must be level. A centerboard taken care of by a plank of proper thickness must be on hand to allow for discrepancies. . ried on to completion before the top of the lead already in the mold starts to solidify. Accuracy 0. mold before pouring. They are then set up rigidly (Figure 16-3D) and the mold is strip-built inside of the forms. and puddle the molten lead to prevent the formation of air pockets. and several . Start to pour when the lead in the pot is hot. 16-3C) is quite a task and is a good As shown in the section. cubic inch of lead weighs about 0. skim the slag from the top. New York for lead castings. or at 43 Old Brook when making Road. Standing Rigging Chainplates they are kept straight and prevented The mast loads are transmitted to the Unless masts are designed to be free-standing. and the cement is then sanded. and kerosene is used as a lubricant. as it can be that is particularly inch. The top surface of the lead casting can be smoothed with a woodworking wood auger hand plane. Allow at least a day for the casting to cool before removing the mold.MISCELLANEOUS Charlotte. Better still is a melting pot with a pouring spigot or pipe leading over the mold and a metal trough to distribute the molten metal over the length of the keel. Making the mold for a shaped lead keel (Figure reason to have the keel sand-cast in a foundry. fortunately.ron ladles. to act as a core. Each Of course. pound per cubic A rectangular necessary. distribute it in the mold. forms are by husky braces and shores. as the lead will spatter The inside of the mold is given a thin coat of plaster to prevent it from burning. wood or charcoal fire can be built has a low melting but at the least.41 pound. at stations and half stations. preferably used in an electric drill of ample capacity. As the strips are fitted they are edge nailed to each other and to the forms. the mold be strong so that it will not break apart when the lead is poured and that the mold be supported dry before starting. The holes for the keel bolts are drilled with a barefoot or with a twist drill lengthened by welding a rod to the end. and they will quickly melt in the hot lead if the fire is kept blazing. lead keel mold is quite simple with either wood or plaster made with planks. Gouges and round-bottomed planes are used for this work. because slot can be More than enough lead the pouring must be car- and some of the pigs may be placed in the Several hands will be needed. from breaking by wire rope standing rigging. plus the thickness of the mold. DETAILS 197 Dix Hills. The keel casting is liberally coated with thick white or red lead where it fits against keel and deadwood. by bricks so a roaring of your mold. The inside is finished to a set of templates representing the finished keel plus an allowance for shrinkage. The plaster and the mold must be perfectly if poured into a wet mold and workmen made to the outside of the keel.

This sheerline notched arrangement.I. are made straight so the sails will set as they should. trend of Most modern toward aluminum Wooden the use of aluminum spars that make them up ready for installation used for hollow spars. Wooden Spars sailboats have spars that are hollow. distributes rather than the rigging loads over a often noticed in the is carefully the frames to the keel are riveted to the plate and screwed to each frame crossed and the shown in Figure boats.ANEOlJS DETAILS The chainplates must be designed plan locations hull by straps called chainplates. There are several manufacturers in the boat. This may result in a broken mast. fastenings in spars are not required or even desirable. type with a waterline Sailing yachts of the more expensive are fitted with a rectangular bronze which lugs for the shroud turnbuckles trnding keel. bear must be equal to the strength and a frame ing or between the planking and a frame. through the planking frames The area of the wood in the hull against which the bolts and are located either on the outside of the plankit is better to bolt them to backing the clamp. Clear fir and pine run rather far behind as second choice. When using modern waterproof glue. to various is best to use corrosion-resistant chainplates steel for both plates and bolts. large area and prevents the distortion The planking for the straps as each strake is fitted. and there has been a definite alloy extrusions. or Type 316 stainless are several there have been many cases of and these are shown in torn out under stress. Diagonal metal straps ex16-4B. There peculiar classes. so to further save weight aloft. it is a wood is still extensively clear Sitka spruce because light. of the hull.) which with fastenings. of cutting are to be preferred. strong wood. the hole through collar the deck should be filled with length upwards of 28 fret compound or fitted with a metal set in compound. due to corrosion. Referring to chainplates in general. of the along with the size and number of fastenings. as they add weight up high where it is detrimental to the stability of the . called hogging. but their fastenings of the shroud. Sometimes However. the maximum sectional area is required at midlength of the longest unsupported panel. made of mast-grade spars are preferably Despite this. of old wooden plate between the frames and the planking to are bolted or riveted. and the designer chainplates should show on the construction to calculate and details equal to the task. metals as on the outside they will show unless neatly such and the metal may bleed and discolor the topside paint. Monel. that are cut to bear against the necessity at that point. because types of small boat chainplates 2s It bronze. Inasmuch as a mast is a column. the end of the lug extending above deck should have only slightly rounded edges so as not to reduce strength unnecessarily. blocks between Blocks of this type eliminate weakens the hull somewhat Inside chainplates let flush into the planking. To stop leaks. frames (See Figure 16-4A. the top of the boom and the aft side of the mast. detail on the plans for the boats. the chainplates are bolted to the hull can be insufficient. The edges on which sails are set.198 MISCEI. the mast is tapered from the point of greatest cross-sectional area to the head and sometimes to the heel as well. It is a simple matter the strength of the metal parts.

/*ji& “6. the length of the joint being made about of this type. patience joint boats will have spars that fall within the individual pieces are 10 times the thickness of to make a perfectly is as strong or the range of available the piece.Lcs \ I~. and the majority lengths.. varnish to protect long lengths.?lCf=%??$._“.+ ‘: A&z _ __f-i--. fortunately.‘i$.._ .‘1i I hl&T ~ $ --=Y ‘. hoat..+‘7.IC5E T of fact.. scarphed fitting B 5’3R h. _. hollow glued spars were in use years before truly watrrproof water-resistant the joints casein glue being relied upon together Sitka spruce.-. Considerable feather-edged on the flat.igu rc 164. .lPA.ALi3\3AT5 __.. As a matter glue was known. ‘1.LUG5 eeur 7-C AbdiLE OF 5i+F2ouD \ ’ 1 PLATE FOR5hl.’ ------=i=i=j+J\LN__ 1. Theoretically as well as sharp tools are needed a glued joint ._--CHAlhi FL ATE5 0 I.8_1 ‘w -_. is required. -- ?ET41- RAtiGc. of amateur-built When joining with coats of is available in from moisture._-_-_I-- _r .

width layout for the forward shown on the plan for the the edges to and then sawing and planing and aft pieces is done from a centerline . mast IO make is a hollow.: @J Horn Qe.?klS I soL~ca=2 O’. with the pircrs by some builders because it is easier to conThe simplest 1101 skidding of the glued surtaces. unless he has extensive dressed four sides to the dimensions to add a slight thickness. the easiest way for an amateur tools. is used on smaller halves. (Sue Figure 16-5.pEm 5%7A-i ~~O!vlS B2A-r -Qd’- 9ECE Ci-EP Q-l=?i%? mEct& BOLT EP!=?Z SF ROUT-R 5. is to order the spar material section of the spar. to each other.cdTgw. The larger spars. fairing the lines. the groove is hand are glued together. The section next in simplicity is the round spar made of hollowed-out halves.‘d AST @ n T.GH. Figure 16-5 shows a scarph and typical hollow spar sections forta. is prcfcrrcd box spar. as it consists of two round halves and two tapered side pieces. with a circular saw and then routing out the groove in the saw cut.) To make a boltrope l’hc tangular groove in a hollow spar made up of two rounded routed on each half before the sections sailboats. This is done by laying off the width at the spacing the shape with a long batten. using a very highspetbd cutter with a shank narrower than the saw cut.200 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS +-/so GLUEC S-‘A~PH MA-X- &fj~@!!!Jz?$kQ L. rectangular rabhetrd. The wall thickness of oval and round spars is always tapered in the interest of weight saving. which T-boom booms. the oval is the easier in the smaller sizes.‘A. say With such material with the architect’s at the for at hand detail &“. it is best to stagger the scarphs as much as possible. have solid recgouged or machine also sometimes Hollow Probably machine Rectangular Spars to make a box spar. classes use a solid mast with a groove routed out for the This groove can be made by first making a saw cut Some of the sailboat boltrope on the luft ot the mainsail. maximum It is desirable dressing up and finishing there is nothing spar.+ii 5!+R-3 Figure 16-S. The after the spar has been glued. This section.antl-aft in use today.&x’ OR 0CWt-4 SECT!. both the oval section and . Of the two. the pieces in accordance to do but taper plans.he round srction made of staves. but inasmuch stronger than the wood. are the most difficult to make and would be quite a job for the amateur. so that splices could be adjacent as a glued joint will be locally stiffer than the adjoining unjointed pieces.

the inside of spars. Figure 16-6. cannot or else a perfect glued When only one or two spars are to be made. made in symmetrical . are sufficiently wide to clamp the spar plus pieces of scrap used under the If the number of your clamps is sketch. the aft side of the mast or the top side of that will be glued. with the instructions. (Set pads to distribute together pressure and prevent scars. Ail kinds of clamps may be utilized if their openings clamp joined 16-6D. by nailing a series of short boards horizontally ground to support the outer ends. carefully sanding off the gloss between Round Even (Figure Hollow though Spars may have a rectangular mast and boom. Provide drain holes in all solid fillers cxcrpt the one at the masthead. All supports should be level and to be so. Figure spar clamps of two husky pieces of oak or ash 92 n diameter. surface Duplicate contact sides may be temporarily be made. A long solid filler fitted at the heel of the mast is bound to locally stiffen the mast due to the sudden increase in sectional area. you can make satisfactory at the ends with bolts of at least Sitka spruce clear . one of the great yacht designers. some prefer the pad-type fillers glued to the inside before assembly as shown in sketch B. The late Phil Rhodes. Before gluing make as there attention temperature and working life after mix- ing.apply at least four or five coats. as upon them will be placed the that is. Once the glue is mixed. it is a good illustratiorr of the number of clamps used bv a builder to ensure a perfect job. pole First.) The clamps should not be removed for at least 24 hours to allow the glue to develop full strength. particularly resorcinol. (See Figure at the same height. Finish the spar by scraping finish is wanted the excess glue from the seams. a makeshift 16-6A. gradually working has a beautiful round the when and then sand all sides smooth. If a varnish down to fine abrasive appearance insufficient. Because solid filler blocks have been known to swell and either split the spar or cause poorly glued joints to open up. a boat 16-6G) will be round. the boom. with 100 percent Be sure to keep the edges square. mix the glue strictly to those regarding spread it quickly in accordance and thoroughly. paper. Although Figure 16-6a shows a boom that is larger than any that the average amateur would attempt.MISCELLANEOUS because joint both edges are shaped. insisted upon a block cut as shown in Figure 16-6C to avoid this situation and also advised running saw cuts longitudinally on the block to allow for expansion. finished coats. taking care not to coat the surfaces gauge to scribe between the lines.) DETAILS 201 nailed together and made at the same time. corners. should bc one every few inches or so to apply the pressure required for the glue. The filler Use a marking elsewhere the width of the side pieces on the forward and aft pieces at the ends of the spar and is also omitted in way of and shellac and shellac as called for by the plans are fitted these. halves around the spinnaker a centerline. Shellac pieces spar bench may be devised with legs down to the to a wall or fence. When everything paying partirular is ready. sure there are enough clamps at hand: it is surprising how many are needed. or the top edges shimmed side of the spar that is to be straight. so moisture will not collect and start rot.

