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DataBaseManagementSystems

LAB MANUAL

How to Write and execute sql, pl/sql


commands/programs:

1). Open your oracle application by the following navigation


Start->all programs->Oracle Database 10g Express Edition
->Run SQL Command Line

2). You will be asked for user name, password.


You have to enter user name, pass word.

3). Upon successful login you will get SQL prompt (SQL>).
In two ways you can write your programs:
a) directly at SQL prompt (or)
b) in sql editor.

If you type your programs at sql prompt then screen will look
like follow:
SQL> SELECT ename,empno,
2 sal from
3 emp;
where 2 and 3 are the line numbers and rest is the command

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/program……

to execute above program/command you have to press ‘/’ then


enter.

Here editing the program is somewhat difficult; if you want to


edit the previous command then you have to open sql editor
(by default it displays the sql buffer contents). By giving ‘ed’ at
sql prompt.(this is what I mentioned as a second method to
type/enter the program).
in the sql editor you can do all the formatting/editing/file
operations directly by selecting menu options provided by it.

To execute the program which saved; do the following


SQL> @ programname.sql (or)
SQL> Run programname.sql
Then press ‘\’ key and enter.
To save the day`s session ;do the following
SQL>commit;

This how we can write, edit and execute the sql command and
programs.

Always you have to save your programs in your own logins.

Background Theory

Oracle workgroup or server is the largest selling RDBMS product.it is


estimated that the combined sales of both these oracle database product
account for aroud 80% of the RDBMSsystems sold worldwide.
These products are constantly undergoing change and evolving. The
natural language of this RDBMS product is ANSI SQL,PL/SQL a superset
of ANSI SQL.oracle 8i and 9i also under stand SQLJ.

Oracle corp has also incorporated a full-fledged java virtual machine


into its database engine.since both executable share the same memory
space the JVM can communicate With the database engine with ease

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and has direct access to oracle tables and their data.

SQL is structure query language.SQL contains different data types those


are
1. char(size)
2. varchar(size)
3. varchar2(size)
4. date
5. number(p,s) //** P-PRECISION S-SCALE **//
6. number(size)
7. raw(size)
8. raw/long raw(size)

Different types of commands in SQL:

A).DDL commands: - To create a database objects


B).DML commands: - To manipulate data of a database objects
C).DQL command: - To retrieve the data from a database.
D).DCL/DTL commands: - To control the data of a database…

DDL commands:

1. The Create Table Command: - it defines each column of the table


uniquely. Each column has minimum of three attributes, a name , data
type and size.

Syntax:

Create table <table name> (<col1> <datatype>(<size>),<col2>


<datatype><size>));

Ex:
create table emp(empno number(4) primary key, ename char(10));

2. Modifying the structure of tables.


a)add new columns

Syntax:

Alter table <tablename> add(<new col><datatype(size),<new

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col>datatype(size));

Ex:
alter table emp add(sal number(7,2));

3. Dropping a column from a table.

Syntax:
Alter table <tablename> drop column <col>;

Ex:
alter table emp drop column sal;

4. Modifying existing columns.

Syntax:
Alter table <tablename> modify(<col><newdatatype>(<newsize>));

Ex:
alter table emp modify(ename varchar2(15));

5. Renaming the tables

Syntax:

Rename <oldtable> to <new table>;

Ex:
rename emp to emp1;

6. truncating the tables.

Syntax:

Truncate table <tablename>;

Ex:

trunc table emp1;

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7. Destroying tables.

Syntax:

Drop table <tablename>;

Ex:

drop table emp;

DML commands:

8. Inserting Data into Tables: - once a table is created the most


natural thing to do is load this table with data to be manipulated later.

Syntax 1:

insert into <tablename> (<col1>,<col2>…..<col n>) values(<val 1>,


<val 2>…….<val n>);

Syntax 2:

insert into <tablename> values(&<col1>,&<col2>……,&<col n>);

Syntax 3:

insert into <tablename> values(<val 1>,<val 2>…….,<val n>);

Ex 1:

Insert into skc (sname,rollno,class,dob,fee_paid)


values(‘sri’,’104B’,’cse’,’27-feb-05’,10000.00);

Ex 2:

insert into skc values(&sname,&roll no,&class);


enter sname:’sri’
enter roll no:’104B’
enter class:’cse’
1 row created.

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Ex 3:

insert into skc values(‘sri’,’104B’,cse’,’27-feb-05’,10000.00);

9. Delete operations.

a) remove all rows

Syntax:

delete from <tablename>;

b) removal of a specified row/s

Syntax:

delete from <tablename> where <condition>;

10. Updating the contents of a table.

a) updating all rows

Syntax:
Update <tablename> set <col>=<exp>,<col>=<exp>;

b) updating seleted records.

Syntax:
Update <tablename> set <col>=<exp>,<col>=<exp>
where <condition>;

11. Types of data constrains.

a) not null constraint at column level.

Syntax:

<col><datatype>(size)not null

b) unique constraint
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Syntax:

Unique constraint at column level.


<col><datatype>(size)unique;

c) unique constraint at table level:

Syntax:

Create table
tablename(col=format,col=format,unique(<col1>,<col2>);

d) primary key constraint at column level

Syntax:

<col><datatype>(size)primary key;

e) primary key constraint at table level.

Syntax:

Create table tablename(col=format,col=format


primary key(col1>,<col2>);

f) foreign key constraint at column level.

Syntax:

<col><datatype>(size>) references <tablename>[<col>];

g) foreign key constraint at table level

Syntax:

foreign key(<col>[,<col>]) references


<tablename>[(<col>,<col>)

h) check constraint

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check constraint constraint at column level.

Syntax: <col><datatype>(size) check(<logical expression>)

i) check constraint constraint at table level.

Syntax: check(<logical expression>)

DQL Commands:

12. Viewing data in the tables: - once data has been inserted into a
table, the next most logical operation would be to view what has been
inserted.

a) all rows and all columns

Syntax:
Select <col> to <col n> from tablename;
Select * from tablename;

13. Filtering table data: - while viewing data from a table, it is rare
that all the data from table will be required each time. Hence, sql must
give us a method of filtering out data that is not required data.

a) Selected columns and all rows:


Syntax:
select <col1>,<col2> from <tablename>;

b) selected rows and all columns:


Syntax:
select * from <tablename> where <condition>;

c) selected columns and selected rows


Syntax:
select <col1>,<col2> from <tablename> where<condition>;

14. Sorting data in a table.

Syntax:
Select * from <tablename> order by <col1>,<col2> <[sortorder]>;

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DCL commands:

Oracle provides extensive feature in order to safeguard information


stored in its tables from unauthoraised viewing and damage.The rights
that allow the user of some or all oracle resources on the server are
called privileges.

a) Grant privileges using the GRANT statement


The grant statement provides various types of access to database
objects such as tables,views and sequences and so on.

Syntax:
GRANT <object privileges>
ON <objectname>
TO<username>
[WITH GRANT OPTION];

b) Reoke permissions using the REVOKE statement:


The REVOKE statement is used to deny the Grant given on an object.

Syntax:
REVOKE<object privilege>
ON
FROM<user name>;

WEEK-1

CREATING,ALTERING AND DROPPING TABLES AND INSERTING ROWS INTO


A TABLE (USE CONSTRAINTS WHILE CREATING TABLES) EXAMPLES USING
SELECT COMMAND .

EXAMPLE 1:

CREATING A STUDENT RELATION TABLE WITH ALL DATATYPES:

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SQL> create table student252(
sid number(5),
sname varchar(20),
sbranch char(5),
dob date,
spercent number(3,2));

Table created.

RELATIONAL SCHEMA FOR STUDENT RELATION :


SQL> desc student252;
Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
SID NUMBER(5)
SNAME VARCHAR2(20)
SBRANCH CHAR(5)
DOB DATE
SPERCENT NUMBER(5,2)

INSERT THE RECORDS INTO STUDENT RELATION:

METHOD 1:
SQL>Insert into
Student252(sid,sname,sbranch,dob,spercent) values(104,‘sri’,,’cse’,’27-
feb-05’,70);
1 row created.

METHOD 2:
SQL>Insert into
Student252 values(104,‘sri’,,’cse’,’27-feb-05’,70);
1 row created.

METHOD 3:
SQL>Insert into
Student252(sid,sname,sbranch,dob,spercent)
values(&sid, &sname,&sbranch,&dob,&spercent);
1 row created.

METHOD 4:
SQL>Insert into
Student252(sid,sname,sbranch,dob,spercent)
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values(&sid, ‘&sname’,’&sbranch’,’&dob’,&spercent);
1 row created.

QUERY THE TABLE VALUES:

ALL ROWS AND ALL COLUMNS:

SQL> select * from student252;


SID SNAME SBRANCH DOB SPERCENT
------ --------------- --------------------- --------------- --------------------
130 ravi it 30-1-95 60
131 teja cse 21-07-87 55
129 kiran mech 12-05-92 60
104 sri cse 30-07-90 70
133 sajith eee 12-06-89 55
137 ram ece 07-07-85 40

WEEK 2 (cont…1)
1) Creation, altering and dropping tables and inserting rows into a table
(use constraints while creating tables) examples using SELECT command.
MODIFYING THE STRUCTURE OF TABLE

ADDING A NEW COLUMN

SQL> ALTER TABLE Emp252


ADD (age number(3),
phno number(10));

Table altered.

MODIFYING EXISTING COLUMN

SQL> ALTER TABLE Emp252


MODIFY (phno varchar(20));

Table altered.

DROPING A COLUMN

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SQL> ALTER TABLE Emp252
DROP COLUMN phno;

Table altered.

QUERY FOR THE TABLE VALUES


SQL> SELECT *
FROM Emp252;

ENO ENAME ESAL DEPTNO AGE


----- -------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
30 ravi 51000 3
31 teja 31000 2
29 kiran 31200 1
45 allen 41000 3
33 sajith 51000 4
46 geetha 11000 4
90 veena 16000 3
85 pragna 61000 1
84 harsha 91000 3
40 sanjeev 1500 13

10 rows selected.

UPDATING ENTIRE COLUMN

SQL> UPDATE Emp252


SET age=18;

10 rows updated.

QUERY THE TABLE VALUES


SQL> SELECT *
FROM Emp252;

ENO ENAME ESAL DEPTNO AGE


----- -------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
30 ravi 51000 3 18
31 teja 31000 2 18
29 kiran 31200 1 18
45 allen 41000 3 18
33 sajith 51000 4 18
46 geetha 11000 4 18
90 veena 16000 3 18
85 pragna 61000 1 18
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84 harsha 91000 3 18
40 sanjeev 1500 13 18

10 rows selected.

RENAMING THE TABLE:

SQL> RENAME Emp252


TO Emp1252;

Table renamed.

SELECTING THE TABLE VALUES


SQL> SELECT *
FROM Emp1252;

Example 3

CREATING A DEPARTMENT RELATION TABLE

CREATING A DEPARTMENT TABLE

SQL> CREATE TABLE Dept252(


dname VARCHAR(10),
dno CHAR(5),
dloc VARCHAR(25));

Table created.

DESCRIBE A STUDENT TABLE

SQL> desc Dept252;


Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
DNAME VARCHAR2(10)
DNO CHAR(5)
DLOC VARCHAR2(25)

DROPING THE TABLE


SQL> DROP TABLE Dept252;
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Table dropped.

WEEK 3 (cont…1)

1) Creation, altering and dropping tables and inserting rows into a table
(use constraints while creating tables) examples using SELECT
command.

CREATING A TABLE WITH KEY CONSTRAINTS

Example 1

CREATING A TABLE WITH ‘UNIQUE ‘, ‘NOT NULL’, ‘CHECK’ AND


‘DEFAULT’ CONSTRAINT:

SQL> CREATE TABLE emp252


(eid NUMBER(5) UNIQUE,
ename VARCHAR(10) DEFAULT(‘UNKNOWN’),
age NUMBER(3) NOT NULL,
esal NUMBER(7) CHECK(esal > 1000));

Table created.

INSERTING RECORDS INTO TABLE:

SQL> INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal);


Enter value for eid: 1
Enter value for ename: 'ravi'
Enter value for age: 18
Enter value for esal: 10000
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (1, 'ravi', 18, 10000)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for eid: 2
Enter value for ename: 'teja'
Enter value for age: 18
Enter value for esal: 20000
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old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (2, 'teja', 18, 20000)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for eid: 3
Enter value for ename: 'kiran'
Enter value for age: 19
Enter value for esal: 25000
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (3, 'kiran', 19, 25000)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for eid: 4
Enter value for ename: 'srinivas'
Enter value for age: 19
Enter value for esal: 30000
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (4, 'srinivas', 19, 30000)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for eid: 1
Enter value for ename: 'alan'
Enter value for age: 19
Enter value for esal: 29000
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (1, 'alan', 19, 29000)
INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (1, 'alan', 19, 29000)
[SHOWING AN ERROR WHILE VIOLATING UNIQUE KEY
CONSTRAINT]
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C003875) violated

SQL> /

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Enter value for eid: 7
Enter value for ename: 'dravid'
Enter value for age: null
Enter value for esal: 100000
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (7, 'dravid', null, 100000)
INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (7, 'dravid', null, 100000)
[SHOWING AN ERROR AS NOT NULL KEY CONSTRAINT IS
VIOLATED] *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01400: cannot insert NULL into ("SYSTEM"."EMP230"."AGE")

SQL> /
Enter value for eid: 8
Enter value for ename: 'sachin'
Enter value for age: 35
Enter value for esal: 100
old 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (&eid, &ename, &age, &esal)
new 1: INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (8, 'sachin', 35, 100)
INSERT INTO emp252 VALUES (8, 'sachin', 35, 100)
*
[NOT ALLOWING AS IT VOILATES CHECK CONSTRAINT FOR esal >
1000 VALUE]
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02290: check constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C003874) violated

Example 2

CREATING A TABLE WITH ‘PRIMARY KEY’ CONSTRAINT:

SQL> CREATE TABLE mdept252


(dno NUMBER(5),
dname CHAR(10),
dloc VARCHAR(10),
PRIMARY KEY (dno));

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Table created.

SQL> desc mdept252;


Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
DNO NOT NULL NUMBER(5)
DNAME CHAR(10)
DLOC VARCHAR2(10)

INSERTING RECORDS INTO MASTER DEPARTMENT TABLE:

SQL> INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (&dno, &dname, &dloc);


Enter value for dno: 1
Enter value for dname: 'ravi'
Enter value for dloc: 'hyd'
old 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (&dno, &dname, &dloc)
new 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (1, 'ravi', 'hyd')

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for dno: 1
Enter value for dname: 'teja'
Enter value for dloc: 'sec'
old 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (&dno, &dname, &dloc)
new 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (1, 'teja', 'sec')
INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (1, 'teja', 'sec')
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C003876) violated

SQL> /
Enter value for dno: null
Enter value for dname: 'sajithulhuq'
Enter value for dloc: 'kmm'
old 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (&dno, &dname, &dloc)
new 1: INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (null, 'sajithulhuq', 'kmm')
INSERT INTO mdept252 VALUES (null, 'sajithulhuq', 'kmm')
*

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ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01400: cannot insert NULL into ("SYSTEM"."MDEPT230"."DNO")

ADDING A PRIMARY KEY TO AN EXISTING TABLE:

SQL> ALTER TABLE student252 ADD PRIMARY KEY (sid);

Table altered.

SQL> ALTER TABLE emp252 ADD PRIMARY KEY (eid);


ALTER TABLE emp252 ADD PRIMARY KEY (eid)
*
[ GIVING AN ERROR AS ONE TABLE CAN HAVE A SINGLE PRIMARY
KEY AT COLUMN LAVEL]
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02261: such unique or primary key already exists in the table

Example 3

CREATING A TABLE WITH ‘FORIEGN KEY’ CONSTRAINT:

SQL> CREATE TABLE detailemp252


(eid NUMBER(5) REFERENCES mdept230 (dno),
ename VARCHAR(10),
esal NUMBER(7));

Table created.

INSERING RECORDS INTO DETAIL EMPLOYEE TABLE:

SQL> INSERT INTO detailemp252 VALUES (2, 'ravi', 50000);


INSERT INTO detailemp252 VALUES (2, 'ravi', 50000)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02291: integrity constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C003877) violated - parent
key not
found

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SQL> INSERT INTO detailemp252 VALUES (1, 'teja', 60000);

1 row created.

SQL> DELETE FROM mdept252 where dno=1;


DELETE FROM mdept252 where dno=1
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02292: integrity constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C003877) violated - child
record
found

SQL> SELECT * FROM detailemp252;

EID ENAME ESAL


---------- ---------- ----------
1 teja 60000

SQL> SELECT * FROM mdept252;

DNO DNAME DLOC


---------- ---------- ----------
1 ravi hyd

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Exercise

CREATING A CUSTOMER TABLE USING CONSTRAINTS :

SQL> CREATE TABLE cust252


(cnum NUMBER(5),
cname VARCHAR(10),
state VARCHAR(10) DEFAULT ('ap'),
phno NUMBER(5),
CONSTRAINT cnum_pkkey PRIMARY KEY (cnum));

Table created.

SQL> INSERT INTO cust252 VALUES (&cnum, &cname, &state, &phno);


Enter value for cnum: 1
Enter value for cname: 'ravi'
Enter value for state: 'bihar'
Enter value for phno: 001
old 2: (&cnum, &cname, &state, &phno)
new 2: (1, 'ravi', 'bihar', 001)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for cnum: 2
Enter value for cname: 'teja'
Enter value for state: 'up'
Enter value for phno: 007
old 2: (&cnum, &cname, &state, &phno)
new 2: (2, 'teja', 'up', 007)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for cnum: 2
Enter value for cname: 'yama'
Enter value for state: 'ap'
Enter value for phno: 006
old 2: (&cnum, &cname, &state, &phno)
new 2: (2, 'yama', 'ap', 006)

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INSERT INTO cust252 VALUES
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.CNUM_PKKEY) violated

SQL> /
Enter value for cnum: 4
Enter value for cname: 'huu'
Enter value for state: 'ap'
Enter value for phno: 101
old 2: (&cnum, &cname, &state, &phno)
new 2: (4, 'huu', 'ap', 101)

1 row created.

SQL> SELECT * FROM cust252;

CNUM CNAME STATE PHNO


---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
1 ravi bihar 1
2 teja up 7
4 huu ap 101

CREATING AN ITEM TABLE USING CONSTRAINTS:

SQL> CREATE TABLE itm252


(ino NUMBER(3),
iname VARCHAR(10),
iprice NUMBER(4,3),
qtyonhand VARCHAR(5),
CONSTRAINT itm252_ino_pkkey PRIMARY KEY (ino),
CONSTRAINT itm230_qtyoh_chk CHECK (qtyonhand>1));

Table created.

SQL> INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (&ino, &iname, &iprice,


&qtyonhand);
Enter value for ino: 1
Enter value for iname: 'rubber'

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Enter value for iprice: 3.50
Enter value for qtyonhand: 3
old 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (&ino, &iname, &iprice,
&qtyonhand)
new 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (1, 'rubber', 3.50, 3)

1 row created.

