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  • Fi£. 60.—Mandoline in Case
  • Fig-. 68.—Narrower Brief Bag-




Cor used t

shes, etc.

Tools npera Painting,
ipering a

White Embel



Lasting, an


and Shoes





Sewing an g Riveted Boot





The SignThe Simpler V
ng a Signboard.

Form; Ticke


and Polishing.
Staining Wood. In and Spiriting g. Re-polishing bf Floors Stains.

and Reviving,





Processes of Varnishing



j.i^g,^ ^. Re-polishing Shop Fronts.

Dynamos and Electric Motors. With T42 Engravings and Diagrams Contents— Introduction. Siemens Dynamo. Gramme Dynamo. Manchester Dynamo. Simplex Dynamo. Calculating the Size and Amount of Wire for Small Dynamos. Ailments of Small Dynamo Electric Machines their Causes

and Cures.

Small Electro-motors without Castings. How to Determine the Direction of Rotation of a Motor. How to Make a Shuttle-Armature Motor.
50- Watt


Manchester Type 440- Watt Dynamo.

Cycle Building: and Repairing;. With

142 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Introductory, and Tools Used. How to Build a Front Driver. Building a Rear-driving Safety. Building Tandem Safeties. Building Frontdriver Tricycle. Building a Hand Tricycle. Brazing. to Make and Fit Gear Cases. Fittings and Accessories. Wheel Making. Tyres and Methods of Fixing them. Enamelling. Repairing.


All Ages for All Purposes. With 277 Engravings and Diagrams. Savage Ornament. Egyptian Ornament. Assyrian Ornament. Greek Ornament. Roman Ornament. Early Christian Ornament. Arabic Mediaeval Ornament. Ornament. Scandinavian Ornaments. Celtic and Renascence and Modern Ornaments. Chinese Ornament. Persian Ornament. Indian Ornament. Japanese Ornament. Mounting- and Framing Pictures. With 240 Engravings, etc. Contents. Making Picture Frames. Notes on Art Frames. Picture Frame Cramps. Making Oxford Frames. Gilding Picture Frames. Methods of Mounting Pictures. Making Photograph Frames. Frames covered with Plush and Cork. Hanging and Packing Pictures. Smiths' Work. With 211 Engravings and Diagrams. Conten ts.— Forges and Appliances. Hand Tools. Drawing Down and UpWelding and Punching. Conditions of Work Principles of Formasetting. tion. Bending and Ring Making. Miscellaneous Examples of Forged Work. Cranks, Model Work, and Die Forging. Home-made Forges. The Manipula-

Decorative Designs of


tion of Steel at the Forge.

(Continued on next page.)


Publisher, 1022


Street, Philadelphia.



Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion.

With 300 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents.—Appliances used in Glass Blowing. Manipulating Glass Tubing. Blowing Bulbs and Flasks. Jointing Tubes to Bulbs forming Thistle Funnels, Blowing and Etching Glass Fancy Articles Embossing and Gilding Flat etc. Surfaces. Utilising Broken Glass Apparatus Boring Holes in, and Riveting Glass. Hand-working of Telescope Specula. Turning, Chipping, and Grinding Glass. The Manufacture of Glass.
; ;

With i63 Engravings and Diagrams. Model Yachts. Rigging and Sailing Model Yachts. Model Boats. Building a Model Atlantic Liner. Vertical Engine for a Model Launch. Model Launch Engine with Reversing Gear. Making a Show Case for a Model Boat. Electric Bells, to Make and Fit Them. With 162 Engravings aad Diagrams. Contents. The Electr c Current and the Laws that Govern it. Current Conductors used in Electric-Bell Work. Wiring for Electric Bells. Elaborated Systems of Wiring; Burglar Alarms. Batteries for Electric Bells. The Construction of Electric Bells, Pushes, and Switches. Indicators for Electric-Bell

Building Model Boats.

— Building

Making and

Fitting Simple



Bamboo Work.

Contents. Bamboo Its Sources and Uses. How to Work Bamboo. Bamboo Tables. Bamboo Chairs and Seats. Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. Bamboo Hall Racks and Stands. Bamboo Music Racks. Bamboo Cabinets and Bookcases. Bambco Window Blinds. Miscellaneous Articles of Bamboo. Bamboo


177 Engravings and Diagrams.

Mail Cart.

With 108 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Skinning Birds. Stuffing and Mounting Birds. Skinning and Stuffing Mammals. Mounting Animals' Horned Heads Polishing and Mounting Horns. Skinning, Stuffing, and Casting Fish. Preserving, Cleaning, and Dyeing Skins. Preserving Insects, and Birds' Eggs. Cases for Mounting





— Tailors'


and Pressing.

180 Engravings and Diagrams. Requisites and Methods of Stitching. Simple Repairs Relining, Repocketing, and Recollaring. How to Cut and



How to

and Reefer Jackets.

Cut and Make Vests. Cutting and Making Lounge Cutting and Making Morning and Frock Coats.

Photographic Cameras and Accessories. Make Cameras, Dark: Slil.es, Shutters, and


How to With 160


Cameras. Cameras.

Photographic Lenses and How to Test them. Modern Half-plate Hand and Pocket Cameras. Ferrotype Cameras. Stereoscopic Enlarging Cameras. Dark Slides. Cinematograph Management.

Optical Lanterns. Comprising The Construction and Management of Optical Lanterns and the Making of Slides. With 160

Dissolving View lanterns. Contents. Single Lanterns. Illuminant for Optical Lanterns. Optical Lantern Accessories. Conducting a Limelight Lantern Exhibition. Experiments with Optical Lanterns. Painting Lantern
Slides. Photographic Lantern graph Management.

Mechanical Lantern



Engraving Metals.

Contents. Introduction and Terms used. Engravers' Tools and their Uses. Elementary Exercises in Engraving. Engraving Plate and Precious Metals. Engraving Monograms. Transfer Processes of Engraving Metals. Engraving Name Plates. Engraving Coffin Plates. Engraving Steel Plates. Chasing and Embossing Metals. Etching Metals.

With Numerous

With 189 Illustrations. Contents. Tools and Materials. Simple Baskets. Grocer's Square Baskets. Baskets. Oval Baskets. Flat Fruit Baskets. Wicker Elbow Chairs. Basket Bottle-casings. Doctors' and Chemists' Baskets. Fancy Basket Work. Sussex Trug Basket. Miscellaneous Basket Work. Index

Basket Work.


DAVID McKAY, Publisher,



Street, Philadelphia.

and Cover Cutting. Retouching Negatives. Index. Knapsacks and Satchels. Grilles. Portraiture and Picture Composition. and Repairing. Qualities and Varieties of Leather. Contents. and Harness Furniture. With 162 Engravings and Diagrams. Pamphlets. Marbling Book Papers. Copying and Enlarging. Mattress Making Fenderettes. BreastHead Riding Bridles. Miscellaneous Upholstery. Index. Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Photography. Gentleman's Riding Saddle. Hat Cases. Superior Set of Gig Harness. Simple Contents. Hair Brush and Collar Cases. The Studio and Darkroom. — With 197 Engravings and Diagrams. Panel for Gentleman's Saddle. Index. Book — Bookbinders' Appliances. Screens. Making Seat Cushions and Squabs. The Camera and its Accessories. Spurs. . Processes of Printing from Negatives. Leather. Sprinkling. Repairing Collars. Bending and Working Strip Iron. — Working. Cloth-bound Books. Folding Printed Sheets. and other Accessories. Saddlery. Simple Exercises in Bent Iron. With 269 Engravings and Diagrams.HANDICRAFT SERIES Bookbinding. Account Books. etc. etc. Coloring. Leather Contents. Photography. Upholsterers' Tools and Appliances. Driving Harness and Saddlery. and Marbling Book Edges. Sprinkling and Tree Marbling Book Covers. DAVID McKAY. Saddle Cruppers. Photography. 1022 Market Street. Backing. Springing. — Plates. Miscellaneous Examples. Covering Books. Cart Harness. Intensification and Developing and Fixing Negatives. Bits. Harness Makers' Tools. Upholstering Couches and Sofas. Hall Lanterns. Stuffing. Miscellaneous Examples of Leather Work. Renovating and Repairing Upholstered Planning and Laying Carpets and Linoleum. With 99 Engravings and Diagrams. Ladies' Side Saddles. Re-lining Collars and Saddles. Ferrotype Photography. Lettering. Contents. Breaking-down Tackle plates. Children's Saddles or Pilches. Cutting Book Edges. With 125 Engravings and Diagrams. Suspended Lamps and Bent Iron Work. Harness Makers' Materials. Plough Harness. Knee-caps and Miscellaneous Articles. With 70 Engravings and Diagrams. Floor Lamps. Bags. Exercises in Stitching. Fancy Upholstery. Gilding Book Edges. Riding and Whips. Philadelphia. Upholstering an Easy Chair. Ledgers. Including Elementary Art Metal Work. Publisher. etc. With 152 Engravings and Diagrams. Letter Cases and Writing Pads. Fore Gear and Leader Harness. Upholstering Footstools. and Tufting. — Other Volumes in Preparation. Gilding. Harness Making. Rounding. Cart Saddles. Furniture. Contents. Contents. Horse Clothing. Candlesticks. Tools and Materials.—Upholsterers' Materials. Newspaper Rack. Contents. Index. Van and Cab Harness. etc. Floral Ornaments for Bent Iron Work. Footballs. and Finishing Book Covers. Stirrups. — Flower Bowls. Beat- and Sewing. ing {continued). Cart Collars. Flashlight Reduction of Negatives. Webbing. Stereoscopic Mounting and Finishing Prints. Upholstery. Dyeing Leather Ornamentation. Index. Index. Looping. Banjo and Mandoline Cases. Exposure. Table Lamps. Photograph Frames. Strap Cutting and Making. Index.




TSfOtO .H 35 1 C .

Man. altered. or instructions on kindred should address a question to Work. much had largely re-written. tion in a form convenient for everyday use. of be arranged anew. Readers who may desire additional information respecting special details of in this the matters dealt with subjects. Handbook. P. / i\ 1 —'— This Handbook contains. N.Q 0- PREFACE. a comprehensive digest of the informa- on Leather Working. London. 1901. In preparing of for publication in book form the mass relevant matter contained in the volumes of to Work. HASLUCK. La Belle Sanvage. so that it may be answered in the^columns of that journal. and these causes the contributions From many are so blended that the writings of individuals cannot be distinguished for acknowledgment. . scattered over more than of twenty thousand columns journals it is Work — one of the weekly my fortune to edit — and supplies concise information on the details of the subjects on which it treats.

VIIL— Portmanteaux IX.. — Dyeing Index Leather of XIIL— Miscellaneous Examples Leather Work 129 157 . PAGE — Qualities and Varieties of Leather . . — Banjo and Mandoline Cases VII. I.— Bags . and Travelling Trunks . . Ornamentation . .. . . . X. • ... 90 100 —Knapsacks — Leather and Satchels . .49 .— Hat VI. . .— Letter Cases and Writing Pads IV.— Footballs XII.65 .CONTENTS. 40 V. CHAP.55 . 9 II. .112 116 125 XT. 17 31 — Hair Brush and Collar Cases Cases . .— Strap Cutting and Making III.

—Hand-punch Riveter 8.—Corner Split and Butted 59. .—Writing Pad Pockets 35..—Back of Letter Case 25.63 63 63 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 74 74 75 .—Narrower Brief Bag 69. ..— Rubbing Bone or Stick 73.—Bag Lining and Pocket 75. of . .— Catch Strap 43..— Strap Cutting Appliance 21. . sion .— Hat Case shown Diagrammatically 50 . 42 43 44 Lid 40. .— Sewn Seam 50. .. Collar Hide 2. 24 24 24 23 54.—Gladstone Bag 76.—Half Side of Hat Case 51 49. 62 62 Case . 15 19 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 Box 45. Letter Case 24. . .—Folded Bit 17.— Dog Lead 10.— Stamp Pocket 29.— Dog Lead with Swivel 11. 33.—Double End Brace joined at Back 20. 30.— Skate Strap 7. .—Writing Pad Pockets 34. 38. . in Drawers Collar Box 39. Mandoline . PAGE 44. —Forming .—Another Plate of Strap Cutting Appliance 23.. 26. . Whole Lid .—Writing Pad Folded up. ..—Wrist Strap 14.—Chain-end Fitting 13. . .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.— Stiffening for Bag Divi- — . 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 61 . . — Case . End . — ..— Mandoline Piece 65. .—Another Gladstone Bag 77.—Round Collar Box 41.— Back of Round shaped .—Inner Hat Case 53 53. . ..—Mandoline in Case 61. . . 35 56 37 oS 58 41 ..— Corner Seam 53 51.—Dog Lead with Studs . .— Bit Complete 18.— Stitching Case 67.. .—Bottom of Banjo Case Corner of Banjo Case 57.— Gusset Pattern 72— Gusset Stiffening Pattern 73.49 46.— Side Pockets 27. . . .— Hollow Studs 9.. 63. . 48 .— Patterns for Parts of Banjo Case with End .— Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides 53 52. . FIG. .— Plate of Strap Cutting .— Garter Complete 5. Hat .— Horse-shoe Collar Box 29 30 — .—Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit 16. . . . and Ring 12.—Double End Brace 19.— Elevation of Mandoline Case 62.—Pattern for Side of Bag 71.—Bag Bottom Pattern 74.— Bucket - .. 1..— Card Pocket 28..— Base of Writing Pad 32.—Patterns for Parts of Banjo with Case . Cutting PAGE up .— Marking Garter —Garter Bits . .— Strap Bit 6.— Brief Bag 68. 23 29 Appliance 22. . 4. .— Mitred Corner 60. .—Hair Brush Case 37.—Method 3. . —Bottom Case of 64. . . 51 47 —Hat Case Handle 51 48.—Top of Mandoline Case 56..— Hinge Strap 45 46 46 Binding Corner of Case Corner of 66.— Collar Box Drawer and ..75 . . . . FIG. . . . . Pattern for Wrist Strap 15.—Writing Pad Open 31. 57 . .—Block for Making Collar 45 Box 42..—Blotting Pad 36. 31 52 33 53 35 54 Lid 55.— Banjo Case with End Lid 58. .— Brief Bag Frame 70.

— Tennis Racket Case 88.— Rugby Football Associaof 125. 120.. Balls. 93 95 98 100 101 102 102 102 102 103 134. . 107 Section of Sewn Edges 151 of Ball Covering Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing Bottom Piece of Suit .— Satchel or Cartridge Covering Ball 148.— Front of Satchel 109 114.Lea ther Working.140. ..—:Making Lace-holes on 121 Football Case 122 128. 106— Section of 103 Part 107— Strap End with Key105 hole Slit of 108. .139. 151.— Short Strap of Satchel Ill .-Tab 85— Half of Bottom Stiffen82. PAGE .135..— Trunk Division Board. .— Satchel Shoulder Strap 110 116..—Buckle Piece 112. 95. . of 130. .144.— Part of Bag Handle 84.132.— Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag Style 90.- dler's Purse . and Back of Camera Case Gusset and Flaps of Camera Case Dee and Buckle Chape.113 118.— Folding . FIG. .- 138. 91— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag . .— Back and Flap of Sat. Case Lid of Suit Case Section Side of . 91 .— Tennis Bag in HalfGladstone Style . 129 133 134 135 92. ..— Trunk 98.—Modeller 121. . . .— Football Pattern Set 119 out on Hide 127..— Railway Trunk 97.. . . 150. ..— Ground Punch 116 123. ..137. 101.136. .113 117. . . Top. ..— Section Leather and Sheath 103.141.133. ! ! Suit .. . 143.— Turn-clip 93. .— Brass Stud 104. FIG. 79.- •Cycle Valise Tat! of Cycle Leather for Pattern Covering of Workbox 146 em 139 143 143 144 Valise 145 . .—Case for Tennis Bat. 106 Halves of of 109.— Tennis Bag Frame.— Gusset of Satchel 115. .131.- Patterns for Parts of Opera Glass Case Music Carrier Closed Music Carrier Open Music for Pattern Carrier Roller Hand Camera Case Front Flap.108 111.- Knapsack .— Liner . .108 chel 108 113. 142. etc.— Tracer ..155 . Bag .114 119. Case .146.— D-ring 105— Stiffened Part of Knap. . . . . . .— Ring and Holder Buckle of 102. .Football Inflator 129.— Another View of 115 Mm Idler 115 122.. 136 137 138 139 •Humane Dog Muzzle . 99. .—Part Back View . 149. .— Body of Knapsack. 151 153 154 . 147 148 148 Sewing Sewing Cricket 149 Covering 147.— Association Football 117 124.145..—Knapsack 100. Cricket 150 Bag .. PAGE . . .Portsea Purse or Sad.—Pocket Flap .— Piped Corner of Stif107 Eened Part 110.— Tennis Bag in Gladstone Style 94. .— Imperial Trunk 96.—Leather Pocket 80.— Segment 118 tion Football Case 126. 86—Bottom ing of Brief 87. Stiffened Luggage Label Another Luggage Label Cricket •Segment of Ball Cover In . 89. 76 31— Chape Paper for Small Pattern 83. 152...

Hides— or the skins of the large and fullgrown animals.LEATHER WORKING. alligators. goat. Commercial skins are classified in Watt's " Art Leather Manufacture " under three heads. This handbook will describe how to make a large number of useful articles in leather. deer. such as the calf. seal. but recently the skins of crocodiles. Kips— or the skins of the younger animals of the same class and 3. horse. goat. pig. > as those of the smaller animals. some mention of tools must come first. horse. and serpents have been employed for making certain kinds of fancy leather. sheep. calf. namely 1. buffalo. sheep. kid. . having received its preliminary preparation. as the ox. This chapter will discuss leather. Boot Making and Mending. In making this leather. QUALITIES AND VARIETIES OF LEATHER." and " Harness MakThey will be indicated sufficiently in later chapters as the need for their use arises. but it is not thought necessary to give space to their description here. is — . Pate nt Calf. its qualities and varie" ing. etc." ties. The skins most extensively used in leather manufacture are those of the ox. Naturally. . as they have already been dealt with so fully and illustrated so clearly in companion volumes. and kips. the skin. Particulars of the many varieties of leather may now be given. cow. deer. Skins of : . cow. and hippopotamus 2. CHAPTER I.

whole skin is treated but in a great many instances it is only the shoulders.1 o Lea ther Working. that are made into memel. etc..— After depilation and tanning. After oiling. . With few exceptions this is treated In some cases the in the same way as waxed calf. polishing. Horse and other animal often dressed in a like manner. Busset Calf is used either dry or with a little oil dressing in the former case it is very pale. very fine the latter. — . especially " females. drying. although those of English production are. the skin has to pass through a variety of processes. whitening. and not so much of either It is grained with a roller is needed as for wax calf. blacking. compo-ing. It should be well tanned. the leather is finely oiled. according to the leather under treat- ment. making it a little is belly rounding now darker. are more suitable for stronger and heavier work than French. and Prussian blue. stretched upon a smooth board. not being so soft. etc. and every particle of grease extracted from it with fuller' s-earth and water. sizing. fleshing and skiving. vegetable black. whether pebble. As each coat is applied. graining. stuffing. stretching. and sometimes a little copal or amber varnish. It is then given four coats of varnish containing drying oil." are the best. The final coat has an addition of darker Prussian blue. long. and drying. Memcl Calf. and is then ready for use. or perhaps the necks. This will give some idea of the amount of handling a calf-skin goes through before it is converted to leather. French calf skins. namely soaking. The compo-ing is done on the grain side. and softest in wear. sizing. the graining is finished. Waxed Calf. The stove heat varies from 120° to 180° F. according to the sort of grain required. . in some cases. the oil . the leather is stoved and afterwards polished with powdered pumicestone. finishing. and the stuffing on the flesh side.

is briefly this the greatest component part of a skin. and the factors. which forms a mordant when further dyeing is needed. alum. The flesh side is a velvet pile. and finishing. drying. The calf skin is such a ready recipient of dyes. formed into leather. alum and salt dressing. dyeing. fleshing. and there now is a greater quantity used for the best class of work than of real Russia. of which these two ingredients are the chief The acid arrests decomposition. Each season brings its varied and improved shades. not tanning. and although the two former prevent decomposition of the gelatine. and a warm bath of Sicily sumach and alum. — be brought back to Glace or French its Kid faced leather. in tawing. two ingredients cannot return to their former state whereas. seasoning. and it was so made up and advertised as "velvet calf. staking. is. scudding. It has a nice pebble grain. which generally forms the face. and most durable if kept well cleaned. The difference between : When tanned. egging. namely gelatine. It is original state. Ooze Calf is a very soft leather in wear. paring. a very delicate and fine sursubjected to a process of tawing is . Calf Kid is a most useful leather made by tawing. and gelatine form the leather. It has to pass through the following routine Soaking." But the grain is the side now generally preferred. weak sulphuric acid. salt. unhairing. liming. cleaning. drenching. by the action of tannic acid. among other processes. each ingredient can tanning and tawing . ii Its preparation is similar in some respects to that of other dry-dressed leathers. shaving. Tan Calf has been produced to imitate Russia leather at less cost. and when first produced was considered the right side. that by manipulating with various mordants the expert leather dyer can produce some very delicate tints. it passes through a solution of borax. and.Qualities and Varieties of Leather.

White Sheep is a tawed leather. Among the many processes it undergoes is the application of paste composed of flour and yolks of eggs. and passes through some special processes. and are made from sheep-skins. Long-grain Morocco is. satin-hide being next. and is then glazed and polished. such as a bran bath and a It is made a good deal from horse. Cordovan is made in many places other than its supposed place of origin Cordova. Brown Levant Morocco is the same as morocco levant. is An inferior leather. and forms a very soft material. and a much newer production. Morocco. as " Cream Roans. A cheaper and somewhat greasy kind is not nearly so good-looking or durable in wear as the dry-dressed morocco levant. . in addition to the alum bath which it has previously received. Levant. called " satinis a similar leather. which has a beautiful soft brightness. The better kinds are the Strasbourg moroccos. — and even dog it. but has a long grain running across the skin. It is tanned and curried on the grain side. and finished with a bright pebble grain. goat. These leathers are tanned with sumach. It is dyed upon the grain side. fig bath. which imparts to it great suppleness. but its character and uses are quite different. but possesses a smoother face. Skins are produced in imitation of moroccos of various hide/' colours. These are called roans. skin. is a beautifully grained and tanned goat-skin. dyed on the grain side. like the two last-named. made from the skin of goats.1 Lea ther Working. Cordovan stands easily first for durability. provided by leaves and twigs. which is rarely the case. except that it is made from younger and smaller skins. much like called "grain/' used a good deal for cheaper work. except when bath dyed. Glove Kid is made into leather by tawing in the same way as calf kid. and is more finely grained.

but is exceedingly durable. is used for covering fancy articles. though in this instance the enamelling is done upon the grain side after the grain has been printed or otherwise prepared. is made from the hide of the cow. when resembles morocco. is obtained as a rule from Cape a fine. etc. etc. Skivers. but it is very slightly stuffed in cases where the natural colour is not needed and dyeing has to be resorted to. and as much stuffing is put in as it will — and — is made into leather by some of the preceding methods it is worked in the same way as black grain cowhide. Cowhide Patent. Porpoise-hide is tanned and very greasily dressed. or enamel hide. It is now known more by the name Diamond hide. . It is practically the middle part of the skin that is dressed for this leather. It make dyed it grain. when it had a longer grain like the leather now used for bags. as the grain and a good quantity of flesh are taken off. Brown. it is less durable. soft. but the dyeing is done on the grain side. This is the grain of sheepskin split by machinery (the flesh side being prepared for chamois or wash-leather). This is really bookbinders' skiver. It expensive. Brown Cowhide and makes a very is soft and waterproof leather. Crup or Horse is taken generally from the butt of the horseskin. Black Grain (Cow) Hide. 13 Cream Boan is made generally from good (medium weight) sheep-skins. except that it is extremely thin. It is now produced with a smaller grain than in former years. This is treated somewhat as wax calf. In appearance it is much like brown persian. The process of enamelling is the same as that for patent calf. but is left with a smooth Brown Persian sheep. though. tough leather . like all sheep-skin. possibly hold. sumach tanned. and is similar in structure to morocco.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. .

and soft and cool to wear. etc. According to Andrew Ure the process of dressing It is freed from hair. Brown glace kid is an American production. Kangaroo. The skin of the kangaroo. The red colour is supposed to be from sandalwood or : When . Brown Glace Kid. then worked in the river. To prepare this leather for use. basil wood. any excess of oil being removed afterwards. Buckskin. and fermented in a proper steep (for a week at least) after a hot-water washing it is then worked on the beam after soaking for forty-eight hours in a bath containing a fermented paste of rye flour it is rinsed for fifteen days. . this leather is as follows rinsed.e of waxed calf. fulled for a longer or shorter time according to the nature of the skin. — — — . To this substance the Russia leather owes its peculiarities. it is set to dry and curried with empyreumatic oil of the bark of birch tree. the whole of the grain is cut away and oil is hammered into it. Its uses are the same as tho's. does not crack. softest and prettiest leathers. porous. gooG^ft* wears well and is waterproof. A vast amount of working is necessary to give it suppleness Doe is similar. and polishes more easily and better than calf. very durable. and seems to vary much as regards retaining its colour in wear. It is a tanned leather. Bussia Leather is one of the best of brown leathers..This and the two following are believed to be produced by chrome tanning. and has been improved largely in recent years. and subjected to the stringent juices of willow bark.14 Leather Working. If the oil passes through it stains the grain side. light in weight. according to the shade given it. dressed brown. Pigskin generally is. the bright browns lasting well. while the dull or subdued tints sometimes change under the influence of cream dressings. but not so good. After a deal of working in this. when proIt is one of the perly tanned.