the part to be hollowed. For smaller spars of. of the pole in the middle. because for ease of layout. 5 d diameter. for points every two feet or so apart and constantly the wall thickness of use them to check as the wood is cut away. and the rule is pivoted until the 12” mark lines up with the opposite corner. The templates the finished spar and guard against ending up with walls that are too thin or not uniform in thickness. The next step is to cut the corners off the square and make it eight-sided. and then the square the spar must be laid out on the outside. the figures can be halved. This is repeated at every foot and a batten is run through the points to draw a line. Therefore. The walls will then be of equal thickness along the spar’s centerline. control hollowing templates. The ratio of 12-814-3% can be reduced or enlarged to suit any size of spar. to solid wood. Figure 16-6E. say. Points are made on the wood at the 3t$$ 0 and 8rh H marks on the rule. Mark centerlines on the mating then lay out the inside of the pole. When guide lines have been drawn on all four sides. together and equal to the surfaces of the Make get out two pieces of stock that will be square when clamped diameter material.202 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS Figure 16-6a. with points made at the 1% Nand 4 !LaII marks. The hollow portion is ended in a quick taper. These figures should of the spar. The following description is an example of how the guide lines might be laid out. that is. as shown on the sketch. it is a simple matter to make the spar eight-sided with a drawknife and plane and to then round it off to be finished by sanding. At any point along the length of the tapered assembly. the he varied to suit differences in the diameter rule should be almost square across the spar. and the 6” mark on the other. so that pole end fittings will be attached assembly is tapered. This is done by drawing guide lines as done in Figure 16-6F. the end of a rule is placed even with one cor- ner. the end of the rule is held on one corner of the spar. all When the halves have been glued together. .

AFTsIDC OF COOUS Fl?CWl % ~ __ em+ Of Ak.l AL -‘V CUT rwh ROUND -!-AWLCC I. .l~~~PhI WALL THIC~A?SS USe: A TEMPL’ICITiZ WCRY -l-WC feey OR so vd-E*i ROUhD SCCTICUS HOLLONJIW . SPIt4kJAdiR C Ou~WR4lGHT~Td~. XAWicl 0t.e @MT- Chamfer ~orndr5 droc moisture &qOhl THRO LL *T k!EcJwIM- Figure 16-6.‘rzg drfails..I -----_____ I --------____ ---------- Y-7 FVLE I PVR ub. Sbar-mak. ~.JO -IDIdhSl-5 ARE W?ZA’GHr3 Sl-RhlOHT SIIXD 1 LdE5 MA-We\ SICSC.

Most tangs are made of strong sheet metal. When carefully done. the builder must drill the holes for the tang fastenings with care. and imo the wall of the spar. Straps encircling heels of the spreaders Fore-and-aft are found a few inches above the tang bolts. made. The screws for the sail track go headboard. Monel. are strong. the sail track can be laid on a batten the nuts. Battens through the batten as at the extreme through-fastenings are also sometimes binding due to contact with the boom at their edges. The step is given a length of several frame spaces to distribute over the hull. Rigging Atmchnents for Wooden Spars Not too many years ago almost all masts were round and the upper ends of the standing rigging location the marconi manufacturers struction. and each tang is usually carefully to design tangs that arc both for the job to be done. With the introduction a rope consisting rig and the systems of stays for supporting it came taller masts. It is the job of the naval architect light and strong.204 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS sail will be straight on the aft side but the method of A round mast for a marconi making it is the same. section. Besides making the tangs exactly according to plan. and the of wire rope started to make what is called strand. logical therefore were spliced in a loop. or stainless steel. detailed The tangs can be made by a machine shop or a rigging specialist. or the enterprising amateur can tackle the sheet metal work by fitting his bandsaw with a metal cutting blade. particularly spliced rigging and is the to splice and is disappeared which are to use to reduce windage. like Everdur. To get around this. the resulting joint at each floor will pre- . At certain ends of a track and at reefed positions rather than screws should be used. of the mainsail such fere with the sail track if it were laid directly on the mast’s aft face. and in boats of any size it is placed in notches in the floors after first having been notched itself. attached to the mast by means of tangs. and are held to the mast by one bdt and a number of wood screws calculated to take the outward and downward stress components of the stay. single wire core with eighteen It has more strength not suitable rigging wires twisted around it. bolts for tangs have nuts on the aft side of the mast that would interthat has been glued to the mast and cut away for desirable on booms to prevent sail slides from points of extra strain. This is known as 1 to 19 conthan any other rope of the same diameter It is very stiff and difficult a mast. and mizzen masts Figure 16-7 shows tangs for double These particular tangs lower shrouds on the main simple. dropped down over the masthead to the desired of of a and held in position by shoulder cleats on the mast. Mast Step The compressive load from the mast is taken by the mast step. which is of some hardthe load wood like oak. possibly overloading a few of the fastenings instead of letting all of the fastenings do their share of the job. with tube bolts used to save weight. one with an elongated oval or rectangular has practically and the ends of the wire rope are fitted with swaged stainless steel terminals. for looping around Consequently. Loose holes will permit the tangs to slip. and well the mast with clips for the of a ketch.

help with your problems known firms are Kenyon if you have decided spars. drain Figure of the step in any direction. particularly in small craft. Guilford.MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS 205 Figure 16-7. Masts are sometimes stepped on deck or on the cabin roof. and details will be found on the plans. it is drift bolted to the and rot the step. spinnaker poles. and in addition. There is now a large choice of sizes of extruded sections for masts. 16. for many spar suppliers and sailmakers to use aluminum Street. vent movement floors. or by strategically located joiner bulkheads of Aluminum Alloy Spars The plans for the boat you are building will probably call out the specifications for the parts if the spars are to be made of aluminum alloy. and also a large choice of fittings to complete the rig and make it work. There are ads in the sailing magazines Marine. and the like. The thrust load is then carried ample down to the hull by a stanchion strength. The mortise ltj-4B. A there are other in the step to take the mast tenon should have a but like many other boat details. Connecticut ready to 06437. hole drilled at the low point so that water will not collect typical step is shown in Figure types of steps. Sailboat rigging is a business of its own and is best left to the experts if you do not have the details of what you need.4C. booms. Among the best- New Whitfield .

206 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS Figure Schaefer Spars.. Park. anced. of a wood or metal it is attached blade and a stock through which force is A rudder transmitted powerboat waterline. They are sometimes into a split stock through blade of cast manganese which the blade is riveted. balanced. New Bedford. of the sail similar Figure 16-8 is a section through in Figure Vertical 16-5. of galvanized sheet steel. so that in moderate-size step and mast partner boats it is well to fit a tie rod between the mast 16. to the blade and around which it pivots. Florida and Mack-Shaw 33315. Massachusetts for a mast. 15th Street. 100 S. forward of the after end of the or it is partly bal- or it is hung outboard Further. Tie Rod In this design there is a slot to the wooden mast section for the sail and a groove for the boltrope The forces from the thrust of the mast and the upward pull of the rigging tend to collapse the hull. Just take up the nuts snugly when installing as there is no need to try to putt the deck and step together. meaning Except for common types of to the hull by hangers on the transom.4B. In the case of the latter the Powerboat Modern Rudders powerboat rudders are now almost invariably The made of metal. with all the blade area abaft to turn the rudder the stock or pivot point. W. with a percentage force required of the area forward of the stock. Inc. Industrial 16-8. as shown in Figure nuts which are set up over washers. the rudder is either un- The location of the rudder is eithtir inboard. 02745. called gudgeons and pintles. Figure serted in the head of the rudder. an extrusion Sailmakers. although type has a formerly they were often of wood. is reduced. Fort Lauderdale. Types of Rudders consists rudders. fitting most common bronze bossed for a rolled bronze or None1 stock that is inThis is a more durable blade than a steel one. The rod is threaded on both ends for them. .

It is a clean design and results from an effort to reduce resistance away the deadwood. with the maximum and pintles as seen in any marine disengaged cent of the blade width aft of the leading edge of the rudder.: e. as inbeing about 25 peris used.MISCELLANEOIJS C-i?’ 3?‘=\ZE 23 . a stuffing box in Figure 16-9B and is made in liable to catch to prevent leaks where the stock enters the hull.r-. warping. the rudder on the sections in the sketch. LsEetEr F-ZCK c -v . ety of gudgeons hardware may float up and become When the common vari- from the boat. L Figure 16-9. dicated The blade area below the surface but in any iron or brass rod to prevent of the water is streamlined thickness catalog of the wood should be alternated from piece to piece for the same in shape.l . I I i 0 A I\ . the rudder may be weighted with hand but no control over rhe boat. leaving the skipper with a tiller in this. and at the bottom by a pintle riding in rudder is sketched but is not supported by cutting at the bottom and is more lobster pot buoys and the like. To prevent an insert of lead heavy enough to offset the buoyancy of the blade. On twin screw boats a spade-type qualities. -p< 1 v( I* -5xE‘j i DETAILS 207 ?>..f3ne . steering of sizes. +=l ‘\ 4 yt. in 4 number each of the propellers and gives excellent may be purchased Small Sailboat Rudders sailboats have an outboard rudder as shown in Figure 16-10A. or the upper pintle can be drilled for a cotter pin just below the gudgeon. In shoal water localities the small boat outboard rudder is often made with a . at the top by the rudder port. or preferably made to hinge so it can be raised when tacking.rtEEL 16-9A shows this type of rudder supported a hole in a metal skeg.-A-5 572. so there is no way of supporting rudder is used behind The two types of rudders of the rudder. depending case it should be doweled with galvanized the grain direction reason.cyy:gL. The tiller is fixed.d:. \ ‘.:t .“yfga 0 I\L. A spade-type the same underwater the bottom sketched manner. The and Small centerboard blade may be of one or more pieces. j j I 5 . upon available material.

