M.

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Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7

Energy Methods
• Minimum-energy principles are an alternative to statement of equilibrium equations.
Displacements

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External Forces and Moments

Strains

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Internal Forces and Moments

Static Equivalency Stresses 3

The learning objectives in this chapter are: • Understand the perspective and concepts in energy methods. • Learn the use of dummy unit load method and Castigliano’s theorem for calculating displacements in statically determinate and indeterminate structures.

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• The strain energy per unit volume is called the strain energy density and is the area underneath the stress-strain curve up to the point of deformation.3 Complimentary Strain Energy Density: U o = ∫ ε dσ 0 • The strain energy density at the yield point is called Modulus of Resilience. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Strain Energy • The energy stored in a body due to deformation is called the strain energy. or ft-lb/ft. σ Uo = Complimentary strain energy den A dUo = ε dσ dσ Uo = Strain energy density O dε Strain Energy: dUo = σ dε U = ε ∫ Uo V ε dV [ Strain Energy Density: Units: Uo = ∫ σ dε 0 σ N-m / m3. 7-2 . Joules / m3. in-lbs / in3.M.

σ Yield Point Modulus of Resilience ε σ Modulus of Toughness Rupture Stress σ Stronger Material Tougher material ε ε 7-3 . Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 • The strain energy density at rupture is called Modulus of Toughness.M.

UA = ∫ Ua L dx 1N U a = -.-----.[ σ xx ε xx + σ yy ε yy + σ zz ε zz + τ xy γ xy + τ yz γ yz + τ zx γ zx ] 2 1-D Structural Elements A y x z dx dV=Adx Axial strain energy • All stress components except σxx are zero. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Linear Strain Energy Density ε ε Eε 1 Uniaxial tension test: U o = ∫ σ dε = ∫ ( Eε ) dε = -------.= -.E ⎝ d x⎠ dA dx = 2 ∫ L 1 ⎛ du⎞ 2 -E dA dx 2 ⎝ d x⎠ ∫ A ∫ Ua dx L 1 du 2 U a = -.2 EA 2 7-4 .M. 1 U o = -.σε 2 2 0 0 2 1 U o = -.τγ 2 • Strain energy and strain energy density is a scaler quantity.Eεxx dV = 2 UA = ε xx = du (x) dx ∫ V L A 1 ⎛ du⎞ 2 ∫ -. σ xx = Eε xx UA = 1 2 ∫ -.EA ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎝ d x⎠ • Ua is the strain energy per unit length.

--------.Eε xx dV = 2 V 2 2 2 ε xx = – y dv dx 2 2 2 ∫ L A 1 ⎛ d v⎞ ∫ -.E ⎜ y d x2 ⎟ dA dx = 2 ⎝ ⎠ dx ∫ L 1⎛d v ⎞ -.dV 2 E V 2 Us « UB 7-5 .2 GJ 2 Strain energy in symmetric bending about z-axis There are two non-zero stress components.τxy γxy dV = 2 V 2 The strain energy due to shear in bending is: As τ max « σ max 1 τ xy ∫ -.M.GJ 2 ⎝ d x⎠ • Ut is the strain energy per unit length. UT = ∫ Ut dx L 1T U t = -.G ⎝ ρ d x⎠ dA dx = 2 dx ∫ L 1 ⎛ dφ⎞ 2 2 -Gρ dA dx 2 ⎝ d x⎠ ∫ A ∫ Ut L 1 ⎛ dφ⎞ 2 U t = -. σ xx = Eε xx 1 2 U B = ∫ -. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Torsional strain energy • All stress components except τxθ in polar coordinate are zero τ xθ = Gγ xθ UT = 1 2 ∫ -.⎜ 2 ⎟ 2⎝dx ⎠ 2 2 ∫ Ey A 2 dA dx UB = ∫ Ub L ⎛d v ⎞ 1 U b = -. UB = ∫ Ub L dx 1 Mz U b = -.EI zz ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝dx ⎠ • where Ub is the bending strain energy per unit length. σxx and τxy.------.2 EI zz US = 1 ∫ -.-----.Gγxθ dV = 2 UT = γ xθ = ρ dφ (x) dx ∫ V L A 1 ⎛ dφ⎞ 2 ∫ -.

