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[THE HRM AND LINE MANAGER ROLE IN THE ORGANISATIONAL SUCCESS]
How can the HRM function support leaders and managers to drive a culture of employee engagement, improve performance and achieve organizational goals.
2002. 1994. commitment and matching resources to future need. to enhance the performance of organisations in their external environments Strategic human resource management can be defined as the linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovation. STRATEGIC HRM: Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners. In an organisation SHRM means accepting and involving the HR function as a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company's strategies through HR activities such as recruiting. 1996). Youndt. Organisations are implementing strategic HR as a change agent.2003) . Organisations implementing commitment-based HR practices perform better than organisations implementing transaction-based HR practices (Arthur. Collins and Smith. training and rewarding personnel. 2006. involving utilization of resources. (Paauwe. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT vs HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: HRM is a new and a distinctive philosophy with a paradigm shift towards a more strategic approach to people management. Page 2 of 17 . Snell. values. It refers to the art of planning your business at the highest possible level. 1992. culture. Gajula P120655 INTRODUCTION: The fundamental aim of strategic HRM is to generate strategic capability by ensuring that the organisation has the skilled. J & Boselie P. Dean and Lepak. flexibility and competitive advantage. committed and well-motivated employees it needs to achieve sustained competitive advantage. Strategic HRM is concerned with longer-term people issues and macro-concerns about structure. not to replace an out dated personnel department. Batt. SHRM focuses on building a solid underlying structure to your business that will subsequently be fleshed out through the combined efforts of every individual you employ. quality. selecting.Vishnu Vamshi.
challenging unwritten rolling out core skills to all head office employees and performance management linked to achieving targets. This has shown high commitment to HR. and offering them with basic and extended training. Personnel Management deals with the selection. Gajula P120655 Personnel Management and Human Resource Management is more or less the same thing. This stresses the way in which Tesco’s business measures are closely linked to performance management. Industrial Management. Page 3 of 17 . innovative. This helps the individual employee to understand their role and importance within the organisation. Human resource management looks after the broader concept of HR. The human-resource strategy at Tesco’s revolves around work simplification. Personnel administration. MANAGER: A member of an organisation who either has formal responsibility for the work of one or more persons in the organisation or who is accountable for the specialist advisory duties in support of key management activities. attempting to gain acceptance from all employees. productivity. job description and work load of an employee. ROLE OF HRM AND LINE MANAGERS: PETER DRUCKER: The management of organisations by a hierarchy of objectives is one of his most influential ideas. On the other hand. liquidity. He suggests these targets should fall into five key groups dealing with market standing. It deals with Personnel Management as well as Organizational Management. Manpower management. they are proactive and strategic level of organisation. recruitment.Vishnu Vamshi. In fact Personnel Management is one of the core components of Human Resource Management. and profitability.HR is not an administrative department in Tesco. Organizational Development and also PRACTICAL EXAMPLE : TESCO Tesco’s have strategically integrated HR into their overall plans. performance.
without the use of coercion. In contrast.”.Alford and Beatty. Culture of the organisation.. This helps motivate them to do better. Goals of the organisation.George Terry “Leadership is the ability to secure desired actions from a group of followers voluntarily. This involves using strict controls within the business. They can contribute towards solving a problem or issue. The manager provides individuals with the opportunity to take the control of their work. Technology available.”. Work and structures. Douglas McGregor in 1960 used the terms Theory X and Theory Y to identify two very different forms of management style: A Theory X manager tells employees what to do and supervises their work. In the words of “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. This reflects an autocratic style. LEADERSHIP: Effective leadership is required to lead and to guide the subordinates to perform organizational tasks efficiently and effectively. a Theory Y manager believes employees want to do well. LEADER: A leader is "a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal". Gajula P120655 KEY ATTRIBUTES OF A MANAGER: (handy 1993) These interact and cannot be dealt with in isolation .Vishnu Vamshi.. Systems and procedures.A change in one of them inevitably lead to a change in others. Page 4 of 17 . People.
Leading is an influence relationship. Manager creates stability. Page 5 of 17 . He authorises the organisation.Vishnu Vamshi. He influences people to do the right thing by leading them to the right path. He himself works with the organisation. • • • • • • • Leaders do the right things. He has got a vision and leads people under him. • • • He influences people to do things right by changing. Developed by the company. Gajula P120655 LEADERSHIP STYLES: The main types of leadership styles are as follows: Charismatic Traditional Situational Appointed Functional Principle centred ***Principle centred leaders cannot be a good manager as he does what is correct rather than by going by the rules and regulation of the organisation. He has the ability to manage people under him. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A MANAGER AND A LEADER: MANAGER LEADER • • • • • • Managers do things right. He wants others to work for him. May or may not work in a team or may or may not be interested in team work. Leader creates change. Works in a team and is usually dedicated for the team. • • He leads the organisation. Not developed by the company. Managing is an authoritative relationship.
