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Design guide

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The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures.

The Sétra supports the public owner
The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: • • • • • • improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects.

The Sétra, producer of the state of the art
Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: • • • • • takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community.

The Sétra, a work in partnership
• The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement – RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'Equipement – CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France – RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development… • The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals).

Design guide

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This document is the translation of the work " Ponts en béton précontraint construits par encorbellements successifs" published in June 2003 under the reference F0308.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Authors
This document was created by a working group consisting of: Pierre Barras, CETE (Centre d’études Techniques et de l’équipement - Technical Engineering Center for Infrastructure) du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Civil Engineering Structures Division) Daniel de Matteis, Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes -Technical Center for Highways and motorways) / Large Bridges Division) Jean-François Derais, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Michel Duviard, Engineering and Design Department, Jean Muller International Daniel Guillot, CETE de l’Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Michel Lacombe, DREIF (Direction régionale de l’équipement Ile de France – Ile de France Regional Public Works Directorate) / Bridges Group Gilles Lacoste, Sétra / Methodology and Software Division Daniel Lecointre, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Virgile Ojeda, CETE Méditerranée / Bridges Division Pierre Paillusseau, CETE du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Marc Reinhard, CETE de Lyon / Bridges Division The monographs, iconography, drawings and 3D images were produced by Stéphane Chevrot, Philippe Julien, Eric Lozinguez and Louis Resterrucci from the Sétra Large Bridges Division. Photographic credits: Sétra / Gérard Forquet (Sétra Large Bridges Division)

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank everyone who, through their help, comments and observations, contributed to the creation of this document, especially: Mr. Aubin (Bouygues), Mr. Bataille (Semi), Mr. Boileau (DDE 31), Mr. Chaboud (DDE 974), Mr. Doan (SNCF), Mr. Duclos (Thales), Mr. Gaudin (SPIE), Mr. Gausset (EEG), Mr. Heusse (ERSEM), Mr. Kirschner (SECOA), Mr. Le Faucheur (Sétra), Mr. Mossot (Demathieu et Bard), Mr. Poineau (Sétra), Mr. Primault (Vinci), Mr. Ryckaert (SETEC), Mr.Thibaux (Eiffage TP), Mr.Treffot (DDE 67) and Mr. Xercavins (PXDAM).

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Table of contents
AUTHORS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 - PREAMBLE 1.2 - TECHNICAL PROCESS 1.3 - FIELDS OF APPLICATION 1.4 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE IN FRANCE 1.5 - MAJOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 2 - GENERAL DESIGN 2.1 - FIELD OF APPLICATION 2.2 - STATIC LONGITUDINAL DESIGN 2.3 - CHOOSING A CROSS-SECTION 2.4 - PRE-DESIGN OF A SIMPLE CROSS-SECTION 2.5 - BREAKDOWN INTO SEGMENTS 2.6 - MAIN RATIOS 3 - DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LONGITUDINAL CABLING 3.1 - CABLING PRINCIPLES 3.2 - STRESS CALCULATIONS 3.3 - VERIFICATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITH REGARD TO NORMAL STRESSES 4 - TRANSVERSE AND LOCALIZED BEHAVIOUR 4.1 - VERIFICATION PRINCIPLES 4.2 - TRANSVERSE FLEXION 4.3 - GENERAL TANGENTIAL STRESSES 4.4 - SPECIFIC ELEMENTS 4.5 - LOCALIZED FORCES AND REINFORCEMENTS 4.6 - RULES TO COMBINE PASSIVE REINFORCEMENTS 4.7 - RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATIONS FOR REINFORCEMENTS 5 - CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.1 - PRINCIPLE OF CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.2 - STABILITY SYSTEMS FOR CANTILEVERS 5.3 - ACTIONS TO CONSIDERED 5.4 - COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION 5.5 - VERIFICATION AND DIMENSIONING OF THE ANCHORING ELEMENTS 5.6 - VERIFICATIONS OF OTHER STABILIZATION METHODS 6 - CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 6.1 - CONSTRUCTION USING CAST-IN-SITU SEGMENTS 6.2 - CONSTRUCTION BY PREFABRICATED SEGMENTS 7 - ON SITE MONITORING 7.1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.2 - INSPECTION OF GEOMETRY 7.3 - INSPECTION OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
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8 .MAIN REPAIR TECHNIQUES 9 .INSPECTION OF PRESTRESSING 7.NATURE OF THE TENDER ENQUIRY 10.1 .5 .SPECIAL TECHNICAL CLAUSES 10.7 .3 – CANTILEVER PRESTRESSING DESIGN A1.1 . SÉTRA-LCPC.7 .OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS 8 . SÉTRA-SNCF A3-3 – OTHER PUBLICATIONS A3-4 .PRICE SCHEDULE A1 DETERMINATION EXAMPLE A1.ABUTMENTS 168 178 178 179 190 195 195 200 205 208 208 208 212 216 10 .2 .5 – EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING DESIGN A2 MONOGRAPHS OF CAST-IN-SITU BRIDGES A3 BIBLIOGRAPHY A3-1 – OFFICIAL TEXTS A3-2 – SÉTRA GUIDES.INSPECTION OF FORMWORK 7.2 .0 – PURPOSE OF THIS APPENDIX A1.3 .BRIDGE DECK 9.HISTORY OF THE REGULATIONS 8.PATHOLOGIES AND REPAIRS 8.PROVISIONS TO FACILITATE MAINTENANCE 9.TENDER DOCUMENT 10.1 .INSPECTION OF CONCRETE 7.6 .REMINDERS A1.4 .1 .4 – PRESTRESSING DESIGN FOR THE CLOSING SEGMENT A1.INSPECTING THE REINFORCEMENTS 7.4 .4 .6 .3 .GENERAL PRINCIPLES 9.3 .RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 219 10.PATHOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO THE CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE 8.2 – SOURCE DATA A1.5 .TENDER REGULATIONS 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 10.PIERS 9.2 .SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAUSES 10.ARTICLES IN MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS AFPC/AFGC PUBLICATIONS FOR FIB (FÉDÉRATION DE L’INDUSTRIE DU BÉTON-CONCRETE INDUSTRY FEDERATION) CONGRESSES REVUE TRAVAUX SÉTRA BULLETIN OUVRAGES D’ART BULLETIN DES LABORATOIRES DES PONTS ET CHAUSSÉES ANNALES DE L’ITBTP TECHNIQUES DE L’INGÉNIEUR PCI JOURNAL REVUE L’INDUSTRIA ITALIANA DEL CEMENTO (IIC) 219 219 220 221 222 224 229 230 230 230 235 240 243 252 264 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 6 septembre 2007 .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Foreword
The cantilever method is the most widely used technique for the construction of large prestressed concrete bridges in France and throughout the world. Since the beginning of the 1990s, concrete bridges built by this method have faced stiff competition in the medium-span category from composite bridges and, to a lesser extent, from concrete bridges erected by incremental launching. On the other hand, they are increasingly used for bridging large spans, as illustrated by the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur, the Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway and the new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. Intended for construction managers, consulting engineers and methods and project engineers, this guide provides a detailed review of these structures, their field of use and the technology used in their construction. For this reason, this guide replaces Technical Bulletin No.7 and its supplementary information, published by Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Technical Centre for Highways and Motorways in December 1972, which had become obsolete with regard to several important points such as calculation methods, prestressing design, the structure of form travelers and the management of delayed deformation. Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of this guide cover certain points which are very specific to the cantilever method: the general design of the structures, the design and calculation of longitudinal cabling, the stability of cantilevers and construction technology. Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are more generalized, respectively covering transverse flexion, site inspections, problems and their repair, precautions to be taken to facilitate maintenance, and finally, the contents of contractor tender documents. Although written with bridges constructed by the cantilever method in mind, the information in these chapters will also be useful for anyone involved in the design or construction of large civil engineering structures. This guide is the outcome of a major collective effort and is another illustration of the expertise of French contractors, engineering firms and construction agencies in the field of civil engineering. Emmanuel Bouchon Head of the Large Bridges Division at Sétra.

