H
Edite

IES.
Work.'

'

HOU£
Cor used t

APERHANGING,
shes, etc.

Tools npera Painting,
ipering a

White Embel

Room.

Boot
Cot

Lasting, an
oots

Re-W
Stitch

and Shoes

and

S)

Glass

^
__Ji

Sewing an g Riveted Boot
170

How
Co.

Engravings

writer

Book__

The SignThe Simpler V
ng a Signboard.
>

Form; Ticke

Woo
Co
Frenc
Off.
(

and Polishing.
Staining Wood. In and Spiriting g. Re-polishing bf Floors Stains.

and Reviving,

.tiara

stopping

ui

u«u.

Processes of Varnishing

Wood

Varnishes.

j.i^g,^ ^. Re-polishing Shop Fronts.

Dynamos and Electric Motors. With T42 Engravings and Diagrams Contents— Introduction. Siemens Dynamo. Gramme Dynamo. Manchester Dynamo. Simplex Dynamo. Calculating the Size and Amount of Wire for Small Dynamos. Ailments of Small Dynamo Electric Machines their Causes
:

and Cures.
Undertype

Small Electro-motors without Castings. How to Determine the Direction of Rotation of a Motor. How to Make a Shuttle-Armature Motor.
50- Watt

Dynamo.

Manchester Type 440- Watt Dynamo.

Cycle Building: and Repairing;. With

142 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Introductory, and Tools Used. How to Build a Front Driver. Building a Rear-driving Safety. Building Tandem Safeties. Building Frontdriver Tricycle. Building a Hand Tricycle. Brazing. to Make and Fit Gear Cases. Fittings and Accessories. Wheel Making. Tyres and Methods of Fixing them. Enamelling. Repairing.

How

All Ages for All Purposes. With 277 Engravings and Diagrams. Savage Ornament. Egyptian Ornament. Assyrian Ornament. Greek Ornament. Roman Ornament. Early Christian Ornament. Arabic Mediaeval Ornament. Ornament. Scandinavian Ornaments. Celtic and Renascence and Modern Ornaments. Chinese Ornament. Persian Ornament. Indian Ornament. Japanese Ornament. Mounting- and Framing Pictures. With 240 Engravings, etc. Contents. Making Picture Frames. Notes on Art Frames. Picture Frame Cramps. Making Oxford Frames. Gilding Picture Frames. Methods of Mounting Pictures. Making Photograph Frames. Frames covered with Plush and Cork. Hanging and Packing Pictures. Smiths' Work. With 211 Engravings and Diagrams. Conten ts.— Forges and Appliances. Hand Tools. Drawing Down and UpWelding and Punching. Conditions of Work Principles of Formasetting. tion. Bending and Ring Making. Miscellaneous Examples of Forged Work. Cranks, Model Work, and Die Forging. Home-made Forges. The Manipula-

Decorative Designs of
Contents.

:

tion of Steel at the Forge.

(Continued on next page.)

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher, 1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

HANDICRAFT SERIES

{continued).

Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion.

With 300 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents.—Appliances used in Glass Blowing. Manipulating Glass Tubing. Blowing Bulbs and Flasks. Jointing Tubes to Bulbs forming Thistle Funnels, Blowing and Etching Glass Fancy Articles Embossing and Gilding Flat etc. Surfaces. Utilising Broken Glass Apparatus Boring Holes in, and Riveting Glass. Hand-working of Telescope Specula. Turning, Chipping, and Grinding Glass. The Manufacture of Glass.
; ;

With i63 Engravings and Diagrams. Model Yachts. Rigging and Sailing Model Yachts. Model Boats. Building a Model Atlantic Liner. Vertical Engine for a Model Launch. Model Launch Engine with Reversing Gear. Making a Show Case for a Model Boat. Electric Bells, to Make and Fit Them. With 162 Engravings aad Diagrams. Contents. The Electr c Current and the Laws that Govern it. Current Conductors used in Electric-Bell Work. Wiring for Electric Bells. Elaborated Systems of Wiring; Burglar Alarms. Batteries for Electric Bells. The Construction of Electric Bells, Pushes, and Switches. Indicators for Electric-Bell
Contents.

Building Model Boats.

— Building

Making and

Fitting Simple

How

Systems.

Bamboo Work.

Contents. Bamboo Its Sources and Uses. How to Work Bamboo. Bamboo Tables. Bamboo Chairs and Seats. Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. Bamboo Hall Racks and Stands. Bamboo Music Racks. Bamboo Cabinets and Bookcases. Bambco Window Blinds. Miscellaneous Articles of Bamboo. Bamboo
:

With

177 Engravings and Diagrams.

Mail Cart.

With 108 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Skinning Birds. Stuffing and Mounting Birds. Skinning and Stuffing Mammals. Mounting Animals' Horned Heads Polishing and Mounting Horns. Skinning, Stuffing, and Casting Fish. Preserving, Cleaning, and Dyeing Skins. Preserving Insects, and Birds' Eggs. Cases for Mounting

Taxidermy.

:

Specimens.

Tailoring.
Contents.

— Tailors'

With

and Pressing.

180 Engravings and Diagrams. Requisites and Methods of Stitching. Simple Repairs Relining, Repocketing, and Recollaring. How to Cut and

Make

Trousers.

How to

and Reefer Jackets.

Cut and Make Vests. Cutting and Making Lounge Cutting and Making Morning and Frock Coats.
Comprising

Photographic Cameras and Accessories. Make Cameras, Dark: Slil.es, Shutters, and
Illustrations.

Stands.

How to With 160

Contents.

Cameras. Cameras.

Photographic Lenses and How to Test them. Modern Half-plate Hand and Pocket Cameras. Ferrotype Cameras. Stereoscopic Enlarging Cameras. Dark Slides. Cinematograph Management.

Optical Lanterns. Comprising The Construction and Management of Optical Lanterns and the Making of Slides. With 160
Illustrations.

Dissolving View lanterns. Contents. Single Lanterns. Illuminant for Optical Lanterns. Optical Lantern Accessories. Conducting a Limelight Lantern Exhibition. Experiments with Optical Lanterns. Painting Lantern
Slides. Photographic Lantern graph Management.
Slides.

Mechanical Lantern
Illustrations.

Slides.

Cinemato-

Engraving Metals.

Contents. Introduction and Terms used. Engravers' Tools and their Uses. Elementary Exercises in Engraving. Engraving Plate and Precious Metals. Engraving Monograms. Transfer Processes of Engraving Metals. Engraving Name Plates. Engraving Coffin Plates. Engraving Steel Plates. Chasing and Embossing Metals. Etching Metals.

With Numerous

With 189 Illustrations. Contents. Tools and Materials. Simple Baskets. Grocer's Square Baskets. Baskets. Oval Baskets. Flat Fruit Baskets. Wicker Elbow Chairs. Basket Bottle-casings. Doctors' and Chemists' Baskets. Fancy Basket Work. Sussex Trug Basket. Miscellaneous Basket Work. Index

Basket Work.

Round

DAVID McKAY, Publisher,

1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

Newspaper Rack. Spurs. Leather Contents. Processes of Printing from Negatives. — Other Volumes in Preparation. Fancy Upholstery. Suspended Lamps and Bent Iron Work. and Repairing. Flashlight Reduction of Negatives. — Flower Bowls. and Harness Furniture. Repairing Collars. The Camera and its Accessories. Covering Books. Upholstering Couches and Sofas. Stirrups. Floor Lamps. With 269 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Intensification and Developing and Fixing Negatives. Gilding Book Edges. Saddlery. Grilles. With 152 Engravings and Diagrams. Springing. Bits. etc. — Working. Including Elementary Art Metal Work. Making Seat Cushions and Squabs. Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Furniture. Leather. Webbing. Photography. Bending and Working Strip Iron. Sprinkling and Tree Marbling Book Covers. Index. With 162 Engravings and Diagrams. Index. Folding Printed Sheets.—Upholsterers' Materials. Miscellaneous Examples. Index. Stuffing. Looping. Hat Cases. Account Books. and other Accessories. Renovating and Repairing Upholstered Planning and Laying Carpets and Linoleum. Saddle Cruppers. DAVID McKAY. Qualities and Varieties of Leather. Exposure. Stereoscopic Mounting and Finishing Prints. Breaking-down Tackle plates. Gilding. etc. Cloth-bound Books. Exercises in Stitching. Upholstering Footstools. Plough Harness. Book — Bookbinders' Appliances. Simple Contents. Sprinkling. Lettering. Hair Brush and Collar Cases. 1022 Market Street. Harness Makers' Tools. Portraiture and Picture Composition. Coloring. Upholsterers' Tools and Appliances. Mattress Making Fenderettes. Fore Gear and Leader Harness. Harness Makers' Materials. Gentleman's Riding Saddle. Screens. Index. Tools and Materials. The Studio and Darkroom. ing {continued). Ladies' Side Saddles. Bags.HANDICRAFT SERIES Bookbinding. — Plates. Knee-caps and Miscellaneous Articles. Cutting Book Edges. With 99 Engravings and Diagrams. Cart Harness. Riding and Whips. Contents. Footballs. Cart Saddles. Contents. and Marbling Book Edges. Photograph Frames. Index. Superior Set of Gig Harness. Re-lining Collars and Saddles. and Tufting. Candlesticks. Photography. Hall Lanterns. Index. Dyeing Leather Ornamentation. Van and Cab Harness. Strap Cutting and Making. Panel for Gentleman's Saddle. Table Lamps. With 70 Engravings and Diagrams. Copying and Enlarging. Children's Saddles or Pilches. Harness Making. Contents. Philadelphia. Banjo and Mandoline Cases. Backing. Upholstery. Miscellaneous Upholstery. Ledgers. Beat- and Sewing. BreastHead Riding Bridles. Pamphlets. and Finishing Book Covers. Upholstering an Easy Chair. Photography. etc. etc. Letter Cases and Writing Pads. Rounding. Contents. Ferrotype Photography. With 125 Engravings and Diagrams. Horse Clothing. — With 197 Engravings and Diagrams. Publisher. Cart Collars. Floral Ornaments for Bent Iron Work. Driving Harness and Saddlery. Marbling Book Papers. Simple Exercises in Bent Iron. Knapsacks and Satchels. and Cover Cutting. . Retouching Negatives. Index. Miscellaneous Examples of Leather Work.

WORK" HANDBOOKS \ LEATHER WORKING .

.

HAS LUCK ETC.LEATHER WORKING WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND DIAGRAMS EDITED BY PAUL EDITOR OF 1ST. ETC.'' PHILADELPHIA DAVID McKAY. "WORK" AND "BUILDING WORLD. 1022 Publisher MARKET STREET 1901 ." AUTHOR OF " HANDY BOOKS FOR HANDICRAFTS.

TSfOtO .H 35 1 C .

of be arranged anew.Q 0- PREFACE. / i\ 1 —'— This Handbook contains. In preparing of for publication in book form the mass relevant matter contained in the volumes of to Work. Readers who may desire additional information respecting special details of in this the matters dealt with subjects. altered. . or instructions on kindred should address a question to Work. HASLUCK. London. Handbook. Man. P. N. La Belle Sanvage. tion in a form convenient for everyday use. a comprehensive digest of the informa- on Leather Working. scattered over more than of twenty thousand columns journals it is Work — one of the weekly my fortune to edit — and supplies concise information on the details of the subjects on which it treats. so that it may be answered in the^columns of that journal. and these causes the contributions From many are so blended that the writings of individuals cannot be distinguished for acknowledgment. much had largely re-written. 1901.

— Dyeing Index Leather of XIIL— Miscellaneous Examples Leather Work 129 157 . . 17 31 — Hair Brush and Collar Cases Cases . VIIL— Portmanteaux IX. — Banjo and Mandoline Cases VII. . . . .CONTENTS. I.55 . . . 40 V. • .— Strap Cutting and Making III.49 .— Footballs XII.— Hat VI.. 9 II.112 116 125 XT. Ornamentation . 90 100 —Knapsacks — Leather and Satchels .— Bags . .65 .. PAGE — Qualities and Varieties of Leather . X.. .. . CHAP. and Travelling Trunks . .— Letter Cases and Writing Pads IV.

—Double End Brace joined at Back 20. 23 29 Appliance 22.—Method 3.—Top of Mandoline Case 56.— Brief Bag Frame 70.. of .—Gladstone Bag 76. . 24 24 24 23 54. .— Strap Bit 6.— Garter Complete 5.— Back of Round shaped . 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 61 . —Bottom Case of 64. Letter Case 24. .—Pattern for Side of Bag 71.—Another Plate of Strap Cutting Appliance 23. 62 62 Case .— Rubbing Bone or Stick 73. in Drawers Collar Box 39.—Double End Brace 19.. .—Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit 16. 57 .. Pattern for Wrist Strap 15.—Folded Bit 17. 51 47 —Hat Case Handle 51 48.—Back of Letter Case 25. .—Block for Making Collar 45 Box 42.— Card Pocket 28.63 63 63 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 74 74 75 .—Bag Bottom Pattern 74. .— Mandoline Piece 65.—Corner Split and Butted 59. .— Marking Garter —Garter Bits . . . Collar Hide 2. End .— Elevation of Mandoline Case 62. .—Another Gladstone Bag 77. . .— Brief Bag 68.. — Case .— Skate Strap 7.— Sewn Seam 50. . . .— Catch Strap 43.—Wrist Strap 14. FIG. .—Inner Hat Case 53 53. 35 56 37 oS 58 41 . .. Whole Lid . 4. . and Ring 12..75 . 38. Mandoline . .. 48 . PAGE 44. . . Hat .—Writing Pad Pockets 35...—Mandoline in Case 61.. .49 46. . .— Bit Complete 18. . 33.—Half Side of Hat Case 51 49. .— Gusset Pattern 72— Gusset Stiffening Pattern 73.—Round Collar Box 41.— Stamp Pocket 29.—Chain-end Fitting 13. .. . ..—Bottom of Banjo Case Corner of Banjo Case 57.—Bag Lining and Pocket 75..— Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides 53 52. 15 19 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 Box 45.—Patterns for Parts of Banjo with Case .— Bucket - .—Hair Brush Case 37.— Patterns for Parts of Banjo Case with End . 26.— Base of Writing Pad 32.—Blotting Pad 36.—Narrower Brief Bag 69. . . ..— Stitching Case 67. . 30. 31 52 33 53 35 54 Lid 55.— Hinge Strap 45 46 46 Binding Corner of Case Corner of 66.—Writing Pad Folded up. . . — .—Writing Pad Open 31.— Hat Case shown Diagrammatically 50 .— Plate of Strap Cutting . . . .. Cutting PAGE up .— Dog Lead with Swivel 11. . . 42 43 44 Lid 40..— Banjo Case with End Lid 58.— Mitred Corner 60.— Collar Box Drawer and .—Hand-punch Riveter 8.. 1.— Hollow Studs 9.—Writing Pad Pockets 34. . . —Forming . . .— Corner Seam 53 51. FIG.— Dog Lead 10. . 63.— Horse-shoe Collar Box 29 30 — . sion .—Dog Lead with Studs . .— Side Pockets 27.— Stiffening for Bag Divi- — .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.— Strap Cutting Appliance 21. .

. .. 95. .— Gusset of Satchel 115. . .— Tennis Racket Case 88. Bag . 86—Bottom ing of Brief 87. Case .113 118.. .—Pocket Flap . . . . .— Piped Corner of Stif107 Eened Part 110. .— Football Pattern Set 119 out on Hide 127.Lea ther Working. etc. 143.131. . 106— Section of 103 Part 107— Strap End with Key105 hole Slit of 108.140. Top. .. 151 153 154 .. 120. 91— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag .137. 107 Section of Sewn Edges 151 of Ball Covering Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing Bottom Piece of Suit . FIG.139. 93 95 98 100 101 102 102 102 102 103 134.— Satchel or Cartridge Covering Ball 148.. . Balls.- Patterns for Parts of Opera Glass Case Music Carrier Closed Music Carrier Open Music for Pattern Carrier Roller Hand Camera Case Front Flap.- 138...— Front of Satchel 109 114...- Knapsack . 79. FIG. .— Tennis Bag in HalfGladstone Style ..— Folding . 76 31— Chape Paper for Small Pattern 83. .-Tab 85— Half of Bottom Stiffen82.- dler's Purse .— Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag Style 90. .Portsea Purse or Sad.—Knapsack 100.—:Making Lace-holes on 121 Football Case 122 128. .— Rugby Football Associaof 125.— Part of Bag Handle 84.— D-ring 105— Stiffened Part of Knap. .— Another View of 115 Mm Idler 115 122.— Body of Knapsack. . 152. 136 137 138 139 •Humane Dog Muzzle . 129 133 134 135 92.— Segment 118 tion Football Case 126. 142.— Railway Trunk 97.144. 149.— Tennis Bag in Gladstone Style 94. .155 .113 117. Cricket 150 Bag .. 99.— Ring and Holder Buckle of 102. .— Tennis Bag Frame.— Back and Flap of Sat.— Turn-clip 93.Football Inflator 129. . and Back of Camera Case Gusset and Flaps of Camera Case Dee and Buckle Chape. ! ! Suit . .. 151. .— Section Leather and Sheath 103.— Trunk 98. . 101.. 106 Halves of of 109.. Stiffened Luggage Label Another Luggage Label Cricket •Segment of Ball Cover In . 150.— Liner .— Trunk Division Board.146.—Modeller 121.— Ground Punch 116 123.—Case for Tennis Bat.141. . 89.— Brass Stud 104. . 91 .108 chel 108 113.. PAGE . . PAGE . .. of 130.145.- •Cycle Valise Tat! of Cycle Leather for Pattern Covering of Workbox 146 em 139 143 143 144 Valise 145 .—Part Back View .132.136. Case Lid of Suit Case Section Side of . . . .135.— Satchel Shoulder Strap 110 116. . .133.— Imperial Trunk 96. .—Buckle Piece 112.— Short Strap of Satchel Ill . 147 148 148 Sewing Sewing Cricket 149 Covering 147.114 119.—Leather Pocket 80.— Association Football 117 124. .108 111..— Tracer .

goat. Pate nt Calf. In making this leather. Particulars of the many varieties of leather may now be given. as they have already been dealt with so fully and illustrated so clearly in companion volumes. namely 1. and kips. buffalo. . horse. some mention of tools must come first. having received its preliminary preparation. goat.LEATHER WORKING. Hides— or the skins of the large and fullgrown animals. This handbook will describe how to make a large number of useful articles in leather. Naturally. the skin. cow. pig. as the ox. seal. its qualities and varie" ing. is — . sheep. This chapter will discuss leather. Skins of : . kid. . and serpents have been employed for making certain kinds of fancy leather. Boot Making and Mending. The skins most extensively used in leather manufacture are those of the ox. calf." and " Harness MakThey will be indicated sufficiently in later chapters as the need for their use arises. deer. Commercial skins are classified in Watt's " Art Leather Manufacture " under three heads. horse. but recently the skins of crocodiles. QUALITIES AND VARIETIES OF LEATHER. and hippopotamus 2. Kips— or the skins of the younger animals of the same class and 3. CHAPTER I. sheep. alligators." ties. deer. > as those of the smaller animals. such as the calf. but it is not thought necessary to give space to their description here. cow. etc.

fleshing and skiving. The stove heat varies from 120° to 180° F. the leather is finely oiled.— After depilation and tanning. finishing. Horse and other animal often dressed in a like manner. Busset Calf is used either dry or with a little oil dressing in the former case it is very pale. and not so much of either It is grained with a roller is needed as for wax calf. making it a little is belly rounding now darker. the graining is finished. drying. blacking. polishing. compo-ing. and softest in wear. sizing. that are made into memel. whitening. and the stuffing on the flesh side. graining. It is then given four coats of varnish containing drying oil. and is then ready for use. long. the oil . Waxed Calf. Memcl Calf. stretching. etc.. After oiling. and every particle of grease extracted from it with fuller' s-earth and water. very fine the latter. the skin has to pass through a variety of processes. With few exceptions this is treated In some cases the in the same way as waxed calf. vegetable black. As each coat is applied. The final coat has an addition of darker Prussian blue. . . sizing. although those of English production are. It should be well tanned. or perhaps the necks." are the best. the leather is stoved and afterwards polished with powdered pumicestone. whole skin is treated but in a great many instances it is only the shoulders. This will give some idea of the amount of handling a calf-skin goes through before it is converted to leather. The compo-ing is done on the grain side. and sometimes a little copal or amber varnish. in some cases. not being so soft. etc. French calf skins. according to the sort of grain required. stuffing.1 o Lea ther Working. according to the leather under treat- ment. especially " females. — . and drying. and Prussian blue. are more suitable for stronger and heavier work than French. namely soaking. stretched upon a smooth board. whether pebble.

is briefly this the greatest component part of a skin. is. alum and salt dressing. a very delicate and fine sursubjected to a process of tawing is . and most durable if kept well cleaned. cleaning. It has a nice pebble grain. paring. which generally forms the face. in tawing. fleshing. staking. dyeing. that by manipulating with various mordants the expert leather dyer can produce some very delicate tints. The flesh side is a velvet pile. and finishing. and when first produced was considered the right side. Calf Kid is a most useful leather made by tawing. each ingredient can tanning and tawing . ii Its preparation is similar in some respects to that of other dry-dressed leathers. of which these two ingredients are the chief The acid arrests decomposition. and there now is a greater quantity used for the best class of work than of real Russia. among other processes. which forms a mordant when further dyeing is needed. The calf skin is such a ready recipient of dyes. and it was so made up and advertised as "velvet calf. and although the two former prevent decomposition of the gelatine.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. shaving. scudding. — be brought back to Glace or French its Kid faced leather. and a warm bath of Sicily sumach and alum. unhairing." But the grain is the side now generally preferred. and the factors. liming. it passes through a solution of borax. weak sulphuric acid. seasoning. namely gelatine. formed into leather. drenching. and gelatine form the leather. It is original state. by the action of tannic acid. drying. not tanning. Tan Calf has been produced to imitate Russia leather at less cost. alum. and. egging. The difference between : When tanned. Ooze Calf is a very soft leather in wear. two ingredients cannot return to their former state whereas. It has to pass through the following routine Soaking. Each season brings its varied and improved shades. salt.

Skins are produced in imitation of moroccos of various hide/' colours. goat. A cheaper and somewhat greasy kind is not nearly so good-looking or durable in wear as the dry-dressed morocco levant. is An inferior leather. much like called "grain/' used a good deal for cheaper work. but possesses a smoother face. such as a bran bath and a It is made a good deal from horse. Long-grain Morocco is. and is then glazed and polished. These leathers are tanned with sumach.1 Lea ther Working. Among the many processes it undergoes is the application of paste composed of flour and yolks of eggs. and is more finely grained. provided by leaves and twigs. in addition to the alum bath which it has previously received. . Cordovan stands easily first for durability. and forms a very soft material. Levant. White Sheep is a tawed leather. fig bath. It is dyed upon the grain side. The better kinds are the Strasbourg moroccos. satin-hide being next. is a beautifully grained and tanned goat-skin. dyed on the grain side. and passes through some special processes. like the two last-named. but has a long grain running across the skin. and finished with a bright pebble grain. and a much newer production. which is rarely the case. made from the skin of goats. skin. which imparts to it great suppleness. Morocco. Glove Kid is made into leather by tawing in the same way as calf kid. called " satinis a similar leather. These are called roans. Brown Levant Morocco is the same as morocco levant. It is tanned and curried on the grain side. and are made from sheep-skins. which has a beautiful soft brightness. except that it is made from younger and smaller skins. — and even dog it. but its character and uses are quite different. as " Cream Roans. Cordovan is made in many places other than its supposed place of origin Cordova. except when bath dyed.

Porpoise-hide is tanned and very greasily dressed. Crup or Horse is taken generally from the butt of the horseskin. possibly hold. it is less durable. though in this instance the enamelling is done upon the grain side after the grain has been printed or otherwise prepared. This is really bookbinders' skiver. or enamel hide. Brown. It is now known more by the name Diamond hide. The process of enamelling is the same as that for patent calf. It expensive. and is similar in structure to morocco. tough leather . is obtained as a rule from Cape a fine. Cowhide Patent. as the grain and a good quantity of flesh are taken off. when it had a longer grain like the leather now used for bags. It make dyed it grain. Black Grain (Cow) Hide. It is now produced with a smaller grain than in former years. etc. but is left with a smooth Brown Persian sheep. except that it is extremely thin. soft. and as much stuffing is put in as it will — and — is made into leather by some of the preceding methods it is worked in the same way as black grain cowhide.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. though. This is the grain of sheepskin split by machinery (the flesh side being prepared for chamois or wash-leather). when resembles morocco. Brown Cowhide and makes a very is soft and waterproof leather. etc. sumach tanned. but the dyeing is done on the grain side. is made from the hide of the cow. like all sheep-skin. . 13 Cream Boan is made generally from good (medium weight) sheep-skins. In appearance it is much like brown persian. but is exceedingly durable. but it is very slightly stuffed in cases where the natural colour is not needed and dyeing has to be resorted to. It is practically the middle part of the skin that is dressed for this leather. This is treated somewhat as wax calf. . is used for covering fancy articles. Skivers.

