H
Edite

IES.
Work.'

'

HOU£
Cor used t

APERHANGING,
shes, etc.

Tools npera Painting,
ipering a

White Embel

Room.

Boot
Cot

Lasting, an
oots

Re-W
Stitch

and Shoes

and

S)

Glass

^
__Ji

Sewing an g Riveted Boot
170

How
Co.

Engravings

writer

Book__

The SignThe Simpler V
ng a Signboard.
>

Form; Ticke

Woo
Co
Frenc
Off.
(

and Polishing.
Staining Wood. In and Spiriting g. Re-polishing bf Floors Stains.

and Reviving,

.tiara

stopping

ui

u«u.

Processes of Varnishing

Wood

Varnishes.

j.i^g,^ ^. Re-polishing Shop Fronts.

Dynamos and Electric Motors. With T42 Engravings and Diagrams Contents— Introduction. Siemens Dynamo. Gramme Dynamo. Manchester Dynamo. Simplex Dynamo. Calculating the Size and Amount of Wire for Small Dynamos. Ailments of Small Dynamo Electric Machines their Causes
:

and Cures.
Undertype

Small Electro-motors without Castings. How to Determine the Direction of Rotation of a Motor. How to Make a Shuttle-Armature Motor.
50- Watt

Dynamo.

Manchester Type 440- Watt Dynamo.

Cycle Building: and Repairing;. With

142 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Introductory, and Tools Used. How to Build a Front Driver. Building a Rear-driving Safety. Building Tandem Safeties. Building Frontdriver Tricycle. Building a Hand Tricycle. Brazing. to Make and Fit Gear Cases. Fittings and Accessories. Wheel Making. Tyres and Methods of Fixing them. Enamelling. Repairing.

How

All Ages for All Purposes. With 277 Engravings and Diagrams. Savage Ornament. Egyptian Ornament. Assyrian Ornament. Greek Ornament. Roman Ornament. Early Christian Ornament. Arabic Mediaeval Ornament. Ornament. Scandinavian Ornaments. Celtic and Renascence and Modern Ornaments. Chinese Ornament. Persian Ornament. Indian Ornament. Japanese Ornament. Mounting- and Framing Pictures. With 240 Engravings, etc. Contents. Making Picture Frames. Notes on Art Frames. Picture Frame Cramps. Making Oxford Frames. Gilding Picture Frames. Methods of Mounting Pictures. Making Photograph Frames. Frames covered with Plush and Cork. Hanging and Packing Pictures. Smiths' Work. With 211 Engravings and Diagrams. Conten ts.— Forges and Appliances. Hand Tools. Drawing Down and UpWelding and Punching. Conditions of Work Principles of Formasetting. tion. Bending and Ring Making. Miscellaneous Examples of Forged Work. Cranks, Model Work, and Die Forging. Home-made Forges. The Manipula-

Decorative Designs of
Contents.

:

tion of Steel at the Forge.

(Continued on next page.)

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher, 1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

HANDICRAFT SERIES

{continued).

Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion.

With 300 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents.—Appliances used in Glass Blowing. Manipulating Glass Tubing. Blowing Bulbs and Flasks. Jointing Tubes to Bulbs forming Thistle Funnels, Blowing and Etching Glass Fancy Articles Embossing and Gilding Flat etc. Surfaces. Utilising Broken Glass Apparatus Boring Holes in, and Riveting Glass. Hand-working of Telescope Specula. Turning, Chipping, and Grinding Glass. The Manufacture of Glass.
; ;

With i63 Engravings and Diagrams. Model Yachts. Rigging and Sailing Model Yachts. Model Boats. Building a Model Atlantic Liner. Vertical Engine for a Model Launch. Model Launch Engine with Reversing Gear. Making a Show Case for a Model Boat. Electric Bells, to Make and Fit Them. With 162 Engravings aad Diagrams. Contents. The Electr c Current and the Laws that Govern it. Current Conductors used in Electric-Bell Work. Wiring for Electric Bells. Elaborated Systems of Wiring; Burglar Alarms. Batteries for Electric Bells. The Construction of Electric Bells, Pushes, and Switches. Indicators for Electric-Bell
Contents.

Building Model Boats.

— Building

Making and

Fitting Simple

How

Systems.

Bamboo Work.

Contents. Bamboo Its Sources and Uses. How to Work Bamboo. Bamboo Tables. Bamboo Chairs and Seats. Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. Bamboo Hall Racks and Stands. Bamboo Music Racks. Bamboo Cabinets and Bookcases. Bambco Window Blinds. Miscellaneous Articles of Bamboo. Bamboo
:

With

177 Engravings and Diagrams.

Mail Cart.

With 108 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Skinning Birds. Stuffing and Mounting Birds. Skinning and Stuffing Mammals. Mounting Animals' Horned Heads Polishing and Mounting Horns. Skinning, Stuffing, and Casting Fish. Preserving, Cleaning, and Dyeing Skins. Preserving Insects, and Birds' Eggs. Cases for Mounting

Taxidermy.

:

Specimens.

Tailoring.
Contents.

— Tailors'

With

and Pressing.

180 Engravings and Diagrams. Requisites and Methods of Stitching. Simple Repairs Relining, Repocketing, and Recollaring. How to Cut and

Make

Trousers.

How to

and Reefer Jackets.

Cut and Make Vests. Cutting and Making Lounge Cutting and Making Morning and Frock Coats.
Comprising

Photographic Cameras and Accessories. Make Cameras, Dark: Slil.es, Shutters, and
Illustrations.

Stands.

How to With 160

Contents.

Cameras. Cameras.

Photographic Lenses and How to Test them. Modern Half-plate Hand and Pocket Cameras. Ferrotype Cameras. Stereoscopic Enlarging Cameras. Dark Slides. Cinematograph Management.

Optical Lanterns. Comprising The Construction and Management of Optical Lanterns and the Making of Slides. With 160
Illustrations.

Dissolving View lanterns. Contents. Single Lanterns. Illuminant for Optical Lanterns. Optical Lantern Accessories. Conducting a Limelight Lantern Exhibition. Experiments with Optical Lanterns. Painting Lantern
Slides. Photographic Lantern graph Management.
Slides.

Mechanical Lantern
Illustrations.

Slides.

Cinemato-

Engraving Metals.

Contents. Introduction and Terms used. Engravers' Tools and their Uses. Elementary Exercises in Engraving. Engraving Plate and Precious Metals. Engraving Monograms. Transfer Processes of Engraving Metals. Engraving Name Plates. Engraving Coffin Plates. Engraving Steel Plates. Chasing and Embossing Metals. Etching Metals.

With Numerous

With 189 Illustrations. Contents. Tools and Materials. Simple Baskets. Grocer's Square Baskets. Baskets. Oval Baskets. Flat Fruit Baskets. Wicker Elbow Chairs. Basket Bottle-casings. Doctors' and Chemists' Baskets. Fancy Basket Work. Sussex Trug Basket. Miscellaneous Basket Work. Index

Basket Work.

Round

DAVID McKAY, Publisher,

1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

Index. Contents. Stereoscopic Mounting and Finishing Prints. Account Books. The Studio and Darkroom. Miscellaneous Upholstery. — Working. Folding Printed Sheets. Ladies' Side Saddles. Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Panel for Gentleman's Saddle. Repairing Collars. Webbing. Cloth-bound Books. Processes of Printing from Negatives. Gilding. Spurs. Fancy Upholstery. Ledgers. With 152 Engravings and Diagrams. With 70 Engravings and Diagrams. Gilding Book Edges. Index. Letter Cases and Writing Pads. Exposure. Screens. Strap Cutting and Making. Index. Saddlery. Book — Bookbinders' Appliances. Miscellaneous Examples of Leather Work. Renovating and Repairing Upholstered Planning and Laying Carpets and Linoleum. Tools and Materials. Cutting Book Edges. Rounding. Newspaper Rack. Covering Books. 1022 Market Street. etc. Copying and Enlarging. With 162 Engravings and Diagrams. Making Seat Cushions and Squabs. Exercises in Stitching. Portraiture and Picture Composition. Ferrotype Photography. Bags. Marbling Book Papers. Floral Ornaments for Bent Iron Work. Sprinkling and Tree Marbling Book Covers. Index. The Camera and its Accessories. Cart Saddles. Flashlight Reduction of Negatives. Retouching Negatives. Photography. DAVID McKAY. Springing. ing {continued). Upholstering Couches and Sofas. and Harness Furniture. Children's Saddles or Pilches. and other Accessories. Including Elementary Art Metal Work. — Flower Bowls. and Tufting. Photograph Frames. Knapsacks and Satchels. etc. Photography. Fore Gear and Leader Harness. Superior Set of Gig Harness. Stuffing. Banjo and Mandoline Cases. Suspended Lamps and Bent Iron Work.—Upholsterers' Materials. Riding and Whips. — With 197 Engravings and Diagrams. Cart Collars. Saddle Cruppers. Driving Harness and Saddlery. Table Lamps. Upholstering Footstools.HANDICRAFT SERIES Bookbinding. Knee-caps and Miscellaneous Articles. Breaking-down Tackle plates. Index. With 269 Engravings and Diagrams. and Finishing Book Covers. Plough Harness. Intensification and Developing and Fixing Negatives. Leather Contents. and Marbling Book Edges. Contents. Cart Harness. With 99 Engravings and Diagrams. Hair Brush and Collar Cases. Pamphlets. and Repairing. Re-lining Collars and Saddles. Simple Exercises in Bent Iron. Looping. Candlesticks. Stirrups. Leather. Dyeing Leather Ornamentation. Contents. Upholstering an Easy Chair. Miscellaneous Examples. Lettering. Contents. Hat Cases. Mattress Making Fenderettes. Upholstery. . Hall Lanterns. Footballs. With 125 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Bending and Working Strip Iron. Gentleman's Riding Saddle. Furniture. Qualities and Varieties of Leather. Upholsterers' Tools and Appliances. Index. Beat- and Sewing. Simple Contents. Floor Lamps. Publisher. and Cover Cutting. etc. Van and Cab Harness. Bits. Coloring. Harness Makers' Tools. Harness Makers' Materials. Philadelphia. — Plates. Harness Making. — Other Volumes in Preparation. Backing. Index. BreastHead Riding Bridles. Grilles. Photography. etc. Horse Clothing. Sprinkling.

WORK" HANDBOOKS \ LEATHER WORKING .

.

"WORK" AND "BUILDING WORLD.'' PHILADELPHIA DAVID McKAY. HAS LUCK ETC. 1022 Publisher MARKET STREET 1901 ." AUTHOR OF " HANDY BOOKS FOR HANDICRAFTS.LEATHER WORKING WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND DIAGRAMS EDITED BY PAUL EDITOR OF 1ST. ETC.

H 35 1 C .TSfOtO .

scattered over more than of twenty thousand columns journals it is Work — one of the weekly my fortune to edit — and supplies concise information on the details of the subjects on which it treats. tion in a form convenient for everyday use. London. altered. or instructions on kindred should address a question to Work. 1901. Man. / i\ 1 —'— This Handbook contains. Handbook. Readers who may desire additional information respecting special details of in this the matters dealt with subjects. so that it may be answered in the^columns of that journal.Q 0- PREFACE. N. P. of be arranged anew. much had largely re-written. La Belle Sanvage. In preparing of for publication in book form the mass relevant matter contained in the volumes of to Work. a comprehensive digest of the informa- on Leather Working. . HASLUCK. and these causes the contributions From many are so blended that the writings of individuals cannot be distinguished for acknowledgment.

55 . . Ornamentation . I. VIIL— Portmanteaux IX.— Letter Cases and Writing Pads IV.CONTENTS. 9 II. — Banjo and Mandoline Cases VII. . and Travelling Trunks .— Bags . .65 . PAGE — Qualities and Varieties of Leather . 90 100 —Knapsacks — Leather and Satchels .112 116 125 XT. . . 40 V. . .— Strap Cutting and Making III. . .. .. • . X.— Footballs XII. CHAP.. . 17 31 — Hair Brush and Collar Cases Cases .— Hat VI. — Dyeing Index Leather of XIIL— Miscellaneous Examples Leather Work 129 157 ..49 .

48 .— Corner Seam 53 51.. End .— Brief Bag Frame 70. Hat .—Round Collar Box 41.— Hat Case shown Diagrammatically 50 .— Base of Writing Pad 32.. .—Gladstone Bag 76.—Corner Split and Butted 59. ..49 46.— Dog Lead 10. 4.—Another Plate of Strap Cutting Appliance 23.— Sewn Seam 50. . PAGE 44.—Hand-punch Riveter 8. .—Inner Hat Case 53 53. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . . . 30.—Method 3. . —Forming .— Dog Lead with Swivel 11. .. . of . . . .—Chain-end Fitting 13.—Blotting Pad 36. . —Bottom Case of 64.— Hinge Strap 45 46 46 Binding Corner of Case Corner of 66. . — Case . 15 19 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 Box 45.— Elevation of Mandoline Case 62. Letter Case 24.—Writing Pad Pockets 34. . 62 62 Case . .— Stiffening for Bag Divi- — . 33. and Ring 12.— Collar Box Drawer and . . .. . . 38.—Writing Pad Folded up.— Plate of Strap Cutting . in Drawers Collar Box 39. .—Bag Bottom Pattern 74. .—Writing Pad Pockets 35. .75 .— Mitred Corner 60. 26.— Marking Garter —Garter Bits . Whole Lid . Pattern for Wrist Strap 15. 51 47 —Hat Case Handle 51 48.—Folded Bit 17.— Strap Cutting Appliance 21. . . Cutting PAGE up . . 35 56 37 oS 58 41 .— Hollow Studs 9.— Garter Complete 5. .—Bottom of Banjo Case Corner of Banjo Case 57.—Block for Making Collar 45 Box 42..— Back of Round shaped . Mandoline . .—Double End Brace joined at Back 20. .— Mandoline Piece 65. . FIG. .—Double End Brace 19.— Banjo Case with End Lid 58.— Brief Bag 68.— Stitching Case 67. 1.63 63 63 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 74 74 75 ..— Skate Strap 7.. 63. .—Top of Mandoline Case 56.—Half Side of Hat Case 51 49. FIG.—Dog Lead with Studs .—Hair Brush Case 37. .—Back of Letter Case 25. 42 43 44 Lid 40. .—Mandoline in Case 61. .— Stamp Pocket 29.— Bit Complete 18..—Narrower Brief Bag 69.— Gusset Pattern 72— Gusset Stiffening Pattern 73. — . .—Wrist Strap 14. 31 52 33 53 35 54 Lid 55.— Patterns for Parts of Banjo Case with End .. 23 29 Appliance 22. . Collar Hide 2. .—Patterns for Parts of Banjo with Case .— Catch Strap 43...— Horse-shoe Collar Box 29 30 — ..—Another Gladstone Bag 77.—Pattern for Side of Bag 71. . ....—Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit 16.— Strap Bit 6. 24 24 24 23 54. 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 61 .— Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides 53 52.—Writing Pad Open 31.. 57 . .— Bucket - . .—Bag Lining and Pocket 75. .— Card Pocket 28.— Side Pockets 27. sion .— Rubbing Bone or Stick 73.

.. of 130.114 119.145. 99... Cricket 150 Bag .— Rugby Football Associaof 125. 86—Bottom ing of Brief 87.. 150. 79. . 101.—Buckle Piece 112..— Section Leather and Sheath 103. . . .- Patterns for Parts of Opera Glass Case Music Carrier Closed Music Carrier Open Music for Pattern Carrier Roller Hand Camera Case Front Flap. 151.- dler's Purse . . . .— Liner . Stiffened Luggage Label Another Luggage Label Cricket •Segment of Ball Cover In .— Tennis Bag in HalfGladstone Style .— Brass Stud 104. 149. PAGE . .Football Inflator 129.— Imperial Trunk 96. 95.. 107 Section of Sewn Edges 151 of Ball Covering Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing Bottom Piece of Suit .- Knapsack .— Tennis Racket Case 88.113 118.— Tracer . 136 137 138 139 •Humane Dog Muzzle . .140.—:Making Lace-holes on 121 Football Case 122 128. .— Satchel Shoulder Strap 110 116. .— Satchel or Cartridge Covering Ball 148. 91 . .— Ground Punch 116 123. .132. 152. 142.- 138.. Case .135. FIG.— Folding .— Trunk 98.— Part of Bag Handle 84.—Pocket Flap . ..Portsea Purse or Sad. 120.— Gusset of Satchel 115.— Segment 118 tion Football Case 126. .— Turn-clip 93. 143. PAGE ..—Case for Tennis Bat..— Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag Style 90.113 117.Lea ther Working.— Short Strap of Satchel Ill .— Another View of 115 Mm Idler 115 122. . .— Front of Satchel 109 114.— Association Football 117 124.— Body of Knapsack.131. .. 89.— Back and Flap of Sat. .133. 151 153 154 . 93 95 98 100 101 102 102 102 102 103 134.108 111.-Tab 85— Half of Bottom Stiffen82. FIG. .137.— Piped Corner of Stif107 Eened Part 110. 147 148 148 Sewing Sewing Cricket 149 Covering 147.— Football Pattern Set 119 out on Hide 127. .. Balls. 129 133 134 135 92.144.— Tennis Bag Frame.136. Case Lid of Suit Case Section Side of . . . . . Top.. . .— Tennis Bag in Gladstone Style 94.- •Cycle Valise Tat! of Cycle Leather for Pattern Covering of Workbox 146 em 139 143 143 144 Valise 145 . 106 Halves of of 109.—Modeller 121.139. . .— D-ring 105— Stiffened Part of Knap. .146.—Leather Pocket 80. . .—Part Back View ... Bag . . ! ! Suit ... . 91— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag . .141. and Back of Camera Case Gusset and Flaps of Camera Case Dee and Buckle Chape.— Ring and Holder Buckle of 102.— Trunk Division Board. 106— Section of 103 Part 107— Strap End with Key105 hole Slit of 108.—Knapsack 100.155 . .108 chel 108 113.— Railway Trunk 97. 76 31— Chape Paper for Small Pattern 83. etc.

Hides— or the skins of the large and fullgrown animals. cow. kid. etc. This chapter will discuss leather. Particulars of the many varieties of leather may now be given. Boot Making and Mending." ties. CHAPTER I." and " Harness MakThey will be indicated sufficiently in later chapters as the need for their use arises. as they have already been dealt with so fully and illustrated so clearly in companion volumes. Commercial skins are classified in Watt's " Art Leather Manufacture " under three heads. seal. deer. its qualities and varie" ing. . Kips— or the skins of the younger animals of the same class and 3. calf. sheep. the skin. horse. horse. The skins most extensively used in leather manufacture are those of the ox. sheep. but it is not thought necessary to give space to their description here. but recently the skins of crocodiles. as the ox.LEATHER WORKING. Skins of : . deer. This handbook will describe how to make a large number of useful articles in leather. . some mention of tools must come first. having received its preliminary preparation. and serpents have been employed for making certain kinds of fancy leather. pig. is — . QUALITIES AND VARIETIES OF LEATHER. goat. and hippopotamus 2. buffalo. namely 1. goat. Naturally. such as the calf. Pate nt Calf. and kips. In making this leather. cow. > as those of the smaller animals. alligators.

and Prussian blue.— After depilation and tanning. etc. As each coat is applied. vegetable black. sizing. especially " females. not being so soft. Horse and other animal often dressed in a like manner. It should be well tanned. the leather is finely oiled. With few exceptions this is treated In some cases the in the same way as waxed calf. in some cases. blacking. although those of English production are. the skin has to pass through a variety of processes. French calf skins. After oiling. etc.. . Busset Calf is used either dry or with a little oil dressing in the former case it is very pale. whether pebble. The final coat has an addition of darker Prussian blue. polishing. and sometimes a little copal or amber varnish. stuffing. The compo-ing is done on the grain side. long. and not so much of either It is grained with a roller is needed as for wax calf. This will give some idea of the amount of handling a calf-skin goes through before it is converted to leather. The stove heat varies from 120° to 180° F. whole skin is treated but in a great many instances it is only the shoulders. It is then given four coats of varnish containing drying oil. sizing. whitening. stretched upon a smooth board. . Memcl Calf. compo-ing. Waxed Calf. — . the graining is finished." are the best. are more suitable for stronger and heavier work than French. very fine the latter. fleshing and skiving. or perhaps the necks. and every particle of grease extracted from it with fuller' s-earth and water. making it a little is belly rounding now darker. stretching. and drying. and is then ready for use. and the stuffing on the flesh side. namely soaking. the leather is stoved and afterwards polished with powdered pumicestone.1 o Lea ther Working. and softest in wear. that are made into memel. graining. finishing. according to the leather under treat- ment. drying. the oil . according to the sort of grain required.

a very delicate and fine sursubjected to a process of tawing is . by the action of tannic acid. namely gelatine. and although the two former prevent decomposition of the gelatine. drying. shaving. that by manipulating with various mordants the expert leather dyer can produce some very delicate tints. staking." But the grain is the side now generally preferred. and when first produced was considered the right side. — be brought back to Glace or French its Kid faced leather. egging. and it was so made up and advertised as "velvet calf. Calf Kid is a most useful leather made by tawing. and. and most durable if kept well cleaned. alum and salt dressing. alum. which generally forms the face. weak sulphuric acid. is. formed into leather. Ooze Calf is a very soft leather in wear. and the factors. and gelatine form the leather. Tan Calf has been produced to imitate Russia leather at less cost. it passes through a solution of borax. not tanning. The difference between : When tanned. It is original state. scudding. It has a nice pebble grain.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. The calf skin is such a ready recipient of dyes. two ingredients cannot return to their former state whereas. The flesh side is a velvet pile. Each season brings its varied and improved shades. liming. seasoning. dyeing. fleshing. in tawing. salt. and finishing. among other processes. drenching. and a warm bath of Sicily sumach and alum. of which these two ingredients are the chief The acid arrests decomposition. is briefly this the greatest component part of a skin. cleaning. unhairing. and there now is a greater quantity used for the best class of work than of real Russia. paring. each ingredient can tanning and tawing . which forms a mordant when further dyeing is needed. ii Its preparation is similar in some respects to that of other dry-dressed leathers. It has to pass through the following routine Soaking.

such as a bran bath and a It is made a good deal from horse. as " Cream Roans. but possesses a smoother face.1 Lea ther Working. Brown Levant Morocco is the same as morocco levant. and is then glazed and polished. Cordovan stands easily first for durability. dyed on the grain side. like the two last-named. . These leathers are tanned with sumach. and a much newer production. is An inferior leather. and forms a very soft material. Skins are produced in imitation of moroccos of various hide/' colours. It is tanned and curried on the grain side. but has a long grain running across the skin. made from the skin of goats. provided by leaves and twigs. skin. goat. which is rarely the case. Morocco. which imparts to it great suppleness. White Sheep is a tawed leather. except that it is made from younger and smaller skins. and finished with a bright pebble grain. Among the many processes it undergoes is the application of paste composed of flour and yolks of eggs. fig bath. but its character and uses are quite different. and passes through some special processes. Cordovan is made in many places other than its supposed place of origin Cordova. is a beautifully grained and tanned goat-skin. The better kinds are the Strasbourg moroccos. called " satinis a similar leather. and is more finely grained. in addition to the alum bath which it has previously received. These are called roans. which has a beautiful soft brightness. Long-grain Morocco is. satin-hide being next. Levant. and are made from sheep-skins. Glove Kid is made into leather by tawing in the same way as calf kid. — and even dog it. much like called "grain/' used a good deal for cheaper work. except when bath dyed. It is dyed upon the grain side. A cheaper and somewhat greasy kind is not nearly so good-looking or durable in wear as the dry-dressed morocco levant.

Brown. though in this instance the enamelling is done upon the grain side after the grain has been printed or otherwise prepared. except that it is extremely thin. It is now produced with a smaller grain than in former years. possibly hold. 13 Cream Boan is made generally from good (medium weight) sheep-skins. when it had a longer grain like the leather now used for bags. when resembles morocco. is used for covering fancy articles. soft. Black Grain (Cow) Hide. It is now known more by the name Diamond hide. . but the dyeing is done on the grain side. or enamel hide. This is really bookbinders' skiver. but it is very slightly stuffed in cases where the natural colour is not needed and dyeing has to be resorted to. and as much stuffing is put in as it will — and — is made into leather by some of the preceding methods it is worked in the same way as black grain cowhide. sumach tanned. The process of enamelling is the same as that for patent calf. Crup or Horse is taken generally from the butt of the horseskin. it is less durable. is made from the hide of the cow. Porpoise-hide is tanned and very greasily dressed. as the grain and a good quantity of flesh are taken off. It expensive. tough leather . It is practically the middle part of the skin that is dressed for this leather. Skivers. like all sheep-skin. This is the grain of sheepskin split by machinery (the flesh side being prepared for chamois or wash-leather).Qualities and Varieties of Leather. It make dyed it grain. but is exceedingly durable. but is left with a smooth Brown Persian sheep. is obtained as a rule from Cape a fine. . though. Brown Cowhide and makes a very is soft and waterproof leather. This is treated somewhat as wax calf. and is similar in structure to morocco. In appearance it is much like brown persian. etc. Cowhide Patent. etc.

