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# """

## ODE Solver: RK45 version 1.1.

Public domain, Connelly Barnes 2005.
"""
import math
import scipy
from scipy.linalg import norm
from scipy import array as vector
def solve(f, t0, tfinal, y0, tol = 1e-7):
"""
Solve an ODE numerically using RK45.
Solves dy/dt = f(t, y). Returns a list of (t, y) tuples.
Reference: http://www.library.cornell.edu/nr/bookcpdf/c16-2.pdf
"""
def F(*args):
return vector(f(*args))
t = t0
hmax = (tfinal - t0) / 128.0
h = hmax / 4.0
y = vector(y0) # Column vector (nx1).
out = [(t, list(y))]
# Cash-Karp parameters
a = [ 0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 0.875 ]
b = [[],
[0.2],
[3.0/40.0, 9.0/40.0],
[0.3, -0.9, 1.2],
[-11.0/54.0, 2.5, -70.0/27.0, 35.0/27.0],
[1631.0/55296.0, 175.0/512.0, 575.0/13824.0, 44275.0/110592.0, 253.0/4096
.0]]
c = [37.0/378.0, 0.0, 250.0/621.0, 125.0/594.0, 0.0, 512.0/1771.0]
dc = [c[0]-2825.0/27648.0, c[1]-0.0, c[2]-18575.0/48384.0,
c[3]-13525.0/55296.0, c[4]-277.00/14336.0, c[5]-0.25]
while t < tfinal:
if t + h > tfinal:
h = tfinal - t
if t + h <= t:
raise ValueError('Singularity in ODE')
# Compute k[i] function values.
k = [None] * 6
k[0] = F(t, y)
k[1] = F(t+a[1]*h, y+h*(k[0]*b[1][0]))
k[2] = F(t+a[2]*h, y+h*(k[0]*b[2][0]+k[1]*b[2][1]))
k[3] = F(t+a[3]*h, y+h*(k[0]*b[3][0]+k[1]*b[3][1]+k[2]*b[3][2]))
k[4] = F(t+a[4]*h, y+h*(k[0]*b[4][0]+k[1]*b[4][1]+k[2]*b[4][2]+k[3]*b[4][3])
)
k[5] = F(t+a[5]*h, y+h*(k[0]*b[5][0]+k[1]*b[5][1]+k[2]*b[5][2]+k[3]*b[5][3]+
k[4]*b[5][4]))
# Estimate current error and current maximum error.
E = norm(h*(k[0]*dc[0]+k[1]*dc[1]+k[2]*dc[2]+k[3]*dc[3]+k[4]*dc[4]+k[5]*dc[5
]))
Emax = tol*max(norm(y), 1.0)
# Update solution if error is OK.
if E < Emax:
t += h
y += h*(k[0]*c[0]+k[1]*c[1]+k[2]*c[2]+k[3]*c[3]+k[4]*c[4]+k[5]*c[5])
out += [(t, list(y))]
# Update step size
if E > 0.0:
h = min(hmax, 0.85*h*(Emax/E)**0.2)
return out
def solve_func(f, t0, tfinal, y0, tol = 1e-5):
"""Returns y(t) function, uses linear interpolation."""
L = solve(f, t0, tfinal, y0, tol)
T = [t for (t, y) in L]
Y = [y for (t, y) in L]
interp_func = scipy.interpolate.interp1d(T, Y, axis=0)
def func(t):
return interp_func(t)[0]
return func
def test_rk45(tol, max_error, max_evals):
"""
Orbiting space shuttle test case.
"""
y0 = vector([0.994, 0.0, 0.0, -2.00158510637908252240537862224])
Period = 17.0652166
fevals = [0]
def yp(t, y):
fevals[0] += 1
mu = 0.012277471
muhat = 1 - mu
u1 = y[0]
u1p = y[1]
u2 = y[2]
u2p = y[3]
D1 = ((u1 + mu)**2 + u2**2)
D1 = D1 * math.sqrt(D1)
D2 = ((u1 - muhat)**2 + u2**2)
D2 = D2 * math.sqrt(D2)
return (u1p,
u1 + 2 * u2p - muhat*(u1+mu) / D1 - mu*(u1-muhat) / D2,
u2p,
u2 - 2 * u1p - muhat * u2 / D1 - mu * u2 / D2)
sol = solve(yp, 0.0, Period, y0, tol)
ylast = sol[len(sol)-1][1]
# print 'Fevals:', fevals[0]
# print 'Error:', norm(ylast - y0)
assert fevals[0] < max_evals
assert norm(ylast - y0) < max_error
def test():
"""
Unit tests.
"""
print 'Testing:'
test_rk45(tol=1e-6, max_error=0.01, max_evals=2000)
test_rk45(tol=1e-9, max_error=3e-5, max_evals=5000)
print ' rk45: OK'
if __name__ == '__main__':
test()