Kangaroo. basil wood. It is a tanned leather. Its uses are the same as tho's. very durable. light in weight. and has been improved largely in recent years. and soft and cool to wear. — — — . Pigskin generally is. the whole of the grain is cut away and oil is hammered into it. while the dull or subdued tints sometimes change under the influence of cream dressings. softest and prettiest leathers. If the oil passes through it stains the grain side. The skin of the kangaroo. gooG^ft* wears well and is waterproof. According to Andrew Ure the process of dressing It is freed from hair. Brown glace kid is an American production.e of waxed calf. and seems to vary much as regards retaining its colour in wear. the bright browns lasting well. then worked in the river. Buckskin. etc. porous. and fermented in a proper steep (for a week at least) after a hot-water washing it is then worked on the beam after soaking for forty-eight hours in a bath containing a fermented paste of rye flour it is rinsed for fifteen days. A vast amount of working is necessary to give it suppleness Doe is similar. Brown Glace Kid. To this substance the Russia leather owes its peculiarities. To prepare this leather for use.. fulled for a longer or shorter time according to the nature of the skin. when proIt is one of the perly tanned.This and the two following are believed to be produced by chrome tanning. and polishes more easily and better than calf. does not crack. Bussia Leather is one of the best of brown leathers. After a deal of working in this. dressed brown. The red colour is supposed to be from sandalwood or : When . this leather is as follows rinsed. but not so good. .14 Leather Working. any excess of oil being removed afterwards. and subjected to the stringent juices of willow bark. it is set to dry and curried with empyreumatic oil of the bark of birch tree. according to the shade given it.

"

Qualities and Varieties of Leather.
Calf.

15

Box
leather.

— The

grain side

is

the face of this

It is

somewhat

like firm

ooze

calf, only-

black, but resists moisture better. Many leathers are being made of this and a similar green calf, for instance ;. also iron calf or kid, which is much like calf kid, but, from being dressed to resemble kid, is very useful, and an extremely strong leather. Willow Calf is similar to box calf, but it is of a brown colour. It is made in good colours and retains them longer, perhaps, than any other sort of

1

F

\^

1

Lea thbr Working.

These are converted into welting by being They are used for the welts of hand-sewn boots and shoes. V^ It is now necessary to give a description of the different parts of a hide of leather. Fig. 1 gives a diagram of a hide, fully showing the various parts. a a are the best parts of the butt b b, top end The whole of above, c c, edge, or hitch pieces. combined, are commercially called butt ends, while with d d (the first cut) the whole would be a butt e e, part known as bellies f f, odd pieces, with others, are flanks, shanks, cheeks, and faces G g, shoulders ;abcd and G, folded at h h, are sides and
ders.

stuffed well with grease.

;

;

;

bends.

i7

CHAPTER

II.

STKAP CUTTING AND MAKING. In making a gross (144 pairs) of
\
in.

or |
:

in.

quired One not hollow-ground a punch (see p. 15 of " Harness Making"), with nipples from TVin. to | in. in diameter a pair or two of pliers a screw-crease or two (see p. 19 of " Harness Making ") and a marking board of dry mahogany or any hard wood ^ in. to 1 in. thick, about 3 ft. long by 9 in. wide. For the cutting board, use a piece of planed deal or pine free from knots mark from the end along one edge distances of 12^ in., 13^ in., 14^ in., and 15^ in. A hardwood measuring-off stick about 2 in. wide, 2 ft. long, and ^ in. thick should have the following lengths marked 12 in., 13 in., 14 in., and 15 in. An emery stick about 1 in. square, of any length, with emery paper glued round, a few wire
; ;

common garters wide, the following tools will be rehollow-ground knife one plain knife,

;

;

;

;

nails l£ in. long,

and some leather and buckles,

will

be wanted. Glue a leather shaving on the back of each knife blade to 2 in. from the point, as a protection for the fingers gripping the blade when cutting the leather, which should be from T j in. to
l

^

in.

thick.

Begin to make the garters by placing the leather on the cutting board, and with the hollow-ground knife cut an edge of the leather straight. Then cut An them out, using the thumbnail as a guide. easy way is to set a pair of compasses or points to the required width of the strap (bare § in.), to cut an edge of the leather straight, and to run the points down the leather, which can then be cut to the mark made. Do not cut any shorter than the
B

The top of the strap is not marked. Of course. holding it firm. marked to improve the appearance. use the screwcrease set to x 2 in. The marking does not show up if not near the edge. 4. as in Fig. The screw-crease. Heat the point of the screwcrease in the gas or fire . the ^-in. three or four straps can be punched at a time. 2 with the other knife. Lap the point of the bit from the back round the . mark on the cutting board. when being heated. and the front of the strap. and always examine the leather to see that there will not be much waste. length. push the can on the gaspipe. 3 two kinds are illustrated A makes a better job. and put one edge of a Then bit just under the thumbnail. and probably better. To buckle the garters. from the top. a small gas stove will do as well. 2) and bending back the | in. rests on the bottom of the can. putting the tongue in the hole A (Fig.. 2) for the tongue of the buckle in each strap about f in. In Fig. A small can containing water in which to dip the crease when too hot should be at hand. in diameter. when it is at the proper heat it will move easily along the strap. threaded through. Hold the garter in the left hand. pressing down the |-in. . To mark the straps on the board. If the outside diameter of the gaspipe is \ in. length with the thumbnail. and tie them securely with band or wire. cut down from the top with a pair of scissors two nicks about 1 in. . In heating by gas. Then cut the bits. long on opposite sides of the can then bend up the tin. mount on the pipe a tin can about 1^ in. bend the strips down. Then point the lengths as in Fig. with a punch in the right hand make a hole through the bit. and on the centre line . 12^-in. Now punch a hole A (Fig.1 8 Lea ther Working. leaving a bright glossy mark if a little force is exerted. but The edges can be is more difficult to cut than b. press the tongue of a buckle open and thread a strap through.

. then those measur- Fiff. long. \ in. Garter. and whether one is. 2. in. leaving it about \ in. Then push the point of the longer garter through the bit marked b of the garters side . Fig. front. 19 and thread it through the hole. those measuring to 14| in. Put the buckle on a nail in the table and pull the bit A (Fig. Then fasten the measuring off board to the table with a couple of springs. putting together those measuring to 12^ in.Strap Cutting and Making. 4. Cut the bit. 14s. ing to 13| 15s. measuring to 15^ calling them 12s. then place two by side and see whether they are of equal widths. and those and For pairing. to \ in. 13s.— Garter Bits. 4) with the pliers. Fig.— Garter Complete. longer than the other.. long. 3. say. take a measured pile. and measure the garters one at a time.. — Marking in.

By the first method. Then the point of the bit can be threaded through a hole punched on the centre line of the strap. then pick three 14s. 4) of the other pull it through. when the points of the two garters should come fair. For the length way.20 (Fig. . and it will be seen that the longer ones wrap round the shorter garters. until with practice two pairs can be done at once. and from 18 in. the shorter garters being packed in the middle. . Leather Working. . one at each The garters of the ends and one at the middle. They are either riveted or sewn. Skate straps are generally % in. . then three 15s at the back of the 14s. long. Next punch the garters down the leg. long stronger leather is used. putting them at the back of the 13s. to 36 in. are packed in dozens and in half or whole grosses. to 21 in. one part serving as the bit. They can also be made with double buckles. and are 18 in. and can be made as above described. doing a pair together at first. but for a stronger job the buckle tongue hole should be about 1 in. Leg straps are like garters. and seven in the 14s and 15s. half a dozen garters are placed lengthwise one way and the other half dozen the other way. the width of the bit on the shorter garter making the difference. wide. Twist the straps round. place three of the 12s. Thus the top garter of a pair is slightly the longer. but generally have a rather roller buckle. Make six holes in the 12s and 13s. from the top. Three bands are tied across. the rule being half as many holes as the strap is inches long. and the straps are f in. The holes should just let the buckle tongues pass through. wide. Packing may be done by the round way or the length way. on the table with the flesh side facing the worker then pack three 13s as before. one at a time. putting them at the back of the 12s. Then tie the ends with band.

6. long and from 2 in. and tie. 5 to go round the strap and meet at the back then punch a hole in the centre of each end. and the hole for the buckle tongue should be punched in the centre. to 20 in. 6). 21 Skate straps are also made with roller buckles. to 21 in. the part A is set out with a zinc template. and the two small garters b. pull the ends together. iii Fig. The strap . Sometimes this skate strap is curved a little. 5. except that the bit is cut to Fig. broad. and slip one on each strap to the buckle. to 3 in. one strap being curved one way for one foot. The strap for these should be 6 in. A rivet is put in just below the bit and goes through the portion which is lapped over or the pieces can be sewn by hand or machine. and hold the front part of the skate. a strap from 18 in.Strap Cutting and Making. 00 DQ Fig. are about 3 in. and with twine thread through both holes. which are riveted on. holding the back part. and the other the other way. long. is prepared as described. . Then press the bits so that the knots are at the back. long.— Strap Bit. so that when they are fastened the rivets go through the back part as well as through the front. They are from 12 in. .— Skate Strap: In another form of skate strap (shown in Fig.

brass. and the tool is heated slightly on the working part when required for use.22 Leather Working. of the top pieces A (Fig. obtain a few Fig. Solid buttonhead rivets look extremely well. 19. which is shown by Fig. long. or leather handle. 7." is necessary for giving a gloss to the edges of the straps. 16 of the companion volume " Harness Making " . of "Harness Making. Xote that the working part alone requires heating. for use with this a few nipples of different sizes should be obtained. p. to 40 in. S illustrates a number of hollow studs. the handpunch riveter. 19. is required. For hollow-studding the dog-leads. Dog-leads are handier for general use than are chains. as shown by than do hollow studs Fig. and are threaded through a nickelplated.— Hand-punch Riveter. A necessary tool for making dogleads is the hand punch. Practise with the tool on scrap leather before using it on good work. the small screw. avoid heating the screw and thus making it useless. etc. For riveting studs of different shape. and can be hammered into the leather without previously making holes for their reception for the latter reason they weaken the leather much less A screw-crease. shown by Fig. fits in. being much lighter and more easily carried in the pocket. 37. 7) bored out exactly to fit the studs. Parcel straps. the top piece being countersunk so that the stud top a just Fig. . the width of the mark made by it is regulated by . . are made as described above. p. 7. 30 in.

The simplest kind of dog-lead will be described and this is illustrated by Fig. 9. Fig. 9. To make it. 11. Run the hot crease along the edges of the strap so as to make a bright mark .Strap Cutting and Making. but care must be taken that it is not so hot as to burn and stick in the leather a good plan is to heat the tool well. dip the working part in water. and then rivet or sew one end of the strap to .— Dog Lead with Studs and Ring. — Dog Lead with Swivel. first cut out a good leather strap from 36 in. The hotter the crease. long and about \ in. or | in. 10. Loop. . Fig. rub over and over again until the Fig. wide. to 50 in. 23 first. and use at once. required gloss is obtained. the smaller will be the pressure required.— Dog: Lead.

In making this dog-lead. and is .24 Leather Working. and These rethus require more frequent cleaning. or 1^-in. In Fig. Cut a \ on the other end of the strap. loop it. 12 may be used. the chain-end fitting illustrated by Fig. and rivet as shown. instead of a leather handle. 8). end fitting. marks apply also to the martingale ring and chain. this is 4^ in. . 8) of these studs should fit tightly in the holes when the studs are in the holes. proceed as before as far as the handle in the event of the leather not being long enough to allow of this. creased or marked before riveting. 11 can be ornamented by any of the hollow brass studs shown by Fig. Instead of the martingale ring alone. punch a few holes as shown. This simple lead is now complete. The lead is then complete. and for use is buckled through the ring of the dog's collar. 10 is shown a better kind of lead. through the swivel G. a l£-in. and rivet it on to form the handle. Either brass or nickel-plated swivels will be suitable the latter. martingale ring passed through a loop at the end and secured by a The lead is then given a more finished aprivet. 8. perhaps. The necks b (Fig. to 18 in. long. The dog-lead shown at Fig. 7) clinch their necks fast into the leather. buckle strap long. but are more quickly tarnished than brass. as the swivel G prevents it from twisting when the dog moves its head round. form a handle. Put the other end of the strap for about 1 in. it differs from the last one in having. first with the punch make a number of holes at an equal distance apart. look the neater when new. with the rivet punch (Fig. and rivet on a together with the buckle. In putting in the studs. A still better dog-lead is shown by Fig. . D illustrates a stud having a rounded instead of a conical top. It is attached in the same manner as the plain ring. cut a strap 12 in. pearance. the neck part being pressed outwards as in the section c (Fig. . 11 .

16. 13.— Wrist Strap. Fig. Fig.— Bit Complete.— Chain-end Fitting. Fig. .— Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit.— Folded Bit. 14. 17.Strap Cutting and Making. Fig. 15. 12. J Fisr.—Pattern for Wrist Strap. 25 A Fig.

Cut a piece of leather \ in. wide and 2 in. with awl or punch make a small hole (Fig. so that the jointed part is at the centre (Fig. passing the point through the bit. or coppered. strap for strengthening the wrist is shown in Fig. stained. japanned. to cut out the slit a (Fig. 15) . A though brown. 14). punch a small hole at each end of the slit. Cut the ends of the band close to the leather to Fig. place the strap on the wrist . place the pattern on the leather. and bend the leather over. Put this bit on the end c (Fig. and cut out the piece between with the knife. and on the centre line. 13. . or enamelled looks the neatest. or rivet with a bifurcated nickeled rivet. brassed. put the point through the slit A (Fig. thread a piece of band through the two holes and tie it or sew the end. In fixing. as required. First with a sharp knife cut a cardboard pattern to Fig. The bifurcated rivets. The advantage of this wrist strap is that no buckle presses against the skin. then carry the end round again and buckle up. can be obtained nickel-plated. and place it on a piece of thin. Mark carefully round the pattern with a lead pencil. Next. 13). 14) and pull until tight enough. To finish. 14). bring the end B through the buckle and over the jointed part of the bit and sew down. then put the buckle tongue through the hole d (Fig. and cut out just inside the pencil marks. 14. 13) with a screw-crease. punch seven holes down the fastening A nickel-plated buckle part of the wrist strap. long. Full instructions for doing this are given by the makers when sending out the rivets. which may be of any colour required. and are inserted and clinched with the aid of a hammer.26 Leather Working. pliable leather. 17). used in fastening the different parts together. 16. looks neatest. near each end. The strap will be neater when finished if it is marked all round the edges (see Fig.

and tack down. but narrow it towards the top to the width of the buckle. put a piece in the buckle of the same width all along and about the l\ in. and cut them close round the stitches punch the strap and a hole in the buckle-piece and in the backpiece about \ in. and taper it towrds the bottom. first cut the web to a length of from 18 in. the single end brace is now . wide and 9 in. Leave both pieces of the same width as the web in one end. The back piece is about 3 in. 18) to fasten on two buttons. When doubled. long and stitch it together in the centre . crease. leaving it full opposite the intended buttonhole . and slit the holes up for about 1 in. . The front strap should be from 5 in. long. to 22 in. Cut the back piece to shape from the points of the cross line. and have back pieces from the cross line upwards. cut the front buckle piece to the same shape at the bottom as the back piece. 27 To make a pair of braces. ready. from the point. Stitch along the cross line with single thread. . . stitch a loop near leaving space below for the cross strap to buckle.Strap Cutting and Making. Have a piece of thin basil leather of the same size as. and round it at the top. the wide part in the strap end. to 6 in. . cut the pattern of the front strap to go to the buckle. long. long. and then put the web in as far as the stitches. in the absence of brace-end punches. and. or a little larger than. Having pricked the leather all round. and round off the point. If the braces are to have cross straps in front (see Fig. and another to which the front buckle fastens. Turn in 1 in. and stitch in the buckles with a loop close up to them.. and the hind piece to the button. and finish all the straps. go through cut the cross-piece about 1 in. stitch it in along the marks. and mark a cross line as far as the webbing is to come taper the other end of the strap. at the top and cut a hole for the buckle shave the point. trim the basil pieces.

: 9. and put the holes as directed brace end. on. and narrow at the bottom where the bend is so as to take stitch it into the ring. Put both ends of the web together so as to cross. and then put them in the open space left at the bottom of the buckle-piece . . not too thick. Cut in a 1-in. wide. and cut it neatly into the shape of an egg. pointed at the top to cover the joint. to hold them in their place bend a piece of leather.. . crease it. Turn down the narrow end for about 1 in. Others. and insert a stitch or two in the other Rub and \ Fig. join at the back (Fig. dee or ring the back straps about | in. and stitch to the dee previously stitched Finish by punching holes for the buckles. 18. and narrow them gradually towards one end and round off the other. shave the point. with double thread narrow the other part a little. or this part may be made first and stitched in place while making the buckle part.— Double End Brace Joined at Back. letting it be a bit full opposite the hole. . 19). and taper to a point. in the two ends of the cross strap.28 Lea ther Working. . besides being double in front. Fig.— Double End Brace.

— Plate - wide and m thick. 20) about 10 in. by 2 in. etc. . 20. — Strap Cutting Appliance. long in the centre to fit the bolt b (Fig. This will cut leather straps. wide and l£ in. will be required. 29 In concluding this chapter the construction of a leather strap cutting appliance may be described. long by 4\ in. Another piece of sheet iron d ^ . 6 in. and round off the top edges as shown. A hole is bored and countersunk at each end 20). appliances. long then bore the smaller part of the hole for the shank so that the block may lie flat on the table and the threaded part of the bolt come through A. belts. o of Strap Cutting Appliance. of beech or any other hard wood. for a small screw. 21). with a slot about I in. deep in the block from the underside to receive the head of a bolt \ in. A sheet-iron plate (Fig. Bore a hole about f in. wide. 71 Fig. of any thickness and length and up to 3 in.. (a. 21. long by \\ in. first obtain a block Fig.Stxap Cutting and Making. thick. To make the Fig.

The leather should come through easily. 20). comes through to the other side of the iron. put the blade through the slit e (Fig. long required to go on the bolt thread. and the apparatus is ready for cutting straps not thicker than the plate c (Fig. f. 20. Screw the block to the table. 20). will be Six slits (Fig. 20). 20). . are made in one edge as shown in Figs. Then pull the leather through with the right hand. ness. \ in. with a slot 3 in. deep. otherwise packing must be placed between the plates c and D. 6 in. leaving exactly the Fig-. A nut and washer should be put on the sheet-iron plate d for tightening up. first take the sheet iron plate c (Fig. put it on the bolt. and wide enough for a knife blade to go through. 20 and 22. get a sharp knife. as shown in Fig.$o Lea ther Working* wide and of any thickand \ in. 22. long by 2 in. apart. \ in. 20). and fasten to the block with a screw at each end. For cutting the straps. Then take a piece of leather and press the edge against the knife until the cut end. wide. width of the strap required to be cut between the edge of the plate c and a selected slit as e (Fig. Then put the piece of sheet iron d on the bolt. and fix firmly in the wood block. or saw- kerfs. To put the parts together. keeping the edge of the leather firmly against the sheetiron plate c with the left hand. —Another Plate of Strap Catting Appliance.

is 8 in. by 4 in. bringing a and b to c and d this enables the worker to cut all corners to the same shape. when closed. . 23. Fisr. 23 these. After cutting the pattern for the back (Fig. The first point to consider in making the leather letter case illustrated by Fig. measures 6 in. This chapter will making letter cases be devoted to instructions on and writing pads. Set out the patterns to the dimensions on thin cardboard or stout paper. round the corner at A and fold the pattern in the centre. 24). LETTER CASES AND WRITING PADS. and which. and cut them out.— Letter Case. by 6 in. as shown is the accurate cutting of patterns in Figs. 24 to 28. The side pockets (Figs. the pattern being kept true and square. would suit a case which.3i CHAPTER III. 25 and 28) can be cut in a similar way. which have much in common. . rounding the corners at E and G to suit A and c . when open.. . and cut the same to it then fold again. bringing a to b.

After dyeing the edges. and with a shoemaker's knife or a pair of sharp scissors carefully cut the leather to the lines traced. 24). 24. 28 being stitched on Fig. Prick the four holes in Fig. dyed to a shade similar to the leather.32 (Fig. clearly leather by a metal weight then with a blunt awl mark the leather to the patterns. Fig. 25 and 26 are stitched on the back (Fig. the pattern should be kept in position on the . In cutting out. to Fig. Leather Working. and four similar holes in Fig. with a small quantity of grease on a rag rub them to a finish. from the outer This can be done best by running . 24). Figs. 26) to suit B and D (Fig. 26 to form stamp pockets. On Fig. The stamp pockets (Fig. 28. The most durable and suitable leather for making the case would be pigskin of medium substance. . endeavourThese should next be ing to keep clean edges. 26. and this can best be done by using a sponge bound to a stick with string. 26 these holes can be used as guides in fixing the card and stamp pockets. and to mark the of Fig. 25 is stitched Fig.— Back of Letter disc. 28) must now be secured position of the stitching a line should be edge made about \ in. 25 in the position shown. a firm piece being selected for the back. and J and l (Fig. 24). 27 to form a pocket for cards.

ft-* iz Fig. 25 and 26. Fig. 27 to Fig. £ smear it on the back of the leather from o to P about then stick the piece to in.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. around the edges from o to p (see Fig. the paper pattern on the leather and pricking through with an awl. 26. 26. 25 and 26 to C . 26. from the outer edge Fig. The holes are made by placing . Proceed in exactly the same way with the fixing of Fig. A piece of linen or twill lining should be pasted at the back of Figs. 23). 26.— Card Pocket Pattern. bringing the points o and p on to the holes marked on Fig. Fig. Divide the pattern into three parts. Take a small quantity of glue on the finger and Fisr. 2o. 27. Fig?. and mark two lines inside for stitching.— Patterns for Side Pockets. 33 race compasses set to \ in. p 28— Stamp Pocket Pattern.

running the stitch line all round the back of Fig. and stick it on Fig. 25 and 26 all the stitching must be carefully tied and fastened off strongly. A piece of narrow elastic can now be stitched across the case in the centre at the points M and n (Fig. of course. polishing with a soft rag. notebook If the leather keeping a diary or used is pigskin or cowhide. . be done before stitching. 23). the best way to cleanse it is by wiping with a weak solution of oxalic acid. trim them with a sharp knife and dye and polish as before. Then glue around the back of Fig. when dry. and it becomes soiled. 24. and then. 27 and 28 have been stitched to Figs. strengthen the stitching and prevent it breaking must. Aft'er the patterns shown by Figs. making a line about \ in. 25) . from f to h. Do the same with Fig. 26. bringing the points E and G over the points A and c. bringing the points J and l over the points b and d (Fig. If the outer edges overlap after the case is stitched. Next mark the back of the case for the stitching. and this Pad Folded Up. this will be useful for in position. from the edge. 24. 25 about \ in. 24).34 Lea ther Working. Then and fasten off strongly at the corners of all pockets where marked with x (Fig. . from the outer edge with compasses.

29 and 30 has spaces for envelopes. The writing pad illustrated by Figs.. eraser. and d mark the leather as shown Then cut a piece of 1^-lb. the edges at a. the centre forms a blotting pad. \\\ in. stamps. 30. strawboard 12 in.— Writing Pad Open. and glue at A and d. Then glue the 1-in. 30. leaving 1 in. postcards. 18 Pearsall's silk or a 60 in. and (Fig. at the sides to turn over on to the board. by 12 in.* of leather to turn over at the top and bottom. all round. using a No. Pieces of twill lining. by Q\ in. address book or diary... margins of leather to the board. thread. by 6 in. 31). by 2^ in.. or vertical-feed sewing machine. by 14 in. about twelve stitches to the inch being suitable. and when open as shown in Fig. e. of leather between the boards and 1 in. First cut a piece of leather 28 in. and with thin glue fix as shown at E. The stitch set should not be small. and . This will form the groundwork for the pad. It is advisable to set and try the stitch on a waste piece of leather. Cut two pieces of strawboard 12 in. 35 The stitching can be done on a light Singer's. Now cut a piece of leather 16 in. and knife. pencil. pen. Thomas's. pare Fig-. notepaper. scissors. should be cut and fixed at the bends at A E and e d (Fig..Letter Cases and Writing Pads. 31) to strengthen them. leaving 1 in.

and cut the top of the leather the same shape as the paper. of the edge. . mark it as shown in Fig.. by A . leaving \ in. 32 then cut pieces of cartridge paper and fix them as shown at x. and. A . from the edge at b.. with the face of the leather upwards. and 14§ in. next at 8^ in. *l\ in. piece of twill lining should be pasted at the back within | in.36 Lea tiier Working. from the edge. Glue together pieces of strawboard or soft wood to form a mould for the paper pocket. Next turn the edge of the leather to the lining and board fold the leather to form gussets for the pockets.. mark 1 in. of leather to turn over on to the board. 13| in. 9| in.

should be glued and fixed at A (Fig.. 2 in. 31). but not the bottoms. 33. by 8 1 in. by 2 in. The piece of linen should next be cut Fig. and glue them to the bottoms. 37 in. 31. 32).—Writing Pad Pockets. of leather all round. The paper and envelope pockets. 33. 11 in. should be sewn as shown in Fig. Fig. Care should be .. Next cut a piece of \-Vo. of leather is left to form the bend (see Fig.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. and fix on a piece of leather 12^ in. Cut the bottoms of the pockets as shown at p (Fig. except where marked at A. strawboard 12 in. turn the two ears inside. 33). envelope and pockets for papers. across the bend and to the part that is to form the blotting pad. and glued at each bend at ae and ed in Fig. with the stamp and postcard pockets stitched on. 32. leaving about \ in. which should be turned over and stuck on the board. The ends and centre of the pockets should then be stitched.—Writing Pad Packets.. by 6 cover with linen. The pieces of leather with card and stamp.