Qualities and Varieties of Leather.



— The

grain side


the face of this

It is


like firm


calf, only-

black, but resists moisture better. Many leathers are being made of this and a similar green calf, for instance ;. also iron calf or kid, which is much like calf kid, but, from being dressed to resemble kid, is very useful, and an extremely strong leather. Willow Calf is similar to box calf, but it is of a brown colour. It is made in good colours and retains them longer, perhaps, than any other sort of





Lea thbr Working.

These are converted into welting by being They are used for the welts of hand-sewn boots and shoes. V^ It is now necessary to give a description of the different parts of a hide of leather. Fig. 1 gives a diagram of a hide, fully showing the various parts. a a are the best parts of the butt b b, top end The whole of above, c c, edge, or hitch pieces. combined, are commercially called butt ends, while with d d (the first cut) the whole would be a butt e e, part known as bellies f f, odd pieces, with others, are flanks, shanks, cheeks, and faces G g, shoulders ;abcd and G, folded at h h, are sides and

stuffed well with grease.








STKAP CUTTING AND MAKING. In making a gross (144 pairs) of

or |


quired One not hollow-ground a punch (see p. 15 of " Harness Making"), with nipples from TVin. to | in. in diameter a pair or two of pliers a screw-crease or two (see p. 19 of " Harness Making ") and a marking board of dry mahogany or any hard wood ^ in. to 1 in. thick, about 3 ft. long by 9 in. wide. For the cutting board, use a piece of planed deal or pine free from knots mark from the end along one edge distances of 12^ in., 13^ in., 14^ in., and 15^ in. A hardwood measuring-off stick about 2 in. wide, 2 ft. long, and ^ in. thick should have the following lengths marked 12 in., 13 in., 14 in., and 15 in. An emery stick about 1 in. square, of any length, with emery paper glued round, a few wire
; ;

common garters wide, the following tools will be rehollow-ground knife one plain knife,





nails l£ in. long,

and some leather and buckles,


be wanted. Glue a leather shaving on the back of each knife blade to 2 in. from the point, as a protection for the fingers gripping the blade when cutting the leather, which should be from T j in. to




Begin to make the garters by placing the leather on the cutting board, and with the hollow-ground knife cut an edge of the leather straight. Then cut An them out, using the thumbnail as a guide. easy way is to set a pair of compasses or points to the required width of the strap (bare § in.), to cut an edge of the leather straight, and to run the points down the leather, which can then be cut to the mark made. Do not cut any shorter than the

pressing down the |-in. a small gas stove will do as well. If the outside diameter of the gaspipe is \ in. rests on the bottom of the can. with a punch in the right hand make a hole through the bit. 2) and bending back the | in. marked to improve the appearance. and tie them securely with band or wire. The marking does not show up if not near the edge. length. The top of the strap is not marked. Now punch a hole A (Fig. 12^-in. length with the thumbnail. . use the screwcrease set to x 2 in. Lap the point of the bit from the back round the . push the can on the gaspipe. in diameter. To buckle the garters. long on opposite sides of the can then bend up the tin. . three or four straps can be punched at a time. The screw-crease. the ^-in. putting the tongue in the hole A (Fig. and the front of the strap. To mark the straps on the board. leaving a bright glossy mark if a little force is exerted. 2 with the other knife. and put one edge of a Then bit just under the thumbnail. Hold the garter in the left hand. A small can containing water in which to dip the crease when too hot should be at hand. Then point the lengths as in Fig. but The edges can be is more difficult to cut than b. when it is at the proper heat it will move easily along the strap. 3 two kinds are illustrated A makes a better job. 2) for the tongue of the buckle in each strap about f in. Of course. as in Fig. when being heated. 4. Heat the point of the screwcrease in the gas or fire . holding it firm. from the top. bend the strips down. and always examine the leather to see that there will not be much waste. In heating by gas. Then cut the bits. press the tongue of a buckle open and thread a strap through. threaded through. mount on the pipe a tin can about 1^ in. and probably better. cut down from the top with a pair of scissors two nicks about 1 in. and on the centre line .1 8 Lea ther Working.. In Fig. mark on the cutting board.

Fig. 3. 2. long. then those measur- Fiff.. in. 4. measuring to 15^ calling them 12s. — Marking in. to \ in. putting together those measuring to 12^ in. 13s.— Garter Complete. 4) with the pliers. long. front.— Garter Bits..Strap Cutting and Making. say. 19 and thread it through the hole. Garter. longer than the other.. and measure the garters one at a time. Put the buckle on a nail in the table and pull the bit A (Fig. Then push the point of the longer garter through the bit marked b of the garters side . Then fasten the measuring off board to the table with a couple of springs. and those and For pairing. Cut the bit. then place two by side and see whether they are of equal widths. and whether one is. ing to 13| 15s. take a measured pile. Fig. leaving it about \ in. \ in. 14s. those measuring to 14| in.

Make six holes in the 12s and 13s. and from 18 in. on the table with the flesh side facing the worker then pack three 13s as before. the rule being half as many holes as the strap is inches long. Thus the top garter of a pair is slightly the longer. half a dozen garters are placed lengthwise one way and the other half dozen the other way. Leather Working. when the points of the two garters should come fair. wide. and the straps are f in. Twist the straps round. to 36 in. Packing may be done by the round way or the length way. Skate straps are generally % in. and are 18 in. Three bands are tied across. and it will be seen that the longer ones wrap round the shorter garters. . For the length way. place three of the 12s. 4) of the other pull it through. one at each The garters of the ends and one at the middle. until with practice two pairs can be done at once. and seven in the 14s and 15s. putting them at the back of the 13s. the width of the bit on the shorter garter making the difference. but for a stronger job the buckle tongue hole should be about 1 in. The holes should just let the buckle tongues pass through. and can be made as above described. They are either riveted or sewn. to 21 in. By the first method. Then the point of the bit can be threaded through a hole punched on the centre line of the strap. but generally have a rather roller buckle. long stronger leather is used. They can also be made with double buckles. one part serving as the bit. . from the top. are packed in dozens and in half or whole grosses. the shorter garters being packed in the middle. then pick three 14s. then three 15s at the back of the 14s. Leg straps are like garters. Next punch the garters down the leg. one at a time. doing a pair together at first. Then tie the ends with band. . wide.20 (Fig. . long. putting them at the back of the 12s.

the part A is set out with a zinc template. The strap . 6. 21 Skate straps are also made with roller buckles. A rivet is put in just below the bit and goes through the portion which is lapped over or the pieces can be sewn by hand or machine. and the two small garters b.Strap Cutting and Making. which are riveted on. . pull the ends together. . are about 3 in. Sometimes this skate strap is curved a little. to 21 in. long. broad. so that when they are fastened the rivets go through the back part as well as through the front.— Skate Strap: In another form of skate strap (shown in Fig. to 20 in. 5. long. iii Fig.— Strap Bit. long and from 2 in. and the other the other way. and slip one on each strap to the buckle. 5 to go round the strap and meet at the back then punch a hole in the centre of each end. The strap for these should be 6 in. is prepared as described. except that the bit is cut to Fig. 6). They are from 12 in. 00 DQ Fig. a strap from 18 in. to 3 in. Then press the bits so that the knots are at the back. holding the back part. and hold the front part of the skate. one strap being curved one way for one foot. and the hole for the buckle tongue should be punched in the centre. and with twine thread through both holes. and tie.

. avoid heating the screw and thus making it useless. the small screw." is necessary for giving a gloss to the edges of the straps. For hollow-studding the dog-leads. 19. long. Solid buttonhead rivets look extremely well. 7. obtain a few Fig. 16 of the companion volume " Harness Making " . . of the top pieces A (Fig. are made as described above. 7) bored out exactly to fit the studs. of "Harness Making. fits in. For riveting studs of different shape. 7. the handpunch riveter. p. and can be hammered into the leather without previously making holes for their reception for the latter reason they weaken the leather much less A screw-crease. 30 in. 37. as shown by than do hollow studs Fig. the top piece being countersunk so that the stud top a just Fig. Parcel straps. Practise with the tool on scrap leather before using it on good work. etc. which is shown by Fig. to 40 in. is required.22 Leather Working. Dog-leads are handier for general use than are chains. the width of the mark made by it is regulated by . being much lighter and more easily carried in the pocket. or leather handle. shown by Fig. 19.— Hand-punch Riveter. A necessary tool for making dogleads is the hand punch. p. brass. for use with this a few nipples of different sizes should be obtained. and are threaded through a nickelplated. S illustrates a number of hollow studs. Xote that the working part alone requires heating. and the tool is heated slightly on the working part when required for use.

the smaller will be the pressure required. rub over and over again until the Fig. Run the hot crease along the edges of the strap so as to make a bright mark . dip the working part in water. 11. Loop. wide. to 50 in. The hotter the crease. and use at once. The simplest kind of dog-lead will be described and this is illustrated by Fig. long and about \ in.Strap Cutting and Making. required gloss is obtained. 10. 9. but care must be taken that it is not so hot as to burn and stick in the leather a good plan is to heat the tool well. 9. 23 first. Fig. — Dog Lead with Swivel. or | in. . Fig.— Dog Lead with Studs and Ring. and then rivet or sew one end of the strap to .— Dog: Lead. first cut out a good leather strap from 36 in. To make it.

and for use is buckled through the ring of the dog's collar. long. The dog-lead shown at Fig. this is 4^ in. 8). Either brass or nickel-plated swivels will be suitable the latter. . as the swivel G prevents it from twisting when the dog moves its head round. The lead is then complete. 8) of these studs should fit tightly in the holes when the studs are in the holes. Put the other end of the strap for about 1 in. and is . 12 may be used. and These rethus require more frequent cleaning. perhaps. In putting in the studs. . 11 . . In Fig. or 1^-in. 7) clinch their necks fast into the leather. end fitting.24 Leather Working. pearance. buckle strap long. to 18 in. This simple lead is now complete. Cut a \ on the other end of the strap. and rivet as shown. it differs from the last one in having. form a handle. 11 can be ornamented by any of the hollow brass studs shown by Fig. and rivet on a together with the buckle. cut a strap 12 in. the neck part being pressed outwards as in the section c (Fig. It is attached in the same manner as the plain ring. 10 is shown a better kind of lead. The necks b (Fig. first with the punch make a number of holes at an equal distance apart. and rivet it on to form the handle. D illustrates a stud having a rounded instead of a conical top. with the rivet punch (Fig. 8. A still better dog-lead is shown by Fig. proceed as before as far as the handle in the event of the leather not being long enough to allow of this. look the neater when new. marks apply also to the martingale ring and chain. but are more quickly tarnished than brass. instead of a leather handle. through the swivel G. In making this dog-lead. Instead of the martingale ring alone. creased or marked before riveting. the chain-end fitting illustrated by Fig. loop it. a l£-in. martingale ring passed through a loop at the end and secured by a The lead is then given a more finished aprivet. punch a few holes as shown.

. Fig. 12. 25 A Fig.— Folded Bit. 13. J Fisr. 16. 14.— Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit.—Pattern for Wrist Strap.— Wrist Strap. 15. 17. Fig. Fig.Strap Cutting and Making.— Bit Complete. Fig.— Chain-end Fitting.

Next. pliable leather. 13). and cut out the piece between with the knife. long. then put the buckle tongue through the hole d (Fig. put the point through the slit A (Fig. To finish.26 Leather Working. then carry the end round again and buckle up. used in fastening the different parts together. with awl or punch make a small hole (Fig. Cut the ends of the band close to the leather to Fig. 13) with a screw-crease. or enamelled looks the neatest. to cut out the slit a (Fig. japanned. 14). punch seven holes down the fastening A nickel-plated buckle part of the wrist strap. strap for strengthening the wrist is shown in Fig. and cut out just inside the pencil marks. place the strap on the wrist . stained. near each end. punch a small hole at each end of the slit. First with a sharp knife cut a cardboard pattern to Fig. 14). A though brown. The advantage of this wrist strap is that no buckle presses against the skin. and bend the leather over. can be obtained nickel-plated. The strap will be neater when finished if it is marked all round the edges (see Fig. . or rivet with a bifurcated nickeled rivet. brassed. or coppered. 17). place the pattern on the leather. thread a piece of band through the two holes and tie it or sew the end. 13. passing the point through the bit. 15) . 14. Cut a piece of leather \ in. bring the end B through the buckle and over the jointed part of the bit and sew down. and place it on a piece of thin. In fixing. which may be of any colour required. The bifurcated rivets. 14) and pull until tight enough. so that the jointed part is at the centre (Fig. and on the centre line. wide and 2 in. Put this bit on the end c (Fig. 16. looks neatest. Full instructions for doing this are given by the makers when sending out the rivets. Mark carefully round the pattern with a lead pencil. as required. and are inserted and clinched with the aid of a hammer.

and round it at the top. and the hind piece to the button. and round off the point. . The front strap should be from 5 in. and another to which the front buckle fastens. long. to 6 in. and mark a cross line as far as the webbing is to come taper the other end of the strap. cut the pattern of the front strap to go to the buckle. and slit the holes up for about 1 in. the single end brace is now . but narrow it towards the top to the width of the buckle. crease. cut the front buckle piece to the same shape at the bottom as the back piece. to 22 in. stitch a loop near leaving space below for the cross strap to buckle. and then put the web in as far as the stitches. Cut the back piece to shape from the points of the cross line. Leave both pieces of the same width as the web in one end. and stitch in the buckles with a loop close up to them. put a piece in the buckle of the same width all along and about the l\ in. or a little larger than. Stitch along the cross line with single thread. from the point. the wide part in the strap end. Having pricked the leather all round. 18) to fasten on two buttons. in the absence of brace-end punches. trim the basil pieces. long. and have back pieces from the cross line upwards. . first cut the web to a length of from 18 in. ready. . long and stitch it together in the centre . 27 To make a pair of braces.. and finish all the straps. The back piece is about 3 in. wide and 9 in. go through cut the cross-piece about 1 in. and. . and taper it towrds the bottom.Strap Cutting and Making. and tack down. When doubled. stitch it in along the marks. leaving it full opposite the intended buttonhole . and cut them close round the stitches punch the strap and a hole in the buckle-piece and in the backpiece about \ in. at the top and cut a hole for the buckle shave the point. long. Turn in 1 in. If the braces are to have cross straps in front (see Fig. Have a piece of thin basil leather of the same size as.

dee or ring the back straps about | in. or this part may be made first and stitched in place while making the buckle part. shave the point. and narrow at the bottom where the bend is so as to take stitch it into the ring. to hold them in their place bend a piece of leather. Fig. . in the two ends of the cross strap. . : 9. . join at the back (Fig. and then put them in the open space left at the bottom of the buckle-piece . and stitch to the dee previously stitched Finish by punching holes for the buckles. 19). and put the holes as directed brace end. 18. pointed at the top to cover the joint. and cut it neatly into the shape of an egg. Cut in a 1-in. wide. and insert a stitch or two in the other Rub and \ Fig.— Double End Brace Joined at Back. not too thick. crease it. and narrow them gradually towards one end and round off the other. letting it be a bit full opposite the hole.— Double End Brace. and taper to a point. Turn down the narrow end for about 1 in. Put both ends of the web together so as to cross. besides being double in front. .. on. with double thread narrow the other part a little. Others.28 Lea ther Working.

by 2 in. — Plate - wide and m thick. 20) about 10 in. long in the centre to fit the bolt b (Fig. 71 Fig. Another piece of sheet iron d ^ . thick. wide and l£ in. etc. of any thickness and length and up to 3 in.. A hole is bored and countersunk at each end 20). of beech or any other hard wood. This will cut leather straps. 29 In concluding this chapter the construction of a leather strap cutting appliance may be described. — Strap Cutting Appliance. 21). will be required. and round off the top edges as shown. for a small screw. long by 4\ in. A sheet-iron plate (Fig. long by \\ in. long then bore the smaller part of the hole for the shank so that the block may lie flat on the table and the threaded part of the bolt come through A. wide. with a slot about I in. first obtain a block Fig. belts. deep in the block from the underside to receive the head of a bolt \ in. o of Strap Cutting Appliance.Stxap Cutting and Making. . appliances. 6 in. Bore a hole about f in. 21. To make the Fig. 20. (a.

and the apparatus is ready for cutting straps not thicker than the plate c (Fig. otherwise packing must be placed between the plates c and D.$o Lea ther Working* wide and of any thickand \ in. . —Another Plate of Strap Catting Appliance. apart. ness. A nut and washer should be put on the sheet-iron plate d for tightening up. To put the parts together. and wide enough for a knife blade to go through. \ in. 20). get a sharp knife. 6 in. 20). 20). with a slot 3 in. as shown in Fig. and fix firmly in the wood block. \ in. Then take a piece of leather and press the edge against the knife until the cut end. or saw- kerfs. For cutting the straps. 20 and 22. 20). put the blade through the slit e (Fig. long required to go on the bolt thread. width of the strap required to be cut between the edge of the plate c and a selected slit as e (Fig. first take the sheet iron plate c (Fig. and fasten to the block with a screw at each end. deep. keeping the edge of the leather firmly against the sheetiron plate c with the left hand. comes through to the other side of the iron. f. long by 2 in. are made in one edge as shown in Figs. wide. 20). 22. 20. Screw the block to the table. The leather should come through easily. Then put the piece of sheet iron d on the bolt. leaving exactly the Fig-. Then pull the leather through with the right hand. put it on the bolt. will be Six slits (Fig.

25 and 28) can be cut in a similar way. by 6 in. .3i CHAPTER III. The first point to consider in making the leather letter case illustrated by Fig. The side pockets (Figs. and which. by 4 in. bringing a to b. and cut the same to it then fold again. bringing a and b to c and d this enables the worker to cut all corners to the same shape. when closed. is 8 in. Set out the patterns to the dimensions on thin cardboard or stout paper. . . 23. round the corner at A and fold the pattern in the centre. 24 to 28. 23 these. LETTER CASES AND WRITING PADS. the pattern being kept true and square. This chapter will making letter cases be devoted to instructions on and writing pads. when open.. After cutting the pattern for the back (Fig. 24). rounding the corners at E and G to suit A and c . and cut them out. would suit a case which. Fisr. measures 6 in. as shown is the accurate cutting of patterns in Figs.— Letter Case. which have much in common.

clearly leather by a metal weight then with a blunt awl mark the leather to the patterns. from the outer This can be done best by running . the pattern should be kept in position on the . 24). After dyeing the edges. Prick the four holes in Fig. dyed to a shade similar to the leather. 24). and this can best be done by using a sponge bound to a stick with string. 28. 27 to form a pocket for cards. 28) must now be secured position of the stitching a line should be edge made about \ in. In cutting out. a firm piece being selected for the back. and with a shoemaker's knife or a pair of sharp scissors carefully cut the leather to the lines traced. Figs. 26) to suit B and D (Fig. and four similar holes in Fig. endeavourThese should next be ing to keep clean edges. 26. On Fig. The most durable and suitable leather for making the case would be pigskin of medium substance. 26 to form stamp pockets. .32 (Fig. and to mark the of Fig. 24). 25 and 26 are stitched on the back (Fig. 25 is stitched Fig. 28 being stitched on Fig. 25 in the position shown. 26 these holes can be used as guides in fixing the card and stamp pockets. 24. Fig. with a small quantity of grease on a rag rub them to a finish.— Back of Letter disc. The stamp pockets (Fig. and J and l (Fig. to Fig. Leather Working.

26.— Card Pocket Pattern. from the outer edge Fig. £ smear it on the back of the leather from o to P about then stick the piece to in. A piece of linen or twill lining should be pasted at the back of Figs.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. The holes are made by placing . 26. 25 and 26. Proceed in exactly the same way with the fixing of Fig. 23).— Patterns for Side Pockets. 27. Fig. p 28— Stamp Pocket Pattern. ft-* iz Fig. 26. bringing the points o and p on to the holes marked on Fig. Take a small quantity of glue on the finger and Fisr. Fig?. Divide the pattern into three parts. 33 race compasses set to \ in. around the edges from o to p (see Fig. 26. the paper pattern on the leather and pricking through with an awl. 25 and 26 to C . and mark two lines inside for stitching. 27 to Fig. Fig. 2o.

notebook If the leather keeping a diary or used is pigskin or cowhide. 26. 24). bringing the points E and G over the points A and c. 27 and 28 have been stitched to Figs. . and this Pad Folded Up. trim them with a sharp knife and dye and polish as before. bringing the points J and l over the points b and d (Fig. If the outer edges overlap after the case is stitched. from f to h. and stick it on Fig. running the stitch line all round the back of Fig. 24. making a line about \ in. 25 and 26 all the stitching must be carefully tied and fastened off strongly. when dry. from the edge. and it becomes soiled. Then glue around the back of Fig. . Aft'er the patterns shown by Figs. be done before stitching. A piece of narrow elastic can now be stitched across the case in the centre at the points M and n (Fig. strengthen the stitching and prevent it breaking must. Next mark the back of the case for the stitching. and then. 25 about \ in. this will be useful for in position. of course. 23). 25) . from the outer edge with compasses. Then and fasten off strongly at the corners of all pockets where marked with x (Fig. the best way to cleanse it is by wiping with a weak solution of oxalic acid.34 Lea ther Working. polishing with a soft rag. Do the same with Fig. 24.

30. should be cut and fixed at the bends at A E and e d (Fig. 35 The stitching can be done on a light Singer's. 31) to strengthen them. 18 Pearsall's silk or a 60 in. 30. \\\ in. postcards.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. the edges at a. Pieces of twill lining. Then glue the 1-in. strawboard 12 in.* of leather to turn over at the top and bottom.. and when open as shown in Fig. First cut a piece of leather 28 in. e. thread.. address book or diary. scissors. leaving 1 in. Now cut a piece of leather 16 in. and . all round. by 14 in. about twelve stitches to the inch being suitable. and with thin glue fix as shown at E. of leather between the boards and 1 in. and glue at A and d. by 12 in.. eraser. leaving 1 in.. by 6 in. Thomas's. It is advisable to set and try the stitch on a waste piece of leather. 29 and 30 has spaces for envelopes. Cut two pieces of strawboard 12 in. or vertical-feed sewing machine. at the sides to turn over on to the board. by Q\ in. pare Fig-. stamps. the centre forms a blotting pad. This will form the groundwork for the pad. by 2^ in.. The writing pad illustrated by Figs. The stitch set should not be small. and (Fig. and d mark the leather as shown Then cut a piece of 1^-lb. pen. using a No. margins of leather to the board. and knife. pencil.— Writing Pad Open. notepaper. 31).

from the edge at b. and cut the top of the leather the same shape as the paper.. and 14§ in.36 Lea tiier Working. 32 then cut pieces of cartridge paper and fix them as shown at x. Glue together pieces of strawboard or soft wood to form a mould for the paper pocket. mark 1 in. leaving \ in. mark it as shown in Fig.. of the edge. by A . 13| in. of leather to turn over on to the board. from the edge. piece of twill lining should be pasted at the back within | in. *l\ in. A . next at 8^ in.. and. Next turn the edge of the leather to the lining and board fold the leather to form gussets for the pockets. . with the face of the leather upwards. 9| in.