SQL> /
Enter value for ino: 1
Enter value for iname: 'pencil'
Enter value for iprice: 1.00
Enter value for qtyonhand: 3
old 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (&ino, &iname, &iprice,
&qtyonhand)
new 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (1, 'pencil', 1.00, 3)
INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (1, 'pencil', 1.00, 3)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.ITM230_INO_PKKEY) violated

SQL> /
Enter value for ino: 2
Enter value for iname: 'powder'
Enter value for iprice: 3.00
Enter value for qtyonhand: 0
old 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (&ino, &iname, &iprice,
&qtyonhand)
new 1: INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (2, 'powder', 3.00, 0)
INSERT INTO itm252 VALUES (2, 'powder', 3.00, 0)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02290: check constraint (SYSTEM.ITM230_QTYOH_CHK) violated

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1* CREATE TABLE invoice252(ivnno NUMBER(5), itemno NUMBER(5),
qty NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT invoice252_ivnno_pkkey PRIMARY
KEY(ivnno), CONSTRAINT FOREIGN KEY(itemno) REFERENCES
cust252)

SQL> desc cust252;


Name Null? Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
CNUM NOT NULL NUMBER(5)
CNAME VARCHAR2(10)
STATE VARCHAR2(10)
PHNO NUMBER(5)

CREATING A INVOICE TABLE USING CONSTRAINTS:

SQL> CREATE TABLE invoice252


(ivnno NUMBER(5),
itemno NUMBER(5),
qty NUMBER(5) NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT invoice252_ivnno_pkkey PRIMARY KEY (ivnno),
CONSTRAINT fk_inv252 FOREIGN KEY (itemno) REFERENCES
cust252 (cnum))
Table created.

SQL> CREATE TABLE invitm252


(invno NUMBER(5),
itmno NUMBER(5),
qty NUMBER(5) NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT invitm252_invno_itmno_pkkey PRIMARY KEY
(invno, itmno));

Table created.

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WEEK 4

2) Queries (along with subqueries) using ANY, ALL, IN, EXISTS, NOT
EXISTS, UNIQUE, INTERSECT, Constraints.
Example: select the rollno and name of the student who secured 4th rank
in the class

TABLE DEFINITIONS

SQL> CREATE TABLE Customer (


cust_no NUMBER(4) PRIMARY KEY,
last_name VARCHAR2(20),
first_name VARCJHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
address1 VARCHAR2(20),
address2 VARCHAR2(20),
city VARCHAR2(3),
state VARCHAR2(20),
pin VARCHAR2(6),
birth_date DATE,
status VARCHAR2(1),
CHECH (status IN (‘V’, ‘I’, ‘A’))
);

Table created.

Insert the following data:

1 row created.
CUST LAST FIRST ADDRESS1 ADDRESS2 CITY STATE PIN BIRTH STATUS
NO NAME NAME DATE
1001 UDUPI RAJ UPENDRABAU NEAR UDP KARNARAT 57610 12- A
G KALPANA P A 1 DEC-62
1002 KUMAR RAJ A
1003 BAHADUR RAJ SHANTHI VILLA NEAR UDP KARNATAK 57610 1-AUG- V
MALLIKA A 1 70
1004 SIMON FELIX M-J-56 ALTOBETIM PJM GOA 40300 12-FEB- A
2 71
1005 KUTTY RAJAN A1 TRADERS NEAR RLY KNR KERALA 67001 9-JUN- A
STATION 71
1006 PAI SHILPA 12/4B POLICE MNG KARNATAK 57415 11- I
QUARTERS A 4 DEC-70
1007 JAIN RAKSHIT BOSCO R.K PLAZA BNG KARNATAK 57620 1-JAN- A
A 1 71

QUERIES

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1) To list all the fields from the table Customer.


SEELCT *
FROM Customer;

2) To list the first name, last name.


SELECT first_name, last_name
FROM Customer;

3) To list the first name and last name of persons in Karnataka.


SELECT first_name, last_name
FROM Customer
WHERE state = ‘KARNATAKA’;

4) To list all the columns for invalid persons.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE status = ‘I’;

5) To list the names of active customers.


SELECT first_name, last_name
FROM Customer
WHERE status = ‘A’;

6) To list the name and address using concatenation.


SELECT first_name || ‘ ‘ || last_name, address1 || ‘,’ || address2 || ‘,’ || city || ‘,’
|| state || ‘-‘ || pin
FROM Customer;

7) To select records where the pin code has not been entered.
SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE pin IS NULL;

8) To select the single occurrence of any value from the table.


SELECT DISTINCT state
FROM Customer;

9) To select rows of valid customers from Karnataka.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE state = ‘KARNATAKA’
AND status = ‘V’;

10) To select rows of customers from Karnataka or Kerala.


SELECT *
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FROM Customer
WHERE state = KARNATAKA’
OR state = ‘KERALA’;

11) To sort the customer data in the alphabetic order of state.


SELECT state, first_name, last_name, pin
FROM Customer
ORDER BY state;

12) To sort in the descending order.


SELECT state, first_name, last_name, pin
FROM Customer
ORDER BY state DESC;

13) To sort the customer data, state wise and within state by the last name.
SELECT state, first_name, last_name, pin
FROM Customer
ORDER BY state, last_name;

14) To retrieve records of Karnataka customers who are valid.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE UPPER(state) = ‘KARNATAKA’
AND UPPER(status) = ‘V’;

15) To retrieve records of Karnataka/Kerala customers.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE UPPER(state) = ‘KARNATAKA’
OR UPPER(state) = ‘KERALA’;

16) To retrieve records of Karnataka/Kerala customers who are active.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE (UPPER(state) = ‘KARNATAKA’
OR UPPER(state) = ‘KERALA’)
AND UPPER(status) = ‘A’;

17) To retrieve records of Karnataka customers with pin code 576101.


SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE LOWER(state) = ‘karnataka’
AND pin = ‘576101’;

18) To retrieve rows where the state name begins with K and followed by any other
character.
SELECT first_name, last_name, state
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FROM Customer
WHERE state LIKE ‘K%’;

19) To retrieve rows where the first name contains the word RAJ embedded in it.
SELECT first_name, last_name, state
FROM Customer
WHERE first_name LIKE ‘%RAJ%’;

20) To retrieve rows where the address2 contains the word UDUPI or UDIPI in
which the 3rd character may be anything.
SELECT first_name, last_name, state
FROM Customer
WHERE address2 LIKE ‘UD_PI’;

21) To retrieve rows where the cust_no has data representing any value between
1003 and 1005, both numbers included.
SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE cust_no BETWEEN 1003 AND 1005;

22) To retrieve rows of persons born after 9-JAN-70 and before 1-AUG-96.
SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE birth_date BETWEEN ’10-JAN-70’ AND ’31-JUL-96’;

23) To retrieve rows where the city has data which is equal to UDP or MNG or
BNG or PJM or MAR.
SELECT *
FROM Customer
WHERE city IN (‘UDP’, ‘MNG’, ‘BNG’, ‘PJM’, ‘MAR’);

TABLE DEFINITIONS

SQL> CREATE TABLE Emp (


emp_no NUMBER,
emp_name VARCHAR(20),
join_date DATE,
join_basic NUMBER(7, 2),
PRIMARY KEY (emp_no)
);
Table created.

Insert the following data:

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EMP NO EMP NAME JOIN DATE JOIN BASIC
1001 Subhas bose 01-JUN-96 3000
1002 Nadeem shah 01-JUN-96 2500
1003 Charles 01-JUN-96 3000
babbage
1004 Shreyas kumar 01-JUL-96 2500
1005 George boole 01-JUL-96 2800

SQL> CREATE TABLE Salary (


emp_no NUMBER,
basic NUMBER(7, 2),
commission NUMBER(7, 2),
deduction NUMBER(7, 2),
salary_date DATE,
FOREIGN KEY (emp_no) REFERENCES Emp
);

Table created.

Insert the following data:

EMP NO BASIC COMMISSION DEDUCTION SALARY


DATE
1001 3000 200 250 30-JUN-96
1002 2500 120 200 30-JUN-96
1003 3000 500 290 30-JUN-96
1004 2500 200 300 30-JUN-96
1005 2800 100 250 30-JUN-96
1001 3000 200 250 31-JUL-96
1002 2500 120 200 31-JUL-96
1003 3000 500 290 31-JUL-96
1004 2500 200 300 31-JUL-96
1005 2800 100 150 31-JUL-96

QUERIES

1) To sum the salary of each employee.


SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
GROUP BY emp_no;

2) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it on the sum of basic.
SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
GROUP BY emp_no
ORDER BY SUM(basic);

3) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it in descending order on the sum of
basic.
SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
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GROUP BY emp_no
ORDER BY SUM(basic) DESC;

4) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it in descending order on the sum of
basic. Display name also
SELECT s.emp_no, e.emp_name, SUM(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_no
ORDER BY SUM(s.basic) DESC;

5) To group the data by average salary of each employee.


SELECT s.emp_no, INITCAP(e.emp_name), AVG(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_no
ORDER BY AVG(s.basic);

6) To group the basic by month.


SELECT TO_CHAR(salary_date, ‘MONTH’) “MONTH”, SUM(basic)
“TOTAL BASIC”
FROM salary
GROUP BY TO_CHAR(salary_date, ‘MONTH’);

7) To group the data by average salary of each employee and display where average
basic is more than 2000..
SELECT s.emp_no, INITCAP(e.emp_name), AVG(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_no
HAVING AVG(s.basic) >= 2000
ORDER BY AVG(s.basic);

SUBQUERIES

8) To list the employees who earn less than the average salary.
SELECT *
FROM salary
WHERE basic < (SELECT AVG(basic)
FROM salary);

9) To list the employees whose deduction is 150.


SELECT *
FROM salary
WHERE emp_no IN (SELECT emp_no

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FROM salary
WHERE deduction = 150);
10) To list the names of employees and salary details, whose basic is less than the average
salary.
SELECT s.*, e.emp_name
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
AND s.basic < (SELECT AVG(basic)
FROM salary);

WEEK 5

2) Queries (along with subqueries) using ANY, ALL, IN, EXISTS, NOT
EXISTS, UNIQUE, INTERSECT, Constraints. Example: select the
rollno and name of the student who secured 4th rank in the class.

3) Queries using Aggregate functions (COUNT, SUM, AVG, MAX and


MIN), GROUP BY, HAVING and Creation and Dropping of Views.

4) Queries using Conversions, functions (to_char, to_num, and


to_date), string function (Conactenation, lpad, rpad, ltrim, rtrim,
lower, upper, initcap, length, substr, and instr), date functions
(sysdate, next_day, add_months, last_day, months_between, least,
greatest, trunk, round, to_char, to_date).

TABLE DEFINITIONS

SQL> CREATE TABLE Emp (


emp_no NUMBER,
emp_name VARCHAR(20),
join_date DATE,
join_basic NUMBER(7, 2),
PRIMARY KEY (emp_no)
);

Table created.

Insert the following data:


EMP NO EMP NAME JOIN DATE JOIN BASIC
1001 Subhas bose 01-JUN-96 3000
1002 Nadeem shah 01-JUN-96 2500

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1003 Charles 01-JUN-96 3000
babbage
1004 Shreyas kumar 01-JUL-96 2500
1005 George boole 01-JUL-96 2800

SQL> CREATE TABLE Salary (


emp_no NUMBER,
basic NUMBER(7, 2),
commission NUMBER(7, 2),
deduction NUMBER(7, 2),
salary_date DATE,
FOREIGN KEY (emp_no) REFERENCES Emp
);

Table created.

Insert the following data:


EMP NO BASIC COMMISSION DEDUCTION SALARY
DATE
1001 3000 200 250 30-JUN-96
1002 2500 120 200 30-JUN-96
1003 3000 500 290 30-JUN-96
1004 2500 200 300 30-JUN-96
1005 2800 100 250 30-JUN-96
1001 3000 200 250 31-JUL-96
1002 2500 120 200 31-JUL-96
1003 3000 500 290 31-JUL-96
1004 2500 200 300 31-JUL-96
1005 2800 100 150 31-JUL-96

QUERIES

11) To sum the salary of each employee.


SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
GROUP BY emp_no;

12) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it on the sum of basic.
SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
GROUP BY emp_no
ORDER BY SUM(basic);

13) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it in descending order on the sum of
basic.
SELECT emp_no, SUM(basic)
FROM salary
GROUP BY emp_no
ORDER BY SUM(basic) DESC;
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14) To sum the salary of each employee and sort it in descending order on the sum of
basic. Display name also
SELECT s.emp_no, e.emp_name, SUM(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_name
ORDER BY SUM(s.basic) DESC;

15) To group the data by average salary of each employee.


SELECT s.emp_no, INITCAP(e.emp_name), AVG(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_no
ORDER BY AVG(s.basic);

16) To group the basic by month.


SELECT TO_CHAR(salary_date, ‘MONTH’) “MONTH”, SUM(basic)
“TOTAL BASIC”
FROM salary
GROUP BY TO_CHAR(salary_date, ‘MONTH’);

17) To group the data by average salary of each employee and display where average
basic is more than 2000..
SELECT s.emp_no, INITCAP(e.emp_name), AVG(s.basic)
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
GROUP BY s.emp_no, e.emp_no
HAVING AVG(s.basic) >= 2000
ORDER BY AVG(s.basic);

SUBQUERIES

18) To list the employees who earn less than the average salary.
SELECT *
FROM salary
WHERE basic < (SELECT AVG(basic)
FROM salary);

19) To list the employees whose deduction is 150.


SELECT *
FROM salary
WHERE emp_no IN (SELECT emp_no
FROM salary
WHERE deduction = 150);

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20) To list the names of employees and salary details, whose basic is less than the average
salary.
SELECT s.*, e.emp_name
FROM salary s, emp e
WHERE s.emp_no = e.emp_no
AND s.basic < (SELECT AVG(basic)
FROM salary);

WEEK 6

1) Queries (along with subqueries) using ANY, ALL, IN, EXISTS, NOT
EXISTS, UNIQUE, INTERSECT, Constraints. Example: select the
rollno and name of the student who secured 4th rank in the class.

2) Queries using Aggregate functions (COUNT, SUM, AVG, MAX and


MIN), GROUP BY, HAVING and Creation and Dropping of Views.

3) Queries using Conversions, functions (to_char, to_num, and


to_date), string function (Conactenation, lpad, rpad, ltrim, rtrim,
lower, upper, initcap, length, substr, and instr), date functions
(sysdate, next_day, add_months, last_day, months_between, least,
greatest, trunk, round, to_char, to_date).

TABLE DEFINITIONS

Branch Schema <branch-name, branch-city, assets>


Customer Schema <customer-name, customer-street, customer-city>
Loan Schema <loan-number, branch-name, amount>
Borrower Schema <customer-name, loan-number>
Account Scheme <account-number, branch-name, balance>
Depositor Scheme <customer-name, account-number>

BRANCH TABLE

Branch Name Branch City Assets


Brighton Brooklyn 7100000
Downtown Brooklyn 9000000
Mianus Horseneck 400000
North Town Rye 3700000
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Perryridge Horseneck 1700000
Pownal Bennington 300000
Redwood Palo Alto 2100000
Round Hill Horseneck 800000

CUSTOMER TABLE

Customer Name Customer Street Customer City


Adams Spring Pittsfield
Brooks Senator Brooklyn
Curry North Rye
Glenn Sand Hill Woodside
Green Walnut Stamford
Hayes Main Harrison
Johnson Alma Palo Alto
Jones Main Harrison
Lindsay Park Pittsfield
Smith North Rye
Turner Putnam Stamford
Williams Nassau Princeton

LOAN TABLE

Loan Number Branch Name Amount


L-11 Round Hill 900
L-14 Downtown 1500
L-15 Perryridge 1500
L-16 Perryridge 1300
L-17 Downtown 1000
L-23 Redwood 2000
L-93 Mianus 500

BORROWER TABLE

Customer Name Loan Number


Adams l-16
Curry L-93
Hayes L-15
Jackson L-14
Jones L-17
Smith L-11

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Smith L-23
Williams L-17

ACCOUNT TABLE

Account Number Branch Name Balance


A-101 Downtown 500
A-102 Perryridge 400
A-201 Brighton 900
A-215 Mianus 700
A-217 Brighton 750
A-222 Redwood 700
A-305 Round Hill 350

DEPOSITOR TABLE

Customer Name Account Number


Hayes A102
Johnson A-101
Johnson A-201
Jones A-217
Lindsay A-222
Smith A-215
Turner A-305

QUERIES

1) To list all the fields from the table Customer.

SELECT branch_name
FROM Loan;

2) To list rows after eliminating duplicates.

SELECT distinct branch_name


FROM Loan;

3) To explicitly list rows, including duplicates.

SELECT all branch_name


FROM Loan;

4) To list fields after applying arithmetic operations.

SELECT loan_number, branch_name, amount *100


FROM Loan;

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5) Find all loan numbers for loans made at the Perryridge branch with loan
amounts
greater than Rs1200.

SELECT loan_number
FROM Loan
WHERE branch_name = ‘Perryridge’
AND amount > 1200;

6) Find all loan numbers for loans with loan amounts between Rs90,000
and Rs100,000.

SELECT loan_number
FROM Loan
WHERE amount BETWEEN 90000 AND 100000;

Or

SELECT loan_number
FROM Loan
WHERE amount <= 100000
AND amount >= 90000;

7) Find all loan numbers for loans with loan amounts not between
Rs90,000 and
Rs100,000.

SELECT loan_number
FROM Loan
WHERE amount NOT BETWEEN 90000 AND 100000;

8) For all customers who have a loan from the bank, find their names, loan
numbers and loan amounts.

SELECT customer_name, Borrower.loan_number, amount


FROM Borrower, Loan
WHERE Borrower.loan_number = Loan.loan_number;

Or

SELECT customer_name, Borrower.loan_number AS loan_id, amount


FROM Borrower, Loan
WHERE Borrower.loan_number = Loan.loan_number;

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9) Find the customer names, loan numbers and loan amounts for all loans
at the Perryridge branch.

SELECT customer_name, Borrower.loan_number, amount


FROM Borrower, Loan
WHERE Borrower.loan_number = Loan.loan_number
AND branch_name = ‘Perryridge’;

Or

SELECT customer_name, T.loan_number, S.amount


FROM Borrower AS T, Loan AS S
WHERE T.loan_number = S.loan_number
AND branch_name = ‘Perryridge’;

10) Find the names of all branches that have assets greater than atleast
one branch located in Brooklyn.

SELECT DISTINCT T.branch_name


FROM Branch as T, Branch as S
WHERE T.assets > S.assets
AND S.branch_city = ‘Brooklyn’;

11) Find the names of all customers whose street address includes the
substring ‘Main’.

SELECT customer_name
FROM Customer
WHERE customer_street LIKE ‘%Main%’;

12) To list in alphabetic order all customers who have a loan at the
Perryridge branch.

SELECT DISTINCT customer_name


FROM Borrower B, Loan L
WHERE B.loan_number = L.loan_number
AND branch_name = ‘Perryridge’
ORDER BY customer_name;

13) To list the entire loan info in descending order of amont.

SELECT *

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FROM Loan
ORDER BY amount DESC, loan_number ASC;

14) To find all customers having a loan, an account or both at the bank,
without duplicates.

(SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor)
UNION
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

15) To find all customers having a loan, an account or both at the bank,
with duplicates.

(SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor)
UNION ALL
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

16) To find all customers having both a loan and an account at the bank,
without duplicates.

(SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor)
INTERSECT
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

17) To find all customers having a loan, an account or both at the bank,
with duplicates.

(SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor)
INTERSECT ALL
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

18) To find all customers who have an account but no loan at the bank,
without duplicates.
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(SELECT DISTINCT customer_name


FROM Depositor)
EXCEPT
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

19) To find all customers who have an account but no loan at the bank,
with duplicates.

(SELECT DISTINCT customer_name


FROM Depositor)
EXCEPT ALL
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower);

20) Find the average account balance at the Perryridge branch

SELECT branch_name, AVG(balance)


FROM Account
WHERE branch_name = ‘Perryridge’;

21) Find the average account balance at the each branch

SELECT AVG(balance)
FROM Account
GROUP BY branch_name;

22) Find the number of depositors for each branch .