'\ . at the ends. by 3 in. Next cut a piece of board or thin cartridge paper about 9 in. by 1^ in. back this with linen. Cut pieces of paper 2^ in.. and leather 3| in. by 2f in... by 1 in. taken to fix the leather well in the bends and round each side. and fasten in the same way for the diary. Next cut a piece of cartridge paper with linen at the back 4 in. and also at the edges. . margin of leather at each side and | in. leaving \ in. by 2 in. and glue and fix it on a piece of leather 9| in.3« Lea ther Working. Glue these margins and turn over to form loops.. and remove from the t To '-2.

black the edges of the leather where it may be snowing white. now is cut. Fix the three other corners in the same manner. Next glue the foundation all over at the back and fix it firmly.. as shown in the pad as 35. thick. square and \ in. pasted a piece of white watered paper. 30. To make the of A piece and on it is four corners as stiff shown in Fig. This should be applied with a fine hair brush or sponge. If a polished leather has been used. Glue the parts that overlap and fix them a3 shown. the edge where the leather is turned over being on top. with a small quantity of dye. place it at the corner of the foundation for shown at the top left-hand corner in then lay one of the pieces to form the corners on top of the wood at the distance given. so as to form a flat surface under the pad. and cut away the parts that pucker. Take a piece of wood about 3 in.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. cut four pieces of paper 4 in. by 3 in. Fig. by 3 in. Next take a small brush. leaving \ in. This will form the foundation for the blotting pad. by 12 in. the wood acting as a mould for the corners. 39 strawboard 12 in. Fig. . If leather has been used the appearance can be improved if some fancy lines on the edges of the pockets and the fronts and back of the pad are made with a crease that has been slightly heated. and four pieces of leather 4£ in. coat it lightly with leather varnish. 35. and. The leather most suitable to work would be a paste grain skiver. to turn over all round. turning \ in. Pare the edges of the leather and stick it on the paper. of the leather over on one side.

gentleman's hair brush case is a very useful It is easy to cut and make. or the guard of a shoemaker's forepart or waist-iron will do. wider. and the case made accordingly. 36) to get the half . cut the pattern about 1 in. hair to hair. lay it back downwards on a sheet of paper. This may be a narrow. so as to get a good ellipse. HAIR BRUSH AND COLLAR CASES.40 CHAPTER A IV. two pieces should be cut to this pattern. and mark it all round with a pencil this will give the form a b d c in the diagram (Fig. Then take the thickness of the brush or of the two. A strap containing a few holes can be stitched on f. and these are described below. bah run an iron (after damping the edge a little) to give it a finish. and after deducting the length of B d H (Fig. longer and about 5 in. The pattern must be folded across B c (Fig. take a brush. — With regard to the making there are only three pieces needed. . 36). and. When they are faced together Round the portion at prick another hole at h. This can be doubled and quartered after it is 36). from H. without the buckle and straps. requisite. 36) from the side piece efg. as e f g (Fig. The brushes can be bought either singly or in pairs. hold it firmly. and a strap and buckle to match in a corresponding place on e. and two holes pricked to indicate where the halves end. roughly cut out. Whatever kind of case is to be made. passing f. if the case is for a pair. mark with this iron round the remainder. grooved iron. Measure their circumference. and costs but very little. whatever the length. This is for the side and to form the lid. or the one at e can be left till after the case is made.

as Persian skiver. or where a fancy case is wanted. etc. This may be some fancy . . and then the other side can be treated in a like manner. the pieces may be cut out in cardboard and then lined up with any thin leather. with brown or any coloured paper. as morocco. bookbinder's skivers.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. similar pieces are then cut out of whatever material is used for the outside. or any that . H being about 1 in. etc. as pieces from jockey tops. Fi£. if desired. 41 The leather may be lined.— Hair Brush Case. asBDCH. The brush case may be made of almost anything is stiff and not too stout. roans. beyond the half at the back . 36. and the edge of one of the ellipses may be placed against the end of the side at e and stitched.

larger all round than going to be. If done nicely by skiving the edge very thin and taking small V pieces out all round previous to pasting. stitched use bookbinder's glue instead of paste. is this distance. wax and . the edge will not need stitching. and should be made wet and twisted. when the whole are in this condition.42 Leather Working. all that is necessary is to proceed as above.— Horse-shoe Collar Box. If it be Figf. leather. about f in. Tapers to this can be made by untwisting the ends after taking off the length When . . the tapers only being waxed to receive the bristles or needles or they can be made from stout carpet thread of any colour. wanted. if not very thin in embossed the case itself. This. 37. and scraping each strand until it is tapered then. this is must be skived all round for a little more than and then pasted and turned over the edge of the cardboard on to the other leather. The threads may be of either white or yellow flax or hemp. these are thus fitted.

The form for the pattern is not difficult to obtain if the instructions given below are followed. 43 twist them. 37) this. 37. long. to form piece of paper with a . A line is now drawn across the bottom as e f the lid— that is to say. 33. curved and to more play to the drawer. touching the bottom of the circle at c mark the points a and b 2 in. a line as a b (Fig. according to the method of stitching to be adopted. First describe a circle as A b c d (Fig. Two of these patterns can be cut. — Forming . piece can be taken away to save stuff. thus forming the horseshoe. as give a little A f. 4 in. on each side of c. if a partition is made along the side. and put on the bristles or needles. The drawer can be used for handkerchiefs or ties. &0 Fig. if a straight edge is put along this line and then cut round to the other parts of the pattern (except that (Fig. 38). Draw A . rji3 Drawers in Collar Box. and for razor and tooth-brush also. The curves a d and e b can then be drawn. 37). in diameter. should be about 6 in.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. horseshoe collar-box with drawer is shown by Fig. for a goodsized box.

each at right angles with c. as G I and h k. These should be carried up as high as possible. in Fig. either tocoiH. be this height. of any part of the outside circle. The piece for the sides of the drawer must be the u . the by the curved line former for preference. 38) two sides will be needed and a top for the lid. The pattern for it will. b. and as long as the distance from A. These are to form the portions shown in A. F Box Drawer and Lid. as it gives more room to the drawer. say within about f in. and c. The height of the box should be from 3 in. and they should be joined together either k or the straight line ilk. it must be \ in. the pattern for the lid is produced. past D and E to b (Fig. to 3^ in. E Fijr. There must then be cut two sides and an end the length of i K.44 Lea ther Working. ortoCDJ h. the top of the lid forming the other end at d. it is best to draw two per. As regards the drawer. past a and b. the whole of the outside is complete. of course. When a strap has been made as long as the distance from d to e. 39. for which there will be only one piece needed. 59. — Collar pendicular lines. longer).

Hair Brush and Collar
;

Cases.

45

exact width of the inside of the box it is therefore best to leave this portion until the box is made. The lid being larger than the outside of the box, and the drawer having to go inside, the side of the drawer at A and b will not, of course, fit the lid at the dotted lines shown on top. It is not necessary, as a few stitches at e and f and along the bottom at D will hold it. As regards the manufacture or the material used, these are explained in connection with the hair-brush case already described in this chapter.

Fig-.

41.— Block for
Collar Box.

Making
Fig.

40.— Round

Collar Box.

The strap which is to fasten either side may be put on merely from lid to box, just long enough to buckle, or it may be in one piece, as shown by the handle in Fig. 37, with holes in each end for the buckle to go through, and then secured in each of
the places marked at H and 1 (Fig. 37), so as to form it into a handle, as J. In making the drawer, it is as well to put the grain side of the leather inside and to cover the outside with nice paper the inside of the box should also be covered in a like manner to keep the collars
;

can, if desired, be made of wood. be needed, as the side of the box when the drawer is in forms this. At a and c (Fig. 37)
clean.

The drawer

No

lid will

46

Lea ther Working.

on the outside of the drawer are two elastic loops to hold the collars in their place while the drawer is being inserted. Fig. 40 illustrates a round^moulded collar case 6$ in. in diameter by 3^ in. high it is covered and lined with leather. To make it, begin by cutting a circular wood block (Fig. 41) 6| in. in diameter and 3| in. deep, the surface of which should be smooth with rounded corners. Cut a strip of moulding paper about 22 in. by 4^ in. and cut also two circular pieces Glue the two ends of the long 65 in. in diameter. strip on reverse sides for about 1^ in. from the ends, and then wind it tightly round the block, bringing the glued edges over each other and joining them to form the band of the case. Next place the band so
;

Hair Brush and Collar Cases.

47

piece of glasspaper bound on wood, round off all the sharp corners, and roughen the surfaces so that the material will adhere better. The moulded part should now be cut. With a pair of compasses mark round the band about 1 in. from the top, and to this line with a sharp-pointed knife cut through to the block. The shallow part is for the lid and the other part for the case. The leather or other material to be used for the case should next be cut as follows One piece for the top of the lid 7^ in. in diameter, one piece \ in. longer than the circumference and 2\ in. wide, and one piece of the same length but 3 in. wide. If leather is used, pare or thin all the edges, and also the back and front of the ends of the long pieces to ensure a neat finish. The circular piece (7j in. in diameter) should be fixed to the top of the lid with thin glue, leaving about \ in. of leather overlapping the edge to be turned over on to the band. Glue the strip 2^ in. wide and fix the edge to the edge of the lid, neatly overlapping the two ends about \ in. The I5 in. of material left should be turned inside

the

lid.

The piece 3i in. wide should be fixed, like the lid, on the band of the case, leaving \ in. of material to turn over to the bottom and top inside the case. Next cut a piece the exact size of the bottom, pare The its edge, and fix it on the outside of the case. fastening should be fixed before lining the case, and
a piece should be stitched at the back to form a hinge. First glue a piece of linen on some brown paper and cut two pieces to the dimensions given in Then cut pieces of leather large Figs. 42 and 43. enough to cover these, turning the leather over \ in. at each end and on the left side, and lastly £ in. on the right side, this making a neat finish. An oblong catch or purse fastening about 1 in. by I in. wide should be used. The hasp part of the catch should be fixed to Fig. 42, and the catch

The piece of leather shown by Fig. hasp below this.48 Lea ther Working. of material over the edge. and one Fiff. Cut the material for the circular pieces about \ in. strip of the same length as the circumference of the case inside and \ in. Pare the edge of the strip at the ends and glue the whole and fix it inside the case. 3 oz. of methylated occasionally until dissolved. directly opposite the catch in front. above the top of the box. bringing the edge where the material is turned over about \ in. The clear part should be used. glue the same and fix on the board. and secured at the bottom with another row of stitching about 1 in. Cover the strip of board and turn about \ in. If a polished leather has been used. wider than the depth. For fit this. with one row at the top edge of the lid.— Sack of Round Collar Box. stir . strain through canvas. this forming a ridge to keep the lid in position. above this. of shellac in 1 pt. The case should be lined. 44). Keep it corked up in a dry place. should be fixed to the body of the case so that the falls in easily when the lid is closed. For leather varnish. turning \ in. of powdered resin spirit and . greater in diameter than the board. and leave for twelve hours. 44. Next fix the two circular pieces in the lid and bottom of the case. lightly coat with leather varnish. over to the back of the board. 43 should be fixed at the Lack of the case (Fig. cut two cir- cular pieces of strawboard to inside. place 2| oz. and again | in. allow to settle.

Basil hat cases cannot be of solid leather. or. 45. etc.49 CHAPTER HAT CASES. rather. — Bucket-shaped Hat Case. Fig-. the portions of a butt that take these names for other purposes though. as it has to be backed by stout millboards. as well. they are specially dressed. . Solid leather hat cases are made of good stout shoulders and first cuts. basil is so thin that D .. The diagrams given are for a bucket hat case. Fig. when they are going to be used for hat cases. and it will take collars and ties. This is the most general shape. V. 45 gives a back view of the hat case closed.

back and front. . to lock on the front. VZ\ in. Directions for lining will be given. Fig. A to B 19^ in. long from and goes past f and c. For a curved top the dimensions of the . Fig - . The shape will be as Fig. Fig. is to go. 46). from d to E (Fig. but this is done. 47. 46. which is to hold the hat. while Fig. cut oval (as a c b d. E to f and 7 in. by 13^ in. wide. of course. and the top may be flat or curved (as abc. and is 25 in. with as little waste as possible. There will have to be two pieces cut to this pattern. patterns are as follows Top. 46). —Hat Case shown Diagrammatically. and 9^ in. .5° Lea ther Working.. c to D 8f in. to taste.. The case must be oval. from f to G. : A strap E. is sewn at e (Fig. . The bottom must be 8^ in. and is The sides of the case can be cut so that the seam comes under this strap.. . 45). and the dimensions 15iin. \\ in. not round. 45). Cut out the shape of all the pieces first in paper then cut the leather to them. 46 shows the front open. with portion taken away to show how and where the inner case.

Take the two sides (Fig. and another piece to fit round the side. Then turn upside down. this will give the wall. 47) to 3 in. wide in the centre. as shown by the line at c. Line this with red glazed lining. 45. To form g h in Fig. Then shave off an angular all round the flesh side of the bottom. twice the size of Fig. at A c. Three strips about needed for loops K L (Fig. 47). —Hat-case Handle. 46). c f d (Fig. 47. 10^ in. and a corresponding piece from the inside of the bottom of the pieces. 1 in. The millboard should just nicely fit in the case. or side of the case. cut four straight or slightly curved strips.— Half Side of Hat Case. 47. only narrower this band is not necessary. and fit the bottom in. are for it. which should be just seamed together. and should be skived and allowed to lap to make a smooth seam. Glue these together at the side. 45) and b (Fig. by 1 in. and fasten them together at a c and b d. letting the stitches make up (q >aj j£ g ~^|P:B o) Fia:. 49. 20| in.— Sewn Seam. 5 1 from a to c and b to d. 1| in. Fig. the ends being of any shape and width desired. A Fig. the width of it must be taken off the sides at . of which should be left at top and bottom to turn over. long. Now cut a piece of light millboard to fit the bottom inside.Hat Cases. A band for I and J (Fig. 50). For the handle cut two pieces as Fig. and stitch it all round. be as the curved piece from line at a (Fig. 48. 48. but if made. 49) . 45) may be cut as G h. Glue a piece of lining on . as A on b (Fig. by 2 in.

48). This is for a fixed handle . The lid is made in the same way. To make the handle. Sometimes the top edge of the case is bound with a narrow strip of thin leather. and put it in its place in the case it will stand up about \ in. to the bottom board. be put on. put them together. but it may be prepared and finished off without.52 Leather Working. as the others can be trimmed to it after it has been stitched all round. 45). skiving or tapering them off at ends to nothing. m and n will not want . and place two other pieces of the same material between them. letting half be on the bottom and half on the side. 2 in. Next damp the inside of the case. take the two pieces (Fig. as h h h h (Fig. Cover it with the lining. and then stitch right through the lot. wide and curved to fit outside the top of the lining and inside the edge of the case. apart. above the case. letting it stand a good inch above the case. same with two short. Before the lining is inserted the handle must . Only the top piece need be cut out to the shape desired. only the lining of the rim G H (Fig. or instead of using rivets all may be stitched down. and also skiving a litle off the edges at e f. Now put the board rim between the two. Notch it all round about \ in. wide all round over this. for a loose one. While the lining is drying. and put a brass-headed rivet in each. over all round. After it is stitched and shaped. and the top can be lined with quilted satin. 46). letting one come from a to b. narrow straps which are to go across to stay the handle atop. as shown by h h h h. Then glue a strip 2 in. and the other from c to D. slightly glue it and the outside of the lining. take a strip of the board. punch a hole in each end at m and N (Fig. bringing the two edges to the bottom. and glue it down. is not so thick. leaving 1 in. lay it on the bottom of the side lining. and the edge of the lining and edge of the rim must be flush with each other. Do the 45).

and is therefore worth the extra trouble. and from the centre cut a piece out. The lid does not come right off . may be used. and the piece that is left can be cut across the centre to form the two half -rims. Inner Hat Case. opposite to l (Fig. This is cut from cardboard. 12| in. Fig 1 . 52. 8^ in. by 13^ in. by 7^ in. this piece will form the bottom at Fig. . raised in the centre just to admit of the thin part of the handle passing backwards and forwards. 46). shape of these small leather or brass brackets is shown at Fig. The inner case (Fig. and the strap. and its catch is riveted to the ends of the strap. but should be made to take a hat of any size. 52) is very simple. forms a loose sort of hinge. 53 punching. 51. if desired but leather is more in keeping with the character of the case. and covered with the lining.Hat Cases. as A b. between K and L. The lock is put on the front. Take a piece of cardboard. and must be a good deal wider. . at least. The . 51. o and p must then be well secured at each end to prevent m and N slipping through or pieces of brass. — Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides. k and l may also be of brass. .

can be put in the spaces between the inner and outer cases shown at I and J (Fig. which can be done by folding a piece of the lining and stitching it to the satin underneath f and the opposite side (letting a and b be \ in. it can be gradually cut down from these points at each side to a width of 6-| in. and finished off on the under side with lining. This should be left on towards the centre. must be put across from K to L (Fig. The length of cd can now be ascertained by measuring round the piece which is to be the bottom. and a piece put over the bottom for a finish. A piece of ^-in. puffed a little with wadding. . top and bottom. The top of the sides may be covered with quilted satin. and about f in. so that when in the case collars. as explained above. apart). may now be covered outside. covered on one side. The quilted satin is only just secured on each side. Only 1 in. The bottom piece. which should be turned over to the outside. for the inside lining of the leather case. and the width of the inner case will have to be 1\ in. This must be done so as to leave A and b quite free to be lifted up. after it is seamed up. This will be at a b but. 46) to hold the inner case containing the hat in its place. wider. as shown at I J. 46). so that it may be stitched along the top of c d at G and h.. with an old-fashioned garter-fastener in the centre. The lining should be turned round the top and over at the bottom. . The inside of this inner case may be covered with the lining. etc. can be left to form the seam. elastic.54 Leather Working. 52). inner case to fit inside the outer one. and just stood in the case A and b should be trimmed at the sides to allow the . c d (Fig.

as there shown. and then cut the other parts. solid leather case. that. As a good illustration of the shapes and their positions given in the diagrams. leaving. the smaller all parts can be got. It will now be seen how much stuff will be required. such as. it forms a covering only. Suppose the work is done from measurements. Take the exact length of the banjo. BANJO AND MANDOLINE CASES. can scarcely be made too well. in Fig. This chapter will therefore explain how to make a good. only a few hints will be needed as to the method of making it. 53. in fact. It will be seen that in giving the patterns for the various parts of two different shaped cases. if badly made. A banjo case. and cut the bottom pattern to it. it would not be possible to buy at any shop. as it often undergoes a lot of rough usage it fits so close to the instrument it is designed to protect. as A. or lay it on a sheet of paper. specially to order. the better will be the fit and the — cheaper the case. or a case for any similar instrument. a margin all round . The height of the banjo must be ascertained to determine the thickness of the case . and is not really a protection. unless made . or made of common or unsuitable leather. they are so placed together in Figs. the width of rim including brackets. placing them together in a like manner. and the width of the key- . First measure the banjo. of course. height of highest portion as it lies upon a flat surface. strong. 53 and 54 as to enable them to be cut from a strip of leather with the least possible waste an important consideration in cutting up leather.55 CHAPTER VI.

may be made from stout cardboard. describe a circle to it take from a portion of this circumference the width of the keyboard. This clone. to L.. all round. and can easily be cut from the spare corner shown. but it will be longer. And the same rule will apply to F for the rim of the lid. The stitches in nearly the whole of these cases are made as shown in Fig. asMN. and cut out this. This lining should be glued into its place after the case is made. b would therefore be this length less the distance between m and n. 56. : in Fig. as only a very small hole is needed. board. and covered with the lining . etc. as the circumference is larger. 55. and can be done either with harness-makers' needles or with a thread as used by shoemakers the latter is the stronger. but \ in. the edges of which should be turned in so that it is just a shade smaller than the above patterns. The handle J can be cut to any shape desired.56 Leather Working. The length of the two sides can be obtained by measuring from P. The small box for strings. longer. and this rule will again apply to G and h for the lid . This completes all the outer pieces for the case shown . allow \ in. for the lid. or they need only be cut the length of p to Q. the circumference would be about 36 in. . Cut B the width of the measurement previously alluded to as the height. then cut another to it. This is not at all difficult. then draw two lines the length of the handle. .. the bottom pattern . . Letting the rim measure be the diameter. and a piece joined on the end (at each corner) as I. past N and q. and the length can be found as follows Suppose the width of rim to be 12 in. the length of these can be ascertained by drawing the length of the banjo as o l. The whole of the inside of the banjo case may be covered with any coloured baize or flannel. where these two (c and d) may join . and making the M and n meet the line l.

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

57

58

Lea ther Working.

without. The piece taken out between a b (Fig. 55) is to receive the finger when the box is being

opened.

The handle may be stitched on or fastened by two copper rivets at c and d. Two straps and buckles, one at e and another at f, will hold on the lid, which may be fastened with lock and key, clasp, or another strap and buckle. The banjo case shown in Fig. 57, of which Fig. 54 gives the parts in section, is a very handy shape, and is a little cheaper to cut. In this case the top and bottom are the same size and shape, as shown by a and b. The pattern should be obtained in the same way as before, but it will

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

59

at e and I the more economical the cutting, c and d should be cut long enough to form the whole of the sides and the end, as each shown here will come from b to c (Fig. 57). g, in Fig. 54, is for the rim of the lid, and is cut about 2 in. or 3 in. longer than the lid this end is left on one side, to be stitched to the case at d (Fig. 57), and forms a good hinge. h, in Fig. 54, is the handle, and should be attached to the case as shown above. The remaining pieces will be needed for buckle-straps and loops.
,

wFig. 58. Corner and Split

Butted.

Banjo Case with End Lid.

Where the leather is required to be turned to an angle, as at e (Fig. 57), a piece must be taken out of the leather about halfway through on the wrong and when one is required as at f, give one side they can then be straight cut halfway through tapped down on an angular piece of wood. Another very good way of making the seams at the corners is to take the top and bottom, or all the sides, and draw a line all round with a pair of com passes about y«y in. in from the edge, and from this put the point in at this line make holes all round
; ;

;

— Mandoline in Case. it must be up first. as shown by A in Fig. In Fig. For the above the leather is cut and enough stuff allowed to admit of an angular piece being taken off all the corners.. lined it In putting this banjo case together. care being taken to line it firmly. and bring it out at the edge of the leather about two-thirds of the way through. etc. . and while A is butted against B. and that when the two are put together to form a corner. 59. as a and B.6o line. Looking at a case of this shape it might be . The method of making a mandoline case in American cloth. stitches. to show how it is put into the case and the way the case is made. This makes a very solid corner. so that the portions which are to be stitched can be laid together as in Fig. the awl is put in at A and pushed through till it comes out at b. the method to be adopted will now be explained when leather is used will be self-suggestive. 60 at A is given a portion of the body of the mandoline standing out of the case. with bound and turned-in edges. 58. Lea ther Working. which should be placed inside the banjo prior to putting it in the case. as cannot be done afterwards without undoing the Fi£. should be kept in a small baize. 60. box covered with Strings. It will now be seen that B is the other piece of leather.

the left-hand top corner of which must be a right angle. draw c D . from c to d. From this point draw the curve g h e j. —Elevation of Mandoline Case. Fig. B. only. long. and e f parallel to c d at a distance of about one-fifth of the distance from A to Make f e 8^ in. 61 thought that the mandoline is put in so that the strings come next to the lid. long. as it has to go round the curves.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. and 3^ in. The line k l should be about 2 in. 61). from e to f. This is cut in the same way as for the lid. 6| in. 62). The next is for the bottom. A line is drawn from A to c. which should be 3f in. The method of cutting the pattern will depend on the size and exact construction of the mandoline but by way of example the sizes in inches of various parts at different points of a case for an ordinary mandoline are given. 24| in. long from A to B (Fig. one side being at the bottom. 1. it will need to be 32^ in. The point J. Take a piece of paper. Mark a point at c along the top 24^ in. The next pattern is the top of the lid. long. is about 4 in. as shown by the dotted lines b. and parallel with A c. from A . whereas it is laid in on its side. on the line c d. 61. and indicates the edge — of the rim of the lid. These dimensions will require slightly modifying for instruments of other shapes and sizes. at right angles to a c. as A (Fig. from c. long . From H to I the distance will be about 5^ in. where the curve ends. and another drawn from b to G that is about a quarter of the length.