yet leave the rudder readily removable from the transom.10B. good grade manganese square inch. At the bottom of the rudder a pintle Unfortunately. pivoting blade so that it may be raised to clear obstructions. A strap is fitted as shown at the end of the stock to prevent it from bending the blade gudgeon are fitted for support. . bronze with tensile strength Do not skimp on the quality of fittings.P~vioTit. These fittings are usually detailed by the architect with enough dimensions so that. nonferrous tough.. (See Figure 16.1OC. Some of the standard fittings available from marine stores are sketched in Figure 16.208 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS FtlnxlER PWl-l-E RUDDER HEAD F 0 . Besides these.) This is done by pivoting the blade between long cheek pieces riveted securely to a filler of the same thickness buoyancy while sailing as the blade. several of the marine hardware manufacturers make sets of fittings for small outboard rudders that prevent the rudder from coming off. the necessary patto use anything but for rudder stocks is pounds per terns can be turned out for the use of the foundry. the variety of rudder shapes thicknesses is so great that stock fittings are not available and patterns must be made for castings. made on the hull and rudder. Large Sailboat Rudders shows the rudder for a keel sailboat in which the stock is run down far from pressure of water against and and Figure 16-11A enough to take a few bolts through when the rudder the piece of blade next to it. Rudder fittings should be bolted rather than screwed to the transom. A light line is used to raise the rudder or the forward motion over shoal areas. together metals with templates fittings. is turned. . Small sailboat rudders and fittings.--- TZALL OAROE(L au 7lLLClC FlrnuG ‘5LllJlhll3’ FITTINGS A t=Ed 5TAtJDAc2C’ . for rudder strong Tobin bronze or Everdur while the cast parts should be of a of not less than 60. It is inadvisable One of the best materials shafting.000 because the rudder is important.lG b3JDDER RUDDEI~ Figure 16-10. A lead insert is needed to prevent it from rising due to of the boat.

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS 209 EC’ Figure Larger indicated 16-11. is fortunate each some hand labor can edge. water is kept out of the hull by screwing a threaded brass or bronze pipe into a hole drilled in the horn timber. where the blade is thinner. rudder should not be underestimated. guide can be devised to ensure . Dowel holes must be parallel and all fastenings to must be kept in and when and then a to make a and may be decreased one another the middle so the wood will not be weakened or the pieces cannot of the blade to prevent through when the blade is tapered. The sketch also shows how the grain is and how the after edge onto the rudder pieces to prevent or minimize As mentioned of the sternpost with a minimum is sheathed painting. This can be laid out from your mold loft drawings and a drilling that the hole is drilled at the proper angle. piece of wood is inserted how the blade is tapered. rudders mus! be made of pieces that are doweled or drift bolted together in diameter near the trailing by the fastenings. The best way to start the hole is to cut through a block (shown dotted in the figure) having its face at right angles fcJ the center of the stock. The is carried around the sides by an inch or so and secured with copper tacks. Otherwise all be saved by planing in adjacent to its thickness at the forward warping. about in Chapter 8. It may be seen that the amount of work required enough piece to have a thickness planer. With the rudder arranged as shown in Figure 16-11 A. to fill the slot. their coming as RuDDEP AL/V - Foe IL4AW by the plans. The enlarged edge have a slot cut far enough Drifts driven from the trailing section in Figure 16-11A shows in from the edge so the head will be hidden. and it must be drilled at the correct angle. Drift bolts used in heavier rudders do nut have to be parallel driven at varying angles. bc joined together. edge of the rudder blade begins aft of the center of the stock so that the with copper The forward rudder can be turned hard over without fouling the sternpost. the edge of the sternpost 1/?” thick for protection from worms and to eliminate which is practically impossible without unshipping the rudder. sheathing is hollowed out so water will flow past the deadwood of disturbance. If the builder tapering alternated they lock the pieces together. to each other. is done with plane and spokeshave. The size of dowels and bolts should be shown by the designer edge. The hole must be just the right amount smaller than the pipe so the threads will take hold.

nEz~ STAGGEPED FLUS- B.*zEym iv)& -42’ BeorJZE A0OuT 3“ W’I CE 0 B TL?AILiNG EC’GE SHEATHING -- l-E . is required is not the easiest A shorter the job. around but a a lot of as the aperture.=?I?“._. drill holes in the blade straps. The blade straps shown are cut from flat bronze and secured with counter- . and then hinging piece of thin plywood or heavy cardboard The aper- ture is cut away by trial until the “rudder” can bc swung 40 degrees off center and still clear the propeller blades. and keyway the upper end for the stock.\ m. out by casting and quite the stock in one piece from upper end to the pintle is needed. and turn a pintle or b arc for an inserted pintle on the lower end. there must can turn When a sailboat (Figure is fitted with an engine cut in the deadwood be a hole or aperture and rudder in which the propeller when revolving. and except for filing rough spots from the casting. the only machinin. but its size must be The edge of disc of a such that the propeller the aperture the same diameter blades will not strike the rudder on the propeller can be checked on the mold loft floor by setting up a semicircular as the propeller centerline. The aperture should not be larger than necessary.) It is not sufficient to end the rudder stock at the top of the aperture: it must either partly surround the opening as shown in Figure 16-11B.1lC. bore.11 B).gure 16-12. Figure 16-12. is hard to beat for strength. Sometimes the casting to finish the latter method is carried to make. \l PL ATE AFT !=L?R CPA\\ ---.IUEf . ---- hiJLC -. 16. = needed is to taper.. Rudders for Auxiliary Sailboats and the shaft is on the centerline. casting below the aperture. on the centerline of the rudder. shown. (See sketch. or completely encircle it as shown in Figure complete machining long pattern 16. Fi.210 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS .

and there is much waste. tapered and keyed to sunk rivets. Sometimes is of countersunk head rivets as shown. Fastening and the trailing the rudder I. and laid on the rudder to mark a rabwiil be flush with the surface of the blade. but the sheathed rudder is perfect from the start and is usually fitted on cruisers and racers of the finest quality. : MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS 211 Figure 16-13. match the apertui’e casting. is made from bronze shafting.harp. When the rudder is . The stock. a condition remedied by sharpening the trailing edge somewhat. An expensive and by no means necessary the trailing Thk sheathing edge as illustrated by templating is made the shape There are several varieties of each of these items made by the marine hardware refinement to a rudder is to bronze sheath Figure 16-13. steerer. of the trailing The edges of the curved strips are filed smooth bet that is cut so the sheathing from a sheet of bronze about &.dard or in larger due to the angle between stock and horn timber. edges are brazed on a new boat will by means together.‘! /fl b >. V to X2 Minch thick. starting with are various means of transmitting the simple tiller for an outboard rudder shown in Figure 16-10A. then ground reasonably vibrate so that it chatters considerably. split gudgeon pintle from the heel gudgeon. of course. tiller fitting.akto box is shown on the fittings be and the stock and lifting A stuffing the rur’der enough der made like this may be removed from the hull without digging ing off the two-piece disengage adapted. Steering There Controls directional forces to the rudder. A ruda cleep hole by . The upper end of the stock boats for a wheel of any rudder has a keyway for a standard manufacturers. the bottom horn timber. and is secured with a pinned nut on the lower end. as seldom can star. This will very likely be a special job. bandsawing the edge and in Figure 16-12B and in the photograph.

A more modern small to medium pull cable from the rack to an arm at the rudder.nd chain use a gearbox sizes of boats. suitable the rudder arm with shafts. solid or pipe. and this is a matter by introducing Florida 33559. a hydraulic all connected by three tubes or hoses of small diameter. the number of turns pump instead of a manually steering components operated Inc. Some sailboats attached to the upper fastened and securely have an Edson-type stock. whenever joinerwork fastened latter The has been built. The fortunate builder has good detail of the steering system on his plans: otherwise he has been left on his own to work it out. should not be taken lightly.. from hard over to hard over of the rudder. end of the rudder to the structure. of a pump that is turned by the steering wheel. manual Due to the high cost of labor.212 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS methods must be used. 471 Industrial Park Road. uses a rack and pinion at the wheel and a heavy pushThis is by far the simplest type of steerer and is seen in many boats because it is the least expensive to install. the construction particularly struction Guard. at the wheel a. This greatly simplifies the installation. is Hynautic.) matter Boat and Yacht Council. New Bedis one of the world’s largest producers of sailboat steerers a design handbook. stan- manufacturers. a power-driven of hydraulic Fuel Tanks Due to the danger of explosion and fire. 02745. steerer These sailboats more complicated with the wheel and gearing gears must be carefully have the wheel farther over sheaves. There are several types of steerers for powerboats. 17 and Recommended specify the all-important The standards and installation of fuel tanks. . This type of steering consists essentially and a reservoir. is the great zumber of steering wheel turns In the larger boats. There cpn be two or more steering stations-it makes little difference as long as there are no leaks in the piping-so the more the number of stations of design.. gasoline tanks. and conCoast Both installation (1977) set by the American and most recently Reading. All parts should aiso be hydraulic steering has almost become cylinder. Massachusetts and issues a catalog on the rudder stock with a length of sprocket and chain and wire The Edson Corp. dard with the stock powerboat wear on the wire rope. and wire rope similar Others at the wheel or elsewhere uses a reduction pedestal to for to the sailboat in the system and connect type of steerer. One of the largest suppliers Osprey. Other inboard. by the U. so heed them Monel Alloy 400 written by people well.S. should to prevent movement should be installed before too It is most important that all steering be carefully of units such as the steerer and and should be through-bolted aligned to reduce friction and eliminate possible. One method gear steerer steerer. (See Chapter The standards are only as good as your compliance of tank materials. One drawback. one. The steering much of the interior gear parts be securely wire rope nonferrous sheaves. with them. the more advantageous the system. are well covered by standards with long experience. can be reduced Box 668. from a pedestal A recent Edson innovation conin lieu of cable-over-pulley that is practically cable steering utilizes husky push-pull nections to the rudder tiller. aligned away from the rudder and use a pedestal steerer con- nected to a quadrant rope running ford.