SELECT branch_name, COUNT(DISTINCT customer_name)


FROM Depositor D, Account A
WHERE D.account_number = A.account_number
GROUP BY branch_name;

23) Find the number of depositors for each branch where average account
balance is more than Rs 1200.

SELECT branch_name, COUNT(DISTINCT customer_name)


FROM Depositor D, Account A
WHERE D.account_number = A.account_number
GROUP BY branch_name
HAVING AVG(balance) > 1200;

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24) Find the average balance for all accounts.

SELECT AVG(balance)
FROM Account;

25) Find the number of tuples in the customer relation.

SELECT COUNT(*)
FROM Customer;

26) Find the average balance for each customer who lives in Harrision and
has at least three accounts.

SELECT D.customer_name, AVG(balance)


FROM Depositor D, Account A, Customer C
WHERE D.account_number = A.account_number
AND D.customer_name = C.customer_name
AND C.customer_city = ‘Harrison’
GROUP BY D.customer_name
HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT D.account_number) >= 3;

27) Find all the loan number that appear in loan relation with null amount
values.

SELECT loan_number
FROM Loan
WHERE amount IS NULL;

28) Find all customers who have both a loan and an account at the bank.

SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower
WHERE customer_street IN (SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor);

29) Find all customers who have both an account and a loan at the
Perryridge branch

SELECT DISTINCT B.customer_name


FROM Borrower B, Loan L
WHERE B.loan_number L.loan_number
AND branch_name = ‘Perryridge’
AND (branch_name, customer_name) IN
(SELECT branch_name, customer_name
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FROM Depositor D, Account A
WHERE D.account_number = A.account_number);

or

SELECT customer_name
FROM Borrower B
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT *
FROM Depositor D
WHERE D.customer_name = B.customer_name);

30) Find all customers who do not have a loan at the bank, but do not
have an account the bank.

SELECT DISTINCT customer_name


FROM Borrower
WHERE customer_name NOT IN
(SELECT customer_name
FROM Depositor);

31) Find the names of customers who do have a loan at the bank, and
whose names are neither Smith nor Jones.

SELECT DISTINCT customer_name


FROM Borrower
WHERE customer_name NOT IN (‘Smith’, ‘Jones’);

32) Find the names of all branches that have assets greater than those of
at least one branch located in Brooklyn.

SELECT DISTINCT T.branch_name


FROM Branch AS T, Branch AS S
WHERE T.assets > S.assets
AND S.branch_city = ‘Brooklyn’;

33) Find the names of all branches that have assets greater than that of
each branch located in Brooklyn.

SELECT branch_name
FROM Account
GROUP BY branch_name
HAVING AVG(balance) >= ALL (SELECT AVG(balance)
FROM Account

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GROUP BY branch_name);

34) Find all customers who have an account at all the branches located in
Brooklyn.

SELECT DISTINCT S.customer_name


FROM Depositor AS D
WHERE NOT EXISTS ((SELECT branch_name
FROM Branch
WHERE branch_city = ‘Brroklyn)
EXCEPT
(SELECT R.branch_name
FROM Depositor AS T, Account AS R
WHERE T.account_number =
R.account_number
AND D.customer_name = t.customer_name));

35) Find all customers who have at most one account at the Perryridge
branch.

SELECT T.customer_name
FROM Depositor AS T
WHERE UNIQUE (SELECT R.customer_name
FROM Depositor AS R, Account AS A
WHERE T.customer_name = R.customer_name
AND R.account_number = A.account_number
AND A.branch_name = ‘Perryridge’);

36) Find all customers who have at least two accounts at the Perryridge
branch.

SELECT DISTINCT T.customer_name


FROM Depositor AS T
WHERE NOT UNIQUE (SELECT R.customer_name
FROM Depositor AS R, Account AS A
WHERE T.customer_name = R.customer_name
AND R.account_number = A.account_number
AND A.branch_name = ‘Perryridge’);

37) Find the average account balance of those branches where the
average account balance is greater than 1200.

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SELECT branch_name, avg_balance
FROM (SELECT branch_name, AVG(balance)
FROM Account
GROUP BY branch_name)
AS Branch_avg(branch_name, avg_balance)
WHERE avg_balance > 1200;

38) Find the maximum across all branches of the total balance at each
branch.

SELECT MAX(tot_balance)
FROM (SELECT branch_name, SUM(balance)
FROM Account
GROUP BY branch_name)
AS Branch_total(branch_name, tot_balance);

39) Find the all customers who have an account but no loan at the bank.

SELECT d-CN
FROM (Depositor LEFT OUTER JOIN Borrower
ON Depositor.customer_name = Borrower.customer_name)
AS db1(d-CN, account_number, b-CN, loan_number)
WHERE b-CN is null;

40) Find the all customers who have either an account or a loan (but not
both) at the bank.

SELECT customer_name
FROM (Depositor NATURAL FULL OUTER JOIN Borrower)
WHERE account_number IS NULL
OR loan_number IS NULL;

WEEK 7

4) Queries (along with subqueries) using ANY, ALL, IN, EXISTS, NOT
EXISTS, UNIQUE, INTERSECT, Constraints. Example: select the
rollno and name of the student who secured 4th rank in the class.

5) Queries using Aggregate functions (COUNT, SUM, AVG, MAX and


MIN), GROUP BY, HAVING and Creation and Dropping of Views.

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6) Queries using Conversions, functions (to_char, to_num, and
to_date), string function (Conactenation, lpad, rpad, ltrim, rtrim,
lower, upper, initcap, length, substr, and instr), date functions
(sysdate, next_day, add_months, last_day, months_between, least,
greatest, trunk, round, to_char, to_date).

DUAL (ORACLE WORK TABLE):

1) To display system date.


SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL;

2) To display arithmetic calculations.


SELECT 2*2 FROM DUAL;

3) To display the logged user.


SELECT USER FROM DUAL;

4) To display system time.


SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, ‘HH:MI:SS’) FROM DUAL;

5) To display current month.


SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, ‘MONTH’) FROM DUAL;

6) To display system date in specified format.


SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, ‘DD/MM/YY’) FROM DUAL;

7) To display system date in specified format.


SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, ‘MM’) FROM DUAL;

8) To display date arithmetic.


SELECT ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE, 5) FROM DUAL;

9) To display date arithmetic.


SELECT LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) FROM DUAL;

10) To display date arithmetic.


SELECT MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE, ’01-APR-09’) FROM DUAL;

11) To display date arithmetic.


SELECT NEXT_DAY(SYSDATE, ‘MON’) FROM DUAL;

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GROUP FUNCTIONS:

12) To display average basic salary of the employees.


SELECT SUM(basic) FROM salary;

13) To display minimum basic salary of the employees.


SELECT MIN(basic) FROM salary;

14) To display maximum basic salary of the employees.


SELECT MAX(basic) FROM salary;

15) To display sum of basic salaries of all the employees.


SELECT SUM(basic) FROM salary;

16) To display the number of records in salary table.


SELECT COUNT(*) FROM salary;

STRING FUNCTIONS:
17) To display a field value after left padding.
SELECT LPAD('PAGE-1', 10, '*') FROM DUAL;

18) To display a field value after left padding.


SELECT RPAD('PAGE-1', 10, '*') FROM DUAL;

19) To display a field value after converting to lower case.


SELECT LOWER(‘A’) FROM DUAL;

20) To display a field value after converting to upper case.


SELECT LOWER(‘a’) FROM DUAL;

21) To display a field value after converting to initial capital case.


SELECT INITCAP(‘HOW ARE YOU?’) FROM DUAL;

22) To display a substring of a field value.


SELECT SUBSTR(‘CSE2A’, 4, 2) FROM DUAL;

23) To display the length of a field value.


SELECT LENGTH(’HOW LONG AM I?’) FROM DUAL;

24) To display a field value after trimming the right side.


SELECT RTRIM(‘CSE2A’, ‘2A’) FROM DUAL;

25) To display a field value after trimming the left side.


SELECT LTRIM(‘CSE2A’, ‘CSE’) FROM DUAL;

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WEEK 8 (PL/SQL)

6) (i) Creation of simple PL/SQL program which includes declaration


section, executable section and exception handling section ( ex:
Student marks can be selected from the table and printed for those
who secured first class and an exception can be raised if no records
were found).
(ii) Insert data into student table and use COMMIT, ROLLBACK
and SAVEPOINT in SQL block.

7) Develop a program that includes the features NESTED IF, CASE


and CASE expression. The program can be extended using the
NULLIF and COALESCE functions.

8) Program development using WHILE LOOPS, numeric FOR


LOOPS, nested loops using ERROR handling, BUILT IN exceptions,
USER defined exceptions, RAISE APPLICATION ERROR.

9) Program development using creation of procedure, passing


parameters IN and OUT procedures.

10) Program development using creation of stored function, invoke


functions in SQL statements and write complex functions.

11) Program development using creation of package specification,


package bodies, private objects, package variables and cursors and
calling stored packages.

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12) Develop programs using features of parameters in a CURSOR,
FOR UPDATE CURSOR, WHERE CURRENT of clause and
CURSOR variables.

Syntax to write a sql program

Declare
<declaration stmts>
Begin
<executable stmts>
[exception <exceptional stmts>]----- optional
End;
/---end of buffer

Example: 1
Create a file DBFOR.SQL, to execute the FOR loop and display the variable.

At SQL Prompt type, ed dbfor to open notepad and type the below program:
Program
declare
cnt number;
begin
dbms_output.put_line('This is a demo of FOR loop ');
for cnt in 1..5 loop
dbms_output.put_line('loop number ' || cnt);
end loop;
end;
/
set serveroutput off

Save the file and at SQL prompt run as:

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Execution
SQL>set serveroutput on
SQL> start dbfor (press enter) OR
SQL> @dbfor

OUTPUT:-
This ia a demo of FOR loop

loop number 1

loop number 2

loop number 3

loop number 4

loop number 5

PS:
For syntax:
For <var> in <start_num> .. <endnum> loop
<statement(s);>
End loop;

Example: 2
Create a file DBREVFOR.SQL, to execute the REVERSE FOR loop and
display the variable.

Program
begin
dbms_ouput.put_line(‘This is a demo of REVERSE FOR loop’);
for cnt in reverse 1..10 loop
if mod(cnt, 2) = 0 then
dbms_output.put_line(‘loop counter ‘ || cnt);
end if;
end loop;
end;
/

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OUTPUT:-
This is a demo of REVERSE FOR loop

loop counter 10
loop counter 8
loop counter 6
loop counter 4
loop counter 2

PS:

Reverse For syntax:


For <var> in reverse <start_num> .. <endnum> loop
<statement(s);>
End loop;

Other forms of if syntax are:


If <condition> then
<action(s);>
End if;

If <condition> then
<action(s);>
Else
<action(s);>
End if;

If <condition> then
<action(s);>
Elsif <condition> then
<action(s);>
else
<action(s);>
End if;

Example: 3
Create a file DBLOOP.SQL, to execute the LOOP loop and display the
variable.

Program
set serveroutput on
declare
cnt number(2) := 0;
begin

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dbms_ouput.put_line(‘This is a demo of LOOP loop’);
loop
cnt := cnt + 1;
exit when cnt > 10;
dbms_output.put_line(‘loop counter ‘ || cnt);
end loop;
end;
/
set serveroutput off

OUTPUT:-
This is the demo of LOOP loop

loop counter 1

loop counter 2

loop counter 3
loop counter 4
loop counter 5
loop counter 6
loop counter 7
loop counter 8
loop counter 9
loop counter 10

PS:
Loop syntax:
loop
<statement(s);>
Exit when <condition>;
End loop;

Example: 4
Create a file DBWHILE.SQL, to execute the WHILE loop and display the
variable.

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Program
set serveroutput on
declare
cnt number(2) := 1;
begin
dbms_ouput.put_line(‘This is a demo of WHILE loop’);
while cnt <= 10
loop
dbms_output.put_line(‘loop counter: ‘ || to_char(cnt, ‘999’));
cnt := cnt + 1;
end loop;
end;
/
set serveroutput off

OUTPUT:-
This is a demo of WHILE loop

loop counter : 1

loop counter : 2

loop counter : 3
loop counter : 4
loop counter : 5
loop counter : 6
loop counter : 7
loop counter : 8
loop counter : 9
loop counter : 10

PS:
while syntax:
while <condition> loop
<statement(s);>
End loop;

Example: 4
Write a program EMPDATA.SQL, to retrieve the employee details of an
employee whose number is input by the user .

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Program
-- PROGRAM TO RETRIEVE EMP DETAILS
set serveroutput on

prompt Enter Employee Number:


accept n
declare
dname emp.emp_name%type;
dbasic emp.emp_basic%type;
ddesig emp.desig%type;
begin
select emp_name, basic, design
into dname, dbasic, ddesig
from emp
where emp_no = &n;
dbms_ouput.put_line(‘Employee Details:);
dbms_output.put_line(‘Name: ‘ || dname);
dbms_output.put_line(‘Basic: ‘ || dbasic);
dbms_output.put_line(‘Designation: ‘ || ddesig);
end;
/

OUTPUT:-
enter employee number:
13
old 9:where eno =&n;

new 9:where eno=13;

employee details

Name:allen

basic:9500

desig:mech

set serveroutput off

PS:
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Similarly you can use other SQL statements in the PL/SQL block

Exercises:

1) Write a PL/SQL code, EX_INVNO.SQL, block for


inverting a number using all forms of loops.

ANSWER:-

declare

n number(20):=123;

s number(13):=0;

d number(3):=1;

r number(3):=10;

begin

dbms_output.put_line('the number is :' || n);

while n>0 loop

d:=mod(n,10);

s:=(s*r)+d;

n:=n/r;

end loop;

dbms_output.put_line('inverted values' || s);

end;

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OUTPUT:-

the number is:123

inverted value is:321

2) Write a PL/SQL code, EX_SUMNO.SQL that prints


the sum of ‘n’ natural numbers.

ANSWER:-

prompt enter number:

accept number n

declare

isum number(2):=0;

i number;

n number:=&n;

begin

for i in 1..n loop

isum:=isum+i;

end loop;

dbms_output.put_line('sum is ' || isum);

end;

OUTPUT:-

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enter the number:7

sum is 28

3) Write a PL/SQL code, EX_AREA.SQL, of block to


calculate the area of the circle for the values of radius
varying from 3 to 7. Store the radius and the
corresponding values of calculated area in the table
AREA_VALUES.

ANSWER:-

set serveroutput on

declare

area number(5);

rad number(3);

pi number(4):=3.14;

begin

for rad in 3..7 loop

area:=pi*rad*rad;

dbms_output.put_line('area is' || area);

insert into area_values values(area,rad);

end loop;

end;

/
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OUTPUT:-

area is :27
area is :48
area is :75
area is :108
area is :147

SQL>select * from area_values;


area rad
____ ____
27 3
48 4
75 5
108 6
147 7

WEEK 9 (PL/SQL)

13) (i) Creation of simple PL/SQL program which includes


declaration section, executable section and exception handling
section ( ex: Student marks can be selected from the table and
printed for those who secured first class and an exception can be
raised if no records were found).
(ii) Insert data into student table and use COMMIT, ROLLBACK
and SAVEPOINT in SQL block.

14) Develop a program that includes the features NESTED IF,


CASE and CASE expression. The program can be extended using
the NULLIF and COALESCE functions.

15) Program development using WHILE LOOPS, numeric FOR


LOOPS, nested loops using ERROR handling, BUILT IN exceptions,
USER defined exceptions, RAISE APPLICATION ERROR.

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16) Program development using creation of procedure, passing
parameters IN and OUT procedures.

17) Program development using creation of stored function, invoke


functions in SQL statements and write complex functions.

18) Program development using creation of package specification,


package bodies, private objects, package variables and cursors and
calling stored packages.

19) Develop programs using features of parameters in a CURSOR,


FOR UPDATE CURSOR, WHERE CURRENT of clause and
CURSOR variables.

Example: 1
Create a file (NEWINS.SQL), to insert into a new table, NEWEMP, the
record of any employee whose number is input by the user.
1. Create the table NEWEMP <emp_no, emp_name, join_date, basic).
2. Open an editor and type the following program.

Program
prompt Enter Employee Number:
accept userno number
declare
dno number(4);
dname varchar2(30);
ddate date;
dbasic number(10);
begin
select emp_no, emp_name, join_date, basic
into dno, dname, ddate, dbasic
from emp
where emp_no = &userno;

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if sql%rowcount > 0
then
insert into newemp
values (dno, dname, ddate, dbaisc);
end if;
end;
/
3. Save the file as NEWINS
4. Execute the program as
SQL> start newins

Example: 2
Create a file (NEWINS2.SQL), to insert into a new table, NEWEMP, the
record of any employee whose number is input by the user. Also display on
the screen the employee details and to handle errors like user entering a
number which does not exist in the table.

Program
prompt Enter Employee Number:
accept userno number
declare
dno number(4);
dname varchar2(30);
ddate date;
dbasic number(10);

begin
select emp_no, emp_name, join_date, basic
into dno, dname, ddate, dbasic
from emp
where emp_no = &userno;

if sql%rowcount > 0
then
insert into newemp
values (dno, dname, ddate, dbasic);

dbms_output.put_line(‘Record inserted into NEWEMP’);


dbms_output.put_line(DNO || ‘ ‘ || DNAME || ‘ ‘ || DDATE || ‘ ‘ ||
DBASIC);
end if;

exception
when no_data_found then
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dbms_output.put_line (‘Record ‘ || &userno || ‘ does not exist’);
end;
/

Example: 3
Create a file (CALCTAX.SQL), to calculate tax for a specific employee and
display name and tax.

Program
prompt Enter Employee Number:
accept userno number

declare
tot_basic number(10, 2);
tax number(10, 2);
name varchar2(30);
begin
select emp_name, basic
into name, tot_basic
from emp
where emp_no = &userno;

if tot_basic = 0 or tot_basic is null


then
dbms_output.put_line(‘NO BASIC’);
elsif tot_basic <= 2000
then
tax := tot_basic * .02;
dbms_output.put_line(NAME || ‘ TOTAL BASIC: ‘ || TOT_BASIC);
dbms_output.put_line(NAME || ‘ TOTAL TAX: ‘ || TAX);
else
tax := tot_basic * .04;
dbms_output.put_line(NAME || ‘ TOTAL BASIC: ‘ || TOT_BASIC);
dbms_output.put_line(NAME || ‘ TOTAL TAX: ‘ || TAX);
end if;

exception
when no_data_found then
dbms_output.put_line (‘Record ‘ || &userno || ‘ does not exist’);
end;
/

PS:
EXECPTIONS

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When a program is executed certain errors are automatically recognized and
certain error situations must be recognized by the program itself. Errors in
general are referred to as Exceptions.
Exceptions can be either System defined or User defined.
Certain system exceptions raise the following flags:
CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN – Displayed when the user tries to open a cursor
that is already open
DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX – when user tries to insert a duplicate value into a
unique column
INVALID_CURSOR – when user references an invalid cursor or attempts an
illegal cursor operation
INVALID_NUMBER – when user tries to use something other than a number
where one is called for
LOGIN_DENIED – when connect request for user has been denied
NO_DATA_FOUND – this flag becomes TRUE when SQL select statement
failed to retrieve any rows
NOT_LOGGED_ON – user is not connected to ORACLE
PROGRAM_ERROR – user hits a PL/SQL internal error
STORAGE_ERROR – user hits a PL/SQL memory error
TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE – user has reached timeout while waiting for an
Oracle resource
TRANSACTION_BACKED_OUT – a remote server has rolled back the
transaction
TOO_MANY_ROWS – the flag becomes TRUE when SQL select statement
retrieves more than one row and it was supposed to retrieve only 1 row
VALUE_ERROR – user encounters an arithmetic, conversion, truncation or
constraint error
ZERO_DIVIDE – flag becomes TRUE if SQL select statement tries to divide a
number by 0
OTHERS – this flag is used to catch any error situations not coded by the
programmer
In the exception section and must appear last in the exception section

User defined exceptions must be declared in the declare section with the
reserved word, EXCEPTION.