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1 - Background information
This first chapter introduces the major principles concerning the construction of bridges by the cantilever method and its field of use. It also describes the history of the development of this method and of the applicable regulations from 1943 to the present day.

1.1 - Preamble
The cantilever construction method is a very ancient technique, in which a structure is built component by component above ground level. Since ancient times, this method has been used for the construction of arches in Europe (Fig. 1.1) and in South America (including the construction of Mayan arches), and for the building of wooden bridges (Fig. 1.2).

Fig. 1.1 – The “Treasure of Atreus”. Longitudinal section

Fig. 1.2 – Gallic wooden bridge

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, this method was applied to the construction of arched metal bridges, such as the Gabarit and Viaur viaducts, or lattice girder designs, such as the Forth Bridge, the Bénodet bridge or the old Pirmil bridge at Nantes (Fig. 1.3).

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Fig. 1.3 – The old Pirmil bridge in Nantes

Fig. 1.4 – The Normandie bridge

More recently, it has been used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Saint-Nazaire bridge over the River Loire and the Normandie bridge over the Seine (Fig. 1.4). As far as prestressed concrete is concerned, construction by the cantilever method mainly applies to bridges whose decks can be combined with straight or horizontally curving beams and which are built out from their piers, with cast-in-situ or prefabricated segments (Fig. 1.5 and 1.6). These types of bridges are the focus of this guide.

Fig. 1.5 – Bridge forming part of a continuous girder on single supports

Fig. 1.6 – Cantilever construction of prestressed concrete box-girder bridge decks with cast-in-situ segments on the left and prefabricated segments on the right

Many of the techniques used in this method are also employed in the construction of portal bridges with box girder decks, such as the Bonhomme bridge in the Morbihan region of Brittany, the Auray viaduct (Fig. 1.7) and the bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Fig. 1.7 – Construction of the Auray portal bridge

Fig. 1.8 – The cable-stayed bridge at Chalon-surSaône under construction

Finally, and although not strictly within the scope of this guide, it should be mentioned that the cantilever method is often used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Iroise bridge over the River Elorn, near Brest and the Bourgogne bridge at Chalon-sur-Saône (Fig. 1.8) and also for concrete arched bridges such as the Roche Bernard bridge over the River Vilaine (Fig. 1.9) and the bridge over the River Rance.

Fig. 1.9 – The arched bridge of La Roche-Bernard under construction

1.2 - Technical process
1.2.1 Description of the method

This construction method consists of erecting the majority of a bridge deck without falsework or scaffolding at ground level, by working in consecutive sections known as segments, each of which is cantilevered out from the preceding segment. After a segment is built, the prestressing tendons fixed to the extremities are tensioned,

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firmly attaching them to the preceding segments and thus forming a self-supporting cantilever which serves as a support for the subsequent operations. Construction is carried out: • Symmetrically in general, either side of a pier in order to minimize the moments transmitted to this support during erection; the resulting double overhang is called a balanced cantilever (Fig. 1.10)

Fig. 1.10 – Symmetrical construction from a pier

Sometimes asymmetrically on a single side of a balanced cantilever, when the other side is already joined to the adjacent span (Fig. 1.11)

Fig. 1.11 – Over-cantilevering construction

More rarely from an abutment; in this case, the overturning moment exerted by the span is compensated for by an appropriately dimensioned counterweight which forms part of the deck itself (Fig. 1.12).