Cut the bottoms of the pockets as shown at p (Fig. 32. 32). which should be turned over and stuck on the board. should be sewn as shown in Fig. and glue them to the bottoms. envelope and pockets for papers.. 33).—Writing Pad Packets.—Writing Pad Pockets. Next cut a piece of \-Vo. Fig. across the bend and to the part that is to form the blotting pad. The piece of linen should next be cut Fig. 33. 31. 37 in. of leather is left to form the bend (see Fig. of leather all round. by 6 cover with linen. turn the two ears inside. The ends and centre of the pockets should then be stitched. and fix on a piece of leather 12^ in.. by 8 1 in. 11 in. and glued at each bend at ae and ed in Fig.. The pieces of leather with card and stamp. 31).Letter Cases and Writing Pads. 33. but not the bottoms. The paper and envelope pockets. strawboard 12 in. except where marked at A. Care should be . with the stamp and postcard pockets stitched on. 2 in. should be glued and fixed at A (Fig. leaving about \ in. by 2 in.

and glue and fix it on a piece of leather 9| in. at the ends. margin of leather at each side and | in. by 3 in. by 1^ in. by 1 in. back this with linen. Next cut a piece of board or thin cartridge paper about 9 in. Cut pieces of paper 2^ in. leaving \ in. by 2 in. and remove from the t To '-2.3« Lea ther Working. taken to fix the leather well in the bends and round each side. Glue these margins and turn over to form loops.. and fasten in the same way for the diary. and also at the edges... by 2f in. ..'\ . and leather 3| in. Next cut a piece of cartridge paper with linen at the back 4 in.

This will form the foundation for the blotting pad. 35.. thick. so as to form a flat surface under the pad. . the edge where the leather is turned over being on top. 39 strawboard 12 in. to turn over all round. and cut away the parts that pucker. If a polished leather has been used. If leather has been used the appearance can be improved if some fancy lines on the edges of the pockets and the fronts and back of the pad are made with a crease that has been slightly heated. Fig.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. square and \ in. pasted a piece of white watered paper. To make the of A piece and on it is four corners as stiff shown in Fig. and four pieces of leather 4£ in. now is cut. turning \ in. by 12 in. This should be applied with a fine hair brush or sponge. and. Glue the parts that overlap and fix them a3 shown. Pare the edges of the leather and stick it on the paper. as shown in the pad as 35. by 3 in. with a small quantity of dye. Next take a small brush. The leather most suitable to work would be a paste grain skiver. place it at the corner of the foundation for shown at the top left-hand corner in then lay one of the pieces to form the corners on top of the wood at the distance given. leaving \ in. black the edges of the leather where it may be snowing white. the wood acting as a mould for the corners. coat it lightly with leather varnish. Take a piece of wood about 3 in. 30. by 3 in. of the leather over on one side. Next glue the foundation all over at the back and fix it firmly. cut four pieces of paper 4 in. Fig. Fix the three other corners in the same manner.

and mark it all round with a pencil this will give the form a b d c in the diagram (Fig. This may be a narrow. and a strap and buckle to match in a corresponding place on e. whatever the length. lay it back downwards on a sheet of paper. bah run an iron (after damping the edge a little) to give it a finish. The brushes can be bought either singly or in pairs. mark with this iron round the remainder. wider. roughly cut out. and. longer and about 5 in. hold it firmly. take a brush. and after deducting the length of B d H (Fig. grooved iron. When they are faced together Round the portion at prick another hole at h. 36) from the side piece efg. This can be doubled and quartered after it is 36). from H. if the case is for a pair. gentleman's hair brush case is a very useful It is easy to cut and make. two pieces should be cut to this pattern. Whatever kind of case is to be made. so as to get a good ellipse. passing f. — With regard to the making there are only three pieces needed. 36). Measure their circumference. as e f g (Fig. . and costs but very little. HAIR BRUSH AND COLLAR CASES. cut the pattern about 1 in. and the case made accordingly. without the buckle and straps. requisite. Then take the thickness of the brush or of the two.40 CHAPTER A IV. and these are described below. and two holes pricked to indicate where the halves end. The pattern must be folded across B c (Fig. or the guard of a shoemaker's forepart or waist-iron will do. This is for the side and to form the lid. 36) to get the half . hair to hair. A strap containing a few holes can be stitched on f. or the one at e can be left till after the case is made.

the pieces may be cut out in cardboard and then lined up with any thin leather.— Hair Brush Case. and then the other side can be treated in a like manner. 41 The leather may be lined. Fi£. . etc. with brown or any coloured paper. H being about 1 in. This may be some fancy . and the edge of one of the ellipses may be placed against the end of the side at e and stitched. as morocco. or any that . or where a fancy case is wanted. 36. etc. as Persian skiver. asBDCH. The brush case may be made of almost anything is stiff and not too stout.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. bookbinder's skivers. roans. similar pieces are then cut out of whatever material is used for the outside. beyond the half at the back . as pieces from jockey tops. if desired.

stitched use bookbinder's glue instead of paste. If done nicely by skiving the edge very thin and taking small V pieces out all round previous to pasting. if not very thin in embossed the case itself. leather.— Horse-shoe Collar Box. wax and . about f in. wanted. . when the whole are in this condition. 37. This. If it be Figf. Tapers to this can be made by untwisting the ends after taking off the length When . and scraping each strand until it is tapered then. and should be made wet and twisted. these are thus fitted. larger all round than going to be.42 Leather Working. all that is necessary is to proceed as above. this is must be skived all round for a little more than and then pasted and turned over the edge of the cardboard on to the other leather. the edge will not need stitching. the tapers only being waxed to receive the bristles or needles or they can be made from stout carpet thread of any colour. The threads may be of either white or yellow flax or hemp. is this distance.

horseshoe collar-box with drawer is shown by Fig. as give a little A f.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. in diameter. 43 twist them. rji3 Drawers in Collar Box. and for razor and tooth-brush also. The curves a d and e b can then be drawn. Two of these patterns can be cut. The drawer can be used for handkerchiefs or ties. 37). according to the method of stitching to be adopted. on each side of c. &0 Fig. 33. if a straight edge is put along this line and then cut round to the other parts of the pattern (except that (Fig. Draw A . 37) this. should be about 6 in. long. touching the bottom of the circle at c mark the points a and b 2 in. for a goodsized box. — Forming . to form piece of paper with a . First describe a circle as A b c d (Fig. and put on the bristles or needles. 38). 4 in. piece can be taken away to save stuff. if a partition is made along the side. curved and to more play to the drawer. a line as a b (Fig. The form for the pattern is not difficult to obtain if the instructions given below are followed. thus forming the horseshoe. A line is now drawn across the bottom as e f the lid— that is to say. 37.

44 Lea ther Working. of any part of the outside circle. as it gives more room to the drawer. As regards the drawer. the top of the lid forming the other end at d. The piece for the sides of the drawer must be the u . for which there will be only one piece needed. The pattern for it will. — Collar pendicular lines. the pattern for the lid is produced. past a and b. the whole of the outside is complete. to 3^ in. as G I and h k. There must then be cut two sides and an end the length of i K. F Box Drawer and Lid. the by the curved line former for preference. each at right angles with c. say within about f in. These should be carried up as high as possible. The height of the box should be from 3 in. and c. These are to form the portions shown in A. and as long as the distance from A. and they should be joined together either k or the straight line ilk. it must be \ in. either tocoiH. ortoCDJ h. E Fijr. 38) two sides will be needed and a top for the lid. 59. it is best to draw two per. of course. longer). 39. in Fig. When a strap has been made as long as the distance from d to e. be this height. b. past D and E to b (Fig.

Hair Brush and Collar



exact width of the inside of the box it is therefore best to leave this portion until the box is made. The lid being larger than the outside of the box, and the drawer having to go inside, the side of the drawer at A and b will not, of course, fit the lid at the dotted lines shown on top. It is not necessary, as a few stitches at e and f and along the bottom at D will hold it. As regards the manufacture or the material used, these are explained in connection with the hair-brush case already described in this chapter.


41.— Block for
Collar Box.


40.— Round

Collar Box.

The strap which is to fasten either side may be put on merely from lid to box, just long enough to buckle, or it may be in one piece, as shown by the handle in Fig. 37, with holes in each end for the buckle to go through, and then secured in each of
the places marked at H and 1 (Fig. 37), so as to form it into a handle, as J. In making the drawer, it is as well to put the grain side of the leather inside and to cover the outside with nice paper the inside of the box should also be covered in a like manner to keep the collars

can, if desired, be made of wood. be needed, as the side of the box when the drawer is in forms this. At a and c (Fig. 37)

The drawer


lid will


Lea ther Working.

on the outside of the drawer are two elastic loops to hold the collars in their place while the drawer is being inserted. Fig. 40 illustrates a round^moulded collar case 6$ in. in diameter by 3^ in. high it is covered and lined with leather. To make it, begin by cutting a circular wood block (Fig. 41) 6| in. in diameter and 3| in. deep, the surface of which should be smooth with rounded corners. Cut a strip of moulding paper about 22 in. by 4^ in. and cut also two circular pieces Glue the two ends of the long 65 in. in diameter. strip on reverse sides for about 1^ in. from the ends, and then wind it tightly round the block, bringing the glued edges over each other and joining them to form the band of the case. Next place the band so

Hair Brush and Collar Cases.


piece of glasspaper bound on wood, round off all the sharp corners, and roughen the surfaces so that the material will adhere better. The moulded part should now be cut. With a pair of compasses mark round the band about 1 in. from the top, and to this line with a sharp-pointed knife cut through to the block. The shallow part is for the lid and the other part for the case. The leather or other material to be used for the case should next be cut as follows One piece for the top of the lid 7^ in. in diameter, one piece \ in. longer than the circumference and 2\ in. wide, and one piece of the same length but 3 in. wide. If leather is used, pare or thin all the edges, and also the back and front of the ends of the long pieces to ensure a neat finish. The circular piece (7j in. in diameter) should be fixed to the top of the lid with thin glue, leaving about \ in. of leather overlapping the edge to be turned over on to the band. Glue the strip 2^ in. wide and fix the edge to the edge of the lid, neatly overlapping the two ends about \ in. The I5 in. of material left should be turned inside



The piece 3i in. wide should be fixed, like the lid, on the band of the case, leaving \ in. of material to turn over to the bottom and top inside the case. Next cut a piece the exact size of the bottom, pare The its edge, and fix it on the outside of the case. fastening should be fixed before lining the case, and
a piece should be stitched at the back to form a hinge. First glue a piece of linen on some brown paper and cut two pieces to the dimensions given in Then cut pieces of leather large Figs. 42 and 43. enough to cover these, turning the leather over \ in. at each end and on the left side, and lastly £ in. on the right side, this making a neat finish. An oblong catch or purse fastening about 1 in. by I in. wide should be used. The hasp part of the catch should be fixed to Fig. 42, and the catch

directly opposite the catch in front.— Sack of Round Collar Box. 3 oz. above the top of the box. of powdered resin spirit and . lightly coat with leather varnish. this forming a ridge to keep the lid in position. Keep it corked up in a dry place. and again | in. over to the back of the board. and leave for twelve hours. should be fixed to the body of the case so that the falls in easily when the lid is closed. of shellac in 1 pt. bringing the edge where the material is turned over about \ in. cut two cir- cular pieces of strawboard to inside. greater in diameter than the board. and secured at the bottom with another row of stitching about 1 in. of material over the edge. Next fix the two circular pieces in the lid and bottom of the case.48 Lea ther Working. strain through canvas. with one row at the top edge of the lid. 44). The piece of leather shown by Fig. turning \ in. allow to settle. stir . The case should be lined. Pare the edge of the strip at the ends and glue the whole and fix it inside the case. If a polished leather has been used. The clear part should be used. wider than the depth. hasp below this. Cover the strip of board and turn about \ in. strip of the same length as the circumference of the case inside and \ in. For leather varnish. For fit this. place 2| oz. of methylated occasionally until dissolved. 43 should be fixed at the Lack of the case (Fig. glue the same and fix on the board. Cut the material for the circular pieces about \ in. 44. and one Fiff. above this.

they are specially dressed. Fig-. 45. .49 CHAPTER HAT CASES. rather. The diagrams given are for a bucket hat case. the portions of a butt that take these names for other purposes though. This is the most general shape. when they are going to be used for hat cases. Fig. — Bucket-shaped Hat Case.. as it has to be backed by stout millboards. as well. Solid leather hat cases are made of good stout shoulders and first cuts. V. or. etc. 45 gives a back view of the hat case closed. Basil hat cases cannot be of solid leather. and it will take collars and ties. basil is so thin that D .

Directions for lining will be given. Cut out the shape of all the pieces first in paper then cut the leather to them. \\ in. not round. and 9^ in. . 46. wide. from f to G... The case must be oval. c to D 8f in. The shape will be as Fig. There will have to be two pieces cut to this pattern. : A strap E. of course. cut oval (as a c b d. but this is done. is to go. 45). 46). 46 shows the front open. by 13^ in. A to B 19^ in. VZ\ in. Fig - . long from and goes past f and c. which is to hold the hat. . is sewn at e (Fig.. 47. to lock on the front. with portion taken away to show how and where the inner case. and is 25 in. E to f and 7 in. Fig. and is The sides of the case can be cut so that the seam comes under this strap. patterns are as follows Top. For a curved top the dimensions of the .5° Lea ther Working. . . from d to E (Fig. —Hat Case shown Diagrammatically. 46). back and front. with as little waste as possible. Fig. and the top may be flat or curved (as abc. 45). to taste. and the dimensions 15iin. The bottom must be 8^ in. while Fig.

as shown by the line at c. are for it. 45. and fit the bottom in. The millboard should just nicely fit in the case. 1| in. which should be just seamed together. Then turn upside down. and fasten them together at a c and b d. 5 1 from a to c and b to d.— Sewn Seam.Hat Cases. and another piece to fit round the side. and a corresponding piece from the inside of the bottom of the pieces. Three strips about needed for loops K L (Fig. 49) . Now cut a piece of light millboard to fit the bottom inside. Glue these together at the side. as A on b (Fig. Take the two sides (Fig. by 1 in. For the handle cut two pieces as Fig. 47) to 3 in. at A c. only narrower this band is not necessary. letting the stitches make up (q >aj j£ g ~^|P:B o) Fia:. the ends being of any shape and width desired. 20| in. 50). 48. cut four straight or slightly curved strips. —Hat-case Handle. twice the size of Fig. Fig. 45) and b (Fig. and should be skived and allowed to lap to make a smooth seam. A band for I and J (Fig. but if made. Then shave off an angular all round the flesh side of the bottom. 47. 46). or side of the case. Glue a piece of lining on . this will give the wall. by 2 in. 47). and stitch it all round. 45) may be cut as G h. of which should be left at top and bottom to turn over. 49. the width of it must be taken off the sides at . Line this with red glazed lining. A Fig. long.— Half Side of Hat Case. 48. 47. 1 in. 10^ in. c f d (Fig. be as the curved piece from line at a (Fig. To form g h in Fig. wide in the centre.

letting half be on the bottom and half on the side. After it is stitched and shaped. narrow straps which are to go across to stay the handle atop. and glue it down. or instead of using rivets all may be stitched down. apart. Then glue a strip 2 in. punch a hole in each end at m and N (Fig. Now put the board rim between the two. for a loose one. above the case. This is for a fixed handle . as the others can be trimmed to it after it has been stitched all round. To make the handle. and put it in its place in the case it will stand up about \ in. While the lining is drying. and the other from c to D. letting it stand a good inch above the case. 48). Before the lining is inserted the handle must .52 Leather Working. take a strip of the board. to the bottom board. and the top can be lined with quilted satin. Sometimes the top edge of the case is bound with a narrow strip of thin leather. is not so thick. The lid is made in the same way. m and n will not want . and place two other pieces of the same material between them. Only the top piece need be cut out to the shape desired. same with two short. over all round. and then stitch right through the lot. and the edge of the lining and edge of the rim must be flush with each other. wide all round over this. be put on. only the lining of the rim G H (Fig. as shown by h h h h. 45). take the two pieces (Fig. wide and curved to fit outside the top of the lining and inside the edge of the case. but it may be prepared and finished off without. skiving or tapering them off at ends to nothing. Notch it all round about \ in. slightly glue it and the outside of the lining. and also skiving a litle off the edges at e f. and put a brass-headed rivet in each. put them together. 46). lay it on the bottom of the side lining. Cover it with the lining. letting one come from a to b. Do the 45). as h h h h (Fig. leaving 1 in. bringing the two edges to the bottom. 2 in. Next damp the inside of the case.

52) is very simple. . — Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides. and from the centre cut a piece out. Fig 1 . and covered with the lining. this piece will form the bottom at Fig. Inner Hat Case. if desired but leather is more in keeping with the character of the case. and the piece that is left can be cut across the centre to form the two half -rims. 51. The inner case (Fig. 52. 12| in. k and l may also be of brass. Take a piece of cardboard. raised in the centre just to admit of the thin part of the handle passing backwards and forwards. between K and L. 51. and must be a good deal wider. . The . by 13^ in. . may be used. 46). The lock is put on the front. o and p must then be well secured at each end to prevent m and N slipping through or pieces of brass. 53 punching. The lid does not come right off . forms a loose sort of hinge. 8^ in. opposite to l (Fig. and its catch is riveted to the ends of the strap. but should be made to take a hat of any size. by 7^ in. at least.Hat Cases. This is cut from cardboard. as A b. and is therefore worth the extra trouble. shape of these small leather or brass brackets is shown at Fig. and the strap.

as shown at I J. must be put across from K to L (Fig. This should be left on towards the centre. puffed a little with wadding. The bottom piece. 46) to hold the inner case containing the hat in its place. and a piece put over the bottom for a finish. wider.54 Leather Working. and the width of the inner case will have to be 1\ in. for the inside lining of the leather case. apart). which should be turned over to the outside. inner case to fit inside the outer one. c d (Fig. may now be covered outside. The length of cd can now be ascertained by measuring round the piece which is to be the bottom. A piece of ^-in. as explained above. covered on one side. The top of the sides may be covered with quilted satin. Only 1 in. The quilted satin is only just secured on each side. can be put in the spaces between the inner and outer cases shown at I and J (Fig. elastic. 46). it can be gradually cut down from these points at each side to a width of 6-| in. after it is seamed up. top and bottom. This must be done so as to leave A and b quite free to be lifted up. so that when in the case collars. etc. The lining should be turned round the top and over at the bottom. can be left to form the seam. . with an old-fashioned garter-fastener in the centre. The inside of this inner case may be covered with the lining. . and just stood in the case A and b should be trimmed at the sides to allow the . 52). so that it may be stitched along the top of c d at G and h.. and finished off on the under side with lining. and about f in. This will be at a b but. which can be done by folding a piece of the lining and stitching it to the satin underneath f and the opposite side (letting a and b be \ in.

This chapter will therefore explain how to make a good. the smaller all parts can be got.55 CHAPTER VI. Take the exact length of the banjo. or a case for any similar instrument. of course. It will now be seen how much stuff will be required. and is not really a protection. unless made . and cut the bottom pattern to it. solid leather case. A banjo case. if badly made. First measure the banjo. only a few hints will be needed as to the method of making it. can scarcely be made too well. It will be seen that in giving the patterns for the various parts of two different shaped cases. strong. as it often undergoes a lot of rough usage it fits so close to the instrument it is designed to protect. specially to order. a margin all round . leaving. BANJO AND MANDOLINE CASES. As a good illustration of the shapes and their positions given in the diagrams. and the width of the key- . height of highest portion as it lies upon a flat surface. the width of rim including brackets. 53 and 54 as to enable them to be cut from a strip of leather with the least possible waste an important consideration in cutting up leather. it forms a covering only. 53. The height of the banjo must be ascertained to determine the thickness of the case . placing them together in a like manner. that. Suppose the work is done from measurements. or made of common or unsuitable leather. in Fig. it would not be possible to buy at any shop. as there shown. as A. or lay it on a sheet of paper. the better will be the fit and the — cheaper the case. they are so placed together in Figs. and then cut the other parts. such as. in fact.

for the lid. and cut out this. where these two (c and d) may join . past N and q. but it will be longer. b would therefore be this length less the distance between m and n. the circumference would be about 36 in. . and a piece joined on the end (at each corner) as I. .56 Leather Working. and can easily be cut from the spare corner shown. the bottom pattern . . 55. board. the length of these can be ascertained by drawing the length of the banjo as o l. and covered with the lining . The whole of the inside of the banjo case may be covered with any coloured baize or flannel. Cut B the width of the measurement previously alluded to as the height. and the length can be found as follows Suppose the width of rim to be 12 in.. may be made from stout cardboard. Letting the rim measure be the diameter. etc. as only a very small hole is needed.. to L. longer. This clone. 56. allow \ in. The stitches in nearly the whole of these cases are made as shown in Fig. as the circumference is larger. then cut another to it. The length of the two sides can be obtained by measuring from P. And the same rule will apply to F for the rim of the lid. or they need only be cut the length of p to Q. : in Fig. asMN. describe a circle to it take from a portion of this circumference the width of the keyboard. This completes all the outer pieces for the case shown . and making the M and n meet the line l. and this rule will again apply to G and h for the lid . This lining should be glued into its place after the case is made. but \ in. the edges of which should be turned in so that it is just a shade smaller than the above patterns. then draw two lines the length of the handle. This is not at all difficult. and can be done either with harness-makers' needles or with a thread as used by shoemakers the latter is the stronger. The small box for strings. all round. The handle J can be cut to any shape desired.

Banjo and Mandoline




Lea ther Working.

without. The piece taken out between a b (Fig. 55) is to receive the finger when the box is being


The handle may be stitched on or fastened by two copper rivets at c and d. Two straps and buckles, one at e and another at f, will hold on the lid, which may be fastened with lock and key, clasp, or another strap and buckle. The banjo case shown in Fig. 57, of which Fig. 54 gives the parts in section, is a very handy shape, and is a little cheaper to cut. In this case the top and bottom are the same size and shape, as shown by a and b. The pattern should be obtained in the same way as before, but it will

Banjo and Mandoline



at e and I the more economical the cutting, c and d should be cut long enough to form the whole of the sides and the end, as each shown here will come from b to c (Fig. 57). g, in Fig. 54, is for the rim of the lid, and is cut about 2 in. or 3 in. longer than the lid this end is left on one side, to be stitched to the case at d (Fig. 57), and forms a good hinge. h, in Fig. 54, is the handle, and should be attached to the case as shown above. The remaining pieces will be needed for buckle-straps and loops.

wFig. 58. Corner and Split


Banjo Case with End Lid.