Syntax for user defined exception:


<exception-name> EXCEPTION;

This exception can be brought into action by the command,

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RAISE <exception-name>
When the exception is raised, processing control is passed to the EXCEPTION
section of the PL/SQL block.
The code for the exception must be defined in the EXCEPTION section of the
PL/SQL block.
WHEN <exception-name> THEN
<action>;

Exercises:

1) Write a PL/SQL code block that will accept an account number from
the user and debit an amount of RS2000 from the account. If the
account has a minimum balance of 500 after amount is debited the
process should set a freeze on the account by setting the status to F.
(use table schema Accounts (acno, balance, status)
2) Write a PL/SQL block of code to achieve the following:
If the price of the product is >4000 then change the price to 4000. The
price change is to be recorded in the old price table along with product
number and date on which the price was last changed.
(use table schemas Product(pno, price) and Old_Price(pno,
date_of_change, oldprice)
WEEK 10 (PL/SQL)

20) (i) Creation of simple PL/SQL program which includes


declaration section, executable section and exception handling
section ( ex: Student marks can be selected from the table and
printed for those who secured first class and an exception can be
raised if no records were found).
(ii) Insert data into student table and use COMMIT, ROLLBACK
and SAVEPOINT in SQL block.

21) Develop a program that includes the features NESTED IF,


CASE and CASE expression. The program can be extended using
the NULLIF and COALESCE functions.

22) Program development using WHILE LOOPS, numeric FOR


LOOPS, nested loops using ERROR handling, BUILT IN exceptions,
USER defined exceptions, RAISE APPLICATION ERROR.

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23) Program development using creation of procedure, passing
parameters IN and OUT procedures.

24) Program development using creation of stored function, invoke


functions in SQL statements and write complex functions.

25) Program development using creation of package specification,


package bodies, private objects, package variables and cursors and
calling stored packages.

26) Develop programs using features of parameters in a CURSOR,


FOR UPDATE CURSOR, WHERE CURRENT of clause and
CURSOR variables.

Example: 1
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to retrieve first tuple from the
department relation.
(use table dept(dno, dname, loc))

Program
declare
vdno dept.deptno%type;
vdname dept.dname%type;
vloc dept.loc%type;
cursor c1 is select * from dept;
or // cursor c1 is select * from dept where rowno = 1;
begin
open c1;
fetch c1
into vdno,vdname,vloc;
dbms_output.put_line('vdno = ' ||vdno|| ' vdname = '||vdname||' vloc
= '||vloc);

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close c1;
end;
/

PS:
Cursors are used when the SQL select statement is expected to return more than
1 row.
A cursor must be declared and its definition contains a query and is defined in
the DECLARE section of the program.
A cursor must be opened before processing and closed after processing.
(Similar to how files are opened and closed in a C program).

Syntax to define a cursor:


CURSOR <CURSOR-NAME> IS <SELECT STATEMENT>

Syntax to open the cursor:


OPEN <CURSOR-NAME>

Syntax to store data in the cursor:


FETCH <CURSOR-NAME> INTO <VAR1>, <VAR2>, <VAR3>….
OR
FETCH <CURSOR-NAME> INTO <RECORD-NAME>

Syntax to close the cursor:


CLOSE <CURSOR-NAME>

Example: 2
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to retrieve each tuple from the
department relation.
(use table dept(dno, dname, loc))

Program
declare
vdept dept%rowtype;
cursor c1 is select * from dept;
begin
for vdept in c1 loop
dbms_output.put_line('vdno = ' ||vdept.deptno|| ' vdname = '||
vdept.dname||' vloc = '||vdept.loc);

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end loop;

end;
/

PS:
The cursor for loop can be used to process multiple records. The advantage of
cursor for loop is that the loop itself will open the cursor, read the records into
the cursor from the table until end of file and close the cursor.

Syntax for cursor FOR LOOP:


FOR <VARIABLE> IN <CURSOR-NAME> LOOP
<STATEMENTs>
END LOOP;

Example: 3
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to display the number, name, salary
of the three highest paid employees.
(use table emp(empno, ename,sal))

Program
declare
no emp.empno%type;
name emp.ename%type;
salary emp.sal%type;
cursor c1 is select empno, ename, sal from emp order by sal desc;

begin
open c1;
loop
fetch c1 into no,name,salary;
exit when c1 %notfound;
exit when c1 %rowcount >3;

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dbms_output.put_line(no||name||salary);
end loop;
close c1;
end;
/

PS:
Cursors Attributes:
There are 4 cursor attributes used to provide information on the status of a
cursor.
%NOTFOUND – To determine if a row was retrieved
Used after FETCH
NOTFOUND is TRUE if row is not retrieved
NOTFOUND is FALSE if row is retrieved
%FOUND – To determine if a row was retrieved.
Used after FETCH
FOUND is TRUE if row is retrieved
FOUND is FALSE if row is not retrieved
%ROWCOUNT – To determine the number of rows retrieved
ROWCOUNT is 0 when cursor is opened
ROWCOUNT returns the number of rows retrieved
%ISOPEN – To determine the cursor is open
ISOPEN is TRUE if a cursor is open
ISOPEN is FALSE if a cursor is not open

Example: 4
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to delete the employees whose
salary is more than 3000.

Program
declare
vrec emp%rowtype;
cursor c1 is select * from emp where sal>3000 for update;
begin
open c1;
loop
fetch c1 into vrec;
exit when c1 %notfound;
delete from emp where current of c1;
dbms_output.put_line('Record deleted');

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end loop;
close c1;
end;
/

PS:
In order to DELETE or UPDATE rows, the cursor must be defined with the
FOR UPDATE clause.

Example: 5
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to update the salary of each
employee by the avg salary if their salary is less than avg salary.

Program

declare
vrec emp%rowtype;
avgsal number(10,2);
cursor c1 is select * from emp for update;

begin
select avg(sal) into avgsal from emp;
for vrec in c1 loop
if vrec.sal < avgsal then
vrec.sal := avgsal;
update emp set sal = vrec.sal where current of c1;
dbms_output.put_line('Record updated');
end if;
end loop;
end;
/
PS:
Variable Attributes:
%TYPE - is used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as a
previously declared variable or to be of the same type as a column in a table.
TOTBASIC SALARY.BASIC%TYPE;
will declare TOTBASIC of the same type as BASIC column from the table
SALARY.

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%ROWTYPE – declares a variable which is actually a record which has the
same structure as a row from a table.
SALREC SALARY%ROWTYPE;
will declare SALREC as a record variable equivalent to the row from the table
SALARY.

Example: 6
Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to insert into a table, NEWEMP,
the record of ALL MANAGERS. Also DISPLAY on the screen the NO,
NAME, JOIN_DATE. Handle any user defined exceptions.
(use table emp(emp_no, emp_name, join_date, desig))

Program

set serveroutput on
declare
ctr number(2) := 2;
dno number(4);
dname varchar2(30);
ddate date;

cursor cur_mgr is
select emp_no, emp_name, join_date
from emp
where upper(desig) = ‘MGR’;

no_manager_found exception;

begin
open cur_mgr;
loop
fetch cur_mgr
into dno, dname, ddate;

exit when cur_mgr%notfound;


ctr := ctr + 1;

dbms_output.put_line(ctr || ‘Record inserted into


NEWEMP’);
dbms_output.put_line(dno || ‘ ‘ || dname || ‘ ‘ ddate);

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insert into new emp


values (dno, dname, ddate);

end loop;

if cur_mgr%rowcount = 0
then
close cur_mgr;
raise no_manager_found;
end if;

dbms_output.put_line(‘TOTAL number of records’ || ctr);


close cur_mgr;

exception
when no_manager_found then
dbms_output.put_line(‘NO RECORS FOUND’);

end;
/

Exercises:
1) Create a PL/SQL program using cursors, to insert into a table,
NEWEMP, for any designation input by the user from the keyboard.
Handle any user defined exceptions.

2) Code a program to calculate Tax for any employee whose number is


input from the keyboard. Display appropriate error message if data
does not exist in the table.

WEEK 11 (PL/SQL)

27) (i) Creation of simple PL/SQL program which includes


declaration section, executable section and exception handling
section ( ex: Student marks can be selected from the table and
printed for those who secured first class and an exception can be
raised if no records were found).

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(ii) Insert data into student table and use COMMIT,
ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT in SQL block.

28) Develop a program that includes the features NESTED IF,


CASE and CASE expression. The program can be extended using
the NULLIF and COALESCE functions.

29) Program development using WHILE LOOPS, numeric FOR


LOOPS, nested loops using ERROR handling, BUILT IN exceptions,
USER defined exceptions, RAISE APPLICATION ERROR.

30) Program development using creation of procedure, passing


parameters IN and OUT procedures.

31) Program development using creation of stored function, invoke


functions in SQL statements and write complex functions.

32) Program development using creation of package specification,


package bodies, private objects, package variables and cursors and
calling stored packages.

33) Develop programs using features of parameters in a CURSOR,


FOR UPDATE CURSOR, WHERE CURRENT of clause and
CURSOR variables.
Example: 1
Code a procedure to calculate the sales made to a particular customer.
{ create table trn (itmid number(10),
cstid number(10),
trnqty number(10));

create table itmmast (itmid number(10),


itmprice number(10,2));

create table cstmast ( cstid number(10),


name varchar2(30));}

Step 1: Open the editor


Step 2: Type the code below in a file named, TOTSALES.

Program

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CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE TOTSALES
(CID IN CSTMAST.CSTID%TYPE, SAL OUT NUMBER)
IS
id TRN.ITMID%TYPE;
qty TRN.TRNQTY%TYPE;
price ITMMAST.ITMPRICE%TYPE;
sales NUMBER(10, 2) := 0;

cursor cur_tr is
select trn.itmid, trnqty, itmprice
from trn, itmmast
where trn.cstid = cid
and trn.itmid = itmmast.itmid;
begin
open cur_tr;
loop
fetch cur_tr into id, qty, price;
if cur_tr%rowcount = 0
then
raise_application_error(-20020, ‘ERREOR!!!THERE IS NO
DATA’);
end if;
exit when cur_tr%notfound;
sales := sales + qty * price;
end loop;

close cur_tr;
sal := sales;
end;
/

Step 3: Save the TOTSALES.SQL file.


Step 4: Return to SQL Prompt and compile as
SQL> start TOTSALES; (press enter)
Step 5: On the screen you will get the message Procedure created. If you have
errors type
SQL> show errors
Step 6: To execute the procedure at SQL prompt type
SQL> variable sl number
SQL> execute totsales(2001, :sl)

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SQL> print sl

PS:
Procedural Objects

Groups of SQL and PL/SQL statements can be stored in the database. The code
stored once in the database can be used by multiple applications. Since the code
is in the database, which is in the server, processing is faster.

Procedures and functions are also referred to as sub-programs as they can take
parameters and be invoked.

Various types of procedural objects are: Procedures, Functions, Packages.

Procedures:
Procedures are sub-programs, which will perform an action and functions are
subprograms that are generally coded to compute some value.
The clients execute the procedure or function and the processing is done in the
server.
Procedures can receive and return values from and to the caller.
Communication is passed to a procedure through a parameter and
communication is passed out of a procedure through a parameter.
When calling a procedure, the parameters passed can be declared to be IN, OUT
or IN OUT.
The IN parameter is used to pass values to the procedure being called. It
behaves like a constant inside the procedure, i.e., cannot be assigned values
inside the procedure.
The OUT parameter is used to pass values out of a procedure to the caller of the
procedure. It behaves like a uninitialized variable inside the procedure.
The IN OUT parameter is used to pass values to the procedure being called and
it is used to pass values to the caller of the procedure. The IN OUT variable
behaves like a regular variable inside the procedure.

Functions:
Functions are also a collection of SQL and PL/SQL code which can return a
value to the caller.
Unlike procedures, functions can return a value to the caller. This value is
returned through the use of the RETURN keyword within the function. A
function can return a single value to the caller. Functions do not allow the OUT
and IN OUT arguments.

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Packages:
Packages are groups of procedures, functions, variables and SQL statements in
a single unit.
It consists of the package definition/specification and package body.
A package specification consists of the list of functions, procedures, variables,
constants, cursors and exceptions that will be available to users of the package.
A package body consists of the PL/SQL blocks and specifications for all of the
public objects listed in the package specification. It may also include code that
is run every time the package is invoked, regardless of the part of the package
that is executed.
The name of the package body should be the same as the name of the package
specification.

To delete procedural objects:


SQL> drop procedure <procedure-name>
SQL> drop function <function-name>
SQL> drop package<package-name>

Example: 2
Code a function to return the square of a given number.

Step 1: Open the editor


Step 2: Type the code below in a file named, SQR.

Program
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION SQR
(NO NUMBER)
RETURN NUMBER
IS
BEGIN
return no*no;
END;
/

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Step 3: To test the function:
a. At SQL prompt type:
SQL> select sqr(10) from dual;
b. At SQL prompt, type the following
SQL> variable sq number
SQL> execute :sq := sqr(10)
c. In the editor, type the following
set serveroutput on
begin
dbms_output.put_line(‘Square of 10 is ‘ || sqr(10));
end;
/
set serveroutput off

Example: 3
Code a function to return the net salary of a given employee.

Program
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION NETSAL
(id in salary.emp_no%type)
RETURN NUMBER
IS
netsal salary.basic%type;
BEGIN
select sum(basic) + sum(commission) – sum(deduction)
into netsal
from salary
where emp_no = id;
return (netsal);
end;

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/

To test the function:


At SQL prompt, type
SQL> variable sal number
SQL> execute :sal := netsal(1001)
SQL> print sal

Example: 4
Code a package

Step 1: Open the editor and create the package


Step 2: Type the code below in a file named, MAHEPACK.

Program
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE MAHEPACK
AS
function netsal
(id in salary.emp_no%type)
return number;
procedure tax
(id in salary.emp_no%type, tax out number);
procedure totsales
(cid in cstmast.cstid%type, sal out number);
END;
/

Step 3: Save the above file and open the editor to create the package body

Program

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY MAHEPACK


AS
function netsal
(id in salary.emp_no%type)
return number
is
netsal salary.basic%type;
begin
select sum(basic) + sum(commission) – sum(deduction)

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into netsal
from salary
where emp_no = id;
return (netsal);
end;

procedure tax
(id in salary.emp_no%type, tax out number)
is
netsalary number(10, 2);
begin
netsalary := netsal(id);
if netsalary < 2000
then
tax := netsalary * 0.02;
elsif netsalary < 4000
then
tax := netsal * 0.04;
else
tax := netsalary * 0.01;
end if;
end;

procedure totsales
(cid in cstmast.cstid%type, sal out number)
is
id TRN.ITMID%TYPE;
qty TRN.TRNQTY%TYPE;
price ITMMAST.ITMPRICE%TYPE;
sales NUMBER(10, 2) := 0;

cursor cur_tr is
select trn,itmid, trnqty, itmprice
from trn, itmmast
where trn.cstid = cid
and trn.itmid = itmmast.itmid;
begin
sales := 0;
open cur_tr;
loop

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fetch cur_tr into id, qty, price;
if cur_tr%rowcount = 0
then
raise_application_error(-20020, ‘ERREOR!!!THERE
IS NO DATA’);
end if;
exit when cur_tr%notfound;
sales := sales + qty * price;
end loop;

close cur_tr;
sal := sales;
end;
END;
/

Step 4: Save the above file and to create the package, at SQL prompt type
SQL> start mpack
SQL> start mpackb

Step 5: To execute, at SQL prompt type


SQL> variable tx number
SQL> execute mahepack.tax(1001, :tx)
SQL> print tx
Or
SQL> variable nsal number
SQL> execute :nsal := mahepack.netsal(1001)
SQL> print nsal

PS:
Show Errors:
SHOW ERRORS is used to display the line number and error of the most recent
compilation errors.
SQL> SHOW ERRORS

Raise Application Error:


RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR procedure is one of Oracles utilities which
help the user to manage the error conditions in the applications by specifying
user-defined error numbers and messages.

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It takes 2 input parameters – the error number (which must be between -20000
and -20999) and the error message to display.
It terminates the procedure execution, rolls back any effects of the procedure,
returns any user-specified error number and error message.

WEEK 12 (PL/SQL)

34) (i) Creation of simple PL/SQL program which includes


declaration section, executable section and exception handling
section ( ex: Student marks can be selected from the table and
printed for those who secured first class and an exception can be
raised if no records were found).
(ii) Insert data into student table and use COMMIT,
ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT in SQL block.

35) Develop a program that includes the features NESTED IF,


CASE and CASE expression. The program can be extended using
the NULLIF and COALESCE functions.

36) Program development using WHILE LOOPS, numeric FOR


LOOPS, nested loops using ERROR handling, BUILT IN exceptions,
USER defined exceptions, RAISE APPLICATION ERROR.

37) Program development using creation of procedure, passing


parameters IN and OUT procedures.

38) Program development using creation of stored function, invoke


functions in SQL statements and write complex functions.

39) Program development using creation of package specification,


package bodies, private objects, package variables and cursors and
calling stored packages.

40) Develop programs using features of parameters in a CURSOR,


FOR UPDATE CURSOR, WHERE CURRENT of clause and
CURSOR variables.

Example: 1

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Write a row trigger to insert the existing values of the salary table into a new
table when the salary table is updated.
(Salary < emp_no, basic, commission, deduction, salary_date, department>
Salaryaud < emp_no, basic, commission, deduction, salary_date, department>)

Step 1: Open the editor


Step 2: Type the code below in a file named, TRSAL.

Program
CREATE TRIGGER UPDSAL
BEFORE UPDATE ON SALARY
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
insert intosalaryaud
values (:old.emp_no, :old.basic, :old.commission, :old.deduction,
:old.salary_date, :old.department);
END
/

Step 3: Save the above file

Step 4: To create the trigger, at SQL prompt type


SQL> start trsal

Step 5: To test the trigger, update values in salary table and see if data is
inserted in salaryaud table.

Example: 2
Write a trigger to restrict the user from using the emp table on Tuesday.

Program
create or replace trigger tr2
before insert or update or delete
on emp
begin
if (rtrim(to_char(sysdate, 'day')) = 'tuesday')
then
raise_application_error(-20121, 'Cannot delete on Tuesday');
end if;
end;

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/

Example: 3
Write a PL/SQL block of code that first inserts a record in an Emp table.
Update salaries of emp 1001 and emp 1002 by Rs 2000 and Rs 1500. Then
check to see that the total salary does not exceed Rs 20000. If total salary is
greater than Rs 20000 then undo the updates made to emp 1001 and emp
1002.

Program
DECLARE
total_sal number(9);
BEGIN
insert into emp
values (‘1009’, ‘Ram’, 1000);

SAVEPOINT no_update;
update emp
set sal = sal + 2000
where emp_id = 1001;

update emp
set sal = sal + 1500
where emp_id = 1002;

select sum(sal)
into total_sal
from emp;

if total_sal > 20000


then
ROLLBACK TO SQVEPOINT no_update;
end if;

COMMIT;
END;
/

PS:

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The above program first inserts a record into emp table. It then marks and saves
the current position in the transaction by using the SAVEPOINT. It updates the
salaries, if the salaries are exceeding 20000 it rollsback to the save point, ie
ignores the 2 updates and only commits the insert. If the salaries do not exceed
20000 then the insert and 2 updates are committed.

Example: 4

Write a PL/SQL code of block, to calculate the area of the circle for the
values of radius varying from 1 to 10. Store the odd radius values and the
corresponding areas in a table.

