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. Employees, Government, stockholders and communities always put an organization to particular tasks on which they put their expectations regardless of likely uncertainties’ of fulfilling these demands by the organization. Failure of the organization to meet specific needs always leads to tumultuous exchanges that always strain working relationships, customer relationship with the organization. In such volatile situations organizations need individuals of specific expertise in communicating and building relationships with these groups. The public relations profession has the capacity to cater for this organization’s dependency. The role of this project is to show how public relations can be integrated with the overall business plan for better results. In terms of success of a public relations program which is defined as a document which gives the details of the activities carried out to achieve a successful public relations result. Good public relations in an organization, helps to minimize or manage conflict effectively. It will help us understand how public relations’ is said to be the management of communication between an organization and its publics. It is also important to note that public relations affects organizational policy, strategy, decision making as well as the behaviour of its stakeholders. In order to be successful in public relations field, it is important for one to understand several components of the market and the clients one is to deal with. This topic is chosen in order to investigate the importance attached to the Public relations planning in organizations and the role it plays in the business planning. This is in the discussion of why and how business planners should take into consideration the development of an explicit public relations plan for their start up organizations. It is widely claimed that public relations plan is highly attached to the organizational goals. This leads us to an understanding that it is important for the business planners to include public relations in the development of the marketing plan. The business plan gives birth to a marketing plan and in the same way the marketing plan delivers a successful public relations plan. The marketing plan is a presentation of a comprehensive review of the key elements that constitute a marketing plan. The key elements of this marketing plan include an executive summary, description of company, strategic plan and focus, situation analysis, market-product focus, marketing program strategy and tactics, financial projections, organization structure, implementation plan, and evaluation and control. Additional objectives include incorporating information about niche marketing, ecommerce, and affiliate marketing programs that support formation and long-term viability of the niche-oriented product. Benefits This Project will benefit all disciplines by providing information and research that results in a marketing plan for a start-up business. This project also benefits University College’s current and future students by demonstrating how they can develop a marketing plan for a start-up business. In addition to the marketing plan, research on niche marketing, ecommerce, and affiliate marketing trends will benefit the student and widen this researcher’s knowledge base. Information gathered will add to this researcher’s existing knowledge base by increasing her understanding of marketing research, plan development, design, and implementation. Problem Statement Public relations’ is often not regarded highly by the senior managers while developing their business plans. Little attention is paid in the role of public relations hence the business plan and marketing plans do not consider the role of public relations yet it is
vital to consider public relations as it helps portray the company’s image and helps in critical decision making which affects the public and other stakeholders. Thesis statement The current thesis posits that an Organization or a starting company can benefit from integrating the concept of public relations planning and strategic business planning and marketing. This study contributes to Public relations planning research by providing a synthesis of how the firm’s market plan can contribute to the success of a public relations plan. The study also contributes to public relations research by providing a case study of a public relations program that was successful as a result of the integration with the overall business plan. Research Questions Q1. Is it important for the public relations plan to be integrated with the market plan for it to be successful in its implementation? Q2. How is the Public Relations plan integrated with the Marketing plan for the start up business to succeed? Q3. What are the contents of a Public Relations plan and a marketing plan? Literature review Public relations A close look at the goals and objectives of public relations, it is apparent that public relations is a multifaceted activity that comprises of different functions. The major objectives of public relations is creating, maintaining, and protecting the organization's reputation. Second is to enhance its prestige, and present a favourable organization’s image. Literature from different scholars reveals the behaviour and choices of consumers is greatly determined by the reputation of the companies they buy from. This indicates that public relations can has a great influence on the company's sales and revenue. It is important that Public relations be included in the company’s overall marketing strategy. Public relations and marketing have distinct goals and communication strategies that should not be confused. Grunig, Grunig, and Dozier (2002) cite that public relations programs are important because they help organizations achieve their goals by creating relationships with strategic publics: “Individual communication programs such as media relations, community relations, or customer relations are successful when they affect the cognitions, attitudes, and behaviours of both publics and members of the organization—that is, the cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioural relationships among organizations and their publics” (p. 91). Thus, effective public relations programs are valuable to organizations because of their contribution to the organization’s mission, goals, and bottom line. What is a public relations plan? According to Grunig, Grunig, and Dozier (2002), “the program level has been the traditional focus of evaluative research in public relations” (p. 91). Public relations programs are ongoing strategic efforts to communicate and develop relationships with publics (Grunig, Grunig, & Dozier, 2002). Public relations plans, on the other hand, are communication strategies that end at a specific point (e.g., after a certain amount of time elapses, after the campaign’s objectives are achieved). In organizations that are starting it is vital for organizations to have a well laid plan for its public relations department. The Public relations plan of an organization can be document which gives the details of the activities carried out to achieve a public relations result. It consist of target publications and media lists, planned events, community outreach and all front with which the organization can communicate with the public domain of its stakeholders. Public relations’ is an activity that most senior managers or bosses of
although crossover was not uncommon. IMC integrates aspects of the two fields to deliver targeted messages to . however. Integrated marketing communication is a form of marketing that combines advertising. and tracks changes in the marketplace that affect a company’s financial bottom line. marketing.organizations must carry around their sleeves but some of them do not regard public relations as a very important aspect of the organizations development. public relations. Integrating marketing and Public relations With traditional media. For many years. and satisfy customer needs at a profit. In the book. and even advertising are three distinct disciplines (Guth and Marsh 2007). and distributing goods. a new model has emerged for reaching consumers. 8). rather than grouping them into long-used demographics. is that marketing exists to sense. and public relations to communicate with specific niches of customers. The traditional view . Hartley. Marketing The Core.. The marketing process includes developing. firms. The two concepts marketing and public relations are often confused to mean the same thing but according to Simon Ray in the book Public Relations: Concepts and Practices "Marketing and public relations . Indeed.. 43). This is why it is considered to develop an explicit public relations strategy as part of the overall business plan. both are major external functions of the firm and both share a common ground in regard to product publicity and consumer relations. However. experts in both fields still maintain that marketing. the marketing concept was not fully implemented by U. Olson 2005. serve. This mechanism involves both marketing and public relations intertwined in it. Public relations exists to produce goodwill in the company's various publics so that the publics do not interfere in the firm's profit-making ability. The marketing concept requires an organization to conduct market and consumer research and utilize their findings for the marketing and organizational strategy of the entire company (Peter.their likes. Making use of a new marketing paradigm integrated marketing communication (IMC). Through this idea we can effectively conclude that developing a marketing plan for the business should involve the public relations department who can help to integrate their public relations plan in the marketing plan which will improve its success for the start up organization. as target markets have continued to fragment and information distribution evolved. and expectations.. IMC can be said to be a form of public relations mechanism that relates with customers in order to address their specific needs and deliver targeted messaging in ways that are meaningful to the consumer. one can develop a marketing strategy that fulfills customer needs. services and ideas that meet the needs of consumers (2004." The importance of these two practices in the organization cannot be substituted but can be integrated in order to attain the maximum of both. “a road map for the marketing activities of an organization for a specified future period of time. Marketing Marketing plays a vital role in the success of any business venture. 4). dislikes. A marketing concept suggests an organization should satisfy consumer needs and wants to make profits. identifies competitors. Kerin. which involves building of specific marketing strategies for a clearly defined customer segment. By understanding these factors. Whereas traditional marketing has centered on product messaging and public relations focused on communicating to the public. The key elements of a successful marketing plan are to know your target market or customers . the two communication types were distinct. marketing and public relations were divided neatly into two camps and. This is important because the senior managers need to be made to understand that the nature and use of public relations as tool for strategic management is vital for the organizations’ success. promoting. At the same time. and Rudelius define a marketing plan as. and to know your competitors and their strengths and weaknesses (Small Business Administration 2001). pricing. such as one year or five years” (2004. they operate on different levels and from different perspectives and perceptions..S.