Where the leather is required to be turned to an angle, as at e (Fig. 57), a piece must be taken out of the leather about halfway through on the wrong and when one is required as at f, give one side they can then be straight cut halfway through tapped down on an angular piece of wood. Another very good way of making the seams at the corners is to take the top and bottom, or all the sides, and draw a line all round with a pair of com passes about y«y in. in from the edge, and from this put the point in at this line make holes all round
; ;


For the above the leather is cut and enough stuff allowed to admit of an angular piece being taken off all the corners. as cannot be done afterwards without undoing the Fi£. and that when the two are put together to form a corner. so that the portions which are to be stitched can be laid together as in Fig. to show how it is put into the case and the way the case is made. should be kept in a small baize. the method to be adopted will now be explained when leather is used will be self-suggestive. — Mandoline in Case. This makes a very solid corner. etc. 59. It will now be seen that B is the other piece of leather. 60 at A is given a portion of the body of the mandoline standing out of the case. 58. .6o line. the awl is put in at A and pushed through till it comes out at b. as shown by A in Fig. with bound and turned-in edges. care being taken to line it firmly. stitches. and bring it out at the edge of the leather about two-thirds of the way through. lined it In putting this banjo case together. and while A is butted against B.. In Fig. it must be up first. Lea ther Working. Looking at a case of this shape it might be . The method of making a mandoline case in American cloth. which should be placed inside the banjo prior to putting it in the case. box covered with Strings. 60. as a and B.

whereas it is laid in on its side. as A (Fig. This is cut in the same way as for the lid. The line k l should be about 2 in. and another drawn from b to G that is about a quarter of the length. on the line c d. and indicates the edge — of the rim of the lid. long. From H to I the distance will be about 5^ in. The point J. 61. B. Mark a point at c along the top 24^ in. and e f parallel to c d at a distance of about one-fifth of the distance from A to Make f e 8^ in.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. long. is about 4 in. The next is for the bottom. From this point draw the curve g h e j. it will need to be 32^ in. draw c D . where the curve ends. the left-hand top corner of which must be a right angle. 24| in. These dimensions will require slightly modifying for instruments of other shapes and sizes. 1. and 3^ in. Take a piece of paper. as shown by the dotted lines b. Fig. long from A to B (Fig. from e to f. as it has to go round the curves. long. —Elevation of Mandoline Case. which should be 3f in. long . from c. The method of cutting the pattern will depend on the size and exact construction of the mandoline but by way of example the sizes in inches of various parts at different points of a case for an ordinary mandoline are given. 6| in. 61 thought that the mandoline is put in so that the strings come next to the lid. The next pattern is the top of the lid. from c to d. at right angles to a c. A line is drawn from A to c. from A . 62). and parallel with A c. only. one side being at the bottom. 61).

while the handle should be cut as shown in Fig. 62. and the lid (Fig. To each of these patterns cut pieces of stout strawboard one to each piece excepting Fig. are required. Fig.— Bottom of Mandoline Case. 61. done with baize. and lay them with their widest sides together.. to which two pieces must be cut. when the whole are cut. 62). the other of e f (Fig. as shown in Fig. Paste the lining on to these and let it dry . and this may be stuck on with — — Fig. put a mark on the outside of each piece so that they may not get mixed. 61). 63. one the length of c d. . These. by 3 in. striped union. (Fig. pieces the same width as a c k l (Fig. apart. If everything is satisfactory. and the mandoline should be tried to see if it fits before finishing the making of the case. and the whole of the patterns are cut. or any material or colour preferred.. Take one side.— Top of Mandoline Case. Two from a to b 3j in. long. 62 at G. not more. c d must be 6f in. 63). and e f The end piece is next cut this should be 3| in. may be temporarily fastened together in their proper places by strips of gummed paper. as Fig. bookbinders' paste. so that they are about \ in. 62). 61. 64.62 Lea ther Working. in order to test their correctness. This can be It is best to line the insides first.

When done in this way. Corner of Case. must be damped and folded down the centre. all round. e (Fig. and If the lining and covering has been done with a raw edge. Fig. and bring it out at c. 65. Fig. doing these one at a time . n. letting B and c be the stitch. — Stitching Piece. grain side out. 66). and trimmed off at the edges. and also the three edges of the body at f. neat way). at c. as will be exIf they are only to be stitched plained later. wide. k. through (a very nice. Now the outside is covered in the same way with American cloth. stitching or felling all the other edges down. put the awl in at b. as on the lid. l. 64. about I in. 65 at A. 66. as A (Fig. and if the lining and the outer covering are pasted well together. Fig. then pare the edges of the lining off to the edge of the board. The corners that will have to be (Fig. except in the first instance.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. pasted. m. so that it catches all the edges in the stitching. a long strip of basil or persian. d.—Mandoline Case End Fig. stitched through are 1. Fig. the American cloth is left on \ in. J. they form a good solid hinge for the lid. where the lid and side are joined together. the corner seams should be made as Fig. 66. Lay this on the corners. 63 serve the inside of each piece the same. Fig. if the edges and corners are to be bound. g.— Binding Corner of Case. which is set right through to catch This would also mean the edges of everything. 60). The lid and one side may be covered at the same time. and turned over on to the lining. 64. and h. 65. . which is much better than having a movable lid. 60).

It must be lapped over the edges c. near each edge. well fastened at each end with a stitch here and there. and the awl put in at one edge of the binding and brought out at the other. d. If the case is made of American leather cloth. 61). on the lid. to put the plectrums in. letting the lock be on the case. may be affixed to take a small pocket-book and just above the same place.. diamond-shaped awl. under the lid. . as a little box could be fitted here to carry string. The case may be fastened with a spring or ordinary lock. as it will help to keep the body and lid in shape and thus make it more durable. e (Fig. the stitches need not be very short say three to the inch and the thread may be made from stout carpet thread. a narrow strip may be stitched on. or a fancy stamped roan. and the hasp on the lid as m. h. etc. etc. there will be a space at the back of the neck or handle of the mandoline. but it may be wider if desired. apart. It is best to put these on so that there is no join at the corners. and also f. about \ in. g. Another long strip will then be needed for the binding of the plain edges. instead of using American cloth. The handle . On the back. as patent seal. See that the case is quite dry before the mandoline is put into it.64 Lea ther Working. as for instance at F and H. as n (Fig. and the holes made with a fiat. wide.is put on at h and 1 (Fig. or the steel strings will be — — injured. use thin leather. with tapers made as has been explained and fastened on to harness-makers' needles. This will need to be only \ in. but the stitching must catch both edges. or two narrow straps. some little distance apart. This can be made use of. 62) with leather or brass slides. 60). If it is wished to make a better or prettier cover. 60). inside at o (Fig. .

to lOf in. the difference in length be- Fig-.. 12 in. it should not be difficult to make a bag of any other shape after thoroughly examining it. In those 12 in. tween any two consecutive generally 2 in.. 67. or between these can be obtained to order. This chapter will deal with the methods of making leather bags of five chief kinds— brief. 14 in. sizes of brief bags is kept in stock are 10 in. E . following the instructions given.65 CHAPTER BAGS. This by no means exhausts the subject.— Brief Bag. and. The two most useful sizes for brief bags are undoubtedly 12-in. to 5i in. above. but any size under. and in the other 7$ in. the difference in depth being in proportion the sides of the smallest size measure anything between 7 in. and in 14-in. long the width of the bottoms varies from 3i in. and tennis. The sizes usually . VII. lady's hand. Like Gladstone bags and some other kinds. and 16 in. Gladstone... and 14-in.. and It being 10 in. bags i in. In width and depth brief bags differ considerably. excess over these measures is allowed. always easier to reduce than to enlarge a pattern.. but the bags chosen are representative.

when finished.— Brief Bag. by 10 in. 67 is shows a bag well proportioned . Fig. 12-in. 68. and the difference must be allowed for in cutting out the leather. the dimensions given in this be the largest. 69. Fig. The way to cut out the patterns for either of these bags is to open the frame as in Fig.Frame. and with a rule measure it carefully between the corners A A and b b. and Fig-. and more convenient generally slightly too article will length. Fig. to have a bag small. and lay it perfectly flat on the bench. by 5 in. and will measure 12 in. A bag is always measured at the frame. in proportion to the may be reduced as desired. and not so deep. 71) is the same. The dimensions in the diagrams are given for a bag.— Narrower Brief Bag-.66 Lea ther Working. 69. In both bags the distance between G G (Fig. 68 much narrower at the bottom. and the length of the bottom should always . The frame will be found to be slightly less at B b. owing to this part closing into the other half. 70) and d d (Fig.

The pattern for the bottom will measure 13J in.Bags. 70 is for the sides. The distance will be found to be but if closed it will be quite 8^ in. All seams are allowed for. 72. only. Then. and 5j in. be 67 1 in.— Pattern ensures both sides of the pattern taking the same curve at the swelled part. of the frame making this difference. all ends will be level. 71).. and fold it in the middle. and cut through the double paper. from d to D. more than this.. Mark it correctly the exact depth and half the distances between G G and h h.— Gusset Stiffen- ing Pattern. To cut out the bag. from E to E. g h are made. Fig-. by 5^ in. lay the leather on the bench. f f. This F r. The pattern in Fig. Fig. Next measure the frame from A to B for the gusset (Fig. and at the bottom 13| in. . Gusset Pattern. Get a sheet of thin brown paper. when the seams d f and . at the bottom.R hi I3T-for Side of Bag-. 70. and should measure along the top llf in. The depth of the gusset will be 10 in. 10 in. Therefore cut the gusset 8| in. "the hinge 8 in.

Place them face to face. they should be taken from the best part of the leather. so that d and g and f and h meet respectively. and see that the patterns are placed on it so that the grain marks will all run in the same direction when the bag is made up. grain side down. Cut out the sides first. and. then the bottom the welt pieces may be cut from the thinnest part of . what is left. Take the gussets next. as they are more exposed than any other part. Begin sewing the bag by taking one of the sides and one gusset. and stitching with a good waxed thread made of four-cord No. placing a welt piece between the edges.68 Leather Working. 9 patent o .

place it inside the bag. Any kind of lining— roan. is given when describing how to make a Gladstone bag (see pp. and the pocket is formed by stitching the three sides and above the opening for the same. 74. wide for covering the largest half. To do this. 69). and finish at each end in the form of the letter The edges thus produced are pasted down V inside . cut large enough to receive the stitching. take a nice thin piece of hide (persian works better). besides much other useful information. Use a large brush. or linen twill may be chosen. In cutting out the gusset stiffenings. the distance from a to c when they are in position as shown by dotted lines (Fig. and get the stiffenings into position quickly. 73 to 83). cut a strip 20 in. and glue to the .Bags. of glue will be found effectual. 69 stiffening fits firmly every part within the seams. and the edges of the covering must be brought to that side of the frame which will be out of sight when the bag is finished. 68. skiver. If the glue should show signs of setting too rapidly. pocket side opposite the lock. this makes a good opening to the pocket. as shown in Fig. long by 2j in. and fix the key-plate and handle-plates in position before pasting the covering to the under side of frame. A pocket must be formed on one of the sides. When the lining is finished. as shown in Fig. 71) must be rather more than the distance from A to c on the frame (Fig. and in cutting it out of the same patterns used for the outside will do. and rub it well down with the rubbing bone before the glue sets. hot glue. A piece of material like the lining is put on to the back. cut the lining as shown by dotted lines K k. and another strip 19 in. long by 4 in. Use good paste. The method of making the handle and fixing the plates to the frame. a teaspoonful of treacle added to \ lb. For covering the frame. wide for the other half. The frame in this case will be covered all over.

If an old bag is at hand the same size and style as the one it is desired to make. skin. good skiver. pressed grains. then lay them in order on a large sheet of paper.. Morocco. with mounts to correspond. to open it by. 17 in.7° Leather Working. or one which would leave a lot of surplus on hand. ladies' bags are very different from those used brief bags. either a or b. and fix on a tab when sewing b side. by 10 in. which must be made in framing this part this allows the bag to close easily. In buying a frame it will be advisable to get a few pins with it for riveting the parts together. bottom and round the top of the bag. part. roan. and making leather cloth. made in russia. Trim off anyexcess of lining here. The sizes of pieces required for a 10-in. a small persian would perhaps be the most economical to buy. and from the best part of the skin. and pocket on the other : . forming one side. See that all seams meet before starting to and use black flax in making threads for this At x (Fig. from the plain japanned to the elaborate nickel or gilt. . in and there is a much greater For instance. as well as the material. 68) a fulness of the gusset is shown. or russia bags are usually lined This may be either persian or a with leather. to serve as a guide in selecting a skin of Take care not to buy too small a suitable size. and causes no strain to the hinges. bottom. besides many special kinds of fancy leathers and other materials. either of which may be obtained in fancy colours. and prepare to sew the bag to the frame. morocco. The frames. square pattern bag are as follow One piece. There is also quite a variety of frames used. as before mentioned. take patterns of all the parts. roan. ladies' bags are variety of each. for making stitch. For a single bag. The largest pieces for the bag should be cut out first. Start at one of the corners.

the other end of the leather being rounded and the fastener riveted on to it. and the flap The by 10 in. These must be cut 1 in. Four pieces for the stiffened portion of the ends must be cut 6 in. and ensures the stitching taking a good hold of the bottom edge. and must be stitched to the cloth before the side seams are made. place a narrow welt piece between them. long. wide. The flap is made up quite separately from the bag. | in. to be riveted to the frame. wide. referred to in previous chapters. each. The shape of and 1-in. on each side. heated and worked along in a straight line. these two pieces is almost triangular. 5^ in. The lower corners of this are sligntly rounded. <?n that when the bag is turned the welt will show. 71 which completes this side is cut 6 in. as the material is in no case very heavy. leaving the 5^ in. All the — — may be done by any domestic sewing machine. A piece of American cloth is generally used for that side of the bag covered by the flap and pocket. and the parts are stitched together. side. side. flexible portions forming the gussets 6^ in. piece is laid One 2-in. is stitched to one end of each. long. The lines on the flap are creased with a tool. at the top. wide by 5 in. on each 6^-in. and a piece of American cloth is cut the same size for the back and to provide the casing for the springs to slide in. and the 1-in. The counterpart of this fastener or stud is riveted on to the pocket. and good black elastic. The spring pieces are cut \ in. The flap must be neatly bound with thin leather cut f in. wide by 3 in. which provides a good surplus for the underside. by 2 in. only at the bottom. stitching .Bags. In seaming the body and ends of the bag together. part for seaming to the bottom of the bag. by 6-in. Narrow strips of leather of the same kind as that used for the bag are stitched on each side of this to prevent the cloth being seen beneath each end of the flap.

or the pins will bend. the bag has been turned. used for riveting on. also avoid cutting them too short to form a head. and also to receive the burr formed in riveting the pins. To rivet the frame to the bag.fix the four corners first. and on the same side of the frame as the pull-piece to the lock catch. The lining is also riveted in at the same time. and extends from the frame on one side to the other. and complete it by working alternately on each side of these. stiffen the bottom and sides as directed. This lining is not cut the same as the outside leather. then through the holes near the lock and catch. The elastic springs should also be stitched at the top of the flap to prevent pulling away in use. pass the pins through the holes near the hinges and rivet them .72 Leather Working. and fresh ones will have to be put in . hammer. and put four nickel clamps or nails in the four corners of the bottom. The ends or gussets are each in one piece. form a part of it to hide the cut edges at the top of the bag. For riveting the parts together a few tools are essential. The leather of the flap should also be stiffened with good brown paper before being made up. the flap being put in with the rest. a pair of small wire cutters such as are used by watchmakers. These are made exactly the same shape as the frame itself. Two plates of metal are sold with each frame in fact. and a In the bag trade special irons are 1-oz. but in three pieces only one piece is cut the full width of the bag. they include a fine round awl for piercing the leather in passing through the pins. The " toe " of the iron foot is placed under each pin- When — — . but these are not very expensive . Having fixed the four corners so that the seams on each side meet perfectly.. Do not leave too much metal for burring down. but an excellent substitute will be found in a small iron foot (such as is used in boot repairing) supported by a suitable stand.

The first of these is caused. bag two folds generally have to be made. Cut a piece of paper. Be careful to get the first few turns tight. one. or 20-in. commencing at the middle. machine sewn. then stitch and trim them. which soon becomes rotten. . It is very essential. Paste the leather covering over this. Of Gladstone bags the most convenient size for ordinary use is the 22 in. Cut two pieces of leather. wet it. each 10 in. is liable which a Gladstone bag are (1) a broken frame and (2) unstitching of the seams. 73 head. Stout cord covered with brown paper is used as a filling. 10 in. perfectly level table or bench is the best for rolling it on.Bags. and the bag held in a horizontal position whilst being riveted. Two in its manufacture. to carry. and secure them in their places by passing through a pin and riveting its end. in making . Handles for ladies' bags are always made much longer than for other bags. The usual length is 10 in. so that the edges meet evenly on each side . owing to the dye used of the chief evils to . then place the hands on the roll and keep working it until it is quite firm then lay on one side to dry. by 1 in. and chiefly with very thin thread black bags are sewn with a thread of that colour. in nearly every instance. to permit of their being carried on the arm. and increasing as the ends are neared. Much larger sizes prove very cumbersome A . wide. lay the cord evenly along one end. and begin to roll the cord within the paper. Pare the ends before placing them in the fittings attached to the frame. The tapering ends are made by peeling off a portion of the paper. This will hold a coat or a pair of trousers folded once over with an 18-in. by careless usage the second may be due to common thread being used in joining the Nearly all kinds of bags are parts together.

it will not last a quarter the time that one made of good leather will. for not only do the frame and fittings cost the same. . Very .74 L EA THER WOR KING. a bag. to use a good waxed thread for the seams to ensure the work being permanent. — Gladstone Bag". but the cheap material requires more care and skill in its Another Gladstone Bag. Fig. Cheap leather should not be used. manipulation moreover. 75.

. it will preserve its glossiness for years.melled cowhide there is not this risk. per lb. board for the bottom.. 1 and No. 78. d. buckles for inside straps a ball each and 3 yds. buckles for outside straps half dozen f-in. a indicates lock and plate . frame with strap loops . . A few simple tools will be required a clamp to hold the work for sewing (the worker can make these . Strawboard in three different weights will be A Fig. e. these fittings costs 2s. 22-in. shoes. . and. and two 8-oz. 75 shows a Gladstone bag with full fittings. c. Fig. . 76 shows the interior this bag of a bag with the necessary straps. . and the stiffening curls or comes away in With places. . 6d. oi of brown. Fig. 77 for rubbing down the stiffenings. 4 harness needles a clicker's knife and a bone the same shape as Fig. ena. One 2-lb. A . and has no slides. b. etc. . 75 . bottom 2 1-in. — Rubbing Stick. few brown bags are waterproof be so sodden with wet that after being out in a drenching rain. when used with care. as explained in Chapter I. 77. of " Harness Making ) . slides . a pennyworth each of No. about four 16-oz. for Six nails to protect the stiffening the bands. handle plates . a and sometimes. for Bag required it costs Id. causing an unsightly appearance. two or three different sized awls in handles . has a lock at each end of frame. — Stiffening Division.Bags. boards for stiffening the sides and cutting patterns. and black flax twill lining will also be necessary. brown bag will it takes a long time to get dry. — . Bone or Fig. yellow.

81) are used.— Leather Pocket. by 9 in. take the side . 79). 78 if a frame with single lock and slides is used. 83 is a pattern for the middle piece in the handle. the first thing to do is to get out the patterns. Paste this on to the straw-board. Fig. In making the Gladstone bag. strawboards. and if fancy buckle chapes (Fig. and one for the flap (Fig.7 Leather Working.— Buckle Chape. pocket-flap pattern folded) it so that when it is opened both sides of the pattern are alike. in diameter at the band. straight-grained wood. A paint brush If this latter thoroughly cleaned will do. must also be cut. answers the purpose nearly as well. Fig. and mark evenly round and along the wire at the bottom. The glue brush should be quite 2 in. Cut this out with a large pair of scissors. 80. Fig. a pattern of these should be cut. 79. 4 or No. but every particle of paint must be washed out. a No. In beginning to cut out the bag. . The pattern for the bottom must be 21| in. 80. lay the closed frame on it. 80). a piece of hard. Fig. and cut evenly round the edge of paper. Take one of the 16-oz.— Pocket Flap. In cutting these smaller patterns. 79. Fig. A gluepot of suitable size for the brush say. pattern for the sides. For the division — ^ZF Fig. filed to shape. 82. 81. cannot be obtained. it is a good plan to cut one first by folding a piece of thin paper mark and cut (Fig. 5— can be bought at any large ironmonger's. and the pattern for the sides is ready. and shape it as in Fig. A pattern for the pocket (Fig.

one by 6| in.— Folding Paper for Small Pattern. Join together into one length by paring the ends with a knife and making a short lap with glue or paste. and choose an awl of suitable size. and see that both sides can be got out with the grain running in the same direction. pattern for the tab by whose means the bag is pulled open is shown by Fig. wide and the other by 5^ in. Take one of the bands and one side-piece. widv. 82. . and as long as they can be got.Bags. Fig. Fig. long. placing one end of the band level with it and running the welt between the two. lay them face to face. Make a few four-cord threads of brown hemp. lay one of the strawboards under the leather and cut out on that. The bands will need to be 45 in. or they will be sure to show when made up. Fig. Sew round until the opposite bottom corner is reached. Fig. Use the thinnest part of the hide Fig-. The bottom (21^ in.— Tab. lay it on the leather.) may be cut last. There will probably be a little to trim off the bands to bring the ends level. and sew the other side-piece and band to- A gether the same. 83. Do this. and start sewing from one bottom corner of the side-piece. 82. and if a level board large enough is not handy. This will give 4 in. fasten in a pair of the smaller needles. clear to each one and sufficient to cover the frame. by 9 in. Use a sharp knife. 84. cutting strips for this purpose \ in. Cut quite close to the pattern. 77 pattern. guiding the knife with the finger pressed against it and the edge of the pattern. 84. 84.— Part Fig. for welts. of Bag Handle. See that there are no flaws or blemishes under the pattern. tie the threads over the edge. S3.

Next take the bottom and commence sewing from one corner of this and the bottom of the sidepiece. The proper method is to bend up the stiffening-piece in the centre. long by 4| in. and finally press down the . and with the other hand forcing -the leather • Fig. Continue along the end of the bottom. Continue sewing until the place started from is reached. off each corner to allow them to fit close up to the seams. from the seam this should leave on one \\ in. then the other end. warm the leather gently and carefully before turning. 85.78 Leather Working. . and serve it the same. Do this by placing the left hand in one corner. and mark each end 4 in. and cut two pieces 21 in. downwards . The bag. and the weather is cold. sewing this to the end of the band until the mark already mentioned is reached. 85). for the larger. being inside outwards. and 2\ in. and try them in before gluing.— Half of Bottom Stiffening. put one end in first. must now be turned. Proceed with the other two corners in a similar way. Now take the 2-lb. working both down until they are quite clear. Cut quite \ in. and press with the hand quite close to the seams all round them this will give it a more natural shape to receive the stiffenings. board. to cover the small part of the frame. until it begins to fold over then take the other corner of that end. and the bag will be turned. . run the welt only to the bottom for f in.. If enamelled hide is being used. Hammer the corners down from the inside. from the edge. and then take up the end of the other band at the mark 4 in. running a welt in as before. treating opposite sides and ends exactly alike. wide (Fig.

so that no part is left untouched. it preparing the glue. wide and the same thickness. Try them in before gluing. between these from end to end. wide. it is a good plan to up and soak in cold water for twelve hours when melted down. When break this. There should be a space of \ in. long by \ in. and glue in the other half. the ends of this having been previously passed . take a piece of good strap leather 10 in. bottom to the bag. when dry. while waiting for this. 83. glue one piece. 83.Bags. . If it is decided to stiffen these. it must be done after the bag has been framed. long by 1 in. bands is purely a matter of fancy some like a bag to set out square. The stiffenings for the sides will need to be \ in. and. will be found to be about . remembering that these also must fit very tightly. and get them into position as quickly as possible. rub well all over with the rubbing-bone. wide cut to shape as in Fig. 79 this stretches the leather to its full length. Use the bone freely all over. boards 3| in. When satisgood fit. or perhaps more if the leather is very stout or the seams are too great a distance from the edges. or there will be blisters where the glue does not adhere to the leather. see that it is not too stiff. right for use. Cut off the lower corners the same as the bottom stiffenings. Stand it on one side for an hour or so for the glue and makes a solid fied that it is a to set properly. pare the edges away until it is perfectly round and slightly tapering towards each end. cut out the stiffenings for the sides and make the handle. centre . To make the handle. and. It is then divided and glued top and bottom to Fig. using strips from the 8-oz. The stiffening of the . place it inside. Glue together a lot of odd pieces about 6^ in. smaller all round than the leather. whilst others prefer to strap it up close when nearly or quite empty. Use the glue quite hot.

placing the widest band over the largest half of the frame. Oblong slots are punched across the iron band of the frame to allow the flexible claws on the fittings to pass through. — Bottom of G-laclsi one Bag - . fix in the and sew on two leather loops for straps (Fig. Take the lock-plate first. and with a fine-pointed knife puncture the leather exactly over these. When Fig-. 86) then proceed to fit in the frame. hole large enough for the key-barrel of the lock must be cut and passed over it. This will leave a good margin inside when sewn through. The strap loops are fitted next . through the handle rings and turned back to form a chape. rubbing them afterwards with a piece of cloth to produce a polish. Then take the handle and fix it. to it at right angles. Trim and dye the edges. so that it will fit closely between the under A part of the iron band and the lock. and turn them down quite close on to the frame. Allow the leather to cover the thin iron band and reach half-way down the other part joined nails. and cover with a piece of cowhide long enough to go through the two rings and along the underside. then stitch it. It is a good plan to put the plates through the rings before gluing together. and if slides . bottom the stiffenings are firmly set. Put a few stitches through close to the rings. and another hole the same size cut underneath. . as this often proves difficult when made up.8o Lea ther Working. 86. pass the claws through. continuing this right through to the edge.