When buying a fuel tank. due to hull shape. tanks concerns the connection about aluminum compatible to the bonding Also. of the best metals. be sure it bears the label of the manufacturer by the standards nection One caution be galvanically and that it shows it was tested. to the tank.S. but it is extremely diesel fuel tanks breakthrough aluminum high in cost. 48th Avenue. The bushing reduces to the tank and then screw a stainless steel that is a size or two of hose. a coating either DETAILS for gasoline 213 or A diesel fuel. packless type. Monel Alloy 400 and the higher strength Monel Alloy K-500 . since the last edition for the construction Now tanks can be welded of alloys 5052. because with the aluminum pipe coupling threads weld half of an aluminum size of the opening. The cross-sectional under the floor of a cabin. The W measurements are taken at midheight Propeller Propeller Shafts and Bearings non-corrosive material. openings nipples welded to the tank. or 5086. in the tank are not permitted on the top surface of the tank. The sides are parallel but the top and bottom Shape D is often are not. U. W. as called for 5083. such is to the as metal tubing and metal ends of fuel hoses. Fill and vent connections can be slipped over and clamped All valves in the fuel piping. system of the boat. area W times H of the tank. are taken in feet. 16480 N.MISCELLANEOUS remains for probably the finest metal from which to make tanks. the cubic capacity by 7. Tank Figure Capacity Calculation used in boats and how to calculate their in If 16-14 shows tank shapes commonly by figuring Boatbuilders capacity the volume in cubic inches and dividing by 231 to find contents seem to always work the capacities is multiplied from inch dimensions. At this writing two have shafts must be made from strong. but must not have of fuel tanks. A tank manufacturer that has made hundreds of aluminum alloy fuel tanks for stock and custom boatbuilders as well as for the one-off people is Florida Marine Tanks. the metal may not alloy. those at the tank for the fuel suction to the must be of the approved for any purpose line in diesel systems).. or the same as the area at midlength used for tanks located of the ends. be sure that it has a tab for conof metal fittings. Inc. Hialeah. One way to avoid trouble half. and these pipe bushing into the female therefore of the coupling you must start out with a coupling to the tank are normally unthreaded to aluminum including larger than usual. dimensions gallons.48 for the answer in The cylindrical and rectangular tanks A and B are straightforward to figure. volume is the length times the average of the area of the ends. Florida 33014. Shape C is typical of a tank installed under the cockpit of a sailboat. the and again is the average of the area of the ends. Steel remains the most inexpensive of this book is the approval of certain material alloys of of any sort on the inside. engine (and fuel return And one final anywhere except word: which do not leak at the stems. gallons.

6 ALJ..S Id INCH&) L A 0 e Q / . = L%3.TAti< CApAC17-y I 1b-i (J-s(DlMEdSlo~5 fibLL0Fd. .\4SCKlZ 231 H CiALS_ = LXH%W 231 - 0 0 Figure 16-l<.

Council tioned and this is probably afford them. It shows the usual modern log with a stuffing box inboard of a rubber-necked into the boat struts Intermediate support. and the SAE data for this is usually tabulated and illustrated in the catalogs of the propeller makers. The bearing In this case shaft logs are made that have a short length of bearing. the base should be through-fastened the wood should be treated to clean and paint This precaution bronze wood screws of the same metal should the hole is difficult susreptible shaft hole through to worm damage. bronze. weaker metal. The base flange of the shaft log must be made watertight by bedding the flange with a generous amount of bedding Wherever otherwise *a The because therefore compound. When setting up the length of your shaft. long to require The are used when the shaft is sufficiently length minor proven of rubber hose secured The stuffing box and the shaft log are both of bronze and are connected by clamps. Shaft logs are made in the several of boats. angles that have the most useful for the majority but they may have to be shimmed with a wedge of wood in your boat to get the correct alignment. Figure motorboat. metal. If the shaft is going to be turning boat use.MISCELLANEOUS just about priced themselves content. in place and is indeed. Dimensions for machining the shaft end and propeller hub have long been standardized. or epoxy resin. 17 is a strong. A somewhat a used Tobin shaft) out of the pleasure boat market. is housed so the for- . The tapering shaft coupling the propeller who is set up to the engine. batten shaft around 16-15A shows a longitudinal section at the shaft centerline arrangement of a twin screw with a keel The same section applies to a common to prevent single screw motorboat water from leaking additional and cutaway skeg. possible. and a strut to support the shaft at the propeller. hose helps to reduce misalignment of the shaft. ing materials. This type of shaft log is rather special and is not used as frequently as the kind that terminates at the base. Another type of special shaft log is sometimes used in moderate to large size boats where the shaft is quite long in proportion bearing between the first intermediate to the diameter and it is desirable to have a s shaft strut and the engine. by a short due to vibration the shaft.S. end has a taper with keyway to match hub bore and threads done so the propeller must be carefully will fit properly and is best left to a shaft supplier for this work. “standard” by various These DETAILS 215 are high in nickel cannot of findshafting the reason why little people. suitable choice. then Aquamet Aquamet diameter. or with one of the thiokol-base with silicon with polyester be used. unlike governments. above and also for bearing while the outboard the sizes of shafts for the materials Typical shafts have a keyway machined for the propeller on one end for the propeller locking nuts. is Tobin stainless steel but this seems to have disappeared notably Armco’s Aquamet (but don’t overlook the possibility 17. such as Dolfinite. although and been replaced for many years. is very important Some shaft logs are designed with a tube integral with the base. 18. later with the shaft materials. allow one shaft diameter’s clearance between the propeller hub and the strut. and 22. like in commercial but in typical intermittent standard yacht service If your boat plans do not specify the shaft P-6 has charts for selecting spacing. The tube is a lining for the shaft hole and is cut off flush with the outside of the hull. and Yacht menBoat 22 is a better American most of the time. at least in the U. bolts..

.?-.. Z’C .I 1 ../n f <TTCPu BEAClUG * 7” ‘CVTLE-X CACTtUG Pene’uG t----t-Y uSHAFT -n-i~u B~iiC\xoc~D COMMOU .EE 7 ‘\ ‘\ II/ \\ I/ I”C”C ‘\’ J/ cr.. <Y-e. ~~DZ. I)&.4 ‘$.+.--&&E iP.E7 ..~ 11 7-v PE FEPLz.---.\ -1..-.--AFT Figure 16-15. SECT “COTIE ~-HZ.3 - TE:r JL v Y~-\FT .3’ - F u. TYPE OF LdL. ‘-1 I 1-k\ 5-e.rJlj l?Z.~.m.

The bearings struts. 16-15A umbian struts. You might as well have the strut maker install the bearing beat the Goodrich of bearing “Cutless”-type bearing. lubrication. has made Corp. anybody in particular. This type which is made of rubber plastic-type in water for lubrication and for washing out silt is lightly pressed into are four times the shaft to can be cut to make two shaft wear. is specially made up and not found in marine supply catalogs. The like Columbiar. so that one standard bearing in length when used as the aftermost and they are often reduced half length in intermediate intermediate ones. from leaking into the will fill the hole for the shaft and must be prevented structure. is square. flax or Teflon- packing braid.. the stern bearing Water hull through joints are stock items of marine in the deadwood hardware and are readily available. This is done by fitting a tube between the stuffing box and stern bearing castings. these are either the single amI or the v type. thus preventing . can be tapped for the ends of a threaded stuffing box The castings to the wood with hanger braided rings. water lubrication of the bearing. A part of the propulsion setup that is almost always a special shaft strut. pipe. and is installed either impregnated asbestos as individual with the joints stag- gered so they are not all in line. on a sketch as shown in Figure must be sent to a strut manufacturer I am not advertising Freeport. There might just do the job. has grooves that channel and sand. The heads of the bolts should be oval and countersunk slot to keep the bolt from turning from the strut manufacturer. however. The shell of the bearing bearing. As specified by the plans. shell of bronze or. The DETAILS 217 is provided by engine into the log forward water used is part of is not detrimenThis type of shaft log item is the propeller to find a that that usually piped into the exhaust line for cooling. Otherwise. or a mock-up Bronze pair to fit the boat. The stuffing bearing The stuffing has a Cutless-type when the shaft of a single-engine box is inside the hull. The pilots of the castings should be fastened waxed leaking. specifying have a screwdriver while it is tightened. because only a small amount is sent to the shaft log bearing. so they have many that may be adapted bronze. with moderate Most struts are made of cast manganese Struts are fastened or manganese should These through the planking and the inside blocking with silicon bronze and bronze bolts. the length bolts are best oldered needed. Bronze.MISCELLANEOL’S ward end is not exposed cooling water tapped to a flow of water. with one or two set screws. the stern bearing and a water scoop on each side of the box can be had “rubber Both stuffing necked. enough some adjustable dimensions struts on the market due to the angle of the shaft and the shape of the hull it is nearly impossible stock strut that will fit. if the hull is aluminum. casting The latter for bearing the deadwood. It is hard to bonded to an outer shell. Figure 16-15A also shows a typical arrangement boat goes through outside. either a lead sleeve as shown in A of the figure (the lead is easily flanged by hammering) or a bronze tube special ordered from a supplier bolts.” with a box assembly and piece of hose between the stuffing box and the casting. but the diversion tal. thus minimizing the strut and secured diameter to an optional in the strut. patterns New York 11520 so he can make up one or a but over the years Colthousands of special alterations. and are.

Many engines are equipped with adjustable mounts that need but a wrench to lift or lower them a few thousands of an inch. It is customary for the propellers twin screw boats to be of opposite and to turn outboard as shown in Figure Aligning Propeller Shaft Couplings between vibration the engine and propeller shaft couplings there will first and the stern of a feeler If there is misalignment not only be unnecessary to the rear bearing the engine mated when the engine is running bearings but also possible damage for the shaft. The shaft should be installed to it. Hardwood and thin brass shims are used under the engine mounts until the alignment is as perfect as possible. Direction Screw astern. and some of the larger engines have jacking screws built into the mounts for the same purpose. Lacking and seal of the reverse gear. If there are only two support and a rubber-necked between the coupling bearing or strut bearing geuge. it must be tested again . a r$ht-hand Looking propeller forward from in propellers are made a shaft that turns clockwise and a shaft that turns counterclockwise 16-1G. of Propeller Rotation either right-hand requires rotation or left-hand. neck. test for alignment shaft log. and thus the gap.LEFT HAND kV<lNG fWD +M $?IGHT A$-+-EC?t. block up the shaft inboard at the rubber halves by inserting the shaft log to prevent the shaft from sagging four strips of paper as shown in Figure 16.l r(4~D Fbgure 16-16. You can tell by gently pulling on the strips whether the pressure. takes a left-hand propeller.17. The final test is to tighten down the engine and still have good alignment of the couplings. is the same for all pieces. If aligning of the engine is done with the boat out of water.