Brown glace kid is an American production. To prepare this leather for use. After a deal of working in this. then worked in the river. fulled for a longer or shorter time according to the nature of the skin.This and the two following are believed to be produced by chrome tanning. this leather is as follows rinsed. softest and prettiest leathers. Its uses are the same as tho's. it is set to dry and curried with empyreumatic oil of the bark of birch tree. and seems to vary much as regards retaining its colour in wear. basil wood. does not crack. according to the shade given it. when proIt is one of the perly tanned. very durable. — — — . The skin of the kangaroo.e of waxed calf. Buckskin. and subjected to the stringent juices of willow bark. According to Andrew Ure the process of dressing It is freed from hair. etc. and soft and cool to wear. and has been improved largely in recent years. and polishes more easily and better than calf. the whole of the grain is cut away and oil is hammered into it. To this substance the Russia leather owes its peculiarities. but not so good. It is a tanned leather. light in weight.. The red colour is supposed to be from sandalwood or : When . the bright browns lasting well. any excess of oil being removed afterwards. If the oil passes through it stains the grain side. while the dull or subdued tints sometimes change under the influence of cream dressings. . dressed brown. Bussia Leather is one of the best of brown leathers. porous. Kangaroo. Pigskin generally is. gooG^ft* wears well and is waterproof.14 Leather Working. A vast amount of working is necessary to give it suppleness Doe is similar. Brown Glace Kid. and fermented in a proper steep (for a week at least) after a hot-water washing it is then worked on the beam after soaking for forty-eight hours in a bath containing a fermented paste of rye flour it is rinsed for fifteen days.

"

Qualities and Varieties of Leather.
Calf.

15

Box
leather.

— The

grain side

is

the face of this

It is

somewhat

like firm

ooze

calf, only-

black, but resists moisture better. Many leathers are being made of this and a similar green calf, for instance ;. also iron calf or kid, which is much like calf kid, but, from being dressed to resemble kid, is very useful, and an extremely strong leather. Willow Calf is similar to box calf, but it is of a brown colour. It is made in good colours and retains them longer, perhaps, than any other sort of

1

F

\^

1

Lea thbr Working.

These are converted into welting by being They are used for the welts of hand-sewn boots and shoes. V^ It is now necessary to give a description of the different parts of a hide of leather. Fig. 1 gives a diagram of a hide, fully showing the various parts. a a are the best parts of the butt b b, top end The whole of above, c c, edge, or hitch pieces. combined, are commercially called butt ends, while with d d (the first cut) the whole would be a butt e e, part known as bellies f f, odd pieces, with others, are flanks, shanks, cheeks, and faces G g, shoulders ;abcd and G, folded at h h, are sides and
ders.

stuffed well with grease.

;

;

;

bends.

i7

CHAPTER

II.

STKAP CUTTING AND MAKING. In making a gross (144 pairs) of
\
in.

or |
:

in.

quired One not hollow-ground a punch (see p. 15 of " Harness Making"), with nipples from TVin. to | in. in diameter a pair or two of pliers a screw-crease or two (see p. 19 of " Harness Making ") and a marking board of dry mahogany or any hard wood ^ in. to 1 in. thick, about 3 ft. long by 9 in. wide. For the cutting board, use a piece of planed deal or pine free from knots mark from the end along one edge distances of 12^ in., 13^ in., 14^ in., and 15^ in. A hardwood measuring-off stick about 2 in. wide, 2 ft. long, and ^ in. thick should have the following lengths marked 12 in., 13 in., 14 in., and 15 in. An emery stick about 1 in. square, of any length, with emery paper glued round, a few wire
; ;

common garters wide, the following tools will be rehollow-ground knife one plain knife,

;

;

;

;

nails l£ in. long,

and some leather and buckles,

will

be wanted. Glue a leather shaving on the back of each knife blade to 2 in. from the point, as a protection for the fingers gripping the blade when cutting the leather, which should be from T j in. to
l

^

in.

thick.

Begin to make the garters by placing the leather on the cutting board, and with the hollow-ground knife cut an edge of the leather straight. Then cut An them out, using the thumbnail as a guide. easy way is to set a pair of compasses or points to the required width of the strap (bare § in.), to cut an edge of the leather straight, and to run the points down the leather, which can then be cut to the mark made. Do not cut any shorter than the
B

press the tongue of a buckle open and thread a strap through. If the outside diameter of the gaspipe is \ in. Then point the lengths as in Fig.1 8 Lea ther Working. The top of the strap is not marked. 12^-in. To mark the straps on the board. and tie them securely with band or wire. Hold the garter in the left hand. use the screwcrease set to x 2 in. Lap the point of the bit from the back round the . Then cut the bits. The marking does not show up if not near the edge. Heat the point of the screwcrease in the gas or fire . To buckle the garters. cut down from the top with a pair of scissors two nicks about 1 in. and probably better. pressing down the |-in. push the can on the gaspipe. and the front of the strap. . The screw-crease. 4. three or four straps can be punched at a time. Of course. and on the centre line . 2) for the tongue of the buckle in each strap about f in. putting the tongue in the hole A (Fig. when being heated. threaded through. with a punch in the right hand make a hole through the bit. . length. length with the thumbnail. 2 with the other knife. but The edges can be is more difficult to cut than b. 2) and bending back the | in. Now punch a hole A (Fig. A small can containing water in which to dip the crease when too hot should be at hand. In Fig. bend the strips down. leaving a bright glossy mark if a little force is exerted. long on opposite sides of the can then bend up the tin. and put one edge of a Then bit just under the thumbnail. as in Fig. a small gas stove will do as well. holding it firm. mount on the pipe a tin can about 1^ in. mark on the cutting board.. 3 two kinds are illustrated A makes a better job. the ^-in. in diameter. from the top. rests on the bottom of the can. when it is at the proper heat it will move easily along the strap. In heating by gas. and always examine the leather to see that there will not be much waste. marked to improve the appearance.

4) with the pliers. Cut the bit. measuring to 15^ calling them 12s. 19 and thread it through the hole. and whether one is. — Marking in. 4.. Then push the point of the longer garter through the bit marked b of the garters side . putting together those measuring to 12^ in.. then place two by side and see whether they are of equal widths. ing to 13| 15s.— Garter Complete. 2. Then fasten the measuring off board to the table with a couple of springs. and those and For pairing. and measure the garters one at a time. Garter. front. take a measured pile. Fig.— Garter Bits. long. in. 3.Strap Cutting and Making. 13s.. Fig. those measuring to 14| in. leaving it about \ in. then those measur- Fiff. say. Put the buckle on a nail in the table and pull the bit A (Fig. 14s. longer than the other. to \ in. long. \ in.

. one at a time. Then the point of the bit can be threaded through a hole punched on the centre line of the strap. on the table with the flesh side facing the worker then pack three 13s as before. They can also be made with double buckles. when the points of the two garters should come fair. the width of the bit on the shorter garter making the difference. one part serving as the bit. from the top. 4) of the other pull it through. and from 18 in. and it will be seen that the longer ones wrap round the shorter garters. the shorter garters being packed in the middle. Then tie the ends with band.20 (Fig. Twist the straps round. For the length way. but for a stronger job the buckle tongue hole should be about 1 in. but generally have a rather roller buckle. and can be made as above described. one at each The garters of the ends and one at the middle. wide. The holes should just let the buckle tongues pass through. are packed in dozens and in half or whole grosses. Leather Working. Leg straps are like garters. Make six holes in the 12s and 13s. wide. Packing may be done by the round way or the length way. . and the straps are f in. Skate straps are generally % in. then pick three 14s. Thus the top garter of a pair is slightly the longer. and seven in the 14s and 15s. to 36 in. Three bands are tied across. half a dozen garters are placed lengthwise one way and the other half dozen the other way. place three of the 12s. putting them at the back of the 13s. until with practice two pairs can be done at once. putting them at the back of the 12s. long stronger leather is used. the rule being half as many holes as the strap is inches long. . They are either riveted or sewn. and are 18 in. Next punch the garters down the leg. then three 15s at the back of the 14s. . doing a pair together at first. to 21 in. By the first method. long.

is prepared as described. one strap being curved one way for one foot. 5 to go round the strap and meet at the back then punch a hole in the centre of each end. Sometimes this skate strap is curved a little. and the hole for the buckle tongue should be punched in the centre. to 21 in. and tie. 6). iii Fig. are about 3 in. long. A rivet is put in just below the bit and goes through the portion which is lapped over or the pieces can be sewn by hand or machine. to 20 in. which are riveted on. . and the other the other way. 6. and the two small garters b. and hold the front part of the skate. 00 DQ Fig. The strap for these should be 6 in. The strap . except that the bit is cut to Fig.— Strap Bit. and with twine thread through both holes. and slip one on each strap to the buckle. broad.— Skate Strap: In another form of skate strap (shown in Fig. Then press the bits so that the knots are at the back. long. pull the ends together. a strap from 18 in. 21 Skate straps are also made with roller buckles. holding the back part. . They are from 12 in. the part A is set out with a zinc template. to 3 in. so that when they are fastened the rivets go through the back part as well as through the front.Strap Cutting and Making. 5. long and from 2 in.

30 in. fits in. which is shown by Fig. Dog-leads are handier for general use than are chains. Solid buttonhead rivets look extremely well. the handpunch riveter. 7. for use with this a few nipples of different sizes should be obtained. Xote that the working part alone requires heating. avoid heating the screw and thus making it useless. obtain a few Fig. Parcel straps. 16 of the companion volume " Harness Making " . For hollow-studding the dog-leads. A necessary tool for making dogleads is the hand punch. 19. long. etc.— Hand-punch Riveter. Practise with the tool on scrap leather before using it on good work. 37. and the tool is heated slightly on the working part when required for use. 7) bored out exactly to fit the studs. and can be hammered into the leather without previously making holes for their reception for the latter reason they weaken the leather much less A screw-crease. as shown by than do hollow studs Fig. the width of the mark made by it is regulated by . p. and are threaded through a nickelplated. For riveting studs of different shape. S illustrates a number of hollow studs." is necessary for giving a gloss to the edges of the straps. being much lighter and more easily carried in the pocket. the top piece being countersunk so that the stud top a just Fig. 19. brass. . is required. of "Harness Making. shown by Fig. are made as described above. of the top pieces A (Fig. 7.22 Leather Working. to 40 in. p. the small screw. . or leather handle.

and use at once. 10. but care must be taken that it is not so hot as to burn and stick in the leather a good plan is to heat the tool well.— Dog Lead with Studs and Ring.Strap Cutting and Making. Loop. 9. Fig. 11. rub over and over again until the Fig. . 23 first. and then rivet or sew one end of the strap to . to 50 in. dip the working part in water. wide.— Dog: Lead. 9. The hotter the crease. Run the hot crease along the edges of the strap so as to make a bright mark . Fig. To make it. required gloss is obtained. — Dog Lead with Swivel. first cut out a good leather strap from 36 in. The simplest kind of dog-lead will be described and this is illustrated by Fig. or | in. long and about \ in. the smaller will be the pressure required.

and These rethus require more frequent cleaning. 12 may be used. punch a few holes as shown. through the swivel G. 8). but are more quickly tarnished than brass. A still better dog-lead is shown by Fig. the neck part being pressed outwards as in the section c (Fig. and rivet on a together with the buckle. . This simple lead is now complete. The lead is then complete. or 1^-in. as the swivel G prevents it from twisting when the dog moves its head round. and rivet as shown. 7) clinch their necks fast into the leather. In putting in the studs. . In Fig.24 Leather Working. this is 4^ in. look the neater when new. marks apply also to the martingale ring and chain. 11 . martingale ring passed through a loop at the end and secured by a The lead is then given a more finished aprivet. Put the other end of the strap for about 1 in. end fitting. 10 is shown a better kind of lead. The necks b (Fig. with the rivet punch (Fig. D illustrates a stud having a rounded instead of a conical top. and for use is buckled through the ring of the dog's collar. creased or marked before riveting. it differs from the last one in having. pearance. 8) of these studs should fit tightly in the holes when the studs are in the holes. perhaps. form a handle. a l£-in. It is attached in the same manner as the plain ring. The dog-lead shown at Fig. first with the punch make a number of holes at an equal distance apart. Either brass or nickel-plated swivels will be suitable the latter. the chain-end fitting illustrated by Fig. cut a strap 12 in. to 18 in. and is . buckle strap long. long. Cut a \ on the other end of the strap. and rivet it on to form the handle. In making this dog-lead. Instead of the martingale ring alone. 8. . proceed as before as far as the handle in the event of the leather not being long enough to allow of this. 11 can be ornamented by any of the hollow brass studs shown by Fig. loop it. instead of a leather handle.

—Pattern for Wrist Strap. 14. . 25 A Fig. 12. 13. Fig. 16. J Fisr.— Wrist Strap.— Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit.— Folded Bit. Fig.— Bit Complete.— Chain-end Fitting. Fig.Strap Cutting and Making. 17. Fig. 15.

place the strap on the wrist . The strap will be neater when finished if it is marked all round the edges (see Fig. punch a small hole at each end of the slit. First with a sharp knife cut a cardboard pattern to Fig. Cut the ends of the band close to the leather to Fig. The advantage of this wrist strap is that no buckle presses against the skin. which may be of any colour required. punch seven holes down the fastening A nickel-plated buckle part of the wrist strap. 14. or coppered. Full instructions for doing this are given by the makers when sending out the rivets. strap for strengthening the wrist is shown in Fig.26 Leather Working. and bend the leather over. and cut out the piece between with the knife. put the point through the slit A (Fig. then carry the end round again and buckle up. pliable leather. to cut out the slit a (Fig. and are inserted and clinched with the aid of a hammer. Cut a piece of leather \ in. 14). can be obtained nickel-plated. and on the centre line. Mark carefully round the pattern with a lead pencil. as required. then put the buckle tongue through the hole d (Fig. and place it on a piece of thin. Put this bit on the end c (Fig. near each end. 14). 15) . 17). In fixing. used in fastening the different parts together. Next. bring the end B through the buckle and over the jointed part of the bit and sew down. 13). brassed. with awl or punch make a small hole (Fig. or enamelled looks the neatest. 16. japanned. passing the point through the bit. stained. To finish. long. place the pattern on the leather. looks neatest. 13) with a screw-crease. thread a piece of band through the two holes and tie it or sew the end. or rivet with a bifurcated nickeled rivet. A though brown. and cut out just inside the pencil marks. 13. so that the jointed part is at the centre (Fig. . The bifurcated rivets. wide and 2 in. 14) and pull until tight enough.

The back piece is about 3 in. . in the absence of brace-end punches. Having pricked the leather all round. the wide part in the strap end. . cut the pattern of the front strap to go to the buckle. the single end brace is now . and round it at the top. and then put the web in as far as the stitches. and have back pieces from the cross line upwards. at the top and cut a hole for the buckle shave the point. to 6 in. If the braces are to have cross straps in front (see Fig. cut the front buckle piece to the same shape at the bottom as the back piece. Cut the back piece to shape from the points of the cross line. long and stitch it together in the centre . trim the basil pieces. and another to which the front buckle fastens. . long. or a little larger than. Have a piece of thin basil leather of the same size as. and mark a cross line as far as the webbing is to come taper the other end of the strap. and round off the point. put a piece in the buckle of the same width all along and about the l\ in. but narrow it towards the top to the width of the buckle. ready. . and taper it towrds the bottom.. stitch it in along the marks. and finish all the straps.Strap Cutting and Making. and. stitch a loop near leaving space below for the cross strap to buckle. go through cut the cross-piece about 1 in. When doubled. wide and 9 in. from the point. and stitch in the buckles with a loop close up to them. long. and the hind piece to the button. 18) to fasten on two buttons. Stitch along the cross line with single thread. Turn in 1 in. and tack down. 27 To make a pair of braces. and slit the holes up for about 1 in. leaving it full opposite the intended buttonhole . to 22 in. first cut the web to a length of from 18 in. crease. long. The front strap should be from 5 in. and cut them close round the stitches punch the strap and a hole in the buckle-piece and in the backpiece about \ in. Leave both pieces of the same width as the web in one end.

besides being double in front. with double thread narrow the other part a little. pointed at the top to cover the joint. . join at the back (Fig. crease it. or this part may be made first and stitched in place while making the buckle part. letting it be a bit full opposite the hole.28 Lea ther Working. and taper to a point. Turn down the narrow end for about 1 in. Fig. dee or ring the back straps about | in.. 18. Cut in a 1-in. and insert a stitch or two in the other Rub and \ Fig. 19). and then put them in the open space left at the bottom of the buckle-piece . wide. and narrow them gradually towards one end and round off the other. . in the two ends of the cross strap. on. and cut it neatly into the shape of an egg. . Put both ends of the web together so as to cross. and put the holes as directed brace end. Others. shave the point. not too thick. and stitch to the dee previously stitched Finish by punching holes for the buckles. : 9. .— Double End Brace. to hold them in their place bend a piece of leather.— Double End Brace Joined at Back. and narrow at the bottom where the bend is so as to take stitch it into the ring.

A hole is bored and countersunk at each end 20). for a small screw. Another piece of sheet iron d ^ . thick.. wide and l£ in. will be required. and round off the top edges as shown. with a slot about I in. To make the Fig. long in the centre to fit the bolt b (Fig. long by 4\ in. Bore a hole about f in. long then bore the smaller part of the hole for the shank so that the block may lie flat on the table and the threaded part of the bolt come through A. wide. 21. 6 in. . A sheet-iron plate (Fig. belts. 71 Fig. first obtain a block Fig. — Plate - wide and m thick. long by \\ in. 21).Stxap Cutting and Making. This will cut leather straps. (a. etc. 20. of any thickness and length and up to 3 in. — Strap Cutting Appliance. by 2 in. appliances. o of Strap Cutting Appliance. 29 In concluding this chapter the construction of a leather strap cutting appliance may be described. deep in the block from the underside to receive the head of a bolt \ in. of beech or any other hard wood. 20) about 10 in.

put it on the bolt. put the blade through the slit e (Fig. leaving exactly the Fig-. 20). long required to go on the bolt thread. \ in. 20. and wide enough for a knife blade to go through. and the apparatus is ready for cutting straps not thicker than the plate c (Fig. 20). get a sharp knife. A nut and washer should be put on the sheet-iron plate d for tightening up. 20 and 22. and fasten to the block with a screw at each end. 22. and fix firmly in the wood block. . deep. are made in one edge as shown in Figs. \ in. apart. ness.$o Lea ther Working* wide and of any thickand \ in. 6 in. 20). with a slot 3 in. or saw- kerfs. otherwise packing must be placed between the plates c and D. wide. long by 2 in. first take the sheet iron plate c (Fig. —Another Plate of Strap Catting Appliance. The leather should come through easily. Screw the block to the table. f. as shown in Fig. Then put the piece of sheet iron d on the bolt. 20). For cutting the straps. Then take a piece of leather and press the edge against the knife until the cut end. 20). keeping the edge of the leather firmly against the sheetiron plate c with the left hand. width of the strap required to be cut between the edge of the plate c and a selected slit as e (Fig. will be Six slits (Fig. comes through to the other side of the iron. To put the parts together. Then pull the leather through with the right hand.

and cut the same to it then fold again. Fisr. and which. bringing a and b to c and d this enables the worker to cut all corners to the same shape. . 23. would suit a case which. LETTER CASES AND WRITING PADS. 25 and 28) can be cut in a similar way. 23 these. measures 6 in. Set out the patterns to the dimensions on thin cardboard or stout paper. by 6 in. rounding the corners at E and G to suit A and c . which have much in common. when closed. round the corner at A and fold the pattern in the centre. as shown is the accurate cutting of patterns in Figs. the pattern being kept true and square. when open. 24). 24 to 28. The side pockets (Figs. . bringing a to b. The first point to consider in making the leather letter case illustrated by Fig. This chapter will making letter cases be devoted to instructions on and writing pads.3i CHAPTER III.— Letter Case. and cut them out. After cutting the pattern for the back (Fig. .. is 8 in. by 4 in.

clearly leather by a metal weight then with a blunt awl mark the leather to the patterns. Figs. 26 to form stamp pockets. In cutting out. 26 these holes can be used as guides in fixing the card and stamp pockets. . with a small quantity of grease on a rag rub them to a finish. to Fig. endeavourThese should next be ing to keep clean edges. The most durable and suitable leather for making the case would be pigskin of medium substance. 24. The stamp pockets (Fig. 25 is stitched Fig. the pattern should be kept in position on the . 24). and to mark the of Fig. Prick the four holes in Fig. dyed to a shade similar to the leather. On Fig. a firm piece being selected for the back. 28 being stitched on Fig. and this can best be done by using a sponge bound to a stick with string. 24). 25 in the position shown. 24). 26. from the outer This can be done best by running . 28) must now be secured position of the stitching a line should be edge made about \ in.32 (Fig. and four similar holes in Fig. and J and l (Fig. Leather Working. and with a shoemaker's knife or a pair of sharp scissors carefully cut the leather to the lines traced. 27 to form a pocket for cards. Fig. After dyeing the edges. 26) to suit B and D (Fig.— Back of Letter disc. 25 and 26 are stitched on the back (Fig. 28.

33 race compasses set to \ in. 26. 26. 25 and 26. 25 and 26 to C . 2o.— Patterns for Side Pockets. The holes are made by placing . 23). from the outer edge Fig. around the edges from o to p (see Fig. ft-* iz Fig.— Card Pocket Pattern. Fig?. 26. 27. 27 to Fig. £ smear it on the back of the leather from o to P about then stick the piece to in. A piece of linen or twill lining should be pasted at the back of Figs. p 28— Stamp Pocket Pattern.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. Take a small quantity of glue on the finger and Fisr. 26. bringing the points o and p on to the holes marked on Fig. and mark two lines inside for stitching. Divide the pattern into three parts. Fig. Proceed in exactly the same way with the fixing of Fig. Fig. the paper pattern on the leather and pricking through with an awl.

from f to h. A piece of narrow elastic can now be stitched across the case in the centre at the points M and n (Fig. and then. 25 and 26 all the stitching must be carefully tied and fastened off strongly. Do the same with Fig. 25) . Then glue around the back of Fig. notebook If the leather keeping a diary or used is pigskin or cowhide. 27 and 28 have been stitched to Figs. making a line about \ in. and it becomes soiled. and this Pad Folded Up.34 Lea ther Working. from the outer edge with compasses. 25 about \ in. 24. bringing the points J and l over the points b and d (Fig. polishing with a soft rag. . strengthen the stitching and prevent it breaking must. and stick it on Fig. Aft'er the patterns shown by Figs. bringing the points E and G over the points A and c. the best way to cleanse it is by wiping with a weak solution of oxalic acid. 24). If the outer edges overlap after the case is stitched. 24. from the edge. of course. when dry. trim them with a sharp knife and dye and polish as before. running the stitch line all round the back of Fig. 23). 26. Then and fasten off strongly at the corners of all pockets where marked with x (Fig. this will be useful for in position. be done before stitching. Next mark the back of the case for the stitching. .

margins of leather to the board.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. postcards. the centre forms a blotting pad. Thomas's. eraser. pen. First cut a piece of leather 28 in.. pare Fig-. 29 and 30 has spaces for envelopes. or vertical-feed sewing machine. Now cut a piece of leather 16 in... should be cut and fixed at the bends at A E and e d (Fig. all round.. The writing pad illustrated by Figs. scissors. thread. 35 The stitching can be done on a light Singer's. of leather between the boards and 1 in. e. by 6 in. and . leaving 1 in. address book or diary. notepaper. and glue at A and d. This will form the groundwork for the pad. 31). Cut two pieces of strawboard 12 in. Then glue the 1-in. and with thin glue fix as shown at E. and (Fig. \\\ in. The stitch set should not be small.. stamps. pencil. and knife. leaving 1 in. 30. 31) to strengthen them. about twelve stitches to the inch being suitable. Pieces of twill lining. It is advisable to set and try the stitch on a waste piece of leather. by 2^ in. the edges at a. 18 Pearsall's silk or a 60 in. and when open as shown in Fig. by Q\ in. and d mark the leather as shown Then cut a piece of 1^-lb.— Writing Pad Open. 30. by 14 in.* of leather to turn over at the top and bottom. by 12 in. strawboard 12 in. at the sides to turn over on to the board. using a No.