Their management responsibilities would include: • People management • Managing operational costs • Providing technical expertise • Organisation work allocation and rotas • Monitoring work processes • Dealing with customers/clients • Measuring operational performance.Vishnu Vamshi. Page 6 of 17 . • Recognition – the extent to which employees feel their contribution is recognised. THE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES OF LINE MANAGERS: Below is the list of practices in which Line managers make a difference: • Performance appraisal. • Employee engagement (involvement and communication). Line managers are departmental managers with operational responsibility directly related to the purpose of aims of the organisation. • Openness – how easy is it for employees to discuss matters with their line manager. In many organisations line managers now carry out activities which were traditionally within the remit of HR such as providing coaching and guidance. • Work-life balance. They are not usually specialists in the HRM function. Gajula P120655 LINE MANAGERS: Line managers are managers who are responsible for an employee or work group to a higher level of management. They are normally in the lower layers of the management hierarchy. coaching and guidance. In many cases they also carry out recruitment and selection in conjunction with HR. • Training. Although they are often specialists in their own work and usually have both leadership and managerial skills. undertaking performance appraisals and dealing with discipline and grievances.
which will impact on organisational effectiveness. This has exceeded the government’s recommendations for training of the individual and the move towards a learning society. when outsourcing is working well it also enables them to access better and timelier information and support to carry out people management tasks and manage their staff more effectively. The arguments in favour of business partnering stress the positive aspects of the partnership.Vishnu Vamshi. The big picture of Tesco’s strategic direction is discussed with all employees. Each employee is considered a part of the overall strategy. This training is delivered in a way that encompasses all learning skills and allows for cultural difference. or bringing them to life. The frontline employees are considered the ultimate reflection of Tesco to its customer. However. this is demonstrated through their training and development policy.Being the largest Private employer in UK Tesco takes this responsibility seriously. THE IMPACT OF OUTSOURCED HR AND BUSINESS PARTNERS: The outsourcing of transactional HR activities has evolved more responsibility to line managers to maintain records. enabling both people and business issues to be considered in a wide range of decisions. enabling them to develop a peer relationship with HR business partners to develop responses and solutions to HR issues. therefore they are instructed on the importance of their role. Gajula P120655 His role is crucial in enabling the HR policies and practices. He acts according to the advice or guidance from HR in controlling the work flow by directing and guiding the work of others. The move to business partnering has enhanced people management aspects of the line manager’s role. but all employees have a very important role to play in turning core values and customer commitment into reality on a daily basis. input data and manage routine HR activities such as staffing requests. PRACTICAL EXAMPLE : TESCO TESCO ensures that each and every employee has the opportunity to understand his or her individual role in contributing to the TESCO core purpose and values. training or submitting payroll information. Because the relationship is ongoing both sides develop a better understanding and develop long term strategies and solutions. Page 7 of 17 .
It is up to employers to effectively manage and balance these factors to ensure a good working relationship. Employee engagement refers to positive feelings held by employees about their jobs and also the motivation and effort they put into work. Engagement leads to positive employee behaviours that lead to organizational success. or wrongfully terminated.The positive behaviour of a deeply engaged employee will rub off on all stakeholders like clients. Gajula P120655 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: Employee engagement describes employees’ emotional and intellectual commitment to their organisation and its success. Employer should be confident of the result he needs to derive out of the employee. Engagement relates to the core of the business. enjoys high staff retention and sustains long term success. denied his/her due wages or benefits. Employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage with increase Page 8 of 17 . consultation with employees and employee representation are all important elements of employee engagement. productivity and innovativeness. It is sometimes used to describe ‘engaging with’ employees. Engaged employees display energy. Organisation wins regard as an attractive place to work. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE: The relationship employers share with employees is affected by three significant factors like interests. Engaged employees experience a compelling purpose and meaning in their work and give their discrete effort to advance the organisation’s objectives. discriminated against. the employer should not treat his or her employee unlawfully. made to work in unsafe conditions. harassed. customers. An effective communication plan or a successful consultation exercise leads to a better employee engagement. A highly engaged company has better performance. culture and way of managing . He should use his means of effective communication to understand whether the employee is facing any problems and thereof suggest ways to overcome them. colleagues. Effective internal communication. From the beginning of the employment to the end. its values. this increases a good friction between them. control and motivation.Vishnu Vamshi.
