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Presented by:NEHA JAIN II-CSE 399/05

GREIBACH NORMAL FORM IN CNF we put restrictions on the length of the right sides of a production. . and a is in T. ABC Aa Where A. In GNF restrictions are placed on positions in which terminals and variables can appear.B.C are in V.

DEFINITION A context-free grammar is said to be in Greibach Normal Form if all productions have the form Aax Where a є T And x є V* .

THEOREM For every context-free grammar G without λ ε L(G). There exists an equivalent grammar Ĝ In Greibach Normal Form .

T. P.CONVERSION OF CFG TO GNF Starting with a grammar: G = ( V. S) 1a) Eliminate useless variables that can not become terminals 1b) Eliminate useless variables that can not be reached 2) Eliminate epsilon productions 3) Eliminate unit productions 4) Convert productions to Chomsky Normal Form 5) Convert productions to Greibach Normal Form using algorithm .

STEP 1 Every CFG must be in CNF form.…. A2. An where A1 is the start symbol. . if not then convert it into CNF. Now rename all variables (V) by A1.

STEP 2 Now modify the grammar so that every production are of the following form: Aa γ or AAj γ where j>I and γ єV* .

By repeating the process at most m-1 times.. we have in left recursive form.contd) To get a CNF in the above discussed format. Suppose upto Am-1 the above condition 1<= i<= (m-1). To convert production so that is satisfy the above condition we apply the substitute rule. which is then replaced by the method of elimination of left recursion introducing a new variable Bm .STEP 2 (. Ai Aj γ then j>i is satisfied and for Am we have the production Am Aj γ such that j<m.we obtain productions of the form Am Apγ where p>=m If m=p. we should follow the method: Start with A1 and proceed to An.

Νοω.. Repeat this process for Am-2 Am-3…. A1.S. Now leftmost symbol of the right hand side of productions for Am-1 is terminal.STEP 3 Since An is the highest numbered variable then productions are of the form An aγ .H. . now R. the leftmost symbol of right side of any production for An must be either terminal or Am. Replace Am on right side of production Am-1 by replacement rule. of each production for an Ai starts with a terminal symbol.

No Bi production can start with another Bj Finally combining all productions we get the required grammar in GNF. This is done by substitution rules.STEP 4 The new variables Bi introduced to eliminate left recursion in step 2 have to be simplified such that all productions are of the form in GNF. .

3. check if all productions are in GNF.Finally… The net conclusion is simple. . apply substitution rule 4. 5. eliminate left recursion.

SaBB | bAB | aB | bBC | cCC | bC . Here the production SAB | BC is not in GNF. On applying the substitution rule we immediately get equivalent grammar in GNF.EXAMPLE 1 CONVERT THE GRAMMAR SAB | BC A aB | bA | a BbB | cC | b Cc into GNF.

Bb Which is in GNF. . If we introduce new variables A and B and productions as Aa .EXAMPLE 2 CONVERT THE GRAMMAR S abaSa | aba Into GNF. Bb and substitute into the given grammar as S aBASA | ABA Aa .

EXAMPLE 3 Convert the grammar SAB ABS | a BSA | b into GNF. SOLUTION: .

APPLICATIONS .

THANK YOU… .

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