A . . and 14§ in. leaving \ in. next at 8^ in. of the edge. *l\ in. of leather to turn over on to the board. 32 then cut pieces of cartridge paper and fix them as shown at x. and cut the top of the leather the same shape as the paper. from the edge. by A .. Glue together pieces of strawboard or soft wood to form a mould for the paper pocket. and. with the face of the leather upwards.36 Lea tiier Working.. from the edge at b.. 9| in. piece of twill lining should be pasted at the back within | in. mark 1 in. Next turn the edge of the leather to the lining and board fold the leather to form gussets for the pockets. 13| in. mark it as shown in Fig.

The piece of linen should next be cut Fig. Care should be . The ends and centre of the pockets should then be stitched. Next cut a piece of \-Vo. by 2 in. 11 in. 2 in. Fig. 33. 33). 32. leaving about \ in. envelope and pockets for papers.. which should be turned over and stuck on the board.—Writing Pad Pockets. across the bend and to the part that is to form the blotting pad. 32). and glue them to the bottoms. 33.. but not the bottoms. and fix on a piece of leather 12^ in.—Writing Pad Packets. should be sewn as shown in Fig. Cut the bottoms of the pockets as shown at p (Fig.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. The paper and envelope pockets. strawboard 12 in. of leather is left to form the bend (see Fig. with the stamp and postcard pockets stitched on.. by 8 1 in. 37 in. turn the two ears inside. except where marked at A. by 6 cover with linen. and glued at each bend at ae and ed in Fig. 31. should be glued and fixed at A (Fig. 31). of leather all round. The pieces of leather with card and stamp.

. back this with linen.. and remove from the t To '-2. by 1 in.. leaving \ in. Next cut a piece of board or thin cartridge paper about 9 in. .3« Lea ther Working. Next cut a piece of cartridge paper with linen at the back 4 in. Cut pieces of paper 2^ in. by 1^ in.'\ . and glue and fix it on a piece of leather 9| in. taken to fix the leather well in the bends and round each side. and also at the edges. by 3 in. margin of leather at each side and | in.. at the ends. by 2f in. by 2 in. Glue these margins and turn over to form loops. and fasten in the same way for the diary. and leather 3| in.

place it at the corner of the foundation for shown at the top left-hand corner in then lay one of the pieces to form the corners on top of the wood at the distance given. thick. and four pieces of leather 4£ in. square and \ in. 30. 39 strawboard 12 in. If leather has been used the appearance can be improved if some fancy lines on the edges of the pockets and the fronts and back of the pad are made with a crease that has been slightly heated. by 3 in. The leather most suitable to work would be a paste grain skiver. Fig. to turn over all round. coat it lightly with leather varnish. the wood acting as a mould for the corners. leaving \ in. Pare the edges of the leather and stick it on the paper. so as to form a flat surface under the pad. by 12 in. Fix the three other corners in the same manner. with a small quantity of dye. and. pasted a piece of white watered paper.. and cut away the parts that pucker. 35. This should be applied with a fine hair brush or sponge. . the edge where the leather is turned over being on top. To make the of A piece and on it is four corners as stiff shown in Fig. Glue the parts that overlap and fix them a3 shown.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. as shown in the pad as 35. by 3 in. If a polished leather has been used. black the edges of the leather where it may be snowing white. turning \ in. Next glue the foundation all over at the back and fix it firmly. cut four pieces of paper 4 in. Next take a small brush. Fig. now is cut. of the leather over on one side. Take a piece of wood about 3 in. This will form the foundation for the blotting pad.

bah run an iron (after damping the edge a little) to give it a finish. grooved iron. and these are described below. mark with this iron round the remainder. roughly cut out. Measure their circumference. passing f. hold it firmly. take a brush. longer and about 5 in. if the case is for a pair. Then take the thickness of the brush or of the two. from H. The brushes can be bought either singly or in pairs. whatever the length. When they are faced together Round the portion at prick another hole at h. 36) to get the half . Whatever kind of case is to be made. 36) from the side piece efg. A strap containing a few holes can be stitched on f. and after deducting the length of B d H (Fig. lay it back downwards on a sheet of paper. or the guard of a shoemaker's forepart or waist-iron will do. without the buckle and straps. two pieces should be cut to this pattern. requisite. . and costs but very little. and two holes pricked to indicate where the halves end. cut the pattern about 1 in. This can be doubled and quartered after it is 36). as e f g (Fig. and a strap and buckle to match in a corresponding place on e. and the case made accordingly.40 CHAPTER A IV. hair to hair. and mark it all round with a pencil this will give the form a b d c in the diagram (Fig. gentleman's hair brush case is a very useful It is easy to cut and make. so as to get a good ellipse. This is for the side and to form the lid. wider. or the one at e can be left till after the case is made. This may be a narrow. HAIR BRUSH AND COLLAR CASES. 36). — With regard to the making there are only three pieces needed. and. The pattern must be folded across B c (Fig.

. bookbinder's skivers. roans. The brush case may be made of almost anything is stiff and not too stout. and then the other side can be treated in a like manner. or where a fancy case is wanted. and the edge of one of the ellipses may be placed against the end of the side at e and stitched. etc.— Hair Brush Case. as Persian skiver. beyond the half at the back . Fi£. as morocco.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. or any that . 41 The leather may be lined. This may be some fancy . asBDCH. 36. with brown or any coloured paper. the pieces may be cut out in cardboard and then lined up with any thin leather. H being about 1 in. if desired. similar pieces are then cut out of whatever material is used for the outside. as pieces from jockey tops. etc.

If it be Figf.42 Leather Working. wax and . stitched use bookbinder's glue instead of paste. all that is necessary is to proceed as above. these are thus fitted. wanted. The threads may be of either white or yellow flax or hemp. this is must be skived all round for a little more than and then pasted and turned over the edge of the cardboard on to the other leather. the tapers only being waxed to receive the bristles or needles or they can be made from stout carpet thread of any colour. leather. . and scraping each strand until it is tapered then. is this distance. larger all round than going to be. when the whole are in this condition. the edge will not need stitching.— Horse-shoe Collar Box. Tapers to this can be made by untwisting the ends after taking off the length When . 37. if not very thin in embossed the case itself. This. and should be made wet and twisted. about f in. If done nicely by skiving the edge very thin and taking small V pieces out all round previous to pasting.

37. 43 twist them. — Forming . according to the method of stitching to be adopted. 38). 33. if a straight edge is put along this line and then cut round to the other parts of the pattern (except that (Fig. 37) this. and put on the bristles or needles. curved and to more play to the drawer. The form for the pattern is not difficult to obtain if the instructions given below are followed. long. First describe a circle as A b c d (Fig. rji3 Drawers in Collar Box. A line is now drawn across the bottom as e f the lid— that is to say. to form piece of paper with a . Draw A . horseshoe collar-box with drawer is shown by Fig. if a partition is made along the side. Two of these patterns can be cut. should be about 6 in.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. The curves a d and e b can then be drawn. thus forming the horseshoe. on each side of c. for a goodsized box. touching the bottom of the circle at c mark the points a and b 2 in. 37). as give a little A f. and for razor and tooth-brush also. &0 Fig. The drawer can be used for handkerchiefs or ties. piece can be taken away to save stuff. 4 in. in diameter. a line as a b (Fig.

and they should be joined together either k or the straight line ilk. and c.44 Lea ther Working. in Fig. 38) two sides will be needed and a top for the lid. The height of the box should be from 3 in. past D and E to b (Fig. to 3^ in. of course. the top of the lid forming the other end at d. 39. The piece for the sides of the drawer must be the u . the by the curved line former for preference. each at right angles with c. it must be \ in. the whole of the outside is complete. as it gives more room to the drawer. b. it is best to draw two per. As regards the drawer. There must then be cut two sides and an end the length of i K. say within about f in. ortoCDJ h. These should be carried up as high as possible. be this height. F Box Drawer and Lid. — Collar pendicular lines. E Fijr. These are to form the portions shown in A. for which there will be only one piece needed. longer). When a strap has been made as long as the distance from d to e. 59. and as long as the distance from A. the pattern for the lid is produced. of any part of the outside circle. either tocoiH. as G I and h k. The pattern for it will. past a and b.

Hair Brush and Collar
;

Cases.

45

exact width of the inside of the box it is therefore best to leave this portion until the box is made. The lid being larger than the outside of the box, and the drawer having to go inside, the side of the drawer at A and b will not, of course, fit the lid at the dotted lines shown on top. It is not necessary, as a few stitches at e and f and along the bottom at D will hold it. As regards the manufacture or the material used, these are explained in connection with the hair-brush case already described in this chapter.

Fig-.

41.— Block for
Collar Box.

Making
Fig.

40.— Round

Collar Box.

The strap which is to fasten either side may be put on merely from lid to box, just long enough to buckle, or it may be in one piece, as shown by the handle in Fig. 37, with holes in each end for the buckle to go through, and then secured in each of
the places marked at H and 1 (Fig. 37), so as to form it into a handle, as J. In making the drawer, it is as well to put the grain side of the leather inside and to cover the outside with nice paper the inside of the box should also be covered in a like manner to keep the collars
;

can, if desired, be made of wood. be needed, as the side of the box when the drawer is in forms this. At a and c (Fig. 37)
clean.

The drawer

No

lid will

46

Lea ther Working.

on the outside of the drawer are two elastic loops to hold the collars in their place while the drawer is being inserted. Fig. 40 illustrates a round^moulded collar case 6$ in. in diameter by 3^ in. high it is covered and lined with leather. To make it, begin by cutting a circular wood block (Fig. 41) 6| in. in diameter and 3| in. deep, the surface of which should be smooth with rounded corners. Cut a strip of moulding paper about 22 in. by 4^ in. and cut also two circular pieces Glue the two ends of the long 65 in. in diameter. strip on reverse sides for about 1^ in. from the ends, and then wind it tightly round the block, bringing the glued edges over each other and joining them to form the band of the case. Next place the band so
;

Hair Brush and Collar Cases.

47

piece of glasspaper bound on wood, round off all the sharp corners, and roughen the surfaces so that the material will adhere better. The moulded part should now be cut. With a pair of compasses mark round the band about 1 in. from the top, and to this line with a sharp-pointed knife cut through to the block. The shallow part is for the lid and the other part for the case. The leather or other material to be used for the case should next be cut as follows One piece for the top of the lid 7^ in. in diameter, one piece \ in. longer than the circumference and 2\ in. wide, and one piece of the same length but 3 in. wide. If leather is used, pare or thin all the edges, and also the back and front of the ends of the long pieces to ensure a neat finish. The circular piece (7j in. in diameter) should be fixed to the top of the lid with thin glue, leaving about \ in. of leather overlapping the edge to be turned over on to the band. Glue the strip 2^ in. wide and fix the edge to the edge of the lid, neatly overlapping the two ends about \ in. The I5 in. of material left should be turned inside

the

lid.

The piece 3i in. wide should be fixed, like the lid, on the band of the case, leaving \ in. of material to turn over to the bottom and top inside the case. Next cut a piece the exact size of the bottom, pare The its edge, and fix it on the outside of the case. fastening should be fixed before lining the case, and
a piece should be stitched at the back to form a hinge. First glue a piece of linen on some brown paper and cut two pieces to the dimensions given in Then cut pieces of leather large Figs. 42 and 43. enough to cover these, turning the leather over \ in. at each end and on the left side, and lastly £ in. on the right side, this making a neat finish. An oblong catch or purse fastening about 1 in. by I in. wide should be used. The hasp part of the catch should be fixed to Fig. 42, and the catch

and secured at the bottom with another row of stitching about 1 in. glue the same and fix on the board. 44).48 Lea ther Working. and again | in. hasp below this. For fit this. place 2| oz. of material over the edge. cut two cir- cular pieces of strawboard to inside. above the top of the box. directly opposite the catch in front. and one Fiff. over to the back of the board. and leave for twelve hours. The clear part should be used. strain through canvas. turning \ in. above this. stir . wider than the depth.— Sack of Round Collar Box. Pare the edge of the strip at the ends and glue the whole and fix it inside the case. Cut the material for the circular pieces about \ in. of methylated occasionally until dissolved. this forming a ridge to keep the lid in position. For leather varnish. 43 should be fixed at the Lack of the case (Fig. If a polished leather has been used. The piece of leather shown by Fig. lightly coat with leather varnish. should be fixed to the body of the case so that the falls in easily when the lid is closed. bringing the edge where the material is turned over about \ in. The case should be lined. 3 oz. 44. strip of the same length as the circumference of the case inside and \ in. with one row at the top edge of the lid. greater in diameter than the board. of powdered resin spirit and . Cover the strip of board and turn about \ in. Keep it corked up in a dry place. Next fix the two circular pieces in the lid and bottom of the case. of shellac in 1 pt. allow to settle.

45 gives a back view of the hat case closed. . basil is so thin that D . Fig-. as well. as it has to be backed by stout millboards. the portions of a butt that take these names for other purposes though. Solid leather hat cases are made of good stout shoulders and first cuts. they are specially dressed. Basil hat cases cannot be of solid leather.49 CHAPTER HAT CASES. rather. when they are going to be used for hat cases. 45. — Bucket-shaped Hat Case. V.. etc. or. The diagrams given are for a bucket hat case. and it will take collars and ties. This is the most general shape. Fig.

There will have to be two pieces cut to this pattern. c to D 8f in. and the top may be flat or curved (as abc. and is 25 in. from f to G.. Fig - . with as little waste as possible. A to B 19^ in. Directions for lining will be given. The case must be oval. long from and goes past f and c. cut oval (as a c b d. is to go. back and front. . 46. . but this is done. wide. For a curved top the dimensions of the . —Hat Case shown Diagrammatically. : A strap E. with portion taken away to show how and where the inner case.. 45). . while Fig. 46). E to f and 7 in. Cut out the shape of all the pieces first in paper then cut the leather to them. of course.. and 9^ in. Fig. by 13^ in. to taste. 46 shows the front open. and is The sides of the case can be cut so that the seam comes under this strap. Fig. The shape will be as Fig. VZ\ in. The bottom must be 8^ in. 45). to lock on the front.5° Lea ther Working. \\ in. and the dimensions 15iin. patterns are as follows Top. . which is to hold the hat. is sewn at e (Fig. not round. 46). 47. from d to E (Fig.

wide in the centre. 5 1 from a to c and b to d. 20| in. as shown by the line at c. A Fig. letting the stitches make up (q >aj j£ g ~^|P:B o) Fia:. are for it. this will give the wall. twice the size of Fig. 47. cut four straight or slightly curved strips. but if made. by 1 in. 48. 45) and b (Fig. Now cut a piece of light millboard to fit the bottom inside. 49. be as the curved piece from line at a (Fig.— Half Side of Hat Case. Then turn upside down. 45. and stitch it all round. and a corresponding piece from the inside of the bottom of the pieces. A band for I and J (Fig. 49) . at A c. the width of it must be taken off the sides at . and fit the bottom in. To form g h in Fig. Fig. of which should be left at top and bottom to turn over.Hat Cases. —Hat-case Handle.— Sewn Seam. Glue a piece of lining on . Line this with red glazed lining. c f d (Fig. the ends being of any shape and width desired. 48. 47. or side of the case. 1| in. 45) may be cut as G h. only narrower this band is not necessary. and fasten them together at a c and b d. by 2 in. 47) to 3 in. long. 50). The millboard should just nicely fit in the case. 46). Take the two sides (Fig. 10^ in. as A on b (Fig. 1 in. and another piece to fit round the side. Glue these together at the side. which should be just seamed together. For the handle cut two pieces as Fig. Three strips about needed for loops K L (Fig. 47). Then shave off an angular all round the flesh side of the bottom. and should be skived and allowed to lap to make a smooth seam.

and the edge of the lining and edge of the rim must be flush with each other. as h h h h (Fig. but it may be prepared and finished off without. While the lining is drying. Notch it all round about \ in. Do the 45). as the others can be trimmed to it after it has been stitched all round. slightly glue it and the outside of the lining. 45). 2 in. and glue it down. To make the handle. Before the lining is inserted the handle must . Now put the board rim between the two. and put it in its place in the case it will stand up about \ in. Next damp the inside of the case. same with two short. letting one come from a to b. This is for a fixed handle . Only the top piece need be cut out to the shape desired. Sometimes the top edge of the case is bound with a narrow strip of thin leather. 48). The lid is made in the same way. punch a hole in each end at m and N (Fig. for a loose one. only the lining of the rim G H (Fig. apart. be put on. wide all round over this. put them together. as shown by h h h h. and the top can be lined with quilted satin. narrow straps which are to go across to stay the handle atop. skiving or tapering them off at ends to nothing. or instead of using rivets all may be stitched down. After it is stitched and shaped. 46). bringing the two edges to the bottom.52 Leather Working. leaving 1 in. take the two pieces (Fig. Cover it with the lining. lay it on the bottom of the side lining. and the other from c to D. take a strip of the board. over all round. is not so thick. and put a brass-headed rivet in each. letting half be on the bottom and half on the side. letting it stand a good inch above the case. Then glue a strip 2 in. to the bottom board. m and n will not want . and place two other pieces of the same material between them. and then stitch right through the lot. wide and curved to fit outside the top of the lining and inside the edge of the case. above the case. and also skiving a litle off the edges at e f.

12| in. 52. as A b. and must be a good deal wider. o and p must then be well secured at each end to prevent m and N slipping through or pieces of brass. and its catch is riveted to the ends of the strap. at least. if desired but leather is more in keeping with the character of the case. The lock is put on the front. this piece will form the bottom at Fig. and the piece that is left can be cut across the centre to form the two half -rims. and the strap. raised in the centre just to admit of the thin part of the handle passing backwards and forwards. The . k and l may also be of brass. and from the centre cut a piece out. 46). by 13^ in. 52) is very simple. 51. and is therefore worth the extra trouble. opposite to l (Fig. Inner Hat Case.Hat Cases. forms a loose sort of hinge. This is cut from cardboard. The inner case (Fig. may be used. but should be made to take a hat of any size. The lid does not come right off . . . shape of these small leather or brass brackets is shown at Fig. by 7^ in. and covered with the lining. 8^ in. 51. Fig 1 . . — Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides. 53 punching. between K and L. Take a piece of cardboard.

must be put across from K to L (Fig. . it can be gradually cut down from these points at each side to a width of 6-| in. The top of the sides may be covered with quilted satin. This should be left on towards the centre. which can be done by folding a piece of the lining and stitching it to the satin underneath f and the opposite side (letting a and b be \ in. The quilted satin is only just secured on each side. with an old-fashioned garter-fastener in the centre. The length of cd can now be ascertained by measuring round the piece which is to be the bottom. and finished off on the under side with lining. can be left to form the seam. for the inside lining of the leather case. This will be at a b but. after it is seamed up. The bottom piece. and about f in. so that when in the case collars. 46). 46) to hold the inner case containing the hat in its place. top and bottom. and the width of the inner case will have to be 1\ in. . as shown at I J. puffed a little with wadding. The inside of this inner case may be covered with the lining. so that it may be stitched along the top of c d at G and h. can be put in the spaces between the inner and outer cases shown at I and J (Fig. c d (Fig.54 Leather Working. inner case to fit inside the outer one. 52). Only 1 in. elastic. covered on one side. A piece of ^-in. which should be turned over to the outside. etc. The lining should be turned round the top and over at the bottom. as explained above. and a piece put over the bottom for a finish. This must be done so as to leave A and b quite free to be lifted up. and just stood in the case A and b should be trimmed at the sides to allow the . may now be covered outside.. wider. apart).

placing them together in a like manner. it would not be possible to buy at any shop.55 CHAPTER VI. the better will be the fit and the — cheaper the case. The height of the banjo must be ascertained to determine the thickness of the case . a margin all round . the width of rim including brackets. unless made . It will now be seen how much stuff will be required. and then cut the other parts. specially to order. It will be seen that in giving the patterns for the various parts of two different shaped cases. that. it forms a covering only. as there shown. solid leather case. such as. As a good illustration of the shapes and their positions given in the diagrams. This chapter will therefore explain how to make a good. of course. leaving. and cut the bottom pattern to it. as A. First measure the banjo. or a case for any similar instrument. can scarcely be made too well. strong. as it often undergoes a lot of rough usage it fits so close to the instrument it is designed to protect. BANJO AND MANDOLINE CASES. and is not really a protection. 53 and 54 as to enable them to be cut from a strip of leather with the least possible waste an important consideration in cutting up leather. Suppose the work is done from measurements. and the width of the key- . if badly made. or made of common or unsuitable leather. the smaller all parts can be got. in fact. height of highest portion as it lies upon a flat surface. in Fig. they are so placed together in Figs. A banjo case. Take the exact length of the banjo. or lay it on a sheet of paper. only a few hints will be needed as to the method of making it. 53.

This completes all the outer pieces for the case shown . but \ in. 56. but it will be longer. then draw two lines the length of the handle. past N and q. and the length can be found as follows Suppose the width of rim to be 12 in. the circumference would be about 36 in. allow \ in. and this rule will again apply to G and h for the lid . asMN. and making the M and n meet the line l. etc.56 Leather Working. and can be done either with harness-makers' needles or with a thread as used by shoemakers the latter is the stronger. to L. : in Fig. and a piece joined on the end (at each corner) as I. the edges of which should be turned in so that it is just a shade smaller than the above patterns. longer. b would therefore be this length less the distance between m and n. The small box for strings. The handle J can be cut to any shape desired. may be made from stout cardboard. board. 55. The length of the two sides can be obtained by measuring from P. This lining should be glued into its place after the case is made. The whole of the inside of the banjo case may be covered with any coloured baize or flannel. where these two (c and d) may join . This clone. the length of these can be ascertained by drawing the length of the banjo as o l. . and cut out this. for the lid. This is not at all difficult. Cut B the width of the measurement previously alluded to as the height. and can easily be cut from the spare corner shown. or they need only be cut the length of p to Q. then cut another to it. And the same rule will apply to F for the rim of the lid. as only a very small hole is needed. the bottom pattern . all round. . as the circumference is larger. Letting the rim measure be the diameter. The stitches in nearly the whole of these cases are made as shown in Fig. describe a circle to it take from a portion of this circumference the width of the keyboard... and covered with the lining . .

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

57

58

Lea ther Working.

without. The piece taken out between a b (Fig. 55) is to receive the finger when the box is being

opened.

The handle may be stitched on or fastened by two copper rivets at c and d. Two straps and buckles, one at e and another at f, will hold on the lid, which may be fastened with lock and key, clasp, or another strap and buckle. The banjo case shown in Fig. 57, of which Fig. 54 gives the parts in section, is a very handy shape, and is a little cheaper to cut. In this case the top and bottom are the same size and shape, as shown by a and b. The pattern should be obtained in the same way as before, but it will

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

59

at e and I the more economical the cutting, c and d should be cut long enough to form the whole of the sides and the end, as each shown here will come from b to c (Fig. 57). g, in Fig. 54, is for the rim of the lid, and is cut about 2 in. or 3 in. longer than the lid this end is left on one side, to be stitched to the case at d (Fig. 57), and forms a good hinge. h, in Fig. 54, is the handle, and should be attached to the case as shown above. The remaining pieces will be needed for buckle-straps and loops.
,

wFig. 58. Corner and Split

Butted.

Banjo Case with End Lid.

Where the leather is required to be turned to an angle, as at e (Fig. 57), a piece must be taken out of the leather about halfway through on the wrong and when one is required as at f, give one side they can then be straight cut halfway through tapped down on an angular piece of wood. Another very good way of making the seams at the corners is to take the top and bottom, or all the sides, and draw a line all round with a pair of com passes about y«y in. in from the edge, and from this put the point in at this line make holes all round
; ;

;

In Fig. lined it In putting this banjo case together. 60. to show how it is put into the case and the way the case is made. so that the portions which are to be stitched can be laid together as in Fig. which should be placed inside the banjo prior to putting it in the case. box covered with Strings. the awl is put in at A and pushed through till it comes out at b.6o line. as a and B. etc. as shown by A in Fig. 58. — Mandoline in Case. . it must be up first. should be kept in a small baize. as cannot be done afterwards without undoing the Fi£. 59. Looking at a case of this shape it might be . and while A is butted against B. with bound and turned-in edges. the method to be adopted will now be explained when leather is used will be self-suggestive. and bring it out at the edge of the leather about two-thirds of the way through. stitches. It will now be seen that B is the other piece of leather. and that when the two are put together to form a corner. For the above the leather is cut and enough stuff allowed to admit of an angular piece being taken off all the corners. care being taken to line it firmly. Lea ther Working. The method of making a mandoline case in American cloth.. 60 at A is given a portion of the body of the mandoline standing out of the case. This makes a very solid corner.