This used to be done with complicated linkages of rods.-IILS 219 when the vessel is launched throwing Pulley out the alignment Drives is often because some hulls change shape when water-borne. and an emergency shutdown in the case of some two-cycle diesel engines.ANEOC~. so remote controls must be installed for operating the throttle. pipes.MI. pump or rxtra generator is to br driven from a power take-off pulley diameter ‘l’he fortnulitt~ below art’ handy for finding Driven pulley: RPM -_ diameter x RPM of drivel of driven of driver diamctcr diameter Diameter = x RPM RPM of driven Driving pullry: Diameter = diameter x RPM of driven of driver RPM diameter RPM = x RPM of driven of driver diameter Engine Controls The engine is almost always located some distance away from the steering station of the boat.~CEi~l. ‘l’hc boatbuilder faced with figuring out a v-belt pulley ratio when a bilge pulley on an engine.S DE?. that was done while hauled out. and bell cranks and was a job One of the greatest boons was the advent of the hydraulic of major proportions. or spcrd in RPM. . the reverse gear.

for connecting and two push-pull system now consists of an attractive cables running from the levers to maker usually has kits for each to the gear and throttle. Another pioneer in control Florida 33308. the engine. Morse heads is an out- one each for gear and throttle. This led to the reduced the that drastically reverse gear. A newcomer Co. Two cables per rngine are still required. Pennsylvania 19468. is planned the same as when there are two levers. See the following by the American chapter hoses have been inadequately clamp rigid pipes or tubes.e save hou1. market Avenue.. consideration should be given to hydraulic controls for the Inc. A variation of a control head with two levers per engine the cable the movement of push-pull to keep them from interfering furnish with other equipment. has a system that may do the job for you. double clamped at each end with stainless steel hose clamps whenever possible. .220 MISCELLANEOUS requiring DETAILS but fingertip effort on a small lever on the gear instead of the to operate the old manual clutch. fuel lines should be hose of approved type with threaded ends and rtezler clamped. it is a mistake to restrict only be secured sufficiently tle time spent planning bends. and electrical connections to an engine should always have slack so vibra- tion cannot cause premature failure of the lines. The control stallation. The control the engine end of the cables for each job. When two or rnc*e control stations are planned and would require cables with many bends. Panish Transdyne. and the minimum Contrary to the opiA litof the incables. A good number of boats have sunk because exhaust clamped to the adjoining widths and hose overlap permitted on this subject. 12th Avenue. brackets Hudson. V5T lH2. is Kobelt by one of the oldest makers. fuel.. a method time and cost of installation. Ltd. Cooling water lines to the engine should be hose. many foot-pounds of effort needed push-pull cable controls now seen in most boats.. cables. Manufacturing fit that can give advice from much with a first class product Vancouver. They should with a minimum bend radii for the size of cable being used must not be exceeded. Hynautic. The first two mentioned 640 North are also sources as is Teleflex. On the other hand. E. firsthand Canada 4806 N. experience. Inc. 235 East 5th Lewis Road. British for push-pull in the U. Fort Lauderdale.z of making 21 Clinton Street. Limerick. The length of cables between control but they should be installed levers and the engine can be almost unlimited. The reader should heed the relatively new regulations described in the following chapter. heads of high quality can be furnished Ohio 44236. Columbia.. nions of some. Figure 16-18 shows the minimum for additional reference Boat and Yacht Council standard to the ABYC. The5. number of bends. The engine control set of levers at the steering station brand of engine Control Controls. Engine Connections Water. for making runs will show which way has the least number really good instructions manufacturers is the single lever control so the installation long runs of favored by many operators. Controls. mentioned earlier in this chapter under Steering throttle and gears.S.

The complications American Boat and Yacht Council standards the standards are endless: thrrc seems to be no end at all. and the wires of the conductors Connections as well.O. The conductor size is governed thr wire and the ampere stranded approved crimped load to be carried. that alfe~tpl are a guide to the all-important matter to keep things manageable. be soldered and should preferably The I1. in USC aboard. television. such as 12 volts direct current. in some of the larger and there are of overload proto cope with the by the length of should be must be by due such as 12 and 24 or 12 and 32. However. and this often Newport custom and built switchboards. tection to avoid fire and to the type of insulated conductors necessary various environments aboard a boat. also operate the AC side of a dual voltage refrigerator air conditioning heating current from topped off and to further. to boatmen 12-volt DC panel having six to a dozen toggle switches and automotive Now. One of the pioneers California used in many boats. more often these days there will also be 115 volts of alternating a shoreline perhaps not running. cooking AC independent on board can be used to provide conveniences or air conditioning. circuit has been a small breakers installations. . all having approved of batteries. AC-powered connection to operate a charger to keep the batteries while dockside.MISCEI. For years. And farther along the line there can be ~UWAC voltages yachts and also IWO DC voltages.L. Coast Guard IO tragic cxprriences Guard guideline standardized also has something to say about electrical in boats with gasoline by the appearance standards. an when the engines are Progressing such as an and to operate generator range. If he is lucky. But this has been recognized. failure rather than solid to minimize terminals from vibration.. the only hardfor circuit pro- Life is being made easier for the boatbuilder switchboards switchboard meeting availahle ware store-type tection. designed P.S. The Coast on the market of to safe electrical system installation recognized is listed in the following chapter. there There are DC panels and combination circuit breakers selection is a sufficient sizes. particularly engines. there will be only one voltage on board. Box 2676. Corp. II 1 DETAILS 221 wo uo5e CLAMPS of ~%cI=! r ‘12” Mlfd. in the past. System Here is a part of modern boatbuilding that can get a builder into a lot of trouble. Beach. WIOfH Figure Electrical 16-18. Materialwise.~lNEOI~S Ohk CLAM4 W\DTc( M~hd. etc. the circuits utilize Marinetics DC and AC panels of various to take care of of having to in this field is and meters to show loads and the condition of panels and load capacities eliminates the necessity 92663.

therefore For small The worst thing that can happen is for an it consists of a single or coveted In craft are on the market batteries the battery. A sparking that would take place should a terminals. with straps and hold-down to eight ship’s service Onr of the simplest resistant by carefully batteries. A couple of expendable the clearance. the Fresh water tanks should be just as carefully One difference is that there should outlet. steel (Type 316 is the best in salt atmosphere). which can be removed by suction with an oven baster.222 MISCELLA NEOLJS llET/lILS Battery Storage Boxes in a lead-arid to overturn: storage battery is very destructive whether there to wood and certain The clrctrolyte unsecured multiple metals. stainless vided the interior is treated to remove be an opening in the bottom of the tank- when a boat is unused or stored in freezing include Monet Alloy 400. This is used to drain the tank weather. protaste and odor. molded plastic cases. is being charged will not be trapped. with its interior lining the box with fiberglass. larger boats there might be a bank of two engine starting is made of plywood. across the battery Fresh Water Tanks built. and installed as fuel tanks. . superior in quality and fiberglass. must to prevent spillage. wooden blocks can be used to keep the battery like Masonite from shifting despite so that exThe top should be of a material and ventilated plosive hydrogen generated when the battery top also guards against the possibly dangerous tool be accidentally Figure dropped 16-19 is a suggested battery box. The inside dimen- and completely sions of the box should be about 3i Wlarger all around than the battery to provide space for spilled water. Suitable water tank materials and cost. so it is important battery units. containers fittings to keep the thing in place. bc secured. and a bank of two made acid- for which custom boxes must be built. tested.

‘C’ K ITH \‘. . The rain and flying spray. The vent shown in Figure 16-20 was developed for sailboats ago and remains while excluding and practical for any type of boat.MISCELLANEOUS Plumbing Copper water.ATEE TCAI’ I%. cowl can be turned g. tween the sea cock and the device pumping over the opening on the inside of the hull be- Water There Trap Vent of fresh air through a boat even when it is otherwise at sea some years as it permits ventilation as desired for best should be a circulation popular closed up. for piping. Here again the American Yacht Council standards should be used for guidance. -up the hull for any reason whatsoever-toilet to about a foot above the normal waterline. etc.. for hot water. Now it is to hook it up. marine (PVC) used to be the ultimate but it has had drawbacks. must have scoop strainers outside of the hull and also good quality intake strainers the water. The polyvinyl chloride a fast to concooling such as a tendency costly not only as piping but in thz price of the fittings supply stores have good quality pipe. hose of other materials: and one of the latest (1979). some of which is suitable tubing suitable fittings. etc. Intakes for engine cooling.hi ~ENTILA~. These should preferably and possibly allow approved full-flow sea cocks rather than valves or other devices made of brass or similar be corroded by sea water the boat remained undetected until too late. to sink if Boat and on the fittings should be directly alloy that could deterioration to sea cocks. the “through-hull” be genuine. either DETAILS 223 salt water or hot and cold fresh to develop necessary pinholes.~‘\ Figure 16-20. connected connections. polybutylene for cold and hot water that is exceptionally nect with the available Where pipes pierce water intakes.

HCELCP REACH 0: nr m. Aluminum alloy pipe.oYE “PPLR BEAQING -- TO USE : --./-3 -i 60.a 55’ I ” Ii la PIPE 1 30’ DAVITS Figure results. FROM INTERSECTION WITH B.I.000 LBS. because screens reduce the effective rubbery can be plastic. pliable 16-21.o*o300MOTOO 630z 5007 400 r? z cl !.-- . by about 25 percent. aluminum. 4 STE OF SAFETY= r’L.a. and stowed and thus needs manhandling. not be used unless there are insects. anchors and dinghies material aboard yachts and for other purif possible for protection boats. The tube into the boat The box can be installed Davits Davits are used for handling poses on commercial against corrosion.- DWW LlNE(2) THR” REACH s LOAD. The cowl can be one of the either fore and aft or plastic kind that bends when a rope crosses it. : : 50a-- 3 z z I : 2 al*-w . the latter preferably .l?S. anodized has become a popular for davits because of its light weight. athwartships.4 6” IO0 5” 4+ 4” 3g 3” 5--/-AZ “PKlCIrtr REACH B= ANGLE OF HEEL C . steel This is good when. pipe or tube or of ordinary a davit must be removed from its socket Davits can aiso be made of stainless hot galvanized after shap- steel pipe. The removable screen should opening or copper.224 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS MATERIAL’ FACTOR 2500zoooIs*o. for one reason or another. LINE PRoJEC7(F) PARALLEL WITH GUIDE LINES TO PIPE SIZE SCALES.M.