63. and lay them with their widest sides together. not more. striped union. 63). apart. or any material or colour preferred. as Fig. by 3 in.. bookbinders' paste. . c d must be 6f in.62 Lea ther Working. To each of these patterns cut pieces of stout strawboard one to each piece excepting Fig.— Top of Mandoline Case. put a mark on the outside of each piece so that they may not get mixed. 61). Two from a to b 3j in. done with baize. These. are required. If everything is satisfactory.— Bottom of Mandoline Case. in order to test their correctness. and the mandoline should be tried to see if it fits before finishing the making of the case. pieces the same width as a c k l (Fig. when the whole are cut. Take one side. one the length of c d. 62 at G. This can be It is best to line the insides first. as shown in Fig. Paste the lining on to these and let it dry . to which two pieces must be cut. 61. may be temporarily fastened together in their proper places by strips of gummed paper. and the lid (Fig. long. so that they are about \ in.. (Fig. and e f The end piece is next cut this should be 3| in. the other of e f (Fig. 62). and the whole of the patterns are cut. 62). 64. while the handle should be cut as shown in Fig. 62. Fig. 61. and this may be stuck on with — — Fig.

When done in this way. pasted. Lay this on the corners. Fig. and trimmed off at the edges. the corner seams should be made as Fig. stitched through are 1. 64. 65. d. letting B and c be the stitch. as on the lid. and If the lining and covering has been done with a raw edge. as A (Fig. Now the outside is covered in the same way with American cloth. which is much better than having a movable lid. doing these one at a time . then pare the edges of the lining off to the edge of the board. 60). J. 65. Fig. wide. Corner of Case. — Stitching Piece. and if the lining and the outer covering are pasted well together.— Binding Corner of Case. e (Fig. stitching or felling all the other edges down. the American cloth is left on \ in. k. The corners that will have to be (Fig.—Mandoline Case End Fig. except in the first instance. about I in. through (a very nice. all round. 65 at A. grain side out.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. and turned over on to the lining. must be damped and folded down the centre. 66). and bring it out at c. . l. 63 serve the inside of each piece the same. a long strip of basil or persian. which is set right through to catch This would also mean the edges of everything. 64. 66. The lid and one side may be covered at the same time. as will be exIf they are only to be stitched plained later. and also the three edges of the body at f. put the awl in at b. they form a good solid hinge for the lid. at c. where the lid and side are joined together. if the edges and corners are to be bound. n. neat way). Fig. m. Fig. so that it catches all the edges in the stitching. and h. Fig. 66. g. 60).

etc. If the case is made of American leather cloth. as a little box could be fitted here to carry string. and the hasp on the lid as m. under the lid. 61). Another long strip will then be needed for the binding of the plain edges. and the holes made with a fiat.is put on at h and 1 (Fig. apart. but it may be wider if desired. as for instance at F and H. e (Fig. The handle . near each edge. a narrow strip may be stitched on. wide. and the awl put in at one edge of the binding and brought out at the other. as it will help to keep the body and lid in shape and thus make it more durable. instead of using American cloth. d. 60). inside at o (Fig. as n (Fig. See that the case is quite dry before the mandoline is put into it. on the lid. The case may be fastened with a spring or ordinary lock. . If it is wished to make a better or prettier cover. or the steel strings will be — — injured. On the back. the stitches need not be very short say three to the inch and the thread may be made from stout carpet thread. use thin leather. about \ in. 60). there will be a space at the back of the neck or handle of the mandoline. with tapers made as has been explained and fastened on to harness-makers' needles. or two narrow straps. It must be lapped over the edges c. This will need to be only \ in. may be affixed to take a small pocket-book and just above the same place. letting the lock be on the case.64 Lea ther Working. .. 62) with leather or brass slides. This can be made use of. g. as patent seal. well fastened at each end with a stitch here and there. but the stitching must catch both edges. etc. to put the plectrums in. some little distance apart. It is best to put these on so that there is no join at the corners. h. diamond-shaped awl. or a fancy stamped roan. and also f.

the difference in depth being in proportion the sides of the smallest size measure anything between 7 in. to lOf in. 12 in.. but any size under. Like Gladstone bags and some other kinds.— Brief Bag. to 5i in. sizes of brief bags is kept in stock are 10 in.. In those 12 in. and 14-in. and in 14-in.. E . and 16 in. long the width of the bottoms varies from 3i in. it should not be difficult to make a bag of any other shape after thoroughly examining it. In width and depth brief bags differ considerably. VII. This chapter will deal with the methods of making leather bags of five chief kinds— brief. This by no means exhausts the subject. above. The sizes usually . and in the other 7$ in. excess over these measures is allowed. and. or between these can be obtained to order. The two most useful sizes for brief bags are undoubtedly 12-in. following the instructions given. lady's hand. but the bags chosen are representative. tween any two consecutive generally 2 in. the difference in length be- Fig-. and It being 10 in.. always easier to reduce than to enlarge a pattern. 67.65 CHAPTER BAGS. bags i in.. 14 in. and tennis.. Gladstone.

by 10 in.— Narrower Brief Bag-. the dimensions given in this be the largest. and will measure 12 in. when finished. The frame will be found to be slightly less at B b. and not so deep. and lay it perfectly flat on the bench. in proportion to the may be reduced as desired. and the length of the bottom should always . and with a rule measure it carefully between the corners A A and b b. 68 much narrower at the bottom. The dimensions in the diagrams are given for a bag. owing to this part closing into the other half. by 5 in.66 Lea ther Working. 12-in. 70) and d d (Fig. A bag is always measured at the frame. The way to cut out the patterns for either of these bags is to open the frame as in Fig. In both bags the distance between G G (Fig. and the difference must be allowed for in cutting out the leather. to have a bag small. and Fig-. Fig. 71) is the same.— Brief Bag.Frame. and more convenient generally slightly too article will length. Fig. 69. Fig. 69. 67 is shows a bag well proportioned . 68.

Therefore cut the gusset 8| in. Gusset Pattern. at the bottom. The depth of the gusset will be 10 in.— Pattern ensures both sides of the pattern taking the same curve at the swelled part. 70 is for the sides. Mark it correctly the exact depth and half the distances between G G and h h. The distance will be found to be but if closed it will be quite 8^ in. . and should measure along the top llf in. and 5j in.. from E to E. lay the leather on the bench. and at the bottom 13| in. when the seams d f and .Bags. To cut out the bag.— Gusset Stiffen- ing Pattern. f f. all ends will be level. Next measure the frame from A to B for the gusset (Fig. and fold it in the middle. from d to D.. Then. of the frame making this difference. 71). Fig-. 72. by 5^ in. 10 in. and cut through the double paper. The pattern for the bottom will measure 13J in. This F r. 70. be 67 1 in. only. Get a sheet of thin brown paper. The pattern in Fig. All seams are allowed for. g h are made. Fig.R hi I3T-for Side of Bag-. more than this. "the hinge 8 in.

68 Leather Working. they should be taken from the best part of the leather. as they are more exposed than any other part. 9 patent o . Begin sewing the bag by taking one of the sides and one gusset. so that d and g and f and h meet respectively. Take the gussets next. then the bottom the welt pieces may be cut from the thinnest part of . placing a welt piece between the edges. Cut out the sides first. what is left. and. grain side down. Place them face to face. and stitching with a good waxed thread made of four-cord No. and see that the patterns are placed on it so that the grain marks will all run in the same direction when the bag is made up.

and the pocket is formed by stitching the three sides and above the opening for the same. and rub it well down with the rubbing bone before the glue sets. 74. or linen twill may be chosen. 68. as shown in Fig. When the lining is finished. of glue will be found effectual. wide for the other half. cut a strip 20 in. The frame in this case will be covered all over. long by 4 in. To do this. is given when describing how to make a Gladstone bag (see pp. Use good paste. In cutting out the gusset stiffenings. Use a large brush. and glue to the . hot glue. 69). cut large enough to receive the stitching. For covering the frame. The method of making the handle and fixing the plates to the frame.Bags. and finish at each end in the form of the letter The edges thus produced are pasted down V inside . the distance from a to c when they are in position as shown by dotted lines (Fig. and in cutting it out of the same patterns used for the outside will do. and get the stiffenings into position quickly. A pocket must be formed on one of the sides. and fix the key-plate and handle-plates in position before pasting the covering to the under side of frame. 73 to 83). 69 stiffening fits firmly every part within the seams. as shown in Fig. take a nice thin piece of hide (persian works better). this makes a good opening to the pocket. and another strip 19 in. Any kind of lining— roan. 71) must be rather more than the distance from A to c on the frame (Fig. besides much other useful information. A piece of material like the lining is put on to the back. If the glue should show signs of setting too rapidly. cut the lining as shown by dotted lines K k. pocket side opposite the lock. long by 2j in. wide for covering the largest half. skiver. a teaspoonful of treacle added to \ lb. and the edges of the covering must be brought to that side of the frame which will be out of sight when the bag is finished. place it inside the bag.

forming one side. and from the best part of the skin. The frames. part. and causes no strain to the hinges. There is also quite a variety of frames used. and fix on a tab when sewing b side. either of which may be obtained in fancy colours. The sizes of pieces required for a 10-in. take patterns of all the parts. For a single bag. roan. a small persian would perhaps be the most economical to buy. to open it by. or russia bags are usually lined This may be either persian or a with leather. 68) a fulness of the gusset is shown. in and there is a much greater For instance.7° Leather Working. by 10 in. which must be made in framing this part this allows the bag to close easily. made in russia. good skiver. . either a or b. Start at one of the corners. ladies' bags are very different from those used brief bags. See that all seams meet before starting to and use black flax in making threads for this At x (Fig. 17 in. morocco. bottom. with mounts to correspond. pressed grains. The largest pieces for the bag should be cut out first. and making leather cloth. to serve as a guide in selecting a skin of Take care not to buy too small a suitable size. as well as the material. from the plain japanned to the elaborate nickel or gilt. If an old bag is at hand the same size and style as the one it is desired to make. Trim off anyexcess of lining here. or one which would leave a lot of surplus on hand. skin. and pocket on the other : . Morocco. and prepare to sew the bag to the frame. In buying a frame it will be advisable to get a few pins with it for riveting the parts together. for making stitch. ladies' bags are variety of each. square pattern bag are as follow One piece. besides many special kinds of fancy leathers and other materials. then lay them in order on a large sheet of paper. roan. as before mentioned.. bottom and round the top of the bag.

All the — — may be done by any domestic sewing machine. side. by 6-in. to be riveted to the frame. 5^ in. These must be cut 1 in. at the top. The lower corners of this are sligntly rounded. which provides a good surplus for the underside. In seaming the body and ends of the bag together. The spring pieces are cut \ in. wide by 5 in. and a piece of American cloth is cut the same size for the back and to provide the casing for the springs to slide in. The flap must be neatly bound with thin leather cut f in. The flap is made up quite separately from the bag. The lines on the flap are creased with a tool. and good black elastic. The counterpart of this fastener or stud is riveted on to the pocket. each. heated and worked along in a straight line. and the flap The by 10 in. part for seaming to the bottom of the bag. The shape of and 1-in. A piece of American cloth is generally used for that side of the bag covered by the flap and pocket. the other end of the leather being rounded and the fastener riveted on to it.Bags. these two pieces is almost triangular. piece is laid One 2-in. referred to in previous chapters. place a narrow welt piece between them. wide by 3 in. is stitched to one end of each. and must be stitched to the cloth before the side seams are made. and the parts are stitched together. stitching . leaving the 5^ in. as the material is in no case very heavy. and the 1-in. | in. <?n that when the bag is turned the welt will show. on each side. Four pieces for the stiffened portion of the ends must be cut 6 in. flexible portions forming the gussets 6^ in. and ensures the stitching taking a good hold of the bottom edge. 71 which completes this side is cut 6 in. on each 6^-in. only at the bottom. wide. Narrow strips of leather of the same kind as that used for the bag are stitched on each side of this to prevent the cloth being seen beneath each end of the flap. long. long. side. by 2 in. wide.

The ends or gussets are each in one piece. the bag has been turned. pass the pins through the holes near the hinges and rivet them . The lining is also riveted in at the same time.. Having fixed the four corners so that the seams on each side meet perfectly.72 Leather Working. To rivet the frame to the bag. The leather of the flap should also be stiffened with good brown paper before being made up. but an excellent substitute will be found in a small iron foot (such as is used in boot repairing) supported by a suitable stand. and put four nickel clamps or nails in the four corners of the bottom. The elastic springs should also be stitched at the top of the flap to prevent pulling away in use. then through the holes near the lock and catch. but these are not very expensive . also avoid cutting them too short to form a head. These are made exactly the same shape as the frame itself. and extends from the frame on one side to the other. and a In the bag trade special irons are 1-oz. For riveting the parts together a few tools are essential. used for riveting on. they include a fine round awl for piercing the leather in passing through the pins. or the pins will bend. but in three pieces only one piece is cut the full width of the bag. Do not leave too much metal for burring down. a pair of small wire cutters such as are used by watchmakers. the flap being put in with the rest. The " toe " of the iron foot is placed under each pin- When — — . and complete it by working alternately on each side of these. and also to receive the burr formed in riveting the pins. hammer. Two plates of metal are sold with each frame in fact. This lining is not cut the same as the outside leather. stiffen the bottom and sides as directed.fix the four corners first. and fresh ones will have to be put in . and on the same side of the frame as the pull-piece to the lock catch. form a part of it to hide the cut edges at the top of the bag.

Stout cord covered with brown paper is used as a filling. which soon becomes rotten. 10 in. 73 head. The usual length is 10 in. in nearly every instance. one. bag two folds generally have to be made. to permit of their being carried on the arm. This will hold a coat or a pair of trousers folded once over with an 18-in.Bags. so that the edges meet evenly on each side . Cut two pieces of leather. and begin to roll the cord within the paper. It is very essential. perfectly level table or bench is the best for rolling it on. by 1 in. Be careful to get the first few turns tight. Of Gladstone bags the most convenient size for ordinary use is the 22 in. in making . is liable which a Gladstone bag are (1) a broken frame and (2) unstitching of the seams. The tapering ends are made by peeling off a portion of the paper. . then place the hands on the roll and keep working it until it is quite firm then lay on one side to dry. each 10 in. Handles for ladies' bags are always made much longer than for other bags. and secure them in their places by passing through a pin and riveting its end. and the bag held in a horizontal position whilst being riveted. then stitch and trim them. to carry. lay the cord evenly along one end. or 20-in. commencing at the middle. and increasing as the ends are neared. Paste the leather covering over this. machine sewn. Cut a piece of paper. owing to the dye used of the chief evils to . wide. wet it. Pare the ends before placing them in the fittings attached to the frame. Much larger sizes prove very cumbersome A . by careless usage the second may be due to common thread being used in joining the Nearly all kinds of bags are parts together. and chiefly with very thin thread black bags are sewn with a thread of that colour. Two in its manufacture. The first of these is caused.

manipulation moreover. Very . a bag. for not only do the frame and fittings cost the same.74 L EA THER WOR KING. — Gladstone Bag". to use a good waxed thread for the seams to ensure the work being permanent. Cheap leather should not be used. . Fig. but the cheap material requires more care and skill in its Another Gladstone Bag. 75. it will not last a quarter the time that one made of good leather will.

Fig. — . . for Bag required it costs Id. 78. a and sometimes. per lb. oi of brown. 77 for rubbing down the stiffenings. 1 and No.Bags. d. causing an unsightly appearance. frame with strap loops . Fig. e. Bone or Fig. yellow. 6d. Strawboard in three different weights will be A Fig. . and the stiffening curls or comes away in With places. and black flax twill lining will also be necessary. slides . 76 shows the interior this bag of a bag with the necessary straps. buckles for inside straps a ball each and 3 yds. these fittings costs 2s. — Rubbing Stick. two or three different sized awls in handles . A few simple tools will be required a clamp to hold the work for sewing (the worker can make these . and two 8-oz. . has a lock at each end of frame. boards for stiffening the sides and cutting patterns. . b. . and has no slides. bottom 2 1-in. shoes. about four 16-oz. A . a indicates lock and plate . of " Harness Making ) . — Stiffening Division. as explained in Chapter I. One 2-lb. buckles for outside straps half dozen f-in. ena. and. a pennyworth each of No. . for Six nails to protect the stiffening the bands. 77. brown bag will it takes a long time to get dry. .. etc.melled cowhide there is not this risk. it will preserve its glossiness for years. 4 harness needles a clicker's knife and a bone the same shape as Fig. when used with care. board for the bottom. handle plates . 22-in. c. 75 . 75 shows a Gladstone bag with full fittings. few brown bags are waterproof be so sodden with wet that after being out in a drenching rain.

pattern for the sides. a piece of hard. Paste this on to the straw-board. answers the purpose nearly as well. 79. 80. take the side . 81) are used. it is a good plan to cut one first by folding a piece of thin paper mark and cut (Fig. and shape it as in Fig. Fig. In beginning to cut out the bag. must also be cut. Fig. Fig. and mark evenly round and along the wire at the bottom. the first thing to do is to get out the patterns. and cut evenly round the edge of paper. pocket-flap pattern folded) it so that when it is opened both sides of the pattern are alike. 83 is a pattern for the middle piece in the handle. A pattern for the pocket (Fig. 79. a No. 78 if a frame with single lock and slides is used. strawboards. The glue brush should be quite 2 in. and one for the flap (Fig. a pattern of these should be cut. filed to shape. .— Pocket Flap. In cutting these smaller patterns.— Leather Pocket. and if fancy buckle chapes (Fig.— Buckle Chape. Cut this out with a large pair of scissors. 79).7 Leather Working. For the division — ^ZF Fig. A gluepot of suitable size for the brush say. cannot be obtained. 80). Fig. In making the Gladstone bag. straight-grained wood. Fig. 82. by 9 in. The pattern for the bottom must be 21| in. 5— can be bought at any large ironmonger's. A paint brush If this latter thoroughly cleaned will do. 81. in diameter at the band. 4 or No. and the pattern for the sides is ready. Take one of the 16-oz. lay the closed frame on it. but every particle of paint must be washed out. 80.

one by 6| in. Fig. Do this. 83. 82. wide and the other by 5^ in. and choose an awl of suitable size. This will give 4 in. The bands will need to be 45 in. Use a sharp knife. S3.— Tab. of Bag Handle.) may be cut last. fasten in a pair of the smaller needles. 84. guiding the knife with the finger pressed against it and the edge of the pattern. 77 pattern.— Folding Paper for Small Pattern. and see that both sides can be got out with the grain running in the same direction. . Join together into one length by paring the ends with a knife and making a short lap with glue or paste. 82. Fig. lay one of the strawboards under the leather and cut out on that. lay them face to face. for welts. See that there are no flaws or blemishes under the pattern.— Part Fig. Cut quite close to the pattern. and if a level board large enough is not handy. by 9 in. and sew the other side-piece and band to- A gether the same. Take one of the bands and one side-piece. Use the thinnest part of the hide Fig-. lay it on the leather. cutting strips for this purpose \ in. There will probably be a little to trim off the bands to bring the ends level. and start sewing from one bottom corner of the side-piece. Make a few four-cord threads of brown hemp. Fig.Bags. or they will be sure to show when made up. and as long as they can be got. The bottom (21^ in. placing one end of the band level with it and running the welt between the two. clear to each one and sufficient to cover the frame. Sew round until the opposite bottom corner is reached. 84. 84. widv. pattern for the tab by whose means the bag is pulled open is shown by Fig. long. tie the threads over the edge. Fig.

for the larger. If enamelled hide is being used. and then take up the end of the other band at the mark 4 in. working both down until they are quite clear. Do this by placing the left hand in one corner. to cover the small part of the frame. board. Cut quite \ in. sewing this to the end of the band until the mark already mentioned is reached. long by 4| in. being inside outwards. Hammer the corners down from the inside. and the weather is cold. run the welt only to the bottom for f in. The bag.78 Leather Working. downwards . . then the other end. and with the other hand forcing -the leather • Fig. warm the leather gently and carefully before turning. Continue along the end of the bottom. Continue sewing until the place started from is reached. and press with the hand quite close to the seams all round them this will give it a more natural shape to receive the stiffenings. put one end in first. and the bag will be turned. Next take the bottom and commence sewing from one corner of this and the bottom of the sidepiece. . from the edge. 85). treating opposite sides and ends exactly alike. and serve it the same. and 2\ in. running a welt in as before. must now be turned. and try them in before gluing. Proceed with the other two corners in a similar way.— Half of Bottom Stiffening. and finally press down the . from the seam this should leave on one \\ in.. off each corner to allow them to fit close up to the seams. and cut two pieces 21 in. The proper method is to bend up the stiffening-piece in the centre. until it begins to fold over then take the other corner of that end. and mark each end 4 in. Now take the 2-lb. wide (Fig. 85.

wide. Glue together a lot of odd pieces about 6^ in. To make the handle. . and get them into position as quickly as possible. long by \ in. bands is purely a matter of fancy some like a bag to set out square. while waiting for this. 83. and glue in the other half. Use the bone freely all over. take a piece of good strap leather 10 in. glue one piece. will be found to be about . wide cut to shape as in Fig. see that it is not too stiff. If it is decided to stiffen these. There should be a space of \ in. 83. The stiffening of the . place it inside. smaller all round than the leather. remembering that these also must fit very tightly. 79 this stretches the leather to its full length. rub well all over with the rubbing-bone. Stand it on one side for an hour or so for the glue and makes a solid fied that it is a to set properly. the ends of this having been previously passed . The stiffenings for the sides will need to be \ in. it must be done after the bag has been framed. it is a good plan to up and soak in cold water for twelve hours when melted down. or perhaps more if the leather is very stout or the seams are too great a distance from the edges. It is then divided and glued top and bottom to Fig. when dry. boards 3| in. using strips from the 8-oz. wide and the same thickness. it preparing the glue. long by 1 in. pare the edges away until it is perfectly round and slightly tapering towards each end. between these from end to end.Bags. so that no part is left untouched. When break this. Cut off the lower corners the same as the bottom stiffenings. and. When satisgood fit. bottom to the bag. centre . cut out the stiffenings for the sides and make the handle. or there will be blisters where the glue does not adhere to the leather. right for use. and. Try them in before gluing. whilst others prefer to strap it up close when nearly or quite empty. Use the glue quite hot.

as this often proves difficult when made up. rubbing them afterwards with a piece of cloth to produce a polish. Trim and dye the edges. The strap loops are fitted next . pass the claws through. . Oblong slots are punched across the iron band of the frame to allow the flexible claws on the fittings to pass through. hole large enough for the key-barrel of the lock must be cut and passed over it. 86.8o Lea ther Working. so that it will fit closely between the under A part of the iron band and the lock. bottom the stiffenings are firmly set. and cover with a piece of cowhide long enough to go through the two rings and along the underside. placing the widest band over the largest half of the frame. and turn them down quite close on to the frame. Take the lock-plate first. This will leave a good margin inside when sewn through. fix in the and sew on two leather loops for straps (Fig. Then take the handle and fix it. It is a good plan to put the plates through the rings before gluing together. to it at right angles. Put a few stitches through close to the rings. continuing this right through to the edge. — Bottom of G-laclsi one Bag - . When Fig-. then stitch it. through the handle rings and turned back to form a chape. and with a fine-pointed knife puncture the leather exactly over these. Allow the leather to cover the thin iron band and reach half-way down the other part joined nails. and if slides . 86) then proceed to fit in the frame. and another hole the same size cut underneath.

and fix a large needle to one half. More expensive frames have solid fittings these have screws cast on them. For the sides and bands it is cut the same size as the leather. 84) must be sewn on where the lock-catch is fixed to the frame. by 6 in. Commence at one end of the frame. and make a few five-cord threads. The shoes should be fixed last then cut two slits in the narrow band for the lock-catch to pass through. Take the ball of black flax. This leaves enough stuff to make a strong fold when sewing it with the division board along the centre . A tab of leather by which to pull the bag open when in use (Fig. F . and a piece of leather or similar material laid on anything solid to protect the plated parts whilst being gently hammered down. It is now ready for sewing. . 2 hole then up through No. . push the awl through. the leather must be cut away the same size and shape as the slots in the frame before being fixed.Bags. then make another hole in advance of that at a distance equal to the intended length of the stitch. The method of sewing in the frame is different to sewing the seams. and the bottom is made in two pieces 22 in. Cut them in halves. This gives an ordinarylooking stitch on the top. . 1 pull out the full length. pass the screws through. The lining must now be cut out. and pass down through No. Bring the needle up from the bottom through No. each pair should be bent inwards. 2. In bending down the claws. each. Continue until all the frame is sewn. and pass down through No. and are fitted to the frames by small nuts. round holes being punched to . but below it has the appearance of a cable. bring up the needle. and down No. make a third hole. missing those places where the tie-pieces in the frame are in the way. 8i have been bought. using beeswax tor tnese instead of shoemakers' wax. 3 and so on. and is called back-stitching. 4.

and the pocket flap and strapchapes are sewn on before gluing on the other side. and one round the . 80) for the flap. Paste a binding along the top of the pocket. Strips for binding should be \ in. and 82 show how to cut the pocket and flaps. For these as well as the bindings a thin roan or good skiver must be bought. and carried beyond the bottom of the board to strengthen it. on each side. cut the leather sufficiently large to fold over Fix the pocket and flap in the centre of the division board. corner near the bottom. using a long needle and . must be cut for stiffening the pocket. is Leather Working. and of some fancy coloured material. where one is ready to hand and capable of doing the work. 80. Glue these to the leather and a piece of lining over cut fully \\ in. the same shape as dotted lines in Fig. lay it on one side and paste in the linings. using the single needle and thread (yellow is best for this purpose) as in sewing round the frame. 81). and also wears much better than some other colours. flap. The lining also may be sewn by a machine. and. One side is glued on first. which should be put in free from creases and should firmly adhere to the stiffenings. machines which are quite powerful enough to sew through this binding and also the pocket and flap. wide. with a f-in. and makes the work of sewing Begin to sew in the lining at one it in much easier. A bright scarlet looks well. Glue the other lining piece over the back. A piece of thin strawboard. them that for the flap is the full size of the leather. 79. buckle and a loop. and another piece (Fig. Pasting well up under the frame enables the lining to fold neatly over. and paste on There are many domestic sewing the binding. then sew a chape (Fig. or and form a binding. trim off any inequalities. When this is finished. and stitch them round . 79. Figs.82 of the bottom. it should be used. The covering for the division board deeper than the board.