Fig. whereas it is laid in on its side. long. Take a piece of paper. and another drawn from b to G that is about a quarter of the length. From H to I the distance will be about 5^ in. This is cut in the same way as for the lid. 62). long. from e to f. B. at right angles to a c. The point J. Mark a point at c along the top 24^ in. from c. The method of cutting the pattern will depend on the size and exact construction of the mandoline but by way of example the sizes in inches of various parts at different points of a case for an ordinary mandoline are given. and 3^ in. one side being at the bottom. —Elevation of Mandoline Case. which should be 3f in. is about 4 in. long from A to B (Fig. long . from A . as shown by the dotted lines b. 61). 24| in. as it has to go round the curves. on the line c d. The next pattern is the top of the lid. From this point draw the curve g h e j. long. 61. and indicates the edge — of the rim of the lid. it will need to be 32^ in. only. 1. A line is drawn from A to c. 61 thought that the mandoline is put in so that the strings come next to the lid. These dimensions will require slightly modifying for instruments of other shapes and sizes. where the curve ends. 6| in. and e f parallel to c d at a distance of about one-fifth of the distance from A to Make f e 8^ in. the left-hand top corner of which must be a right angle.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. The next is for the bottom. as A (Fig. The line k l should be about 2 in. draw c D . and parallel with A c. from c to d.

so that they are about \ in. To each of these patterns cut pieces of stout strawboard one to each piece excepting Fig. Take one side. and this may be stuck on with — — Fig. and the lid (Fig. (Fig. not more. 62).— Top of Mandoline Case. and e f The end piece is next cut this should be 3| in. as shown in Fig. .62 Lea ther Working. by 3 in. striped union. in order to test their correctness.— Bottom of Mandoline Case. are required. 63. pieces the same width as a c k l (Fig. while the handle should be cut as shown in Fig. apart. as Fig. 62. 61. bookbinders' paste. long. These. and lay them with their widest sides together. done with baize. to which two pieces must be cut. This can be It is best to line the insides first. put a mark on the outside of each piece so that they may not get mixed. and the mandoline should be tried to see if it fits before finishing the making of the case. 63). Paste the lining on to these and let it dry . 61. 62 at G. 62). Two from a to b 3j in. Fig.. 64. or any material or colour preferred. may be temporarily fastened together in their proper places by strips of gummed paper. one the length of c d.. If everything is satisfactory. and the whole of the patterns are cut. 61). the other of e f (Fig. when the whole are cut. c d must be 6f in.

doing these one at a time . n. as will be exIf they are only to be stitched plained later. e (Fig. letting B and c be the stitch. about I in. Corner of Case. as on the lid. Fig. then pare the edges of the lining off to the edge of the board. wide. and bring it out at c. and if the lining and the outer covering are pasted well together. 64. the American cloth is left on \ in. neat way). the corner seams should be made as Fig. and h. put the awl in at b. 65. The lid and one side may be covered at the same time.—Mandoline Case End Fig. a long strip of basil or persian. Lay this on the corners. 66. grain side out. When done in this way. pasted. 60). except in the first instance. 63 serve the inside of each piece the same. The corners that will have to be (Fig. m. which is much better than having a movable lid. 64. and If the lining and covering has been done with a raw edge. 65 at A.— Binding Corner of Case. they form a good solid hinge for the lid. Fig. 66. as A (Fig. g. k. which is set right through to catch This would also mean the edges of everything. Fig. at c. through (a very nice. J. so that it catches all the edges in the stitching. must be damped and folded down the centre. 65. . 60). Fig. l. Fig. where the lid and side are joined together. if the edges and corners are to be bound. d. and also the three edges of the body at f. all round. and turned over on to the lining. 66). stitched through are 1. stitching or felling all the other edges down.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. Now the outside is covered in the same way with American cloth. and trimmed off at the edges. — Stitching Piece.

as patent seal. or the steel strings will be — — injured. to put the plectrums in. with tapers made as has been explained and fastened on to harness-makers' needles. about \ in. If the case is made of American leather cloth. e (Fig. a narrow strip may be stitched on. 61). and the awl put in at one edge of the binding and brought out at the other. etc. 60). If it is wished to make a better or prettier cover. Another long strip will then be needed for the binding of the plain edges. use thin leather. on the lid. and the hasp on the lid as m. . d. apart. etc. This can be made use of. It must be lapped over the edges c. It is best to put these on so that there is no join at the corners. or a fancy stamped roan. The handle . but it may be wider if desired. . there will be a space at the back of the neck or handle of the mandoline. On the back. inside at o (Fig. as n (Fig. See that the case is quite dry before the mandoline is put into it. under the lid. letting the lock be on the case. and the holes made with a fiat. g.. instead of using American cloth. but the stitching must catch both edges. 60). as it will help to keep the body and lid in shape and thus make it more durable. as a little box could be fitted here to carry string. The case may be fastened with a spring or ordinary lock. h. well fastened at each end with a stitch here and there. some little distance apart.64 Lea ther Working. or two narrow straps. near each edge. 62) with leather or brass slides. the stitches need not be very short say three to the inch and the thread may be made from stout carpet thread.is put on at h and 1 (Fig. as for instance at F and H. and also f. diamond-shaped awl. This will need to be only \ in. wide. may be affixed to take a small pocket-book and just above the same place.

This by no means exhausts the subject. The sizes usually . but the bags chosen are representative. Gladstone. bags i in. and in the other 7$ in. sizes of brief bags is kept in stock are 10 in. to lOf in.. and It being 10 in. E . above. and. In width and depth brief bags differ considerably. it should not be difficult to make a bag of any other shape after thoroughly examining it. This chapter will deal with the methods of making leather bags of five chief kinds— brief. In those 12 in.— Brief Bag. 14 in. always easier to reduce than to enlarge a pattern. to 5i in. and 16 in. tween any two consecutive generally 2 in. but any size under. the difference in depth being in proportion the sides of the smallest size measure anything between 7 in. the difference in length be- Fig-. or between these can be obtained to order. 12 in. 67. The two most useful sizes for brief bags are undoubtedly 12-in.. and in 14-in. Like Gladstone bags and some other kinds.. excess over these measures is allowed. and 14-in. lady's hand...65 CHAPTER BAGS. following the instructions given. and tennis. long the width of the bottoms varies from 3i in.. VII.

and Fig-. 71) is the same. in proportion to the may be reduced as desired. and the difference must be allowed for in cutting out the leather. and with a rule measure it carefully between the corners A A and b b. and lay it perfectly flat on the bench. 70) and d d (Fig. by 5 in.— Narrower Brief Bag-. The dimensions in the diagrams are given for a bag. and more convenient generally slightly too article will length. 69.— Brief Bag. 69. A bag is always measured at the frame. The way to cut out the patterns for either of these bags is to open the frame as in Fig. owing to this part closing into the other half. Fig. and not so deep.66 Lea ther Working. 12-in. The frame will be found to be slightly less at B b.Frame. 67 is shows a bag well proportioned . and the length of the bottom should always . 68 much narrower at the bottom. when finished. In both bags the distance between G G (Fig. 68. the dimensions given in this be the largest. Fig. Fig. to have a bag small. and will measure 12 in. by 10 in.

To cut out the bag. of the frame making this difference. Next measure the frame from A to B for the gusset (Fig.— Pattern ensures both sides of the pattern taking the same curve at the swelled part. Fig. . Fig-.— Gusset Stiffen- ing Pattern. lay the leather on the bench. The pattern for the bottom will measure 13J in. all ends will be level. and should measure along the top llf in.. This F r.. 71). only. g h are made. Therefore cut the gusset 8| in. from E to E. 72. and at the bottom 13| in. at the bottom. more than this. All seams are allowed for. and 5j in. 10 in.Bags. Gusset Pattern. f f. when the seams d f and . Get a sheet of thin brown paper. Mark it correctly the exact depth and half the distances between G G and h h.R hi I3T-for Side of Bag-. from d to D. and fold it in the middle. The depth of the gusset will be 10 in. and cut through the double paper. by 5^ in. "the hinge 8 in. be 67 1 in. The distance will be found to be but if closed it will be quite 8^ in. Then. 70. 70 is for the sides. The pattern in Fig.

so that d and g and f and h meet respectively. 9 patent o . then the bottom the welt pieces may be cut from the thinnest part of . and see that the patterns are placed on it so that the grain marks will all run in the same direction when the bag is made up. Place them face to face. they should be taken from the best part of the leather. what is left. Begin sewing the bag by taking one of the sides and one gusset.68 Leather Working. and. and stitching with a good waxed thread made of four-cord No. grain side down. placing a welt piece between the edges. Take the gussets next. Cut out the sides first. as they are more exposed than any other part.

Use a large brush. this makes a good opening to the pocket. and get the stiffenings into position quickly. long by 2j in. cut large enough to receive the stitching. When the lining is finished. 73 to 83). 74. wide for covering the largest half. hot glue. 69). 71) must be rather more than the distance from A to c on the frame (Fig. and the edges of the covering must be brought to that side of the frame which will be out of sight when the bag is finished. a teaspoonful of treacle added to \ lb. For covering the frame. and rub it well down with the rubbing bone before the glue sets. A pocket must be formed on one of the sides. A piece of material like the lining is put on to the back. and in cutting it out of the same patterns used for the outside will do. long by 4 in. cut a strip 20 in. 68. or linen twill may be chosen. is given when describing how to make a Gladstone bag (see pp. 69 stiffening fits firmly every part within the seams.Bags. Use good paste. the distance from a to c when they are in position as shown by dotted lines (Fig. place it inside the bag. To do this. pocket side opposite the lock. and fix the key-plate and handle-plates in position before pasting the covering to the under side of frame. cut the lining as shown by dotted lines K k. and glue to the . and the pocket is formed by stitching the three sides and above the opening for the same. The frame in this case will be covered all over. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The method of making the handle and fixing the plates to the frame. In cutting out the gusset stiffenings. skiver. and finish at each end in the form of the letter The edges thus produced are pasted down V inside . If the glue should show signs of setting too rapidly. take a nice thin piece of hide (persian works better). wide for the other half. besides much other useful information. Any kind of lining— roan. and another strip 19 in. of glue will be found effectual.

made in russia. roan. If an old bag is at hand the same size and style as the one it is desired to make. to open it by. In buying a frame it will be advisable to get a few pins with it for riveting the parts together. 17 in. or one which would leave a lot of surplus on hand. skin. and prepare to sew the bag to the frame. The sizes of pieces required for a 10-in. For a single bag. and from the best part of the skin. bottom. good skiver. 68) a fulness of the gusset is shown. and fix on a tab when sewing b side. square pattern bag are as follow One piece. or russia bags are usually lined This may be either persian or a with leather. The largest pieces for the bag should be cut out first. as before mentioned.7° Leather Working. roan. bottom and round the top of the bag. with mounts to correspond. See that all seams meet before starting to and use black flax in making threads for this At x (Fig. for making stitch. a small persian would perhaps be the most economical to buy. Start at one of the corners. . in and there is a much greater For instance. as well as the material. take patterns of all the parts. and causes no strain to the hinges. then lay them in order on a large sheet of paper. morocco. ladies' bags are variety of each. to serve as a guide in selecting a skin of Take care not to buy too small a suitable size. and pocket on the other : . and making leather cloth. There is also quite a variety of frames used.. either of which may be obtained in fancy colours. Trim off anyexcess of lining here. Morocco. pressed grains. besides many special kinds of fancy leathers and other materials. which must be made in framing this part this allows the bag to close easily. forming one side. ladies' bags are very different from those used brief bags. The frames. part. by 10 in. either a or b. from the plain japanned to the elaborate nickel or gilt.

and must be stitched to the cloth before the side seams are made. 5^ in. piece is laid One 2-in. part for seaming to the bottom of the bag. side. In seaming the body and ends of the bag together. as the material is in no case very heavy. The lower corners of this are sligntly rounded. The counterpart of this fastener or stud is riveted on to the pocket. and the flap The by 10 in. and the 1-in. The flap must be neatly bound with thin leather cut f in. wide. to be riveted to the frame. which provides a good surplus for the underside. the other end of the leather being rounded and the fastener riveted on to it. The shape of and 1-in.Bags. wide. on each 6^-in. and good black elastic. by 6-in. long. and the parts are stitched together. These must be cut 1 in. is stitched to one end of each. stitching . All the — — may be done by any domestic sewing machine. The lines on the flap are creased with a tool. 71 which completes this side is cut 6 in. only at the bottom. | in. Four pieces for the stiffened portion of the ends must be cut 6 in. long. place a narrow welt piece between them. wide by 3 in. by 2 in. and ensures the stitching taking a good hold of the bottom edge. <?n that when the bag is turned the welt will show. Narrow strips of leather of the same kind as that used for the bag are stitched on each side of this to prevent the cloth being seen beneath each end of the flap. these two pieces is almost triangular. heated and worked along in a straight line. wide by 5 in. on each side. side. A piece of American cloth is generally used for that side of the bag covered by the flap and pocket. leaving the 5^ in. and a piece of American cloth is cut the same size for the back and to provide the casing for the springs to slide in. The spring pieces are cut \ in. flexible portions forming the gussets 6^ in. The flap is made up quite separately from the bag. at the top. referred to in previous chapters. each.

and extends from the frame on one side to the other. they include a fine round awl for piercing the leather in passing through the pins. Two plates of metal are sold with each frame in fact. the flap being put in with the rest. also avoid cutting them too short to form a head. Having fixed the four corners so that the seams on each side meet perfectly. but an excellent substitute will be found in a small iron foot (such as is used in boot repairing) supported by a suitable stand. form a part of it to hide the cut edges at the top of the bag. To rivet the frame to the bag. and complete it by working alternately on each side of these. and a In the bag trade special irons are 1-oz. but these are not very expensive . The leather of the flap should also be stiffened with good brown paper before being made up. and put four nickel clamps or nails in the four corners of the bottom. a pair of small wire cutters such as are used by watchmakers. used for riveting on. and on the same side of the frame as the pull-piece to the lock catch. Do not leave too much metal for burring down. The lining is also riveted in at the same time. then through the holes near the lock and catch. stiffen the bottom and sides as directed. For riveting the parts together a few tools are essential. The ends or gussets are each in one piece. pass the pins through the holes near the hinges and rivet them . hammer. and fresh ones will have to be put in . These are made exactly the same shape as the frame itself.72 Leather Working. the bag has been turned. The " toe " of the iron foot is placed under each pin- When — — .. and also to receive the burr formed in riveting the pins. The elastic springs should also be stitched at the top of the flap to prevent pulling away in use.fix the four corners first. This lining is not cut the same as the outside leather. but in three pieces only one piece is cut the full width of the bag. or the pins will bend.

so that the edges meet evenly on each side . wet it. is liable which a Gladstone bag are (1) a broken frame and (2) unstitching of the seams. by 1 in. or 20-in. Pare the ends before placing them in the fittings attached to the frame. in nearly every instance. Be careful to get the first few turns tight. and the bag held in a horizontal position whilst being riveted. then place the hands on the roll and keep working it until it is quite firm then lay on one side to dry. perfectly level table or bench is the best for rolling it on. commencing at the middle. Two in its manufacture. Handles for ladies' bags are always made much longer than for other bags. Of Gladstone bags the most convenient size for ordinary use is the 22 in. by careless usage the second may be due to common thread being used in joining the Nearly all kinds of bags are parts together. and secure them in their places by passing through a pin and riveting its end. The usual length is 10 in. Cut a piece of paper. one. each 10 in. lay the cord evenly along one end. and increasing as the ends are neared. . and chiefly with very thin thread black bags are sewn with a thread of that colour. bag two folds generally have to be made. owing to the dye used of the chief evils to . machine sewn. Cut two pieces of leather.Bags. The first of these is caused. wide. which soon becomes rotten. Much larger sizes prove very cumbersome A . to permit of their being carried on the arm. 10 in. It is very essential. in making . and begin to roll the cord within the paper. to carry. Paste the leather covering over this. then stitch and trim them. 73 head. The tapering ends are made by peeling off a portion of the paper. Stout cord covered with brown paper is used as a filling. This will hold a coat or a pair of trousers folded once over with an 18-in.

Cheap leather should not be used. it will not last a quarter the time that one made of good leather will. . Very . 75. — Gladstone Bag". to use a good waxed thread for the seams to ensure the work being permanent. Fig. manipulation moreover. for not only do the frame and fittings cost the same. but the cheap material requires more care and skill in its Another Gladstone Bag. a bag.74 L EA THER WOR KING.

about four 16-oz. 78. board for the bottom. brown bag will it takes a long time to get dry. . per lb. c. A few simple tools will be required a clamp to hold the work for sewing (the worker can make these . and has no slides. and. a indicates lock and plate . . as explained in Chapter I.Bags. b. 4 harness needles a clicker's knife and a bone the same shape as Fig. and two 8-oz. causing an unsightly appearance. . ena. oi of brown. Fig.. . slides . for Six nails to protect the stiffening the bands. One 2-lb. etc. 1 and No. 75 shows a Gladstone bag with full fittings. 76 shows the interior this bag of a bag with the necessary straps. buckles for outside straps half dozen f-in. two or three different sized awls in handles . . handle plates . shoes. bottom 2 1-in. has a lock at each end of frame. — . 22-in. 77. Bone or Fig. it will preserve its glossiness for years. — Stiffening Division. . . a pennyworth each of No.melled cowhide there is not this risk. of " Harness Making ) . few brown bags are waterproof be so sodden with wet that after being out in a drenching rain. and the stiffening curls or comes away in With places. frame with strap loops . buckles for inside straps a ball each and 3 yds. A . when used with care. d. Strawboard in three different weights will be A Fig. 75 . — Rubbing Stick. for Bag required it costs Id. 6d. these fittings costs 2s. and black flax twill lining will also be necessary. yellow. a and sometimes. boards for stiffening the sides and cutting patterns. Fig. e. 77 for rubbing down the stiffenings.

Take one of the 16-oz. The glue brush should be quite 2 in. Fig. 80). and the pattern for the sides is ready. Fig. 4 or No. A pattern for the pocket (Fig. by 9 in. . and cut evenly round the edge of paper. Paste this on to the straw-board. In cutting these smaller patterns. A paint brush If this latter thoroughly cleaned will do. take the side . straight-grained wood. The pattern for the bottom must be 21| in. filed to shape. 83 is a pattern for the middle piece in the handle.— Buckle Chape. strawboards. lay the closed frame on it.7 Leather Working. 79). For the division — ^ZF Fig.— Pocket Flap. a No. 79.— Leather Pocket. Fig. In beginning to cut out the bag. must also be cut. 81. and if fancy buckle chapes (Fig. answers the purpose nearly as well. cannot be obtained. and mark evenly round and along the wire at the bottom. but every particle of paint must be washed out. 5— can be bought at any large ironmonger's. and one for the flap (Fig. In making the Gladstone bag. 82. in diameter at the band. Cut this out with a large pair of scissors. Fig. 80. 78 if a frame with single lock and slides is used. pocket-flap pattern folded) it so that when it is opened both sides of the pattern are alike. 80. it is a good plan to cut one first by folding a piece of thin paper mark and cut (Fig. 79. Fig. 81) are used. the first thing to do is to get out the patterns. a piece of hard. A gluepot of suitable size for the brush say. pattern for the sides. and shape it as in Fig. a pattern of these should be cut.

and if a level board large enough is not handy. and sew the other side-piece and band to- A gether the same. wide and the other by 5^ in. 77 pattern. 84. of Bag Handle. There will probably be a little to trim off the bands to bring the ends level. lay them face to face. placing one end of the band level with it and running the welt between the two. long. lay one of the strawboards under the leather and cut out on that. 84.— Folding Paper for Small Pattern. 84. Fig. and as long as they can be got. The bands will need to be 45 in. pattern for the tab by whose means the bag is pulled open is shown by Fig. 82. Use a sharp knife. Sew round until the opposite bottom corner is reached. Fig. This will give 4 in. one by 6| in. Fig. 82. Do this. and see that both sides can be got out with the grain running in the same direction. Make a few four-cord threads of brown hemp.— Part Fig. Cut quite close to the pattern. and start sewing from one bottom corner of the side-piece. guiding the knife with the finger pressed against it and the edge of the pattern. Fig. for welts. clear to each one and sufficient to cover the frame. fasten in a pair of the smaller needles.) may be cut last.Bags. The bottom (21^ in. S3. Take one of the bands and one side-piece. and choose an awl of suitable size. tie the threads over the edge. by 9 in. . Use the thinnest part of the hide Fig-. lay it on the leather. or they will be sure to show when made up. widv. cutting strips for this purpose \ in. See that there are no flaws or blemishes under the pattern. 83. Join together into one length by paring the ends with a knife and making a short lap with glue or paste.— Tab.

Next take the bottom and commence sewing from one corner of this and the bottom of the sidepiece.— Half of Bottom Stiffening. The proper method is to bend up the stiffening-piece in the centre. Do this by placing the left hand in one corner. must now be turned. Cut quite \ in. and serve it the same. and then take up the end of the other band at the mark 4 in. board. Continue along the end of the bottom. running a welt in as before. Continue sewing until the place started from is reached. and the bag will be turned. 85. and with the other hand forcing -the leather • Fig. and 2\ in. for the larger. wide (Fig. off each corner to allow them to fit close up to the seams. 85). from the seam this should leave on one \\ in. being inside outwards. Proceed with the other two corners in a similar way. If enamelled hide is being used. . and mark each end 4 in.78 Leather Working. downwards .. long by 4| in. to cover the small part of the frame. put one end in first. The bag. treating opposite sides and ends exactly alike. and the weather is cold. Now take the 2-lb. from the edge. then the other end. run the welt only to the bottom for f in. and try them in before gluing. and cut two pieces 21 in. working both down until they are quite clear. . until it begins to fold over then take the other corner of that end. and press with the hand quite close to the seams all round them this will give it a more natural shape to receive the stiffenings. Hammer the corners down from the inside. and finally press down the . sewing this to the end of the band until the mark already mentioned is reached. warm the leather gently and carefully before turning.

between these from end to end. wide. . Stand it on one side for an hour or so for the glue and makes a solid fied that it is a to set properly. when dry. Try them in before gluing. wide cut to shape as in Fig. whilst others prefer to strap it up close when nearly or quite empty. Cut off the lower corners the same as the bottom stiffenings. while waiting for this. it is a good plan to up and soak in cold water for twelve hours when melted down. long by 1 in. or perhaps more if the leather is very stout or the seams are too great a distance from the edges. it must be done after the bag has been framed.Bags. Glue together a lot of odd pieces about 6^ in. bands is purely a matter of fancy some like a bag to set out square. boards 3| in. remembering that these also must fit very tightly. smaller all round than the leather. 83. centre . and get them into position as quickly as possible. long by \ in. place it inside. wide and the same thickness. When break this. so that no part is left untouched. bottom to the bag. using strips from the 8-oz. it preparing the glue. take a piece of good strap leather 10 in. or there will be blisters where the glue does not adhere to the leather. The stiffenings for the sides will need to be \ in. If it is decided to stiffen these. There should be a space of \ in. glue one piece. cut out the stiffenings for the sides and make the handle. and. 79 this stretches the leather to its full length. Use the bone freely all over. right for use. rub well all over with the rubbing-bone. and glue in the other half. To make the handle. Use the glue quite hot. The stiffening of the . the ends of this having been previously passed . will be found to be about . It is then divided and glued top and bottom to Fig. When satisgood fit. pare the edges away until it is perfectly round and slightly tapering towards each end. and. 83. see that it is not too stiff.

through the handle rings and turned back to form a chape. Take the lock-plate first. so that it will fit closely between the under A part of the iron band and the lock. then stitch it. placing the widest band over the largest half of the frame. and another hole the same size cut underneath. fix in the and sew on two leather loops for straps (Fig. The strap loops are fitted next . and if slides . Then take the handle and fix it. Put a few stitches through close to the rings. It is a good plan to put the plates through the rings before gluing together. 86. and cover with a piece of cowhide long enough to go through the two rings and along the underside.8o Lea ther Working. . pass the claws through. and with a fine-pointed knife puncture the leather exactly over these. Oblong slots are punched across the iron band of the frame to allow the flexible claws on the fittings to pass through. hole large enough for the key-barrel of the lock must be cut and passed over it. — Bottom of G-laclsi one Bag - . as this often proves difficult when made up. continuing this right through to the edge. 86) then proceed to fit in the frame. and turn them down quite close on to the frame. rubbing them afterwards with a piece of cloth to produce a polish. Trim and dye the edges. bottom the stiffenings are firmly set. Allow the leather to cover the thin iron band and reach half-way down the other part joined nails. When Fig-. This will leave a good margin inside when sewn through. to it at right angles.

and make a few five-cord threads. Take the ball of black flax. 84) must be sewn on where the lock-catch is fixed to the frame. and pass down through No. and are fitted to the frames by small nuts. 3 and so on. and down No. each. The shoes should be fixed last then cut two slits in the narrow band for the lock-catch to pass through. F . A tab of leather by which to pull the bag open when in use (Fig. Bring the needle up from the bottom through No. pass the screws through. Commence at one end of the frame. This gives an ordinarylooking stitch on the top. . then make another hole in advance of that at a distance equal to the intended length of the stitch. missing those places where the tie-pieces in the frame are in the way. It is now ready for sewing. Cut them in halves. 2 hole then up through No. and fix a large needle to one half. 8i have been bought. For the sides and bands it is cut the same size as the leather. make a third hole. . and the bottom is made in two pieces 22 in. by 6 in. This leaves enough stuff to make a strong fold when sewing it with the division board along the centre . 2. each pair should be bent inwards. and a piece of leather or similar material laid on anything solid to protect the plated parts whilst being gently hammered down. round holes being punched to . In bending down the claws. 1 pull out the full length. 4.Bags. The method of sewing in the frame is different to sewing the seams. the leather must be cut away the same size and shape as the slots in the frame before being fixed. push the awl through. The lining must now be cut out. and pass down through No. More expensive frames have solid fittings these have screws cast on them. . but below it has the appearance of a cable. and is called back-stitching. using beeswax tor tnese instead of shoemakers' wax. Continue until all the frame is sewn. bring up the needle.

buckle and a loop. them that for the flap is the full size of the leather. A piece of thin strawboard. on each side. is Leather Working. and also wears much better than some other colours. machines which are quite powerful enough to sew through this binding and also the pocket and flap. using the single needle and thread (yellow is best for this purpose) as in sewing round the frame. Pasting well up under the frame enables the lining to fold neatly over. and another piece (Fig. and stitch them round . Strips for binding should be \ in. Glue these to the leather and a piece of lining over cut fully \\ in. cut the leather sufficiently large to fold over Fix the pocket and flap in the centre of the division board. which should be put in free from creases and should firmly adhere to the stiffenings. 81). flap. it should be used. the same shape as dotted lines in Fig. The covering for the division board deeper than the board. or and form a binding. corner near the bottom. 79. 79. wide. 80. must be cut for stiffening the pocket. Glue the other lining piece over the back. with a f-in. and carried beyond the bottom of the board to strengthen it. and of some fancy coloured material. One side is glued on first. A bright scarlet looks well. 80) for the flap. For these as well as the bindings a thin roan or good skiver must be bought. lay it on one side and paste in the linings. The lining also may be sewn by a machine. Figs. and. trim off any inequalities. and one round the . and makes the work of sewing Begin to sew in the lining at one it in much easier. and paste on There are many domestic sewing the binding. When this is finished. using a long needle and . where one is ready to hand and capable of doing the work. then sew a chape (Fig.82 of the bottom. and the pocket flap and strapchapes are sewn on before gluing on the other side. and 82 show how to cut the pocket and flaps. Paste a binding along the top of the pocket.

and a leather binding stitched along it through the seam. running the thread under the fold and bringing it through one of the holes previously made in sewing in the frame. 87 is an illustration of an ordinary tennis racket case. It is proposed to give designs and instructions for making four or five different kinds of tennis bags. and in the other side of bag sew in four straps. long by f in. leaving rather more than an inch at each end flat for sewing on to the case. The bag is . two of which should have buckles. the edges being bound with leather to give greater strength. — Tennis now Racket Case. A leather handle is fixed on. . which may be made of a waterproof material. wide into the two corners of the frame to buckle to the chape pieces. When the lining has been stitched in all round. The front piece is cut square across at the broad a end. This may be either a flat strip about \ in. 87. Sew two straps 5 in. wide or a strip of thinner leather | in. Pass it through the next hole. and run the thread under the fold again. or of brown canvas or japanned duck. wide. 83 black thread. fold all surplus stuff inside. place the bottom of the division board between the linings at the bottom. and rounded by stitching the two edges together. These are sewn Fig. Fig.Bags. the stitches lying hidden welting. check or twill. in the complete. as illustrated. The making of any of these is not difficult. and run them together with hidden stitches.