Program
declare
pi constant number(4,2) := 3.14;
radius number(5);
areaa number(14,2);
begin
radius := 1;
while radius <= 10 loop
areaa := pi*power(radius,2);
case
when radius = 1
then
insert into area values (radius, areaa);
when radius = 3
then
insert into area values (radius, areaa);
when radius = 53
then
insert into area values(radius,areaa);
when radius = 7
then
insert into area values(radius,areaa);
when radius = 9
then
insert into area values(radius,areaa);
else
dbms_output.put_line(‘EVEN RADIUS, NOT
INSERTING!!!’);

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end case;
radius:=radius+1;
end loop;
end;
/

Overview of SQL DDL, DML and DCL Commands.

DDL is Data Definition Language statements. Some examples:


CREATE - to create objects in the database
ALTER - alters the structure of the database
DROP - delete objects from the database
TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all
spaces allocated for the records ar
removed
COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary
GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database

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REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT
command
DML is Data Manipulation Language statements. Some
examples:
SELECT - retrieve data from the a database
INSERT - insert data into a table
UPDATE - updates existing data within a table
DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the
records remain
CALL - call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram
EXPLAIN PLAN - explain access path to data
LOCK TABLE - control concurrency
DCL is Data Control Language statements. Some examples:
COMMIT - save work done
SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can
later roll back
ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT
SET TRANSACTION - Change transaction options like what
rollback segment to use

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Basic SQL DDL Commands.


To practice basic SQL DDL Commands such as CREATE, DROP, etc.
1. SQL - CREATE TABLE
Syntax: CREATE TABLE tablename (column_name data_ type
constraints, …)
Example:
INPUT:
SQL> CREATE TABLE Emp ( EmpNo short CONSTRAINT PKey
PRIMARY KEY,
EName VarChar(15), Job Char(10) CONSTRAINT Unik1 UNIQUE,
Mgr short CONSTRAINT FKey1 REFERENCES EMP (EmpNo),
Hiredate Date, DeptNo short CONSTRAINT FKey2 REFERENCES
DEPT(DeptNo));
RESULT: Table created.
SQL>Create table prog20 (pname varchar2(20) not null), doj date not null,dob
date not null, sex varchar(1) not null, prof1 varchar(20),prof2 varchar(20),salary
number(7,2) not null);
RESULT:
Table created.
SQL>desc prog20;
Name Null? Type
--------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
PNAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(20)
DOJ NOT NULL DATE
DOB NOT NULL DATE
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SEX NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1)
PROF1 VARCHAR2(20)
PROF2 VARCHAR2(20)
SALARY NOT NULL
NUMBER(7,2)
2. SQL - ALTER TABLE
INPUT:
SQL>ALTER TABLE EMP ADD CONSTRAINT Pkey1 PRIMARY KEY
(EmpNo);
RESULT: Table Altered.
Similarly, ALTER TABLE EMP DROP CONSTRAINT Pkey1;
3. SQL - DROP TABLE
– Deletes table structure – Cannot be recovered – Use with caution
INPUT:
SQL> DROP TABLE EMP; Here EMP is table name
RESULT: Table Dropped.
4. TRUNCATE TRUNCATE TABLE <TABLE NAME>;
Basic SQL DML Commands.
To practice basic SQL DML Commands such as INSERT, DELETE, etc.
1. SQL - INSERT INTO
Syntax: INSERT INTO tablename VALUES (value list)
l Single-row insert
INSERT INTO S VALUES(‘S3’,’SUP3’,’BLORE’,10)
l Inserting one row, many columns at a time
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INSERT INTO S (SNO, SNAME) VALUES (‘S1’, ‘Smith’);S1’ Smith’
l Inserting many rows, all/some columns at a time.
INSERT INTO NEW_SUPPLIER (SNO, SNAME)
SELECT SNO, SNAME FROM S
WHERE CITY IN (‘BLORE’,’MADRAS’)

Other Examples:

INPUT:
SQL>Insert into prog values (‘kkk’,’05-may-56’);
RESULT: 1 row created.
INPUT:
SQL>Insert into prog20 values(‘Hema’,’25-sept-01’28-jan-85’,’f’,’c’,’c+
+’,’25000’);
RESULT: 1 row created.
INPUT:
SQL>Insert into prog values(‘&pname’,’&doj’);
SQL> Insert into prog values('&pname','&doj');
Enter value for pname: ravi
Enter value for doj: 15-june-81
RESULT:
old 1: Insert into prog values('&pname','&doj')
new 1: Insert into prog values('ravi','15-june-81')

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1 row created.
2. SQL - UPDATE
Syntax: UPDATE tablename SET column_name =value [ WHERE condition]
Examples:
UPDATE S SET CITY = ‘KANPUR’ WHERE SNO=‘S1’
UPDATE EMP SET SAL = 1.10 * SAL
SQL> update emp set sal=20000 where empno=7369;
1 row updated.

3. SQL - DELETE FROM

Syntax: DELETE FROM tablename WHERE condition


Examples:
DELETE FROM SP WHERE PNO= ‘P1’
DELETE FROM SP
INPUT:
SQL>Delete from emp where empno=7369;
RESULT: 1 row deleted.
Basic SQL DCL Commands.
To practice basic SQL DCL Commands such as COMMIT, ROLLBACK
etc.
1. COMMIT
Save changes (transactional).

Syntax:

COMMIT [WORK] [COMMENT 'comment_text']

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COMMIT [WORK] [FORCE 'force_text' [,int] ]

FORCE - will manually commit an in-doubt distributed transaction


force_text - transaction identifier (see the DBA_2PC_PENDING view)
int - sets a specific SCN.
If a network or machine failure prevents a distributed transaction from
committing properly, Oracle will store any commit comment in the data
dictionary along with the transaction ID.

INPUT:

SQL>commit;

RESULT: Commit complete.

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2. ROLLBACK
Undo work done (transactional).
Syntax:
ROLLBACK [WORK] [TO
[SAVEPOINT]'savepoint_text_identifier'];

ROLLBACK [WORK] [FORCE 'force_text'];

FORCE - will manually rollback an in-doubt distributed transaction

INPUT:

SQL>rollback;
RESULT:Rollback complete.
3. SAVEPOINT
Save changes to a point (transactional).

Syntax:

SAVEPOINT text_identifier

Example:
UPDATE employees
SET salary = 95000
WHERE last_name = 'Smith';

SAVEPOINT justsmith;

UPDATE employees
SET salary = 1000000;

SAVEPOINT everyone;

SELECT SUM(salary) FROM employees;

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ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT justsmith;

COMMIT;

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Writing and Practice of Simple Queries.


To write simple queries and practice them.

1. Get the description of EMP table.

SQL>desc emp;

RESULT:
Name Null? Type
-------------------------------- ----------------------- -------------------------
EMPNO NOT NULL NUMBER(4)
ENAME VARCHAR2(10)
JOB VARCHAR2(9)
MGR NUMBER(4)
HIREDATE DATE
SAL NUMBER(7,2)
COMM NUMBER(7,2)
DEPTNO NUMBER(3)
AGE NUMBER(3)
ESAL NUMBER(10)

2. Get the description DEPT table.

SQL>desc dept;

RESULT:
Name Null? Type
--------------------------------- --------------------- ---------------------------
DEPTNO NOT NULL NUMBER(2)
DNAME VARCHAR2(14)
LOC VARCHAR2(13)

3.List all employee details.

SQL>select * from emp;

RESULT:
EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO
AGE ESAL
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-------- ---------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
-----------------
7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 0 20
25 0
7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30
25 0
7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30
25 0
7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 500 20
25 0
7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 1400 30
25 0

4.List all employee names and their salaries, whose salary lies between
1500/- and 3500/- both inclusive.

INPUT
SQL>select ename from emp where sal between 1500 and 3500;
RESULT
ENAME
----------
ALLEN
JONES
BLAKE
CLARK
SCOTT
TURNER
FORD
russel
greg

9 rows selected.

5. List all employee names and their and their manager whose manager is
7902 or 7566 0r 7789.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where mgr in(7602,7566,7789);
RESULT

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ENAME
-------
SCOTT
FORD
6. List all employees which starts with either J or T.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where ename like ‘J%’ or ename like ‘T
%’;
RESULT:

ENAME
---------
JONES
TURNER
JAMES

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7. List all employee names and jobs, whose job title includes M or P.
INPUT SQL>select ename,job from emp where job like ‘M%’ or job like ‘P
%’;
RESULT:
ENAME JOB
---------- ---------
JONES MANAGER
BLAKE MANAGER
CLARK MANAGER
KING PRESIDENT
8. List all jobs available in employee table.
INPUT SQL>select distinct job from emp;
RESULT:
JOB
---------
ANALYST
CLERK
MANAGER
PRESIDENT
SALESMAN
assistant
clerk
7 rows selected.
9. List all employees who belongs to the department 10 or 20.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where deptno in (10,20);
RESULT:
ENAME
----------
SMITH
JONES
CLARK
SCOTT
KING

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ADAMS
FORD
MILLER

8 rows selected.
10. List all employee names , salary and 15% rise in salary.
INPUT SQL>select ename , sal , sal+0.15* sal from emp;
RESULT:
ENAME SAL SAL+0.15*SAL
---------- ---------- ------------
SMITH 800 920
ALLEN 1600 1840
WARD 1250 1437.5
JONES 2975 3421.25
MARTIN 1250 1437.5
BLAKE 2850 3277.5
CLARK 2450 2817.5
7 rows selected.
11. List minimum , maximum , average salaries of employee.
INPUT SQL>select min(sal),max(sal),avg(sal) from emp;
RESULT:

MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) AVG(SAL)


--------- ---------- ----------
3 5000 1936.94118

12. Find how many job titles are available in employee table.
INPUT SQL>select count (distinct job) from emp;
RESULT:
COUNT(DISTINCTJOB)
------------------
7

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13. What is the difference between maximum and minimum salaries of
employees in the organization?
INPUT SQL>select max(sal)-min(sal) from emp;
RESULT:
MAX(SAL)-MIN(SAL)
-----------------
4997

14. Display all employee names and salary whose salary is greater than
minimum salary of the company and job title starts with ‘M’.
INPUT SQL>select ename,sal from emp where job like ‘M%’ and sal > (select
min (sal) from emp);
RESULT
ENAME SAL
---------- ----------
JONES 2975
BLAKE 2850
CLARK 2450
15. Find how much amount the company is spending towards salaries.
INPUT SQL>select sum (sal) from emp;
RESULT
SUM(SAL)
---------
32928
16. Display name of the dept. with deptno 20.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where deptno = 20;
RESULT
ENAME
----------
SMITH
JONES
SCOTT
ADAMS

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17. List ename whose commission is NULL.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where comm is null;
ENAME
RESULT ----------
CLARK
SCOTT
KING
ADAMS
JAMES
FORD
6 rows selected.

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18. Find no.of dept in employee table.


INPUT SQL>select count (distinct ename) from emp;
RESULT
COUNT(DISTINCTENAME
--------------------
17
19. List ename whose manager is not NULL.
INPUT SQL>select ename from emp where mgr is not null;
RESULT
ENAME
----------
SMITH
ALLEN
WARD
JONES
MARTIN
5 rows selected.
Writing Queries using GROUP BY and other clauses.
To write queries using clauses such as GROUP BY, ORDER BY, etc. and
retrieving information by joining tables.

Source tables: emp, dept, programmer, software, study.


Order by : The order by clause is used to display the results in sorted order.
Group by : The attribute or attributes given in the clauses are used to form
groups. Tuples with the same value on all attributes in the group by clause are
placed in one group.
Having: SQL applies predicates (conditions) in the having clause after groups
have been formed, so aggregate function be used.
1. Display total salary spent for each job category.
INPUT SQL>select job,sum (sal) from emp group by job;
RESULT
JOB SUM(SAL)
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--------- ----------
ANALYST 6000
CLERK 23050
MANAGER 8275
PRESIDENT 5000
SALESMAN 5600
assistant 2200
clerk 2003
7 rows selected.

2. Display lowest paid employee details under each manager.


INPUT SQL>select ename, sal from emp where sal in (select min(sal) from
emp group by mgr);
RESULT
ENAME SAL
---------- ----------
chai 3
JAMES 950
MILLER 1000
ADAMS 1100
russel 2200
5 rows selected.
3. Display number of employees working in each department and their
department name.
INPUT SQL> select dname, count (ename) from emp, dept where
emp.deptno=dept.deptno group by dname;
RESULT
DNAME COUNT(ENAME)
-------------- ------------
ACCOUNTING 3
RESEARCH 5
SALES 9
4. Display the sales cost of package developed by each programmer.
INPUT SQL>select pname, sum(scost) from software group by pname;

RESULT

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PNAME SUM(SCOST)
-------------------- ----------
john 12000
kamala 12000
raju 12333
3 rows selected.

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5. Display the number of packages sold by each programmer.


INPUT SQL>select pname, count(title) from software group by pname;

RESULT
PNAME COUNT(TITLE)
-------------------- ------------
john 1
kamala 1
raju 1
ramana 1
rani 1
5 rows selected.
6. Display the number of packages in each language for which the
development cost is less than thousand.
INPUT SQL>select devin, count(title) from software where dcost < 1000 group
by devin;
RESULT
DEVIN COUNT(TITLE)
---------- ------------
cobol 1
7. Display each institute name with number of students.
INPUT SQL>select splace, count(pname) from study group by splace;
RESULT
SPLACE COUNT(PNAME)
-------------------- ------------
BDPS 2
BITS 1
BNRILLIANI 1
COIT 1
HYD 1
5 rows selected.

8. How many copies of package have the least difference between


development and selling cost, were sold?

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INPUT SQL>select sold from software where scost – dcost=(select min(scost –
dcost) from software);
RESULT
SOLD
---------
11

9. Which is the costliest package developed in Pascal.


INPUT SQL>select title from software where devin = ‘PASCAL’ and dcost =
(select max(dcost)from software where devin = ‘PASCAL’);
RESULT
no rows selected
10. Which language was used to develop most no .of packages.
INPUT SQL>select devin, count (*) from software group by devin having
count(*) = (select max(count(*) ) from software group by devin);
RESULT
DEVIN COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
jsp 2
11.Who are the male programmers earning below the average salary of
female programmers?
INPUT SQL>select pname from programmer where sal < (select avg(sal) from
programmer where sex = ‘F’) and sex = ‘M’;
RESULT
PNAME
--------------------
vijay
12. Display the details of software developed by the male programmers
earning more than 3000/-.
INPUT SQL>select programmer.pname, title, devin from programmer,
software where sal > 3000 and sex = ‘M’ and programmer.pname =
software.pname;
RESULT

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no rows selected

13. Display the details of software developed in c language by female


programmers of pragathi.
INPUT SQL>select software.pname, title, devin, scost, dcost, sold from
programmer, software, study where devin = ‘c’ and sex =’F’ and splace =
‘pragathi’ and programmer.pname = software.pname and software.pname =
study.pname;

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14. Which language has been stated by the most of the programmers as
proficiency one?
INPUT SQL>select prof1, count(*) from programmer group by prof1 having
count (*) = (select max (count (*) ) from programmer group by prof1);
Writing Nested Queries.
To write queries using Set operations and to write nested queries.
Set Operations:
UNION - OR
INTERSECT - AND
EXCEPT - - NOT
NESTED QUERY:- A nested query makes use of another sub-query to
compute or retrieve the information.
1. Find the name of the institute in which the person studied and
developed the costliest package.
INPUT SQL>select splace, pname from study where pname = (select pname
from software where scost = (select max (scost) from software);
RESULT
SPLACE PNAME
------------ -------------
SAHBHARI MARY
2. Find the salary and institute of a person who developed the highest
selling package.
INPUT SQL> select study.pname, sal, splace from study, programmer where
study.pname = programmer.pname and study.pname = (select pname from
software where scost = (select max (scost) from software));
RESULT

PNAME SAL SPLACE


----------- ------ -----------

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MARY 4500 SABHARI

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3. How many packages were developed by the person who developed the
cheapest package.
INPUT SQL>select pname, count (title) from software where dcost = (select
min(dcost) from software) group by pname;
RESULT
PNAME COUNT(TITLE)
------------- ----------------------
VIJAY 1
4. Calculate the amount to be recovered for those packages whose
development cost has not yet recovered.
INPUT SQL>select title , (dcost-scost) from software where dcost > scost;
5. Display the title, scost, dcost, difference of scost and dcost in the
descending order of difference.
INPUT SQL> select title, scost, dcost, (scost - dcost) from software descending
order by (scost-dcost);
6. Display the details of those who draw the same salary.
INPUT SQL> select p.pname, p.sal from programmer p, programmer t where
p.pname <> t.pname and p.sal = t.sal;(or)
INPUT SQL>select pname,sal from programmer t where pname<>t.pname and
sal= t.sal;
Writing Queries using functions.
AIM: To write queries using single row functions and group functions.
1. Display the names and dob of all programmers who were born in
january.
INPUT SQL>select pname , dob from programmer where to_char
(dob,’MON’)=’JAN’;
2. Calculate the experience in years of each programmer and display along
with programmer name in descending order.

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INPUT SQL> select pname, round (months_between(sysdate, doj)/12, 2)
"EXPERIENCE" from programmer order by months_between (sysdate, doj)
desc;
3. List out the programmer names who will celebrate their birthdays
during current month.
INPUT SQL>select pname from programmer where to_char(dob,’MON’) like
to_char (sysdate, ‘MON’);
4. Display the least experienced programmer’s details.
INPUT SQL>select * from programmer where doj = (select max (doj) from
programmer);
5. Who is the most experienced programmer knowing pascal.
INPUT SQL>select pname from programmer where doj = (select min (doj)
from programmer);
6. Who is the youngest programmer born in 1965.
INPUT SQL> select pname , dob from programmer where dob = (select max
(dob) from programmer where to_char (dob,'yy') = 65);
7. In which year, most of the programmers are born.
INPUT SQL>select to_char (dob , ‘YY’) from programmer group by to_char
(dob, ‘YY’) having count(*) = (select max (count(*)) from programmer group
by to_char(dob,’YY’);
8. In which month most number of programmers are joined.
INPUT SQL>select to_char (doj,’YY’) from programmer group by to_char
(doj,’YY’) having count (*) = (select max (count(*)) from programmer group
by to_char (doj,’YY’);
9. What is the length of the shortest name in programmer table ?
INPUT SQL>select length (pname) from programmer where length (pname) =
select min ( length (pname) from programmer);
10. Display the names of the programmers whose name contains up to 5
characters.
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INPUT SQL>select pname from programmer where length (pname) <=5;
11. Display all packages names in small letters and corresponding
programmer names in uppercase letters.
INPUT SQL>select lower (title), upper (pname) from software;

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Writing Queries on views.


AIM: To write queries on views.
1. Create a view from single table containing all columns from the base
table.
SQL>create view view1 as (select * from programmer);
2. Create a view from single table with selected columns.
SQL>create a view view2 as (select pname,dob,doj,sex,sal from programmer);
3. Create a view from two tables with all columns.
SQL>create view xyz as select * from programmer full natural join software;
4. Create a view from two tables with selected columns.
SQL> create view lmn as (select programmer, pname, title, devin from
programmer, software where sal < 3000 and programmer.pname =
software.pname);
5. Check all DML commands with above 4 views.
INPUT SQL> insert into view1 values (‘ramu’,’12-sep-03’,’28-jan-
85’,’f’,’dbase’,’oracle’,74000);
RESULT
1 row created;
INPUT SQL>update view1 set salary =50000 where pname like ‘raju’;
RESULT 1 row updated.
Note: update command does not works for all queries on views.
INPUT SQL>delete from view1 where pname like ‘raju’;
RESULT 1 row deleted.

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6. Drop views which you generated.


