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1

The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 8t3 - 8 + 30 sin m , where x and t are expressed in millimeters and seconds, respectively. Determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration of the particle when t = 5 s.

SOLUTION

Position:

x = 8t3 - 8 + 30sin(7rt) mm

Velocity:

dx

v = - = 24t2 + 307rcos(7rt) mmls dt

Acceleration:

a = dv = 48t - 307r2 sin (m) mm/s'' dt

At t = 5 s,

Xs = (8)(5)3 - 8 + 30sin(57r) Vs = (24)(5)2 + 307rcos(57r) as = (48)(5) + 307r2 sin (57r)

Xs = 992 mm ....

Vs == 506 mmls ....

PROBLEM 11.2

The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 10 t3 - ~t2 - 20t + 10, where x and t are expressed in meters and

3 2

seconds, respectively. Determine the time, the position, and the acceleration of the particle when v = O.

SOLUTION

Position:

10 3 5 2

X = -t - -t - 20t + 10 m

3 2

Velocity:

dx 2

V = - = lOt - 5t - 20 mls

dt

Acceleration:

dv

a = - = 20t - 5 dt

When v = 0,

10t2 - 5t - 20 = 0

Solving the quadratic equation for t,

t = 1.6861 s

and

t = -1.1861 s

t = 1.686 s ....

When t = 1.6861,

x = 10 (1.6861)3 - ~(1.6861)2 - 20(1.6861) + 10

3 2

x = -14.85 m ....

v=O

a = 20(1.6861) - 5

a = 28.7 mls2 .....

PROBLEM 11.3

The motion of the slider A is defined by the relation x = 20sinkt, where x and t are expressed in inches and seconds, respectively, and k is a constant. Knowing that k = 10 rad/s, determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration of slider A when t = O.OS s.

SOLUTION

Position:

Velocity:

Acceleration:

When t = O.OS s,

and

x = 20sinkt in.

v = dx = 20k cos kt in.ls dt

a = dv = -20k2 sin kt in./s2 dt

k = 10 rad/s

kt = (10)(0.OS) = O.S rad

x = 20sin(0.S)

x = 9.59 in. ~

v = (20)(10)cos(0.S)

a = -(20)(10)2 sin(O.S)

v = 17S.S in.ls ~

a = -9S9 in./S2 ~

PROBLEM 11.4

The motion of the slider A is defined by the relation x = 20 sin(klt - k2t2), where x and t are expressed in inches and seconds, respectively. The constants kl and k2 are known to be 1 rad/s and 0.5 rad/s", respectively. Consider the range 0 < t < 2 s and determine the position and acceleration of slider A when v = O.

SOLUTION

Position:

Where

Let

Position:

Velocity:

Acceleration:

When v = 0,

or

Over 0 ~ t ~ 2 s, values of cos f) are:

kl = 1 radls

and

df)

- = (1- t)radls dt

d2f) 2

- = -1 radls

dt2

x = 20sinf) in.

and

v = dx = 20cosf) df) in.ls

dt dt

dv

a=-

dt

d2f) (df))2

a = 20cosf)-2 - 20sinf) - in.ls2

dt dt

either

cosf) = 0

df) -=I-t=O dt

t = 1 s

t(s) 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

f)( rad] 0 0.375 0.5 0.375 0

cosf) 1.0 0.931 0.878 0.981 1.0 No solutions cos f) = 0 in this range.

For t = 1 s,

f) = 1- (0.5)(1)2 = 0.5 rad x = 20sin(0.5)

a = 20 cos (0.5)( -1) - 20 sin (0.5)(0)

x = 9.59 in ....

a = -17.55 in.ls2 ...

PROBLEM 11.5

The motion of a particle is defmed by the relation x = 5t4 - 4t3 + 3t - 2, where x and t are expressed in feet and seconds, respectively. Determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration of the particle when t = 2s.

SOLUTION

Position:

x = 5t4 - 4t3 + 3t - 2 ft

Velocity:

dx

v = - = 20t3 -12t2 + 3 ftls dt

Acceleration:

dv 2 2

a = - = 60t - 24t ftls

dt

When t = 2 s,

x = (5)(2t - (4)(2f - (3)(2) - 2 v = (20)(2)3 - (12)(2)2 + 3

a = (60)(2)2 - (24)(2)

x = 52 ft ~

v = 115 ftls ~

a = 192 ftls ~

PROBLEM 11.6

The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 6t4 + 8t3 - 14t2 - lOt + 16, where x and t are expressed in inches and seconds, respectively. Determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration of the particle when t = 3 s.

SOLUTION

Position:

x = 6t4 + 8t3 -14t2 -lOt + 16 in.