not the product. Description of the product or service with emphasis on the special features that are its selling points will convince consumers to purchase the product or service. Focusing on individual consumers and providing products addressing their needs 2.S. companies have slowly realized that the best way to serve their customers is to give them what they want.specifically defined consumers. The first and most important step in understanding the market is to study it through market research (Small Business Administration 2001). businesses are learning that it’s often not the company with the largest marketing budget that will win over consumers. The market assessment involves situation analysis. The key elements of a successful marketing plan are to know your target market or customers . rather than trying to influence consumer taste and opinion without effectively soliciting their input. All this information is contained in the marketing plan and helps in organizing the planning process. By understanding these factors. Sending specifically crafted messaging using the consumer’s preferred method of media 4. In order to know your product or service. Olson 2005. IMC ensures that the target market is the central focus. dislikes. The major areas to be considered when creating a marketing plan it is the product description which will be answered by the question of what is being marketed.their likes. In a tremendously crowded marketplace filled with messages consumers have learned to ignore. Marketing plan Marketing plays a vital role in the success of any business venture. but the company that speaks — and listens — to its customers with relevant messaging. and to know your competitors and their strengths and weaknesses (Small Business Administration 2001). identifies competitors. Who or where is the likely source of business. Guth and Marsh cite some ways IMC has redesigned the customer communications platform: 1. When market assessment is to be carried out the question is posed as what is your overall assessment of the market where your product or services competes. Actively soliciting customer feedback (Guth and Marsh 2007) Using these strategies. . a written description noting its unique aspects and how or why these aspects will appeal to customers is vital. This new marketing model illustrates a profound shift in customer interaction by developing two-way communication with consumers and the public at large. This addresses the issue of client and the larger market scenario from which the company will enjoy its customer base. one can develop a marketing strategy that fulfills customer needs. A marketing concept suggests an organization should satisfy consumer needs and wants to make profits. and tracks changes in the marketplace that affect a company’s financial bottom line. and expectations. In creating an integrated marketing plan for marketing and public relations there are questions that help to look at the situation currently facing the company brands and services. the marketing concept was not fully implemented by U. The next question is the source of business for the company. Competitive evaluation tries to look at the positioning of the company in the competition for market and service or product delivery. Perhaps ironically. 4). The final question tackles the importance of marketing communication and tries to probe more on the role of market communication in fulfilling the marketing objectives. Using databases to target individuals rather then addressing mass audiences 3. The marketing concept requires an organization to conduct market and consumer research and utilize their findings for the marketing and organizational strategy of the entire company (Peter. The marketing objectives for the product or service are also identified in these questions. firms. For many years.
44): 1 Is the marketing idea valid? 2 Is there something unique about the product or service that separates it from competitors? 3 Is there a clear market for the product or service? 4 Are financial projections realistic and healthy? 5 Are the key management and technical personnel capable. Determining sales projections helps one to develop the skills necessary to identify and anticipate changes in the marketplace. Market research should answer the following questions (Small Business Administration 2001): 1 Who are your customers and potential customers? 2 What kind of people are they? 3 Where do they live? 4 Can and will they buy the product or service you're offering? 5 Are you offering the kinds of goods or services they want at the best place. and their needs. This key information will help in understanding how the marketplace operates relative to the product or service. Business Overview The business plan is an important aspect for developing a pr plan for a startup company. identifying problems in the current market. Hartley. 13). the best time and best amounts? 1 Are your prices consistent with what the buyers view as the product’s values? 1 Are you applying the promotional programs in a way that will bring about success? 1 Who are your competitors? The Small Business Administration (2001) outlines the benefits of market research as: 1 Learning who your customers are and what they want 2 Learning how to reach your customer and how frequently you should try to communicate with them Learning which appeals are most effective Learning the relative successes of different marketing strategies in relation to their return on investment Market research is a valuable tool that can save a business time and money. Surveying a cross-section of consumers to obtain their opinions about the product or service that an organization will be offering is a critical step in developing a successful marketing plan (Linneman. wants. the company should analyze demographic data and brainstorm ideas. and product. In addition to surveying potential consumers. Use market research to focus and organize marketing information thereby reducing business risks. customers (target market). The goal is to collect enough information to determine a company’s potential target market. Rudelius 2004. A marketing plan should answer these questions (Kerin. and expectations. competitors. the Small Business Administration (2001) suggests that a business promote its product(s) or service(s) by cultivating the marketplace and attracting and keeping customers. Stanton 1991. and do they have a track record in the industry? After development of the marketing plan. A competitive edge is gained in the marketplace by understanding your market. profiting from sales opportunities. A case in point is Miscea 4. and making better business decisions (Small Business Administration 2001). Continuously reviewing data and tracking for shifts in the market environment provides the company a competitive edge.1 which is a new product and it is being launched into .The second step is determining if there is a demand for the product or service and development of sales projections (Small Business Administration 2001).
