Work : activity involving physical or mental work Labor: work

Understanding Work and Labor
Why do we have two words? Are they synonyms? Can they be used interchangeably?

"Work is the process of mental conception, analysis and completion of a project with its implementation dynamics" Not a physical exercise , but a MENTAL exercise Completion of the exercise in mind before engaging hands 95% mind usage and 5% physical exertion

Labor is physical activities without mental input. Demands for much physical energy and very less productivity Any work effort which does not enhance human quality and the environment is mere activity and labor.

Various Concepts of Labour
The The The The The The The The The The The background commodity concept of labour machinery concept of labour good-will approach to labour natural resource idea of labour concept of individual difference citizenship concept of labour customer attitude of labour partnership concept of labour eclectic approach worker in his work unit

The background
In middle ages the survival was the main idea Not much of industrialization was there Eli Whitney gave the concept of hiring labour cheaply for his cotton gin During industrial revolution (17001800) the labour force in a industry rose from handfuls to masses

The commodity concept of labour
Labour was assumed to affected by the laws of the demand and supply Wages were high when the demand was high and labour available was less The price (wages) for the labour was defined by the demand for it This concept did not include many vital parts in it

Machinery concept of labour
Employers did not buy the or less the labour Instead they brought and sold the materials The value of labour was determined by the value of the goods it brought forth Labour was considered largely as the operating organisms or machines Impersonal attitude towards labour

The goodwill approach to labour
Employers begin to realize that the welfare of the employees had direct impact on their productivity Large number of facilities like safety, first aid etc were provided Employer without welfare was begun to be considered to be backward But labour were not thrilled by these improvements

The natural resources idea of labour
Labour is a natural resourceconserve it Restriction of child labour Restriction of work hours for women Workmen’s compensation Accident legislation Large number of legislative actions were taken for the development of the labour

Humanitarian approach to labour
From 1910- 1917 The minds of the workers as well as their bodies must be considered by the management and their state of mind had much to do with the value of their services “inalienable” rights as human beings, that these rights are important as the rights of other persons, and it was industries duty to recognize these rights Business is obliged to its labour

Concept of individual difference
Men often differ from each other in mental abilities, emotional stabilities, traditions and sentiments far more than they differ physically Tried to understand what each labour was good at develop him in it The worker influences the nature of his job, and job in turn affects the attitude of the worker

The citizenship concept of labour
As citizen in a democracy has certain inalienable rights and voice in determining and exercising these rights, so do workers as industrial citizens, have a right to be consulted in determining the rules and regulations under which they will work

The customer attitude towards labour
The customer is always right Respecting the integrity of the employees as that of the customer Employers began to believe “the worker is always right” Increased mutual trust and productivity

The partnership concept of the labour
Mutual responsibilities and sharing of the benefits There should be a close association between the labor and management for improving productivity Some consider it ad fallacious

The eclectic approach to labour
Approaching the labour problems from many sides Relatively recent concept Analyzed from physiological, psychological, sociological, and economic points of view

The worker in his work unit
Total situation is being considered to understand labour Capacity- those abilities , that the worker has, is capable of, and must, to certain extent use for doing his work Interests- not just desires and ambitions but instinctive, impulsive, and ill defined cravings that to some extent effects his productivity Opportunities- opportunities for advancements as well as to exercise his capabilities and satisfy his interest Personality- the total sum of his reaction to his experiences and environments


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