Velocity:

v = dx = 24t3 + 24t2 - 28t - 10 in.ls dt

Acceleration:

a = dv = 72t2 + 48t - 28 in.ls2 dt

When t = 3s,

x = (6)(3t + (8)(3)3 - (14)(3)2 - (10)(3) + 16 v = (24){3f + (24)(3)2 - (28)(3) -10

a = (72)(3)2 + (48)(3) - 28

x = 562 in .....

v = 770in.ls ....

a = 764 in.ls2 ....

PROBLEM 11.7

The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 2t3 -12t2 - 72t - 80, where x and t are expressed in meters and seconds,respectively. Determine (a) when the velocity is zero, (b) the velocity, the acceleration, and the total distance traveled when x = O.

SOLUTION

Position:

x = 2t3 - 12t2 - 721 - 80 m v = dx = 6t2 - 241 - 72 m/s dt

Velocity:

Acceleration:

dv 2

a = - = 121 - 24 m/s

dt

(a) When v = 0,

6t2 - 241 - 72 = 0

Solving the quadratic equation:

Reject the negative time. Then

1 = -2 s

and

t = 6 s

1 = 6s~

v is negative. v is positive.

For 0 s 1 < 6 s,

x is decreasing.

x is increasing.

For t » 6 s,

Minimum value of x occurs when 1 = 6 s.

xmin = (2)(6)3 - (12)( 6f - (72)( 6) - 80 = -512 m

when 1 = 0,

Xo = -80m

(b) Distance traveled over 0 ~ 1 ~ 6 s.

When x = 0,

dt = IXmin - xol = 1-512 - (-80)1 = 432m 213 - 12t2 - 721 - 80 = 0

Roots of the cubic equation are:

Reject the negative roots.

t = 10 s

and 1 = -2 s (twice).

v = (6)(10)2 - (24)(10) - 72 a = (12)(10) - 24

When 1 = 10 s,

v = 288 m/s ~

Distance traveled over 6 s ~ 1 ~ lOs.

Total distance traveled:

d=944m~

PROBLEM 11.8

The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 213 - 18t2 + 48t - 16, where x and t are expressed in millimeters and seconds, respectively. Determine (a) when the velocity is zero, (b) the position and the total distance traveled when the acceleration is zero.

SOLUTION

Position:

x = 213 - 1812 + 48t - 16 mm

Velocity:

dx 2

V = - = 6t - 36t + 48 mmls

dt

Acceleration:

dv

a = - = 121 - 36 mmls2 dt

(a) When v = 0,

6t2 - 36t + 48 = 0

Solving the quadratic equation,

t=2s and t=4s ....

t ~ 4 s,

**v is positive, and x is increasing.
**

v is negative, and x is decreasing.

v is positive, and x is increasing.

12t - 36 = 0 t = 3 s For 0 s t < 2 s,

2s~t~4s,

(b) When a = 0,

When t=3s,

X3 = (2)(3t - (18)(3)2 + (48)(3) -16

When t = 0,

Xo = -16mm

When t = 2s,

X2 = (2)(2t - (18)(2)2 + (48)(2) -16 = 24 mm

Distance traveled over 0 s t ~ 2 s:

Distance traveled over 2 s ~ t ~ 3 s:

Total distance traveled:

d, + d2 = 40 + 4

d=44mm .....

D

PROBLEM 11.9

The acceleration of point A is defined by the relation a = -1.8sinkt, where a and t are expressed in mJs2 and seconds, respectively, and k = 3 rad/s. Knowing that x = 0 and v = 0.6 mJs when t = 0, determine the velocity and position of point A when t = 0.5 s.

SOLUTION

Given:

Velocity:

Position:

When t = 0.5 s,

a = -1.8sinkt mJs2, Vo = 0.6 mis, Xo = 0, k = 3 rad/s

v - Vo = tadt = -1.8 tsinktdt = !!cOSktl'

k 0

v - 0.6 = !!( coskt - 1) = 0.6coskt - 0.6 3

v = 0.6coskt mls

x-Xo = tvdt = 0.6 tcosktdt = 0.6sinktl'

k 0

x - 0 = 0.6 (sinkt - 0) = 0.2sinkt 3

x = 0.2sinkt m

kt = (3)(0.5) = 1.5 rad

v = 0.6cos 1.5 = 0.0424 mJs

v = 42.4 nun/s ....

x = 0.2sin1.5 = 0.1995 m

x = 199.5 nun ....

PROBLEM 11.10

The acceleration of point A is defined by the relation a = -1.08sinkt - l.44coskt, where a and t are expressed in m/s! and seconds, respectively, and k = 3 radls. Knowing tbat x = 0.16 m and v = 0.36 mJs when t = 0, determine the velocity and position of point A when t = 0.5 s.