Each hospital has a certain hand hygiene compliancy rate.1 faucets. Its development enhances its current features and has additional new features that enable Miscea product to not only dispense two liquids such as Disinfectant and soap touch free but also gives the management of the hospital the opportunity to monitor the level of hand hygiene compliancy of each staff member or the hospital. Miscea 4. Looking at the market in U. it can record the amount of liquid. The more times a staff member uses the faucet the more it glows towards the green and after a certain amount of time it will decrease to yellow then to orange then to Red if the staff member does not wash his hands frequently. and quantity of each staff members’ use of the faucet. whether it was soap or disinfectant or both the staff member has used. In order to achieve marketing objective several characteristics were identified to target UAE market. This helps the Government to save on the spending on ill health of its citizens. This device helps the hospital management to record the time. whereabouts.A. • To be the top supplier and seller of dispenser products of Miscea Siemens Technopark that is faucets and other hygiene products such as disinfectants to sixty percent of the United Arab Emirates fraternity.the U.E’s since there is a big market for health and hygiene products. dispensaries and other health service places.A. The business is lies on offering quality and efficient products at lower -prices. The expected profit margins in this business are high because of U.1 is a completely new product that has been developed for the medical fraternity.A. The ability of the company’s products to meet the high standards of hygiene conditions in the U. The situation analysis for this product leads us to the SWOT analysis. • To mobilize the people of United Arab Emirates in collectively ensuring that they have kept thee hygienic conditions for example washing of hands frequently. This helps the Hospital management to see who among the staff members is steadfast in maintaining the hospitals hand hygiene and level of hygiene compliancy in the institution.E’s market which has potential in the health and hygiene market. Good hygienic conditions contribute to good health. if their tag was yellow or orange they would orally warn them and tell them you must wash your hands quickly.E’s market. This product serves the market needs of the strong UAE market. The product is a potential sale in the U. This is a hi-Tec product designed to combine technology and simplicity in monitoring the hygiene of health workers in hospitals. dispensaries and any health care providing services. Business goals Miscea Siemens Technopark marketing objectives in the first five years are as follows: • To create awareness among the people of United Arab Emirates about the new company that is supplying hygiene products such as disinfectants and the Miscea4.E fraternity as a result of the technology and state of art faucets. It will also give each staff member the opportunity to warn their colleagues about the level their tags have reached for example.A. We start by analyzing the market target which is mainly going to be corporate as it will be used in the hospitals. Each staff member will have a small tag that they will pin to their clothing similar to name tags. A Brief description of the new product The description of the product makes Miscea 4. it will have a digitalised screen with small bars on it that glow from Red to Green. each staff member must wash his hands every 20 minutes or less even though he is not performing any duties. and the ones that do have to wash more frequently for a certain amount of time.1 Faucets .A. It is a computerised device that helps the hospital management to monitor the hygiene trend in the hospitals.E’s there are factors which affect the marketing for the product.
Complexity of Miscea 4.1 . Relative Advantage of Miscea 4. the faucets save about 70 percent of water as compared to other faucets. This means that it is likely to be embraced by the target consumer.1. Miscea 4.This product will be hailed as a state of the art gadget by the market.1.1 This is the extent to which the effects. Miscea 4.1 is an improvement on this. Colleagues who are not wearing the tag for Miscea 4. ii. extends this efficiency to the utilisation of the detergents and soap. can be described as highly compatible. iii.1 holds a definite relative advantage. Hallfors and Cho 2002). Hospitals and other medical institutions prioritise hand hygiene. Hallfors and Cho 2002). The conventional Miscea faucet is itself a technological masterpiece and Miscea 4.1. and is likely to be adopted as a result. is not complex. First. Resistance to Adoption of Miscea 4. and monitor the effects of the new technology. The extent to which the new innovation is compatible with these values and experiences is referred to as compatibility of the same (Pankratz.1 This is the level of difficulty of the innovation when it comes to comprehension and use of the same (Rogers 1995).1 Before the introduction of an innovation. and can discern the extent to which they are adhering to the hygienic hands protocol. Miscea 4. The hospital management can put a small number of their staff on Miscea 4. in this context. When compared to the conventional Miscea faucets. a scholar by the name of Everett Rogers identified the chief characteristics of innovations that affect its adoption (Rogers 1995). negative or otherwise.1 can see the colour codes on their workmates. Given that Miscea 4. given its ability to monitor whether the member of staff used a detergent or soap in washing their hands. the management of the hospital is able to monitor the members of staff that is adhering to the hand hygiene protocols and those that are not. Compatibility of Miscea 4.1 is an innovation.1 can be experimented with on a trial basis. v. Miscea 4. the five dimensions of innovation adoption will be seminal in analysing it. and the marketing strategy must ensure that the advanced technology of this product is highlighted.1 This can be conceptualised as the ability of experimenting with the new product on a trial and limited basis (Baskerville and Pries-Heje 2003: Pankratz. The management can easily observe the results of the usage of Miscea 4. The effects of Miscea 4. In his book Diffusion of Innovations. Miscea 4.1 by monitoring the rate at which the members of staff are using it. and the marketing plan is aimed at enhancing the adoption of the technology.1 are observable. of an innovation are visible to other people apart from those who innovated it and those using it (Pankratz et al 2002). These are as follows: i. Miscea 4. Conventional Miscea faucets are efficient in utilisation of water. provided that they are aware of the meaning of the various colour codes. given the existence of the conventional Miscea faucets.1 merely complements the efforts of the medical fraternity staff in their endeavour. This is by examining the colour codes of their tags.1. iv. and measures are already in place to enforce this. It is easy for the staff to use and understand. there are values and experiences that are in existence within the target population.1 Relative advantage is conceptualised as the advantage that the new innovation holds over existing ones (Plesk 2003). Trialability of Miscea 4. Observability of Miscea 4. According to Softpedia (2010).
ports and such other infrastructures accounts for thirty seven percent of the total project value in this country (Cricinfo 2009). This has led to the construction of major ports in the country. US$4. and this factor will influence the marketing of the Miscea 4. Analysts are of the view that this will be the largest in the world by in a decade’s time (Cricinfo 2009). The United Arab Emirates is bordered by the ocean on two sides.029.1 as an innovation. Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. have indicated the importance that the administration attaches to the infrastructure by the budgetary allocations to the same.A. Construction of roads. and to establish their loyalty to the same. The marketing strategies will enable to reach a market size of an estimated twenty thousand medical services hospitals and dispensaries. and can be easily utilised. Consumer Habits in the United Arab Emirates If the number of shopping malls and duty free shops is anything to go by. Residents in these areas rely on airplanes for transport in these regions.1 in this region. Transportation and Communication in the United Arab Emirates The government in this country have spent considerable sums of money on roads and communication infrastructure. The major objective of this marketing plan is to ensure that Miscea 4. the economic hubs of the emirates.1 is selected as the product of choice by major medical institutions in the United Arab Emirates.E market where there is a big market for hygiene products. it is important to note that the roads in the western and southern parts of the United Arab Emirates are somehow primitive. the president of the emirates. Its forecasted sales growth prospect is 6. Port Khalid. they are not as developed. A case in point is Al Maktoum International Airport.4 billion was allocated in 2009 for various projects among them road networks and communication channels.1 product which is a health hygiene product. A case in point is the Dubai shopping festival. meaning that Miscea 4. This is especially so in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. then it is not farfetched to purport that the united Arabs emirates is a shopping hub which attracts people from all over the world. The objective is to introduce the consumer to the product. Port Rashid. Executive Summary The following marketing plan forms the basis for the introduction of an innovative new product. It is a product with advantages above the existing conventional Miscea faucets. This product is going to be a successful innovation to improve hygiene in the U. it is clear resistance to its adoption will be minimal.E medical fraternity. The company’s strategic goal is to produce and distribute the Miscea 4.Given the characteristics of Miscea 4.1 This marketing plan is for the whole of the United Arab Emirates. The United Arab Emirates is one of the emerging economic giants in Asia.1 will be marketed in each of the seven emirates.47 profits). Miscea 4. We also intend to venture into the U. However. The analysis allows us to outline the best strategies to follow for the achievement of the company’s strategic goals.A. All the major cities in the United Arab Emirates are linked by an extensive road network (Cricinfo 2009). These include Port Jebel Ali. and Port Zayed among others.9% over the next 5 years ($443. This is given the fact that they go through deserts and such other difficult terrains. . The Market plan for Miscea 4. This was started in the year 1996 and has continues to attract shoppers from all corners of the globe (Aliqah and Al-rfou 2010). United Arab Emirates’ airports are some of the largest in the world.1 is a new product being launched for the first time and it targets to help the Hospitals management to maintain the hygiene standards of the hospitals by digital monitoring.