Credibility: Managers should set examples for the employee by imbibing and teach others to practice ethical standards and practices. 5. Ask for suggestions. 11. P120655 ATTRIBUTES OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: 1. 7. Connect: Managers should make their employees feel valuable and important.Vishnu Vamshi. new ideas. Gajula of labour productivity in order to achieve a good relationship with the employee. 8. Contribute: Give opportunities to employees to contribute in the management decision making process. Career: Management should provide meaningful work to the employees along with career growth opportunities. Control: Managers should let the employees utilize the control which they have on their job and career. 3. 9. Communicate: Project managers should clearly indicate their expectations from and about the employee. Collaborate: Good coordination and relationships should be maintained within a team. and ways of improvement. Managers should motivate their employees to work in and as a team. They should also provide feedback to the employees regarding their work and performance. Show that you care. He should also take steps to cultivate trust among the team members. The most important attributes which lead to better employee engagement. 2. 4. 10. 6. Clarity: Managers should have a clear vision of what job is to be done and how it is to be done. Page 9 of 17 . Compliment: Give recognition to the employee for the job well done. Confidence: Good managers should induce and boost confidence in an employee.
The psychological contract is an important factor in the socialisation of new members of the staff to an organisation in forming perceptions and impressions of the management. Whether they are incorporated into the parallel psychological contract will depend on whether both parties believe that they should be treated as part of the relationship. Motivation occurs when people do something because they want to do it. But some of the initial statements. According to Mullins 2010 a company should find new ways to increase loyalty and commitment of employees like: • Attention to reward strategies • Recognition of contribution rather than status • Systematic training and development • Skills for working in cross functional teams • Training of managers in counselling. no matter how informal and imprecise. Most people’s idea of a fair day’s work was less than half what they could give. This is not a written document but implies a series of mutual expectations and satisfaction of needs arising from the people-organisation relationship. he felt was to create the circumstances in which people wanted to give all they could to the job. Gajula P120655 PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: A psychological contract represents the mutual beliefs. It is distinguishable from the formal written contract of employment which only identifies mutual duties and responsibilities in a generalized form. and informal obligations between an employer and an employee. Page 10 of 17 .Vishnu Vamshi. coaching and leadership. may later be remembered as promises and give rise to expectations. The key to success. perceptions. MOTIVATION: According to Professor Herzberg.
Taylor & Thorpe (2001) explains that the business performance needs both the control and consent of employees. and warmth. Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group and Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behaviour of those workers in a group. with skilled and motivated employees working harder.Vishnu Vamshi. This would generate the profit to enable the worker to be paid a higher wage. but must be seen as members of a group. His theories suggest that Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation. At the base of the hierarchy are physical needs such as food. MAYO: His methods were heavily influenced by FW. Bell. better and with less wastage. In other words people were motivated only by the economic motives of self-interest. It can be defined as a strategic and integrated approach delivering sustained success to organisations by improving the performance of the people who work with them and by developing the capabilities of team and individual contributors. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: A method of reviewing the performance and potential of employees that is usually undertaken formally and systematically at regular intervals is called performance management. shelter. Page 11 of 17 .TAYLOR. When employees earn enough to satisfy these needs. these are the individual’s primary motivations. Taylor’s view of human nature was that of economic man. Therefore a manager could do his best is to motivate a worker by offering an incentive. MASLOW: Maslow believed that everyone has the same needs –all of which can be organised as a hierarchy. When unsatisfied. Gajula P120655 TAYLOR: He believed that people work for only one reason-money. however their motivating powers withers away. He saw it as the task of the manager to device a system which would maximise efficiency.
It can be held frequently. managers and supervisors who have a particular responsibility for implementing the Equal Opportunities Employment Policy. training and promotion. but also damages wider workplace culture. Page 12 of 17 .Vishnu Vamshi. appointees and existing staff.An appraisal system provides information which allows the business to plan and develop its human resource provision. but is usually once in a year. The monitoring process will provide data for the organisation to evaluate how far goals are being achieved while also providing information on formulating new goals. senior staff. EQUALITY AND OPPURTUNITY: The organisation is committed to achieving equality of opportunity for all staff in career development. but not exclusive. helps employees know that their contributions are recognized and acknowledged. APPRAISAL OF PERFORMANCE: Appraisal system is usually a one-to-one discussion between the individual and the manager. in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization. Gajula P120655 Performance management is one of the key processes. The discussion may consider specific performance measure such as individual output or involve a more general review of the contribution the employee makes to the smooth running of the business . when effectively carried out. Initially the focus of development programs will be aimed at Heads of Departments. If the organisation doesn’t treat their employees with equality then it has not only far reaching impact on those directly affected. with particular. to provide statistical and other reports to show how this Policy is being implemented. regard to recruitment and promotion. Human Resources will regularly monitor applicants. It is an ongoing process of communication between a supervisor and an employee that occurs throughout the year. Where inequalities occur there is a risk to the reputation of an organisation within the business community and beyond.