INPUT SQL>drop view view1;
RESULT View dropped;
INPUT SQL>drop view view2;
RESULT View dropped;
INPUT SQL>drop view xyz;

Writing PL/SQL block for insertion into a table.

To write a PL/SQL block for inserting rows into EMPDET table with the
following Calculations:
HRA=50% OF BASIC
DA=20% OF BASIC
PF=7% OF BASIC
NETPAY=BASIC+DA+HRA-PF

INPUT

DECLARE
ENO1 empdet.eno%type;
ENAME1 empdet.name%type;
DEPTNO1 empdet.deptno%type;
BASIC1 empdet.basic%type;
HRA1 empdet.HRA%type;
DA1 empdet.DA%type;
PF1 empdet.pf%type;
NETPAY1 empdet.netpay%type;
BEGIN
ENO1:=&ENO1;
ENAME1:='&ENAME1';
DEPTNO1:=&DEPTNO1;
BASIC1:=&BASIC1;
HRA1:=(BASIC1*50)/100;
DA1:=(BASIC1*20)/100;
PF1:=(BASIC1*7)/100;
NETPAY1:=BASIC1+HRA1+DA1-PF1;
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INSERT INTO EMPDET VALUES (ENO1, ENAME1, DEPTNO1,


BASIC1, HRA1, DA1, PF1, NETPAY1);
END;

RESULT:

SQL> @BASIC
Enter value for eno1: 104
old 11: ENO1:=&ENO1;
new 11: ENO1:=104;
Enter value for ename1: SRINIVAS REDDY
old 12: ENAME1:='&ENAME1';
new 12: ENAME1:='SRINIVAS REDDY';
Enter value for deptno1: 10
old 13: DEPTNO1:=&DEPTNO1;
new 13: DEPTNO1:=10;
Enter value for basic1: 6000
old 14: BASIC1:=&BASIC1;
new 14: BASIC1:=6000;

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>/
Enter value for eno1: 105
old 11: ENO1:=&ENO1;
new 11: ENO1:=105;
Enter value for ename1: CIRAJ
old 12: ENAME1:='&ENAME1';
new 12: ENAME1:='CIRAJ';
Enter value for deptno1: 10
old 13: DEPTNO1:=&DEPTNO1;
new 13: DEPTNO1:=10;
Enter value for basic1: 6000
old 14: BASIC1:=&BASIC1;
new 14: BASIC1:=6000;

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

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SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPDET;
RESULT
ENO NAME DEPTNO BASIC HRA DA PF
NETPAY
--------- ------------------------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
-----------------------
101 SANTOSH 10 5000 2500 1000 350
8150
102 SHANKAR 20 5000 2500 1000 350
8150
103 SURESH 20 5500 2750 1100 385
8965
104 SRINIVASA REDDY 10 6000 3000 1200 420
9780
105 CIRAJ 10 6000 3000 1200 420
9780

Writing PL/SQL block for checking armstrong number

To write a PL/SQL block to check whether given number is Armstrong or


not.

INPUT

DECLARE
num number(5);
rem number(5);
s number(5):=0;
num1 number(5);
BEGIN
num:=&num;
num1:=num;
while(num>0)
loop
rem:=mod(num,10);
s:=s+power(rem,3);
num:=trunc(num/10);
End loop;
if (s=num1)then

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dbms_RESULT.put_line(num1||' IS ARMSTRONG NUMBER ');
else
dbms_RESULT.put_line(num1||' IS NOT ARMSTRONG
NUMBER ');
End if;
END;
/

RESULT:
SQL>@arm
Enter value for num: 153
old 7: num:=&num;
new 7: num:=153;
153 IS ARMSTRONG NUMBER

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> /
Enter value for num: 123
old 7: num:=&num;
new 7: num:=123;
123 IS NOT ARMSTRONG NUMBER

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


Writing a PL/SQL block for checking a number even or odd.

AIM: To write a PL/SQL block to check whether a given number is Even


or Odd.

INPUT

DECLARE
num number(5);
rem number;
BEGIN
num:=&num;
rem:=mod(num,2);
if rem=0
then
dbms_RESULT.put_line(' Number '||num||' is Even');

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else
dbms_RESULT.put_line(' Number '||num||' is Odd');
end if;
END;

RESULT:

SQL>start even
Enter value for num: 6
old 5: num:=&num;
new 5: num:=6;
Number 6 is Even

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> /
Enter value for num: 3
old 5: num:=&num;
new 5: num:=3;
Number 3 is Odd
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL block to find sum of digits of a given number.

To write a PL/SQL block to find Sum of Digits of a given Number.

INPUT

DECLARE
num number(5);
rem number(5);
sm number(5):=0;
num1 number(5);
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BEGIN
num:=&num;
num1:=num;
while(num>0) loop
rem:=mod(num,10);
sm:=sm+rem;
num:=trunc(num/10);
end loop;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('SUM OF DIGITS OF '||num1||' IS: '||sm);
end;
/
RESULT:
SQL> @sum
INPUT truncated to 2 characters
Enter value for num: 123
old 7: num:=&num;
new 7: num:=123;
SUM OF DIGITS OF 123 IS: 6
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> @sum
INPUT truncated to 2 characters
Enter value for num: 456
old 7: num:=&num;
new 7: num:=456;
SUM OF DIGITS OF 456 IS: 15
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

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Writing PL/SQL block for generating Fibonacci series.
To write a PL/SQL block to Generate Fibonacci Series
INPUT

DECLARE
num number(5);
f1 number(5):=0;
f2 number(5):=1;
f3 number(5);
i number(5):=3;
BEGIN
num:=&num;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('THE FIBONACCI SERIES IS:');
dbms_RESULT.put_line(f1);
dbms_RESULT.put_line(f2);
while(i<=num) loop
f3:=f1+f2;
dbms_RESULT.put_line(f3);
f1:=f2;
f2:=f3;
i:=i+1;
end loop;
END;
/
RESULT:
SQL> start fib
Enter value for num: 10
old 8: num:=&num;
new 8: num:=10;
THE FIBONACCI SERIES IS:
0
1
1
2
3
5
8
13
21
34

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PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL block for checking palendrome.

To write a PL/SQL block to Check the Given String is Palindrome or


Not.

INPUT

DECLARE
name1 varchar2(20);
name2 varchar2(20);
l number(5);
BEGIN
name1:='&name1';
l:=length(name1);
while l>0 loop
name2:=name2||substr(name1,l,1);
l:=l-1;
end loop;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('REVERSE OF STRING IS:'||NAME2);
if(name1=name2) then
dbms_RESULT.put_line(name1||' IS PALINDROME ');
else
dbms_RESULT.put_line(name1||' IS NOT PALINDROME ');
end if;
END;
/
RESULT
Enter value for name1: LIRIL
old 6: name1:='&name1';
new 6: name1:='LIRIL';
REVERSE OF STRING IS:LIRIL
LIRIL IS PALINDROME

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

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SQL> /
Enter value for name1: MADAM
old 6: name1:='&name1';
new 6: name1:='MADAM';
REVERSE OF STRING IS:MADAM
MADAM IS PALINDROME

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL block to demonstrate Cursors.

To write a Cursor to display the list of Employees and Total Salary


Department wise.

INPUT
DECLARE
cursor c1 is select * from dept;
cursor c2 is select * from emp;
s emp.sal%type;

BEGIN
for i in c1 loop
s:=0;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('----------------------------------------------');
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Department is :' || i.deptno ||'
Department name is:' || i.dname);
dbms_RESULT.put_line('-------------------------------------------');
for j in c2 loop
if ( i.deptno=j.deptno) then
s:=s+j.sal;
dbms_RESULT.put_line(j.empno|| ' '|| j.ename || '
'|| j.sal );
end if;
end loop;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('----------------------------------------------');
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Total salary is: '|| s);
dbms_RESULT.put_line('----------------------------------------------');

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end loop;
END;

RESULT:

SQL> @abc
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Department is :10 Department name is : ACCOUNTING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7782 CLARK 2450
7839 KING 5000
7934 MILLER 1300
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total salary is: 8750
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Department is :20 Department name is:RESEARCH
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7369 SMITH 800
7566 JONES 2975
7788 SCOTT 3000
7876 ADAMS 1100
7902 FORD 3000
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total salary is: 10875
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Department is :30 Department name is:SALES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7499 ALLEN 1600
7521 WARD 1250
7654 MARTIN 1250
7698 BLAKE 2850
7844 TURNER 1500
7900 JAMES 950
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total salary is: 9400
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Department is :40 Department name is:OPERATIONS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total salary is: 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL CURSOR


To write a Cursor to display the list of employees who are Working as a
Managers or Analyst.

INPUT
DECLARE
cursor c(jb varchar2) is select ename from emp where job=jb;
em emp.job%type;
BEGIN
open c('MANAGER');
dbms_RESULT.put_line(' EMPLOYEES WORKING AS MANAGERS
ARE:');
loop
fetch c into em;
exit when c%notfound;
dbms_RESULT.put_line(em);
end loop;
close c;

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open c('ANALYST');
dbms_RESULT.put_line(' EMPLOYEES WORKING AS ANALYST
ARE:');
loop
fetch c into em;
exit when c%notfound;
dbms_RESULT.put_line(em);
end loop;
close c;
END;

RESULT:

EMPLOYEES WORKING AS MANAGERS ARE:


JONES
BLAKE
CLARK
EMPLOYEES WORKING AS ANALYST ARE:
SCOTT
FORD

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL CURSOR


To write a Cursor to display List of Employees from Emp Table in
PL/SQL block

INPUT

DECLARE
cursor c is select empno, ename, deptno, sal from emp ;
i emp.empno%type;
j emp.ename%type;
k emp.deptno%type;
l emp.sal%type;

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BEGIN
open c;
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Empno, name, deptno, salary of employees
are:= ');
loop
fetch c into i, j, k, l;
exit when c%notfound;
dbms_RESULT.put_line(i||' '||j||' '||k||' '||l);
end loop;
close c;
END;

RESULT:
SQL> @EMP
Empno,name,deptno,salary of employees are:=
7369 SMITH 20 800
7499 ALLEN 30 1600
7521 WARD 30 1250
7566 JONES 20 2975
7654 MARTIN 30 1250
7698 BLAKE 30 2850
7782 CLARK 10 2450
7788 SCOTT 20 3000
7839 KING 10 5000
7844 TURNER 30 1500
7876 ADAMS 20 1100
7900 JAMES 30 950
7902 FORD 20 3000
7934 MILLER 10 1300
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Writing PL/SQL CURSOR


To write a Cursor to find employee with given job and deptno.
INPUT
DECLARE

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cursor c1(j varchar2, dn number) is select empno, ename from emp
where job=j and deptno=dn;
row1 emp%rowtype;
jb emp.job%type;
d emp.deptno%type;
BEGIN
jb:='&jb';
d:=&d;
open c1(jb,d);
fetch c1 into row1.empno,row1.ename;
if c1%notfound then
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Employee does not exist');
else
dbms_RESULT.put_line('empno is:'||row1.empno||' ' ||'employee
name is:'||row1.ename);
end if;
END;

RESULT:
SQL> @CUR
Enter value for jb: MANAGER
old 7: jb:='&jb';
new 7: jb:='MANAGER';
Enter value for d: 20
old 8: d:=&d;
new 8: d:=20;
empno is:7566 employee name is:JONES
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> /
Enter value for jb: CLERK
old 7: jb:='&jb';
new 7: jb:='CLERK';
Enter value for d: 40
old 8: d:=&d;
new 8: d:=40;
Employee does not exist
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

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Writing PL/SQL BLOCK using string functions.


To write a PL/SQL block to apply String Functions on a given input
String.

INPUT
DECLARE
a varchar2(20);
l number(5);
BEGIN
a:='&a';
l:=length(a);
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Lower Function:' || lower(a));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using UPPER Function:' || upper(a));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Initcap Function:' || initcap(a));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Substring Function:' || substr(a,l,1));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Substring Function:' || substr(a,1,3));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Ltrim function for xxxabcxxxx:' ||
ltrim('xxxabcxxxx','x'));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Rtrim function for xxxabcxxxx:'||
rtrim('xxxabcxxxx','x'));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Lpad function :'|| lpad(a,l+4,'*'));
dbms_RESULT.put_line('Using Rpad function :'|| rpad(a,l+4,'*'));
END;

RESULT:

SQL>@STR
Enter value for a: santosh reddy
old 5: a:='&a';
new 5: a:='santosh reddy';
Using Lower Function:santosh reddy
Using UPPER Function:SANTOSH REDDY
Using Initcap Function:Santosh Reddy
Using Substring Function:y
Using Substring Function:san
Using Ltrim function for xxxabcxxxx:abcxxxx

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Using Rtrim function for xxxabcxxxx:xxxabc
Using Lpad function :****santosh reddy
Using Rpad function :santosh reddy****

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


SQL> /
Enter value for a: UMA SHANKAR
old 5: a:='&a';
new 5: a:='UMA SHANKAR';
Using Lower Function:uma shankar
Using UPPER Function:UMA SHANKAR
Using Initcap Function:Uma Shankar
Using Substring Function:R
Using Substring Function:UMA
Using Ltrim function for xxxabcxxxx:abcxxxx
Using Rtrim function for xxxabcxxxx:xxxabc
Using Lpad function :****UMA SHANKAR
Using Rpad function :UMA SHANKAR****

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed

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Writing PL/SQL triggers

To write a TRIGGER to ensure that DEPT TABLE does not contain


duplicate of null values in DEPTNO column.

INPUT

CREATE OR RELPLACE TRIGGER trig1 before insert on dept for each row
DECLARE
a number;
BEGIN
if(:new.deptno is Null) then
raise_application_error(-20001,'error::deptno cannot be null');
else
select count(*) into a from dept where deptno=:new.deptno;
if(a=1) then
raise_application_error(-20002,'error:: cannot have duplicate
deptno');
end if;
end if;
END;

RESULT:

SQL> @trigger
Trigger created.

SQL> select * from dept;


DEPTNO DNAME LOC
--------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK

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20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

SQL> insert into dept values(&deptnp,'&dname','&loc');


Enter value for deptnp: null
Enter value for dname: marketing
Enter value for loc: hyd
old 1: insert into dept values(&deptnp,'&dname','&loc')
new 1: insert into dept values(null,'marketing','hyd')
insert into dept values(null,'marketing','hyd')
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-20001: error::deptno cannot be null
ORA-06512: at "SCOTT.TRIG1", line 5
ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'SCOTT.TRIG1'

SQL> /
Enter value for deptnp: 10
Enter value for dname: manager
Enter value for loc: hyd
old 1: insert into dept values(&deptnp,'&dname','&loc')
new 1: insert into dept values(10,'manager','hyd')
insert into dept values(10,'manager','hyd')
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-20002: error:: cannot have duplicate deptno
ORA-06512: at "SCOTT.TRIG1", line 9
ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'SCOTT.TRIG1'

SQL> /
Enter value for deptnp: 50
Enter value for dname: MARKETING
Enter value for loc: HYDERABAD
old 1: insert into dept values(&deptnp,'&dname','&loc')
new 1: insert into dept values(50,'MARKETING','HYDERABAD')

1 row created.
SQL> select * from dept;

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DEPTNO DNAME LOC
--------- -------------- -------------
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
50 MARKETING HYDE

Locking Table.
AIM: To learn commands related to Table Locking

LOCK TABLE Statement Manually lock one or more tables.

Syntax:
LOCK TABLE [schema.] table [options] IN lockmode
MODE [NOWAIT]

LOCK TABLE [schema.] view [options] IN lockmode


MODE [NOWAIT]

Options:
PARTITION (partition)
SUBPARTITION (subpartition)
@dblink

lockmodes:
EXCLUSIVE
SHARE

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ROW EXCLUSIVE
SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE
ROW SHARE* | SHARE UPDATE*

If NOWAIT is omitted Oracle will wait until the table is available.

Several tables can be locked with a single command - separate with commas

e.g. LOCK TABLE table1,table2,table3 IN ROW EXCLUSIVE MODE;

Default Locking Behaviour :

A pure SELECT will not lock any rows.

INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE's - will place a ROW EXCLUSIVE lock.

SELECT...FROM...FOR UPDATE NOWAIT - will place a ROW


EXCLUSIVE lock.

Multiple Locks on the same rows with LOCK TABLE

Even when a row is locked you can always perform a SELECT (because
SELECT does not lock any rows) in addition to this, each type of lock will
allow additional locks to be granted as follows.

ROW SHARE = Allow ROW EXCLUSIVE or ROW SHARE or SHARE locks


to be granted to the locked rows.

ROW EXCLUSIVE = Allow ROW EXCLUSIVE or ROW SHARE locks to be


granted to the locked rows.

SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE = Allow ROW SHARE locks to be granted to the


locked rows.

SHARE = Allow ROW SHARE or SHARE locks to be granted to the locked


rows.

EXCLUSIVE = Allow SELECT queries only

Although it is valid to place more than one lock on a row, UPDATES and

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DELETE's may still cause a wait if a conflicting row lock is held by another
transaction.

Generation of Forms using ORACLE FORM BUILDER


To design a form using Oracle Developer 2000

Introduction

Use Form Builder to simplify for the creation of data-entry screens, also known
as Forms. Forms are the applications that connect to a database, retrieve
information requested by the user, present it in a layout specified by Form
designer, and allow the user to modify or add information. Form Builder allows
you to build forms quickly and easily.

In this Hands-On, you learn how to: Create a Data block for the “Customer”
table, Create a layout, Use “content” canvas, Use “execute query”, Navigate a
table, Use next, previous record, Enter query, Manipulate table’s record, Insert,
Update, Delete and Save record.

Form Builder Tool

Open the "Form Builder" tool.

Welcome window

You will get the ‘Welcome to the Form Builder’ window. If you don’t want to
get this window anymore uncheck the ‘Display at startup’ box. You can start
your work with any of the following options:
• Use the data Block Wizard
• Build a new form manually
• Open an existing form
• Build a form based on a template
The default is ‘Use the data Block Wizard.’ If you want to build a new form
manually, click on "Cancel” or check ‘Build a new form manually’ and click
‘OK.’

Connect to database

In the ‘Object Navigator’ window, highlight "Database Objects." Go to the


Main menu and choose "File," then "Connect."

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In the ‘Connect’ window, login in as “scott” password “tiger,” then click


“CONNECT.”

Notice that the box next to ‘Database Objects’ is not empty anymore and it has
a ‘+’ sign in it. That will indicate that this item is expandable and you are able
to see its entire objects.

Click on the ‘+’ sign next to the ‘Database Objects’ to expand all database
schemas.

Create a Module

In the ‘Object Navigator’ window, highlight module1. This is a default name.


Go to the Main menu and choose “File,” select “Save as” to store the new
object in the “iself” folder and save it as customer data entry. "c:_de." In this
example the ‘DE’ abbreviation stands for Data Entry.

Create a Data Block

In the ‘Object Navigator’ window, highlight "Data Blocks,” and click on the
"create” icon. The ‘Create’ icon is in the vertical tool bar in the ‘Object
Navigator’ window. It is a green ‘+’ sign. If you drag your cursor on the icon a
tooltip will show ‘Create.’

New Data Block

In the ‘New Data Block’ window, choose the default option “Data Block
Wizard” and click "OK."

Welcome Data Block

In the ‘Welcome Data Block Wizard’ window click on the “NEXT” icon.

Type of Data Block

Select the type of data block you would like to create by clicking on a radio
button. Select the default option ‘Table or View’ and then click “NEXT” again.

Selecting Tables

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Click on “browse.” In the ‘Tables’ window, highlight the "cust11” table; then
click "OK."

Selecting columns for the Data Block Wizard

To choose all columns, click on the two arrow signs in the ‘Data Block Wizard’
window. To choose selected columns, click on the one arrow sign. And then
select all columns, and click “next.”