Expected Sales This marketing plan targets to sell two thousand units for the first three months after the introduction of Miscea 4. Product Promotion and Distribution This marketing plan proposes that this company be the exclusive distributor of Miscea 4.1. laboratories. research institutes and such other institutions. Promotion Mix As earlier indicated.1. two in each of the emirates and three in Abu Dhabi. A total of twenty two retailers in various parts of the United Arab Emirates have already been selected for this.1 faucets. Consumers here seem to prefer manufactured goods as opposed to non-manufactured goods such as agricultural products. The targeted medical institutions must have a source of power. again at no extra cost to the client. The marketing plan also proposes for the use of the company’s website to market Miscea 4. These include hospitals.1 As earlier indicated. Credit facility will also be offered. There will be no advertisement through the popular media such as radios and televisions. Roughly. this will fetch the company around ten million dirham within the period. advertisements and sales promotion will be used to create publicity for Miscea 4.1 into the market.000 United Arab Emirates dirham. this will range between 5. These will be complemented by fifteen wholesalers.The United Arab Emirates has a thriving manufactured product market. Prices will depend on the number of intended users for the medical institution. Neuendorf and Valdiserri 2005). At an average of six thousand dirham per unit. Sales promotion will be made through advertisements through the media. The company will also provide the client with experts who will train the staff on how to use the faucet. The company will provide the client with a technician who will assemble the unit at no extra cost to the client. One unit costs around two thousand to manufacture. Other promotional tactics that will be offered is after sales service. This means that the major consumers for this product are medical institutions located within or around town centres in the United Arab Emirates.1 faucets. These are for example textiles. To this end. Other adverts will be placed on publications that are read by the target audience. This means that there will be no middle men between the distributors and the retailers. advertisements will be placed on hospital and other medical institutions websites. while private institutions will have a number of sixty days within which to do the same. this company will use the wholesalers and retailers to distribute the Miscea 4. Manufactured goods account for 59 percent of total trade in the country (Cricinfo 2010). Profit before factoring in other expenses such as transportation will thus stand at around eight million dirham. Adverts will be placed on the internet on websites that are accessed by the target client. Distribution for Miscea 4. It will also depend on the quantity that the client orders. Cash and cheques will be the two modes of payments that will be accepted. The retailers and wholesalers were selected depending on their volume of sales and other criteria.1 is the medical institutions that are situated in major urban centres of the United Arab Emirates. given that the product is powered by electricity. Government institutions will have ninety days within which to clear their debts. Those with .000 and 8. cars and electronics. Target Market The target market for Miscea 4. This is given the fact that this product is not meant for the general public but for a specific audience (Bradford and Florin 2003). The company will deal directly with the wholesalers and the retailers (Blake.
The technology is also so far only with Miscea 4.5 million and they will keep on rising given the need of hygiene products in the U. It has a to work for a positive image in the market and also to maintain its industry lead since by the time the other companies copy the technology Miscea 4. airports and road transport will be utilised. Airports will be used to deliver the products to those parts of the United Arab Emirates that are remote. Roads will be used given the fact that major cities in the emirates are connected by roads.1 since it is digital and has electronic features that notify the staff on their level of hygiene. Strategic issues Analysis Miscea 4.1 faucet. for example within the city. It is an enhanced version of the Miscea which is a dispensing material for soap and disinfectants.E.1 was developed. Core competencies • New technology that is meeting the hygienic monitoring needs of hospital and laboratory hygiene • Efficient monitoring of Hygienic conditions in the health service centres • Technology at affordable prices • Unique Innovation and in the market lead Marketing Objectives The objectives of the marketing plan are strategically based on 3 criteria: To create a strong consumer awareness towards a completely new dispenser product with new features. This makes Miscea 4. road will be used to transport the product on short distances.1.1 has a vision to be one of the leading Hygiene and health care product distributed and the leading product for dispensing disinfectant and soap in most hospitals in U. To cater for the need of improving hygiene conditions and maintain cleanliness to avoid infections. This is the specific purpose why Miscea 4.1 a unique product with unique features. The products are hygiene maintenance.an annual sales volume exceeding ten million dirham per annum were the ones that were take into consideration. Miscea has products designed for the medical sector and health sector. sea ports will also be used to transport the goods on long distances that are connected by the ports INTERNAL MARKETING AUDIT The internal marketing audit gives us an insight into the various activities and overall performance of Misces 4. This makes Miscea 4.1 would have made amicable strides. Competitive Advantage The company has a competitive advantage over other products since they are offering one new product with new features in the market. A combination of sea ports.E’s.A.A. On the other hand. It is estimated that it will make sales close to was 2. As such. Operating results Miscea 4. These are for example those medical institutions that are located in the deserts and which have power supply to operate the Miscea 4. This gives the product a competitive advantage over other dispensers which can only dispense one liquid at a time. It will continue to provide the other products to its customers and maintain effective cost effectiveness service standards. To establish a wide product recognition through the capture of market shares in the health and hygiene sector .1 a better product rated than other company’s products in the market.1 is a product of a Canadian based company started in 2000. The company has carried out effective study in the health and medical sector and it realised a need of hygiene maintenance since many hospitals and health care services are required to observe a high level of hygiene standards while attending to the patients and also for safety purposes and avoid infections.