the chart will give a pretty good idea of the pipe size needed. and Pipe Welders. which make cleanup so easy with water. some years ago when scores of small craft going to ing and welding whatever nying chart. If you know the load and the reach (dimension A). Inc. usually priced according to life expectancy.. The chart has a built-in safety factor of four using ordinary steel pipe. long-lasting two-part high gloss polyurethane coatings. W. from one-part enamels to the very expensive. both for protection and appearance. The same makers of the fine marine exterior coatings (perhaps “paint” is becoming extinct?) have material for the interior as well. 3rd Avenue. Inc. Underwater there is also a wide variety of antifouling paints. the reach should be increased then probably be indicated. or with an electric winch dimension A in Figure 16-21. There is also a wide choice of varnishes and synthetics to protect and bring out the best natural wood trim. fittings are needed on the davit. is usually limited to six feet. so if a load swung outboard will heel the boat much. Fort Lauderdale. A larger pipe size will Anodized aluminum alloy davits of various capacities. Principal makers of the aluminum davits are Mar-Quipt. in various voltages. Florida 33060.MISCELLANEOUS Level shpiyhfedge 4 kuli DETAILS 225 Figure 16-22. 413 S. and there is nothing wrong with the high-grade latex-base paints. Painting The boatbuilder today has a choice of the finest exterior finishes imaginable. or if rolling seas are expected. as noted on the chart. Florida 33315. labeled Figure war were clamoring for davits for all sorts of uses. with a hand-operated winch. W. . Pompano Beach. 231 S. 5th Street.. Here you must be guided by the length of your season and which paint has proven effective in the areas to be frequented. The reach. A davit is basically a cantilevered beam. are made as stock items and can be had with a tackle arrangement. ranging from 150 pounds for anchors and up to 1500 pounds for small boats. I worked up the accompa16-21.

and then a length of thin. which is done by scribing with the broken end of a hacksaw wood.226 MISCELLANEOUS the Boot Top DETAILS Marking Nothing looks worse to yachtsmen tom paints. above the waterline can be taken from the plans and plotted as shown in the figure. the waterline line. By moving the cord in and out on the straightedges may be marked if it is allowed to sag. for will not come out straight. waterline way to mark outboard Figure Assuming than a ragged division between the topside and bothas had the foresight during construction. blade or similar device or with a so-called race knife made for scribing . A batten is nailed on the hull to fair the points and mark the line. 16-22. to the boot top as scaled from the plan of the are set up at the ends of the boat as shown in tightly between the there. curved (sheered) and aft and there is room to work. a builder’s boot top or stripe is usually level or transit may be used to run in the for appearance. The at opposite ends. waterline to mark the designed just about the easiest at frequent intervals that the buiider at the stem and stern for reference the boot top is to first plot the straight Level straightedges along the hull and then lay off heights profile. points If the boat is level fore and offsets Be sure to keep the cord tight. strong cord is stretched alternately edges and moved inboard on the waterline until it barely touches the hull and a point is marked as often as desired.

Many lessons were sinking caused by a rotted hose attached to a valveless underfitting. fire. loss of life because passengers aboard a sinking boat could not find the life preservers. loss of fire control from the wrong kind or an inadequate fire and/or explosion because a fuel line to an engine of fire extinguishers. 227 . These occurrences and others were and are preventable. Not too many years ago this knowledge water through-hull was not so easy to come by. hand Risk of injury can be reduced that are securely important fastened rails and grabs in place to be accessible number by of by having an adequate with through-fastenings whenever possible. As soon as holes are made in the hull underbody for through-hull fittings or machinery and electrical installations are made.Chapter 17 SAFETY A sound hull is only the beginning of a safe hoat. available Newcomers to boatare fortunate the bard way in having information to keep them out of trouble. Ample time has been given for comment and criticism of the standards one-sided before they have been approved: therefore the standards do not represent opinions. Similarly rails and lifelines around are the adequate height and fasteningofsafety to those aboard. and engineering standards. Over the years dozens of members have served countless the preparation of standards for safe practices in the general areas of hull. was installed without slack and broke from vibration. the edges of all decks accessible American Boat and Yacht council Council of the boating industry conhours in This non-profit cerned was formed in 1954 by members with safety. machinery. The very nnturc of boats calls for deck levels of varying heights steps and ladders. unless it is the simplest of craft like one made to be paddled or rowed. sinking. equipment. or explosion. electrical. precautions must be taken building learned number to prevent leaking.

It does not apply to sailboats. as well as copies of new standards and revisions to those existing. gasoline loading Boat pliance construction. are numerous individually or as a complete contact book called Safety Standards for Small Craft. a would-be a hull identification things number all these will not discourage study of the safety regulations regulations will show that their intent Many government seem to consist of endless pages of solid text. as issued Membership is open to all.S.S.S. the complete set of standards New York 11701. and Yacht to the U. Amityville. Council. CG-466. mended will meet the regulations. engines. 20590: Electrical System Compliance Guideline applies to all inboard or inboard/outboard gasoline-powered boats and boats that have gasoline auxiliary engines such as generators. D. booklets from may be obtained I1. . by the ABYC. is included. builder: a for boats under 20 feet long to which the law applies. to monohull boats less than 20 feet in boats. Fuel engines System (except Compliance outboard boats. Federal Safe Boating Regulations and equipment systems installations that resulted in explosions. file.S. Compliance Guide--applies canoes. and loss of life have inevitably fuel systems. Coast Guard publication calculations Safety Standards for Backyard boon to the home builder and includes directions how to go about and how to obtain Hopefully careful attaching a “capacity label” as to how to work up the safe loading it tells label” to the hull. but not so the guidelines put out by the Coast Guard. governing The American with gasoline-fueled Coast Guard. Boat and Yacht Council. and a “certification for your boat. guidelines” led to the enactment in boats of laws in the U. and to gasoline~fuel inboard/outboard Level Flotation length. builder.C. Coast Guard. Boat Builders. In addition. whether and level flotation under contract to determine required in case of swamping. such as tanks that are permanently installed in inboard and generators. electrical and safe powering. making them boring to read. is a kayaks. prepared safe “com- Poor design. all boats with gasoline auxiliary engines.O. to ease the burden of the boatbuilder. or inflatable Guideline applies to all boats powered with gasoline engines). in which case For a list of these standards Box 806. turer or backyard In my opinion. Office Boating Copies of the following Guard District Office or Washington. These clearly illustrate with simple line drawings what is acceptable and what is prohibited. the standards by law are the same as the practices from your nearest of U. whether his product he be a manufacrecomCoast Safety.220 SAFETY STANDARDS standards in each of the divisions mentioned the Secretary. American above and all are There available P. backyard is good. to say the least.

Manufacturers their products the testing tested for compliance section with American of the well-known Boat and and Yacht respected Safety dards and so labeled when the product meets the requirements.:..s. Street.’ I SAFETY Product Testing STANDARDS 229 A step for safety beyond mere words has also been taken. is the marine (UL). is The UL label on hardware at 1647 Jeffords and other items of equipment Clearwater.y (3 * .. Underwriter’s . assures the purchaser has been tested and found suitable. Florida 33516. Laboratories. Inc. Laboratories the material located which succeeded the pioneering Yacht can now have Council stan- The agency that does Underwriter’s that Bureau.

how to do quality work as opposed to commercial with Plywoori 9152 Rosecrans. C. the steps from start to finish. Bay City. Maine 04843.. in one book are instruc- of classic wooden by Gilbert with Stwl. Michigan 48iO6.RECOMMENDED READING Ruilding Cl~ssr’c S~lnll Crc#. Brought boats. construction also contains Colvin Camden.. with Aluminum. by John Gardner. and How to Fibq1a. a number Maine 04843. 706 Martin of building Thr GOU.~PON Brothcars on Boat Construction. covering “Boatbuilding by an advocate of welded steel for pleasure a chapter craft. Klingel. about boat-type 21 Elm Street. with emphasis given to the WEST system developed by the . This volume cold-molded is a complete treatment wooden boats.. Street. Written International Marine Publishing This volume Colvin. Gougeon Brothers.u Bellflower. Inc. 2 1 Elm Street. boatbuilding Boats.. tions for building Bouthuildi:rg Co. International together Marine Publishing Co. authors. both from Glen -L Because plywood is still one of the most inexpensive for handling and fiberglass the instructions in these book3 covering plywood are useful. Roat building Marine Designs. California materials. Both writers explain construction. 90706. Camden.” alloy construction entitled by Thomas as is Klingrl is just as enthusiastic about aluminum steel.

by S. Department of Ships. Books. Bureau 1983. WoodenBoat a and plans of commercial magazine for fishing boats. industry standards for boat construction and the inthe parts of equipment. This is of great value to the boatbuilder.4 DING Simmons.Maryland 21Gli. Contains of Documents. of boatbuilding. District Publication by the of is to from nearest Coast Guard Office. Sq@ty CC-466. A good old book with clearly illusrrated details of some Iofring rrchniqut~s. Printing Office. by Ian Bradley. 21 Joinrry. England. Wood: A Manualfor Its Use as a Shipbuilding Material. by John Camden. moisture (Reprint: content. Laboratory. Cc~ntrc*viIIc~. to the enjoyment and Allied Publica- sharp is vc*ry important how IO do it. specifications of the Navy. Elm Fitting Out. .S. U. woods of interest (Ilandhook Available Products much from Superintendent D. Cornell Maritime Press. Government Washington. pictures. Kingston. Ltd.. WoodenBoat. Lincolnville.232 RECOMMENDED RE. ‘Teaparty including structural No. boat lovers and builders. Well illustrated of cold-molding U.Sa/. Camden. . wooden Maine Publications. A monthly newspaper National Fisherman. 04843. bi-monthly Inc. Station /i)r Small Crafi. 21 Elm Street. Maine A book specializing wooden boats with clinker planking. Simmons. American Boat and Yacht Council.. and storage of wood for boatwooden boat repairs. . building. Herts. especially Inc. (CC-466) requirements have been is a simplified and is intended explanation boat construction hazards for the use of the of boating non-professional avoid certain accidents. Tools. which Builders. i2). Box New York 11701. Co. International Marine Publishing The technique Boat Street.S. Amityvillc. Boatbuilding. U. Camden. Maine 04843. Keeping woodworking tools This little British book tells Shrj) and . Brooklin. by Walter J. 04849.) Originally Maine published by International (Reprint published by in the art of Laprake Marine building Walter J.q tions.) etc. wiring and circuit Small Road. design of parts. Co.” ‘Che primary objective found of these requirements to be the cause .S. Argus Books. Coast is described Guard photocgraphs and line drawings. Publishing 04843. Kings Langley.-!ircrali Fairin. superb source of information.S. One of the best books on boatbuilding from start to finish. Best described . 21 Elm Street. Rabl.. Cold-Molding. 20402. 04616. Modr~rrr Woode~r Yacht Construction: Guzzwell. Box 78. protcbrtion..sty Standards 806. Maine with in depth. Forest Wood Ilandbook ment of Agriculture.. stallation on electrical Sharpllin. loaded with news. booklet Federal Standards availahle foreword: recreational safety for “This individual Backyard pamphlet builder.q and Dvzr~lopmcwt. 1957-1962. basic information to the boatbuilder. Departabout A Massachusetts. C.