— Case for Tennis Racket. Each of the two gusset pieces is cut 10 in. wide. and flap. 6 in. leather binding must also be sewn round that part of the flap which opens. for the flap. and when dry sew on the binding with a beeswax thread made of fine yellow hemp or flax. mark off 10 in. by 36 in. another 10 in. 88. from the end on . Fig. each side. back. for the back. 88 shows a tennis bag without any frame. for the front. by 6 in. for the top this will leave 4 in. Cut the binding for the flap and across the top of the front \ in. It will be found that these waterproof cases preserve to some extent the tension of the strings and help to check the frame from warping. and bind it with a thin strip of leather. -^^w^- Fig. and the other two pieces the gussets. Paste the flap and front piece at the edges to the back piece. Take a piece of waterproof goods 30 in. cut in three pieces. Mark one end of the large piece 10 in. wider. and 6 in. and for the edges \ in. one large piece forming the front. gussets. for the bottom. . similar to a school satchel. Before sewing the parts together. This forms the top and flap of the bag. etc.84 Leather Working. Balls. three buckles with chapes and loops must be sewn on the front piece about 6 in. round off two corners. from the top edge one buckle in — . but much larger it is . The gussets must be bound along one this will form the top of the of the narrow ends .

Bags. H — the middle and another 3 in. as shown in the diagram. turning the bag after wards as in making a Gladstone bag. or it can be fastened with rivets. others with leather bottoms only. from each edge and the straps to meet them may also be sewn on before the bag is made up or left till the last. whilst some have. These bags. To make the handle. leather gussets . The exterior of a very popular form of tennis bag is shown by Fig. take two pieces of leather 14 in. or fitted with pockets. and necessitates putting in a lining to hide the rough edges of the seams. are made throughout in . and stitch them together far enough to form the handle proper. place a piece of stout cord or rounded leather between them. wide. some of brown waterproof canvas or carpet throughout. 89 . which have the advantage of being very light to carry and inexpensive to make. the most lasting. Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag style. The lining may be a plain one. such a bag. will last for many years. the most expensive. as described later. about 7 in. long. These bags are made in various styles. in addition. of course. long by 1 in. made throughout in cowhide. may also be made by sewing the gussets in and running a welt between the edges. at each end to be sewn on to the bag. This will leave about 3^ in. This is not such a strong way. as these can be more easily got at. and.

The frame of an ordinary full size cricketing bag measures 37 in. to 10 in. and is on the same principle as the The lock-plate and ordinary brief-bag frame. . by 29| in. 90 is an illustration of the frame used for this kind of bag.. but in a tennis bag seldom exceeds 6^ in.. and at the same time decide what depth it shall be. take the entire length of the frame. It is assumed that the bag is 10 in. for each side. or. in both cases. by \\\ in. wide. Fig. the ' : pieces for the sides will measure 29£ in. handle-rings and plates are shown in position. and 29^ in. long. If the bag is to be made with only the bottom of leather. marked off as follows 2j in. but is not so long. again. for the bottom.. by screwing on small nuts. Then. by 6 in. by 6 in. The gussets will be 10 in. Lea ther Working. 10 in. in the case of solid fittings.86 cowhide. whereas that of a tennis bag is only 29 in. In measuring for the length of a bag. rennis Bag Frame. and the choice of material must be left to individual taste and resource. deep. The bag when closed resembles an ordinary cricketing bag. For this obtain a piece of leather 29£ in. and are attached to the frame when covered by turning over the metal claws fixed to them on the underside of the frame. There is no difference whatever in the method of making these. for the small half. 29 in. by 12| in. the width of the bottom in a bag used for cricket varies from 5 it in. long. and 6 in. respectively. for covering the large half of frame and \\ in.

wide. and rubbed well down all over it so that it will hold fast and there are no parts separated. and continue to the left-hand end of frame the same distance round the bend then sew in the other half of the frame in the same manner.Bags. the claws attached to them being opened and turned down on to the stiffening inside. as shown in Fig. long by l\ in. Eight of these must be fixed in. In place of the outside straps a very strong and simple fastener is shown in Fig. 92. and these also assist in keeping the millboard in its place. and in order to make it very finn a piece of stout millboard 29 in. Begin sewing from one end on the right about 1 in.— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag-. long by 5£ in. and of good leather. fix on the lock-plate and handle-plates. See that these seams exactly meet when the frame is closed. of Fig. These buckle pieces must now be stitched on. mark and punch Fig. This is fixed . 79. The method of making the handle is described on p. 91. and as these are sewn on the inside of the bag it must be turned. 92. Special studs are used as a protection to the bottom. wide must be glued and placed in the bottom within the seams. round the bend. a round hole for the key-barrel. should be not less than 8 in. 89.— Turnclip. stitching a tab of leather for pulling the bag open on the opposite side to the one shown in Fig. 87 Run a welt of thin leather round in sewing the seams. Place the frame inside the bag. and secure it in position for sewing by a stitch or two at each end near the gusset seams. The two outside straps and . 91. A name-plate should also be fixed on.

to the frame in a similar manner to the other fitUnder the plate which lies along the top of the frame is a spring which acts on the bar. connecting the two sides of the clip. The bag is now ready for lining. and large enough to completely envelop the contents. —Tennis Bag in Gladstone style. or loops of elastic may be fixed to the latter. place it inside the bag. boots. either plain or fancy-striped. bend the tops of the gussets inside about 1 in. Buttons are sewn on the lower parts. rackets. bringing the needle to the outside. etc. Then run the thread inside the fold of the lining when stitching the remainder to the frame. and holds them in any desired position.. is the best for this. and making a short stitch in returning it articles of clothing are to it is bag. tings. good linen. in order to protect the clothing from becoming soiled or damp through getting in close contact with them. and button-holes are cut in the flaps of the pockets. . and if cut the same size as the outside of the bag. When the lining is finished. and sew the lining gussets over and over to these. fold inside all surplus stuff. When Fig.88 Lea ther Working. be carried in the same a good plan to make these pockets of some waterproof material. A will allow plenty of stuff for strong seams and turning in for stitching to the frame and tops of gussets. It will be noticed that pockets are made on the linings to hold the balls. 93.

A tennis bag made on the half-Gladstone prinThe frame is fixed to ciple is shown by Fig. one side of the bag instead of being placed proportionately in the middle. The straps to hold tennis bat. 94. . In this case a special frame must be made. 89 through the frame. Fig. with straps and pockets.— Tennis Bag in Half-Gladstone style.Bags. the only difference being in the depth of The lining is fitted the frame and the interior. Fig. 93 is a tennis bag made on the Gladstone principle. and making due allowance for the increased dimensions in cutting out the bag. can be either riveted or sewn on. etc. 94. It will be an easy matter for anyone to make a cricketing bag from these instructions by getting a suitable frame. and in ordering the frame it must be specified that it is required for a bag of this description..

6d. . about 4d. and also that for the straps and chapes. . 2 harness needles. ball each of hemp and wax.9o CHAPTER Portmanteaux but not VIII. but if it is decided to make these. about The handles c may be bought ready-made for Is. two pairs of brass handle loops. of 1-in. 6d. per yard) a welting belly for binding the edges. a glue-pot . — . \ lb. 7 in. . 8d. from 6d. . Good japanned canvas. This leather will cost about 3s. of good glue. according to quality . . iron band for strengthening the lid. ditto. 93. two 1^-in. and brush and a . 2^d. 1 lb. 6d. two or three awls. and in this chapter full instructions will be given for making two of the most popular and useful kinds. 4 yds. . and ^-in. Fig. per lb. 95 illustrates an " Imperial " trunk. 4d. to 2s. and one 1-in. 4d. each. who will cut them to the necessary size. each leather. 6d. material. is a sketch of a "Railway" trunk. 96. by 54 in. and has a flanged lid keep out the wet. of large. and all necessary fittings must be purchased. each a packet of No. brass roller buckles. lOd. strap-guides bb. 3 yds. also called a "folding" trunk. costs 2s. The other requirements will be a frame. " Imperial " of the dimensions given in Fig. . . a pair of battens. 5d. are expensive things to purchase difficult to make. \ lb.. PORTMANTEAUX AND TRAVELLING TRUNKS. which is of to the same shape as a box. . black or brown. flat-headed copper rivets and washers mixed. Fig. will be required for a 30-in. strawboards 30 in. p. wide. 3d. of striped lining (best. of f-in. per yard and 2 yds. . had better be bought of a saddler. and a basil. . the 9d. Procure also two. 95. and lock cover a. about Is. Frames. 6d. . . a lock. 8d. copper rivets with washers. 6d. to Is. roundheaded.

Portmanteaux axd Travelling Trunks. place the stiffenings on it. for the body of the trunk. and score it 3 in. Fig. so cut a board 30 in. Lay this japanned side down. by 29^ in. and "score" the board. by 15j in. from one end to the other. . The flange pieces for the ends of the lid are cut separate from this and measure 16 in. See tnat the ends are perfectly square. from each narrow side. leaving a little surplus from the edges of all the patterns. by 22 in. by 3 in. Do not be too sparing in — cutting. all round. Next cut the boards for the ends 16 in. each. so that when it is bent to form the bottom the front and back rise freely to the proper shape. The bottom corners are slightly rounded. and mark them round. then mark each side the distance mentioned lay a long straight-edged rule across. Next cut the canvas. — Imperial Trunk. and the bottom lines will be true = . each. 91 size Begin by cutting the stiffenings to the required :— 16 -f 16 + \h\ 47^ in. " Scoring " is cutting the board half-way through its substance. The flange of the lid is to be 3 in. 95.

Paste these on first. it is 11 in. Glue the inner surface of the canvas first. taking care that the glue is put on to that side of the board which has been scored. Glue the canvas and stiffening of the lid together. Weights should be placed on any parts which show a tendency to rise. long by 2 in. Having cut out the canvas. full width. The brass loops are \ in. and strap-guides should be cut out of stout paper. 97 shows a finished handle ready for fixing to the T . Fold and hammer this down before pasting it so that it will set better. the next thing will be to glue it to the stiffening. the handle slides and becomes full when in use. and lh in. where the brass handle loops will cover. Patterns for the handles. then the stiffening board. wide. in the centre. That part of the lid which forms the front of the flange must have a basil leather lining pasted along the inside. leaving the canvas perfectly even with the board. l£ in. by cutting the spaces 1 in. and 16 in. of the lid in the same manner. Cut the lining 30 in. the under part being rather wider than the top there will then be no fear of missing any part in the stitching process.92 Leather Working. fold a piece . scored lines to canvas then treat the trunk ends. and will lie level on the trunk ends when released. wide for the front. work the brush rapidly. long by the same width for each flange end. and bind the edge of each with a strip of basil 1 in. wide. Use hot glue. Place the board in position on the canvas and rub it well all over until the two adhere together in every part. Fig. The flange ends are treated in the same way. trunk. long. 2\ in. or it w ill not bend properly. . The edges may then be trimmed with a sharp knife. and a binding of the same leather along the edge. but do not disturb any portion until the glue is well set. and finally the flange ends. To make a pattern for the handles. and be smart in uniting the parts together. long. the lock cover. so.

lay the pattern on each. long and mark it l| in. and one for the strap-guides. from the folded edge. by 6 in. 96. then fix a bottom piece to each with two nails (one at each end) and stitch them together. and | in. 7 in. 93 paper 11 in. as shown by dotted lines. A pattern for the lock . 4 in. round \ in. Next cut out the spaces for the loops. Fig.. Shave the edges with a spokeshave.— Railway Trunk. by 2j in. take two pieces of leather 11 in. using an . The pattern will then be similar to Fig. by 2 in. from the edge where the spaces for the metal loops are shown. but do not remove the loop These two pieces form the tops of the spaces.. Double the paper so that the line is at fop and bottom prick it through f in. Fashion the shape of the handle by marking a curved line between this and the point. cover. 98 without the loop spaces removed.. from the edge. can be worked out from these instructions. To cut out the handle.For tma ntea ux of ' Tra vrl l ixg Tr unks. With a pair of compasses mark them handles. and mark it round and cut out. rounding them at that part where they are gripped. and cut out with a pair of sharp scissors. at the fold in the centre.

of band at each end. The basil will set better if slightly wetted first. Put the frame into the top of the body . place the brass loops over so that each one touches the points nearest the middle of the handle. . Hold the chisel erect and drive it through with a mallet. From the binding. and should be held in position by being coarsely stitched over the position about 4 is edges. from the top . Do not make the stitches too deep. Cut off a piece of iron band 62 in. By bending down the back part of the lid. it must be inside. The ends are placed just within the edges of the other part. or the binding will not hide them. The flange ends and front may now be stitched. Bend these at right angles. lay them in in. To rivet the handles on the trunk ends. Sew the binding first with a three-cord thread. Prepare the body of the trunk in a similar manner. Cut sufficient strips to go round each end of the trunk by paring the ends of each strip and lapping . then slide each into one of the flange ends. this is brought to the required shape. ordinary carpenter's chisel 1 in. mark each piece \\ in. wide. long. . It is fixed by stitching a strip of basil leather round the frame and over the edge of the body. This holds the other edge of the lining piece. leading 16 in. and pass up the rivets from the inside. and level with the top all round. The end pieces should lie jus. Lay the heads of the rivets on a solid iron and burr the points well on to the metal loops. The outside bindings should next be cut these are taken from the welting belly. which is a piece of ox-hide specially dressed for this class of work. and slide this within the leather lining on the front.94 Lea ther Working. about four stitches to the inch. see that there the same space at each of their ends. for the second row of stitching.t inside the other part. and coarsely stitched over in the same manner as the lid. make holes through the canvas.

Proceed next to fix the buckle chapes. and should be folded over the edge so that an equal portion of it is on each side. vide a means for easily shifting the trunk. For the stitching. 97. and lock. Washers are placed on the rivets on the inside before they are burred over. the rivets being passed through from the inside of the trunk and burred over on to the plate.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Use a little glue for sticking the — strips together. strap-guides. . mark it on each side about TV in. Cut four pieces of the iron band 18i in. and a 1-in. buckle and strap sewn on for holding down the lock cover. which round-headed rivets being used for these. The binding must cover all the stitching previously made in basting the parts together. Guides b b for long straps are now fixed. may enter it freely. The lock is first let in by cutting away the material so that the plate rests on the canvas. from the edge with a pair of compasses. Begin by binding the body of the trunk first. them about 95 may be made. The buckle chapes for the short straps on the lid are stitched on. then the lid. of stout leather is placed under the plate at the top is riveted to the lid. A narrow strip Ti Fig. the required length about 12 ft. The lock plate at the bottom is riveted down close to the canvas.— Trunk Handle. 95. Battens d d are fixed to the bottom with nails or Small rollers let into these battens proscrews. the position of by the four rows of rivets (three in which is denoted each row) shown by Fig. large so that the hasp. \ in. but the case of the lock passes through. it is necessary to affix strips of iron band. To strengthen the lid.

Lay the iron strips inside the lid. Leave a part of the back lining in the body not glued down. and continue as far as can be reached. Glue and fix the part of the lining which was left. Drive in at least a dozen nails. also three holes in the other parts to receive the rivets. Turn The lid the trunk over and sew from the other end until the stitching meets. the better the quality of the lining the less chance has the glue to show through it. Rivet the bent ends to the back of the lid with ^-in. fix two pieces of web to stay the lid when open. flat-headed rivets. wide. Place the lid on evenly. Place the lid on the body to find the exact places for the hasp and the short straps. it will be necessary to stitch the hingepiece to the back of the lid. Punch a hole in each of these ends. and bend them at right angles 2f in. after which the lock cover may be stitched on. then secure the hinge-piece to the body of the trunk by nails at intervals along it. so that they may strengthen the back of the lid. and fix them by twelve round-headed rivets as shown. then stand the trunk on one end. Fix it on to the lid so that half is left clear for stitching to the body. Pull open the lid a little. Line both the lid and the body before connecting them. so that in sewing the lid on the stitches are long. as they will be less cumbrous to manage in two parts. covered by it. Mark these distinctly. and body are now ready for joining together. commence stitching the hinge-piece from one end. and the trunk will be finished. Before fixing these. and see that all the stripes are in one The end pieces should be cut large direction. passing them through the hingepiece from the outside. Cut the lining to the sizes required. rivet the hasp.96 Leather Working. 30 in. . from one end. and stitch on the straps. Thin the glue for this work . enough to lap a little way on to the other parts. long by 2 in. This must be of good pliable leather.

the sizes of iron used for these are For the body. 27 in.. by 2 in. The dimensions shown are the proportions of an ordinary 27-in. . which is placed near the lock. 2 yds. from each end. in order that it may cover the top frame in addition to the iron band. then for the body. 1 yd. G . cut off a strip of iron band 50 in. The end pieces are cut 12 in. two long straps and guides. 93) different in design. two 1^-in. Although the is 97 " Railway " trunk (Fig. by 6 in. these being known as the body frame and the top frame. by 24 in. about 6 in. the largest size conveniently carried by one handle. for the hinge-piece. The frame for this can now be put in (square iron) and the edges bound according to previous instructions. a strip of good leather. by 23^ in. one lock. buckles. The material required for a 27-in. Glue the canvas and stiffening together. for the top. basil and welting belly as before mentioned. for the body. leather for the handle. Cut the basil lining for the top of this portmanteau 3 in.. portmanteau of this shape would be Canvas. : — : — . h in. 27 in. 26| in. to allow a more gradual bend. 96. lining. and two stiffening boards as before. bind these edges with basil. In the best quality. the foregoing instructions will apply generally to the method of making it.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. lock flap and strap to fasten it. by ^'V in. Paste this inside. a piece of f-in. There is rather more "corner" taken off these end pieces than in the case of the "Imperial" trunk.. and fix in the end pieces to the body by stitching the edges over and over.. and 11^ in. the stiffening for the body and top must be scored three or four times across. a few rivets of each kind. square. and for the top. one pair of handle-plates. Cut out the stiffening for the top first. long. p. A pair of frames is required for a portmanteau of this shape. T% in. trim the edges. wide. by 5| in. run it within the lining on the front.

leaving 2 in. One row of stitching to secure the lining should have been previously made. Cut a piece of board 26^ in. except the division board is made and put in when all completed. and the flap *J\ in. and stitch round. are trimmed. each side. and the third f in. Stiffen the flap with stout paper. A pattern must be cut for the flap. Glue a piece of stout brown paper. 98). Fold and crease these.. The buckle chapes on each side of the pocket must next be sewn on. and turn the edge under all round. which the other work is Fig. Line both with a piece of coloured cloth. All the other work is carried out as described for the " Imperial " trunk (Fig. by 6 in. — Trunk Division Board.98 Lea ther Wor king. by 11^ in. apart. 7 in.. and a narrow binding cut from the same . The edges. and turn the top edge of the pocket in a little to bind and . and glue lining on to one side. and pass them along the lining of the two ends. bend these. leaving 11^ in. and the third line marked for stitching in the frame. from the second. or by inserting a loop as shown. using good glue for this. then the other side of the board is lined. held down by a piece of elastic and button. 98. The first and second rows should be \\ in.. and flap from a piece of thin roan the pocket will measure 11 in. 95). to the pocket. strengthen it. round the top corners a little. by 5^ in. fix them on the lined side The flap may be of the board. by 6 in. except the bottom. Cut out the pocket (Fig. each side pliable for the gussets.

Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks.ofC. The lining should extend below the bottom of the board. Fold the raw edges inside and stitch them at intervals along the bottom. and it is by this that it is secured to the portmanteau. passing the thread between the two frames and through the hinge-piece outside L. . 99 coloured roan is pasted on and stitched round.

90. rain from the contents of the knapsack. The outside covering of the knapsack shown by Fig. of course any other suitable size can be similarly made. and 3j in. and prevents any food carried from getting dry. in purchasing which it is as well to state what the material is for. . Fig-. directions about to be given are for making a knapsack measuring 11 in. KNAPSACKS AND SATCHELS. as a thin stuff is requisite with both The waterproof material keeps sides unglazed. wide. 99 is of rubber-proofed cotton cloth. Select a . — Knapsack. 9 in. thick but by increasing or diminishing the dimensions given. high.IOO CHAPTER The IX.

(p and s. and food is never improved by subjection to an invited temperature of 80° or 90°. Two pieces measuring 27 in. c. to use rubber waterproof. 100). glazed. d. Fig. iron passed over the unwaxed side then causes the wax to saturate the stuff. the edges being held by tacks. 100). : measuring 7 in. by | in. For a temporary knapsack. Two pieces . For lining. and this renders it water- A Body proof for some time. obtainable at any draper's. can be used. 100). quite possible on a summer-day's tramp. by 1^ in. white. Two . (e and f. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. of Knapsack- It is better. (Fig. 4 in. ioi light-coloured material in preference to a dark one. Fig. The necessary leather will be 45 in. and then rubbed over with a lump warm flatof beeswax till it gets yellowish. it has been sug- gested that calico or holland can be waterproofed by being stretched. by l£ in. wide straps will have to be cut out of strap leather. The following are the sizes of the pieces rea. 101). some common. Fig. One piece measuring (a b and c d. of thin. quired b. twilled calico. however. on a flat table. because the sun's heat is reflected by the former and absorbed by the latter. and buckles for them will have to be bought.Knapsacks and Satchels. c. piping leather 1 in. by 1 in.