They will improve the hygienic conditions. These major objectives are the ones we see to accomplish as we launch the Miscea 4.To become the top market leader in that hygiene segment within the forecasted sales figures.1 product in the U. Our target would be to capture clients in the Government and private sector in the medical sector. Strengths Weaknesses • • • • Opportunities Strong capital base Good Brand Image Low prices Unique product Develop and expand in the UAE market aggressively as there is high demand and it will be a good opportunity to cash on the increase in demand • • • • • No performance record New market in No outlets or retails SO Strategies WO Strategies Manufacture products and put them to test.A. laboratories and medical services • . Need to advertise aggressively to establish a name in market. The health and hygiene sector is fundamental for the success of the sale projects.E’s Market. SWOT ANALYSIS Our main strategic focus will be to penetrate in to the UAE market by advertising aggressively to make a mark in market. Increasing • Target population Corporate customers as the product is meant for hospitals. Foreign investments & surplus cash Strategic location and infra • • • • • Maintain the Zero taxation quality of Products to boost customer Open Confidence and economic continuously improve on policies the product. The health and hygiene standards board can be approached in order to sensitize on the use of the product in the various health services providing centres. Opening new retail outlets • • • structure Diversified economy and increasing oil price.
1 is employing different strategies as detailed under: Execution: No company can deliver on its commitments or adapt well to change unless it practices the discipline of execution at all levels.providing centres. Recruit experienced national staff to service affluent corporate customers by offering attractive salaries and other benefits • • . • Islamic values High competition Due to Islamic values people prefer to use products that are genuine. Threats ST Strategies WT Strategies • • • • Inflation Emiratisation Policy Multinational workforce.Due to several reputed dispenser brands in the market people are more loyal towards the well known products hence Miscea 4. Execution is to be part of a company’s .1 would face great competition Table 3 – SWOT Analysis Strategic objective Miscea 4.
Global Benchmarking: It must deliver quality products to targeted market with the focus to overcome problematic unhygienic infections. The hygiene and medical standards require products which are able to monitor the high standards of hygiene in the work places. after rolling out the product launch it will be followed by product test and it performance and efficiency must be gauged. Psychographics The target market would be attracted by unique products. Their judgment. Better exception will no doubt help company make a mark in the targeted market. It is to monitor the times of washing hands and check if they are according to the Hospitals standards. laboratories where there are tests and handling of patients. experiences and capabilities make the difference between success and failure. Other distinctive advantages are as below: • The company is fully equipped with latest technology to improve the product . Processes are tightly linked with one another to ensure synchronization Feedback: Customers’ feedback plays an important role.1 a try in the monitoring of hygiene. Targeting and Positioning Target market I. The potential customers of Mescea would be of the corporate markets. The Miscea dispenses disinfectant and soap at the same time. This will also provide a platform for feedback to the Miscea production company who will be able to analyze the feedback from the users on its efficiency in monitoring staff hygiene standards in the various hospitals and laboratories. The most unique feature is the digital part which can note the number of times the staff have washed their hands. This strategy is to out compete the competitors providing dispensers. Miscae tries to concentrate on providing dispensers at lower prices and steadfast and aggressively advertising so as to win more clients and establish in the market which will play a vital role in attracting the targeted customers. Processes: Processes are where the things that matter about execution need to be decided. Competitive Target In order to successfully compete with the market rivals in distributing dispensers Miscae has to be efficient in it services and it should have unique new features. It is also having a digital gadget that is pinned on the staff’s chest. Core Strategies: Segmentation. The first target is hospitals and dispensaries. Miscea’s focus is to produce quality monitoring equipment to meet the needs and wants of maintaining the health and hygiene requirements and standards in the health centre and hospitals.strategy and its goals. It should also try and register a reduced level in infections related to unhygienic conditions by ensuring the staffs who are users of this gadget are well monitored and comply by the set standards. Miscea’s key objective is to attract the corporate market and middle scale market by its quality of products at lower prices and their uniqueness and experience being fun and cool and efficient in keeping hygiene standards high. Competitive or Differential Advantage The major competitive advantage is that it comes with the ability of dispensing Disinfectant and Soap at the same time. People: An organization’s human beings are its most valuable recourse for generating excellent results year after year. This will be an incentive for the corporate market to have a reason for giving Mescea 4.
in his book.• • • Providing quality and efficient products at affordable price If it wins the clientele then it will enjoy their trust and confidence since they are the pioneers of the technology in the market. Micromarketing implies that a company knows their customers and provides what they want. Strong and successful multinational workforce providing global outlook and diversity. notes that a concentrated marketing strategy is less expensive than a differentiated marketing strategy and is the appropriate choice for a new business with limited resources or a firm branching into a market outside of its core business. An example of atomization segmentation is targeting buyers of luxury sports cars. concentration. “partitioning markets into groups of potential customers with similar needs and/or characteristics who are likely to exhibit similar purchase behavior.A. and develop a competitive position based on that market. 7). Differentiation. Television and other media and communication channels.E using the media such as Radio. personality traits. Then it will be followed by promotional materials such as banners which will be provided to the retail stores that will have the product for example Pharmacies. reputation of seller). and lifestyles). Atomization breaks down the market to a very fine level and detail. Niche Marketing Niche marketing is also referred to as super-segmentation or micromarketing (Weinstein 1994. . In the UAE we would run promotions to target the following. A concentration strategy is employed when an organization targets one of several segments of the market. Weinstein (1994. special features. e.. This will be done throughout the U. 2). and benefits (factors that weigh in when a consumer selects a product or service. Art Weinstein describes the process of segmentation as. The residents of Dubai who own pharmacies and hospitals The affluent customers of competitors using the other dispensers Government officials who are decision makers in Government hospitals and health institutions.” notes five common segmentation dimensions: geographic (target products or services according to geography). Differentiation strategy is utilized when a company promotes its products or services to more than one market based on customer needs. 1). The individual customer is considered when segmenting markets according to atomization. • • • • The affluent corporate customers and owners of hospitals and dispensaries who are visiting Dubai. product usage (segment market according to consumption levels of various groups). socioeconomic (evaluate customers based on income level and social class). The atomization approach is often used for custom marketing programs for high-cost products or services. The company may develop two or more marketing strategies to serve targeted segments based on differing customer characteristics. Weinstein. “Market Segmentation. price.g. 5). and atomization are three segmentation options (Weinstein 1994. The age of mass marketing has passed and companies must satisfy consumers who can choose from numerous product offerings in a global economy. find niche opportunities. psychographic (appeal to customers’ needs. Niche marketing is based on a customer-driven focus and segmentation (Weinstein 1994.” Companies conduct segmentation research to analyze markets. PROMOTION STRATEGY This will be used to initiate a strong awareness about the launch of a new product in the health and hygiene sector.