03937 = 0. 1 qt. sq.37 1 fathom 1 nautical = 1 fathom mile = 1.061 cu. in. cm sq. 1 qt. = & gal. ft. 1 1. =231 cu. cu.4732 I.017 cu. = 1. ft. 6 ft. = 2.03531 cu. 1 1.ute mile 1 statute 1 km = 0.057 = 3.48 = 5280 = 1. 0. = 1728 cu. above = 0. 1 1. = 3. = 61. cm 1 cu. ft. = 6. pts.0283 . gal.113 1 I. cm = 0. = 144 sq. 1 sq.481 gal. m = 28. = 0. = 12 in.8288 mile 1 '. mile = 6080 statute ft. 1 cu. 233 = U.1550 sq. 1 gal. ft.S.32 1. 1 sq. = 0. = % gal. ft. = 2. ft.4 mm 1 in. ft.0929 sq. 1 cu. in.. in. = 25.6214 Area 1 sq. m 1 sq.6093 cm ft. = 0. 1 pt.4516 = 0.083 ft.. qts. cm = 0.tat.481 cu. Note: = 7. in. and 1 pt. in. km 1 m = 39. = 30.785 1.39 cu. = 7.2809 m ft. sq. ft. in. = 16. cm = 0.54 cm 1 mm 1 cm = 0.(I ’ EQUIVALENTS Linear 1 in. 1 sq.3937 in. in. ft.00108 1 sq. 1 gal. The gal. in.764 Volume 1 cu. in. 1 ft.9464 1. m = 10.

of sea water lb. gal. = 0. = 0. gal.234 EQUIVALENTS Weight 1 oz. high column of water = 0.02835 1 lb. 1 ft.03537 1 kg = 35.35 1 oz.0703 = 14. sea water 1 knot 1: 1 nautical . ft. per sq. ft.6 gr.34 hnrsepower 1 horsepower 1 long ton = 746 watts = 35 cu.2 U. Pressure 1 lb.S. fresh water 1 cu. in. lb. 1 cu. oz. mile per hour = 2240 lb. = 0. = 1. cm Miscellaneous 1 Imp. = 28. in. per sq.434 lb.5 = 64 lb. peh. ft. = 453. 1 lb. = 1.4536 kg g-r kg 1 g-r = 0.274 1 oz.0625 1 kg = 2. in. 1000 warts = 1 kilowatt = 1. = 62.223 kg per sq. lb.85318 km per hr. cm lb. = 16 oz. 1 kg per sq. = 0.sq.2046 oz.

622 23.588 1.731 9. l.296875 .796875 A125 .515625 53125 546875 . % ____ '% i&6 zt 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 ii .288 14.509 11.366 4.813 24.5oo j I 0.07al25 ! . % ..328125 .113 11..097 13.747 7. "X6 .241 20.191 1.272 16.609375 ._.._ "A ii 33 34 35 36 j . ‘.159 5.a59375 a.225 22.734375 ._.019 23.606 25.066 17...) -~ I/ --- .484375 .716 11.303 12.a90625 SO625 . I 1 Milhmeters Capprox.3125 .653 19.478 15.128 9.dhs ___ Dcclmal Mllhms*ars .638 21.256 18.28125 .OOO .03125 m6875 .859 18.984 2.050 19.15625 . .96875 1 ...906 12.a75 9. M _.09375 .750 ' .a4375 .334 a...DECIMALS FOR EACH OF 64TH AN OF INCH AN INCH WITH MILLIMETER I’ .703125 .381 2.0625 . a7A ___. .a44 20._ % /i 'I 1"" ' .. T-6 'I / .375 . .400 J&i ?4 1 ._.794 1.._.494 13. gh .669 17.234375 . '4 .875 16. %i .684 15. .525 .541 7. %I .431 21.921875 .081 15.17la75 I .969 4.416 23.46875 . .390625 .40625 .109375 .125 .556 5._ M I 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 '20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 .5& _._ 15h __.265625 .034 21.. '/is .9375 ....447 19..5625 -578125 -59375 .953 6.71875 .9/6 w _. %i .953125 . '% ..453125 .463 17.015625 ._ agA ._. .359375 ..203125 ..&.003 25.. as .approx.984375 . 'xi .397 0._. .78125 .4375 .I40625 .! ji EQUIVALENTS -Fraction ~ ~ I %eths I / Decimal ---____ Fraction __---.144 7.765625 .319 10.763 5.250 ! .6875 : j I ' I 1 : I i 13. .350 6.la75 . .922 10.a28125 .891 14.421875 ..700 .671875 .34375 .938 /I I/ .21875 .778 3. %i '42 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 .175 3.625 MO625 A5625 . ..572 3.209 24.828 22.

drift. 96. 29 Bulkheads. 110. 64-65: sources for. 65 Aircraft Spruce and Specialty Co. 227-228. 124. 205-206. lines plans. 99-100 Bilge stringers. SW n&o ABYC standards American Dureau of Shipping (ABS). for exhaust hoses.. 41 Anchorfast nails. epoxy rrsin. 222 Bearings. 10 Body plan. 159. 212-213: hulls. 48. 108 Arcon epoxies. 50 Boot top (waterline).146: for planking scale. 198. for sea cocks. for fuel tanks. 78. 64 Ash. 64. 41 Allied Resin Corp. 79-80: in planking. 213-217 Berths. spars. 105. 76-77. lag. 50-51. 24 Abbreviations. SW also Epoxy resins. 144-146 Battery storage boxes. 225 Arc-bottomed hulls. 64. 64. 65. 94. 165 Adhesives. 149 . 184 Bevel board. 97. 77-78 Bolts: carriage. American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC). 144. 101-105 Ballast keel. 142-143.. hanger. 26 American Klegecell Corp. 36. for propeller shafts. 154 Bruynreel plywood. 116. 131. 221. 220. 223. 52. 183-186 Bulwark rail. of transom assembly. 55.5 ChidfJ. 226 Breast hook. 136-137: for spiling. 25 Augers. 58-59 Anti-fouling paints. 195 Bahek Corp. of lapstrake planks.. frames for. 41 Batrs. 148 Battens: for fairing cutves. 9. setting up. 78-79. 99.INDEX Abcking & Rasmussen. 65 Aluminum construction: davits. 125 nont ou~rff’rs nuycr. 224. waterproof. tions. 212-213. 98 Bevels. 73. 96-98: by computer. 16 Backbone assembly. 105 Backbone structures. 65 Airex foam core. 2. white. 174-175 Butt blocks. 69 ABYC standards: for electrical installa. 43. propeller shaft assembly. 92. as pick-up sticks.. 213-217 Additives. 209. of floor timbers. 55: screw. Fred.225: fuel tanks. Glue Aerolite glue. 51. 133-134 Batten seam planking. 9.

48-49 Elmer’s glues. 186 Engine: bed. 218 Epoxy resins. 173 Cockpit. 138-140.61 Clinker planking. Company. 89. 173: hatch. 153. 48. 195-96 Caulking. 22 Fir plywood. 35. 7 ClilmpS. 48 Fastenings: in double planking. 52-54: interior. Inc. 88: bending. 47 220: 128: 165 Computers: for fairing lines. 99.l Clench-nailing.. 2t. 166-169: plywood. 33 Deck beams. 209 Drawers. 150-151. 186 Drills. 138-140 Cotton wicking. 119: transvrrse. copper. 212 Electrical systems. 44 Fiberglass cloth. connections. 28. i. plywood. 48-50. galvanic. 35 Edson Corp. 156-157 Deck coverings: canvas. 60. 16-17. 219-220. 64. 186: plank. 138-139 Cast fittings. Inc. 14 1 Coamings: cockpit. 188 C-Flex “plankir :. 37. 23. 103.mmx Buttocks. 41 Cross spalls. v-bottomed 96-97 Framing. propeller shaft. 130-131.” 37-38 Chainplates. 28-29. 47. 32 Contourkore bals.52 237 Deckhouse. 166-169 Cedar: Ala ka. 36-37. tongue-and-groove. 183 Frames. 120-123: steaming. 144: drilling for. galvanized iron. 124. 64. . 16-17 Duck Trap Woodworking. 224-225 Deadwood. 221 Electrolysis. 76. 143-144 Dowels. 223-224 Cradles. 25: Port Orford. 104 Dean Company.17. 80. 28 Flat-bottomed hulls. 108 Floor timbers. 109 Cypress. 36. 29. strip-built.. 152 Diagonals. The. vibration. 65. 71. 9. 87. 89 Fiberglass insulation. 218-219 Cowl ventilator. 165 Fiberglass hulls. 161-162 Deck shelf. 99 Condon.173 Deck line. 96. Evrrdur. 156-157 Cant frames. 162 Carve1 planking. [or lofting. 28. computer-aided. 23 Davits. 5. white. 41 Corrosion. 192-195: rudder stock. 87. 23: western rt 1. 210-211 Cast iron keel. 47: bronzr. 166-169. 119-123: coldfitted. 76-77.L. 143 Countcrborcs. 67. 165 Fairing: of diagonals. 83 Butts. 92.l core. 54 Counter stern. 104 Fir. 129. 179 Cockpit sole.. Douglas. 32-33. 46-47: stainless steel. 17 1 . 123-124 Florida Marine Tanks. 83 Decks: caulked. controls. 19. 16. 43.. 35-36 Fillers. 23 Ceiling. 2-3. 39 Formica. 78-80 Double planking. 143. h 1. 36. M. 69. 213 Foam core. ! YO-I21 Couplings. 177-178 Cockpit roaming. 61 Duraply. 3-5 . 120 Canvas deck covering. 163-165: fiberglass cloth. 171-173 Cabosil. Thr. 149 Diagonal planking. 168 Fin keels. 147-148. 36. 165 Camber. 79-80: of lines. 63 Cotton caulking. 36 Developable-surface hull. 153-156. 198 Champion Buildil T Products. deck beam. 39-41. 30 Chrm-Tech epoxy. 65 Chine. 93.%Y nlso Battens Fastening materials: brass. Inc. I89 Fiberglass sheathing. 153 Defender Industries. 184 Cabin trunk.. self-bailing. 162-163. teak. stringers. 53 Countrrsinks. 163-165 Canvas duck. 179 Cold-molded hulls. 65 Chrm-‘I‘rrh. 183 Dynel. 67. 137-138 Frrrocement hulls. 163. 117.