D

SOLUTION

Given:

a = -1.08sinkt -1.44coskt m/s",

k = 3 radls

Xo = 0.16 m,

Vo = 0.36 mls

v - Vo = tadt = -1.08 .bsinktdt - 1.44 .bcosktdt

36 1.08 ktlt 1.44. ktlt

v-O. =-cos --Sin

k 0 k 0

= 1.08 (coskt -1) - 1.44 (sinkt - 0)

3 3

= 0.36coskt - 0.36 - 0.48sinkt

Velocity:

v = 0.36coskt - 0.48sinkt mJs

x - Xo = tvdt = 0.36 .bcosktdt - 0.48 tsinktdt

O 6 0.36. ktlt 0.48 ktlt

x - .1 = --Sin + --cos

k 0 k 0

0.36 ( . kt 0) 0.48 ( kt )

= -- sm - + -- cos - 1

3 3

= 0.12sinkt + 0.16coskt - 0.16

Position:

x = 0.12sinkt + 0.16coskt m

When t = 0.5 s,

kt = (3)(0.5) = 1.5 rad

v = 0.36cos1.5 - 0.48sin1.5 = -0.453 mls

v = -453 mmls ~

x = 0.12sin1.5 + 0.16cos1.5 = 0.1310 m

x = 131.0 mm'"

PROBLEM 11.11

The acceleration of a particle is directly proportional to the square of the time t. When t = 0, the particle is at x = 36 ft. Knowing that at t = 9 s, x = 144 ft and v = 27 ft/s, express x and v in terms of t.

SOLUTION

Given:

Velocity:

1 3 V = Vo +-kt 3

r' 1 4

X - Xo = l> vdt = vot + =-kt 12

Position:

1 4 1 4

X = Xo + vot + -kt = 36 + vot + -let

12 12

x = 144 ft

and

When t = 9 s,

v = 27 fils

or

9vo + 546.75k = 108

Vo + 243k = 27

Solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously yields:

Vo = 7 ft/s

and

k = 0.082305 ft/s"

Then,

x = 36 + 7t + 0.00686t4 ft ~

v = 7 + 0.0274t3 ft/s ...

(1)

(2)

PROBLEM 11.12

It is known that from t = 2 s to t = 10 s the acceleration of a particle is inversely proportional to the cube of the time t. When t = 2 s, v = -15 ftls, and when t = lOs, v = 0.36 ftls. Knowing that the particle is twice as far from the origin when t = 2 s as it is when t = lOs, determine (a) the position of the particle when t = 2 s and when t = lOs, (b) the total distance traveled by the particle from t = 2 s to t = 10 s.

SOLUTION

For 2 s s t s 10 s, a = ~ where k is a constant. t

At t=2s,

At t = 10 s,

Then,

When v = 0,

For 2 s ~ t s 8 s,

8 s ~ t s 10 s,

v = -15 ftls

dv

a = - or dv = adt

dt

or

v = -15 - O.5k(__!_ -!) (2 4

v = 0.36 ftls

-15 - O.5k( (1~)2 - ~) = 0.36 from which k = 128 ft-s

v = -15 - 64(__!_ -!) = 1 - 64 ftls

t2 4 t2

or

(= 8 s

v s 0,

x is decreasing.

v ~ 0,

x is increasing.

PROBLEM 11.12 CONTINUED

Position:

rt 64) 64

x = fdx = fvdt = Jl1 - f2 dt = t + t + C

At t=2s,

64

x2 = 2 + - + C = 34 + C ft 2

At t=8s,

64

Xg = 8 + - + C = 16 + C ft 8

At t = 10 s,

64

xlO = 10 + - + C = 16.4 + eft 10

or 34 + C = ±(16.4 + C)

Given:

Using the plus sign: C = 1.2 ft, which gives Xg = 17.2 ft,

X2 = 35.2 ft and xlO = 17.60 ft ....

d = 18.40 ft'"

Distance traveled:

Using the minus sign: C = -22.27 ft, which gives Xg = -6.27 ft,

X2 = 11.73 ft and xlO = -5.87 ft ...

d = I Xg - x21 + I XIO - Xgl = 18 + 0.4

d = 18.40 ft ....

Distance traveled:

PROBLEM 11.13

The acceleration of a particle is directly proportional to the time t. At t = 0, the velocity of the particle is 400 nun/s. Knowing that v = 370 nun/s and x = 500 mm when t = 1 s, determine the velocity, the position, and the total distance traveled when t = 7 s.

SOLUTION

Given:

a = kt mm/s'' where k is a constant.

At t = 0,

v = 400 nun/s; at t = 1 s, v = 370 mmls, x = 500 mm

1

v - 400 = _kt2

2

or

1 2 V = 400 +-kt

2

At t=ls,

v = 400 + !k(1)2 = 370, k = -60 mm/s" 2

v = 400 - 30t2 mmls

Thus

At t=7s,

v7 = -1070 mmls <II1II

When v = 0, 400 - 30t2 = O. Then t2 = 13.333 S2, t = 3.651 s

For 0:::;; t s 3.651 s,

v > 0 and x is increasing.