maintain and protect the organization’s reputation. public relations program needs to identify the appropriate activities and tactics as well as carry out evaluation regularly so that the key messages are transmitted effectively to the target publics. testing is critical to the success of the product or service. and providing insight on current marketing strategies (Weinstein 1994. For the company to gain large exposure of target audience and provide adequate information to them. Five strategies that companies use to differentiate their product or service may include: 1) product and service modifications. Stanton 1991. Successful niche marketing requires information to be gathered over a long period of time. Product Launch Budget BUDGET High estimates low estimates Public Relations 20000 18000 Advertising 50000 45000 Marketing 80000 78000 space/ offices 45000 40000 events/ launches 80000 75000 Market development funds (MDF) 70000 65000 transport 20000 15000 totals 365000 336000 • Table 1 Budget for product launch Why do organizations need public relations? A good look at the market one can tell that most clients and customers often base their purchase choices on a company’s reputation. Now in addition to Marriott hotels. Specific objectives may include increased sales. which was an upscale hotel serving leisure and business travellers. 15). and enhanced image (Weinstein 1994. 9). improved market share. An important aspect of successful niche marketing is to “always be collecting data. Stanton 1991. in “Making Niche Marketing Work. Public relations main objective is to create. Courtyards by Marriott. and the result of segmentation provides composite. Once a company has targeted a niche market. This explains why public relations’ is mostly included in the organization’s marketing plan. Residence Inns by Marriott. 3) different distribution channels. There are four major benefits of market segmentation analysis and strategy: designing products to meet the needs of the marketplace (customer satisfaction at a profit). and Fairfield Inns. 2) customer-service variations. Linnemann and Stanton. 11). 9). there are Marriott Suites.” outline 10 rules (table 1) for testing if a product or service is viable for the marketplace (1991. What makes a successful public relations program? In order to obtain good public communication results. 101-107).The objective of market segmentation strategy is to improve a company’s competitive edge and better serve the needs of its customers. evaluating market competition. improve it prestige and present a favourable image. To become a top niche-market player it is vital to aim for a specific target market and continually talk to your customers. The Marriott hotel chain is an example of a large corporation that employs niche marketing. a major corporate commitment.” referred to as A-B-C-D (Linneman. determining effective and cost efficient promotional strategies. Some limitations of segmentation analysis include increased costs. 4) targeted communications. In the past there was only one type of Marriott hotel. and 5) variable pricing (Linneman. Each serves a specific segment of the travel market. Thus it goes without saying public relations has as direct impact on the organizations or company’s sales and revenue. not individual profiles (Weinstein 1994. 70). the public .
Strategy Statement This strategic PR plan will utilize seminars and promotion method to create the awareness of the Miscea Siemens Technopark quality hygiene products in the United Arab Emirates. To gain 70% awareness of target publics about the benefits and advantages of Miscea 4. These will be targeted in the five major cities in United Arab Emirates. The company is also aware that the need for other products in the five cities is at its peak hence the secondary market is very important in the organization. It is also going to emphasize on its commitment in upholding the high hygiene standards of the cities by organizing awareness campaigns to act as both controlled and uncontrolled tactics to communicate with target public groups as well as attracting their attention.1 faucets and the promotional offers that come with the buying of the faucets in large quantities and also during the offer period.1 product. Primary Target Public As the main purpose of the Miscea 4.. This means that the main target public for the Miscea 4. For secondary target public: Miscea Siemens Technopark always takes the needs and concerns of the people in the cities into serious consideration in order to provide the electronic and digital products which can best meet their specific demands at affordable prices.1 faucets is to enable the management of hospitals or any other institutions to keep tabs on the level of hygiene hands compliancy of the staff members for example big hotels. health ministry. They are also able to enjoy low prices and enjoy the offer period as the launch pricing.relations program must integrate in using both traditional media and new media in its public relations plan. They are also able to purchase the Miscea 4. Key Messages For primary target public: Through the company. hotels. Government institutions. schools who require high standards of hygiene and any institutions that require high hand hygiene compliancy to be observed. These five cities are top on the list of cities which require services of disinfectants and have major institutions that are our target market. These include small restaurants and also households that use disinfectants at home. The primary target is opted to buy in bulk as it targets corporate organizations. Secondary Target Market The secondary target group will include generally all the other places where they require keeping their hands clean and use disinfectants for that purpose.1 faucets uniqueness and difference from other faucets used in the market. The single customers are able to buy single products and they also enjoy the after sales service of installation. To achieve 65% understanding of target publics about the range of Miscea products and services offered by the company technicians in providing people a completely smooth utilization of the product. The reason is the United Arab Emirates health ministry has strict guidelines on matters associated with hygiene and many organizations observe this high standards of health hygiene.1 faucets is the management of hospitals. Miscea Siemens Technopark commits to create quality and the most state-of-the-art technologies hygiene equipments at affordable rates. This will play a . Objectives To obtain 80% awareness of target publics in all the emirates of United Arab Emirates about the venture of Miscea Siemens Technopark in the Emirates and Miscea 4. Target Publics There are two major target publics.
they can use any idea of technological facilities as much as they want but it is important that those products have to belong to Miscea Siemens Technopark Company. It also would be to sensitize the public on the importance of maintaining high standards of hygiene. Media releases. who receives the greatest number of marks for the most persuasive proposal after two weeks. The contestant. Social online media: . Event: Improving the hand hygiene Contest Miscea Siemens Technopark will launch a contest for the people of United Arab Emirates. They are also required to present a rationale explanation practically or on a video clip. Totally. magazines and online news websites. social online networking and organizational websites will also be exploited to spread information about the program’s activities and encourage participation of target publics. The duration of the contest will be in three months from 25/08/2010 to 25/11/2010. how they can generate the best outcomes when integrated with the products together and how those facilities enable the contestant to improve their hygiene. will be the winner. In this case when they have a project for example for ensuring the health of young and old in different areas. Miscea Siemens Technopark will reward them by making them ambassadors of hygiene in the Emirates. The sponsorship will entail presence of Miscea Siemens Technopark products wherever they are running a project. stating the reasons why they think their ideas are good to improve hygiene. One month before improving the hand hygiene Contest. the outcomes expected from these two tactics are to spread the information to target audiences and appeal their participation to the events. By publishing news on print media including newspapers.1 faucets with the state of art technology. This program will happen in five months from 28/3/2011 to 28/8/2011 in the different areas of the different Emirates. stationery and hygiene equipments to be used in the project activities Media releases and Press conference: One press conference will be held in August 2010 to inform the journalists about Miscea Siemens Technopark Launch and their main line of products. professional technologies. they can be sponsored by Miscea Siemens Technopark.1 in hygiene market. A plan accompanied with its purposes. a media release will be sent to the journalists to provide more detailed information about that event.The prize will be the products of Miscea Siemens Technopark like a dispenser and the miscea4. It will be the same to the subsequent sponsorship offer. key messages and the operation progress as well as introducing Improving the hand hygiene Contest and financial sponsorship. In other words. Beyond this period there will be renegotiation of the sponsorship package which stood at T-shirts. Tactics The Miscea Siemens Technopark Public relations program will carry out event and sponsorship method as the crucial focuses in the entire plan. In the proposal. there will be three awards for three best groups and two for best individuals.very important role in ensuring the target numbers of people are aware of the new products from Miscea Siemens Technopark. Sponsorship: In order to emphasize the role of Miscea4. An example is the AISEC projects that run all over the world they seek for sponsorship from corporate companies. a corporate theme Keep clean for a healthy tomorrow will be developed and used in every sponsorship[ deal. AISEC is a youth association of talented youths and they run projects that benefit the society. The contestants will answer questions on the products and propose a concept that will help in improving the environmental hygiene conditions with the combination of modern. press conference.