missing those places where the tie-pieces in the frame are in the way.Bags. but below it has the appearance of a cable. pass the screws through. 8i have been bought. and a piece of leather or similar material laid on anything solid to protect the plated parts whilst being gently hammered down. each. . The shoes should be fixed last then cut two slits in the narrow band for the lock-catch to pass through. and pass down through No. round holes being punched to . For the sides and bands it is cut the same size as the leather. and fix a large needle to one half. bring up the needle. push the awl through. 3 and so on. and make a few five-cord threads. 2 hole then up through No. then make another hole in advance of that at a distance equal to the intended length of the stitch. each pair should be bent inwards. and down No. 84) must be sewn on where the lock-catch is fixed to the frame. 2. More expensive frames have solid fittings these have screws cast on them. Cut them in halves. Take the ball of black flax. the leather must be cut away the same size and shape as the slots in the frame before being fixed. . and is called back-stitching. Commence at one end of the frame. It is now ready for sewing. 4. using beeswax tor tnese instead of shoemakers' wax. 1 pull out the full length. The method of sewing in the frame is different to sewing the seams. F . by 6 in. Bring the needle up from the bottom through No. The lining must now be cut out. A tab of leather by which to pull the bag open when in use (Fig. make a third hole. and pass down through No. Continue until all the frame is sewn. This leaves enough stuff to make a strong fold when sewing it with the division board along the centre . . This gives an ordinarylooking stitch on the top. and are fitted to the frames by small nuts. In bending down the claws. and the bottom is made in two pieces 22 in.

with a f-in. 79. Figs. A bright scarlet looks well. using a long needle and . and another piece (Fig. The lining also may be sewn by a machine. 81). lay it on one side and paste in the linings. Glue these to the leather and a piece of lining over cut fully \\ in. 80. wide. them that for the flap is the full size of the leather. One side is glued on first. and one round the . machines which are quite powerful enough to sew through this binding and also the pocket and flap. 79.82 of the bottom. A piece of thin strawboard. and 82 show how to cut the pocket and flaps. must be cut for stiffening the pocket. it should be used. cut the leather sufficiently large to fold over Fix the pocket and flap in the centre of the division board. where one is ready to hand and capable of doing the work. and the pocket flap and strapchapes are sewn on before gluing on the other side. then sew a chape (Fig. trim off any inequalities. and carried beyond the bottom of the board to strengthen it. The covering for the division board deeper than the board. Pasting well up under the frame enables the lining to fold neatly over. For these as well as the bindings a thin roan or good skiver must be bought. or and form a binding. When this is finished. Glue the other lining piece over the back. and. buckle and a loop. the same shape as dotted lines in Fig. Paste a binding along the top of the pocket. 80) for the flap. corner near the bottom. which should be put in free from creases and should firmly adhere to the stiffenings. and stitch them round . flap. on each side. and makes the work of sewing Begin to sew in the lining at one it in much easier. using the single needle and thread (yellow is best for this purpose) as in sewing round the frame. is Leather Working. and also wears much better than some other colours. Strips for binding should be \ in. and paste on There are many domestic sewing the binding. and of some fancy coloured material.

running the thread under the fold and bringing it through one of the holes previously made in sewing in the frame. 83 black thread. and a leather binding stitched along it through the seam.Bags. the edges being bound with leather to give greater strength. leaving rather more than an inch at each end flat for sewing on to the case. in the complete. — Tennis now Racket Case. The bag is . long by f in. which may be made of a waterproof material. wide or a strip of thinner leather | in. or of brown canvas or japanned duck. 87 is an illustration of an ordinary tennis racket case. the stitches lying hidden welting. The making of any of these is not difficult. It is proposed to give designs and instructions for making four or five different kinds of tennis bags. and in the other side of bag sew in four straps. These are sewn Fig. fold all surplus stuff inside. This may be either a flat strip about \ in. as illustrated. A leather handle is fixed on. wide into the two corners of the frame to buckle to the chape pieces. place the bottom of the division board between the linings at the bottom. The front piece is cut square across at the broad a end. and run them together with hidden stitches. check or twill. Fig. When the lining has been stitched in all round. and rounded by stitching the two edges together. . and run the thread under the fold again. two of which should have buckles. 87. Pass it through the next hole. Sew two straps 5 in. wide.

6 in. each side. wide. and 6 in. Each of the two gusset pieces is cut 10 in. gussets. 88. for the top this will leave 4 in. Balls. back. It will be found that these waterproof cases preserve to some extent the tension of the strings and help to check the frame from warping. wider. from the end on . similar to a school satchel. mark off 10 in. This forms the top and flap of the bag. one large piece forming the front. Cut the binding for the flap and across the top of the front \ in. Fig. and flap. for the bottom. cut in three pieces. but much larger it is . Paste the flap and front piece at the edges to the back piece. and when dry sew on the binding with a beeswax thread made of fine yellow hemp or flax. for the front. etc. three buckles with chapes and loops must be sewn on the front piece about 6 in. . from the top edge one buckle in — . Before sewing the parts together. -^^w^- Fig. for the flap. leather binding must also be sewn round that part of the flap which opens. by 36 in. round off two corners.— Case for Tennis Racket. 88 shows a tennis bag without any frame. and bind it with a thin strip of leather. another 10 in.84 Leather Working. and the other two pieces the gussets. Mark one end of the large piece 10 in. for the back. The gussets must be bound along one this will form the top of the of the narrow ends . Take a piece of waterproof goods 30 in. by 6 in. and for the edges \ in.

or fitted with pockets. turning the bag after wards as in making a Gladstone bag. about 7 in. of course. The lining may be a plain one. made throughout in cowhide.Bags. H — the middle and another 3 in. in addition. as described later. take two pieces of leather 14 in. long by 1 in. place a piece of stout cord or rounded leather between them. the most lasting. such a bag. from each edge and the straps to meet them may also be sewn on before the bag is made up or left till the last. leather gussets . These bags are made in various styles. others with leather bottoms only. These bags. whilst some have. or it can be fastened with rivets. at each end to be sewn on to the bag. are made throughout in . which have the advantage of being very light to carry and inexpensive to make. and stitch them together far enough to form the handle proper. This will leave about 3^ in. wide. some of brown waterproof canvas or carpet throughout. as these can be more easily got at. as shown in the diagram. may also be made by sewing the gussets in and running a welt between the edges. the most expensive. will last for many years. Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag style. The exterior of a very popular form of tennis bag is shown by Fig. To make the handle. and. and necessitates putting in a lining to hide the rough edges of the seams. 89 . This is not such a strong way. long.

In measuring for the length of a bag. 90 is an illustration of the frame used for this kind of bag.. in both cases. the ' : pieces for the sides will measure 29£ in. There is no difference whatever in the method of making these. and 29^ in. and the choice of material must be left to individual taste and resource.. rennis Bag Frame. It is assumed that the bag is 10 in. and 6 in. but in a tennis bag seldom exceeds 6^ in. deep. for each side. long. by 29| in. by 12| in. long. to 10 in. 29 in. 10 in. for the bottom. the width of the bottom in a bag used for cricket varies from 5 it in. The frame of an ordinary full size cricketing bag measures 37 in. respectively. and are attached to the frame when covered by turning over the metal claws fixed to them on the underside of the frame. or. again. in the case of solid fittings. Then.86 cowhide. for covering the large half of frame and \\ in. by 6 in. . The gussets will be 10 in. handle-rings and plates are shown in position. Lea ther Working. The bag when closed resembles an ordinary cricketing bag. take the entire length of the frame. for the small half. by 6 in. and at the same time decide what depth it shall be. whereas that of a tennis bag is only 29 in. If the bag is to be made with only the bottom of leather. marked off as follows 2j in.. Fig. and is on the same principle as the The lock-plate and ordinary brief-bag frame. For this obtain a piece of leather 29£ in. wide. by screwing on small nuts. but is not so long. by \\\ in.

87 Run a welt of thin leather round in sewing the seams. See that these seams exactly meet when the frame is closed. This is fixed . fix on the lock-plate and handle-plates.Bags. These buckle pieces must now be stitched on. The method of making the handle is described on p. a round hole for the key-barrel. 91. as shown in Fig. A name-plate should also be fixed on. and these also assist in keeping the millboard in its place. 89. and as these are sewn on the inside of the bag it must be turned. long by l\ in. stitching a tab of leather for pulling the bag open on the opposite side to the one shown in Fig. In place of the outside straps a very strong and simple fastener is shown in Fig. mark and punch Fig. 79. Eight of these must be fixed in. The two outside straps and . and secure it in position for sewing by a stitch or two at each end near the gusset seams. round the bend. wide. 92. and of good leather.— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag-. 91. and rubbed well down all over it so that it will hold fast and there are no parts separated.— Turnclip. the claws attached to them being opened and turned down on to the stiffening inside. wide must be glued and placed in the bottom within the seams. Special studs are used as a protection to the bottom. 92. of Fig. Begin sewing from one end on the right about 1 in. Place the frame inside the bag. should be not less than 8 in. and continue to the left-hand end of frame the same distance round the bend then sew in the other half of the frame in the same manner. long by 5£ in. and in order to make it very finn a piece of stout millboard 29 in.

boots. When the lining is finished. rackets. and sew the lining gussets over and over to these. 93. and large enough to completely envelop the contents. and button-holes are cut in the flaps of the pockets. bend the tops of the gussets inside about 1 in. A will allow plenty of stuff for strong seams and turning in for stitching to the frame and tops of gussets. and holds them in any desired position. place it inside the bag. The bag is now ready for lining. tings. in order to protect the clothing from becoming soiled or damp through getting in close contact with them. and if cut the same size as the outside of the bag. bringing the needle to the outside. good linen. Buttons are sewn on the lower parts. and making a short stitch in returning it articles of clothing are to it is bag. is the best for this. —Tennis Bag in Gladstone style. either plain or fancy-striped. It will be noticed that pockets are made on the linings to hold the balls. . connecting the two sides of the clip. to the frame in a similar manner to the other fitUnder the plate which lies along the top of the frame is a spring which acts on the bar. Then run the thread inside the fold of the lining when stitching the remainder to the frame.88 Lea ther Working.. When Fig. fold inside all surplus stuff. or loops of elastic may be fixed to the latter. be carried in the same a good plan to make these pockets of some waterproof material. etc.

A tennis bag made on the half-Gladstone prinThe frame is fixed to ciple is shown by Fig. 93 is a tennis bag made on the Gladstone principle. It will be an easy matter for anyone to make a cricketing bag from these instructions by getting a suitable frame. The straps to hold tennis bat. and making due allowance for the increased dimensions in cutting out the bag.— Tennis Bag in Half-Gladstone style. the only difference being in the depth of The lining is fitted the frame and the interior. and in ordering the frame it must be specified that it is required for a bag of this description.Bags. Fig. 94. can be either riveted or sewn on. 89 through the frame. In this case a special frame must be made. with straps and pockets. Fig. 94. one side of the bag instead of being placed proportionately in the middle. . etc..

4d. 6d. lOd. the 9d. 96. each. by 54 in. and brush and a . wide. 6d. of striped lining (best. per yard and 2 yds. p. \ lb. Good japanned canvas. also called a "folding" trunk. a pair of battens. 4 yds. . . flat-headed copper rivets and washers mixed. is a sketch of a "Railway" trunk. and has a flanged lid keep out the wet. two 1^-in. and all necessary fittings must be purchased. a lock. . PORTMANTEAUX AND TRAVELLING TRUNKS. per yard) a welting belly for binding the edges. who will cut them to the necessary size. 6d. according to quality . . each a packet of No. but if it is decided to make these. Fig. 6d. . . . 3 yds. two pairs of brass handle loops. 4d. 2 harness needles. and lock cover a. . . from 6d. and in this chapter full instructions will be given for making two of the most popular and useful kinds. The other requirements will be a frame. a glue-pot . black or brown.9o CHAPTER Portmanteaux but not VIII. 3d. \ lb. of good glue. . " Imperial " of the dimensions given in Fig. about The handles c may be bought ready-made for Is. 6d. 95. Frames. about 4d. are expensive things to purchase difficult to make. about Is. ball each of hemp and wax. each leather. 5d. and ^-in. to Is. . 93. will be required for a 30-in. brass roller buckles. ditto. costs 2s. 8d. of 1-in. per lb. Fig. iron band for strengthening the lid. 7 in. had better be bought of a saddler. of f-in. copper rivets with washers. Procure also two. — . strap-guides bb. and a basil. roundheaded. two or three awls. strawboards 30 in. This leather will cost about 3s. 8d. and also that for the straps and chapes. material. and one 1-in. which is of to the same shape as a box. 95 illustrates an " Imperial " trunk. 6d. of large.. . to 2s. 1 lb. . 2^d.

and score it 3 in. from each narrow side. Do not be too sparing in — cutting. by 15j in. for the body of the trunk. all round. — Imperial Trunk. by 29^ in. and mark them round. by 22 in. " Scoring " is cutting the board half-way through its substance. so cut a board 30 in. from one end to the other. by 3 in. . place the stiffenings on it. The flange of the lid is to be 3 in. Next cut the canvas. Next cut the boards for the ends 16 in. See tnat the ends are perfectly square. each. so that when it is bent to form the bottom the front and back rise freely to the proper shape. each. 95. The bottom corners are slightly rounded. Lay this japanned side down. then mark each side the distance mentioned lay a long straight-edged rule across. The flange pieces for the ends of the lid are cut separate from this and measure 16 in. Fig. 91 size Begin by cutting the stiffenings to the required :— 16 -f 16 + \h\ 47^ in. and the bottom lines will be true = .Portmanteaux axd Travelling Trunks. leaving a little surplus from the edges of all the patterns. and "score" the board.

of the lid in the same manner. Fold and hammer this down before pasting it so that it will set better. and will lie level on the trunk ends when released. long. the under part being rather wider than the top there will then be no fear of missing any part in the stitching process. To make a pattern for the handles. the lock cover. wide for the front. leaving the canvas perfectly even with the board. so. wide. The edges may then be trimmed with a sharp knife. it is 11 in. taking care that the glue is put on to that side of the board which has been scored. full width. Glue the inner surface of the canvas first. Weights should be placed on any parts which show a tendency to rise. by cutting the spaces 1 in. the next thing will be to glue it to the stiffening. wide. Fig. and bind the edge of each with a strip of basil 1 in. . fold a piece . and be smart in uniting the parts together. 2\ in. and a binding of the same leather along the edge. long by 2 in. The brass loops are \ in. and 16 in. then the stiffening board. and lh in. Paste these on first.92 Leather Working. trunk. Cut the lining 30 in. and finally the flange ends. 97 shows a finished handle ready for fixing to the T . Use hot glue. Having cut out the canvas. long. work the brush rapidly. but do not disturb any portion until the glue is well set. l£ in. That part of the lid which forms the front of the flange must have a basil leather lining pasted along the inside. where the brass handle loops will cover. in the centre. Place the board in position on the canvas and rub it well all over until the two adhere together in every part. long by the same width for each flange end. Patterns for the handles. The flange ends are treated in the same way. and strap-guides should be cut out of stout paper. or it w ill not bend properly. the handle slides and becomes full when in use. Glue the canvas and stiffening of the lid together. scored lines to canvas then treat the trunk ends.

96. and one for the strap-guides. and | in. round \ in. A pattern for the lock . using an . Fig. The pattern will then be similar to Fig. To cut out the handle. Fashion the shape of the handle by marking a curved line between this and the point. 4 in. 93 paper 11 in. at the fold in the centre. from the edge where the spaces for the metal loops are shown. as shown by dotted lines. long and mark it l| in.For tma ntea ux of ' Tra vrl l ixg Tr unks. rounding them at that part where they are gripped. lay the pattern on each. but do not remove the loop These two pieces form the tops of the spaces. can be worked out from these instructions. With a pair of compasses mark them handles. then fix a bottom piece to each with two nails (one at each end) and stitch them together.— Railway Trunk. 98 without the loop spaces removed. by 2 in.. 7 in. and mark it round and cut out... take two pieces of leather 11 in. Shave the edges with a spokeshave. cover. by 6 in. Double the paper so that the line is at fop and bottom prick it through f in. by 2j in. Next cut out the spaces for the loops. and cut out with a pair of sharp scissors. from the edge. from the folded edge.

94 Lea ther Working. By bending down the back part of the lid. leading 16 in. From the binding. make holes through the canvas. The flange ends and front may now be stitched. and pass up the rivets from the inside. it must be inside. It is fixed by stitching a strip of basil leather round the frame and over the edge of the body. Bend these at right angles. Do not make the stitches too deep. The end pieces should lie jus. . This holds the other edge of the lining piece. mark each piece \\ in. see that there the same space at each of their ends. and should be held in position by being coarsely stitched over the position about 4 is edges. Put the frame into the top of the body . To rivet the handles on the trunk ends. about four stitches to the inch. wide. The outside bindings should next be cut these are taken from the welting belly. place the brass loops over so that each one touches the points nearest the middle of the handle. Cut off a piece of iron band 62 in. long. Cut sufficient strips to go round each end of the trunk by paring the ends of each strip and lapping . or the binding will not hide them. ordinary carpenter's chisel 1 in.t inside the other part. Prepare the body of the trunk in a similar manner. and slide this within the leather lining on the front. lay them in in. Hold the chisel erect and drive it through with a mallet. . this is brought to the required shape. and coarsely stitched over in the same manner as the lid. The basil will set better if slightly wetted first. for the second row of stitching. then slide each into one of the flange ends. Sew the binding first with a three-cord thread. Lay the heads of the rivets on a solid iron and burr the points well on to the metal loops. The ends are placed just within the edges of the other part. from the top . and level with the top all round. which is a piece of ox-hide specially dressed for this class of work. of band at each end.

and a 1-in. Washers are placed on the rivets on the inside before they are burred over. Use a little glue for sticking the — strips together. 97. \ in. and lock. strap-guides. mark it on each side about TV in. large so that the hasp. The lock plate at the bottom is riveted down close to the canvas. Begin by binding the body of the trunk first. of stout leather is placed under the plate at the top is riveted to the lid. them about 95 may be made. and should be folded over the edge so that an equal portion of it is on each side. from the edge with a pair of compasses. the rivets being passed through from the inside of the trunk and burred over on to the plate. the required length about 12 ft. Battens d d are fixed to the bottom with nails or Small rollers let into these battens proscrews.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. The lock is first let in by cutting away the material so that the plate rests on the canvas. The buckle chapes for the short straps on the lid are stitched on. 95. Proceed next to fix the buckle chapes. For the stitching. To strengthen the lid. it is necessary to affix strips of iron band. A narrow strip Ti Fig. then the lid. vide a means for easily shifting the trunk. Cut four pieces of the iron band 18i in. The binding must cover all the stitching previously made in basting the parts together.— Trunk Handle. buckle and strap sewn on for holding down the lock cover. Guides b b for long straps are now fixed. . which round-headed rivets being used for these. the position of by the four rows of rivets (three in which is denoted each row) shown by Fig. but the case of the lock passes through. may enter it freely.

Rivet the bent ends to the back of the lid with ^-in.96 Leather Working. enough to lap a little way on to the other parts. then stand the trunk on one end. so that they may strengthen the back of the lid. Drive in at least a dozen nails. covered by it. it will be necessary to stitch the hingepiece to the back of the lid. This must be of good pliable leather. Punch a hole in each of these ends. the better the quality of the lining the less chance has the glue to show through it. . and bend them at right angles 2f in. long by 2 in. Leave a part of the back lining in the body not glued down. Place the lid on the body to find the exact places for the hasp and the short straps. 30 in. after which the lock cover may be stitched on. Cut the lining to the sizes required. and continue as far as can be reached. Line both the lid and the body before connecting them. and stitch on the straps. as they will be less cumbrous to manage in two parts. also three holes in the other parts to receive the rivets. Lay the iron strips inside the lid. from one end. so that in sewing the lid on the stitches are long. and fix them by twelve round-headed rivets as shown. Turn The lid the trunk over and sew from the other end until the stitching meets. rivet the hasp. flat-headed rivets. then secure the hinge-piece to the body of the trunk by nails at intervals along it. and body are now ready for joining together. passing them through the hingepiece from the outside. Place the lid on evenly. fix two pieces of web to stay the lid when open. wide. Pull open the lid a little. and the trunk will be finished. Glue and fix the part of the lining which was left. Fix it on to the lid so that half is left clear for stitching to the body. and see that all the stripes are in one The end pieces should be cut large direction. Before fixing these. commence stitching the hinge-piece from one end. Thin the glue for this work . Mark these distinctly.

The material required for a 27-in. run it within the lining on the front. portmanteau of this shape would be Canvas. for the top. which is placed near the lock. square. Paste this inside. a piece of f-in. Cut the basil lining for the top of this portmanteau 3 in. in order that it may cover the top frame in addition to the iron band. 1 yd. by 5| in. the largest size conveniently carried by one handle. to allow a more gradual bend. for the hinge-piece. 2 yds. The frame for this can now be put in (square iron) and the edges bound according to previous instructions. lining. about 6 in. two 1^-in. p. 96.. The dimensions shown are the proportions of an ordinary 27-in. Although the is 97 " Railway " trunk (Fig. long. 26| in. . The end pieces are cut 12 in.. the foregoing instructions will apply generally to the method of making it. leather for the handle... the sizes of iron used for these are For the body. by 24 in. Cut out the stiffening for the top first. h in. two long straps and guides. : — : — . cut off a strip of iron band 50 in. 93) different in design. and two stiffening boards as before. Glue the canvas and stiffening together. one lock. wide. by 2 in. for the body. 27 in. basil and welting belly as before mentioned. a strip of good leather. by ^'V in. by 23^ in. these being known as the body frame and the top frame. In the best quality. then for the body. There is rather more "corner" taken off these end pieces than in the case of the "Imperial" trunk. buckles. a few rivets of each kind. the stiffening for the body and top must be scored three or four times across.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. T% in. lock flap and strap to fasten it. and for the top. and fix in the end pieces to the body by stitching the edges over and over. 27 in. trim the edges. by 6 in. G . one pair of handle-plates. and 11^ in. from each end. bind these edges with basil. A pair of frames is required for a portmanteau of this shape.

Cut out the pocket (Fig. All the other work is carried out as described for the " Imperial " trunk (Fig. and the third line marked for stitching in the frame. — Trunk Division Board. Stiffen the flap with stout paper.. leaving 11^ in. The edges. except the division board is made and put in when all completed. apart. and a narrow binding cut from the same . strengthen it. and turn the edge under all round. and turn the top edge of the pocket in a little to bind and . then the other side of the board is lined. are trimmed.. by 5^ in. 7 in. and glue lining on to one side. or by inserting a loop as shown. each side. except the bottom. Fold and crease these.98 Lea ther Wor king. and flap from a piece of thin roan the pocket will measure 11 in.. round the top corners a little. bend these. each side pliable for the gussets. which the other work is Fig. A pattern must be cut for the flap. The first and second rows should be \\ in. to the pocket. Line both with a piece of coloured cloth. and the third f in. leaving 2 in. 98). and pass them along the lining of the two ends. using good glue for this. from the second. 98. by 6 in. Glue a piece of stout brown paper. The buckle chapes on each side of the pocket must next be sewn on. fix them on the lined side The flap may be of the board. by 11^ in. One row of stitching to secure the lining should have been previously made. and the flap *J\ in. 95). held down by a piece of elastic and button. Cut a piece of board 26^ in. and stitch round. by 6 in.

ofC. The lining should extend below the bottom of the board. Fold the raw edges inside and stitch them at intervals along the bottom. and it is by this that it is secured to the portmanteau. . passing the thread between the two frames and through the hinge-piece outside L.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. 99 coloured roan is pasted on and stitched round.

high. . 9 in. thick but by increasing or diminishing the dimensions given. rain from the contents of the knapsack. Fig-. KNAPSACKS AND SATCHELS. The outside covering of the knapsack shown by Fig. and prevents any food carried from getting dry. Select a . wide. 90. directions about to be given are for making a knapsack measuring 11 in. as a thin stuff is requisite with both The waterproof material keeps sides unglazed. and 3j in. of course any other suitable size can be similarly made.IOO CHAPTER The IX. — Knapsack. in purchasing which it is as well to state what the material is for. 99 is of rubber-proofed cotton cloth.