For t > 3.651 s,

v < 0 and x is decreasing.

At t = 0,

x - 500 = (400t -10t2)1: = 400t -10t3 - 390 x = 400t - 10t3 + 110 mm

x = Xo = 110 mm

Position:

At t=7s,

x = xmax = (400)(3.651) - (10)(3.651f + 110 = 1083.7 mm

x = x7 = (400)(7) - (10)(7)3 + 110 x7 = -520 mm'"

At t = 3.651 s,

Distances traveled:

Over 0:::;; t s 3.651 s,

d1 = xmax - Xo = 973.7 mm

Over 3.651:::;; i « 7 s,

Total distance traveled:

d = d1 + d2 = 2577.4 mm

d = 2580mm<lllll

PROBLEM 11.14

The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = 0.15 m/s". Knowing that x = -10 m when 1 = 0 and v = -O.15m1s when 1 = 2 s, determine the velocity, the position, and the total distance traveled when 1 = 5s.

SOLUTION

Determine velocity.

At 1=5s,

When v = 0,

For 0:::;; 1 s 3.00 s,

Por 3.00:::;; 1 s 5 s,

Determine position.

At 1=5s,

At 1 = 0,

At 1 = 3.00 s,

Lo.lSdv = had1 = hO.15dl

v - (-15) = 0.151 - (0.15)(2)

v = 0.151 - 0.45 mls

Vs = (0.15)(5) - 0.45

Vs = 0.300 mls ~

0.151 - 0.45 = 0

1 = 3.00 s

v :::;; 0, x is decreasing.

v ~ 0, x is increasing.

flOdx = tvdt = 1(0.151 - 0.45}dt x - ( -1 0) = .(0!0'512 -tl:45tJI:= (I);@7'5t2 - (OA5t

x = 0.07512 - 0.451 -10 m

Xs = (0.075)(5)2 - (0.45)(5) -10 = -10.375 m

Xs = -10.38 m ~

Xo = -10m (given)

X3 = xmin = (0.075)(3.00)2 - (0.45)(3.00) -'-10 = -10.675 mm

PROBLEM 11.14 CONTINUED

Distances traveled:

Over 0 s t s 3.00 s,

Over 3.00 s < t < 5 s, Total distance traveled:

d1 = Xo - xmin = 0.675 m d2 = x5 - xmin = 0.300 m

d = d1 + d2 = 0.975 m ~

PROBLEM 11.15

The acceleration of point A is defined by the relation a = 200x(1 + kx2), where a and x are expressed in rn/s2 and meters, respectively, and k is a constant. Knowing that the velocity of A is 2.5 m/s when x = 0 and 5 m/s when x = 0.15 m, determine the value of k.

SOLUTION

Note that a is a given function of x

Use

Using the limits

and

Solving for k,

k = 281 m-2 ~

v = 2.5 m/s when x = 0,

v = 5 m/s when x = 0.15 rn,

[~lS = [200 x2 + 200 kx4]o.IS

2 2.S 2 4 0

f _ 2.52 = (100)(0.15)2 + (50)k(0.15)4 2 2

9.375 = 2.25 + 0.0253125k

PROBLEM 11.16

The acceleration of point A is defined by the relation a = 200x + 3200x3, where a and x are expressed in mls2 and meters, respectively. Knowing that the velocity of A is 2.5 mls and x = 0 when t = 0, determine the velocity and position of A when t = 0.05 s.

SOLUTION

Note that a is a given function of x.

Use

Using the limits v = 2.5 m/s when x = 0,

~ _ 2.52 = 100x2 + 800x4 2 2

v2 = 1600x4 + 200x2 + 6.25 Let u = x2

Then v2 = 1600u2 + 200u + 6.25 = 1600(u - u1)(u - U2)'

where UI and u2 are the roots of 1600u2 + 200u + 6.25 = 0

Solving the quadratic equation,

-200 ± ~(200)2 - (4)(1600)( 6.25) = -200 ± 0 = -0.0625 ± 0

u1,2 = (2)(1600) 3200

So

Taking square roots,

PROBLEM 11.16 CONTINUED

dx = vdt

or

dt = _dx = ±_;-dx_~ __

v 40( x2 + 0.252)

Use

dx

40dt=± 2 2

X + 0.25

Use limit x = 0

when

t = 0

1 1 dx 1 -I X

40 dt = ± = i-tan -

x2 + 0.252 0.25 0.25

40t = ±4.0tan-l( 4x) or tan-I( 4x) = ±IOt

4x = ±tan(IOt) or x = ±0.25tan(IOt)

v = : = iO.25 l=' (IOt)J(IO) = ±2.5 sec2(IOt)

At t = 0, v = ±2.5 mis, which agrees with the given data if the minus sign is rejected.

v = 2.5 sec2(IOt)mls,

and x = 0.25tan(IOt)m

Thus,

At t = 0.05 s,

lOt = 0.5 rad

v = 2.5sec2(0.5) = 2~5

cos 0.5

x = 0.25tan(0.5)

v = 3.25 mls <II1II

x = 0.1366m <II1II

PROBLEM 11.17

Point A oscillates with an acceleration a = 2880 - 144x, where a and x are expressed in in.ls2 and inches, respectively. The magnitude of the velocity is 11 in.ls when x = 20.4 in. Determine (a) the maximum velocity of A, (b) the two positions at which the velocity of A is zero.