Fig. 1.12 – Construction by the cantilever method using counterweighted spans

Although it is possible to build an entire structure using the cantilever method, the majority of structures include cast-on-falsework sections at the extremities of the end spans.

1.2.2 -

Association with other methods

Cantilever construction is often used in association with other methods such as: • • Construction on falsework, when parts of the structure are close to the ground and feature modest spans Construction by incremental launching, when the structure features a series of spans less than 65m in length, of constant depth, supporting a road whose geometry is compatible with this technique.

1.3 - Fields of application

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1.3.1 -

Background information

Spans of 80 to 150m are preferred for bridges with prestressed concrete box girder decks built by the cantilever method. However, this technique can be used for spans up to 200m in common widths without major problems. Above this size, the quantities of materials increase significantly, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness of the method. The world record span for concrete bridges built by the cantilever method currently stands at 301 m and is held by the Stolma Bridge in Norway. This is closely followed by the Raftsundet Bridge in the Lofoten Islands, also in Norway, with a central span of 298m. Opened to traffic at the end of 1998, both of these bridges have central spans partially made from lightweight concrete. These bridges both surpassed the Brisbane Bridge in Australia, built in 1986, whose span of 260m had beaten the previous record of 240 m held by the Hamana Bridge in Japan, built in 1977. For a long time, the Gennevilliers Bridge, built in 1976, held the French record for the longest span with its two spans of 172m. Following closely behind with spans of 172m and 144m was the Ottmarsheim Bridge, built over the Alsace canal in 1979 using concrete partly made from lightweight aggregates. With a single span of 190 m, the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur in the Aveyron (Fig. 1.13) captured the record in 1998 before being relegated to second place in 2002 by the new bridge over the River Rhine, south of Strasbourg, whose central span measures 205m.

Fig. 1.13 - The Tanus viaduct

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1.3.2 Advantages

Advantages and disadvantages of the method

The cantilever construction method offers many advantages. Firstly, the bridge decks are mostly built without any contact with the ground, making it possible to build structures over rivers subject to severe flooding or above very deep and rugged valleys. This method can also be used to erect structures with very different geometries. Thus, in elevation, it is possible to design decks of a constant or variable depth. For the latter, parabolic, cubic or linear variations are all possible. The method is extremely forgiving with regard to the geometry of the road supported by the bridge because, in contrast to incremental launching and pushing techniques, any horizontal and vertical alignments can be built without difficulty. Finally, construction using elements of 3 to 4 m in length is cost-effective in terms of the formwork tools required for the bridge deck, even if the spans are few in number and of different lengths. In the case of prefabricated segments, the small size of these components also helps to limit the weight of the elements to be assembled, thus reducing the cost of the installation equipment. Disadvantages However, there are also certain drawbacks to the cantilever construction method. For identical spans, bridges built using this method are much heavier than composite structures. They therefore need larger supports and foundations than those required for composite structures. Of course, this makes the cantilever method less attractive, especially when the foundation terrain is of mediocre quality or when the site is in an earthquake zone. Another major disadvantage to this method is the large number of tasks which have to be carried out in situ, both for the casting of the deck and for the development of the access routes to the site. Although the number of these tasks is reduced when the segments are prefabricated, of course, they are nevertheless greater in number than for an incrementally launched concrete bridge. When the structure crosses traffic bearing routes, the frequency of these tasks may compromise the safety of travelers and/or of workers on the site. These routes must then be closed, which often poses major problems. From an aesthetic point of view, bridges built by the cantilever method often have relatively thick decks, which can pose problems on certain sites. As a result, by breaking down their construction into small elements and multiple casting phases, there are more likely to be differences in color between two consecutive segments.
Spans 120 150 200 Type
- Bridges built using the cantilever - Incrementally launched concrete bridges - Composite beam bridges - Composite box girder bridges - Orthotropic slab box-section bridges - Cables stays bridges

1.14 – Fields of application for different types of bridges The area defined by the thickest line represents the most common field of application. It should be noted that suspension bridges are not included in this table, as they are primarily used for very wide spans. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 13 septembre 2007

300

35

70

90

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.3 -

Competing techniques

Now, prestressed concrete box-girder bridges built using the cantilever method are designed for spans between 60 m and 300 m in length. This technique has to compete with a number of different solutions operating within this very wide range of spans. For spans of less than 80 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are most commonly of a constant depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. If the geometry of the supported road is compatible, they also have to compete with incrementally-launched bridges made from prestressed concrete, which are economically viable for spans of between 35 and 70 m. For spans of between 70m and 120m, bridges built by the cantilever method may be of constant or variable depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. For practical or aestetic reasons, composite concrete and steel box girder bridges or cable-stayed bridges are also often designed to cover this range of spans. For spans of between 100 m and 200 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are almost always of variable depth and are in competition with composite or metal box girder bridges (beyond 140m) and cable-stayed bridges. Within this range of spans, presetressed concrete box girder solutions with lightweight metal webs may also prove to be economical.

1.4 - Development of the construction technique in France
There now follows a short history of the development of the construction technique and the regulations for concrete bridges built using the cantilever method.