The front piece is cut square across at the broad a end. A leather handle is fixed on. in the complete. place the bottom of the division board between the linings at the bottom. 87. When the lining has been stitched in all round. leaving rather more than an inch at each end flat for sewing on to the case. or of brown canvas or japanned duck. The bag is . the stitches lying hidden welting. wide into the two corners of the frame to buckle to the chape pieces. fold all surplus stuff inside. wide. Pass it through the next hole. 87 is an illustration of an ordinary tennis racket case. and rounded by stitching the two edges together. and run them together with hidden stitches. Fig. — Tennis now Racket Case. It is proposed to give designs and instructions for making four or five different kinds of tennis bags. the edges being bound with leather to give greater strength. and a leather binding stitched along it through the seam. which may be made of a waterproof material. wide or a strip of thinner leather | in. check or twill. and in the other side of bag sew in four straps. and run the thread under the fold again. Sew two straps 5 in. . The making of any of these is not difficult. This may be either a flat strip about \ in. two of which should have buckles. as illustrated. 83 black thread. running the thread under the fold and bringing it through one of the holes previously made in sewing in the frame.Bags. These are sewn Fig. long by f in.

similar to a school satchel. for the back. round off two corners. three buckles with chapes and loops must be sewn on the front piece about 6 in. wide. Before sewing the parts together. Fig. by 36 in. from the end on . This forms the top and flap of the bag.84 Leather Working. for the top this will leave 4 in. gussets. mark off 10 in. It will be found that these waterproof cases preserve to some extent the tension of the strings and help to check the frame from warping. each side. Each of the two gusset pieces is cut 10 in. The gussets must be bound along one this will form the top of the of the narrow ends . and 6 in. for the front. by 6 in. . 88 shows a tennis bag without any frame. one large piece forming the front. and the other two pieces the gussets. another 10 in. and for the edges \ in. but much larger it is .— Case for Tennis Racket. -^^w^- Fig. wider. Balls. and when dry sew on the binding with a beeswax thread made of fine yellow hemp or flax. Paste the flap and front piece at the edges to the back piece. back. Mark one end of the large piece 10 in. from the top edge one buckle in — . and flap. Cut the binding for the flap and across the top of the front \ in. 88. 6 in. etc. cut in three pieces. and bind it with a thin strip of leather. for the bottom. for the flap. Take a piece of waterproof goods 30 in. leather binding must also be sewn round that part of the flap which opens.

may also be made by sewing the gussets in and running a welt between the edges. some of brown waterproof canvas or carpet throughout. whilst some have. The lining may be a plain one. which have the advantage of being very light to carry and inexpensive to make. and stitch them together far enough to form the handle proper. place a piece of stout cord or rounded leather between them. To make the handle. or fitted with pockets. turning the bag after wards as in making a Gladstone bag. 89 . wide. the most expensive. of course. long by 1 in. These bags. such a bag. Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag style. will last for many years. leather gussets . about 7 in. at each end to be sewn on to the bag. H — the middle and another 3 in. as shown in the diagram. This will leave about 3^ in. and. or it can be fastened with rivets. The exterior of a very popular form of tennis bag is shown by Fig. take two pieces of leather 14 in. others with leather bottoms only. and necessitates putting in a lining to hide the rough edges of the seams. in addition.Bags. from each edge and the straps to meet them may also be sewn on before the bag is made up or left till the last. as described later. as these can be more easily got at. This is not such a strong way. long. These bags are made in various styles. the most lasting. made throughout in cowhide. are made throughout in .

handle-rings and plates are shown in position. There is no difference whatever in the method of making these. deep. and 29^ in. to 10 in.. The gussets will be 10 in. again. and at the same time decide what depth it shall be. marked off as follows 2j in. but in a tennis bag seldom exceeds 6^ in. Fig. Lea ther Working. 10 in. for the small half. by 29| in. for covering the large half of frame and \\ in. the ' : pieces for the sides will measure 29£ in. the width of the bottom in a bag used for cricket varies from 5 it in. for the bottom. rennis Bag Frame.. 90 is an illustration of the frame used for this kind of bag. In measuring for the length of a bag. The bag when closed resembles an ordinary cricketing bag. The frame of an ordinary full size cricketing bag measures 37 in. but is not so long. . respectively. and the choice of material must be left to individual taste and resource. by 6 in. by 6 in. and 6 in. For this obtain a piece of leather 29£ in.. take the entire length of the frame. wide. and are attached to the frame when covered by turning over the metal claws fixed to them on the underside of the frame. in both cases. and is on the same principle as the The lock-plate and ordinary brief-bag frame.86 cowhide. Then. or. long. in the case of solid fittings. If the bag is to be made with only the bottom of leather. It is assumed that the bag is 10 in. long. whereas that of a tennis bag is only 29 in. by screwing on small nuts. by 12| in. by \\\ in. for each side. 29 in.

Place the frame inside the bag. This is fixed . Begin sewing from one end on the right about 1 in.— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag-.Bags. 92. 91. mark and punch Fig. 91. stitching a tab of leather for pulling the bag open on the opposite side to the one shown in Fig. wide.— Turnclip. a round hole for the key-barrel. 79. wide must be glued and placed in the bottom within the seams. and in order to make it very finn a piece of stout millboard 29 in. and these also assist in keeping the millboard in its place. and as these are sewn on the inside of the bag it must be turned. and rubbed well down all over it so that it will hold fast and there are no parts separated. round the bend. See that these seams exactly meet when the frame is closed. as shown in Fig. These buckle pieces must now be stitched on. The two outside straps and . of Fig. 87 Run a welt of thin leather round in sewing the seams. and continue to the left-hand end of frame the same distance round the bend then sew in the other half of the frame in the same manner. Special studs are used as a protection to the bottom. long by 5£ in. A name-plate should also be fixed on. In place of the outside straps a very strong and simple fastener is shown in Fig. Eight of these must be fixed in. fix on the lock-plate and handle-plates. the claws attached to them being opened and turned down on to the stiffening inside. and secure it in position for sewing by a stitch or two at each end near the gusset seams. and of good leather. The method of making the handle is described on p. 89. 92. long by l\ in. should be not less than 8 in.

The bag is now ready for lining. boots. fold inside all surplus stuff. in order to protect the clothing from becoming soiled or damp through getting in close contact with them.. rackets. good linen.88 Lea ther Working. 93. Buttons are sewn on the lower parts. A will allow plenty of stuff for strong seams and turning in for stitching to the frame and tops of gussets. and large enough to completely envelop the contents. either plain or fancy-striped. and making a short stitch in returning it articles of clothing are to it is bag. and button-holes are cut in the flaps of the pockets. Then run the thread inside the fold of the lining when stitching the remainder to the frame. When the lining is finished. to the frame in a similar manner to the other fitUnder the plate which lies along the top of the frame is a spring which acts on the bar. place it inside the bag. and holds them in any desired position. is the best for this. . bringing the needle to the outside. and if cut the same size as the outside of the bag. When Fig. —Tennis Bag in Gladstone style. connecting the two sides of the clip. and sew the lining gussets over and over to these. or loops of elastic may be fixed to the latter. It will be noticed that pockets are made on the linings to hold the balls. bend the tops of the gussets inside about 1 in. tings. etc. be carried in the same a good plan to make these pockets of some waterproof material.

In this case a special frame must be made. Fig. one side of the bag instead of being placed proportionately in the middle. 94. Fig. 93 is a tennis bag made on the Gladstone principle. A tennis bag made on the half-Gladstone prinThe frame is fixed to ciple is shown by Fig. The straps to hold tennis bat. and in ordering the frame it must be specified that it is required for a bag of this description. the only difference being in the depth of The lining is fitted the frame and the interior. 89 through the frame. with straps and pockets. 94.Bags. .. etc. It will be an easy matter for anyone to make a cricketing bag from these instructions by getting a suitable frame. can be either riveted or sewn on. and making due allowance for the increased dimensions in cutting out the bag.— Tennis Bag in Half-Gladstone style.

from 6d. 6d. iron band for strengthening the lid. . each a packet of No. Procure also two. . 8d. \ lb. by 54 in. according to quality . This leather will cost about 3s. black or brown. about The handles c may be bought ready-made for Is. 5d. PORTMANTEAUX AND TRAVELLING TRUNKS. 6d. .9o CHAPTER Portmanteaux but not VIII. strawboards 30 in. 95 illustrates an " Imperial " trunk. about Is. 4 yds. p. ball each of hemp and wax. lOd. will be required for a 30-in. had better be bought of a saddler. " Imperial " of the dimensions given in Fig. 4d. each leather. of large. and a basil. and all necessary fittings must be purchased. ditto. 1 lb. flat-headed copper rivets and washers mixed. and lock cover a. a glue-pot . per yard and 2 yds. and brush and a . 3 yds. \ lb. Good japanned canvas. copper rivets with washers. . . . 96. the 9d. . of striped lining (best. Fig. 3d. wide. of good glue. Frames. material. . and also that for the straps and chapes. 2^d. 6d. brass roller buckles. . are expensive things to purchase difficult to make. . is a sketch of a "Railway" trunk. per lb. 6d. 6d. and has a flanged lid keep out the wet. and in this chapter full instructions will be given for making two of the most popular and useful kinds. 2 harness needles.. also called a "folding" trunk. who will cut them to the necessary size. 7 in. The other requirements will be a frame. 4d. Fig. but if it is decided to make these. . 6d. . two 1^-in. 93. per yard) a welting belly for binding the edges. and one 1-in. to Is. roundheaded. a pair of battens. each. — . which is of to the same shape as a box. two pairs of brass handle loops. about 4d. costs 2s. of f-in. strap-guides bb. two or three awls. a lock. and ^-in. . 95. 8d. to 2s. of 1-in.

and the bottom lines will be true = . 91 size Begin by cutting the stiffenings to the required :— 16 -f 16 + \h\ 47^ in. place the stiffenings on it. Next cut the boards for the ends 16 in. The flange of the lid is to be 3 in. all round. Fig. 95. so cut a board 30 in. by 3 in. for the body of the trunk. and score it 3 in. Next cut the canvas.Portmanteaux axd Travelling Trunks. The flange pieces for the ends of the lid are cut separate from this and measure 16 in. and "score" the board. The bottom corners are slightly rounded. each. leaving a little surplus from the edges of all the patterns. Lay this japanned side down. — Imperial Trunk. Do not be too sparing in — cutting. and mark them round. then mark each side the distance mentioned lay a long straight-edged rule across. each. See tnat the ends are perfectly square. from each narrow side. by 22 in. by 29^ in. from one end to the other. . by 15j in. " Scoring " is cutting the board half-way through its substance. so that when it is bent to form the bottom the front and back rise freely to the proper shape.

wide. long. the next thing will be to glue it to the stiffening. wide for the front. 2\ in. long. Glue the canvas and stiffening of the lid together. and a binding of the same leather along the edge. then the stiffening board. Glue the inner surface of the canvas first. work the brush rapidly. The edges may then be trimmed with a sharp knife. the under part being rather wider than the top there will then be no fear of missing any part in the stitching process. Cut the lining 30 in. so. To make a pattern for the handles. and be smart in uniting the parts together. Place the board in position on the canvas and rub it well all over until the two adhere together in every part. but do not disturb any portion until the glue is well set. The flange ends are treated in the same way. it is 11 in. and will lie level on the trunk ends when released. Fig. the handle slides and becomes full when in use. and bind the edge of each with a strip of basil 1 in. leaving the canvas perfectly even with the board. and 16 in. and finally the flange ends. wide. long by the same width for each flange end.92 Leather Working. in the centre. Weights should be placed on any parts which show a tendency to rise. or it w ill not bend properly. long by 2 in. fold a piece . 97 shows a finished handle ready for fixing to the T . Paste these on first. where the brass handle loops will cover. by cutting the spaces 1 in. full width. Having cut out the canvas. the lock cover. scored lines to canvas then treat the trunk ends. Use hot glue. trunk. . of the lid in the same manner. l£ in. Patterns for the handles. and strap-guides should be cut out of stout paper. The brass loops are \ in. and lh in. taking care that the glue is put on to that side of the board which has been scored. That part of the lid which forms the front of the flange must have a basil leather lining pasted along the inside. Fold and hammer this down before pasting it so that it will set better.

lay the pattern on each. Next cut out the spaces for the loops. Fig. at the fold in the centre. rounding them at that part where they are gripped. by 2j in. The pattern will then be similar to Fig. With a pair of compasses mark them handles. from the edge. 96. and | in.. and mark it round and cut out. from the folded edge. 98 without the loop spaces removed. round \ in. and cut out with a pair of sharp scissors. Shave the edges with a spokeshave. cover. as shown by dotted lines. take two pieces of leather 11 in. can be worked out from these instructions. but do not remove the loop These two pieces form the tops of the spaces. then fix a bottom piece to each with two nails (one at each end) and stitch them together. A pattern for the lock ..— Railway Trunk. Fashion the shape of the handle by marking a curved line between this and the point. 4 in. Double the paper so that the line is at fop and bottom prick it through f in. by 2 in.. and one for the strap-guides. 93 paper 11 in. by 6 in. To cut out the handle. using an . from the edge where the spaces for the metal loops are shown. 7 in.For tma ntea ux of ' Tra vrl l ixg Tr unks. long and mark it l| in.

this is brought to the required shape. see that there the same space at each of their ends. and should be held in position by being coarsely stitched over the position about 4 is edges. The ends are placed just within the edges of the other part. To rivet the handles on the trunk ends. which is a piece of ox-hide specially dressed for this class of work. or the binding will not hide them. and level with the top all round. make holes through the canvas. Cut sufficient strips to go round each end of the trunk by paring the ends of each strip and lapping . Sew the binding first with a three-cord thread. By bending down the back part of the lid. . This holds the other edge of the lining piece. about four stitches to the inch.t inside the other part. From the binding. place the brass loops over so that each one touches the points nearest the middle of the handle. The end pieces should lie jus. lay them in in.94 Lea ther Working. Do not make the stitches too deep. wide. it must be inside. Cut off a piece of iron band 62 in. and pass up the rivets from the inside. Hold the chisel erect and drive it through with a mallet. Prepare the body of the trunk in a similar manner. Lay the heads of the rivets on a solid iron and burr the points well on to the metal loops. of band at each end. and coarsely stitched over in the same manner as the lid. It is fixed by stitching a strip of basil leather round the frame and over the edge of the body. then slide each into one of the flange ends. for the second row of stitching. The outside bindings should next be cut these are taken from the welting belly. Bend these at right angles. The flange ends and front may now be stitched. leading 16 in. from the top . . ordinary carpenter's chisel 1 in. long. mark each piece \\ in. and slide this within the leather lining on the front. Put the frame into the top of the body . The basil will set better if slightly wetted first.

them about 95 may be made. For the stitching. Begin by binding the body of the trunk first. and a 1-in.— Trunk Handle. which round-headed rivets being used for these. and should be folded over the edge so that an equal portion of it is on each side. Washers are placed on the rivets on the inside before they are burred over. Cut four pieces of the iron band 18i in.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. \ in. buckle and strap sewn on for holding down the lock cover. from the edge with a pair of compasses. The binding must cover all the stitching previously made in basting the parts together. strap-guides. A narrow strip Ti Fig. 97. Proceed next to fix the buckle chapes. and lock. may enter it freely. The lock is first let in by cutting away the material so that the plate rests on the canvas. the rivets being passed through from the inside of the trunk and burred over on to the plate. mark it on each side about TV in. To strengthen the lid. but the case of the lock passes through. Battens d d are fixed to the bottom with nails or Small rollers let into these battens proscrews. vide a means for easily shifting the trunk. The lock plate at the bottom is riveted down close to the canvas. large so that the hasp. Use a little glue for sticking the — strips together. then the lid. the required length about 12 ft. the position of by the four rows of rivets (three in which is denoted each row) shown by Fig. 95. The buckle chapes for the short straps on the lid are stitched on. . Guides b b for long straps are now fixed. of stout leather is placed under the plate at the top is riveted to the lid. it is necessary to affix strips of iron band.

flat-headed rivets. Thin the glue for this work . . then secure the hinge-piece to the body of the trunk by nails at intervals along it. Rivet the bent ends to the back of the lid with ^-in. Mark these distinctly. Fix it on to the lid so that half is left clear for stitching to the body. wide. rivet the hasp. after which the lock cover may be stitched on. Line both the lid and the body before connecting them. covered by it. passing them through the hingepiece from the outside. long by 2 in. the better the quality of the lining the less chance has the glue to show through it. and fix them by twelve round-headed rivets as shown. This must be of good pliable leather. fix two pieces of web to stay the lid when open. 30 in. commence stitching the hinge-piece from one end. so that they may strengthen the back of the lid. Drive in at least a dozen nails. Glue and fix the part of the lining which was left. Lay the iron strips inside the lid. and the trunk will be finished. it will be necessary to stitch the hingepiece to the back of the lid. enough to lap a little way on to the other parts. Before fixing these. and stitch on the straps. and see that all the stripes are in one The end pieces should be cut large direction. then stand the trunk on one end. Place the lid on the body to find the exact places for the hasp and the short straps. Leave a part of the back lining in the body not glued down. Pull open the lid a little.96 Leather Working. so that in sewing the lid on the stitches are long. Place the lid on evenly. and bend them at right angles 2f in. Cut the lining to the sizes required. Turn The lid the trunk over and sew from the other end until the stitching meets. and body are now ready for joining together. from one end. as they will be less cumbrous to manage in two parts. Punch a hole in each of these ends. and continue as far as can be reached. also three holes in the other parts to receive the rivets.

square. leather for the handle. to allow a more gradual bend. : — : — . . the foregoing instructions will apply generally to the method of making it. for the top.. then for the body. h in. lining. The frame for this can now be put in (square iron) and the edges bound according to previous instructions. bind these edges with basil. a strip of good leather. and fix in the end pieces to the body by stitching the edges over and over. Cut out the stiffening for the top first. Cut the basil lining for the top of this portmanteau 3 in. run it within the lining on the front. in order that it may cover the top frame in addition to the iron band. Glue the canvas and stiffening together. T% in. cut off a strip of iron band 50 in. basil and welting belly as before mentioned. 93) different in design. by 2 in. 27 in. long. by 6 in. the stiffening for the body and top must be scored three or four times across. and 11^ in. for the hinge-piece. by 23^ in. wide. A pair of frames is required for a portmanteau of this shape. p. one lock. these being known as the body frame and the top frame. two long straps and guides. buckles. portmanteau of this shape would be Canvas. 26| in. Although the is 97 " Railway " trunk (Fig. two 1^-in. Paste this inside. trim the edges. The end pieces are cut 12 in. the largest size conveniently carried by one handle. a few rivets of each kind. by 24 in. by 5| in. by ^'V in. The dimensions shown are the proportions of an ordinary 27-in. and for the top. There is rather more "corner" taken off these end pieces than in the case of the "Imperial" trunk. G . one pair of handle-plates.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks.. about 6 in. from each end. which is placed near the lock. the sizes of iron used for these are For the body. The material required for a 27-in. lock flap and strap to fasten it.. 2 yds. 1 yd. 27 in. and two stiffening boards as before. for the body.. In the best quality. 96. a piece of f-in.

98). fix them on the lined side The flap may be of the board. bend these. and pass them along the lining of the two ends. are trimmed. which the other work is Fig. Glue a piece of stout brown paper. except the division board is made and put in when all completed. to the pocket. each side. from the second.. apart. strengthen it. by 6 in. and turn the top edge of the pocket in a little to bind and . — Trunk Division Board. The edges. Fold and crease these. by 5^ in. and glue lining on to one side. held down by a piece of elastic and button. and flap from a piece of thin roan the pocket will measure 11 in. except the bottom. 98. leaving 11^ in. 7 in. and the third f in. The buckle chapes on each side of the pocket must next be sewn on. then the other side of the board is lined. and a narrow binding cut from the same . Line both with a piece of coloured cloth. or by inserting a loop as shown. and the third line marked for stitching in the frame.98 Lea ther Wor king. using good glue for this. round the top corners a little. 95).. Stiffen the flap with stout paper. One row of stitching to secure the lining should have been previously made. A pattern must be cut for the flap. by 6 in. leaving 2 in. by 11^ in. each side pliable for the gussets.. The first and second rows should be \\ in. and turn the edge under all round. Cut a piece of board 26^ in. All the other work is carried out as described for the " Imperial " trunk (Fig. Cut out the pocket (Fig. and the flap *J\ in. and stitch round.

. Fold the raw edges inside and stitch them at intervals along the bottom.ofC. and it is by this that it is secured to the portmanteau.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. passing the thread between the two frames and through the hinge-piece outside L. 99 coloured roan is pasted on and stitched round. The lining should extend below the bottom of the board.

— Knapsack.IOO CHAPTER The IX. 90. The outside covering of the knapsack shown by Fig. 99 is of rubber-proofed cotton cloth. of course any other suitable size can be similarly made. thick but by increasing or diminishing the dimensions given. Select a . as a thin stuff is requisite with both The waterproof material keeps sides unglazed. wide. Fig-. high. 9 in. . and 3j in. KNAPSACKS AND SATCHELS. rain from the contents of the knapsack. in purchasing which it is as well to state what the material is for. and prevents any food carried from getting dry. directions about to be given are for making a knapsack measuring 11 in.

by l£ in. and this renders it water- A Body proof for some time. by 1^ in. by | in. ioi light-coloured material in preference to a dark one. (p and s. and then rubbed over with a lump warm flatof beeswax till it gets yellowish. quired b. Fig. the edges being held by tacks. (e and f. Two pieces measuring 27 in. it has been sug- gested that calico or holland can be waterproofed by being stretched. For lining. c. because the sun's heat is reflected by the former and absorbed by the latter. obtainable at any draper's. The following are the sizes of the pieces rea. iron passed over the unwaxed side then causes the wax to saturate the stuff. however. and buckles for them will have to be bought. 100). c. quite possible on a summer-day's tramp. some common. twilled calico. 101). For a temporary knapsack. wide straps will have to be cut out of strap leather. 100). The necessary leather will be 45 in. Fig. d. to use rubber waterproof. Two . 100). (Fig. of thin. of Knapsack- It is better. piping leather 1 in. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. 4 in. : measuring 7 in.Knapsacks and Satchels. Fig. on a flat table. can be used. by 1 in. white. and food is never improved by subjection to an invited temperature of 80° or 90°. Two pieces . glazed. One piece measuring (a b and c d.