Layout Wizard

End of the Data Block Wizard and beginning of the Layout Wizard
In the ‘Congratulations’ screen, use the default checkmark radio button (Create
the data block, then call the Layout Wizard), and click "Finish." You can also
use the Data Block Wizard to modify your existing data block. Simply select
the data block in the Object Navigator and click the Data Block Wizard toolbar
button, or choose ‘Data Block wizard’ from the ‘Tools’ menu.

Welcome screen

In the ‘Welcome to the Layout Wizard’ window, click ”Next.”

Selecting canvas

In the ‘Layout Wizard’ window, select the "new canvas" option. Canvas is a
place that you will have your objects such as columns, titles, pictures, etc. If
you have already had your canvas, select the canvas and then click on the next.
The following are different types of canvases: Content, Stacked, Vertical
Toolbar, Horizontal Toolbar, and Tab.

Think of the ‘Content’ canvas as one flat place to have all your objects. In the
stacked canvas, you can have multiple layers of objects and it is the same as the
tab canvas. You use the vertical or horizontal toolbar canvases for your push
buttons. Check the different types of canvases by clicking on the ‘down arrow’
box next to the ‘Type’ field. Select "content," then click “Next.”

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Selecting Columns for the Layout Wizard

In the ‘Layout Wizard’ window, select all the columns. These are the columns
that you want to be displayed on the canvas. Then click “Next.”

Change your objects appearances

Change size or prompt if needed. In this window, you can enter a prompt,
width, and height for each item on the canvas. You can change the
measurement units. As a default the default units for item width and height are
points. You can change it to inch or centimeter. When you change size, click
“Next.”

Selecting a layout style

Select a layout style for your frame by clicking a radio button. Select "Form," if
you want one record at a time to be displayed. Select “Tabular,” if you want
more than one record at a time to be displayed. Select "Forms," and then click
“next.”

Record layout

Type the "Frame Title" and click "next." Checkmark the ‘Display Scrollbar’
box when you use multiple records or the ‘Tabular’ option.

Congratulation Screen

In the ‘Congratulations’ window, click "Finish."


You will see the output layout screen.
Make some window adjustments and then run the form. To run the form, click
on the ‘Run’ icon. The ‘Run’ icon is on the horizontal toolbar in the
‘CUSTOMER_DE’ canvas.

The object module should be compiled successfully before executing the Form.

Execute Query

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Click on the "Execute Query" icon below the main menu. If you drag the cursor
on the toolbar in the ‘Forms Runtime’ window, a tooltip will be displayed and
you see ‘Execute Query.’
So to know all your option, drag your cursor to view all the icon descriptions.

Next Record

Click on the "Next Record" icon to navigate to the next record.

Previous Record

Click on the "Previous Record" icon to navigate to the previous record.


This is an easy way to navigate through the “Customer” table.

Enter Query

Click on the "Enter Query" icon to query selected records.

Insert Record

Click "Insert Record" to add new customer. All items on the forms will be
blanked. You can either type all the customer information or duplicate it from
pervious record.

Duplicate Record

To duplicate the previous record, go to the main menu and select the ‘Record’
sub-menu. A drop down menu will be displayed. Select the ‘Duplicate’ option
in the sub-menu.

Apply the changes. Remember in this stage, your record was inserted but not
committed yet.
Next and Previous Record

Click "next record" and "previous record" to navigate through the records and
the one was added.

Save transactions

Click "Save" to commit the insert statement.

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Delete Record

Click "Remove Record" to delete the record.

Lock a Record

You can also lock the record.

Exit from Form Runtime

Exit the FORM Runtime. If you have not committed any transaction, you will
be prompted to save changes. Click “YES” to save changes.
Click “OK” for acknowledgement.

Don’t forget to save the Form.

RABAD

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Selecting the type of form to create

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Object wizard

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Selecting the canvas on which data block can be displayed

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Form showing the Employee details

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EXPT#28. Generating REPORTS using Oracle Developer 2000


AIM: To design reports using Oracle Developer 2000

Introduction
Tabular report shows data in a table format. It is similar in concept to the idea
of an Oracle table. Oracle, by default, returns output from your select statement
in tabular format.

Hands-on
In this Hands-On, your client is a stock broker that keeps track of its customer
stock transactions. You have been assigned to write the reports based on their
reports layout requirements.
Your client wants you to create a simple listing report to show list of the stock
trades by using stocks table for their brokerage company

Your tasks are:


1- Write a tabular report.
2- Apply user layout Format mask.
3- Run the report.
4- Test the repot.

You will learn how to: use report wizard, object navigator, report builder, “date
model”, property palette, work on query and group box, see report style, use
tabular style, navigating through report’s record, change the format mask for
dollar, numeric and date items.

Open Report Builder tool


Open the "Report Builder" tool.

Connect to database
In the Object Navigator, highlight "Database Objects,” choose "File," then
select the "Connect" option.
In the ‘Connect’ window, login as “iself” password schooling, then click
“CONNECT.”

Save a report
In the Object Navigator, highlight the "untitled" report, choose “File,” and
select the “Save as” option.

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In the ‘Save as’ window, make sure to save the report in the ISELF folder and
name it "rpt01_stock_history,” report number 1 stock history.

Data Model
In the Object Navigator, double click on the "Data Model" icon.

Create SQL box


In the Data Model window, click on the "SQL Query" icon. Then drag the plus
sign cursor and click it anywhere in the “Data Model” screen where you wish
your object to be.

In the ‘SQL Query Statement’ window, write a query to read all the stocks
record sorted by their symbol.
(SQL Query Statement)
SELECT * FROM stocks
ORDER BY symbol
Click “OK.”

Change SQL box’s name


In the Data Model window, in the “SQL” box, right click on the ‘Q_1’ and open
its property palette.
In its property palette, change the name to Q_STOCKS. Then close the
window.

Change GROUP box’s name


In the Data Model, right click on the group box (G_SYMBOL) and open its
property palette.
In the Group property palette, change the name to ‘G_STOCKS,’ and close the
window.

Open Report Wizard


In the Data Model, click on the ‘Report Wizard’ icon on the horizontal tool bar.
In the Style tab, on the Report Wizard window, type ‘Stock History’ in the Title
box and choose the report style as ‘Tabular.’
Notice that when you change the report style a layout of that report will be
displayed on the screen.
Choose a different style to display its layout of its report style.

Data, Fields, Totals, Labels and Template tabs

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Click “NEXT” to go to the Data tab. In the ‘SQL Query Statement’ verify your
query.
Click “NEXT” to navigate to the Fields tab, select the fields that you would like
to be display in your report. Select all the columns to be display.
Click “NEXT” to navigate to Totals tab, select the fields for which you would
like to calculate totals. We have none in this hands-on exercise.

Click “NEXT” to open the Labels tab, modify the labels and widths for your
fields and totals as desired.
Click “NEXT” again to go to the Template tab, and choose a template for your
report. Your report will inherit the template’s colors, fonts, line widths, and
structure.
Use the default template and click “finish.”

Running a report
Now, you should have your output report on the screen.

Resize an object
Maximize the output report and format the report layout. To resize an object ,
select it and drag its handler to the preferred size.

Move an object
To move an object, select and drag it while the cursor is on the object.

This is a simple report.


Navigate through the output
To navigate through the output report in the Report Editor - Live Pre-viewer,
click on the "next page" or "previous page" icon on the horizontal toolbar.
Do the same with the "first page" or "last page" icon.

Use the “zoom in” and “zoom out” icon to preview the report.

Know report’s functions


To know each icon functionalities, drag your cursor on it and a tooltip will
display its function.

Change Format Mask


To change the "format mask" of a column, the column should be selected. Then
go to the toolbar and click on the “$” icon, "add decimal place," and the “right

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justify” format to the all currency columns (Todays Low, Todays High, and
current price)

Select the “traded today” column, and click on the ‘,0’ icon (apply commas),
and make it right justify.
Also, you can change any attributes of field by opening its property palette. To
open an object’s property palette, right click on it and select the Property Palette
option.
Right click on the "trade date" column and open its "property palette."
Change the date "Format Mask" property and make it “year 2000 complaint
(MM-DD-RR).”

Selecting type of report

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Creating reports

Selecting the format of reports

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Selecting the Table in database

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Selecting the columns in the report

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Modify the labels in a table

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Choose a template to represent the report

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To specify the completion of report generation

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EXPT#29. Providing Security using GRANT and REVOKE.
AIM: To learn GRANT and REVOKE commands to restrict privileges.

(1) GRANT Statement


Grant privileges to a user (or to a user role)

Syntax:

Grant System-wide Privs:

GRANT system_priv(s) TO grantee


[IDENTIFIED BY password] [WITH ADMIN OPTION]

GRANT role TO grantee


[IDENTIFIED BY password] [WITH ADMIN OPTION]

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES TO grantee


[IDENTIFIED BY password] [WITH ADMIN OPTION]

Grant privs on specific objects:

GRANT object_priv [(column, column,...)]


ON [schema.]object
TO grantee [WITH GRANT OPTION] [WITH
HIERARCHY OPTION]

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES [(column, column,...)]


ON [schema.]object
TO grantee [WITH GRANT OPTION] [WITH
HIERARCHY OPTION]

GRANT object_priv [(column, column,...)]


ON DIRECTORY directory_name
TO grantee [WITH GRANT OPTION] [WITH
HIERARCHY OPTION]

GRANT object_priv [(column, column,...)]


ON JAVA [RE]SOURCE [schema.]object

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TO grantee [WITH GRANT OPTION] [WITH
HIERARCHY OPTION]

grantee:
user
role
PUBLIC

system_privs:
CREATE SESSION - Allows user to connect to the
database
UNLIMITED TABLESPACE - Use an unlimited amount of
any tablespace.
SELECT ANY TABLE - Query tables, views, or mviews
in any schema
UPDATE ANY TABLE - Update rows in tables and views
in any schema
INSERT ANY TABLE - Insert rows into tables and
views in any schema
Also System Admin rights to CREATE, ALTER or DROP:
cluster, context, database, link, dimension,
directory, index,
materialized view, operator, outline, procedure,
profile, role,
rollback segment, sequence, session, synonym,
table, tablespace,
trigger, type, user, view. (full list of system
privs)

object_privs:
SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE, ALTER, DEBUG,
EXECUTE, INDEX, REFERENCES

roles:
SYSDBA, SYSOPER, OSDBA, OSOPER, EXP_FULL_DATABASE,
IMP_FULL_DATABASE
SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE, EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE,
DELETE_CATALOG_ROLE

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AQ_USER_ROLE, AQ_ADMINISTRATOR_ROLE - advanced
queuing
SNMPAGENT - Enterprise Manager/Intelligent Agent.
RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER - rman
HS_ADMIN_ROLE - heterogeneous services

plus any user defined roles you have available

Notes:

Several Object_Privs can be assigned in a single GRANT statement


e.g.
GRANT SELECT (empno), UPDATE (sal) ON scott.emp TO emma

WITH HIERARCHY OPTION will grant the object privilege on all subobjects,
including any created after the GRANT statement is issued.

WITH GRANT OPTION will enable the grantee to grant those object privileges
to other users and roles.

"GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES..." may also be written as "GRANT ALL..."

(ii) REVOKE Statement


Revoke privileges from users or roles.

Syntax:

Roles:
REVOKE role FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC}

System Privs:
REVOKE system_priv(s) FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC}

REVOKE ALL FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC}

Object Privs:
REVOKE object_priv [(column1, column2..)] ON
[schema.]object
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FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC} [CASCADE
CONSTRAINTS] [FORCE]

REVOKE object_priv [(column1, column2..)] ON


[schema.]object
FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC} [CASCADE
CONSTRAINTS] [FORCE]

REVOKE object_priv [(column1, column2..)] ON


DIRECTORY directory_name
FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC} [CASCADE
CONSTRAINTS] [FORCE]

REVOKE object_priv [(column1, column2..)] ON JAVA


[RE]SOURCE [schema.]object
FROM {user, | role, |PUBLIC} [CASCADE
CONSTRAINTS] [FORCE]

key:
object_privs
ALTER, DELETE, EXECUTE, INDEX, INSERT,
REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE, ALL PRIVILEGES

system_privs
ALTER ANY INDEX, BECOME USER, CREATE TABLE, DROP
ANY VIEW
RESTRICTED SESSION, UNLIMITED TABLESPACE, UPDATE
ANY TABLE
plus too many others to list here

roles
Standard Oracle roles -
SYSDBA, SYSOPER, OSDBA, OSOPER, EXP_FULL_DATABASE,
IMP_FULL_DATABASE
plus any user defined roles you have available

FORCE, will revoke all privileges from a user-defined-type and mark it's
dependent objects INVALID.

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The roles CONNECT, RESOURCE and DBA are now deprecated (supported
only for backwards compatibility) unless you are still running Oracle 6.0

Error ORA-01927 "cannot REVOKE privileges you did not grant" - This
usually means you tried revoking permission from the table owner, e.g.
Oracle will not allow REVOKE select on USER1.Table1 from USER1 Owners
of objects ALWAYS have full permissions on those objects. This is one reason
it makes sense to place tables in one schema and the packaged prodecures used
to access those tables in a separate schema.

REFERENCES:

1. Oracle 9i Release 2 (9.2) SQL Reference,


www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/teaching/facilities/swdoc/oracle9i/server.920/a96540/t
oc.htm.

2. Oracle 9i Release 1 (9.0.1) SQL Reference,


http://download-
east.oracle.com/docs/cd/A91202_01/901_doc/server.901/a90125/toc.htm.

3. An A-Z Index of Oracle SQL Commands (version 9.2)


http://www.ss64.com/ora/.

4. Database Systems Instructor: Prof. Samuel Madden Source: MIT Open


Courseware (http://ocw.mit.edu).

5. RDBMS Lab Guide, www.campusconnect.infosys.com


userid:demo@infosys and passwork:infosys.

6. Orelly PL/SQL Pocket Reference,


http://www.unix.org.ua/orelly/oracle/langpkt/index.htm

7. PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference, Release 2 (9.2)

http://www.lc.leidenuniv.nl/awcourse/oracle/appdev.920/a96624/to
c.htm.

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VIVA VOICE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What is database?
A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent
meaning, representing some aspect of real world and which is designed, built
and populated with data for a specific purpose.

2. What is DBMS?
It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a
database. In other words it is general-purpose software that provides the users
with the processes of defining, constructing and manipulating the database for
various applications.

3. What is a Database system?


The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system.

4. Advantages of DBMS?
Ø Redundancy is controlled.
Ø Unauthorised access is restricted.
Ø Providing multiple user interfaces.
Ø Enforcing integrity constraints.
Ø Providing backup and recovery.

5. Disadvantage in File Processing System?


Ø Data redundancy & inconsistency.
Ø Difficult in accessing data.
Ø Data isolation.
Ø Data integrity.
Ø Concurrent access is not possible.
Ø Security Problems.

6. Describe the three levels of data abstraction?


The are three levels of abstraction:
Ø Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored.
Ø Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction, describes what data are
stored in database and what relationship among those data.
Ø View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire
database.
7. Define the "integrity rules"
There are two Integrity rules.
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Ø Entity Integrity: States that “Primary key cannot have NULL value”
Ø Referential Integrity: States that “Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or
should be Primary Key value of other relation.

8. What is extension and intension?


Extension -
It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. This is time
dependent.
Intension -
It is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints
laid on it.

9. What is System R? What are its two major subsystems?


System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San
Jose Research Center. It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that
it is possible to build a Relational System that can be used in a real life
environment to solve real life problems, with performance at least comparable
to that of existing system.
Its two subsystems are
Ø Research Storage
Ø System Relational Data System.

10. How is the data structure of System R different from the relational
structure?
Unlike Relational systems in System R
Ø Domains are not supported
Ø Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional
Ø Enforcement of entity integrity is optional
Ø Referential integrity is not enforced

11. What is Data Independence?


Data independence means that “the application is independent of the storage
structure and access strategy of data”. In other words, The ability to modify the
schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the
next higher level.
Two types of Data Independence:
Ø Physical Data Independence: Modification in physical level should not affect
the logical level.
Ø Logical Data Independence: Modification in logical level should affect the

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view level.
NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve
12. What is a view? How it is related to data independence?
A view may be thought of as a virtual table, that is, a table that does not really
exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base
table. In other words, there is no stored file that direct represents the view
instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary.
Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views. Thus the view
can insulate users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database.
Hence accounts for logical data independence.

13. What is Data Model?


A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships data
semantics and constraints.

14. What is E-R model?


This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called
entities and of relationship among these objects. Entities are described in a
database by a set of attributes.

15. What is Object Oriented model?


This model is based on collection of objects. An object contains values stored in
instance variables with in the object. An object also contains bodies of code that
operate on the object. These bodies of code are called methods. Objects that
contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into
classes.

16. What is an Entity?


It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence.

17. What is an Entity type?


It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes.

18. What is an Entity set?


It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database.

19. What is an Extension of entity type?


The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into
an entity set.

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20. What is Weak Entity set?
An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key, and its
primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity,
then it is said to be Weak Entity set.

21. What is an attribute?


It is a particular property, which describes the entity.

22. What is a Relation Schema and a Relation?


A relation Schema denoted by R(A1, A2, …, An) is made up of the relation
name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. A relation is defined as a set
of tuples. Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1, t2, t3, ..., tn). Each
tuple is an ordered list of n-values t=(v1,v2, ..., vn).

23. What is degree of a Relation?


It is the number of attribute of its relation schema.

24. What is Relationship?


It is an association among two or more entities.

25. What is Relationship set?


The collection (or set) of similar relationships.

26. What is Relationship type?


Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a
given set of entity types.

27. What is degree of Relationship type?


It is the number of entity type participating.

28. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)?


A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special
language called DDL.

29. What is VDL (View Definition Language)?


It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema.
30. What is SDL (Storage Definition Language)?
This language is to specify the internal schema. This language may specify the
mapping between two schemas.

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31. What is Data Storage - Definition Language?
The storage structures and access methods used by database system are
specified by a set of definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-
definition language.

32. What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)?


This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by
appropriate data model.
Ø Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are
needed and how to get those data.
Ø Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what
data are needed without specifying how to get those data.

33. What is DML Compiler?


It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that
the query evaluation engine can understand.

34. What is Query evaluation engine?


It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler.

35. What is DDL Interpreter?


It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata.

36. What is Record-at-a-time?


The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a
set of records. This retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time.

37. What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented?


The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records
in a single DML statement. This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time
or Set-oriented.

38. What is Relational Algebra?


It is procedural query language. It consists of a set of operations that take one or
two relations as input and produce a new relation.
39. What is Relational Calculus?
It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases
proposed by E.F. Codd. E.g. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA, QUEL.

40. How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-


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oriented relational calculus
The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i.e., variable whose only
permitted values are tuples of that relation. E.g. QUEL
The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i.e., variables that range
over the underlying domains instead of over relation. E.g. ILL, DEDUCE.

41. What is normalization?


It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional
Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties
Ø Minimizing redundancy
Ø Minimizing insertion, deletion and update anomalies.

42. What is Functional Dependency?


A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X
and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can
form a relation state r of R. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if
t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. This means the value of X
component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y.

43. When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal?


Ø Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side.
Ø We cannot replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A where
Y is a proper subset of X and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to
F.
Ø We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency
that is equivalent to F.

44. What is Multivalued dependency?


Multivalued dependency denoted by X Y specified on relation schema R, where
X and Y are both subsets of R, specifies the following constraint on any relation
r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4
should also exist in r with the following properties
Ø t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X]
Ø t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y]
Ø t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z]
where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ]
45. What is Lossless join property?
It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to
relation schemas after decomposition.