and increase their exposure to Miscea’s brand. From then.aspx . An online forum will be created on Miscea Siemens Technopark company websites for the different market segments to discuss about modern technological state of art products and current issues around the events of the program. During the projects or program sponsorship. In this the deadlines of different activities and events are listed. Website analysis will be used to keep track of numbers of visitors and information download. Especially. update information about the contest and leave comments.uk/PDF%20Files/Miscea_A5_131207EN. contacts and products’ features of miscea the sectors appearing on the website. increase their involvement in contributing the forum and encourage them to spread the information about the events to other friends. Methodology . Finally. This helps keep track of the whole Pr Plan. The outcomes expected from this tactic are to provide adequate information to target publics. online forum. company’s commitment to the hygiene standards in the Emirates.co. During the improving the hand hygiene Contest. will be the official information center between Miscea Siemens Technopark and target publics throughout the entire Marketing period. deliver to them the company’s messages.New media including online forum and social networking site will be utilized in gaining attention of target publics towards the Miscea Siemens Technopark Plan in general and two events improving the hand hygiene Contest and sponsorship program in specific. urgent adjustments if there is any mistake or problem. the website will be home to the advertising of the project or program. It will also be a platform for those involved in sponsored projects to reveal how Miscea has been helpful to the community. the website will show the contest’s descriptions including competition regulations and prize structures.pdf. Program’s purpose. feedback analysis will be implemented through a telephone and paper surveys. the information about contestants and their video clip project will be uploaded for viewers to watch and vote. the program can impulse their brand recall as well as brand loyalty but also asses the performance and success of the marketing and PR plan. suggestions. Schedule This will be the calendar that will be followed for important assignments. there will be media monitoring (both online and offline) including media content analysis to manage the information related to company’s plan and program’s. complements and inquiries from target publics. named http://www. A Face book page will be also created for Face book users to subscribe. The outcomes expected from these tactics are to gain awareness of target publics. feedbacks. The main purpose is to collect the complaints. The program will also have a document manual or product manual for the different products on a Pdf file http://www.com/start. Evaluation In order to realize the best outputs and long-term outcomes. evaluation methodologies will be conducted throughout the program so that Miscea can provide the appropriate. check out the proposals of contestants. Organizational Website: A website. A case in point the sponsorship runs only for five months due to which a request to extend must be formally be submitted to the management. When the contest starts.miscea. it is also a good place for the contestants in Improving the hand hygiene Contest to ask for comments or suggestions regarding their proposal as well as persuading audiences to add votes for the popularity of their proposals as it adds to the final marks. It also includes the individual responsible for a particular activity.smartshowers. Specifically.
This chapter will present the process of data collection and how the answers to the research questions will be found thereby fulfilling the purpose of thesis. 2000). The approaches are either qualitative or quantitative ( Zikmund. Research Strategy According to Erikson and Wiedersheim-Paul(1997) there are three major research strategiesthat is experiments. the degree of focus on the contemporary issues. 1992). They are namely Qualitative and quantitative methods. therefore the thesis will be mainly descriptive. visual portrayals. Relevant Situations for different Research Strategies . The chapter begins with purpose of research and moves to the research approach and research strategy. there are two more strategies on top of the three that is archival analysis and Histories. quantitative research should be used when determining the quantity or extent of some phenomenon with numbers.Paul 1997) Descriptive research is suitable when the problem is structured in a clear manner and the researcher has no intention to find connections between the causes and symptoms. the extent of control a researcher has over actual behavioural events. According to Yin (1994). There will be explanation of the general methods that can be used for analysis. meaningful characterization. It then will give a presentation of how data collection will be carried out and how the sampling will be conducted will follow. surveys and case studies. He further explains that when using each strategy it consists of he form of a research question posed. The aim if an exploratory study is to acquire basic knowledge within the problem area. The focus or main approach for qualitative research is majored on the observations. This thesis has three questions posed as the foundation of the study. 2000). This section we present our chosen approach and the reasons why we chose that approach. The research purpose of this thesis is mainly descriptive as our problem is stated in the discussion of the problem statement. (Eriksson & Wiedersheim. The conclusions are based on data that will not be quantified since it will be mainly attitudes and values. Thus the purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding on how the Public relations plan can be integrated with a Marketing plan of a start up company in order to successfully have a working Public relation plan. interpretations and other expressive descriptions (Zikmund. This also implies that an exploratory research purpose will be partly carried out due to the fact that we had not been able to fine studies that focused solely on the same problem as we were to investigate in this thesis. descriptive and explanatory. words. p. Research Purpose According to Yin(1994) there are three general purposes of carrying out research. There will also be mentioning of the problems that are likely to be encountered in the research process. They are exploratory. The importance of integrating the marketing plan and Public Relations plan are not well documented since this idea of integrated marketing is new. (Lundahl & Skarvad. Yin(1994) substantiates the two methods that can be used when conducting research within social sciences.103). Exploratory studies are most suitable when there us no clear theory. Quantitative research aims at generalizing issues that have been researches by looking at a large number of entities and only at a few variables (zikmund. This is used when researchers are trying to identify factors causing specific phenomena (Lundhl & Skarvad. On the other hand. Research Approach There are different ways in which you can address a problem when conducting research. 2000. Exploratory research is most appropriate research purpose when studying relations between causes and symptoms. 1992). The researcher knows what he wants to investigate but not the final answer (Ibid). The problem may be hard to decipher and important characteristics and relations are hard to determine.