104. can be sewn on by machine. but stronger and a ring If in. but the rest of the stitching is done by hand. like shirt studs. The binding .— Ring and Holder. flattened for about one-third of its circumference.— Section of Buckle Leather and Sheath. 101. diameter (Fig. (g and H. some sewing-thread and needles. 103). at one end for half their length. straps two brass studs (Fig.— D-ring. One piece measuring 3 in.102 Leather Working. of grey about | in. Six pieces of cane will be needed. long and Get also 4 yds. diameter. uTm > 2? Fig. Four buckles will be wanted for the f-in. From the waterproof cloth and the lining cut One piece out pieces of the following dimensions : — . Pieces c will have to be reduced in width to § in. 102). Fig. 2. 104) of £-in. 102. 100). Fig. f. by f in. . 8 in. 103. and some twist and a piercing-awl for sewing through the leather portions. Fig.— Brass Stud. Fig. pieces measuring 4 in. Fig. binding-tape £ in. wide. round brass or galvanised iron. (s. by f in.

The lining is pasted to the waterproof cloth and is left to dry flat under pressure.. by \2\ in. Draw a straight line with lead pencil round the edges that have the |-in. (outline of Fig.Knapsacks and Satchels. from the edge.— Stiffened Part of Knapsack. 100). so that there is a margin of f in. making the line I in. and should be marked on the . The card must be central. to the fourth side. 103 measuring 36 in. lining side. . but the whole must be kept flat. 105) are to act as guides for the seaming. 105). for stiffening the ends of Paste them between the 12^ in. (outline of Fig. from the edge then draw a similar line j\ in. 105.in. Where the stuffs overlap the card they can be pasted together. round * y Section of Fig. thick cut out two pieces. — . From some cardboard i in. by 4-|. a7 F in. lines (not shown in Fig. These further in that is. Stiffened Part. 105). three sides and a margin of 2| in. by 4|-in. One piece measuring 12^ in. margin. each 9 in. — Fig. by 9| in. 106. pieces (t. Fig. the knapsack. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. by 3^ in.

A 105. 23 in. 100. besides securing the leather to the 12-in. across the width of the leather strip and near its free long edge . Fig. . lining.Ib4 Leather Working. a b (Fig. apart. piece to it. from the round-cornered end. 100 teacup inverted can be used to guide a pencil in marking the part-circle on the lining a pair of scissors will then cut it out true. and at c d. 14 in. The seam. are to be sewn on the 12-in. and the holes through the leather should be made first. by canes. The leather and straps now have to be sewn on. only. 100 and 105 by a dotted line outside the outlines. piece of stuff. The lined side of the 12-in. by 9-in. and shows the arrangement the of the stiffening card. The two pieces 12^ in. by 36-in. The parts goes are indicated in Figs. At some places binding is not necessary. three stitches in each row. and to ensure the correct Next the binding has it where position it is best to draw two pencil lines across at A b. stitches . at one end Figs. by 36-in. before beginning to sew it to the stuff. 100). Only one long edge made 8-in. and the seamed edges are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. pieces with twist and the awl. The awlholes should be made for these in the leather at the same time as those for the edge seams. from the round-cornered end. and the calico to be sewn on. The seams are to be not quite J in. the stitches being T\ in. 106 is an enlarged section of part of Fig. and further secure the leather to the stuff. Fig. by \\ in. is stitched . waterproof covering. These pieces are sewn to the outside of the stuff. also sews the 12-in. Round off the corners of the parts shown in and 105 where indicated. the other is into six pockets that receive the ends of the To form the pockets. eight rows of are made. from the edge. the stitches pass through. 100 shows where the leather goes.

tongues will have to be made by punching out a circular piece with a cutting punch that takes it out clean. make a hole shaped like an elongated 0. as shown at e and f (Fig. Put two or three stitches in the skived overlapping ends to hold them together. pieces of leather. by f-in. long and barely \ in. wrapped once round the middle of the looped strap. from either end of each. and with the same stitches sew on a sheath (s. but a short piece of steel or brass tubing with the edges at one end ground sharp will make an efficient substitute. 1 VJ Fig'. 107. . so that their outer edges are If in. from the edges of the 12-in. The sheath is simply the piece of leather. The ends of this hole and the holes for the buckle 12-in. 100). long. f in. It must not be wrapped tightly. | in. by 9-in. The punch can be bought cheaply. 36-in. piece goes along the line A b. wide and 3 in. 1| in. Put the buckles on with their tongues through these holes. 102. piece and their centres are 11 in. . For making the buckle straps skive or bevel the ends of the 7-in.Knapsacks and Satchels.— Strap End with Keyhole Slit. and the edge opposite the rounded corners of the 12-in. 105 piece goes against the unlined side of the by 9-irt. and bend the skived ends back. wide. or there will not be room for the strap ends to go in so insert one of these to keep it at the right distance whilst sewing it on. as shown in Fig. Fig. Then sew the looped straps to the outside of the stuff. piece. from the end that has square corners. and. 102) for the ends of the straps that are to pass through the buckles. by 36-in.

stitched to the middle of the 12-in. One hole of each pair should be \ in. piece. part of the tapering pieces. and the other hole Z\ in. and 108). from it. near the end. at g and h (Fig. piece. and so forming a loop for the flat part of the ring to The holder is rest in (see Figs. This ring is held to the knapsack by a leather holder made by doubling the 4-in. of the leather are stitched. by f-in. 100).106 Leather Working. by f-in. 100. . pieces They are placed If in. Punch eight buckle-holes in the f-in. 100). and so keep the flap of the knapsack down. 107) for the studs to go in. piece. 108. spacing them equally. a b (Fig. e and f. from the 36-in. by 36-in. for into these they buckle. by l^-in. edge. Fig. the two 4-in. To the round-cornered end of the 12-in. The studs passed through these two holes keep the end of the strap wrapped round the lf-in. pieces. as in the case of the 7-in. on the outside. by l|-in. ring. 101.wide part make keyhole slits (Fig. from the extremity of the leather. In the 1-in.— Part Back View of Knapsack.

105. The relative positions of the 36-in. occupying its middle part and leaving — Fig - . piece and the two 12^-in. with in. by 4-|-in. they are to be sewn to the 36-in. io- Cut the piping leather into two pieces and fold each lengthwise along its centre. 109). stitches must be f\ in. Fig-. a second seam along the second guide-line from the first. Take one of the stiffened pieces (Fig. 110.Knapsacks and Satchels. by 12-in. side of Fig. and the 3^-in. ends are sewn to the two 9-in. The other parts of the piping leather the two 9|-in. 105 enlarged. Fig. — Piped Corner of Stiffened Part. by 12-in. from each end so that the folded piping can be bent at right angles there more easily (Fig. at either corner. 109 shows a corner of Fig. 105). piece (Fig. with the piping sewn to it . portion between the two notches is to be sewn along the 4^-in. 109. sides of the stiffened pieces. When both pieces have been piped. apart. 100). Cut a notch 9^ in. the side to which the piping The is sewn is the waterproofing. and along the guideThere is lines already made g in. 105) and to it sew the piping leather in the following manner The edges of the leather are to be close to the edges of the stuff. a margin of \ in.— Satchel or Cartridge Ba°r. not the lining. no piping between A and J (Fig. from the edges. pieces — — ^ .

pieces. b. 112. lining outwards. 100 and 105. is fitted with a hook-andeye attachment to make putting on and taking off . When finished. the bag must be turned inside out and four fastening-off stitchings made at the corners A. 100. to prevent tearing. and that FL>. where J k c a in one have to coincide with the same letters in the other. --Front of Satchel. where these points are sewn to Fig. 113. 105 and its fellow-piece. Fig. of J held together. are shown by Figs. Fig. p or s. parts of the 12i-in.— Back and Flap of Satchel. 100). 105. J k d b take the place k c A The seams must be continuous all round the three sides.io8 Lea ther Working. Sometimes one of the straps. in The ends must be inserted Tapes may be sewn to the ends of the canes their pockets. due allowance being made for the facts that Fig.— Buckle Piece. 111. and J (Fig. and must be made whilst the pieces are on the other side of Fig. of the unstiffened Fio-. 100 (whose ends go into the buckles. 100 is drawn to half the scale of Fig. e and f). J. by 4^-in.

. 113. from the end and punch or cut a hole in the centre of the fold for the tongue of the buckle. Such a bag is shown by Fig. Take the shoulder strap (Fig.. buckle piece (Fig. part. The bag can be made in cowhide. To make it. starting from l (Fig. and afterwards sewn as in Fig. This chapter will conclude with a description of how to make a cartridge bag or satchel. may then be sewn on the gusset or band (Fig. by ^ in. 115 and 116. 110. 114. which shows the front. and a brass wire hook is made and fastened to one end and a brass wire eye to the other. Ill to 116. and stitch the two ends together to form a loop slide this along the strap to the buckle and sew through the two thicknesses of strap. 115 and 116). which may then be fixed in position. pigskin. and loops. Ill).. 115) and bend the leather 2 in. by f in. 1| in. or of canvas bound with leather. or solid leather. 115) on the one side round to M on the other side. 1^ in. The straps (Figs. begin by cutting patterns in paper or cardboard to the dimensions shown in Figs. has been cut to pattern. 114) as shown. or any other leather of the same substance and quality. should be made of brown middling. After this Fig. colour the edges of the pieces just mentioned with dye to match the leather. 109 easier than when a buckle has to be undone.Knapsacks and Satchels. Two pieces of leather. and polish the edges with a greasy rag then punch the holes shown in Figs.— Gusset of Satchel. The buckle is still wanted for adjustment. Ill) is made similarly. The buckle piece (Fig. In that case the strap p or s is cut in two about the middle of the f-in. Next cut a piece of leather.

keeping (Fig. Next fix the front on the back. from the edge and continued for 1^ in. a strip of leather £ in. The back should be folded and marked at f (Fig. 113).no Lea ther The short strap I For king. this being pasted about 1 in. 115. from the edge from H to I (Fig. 113). and pricked with a pricking iron if hand work is employed. the face of the leather being brought outside and the welting being forced out and rubbed with the handle of a hammer to give it the shape shown at x (Fig. 113). and in doing this. also i (Fig. from the edge. along each side. the stitching | o o o o o i Fig-. 113) should now be bound with soft leather from J to k. Also tack together in a similar way h (Fig. should be sewn on the being commenced \ in. 113) to B (Fig. 114) and e (Fig. the two edges of the welting and the edge of the gusset together. work on the gusset.— Satchel Shoulder Strap. 116) flap (see Fig. 112). having it on top when stitching. 113) to point A (Fig. wide being folded over and oversewn or tacked about \ in. a piece of leather f in. 113). and bring the two centres F and G together and tack them strongly. Tack the parts (Fig. 112. 112). strongly together and bring D (Fig. The parts shown by Figs. The piece should next be turned inside out. wide being pasted on and marked for stitching if this is to be done by machine. 114) should now be welted on the back. similarly mark Fig. 114) and d (Fig. The front (Fig. joining f 110). 113. 114). . The gusset or band (Fig. 114 at G. and 114 should have strong twill lining fixed over the back of each piece. The whole should now be welted together from point E to d (Fig.

113) and K to E should then be turned inward and fastened with six stitches from the inside to the back of Fig. 110. hi 112). Run the point of the long strap (Fig. 115) through the loop at x (Fig.— Short Strap of Satchel. and e (Fig. passing it round the band or gusset and through the loop on the opposite side. 112).Knapsacks and Satchels. Next fold the flap and fasten the short strap to the buckle in front. of spare strapping. . a coarse thread being used. The parts from D to J (Fig. 112. 113) to c (Fig. This should be done with an awl and needle. 110). wide. leaving about 6 in. Next oversew or whip the whole together from c (Fig. wash it with a weak solution of oxalic acid. The back should next be bound all round with leather from a point under the strap between N and The o. The strap should be long enough to pass over the shoulder and buckle. L2 Fig. and tack them. 112) to b. binding should be about f in. If brown leather has been employed and has become soiled in handling. overlapping at this point by about \ in.

The points should be finished on an oilstone. blotters. The edges must be perfectly flat and square. A tang is filed at one end for inserting in the handle. iron. the other end being drilled and slotted The slot must be to receive the wheel and pin. etc. The shanks to carry the wheels may be of either of the metals mentioned above. a hole being drilled in the centre for the pin. the ends being shaped similar to the thumb. The modellers (Figs. 121 is a view of Fig. 119. .112 CHAPTER The method this chapter X. and may be Box is generof the same material. and filing them to points as shown. The tracer (Fig. LEATHER ORNAMENTATION.. and may be filed up from hard brass. fingerplates for doors. boxes. 117) can be made by inserting two pieces of steel knitting-needle in a wooden handle. with fine effect. wood. just large enough to take the wheel without allowing it to wobble. making them slightly round. and sandpaper. file. namely. The tools required are few and can be easily made. showing the ends pointed for working into corners and points The ends of 'the tool. such as book-covers. but any hard wood of They are easily close and even grain is suitable. made with a chisel or knife. Fig. The liner (Fig. 119 and 120) are the shape of the tools used in clay-modelling. ally used for the purpose. or steel. so that they do not scratch. shown by Fig. 118) is a tool with wheels of different thicknesses. of scrolls. one fine and the other blunt. 120 from above. of leather ornamentation described in can be applied to a variety of articles. panels.

can be used. The com- panion handbook. or work in hand. paper.Leather Ornamentation. flat —Liner. so that the end found most suitable to the line. A light hammer completes the list of tools. It is about 4 in. 117. as shown. . — . 118. is . the larger end as broad as the middle of the tool the other end is slightly smaller. 122) may be formed Fig. filing from a large French nail. . cutting off the head and the other or working end to a long blunt point. a sponge and water for damping the leather some bran or fine sawdust and ryeflour for filling the raised parts a of slate or marble. . The leather must be thin calf or basil without flaws. thick. with compasses and pencil carefully Ages mark off and draw a number of squares over the H . The grounding-punch (Fig. All are about 6 in. as seen from above. : The following materials are required A slab about 1 in. and. ruler. 113 are round.— Tracer. and made nonabsorbent with a coat or two of varnish a bag of sand or sawdust on which to place the marble or wood slab to deaden the noise when grounding drawing pins for fixing the design . Fig. long. For transferring the design." is invaluable to those who wish to draw their own designs. pencil. long. to work on perhaps hard wood would do as well if the surface were planed smooth. sandpapered. and compasses. The design has now to be obtained. " Decorative Designs of All for All Purposes. The above tools are all larger at one end than the other.

to guide the tools ferred. Remove the pattern and go over the lines with w ell pressing it. The pattern should be of such a size that a margin will be left all round.—Modeller. using the modellers. Any parts to be raised will now be pressed up from behind. and with the tracer go over all the lines. and with the sponge and clean water damp it carefully and If the leather is w^etter at one equally all over. This gives the finished article a good appearance. Leather Working. along straight lines. . 120. or the pattern will not be transThe ruler should be used. Place the leather on the slab. a fair enlarged or reduced copy can be made. There are now a number of fixed points.— Modeller. spot than another a stain will show it must be kept damp throughout the working. Fi . if for a bookcover.H original. The paper pattern must now be pinned to the leather. to f in. The leather. according to size. say from % in. larger all round than this to allow of skiving and turning over the edge. and by noting where the lines of the design cross the squares. using considerable pressure. Then draw a rectangle the full size of the paper pattern. and divide it into an equal number of squares. the depressions thus made being filled (just filled and no more) with a paste made by the liner. should be cut \ in. Fig. T mixing equal parts of fine sawdust or bran and rye- . 119.

place the slab on the sand-bag. The leather is now turned right side up. taking the hammer and punch. 122. 121.Leather Ornamentation. and the raised parts carefully modelled to shape with the Fig-. 115 flour with water. ready for mounting. and. or . Then go over the lines again with the liner until they are clear and sharp.— Grounding-punch. making the impressions sharp and clear. — Another View of Modeller. dot in the ground. When quite dry. Over these place paper to prevent them sticking where not needed. modellers while the paste is still workable. Much depends on the evenness The work is now finished and of the ground. and let the leather dry. proceed to stipple Fig - .

from quite a variety of leathers. Much of this leather is manufactured specially for football makers. The cases are made — 123. — As80ciation Football. Whole hides vary slightly in size. The shapes most used are the Association (Fig. and the bladder. Footballs are composed of two parts the case. but good. or cover. 124). it is necessary to decide what kind of leather will be required. . FOOTBALLS. and cut on the average from twelve to thirteen No.n6 CHAPTER XI. and many of the cheaper ones are not worth the labour of making up. 5 cases pieces . and bladders are made from vulcanised sheet rubber of good quality. 123) and the Rugby (Fig. First of all. serviceable cases may be made from leather prepared in the usual way. The case always should be made of leather. especially cowhide.

and so with the nine. and an ordinary match Rugby measures 29| in. circumference. and some leather much per square foot. of leather . No. The easiest to begin upon will be a seven-segment case the others can be worked out by anyone. No. 6. 28 in. No. 5. in various sizes 117 may be cutters will cut any required size at so bought. Other sizes are seldom made except for use in Australia. 26 in. . The standard sizes of footballs are as follow: Association: No. by 26 in. No. but some have nine or ten segments. In cutting from small pieces there is more waste than in cutting from a hide. 20 in. the dimensions of their Rugby match balls being 30| in. Fig. 4.— Rugby Football. 3. but it must not be understood that a case could be cut out of a piece of leather that size. where they prefer a slightly larger ball. either Rugby or Association. by 25 in.Footballs. 124. . . 22 in.or . For an eight-segment case reduce the width of pattern proportionately. . . 30 in. contains two square feet . No. 24 in. Association cases are mostly made in seven or eight pieces. The case for an ordinary match ball. as they are all the same size when made up. 2. although there is no advantage to be gained in the greater numbers. 1.

and draw a line from point to point. from the centre on each side. Select two segments and place them face to face. as shown in Fig. 5 Association case. mark and cut off each end. Take a piece of stout cardboard. . if inserted ends are to be put in.n8 Leather Working. These look much neater. hold this in one hand and the string a given distance from it. long by 3| in. long bisect this by a line at right angles. than outside end pieces. then mark one edge of each 2j in. across the middle. For a No. make a pattern 13 in. Fix the cardboard with a few Fig-. see that the pieces when cut will run in the same direction of the hide as shown in Fig. 125. and are also stronger. lay it on a large sheet of paper and mark round the pattern seven times on it this will show how much leather will be required. See that the marks on each are exactly opposite . 125. ten-segment case. In buying the leather. and draw on it a straight line 13 in. as shown in the diagram. drawing-pins or fine nails to the table before marking to prevent it shifting. 126. . and draw segments of a circle through the four Ordinary compasses or points thus obtained. — Segment of Association Football Case. but there are several methods by which it can be done. One of the easiest is to tie a piece of fine string to a blacklead pencil. which shows a hide with pattern laid on. . from the centre this will leave 4| in. for the mouth. made in seven segments. On this line mark off \\ in. When the pattern has been cut out. Having cut out the case. and how it should be cut. dividers are much too small for this purpose.

and can be bought at any leatherseller's. are all that will be necessary. one another. wax. Inmay be bought at prices according to pattern and size. a ball of fine brown hemp.Footballs. between by 1^ in. 128 shows the most useful kind . Before beginning to sew the segments together. it will be necessary to make the threads (wax-ends). five and six shillings. 3 punch. Fiff. — Football Pattern Set out on Hide. The method of forming a wax-end is as follows Take the ball of hemp and push the end out from . its size These may have four strands. for lace-holes 119 A them. packet of harness needles. and the usual clamp to hold work whilst must be cut Mark them as in Fig. this costs being 9 in. flators being sewn. a few sewing awls. a No. 126. A knife. ready for sewing. small piece to line each of these this will strengthen . Fig. The few tools necessary for making footballs are not expensive. The case is now 127.

This lining may be held in place either by being pasted or tacked with two or three small nails. and all being ready. pass the point of thread through the eye. will. Then take the end with the right hand and give it a jerk the fibres will break. . turn point of thread back. give a smooth tapering point. which should not make a hole larger than necessary.120 the centre. Four strands will make a good strong thread carefully examine the points to see that they taper properly and have no lumps. and the ends of the strands formed in this way. from the hook and begin to make a thread by holding the end just formed in the left hand pass the hemp round the hook and bring it down with the right hand. A hook or strong nail must be fixed in some convenient place. Give an additional coat of wax to the points. Place the segment within the mouth way. . This is done by holding the hemp firmly between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. begin by breaking the end of the hemp to a fine tapering point. leaving a few inches hanging down lay this over the thigh of the right leg. . The hemp runs out more will freely this stand perfectly still. Rub the wax up and down quickly a few times. and with the right hand rub it in a downward direction. which should be large enough to take the sewing all round the mark. . when twisted together. and twist needle round a few times to secure it. Stand at a distance of 3 ft. then repeat with the other point rub wax up and down and it is ready for use. then lay one point over the right thigh and roll it with the hand down the leg a few times until it is well twisted. . and all is now ready for sewing. . and break off as before. Begin by stitching on the linings for lace-holes. placed a little distance above one another. which will cause the twisted strand to loosen. Leather Working. Fix a needle to the other point in the same way select an awl of suitable size. take a needle. and the ball .

and as near the edges as may be without weakening the strong seam pull both threads in at the same time and with equal tension this will give. when finished. Be careful to fasten the threads at the ends of each seam by tying them in a firm knot. Punch seven holes in each of the two lined segments for the lace-holes. The case is now ready for seaming. —Marking Lace-holes on Football Case. unsewn. and draw the thread through until the middle is reached.Footballs. a ball of good shape if the leather has been properly cut. taking care that the edges of each are perfectly true. This will give a thread of equal length on each side. Sew all the segments together. Make another hole with the awl. . 127. where the lace-holes are. pass the needle up through the hole. Be careful to drive the awl straight through. and commence sewing at one end. Sew round until the place started from is reached. pass up the bottom needle as before into the right hand. and with a needle in each hand pull through the threads simultaneously until they lie on each side of the leather and form a stitch top and bottom. It is assumed that the case is to have inserted ends. so the ends must be cut off the seven segments. drive the awl through at one of the points of the pattern marked on it. then cut off and sew the other segment to match. or when the case is . leaving only the last seam. 127. send the top needle through to the bottom. Fig-. Take two segments and place them grain upon grain. . as shown in Fig. 121 of the clamp. Place these in the mouth of the clamp.

prepare to sew in the end pieces. . taking care that it is always solid where the hammer blows fall. The hole at each end of the case should be not more than \\ in. turned and inflated the seams will gape open. across. and should be fixed in an iron stand or the usual wooden leg sold for that Fig. \\ in. Too much force must not be used with the hammer purpose. The seams must now be lightly hammered down. the seams have been treated in this way. or the grain broken. such as is used The smallest for repairing children's boots on.— Football Inflator. to form the ends place the case. so as better to guide the worker when sewing the may be When all . The last seam should have about two stitches at each end just sufficient to hold them together while the end pieces are being sewn in. Damp the seams well with a wet sponge and push the foot inside the case.12 2 Lea ther Wor king. between the knees. The best substitute for a proper iron for this purpose is a small iron foot. one end uppermost. Make holes with the awl round the edges before sewing. Take two circular pieces of leather. in diameter. size will be large enough. 128.

Put the nozzle of inflator into the bladder. Cut a piece of leather 4^ in. and this will bring the unsewn part in the right position for commencing About 1^ in. draw the tube . by 3 in. The inserted end piece must rest about half-way along the seam just sewn. be necessary to shift it a little. The case is the right side out. 123 end pieces seams. drive one end of the case down until it rests upon the other. most one can be got at. A hole should be cut in the middle of tongue-piece to allow the pipe attached to the bladder to pass through it. but this last seam must be sewn inside like all the others to do this. and so on until the seam is finished. and the ball is ready for inflating. and gradually work down towards the laceholes. may be sewn. draw the tube through hole in tongue-piece. especially if . the leather is stout. as a great strain is on this seam. well. iron foot inside and hammer the seam Place the then push out the case again to its natural shape and drive down the other end. This is stitched on to one of the sides of the opening by half a dozen stitches near the middle hole. Now insert the bladder. finishing at the mark showing space to be Fasten the threads left for insertion of bladder. This will give it the appearance of a large bowl or the half of a huge cocoanut shell. . or it will not shape properly when blown out.Footballs. Begin sewing this from the top. and pare the edges all round to form the tongue-piece. but not so equal as before. This be found rather an awkward job. will in when sewn hammer down the two The case is now ready for turning. lay the tongue evenly inside the mouth. then it will to sew it. and when sufficient air has been pumped in. Lightly hammer the seam while sewing. By pulling further apart the half of the open seam which is outside it will be found that the inner. and is used as a protecton to the bladder.

and the ball is finished. fold tube over. The process is the same. will have been produced. and it only requires some care in calculating for the pattern. Push the tube under the side which is not attached to the tongue. and tie down firmly with wax-end. a ball.124 Leather Working. hold tightly with thumb and finger. taking great care there is no escape of air. If the instructions have been carefully followed. it will be an easy matter to make a ball of any other shape and size. With the knowledge already gained. perfect in shape and equal to the roughest wear it may have to endure. . draw the mouth together with a good lace. off nozzle.