1.4.1 -

1946-1952

Construction using the cantilever method was used for the first time in France by Albert Caquot for the building of the Donzère and Bezons reinforced concrete bridges in 1953, using a form traveler suspended from a metal girder (Fig.1.15). In Germany, Finsterwalder also used this technique for the construction of the Neckarsens and Baldunstein prestressed concrete bridges in 1950. It was then used for the construction of the Worms and Koblenz cantilever bridges in 1952, featuring a large span of 114 metres (using the form traveler technique). In the same year, Nicolas Esquillan used a very similar technique with a form traveler suspended from a metal beam to build the La Voulte railroad bridge, consisting of several 60 m-wide portal spans. It should be noted that at this time, there were no French design regulations concerning the cantilever construction method or even for prestressed concrete.

1.4.2 -

1953-1964

This period was marked by the introduction of regulations, the development of design methods, the improvement of the characteristics of prestressing reinforcements and the development of prestressing procedures. During this period, the bridge-building techniques using the cantilever method improved considerably. As a result, we can refer to two distinct generations of bridges.

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First generation bridges The bridge decks of first generation structures were embedded on piers and even on abutments and featured hinges at mid-span. Built in 1957 by GTM, the Chazey bridge over the River Ain was the first French bridge to be truly built by the cantilever method and the first in a series of major structures including the Beaucaire bridge over the River Rhône and the Savines bridge over the Serre-Ponçon reservoir dam in the Hautes-Alpes region. The Chazey and Beaucaire bridges suffered from prestressing defects and have since been demolished. The former was replaced by a new cantilever bridge in 1973 and the latter by a composite bridge in 1995. Second generation bridges As the first generation bridges suffered from an excessive deformation of their cantilever elements after several years, due to an underestimation of the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage, a second generation of bridges was designed and built with continuous spans and therefore without hinges at mid-span. Particularly noteworthy second generation bridges include: • The bridges at Goncelin, over the River Isère and Lacroix-Falgarde over the Ariège, designed by the STUP (Société Technique pour l’Utilisation de la Précontrainte – Engineering Company for the Use of Prestressing). These were the first continuously rendered structures (1962) The Layrac bridge, over the River Garonne, designed by GTM The bridges of Choisy-le-Roi, near Paris, and Pierre-Bénite, near Lyons, built in 1965 by CampenonBernard, which were the first structures to use prefabricated segments and glued conjugated joints.

• •

1.4.3 -

1965-1975

This was a period of enormous developments and constantly changing regulations. It began with the publication of the IP1 (Circular no. 44 of August 12 1965 relating to the provisional instruction for the use of prestressed concrete), and it finished with the publication of the Circular of April 2 1975, which brought an end to the second generation structures and paved the way for third generation bridges.

Fig. 1.15 – The Bezons bridge

The most notable bridges of the 1965-1975 period include:
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had to be repaired in 1978 and 1987.000m in length and built using prefabricated segments installed for the first time by a launching beam The Oissel bridge over the A13 highway: 700m long without an intermediate expansion joint (1970) The Calix viaduct in Caen. 48m) and 221. on the outskirts of Paris.390 m whose two viaducts of 229 m (48m. 48m. whose very wide (20. approximately 3.5m) were built using the cantilever method The 400m long Viaduc de Commelles on the “conventional” Paris-Brussels and Paris-Lille lines. whose collapsed cantilever prompted the Sétra to define its rules for the stability of cantilevers which are still in force today (1975) The Saint-Cloud bridge (1974). with a 4web box-girder deck carrying four railroad lines and featuring main span of 45m (1980).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The Oléron bridge (1966). The Ottmarsheim bridge. with a span of 172 m (1976) The bridge over the River Loire at Orléans (1976). had to be reinforced in 1990 The Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine near Paris. (including accounting for creep and thermal gradient). between the A4 and A86 highways near Paris.5m (48m. 85m. • Two remarkable railroad structures were also built during this period: • The crossing of the Seine at Nanterre via the railroad spur for the new town of Cergy-Pontoise (1977). supported on a 30-m cantilevered girder made from prestressed concrete (1980). • Between 1975 and 1982. Worthy of note amongst the structures built of conventional concrete during this period are: • • The Mâcon bridge over the Saône. built with prefabricated segments (1980) The Mathilde bridge near Rouen. whose central span includes an independent 115m long metal span. several bridges were also made from lightweight concrete. Designed in accordance with the rules established by the Circular of April 2 1975. such as: • The Tricastin bridge (1979).4. 85m. 48m. whose box-girder deck featuring three webs with bar prestressing.4 - 1975-1982 Bridges built during this period can be described as third generation bridges.4 m) and slender deck (spans of 100m and a 1/30 slenderness ratio). • • • • • 1. 40. these structures were much better designed and did not suffer from the difficulties encountered with previous generations of bridges. which was one of the first new-generation bridges (1977) The numerous interlaced viaducts of the Saint-Maurice interchange. which acts as a counterweight and compensates for a highly unfavourable arrangement between the spans (25m – 142m – 25m) . • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 16 septembre 2007 . which is a prestressed concrete structure of 1. whose end spans and the beginnings of its central span are made from normal concrete. which features a 172m lightweight concrete span (1980).