This is also hard since we require primary data so as to conduct an accurate research as possible. This is more suitable to a quantitative study. Data Collection According to Yin(1994). direct observations. How many . A survey is appropriate when entities are few variables and it gives exact but shalloe data. The strengths and weaknesses of the different data collection methods are presents in table 1. We settled on using a Case study approach or strategy in this thesis because of the need to have a direction in this new concept.6 These are facts that depict which strategy we can use surveys. Yin also states “a major strength of case study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence” (p.91). This research strategy is simple and cheap relatively to other strategies but there could be a problem when the data is actually collected for another purpose other than the intended research (Ibid). and also the possibility of comparing different cases the use of different case studies will be applied. 1997) Archival analyses are used when data is already collected by somebody else but for another purpose. This is because of the research questions posed as how and what. P. where.1994. Case studies can be used when few and complex objects are to be studied in details. Since we require deep and detailed information. 1994. participants’ observations and physical artefacts. They are as follows: Archival records. archival analysis or case studies as our research strategy.2 Six Sources of Evidence: Strengths and Weaknesses Source of evidence Strengths Weakness Documentation Stable: can be reviewed Retrievability: can be low . p. (Erikson & Wiedersheim.Research Strategy Experiment Survey Archival analysis History No Yes Case Study No Yes Source: Y in. company or district (Ibid). what. there are six forms of data sources or evidence for collecting data n the qualitative field of research. interviews. A researcher can choose to study for example a specific industry. how many. Form of research question How. This research strategy has an advantage when a ‘How or Why’ question is posed in regard to a contemporary set of events over which the researcher has little or no control (Yin.9). how much How and Why How. The fact that previous researchers had tackled cases similar to the one in this research it will be possible to accumulate data and findings from those cases studies.Paul.how much Who . where. Surveys are a systematic way of gathering information from respondents in order to understand and predict the aspects of population’s behaviour. Yin acknowledges this use of multiple sources of evidence as “triangulation” that states the researcher can measure the same phenomenon through many different sources. what.Why Requires control over behavioural events yes No No Focuses on contemporary events yes Yes YES/No In this research proposal our purpose is aimed at gaining a deeper understanding hence a survey was not the suitable strategy for our research. why Who. It was also not applicable to use archival analysis since the topic of Integrating marketing plan and Public relations plan into a market communication plan is a new concept and therefore there are no archives where we could retrieve answers from to adequately carry out our research.
p. Participants’ observations cannot be used because this type of data collection requires us to be direct part of the process. references and details of an event Broad Coverage: long span of time many events and settings Archival records Same as above for documentations Precise and quantitative Biases selectivity: if collection is incomplete Reporting bias: reflects unknown bias of author Access may be deliberately blocked Direct Observations Reality :covers events in real time Contextual: covers context of event Participants’ Observations Physical artifacts Interviews Same as above for direct observations Insightful into inter personal behaviour and motives Insightful into cultural features Insightful into technical operations Targeted: focuses directly on case study topic Insightful: provides perceived casual inferences Bias due to poorly constructed questionnaires Response bias Inaccuracies due to poor recall Reflexivity interviewee gives what interviewer wants to hear Time consuming Selectivity: unless broad coverage Reflexivity: event may proceed differently because it is being observed Cost: hours needed by human observers Same as above for direct observations Bias due to investigators manipulation of events Selectivity availability Bias due to poorly constructed questionnaires Response bias Inaccuracies due to poor recall Reflexivity Interviewee gives what interviewer want to hear Source: Yin. 80 In this study we will not use archival records because this type of source of evidence is precise and quantitative and cannot fit our qualitative study. Physical artifacts will not be included because this study does not involve the need to obtain physical evidence so as to understand the use of Marketing plan and public relations plan in their integrated marketing communication. and the cases we intend to study have already occurs or are occurring thus we cannot take part in planning process. 1994. .repeatedly Unobtrusive: not created as a result of the case Exact: contains exact names.
The reasons to use this are to enable use find the right answers that can show the way including a public relations plan in the marketing plan results to successful marketing and development of a good image and reputation for the organization. The result of this strategy will be the collection of data based on previous case studies thus the research questions based on already conducted studies. Sample selection Since the research purpose has been determined and the approach has also been formulated and having the right strategy we view how to collect the data. the interviews will be focused as we will still use a set of questions and they will be open ended but the interviews will be in a short period for example one hour. Developing a case description can be used as a strategy as well but it is less favourable and can only be applied when little previous research has been done. A significant advantage with personal interviews is the opportunity to follow up if the respondents answer is brief or unclear. The advantage with using this method is that it is more convenient to carryout time consuming interviews in person that on telephone. Interviews are the mains source of data collection because the interview is the most important source if case study information and can either be open ended in nature. The first and more preferred strategy will follow theoretical proposition that led to the case studies. to structured interviews where the respondent is asked to fill in a questionnaire. These observations can range from formal to casual data collection activities. Although there is an option of carrying out the interview by telephone the interviews in this thesis will be done in person. The three different ways of conducting an interview can be open ended where the respondents answers the questionnaires freely on a particular topic. This may lead to the comparison between the findings with the previous studies. Websites can also be used since they can provide background information about companies and more information in regard to their business The third source or evidence that will be used for triangulation of data in this thesis is direct observation. Validity and reliability . The two general strategies to be used in data analysis are the theoretical propositions and development of a case description. In order to collect data we choose a marketing plan and a public relations plan that are successfully implemented. Documentation is chosen mainly because of the exact and broad scope of this source. The formal activities involve observations of meetings and the way resolutions are made whereas casual observations can be conditions of workspaces or the location of the respondent’s office. coded and then application of analytical strategies with regards to the case studies. Then the focus also goes to the business managers’ views and efforts to integrate the two plans.from the Table 1. This will provide the researcher with the appropriate system by which he can set priorities for what is needed to be analyzed and the reason why. written reports. This source is broad and can be used to enlighten the researcher on complex issues of marketing and public relations. The presence of the interviewer increases the awareness and willingness to respond by the respondent. partly we shall also use some direct observations to supplement on the information as the methods for collecting the data. Documentation is the use of letters. This will be required when performing field visits to the study site. focuses or structured. articles presented in the mass media and internal documents like Dissertations and other works by other scholars.2.The methods to be applied in this thesis will mainly be Documentation and interviews. Data analysis Data collected will be first edited. and memoranda. In this thesis. When we analyze the reasons why we chose the strategies above for the research is ..
33 Construct validity refers to establishing operational measures for the concept being studied Internal validity refers to establishing a casual relationship. 1994. This test is not used in descriptive and exploratory studies. where certain conditions are shown to lead to other conditions.There are tets that will be used to establish the quality of this empirical research. but only in exploratory studies since they are looking for casual relationship[s External validity refers to establishing the area to which study’s findings can be generalized Reliability refers to demonstration of the capability of repeating the data collection procedures and getting the same results.3 we outline the list of four tests and the recommended case study tactic to be used as well as the phase of the research when the tactic occurs Tests Case study tactic Phase of research Construct validity Use of multiple sources of Data collection evidence Data composition Establish a chain of evidence Have key informants to review draft case study report Internal validity Do pattern matching Data analysis Do explanation building Do time series analysis External validity Use replication logic Research design Reliability Use case study protocols Data collection Develop case study database Source: COSMOS Corporation as referred to by Yin.in the table below table 1. . p.
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