SOLUTION

Note that a is a given function of x.

a = 2880 -144x = 144(20 - x)

(a) Note that v is maximum when a = 0,

or

x = 20 in.

Use v dv = a dx = 144(20 - x)dx with the limits

v = 11 in.ls when x = 20.4 in.

and

v = vmax when x = 20 in.

]20 [ ]

2 2 20 _ X 2 042

vmax -.!..!_ = -144 ( ) = -144 0 - L_L = 11.52

2 2 2 2

20.4

vmax = 12.00 in.!s ....

(b) Note that x is maximum or minimum when v = O.

Use vdv = a dx = 144(20 - x) with the limits

v = 11 in.ls when x = 20.4 in.,

and

v = 0 when x = xm

2 (20 )2]Xm

O-'!"!_ = -144 - x = -72(20 - Xm)2 + (72)(0.4)2

2 2

20.4

(20-Xm)2 = 1.00028 20-xm = ±1.00014in.

xm = 19.00 in. and 21.0 in .....

PROBLEM 11.18

Point A oscillates with an acceleration a = 144(20 - x), where a and x are expressed in in./S2 and inches, respectively. Knowing that the system starts at time t = 0 with u = 0 and x = 19 in., determine the position and the velocity of A when t = 0.2 s.

SOLUTION

Note that a is a given function of x.

a = 144(20 - x)in./S2

Use vdv = adx = 144(20 - x) with the limits v = 0 when x = 19 in.

1'vdv = i~I44(20 - x)dx

[ 2jX

v2 20 - X 2

2 - 0 = -144 ( 2 ) ,,= 72 - 72(20 - x)

or

v = ±12~1- (20 - x)2 in./s

Use

dx = vdt,

or

dt = _dx = _---;==dx===

v ±12Jl - (20 _ X)2

with the limits t = 0 when x = 19 in.

1dt = +----;r=dx=== 12Jl - (20 - x)2

or

Let u = 20 - x. u = 1 in. when x = 19 in. dx = -du

At t = 0.2 s,

1 ru du _ 1 . _I IU 1 ( . _I 1r)

I = +12 A ~ = +T2sm u 1 = +12 sm u - 2"

sin-1u = (; + 12t)

u = Sin(; + 12/) = cos(±12/) = cos(12t) = 20 - x x = 20 - cos(l2t) in.

v = 12sin(12/) in.ls

121 = 2.4 rad

Then,

and

x = 20 - cos(2.4) v = 12sin(2.4)

x = 20.7 in .....

v = 8.11 in.ls ....

PROBLEM 11.19

The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = 12x - 28, where a and x are expressed in rnIs2 and meters, respectively. Knowing that v = 8 rnIs when x = 0, determine (a) the maximum value of x, (b) the velocity when the particle has traveled a total distance of3 m.

SOLUTION

a = l2x - 28 = 12( x - f) .rnIs2 Use v dv = adx = 12( x - f)dx with the limits v = 8 rnIs when x = o.

Note that a is a given function of x.

r v dv = 12J:( x - f)dx [va = [I~(x - frI ~ - ~ = I~[(x-H -Gr]

v' = 8' + 12[(X -H -m} 12(x-H :

( 7)2 4

V=±~12 x-3" +3"

Reject minus sign to get v = 8 mls at x = o.

(a) Maximum value of x. v = 0 when x = xmax

( 7)2 4

12 x - - . -- = 0

3 3

or

7 1

x-- = ±-

3 3

and

8 2

x = - m = 2- m

max 3 3

Now observe that the particle starts at x = 0 with v > 0 and reaches x = 2. m. At x = 2 m, v = 0 and a < 0, so that v becomes negative and x decreases. Thus, x = 2! m is never reached.

3

v = -4.47 mls ....

PROBLEM 11.19 CONTINUED

(b) Velocity when total distance traveled is 3 m.

The particle will have traveled total distance d = 3 m when d - xmax = xmax - x or 3 - 2 = 2 - x or x = l m.

Using v ~ ~ V lZ( x ~ f)' ~ ~ . which applies when x is decreasing, we get

PROBLEM 11.20

The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = k (1 - e -x), where k is a constant. Knowing that the velocity of the particle is v = +9m1s when x = -3m and that the particle comes to rest at the origin, determine (a) the value of k, (b) the velocity of the particle when x = -2m.