payment and promotions. • At the end of the performance period. employer assess the employee's performance against expected objectives. career progression. FEEDBACK: The Performance management process is a cycle. which include collaborating on the development of performance objectives. empowerment. Employer and his employee review overall expectations. This provides a framework to ensure employees achieve results through coaching and mutual feedback. BENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: The objective of performance management is to improve the performance of individuals leading to improvement in the performance of the organisation as a whole. levels of supervision.Vishnu Vamshi. during check-in meetings. It provides the basis for key managerial decisions relating to allocation of duties and responsibilities of employees. Then develop a performance plan that directs the employee's efforts towards achieving specific results to support organizational excellence and employee success. with discussions varying year-to-year based on changing objectives. as well as the means used and behaviours demonstrated in achieving those objectives. Checking-In. training and development. Together. Gajula P120655 IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: It is important that a formal performance management system doesn’t result in managers failing in their responsibilities for reviewing performance on a day-to-day basis. they establish new objectives for the next performance period. Individual development goals are also updated. and Assessment. Review shouldn’t be limited to a formal event occurring once or twice a year rather it should be a continuous process of monitoring feedback and review and there should be regular communication and contacts between managers and staff. The cycle includes Planning. • Goals and objectives are discussed throughout the year. Page 13 of 17 . • To begin the planning process.
But the aim should be to achieve two-way communications. to determine suitability for promotion and for particular types of employment and training. They are IIP (investors in people) TQM (total quality management) and EFQM. so that management can obtain feedback on its plans.e. Training should be given to them on how to set objectives. The media that are available for communications include bulletins. It helps to reveal problems that may be restricting progress and causing inefficient work practice. both managers and their staff. It can improve communications by giving staff the opportunity to talk about their ideas and expectations. Page 14 of 17 .Vishnu Vamshi. and how to review meeting should be prepared for and conducted. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: An organisation is said to be successful when all the concepts of training and development are satisfied and achieved. TQM tries to improve quality by ensuring corresponding in appearance to internal requirements. It is essential to train everyone concerned in the operation of the scheme i. EVALUATION: To know the function of any organisation the above segment should be considered but technically there are few tools to evaluate the performance in the organisation.. TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. how to select and use performance measures. This encourages better performance from staff. to assist succession planning. It develops greater degree of consistency through regular feedback on performance and discussion about potential. This is a good way of engaging the employees and all should have equal opportunity to grow. notice boards and videos. Gajula P120655 Performance management provides information for human resource planning. and how well they are progressing.
which gives the organisation added value. The value that is placed on HR demonstrates commitment from the top levels of the organisation to training. When the employees are trained and demonstrating a higher commitment to the organisation they feel a part of the overall strategy.Vishnu Vamshi. Page 15 of 17 . The study of HR policies has demonstrated that by introducing a higher level of training to all employees it has an effect on the bottom line. with a higher level of service. This leads to employees feeling valued and therefore a more committed work force. This is then felt by the consumer. The policies and procedures adopted by the organisation in strategic HRM emerge as a pattern in action and can be very effective in the future. Gajula P120655 CONCLUSION: Strategic HRM supports in achieving the organisational goals or success by developing a plan of action.
Harper & Row. 12. Financial Times. Mullins. C (1993) ‘The future of Work’. Personnel management. Business Studies For AS. Developing practice. January-February. ARMSTRONG. AH (1954) Motivation and Personality. Personnel Management. London: Kogan Page. 7. Oxford. McGraw-Hill. PF (1988) ‘The coming of the new organisation ‘Harvard Business Review. February. 14. 11. The impact of IIP on people management practices and firm performance. 10. (2002) Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance. Page 16 of 17 . 2001.) 192a) Strategies for Human Resource Management: A Total Business Approach.Vishnu Vamshi. Drucker. New York. F W (1968) ‘One more time: How do you motivate your employees? ’Harvard Business Review. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. 6. Maslow. New York. Herzberg. Handy. 13. Blackwell. Fletcher. 8. Burns. February. Prentice Hall. Miller. Centre for business management . January-February. Ian Beardwell & Len Holden. Gajula P120655 BIBILIOGRAPHY: REFERENCES: . McGregor (1960) ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’. New York. P (1989) ‘Strategic HRM: what it is and what it isn’t’. 9. Second Edition. Management and Organisational Behaviour. Ian Marcouse & Malcolm Surridge. Laurie J. C (1984) ‘What’s new in performance appraisal?’. JM (1978) Leadership. M (ed. September 2003. 3. 5. Harper & Row. A. Armstrong. Eighth Edition. Third edition. 2. 1.Cranfield University. 4. Human Resource Management. M and BARON.
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