: measuring 7 in. and this renders it water- A Body proof for some time. 4 in. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. quite possible on a summer-day's tramp. because the sun's heat is reflected by the former and absorbed by the latter. Fig. For a temporary knapsack. One piece measuring (a b and c d. For lining. by l£ in. Two .Knapsacks and Satchels. Fig. (Fig. 100). twilled calico. d. wide straps will have to be cut out of strap leather. by 1^ in. 101). The following are the sizes of the pieces rea. to use rubber waterproof. and buckles for them will have to be bought. it has been sug- gested that calico or holland can be waterproofed by being stretched. and then rubbed over with a lump warm flatof beeswax till it gets yellowish. c. the edges being held by tacks. The necessary leather will be 45 in. Two pieces measuring 27 in. ioi light-coloured material in preference to a dark one. can be used. some common. by | in. of Knapsack- It is better. 100). and food is never improved by subjection to an invited temperature of 80° or 90°. glazed. c. (p and s. iron passed over the unwaxed side then causes the wax to saturate the stuff. 100). obtainable at any draper's. Fig. white. of thin. on a flat table. (e and f. piping leather 1 in. by 1 in. quired b. however. Two pieces .

by f in. diameter (Fig. (g and H. 104) of £-in. (s. at one end for half their length. From the waterproof cloth and the lining cut One piece out pieces of the following dimensions : — .102 Leather Working. round brass or galvanised iron. 100). Six pieces of cane will be needed. flattened for about one-third of its circumference. f. The binding . Fig. some sewing-thread and needles. 102. 102). but stronger and a ring If in. Fig. 104. 103).— Section of Buckle Leather and Sheath. uTm > 2? Fig. wide. Fig.— Brass Stud. by f in. pieces measuring 4 in. 101. 2. Four buckles will be wanted for the f-in. Fig. 103.— D-ring. binding-tape £ in. Pieces c will have to be reduced in width to § in. Fig. straps two brass studs (Fig. 8 in. can be sewn on by machine. of grey about | in. One piece measuring 3 in. long and Get also 4 yds. diameter.— Ring and Holder. . but the rest of the stitching is done by hand. and some twist and a piercing-awl for sewing through the leather portions. like shirt studs.

in. 100).Knapsacks and Satchels. pieces (t. by \2\ in. margin.. lines (not shown in Fig.— Stiffened Part of Knapsack. from the edge then draw a similar line j\ in. a7 F in. for stiffening the ends of Paste them between the 12^ in. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. from the edge. by 3^ in. . These further in that is. round * y Section of Fig. 106. One piece measuring 12^ in. — Fig. thick cut out two pieces. by 4-|. (outline of Fig. by 4|-in. 105). lining side. Stiffened Part. each 9 in. three sides and a margin of 2| in. so that there is a margin of f in. and should be marked on the . Draw a straight line with lead pencil round the edges that have the |-in. but the whole must be kept flat. 105). 103 measuring 36 in. — . 105) are to act as guides for the seaming. From some cardboard i in. Fig. (outline of Fig. The lining is pasted to the waterproof cloth and is left to dry flat under pressure. 105. making the line I in. The card must be central. to the fourth side. by 9| in. the knapsack. Where the stuffs overlap the card they can be pasted together.

and at c d. 100 teacup inverted can be used to guide a pencil in marking the part-circle on the lining a pair of scissors will then cut it out true. Fig. the stitches being T\ in. 100 shows where the leather goes. lining. 106 is an enlarged section of part of Fig. 14 in. . from the edge. and the holes through the leather should be made first. The parts goes are indicated in Figs. is stitched . apart. at one end Figs. and shows the arrangement the of the stiffening card. from the round-cornered end. piece of stuff. The lined side of the 12-in. The seam. 100). stitches . Fig. These pieces are sewn to the outside of the stuff. A 105. a b (Fig. Round off the corners of the parts shown in and 105 where indicated. by canes. from the round-cornered end. Only one long edge made 8-in. the other is into six pockets that receive the ends of the To form the pockets. At some places binding is not necessary. by \\ in. besides securing the leather to the 12-in. 23 in. pieces with twist and the awl. by 36-in. The leather and straps now have to be sewn on. eight rows of are made. and the seamed edges are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. waterproof covering. and the calico to be sewn on. only. are to be sewn on the 12-in. The awlholes should be made for these in the leather at the same time as those for the edge seams. piece to it. also sews the 12-in. by 36-in. three stitches in each row. by 9-in. and further secure the leather to the stuff. across the width of the leather strip and near its free long edge . and to ensure the correct Next the binding has it where position it is best to draw two pencil lines across at A b. 100. before beginning to sew it to the stuff. the stitches pass through.Ib4 Leather Working. The seams are to be not quite J in. 100 and 105 by a dotted line outside the outlines. The two pieces 12^ in.

so that their outer edges are If in. pieces of leather. f in. wide and 3 in. by f-in. and the edge opposite the rounded corners of the 12-in. piece goes along the line A b.Knapsacks and Satchels. The sheath is simply the piece of leather. from the end that has square corners. The punch can be bought cheaply. Put two or three stitches in the skived overlapping ends to hold them together. from either end of each. 102. long and barely \ in. piece. 1| in. For making the buckle straps skive or bevel the ends of the 7-in. tongues will have to be made by punching out a circular piece with a cutting punch that takes it out clean. Then sew the looped straps to the outside of the stuff. .— Strap End with Keyhole Slit. by 9-in. 105 piece goes against the unlined side of the by 9-irt. 100). as shown in Fig. Fig. and with the same stitches sew on a sheath (s. make a hole shaped like an elongated 0. wide. and. long. or there will not be room for the strap ends to go in so insert one of these to keep it at the right distance whilst sewing it on. as shown at e and f (Fig. 1 VJ Fig'. . by 36-in. | in. 36-in. 107. and bend the skived ends back. wrapped once round the middle of the looped strap. but a short piece of steel or brass tubing with the edges at one end ground sharp will make an efficient substitute. It must not be wrapped tightly. Put the buckles on with their tongues through these holes. 102) for the ends of the straps that are to pass through the buckles. The ends of this hole and the holes for the buckle 12-in. from the edges of the 12-in. piece and their centres are 11 in.

spacing them equally. e and f. by l|-in. and so keep the flap of the knapsack down. piece. by 36-in. as in the case of the 7-in. piece. . 100. by l^-in. 108. on the outside. for into these they buckle. ring.— Part Back View of Knapsack. piece. 101. from the extremity of the leather. by f-in. The studs passed through these two holes keep the end of the strap wrapped round the lf-in. by f-in. 100). Punch eight buckle-holes in the f-in. edge. a b (Fig. Fig. the two 4-in.wide part make keyhole slits (Fig. To the round-cornered end of the 12-in. 100). and so forming a loop for the flat part of the ring to The holder is rest in (see Figs. and the other hole Z\ in. 107) for the studs to go in. stitched to the middle of the 12-in. This ring is held to the knapsack by a leather holder made by doubling the 4-in. In the 1-in. and 108). part of the tapering pieces. pieces They are placed If in. at g and h (Fig. One hole of each pair should be \ in. of the leather are stitched. near the end.106 Leather Working. from it. from the 36-in. pieces.

by 12-in. The relative positions of the 36-in. from the edges. a second seam along the second guide-line from the first. occupying its middle part and leaving — Fig - . 105). from each end so that the folded piping can be bent at right angles there more easily (Fig. ends are sewn to the two 9-in. by 4-|-in. 109).— Satchel or Cartridge Ba°r. side of Fig. 100). a margin of \ in. 110. 105) and to it sew the piping leather in the following manner The edges of the leather are to be close to the edges of the stuff. and the 3^-in. the side to which the piping The is sewn is the waterproofing. — Piped Corner of Stiffened Part. Take one of the stiffened pieces (Fig. piece and the two 12^-in. io- Cut the piping leather into two pieces and fold each lengthwise along its centre. 109 shows a corner of Fig. portion between the two notches is to be sewn along the 4^-in. When both pieces have been piped. by 12-in. Fig-. stitches must be f\ in. pieces — — ^ . Cut a notch 9^ in. with the piping sewn to it . 105 enlarged. 109. Fig. not the lining. piece (Fig. with in. and along the guideThere is lines already made g in. at either corner. The other parts of the piping leather the two 9|-in. 105. apart. they are to be sewn to the 36-in. no piping between A and J (Fig. sides of the stiffened pieces.Knapsacks and Satchels.

where these points are sewn to Fig. Fig. Sometimes one of the straps. of the unstiffened Fio-. J k d b take the place k c A The seams must be continuous all round the three sides. p or s. 105 and its fellow-piece. and J (Fig. --Front of Satchel. the bag must be turned inside out and four fastening-off stitchings made at the corners A. 100. 100 is drawn to half the scale of Fig. 100). due allowance being made for the facts that Fig. in The ends must be inserted Tapes may be sewn to the ends of the canes their pockets. of J held together. and that FL>. 112. When finished. 111.io8 Lea ther Working. to prevent tearing. e and f). b. 100 and 105.— Back and Flap of Satchel. 113. is fitted with a hook-andeye attachment to make putting on and taking off . J. where J k c a in one have to coincide with the same letters in the other. Fig.— Buckle Piece. 105. and must be made whilst the pieces are on the other side of Fig. 100 (whose ends go into the buckles. by 4^-in. parts of the 12i-in. are shown by Figs. lining outwards. pieces.

Knapsacks and Satchels. Ill) is made similarly. pigskin. and stitch the two ends together to form a loop slide this along the strap to the buckle and sew through the two thicknesses of strap. The buckle is still wanted for adjustment. which shows the front. or of canvas bound with leather. . The buckle piece (Fig. Next cut a piece of leather. and afterwards sewn as in Fig. 110. or any other leather of the same substance and quality. which may then be fixed in position. The straps (Figs. starting from l (Fig. 115) and bend the leather 2 in. 114. In that case the strap p or s is cut in two about the middle of the f-in. should be made of brown middling. may then be sewn on the gusset or band (Fig. To make it. Ill).. or solid leather. has been cut to pattern. This chapter will conclude with a description of how to make a cartridge bag or satchel. by ^ in. begin by cutting patterns in paper or cardboard to the dimensions shown in Figs. and polish the edges with a greasy rag then punch the holes shown in Figs. Such a bag is shown by Fig. and a brass wire hook is made and fastened to one end and a brass wire eye to the other. Two pieces of leather. 115 and 116. part. from the end and punch or cut a hole in the centre of the fold for the tongue of the buckle. The bag can be made in cowhide. 109 easier than when a buckle has to be undone.. 113. and loops.— Gusset of Satchel. 115) on the one side round to M on the other side. Ill to 116. Take the shoulder strap (Fig. colour the edges of the pieces just mentioned with dye to match the leather. 1| in. 1^ in. buckle piece (Fig. 114) as shown. by f in. 115 and 116). After this Fig.

113) to B (Fig. 113) to point A (Fig. 114). this being pasted about 1 in. The front (Fig. 114) and e (Fig. also i (Fig. The back should be folded and marked at f (Fig. The piece should next be turned inside out. and bring the two centres F and G together and tack them strongly.no Lea ther The short strap I For king. from the edge from H to I (Fig. . Next fix the front on the back. the two edges of the welting and the edge of the gusset together. The parts shown by Figs. and in doing this. from the edge and continued for 1^ in. the face of the leather being brought outside and the welting being forced out and rubbed with the handle of a hammer to give it the shape shown at x (Fig. strongly together and bring D (Fig. wide being folded over and oversewn or tacked about \ in. joining f 110). the stitching | o o o o o i Fig-. 113) should now be bound with soft leather from J to k. 114 at G. 114) should now be welted on the back. 113).— Satchel Shoulder Strap. 112. a piece of leather f in. Tack the parts (Fig. work on the gusset. similarly mark Fig. 113). 112). Also tack together in a similar way h (Fig. 115. keeping (Fig. 116) flap (see Fig. 112). and 114 should have strong twill lining fixed over the back of each piece. 113. having it on top when stitching. a strip of leather £ in. along each side. 114) and d (Fig. should be sewn on the being commenced \ in. from the edge. The whole should now be welted together from point E to d (Fig. 113). 113). The gusset or band (Fig. wide being pasted on and marked for stitching if this is to be done by machine. and pricked with a pricking iron if hand work is employed.

and tack them. 112) to b. 110). binding should be about f in. 112). This should be done with an awl and needle. hi 112). 112. leaving about 6 in. L2 Fig. passing it round the band or gusset and through the loop on the opposite side. 115) through the loop at x (Fig. 113) and K to E should then be turned inward and fastened with six stitches from the inside to the back of Fig. 113) to c (Fig. . If brown leather has been employed and has become soiled in handling. The back should next be bound all round with leather from a point under the strap between N and The o. Run the point of the long strap (Fig. Next oversew or whip the whole together from c (Fig. a coarse thread being used.Knapsacks and Satchels. The strap should be long enough to pass over the shoulder and buckle. 110. wash it with a weak solution of oxalic acid. of spare strapping.— Short Strap of Satchel. overlapping at this point by about \ in. and e (Fig. Next fold the flap and fasten the short strap to the buckle in front. The parts from D to J (Fig. wide.

LEATHER ORNAMENTATION. of scrolls. just large enough to take the wheel without allowing it to wobble. making them slightly round. etc. The points should be finished on an oilstone. the other end being drilled and slotted The slot must be to receive the wheel and pin. A tang is filed at one end for inserting in the handle. Fig. the ends being shaped similar to the thumb. namely. so that they do not scratch. wood. or steel. such as book-covers. panels. file. 120 from above. of leather ornamentation described in can be applied to a variety of articles. and may be filed up from hard brass. The modellers (Figs. shown by Fig. The tools required are few and can be easily made. showing the ends pointed for working into corners and points The ends of 'the tool. . ally used for the purpose. 117) can be made by inserting two pieces of steel knitting-needle in a wooden handle. and filing them to points as shown. The shanks to carry the wheels may be of either of the metals mentioned above. made with a chisel or knife. 121 is a view of Fig. and may be Box is generof the same material. 119 and 120) are the shape of the tools used in clay-modelling. blotters. 118) is a tool with wheels of different thicknesses. but any hard wood of They are easily close and even grain is suitable. The tracer (Fig. and sandpaper. The edges must be perfectly flat and square. boxes.. fingerplates for doors. with fine effect. a hole being drilled in the centre for the pin. The liner (Fig. one fine and the other blunt.112 CHAPTER The method this chapter X. 119. iron.

. pencil. with compasses and pencil carefully Ages mark off and draw a number of squares over the H . as seen from above. paper. to work on perhaps hard wood would do as well if the surface were planed smooth. as shown. All are about 6 in. . The design has now to be obtained. and compasses. The grounding-punch (Fig.— Tracer. It is about 4 in. — . or work in hand. 113 are round. the larger end as broad as the middle of the tool the other end is slightly smaller. can be used. " Decorative Designs of All for All Purposes. 118. 117. : The following materials are required A slab about 1 in. For transferring the design. sandpapered. The leather must be thin calf or basil without flaws. is . cutting off the head and the other or working end to a long blunt point. A light hammer completes the list of tools. so that the end found most suitable to the line. The com- panion handbook. and. 122) may be formed Fig." is invaluable to those who wish to draw their own designs. and made nonabsorbent with a coat or two of varnish a bag of sand or sawdust on which to place the marble or wood slab to deaden the noise when grounding drawing pins for fixing the design . flat —Liner. . a sponge and water for damping the leather some bran or fine sawdust and ryeflour for filling the raised parts a of slate or marble.Leather Ornamentation. filing from a large French nail. long. thick. Fig. ruler. The above tools are all larger at one end than the other. long.

a fair enlarged or reduced copy can be made. The paper pattern must now be pinned to the leather.— Modeller. 119. to guide the tools ferred. according to size. This gives the finished article a good appearance. Leather Working. Fi . larger all round than this to allow of skiving and turning over the edge. using considerable pressure. Then draw a rectangle the full size of the paper pattern. The pattern should be of such a size that a margin will be left all round. the depressions thus made being filled (just filled and no more) with a paste made by the liner. Remove the pattern and go over the lines with w ell pressing it. and by noting where the lines of the design cross the squares.H original. 120.—Modeller. and with the tracer go over all the lines. The leather. Fig. should be cut \ in. or the pattern will not be transThe ruler should be used. spot than another a stain will show it must be kept damp throughout the working. and with the sponge and clean water damp it carefully and If the leather is w^etter at one equally all over. if for a bookcover. . and divide it into an equal number of squares. using the modellers. Place the leather on the slab. to f in. along straight lines. say from % in. T mixing equal parts of fine sawdust or bran and rye- . Any parts to be raised will now be pressed up from behind. There are now a number of fixed points.

— Grounding-punch. Then go over the lines again with the liner until they are clear and sharp. and the raised parts carefully modelled to shape with the Fig-. — Another View of Modeller. and.Leather Ornamentation. dot in the ground. ready for mounting. Over these place paper to prevent them sticking where not needed. When quite dry. 122. taking the hammer and punch. place the slab on the sand-bag. making the impressions sharp and clear. or . 121. and let the leather dry. The leather is now turned right side up. proceed to stipple Fig - . 115 flour with water. modellers while the paste is still workable. Much depends on the evenness The work is now finished and of the ground.

5 cases pieces . and the bladder. 123) and the Rugby (Fig. Whole hides vary slightly in size. Much of this leather is manufactured specially for football makers. it is necessary to decide what kind of leather will be required. or cover. The shapes most used are the Association (Fig. . serviceable cases may be made from leather prepared in the usual way. but good.n6 CHAPTER XI. The cases are made — 123. 124). First of all. FOOTBALLS. from quite a variety of leathers. and cut on the average from twelve to thirteen No. The case always should be made of leather. Footballs are composed of two parts the case. especially cowhide. and many of the cheaper ones are not worth the labour of making up. and bladders are made from vulcanised sheet rubber of good quality. — As80ciation Football.

The case for an ordinary match ball. . although there is no advantage to be gained in the greater numbers. where they prefer a slightly larger ball. in various sizes 117 may be cutters will cut any required size at so bought. and so with the nine. No.Footballs. In cutting from small pieces there is more waste than in cutting from a hide. 1. contains two square feet . 30 in. 24 in. but it must not be understood that a case could be cut out of a piece of leather that size. 124. but some have nine or ten segments. by 26 in. Other sizes are seldom made except for use in Australia. as they are all the same size when made up. 3. . either Rugby or Association. No. 26 in. 2. 22 in. . . No. 4. 20 in. . circumference. The standard sizes of footballs are as follow: Association: No.or . 28 in. by 25 in. Association cases are mostly made in seven or eight pieces. 6. and an ordinary match Rugby measures 29| in. the dimensions of their Rugby match balls being 30| in. No. and some leather much per square foot.— Rugby Football. of leather . 5. The easiest to begin upon will be a seven-segment case the others can be worked out by anyone. No. For an eight-segment case reduce the width of pattern proportionately. Fig.

Having cut out the case. and draw on it a straight line 13 in. from the centre this will leave 4| in. drawing-pins or fine nails to the table before marking to prevent it shifting. . . lay it on a large sheet of paper and mark round the pattern seven times on it this will show how much leather will be required.n8 Leather Working. — Segment of Association Football Case. See that the marks on each are exactly opposite . mark and cut off each end. which shows a hide with pattern laid on. When the pattern has been cut out. see that the pieces when cut will run in the same direction of the hide as shown in Fig. Select two segments and place them face to face. ten-segment case. 125. Fix the cardboard with a few Fig-. but there are several methods by which it can be done. and how it should be cut. 126. made in seven segments. from the centre on each side. and draw a line from point to point. 5 Association case. For a No. On this line mark off \\ in. make a pattern 13 in. then mark one edge of each 2j in. and are also stronger. Take a piece of stout cardboard. as shown in Fig. if inserted ends are to be put in. . long bisect this by a line at right angles. In buying the leather. than outside end pieces. as shown in the diagram. These look much neater. 125. for the mouth. hold this in one hand and the string a given distance from it. across the middle. long by 3| in. dividers are much too small for this purpose. One of the easiest is to tie a piece of fine string to a blacklead pencil. and draw segments of a circle through the four Ordinary compasses or points thus obtained.

a No. a few sewing awls. its size These may have four strands. one another. 126. The case is now 127. Before beginning to sew the segments together. The method of forming a wax-end is as follows Take the ball of hemp and push the end out from . flators being sewn. Fig. and can be bought at any leatherseller's. The few tools necessary for making footballs are not expensive. — Football Pattern Set out on Hide. this costs being 9 in. a ball of fine brown hemp. wax. 3 punch. between by 1^ in. ready for sewing. are all that will be necessary. it will be necessary to make the threads (wax-ends). packet of harness needles. small piece to line each of these this will strengthen . five and six shillings. Fiff. Inmay be bought at prices according to pattern and size. 128 shows the most useful kind .Footballs. and the usual clamp to hold work whilst must be cut Mark them as in Fig. A knife. for lace-holes 119 A them.

A hook or strong nail must be fixed in some convenient place. . Give an additional coat of wax to the points. pass the point of thread through the eye. Four strands will make a good strong thread carefully examine the points to see that they taper properly and have no lumps. when twisted together. placed a little distance above one another. and all is now ready for sewing. Fix a needle to the other point in the same way select an awl of suitable size. which should not make a hole larger than necessary. then lay one point over the right thigh and roll it with the hand down the leg a few times until it is well twisted. The hemp runs out more will freely this stand perfectly still. take a needle. Place the segment within the mouth way. This lining may be held in place either by being pasted or tacked with two or three small nails. begin by breaking the end of the hemp to a fine tapering point. . . will. This is done by holding the hemp firmly between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. Leather Working. from the hook and begin to make a thread by holding the end just formed in the left hand pass the hemp round the hook and bring it down with the right hand. and all being ready. Then take the end with the right hand and give it a jerk the fibres will break. . then repeat with the other point rub wax up and down and it is ready for use. and twist needle round a few times to secure it. and with the right hand rub it in a downward direction. give a smooth tapering point. and the ball . and break off as before.120 the centre. turn point of thread back. leaving a few inches hanging down lay this over the thigh of the right leg. and the ends of the strands formed in this way. . Rub the wax up and down quickly a few times. which should be large enough to take the sewing all round the mark. which will cause the twisted strand to loosen. Stand at a distance of 3 ft. Begin by stitching on the linings for lace-holes. .

pass up the bottom needle as before into the right hand. Sew round until the place started from is reached. This will give a thread of equal length on each side. Punch seven holes in each of the two lined segments for the lace-holes. as shown in Fig. send the top needle through to the bottom. leaving only the last seam. taking care that the edges of each are perfectly true. —Marking Lace-holes on Football Case. Be careful to fasten the threads at the ends of each seam by tying them in a firm knot. and with a needle in each hand pull through the threads simultaneously until they lie on each side of the leather and form a stitch top and bottom. pass the needle up through the hole. Place these in the mouth of the clamp. Be careful to drive the awl straight through. then cut off and sew the other segment to match. drive the awl through at one of the points of the pattern marked on it. a ball of good shape if the leather has been properly cut. 127. and as near the edges as may be without weakening the strong seam pull both threads in at the same time and with equal tension this will give. and draw the thread through until the middle is reached. unsewn. or when the case is . . and commence sewing at one end. 127. Make another hole with the awl. where the lace-holes are. Sew all the segments together.Footballs. Fig-. so the ends must be cut off the seven segments. when finished. . The case is now ready for seaming. 121 of the clamp. It is assumed that the case is to have inserted ends. Take two segments and place them grain upon grain.

turned and inflated the seams will gape open. prepare to sew in the end pieces. Damp the seams well with a wet sponge and push the foot inside the case. The seams must now be lightly hammered down. between the knees. or the grain broken. 128. \\ in. such as is used The smallest for repairing children's boots on. the seams have been treated in this way. Make holes with the awl round the edges before sewing. and should be fixed in an iron stand or the usual wooden leg sold for that Fig. to form the ends place the case. The hole at each end of the case should be not more than \\ in. The best substitute for a proper iron for this purpose is a small iron foot. so as better to guide the worker when sewing the may be When all . in diameter. across.— Football Inflator. size will be large enough. one end uppermost. taking care that it is always solid where the hammer blows fall. The last seam should have about two stitches at each end just sufficient to hold them together while the end pieces are being sewn in.12 2 Lea ther Wor king. Too much force must not be used with the hammer purpose. . Take two circular pieces of leather.

well. by 3 in. Cut a piece of leather 4^ in. and the ball is ready for inflating. and so on until the seam is finished. the leather is stout. will in when sewn hammer down the two The case is now ready for turning. finishing at the mark showing space to be Fasten the threads left for insertion of bladder. 123 end pieces seams. . and pare the edges all round to form the tongue-piece. Begin sewing this from the top. This be found rather an awkward job. Put the nozzle of inflator into the bladder.Footballs. or it will not shape properly when blown out. The inserted end piece must rest about half-way along the seam just sewn. By pulling further apart the half of the open seam which is outside it will be found that the inner. iron foot inside and hammer the seam Place the then push out the case again to its natural shape and drive down the other end. and is used as a protecton to the bladder. lay the tongue evenly inside the mouth. may be sewn. then it will to sew it. but this last seam must be sewn inside like all the others to do this. but not so equal as before. most one can be got at. This will give it the appearance of a large bowl or the half of a huge cocoanut shell. draw the tube . This is stitched on to one of the sides of the opening by half a dozen stitches near the middle hole. draw the tube through hole in tongue-piece. and gradually work down towards the laceholes. drive one end of the case down until it rests upon the other. and when sufficient air has been pumped in. be necessary to shift it a little. Lightly hammer the seam while sewing. as a great strain is on this seam. and this will bring the unsewn part in the right position for commencing About 1^ in. Now insert the bladder. The case is the right side out. especially if . A hole should be cut in the middle of tongue-piece to allow the pipe attached to the bladder to pass through it.

hold tightly with thumb and finger. . fold tube over. The process is the same. it will be an easy matter to make a ball of any other shape and size. With the knowledge already gained. perfect in shape and equal to the roughest wear it may have to endure. a ball. If the instructions have been carefully followed. draw the mouth together with a good lace. and the ball is finished.124 Leather Working. off nozzle. will have been produced. Push the tube under the side which is not attached to the tongue. taking great care there is no escape of air. and tie down firmly with wax-end. and it only requires some care in calculating for the pattern.