SOLUTION

Note that a is a function of x.

Use v dv = adx = k(l- e-x)dx with the limits v = 9 mls when x = -3 m, and v = 0 when x = O.

1vdv = .L3k(l- e-x)dx

[ ~ I = k[ x + e-X I,

0- ~= k[ () + 1- ( __ 3)- e3}= -16 .. 0855k k = 2.5178

Usevdv = adx = k(l- e-x)dx= 2.5178(1- e-x)dx with the limit v = 0 when x = O.

k = 2.52 mls2 ....

(a)

v; = [2.5178(X + e-x)]: = 2.5178(x + e-x -1)

Letting x = -2 m,

v = ±2.2440( -2 + e2 - It = ±4.70 mls

Since x begins at x = -2 m and ends atx = 0, v> O.

Reject the minus sign.

v = 4.70mls ....

PROBLEM 1'1.21

The acceleration of a particle is defmed by the relation a = -kfv, where k is a constant. Knowing that x = 0 and v = 25 ft/s at t = 0, and that v = 12 ft/s when x = 6 ft, determine (a) the velocity of the particle when x = 8 ft, (b) the time required for the particle to come to rest.

SOLUTION

v dv = adx = -k,fvdx,

xo = 0,

Vo = 25 ft/s

rx dx = -.!. t Fvdv = _~v3l2]V

.Ixo k 0 3k Vo

2 (312 312)

X - Xo = 3k Vo - v

or

Noting that x = 6 ft when v = 12 ft/s,

6= .3.._[125 _ li3l2] = 55.62

3k k

or

k=9.27~

Then,

v312 = 125 - 13.905x

(a) When x = 8 ft,

V3/2 = 125 -(13.905)(8) = 13.759 (ft/S)3/2

v = 5.74 ft/s ~

(b)

dv = adt = -kFvdt

Idv dt=--k vl/2

t = 2vK2 = (2)(25l2

k 9.27

t = 1.079 s ~

Atrest, v = 0

PROBLEM 11.22

Starting from x = 0 with no initial velocity, a particle is given an acceleration a = 0.8~v2 + 49, where a and v are expressed in ft/s2 and ft/s, respectively. Determine (a) the position of the particle when v = 24 ft/s, (b) the speed of the particle when x = 40 ft.

SOLUTION

v dv = adx

dx _ vdv _ vdv

- a - 0.8~V2 + 49

Integrating using x = 0 when v = 0,

£' dx = _1 l' vdv = _1 ~v2 + 49Jv

0.8 ~v2 + 49 0.8 0

(1)

(a) When v = 24 ft/s,

x = 22.5 ft ~

(b) Solving equation (1) for v2,

~V2 + 49 = 7 + 0.8x

v2 = (7 + 0.8X)2 - 49

When x = 40 ft,

v = 38.4 ft/s ....

PROBLEM 11.23

The acceleration of slider A is defined by the relation a = -2k~ k2 - v2, where a and v are expressed in mls2 and mis, respectively, and k is a constant. The system starts at time t = 0 with x = 0.5 m and v = O. Knowing that x = 0.4 m when t = 0.2 s, determine the value of k.

SOLUTION

dv ../2 2

a = - = -2k k -v

dt '

and

v=Owhent=O

-2kdt = dv = d[Sin-l(~)]

~k2 _ v2 k

v = ksin( -2kt) = -ksin(2kt)

dx = vdt = -ksin(2kt)dt

Integrating, using x = 0.5 mat t = 0, and x = 0.4 m at t = 0.2 s,

[x]~:: = iCOS(2kt)l = 0.4 - 0.5 = iCOS[(2)k(0.2)] - i

cos(O.4k) = 0.8

O.4k = cos'" (0.8) = 0.6435 rad

k = 0.6435 0.4

k = 1.609 mls ...

PROBLEM 11.24

The acceleration of slider A is defined by the relation a :::: -2~, where a and u are expressed in mls2 and m/s, respectively. The system starts at time I:::: 0 with x:::: 0.5 m and v :::: O. Determine (a) the position of A when y:::: - 0.8m1s, (b) the position of A when t:::: 0.2 s.

f-----x-----l

SOLUTION

Acceleration is a given function of velocity.