Light-coloured leathers. therefore only weak liquors should be employed. of — . or it is revolved with the liquor in a closed cylinder. or. etc. sloelines. For an iron black. the preliminary treatment of the leather consists in soaking it in warm water to open the pores and soften the leather. thus allowing it to take up the dye quicker and more evenly. If the colour is to be applied by dipping. especially tan colours. are as a rule produced without dyeing . especially in patches. it may be necessary to dip them in a dilute solution of ammonia or washing soda. indulines. As the skins are often greasy.. it may be steeped for a short time in a bath made of 2 lb. the leather is either tanned with gall extract. The leather by this means is largely impregnated with the colour. such as naphthylamine black. or by means of aniline blacks. etc. a solution of the dye is applied to the surface of the leather whilst spread on a board.125 CHAPTER DYEING XII. the tannin liquors are made from materials which yield the required tints. LEATHER. Broadly speaking. and tanning and dyeing become one operation. In the first method. In the second method. after tanning. and by brushing. the tanned leather is soaked for a short time in the liquid dye contained in a vat. there are two methods of leather dyeing by dipping. This method is used for applying coal-tar dyes. the under side of the leather not being coloured. This gives a superficial colouring only. but this treatment tends to harden the leather and render it harsh. Black colours are produced on leather with salts of iron and galls.

of water. another coat may be applied. and they are readily taken up by of water. but two coats should suffice if a stronger solution is used. Other aniline dyes may be applied to leather by dipping or brushing. may be taken for 10 gal. The aniline dyes may be divided into "acid" dyes and "basic" dyes. 1 lb. scraps. or naphthol yellow. say. The amount of dye to be used is best found by experiment on leather . which is best done after soaking the leather in water for a short time then sponge it with the dye solution. 1 lb. . especially from a slightly acid solution. to 8 gal. to 2 lb. Aniline blacks soluble in water are not deadblack colours. of the liquid. galls and 1 lb. To get a good black it may be necessary to give several coats. dye required varies. In order to counteract the effect of this. The blacks mentioned are known as " acid " dyes.126 Leather Working. in the proportion of. till the black has fully developed. of logwood chips to 8 gal. it is possible to obtain on leather blacks that are nearly free from violet tint. as it causes the leather to rot it is better to add a little The amount of acetic acid or bisulphate of soda. all that is required being a solution of the dye in water. By using the two dyes combined. Sulphuric acid. and if too much tannin is present the . but have a more or less pronounced violet shade. but as a rule. one-tenth of the black employed. and. Leather has the greatest affinity for the " basic " dyes. these colours being fixed by the excess of tannin in the hides as tannin-lakes. powdered leather. two classes. This should be rendered slightly alkaline with carbonate of soda or ammonia before use. such as aniline yellow or orange. After steeping in the gall bath. however. after partial drying. steep it in a solution of ferrous sulphate (green vitriol). must not be used. The same blacks may be applied to leather by brushing. as their staining powers vary. it is usual to add a yellow dye.

Dyeing Leather. It is then allowed to dry partially. Sloelines. Hofmann Methyl violet. Acid Dyes. If the black is not fully developed by this treatment the leather is again treated with logwood. . Bismarck brown. For dyeing leather black by brushing. Another reason for the use of weak solutions is that basic dyes give a bronze colour if the solution is too strong. violet. after which it is brushed or dipped in a solution of sulphate of iron or nitrate of iron. Acid dyes are more suitable for dyeing by immersion than the basic ones. unless afterwards neutralised by dilute acid. Phosphine. tions. Naphthol blue-black. . Nigrosine . Acid green. Aniline orange. Basic dyes are not so suitable for dyeing by immersion unless the excess of tannin is previously removed from the leather by soaking in water. Alkalies must not be used for this purpose. Magenta. Alkali blue. a complete list. Fast yellow. Compound colours may be made by mixing two dyes . Chrysoidine. and will be taken quite readily. The following is a list of some of the aniline dyes suitable for dyeing leather it is not. or with a solution of quercitron or sumach. Naphthylamine black. as they injure the colour of the dye. Acid browns. but strong solutions may be applied with a sponge. Naphthol green. the leather is stretched and brushed with a strong decoction of logwood. water soluble. 127 leather takes too much colour and becomes overstained or it may dye too deeply in patches thus basic dyes are best employed in rather dilute solu. however. and again treated once or twice with the logwood solution. Basic Dyes. Malachite green.

and \ oz. of water. The various shades of yellow. 1 oz. fustic. The leather intended for dyeing in bright colours should be as nearly white as possible. and then adding a solution of \ oz. This is brushed on the of alum in 4 oz. etc. Adding a little sulphate of copper modifies the colour. the latter. strong soap A . tan. In some cases oils and yolk of eggs arc employed to aid in softening the leather. orange. Leather aniline dyes. are also obtained by using solutions of aniline dyes. After dyeing. one of the aniline blacks The to the logwood solution. and Brazil wood. polishing rag and a little French chalk. or stiffening. of scarlet berries. leather. alum-tanned or tanned with pale tan liquors. as that on the surface tends to A stained a red colour with one of the by first treating it with cochineal extract and tin salts (chloride of tin) . ing \ lb. Leather that has been tanned. 16 oz. the leathers are usually finished by smoothing with a " slicker/' and drying very slowly. however.. that is. solution of shellac in borax is often used to fix the black dye. of Brazil wood (in shavings) with 16 oz. of white vinegar. red. is a fugitive colour. intensify the black. will be most suitable for the purpose. of water. or by the use of A solusaffron. anatto. of sulphate or chloride of zinc.128 Leather Working. As a finish they may be rubbed with a solution made with curd or Castile dull polish may be obtained by using a soap. tion of picric acid gives a very pale yellow colour aniline yellow and phosphine are now largely used A red dye may be made by heatfor yellow stains. stretching them and working them about from time to time to prevent wrinkling and is rub off. it is also To may be added worked about for the same purpose. A purple dye is obtained from \ lb. leather is usually treated with oil during the drying to prevent it getting hard and stiff . of Brazil wood.

The Portsea purse (Fig. Cut the back part 5^ in. or other light leather of any colour. Cut them from 8 in. inside out and turn in \ in. of the same width as the bag . put the three edges together and tack them. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF LEATHER WORK. wide have a . and may be made easily. — Portsea Purse or Saddler's Purse. of the top. and run a string in and out from each end through these holes so that the string crosses in the holes . Punch holes | in. Then turn the bag Fig-. knot the ends so that the mouth is closed on pulling the string. about the mouth. centre piece to reach to within 2 in. of miscellaneous articles in leather will have their construction described in this chapter. with linen thread of any colour. 129. The material may be hogskin.129 CHAPTER A number XIII. 129) is commonly called a saddler's purse. to 9 in. stitching all round the bottom of the turned-down piece. and either backstitch or double-hand them with a fine awl and needles. light calf. Cash bags may be made of soft leather. I . long and from 4^ in. apart all round the mouth between the stitches and the top. to 6^ in. such as wash-leather or basil.

stitch double with beeswaxed linen thread where the front part begins. A small button. Tack the front piece to the other side of the . them. and turn the gusset so all round the centre piece. Then glasspaper the edges. such as a small front stud. cut the front piece 3| in. but this is not really necessary. Cut square with the top of the centre piece on both sides. .130 long. and mark it along the bent edge with the screw-crease and pliable hogskin . For the gusset. wide. taking care that with every stitch the centre piece is caught up. and stitch along the marks made all round. cut a thin piece of soft and it must be long enough to go round the stitched part of the purse and 1^ in. leaving . and stitch all round to the opposite side. and round it at one end to the same shape as the back part . Cut the centre piece to the same shape. and round it at the top. There are now three pieces . and tack the edge of the gusset right opposite on the back and all round. Having marked the stitches on the front part. wet them. let it be quite square and straight at the top. then round the top. If the pocket is made with a gusset that is. put these together and tack them. Double it down all along the middle. and stitch the gusset and back together all the way. prick along the mark put in the centre piece of the purse from the point of the straight end between the two folds of the gusset right up to the leather at the bend. with a hole opposite in the overlap to fasten it down . may be put through the front piece. round it at one end for the bottom. a piece let in to open it to increase the capacity a button will be required to keep it — — closed. line of the front piece. Leather Working. and rub with a rag so as to polish the sides straight Turn down the back part a little above the and give the bend a few light taps with a hammer. long.

or made in two pieces and joined even with the seams on the body. 130 gives the three necessary patterns for cutting out an opera-glass case. Other purses may be made on the principles just described. of fine gauge. Make tracings of the three patterns on suitable paper and paste these to thin cardboard. Put the purse on a flat surface and weight it to keep it flat leave it so till the gusset dries. — — . or mark the shape first with a round point and cut out after the pattern is removed. There is no difficulty in making it. and put in the button. . which. A strip of leather \ in. lay the patterns on the leather. wide is joined to this and forms the flange. . if well-made. c is the bottom pattern. Trim and rub the edges.MlSCELLANEO US EXA MPL ES. . and it will then stand and keep its form. This is owing to the trumpery material these cases are made of. Brown and patent leathers look and wear well. b shows the pattern for the top. well. The instructions given here are for making a case in solid leather. the details of construction being soon mastered and its cost will be but trifling. 1 3 I gusset and stitch it round then damp the gusset and draw a piece of string tightly against the middle of the gusset between the back and centre pieces also draw it between the centre and the front piece to pull in the gusset. It frequently happens even when a good price is paid for a pair of opera glasses that the case sold with them soon shows signs of becoming dilapidated. Fig. or sheet zinc. This may be cut in one length and carried right round. The body is made of two pieces marked a. which are joined together on each side where the strap goes round. and both kinds are made up in the same manner. overlap. and either cut it with a fine-pointed knife round the edge of the pattern. will keep in good shape and sound condition for many years. Cut them out correctly. . and the slip-shod style of putting them together. turn down.

The buckle chape should be middle of one half which fix this to stitched on to the form the body before the side seams are closed it is so much easier to on to the flat surface. For colouring the edges of brown leather use a " 1 oz. is . See that the inside edge is well taken hold of by each stitch. and that a uniform portion of the flange is in sight. long by | in. Mark all parts for the stitching £ in. The edging must be applied hot with a sponge. or patent. long by f in. bringing the awl out at .132 Lea ther Working. If black. Secure these in position with a few small nails and stitch them straight through. straps. A number of holes will have to be made in the — . leather is used. Having sewn these on. Those edges to be sewn must be finished after the stitching is done.. The flange pieces for the body are laid inside and fixed to the broadest part of each body half. and then through the other part in a corresponding manner. not straight through as in the case of stitching on the flange. of water solution added to it produces a more brilliant polish. the four edges of the body. The sling-strap should be 6 ft. the sides arc now ready for closing together. but in a slanting direction from the mark along the surface towards the extreme edge at the bottom. colour the size with a little lampblack or similar pigment. from the edges— that is one edge of each flange piece. In doing this. and one edge only on the flange pieces. the awl must be driven. and the four loops to keep the sling-strap in position round the case must be cut If in. The strap to hold down the lid is 3 in. and also the top and bottom pieces. long by | in. Colour and rub up the edges of straps and loops. and the polish produced by rubbing with a moderately coarse cloth. wide. is enough to very weak solution of " size and a few drops of oxalic acid in ^ pt.

133 the opposite mark. Two small pieces of leather to form hinges must also be attached to the body. In this manner one edge is to butt close against the other. and the stitching securely holds them together. Place these evenly across the seams.Miscellaneous Examples. so that an equal proportion of loop is on either side. Stitch the bottom in next. leaving sufficient " slack " to allow the sling-strap to be drawn through. This is put inside the lower made — — . and stitch them on. The guide loops for the sling-strap must be stitched on next.

or marine may be made from these instructions. 131 below. Then take the length of the glasses. insert and remove the music than would be possible if this portion were united to the ends in the same manner as the back. which possesses the advantage of holding the folded music without any perceptible crease. first turning the screw to — — bring the glasses to the shortest focus. 131. To get the size of the top and bottom leather. such as is illustrated by Fig. Fig. Cases for any size of glasses opera. especially if the instructions about to be given are followed with care.. field. 131) so generally used. 132 shows the lid raised and the front flap dropped ready for receiving the sheets of music as well as for withWith this drop flap it is easier to drawing them. In making a music carrier. Fig. — Music Carrier Closed. place the glasses on a sheet of paper and take the outside measurement at each end. and make some allowance over this measurement for the thickness of leather. and passing it through the four guide loops. Leather Working. etc. . great skill is not required. by 10 in. The shape is of the ordinary round bottom pattern (Fig.134 sling-strap. The dimensions given will be found suitable for all ordinary sheet music measuring 14 in.

used. the top of lid. Many kinds of material are — Fig. The diagram (Fig. Common bookbinders' cloth is the cheapest and the least troublesome to use. long by 5| in. 9 in. as the case may be. the bottom and back. Dull-grained American duck wears better. and 2| in. 135 the case when made up being 15 in. allow \ in. the lid flap. beyond when cutting to provide the necessary surplus for folding over the edges. but it is the least durable. If in. from the commonest bookbinders' cloth to the expensive French moroccos and scented Russia leather. but they will be found to be very suitable for the purpose. so that the edges when folded over the board neatly butt together. The corners of this surplus must be removed as shown. Lay the cloth or leather. 132. —Music Carrier Open.Miscellaneous Examples. 133) shows how the various parts are divided. to I in. face downwards on a level table and proceed to line out the various parts as in Fig. Whatever material is used it is essential that it should be cut in one piece. but is not so easy to work. there is no necessity to keep precisely to these dimensions. A piece of thin millboard is next . being the drop flap. allowing a sufficient margin beyond the four edges for turning over at least half an inch. 3^ in. deep. Of course. 133 .

The two lines on each side of the lf-in. space) scored on the other side. next applied to the and the millboard surface then lay the board in position on is double scored the cloth and press the two firmly together by using the roller (Fig. then the board must be turned over and the line for the drop flap (3^-in. so that it extreme edges. being folded into divisions without separating the parts. The rounded ends sufficient to . —Pattern for Music Carrier. 134). Lea ther Working. space are scored. the two corners are taken that is. The inside lining is cut rather less than the size of the millboard. cut about half-way through with a pointed knife travelling This permits the board along a straight edge.136 cut 15 off. . is Good bookbinders' paste inside of the material. but proves does not quite reach the make a good lap over the turned-in surplus. 133. The pasted edges are next brought over the boa'rd and rolled.. in. lines scored — ml* -v- -16- Fig. by 16^ and the cross in.

134. and it should not be heavier than is consistent with durability. Fig. and back of case. .Miscellaneous Examples. When leather handles are used it is a much stronger method to insert the ends through openings made in the top of the case. top. 135. of a smooth interior. For a ^-plate camera case as illustrated by Fig. 131 and 132 are usually cut from a piece of \-m. The lock and catch are fixed by three pins being riveted through each. so that it does not scratch the camera. and again just below the drop flap then at intervals insert small gimp pins and fix in the other end to match. and covered to correspond. cut the widest pattern first (see Fig. i37 seen in Figs. and it will give a neater appearance if the . A leather camera case must be of simple shape. This forms the outside flap. strong. Place one of these ends in position and fix with an escutcheon pin at the extreme point forming the back. or rings. and metal handles with bosses and clamps may be bought and easily fixed. good deal or mahogany board. and then stitch or rivet them . and there is little else to add to its cost except the lining and a few buckles and dees. thoroughly waterproof.—Hand Roller handle and lock are fixed before the inside lining at this part is pasted down. The leather for a camera case is not a very expensive item. The patterns may be cut from thin cardboard or brown paper. 136).

Fig-. and a total length of 21| in. The four corners must be rounded oft' and lines drawn across the pattern. Next cut a pattern 36 in. The width throughout is 8j in. across 3| in. 135. wide for the gusset (see Fig. giving the size of top and leaving 11 in. 137). from the end with large rounded corners this gives the size of the flap and another — . for the depth of case. using a square for this purpose.138 Leather Working. one line is . and draw two lines across the pattern. drawn 7 in. from this. One line is drawi. long by 7 in. Round the corners well at one end and slightly at the other.— Camera Case.

from these. Top. and — Front Back of Camera Case. leather for this purpose. two of the corners being slightly rounded. wide. wide and long enough to reach ^ in. as this part forms the top of the case as well as the flap. 139 from each end and two more 11 in. ISC EL L A NEO US EXA MPL ES. for the bottom. Black enamelled or brown cowhide is the best v Fig.M 3 in. Some pieces of leather for binding the flaps will be wanted these must be thin and pliable. 1 I . 136. and cut into strips I in. This leaves a space of 8 in. The pattern for the front is a simple rectangle 11 in. 136 the binding starts at a and is continued round to b. J Flap. and a camera case this size will take about 3| square feet. long by 8{ in. In Fig. beyond the marks showing the parts to form the flaps.

buckle. The long straps can be sewn on the dees after the bag is made up. and holding the pattern down firmly with the other hand. in about the middle of it. velvet. but only 3 in. wide for the outside flap. one 1-in. long by f in. wide. and another 5^ in. and two 1-in. Lay the patterns on the leather and see which is the best and most economical way of cutting out the parts. buckle pieces. In order that there may be nothing rough inside when the bag is finished. long by f in. two |-in. See that these are far enough from the edge to give room for the bindThe chape with buckle and loop must be sewn ing. and the shortest narrow strap is sewn on one flap nearer the end and a chape with buckle and loop-piece in on the other. on the front piece. good handle. Then cut out the lining. 138. loop pieces. long by 1^ in. About \\ in. This may be either plush. Cut evenly round the patterns with a sharp knife. green baize. one piece to each pattern. long and 2 in. as these are subjected to the hardest wear. and two \-m. A strap 7 in. With the patterns and materials ready. will be all that is required except the lining. A hole at x must be cut in these for the buckle. buckles. cut to the shape of Fig. wide. Chapes for the dees to be fixed to the case must be 3^ in. and The the other narrow strap sewn on the front flar> . cloth. begin cutting out. and short straps must be sewn on before lining the case. using the stoutest parts for the front and back. from each end will be about the right distance for these.140 Leather Working. running the second finger of the hand holding the knife along the edge of the pattern as a guide. wide for the gusset flaps. Those for the buckles are cut the same shape. Put the straight part of the dees into their chapes and tack them on to the gussets with two or three small nails to keep them in p'osition whilst being sewn. or even thin leather. the dee chapes. dees or rings.

place the patterns on the leather and make ink marks on the brown edges of the latter where the lines run across the patterns this will serve as a guide in fitting the parts together. from the edge with a pair of compasses to give the lines for straight stitching. If a stiffened case is required. The leather should now be placed bottom upwards and the lining joined to it by a thin streak of glue or paste round the edges. pressing them well together.or five-cord thread of No. Stitch the front piece and one edge of the gusset first. but if a box 10 in. and from three or four teeth to twenty in number. These pricking irons cost. and if a saddler's pricking iron can be obtained these lines may be stamped with it and a perfectly even stitch obtained. and the stitches should be six or eight to the inch. and are made with teeth ranging from six to the inch to sixteen to the inch. a tooth. by 1\ in. If the case is a stiffened one. All the unbound edges must be marked \ in. new. . A three-cord thread of fine closing flax is stout enough for sewing the bindings. pieces of cardboard cut to the size of the various parts. Before applying the paste to these. Trim the lining off level with the leather and paste on the bindings. 141 sewing thread should be a four. and then fix on and sew the back part to the other gusset edge. may be glued between the leather and lining. For sewing these seams use a four -cord hemp thread. the case can be tacked on to this and held between the knees whilst being sewn. l£d. rub on . is made. it will be found rather difficult to sew these side scams in the clamp. except the flaps. by 6^ in. Shave the edges even with a spokeshave. 22 hemp. Before sewing the sides together.Miscellaneous Examples. fold them over and tap them down with a hammer. this will cause them to go round more evenly and help the paste to unite them to the leather and lining.

2 size muzzle which fits a small fox-terrier dog cut four strips of leather. The regulations for dog muzzles specify the use of a cage muzzle which shall prevent any possibility of the animal biting. so that there will be no difficulty in making a muzzle for any head. the cage proper. q. so that the spaces on each side are uniform. some dye. each barely f in. and G. m.. It only remains to sew the long straps on to the dees and the case is completed. long. cage-piece 22 in. 3^ in. and t. c. and polish them with a soft cloth. a nose-piece. — — — . then at 2 in. e. and J. from one end.142 Leather Working. On referring to Fig.. and are only suitable for the dog with an average-shaped head. the front. k. as this enters the buckle chape. d. There is no necessity to mark one at the other end. namely. o. p. The nose-piece runs from a round the nose and under the buckle at the other end. there are only two slits at l and N.. trim off the sharp edges and rub them up with a rough cloth. Make the nose-piece 11 in. The muzzles sold in shops are generally made to standard sizes. To make a No. 1. marking first at I in. first sponging on some warm-coloured size diluted. front piece 6 in. the muzzle will be found to consist of four pieces of narrow leather. e.. b. wide. and shall also give perfect freedom in breathing and not hinder the dog from lapping water. and in the strappiece slits are cut at x.. Fold the strap exactly in the middle and mark the edge opposite these. f. but the method of altering the various parts will be pointed out. s. and the strap and buckle-piece. and strapMark one edge of the nosepiece 20 in. Similar slits are cut in the front piece at h. and 4f in. 139. and has seven slits pierced through it sideways at A. The sizes given below correspond to those articles. piece with a blue lead for the slits. In the muzzle or cage-piece.

138. A gauge. for the forehead. 139.piece has two slits only. The cage. 7 in.. is very useful in firmly holding the leather edgeways for this operation. start in. mark the edge and cut the at 2^ 4 in.. and the other 4^ in. 8 in.. — Humane Dog Muzzle. and drive the nail through to keep it in position. narrow chisel or a penknife for dividing the leather. using a lead piece as a support.. In marking the slits in the Fig. take the front piece and cut a slit | in. made by nailing some odd pieces of leather on a board. and be careful to cut it clean through the middle. cut off. from one end. 143 Use a sharp. from the buckle end and and 10^ in. the first \\ in. these distances being measured from one end only. and pass one end of the cagepiece through fold it to get the slit over the middle. hammer. Fig. open the slit 1.- Dee and Buckle Chape. Put a washer over the nail. take the front piece.Miscellaneous Examples. make a hole with a small awl. and rivet with a small . slits. The strap-piece crosses underneath the throat at x. . strap-piece 1 to 6. Having cut the slits... leaving 3| in. from each end and one 25 in. For fitting the muzzle together.

wide. e. A . 139). and pass it through R. and T. With the front of the muzzle towards the worker. or No. four or five holes in it for adjusting to the size of chape with double buckle is the dog's neck. 8 size are as follow. h. See that all the parts correspond before nailing and riveting. continue the cage-strip from G through E. and K. Cycle Valise. a. On small muzzles it is usual to cut a strap 4 in. f. If possible. 6. try the muzzle on the dog to ensure the various spaces being well apportioned. riveted to the other end. x. No. d. the spaces being in proportion to the one illustrated here . and the strap-piece is passed successively through J. and rivet or stitch it to that end of Punch the strap-piece which slides through J. and c. The lengths of the various parts for muzzles numbered in lists as No.144 Leather Working. long by \ in. The cage-piece is next passed through the nose-~ piece at B and G (Fig. Then take the other end. 4. l. n.

but where this is not the case the necessary alterations can be made before cutting out the material. must be bought. and the other two parts longer the distance H to J (Fig. If it is desired to have the gusset without a join. but must be cut from the surplus and joined. and the cross at the throat is close to n. however. 140. will not be all in one piece. | yd. To get the correct size of valise. and. This would be most economical if two carriers are to be made. strong. and as commodious as the frame of the machine will permit. place a sheet of strawboard on one side of the cycle frame. . A cycle valise should be light. Half a yard of material will be required to make the valise . Another plan is to cut out a pattern of the small half from the dimensions given in Fig. but. rainproof. 141. it will be an easy matter to make them. US be shorter. the patterns may be reversed and j . and as the material is suitable for cutting either crosswise or lengthwise. by making the valise as shown by Fig. without being too large or cumbersome. it will have sufficient capacity.Miscellaneous Examples.— Pattern for Cycle Valise. and mark it by running a lead pencil round the inside of the frame. the gusset. Leather or waterproof canvas will answer well for the purpose. The sizes given will be suitable for nearly all Fig". 139) is extremely short. by following the instructions. For a dog with a long thin head the opposite treatment is necessary. frames. These muzzles have the appearance of being very complicated. 141.

in cutting the material. The straps for the flap are cut 6 in. 141. patterns a or b distinctly. them with pieces of cardboard the gusset should . by | in. about 12 ft. Strips of soft hide bellies must be cut 1 in. stiffen stitching. be kept flexible. Fig. In Fig. 112. A lady's workbox can be covered with leather way. and those for fastening to the frame 10 in. The buckle is sewn into one end of these. and b the large half with flap. or the parts will not be in pairs. see that the letters are uppermost. and each end of the gusset-piece. The gusset is cut 3 in. measure from the front opening at the lock to the hinge line. long by f in. then the top of the small half which is to go under The parts it. and. the ends pared down and spliced together with good paste Bind the flap first. wide. and again over the top from each side openin the following . long.146 L EA THER IVO R K 1 NG. — Pattern for Leather Covering of Workbox are then pasted together and bound with leather. wide. a denotes the small half. For the lid or top. and they are stitched on the carrier close to this To make the sides very firm. wide by 40 in. Be careful to mark the there will be less waste. will be wanted.