whose design features double-shelled piers (1991.17) The Viaduc de Rogerville on the A29. near Lyons. major progress was made in the design of major civil engineering structures made from prestressed concrete.3]. [DAL 00] and [DEWOl] Page 17 septembre 2007 • • • • • • • • • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . [BOU 91]. 1. on Reunion Island. with completely external galvanized prestressing The Île de Ré bridge (1988) whose deck consists of 3. whose cantilever segments are supported by metal struts (1995. followed by BPEL 91 and finally BPEL 91 revised in 1999). [BOU 94. [ABE 91] and [ABE 94].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 1. Fig. [CON 91].1]. The following structures are notable examples of traditional road bridges built during this period. consisting of a box-girder with an orthotropic deck plate (1991.5 - 1983 to the present day On the regulatory level. spanning 190 m and featuring a pier of over 100 m in height (1998. [VIR 91 2] and [VIR 94]) The Arcins bridge. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of french and european standardization also led to clear changes in the rules concerning the building of structures. [JAC 96] and [JAC 98]) The Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur. whose central span of 242 m includes an independent span of 162 m in length. and La Rivière Saint-Denis. [SER 90]) The viaducts of Bourran. [BOU 94. [RIC 96]. 1. in Nantes. near Bordeaux. which was the first bridge to be built by the cantilever method and positioned by rotation (1983) The Pont à Mousson viaduct over the River Moselle.000 m of prefabricated segments made from B60 category high-performance concrete The Arrêt-Darré viaduct. On the technological level. due largely to the development of external prestressing. [VIR 90 2]. featuring two 680-m long decks made from prefabricated segments with innovative keyed expansion systems on certain spans (1996. Fig. although this is not an exhaustive list: • The bridge over the River Loir at La Flèche. consisting of two parallel structures of 650 m in length made from prefabricated segments assembled by combination prestressing (1993. which was one of the first bridges to feature external prestressing The Sermenaz viaduct.4. [BOU 92] and [BOU 94. [CRO 94] and [CIL 96]. whose cantilevers were angled at the end of construction to follow the longitudinal profile (1988. at Rodez.2]) The Cheviré bridge. which represents one of the first applications of Eurocodes 1 and 2 (2000. [SER 98] and [GAC 98]) The second Pont-Salomon viaduct.16) The construction of a parallel lane on the Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine [CHA 94] The Piou and Rioulong viaducts on the A75 highway. this period was characterized by the generalization of regulations concerning limit state calculations (BPEL 83 [Béton Précontraint par la méthode des Etats Limites – Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code].

supporting the A89 highway [LAC 02] The new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. 900 m of which were built using successive cantilever segments with main spans of 88 m (1992). [DEM 01. 1. whose two independent 1. with an opening of 195 m between the base of the portal legs (1993.3].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The viaducts of La Clidane (length: 132 m). [GIL 93] and [CAN 94]). which relied upon incremental launching techniques.19. 1.725 m long in total.1]) The Vernègues viaduct. including: For the TGV Rhône-Alpes high-speed line: • The Costière viaduct. 1. which boasts a record single span structure of 205 m above the navigable channel of the Rhine (2002. [BOUS 98. with a semi-circular transverse cross section. successive cantilever segment construction and a rotated installation. [DEM 00]. [DEM 01.2]. • Fig. [DEM 01. Measuring 1.18) The bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 18 septembre 2007 . situated in the northern section of the eastern Lyons bypass: 1.17 – The Piou viaduct Particularly notable portal road bridges built using the cantilever method since 1983 include: • The bridge over the Loch d’Auray.500-m long decks were prefabricated (Fig. La Barricade (length: 150 m) and Tulle (length: 180 m).2]. this was built using a combination of the cantilever method and incremental launching techniques [BOUS 98. For the TGV Méditerranée high-speed line: • The Avignon viaduct over the River Rhône.734-m long Ventabren viaduct.2] The 1. [VIR90. Fig.210 m. 1. [DEM 02]). • Noteworthy railroad structures built since 1983 include several viaducts on the TGV high-speed Rhône-Alpes line (extension of the TGV Paris-South Eastern line to Valence) and of the TGV high-speed Méditerranée line. with an opening of 109 m between the base of the portal legs (1989.16 – The Arcins bridge in Bordeaux Fig.1].

1.19 –TGV high-speed railroad bridge over the Rhône at Avignon Finally. [LEB 94] and [REI 94]) The three Boulonnais viaducts over the Al6 highway. a very large number of bridges have been built using the cantilever method outside of France. 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The following list features some of the most important examples: • • • • • • • Certain access viaducts to theVasco de Gama bridge in Lisbon. 1. [CHU 02].5 . (1994.266 m and 214 m. whose decks are made of prefabricated segments with four triangulated metallic webs [MEU 98] The bridge over the Vecchio in Corsica. With respective lengths of 1. [BOU 90]) The Corniche bridge at Dôle with corrugated webs.18 – The portal bridge over the Loch d’Auray Fig. both of these structures featured two parallel decks with triangulated concrete webs (1987. with open webs made of prefabricated triangular panels (1999. including: • The Sylans and Glacières viaducts over the A40. [PAU 98] and [PAU 00]) The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine.Major civil engineering structures recently constructed outside of France In recent years. whose single 260-m span is made from two prestressed slabs linked by a triangular tubular metal structure (2002.20). • • • • 1. on Reunion Island. [COM 93]. Fig. Portugal Access viaducts to the new Severn Bridge in Great Britain [COM 94] and [COM 96] Access viaducts to the Storebelt suspension bridge in Denmark The Stolma and Rafsundet bridges in Northern Norway The Houston canal bridge in the USA The Brisbane Bridge in Australia The Hamana bridge in Japan The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 19 septembre 2007 . a number of highly innovative road structures were also built during this period.

Fig.21.20 – The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • The new São João railroad bridge over the River Douro in Portugal The Medway Viaduct on the TGV high-speed rail line between the Channel Tunnel and London [POROl]. [BOI 96] and [COM 98]). we should also make a special reference to extraordinary Confederation Bridge between the North American continent and Prince Edward Island in Canada. 1. 1. 1. Although built using a slightly different method to that described in this guide. whose central section is made from forty 250-m long spans (Fig.21 – Transportation of a prefabricated cantilever for the Confederation Bridge The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 20 septembre 2007 .