In the first method. In the second method. The leather by this means is largely impregnated with the colour. the preliminary treatment of the leather consists in soaking it in warm water to open the pores and soften the leather. This method is used for applying coal-tar dyes. thus allowing it to take up the dye quicker and more evenly. etc. a solution of the dye is applied to the surface of the leather whilst spread on a board. LEATHER.. therefore only weak liquors should be employed. it may be steeped for a short time in a bath made of 2 lb. the leather is either tanned with gall extract. As the skins are often greasy. and tanning and dyeing become one operation. If the colour is to be applied by dipping. This gives a superficial colouring only. especially in patches. or by means of aniline blacks. such as naphthylamine black. after tanning. especially tan colours. Black colours are produced on leather with salts of iron and galls. it may be necessary to dip them in a dilute solution of ammonia or washing soda. but this treatment tends to harden the leather and render it harsh. Light-coloured leathers. etc. the tanned leather is soaked for a short time in the liquid dye contained in a vat. and by brushing. the under side of the leather not being coloured. indulines. the tannin liquors are made from materials which yield the required tints. there are two methods of leather dyeing by dipping. For an iron black. are as a rule produced without dyeing . Broadly speaking. sloelines. or it is revolved with the liquor in a closed cylinder. or. of — .125 CHAPTER DYEING XII.

till the black has fully developed. of water. however. . Sulphuric acid. dye required varies. The blacks mentioned are known as " acid " dyes. Other aniline dyes may be applied to leather by dipping or brushing. must not be used. Aniline blacks soluble in water are not deadblack colours. scraps. After steeping in the gall bath. Leather has the greatest affinity for the " basic " dyes. especially from a slightly acid solution. of logwood chips to 8 gal. powdered leather. which is best done after soaking the leather in water for a short time then sponge it with the dye solution. in the proportion of. 1 lb. as their staining powers vary. such as aniline yellow or orange. all that is required being a solution of the dye in water. after partial drying. This should be rendered slightly alkaline with carbonate of soda or ammonia before use. of the liquid. To get a good black it may be necessary to give several coats. 1 lb. The aniline dyes may be divided into "acid" dyes and "basic" dyes. to 2 lb. steep it in a solution of ferrous sulphate (green vitriol). or naphthol yellow. galls and 1 lb. In order to counteract the effect of this. another coat may be applied. By using the two dyes combined. one-tenth of the black employed. as it causes the leather to rot it is better to add a little The amount of acetic acid or bisulphate of soda. The same blacks may be applied to leather by brushing. two classes. but have a more or less pronounced violet shade. it is usual to add a yellow dye. it is possible to obtain on leather blacks that are nearly free from violet tint. and. but two coats should suffice if a stronger solution is used.126 Leather Working. these colours being fixed by the excess of tannin in the hides as tannin-lakes. and if too much tannin is present the . to 8 gal. but as a rule. say. may be taken for 10 gal. The amount of dye to be used is best found by experiment on leather . and they are readily taken up by of water.

Alkalies must not be used for this purpose. Magenta. tions. water soluble. however. Chrysoidine. and will be taken quite readily. Basic Dyes. violet. The following is a list of some of the aniline dyes suitable for dyeing leather it is not. Basic dyes are not so suitable for dyeing by immersion unless the excess of tannin is previously removed from the leather by soaking in water. unless afterwards neutralised by dilute acid. a complete list. but strong solutions may be applied with a sponge. 127 leather takes too much colour and becomes overstained or it may dye too deeply in patches thus basic dyes are best employed in rather dilute solu. Fast yellow. Malachite green. Acid dyes are more suitable for dyeing by immersion than the basic ones. For dyeing leather black by brushing. Nigrosine . Naphthol blue-black. It is then allowed to dry partially. Naphthylamine black. Naphthol green. the leather is stretched and brushed with a strong decoction of logwood. Aniline orange. If the black is not fully developed by this treatment the leather is again treated with logwood. Phosphine. . Acid green. Compound colours may be made by mixing two dyes . Alkali blue. Acid Dyes. or with a solution of quercitron or sumach. Sloelines. as they injure the colour of the dye.Dyeing Leather. Hofmann Methyl violet. . Bismarck brown. Acid browns. Another reason for the use of weak solutions is that basic dyes give a bronze colour if the solution is too strong. after which it is brushed or dipped in a solution of sulphate of iron or nitrate of iron. and again treated once or twice with the logwood solution.

of sulphate or chloride of zinc. After dyeing. tion of picric acid gives a very pale yellow colour aniline yellow and phosphine are now largely used A red dye may be made by heatfor yellow stains. red. alum-tanned or tanned with pale tan liquors. or by the use of A solusaffron. of Brazil wood (in shavings) with 16 oz. and Brazil wood. will be most suitable for the purpose. anatto. 1 oz.128 Leather Working. A purple dye is obtained from \ lb. however. leather is usually treated with oil during the drying to prevent it getting hard and stiff . tan.. In some cases oils and yolk of eggs arc employed to aid in softening the leather. leather. the leathers are usually finished by smoothing with a " slicker/' and drying very slowly. solution of shellac in borax is often used to fix the black dye. Adding a little sulphate of copper modifies the colour. This is brushed on the of alum in 4 oz. of scarlet berries. intensify the black. that is. or stiffening. The various shades of yellow. one of the aniline blacks The to the logwood solution. of white vinegar. and then adding a solution of \ oz. is a fugitive colour. The leather intended for dyeing in bright colours should be as nearly white as possible. it is also To may be added worked about for the same purpose. as that on the surface tends to A stained a red colour with one of the by first treating it with cochineal extract and tin salts (chloride of tin) . and \ oz. stretching them and working them about from time to time to prevent wrinkling and is rub off. are also obtained by using solutions of aniline dyes. orange. As a finish they may be rubbed with a solution made with curd or Castile dull polish may be obtained by using a soap. 16 oz. Leather that has been tanned. of water. fustic. the latter. etc. of water. of Brazil wood. polishing rag and a little French chalk. ing \ lb. Leather aniline dyes. strong soap A .

— Portsea Purse or Saddler's Purse. put the three edges together and tack them. and may be made easily. wide have a . Cut the back part 5^ in. long and from 4^ in. Cash bags may be made of soft leather. 129) is commonly called a saddler's purse. of miscellaneous articles in leather will have their construction described in this chapter. of the top. Punch holes | in. I . light calf. 129. and run a string in and out from each end through these holes so that the string crosses in the holes . knot the ends so that the mouth is closed on pulling the string. The Portsea purse (Fig. Then turn the bag Fig-. of the same width as the bag . inside out and turn in \ in. about the mouth. to 9 in.129 CHAPTER A number XIII. or other light leather of any colour. The material may be hogskin. Cut them from 8 in. stitching all round the bottom of the turned-down piece. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF LEATHER WORK. such as wash-leather or basil. and either backstitch or double-hand them with a fine awl and needles. centre piece to reach to within 2 in. to 6^ in. apart all round the mouth between the stitches and the top. with linen thread of any colour.

leaving . If the pocket is made with a gusset that is. line of the front piece.130 long. a piece let in to open it to increase the capacity a button will be required to keep it — — closed. A small button. then round the top. with a hole opposite in the overlap to fasten it down . Having marked the stitches on the front part. Double it down all along the middle. Cut square with the top of the centre piece on both sides. wet them. put these together and tack them. and round it at the top. and turn the gusset so all round the centre piece. cut a thin piece of soft and it must be long enough to go round the stitched part of the purse and 1^ in. and rub with a rag so as to polish the sides straight Turn down the back part a little above the and give the bend a few light taps with a hammer. . long. and stitch all round to the opposite side. wide. them. stitch double with beeswaxed linen thread where the front part begins. taking care that with every stitch the centre piece is caught up. round it at one end for the bottom. prick along the mark put in the centre piece of the purse from the point of the straight end between the two folds of the gusset right up to the leather at the bend. and stitch along the marks made all round. and stitch the gusset and back together all the way. and round it at one end to the same shape as the back part . Cut the centre piece to the same shape. cut the front piece 3| in. Leather Working. may be put through the front piece. Then glasspaper the edges. There are now three pieces . let it be quite square and straight at the top. and tack the edge of the gusset right opposite on the back and all round. For the gusset. Tack the front piece to the other side of the . but this is not really necessary. such as a small front stud. and mark it along the bent edge with the screw-crease and pliable hogskin .

will keep in good shape and sound condition for many years. . lay the patterns on the leather. . This may be cut in one length and carried right round. and both kinds are made up in the same manner. Other purses may be made on the principles just described. The instructions given here are for making a case in solid leather. c is the bottom pattern. Put the purse on a flat surface and weight it to keep it flat leave it so till the gusset dries. A strip of leather \ in. 1 3 I gusset and stitch it round then damp the gusset and draw a piece of string tightly against the middle of the gusset between the back and centre pieces also draw it between the centre and the front piece to pull in the gusset. It frequently happens even when a good price is paid for a pair of opera glasses that the case sold with them soon shows signs of becoming dilapidated. Make tracings of the three patterns on suitable paper and paste these to thin cardboard. The body is made of two pieces marked a. wide is joined to this and forms the flange. and put in the button.MlSCELLANEO US EXA MPL ES. — — . Brown and patent leathers look and wear well. the details of construction being soon mastered and its cost will be but trifling. 130 gives the three necessary patterns for cutting out an opera-glass case. overlap. or made in two pieces and joined even with the seams on the body. . Trim and rub the edges. and it will then stand and keep its form. Fig. b shows the pattern for the top. and the slip-shod style of putting them together. and either cut it with a fine-pointed knife round the edge of the pattern. or sheet zinc. of fine gauge. There is no difficulty in making it. which are joined together on each side where the strap goes round. or mark the shape first with a round point and cut out after the pattern is removed. . turn down. This is owing to the trumpery material these cases are made of. well. if well-made. Cut them out correctly. which.

and also the top and bottom pieces. from the edges— that is one edge of each flange piece. and one edge only on the flange pieces.132 Lea ther Working. colour the size with a little lampblack or similar pigment. long by f in. The strap to hold down the lid is 3 in. long by | in. A number of holes will have to be made in the — . wide. and the four loops to keep the sling-strap in position round the case must be cut If in. leather is used. is enough to very weak solution of " size and a few drops of oxalic acid in ^ pt. and then through the other part in a corresponding manner.. The sling-strap should be 6 ft. the sides arc now ready for closing together. See that the inside edge is well taken hold of by each stitch. or patent. long by | in. of water solution added to it produces a more brilliant polish. and that a uniform portion of the flange is in sight. Having sewn these on. Those edges to be sewn must be finished after the stitching is done. bringing the awl out at . is . the awl must be driven. but in a slanting direction from the mark along the surface towards the extreme edge at the bottom. For colouring the edges of brown leather use a " 1 oz. The edging must be applied hot with a sponge. In doing this. Mark all parts for the stitching £ in. The flange pieces for the body are laid inside and fixed to the broadest part of each body half. not straight through as in the case of stitching on the flange. the four edges of the body. Secure these in position with a few small nails and stitch them straight through. straps. If black. The buckle chape should be middle of one half which fix this to stitched on to the form the body before the side seams are closed it is so much easier to on to the flat surface. Colour and rub up the edges of straps and loops. and the polish produced by rubbing with a moderately coarse cloth.

Miscellaneous Examples. In this manner one edge is to butt close against the other. Two small pieces of leather to form hinges must also be attached to the body. 133 the opposite mark. and the stitching securely holds them together. Stitch the bottom in next. The guide loops for the sling-strap must be stitched on next. leaving sufficient " slack " to allow the sling-strap to be drawn through. This is put inside the lower made — — . and stitch them on. so that an equal proportion of loop is on either side. Place these evenly across the seams.

and passing it through the four guide loops. 131 below. such as is illustrated by Fig. Fig. To get the size of the top and bottom leather. Fig. insert and remove the music than would be possible if this portion were united to the ends in the same manner as the back. Leather Working. great skill is not required. place the glasses on a sheet of paper and take the outside measurement at each end. especially if the instructions about to be given are followed with care. The shape is of the ordinary round bottom pattern (Fig. or marine may be made from these instructions.134 sling-strap. first turning the screw to — — bring the glasses to the shortest focus. which possesses the advantage of holding the folded music without any perceptible crease. and make some allowance over this measurement for the thickness of leather. field. In making a music carrier. etc. by 10 in. . 131) so generally used. Then take the length of the glasses. The dimensions given will be found suitable for all ordinary sheet music measuring 14 in. Cases for any size of glasses opera. 131. 132 shows the lid raised and the front flap dropped ready for receiving the sheets of music as well as for withWith this drop flap it is easier to drawing them. — Music Carrier Closed..

from the commonest bookbinders' cloth to the expensive French moroccos and scented Russia leather. allow \ in. 133) shows how the various parts are divided. long by 5| in. 3^ in. allowing a sufficient margin beyond the four edges for turning over at least half an inch. deep. but is not so easy to work. and 2| in. —Music Carrier Open. the top of lid. beyond when cutting to provide the necessary surplus for folding over the edges. Common bookbinders' cloth is the cheapest and the least troublesome to use. there is no necessity to keep precisely to these dimensions. 135 the case when made up being 15 in. If in. so that the edges when folded over the board neatly butt together. Many kinds of material are — Fig. as the case may be. Of course. being the drop flap. but they will be found to be very suitable for the purpose. 132. used. face downwards on a level table and proceed to line out the various parts as in Fig.Miscellaneous Examples. Lay the cloth or leather. 133 . Dull-grained American duck wears better. The diagram (Fig. the lid flap. Whatever material is used it is essential that it should be cut in one piece. 9 in. A piece of thin millboard is next . but it is the least durable. the bottom and back. to I in. The corners of this surplus must be removed as shown.

The pasted edges are next brought over the boa'rd and rolled. Lea ther Working. The two lines on each side of the lf-in.136 cut 15 off. space are scored. so that it extreme edges. is Good bookbinders' paste inside of the material. lines scored — ml* -v- -16- Fig. by 16^ and the cross in. the two corners are taken that is. cut about half-way through with a pointed knife travelling This permits the board along a straight edge. 134). The inside lining is cut rather less than the size of the millboard. —Pattern for Music Carrier. The rounded ends sufficient to . then the board must be turned over and the line for the drop flap (3^-in. 133. next applied to the and the millboard surface then lay the board in position on is double scored the cloth and press the two firmly together by using the roller (Fig. space) scored on the other side. but proves does not quite reach the make a good lap over the turned-in surplus. in.. being folded into divisions without separating the parts. .

The patterns may be cut from thin cardboard or brown paper. top. For a ^-plate camera case as illustrated by Fig. good deal or mahogany board. This forms the outside flap. .Miscellaneous Examples. and covered to correspond. 136). i37 seen in Figs. 135. thoroughly waterproof. and there is little else to add to its cost except the lining and a few buckles and dees. or rings. and it should not be heavier than is consistent with durability. of a smooth interior. strong. A leather camera case must be of simple shape. 131 and 132 are usually cut from a piece of \-m. When leather handles are used it is a much stronger method to insert the ends through openings made in the top of the case. and back of case. Fig. The leather for a camera case is not a very expensive item. and then stitch or rivet them . Place one of these ends in position and fix with an escutcheon pin at the extreme point forming the back. cut the widest pattern first (see Fig. 134. so that it does not scratch the camera. and metal handles with bosses and clamps may be bought and easily fixed. and it will give a neater appearance if the . and again just below the drop flap then at intervals insert small gimp pins and fix in the other end to match.—Hand Roller handle and lock are fixed before the inside lining at this part is pasted down. The lock and catch are fixed by three pins being riveted through each.

wide for the gusset (see Fig. from the end with large rounded corners this gives the size of the flap and another — . for the depth of case. and draw two lines across the pattern. Fig-. The width throughout is 8j in. and a total length of 21| in. Round the corners well at one end and slightly at the other. The four corners must be rounded oft' and lines drawn across the pattern. from this. using a square for this purpose. 135. 137). across 3| in. giving the size of top and leaving 11 in. drawn 7 in. long by 7 in. one line is . Next cut a pattern 36 in.— Camera Case. One line is drawi.138 Leather Working.

Black enamelled or brown cowhide is the best v Fig. This leaves a space of 8 in. The pattern for the front is a simple rectangle 11 in. as this part forms the top of the case as well as the flap. 1 I . and — Front Back of Camera Case. wide and long enough to reach ^ in. 139 from each end and two more 11 in. long by 8{ in. two of the corners being slightly rounded. J Flap. leather for this purpose. ISC EL L A NEO US EXA MPL ES. for the bottom. from these. wide. 136. 136 the binding starts at a and is continued round to b. Top. and cut into strips I in. Some pieces of leather for binding the flaps will be wanted these must be thin and pliable. beyond the marks showing the parts to form the flaps.M 3 in. and a camera case this size will take about 3| square feet. In Fig.

running the second finger of the hand holding the knife along the edge of the pattern as a guide. Put the straight part of the dees into their chapes and tack them on to the gussets with two or three small nails to keep them in p'osition whilst being sewn.140 Leather Working. or even thin leather. buckles. long by f in. and another 5^ in. in about the middle of it. on the front piece. buckle pieces. and the shortest narrow strap is sewn on one flap nearer the end and a chape with buckle and loop-piece in on the other. and two 1-in. This may be either plush. The long straps can be sewn on the dees after the bag is made up. cut to the shape of Fig. About \\ in. wide for the outside flap. green baize. In order that there may be nothing rough inside when the bag is finished. but only 3 in. Cut evenly round the patterns with a sharp knife. long and 2 in. dees or rings. good handle. one piece to each pattern. velvet. and holding the pattern down firmly with the other hand. and The the other narrow strap sewn on the front flar> . from each end will be about the right distance for these. buckle. cloth. and two \-m. as these are subjected to the hardest wear. Then cut out the lining. Those for the buckles are cut the same shape. loop pieces. Lay the patterns on the leather and see which is the best and most economical way of cutting out the parts. long by 1^ in. wide. With the patterns and materials ready. 138. begin cutting out. one 1-in. wide for the gusset flaps. and short straps must be sewn on before lining the case. two |-in. See that these are far enough from the edge to give room for the bindThe chape with buckle and loop must be sewn ing. using the stoutest parts for the front and back. wide. A strap 7 in. Chapes for the dees to be fixed to the case must be 3^ in. will be all that is required except the lining. the dee chapes. long by f in. A hole at x must be cut in these for the buckle.

fold them over and tap them down with a hammer. and if a saddler's pricking iron can be obtained these lines may be stamped with it and a perfectly even stitch obtained.Miscellaneous Examples. but if a box 10 in. from the edge with a pair of compasses to give the lines for straight stitching. it will be found rather difficult to sew these side scams in the clamp. and then fix on and sew the back part to the other gusset edge. by 6^ in. 141 sewing thread should be a four. by 1\ in. l£d. the case can be tacked on to this and held between the knees whilst being sewn. is made. may be glued between the leather and lining. Stitch the front piece and one edge of the gusset first. new. Before sewing the sides together.or five-cord thread of No. These pricking irons cost. place the patterns on the leather and make ink marks on the brown edges of the latter where the lines run across the patterns this will serve as a guide in fitting the parts together. Before applying the paste to these. and from three or four teeth to twenty in number. . a tooth. For sewing these seams use a four -cord hemp thread. pressing them well together. If the case is a stiffened one. The leather should now be placed bottom upwards and the lining joined to it by a thin streak of glue or paste round the edges. All the unbound edges must be marked \ in. If a stiffened case is required. A three-cord thread of fine closing flax is stout enough for sewing the bindings. 22 hemp. Shave the edges even with a spokeshave. this will cause them to go round more evenly and help the paste to unite them to the leather and lining. rub on . except the flaps. and the stitches should be six or eight to the inch. and are made with teeth ranging from six to the inch to sixteen to the inch. pieces of cardboard cut to the size of the various parts. Trim the lining off level with the leather and paste on the bindings.

piece with a blue lead for the slits. 139. There is no necessity to mark one at the other end. and 4f in. — — — . The sizes given below correspond to those articles. long. and strapMark one edge of the nosepiece 20 in. k. The muzzles sold in shops are generally made to standard sizes. as this enters the buckle chape. and J. e. The nose-piece runs from a round the nose and under the buckle at the other end. some dye. Similar slits are cut in the front piece at h. d. the front. but the method of altering the various parts will be pointed out. so that the spaces on each side are uniform. Fold the strap exactly in the middle and mark the edge opposite these. wide. In the muzzle or cage-piece. b. Make the nose-piece 11 in. first sponging on some warm-coloured size diluted. each barely f in. trim off the sharp edges and rub them up with a rough cloth. c. and has seven slits pierced through it sideways at A. 1.142 Leather Working. a nose-piece.. there are only two slits at l and N. from one end. q. 2 size muzzle which fits a small fox-terrier dog cut four strips of leather. f.. e. and shall also give perfect freedom in breathing and not hinder the dog from lapping water. cage-piece 22 in.. and polish them with a soft cloth. and are only suitable for the dog with an average-shaped head. and t. and in the strappiece slits are cut at x. s. On referring to Fig. then at 2 in. the muzzle will be found to consist of four pieces of narrow leather. and the strap and buckle-piece. o. so that there will be no difficulty in making a muzzle for any head. 3^ in.. the cage proper. It only remains to sew the long straps on to the dees and the case is completed.. p. and G. The regulations for dog muzzles specify the use of a cage muzzle which shall prevent any possibility of the animal biting. To make a No. front piece 6 in. marking first at I in. m. namely.

. In marking the slits in the Fig. from the buckle end and and 10^ in.. Put a washer over the nail.Miscellaneous Examples. is very useful in firmly holding the leather edgeways for this operation. The cage. Having cut the slits. 8 in... these distances being measured from one end only. narrow chisel or a penknife for dividing the leather. made by nailing some odd pieces of leather on a board. The strap-piece crosses underneath the throat at x.piece has two slits only. mark the edge and cut the at 2^ 4 in. Fig. make a hole with a small awl. For fitting the muzzle together... and drive the nail through to keep it in position. hammer. start in. take the front piece and cut a slit | in. cut off. the first \\ in. A gauge.- Dee and Buckle Chape. from each end and one 25 in. 143 Use a sharp. and pass one end of the cagepiece through fold it to get the slit over the middle. and the other 4^ in. and rivet with a small . 7 in. . and be careful to cut it clean through the middle. slits. open the slit 1. using a lead piece as a support. strap-piece 1 to 6. — Humane Dog Muzzle. take the front piece. leaving 3| in. 138. from one end. 139. for the forehead.