93-95 Half-model.L. Mexican. 158: quarter. 176-179: flush. 107. 21. 225 Masonite. Honduras. 105 Hull design. John. Mnrirw Iksign Mtrnunl. 24. 157-158 Half-breadth plan. 25 Lauan. 76-77: of transoms. 73-74: for transom plan. 50. 105. of stem assembly. Inc. Inc. 32. 196. I58 Mast step. W. for strip-planked hulls. 24 Marconi rig. 32 Lumber: drying... for keels. 48. seasoning. 44 Kit boats. Juniper. tools for. 179: sliding. 41 Knees.238 INDEX Keel Makers. 150 Coufyon Il’on. 58 Woo&n Ydrt Carrstructiotl. John. I78 Lines. 72-74. 18-Z 1.. 43. 63 Galvanic series. 175. fin. IO3 Kenyon Marine.181: interior. 9 Klegecel foam core.nd-tenon. 189 24. 186 Mast partners. 108. 69 Hanging knees. 62 Monel tanks.. for fiberglass hulls. 66-69 Hull painting. 170. 186: resorcinol. m Rtrnl Comtruc- 151 Graphite fibers. 72-73 Logan Lumber Company. 29. 206 Mahogany: African. 105 Guzzwell. Ltd. 2-5 Hull lines (terminology). Inc. 189-191 Independent Nail Insulation.176 Headers. Rrothm Thf~. hanging. 157 Laminated planking. Philippine. See also Laminatton Cougeon Brothers.I35 Gel coat. 23 Keel blocks. 65. 193-194. 150-151. 195. 144. 65. 2I: sources. 103-104: rabbeted. shrinkage. 30. 36-37. 205 Krvlar. 25 Half beams. 147-148 Gluing: plywood planking. of wood. 212-213 Fuller.. 7. hull (terminology). 46. 204 Fuel hose lines. 21: sawing. 48-50. Joinerwork: deck. 49 Carboard. 31-32 Lapstrake planking. 37. 134. Elmer’s 64. powerboat. 54 Galvanic corrosion. 158-159. 141-143 Larch. 212 I-lynautic. 220 Icebox. 87 Lexan. 158 Lofting: computer-aided. 39 IHydraulic engine controls. 81 Gripe. 58. 212. 76-77: of long lines of profile. Inc. 148 Monel fastenings. preparations for. 158-159 Ilarbor Sales Company. 32-33 Mack-Shaw Sailmakers. 87 Horn timber. 204-205 Modrm Inc. 44 Grids: for inverted hull construction.. 65 Harra. 188.. Inc. 81-87. 196-197 Letcher. 196-197. I12 151 Mold construction 88-92 Mold loft. 99: of body plan. 189 Herreshoff & Kerwin. 154-156 Kobelt Manufacturing Co. 141 Hull repairs. I57 Headliners. 149: spars.. Inc.. 65 Laminated beams. Inc. John. 195-196.197 Keels: cast iron.189: [let-k. 220 Fuel tanks. 201-202. 195. 66-69 Lodging knees. 24 Lead keels. lead. of half-breadth plan. 195-197. Wood & Supply ComIIilIlyq 32 Hatches: cabin sole.. 175 . 64. 37 Glue: batten seam. 36. 72 Molds: for cast fittings. 24. 17-18. 92. lodging. 104.. 32. 151 Hackmatack.. 212 Monkey rail. 152 Lamination: of fiberglass hull. 37 Mar-Quipt. 109: for offsets. 182-191 Joints: mortise-. 220 Kristal Kraft. 105-106 scarphed. 220 Hydraulic steering. 77-79.

Pxterior.182 Sheerline. 61: stainless sreel. 55. 54-55 Scribing of waterline. 112-l I6 Ribs. 220 PVC pipes. 53-5-l Plumbing. 117 Riveting. 179 . 150-152: lapstrakc*. 2-3. 94 Seemann Plastics. 17 I Polyvinyl chlnricle (PVC) pipes. 189 Oak: red. 207-208. 208 Rudders: outboard. 136. 225 Planking: batten scam. 100-101 Planking dimensions. 125: frames. 77. 141 Paints: anti-fouling. 144. 78. 179 Shaft logs. transom. 21Y Push-pull cables. 78 Pinr: longleaf. white. Offsets. 23. powerboat. 228 Sail track. 149-150 Polybutylenr tubing. 223 Powerboat construction: clamp. Inc. 32 44 Nomex honeycomb. 226 Scuppers. I37 Planksherr. 55-56. 22. I66 Plugs. machine. Inc.. cockpit. 105. calculating. 206 Srrews. I83 Panish Transdyne. 64. Non-skid sole. 103-104: rudders. 149. 31-32. 111-1-13: plywood. wood. strip. 36. fibc=rglass. 67. 35.. 147.” 62-63 Rot prevention. 174. 85-87: twin-screw. galvanized. 176. 146. 57: threaded. 92 Propeller shafts. 92. carvel. 76-77 Shelves. 30-31. 22-23 Pipe Wcldcrs. double. panel sizes. 143: “pop. 126-128 Sheer guards. 16-17. 227. 182-183 Plywood planking. 88. 9. 228 Sn fbt. 28. bilge stringers. 34 Scarphs. 195-197 Pick-up sticks. white. 77. 149-150. 154-156 239 Motor Boating B Sailing. 51-55: galvanized. 229: regulations. 225. 26 RGn- Safety: davit design for. 192-195. #Y-Y0 Planking scale. 88. 211 Quarter knees. 122. 143-144. SIT Icebox Resorcinol glue. 141 Profile plans. 215 Sheathing: copper. 151 Rhodes. 47: lag. 29 Plywood decks. 60. Philip. 22. 220 10 Rabbet. 62-63 Rivets: copper. 228 Safety Stnndarrls for Snr~ll Crcr/t. 36 Polyurethane coatii:g. 158: rngine beds. cutting. interior.106. 28-29: laminating. 130-140. 77-78: slrm. 158. 69-72. 179-l HO Sections: bocly plan. :iO: grading. 218 Preservatives. 104.y Starndri rds /or lkck yn rd Bon t Buildm. planking. 146-149: transom. 38 Rudder fittings. 103-104. 109. 206-207: sheathed. 223 Rules for Building und Clossiq forced Plastic C’css&. 220 Patterns. for keels. 47. 103 Refrigerator. 57-59 National Fisherman. 55-56. Nails: copper. wood. 223 Polypropylrnr cloth. 223 Sealers. product testing for. Oregon. 153-156 Sole: cabin. 129: keels. 33-34 Round-bottomed hulls. lines. 225: features. yellow. 171: of hull. 179 Sea cocks. 147-148 Reverse curves. laminated. 213-219 Pulley drives. 204 Sandwich (fiberglass hull) construction. 184.INDEX Morse controls. 22-23. 1 IO. 35-36 Sheer clamp. 225. 78 22 Painting: of deck joinerwork. 199 Schaefer Spars. 71. 118. 38. I63 Plywood interior structures. 34. 206-207: shelf.39 Scantlings (trrminolcqy). 188-189: cockpit. 184 Scats. 132: thickness drducrion. 168 Sea rails. 201 Ribbands. 37 Self-bailing cockpits. 223 Plywood: bending. casting: for fittings. 180.

124-128 Strip-planked hulls. 92-95. calculating. 104 Stopwaters. 17-18. 135 Spinnaker poles. 80. 88.17. 206 Tillers. safety. 65 WoodrnRoat. 25 Wood: comparative strengths. 73 Tamarack. 154-156 Transom. 46-47 Zinc plating. 198. 105. hollow round.S.. Ralph. Coast Guard standards: for electrical installations. frames. steering. for spinnaker pole. 215. 85-87. 32 interior. 41 Transom. 187. 24 Tangs. 158. 20 l-202 Splines. 138 Wiley. 144. for stem assembly. 103 Underwriter’s LaGoratories (UL). 105 Stringers. 81 Tremont Nail Co. 18 Shiphui!di?lg Matcmal. 223 WEST System (Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique). 133-13’ Spiling frames. 213 Tanks. I69 Tie rods. 212-213 Teak. 83 Stealer planks. 99-101 Transom. 211. 2 12 Wicking. 168-169 Teleflex. 81-82: powerboat. 34 Twin keelsons. 146-149 Stronghold nails. 182. 35-36 Table of offsets. 103 Spruce: northern white. 14. setting up. 166. 201 V-bottomed hulls. 198-204. 24. wooden. 204 Tank rapacity. 137 Steam box. 58-59 Stuffing box.. 199 Stanley tools. hollow rectangular. 200-201. aluminum. 174 Tools: caulking. 26 16. 222 Tanks. 15-16 Star class sloop. 78. 22-25 Woodcraft Supply Corp. . 82-83: flat.. 15-17: lofting. 182. screws.240 INDEX Torin. 65 U. sourres. 67. 202 Tenons. 205-206 Spars. 168. 28 Ventilation. 72-73. 228 U. power. 26-27. 25. for bulkheads. 38: seam batten construction. 150 Wheel. 9. Coast Guard regulations: for passenger-carrying boats.813 51-55 Wood Ilnndh~ol~. 67. species for boatbuilding. connections to. lines. fresh water. 107 Thiokol sealers. 212 Varnishing.188. 223-224 Watrrlines. Sitka. 61 Tributyl tin oxide (TBTO). 123. 217 Synthetic fabrics.S. Wood Wood finishes. 139: hand. 204 Wood: A Manual FOT Its list ds A Spars. lofting of: curved. 108 Strip planking. 225-226 Water trap box. 170-171. 229 “Unipoxy” glue. 96. 2 Stations. raked. 2-3: clamps. 42-43 Steering controls. 148 Wire rigging. 185. 221: tanks. 76. 96. 108 Veneers. design stresses. 92-95 Sternpost. setting up. 211-212 Stem assembly. 201-202 Spiling. 119-120 Steel hull construction. planking. 72. 26. 2 I 1 Toe rails. 52. 220 Templates. 128: floors. 25 Tangile. 24. 117-118. Inc. fuel. construction of.

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