General design This chapter starts by covering the more general aspects of the design of bridges with box girder decks built by the cantilever method: layout of the supports. how the transverse structure of the deck is chosen and designed and how its formwork is accurately determined.). 2. steep slopes. which simplifies the design of the erection and concrete casting equipment used and improves output.Static longitudinal design 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 21 septembre 2007 . 2. The chapter only covers road bridges. very poor-quality soils.1 . It helps to balance out the moments in the different spans under operating loads and ensures positive support reactions on the abutments. We shall cover each of these different points in detail during the course of this chapter. etc. is usually built on falsework as this is generally the most economical method. It goes on to describe the more specific aspects of the project: design of a simple cross-section. We shall also see how piers are positioned in the gap to be bridged. both horizontally and vertically Between 60 and 100 m.1 Distribution of spans Example of a structure consisting of identical cantilevers The simplest structures are made from main spans of identical length.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2 . The additional length.2 . Indeed: • • • • It is suitable for a very wide range of spans (from 40 to 200 m. the bridge deck can be of constant or variable depth This method can be used regardless of the natural characteristics of the gap to be bridged (large depth. representing 10 to 20 percent of the length of the main spans. The end spans are usually longer than a half-cantilever.2. deck height variation law and choice of a cross-section. the cantilever construction technique can be used to build a wide variety of prestressed concrete structures. coastal site. or even 300 m) The supported road can have any type of geometry.Field of application As we have already seen in Chapter 1. This allows the construction of identical cantilevers. layout of the segments and ratios of materials.

It then becomes necessary to build structures incorporating several different types of cantilevers. it should be emphasized that the transition from large to small spans is carried out via a span whose length is the mean of the two standard spans. They include over-cantilevering.2 below shows a structure consisting of one or more large spans.3 shows another structure featuring a large span in the deepest part of the valley to be crossed and shorter spans elsewhere. It should also be noted that the end spans are 60% of the length of the adjacent standard spans. The example in Figure 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Other examples Certain special techniques may be used to circumvent these strict rules concerning the distribution of spans and the balancing of cantilevers. 2.1 – Distribution of spans for a simple bridge built by the cantilever method Fig.3 – Bridge consisting of variable length spans according to the depth of the gap Therefore. as required by the need for a wide navigation channel. In both of these cases. 2. The example in Figure 2. and a series of shorter – and thus more economical – spans crossing unnavigable flood zones. the most common structures consist of a series of equal spans flanked by end spans which are 60 to 70 percent of the length of the main spans. the use of counterweights and building out from a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 22 septembre 2007 . Example of a structure made from cantilevers of different lengths Gaps to be bridged often feature constraints that make it impossible to design a structure of the type we have just described. 2.2 – Bridges with a combination of large spans in the river section and shorter spans on land Fig.

In this case. 2. 2.20 m is required for satisfactory movement inside the box girder. which are sensitive to the effects of wind both in service and during construction. they are only used in very specific cases imposing the layout of piers (highly urbanized sites or the presence of railroad lines and canals) or when it is impossible or particularly costly to extend the bridge deck. It is then possible to shift certain piers slightly. it is very difficult to establish rules to dictate the most appropriate form for a given site.2. For structures with very tall piers.2. However. bridge decks of a constant depth are generally the most economical. while mentioning the most economical solution for each range of spans. Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 23 septembre 2007 . the depth of the deck is between 1/20 and 1/25 of the maximum span.2 - Slenderness ratio and shape of the intrados We shall now discuss the variation laws which determine the possible depth of the bridge deck. a minimum of 2. the same applies to structures located in complex areas (urban sites. Nevertheless.4 – Slight shifting δ of the piers for a structure of constant depth (The shifting of the joints δ is thus double the value of δ) For spans of above 100 m in length.2. for structures of a constant depth. 2. etc. the quantities of concrete and prestressing materials used increase significantly and the cost of a constant depth solution increases in comparison to a variable depth solution. it should be noted that: • If it is possible.1 – Constant depth When the main spans of a structure are less than 65/70 m long. With regard to the criteria concerning suitability for the site. • • 2. it is possible to design unequal spans by shifting the joints (à valider pour "clavages"). a constant depth is well suited to geometrically complex structures: especially very curved bridges. These techniques are described in Paragraph 2.4). interchanges. etc. this phenomenon is even more noticeable as the surface area affected by the wind increases by approximately 25%.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide counterweight span. which would otherwise be badly positioned (Fig.) A variable depth is generally quite well suited to deep valleys and large watercourses It is often a good idea to highlight certain sections of the gap by using spans of variable depths at its most outstanding sections. Due to their cost. However.2. because the savings made by simplifying the formwork tools for the deck (form travelers or prefabrication units) and reinforcement for the deck are much greater than any possible savings in materials.4.

etc.2. For example. The depth at the crown is generally between 1/30 and 1/35 of this same distance.6 – Parabolically variable depth A statistical study carried out for the publication of this guide shows that the following formulas can be applied to a deck on simple supports: On pier: l l = 14 + 45 hp At the crown: l l = 19 + hc 7 With l the length of the main span in meters.20 m for ease of movement within the box girder.3 – Variable depth according to other laws (linear. The cantilever must be symmetrical in order to guarantee its stability during construction.2. with a minimum of 2. very large forces affect the cantilevers.2 – Parabolically variable depth In excess of 65 m/70 m. This formula is applicable for any value of l included in the field of application for bridges built by the cantilever method. this may pose problems due to insufficient depth in the quarter-span area. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In spite of the previous comments. the unsuccessful concrete-based design for the Verrières viaduct featured a deck of a constant depth despite having a maximum span of 144 m. 2. It therefore becomes economically viable to build a deck of variable depth.2. In standard cases. cubic. requiring a large deck depth at piers which seems very excessive at the other sections of the span.) In recent years. the desire to create increasingly elegant and original structures has led to the design of structures with decks of a constant depth for spans well in excess of 90/100 m in recent years. This solution.5 – Constant depth 2. However. which slightly reduces the effects of selfweight. hc hp Fig. because the variation in depth may be unsuited to the distribution of bending moments and shear forces. The section of end span which is cast on falsework or built by over-cantilevering is always of a constant depth (the same depth as the crown). the variation in depth between the crown and the pier is generally parabolic in form.2. certain structures have been built with a cubic-type variation in deck depth. As the curvature is The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 24 septembre 2007 . Fig. 2. For these structures. results in a somewhat more stretched appearance than a parabolic variation. the depth at the pier hp is between 1/16 and 1/18 of the length of the span in question.