If possible. four or five holes in it for adjusting to the size of chape with double buckle is the dog's neck. a. and K. and T. 6. Then take the other end. f. 139). try the muzzle on the dog to ensure the various spaces being well apportioned. The cage-piece is next passed through the nose-~ piece at B and G (Fig. wide. and c. No. n. h. riveted to the other end. The lengths of the various parts for muzzles numbered in lists as No.144 Leather Working. e. d. the spaces being in proportion to the one illustrated here . l. and rivet or stitch it to that end of Punch the strap-piece which slides through J. With the front of the muzzle towards the worker. x. or No. See that all the parts correspond before nailing and riveting. A . On small muzzles it is usual to cut a strap 4 in. 8 size are as follow. continue the cage-strip from G through E. long by \ in. Cycle Valise. 4. and pass it through R. and the strap-piece is passed successively through J.

however. it will have sufficient capacity. must be bought. | yd. If it is desired to have the gusset without a join. Half a yard of material will be required to make the valise . without being too large or cumbersome. the patterns may be reversed and j . strong. rainproof. the gusset. by making the valise as shown by Fig. place a sheet of strawboard on one side of the cycle frame. . A cycle valise should be light. but where this is not the case the necessary alterations can be made before cutting out the material. but must be cut from the surplus and joined. it will be an easy matter to make them. and mark it by running a lead pencil round the inside of the frame.— Pattern for Cycle Valise. by following the instructions. US be shorter. Leather or waterproof canvas will answer well for the purpose. will not be all in one piece. 141. and. but.Miscellaneous Examples. and the other two parts longer the distance H to J (Fig. These muzzles have the appearance of being very complicated. This would be most economical if two carriers are to be made. and as the material is suitable for cutting either crosswise or lengthwise. frames. 139) is extremely short. The sizes given will be suitable for nearly all Fig". and the cross at the throat is close to n. To get the correct size of valise. For a dog with a long thin head the opposite treatment is necessary. 141. 140. and as commodious as the frame of the machine will permit. Another plan is to cut out a pattern of the small half from the dimensions given in Fig.

Strips of soft hide bellies must be cut 1 in. Fig. wide. Be careful to mark the there will be less waste. stiffen stitching. the ends pared down and spliced together with good paste Bind the flap first. in cutting the material. The straps for the flap are cut 6 in. and b the large half with flap. by | in. measure from the front opening at the lock to the hinge line. A lady's workbox can be covered with leather way.146 L EA THER IVO R K 1 NG. or the parts will not be in pairs. 141. For the lid or top. 112. and. patterns a or b distinctly. and those for fastening to the frame 10 in. The gusset is cut 3 in. In Fig. The buckle is sewn into one end of these. — Pattern for Leather Covering of Workbox are then pasted together and bound with leather. a denotes the small half. long. long by f in. and again over the top from each side openin the following . and each end of the gusset-piece. wide by 40 in. see that the letters are uppermost. be kept flexible. them with pieces of cardboard the gusset should . about 12 ft. then the top of the small half which is to go under The parts it. and they are stitched on the carrier close to this To make the sides very firm. will be wanted. wide.

I 47 The inner row of dotted lines in Fig. as shown in Fig.M ing. ISCEL LA NEO US EXA MPL ES. Make a brown paper pattern and put this on first. r . allow for lapping over. . so . The corners. 142 shows the plan of top of lid the outer row shows where it turns over the lower edge the part beyond this is brought to the under part of frame resting on the other half of the box. They must be pared down. which is much stronger and neater than butt joints. to see if it is correct. 142.

Fig. the veneer will have to be well sand-papered. Luggage labels can easily be made from leather. and press them together. so that the lid is quite detached from tne lower half of the workbox. — Another Lug-gage Label. in order to get the glue to adhere properly. — Segment of Cricket Ball Covering. edges at the bottom. . If the box is veneered. 145. 144.148 to Lea ther Working. thus the top of the lid first. the turned Do — F. then the four sides.g. and. the work in sections. lastly. The metal hinges should be removed. both leather and wood.

long. etc.Miscellaneous Examples. cut two pieces of leather about 4 in. the only difference . Fig. To make one of the shape illustrated by Fig. about TV to \ in. Cut the slit d on the three edges. wide by f in. when the required name and address. as shown. with the flesh sides touching sew them together . long. 144 shows another label. Fig. 149 which should be stiff rather than soft and oily. and round them off on the top edges. to be fastened I in. by 2| in. mark and cut out the pieces a and b. or A strap about 3 in. through both. With the back of a knife-blade and straightedge. 146. have been written on. Thin cardto the parcel. is put through the slit. 143. boards (plain postcards are just the thing) are cut m - to size to slip in the label. and place them together. — Sewing Cricket Ball Covering..

when they are dry. Bind the cork ball round and round with twine until it is of the desired The finished ball size minus the leather cover. Cut the corks square and glue them tofull Fig. The edges of the label can be made gloss}' and smooth simply by rubbing with a piece of hard wood. each being half the circumference long and a quarter the circumference wide.Halves of Covering. 147. the edges of the leather being wetted.i5o Lea ther Working. and. should be 2| in. . 145 must be cut. being that the front part has a larger space for a address. A cricket ball that will withstand a lot of hard wear may be made from some old corks and some leather. gether. trim them to an approximately spherical shape. or other hard substance. The leather used for the covering must be Four pieces to the shape strong but not thick. —Sewing. bone. all round for the seam. and allowing \ in. in diameter. shown by Fig.on Cricket Ball.

148. The two halves of the cover are made separately. cut the edges Another off close. 146). 149. —Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing. The sewing is commenced with a waxed thread having a harness-maker's needle on each end holes for the needles to pass through are made with a fine stabbing awl. method.ATISC EL LA NEC US EXA MPLES. Then the covers are placed over" the twine-and- Fig. 151 Soften the leather by soaking it in water for a short time. when opened the seams are hammered flat. . more difficult but producing a stronger . One way of doing this is to use a straight awl. The actual inside of the leather should be made the outside. and Fig. and then hammer well to shape. and then put two pieces together and hold them in the jaws of a vice between two pieces of wood shaped to correspond with the leather (see Fig-. cork ball and the edges sewn together.— Section of Sewn Edges of Ball Covering.

first cut a pattern of stiff paper to the dimensions given below. seams have come undone. Having trimmed the seam with a sharp knife. The ball may be held whilst sewing by the appliance shown by Fig. and d wide from the dotted line. flatten the seam by hammering. stitches up tight as the leather dries. Fig.152 job. small butts. the centre of which must measure within the dotted lines 20 in. and H must be only 2 in. 147 and 148. high will need only 2 ft. A board about 4 in. f. leather for a suit case should be such as used for straps of portmanteaus. g. it is smooth-grained and polished. to 18 in. Or the top and bottom sides may measure 4^ in. and \\ in. while if the pattern were cut in separate pieces there would be 13 ft. the foot pressure is released. of stitching. respectively. and is made from stout sides. To alter the position of the ball. b. which is kept in place partly under and partly within the hole by foot pressure exerted on a strap or string passing over the outer end of the board as illustrated. is Each 4 in. it will shrink and become tighter. etc. The latter method is illustrated by Figs. taking care not to cut the stitches. 149. The pattern (Fig. is to use Lea ther Working. of stitching and less. long is fixed to the bench or table with a bent screw. 150 shows the bottom. a slightly bent awl. by is The of the four side-pieces A. but will want a better backing. strength. the latter figure being Pull the a section of the doubled-over leather. . . etc. Then a case 6 in. 151) for the lid can be cut in the same way. wide. Cowhide can be used. or the 13 in. and then thicknesses of leather. The above instructions will be of help also in repairing cricket balls whose . In the board is a hole not quite so large as the diameter of the ball. c. When making the suit case. but the four pieces e. wide and from 12 in. have the seam stitch through the four bent over.

. in proportion to the substance of the material and its backing. For the backing and lining. and one of the sides (Fig. and the lid (say) 1^ in. patterns are cut for the two centres. but the first system is best and neatest. side and top and bottom. This will be better if done after the case The pieces must be well fitted for each is sewn. side (again to the dotted line) for the four sides of the lid. and they will want cover.Miscellaneous Examples. if the lid in such an instance the overlap the case centre of the lid will need to be larger. 150) is Cut off one used as pattern for the four sides. bottom 6 is to 153 in. J 1 .

made into a thread as for shoe-making . margin all round to turn over to the other side. Thus J. m. each seam finishing firm and well at the top and bottom. then c. f. and a harness-maker's needle used with a diamond awl. or round up the edges with fine sandpaper. 151. covering one side of each piece with lining material and leaving a Fio-. while the bottom part at n would hang loose with the four long sides b. and the three sides of the four endpieces.154 Lea ther Wor king . k (Fig. as A. and h. Cut a small angular piece off all sides. and fit it so that the rough edge of the linen sticks on each end and Putting in b first. and g. As each is to fixed (bookbinder's paste will do). The sewing can be done with about six or seven strands of yellow flax.—Lid of Suit Case. and these four sides can be glued in first by applying a coat to the back and on the rough ends of the lining that hang over. Only the top of each need be turned over. which may be pasteboard or stout cardboard. it will be seen that each seam has a piece of this lining at the bottom. c. E. This can be done to all four sides of the top and bottom pieces. d. glue the side which it is to be stuck. Then fit the ten pieces of backing. or the thread may be made in the same way. 150) would have three smooth sides. but thin leatherboard or wood pulpboard would be lightest. .

this piece is dispensed with. If the lid is made to overlap. strip of firm leather. be. take care not to bring it quite to the edge. all four corners are neat. to strengthen it 155 to keep the case square. within \ in. are glued in. The handle can be made by cutting two pieces shape and skiving them at the edge about half their thickness. and 1 in. but in applying the glue. If it is wanted thicker in the of leather to middle. . and then stitching to the two together. and either the top can be stitched as a finish or a copper rivet may be put through here and there. at least. as it were. 152). as shown by Q (Fig. o being the bottom of the case and p the side. better still. This keeps the lid firmly in its place. or while fixing it in the and help Also when a and d sides will be smeared. and prevents any wet getting in while the case is carried. paste a long oval piece down the centre before putting the two flesh sides together. and additional strength is also given all round the edge of the bottom.Miscellaneous Examples. stopping. letting \ in. 152. In the latter case it will be well to sandpaper and A finish off the edge with a little brown cream. or. 46-in. This can be secured on the front of the bottom of the case by two copper rivets. buy. of the material used for the outside can be either covered with thin brown Persian or left as it is. A Fig-. The bottom can now be stuck in. This piece forms a sort of flange all round the front and two ends. as shown at R. It can be stitched all round to the top edge of the case.— Section of Suit Case Side. inside the bottom of the case. 1^ in. wide. projecting above. say.

or make from a piece of strip brass. and then repeat for fastening to the case. and will lie flat while not in use. lock is easily added by cutting a portion of the front of the case away. and lift sufficiently for the hand to go under. take the case. This will then have so that it crosses the handle. wide and 1 ft. put the lid on the case. long. or one handle can be put at each end. 8 in. some play. so that 1 in.156 Leather Working. cut a strip of leather 2 in. Then close the case. To finish the box. fitting the hasp portion of the lock in position and riveting in its place. and secure the piece to it by a row of small copper rivets or a row of stitching. . two square sockets for the handle. lid off. Each must be secured to the case by two small copper rivets. and put the strip along the back. of the width lies on the lid and the other inch on the Mark it right along on each side. and each before fastening must have the handle put under. and A riveting it it on. inserting the lock.

Acid Dyes
for Leather, 127 Alligator Skins, 9 American Cloth, Mandoline

Brown Glace Kid,
Persian, 13

14 12

Leather, Cleaning. Ill

Levant Morocco,

Case in, 60—64 Aniline Dyes for Leather, 126 Association Footballs, 117 Bags, 65—69 Brief, 65—70 Cartridge, 109—111

Brush Case,


Lining. 41

Bucket-shaped Hat Case,
Buckle, 18 Chape, 140
Strap, 105







Cash, 129 Cricketing, 89 Frames, Riveting, 72 Gladstone, 73—83 Tennis, 89 Half Gladstone Tennis, 89
Ladies', 70

Buckles, Roller, 21

Buckling Garters, Buckskin, 14
Butt, Foreign, 15 Calf Kid, 11



Leather, Box, 15


Tennis, 84—89



Ball, Cricket, 150


Covering, 150




Holding on Bench,




Sewing, 151

Ooze, 11 Patent, 9 Russet, 10 Tan, 11


for Hat Case, Cutting, 51 Banjo Case, 55—60 Bottom, 56




Willow, 15
Case, 137




Carrier, Music, 134

Lining, 56 Pattern, Cutting, 55 Basic Dyes for Leather, 127 Basil Leather, 15 Belly Leather, Foreign, 15 Bifurcated Rivets, 26

Cartridge Bag, 109—111 Case Banjo, 55 60 Brush, 40






Field-glass. 134 Football, 117

Binding Corner
Case, 63



Hair Brush, 40
Hat, 49

Black Dyes, Aniline, 126 Grain Hide, 13 Blackening Leather, 127 Block for Making Collar Box,

Letter, 31—35


, , ,

Mandoline, 60—64
Opera-glass, 131
Suit, 152

Blotting Pad, 39 Board. Cutting, 17 Bone, Rubbing, 75 Bookbinders' Skiver, 13 Box (see also Case)


Horseshoe Collar,




Tennis. 83—89 Cash Bags, 129 Catch Strap for Collar Box, 47 Cleaning Brown Leather, 111 Pigskin and Cowhide, 34 Collar Box, Cutting Leather for,

Collar. 46—48

Box-calf Leather, 15 Braces, 27 Brief Bag. Cutting Out. 67

Drawer. 44 Horseshoe, 43
Lid, 45


Lining, 43

Gussets for, 67 Lining, 69





Narrow, 66
Sewing, 68

Cordovan, 12 Covering Mandoline Case, 63

Brown Cowhide,

Workbox, 146 Cowhide and Black Grain,


Cowhide, Brown,
, ,

Leather Workixg.

Glace Kid,


Cleaning, 34 Patent, 13


14 73

13 Crease, Screw, 22 Cricket Bag, 89 Ball, 150

Cream Roan,

Gladstone Bag, 73—83 with Broken Frame, Handle, 79
Patterns, 76





Covering, 150 Holding, whilst

ing, 151

stitched, 73

Sewing, 151

Crocodile Skins, 9 Crup or Horse Leather, 13 Cutting Band for Hat Case, 51

Tools for Making, 75 - Tennis Bag, 89 Glossing Strap Edges, 22 Glove Kid, 12

Grounding Punch,


Gusset Pattern for Brief Bag,
67 Stiffenings, Brief Bag, 68 Hair Brush Case, 40 Lining, 41


for, 17 47

Leather for Collar Box.

Hat Cases,
Straps, 17—30



for, 29, 30

Cycle Valise, 145

Half-Gladstone Tennis Bag, 89 Hand Punch for Dog Leads, 22
Riveter, 22 Roller, 136

Dee and Buckle Chape,
Dee-ring, 102


13 Dipping Leather for Dyeing, 125 Division Board, Trunk, 98 Dog Leads, 22 Fixing Studs in, 24 Hollow-studding, 22 Simple, 23
, ,

Diamond Hide,

— -

Handle, Banjo Case, Gladstone Bag,






Case, 52 Ladies* Bag, 73 Mandoline Case, 64 Suit Case, 155


with Studs and Ring,


Tennis Bag, Trunk, 93


Hat Case,
Swivel, 24

49 Basil, 49

Muzzle, 142 Double-end Brace, 27 Drawer, Collar Box, 44
D-ring, 102



Dyeing Leather, 125—128


Bucket-shaped, 49 Cutting Band for, 51 Leather for, 50 Handle, 52 Inner, 53
Lid, 52

Dves, Acid, 127 -, Aniline, 126

Basic, 127
Stick, 17


Lining, 51 Hide, Black Grain, 13 Cutting up, 16
, ,

Patent Calf Leather, 10 Envelope. Pocket in Writing Pad, 37 Field glass Cases. 134




Folding Trunk, 90
Football, 116 Association, 117 Cases, 117

Different Parts of, 16 Porpoise, 13 Hides, 9 Hinge Strap for Collar Box, 47 Hollow Studs, 22 Hollow-studding Dog Leads, 22 Horse or Crup Leather, 13 Horseshoe Collar Box, 43
, ,

Lace Holes

in, 119

Imperial Trunk, 90
Inflating Football Bladder, 123 Inflators, Football, 119





Inflating, 123 Inflator for, 119 Seaming, 121, 122 Rugbv, 117

Kangaroo Leather,



Glace, 14

Frames, Brief Bag,

for Ladies' Bags, 70

Tennis Bags,



Calf, 11 Glace, 11 Glove, 12

French Kid

Glace) Garters, Buckling, 18

Kips, 9



Packing, 20
Pairing, 19 Tools for Making, 17



Knapsack, 100—109 Brass Stud, 102 Buckle Straps, 105 Piping Leather, 107 Ring and Holder, 102

Labels, Luggage, 148 Lace Holes in Football Case,



Ladies' Bags, 70


for, 73



and Varie-

ties of,

Porpoise Hide, 13 Portmanteaux, 90 Portsea Purse, 129 Punch for Dog Leads, 22 Grounding, for Ornamenting Leather, 113

Leg Straps, 20 L ttei Case, 31 —35

Riveter, Hand, 22 Punching Hole in Strap,


Pigskin, 32 Stamp Pockets, 32 Stitching, 35

Purse, Portsea, 129

Saddler's, 129

Levant Morocco, Brown,
Leather, 12

Racket Cases {see Tennis) Railway Trunk, 90
Ring, D., 102 Riveter, Hand-punch, 22

Liner for Ornamenting Leather,

Riveting Frame to Ladies' Bag,

Lining Banjo Case,


Brief Bag, 69 Collar Box, 48 Gladstone Bag, 82 Hair Brush Case, 41 Hat Case, 51 Mandoline Case, 62

Rivets, Bifurcated, 26

Roans, 12 Cream, 13 Roller Buckles,





Writing Pad, 36 Lock, Hat Case, 53 Suit Case, 156 Luggage Labels, 148 Mandoline Case in

Collar Box, 46 Rubbing Bone or Stick, 75 Rugby Footballs, 117



Calf, 10



Leather, 14

.Saddler's Purse,

Cloth, 60—64

Covering, 63

Handle, 64
Lining, 62 Pattern, Cutting, Stitching, 64 Marine Glass Cases, 134 Measuring-off Stick, 17


Satchels, 109—111 Seams for Footbal^ 121, 122 Hat Case, 51 Serpent Skins, 9 Sewing Brief Bag, 68 Cricket Ball Cover. 151


Calf, 10

Mitred Corner for Banjo Case,


Gladstone Bag, 81 Hat Case, 51 Letter Case, 35 Mandoline Case, 64 Skate Straps, 20, 21 Skins, 9
, ,

Leather, 112 Morocco Leather, 12 Long Grain, 12

Alligator, 9

Crocodile, 9
Pig, 14


Music Carrier,
Calf, 11



Muzzle, Dog, 142
Opera-glass Case, 131 Ornamentation of Leather, 112—

Serpent, 9 Skiver, Bookbinders', 13



Staining Leather, 128 Stamp Pockets of Letter Case,
32 Stick,

Packing Garters,
Pad, Blotting, 39




Writing 35—39

Lining, 36 Pairing Garters, 19 Parcel Straps, 22

Stiffening for Gladstone Bag, 78 Stitching (see Sewing)


Calf, 9

Persian, Brown, 13 Pigskin, 14 Cleaning, 34 Letter Case, 32

Strap Buckle, 18 Crease, 22 Cutting Appliance. 29, 30 and Making, 17—30 Edges, Glossing, 22

Leg, 20


Parcel, 22

in, 18

Piping Leather for Knapsacks


Pocket for Gladstone Bae, 76 Flap for Gladstone Bag, 76 Pockets in Writing Pad, 36—37


Punching Hole
Satchel. 109 Skate. 20. 21 Wrist, 26



Wrist Strap. 15 Wood Block for making Collar Gladstone. Cycle. in Dog Lead. . Tan Calf. 26 with Handle.i6o Lea ther Working. . 12 Tawed Leathers. Trunk Division Board. 36 Gladstone Bags. 88 Valise. 22 Suit Case. 152—156 Handle. Limited. 17 75 Lining. 24 Tab for Gladstone Bag. Brass. . 90 Railway. 77 . Leather.G. 152 Lock. 24 . 26 Writing Pad. Handle. 11 11. La Belle Sauvage. 12 Tennis Bag. 9 for Making Garters. 90 Hollow. . 87 Racket Case. 145 Varnish for Leather. 87 Studs. Printed by Cassell & Company. 15 White Sheep Leather. 89 Workbox. 89 Half-Gladstone. Box. E. 85 Studding. 46 Covering. . 102 Fixing. 98 Folding. 156 Swivels. 36 Pockets. Willow Calf. 155 Leather. 48 Welting. Tracer. 83 . 93 Imperial. Turn-clip. 86 . 112 Studding Tennis Bag. 35—39 . Dog Lead. 90 . 84—89 Frame. 146 Bit. Tools.


2. NEW REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.. Pa.50 2.50 DAVID MCKAY.DEC 7 1904 ROPERS Practical Hand -Books For Engineers and Firemen. of the 3.00 Roper's Use and Abuse of the Steam Boiler. . J022 Market Street.50.. Electric- PRICE. $3.50 Young Engineers' Own Book. HANDY-BOOK FOR STEAM ENGINEERS AND Ropers Catechism ians. for ELECTRICIANS.00 Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines. 2.00 Roper's Questions and Answers for Steam Engineers and Electricians. $2.00 • and Firemen.50 Roper's Care and Management Steam Boiler. Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam Fire Engines.00 2. 2.. Publisher. Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive. Steam Engineers and PRICE. Roper's Instructions and Suggestions for Engineers 2. Roper's . Philadelphia. 3.

Fancy Wood Graining. Index. Imitating Inlaid Woods. — With 120 Illustrations. Ships' Staircases. Draughtsmen's Instruments. Geometrical Construction and Development of Solid Figures. Two-flight Staircase. Projection.00 each. Important N. Colouring Drawings. and Setting Out. Practical Gasfitting. Index. Open String Staircase with Bull nose Step. Scale Drawings and Maps. 215 illustrations. Examples of Practical Metal Plate Work. . Elliptical Curves. Gas Burners. Philadelphia. 1022 Market Street. Simple Form of Staircase String Stair Measuring. Staircase with Winders at Bottom. Staircase with Winders at Top and Bottom. 8vo. With 226 Illustrations. Soldering and Brazing. Publisher. Drawing Boards. Geometrical Staircases. Gas Supply from Gas Holder to Meter. Index. Practical Staircase Joinery. postpaid. With — Housed — : : of With 247 Illustrations. Edited HASLUCK. Imitating Varieties — of Marble. Re-tinning and Galvanising. Ready Shortly : Practical Plumbing Work. Contents. Pollard Oak and Knotted Oak Graining. and Mechanical Aids. New Series of Practical Volumes. Contents. Staircase with Open or Cut Strings. Gas Fires and Cooking Stoves. Making a Drawing. Planning. Cloth. Maple Graining Mahogany and Pitch-pine Graining.TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. Coal Gas from the Retort to the Gas Holder. Back Lining Drawings. Practical Contents. Tools and Appliances used in Metal Plate Work. Contents How Coal Gas is Made. and Materials. Staircase with Half-space of Winders. Laying the Gas Pipe in the House. Incandescent Lights. Introduction Explanation of Terms. Gas Meters. Tools. Gas Fittings in Workshops and Theatres. 60 pages. With 79 illustrations. Oak Graining in Spirit and Water Colours. Geometrical Construction Plane Figures. Examples of Practical Pattern Drawing. Drawing Straight Lines. Winding Staircases. Oak Graining in Oil. Drawing Circular Lines. Graining Grounds and Graining Colors. — Practical Graining and Marbling. Index. Marbling: Introduction. Materials used in Metal Plate Work. Index. DAVID McKAY. crown the Text. Contents. Other New Volumes in Preparation. — Draughtsmen's Work. Tools. Graining: Introduction. Tinning. Gas Fittings for Festival Illuminations. Furniture Graining Imitating Woods by Staining. Walnut Graining. With numerous Illustrations in 1 by PAUL Each book contains about $1. Cut String Staircase with Brackets. Paper and Mounting. Staircase over an Oblique Plan. Practical Metal Plate Work.

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