then work has been done by the force. 7-6 . Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Work • If a force moves through a distance. dW = Fdu • Work done by a force is conservative if it is path independent. Loading Mode P Work δW = Pδu L L p(x) uL δW = u(x) T ∫ p ( x )δu ( x ) dx 0 δW = Tδφ L L φL t (x) δW = φ(x) vL P ∫ t ( x )δφ ( x ) dx 0 δW = Pδv L M θ = dv dx δW = Mδθ L L v(x) p(x) δW = ∫ p ( x )δv ( x ) dx 0 • Any variable that can be used for describing deformation is called the generalized displacement. • Non-linear systems and non-conservative systems are two independent description of a system.M. • Any variable that can be used for describing the cause that produces deformation is called the generalized force.

δW = 0 • Symbol δ will be used to designate a virtual quantity δW ext = δW int Types of boundary conditions y Displacement and rotation specified at this end x z M T Px Internal forces and moment specified at this end to meet equilibrium Vy T T N Px Mz ε Py or or or dv dx or M Py Statical variable (Secondary variable) N T Vy Mz ε Kinematic variable (Primary variable) u φ v θ = Geometric boundary conditions (Kinematic boundary conditions) (Essential boundary conditions): Condition specified on kinematic (primary) variable at the boundary. The principle of virtual work: The total virtual work done on a body at equilibrium is zero. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Virtual Work • Virtual work methods are applicable to linear and non-linear systems. 7-7 . Statical boundary conditions (Natural boundary conditions) Condition specified on statical (secondary)variable at the boundary.M. to conservative as well as non-conservative systems.

Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Kinematically admissible functions • Functions that are continuous and satisfies all the kinematic boundary conditions are called kinematically admissible functions. • actual displacement solution is always a kinematically admissible function • Kinematically admissible functions are not required to correspond to solutions that satisfy equilibrium equations. and are continuous at all points except where a concentrated force or moment is applied are called statically admissible functions. satisfy equilibrium equations at all points.M. • Statically admissible functions are not required to correspond to solutions that satisfy compatibility equations. Statically admissible functions • Functions that satisfy satisfies all the static boundary conditions. • Actual internal forces and moments are always statically admissible. 7-8 .

3. w A x L Figure P7. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 7.3 Determine a class of kinematically admissible displacement functions for the beam shown in Figure P7.3 B wL2 L C 7.3 determine a statically admissible bending moment.4 For the beam and loading shown in Figure P7.M. 7-9 .

actual displacement x kinematically admissible displacement δv = virtual displacement • Of all the virtual displacements the one that satisfies the virtual work principle is the actual displacement field. 7-10 . Virtual Force Method • The virtual force is an infinitesimal imaginary statically admissible force field imposed on a body.M. • Of all the virtual force fields the one that satisfies the virtual work principle is the actual force field. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Virtual displacement method • The virtual displacement is an infinitesimal imaginary kinematically admissible displacement field imposed on a body.

B A 110o P Figure P7. Both bars have a cross-sectional area of A = 100 mm2 and a modulus of elasticity E = 200 GPa. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 7.7 The roller at P shown in Figure P7.7 slides in the slot due to the force F = 20kN.7 F 7-11 . Determine the axial stress in the member AP by virtual displacement method. Bar AP and BP have lengths of LAP= 200 mm and LBP= 250 mm respectively.M.

Both bars have a cross-sectional area of A = 100 mm2 and a modulus of elasticity E = 200 GPa.8.8 40o 7-12 .M. Using virtual force method determine the movement of pin in the direction of force F. B A 110o P F Figure P7. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 7.8 A force F = 20kN is appled to pin shown in Figure P7. Bar AP and BP have lengths of LAP= 200 mm and LBP= 250 mm respectively.

Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Dummy unit load method • This is a virtual force method that is formalized.dx ∫ EI 0 7-13 . L v1 ( xP ) = ∫ 0 M2 ( x ) d v1 dx 2 2 L dx = M 2 ( x )M 1 ( x ) -----------------------------. BEAM 2: A beam with same supports as beam 1 with a unit force placed at point xp at which we want to calculate the displacement. torsion or bending problems. M2(x) be the statically admissible bending moment and v2(x) be the kinematically admissible displacement for beam 2.M. BEAM 1: Actual beam with actual internal moment M1(x) and actual displacement v1(x). Application to beam bending Displacement Calculations Consider two beams. Note: No relationship between M2 and v2 The internal and external virtual work for beam 2: δW int dθ 2 = ∫ M 2 ( x ) dθ 2 = ∫ M 2 ( x ) dx = dx 0 0 L L L d dv 2⎞ M2 ( x ) ⎛ dx = ∫ dx⎝ dx ⎠ 0 L ∫ M2 ( x ) d x2 0 d v2 2 dx δW ext = ( 1 )v 2 ( x P ) L By theorem of virtual work: v2 ( xP ) = ∫ M2 ( x ) d x2 0 d v2 2 dx v1(x) is a kinematically admissible displacement field. • Can be used for axial. hence can be used for v2(x).

BEAM 2: A beam with same supports as beam 1 with a unit moment placed at point xp at which we want to calculate the slope. M2(x) be the statically admissible bending moment and v2(x) be the kinematically admissible displacement for beam 2.dx ∫ EI 0 7-14 . Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Slope Calculations BEAM 1: Actual beam with actual internal moment M1(x) and actual displacement v1(x).M. Note: No relationship between M2 and v2 The internal and external virtual work for beam 2: δW int dθ 2 = ∫ M 2 ( x ) dθ 2 = ∫ M 2 ( x ) dx = dx 0 0 L L L d dv 2 ∫ M2 ( x ) d x ⎛ d x ⎞ dx = ⎝ ⎠ 0 L ∫ M2 ( x ) d x2 0 d v2 2 dx δW ext = ( 1 ) dv 2 (x ) dx P d v2 2 By theorem of virtual work: dv 2 (x ) = dx P L ∫ M2 ( x ) d x2 0 dx v1(x) is a kinematically admissible displacement field. hence can be used for v2(x). dv 1 (x ) = dx P L ∫ 0 M2 ( x ) d v1 dx 2 2 L dx = M 2 ( x )M 1 ( x ) -----------------------------.

Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 7. and L for the beam shown in Figure P7.I. E.21 A 7-15 .21 Using dummy unit load method.M. P x L B 2L Figure P7. find the reaction force at A and deflection at B in terms of P.21.

dx = EI 0 L L ˜ 1 ∂M 2 ----.dx = ∫ 2EI ∂F 0 2 • The derivative of the complimentary strain energy with respect to a force at xp gives the deflection in the direction of the force at xp.⎜ ∫ 2EI ⎝ ∂ F ⎟ dx = ∂ F ⎠ 0 2 L M1 ∂U B -------.⎛ ∫ EI ⎝ ∂ F M1 ( x )⎞ dx ⎠ 0 The actual moment is a statically admissible moment. • Performing the derivative with respect to force and moment before performing integration will generally result in less algebra. Instead of a unit force we consider a force F applied at xp in the dummy unit load method. ˜ M 2 = FM 2 or ˜ ∂M 2 M2 = ∂F M 2 ( x )M 1 ( x ) v 1 ( x P ) = ∫ -----------------------------.M. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 Castigliano’s theorem • Simple and more elegant way of finding reaction forces and/or moments for statically indeterminate structures. and hence we can ˜ substitute M2 = M1 we obtain the following: 1 ∂M 1 v 1 ( x P ) = ∫ ----. For linear systems the corresponding statically admis˜ sible moment (M 2 ) would be F multiplied by M2. dv 1 ∂U B ( xP ) = dx ∂M • The derivative of the complimentary strain energy with respect to a moment at xp gives the slope in the direction of the moment at xp.⎛ M 1 ( x )⎞ dx = ⎠ EI ⎝ ∂ F 0 L L 1 ⎛ ∂M 1⎞ ∂ -------. 7-16 . • The integrals obtained after taking the derivative with respect to force and moment result in integrals that are identical to the dummy unit load method for finding reactions.

find the reaction force at A and deflection at B in terms of P. and L for the beam shown in Figure P7.27 Using Castigliano’s theorem.21. E. Vable Intermediate Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 7 7.M. P x L B 2L A 7-17 .I.