102 Leather Working. (g and H. 2. 104. 103). f. but stronger and a ring If in. 102. (s. can be sewn on by machine. of grey about | in. uTm > 2? Fig. some sewing-thread and needles. Six pieces of cane will be needed. long and Get also 4 yds. straps two brass studs (Fig. Pieces c will have to be reduced in width to § in. Four buckles will be wanted for the f-in. wide. by f in. 103. 8 in. One piece measuring 3 in. diameter (Fig. 102). Fig. but the rest of the stitching is done by hand. . diameter. The binding .— Brass Stud. Fig. Fig. 100). Fig. and some twist and a piercing-awl for sewing through the leather portions. From the waterproof cloth and the lining cut One piece out pieces of the following dimensions : — . round brass or galvanised iron. binding-tape £ in. pieces measuring 4 in. like shirt studs. flattened for about one-third of its circumference.— Ring and Holder. Fig.— D-ring. at one end for half their length. by f in.— Section of Buckle Leather and Sheath. 104) of £-in. 101.

105). Two pieces measuring 12^ in. Stiffened Part. — . .in. 103 measuring 36 in. round * y Section of Fig. by 4-|. and should be marked on the . One piece measuring 12^ in.— Stiffened Part of Knapsack. (outline of Fig. margin. each 9 in. for stiffening the ends of Paste them between the 12^ in. to the fourth side. so that there is a margin of f in. The lining is pasted to the waterproof cloth and is left to dry flat under pressure. by \2\ in. Fig. but the whole must be kept flat. From some cardboard i in. three sides and a margin of 2| in. from the edge. pieces (t. the knapsack. by 4|-in. making the line I in. by 3^ in. Where the stuffs overlap the card they can be pasted together. 100). from the edge then draw a similar line j\ in. — Fig. 105). lines (not shown in Fig..Knapsacks and Satchels. a7 F in. thick cut out two pieces. 106. 105) are to act as guides for the seaming. The card must be central. (outline of Fig. by 9| in. Draw a straight line with lead pencil round the edges that have the |-in. lining side. 105. These further in that is.

by 36-in. 100). Fig. and to ensure the correct Next the binding has it where position it is best to draw two pencil lines across at A b. 14 in. 100 and 105 by a dotted line outside the outlines. The two pieces 12^ in. 23 in. . is stitched . by canes. eight rows of are made. also sews the 12-in. by 36-in. waterproof covering. Fig. 100 teacup inverted can be used to guide a pencil in marking the part-circle on the lining a pair of scissors will then cut it out true. from the round-cornered end. pieces with twist and the awl. A 105. only.Ib4 Leather Working. at one end Figs. and further secure the leather to the stuff. and the seamed edges are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. from the round-cornered end. The leather and straps now have to be sewn on. by \\ in. three stitches in each row. 100. the other is into six pockets that receive the ends of the To form the pockets. and shows the arrangement the of the stiffening card. piece to it. across the width of the leather strip and near its free long edge . lining. a b (Fig. The seams are to be not quite J in. by 9-in. The parts goes are indicated in Figs. The lined side of the 12-in. before beginning to sew it to the stuff. apart. and at c d. from the edge. the stitches pass through. 106 is an enlarged section of part of Fig. Round off the corners of the parts shown in and 105 where indicated. Only one long edge made 8-in. These pieces are sewn to the outside of the stuff. are to be sewn on the 12-in. and the holes through the leather should be made first. The seam. stitches . The awlholes should be made for these in the leather at the same time as those for the edge seams. piece of stuff. the stitches being T\ in. At some places binding is not necessary. 100 shows where the leather goes. and the calico to be sewn on. besides securing the leather to the 12-in.

wide. The punch can be bought cheaply. or there will not be room for the strap ends to go in so insert one of these to keep it at the right distance whilst sewing it on. from the end that has square corners. and with the same stitches sew on a sheath (s. f in. The ends of this hole and the holes for the buckle 12-in. The sheath is simply the piece of leather. as shown at e and f (Fig. It must not be wrapped tightly. For making the buckle straps skive or bevel the ends of the 7-in. and bend the skived ends back. 105 piece goes against the unlined side of the by 9-irt. by f-in. by 9-in. pieces of leather. 100). | in. long. Put two or three stitches in the skived overlapping ends to hold them together. and the edge opposite the rounded corners of the 12-in. from the edges of the 12-in. wrapped once round the middle of the looped strap. so that their outer edges are If in. from either end of each.— Strap End with Keyhole Slit. as shown in Fig. . but a short piece of steel or brass tubing with the edges at one end ground sharp will make an efficient substitute. Put the buckles on with their tongues through these holes. 107. piece goes along the line A b. 1 VJ Fig'. Fig. 1| in. 102) for the ends of the straps that are to pass through the buckles.Knapsacks and Satchels. wide and 3 in. by 36-in. 36-in. piece. . 102. long and barely \ in. make a hole shaped like an elongated 0. Then sew the looped straps to the outside of the stuff. piece and their centres are 11 in. tongues will have to be made by punching out a circular piece with a cutting punch that takes it out clean. and.

One hole of each pair should be \ in. from it. The studs passed through these two holes keep the end of the strap wrapped round the lf-in. and the other hole Z\ in.106 Leather Working. 108. by l^-in. by l|-in. 100. pieces They are placed If in. 100). ring. 101. for into these they buckle. e and f. To the round-cornered end of the 12-in. spacing them equally. In the 1-in. by f-in.— Part Back View of Knapsack. at g and h (Fig. piece. of the leather are stitched. and 108). and so keep the flap of the knapsack down. the two 4-in. Fig. edge. by 36-in. part of the tapering pieces. pieces. and so forming a loop for the flat part of the ring to The holder is rest in (see Figs. piece. from the extremity of the leather. a b (Fig. stitched to the middle of the 12-in. . from the 36-in. Punch eight buckle-holes in the f-in. by f-in. piece. as in the case of the 7-in. 100). near the end.wide part make keyhole slits (Fig. This ring is held to the knapsack by a leather holder made by doubling the 4-in. 107) for the studs to go in. on the outside.

The relative positions of the 36-in. pieces — — ^ . Cut a notch 9^ in. they are to be sewn to the 36-in. sides of the stiffened pieces. 105. piece (Fig. by 12-in. at either corner. io- Cut the piping leather into two pieces and fold each lengthwise along its centre. side of Fig. by 4-|-in.Knapsacks and Satchels. a second seam along the second guide-line from the first. Fig-. with the piping sewn to it . by 12-in.— Satchel or Cartridge Ba°r. with in. When both pieces have been piped. 110. 109 shows a corner of Fig. 100). the side to which the piping The is sewn is the waterproofing. stitches must be f\ in. 109. 105). 109). 105 enlarged. The other parts of the piping leather the two 9|-in. not the lining. piece and the two 12^-in. from each end so that the folded piping can be bent at right angles there more easily (Fig. no piping between A and J (Fig. occupying its middle part and leaving — Fig - . — Piped Corner of Stiffened Part. and the 3^-in. ends are sewn to the two 9-in. Fig. portion between the two notches is to be sewn along the 4^-in. 105) and to it sew the piping leather in the following manner The edges of the leather are to be close to the edges of the stuff. a margin of \ in. Take one of the stiffened pieces (Fig. and along the guideThere is lines already made g in. apart. from the edges.

in The ends must be inserted Tapes may be sewn to the ends of the canes their pockets. 100 is drawn to half the scale of Fig. e and f).— Buckle Piece.io8 Lea ther Working. Sometimes one of the straps. pieces. is fitted with a hook-andeye attachment to make putting on and taking off . and that FL>. where these points are sewn to Fig. When finished. parts of the 12i-in. Fig. Fig. 100. are shown by Figs. 100). of J held together. 111. and must be made whilst the pieces are on the other side of Fig. 105. J k d b take the place k c A The seams must be continuous all round the three sides. 113. --Front of Satchel. the bag must be turned inside out and four fastening-off stitchings made at the corners A. J. and J (Fig. lining outwards. due allowance being made for the facts that Fig. of the unstiffened Fio-.— Back and Flap of Satchel. 100 (whose ends go into the buckles. 112. p or s. to prevent tearing. 105 and its fellow-piece. by 4^-in. 100 and 105. where J k c a in one have to coincide with the same letters in the other. b.

and stitch the two ends together to form a loop slide this along the strap to the buckle and sew through the two thicknesses of strap. or any other leather of the same substance and quality. 1| in. by f in.Knapsacks and Satchels. may then be sewn on the gusset or band (Fig. 1^ in. which may then be fixed in position. In that case the strap p or s is cut in two about the middle of the f-in. starting from l (Fig. pigskin. buckle piece (Fig. colour the edges of the pieces just mentioned with dye to match the leather. The buckle piece (Fig. 114) as shown. and afterwards sewn as in Fig. Ill). 115) on the one side round to M on the other side. or solid leather. Two pieces of leather. Take the shoulder strap (Fig. The bag can be made in cowhide. Ill to 116. should be made of brown middling. The buckle is still wanted for adjustment. To make it. 114. and loops. This chapter will conclude with a description of how to make a cartridge bag or satchel. and a brass wire hook is made and fastened to one end and a brass wire eye to the other. Ill) is made similarly. 110. 113. 109 easier than when a buckle has to be undone. 115) and bend the leather 2 in.. and polish the edges with a greasy rag then punch the holes shown in Figs. begin by cutting patterns in paper or cardboard to the dimensions shown in Figs. Next cut a piece of leather. from the end and punch or cut a hole in the centre of the fold for the tongue of the buckle. . by ^ in. After this Fig. or of canvas bound with leather. part. Such a bag is shown by Fig.— Gusset of Satchel. which shows the front. The straps (Figs. has been cut to pattern. 115 and 116).. 115 and 116.

The parts shown by Figs. also i (Fig. strongly together and bring D (Fig. keeping (Fig. from the edge and continued for 1^ in. Next fix the front on the back. the face of the leather being brought outside and the welting being forced out and rubbed with the handle of a hammer to give it the shape shown at x (Fig. The gusset or band (Fig. 113). and bring the two centres F and G together and tack them strongly. The front (Fig. 114) and d (Fig. The back should be folded and marked at f (Fig. 112). 113).— Satchel Shoulder Strap. this being pasted about 1 in. 113) to point A (Fig. work on the gusset. having it on top when stitching. 114 at G. 113) should now be bound with soft leather from J to k. 114) should now be welted on the back. a piece of leather f in. should be sewn on the being commenced \ in. 116) flap (see Fig. The piece should next be turned inside out. Tack the parts (Fig. similarly mark Fig.no Lea ther The short strap I For king. from the edge. 114) and e (Fig. along each side. a strip of leather £ in. the stitching | o o o o o i Fig-. joining f 110). wide being pasted on and marked for stitching if this is to be done by machine. 113). and in doing this. The whole should now be welted together from point E to d (Fig. from the edge from H to I (Fig. 114). 113) to B (Fig. wide being folded over and oversewn or tacked about \ in. the two edges of the welting and the edge of the gusset together. and 114 should have strong twill lining fixed over the back of each piece. 113. 112. Also tack together in a similar way h (Fig. 113). and pricked with a pricking iron if hand work is employed. . 115. 112).

passing it round the band or gusset and through the loop on the opposite side. overlapping at this point by about \ in. binding should be about f in. and tack them. If brown leather has been employed and has become soiled in handling. Next oversew or whip the whole together from c (Fig. 113) to c (Fig. of spare strapping. 110. 112) to b. a coarse thread being used. . 112. wash it with a weak solution of oxalic acid. L2 Fig. Run the point of the long strap (Fig. This should be done with an awl and needle. 115) through the loop at x (Fig.— Short Strap of Satchel. 112). wide. leaving about 6 in. 110). and e (Fig. 113) and K to E should then be turned inward and fastened with six stitches from the inside to the back of Fig. The back should next be bound all round with leather from a point under the strap between N and The o. Next fold the flap and fasten the short strap to the buckle in front. The strap should be long enough to pass over the shoulder and buckle. The parts from D to J (Fig. hi 112).Knapsacks and Satchels.

112 CHAPTER The method this chapter X. 120 from above. The edges must be perfectly flat and square. 118) is a tool with wheels of different thicknesses. blotters. . of scrolls. the other end being drilled and slotted The slot must be to receive the wheel and pin. 119. shown by Fig. a hole being drilled in the centre for the pin. iron. and sandpaper. showing the ends pointed for working into corners and points The ends of 'the tool. etc. and may be Box is generof the same material. ally used for the purpose. the ends being shaped similar to the thumb. The liner (Fig. A tang is filed at one end for inserting in the handle. so that they do not scratch. Fig. namely. LEATHER ORNAMENTATION. fingerplates for doors. one fine and the other blunt. The modellers (Figs. 121 is a view of Fig. The points should be finished on an oilstone. of leather ornamentation described in can be applied to a variety of articles. panels. The shanks to carry the wheels may be of either of the metals mentioned above. file. with fine effect. and filing them to points as shown. and may be filed up from hard brass. such as book-covers. 117) can be made by inserting two pieces of steel knitting-needle in a wooden handle. wood. making them slightly round. but any hard wood of They are easily close and even grain is suitable. The tools required are few and can be easily made.. just large enough to take the wheel without allowing it to wobble. 119 and 120) are the shape of the tools used in clay-modelling. or steel. made with a chisel or knife. boxes. The tracer (Fig.

Leather Ornamentation. so that the end found most suitable to the line. The com- panion handbook. the larger end as broad as the middle of the tool the other end is slightly smaller. It is about 4 in. and compasses." is invaluable to those who wish to draw their own designs. flat —Liner. The above tools are all larger at one end than the other. Fig. 122) may be formed Fig. and. paper. cutting off the head and the other or working end to a long blunt point. The grounding-punch (Fig. is . long. 113 are round. with compasses and pencil carefully Ages mark off and draw a number of squares over the H . 118. — . a sponge and water for damping the leather some bran or fine sawdust and ryeflour for filling the raised parts a of slate or marble. . can be used. and made nonabsorbent with a coat or two of varnish a bag of sand or sawdust on which to place the marble or wood slab to deaden the noise when grounding drawing pins for fixing the design . as shown. thick. " Decorative Designs of All for All Purposes. as seen from above. For transferring the design. sandpapered. A light hammer completes the list of tools. . : The following materials are required A slab about 1 in. . The leather must be thin calf or basil without flaws. The design has now to be obtained. 117. filing from a large French nail. to work on perhaps hard wood would do as well if the surface were planed smooth. pencil.— Tracer. long. ruler. All are about 6 in. or work in hand.

120. T mixing equal parts of fine sawdust or bran and rye- .—Modeller. This gives the finished article a good appearance. 119. Then draw a rectangle the full size of the paper pattern. or the pattern will not be transThe ruler should be used. The paper pattern must now be pinned to the leather. using considerable pressure. and divide it into an equal number of squares. using the modellers. and with the sponge and clean water damp it carefully and If the leather is w^etter at one equally all over.— Modeller. and with the tracer go over all the lines. Leather Working. if for a bookcover.H original. larger all round than this to allow of skiving and turning over the edge. Place the leather on the slab. should be cut \ in. Remove the pattern and go over the lines with w ell pressing it. to f in. . The leather. Any parts to be raised will now be pressed up from behind. spot than another a stain will show it must be kept damp throughout the working. a fair enlarged or reduced copy can be made. along straight lines. the depressions thus made being filled (just filled and no more) with a paste made by the liner. Fi . say from % in. and by noting where the lines of the design cross the squares. Fig. There are now a number of fixed points. The pattern should be of such a size that a margin will be left all round. according to size. to guide the tools ferred.

— Grounding-punch. — Another View of Modeller. proceed to stipple Fig - . taking the hammer and punch. Over these place paper to prevent them sticking where not needed. ready for mounting. 121. or . modellers while the paste is still workable. 122. Much depends on the evenness The work is now finished and of the ground. 115 flour with water. dot in the ground. and let the leather dry. Then go over the lines again with the liner until they are clear and sharp. making the impressions sharp and clear. and. and the raised parts carefully modelled to shape with the Fig-. place the slab on the sand-bag. The leather is now turned right side up.Leather Ornamentation. When quite dry.

or cover. it is necessary to decide what kind of leather will be required. especially cowhide. The shapes most used are the Association (Fig. and cut on the average from twelve to thirteen No. FOOTBALLS. The case always should be made of leather. from quite a variety of leathers. Footballs are composed of two parts the case. Much of this leather is manufactured specially for football makers. The cases are made — 123.n6 CHAPTER XI. and the bladder. — As80ciation Football. but good. 123) and the Rugby (Fig. First of all. Whole hides vary slightly in size. serviceable cases may be made from leather prepared in the usual way. 5 cases pieces . 124). . and many of the cheaper ones are not worth the labour of making up. and bladders are made from vulcanised sheet rubber of good quality.

contains two square feet . 24 in. as they are all the same size when made up. 20 in. the dimensions of their Rugby match balls being 30| in. No. . 3. . For an eight-segment case reduce the width of pattern proportionately. Association cases are mostly made in seven or eight pieces. either Rugby or Association. 30 in. Fig. and so with the nine. in various sizes 117 may be cutters will cut any required size at so bought. Other sizes are seldom made except for use in Australia. 5. by 25 in.— Rugby Football. 26 in. The easiest to begin upon will be a seven-segment case the others can be worked out by anyone. 4. No. 22 in. although there is no advantage to be gained in the greater numbers. but some have nine or ten segments.Footballs. . . 2. No. circumference. where they prefer a slightly larger ball.or . . 124. In cutting from small pieces there is more waste than in cutting from a hide. The standard sizes of footballs are as follow: Association: No. No. 28 in. The case for an ordinary match ball. 1. but it must not be understood that a case could be cut out of a piece of leather that size. 6. and some leather much per square foot. of leather . by 26 in. No. and an ordinary match Rugby measures 29| in.

ten-segment case. drawing-pins or fine nails to the table before marking to prevent it shifting. lay it on a large sheet of paper and mark round the pattern seven times on it this will show how much leather will be required. as shown in the diagram. 125. than outside end pieces. On this line mark off \\ in. . mark and cut off each end. and draw segments of a circle through the four Ordinary compasses or points thus obtained. hold this in one hand and the string a given distance from it. . — Segment of Association Football Case. long bisect this by a line at right angles. dividers are much too small for this purpose. When the pattern has been cut out. One of the easiest is to tie a piece of fine string to a blacklead pencil. long by 3| in. and are also stronger.n8 Leather Working. Fix the cardboard with a few Fig-. and how it should be cut. but there are several methods by which it can be done. and draw a line from point to point. . across the middle. Select two segments and place them face to face. for the mouth. from the centre this will leave 4| in. see that the pieces when cut will run in the same direction of the hide as shown in Fig. 125. make a pattern 13 in. and draw on it a straight line 13 in. Having cut out the case. from the centre on each side. These look much neater. 5 Association case. Take a piece of stout cardboard. See that the marks on each are exactly opposite . which shows a hide with pattern laid on. For a No. then mark one edge of each 2j in. 126. In buying the leather. as shown in Fig. if inserted ends are to be put in. made in seven segments.

wax.Footballs. Fig. one another. are all that will be necessary. 126. packet of harness needles. a No. five and six shillings. a few sewing awls. 128 shows the most useful kind . Inmay be bought at prices according to pattern and size. a ball of fine brown hemp. flators being sewn. The case is now 127. 3 punch. and the usual clamp to hold work whilst must be cut Mark them as in Fig. Fiff. and can be bought at any leatherseller's. small piece to line each of these this will strengthen . A knife. it will be necessary to make the threads (wax-ends). between by 1^ in. Before beginning to sew the segments together. for lace-holes 119 A them. The few tools necessary for making footballs are not expensive. — Football Pattern Set out on Hide. The method of forming a wax-end is as follows Take the ball of hemp and push the end out from . this costs being 9 in. its size These may have four strands. ready for sewing.

Give an additional coat of wax to the points. Fix a needle to the other point in the same way select an awl of suitable size. Stand at a distance of 3 ft. Begin by stitching on the linings for lace-holes. Four strands will make a good strong thread carefully examine the points to see that they taper properly and have no lumps. . then lay one point over the right thigh and roll it with the hand down the leg a few times until it is well twisted. . which will cause the twisted strand to loosen. Leather Working. and the ball . and break off as before. and with the right hand rub it in a downward direction. . pass the point of thread through the eye. give a smooth tapering point. and all is now ready for sewing. turn point of thread back.120 the centre. Rub the wax up and down quickly a few times. and the ends of the strands formed in this way. then repeat with the other point rub wax up and down and it is ready for use. will. A hook or strong nail must be fixed in some convenient place. Place the segment within the mouth way. and all being ready. placed a little distance above one another. and twist needle round a few times to secure it. begin by breaking the end of the hemp to a fine tapering point. which should be large enough to take the sewing all round the mark. which should not make a hole larger than necessary. . The hemp runs out more will freely this stand perfectly still. when twisted together. from the hook and begin to make a thread by holding the end just formed in the left hand pass the hemp round the hook and bring it down with the right hand. Then take the end with the right hand and give it a jerk the fibres will break. take a needle. leaving a few inches hanging down lay this over the thigh of the right leg. . This is done by holding the hemp firmly between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. This lining may be held in place either by being pasted or tacked with two or three small nails. .

127. a ball of good shape if the leather has been properly cut. and commence sewing at one end. when finished. 127. pass up the bottom needle as before into the right hand. and with a needle in each hand pull through the threads simultaneously until they lie on each side of the leather and form a stitch top and bottom.Footballs. Make another hole with the awl. . taking care that the edges of each are perfectly true. —Marking Lace-holes on Football Case. Sew all the segments together. drive the awl through at one of the points of the pattern marked on it. This will give a thread of equal length on each side. then cut off and sew the other segment to match. Take two segments and place them grain upon grain. unsewn. Place these in the mouth of the clamp. so the ends must be cut off the seven segments. Fig-. Sew round until the place started from is reached. and draw the thread through until the middle is reached. Be careful to drive the awl straight through. pass the needle up through the hole. 121 of the clamp. leaving only the last seam. or when the case is . Be careful to fasten the threads at the ends of each seam by tying them in a firm knot. Punch seven holes in each of the two lined segments for the lace-holes. It is assumed that the case is to have inserted ends. where the lace-holes are. and as near the edges as may be without weakening the strong seam pull both threads in at the same time and with equal tension this will give. as shown in Fig. send the top needle through to the bottom. . The case is now ready for seaming.

taking care that it is always solid where the hammer blows fall. Damp the seams well with a wet sponge and push the foot inside the case. or the grain broken. to form the ends place the case. The best substitute for a proper iron for this purpose is a small iron foot. The last seam should have about two stitches at each end just sufficient to hold them together while the end pieces are being sewn in. The hole at each end of the case should be not more than \\ in. Too much force must not be used with the hammer purpose. turned and inflated the seams will gape open. across. The seams must now be lightly hammered down. Make holes with the awl round the edges before sewing. \\ in. between the knees. one end uppermost. so as better to guide the worker when sewing the may be When all . the seams have been treated in this way. and should be fixed in an iron stand or the usual wooden leg sold for that Fig. size will be large enough.12 2 Lea ther Wor king.— Football Inflator. in diameter. 128. Take two circular pieces of leather. such as is used The smallest for repairing children's boots on. prepare to sew in the end pieces. .

but not so equal as before. and this will bring the unsewn part in the right position for commencing About 1^ in. the leather is stout. Cut a piece of leather 4^ in. especially if . lay the tongue evenly inside the mouth. . iron foot inside and hammer the seam Place the then push out the case again to its natural shape and drive down the other end. This be found rather an awkward job.Footballs. well. may be sewn. A hole should be cut in the middle of tongue-piece to allow the pipe attached to the bladder to pass through it. and is used as a protecton to the bladder. but this last seam must be sewn inside like all the others to do this. and gradually work down towards the laceholes. by 3 in. The case is the right side out. draw the tube . drive one end of the case down until it rests upon the other. and so on until the seam is finished. and when sufficient air has been pumped in. will in when sewn hammer down the two The case is now ready for turning. This is stitched on to one of the sides of the opening by half a dozen stitches near the middle hole. most one can be got at. The inserted end piece must rest about half-way along the seam just sewn. 123 end pieces seams. Begin sewing this from the top. or it will not shape properly when blown out. By pulling further apart the half of the open seam which is outside it will be found that the inner. This will give it the appearance of a large bowl or the half of a huge cocoanut shell. Lightly hammer the seam while sewing. and pare the edges all round to form the tongue-piece. be necessary to shift it a little. and the ball is ready for inflating. Put the nozzle of inflator into the bladder. then it will to sew it. Now insert the bladder. draw the tube through hole in tongue-piece. finishing at the mark showing space to be Fasten the threads left for insertion of bladder. as a great strain is on this seam.

and it only requires some care in calculating for the pattern. If the instructions have been carefully followed. will have been produced. fold tube over. it will be an easy matter to make a ball of any other shape and size. and the ball is finished. hold tightly with thumb and finger. The process is the same. Push the tube under the side which is not attached to the tongue. taking great care there is no escape of air. With the knowledge already gained. off nozzle. a ball. draw the mouth together with a good lace.124 Leather Working. perfect in shape and equal to the roughest wear it may have to endure. and tie down firmly with wax-end. .