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46. What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?
The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple, indivisible) values.

47. What is Fully Functional dependency?


It is based on concept of full functional dependency. A functional dependency
X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means
that the dependency does not hold any more.

48. What is 2NF?


A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in
R is fully functionally dependent on primary key.

49. What is 3NF?


A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD X A either of the
following is true
Ø X is a Super-key of R.
Ø A is a prime attribute of R.
In other words, if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on
primary key.

50. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?


A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional
constraint that for every FD X A, X must be a candidate key.

51. What is 4NF?


A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X
Y that holds over R, one of following is true
Ø X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R.
Ø X is a super key.

52. What is 5NF?


A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1,
R2, ..., Rn} that holds R, one the following is true
Ø Ri = R for some i.
Ø The join dependency is implied by the set of FD, over R in which the left side
is key of R.
53. What is Domain-Key Normal Form?
A relation is said to be in DKNF if all constraints and dependencies that should
hold on the the constraint can be enforced by simply enforcing the domain

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constraint and key constraint on the relation.

54. What are partial, alternate,, artificial, compound and natural key?
Partial Key:
It is a set of attributes that can uniquely identify weak entities and that are
related to same owner entity. It is sometime called as Discriminator.
Alternate Key:
All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys.
Artificial Key:
If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last
resort is to simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or
occurrence. Then this is known as developing an artificial key.
Compound Key:
If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct,
then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct
is known as creating a compound key.
Natural Key:
When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the
primary key, then it is called the natural key.

55. What is indexing and what are the different kinds of indexing?
Indexing is a technique for determining how quickly specific data can be found.

Types:
Ø Binary search style indexing
Ø B-Tree indexing
Ø Inverted list indexing
Ø Memory resident table
Ø Table indexing

56. What is system catalog or catalog relation? How is better known as?
A RDBMS maintains a description of all the data that it contains, information
about every relation and index that it contains. This information is stored in a
collection of relations maintained by the system called metadata. It is also
called data dictionary.
57. What is meant by query optimization?
The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that
has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization.

58. What is join dependency and inclusion dependency?


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Join Dependency:
A Join dependency is generalization of Multivalued dependency.A JD {R1, R2,
..., Rn} is said to hold over a relation R if R1, R2, R3, ..., Rn is a lossless-join
decomposition of R . There is no set of sound and complete inference rules for
JD.
Inclusion Dependency:
An Inclusion Dependency is a statement of the form that some columns of a
relation are contained in other columns. A foreign key constraint is an example
of inclusion dependency.

59. What is durability in DBMS?


Once the DBMS informs the user that a transaction has successfully completed,
its effects should persist even if the system crashes before all its changes are
reflected on disk. This property is called durability.

60. What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?


Atomicity:
Either all actions are carried out or none are. Users should not have to worry
about the effect of incomplete transactions. DBMS ensures this by undoing the
actions of incomplete transactions.
Aggregation:
A concept which is used to model a relationship between a collection of entities
and relationships. It is used when we need to express a relationship among
relationships.
61. What is a Phantom Deadlock?
In distributed deadlock detection, the delay in propagating local information
might cause the deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not
really exist. Such situations are called phantom deadlocks and they lead to
unnecessary aborts.

62. What is a checkpoint and When does it occur?


A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. By taking checkpoints, the
DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of
subsequent crashes.
63. What are the different phases of transaction?
Different phases are
Ø Analysis phase
Ø Redo Phase
Ø Undo phase

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64. What do you mean by flat file database?
It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages. It has
no cross-file capabilities but is user-friendly and provides user-interface
management.

65. What is "transparent DBMS"?


It is one, which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user.

66. Brief theory of Network, Hierarchical schemas and their properties


Network schema uses a graph data structure to organize records example for
such a database management system is CTCG while a hierarchical schema uses
a tree data structure example for such a system is IMS.

67. What is a query?


A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to
interact with a data base. The query language can be classified into data
definition language and data manipulation language.

68. What do you mean by Correlated subquery?


Subqueries, or nested queries, are used to bring back a set of rows to be used by
the parent query. Depending on how the subquery is written, it can be executed
once for the parent query or it can be executed once for each row returned by
the parent query. If the subquery is executed for each row of the parent, this is
called a correlated subquery.
A correlated subquery can be easily identified if it contains any references to
the parent subquery columns in its WHERE clause. Columns from the subquery
cannot be referenced anywhere else in the parent query. The following example
demonstrates a non-correlated subquery.
E.g. Select * From CUST Where '10/03/1990' IN (Select ODATE From
ORDER Where CUST.CNUM = ORDER.CNUM)

69. What are the primitive operations common to all record management
systems?
Addition, deletion and modification.
70. Name the buffer in which all the commands that are typed in are stored

‘Edit’ Buffer

71. What are the unary operations in Relational Algebra?


PROJECTION and SELECTION.
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72. Are the resulting relations of PRODUCT and JOIN operation the
same?
No.
PRODUCT: Concatenation of every row in one relation with every row in
another.
JOIN: Concatenation of rows from one relation and related rows from another.

73. What is RDBMS KERNEL?


Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the
software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system-level data
structures used by the kernel to manage the database
You might think of an RDBMS as an operating system (or set of subsystems),
designed specifically for controlling data access; its primary functions are
storing, retrieving, and securing data. An RDBMS maintains its own list of
authorized users and their associated privileges; manages memory caches and
paging; controls locking for concurrent resource usage; dispatches and
schedules user requests; and manages space usage within its table-space
structures.

74. Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS


I/O, Security, Language Processing, Process Control, Storage Management,
Logging and Recovery, Distribution Control, Transaction Control, Memory
Management, Lock Management

75. Which part of the RDBMS takes care of the data dictionary? How
Data dictionary is a set of tables and database objects that is stored in a special
area of the database and maintained exclusively by the kernel.

76. What is the job of the information stored in data-dictionary?


The information in the data dictionary validates the existence of the objects,
provides access to them, and maps the actual physical storage location.

77. Not only RDBMS takes care of locating data it also


determines an optimal access path to store or retrieve the data
76. How do you communicate with an RDBMS?
You communicate with an RDBMS using Structured Query Language (SQL)

78. Define SQL and state the differences between SQL and other
conventional programming Languages
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SQL is a nonprocedural language that is designed specifically for data access
operations on normalized relational database structures. The primary difference
between SQL and other conventional programming languages is that SQL
statements specify what data operations should be performed rather than how to
perform them.

79. Name the three major set of files on disk that compose a database in
Oracle
There are three major sets of files on disk that compose a database. All the files
are binary. These are
Ø Database files
Ø Control files
Ø Redo logs
The most important of these are the database files where the actual data resides.
The control files and the redo logs support the functioning of the architecture
itself.
All three sets of files must be present, open, and available to Oracle for any data
on the database to be useable. Without these files, you cannot access the
database, and the database administrator might have to recover some or all of
the database using a backup, if there is one.

80. What is an Oracle Instance?


The Oracle system processes, also known as Oracle background processes,
provide functions for the user processes—functions that would otherwise be
done by the user processes themselves
Oracle database-wide system memory is known as the SGA, the system global
area or shared global area. The data and control structures in the SGA are
shareable, and all the Oracle background processes and user processes can use
them.
The combination of the SGA and the Oracle background processes is known as
an Oracle instance

81. What are the four Oracle system processes that must always be up and
running for the database to be useable
The four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the
database to be useable include DBWR (Database Writer), LGWR (Log Writer),
SMON (System Monitor), and PMON (Process Monitor).
82. What are database files, control files and log files. How many of these
files should a database have at least? Why?
Database Files
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The database files hold the actual data and are typically the largest in size.
Depending on their sizes, the tables (and other objects) for all the user accounts
can go in one database file—but that's not an ideal situation because it does not
make the database structure very flexible for controlling access to storage for
different users, putting the database on different disk drives, or backing up and
restoring just part of the database.
You must have at least one database file but usually, more than one files are
used. In terms of accessing and using the data in the tables and other objects,
the number (or location) of the files is immaterial.
The database files are fixed in size and never grow bigger than the size at which
they were created Control Files
The control files and redo logs support the rest of the architecture. Any database
must have at least one control file, although you typically have more than one to
guard against loss. The control file records the name of the database, the date
and time it was created, the location of the database and redo logs, and the
synchronization information to ensure that all three sets of files are always in
step. Every time you add a new database or redo log file to the database, the
information is recorded in the control files.
Redo Logs
Any database must have at least two redo logs. These are the journals for the
database; the redo logs record all changes to the user objects or system objects.
If any type of failure occurs, the changes recorded in the redo logs can be used
to bring the database to a consistent state without losing any committed
transactions. In the case of non-data loss failure, Oracle can apply the
information in the redo logs automatically without intervention from the DBA.
The redo log files are fixed in size and never grow dynamically from the size at
which they were created.

83. What is ROWID?


The ROWID is a unique database-wide physical address for every row on every
table. Once assigned (when the row is first inserted into the database), it never
changes until the row is deleted or the table is dropped.
The ROWID consists of the following three components, the combination of
which uniquely identifies the physical storage location of the row.
Ø Oracle database file number, which contains the block with the rows
Ø Oracle block address, which contains the row
Ø The row within the block (because each block can hold many rows)
The ROWID is used internally in indexes as a quick means of retrieving rows
with a particular key value. Application developers also use it in SQL
statements as a quick way to access a row once they know the ROWID

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84. What is Oracle Block? Can two Oracle Blocks have the same address?
Oracle "formats" the database files into a number of Oracle blocks when they
are first created—making it easier for the RDBMS software to manage the files
and easier to read data into the memory areas.
The block size should be a multiple of the operating system block size.
Regardless of the block size, the entire block is not available for holding data;
Oracle takes up some space to manage the contents of the block. This block
header has a minimum size, but it can grow.
These Oracle blocks are the smallest unit of storage. Increasing the Oracle
block size can improve performance, but it should be done only when the
database is first created.
Each Oracle block is numbered sequentially for each database file starting at 1.
Two blocks can have the same block address if they are in different database
files.

85. What is database Trigger?


A database trigger is a PL/SQL block that can defined to automatically execute
for insert, update, and delete statements against a table. The trigger can e
defined to execute once for the entire statement or once for every row that is
inserted, updated, or deleted. For any one table, there are twelve events for
which you can define database triggers. A database trigger can call database
procedures that are also written in PL/SQL.

86. Name two utilities that Oracle provides, which are use for backup and
recovery.
Along with the RDBMS software, Oracle provides two utilities that you can use
to back up and restore the database. These utilities are Export and Import.
The Export utility dumps the definitions and data for the specified part of the
database to an operating system binary file. The Import utility reads the file
produced by an export, recreates the definitions of objects, and inserts the data
If Export and Import are used as a means of backing up and recovering the
database, all the changes made to the database cannot be recovered since the
export was performed. The best you can do is recover the database to the time
when the export was last performed.

87. What are stored-procedures? And what are the advantages of using
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them.
Stored procedures are database objects that perform a user defined operation. A
stored procedure can have a set of compound SQL statements. A stored
procedure executes the SQL commands and returns the result to the client.
Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic.
88. How are exceptions handled in PL/SQL? Give some of the internal
exceptions' name
PL/SQL exception handling is a mechanism for dealing with run-time errors
encountered during procedure execution. Use of this mechanism enables
execution to continue if the error is not severe enough to cause procedure
termination.
The exception handler must be defined within a subprogram specification.
Errors cause the program to raise an exception with a transfer of control to the
exception-handler block. After the exception handler executes, control returns
to the block in which the handler was defined. If there are no more executable
statements in the block, control returns to the caller.
User-Defined Exceptions
PL/SQL enables the user to define exception handlers in the declarations area of
subprogram specifications. User accomplishes this by naming an exception as
in the following example:
ot_failure EXCEPTION;
In this case, the exception name is ot_failure. Code associated with this handler
is written in the EXCEPTION specification area as follows:
EXCEPTION
when OT_FAILURE then
out_status_code := g_out_status_code;
out_msg := g_out_msg;
The following is an example of a subprogram exception:
EXCEPTION
when NO_DATA_FOUND then
g_out_status_code := 'FAIL';
RAISE ot_failure;
Within this exception is the RAISE statement that transfers control back to the
ot_failure exception handler. This technique of raising the exception is used to
invoke all user-defined exceptions.
System-Defined Exceptions
Exceptions internal to PL/SQL are raised automatically upon error.
NO_DATA_FOUND is a system-defined exception. Table below gives a
complete list of internal exceptions.

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PL/SQL internal exceptions.


PL/SQL internal exceptions.

Exception Name Oracle Error


CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN ORA-06511
DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX ORA-00001
INVALID_CURSOR ORA-01001
INVALID_NUMBER ORA-01722
LOGIN_DENIED ORA-01017
NO_DATA_FOUND ORA-01403
NOT_LOGGED_ON ORA-01012
PROGRAM_ERROR ORA-06501
STORAGE_ERROR ORA-06500
TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE ORA-00051
TOO_MANY_ROWS ORA-01422
TRANSACTION_BACKED_OUT ORA-00061
VALUE_ERROR ORA-06502
ZERO_DIVIDE ORA-01476

In addition to this list of exceptions, there is a catch-all exception named


OTHERS that traps all errors for which specific error handling has not been
established.

89. Does PL/SQL support "overloading"? Explain


The concept of overloading in PL/SQL relates to the idea that you can define
procedures and functions with the same name. PL/SQL does not look only at
the referenced name, however, to resolve a procedure or function call. The
count and data types of formal parameters are also considered.
PL/SQL also attempts to resolve any procedure or function calls in locally
defined packages before looking at globally defined packages or internal
functions. To further ensure calling the proper procedure, you can use the dot
notation. Prefacing a procedure or function name with the package name fully
qualifies any procedure or function reference.

90. Tables derived from the ERD


a) Are totally unnormalised
b) Are always in 1NF
c) Can be further denormalised
d) May have multi-valued attributes
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(b) Are always in 1NF

91. Spurious tuples may occur due to


i. Bad normalization
ii. Theta joins
iii. Updating tables from join
a) i & ii b) ii & iii
c) i & iii d) ii & iii

(a) i & iii because theta joins are joins made on keys that are not primary keys.

92. A B C is a set of attributes. The functional dependency is as follows


AB -> B
AC -> C
C -> B
a) is in 1NF
b) is in 2NF
c) is in 3NF
d) is in BCNF

(a) is in 1NF since (AC)+ = { A, B, C} hence AC is the primary key. Since C B


is a FD given, where neither C is a Key nor B is a prime attribute, this it is not
in 3NF. Further B is not functionally dependent on key AC thus it is not in 2NF.
Thus the given FDs is in 1NF.

93. In mapping of ERD to DFD


a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD
b) entity in DFD is converted to attributes of an entity in ERD
c) relations in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to processes in DFD
d) relationships in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to flows in DFD

(a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD

94. A dominant entity is the entity


a) on the N side in a 1 : N relationship
b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship
c) on either side in a 1 : 1 relationship
d) nothing to do with 1 : 1 or 1 : N relationship

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(b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship


95. Select 'NORTH', CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION =
'N' Order By
CUSTOMER Union Select 'EAST', CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS
Where REGION = 'E' Order By CUSTOMER
The above is
a) Not an error
b) Error - the string in single quotes 'NORTH' and 'SOUTH'
c) Error - the string should be in double quotes
d) Error - ORDER BY clause

(d) Error - the ORDER BY clause. Since ORDER BY clause cannot be used in
UNIONS

96. What is Storage Manager?


It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data
stored in database, application programs and queries submitted to the system.

97. What is Buffer Manager?


It is a program module, which is responsible for fetching data from disk storage
into main memory and deciding what data to be cache in memory.

98. What is Transaction Manager?


It is a program module, which ensures that database, remains in a consistent
state despite system failures and concurrent transaction execution proceeds
without conflicting.

99. What is File Manager?


It is a program module, which manages the allocation of space on disk storage
and data structure used to represent information stored on a disk.

100. What is Authorization and Integrity manager?


It is the program module, which tests for the satisfaction of integrity constraint
and checks the authority of user to access data.

101. What are stand-alone procedures?


Procedures that are not part of a package are known as stand-alone because they
independently defined. A good example of a stand-alone procedure is one

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written in a SQL*Forms application. These types of procedures are not
available for reference from other Oracle tools. Another limitation of stand-
alone procedures is that they are compiled at run time, which slows execution.
102. What are cursors give different types of cursors.
PL/SQL uses cursors for all database information accesses statements. The
language supports the use two types of cursors
Ø Implicit
Ø Explicit

103. What is cold backup and hot backup (in case of Oracle)?
Ø Cold Backup:
It is copying the three sets of files (database files, redo logs, and control file)
when the instance is shut down. This is a straight file copy, usually from the
disk directly to tape. You must shut down the instance to guarantee a consistent
copy.
If a cold backup is performed, the only option available in the event of data file
loss is restoring all the files from the latest backup. All work performed on the
database since the last backup is lost.
Ø Hot Backup:
Some sites (such as worldwide airline reservations systems) cannot shut down
the database while making a backup copy of the files. The cold backup is not an
available option.
So different means of backing up database must be used — the hot backup.
Issue a SQL command to indicate to Oracle, on a tablespace-by-tablespace
basis, that the files of the tablespace are to backed up. The users can continue to
make full use of the files, including making changes to the data. Once the user
has indicated that he/she wants to back up the tablespace files, he/she can use
the operating system to copy those files to the desired backup destination.
The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode for the hot backup
option.
If a data loss failure does occur, the lost database files can be restored using the
hot backup and the online and offline redo logs created since the backup was
done. The database is restored to the most consistent state without any loss of
committed transactions.

104. What are Armstrong rules? How do we say that they are complete
and/or sound
The well-known inference rules for FDs
Ø Reflexive rule :
If Y is subset or equal to X then X Y.
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Ø Augmentation rule:
If X Y then XZ YZ.
Ø Transitive rule:
If {X Y, Y Z} then X Z.
Ø Decomposition rule :
If X YZ then X Y.
Ø Union or Additive rule:
If {X Y, X Z} then X YZ.
Ø Pseudo Transitive rule :
If {X Y, WY Z} then WX Z.
Of these the first three are known as Amstrong Rules. They are sound because it
is enough if a set of FDs satisfy these three. They are called complete because
using these three rules we can generate the rest all inference rules.

105. How can you find the minimal key of relational schema?
Minimal key is one which can identify each tuple of the given relation schema
uniquely. For finding the minimal key it is required to find the closure that is
the set of all attributes that are dependent on any given set of attributes under
the given set of functional dependency.
Algo. I Determining X+, closure for X, given set of FDs F
1. Set X+ = X
2. Set Old X+ = X+
3. For each FD Y Z in F and if Y belongs to X+ then add Z to X+
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until Old X+ = X+

Algo.II Determining minimal K for relation schema R, given set of FDs F


1. Set K to R that is make K a set of all attributes in R
2. For each attribute A in K
a. Compute (K – A)+ with respect to F
b. If (K – A)+ = R then set K = (K – A)+

106. What do you understand by dependency preservation?


Given a relation R and a set of FDs F, dependency preservation states that the
closure of the union of the projection of F on each decomposed relation Ri is
equal to the closure of F. i.e.,
((PR1(F)) U … U (PRn(F)))+ = F+
if decomposition is not dependency preserving, then some dependency is lost in
the decomposition.
107. What is meant by Proactive, Retroactive and Simultaneous Update.
Proactive Update:
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The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real
world .
Retroactive Update:
The updates that are applied to database after it becomes effective in real
world .
Simulatneous Update:
The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes
effective in real world .

108. What are the different types of JOIN operations?


Equi Join: This is the most common type of join which involves only equality
comparisions. The disadvantage in this type of join is that there

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