(a) Position when v:::: -0.8 mls.

vdv vdv

From v dv :::: a dx, we get dx :::: - :::: r:---7

a -2,,1 _ v2

Integrating, using x :::: 0.5 m when v :::: O.

rx dx _ f" vdv

.Q.5 - .Q-2~

or

x-O.S = ~(~ -~)

or

x::::}_~

2

(1)

When v = -0.8 mis,

x = 0.300 m ~

(b) Position when t = 0.2 s.

dv dv

From dv = a dt we get dt = - = r:---7

a -2,,1 - y2

Integrating, using I = 0 when v = O.

tdt=t P'

-2 1- v

or

[ ]1 1 [ . -I JV

to:::: -"2 SID V 0

O 1. -I 0

1 - = --SID v-

2

1 . _I

t = --sm v

2

Solving for v,

v = sin( -21) = -sin(2/)

When t = 0.21 s,

21 = 0.4 rad

v = -sin 0.4 = -0.3894 mls

Using equation (I),

x = ~Jl - (-0.38941)2

x = 0.461 m ~

PROBLEM 11.25

The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = _kV2.5, where k is a constant. The particle starts at x = 0 with a velocity of 16 mmls, and when x = 6 nun the velocity is observed to be 4 mmls. Determine (a) the velocity of the particle when x = 5 nun, (b) the time at which the velocity of the particle is 9 mmls.

SOLUTION

Acceleration is a given function of velocity. a = _kv2.5 (a) Velocity when x = 5 nun.

From

v dv = adx

dx v dv v dv 1 -1.5

= - = --- = --v

a kv2.5 k

Integrating, using the condition x = 0 when v = 16 mmls.

or

When x = 6 nun, v = 4 nun, hence

or

Solving (1) for v,

v -0.5 = 0.25 + 0.5kx

v = (0.25 + O.5kx r2

v = [0.25 + (0.5)(0.08333)(5)r2

v = 4.76 mmls ....

When x = 6 nun,

(b) Time when v = 9 mmls.

From dv = adt,

dv dv 1 -2.5

dt = - = --- = --v dv

a kv2.5 k

Integrating, using the condition t = 0 when v = 16 mmls

or

[t]1 1 [_1.5JV

o = 1.5k V 16

1 - 0 = _1_[ V-1.5 - (16r1.5] l.5k

or

t = 8( v-1.5 - 0.015625)

1 = 8(9-1.5 - 0.015625)

1=0.1713s ....

When v = 9 nun,

(1)

PROBLEM 11.26

The acceleration of a particle is defmed by the relation a = 0.6(1 - kv), where k is a constant. Knowing that at t = o the particle starts from rest at x = 6 m and that v = 6 mls when t = 20 s, determine (a) the constant k, (b) the position of the particle when v = 7.5 m/s, (c) the maximum velocity of the particle.

SOLUTION

(a) Determination of k.

From

dv dv

dv = a at, dt = - = --:---....,..

a 0.'(1 - lev)

Integratingusing.the condition v = 0 when t = 0,

t dv

dt -

- 1 0.6(1 - lev)

[t]~ = - O.~k[ln(l- lev)J~

1

t = --In(l- lev) 0.6k

or

Using t = 20 s when v = 6 nun/s,

1

20 = --In(l- 6k) 0.6k

Solving by trial,

k = 0.1328 s/m ....

(b) Position when v = 7.5 mls.

dx = vdv = vdv

a 0.6(1-.tv)

Integrating, using the condition x = 6 m when v = 0, r dx - f" v dv

.b - ~ 0.6(1 - lev)

Now 1: lev = i( -1 + 1 _1 lev)

From v dv = adx,

So

61 ( 1) 1[ 1 I

[x] =-1 -1+- dv;- -v--ln(l-lev)

o O.6k 1 - lev 0.6k k

x = 6 - _1_[v + .!_In(l- lev)]

0.6k k

(1)

PROBLEM 11.26 CONTINUED

Usingv = 7.5 mls and the determined value of k:

x = 6 - ()/ )[7.5 + _l_.ln(l_ (0.1328)(7.5))]

0.6 0.1328 0.1328

x = 434m'"

(c) Maximum velocity occurs when a = O.

Then,

1 1

v =-=--

max k 0.1328

vmax = 7.53 mls ....

PROBLEM 11.27

Experimental data indicate that in a region downstream of a given louvered supply vent the velocity of the emitted air is defined by v = 0.18vo / x, where v and x are expressed in ftJs and feet, respectively, and Vo is the initial discharge velocity of the air. For Vo = 12 ft/s, determine (a) the acceleration of the air at x = 6 ft, (b) the time required for the air to flow from x = 3 ft to x = 10ft.

SOLUTION

(a) Acceleration at x = 6 ft.

When x = 6 ft,

v = 0.18 Vo = (0.18)(12) = 2.16 ftJs

x

x

x

dv 2.16 z=:»:

dv 2.16 2.16 4.6656

a = v- = ---.-- = ---

dx x2 X x3

4.6656

a=---

63

a = -0.0216 ftJs2 ....