M ing. They must be pared down. as shown in Fig. to see if it is correct. ISCEL LA NEO US EXA MPL ES. . r . Make a brown paper pattern and put this on first. allow for lapping over. which is much stronger and neater than butt joints. I 47 The inner row of dotted lines in Fig. The corners. 142. 142 shows the plan of top of lid the outer row shows where it turns over the lower edge the part beyond this is brought to the under part of frame resting on the other half of the box. so .

The metal hinges should be removed.148 to Lea ther Working. edges at the bottom. the veneer will have to be well sand-papered. — Segment of Cricket Ball Covering. both leather and wood. the work in sections. in order to get the glue to adhere properly. and. thus the top of the lid first. If the box is veneered. 144. then the four sides. the turned Do — F. lastly. . — Another Lug-gage Label. Fig. so that the lid is quite detached from tne lower half of the workbox. and press them together.g. 145. Luggage labels can easily be made from leather.

long. with the flesh sides touching sew them together . as shown. to be fastened I in. 146. Fig. the only difference . or A strap about 3 in. boards (plain postcards are just the thing) are cut m - to size to slip in the label. 143. and round them off on the top edges. through both. have been written on. 149 which should be stiff rather than soft and oily. 144 shows another label. about TV to \ in. when the required name and address. To make one of the shape illustrated by Fig. Fig. wide by f in. Thin cardto the parcel. is put through the slit. long. etc. — Sewing Cricket Ball Covering.. mark and cut out the pieces a and b. With the back of a knife-blade and straightedge. cut two pieces of leather about 4 in.Miscellaneous Examples. Cut the slit d on the three edges. and place them together. by 2| in.

.on Cricket Ball. The edges of the label can be made gloss}' and smooth simply by rubbing with a piece of hard wood. Cut the corks square and glue them tofull Fig. and allowing \ in.i5o Lea ther Working. each being half the circumference long and a quarter the circumference wide. 147. Bind the cork ball round and round with twine until it is of the desired The finished ball size minus the leather cover. when they are dry. bone.Halves of Covering. the edges of the leather being wetted. all round for the seam. and. A cricket ball that will withstand a lot of hard wear may be made from some old corks and some leather. being that the front part has a larger space for a address. trim them to an approximately spherical shape. gether. or other hard substance. in diameter. The leather used for the covering must be Four pieces to the shape strong but not thick. —Sewing. shown by Fig. should be 2| in. 145 must be cut.

The actual inside of the leather should be made the outside. cork ball and the edges sewn together. more difficult but producing a stronger .ATISC EL LA NEC US EXA MPLES. when opened the seams are hammered flat. cut the edges Another off close. Then the covers are placed over" the twine-and- Fig. 151 Soften the leather by soaking it in water for a short time. . —Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing. 148.— Section of Sewn Edges of Ball Covering. The sewing is commenced with a waxed thread having a harness-maker's needle on each end holes for the needles to pass through are made with a fine stabbing awl. and then hammer well to shape. 146). One way of doing this is to use a straight awl. method. and Fig. The two halves of the cover are made separately. 149. and then put two pieces together and hold them in the jaws of a vice between two pieces of wood shaped to correspond with the leather (see Fig-.

f.152 job. The pattern (Fig. wide and from 12 in. which is kept in place partly under and partly within the hole by foot pressure exerted on a strap or string passing over the outer end of the board as illustrated. and then thicknesses of leather. strength. 147 and 148. but will want a better backing. small butts. wide. and \\ in. is Each 4 in. it will shrink and become tighter. a slightly bent awl. and H must be only 2 in. . respectively. . A board about 4 in. and is made from stout sides. leather for a suit case should be such as used for straps of portmanteaus. have the seam stitch through the four bent over. When making the suit case. 150 shows the bottom. seams have come undone. g. the latter figure being Pull the a section of the doubled-over leather. In the board is a hole not quite so large as the diameter of the ball. first cut a pattern of stiff paper to the dimensions given below. b. taking care not to cut the stitches. The ball may be held whilst sewing by the appliance shown by Fig. The above instructions will be of help also in repairing cricket balls whose . it is smooth-grained and polished. Then a case 6 in. high will need only 2 ft. Or the top and bottom sides may measure 4^ in. by is The of the four side-pieces A. while if the pattern were cut in separate pieces there would be 13 ft. of stitching. Having trimmed the seam with a sharp knife. stitches up tight as the leather dries. Fig. etc. or the 13 in. 151) for the lid can be cut in the same way. the foot pressure is released. of stitching and less. but the four pieces e. long is fixed to the bench or table with a bent screw. to 18 in. the centre of which must measure within the dotted lines 20 in. and d wide from the dotted line. The latter method is illustrated by Figs. 149. Cowhide can be used. flatten the seam by hammering. c. is to use Lea ther Working. etc. To alter the position of the ball.

and one of the sides (Fig.. J 1 . and the lid (say) 1^ in. For the backing and lining. if the lid in such an instance the overlap the case centre of the lid will need to be larger. and they will want cover. side and top and bottom. patterns are cut for the two centres. This will be better if done after the case The pieces must be well fitted for each is sewn. bottom 6 is to 153 in.Miscellaneous Examples. 150) is Cut off one used as pattern for the four sides. in proportion to the substance of the material and its backing. side (again to the dotted line) for the four sides of the lid. but the first system is best and neatest.

made into a thread as for shoe-making . This can be done to all four sides of the top and bottom pieces. covering one side of each piece with lining material and leaving a Fio-.154 Lea ther Wor king . which may be pasteboard or stout cardboard. E. it will be seen that each seam has a piece of this lining at the bottom. Cut a small angular piece off all sides. and these four sides can be glued in first by applying a coat to the back and on the rough ends of the lining that hang over. 151. margin all round to turn over to the other side. 150) would have three smooth sides. and the three sides of the four endpieces. then c. Thus J. Then fit the ten pieces of backing. m. glue the side which it is to be stuck. The sewing can be done with about six or seven strands of yellow flax. and g. k (Fig. each seam finishing firm and well at the top and bottom. as A. .—Lid of Suit Case. Only the top of each need be turned over. As each is to fixed (bookbinder's paste will do). and h. while the bottom part at n would hang loose with the four long sides b. and a harness-maker's needle used with a diamond awl. or round up the edges with fine sandpaper. but thin leatherboard or wood pulpboard would be lightest. and fit it so that the rough edge of the linen sticks on each end and Putting in b first. f. or the thread may be made in the same way. c. d.

46-in. and prevents any wet getting in while the case is carried. This piece forms a sort of flange all round the front and two ends. If it is wanted thicker in the of leather to middle. letting \ in. and additional strength is also given all round the edge of the bottom. as shown by Q (Fig. A Fig-. this piece is dispensed with. are glued in. better still.Miscellaneous Examples. all four corners are neat. The handle can be made by cutting two pieces shape and skiving them at the edge about half their thickness. and 1 in. as shown at R. stopping. and then stitching to the two together. or while fixing it in the and help Also when a and d sides will be smeared. say. at least. If the lid is made to overlap. o being the bottom of the case and p the side. as it were.— Section of Suit Case Side. to strengthen it 155 to keep the case square. 152). be. take care not to bring it quite to the edge. or. inside the bottom of the case. projecting above. The bottom can now be stuck in. within \ in. wide. This can be secured on the front of the bottom of the case by two copper rivets. and either the top can be stitched as a finish or a copper rivet may be put through here and there. buy. of the material used for the outside can be either covered with thin brown Persian or left as it is. In the latter case it will be well to sandpaper and A finish off the edge with a little brown cream. 1^ in. . but in applying the glue. paste a long oval piece down the centre before putting the two flesh sides together. 152. strip of firm leather. It can be stitched all round to the top edge of the case. This keeps the lid firmly in its place.

lock is easily added by cutting a portion of the front of the case away. and will lie flat while not in use. long. put the lid on the case. take the case. and lift sufficiently for the hand to go under. or make from a piece of strip brass. inserting the lock.156 Leather Working. and each before fastening must have the handle put under. or one handle can be put at each end. Then close the case. . some play. This will then have so that it crosses the handle. two square sockets for the handle. cut a strip of leather 2 in. 8 in. so that 1 in. lid off. Each must be secured to the case by two small copper rivets. fitting the hasp portion of the lock in position and riveting in its place. and then repeat for fastening to the case. of the width lies on the lid and the other inch on the Mark it right along on each side. and A riveting it it on. and secure the piece to it by a row of small copper rivets or a row of stitching. To finish the box. and put the strip along the back. wide and 1 ft.

INDEX.
Acid Dyes
for Leather, 127 Alligator Skins, 9 American Cloth, Mandoline

Brown Glace Kid,
Persian, 13

14 12

Leather, Cleaning. Ill

Levant Morocco,

Case in, 60—64 Aniline Dyes for Leather, 126 Association Footballs, 117 Bags, 65—69 Brief, 65—70 Cartridge, 109—111
,

Brush Case,
,

40
49

Lining. 41

Bucket-shaped Hat Case,
Buckle, 18 Chape, 140
Strap, 105

,

,

,

,

,

,

Cash, 129 Cricketing, 89 Frames, Riveting, 72 Gladstone, 73—83 Tennis, 89 Half Gladstone Tennis, 89
Ladies', 70

Buckles, Roller, 21

Buckling Garters, Buckskin, 14
Butt, Foreign, 15 Calf Kid, 11

18

,

Leather, Box, 15
,

,

Tennis, 84—89
,

Memel,

10

Ball, Cricket, 150
,

,

Covering, 150

,

,

,

Holding on Bench,
,

151

,

,

Sewing, 151
,'

Ooze, 11 Patent, 9 Russet, 10 Tan, 11

Band

for Hat Case, Cutting, 51 Banjo Case, 55—60 Bottom, 56

Waxed,

10

,

Willow, 15
Case, 137

Camera

Handle,

58
I

Carrier, Music, 134

Lining, 56 Pattern, Cutting, 55 Basic Dyes for Leather, 127 Basil Leather, 15 Belly Leather, Foreign, 15 Bifurcated Rivets, 26

Cartridge Bag, 109—111 Case Banjo, 55 60 Brush, 40

,

,

Camera,

137

,

Field-glass. 134 Football, 117

Binding Corner
Case, 63

of

Mandoline
I

Hair Brush, 40
Hat, 49
,
I

Black Dyes, Aniline, 126 Grain Hide, 13 Blackening Leather, 127 Block for Making Collar Box,
46

Letter, 31—35

|

, , ,

Mandoline, 60—64
Opera-glass, 131
Suit, 152

Blotting Pad, 39 Board. Cutting, 17 Bone, Rubbing, 75 Bookbinders' Skiver, 13 Box (see also Case)

-,
,

Horseshoe Collar,

43

Round

—46

Tennis. 83—89 Cash Bags, 129 Catch Strap for Collar Box, 47 Cleaning Brown Leather, 111 Pigskin and Cowhide, 34 Collar Box, Cutting Leather for,
47
,

Collar. 46—48

Box-calf Leather, 15 Braces, 27 Brief Bag. Cutting Out. 67
,
,

Drawer. 44 Horseshoe, 43
Lid, 45

,

Lining, 43

Gussets for, 67 Lining, 69

,

Round,

46

,
,

Narrow, 66
Sewing, 68
13

Cordovan, 12 Covering Mandoline Case, 63

Brown Cowhide,

Workbox, 146 Cowhide and Black Grain,

13

158
Cowhide, Brown,
, ,

Leather Workixg.
13

Glace Kid,
,

11

Cleaning, 34 Patent, 13

Brown,

14 73

13 Crease, Screw, 22 Cricket Bag, 89 Ball, 150
,

Cream Roan,

Gladstone Bag, 73—83 with Broken Frame, Handle, 79
Patterns, 76

with
Sew-

Seams

Un-

,

Covering, 150 Holding, whilst

ing, 151
,

stitched, 73
,

Sewing, 151

Crocodile Skins, 9 Crup or Horse Leather, 13 Cutting Band for Hat Case, 51
-,

Tools for Making, 75 - Tennis Bag, 89 Glossing Strap Edges, 22 Glove Kid, 12

Grounding Punch,

113

Gusset Pattern for Brief Bag,
67 Stiffenings, Brief Bag, 68 Hair Brush Case, 40 Lining, 41
,

Board

for, 17 47

Leather for Collar Box.

Hat Cases,
Straps, 17—30
,

50

Appliance

for, 29, 30

Cycle Valise, 145

Half-Gladstone Tennis Bag, 89 Hand Punch for Dog Leads, 22
Riveter, 22 Roller, 136

Dee and Buckle Chape,
Dee-ring, 102

140

13 Dipping Leather for Dyeing, 125 Division Board, Trunk, 98 Dog Leads, 22 Fixing Studs in, 24 Hollow-studding, 22 Simple, 23
, ,
,

Diamond Hide,

— -

Handle, Banjo Case, Gladstone Bag,
,
,

58
76,

79

,

,

,

Case, 52 Ladies* Bag, 73 Mandoline Case, 64 Suit Case, 155

Hat

with Studs and Ring,
24

,

Tennis Bag, Trunk, 93
,

85

Hat Case,
Swivel, 24
,

49 Basil, 49

Muzzle, 142 Double-end Brace, 27 Drawer, Collar Box, 44
D-ring, 102

,

,

Dyeing Leather, 125—128

,

Bucket-shaped, 49 Cutting Band for, 51 Leather for, 50 Handle, 52 Inner, 53
Lid, 52

Dves, Acid, 127 -, Aniline, 126
,

Basic, 127
Stick, 17

Emery

Lining, 51 Hide, Black Grain, 13 Cutting up, 16
, ,

Patent Calf Leather, 10 Envelope. Pocket in Writing Pad, 37 Field glass Cases. 134

Enamelling

Enamel,

13

Folding Trunk, 90
Football, 116 Association, 117 Cases, 117
,
,

Different Parts of, 16 Porpoise, 13 Hides, 9 Hinge Strap for Collar Box, 47 Hollow Studs, 22 Hollow-studding Dog Leads, 22 Horse or Crup Leather, 13 Horseshoe Collar Box, 43
, ,

Lace Holes

in, 119

Imperial Trunk, 90
Inflating Football Bladder, 123 Inflators, Football, 119

,

,

,

,

Inflating, 123 Inflator for, 119 Seaming, 121, 122 Rugbv, 117
67

Kangaroo Leather,
Kid,
,
,

14

Brown

Glace, 14

Frames, Brief Bag,

for Ladies' Bags, 70

Tennis Bags,

86

,

Calf, 11 Glace, 11 Glove, 12

French Kid
,
,

Glace) Garters, Buckling, 18
{see

Kips, 9

Making,

17

Packing, 20
Pairing, 19 Tools for Making, 17

,

,

Knapsack, 100—109 Brass Stud, 102 Buckle Straps, 105 Piping Leather, 107 Ring and Holder, 102

I.XDEX.
Labels, Luggage, 148 Lace Holes in Football Case,

159

119

Ladies' Bags, 70
,

Handles
9—16

for, 73

Leather,

Qualities

and Varie-

ties of,

Porpoise Hide, 13 Portmanteaux, 90 Portsea Purse, 129 Punch for Dog Leads, 22 Grounding, for Ornamenting Leather, 113
,

Leg Straps, 20 L ttei Case, 31 —35
,

Riveter, Hand, 22 Punching Hole in Strap,

18

Pigskin, 32 Stamp Pockets, 32 Stitching, 35
12

Purse, Portsea, 129
,

Saddler's, 129

Levant Morocco, Brown,
Leather, 12
112

Racket Cases {see Tennis) Railway Trunk, 90
Ring, D., 102 Riveter, Hand-punch, 22

Liner for Ornamenting Leather,

Riveting Frame to Ladies' Bag,
56
i

Lining Banjo Case,

72

Brief Bag, 69 Collar Box, 48 Gladstone Bag, 82 Hair Brush Case, 41 Hat Case, 51 Mandoline Case, 62

Rivets, Bifurcated, 26
i

Roans, 12 Cream, 13 Roller Buckles,
,

21

,

Hand,

136

Writing Pad, 36 Lock, Hat Case, 53 Suit Case, 156 Luggage Labels, 148 Mandoline Case in
,

Collar Box, 46 Rubbing Bone or Stick, 75 Rugby Footballs, 117

Round

Russet

Calf, 10

B
American

*-.sia

Leather, 14
1?9

.Saddler's Purse,

Cloth, 60—64
,

Covering, 63

Handle, 64
Lining, 62 Pattern, Cutting, Stitching, 64 Marine Glass Cases, 134 Measuring-off Stick, 17
,
,

61

Satchels, 109—111 Seams for Footbal^ 121, 122 Hat Case, 51 Serpent Skins, 9 Sewing Brief Bag, 68 Cricket Ball Cover. 151

Memel
59

Calf, 10

Mitred Corner for Banjo Case,
Modellers
for

Ornamenting

Gladstone Bag, 81 Hat Case, 51 Letter Case, 35 Mandoline Case, 64 Skate Straps, 20, 21 Skins, 9
, ,
,

Leather, 112 Morocco Leather, 12 Long Grain, 12
,

Alligator, 9

Commercial,
Crocodile, 9
Pig, 14

b

Music Carrier,
Ooze
Calf, 11

134

,

Muzzle, Dog, 142
Opera-glass Case, 131 Ornamentation of Leather, 112—
115

Serpent, 9 Skiver, Bookbinders', 13
,
-.

Brown,

13

Staining Leather, 128 Stamp Pockets of Letter Case,
32 Stick,

Packing Garters,
Pad, Blotting, 39
,

20

Rubbing.

75

Writing 35—39
,

Lining, 36 Pairing Garters, 19 Parcel Straps, 22
,

Stiffening for Gladstone Bag, 78 Stitching (see Sewing)

Patent

Calf, 9

Persian, Brown, 13 Pigskin, 14 Cleaning, 34 Letter Case, 32
,

Strap Buckle, 18 Crease, 22 Cutting Appliance. 29, 30 and Making, 17—30 Edges, Glossing, 22
,

Leg, 20

,

Marking,
Parcel, 22

18
in, 18

Piping Leather for Knapsacks
107

,

Pocket for Gladstone Bae, 76 Flap for Gladstone Bag, 76 Pockets in Writing Pad, 36—37

,
,

Punching Hole
Satchel. 109 Skate. 20. 21 Wrist, 26

,

,

E. 84—89 Frame. 9 for Making Garters. Dog Lead. 102 Fixing. Wrist Strap. 145 Varnish for Leather.G. 90 . . 77 . . Trunk Division Board. 15 White Sheep Leather. 87 Studs. 24 . 90 Railway. 22 Suit Case. Turn-clip. 17 75 Lining. 89 Workbox. 35—39 . in Dog Lead. 26 with Handle. 26 Writing Pad. Cycle. 12 Tennis Bag. La Belle Sauvage. 36 Gladstone Bags. 152 Lock. 83 . 112 Studding Tennis Bag. 156 Swivels. Printed by Cassell & Company. Leather. 12 Tawed Leathers. 98 Folding. 36 Pockets. Tools. 146 Bit. Brass. 152—156 Handle. 15 Wood Block for making Collar Gladstone. 46 Covering. Handle. 88 Valise.i6o Lea ther Working. 85 Studding. 87 Racket Case. 48 Welting. Willow Calf. 24 Tab for Gladstone Bag. . . 90 Hollow. Box. Tracer. 86 . 155 Leather. . 93 Imperial. Limited. Tan Calf. 11 11. 89 Half-Gladstone.

" etc." "Questions and Answers for Engineers. M.. GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES. BY STEPHEN ROPER. BATTERIES. FIFTEENTH EDITION. BELLS. AND CLAYTON W. TRANSMISSION AND MEASUREMENT.. ALARMS. DAVID McKAY. AUTHOR OF Engineer. TABLES AND QUESTIONS ON POWER. Ex-President of the Electrical Section of the Franklin Institute. B." " Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam-Fire Engines. FORMULA." "Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive. FUEL AND STEAM. S." "Use and Abuse of the Steam-Boiler. MOTORS." "Young Engineer's Own Book. E.ENGINEER'S HANDY-BOOK CONTAINING FACTS. MATERIALS. PIKE. TELI PHONES. AND ALSO RULES FOR CALCULATING SIZES OF WIRES.. TOGETHER WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL EXPEEIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY." "Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines. " Roper's Catechism of High-Pressure or Non-Condensing Steam-Engines. THE STEAM-BOILER AND ACCESSORIES. THEIR PROPERTIES AND STRENGTH: . HEAT. SWITCHBOARDS. . Etc. 1022 PHILADELPHIA Market Street. ITS GENERATION. KELLER. STEAM-ENGINES AND THEIR PARTS THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR. ANNUNCIATORS. AND AN EXPLANATION OF DYNAMOS. REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED BY EDWIN R.

50 Roper's Care and Management Steam Boiler. Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam Fire Engines.DEC 7 1904 ROPERS Practical Hand -Books For Engineers and Firemen. Roper's . NEW REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.50 Young Engineers' Own Book.50 DAVID MCKAY. 2.50 2. Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive. Electric- PRICE.. Pa.00 Roper's Use and Abuse of the Steam Boiler.. Steam Engineers and PRICE.50. $2.00 • and Firemen. J022 Market Street. Roper's Instructions and Suggestions for Engineers 2. 3. 2.00 2. HANDY-BOOK FOR STEAM ENGINEERS AND Ropers Catechism ians. $3. Publisher.00 Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines. of the 3. for ELECTRICIANS.. . 2.00 Roper's Questions and Answers for Steam Engineers and Electricians. Philadelphia.

With numerous Illustrations in 1 by PAUL Each book contains about $1.00 each. Projection. Index. Laying the Gas Pipe in the House. Coal Gas from the Retort to the Gas Holder. Making a Drawing. DAVID McKAY. Back Lining Drawings. Introduction Explanation of Terms. Philadelphia. Imitating Varieties — of Marble. With — Housed — : : of With 247 Illustrations. Oak Graining in Oil. Simple Form of Staircase String Stair Measuring. Ready Shortly : Practical Plumbing Work. Drawing Boards. With 79 illustrations. Geometrical Construction Plane Figures. Geometrical Staircases. Two-flight Staircase. Tools and Appliances used in Metal Plate Work. Walnut Graining. Marbling: Introduction. Graining: Introduction. 60 pages. Staircase with Winders at Top and Bottom. Incandescent Lights. Index. Cloth. New Series of Practical Volumes. Colouring Drawings. Staircase with Winders at Bottom. Examples of Practical Pattern Drawing. Publisher. Re-tinning and Galvanising. Examples of Practical Metal Plate Work. Geometrical Construction and Development of Solid Figures. Tools. Scale Drawings and Maps. — With 120 Illustrations. Ships' Staircases. Tools. Contents How Coal Gas is Made. Contents. Gas Burners. Winding Staircases. Practical Gasfitting. Practical Contents. — Practical Graining and Marbling. Draughtsmen's Instruments. Drawing Straight Lines. 8vo. postpaid. Staircase over an Oblique Plan. Important N. Practical Staircase Joinery. — Draughtsmen's Work. Materials used in Metal Plate Work. Pollard Oak and Knotted Oak Graining. Planning. Tinning. Other New Volumes in Preparation. and Setting Out. Contents. and Mechanical Aids. Open String Staircase with Bull nose Step. Gas Fittings for Festival Illuminations. Practical Metal Plate Work. Elliptical Curves. Fancy Wood Graining. Index. Oak Graining in Spirit and Water Colours. Imitating Inlaid Woods. Gas Fires and Cooking Stoves. Contents. Paper and Mounting. Furniture Graining Imitating Woods by Staining. Cut String Staircase with Brackets. Maple Graining Mahogany and Pitch-pine Graining. With 226 Illustrations. 1022 Market Street. Soldering and Brazing. Gas Fittings in Workshops and Theatres. Graining Grounds and Graining Colors. . Staircase with Half-space of Winders. Gas Supply from Gas Holder to Meter. Staircase with Open or Cut Strings. 215 illustrations. Index. crown the Text. Drawing Circular Lines. and Materials. Edited HASLUCK. Index. Gas Meters.TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION.

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