7 – Linearly variable depth 2. whereas during construction. which often leads to the adoption of a deeper deck than is necessary. In such cases. 2. These are also used in earthquake zones. as they improve the distribution of horizontal forces between the supports. Certain structures have also been designed featuring a linear variation in depth over 20 to 25% of the length of the main span.7). it is possible to use laminated rubber bearings. 2. etc. models that slide one way and those that slide in multiple directions – thus absorbing the movements of the bridge deck at the end supports.3).4 – Partly constant and partly variable depth Designers often design structures with spans of very different lengths in response to the constraints imposed by the gap to be crossed.2.2. 2. It is sometimes adopted for architectural reasons or to create a slightly greater clearance than that which is given by a parabolic intrados. this solution is only used for modest spans. they are embedded on piers using the cantilever stabilizing devices described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6. Fig. These are particularly suitable for bridges built by the cantilever method as they are extremely robust. with the remainder of the spans being of a constant depth (Fig. 2. 2. They are also available in several types – fixed models. elastomeric pot bearing devices are used for the permanent bearings.3.1 – Bridge deck on simple bearings The majority of bridges built by the cantilever method rest on simple bearings when in service. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 25 septembre 2007 . Fig. Although it is quite easy to implement.2. fixed support. it is possible to give the deck a variable depth in the large spans and a constant depth elsewhere (see the example in Figure 2.2. It requires the presence of a cross beam at the level of the change in gradient. when the vertical forces are less than 7 MN per bearing. Clearly. in order to take up the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab.8 – Bridge deck on simple bearings In most cases. it is also important to ensure that the sideways thrust due to the compression of the lower slab is correctly accounted for.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide more pronounced near the piers. However.). the depth of the large spans at the crown must be equal to the depth of the deck in the areas of constant depth. compatible with very large vertical loads and compact.3 - Support conditions We shall now describe the support conditions on piers possible for a bridge deck built using the cantilever method (simple supports. along with the field of application for each of these solutions. for transition purposes.

the deck usually rests on simple bearings on all of the piers. rather than being hollow. the piers consist of two separate shafts with a gap of several metres. If the piers are short and solid. penetrating into the box girder (Fig. The Pont de Choisy-le-Roi over the River Seine was built according to this principle. this is only a viable solution for very tall structures on slender piers.9).9 – Bridge deck embedded on two hollow piers In certain cases.3 – Bridge decks that are partly embedded and partly supported on simple bearings Many structures have to bridge gaps with significant variations in depth. shrinkage and creep. When the gap is bridged by a structure featuring spans of different lengths. This solution makes it possible to keep the structure very repetitive and therefore easy to construct. 2.2.2 – Bridge deck embedded on piers via reinforced concrete joints When the piers are very tall.3. this can prove to be an excellent solution in earthquake areas as it gives the structure a high level of longitudinal flexibility. Therefore. 2. both consisting of a box girder. This solution was first used by Campenon Bernard in 1963 for the bridge over the Moulin à Poudre valley in Brest. It was recently used for the construction of several structures such as the Tulle viaduct in which the upper part of the main piers is made from double shafts. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 26 septembre 2007 . their great rigidity causes moments and shear forces which they are not usually capable of withstanding. 2. it is often advisable to embed the deck on top of the tallest piers and use simple bearings for the other piers. Fig.2. the piers and central span form a frame which is sensitive to the linear deformations of the deck under the effects of temperature. 2.10). and in the Rodez and La Rivière Saint-Denis viaducts in which the piers are made from two thin walls [BOU 91] and [BOU 92]. However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. This requires piers of very different heights. This technique offers the benefit of simplifying the bridge’s construction and service since no provisional cantilever stabilizing devices or bearings are used.3. it is often preferable to embed the bridge deck on top of the pier (Fig. In general. because each shaft only offers a low level of resistance to flexion. This technique was adopted for the viaduct over the River Viaur at Tanus [SER 98] and for the Pays de Tulle viaduct [LAC 02] over the A89 highway. When the gap is crossed by a series of identical standard spans. The fixing in this situation is almost perfect as it uses the compressive and tensile stresses present in each of the shafts while remaining flexible with regard to horizontal movements. and thus with identical cantilevers.