(b) Required time for flow from x = 3 ft to x = 10 ft.

dx . dx xdx

Use - = v from which dt = - = --dt

dt v 0.18vo

dx xdx xdx

dt = - = -- = = 0.46296x dx

v 0.18vo (0.18){12)

Integrating, using t = 0 when x = 3 ft,

tdt = 0.46296 K xdx

or

When x = 10 it,

t = 0.23148(x2 - 9)

t = (0.23148)(102 - 9)

t=21.1s ....

t:

PROBLEM 11.28

Based on observations, the speed of a jogger can be approximated by the relation v = 7.5 (I - 0.04x )0.3, where v and x are expressed in km/h and kilometers, respectively. Knowing that x = 0 at t = 0, determine (a) the distance the jogger has run when t = 1 h, (b) the jogger's acceleration in m/s2 at t = 0, (c) the time require for the jogger to run 6 Ian.

SOLUTION

Given: v = 7.5(1 - 0.04x)0.3 with units Ian and krn/h. (a) Distance at t = 1 hr.

Using dx = vdt, we get dt = dx = dx 03

v 7.5(1 - 0.04X) .

Integrating, using t = 0 when x = 0,

~d 1 rx dx

.b t = 7.5.b (1- 0.04)0.3

Solving for x,

When t = 1 h,

or

[ ]' 1 -1 {I 004 0.7}X t ° = (7.5) . (0.7)(0.04) - . x °

t = 4.7619{1- (1 - 0.04x)O.7}

x = 25{1 - (1 - 0.210t)vo.7}

x = 25{1- [_(0.210)(I)]VO.7}

x=7.15km ....

(b) Acceleration when t = O.

dv = (7.5)(0.3)(-0.04)(1- 0.04xrO.7 = -0.0900(1 - 0.04x)-O·7 dx

When t = 0 and x = 0,

v = 7.5 km/h, dv - 0.0900 h-1 dx

a = v: = (7.5)(-0.0900) = -0.675 krn/h2

= (0.675)(1000) m/s2

(3600)2

a = -52.1 x 10-6 rnIs2 ....

(c) Time to run 6 km.

Using x = 6 km in equation (I),

t = 4.7619{1- [I - (0.04)( 6)l7} = 0.8323 h

t = 49.9 min ....

(I)

Pil

I r

! 1

PROBLEM 11.29

The acceleration due to gravity of a particle falling toward the earth is a = _gR2 / r2, where r is the distance from the center of the earth to the particle, R is the radius of the earth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth. If R = 3960 mi, calculate the escape velocity, that is, the minimum velocity with which a particle must be projected upward from the surface of the earth if it is not to return to earth. (Hint. v = 0 for r = 00.)

SOLUTION

The acceleration is given by

Then,

dv gR2

v- = a = ---

dr r2

Integrating, using the conditions v = 0 at r = 00, and v = vesc at r = R

,0 2 (l'dr .Iv. vdv = -gR JR2

""" r

[12]° 2[1]""

2"v v = gR -;: R

esc:

Now, R = 3960 mi = 20.909 x 106 ft and g = 32.2 ftls2.

Then,

Vesc = 36.7 x 103 ftls ....

PROBLEM 11.30

'rl

: IJ

I I I I

The acceleration due to gravity at an altitude Y above the surface of the earth can be expressed as

-32.2

a ::: ------____=_

[1 + (yI20.9 x 106)T

where a and y are expressed in ftls2 and feet, respectively. Using this expression, compute the height reached by a projectile fired vertically upward from the surface of the earth if its initial velocity is (a) v ::: 2400 ft/s, (b) v ::: 4000 ft/s, (c) v ::: 40,000 ft/s.

SOLUTION

-32.2

The acceleration is given by a::: --------=-

[1 + LO.:X106 ) r

vdv ::: ady = -32.2dy 2

[I + LO.:X106 ) ]

Integrate, using the conditions v = vo aty ::: 0 and v::: 0 aty ::: Ymax' Also, use g = 32.2 ft/s2 and R ::: 20.9 x 106 ft.

fl vdv - _ I"" dy - _ R2 I"" dy

10 - g.b ( )2 - g .b (R )2

1 +L + Y

R

[ 1]0 [1 ]Ymax

_v2 - gR2 --

2 Vo R+yo

0-.!..VJ:::gR2[ 1 _ _!_]=

2 R + Ymax R

gRYmax R + Ymax

vJ (R + Ymax) = 2gRYmax

Solving for Ymax'

Rv?

Y _ 0

max-2R 2

g - Vo

Using the given numerical data,

(20.9 x 106)(2400)2 Ymax ::: 1.34596 x 109 - 24002

Ymax ::: 89.8 x 103 ft ~

(a) Vo = 2400 ft/s,

(20.9 x 106)(4000)2 Ymax = 1.34596 x 109 - 40002

Ymax = 251 x 103 ft ~

(b) Vo = 4000 ft/s,

(c) Vo ::: 40000 ft/s,

(20.9 x 106)(40000l .

Y = = negative

max 1.34596 X 109 - 400002

Negative value indicates that Vo is greater than the escape velocity.

Ymax ::: 00 ~

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