or. and tanning and dyeing become one operation. a solution of the dye is applied to the surface of the leather whilst spread on a board. This gives a superficial colouring only. the tanned leather is soaked for a short time in the liquid dye contained in a vat. sloelines.125 CHAPTER DYEING XII. the preliminary treatment of the leather consists in soaking it in warm water to open the pores and soften the leather. the tannin liquors are made from materials which yield the required tints. of — . The leather by this means is largely impregnated with the colour. indulines. therefore only weak liquors should be employed. thus allowing it to take up the dye quicker and more evenly. it may be steeped for a short time in a bath made of 2 lb. For an iron black. etc. Broadly speaking. As the skins are often greasy. such as naphthylamine black. In the second method. there are two methods of leather dyeing by dipping. or it is revolved with the liquor in a closed cylinder. the under side of the leather not being coloured. the leather is either tanned with gall extract. If the colour is to be applied by dipping. In the first method.. after tanning. but this treatment tends to harden the leather and render it harsh. This method is used for applying coal-tar dyes. Black colours are produced on leather with salts of iron and galls. etc. especially tan colours. LEATHER. it may be necessary to dip them in a dilute solution of ammonia or washing soda. and by brushing. Light-coloured leathers. especially in patches. are as a rule produced without dyeing . or by means of aniline blacks.

but as a rule. and they are readily taken up by of water. This should be rendered slightly alkaline with carbonate of soda or ammonia before use. steep it in a solution of ferrous sulphate (green vitriol). The blacks mentioned are known as " acid " dyes. To get a good black it may be necessary to give several coats. . and if too much tannin is present the . The same blacks may be applied to leather by brushing. say. especially from a slightly acid solution. to 2 lb. Leather has the greatest affinity for the " basic " dyes. 1 lb. these colours being fixed by the excess of tannin in the hides as tannin-lakes. to 8 gal. such as aniline yellow or orange. as their staining powers vary. of logwood chips to 8 gal. but have a more or less pronounced violet shade. and. Other aniline dyes may be applied to leather by dipping or brushing. it is usual to add a yellow dye. The aniline dyes may be divided into "acid" dyes and "basic" dyes. after partial drying. The amount of dye to be used is best found by experiment on leather . galls and 1 lb. till the black has fully developed. After steeping in the gall bath. may be taken for 10 gal. By using the two dyes combined. scraps. but two coats should suffice if a stronger solution is used. In order to counteract the effect of this. powdered leather. one-tenth of the black employed. 1 lb. all that is required being a solution of the dye in water. two classes. as it causes the leather to rot it is better to add a little The amount of acetic acid or bisulphate of soda. Aniline blacks soluble in water are not deadblack colours. another coat may be applied. in the proportion of. of water. Sulphuric acid. must not be used. of the liquid.126 Leather Working. however. which is best done after soaking the leather in water for a short time then sponge it with the dye solution. or naphthol yellow. it is possible to obtain on leather blacks that are nearly free from violet tint. dye required varies.

the leather is stretched and brushed with a strong decoction of logwood. Compound colours may be made by mixing two dyes . . Alkali blue. and again treated once or twice with the logwood solution. unless afterwards neutralised by dilute acid. however. after which it is brushed or dipped in a solution of sulphate of iron or nitrate of iron. Malachite green. Alkalies must not be used for this purpose. Naphthol green. violet. Fast yellow. tions. Sloelines. It is then allowed to dry partially. Naphthol blue-black. Naphthylamine black. Hofmann Methyl violet. Basic Dyes. water soluble. Basic dyes are not so suitable for dyeing by immersion unless the excess of tannin is previously removed from the leather by soaking in water. 127 leather takes too much colour and becomes overstained or it may dye too deeply in patches thus basic dyes are best employed in rather dilute solu. a complete list. and will be taken quite readily.Dyeing Leather. Acid Dyes. but strong solutions may be applied with a sponge. Phosphine. Acid green. If the black is not fully developed by this treatment the leather is again treated with logwood. For dyeing leather black by brushing. Nigrosine . as they injure the colour of the dye. . Bismarck brown. Aniline orange. Another reason for the use of weak solutions is that basic dyes give a bronze colour if the solution is too strong. Acid browns. or with a solution of quercitron or sumach. The following is a list of some of the aniline dyes suitable for dyeing leather it is not. Chrysoidine. Magenta. Acid dyes are more suitable for dyeing by immersion than the basic ones.

Leather aniline dyes. leather. Leather that has been tanned. or by the use of A solusaffron. etc. one of the aniline blacks The to the logwood solution. as that on the surface tends to A stained a red colour with one of the by first treating it with cochineal extract and tin salts (chloride of tin) . leather is usually treated with oil during the drying to prevent it getting hard and stiff . of Brazil wood. it is also To may be added worked about for the same purpose. will be most suitable for the purpose. Adding a little sulphate of copper modifies the colour. fustic. The various shades of yellow. of white vinegar. of sulphate or chloride of zinc. and then adding a solution of \ oz. 1 oz. solution of shellac in borax is often used to fix the black dye. and \ oz. The leather intended for dyeing in bright colours should be as nearly white as possible. After dyeing. anatto. strong soap A . intensify the black. A purple dye is obtained from \ lb.128 Leather Working. or stiffening. red. alum-tanned or tanned with pale tan liquors. is a fugitive colour. of Brazil wood (in shavings) with 16 oz.. that is. This is brushed on the of alum in 4 oz. however. are also obtained by using solutions of aniline dyes. of water. the leathers are usually finished by smoothing with a " slicker/' and drying very slowly. In some cases oils and yolk of eggs arc employed to aid in softening the leather. As a finish they may be rubbed with a solution made with curd or Castile dull polish may be obtained by using a soap. 16 oz. stretching them and working them about from time to time to prevent wrinkling and is rub off. of water. and Brazil wood. polishing rag and a little French chalk. orange. tion of picric acid gives a very pale yellow colour aniline yellow and phosphine are now largely used A red dye may be made by heatfor yellow stains. tan. the latter. of scarlet berries. ing \ lb.

I . 129. long and from 4^ in. of the top. Then turn the bag Fig-. The Portsea purse (Fig. of the same width as the bag . 129) is commonly called a saddler's purse. wide have a . centre piece to reach to within 2 in. Punch holes | in. such as wash-leather or basil. of miscellaneous articles in leather will have their construction described in this chapter. knot the ends so that the mouth is closed on pulling the string. inside out and turn in \ in. Cash bags may be made of soft leather. or other light leather of any colour. put the three edges together and tack them. and may be made easily. and run a string in and out from each end through these holes so that the string crosses in the holes . and either backstitch or double-hand them with a fine awl and needles. about the mouth. light calf. apart all round the mouth between the stitches and the top. to 9 in. The material may be hogskin. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF LEATHER WORK. stitching all round the bottom of the turned-down piece. with linen thread of any colour. to 6^ in. — Portsea Purse or Saddler's Purse.129 CHAPTER A number XIII. Cut the back part 5^ in. Cut them from 8 in.

There are now three pieces . Tack the front piece to the other side of the . such as a small front stud. leaving . and round it at the top. with a hole opposite in the overlap to fasten it down . Having marked the stitches on the front part. wide. stitch double with beeswaxed linen thread where the front part begins. wet them. and mark it along the bent edge with the screw-crease and pliable hogskin . Double it down all along the middle. Leather Working. taking care that with every stitch the centre piece is caught up. prick along the mark put in the centre piece of the purse from the point of the straight end between the two folds of the gusset right up to the leather at the bend. and round it at one end to the same shape as the back part . long. If the pocket is made with a gusset that is. and rub with a rag so as to polish the sides straight Turn down the back part a little above the and give the bend a few light taps with a hammer. A small button. them.130 long. and stitch all round to the opposite side. . round it at one end for the bottom. Cut square with the top of the centre piece on both sides. and tack the edge of the gusset right opposite on the back and all round. For the gusset. put these together and tack them. and stitch along the marks made all round. cut the front piece 3| in. cut a thin piece of soft and it must be long enough to go round the stitched part of the purse and 1^ in. line of the front piece. and stitch the gusset and back together all the way. and turn the gusset so all round the centre piece. then round the top. let it be quite square and straight at the top. may be put through the front piece. Then glasspaper the edges. Cut the centre piece to the same shape. but this is not really necessary. a piece let in to open it to increase the capacity a button will be required to keep it — — closed.

will keep in good shape and sound condition for many years. Make tracings of the three patterns on suitable paper and paste these to thin cardboard. turn down. It frequently happens even when a good price is paid for a pair of opera glasses that the case sold with them soon shows signs of becoming dilapidated. and put in the button.MlSCELLANEO US EXA MPL ES. and either cut it with a fine-pointed knife round the edge of the pattern. if well-made. or made in two pieces and joined even with the seams on the body. . This may be cut in one length and carried right round. lay the patterns on the leather. Other purses may be made on the principles just described. Fig. Cut them out correctly. Brown and patent leathers look and wear well. well. and both kinds are made up in the same manner. and the slip-shod style of putting them together. or mark the shape first with a round point and cut out after the pattern is removed. and it will then stand and keep its form. which are joined together on each side where the strap goes round. The body is made of two pieces marked a. or sheet zinc. There is no difficulty in making it. . — — . This is owing to the trumpery material these cases are made of. 1 3 I gusset and stitch it round then damp the gusset and draw a piece of string tightly against the middle of the gusset between the back and centre pieces also draw it between the centre and the front piece to pull in the gusset. 130 gives the three necessary patterns for cutting out an opera-glass case. . overlap. which. of fine gauge. the details of construction being soon mastered and its cost will be but trifling. b shows the pattern for the top. A strip of leather \ in. Put the purse on a flat surface and weight it to keep it flat leave it so till the gusset dries. c is the bottom pattern. wide is joined to this and forms the flange. The instructions given here are for making a case in solid leather. Trim and rub the edges. .

and that a uniform portion of the flange is in sight. of water solution added to it produces a more brilliant polish. the sides arc now ready for closing together. Mark all parts for the stitching £ in. Those edges to be sewn must be finished after the stitching is done. long by | in. the four edges of the body. If black. long by f in. The sling-strap should be 6 ft. from the edges— that is one edge of each flange piece. straps. not straight through as in the case of stitching on the flange. The strap to hold down the lid is 3 in. is enough to very weak solution of " size and a few drops of oxalic acid in ^ pt. colour the size with a little lampblack or similar pigment. the awl must be driven. but in a slanting direction from the mark along the surface towards the extreme edge at the bottom. The buckle chape should be middle of one half which fix this to stitched on to the form the body before the side seams are closed it is so much easier to on to the flat surface. and the polish produced by rubbing with a moderately coarse cloth. leather is used. bringing the awl out at . is . Colour and rub up the edges of straps and loops. See that the inside edge is well taken hold of by each stitch. wide. and then through the other part in a corresponding manner. In doing this. The edging must be applied hot with a sponge. or patent. A number of holes will have to be made in the — . and one edge only on the flange pieces. Having sewn these on. long by | in. and the four loops to keep the sling-strap in position round the case must be cut If in.. For colouring the edges of brown leather use a " 1 oz. The flange pieces for the body are laid inside and fixed to the broadest part of each body half. Secure these in position with a few small nails and stitch them straight through. and also the top and bottom pieces.132 Lea ther Working.

In this manner one edge is to butt close against the other. and the stitching securely holds them together. and stitch them on. leaving sufficient " slack " to allow the sling-strap to be drawn through.Miscellaneous Examples. Place these evenly across the seams. This is put inside the lower made — — . Stitch the bottom in next. so that an equal proportion of loop is on either side. The guide loops for the sling-strap must be stitched on next. Two small pieces of leather to form hinges must also be attached to the body. 133 the opposite mark.

131 below. which possesses the advantage of holding the folded music without any perceptible crease. . etc. or marine may be made from these instructions.134 sling-strap. — Music Carrier Closed. first turning the screw to — — bring the glasses to the shortest focus. field. Fig. To get the size of the top and bottom leather. 131. by 10 in. The shape is of the ordinary round bottom pattern (Fig. place the glasses on a sheet of paper and take the outside measurement at each end. Then take the length of the glasses. Fig. especially if the instructions about to be given are followed with care. and passing it through the four guide loops. insert and remove the music than would be possible if this portion were united to the ends in the same manner as the back. great skill is not required. Leather Working. The dimensions given will be found suitable for all ordinary sheet music measuring 14 in.. and make some allowance over this measurement for the thickness of leather. Cases for any size of glasses opera. In making a music carrier. 132 shows the lid raised and the front flap dropped ready for receiving the sheets of music as well as for withWith this drop flap it is easier to drawing them. 131) so generally used. such as is illustrated by Fig.

but they will be found to be very suitable for the purpose. 9 in. long by 5| in. A piece of thin millboard is next . The diagram (Fig. there is no necessity to keep precisely to these dimensions. 132. used. —Music Carrier Open. face downwards on a level table and proceed to line out the various parts as in Fig. allow \ in. the bottom and back. deep. Lay the cloth or leather. to I in. as the case may be. Many kinds of material are — Fig.Miscellaneous Examples. being the drop flap. the top of lid. Dull-grained American duck wears better. 135 the case when made up being 15 in. 133 . so that the edges when folded over the board neatly butt together. beyond when cutting to provide the necessary surplus for folding over the edges. but is not so easy to work. allowing a sufficient margin beyond the four edges for turning over at least half an inch. from the commonest bookbinders' cloth to the expensive French moroccos and scented Russia leather. but it is the least durable. If in. 133) shows how the various parts are divided. 3^ in. and 2| in. The corners of this surplus must be removed as shown. Common bookbinders' cloth is the cheapest and the least troublesome to use. the lid flap. Of course. Whatever material is used it is essential that it should be cut in one piece.

134).. lines scored — ml* -v- -16- Fig. the two corners are taken that is.136 cut 15 off. next applied to the and the millboard surface then lay the board in position on is double scored the cloth and press the two firmly together by using the roller (Fig. being folded into divisions without separating the parts. space are scored. but proves does not quite reach the make a good lap over the turned-in surplus. by 16^ and the cross in. so that it extreme edges. in. The inside lining is cut rather less than the size of the millboard. then the board must be turned over and the line for the drop flap (3^-in. —Pattern for Music Carrier. The rounded ends sufficient to . 133. The pasted edges are next brought over the boa'rd and rolled. is Good bookbinders' paste inside of the material. Lea ther Working. space) scored on the other side. . The two lines on each side of the lf-in. cut about half-way through with a pointed knife travelling This permits the board along a straight edge.

131 and 132 are usually cut from a piece of \-m. A leather camera case must be of simple shape. cut the widest pattern first (see Fig.Miscellaneous Examples. The leather for a camera case is not a very expensive item.—Hand Roller handle and lock are fixed before the inside lining at this part is pasted down. thoroughly waterproof. or rings. This forms the outside flap. 135. Fig. and covered to correspond. For a ^-plate camera case as illustrated by Fig. and again just below the drop flap then at intervals insert small gimp pins and fix in the other end to match. and it will give a neater appearance if the . of a smooth interior. good deal or mahogany board. 134. . top. strong. and metal handles with bosses and clamps may be bought and easily fixed. i37 seen in Figs. Place one of these ends in position and fix with an escutcheon pin at the extreme point forming the back. and back of case. The patterns may be cut from thin cardboard or brown paper. When leather handles are used it is a much stronger method to insert the ends through openings made in the top of the case. 136). so that it does not scratch the camera. and there is little else to add to its cost except the lining and a few buckles and dees. and it should not be heavier than is consistent with durability. The lock and catch are fixed by three pins being riveted through each. and then stitch or rivet them .

Fig-. from this. for the depth of case. and a total length of 21| in.— Camera Case. The four corners must be rounded oft' and lines drawn across the pattern. wide for the gusset (see Fig. Round the corners well at one end and slightly at the other. from the end with large rounded corners this gives the size of the flap and another — .138 Leather Working. across 3| in. giving the size of top and leaving 11 in. using a square for this purpose. The width throughout is 8j in. Next cut a pattern 36 in. long by 7 in. drawn 7 in. 135. One line is drawi. and draw two lines across the pattern. 137). one line is .

Some pieces of leather for binding the flaps will be wanted these must be thin and pliable.M 3 in. The pattern for the front is a simple rectangle 11 in. from these. 1 I . 136 the binding starts at a and is continued round to b. and a camera case this size will take about 3| square feet. J Flap. two of the corners being slightly rounded. and — Front Back of Camera Case. leather for this purpose. for the bottom. beyond the marks showing the parts to form the flaps. In Fig. and cut into strips I in. 139 from each end and two more 11 in. as this part forms the top of the case as well as the flap. ISC EL L A NEO US EXA MPL ES. long by 8{ in. wide. Top. Black enamelled or brown cowhide is the best v Fig. 136. This leaves a space of 8 in. wide and long enough to reach ^ in.

Those for the buckles are cut the same shape. in about the middle of it. the dee chapes. but only 3 in. 138. velvet. wide. long by 1^ in. and short straps must be sewn on before lining the case. A hole at x must be cut in these for the buckle. one 1-in. dees or rings.140 Leather Working. and The the other narrow strap sewn on the front flar> . With the patterns and materials ready. and two \-m. See that these are far enough from the edge to give room for the bindThe chape with buckle and loop must be sewn ing. Lay the patterns on the leather and see which is the best and most economical way of cutting out the parts. two |-in. and another 5^ in. Then cut out the lining. This may be either plush. will be all that is required except the lining. wide. good handle. running the second finger of the hand holding the knife along the edge of the pattern as a guide. one piece to each pattern. using the stoutest parts for the front and back. buckles. from each end will be about the right distance for these. Chapes for the dees to be fixed to the case must be 3^ in. Put the straight part of the dees into their chapes and tack them on to the gussets with two or three small nails to keep them in p'osition whilst being sewn. A strap 7 in. or even thin leather. cloth. The long straps can be sewn on the dees after the bag is made up. wide for the gusset flaps. About \\ in. and the shortest narrow strap is sewn on one flap nearer the end and a chape with buckle and loop-piece in on the other. buckle pieces. long by f in. begin cutting out. and two 1-in. cut to the shape of Fig. on the front piece. long and 2 in. wide for the outside flap. green baize. Cut evenly round the patterns with a sharp knife. long by f in. In order that there may be nothing rough inside when the bag is finished. and holding the pattern down firmly with the other hand. loop pieces. as these are subjected to the hardest wear. buckle.

141 sewing thread should be a four. may be glued between the leather and lining. Shave the edges even with a spokeshave. a tooth. Stitch the front piece and one edge of the gusset first. except the flaps. this will cause them to go round more evenly and help the paste to unite them to the leather and lining. fold them over and tap them down with a hammer. and the stitches should be six or eight to the inch. 22 hemp. it will be found rather difficult to sew these side scams in the clamp. and if a saddler's pricking iron can be obtained these lines may be stamped with it and a perfectly even stitch obtained. is made. pressing them well together.Miscellaneous Examples. For sewing these seams use a four -cord hemp thread. If the case is a stiffened one. from the edge with a pair of compasses to give the lines for straight stitching. Before applying the paste to these. but if a box 10 in. by 6^ in. and then fix on and sew the back part to the other gusset edge. new. . by 1\ in. and from three or four teeth to twenty in number. rub on . The leather should now be placed bottom upwards and the lining joined to it by a thin streak of glue or paste round the edges. These pricking irons cost. Trim the lining off level with the leather and paste on the bindings. A three-cord thread of fine closing flax is stout enough for sewing the bindings. If a stiffened case is required. l£d.or five-cord thread of No. and are made with teeth ranging from six to the inch to sixteen to the inch. the case can be tacked on to this and held between the knees whilst being sewn. All the unbound edges must be marked \ in. place the patterns on the leather and make ink marks on the brown edges of the latter where the lines run across the patterns this will serve as a guide in fitting the parts together. Before sewing the sides together. pieces of cardboard cut to the size of the various parts.

and G. front piece 6 in. but the method of altering the various parts will be pointed out.. Make the nose-piece 11 in. There is no necessity to mark one at the other end. The regulations for dog muzzles specify the use of a cage muzzle which shall prevent any possibility of the animal biting. and J. marking first at I in. e. so that there will be no difficulty in making a muzzle for any head.. piece with a blue lead for the slits. and strapMark one edge of the nosepiece 20 in. from one end. as this enters the buckle chape. there are only two slits at l and N. each barely f in. and has seven slits pierced through it sideways at A. k. long. p. first sponging on some warm-coloured size diluted. — — — . d. c. b. Similar slits are cut in the front piece at h. trim off the sharp edges and rub them up with a rough cloth. On referring to Fig. and polish them with a soft cloth. m. and 4f in. and t. the front. and the strap and buckle-piece. 3^ in. The muzzles sold in shops are generally made to standard sizes.142 Leather Working. The nose-piece runs from a round the nose and under the buckle at the other end. the muzzle will be found to consist of four pieces of narrow leather.. 2 size muzzle which fits a small fox-terrier dog cut four strips of leather.. The sizes given below correspond to those articles. q.. and in the strappiece slits are cut at x. namely. cage-piece 22 in. so that the spaces on each side are uniform. a nose-piece. and are only suitable for the dog with an average-shaped head. the cage proper. e. then at 2 in. 1. f. In the muzzle or cage-piece. To make a No. wide. 139. Fold the strap exactly in the middle and mark the edge opposite these. and shall also give perfect freedom in breathing and not hinder the dog from lapping water. It only remains to sew the long straps on to the dees and the case is completed. s. o. some dye.

hammer... 8 in. cut off. start in. In marking the slits in the Fig. narrow chisel or a penknife for dividing the leather. open the slit 1. from one end. take the front piece. and be careful to cut it clean through the middle.Miscellaneous Examples. 143 Use a sharp. and drive the nail through to keep it in position.- Dee and Buckle Chape. . For fitting the muzzle together. using a lead piece as a support.. and the other 4^ in. A gauge. made by nailing some odd pieces of leather on a board. from the buckle end and and 10^ in. is very useful in firmly holding the leather edgeways for this operation. The cage. leaving 3| in. the first \\ in. take the front piece and cut a slit | in. slits. 138. from each end and one 25 in. 7 in. make a hole with a small awl. and pass one end of the cagepiece through fold it to get the slit over the middle... Having cut the slits. strap-piece 1 to 6. and rivet with a small . — Humane Dog Muzzle. The strap-piece crosses underneath the throat at x. these distances being measured from one end only. mark the edge and cut the at 2^ 4 in. Put a washer over the nail.. 139.piece has two slits only. Fig. for the forehead.

n. The cage-piece is next passed through the nose-~ piece at B and G (Fig. four or five holes in it for adjusting to the size of chape with double buckle is the dog's neck. On small muzzles it is usual to cut a strap 4 in. Then take the other end. and T. 6. long by \ in. a. d. or No. riveted to the other end. and rivet or stitch it to that end of Punch the strap-piece which slides through J.144 Leather Working. l. No. try the muzzle on the dog to ensure the various spaces being well apportioned. and K. 139). The lengths of the various parts for muzzles numbered in lists as No. With the front of the muzzle towards the worker. A . x. f. h. continue the cage-strip from G through E. See that all the parts correspond before nailing and riveting. 8 size are as follow. and pass it through R. 4. and c. and the strap-piece is passed successively through J. e. the spaces being in proportion to the one illustrated here . If possible. wide. Cycle Valise.

the patterns may be reversed and j . Another plan is to cut out a pattern of the small half from the dimensions given in Fig. This would be most economical if two carriers are to be made. and the other two parts longer the distance H to J (Fig. If it is desired to have the gusset without a join. 139) is extremely short. but where this is not the case the necessary alterations can be made before cutting out the material. and as commodious as the frame of the machine will permit. by making the valise as shown by Fig.— Pattern for Cycle Valise. and. These muzzles have the appearance of being very complicated. but. will not be all in one piece. however. and the cross at the throat is close to n. must be bought. The sizes given will be suitable for nearly all Fig". the gusset. strong. A cycle valise should be light. place a sheet of strawboard on one side of the cycle frame. 141. 140. US be shorter. . rainproof. and as the material is suitable for cutting either crosswise or lengthwise. For a dog with a long thin head the opposite treatment is necessary.Miscellaneous Examples. and mark it by running a lead pencil round the inside of the frame. by following the instructions. To get the correct size of valise. without being too large or cumbersome. it will have sufficient capacity. Half a yard of material will be required to make the valise . it will be an easy matter to make them. frames. | yd. but must be cut from the surplus and joined. 141. Leather or waterproof canvas will answer well for the purpose.

and b the large half with flap. long. In Fig. The gusset is cut 3 in. see that the letters are uppermost. — Pattern for Leather Covering of Workbox are then pasted together and bound with leather. then the top of the small half which is to go under The parts it. 141. Be careful to mark the there will be less waste. a denotes the small half. the ends pared down and spliced together with good paste Bind the flap first. and they are stitched on the carrier close to this To make the sides very firm.146 L EA THER IVO R K 1 NG. and each end of the gusset-piece. A lady's workbox can be covered with leather way. be kept flexible. 112. will be wanted. wide. Strips of soft hide bellies must be cut 1 in. in cutting the material. and those for fastening to the frame 10 in. and again over the top from each side openin the following . by | in. stiffen stitching. about 12 ft. and. long by f in. or the parts will not be in pairs. them with pieces of cardboard the gusset should . measure from the front opening at the lock to the hinge line. The buckle is sewn into one end of these. The straps for the flap are cut 6 in. patterns a or b distinctly. wide by 40 in. Fig. For the lid or top. wide.

allow for lapping over. They must be pared down. ISCEL LA NEO US EXA MPL ES. Make a brown paper pattern and put this on first. . to see if it is correct. 142 shows the plan of top of lid the outer row shows where it turns over the lower edge the part beyond this is brought to the under part of frame resting on the other half of the box. 142. I 47 The inner row of dotted lines in Fig. The corners. which is much stronger and neater than butt joints. r . so . as shown in Fig.M ing.

145. the turned Do — F. in order to get the glue to adhere properly. . The metal hinges should be removed. 144. Luggage labels can easily be made from leather. and press them together. so that the lid is quite detached from tne lower half of the workbox.148 to Lea ther Working. the work in sections. and. — Segment of Cricket Ball Covering.g. edges at the bottom. thus the top of the lid first. both leather and wood. then the four sides. — Another Lug-gage Label. If the box is veneered. lastly. Fig. the veneer will have to be well sand-papered.

have been written on. 146. the only difference . 144 shows another label. mark and cut out the pieces a and b. etc. to be fastened I in. Fig. Fig. about TV to \ in. With the back of a knife-blade and straightedge. or A strap about 3 in. and round them off on the top edges. and place them together. boards (plain postcards are just the thing) are cut m - to size to slip in the label.. 149 which should be stiff rather than soft and oily.Miscellaneous Examples. long. through both. cut two pieces of leather about 4 in. — Sewing Cricket Ball Covering. wide by f in. by 2| in. is put through the slit. with the flesh sides touching sew them together . 143. as shown. Thin cardto the parcel. long. when the required name and address. To make one of the shape illustrated by Fig. Cut the slit d on the three edges.

being that the front part has a larger space for a address. trim them to an approximately spherical shape. should be 2| in.i5o Lea ther Working.on Cricket Ball. all round for the seam. 145 must be cut. each being half the circumference long and a quarter the circumference wide. The leather used for the covering must be Four pieces to the shape strong but not thick. 147. when they are dry. Cut the corks square and glue them tofull Fig. A cricket ball that will withstand a lot of hard wear may be made from some old corks and some leather. and allowing \ in.Halves of Covering. or other hard substance. the edges of the leather being wetted. Bind the cork ball round and round with twine until it is of the desired The finished ball size minus the leather cover. and. gether. bone. —Sewing. . The edges of the label can be made gloss}' and smooth simply by rubbing with a piece of hard wood. shown by Fig. in diameter.

Then the covers are placed over" the twine-and- Fig. The sewing is commenced with a waxed thread having a harness-maker's needle on each end holes for the needles to pass through are made with a fine stabbing awl. cork ball and the edges sewn together. 148.— Section of Sewn Edges of Ball Covering. and then put two pieces together and hold them in the jaws of a vice between two pieces of wood shaped to correspond with the leather (see Fig-. —Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing. and Fig. method. The actual inside of the leather should be made the outside. more difficult but producing a stronger . and then hammer well to shape. The two halves of the cover are made separately.ATISC EL LA NEC US EXA MPLES. 149. One way of doing this is to use a straight awl. when opened the seams are hammered flat. 151 Soften the leather by soaking it in water for a short time. 146). cut the edges Another off close. .

by is The of the four side-pieces A. or the 13 in. it will shrink and become tighter. the centre of which must measure within the dotted lines 20 in. but will want a better backing. a slightly bent awl. The ball may be held whilst sewing by the appliance shown by Fig. small butts. A board about 4 in. c. of stitching and less. 149. of stitching. 147 and 148. b. . In the board is a hole not quite so large as the diameter of the ball. first cut a pattern of stiff paper to the dimensions given below. and d wide from the dotted line. etc. The above instructions will be of help also in repairing cricket balls whose . Having trimmed the seam with a sharp knife. Fig. 151) for the lid can be cut in the same way. wide. is to use Lea ther Working. seams have come undone. To alter the position of the ball. to 18 in. flatten the seam by hammering. taking care not to cut the stitches. high will need only 2 ft. The pattern (Fig. Or the top and bottom sides may measure 4^ in. is Each 4 in. the foot pressure is released. g. stitches up tight as the leather dries. it is smooth-grained and polished. wide and from 12 in. The latter method is illustrated by Figs. and then thicknesses of leather. have the seam stitch through the four bent over. etc. Cowhide can be used. the latter figure being Pull the a section of the doubled-over leather.152 job. and is made from stout sides. which is kept in place partly under and partly within the hole by foot pressure exerted on a strap or string passing over the outer end of the board as illustrated. . Then a case 6 in. strength. long is fixed to the bench or table with a bent screw. respectively. while if the pattern were cut in separate pieces there would be 13 ft. and H must be only 2 in. When making the suit case. 150 shows the bottom. but the four pieces e. f. leather for a suit case should be such as used for straps of portmanteaus. and \\ in.

. but the first system is best and neatest. For the backing and lining. and they will want cover. J 1 . and one of the sides (Fig. and the lid (say) 1^ in. patterns are cut for the two centres.Miscellaneous Examples. if the lid in such an instance the overlap the case centre of the lid will need to be larger. This will be better if done after the case The pieces must be well fitted for each is sewn. side (again to the dotted line) for the four sides of the lid. 150) is Cut off one used as pattern for the four sides. in proportion to the substance of the material and its backing. side and top and bottom. bottom 6 is to 153 in.

each seam finishing firm and well at the top and bottom. and these four sides can be glued in first by applying a coat to the back and on the rough ends of the lining that hang over. . f. which may be pasteboard or stout cardboard.154 Lea ther Wor king . c. d. Only the top of each need be turned over. but thin leatherboard or wood pulpboard would be lightest. and fit it so that the rough edge of the linen sticks on each end and Putting in b first. made into a thread as for shoe-making . This can be done to all four sides of the top and bottom pieces. or round up the edges with fine sandpaper. glue the side which it is to be stuck. Thus J. and h. E. then c. k (Fig. covering one side of each piece with lining material and leaving a Fio-. it will be seen that each seam has a piece of this lining at the bottom. m. and g.—Lid of Suit Case. Then fit the ten pieces of backing. 150) would have three smooth sides. while the bottom part at n would hang loose with the four long sides b. and a harness-maker's needle used with a diamond awl. and the three sides of the four endpieces. 151. As each is to fixed (bookbinder's paste will do). as A. The sewing can be done with about six or seven strands of yellow flax. or the thread may be made in the same way. Cut a small angular piece off all sides. margin all round to turn over to the other side.

inside the bottom of the case. or while fixing it in the and help Also when a and d sides will be smeared. o being the bottom of the case and p the side.— Section of Suit Case Side. within \ in. 152.Miscellaneous Examples. The bottom can now be stuck in. paste a long oval piece down the centre before putting the two flesh sides together. and additional strength is also given all round the edge of the bottom. strip of firm leather. of the material used for the outside can be either covered with thin brown Persian or left as it is. This keeps the lid firmly in its place. A Fig-. If it is wanted thicker in the of leather to middle. This piece forms a sort of flange all round the front and two ends. projecting above. or. this piece is dispensed with. 152). be. 46-in. as it were. buy. all four corners are neat. letting \ in. 1^ in. This can be secured on the front of the bottom of the case by two copper rivets. as shown at R. If the lid is made to overlap. at least. say. take care not to bring it quite to the edge. but in applying the glue. The handle can be made by cutting two pieces shape and skiving them at the edge about half their thickness. . and then stitching to the two together. to strengthen it 155 to keep the case square. It can be stitched all round to the top edge of the case. and either the top can be stitched as a finish or a copper rivet may be put through here and there. In the latter case it will be well to sandpaper and A finish off the edge with a little brown cream. better still. and prevents any wet getting in while the case is carried. as shown by Q (Fig. and 1 in. wide. stopping. are glued in.

and then repeat for fastening to the case. and put the strip along the back. inserting the lock. lock is easily added by cutting a portion of the front of the case away. take the case. lid off. . cut a strip of leather 2 in. or make from a piece of strip brass. and lift sufficiently for the hand to go under. so that 1 in. This will then have so that it crosses the handle. and A riveting it it on. To finish the box. wide and 1 ft. 8 in.156 Leather Working. Then close the case. long. some play. and will lie flat while not in use. of the width lies on the lid and the other inch on the Mark it right along on each side. or one handle can be put at each end. two square sockets for the handle. put the lid on the case. and each before fastening must have the handle put under. Each must be secured to the case by two small copper rivets. and secure the piece to it by a row of small copper rivets or a row of stitching. fitting the hasp portion of the lock in position and riveting in its place.

INDEX.
Acid Dyes
for Leather, 127 Alligator Skins, 9 American Cloth, Mandoline

Brown Glace Kid,
Persian, 13

14 12

Leather, Cleaning. Ill

Levant Morocco,

Case in, 60—64 Aniline Dyes for Leather, 126 Association Footballs, 117 Bags, 65—69 Brief, 65—70 Cartridge, 109—111
,

Brush Case,
,

40
49

Lining. 41

Bucket-shaped Hat Case,
Buckle, 18 Chape, 140
Strap, 105

,

,

,

,

,

,

Cash, 129 Cricketing, 89 Frames, Riveting, 72 Gladstone, 73—83 Tennis, 89 Half Gladstone Tennis, 89
Ladies', 70

Buckles, Roller, 21

Buckling Garters, Buckskin, 14
Butt, Foreign, 15 Calf Kid, 11

18

,

Leather, Box, 15
,

,

Tennis, 84—89
,

Memel,

10

Ball, Cricket, 150
,

,

Covering, 150

,

,

,

Holding on Bench,
,

151

,

,

Sewing, 151
,'

Ooze, 11 Patent, 9 Russet, 10 Tan, 11

Band

for Hat Case, Cutting, 51 Banjo Case, 55—60 Bottom, 56

Waxed,

10

,

Willow, 15
Case, 137

Camera

Handle,

58
I

Carrier, Music, 134

Lining, 56 Pattern, Cutting, 55 Basic Dyes for Leather, 127 Basil Leather, 15 Belly Leather, Foreign, 15 Bifurcated Rivets, 26

Cartridge Bag, 109—111 Case Banjo, 55 60 Brush, 40

,

,

Camera,

137

,

Field-glass. 134 Football, 117

Binding Corner
Case, 63

of

Mandoline
I

Hair Brush, 40
Hat, 49
,
I

Black Dyes, Aniline, 126 Grain Hide, 13 Blackening Leather, 127 Block for Making Collar Box,
46

Letter, 31—35

|

, , ,

Mandoline, 60—64
Opera-glass, 131
Suit, 152

Blotting Pad, 39 Board. Cutting, 17 Bone, Rubbing, 75 Bookbinders' Skiver, 13 Box (see also Case)

-,
,

Horseshoe Collar,

43

Round

—46

Tennis. 83—89 Cash Bags, 129 Catch Strap for Collar Box, 47 Cleaning Brown Leather, 111 Pigskin and Cowhide, 34 Collar Box, Cutting Leather for,
47
,

Collar. 46—48

Box-calf Leather, 15 Braces, 27 Brief Bag. Cutting Out. 67
,
,

Drawer. 44 Horseshoe, 43
Lid, 45

,

Lining, 43

Gussets for, 67 Lining, 69

,

Round,

46

,
,

Narrow, 66
Sewing, 68
13

Cordovan, 12 Covering Mandoline Case, 63

Brown Cowhide,

Workbox, 146 Cowhide and Black Grain,

13

158
Cowhide, Brown,
, ,

Leather Workixg.
13

Glace Kid,
,

11

Cleaning, 34 Patent, 13

Brown,

14 73

13 Crease, Screw, 22 Cricket Bag, 89 Ball, 150
,

Cream Roan,

Gladstone Bag, 73—83 with Broken Frame, Handle, 79
Patterns, 76

with
Sew-

Seams

Un-

,

Covering, 150 Holding, whilst

ing, 151
,

stitched, 73
,

Sewing, 151

Crocodile Skins, 9 Crup or Horse Leather, 13 Cutting Band for Hat Case, 51
-,

Tools for Making, 75 - Tennis Bag, 89 Glossing Strap Edges, 22 Glove Kid, 12

Grounding Punch,

113

Gusset Pattern for Brief Bag,
67 Stiffenings, Brief Bag, 68 Hair Brush Case, 40 Lining, 41
,

Board

for, 17 47

Leather for Collar Box.

Hat Cases,
Straps, 17—30
,

50

Appliance

for, 29, 30

Cycle Valise, 145

Half-Gladstone Tennis Bag, 89 Hand Punch for Dog Leads, 22
Riveter, 22 Roller, 136

Dee and Buckle Chape,
Dee-ring, 102

140

13 Dipping Leather for Dyeing, 125 Division Board, Trunk, 98 Dog Leads, 22 Fixing Studs in, 24 Hollow-studding, 22 Simple, 23
, ,
,

Diamond Hide,

— -

Handle, Banjo Case, Gladstone Bag,
,
,

58
76,

79

,

,

,

Case, 52 Ladies* Bag, 73 Mandoline Case, 64 Suit Case, 155

Hat

with Studs and Ring,
24

,

Tennis Bag, Trunk, 93
,

85

Hat Case,
Swivel, 24
,

49 Basil, 49

Muzzle, 142 Double-end Brace, 27 Drawer, Collar Box, 44
D-ring, 102

,

,

Dyeing Leather, 125—128

,

Bucket-shaped, 49 Cutting Band for, 51 Leather for, 50 Handle, 52 Inner, 53
Lid, 52

Dves, Acid, 127 -, Aniline, 126
,

Basic, 127
Stick, 17

Emery

Lining, 51 Hide, Black Grain, 13 Cutting up, 16
, ,

Patent Calf Leather, 10 Envelope. Pocket in Writing Pad, 37 Field glass Cases. 134

Enamelling

Enamel,

13

Folding Trunk, 90
Football, 116 Association, 117 Cases, 117
,
,

Different Parts of, 16 Porpoise, 13 Hides, 9 Hinge Strap for Collar Box, 47 Hollow Studs, 22 Hollow-studding Dog Leads, 22 Horse or Crup Leather, 13 Horseshoe Collar Box, 43
, ,

Lace Holes

in, 119

Imperial Trunk, 90
Inflating Football Bladder, 123 Inflators, Football, 119

,

,

,

,

Inflating, 123 Inflator for, 119 Seaming, 121, 122 Rugbv, 117
67

Kangaroo Leather,
Kid,
,
,

14

Brown

Glace, 14

Frames, Brief Bag,

for Ladies' Bags, 70

Tennis Bags,

86

,

Calf, 11 Glace, 11 Glove, 12

French Kid
,
,

Glace) Garters, Buckling, 18
{see

Kips, 9

Making,

17

Packing, 20
Pairing, 19 Tools for Making, 17

,

,

Knapsack, 100—109 Brass Stud, 102 Buckle Straps, 105 Piping Leather, 107 Ring and Holder, 102

I.XDEX.
Labels, Luggage, 148 Lace Holes in Football Case,

159

119

Ladies' Bags, 70
,

Handles
9—16

for, 73

Leather,

Qualities

and Varie-

ties of,

Porpoise Hide, 13 Portmanteaux, 90 Portsea Purse, 129 Punch for Dog Leads, 22 Grounding, for Ornamenting Leather, 113
,

Leg Straps, 20 L ttei Case, 31 —35
,

Riveter, Hand, 22 Punching Hole in Strap,

18

Pigskin, 32 Stamp Pockets, 32 Stitching, 35
12

Purse, Portsea, 129
,

Saddler's, 129

Levant Morocco, Brown,
Leather, 12
112

Racket Cases {see Tennis) Railway Trunk, 90
Ring, D., 102 Riveter, Hand-punch, 22

Liner for Ornamenting Leather,

Riveting Frame to Ladies' Bag,
56
i

Lining Banjo Case,

72

Brief Bag, 69 Collar Box, 48 Gladstone Bag, 82 Hair Brush Case, 41 Hat Case, 51 Mandoline Case, 62

Rivets, Bifurcated, 26
i

Roans, 12 Cream, 13 Roller Buckles,
,

21

,

Hand,

136

Writing Pad, 36 Lock, Hat Case, 53 Suit Case, 156 Luggage Labels, 148 Mandoline Case in
,

Collar Box, 46 Rubbing Bone or Stick, 75 Rugby Footballs, 117

Round

Russet

Calf, 10

B
American

*-.sia

Leather, 14
1?9

.Saddler's Purse,

Cloth, 60—64
,

Covering, 63

Handle, 64
Lining, 62 Pattern, Cutting, Stitching, 64 Marine Glass Cases, 134 Measuring-off Stick, 17
,
,

61

Satchels, 109—111 Seams for Footbal^ 121, 122 Hat Case, 51 Serpent Skins, 9 Sewing Brief Bag, 68 Cricket Ball Cover. 151

Memel
59

Calf, 10

Mitred Corner for Banjo Case,
Modellers
for

Ornamenting

Gladstone Bag, 81 Hat Case, 51 Letter Case, 35 Mandoline Case, 64 Skate Straps, 20, 21 Skins, 9
, ,
,

Leather, 112 Morocco Leather, 12 Long Grain, 12
,

Alligator, 9

Commercial,
Crocodile, 9
Pig, 14

b

Music Carrier,
Ooze
Calf, 11

134

,

Muzzle, Dog, 142
Opera-glass Case, 131 Ornamentation of Leather, 112—
115

Serpent, 9 Skiver, Bookbinders', 13
,
-.

Brown,

13

Staining Leather, 128 Stamp Pockets of Letter Case,
32 Stick,

Packing Garters,
Pad, Blotting, 39
,

20

Rubbing.

75

Writing 35—39
,

Lining, 36 Pairing Garters, 19 Parcel Straps, 22
,

Stiffening for Gladstone Bag, 78 Stitching (see Sewing)

Patent

Calf, 9

Persian, Brown, 13 Pigskin, 14 Cleaning, 34 Letter Case, 32
,

Strap Buckle, 18 Crease, 22 Cutting Appliance. 29, 30 and Making, 17—30 Edges, Glossing, 22
,

Leg, 20

,

Marking,
Parcel, 22

18
in, 18

Piping Leather for Knapsacks
107

,

Pocket for Gladstone Bae, 76 Flap for Gladstone Bag, 76 Pockets in Writing Pad, 36—37

,
,

Punching Hole
Satchel. 109 Skate. 20. 21 Wrist, 26

,

,

. 88 Valise. 89 Workbox. 17 75 Lining. . 87 Racket Case. Tracer. 90 Hollow. Leather. 112 Studding Tennis Bag. 48 Welting. Trunk Division Board. 46 Covering. 24 . 12 Tennis Bag. 12 Tawed Leathers. 84—89 Frame. 36 Pockets.i6o Lea ther Working. . Tan Calf. 35—39 . 155 Leather. . 26 with Handle. 145 Varnish for Leather. 24 Tab for Gladstone Bag. Wrist Strap. La Belle Sauvage. 85 Studding. 152—156 Handle. Box. 152 Lock. Dog Lead. 93 Imperial.G. . 9 for Making Garters. 156 Swivels. Brass. 22 Suit Case. Cycle. 83 . E. 87 Studs. 98 Folding. 15 White Sheep Leather. Handle. Limited. 26 Writing Pad. Printed by Cassell & Company. 89 Half-Gladstone. Turn-clip. 146 Bit. 11 11. 15 Wood Block for making Collar Gladstone. in Dog Lead. 90 . 36 Gladstone Bags. 102 Fixing. Willow Calf. 90 Railway. 77 . Tools. 86 .

AND AN EXPLANATION OF DYNAMOS." " Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam-Fire Engines. TOGETHER WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL EXPEEIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. E. DAVID McKAY." "Questions and Answers for Engineers. KELLER. FIFTEENTH EDITION.ENGINEER'S HANDY-BOOK CONTAINING FACTS. PIKE.. FORMULA. B. MATERIALS. BY STEPHEN ROPER. BATTERIES." "Use and Abuse of the Steam-Boiler. 1022 PHILADELPHIA Market Street." "Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines. S.." "Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive. THEIR PROPERTIES AND STRENGTH: . TELI PHONES. BELLS." etc.. STEAM-ENGINES AND THEIR PARTS THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR. ITS GENERATION. THE STEAM-BOILER AND ACCESSORIES. TRANSMISSION AND MEASUREMENT. TABLES AND QUESTIONS ON POWER. ALARMS." "Young Engineer's Own Book. M. AND ALSO RULES FOR CALCULATING SIZES OF WIRES. ANNUNCIATORS. REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED BY EDWIN R. SWITCHBOARDS. AUTHOR OF Engineer. . " Roper's Catechism of High-Pressure or Non-Condensing Steam-Engines. Ex-President of the Electrical Section of the Franklin Institute. Etc. MOTORS. AND CLAYTON W. FUEL AND STEAM. HEAT. GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES.

3. Roper's Instructions and Suggestions for Engineers 2. 2.DEC 7 1904 ROPERS Practical Hand -Books For Engineers and Firemen.50 2. HANDY-BOOK FOR STEAM ENGINEERS AND Ropers Catechism ians.50. Steam Engineers and PRICE. 2. 2.00 Roper's Questions and Answers for Steam Engineers and Electricians. . Electric- PRICE. Philadelphia. $3.00 • and Firemen..50 Roper's Care and Management Steam Boiler. Pa. J022 Market Street. Roper's .00 Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines.50 DAVID MCKAY. Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam Fire Engines.00 2. Publisher. Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive.. $2. of the 3.00 Roper's Use and Abuse of the Steam Boiler. NEW REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.50 Young Engineers' Own Book. for ELECTRICIANS..

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. Drawing Circular Lines. Staircase with Winders at Top and Bottom. — Practical Graining and Marbling. Colouring Drawings. and Materials. Index. Soldering and Brazing. Contents. Geometrical Staircases. Planning. Marbling: Introduction. Index. Ships' Staircases. Philadelphia. Paper and Mounting. Edited HASLUCK. Open String Staircase with Bull nose Step. Publisher. Tools. Contents How Coal Gas is Made. 1022 Market Street. Draughtsmen's Instruments. Walnut Graining. Drawing Boards. Oak Graining in Oil. Elliptical Curves. Drawing Straight Lines. DAVID McKAY. Coal Gas from the Retort to the Gas Holder. Laying the Gas Pipe in the House. Index. Practical Metal Plate Work. Gas Fires and Cooking Stoves. Staircase with Half-space of Winders. Furniture Graining Imitating Woods by Staining. Contents. Fancy Wood Graining. Pollard Oak and Knotted Oak Graining. Scale Drawings and Maps. Gas Meters. 215 illustrations. With 226 Illustrations. Important N. Practical Staircase Joinery. Contents. Incandescent Lights. Gas Fittings for Festival Illuminations. Graining Grounds and Graining Colors. Ready Shortly : Practical Plumbing Work. Geometrical Construction Plane Figures. Other New Volumes in Preparation. Two-flight Staircase. Gas Supply from Gas Holder to Meter. Index. — Draughtsmen's Work. Geometrical Construction and Development of Solid Figures. Cut String Staircase with Brackets. 60 pages. Oak Graining in Spirit and Water Colours. Staircase with Open or Cut Strings. Examples of Practical Pattern Drawing. Materials used in Metal Plate Work. Examples of Practical Metal Plate Work. Imitating Varieties — of Marble. Graining: Introduction. Index. Projection. postpaid. — With 120 Illustrations. Staircase with Winders at Bottom. and Mechanical Aids. Tools and Appliances used in Metal Plate Work. Tools. . New Series of Practical Volumes. Practical Contents. Making a Drawing. Maple Graining Mahogany and Pitch-pine Graining. Back Lining Drawings. 8vo. Staircase over an Oblique Plan. With — Housed — : : of With 247 Illustrations. Winding Staircases. Cloth. Gas Fittings in Workshops and Theatres. Gas Burners. Practical Gasfitting. crown the Text. With 79 illustrations. Simple Form of Staircase String Stair Measuring. and Setting Out. With numerous Illustrations in 1 by PAUL Each book contains about $1. Re-tinning and Galvanising. Imitating Inlaid Woods. Tinning.00 each. Introduction Explanation of Terms.