As this span was designed to be supported in the neighboring Chamoise tunnel. which significantly lengthens these tendons. Therefore. with the other side being already joined to the adjacent cantilever or to a cast-on-falsework section (Fig. 2. In these situations. with a deep cross-section to act as a counterweight.2.3. If this approach produces end spans which are located very close to ground level. This technique must therefore be used sparingly: when using a form traveler to build the section of an end span which would usually be cast on falsework in a very steep-sided valley. Over-cantilevering out from the adjacent pier was also difficult given the length of this section. thus complicating the formwork operations. On this viaduct. this method can be used to extend one span in relation to the others. the engineers made this span as short as possible by giving it a very massive and thus very heavy cross-section. we would like to mention that a third solution was used in the past and consisted of fitting two rows of laminated rubber bearings on top of each pier. it was impossible to build the far end of one of the end spans on falsework.2. they must be housed either inside anchor blocks within the box girder.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. so the engineers decided to use the over-cantilevering technique from a small additional span built on falsework and situated on the adjacent slope. due to the bulkiness of the bearing devices.4. Fig. therefore being useless.) in which it is impossible to erect any piers.4 - Specific problems 2.2.2 – Building out from a small cast-on-falsework end span A gap to be bridged sometimes features a very long and distinct central area (a river or a ravine etc. This solution is no longer in use today because. The bridge over the River Est on Reunion Island is a good illustration of this method. it might be worth opting for two short end spans which are cast on falsework. the designer may decide to design a normal structure with piers either side of the central area and end spans equal to 60 % of the length of the central span.10 – Bridge deck embedded on two piers which are both made from two parallel walls This technique seriously complicates the cantilever cable layout for the segments forming the extended cantilever.4. 2.2. 2. The bridge connecting the French island of Oléron to the mainland and the Blois bridge over the River Loire were built according to this principle. which was able to compensate for the imbalances.1 – Over-cantilevering The over-cantilevering technique consists of extending the length of one side of a cantilever by one or more segments. for example.12). very wide pier heads were required and these were considered to be visually unattractive. Another good example of this technique is provided by the Nantua viaduct.11).4 – Bridge deck embedded on two rows of bearings on piers (for information) In the interests of thoroughness. Indeed. or in a cross beam on top of the pier. as the rear anchorages of these tendons cannot be placed on the edge of the segments. 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 27 septembre 2007 . The central span would therefore be entirely constructed by over-cantilevering out from these two spans (Fig 2. This created a elastic fixed support for the deck on the pier.

as is the case for the Ottmarsheim and Beaumont-sur-Oise viaducts. Therefore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This technique requires the development of a specific cabling arrangement. this is a highly complex solution.4 . 2. It is also possible to increase the thickness of the cross-section of the cast-on-falsework section of this span (Fig.e. the first structures to be built using the cantilever method incorporated a crown hinge (Fig. To prevent this phenomenon. 2. when the support reactions on the abutments are still negative.2.11 – The over-cantilevering construction technique It should be noted that large forces are transmitted to the counterweight.4. 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 28 septembre 2007 .3 – Counterweights on abutments It is sometimes impossible to design sufficiently long end spans. with numerous cables anchored in the cross beams on abutments or in the interior anchor blocks. which would eventually lead to the failure of the expansion joint.2. Fig.4. and there were no parasitic stresses.14) and to make the walls or posts of the abutments work in traction. 2. For very short spans. the weight of the segment on the abutment and the end cross beam in which the external tendons are anchored is not enough to counteract the support uplift under the effect of a rare load applied in the central span. Fig. there were no barriers to stand in the way of deformations due to concrete shrinkage or creep or temperature variations. which can lead to significant problems during the changing of bearings and it should only be adopted when all of the very severe installation constraints have been taken into consideration.13).12 – Cantilever construction out from counterweight spans 2. i. The advantage of this solution was to create an isostatic structure in its permanent phase. 2. it is possible to reverse the direction in which the bearings operate (Fig. it is essential to ensure that the forces are properly transmitted from the bottom for the counterweight box to its vertical walls and up to the cantilever tendons which are anchored there.15). this closely resembles traditional cantilever cabling. Therefore. the box girder can be filled with concrete poured during the second phase through hatches built into the upper slab. at least 55% of the length of the adjacent span. 2. However. but in the counterweight spans it is very different. In this situation.Hinges Historically speaking. For the large span.

several large span structures were partially built from lightweight concrete as this reduced the selfweight of the bridge deck box girder. This solution also requires the presence of a expansion joint which is expensive to maintain. In all circumstances.) to allow for expansion and/or to reduce the risk of damage to the structure in event of impacts from heavy ships. or the Île de Ré bridge etc.13 – End span with counterweight Fig. the Cheviré bridge in Nantes. 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 29 septembre 2007 .4.g. they are no longer situated at the crowns of the spans. Fig. hinges are hardly ever used on modern bridges. it was difficult to adjust the hinges due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the deformations affecting the cantilevers during construction. They are only found on a few very long structures (e. but a sudden change in level remained and this became more pronounced over time under the effect of delayed deformations due to creep. 2.2. 2. As they are sources of major pathologies on these first structures to be built using the cantilever method. we should also mention the devices used on the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway [UAC 98]. the hinges have a limited life span and there is a risk of seizure or blockage. consisting of two metal beams parallel to the webs of the box girder. Furthermore. 2. make it possible to fit expansion joints in the deck while transmitting shear forces and bending moments. These devices.14 – Counterweighted end span with inverted bearing Fig. The differential height difference between the ends of two adjacent cantilevers could be compensated for by applying a vertical force.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However.15 – Old structures with crown hinges In this interests of thoroughness.5 – Use of lightweight concrete (for information) In the 1980s.

16 – Example of a simple monocellular box girder 2.3.e. 2. they are often transversally prestressed using low-strength tendons. 2. the two largest bridges in the world built by the cantilever method feature lightweight concrete sections in their central span.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Faced with stiff competition from other solutions (composite box girders. For longer widths. the ribs have a more elaborate geometry and are prestressed using medium-strength tendons (12T15 or 19T15).3 . In the narrowest structures. there may be three or four waxed or lubricated T 15 single strands per metre or four 4T15S tendons per 3. featuring two solid slabs.00 metre segment. This is of paramount importance.2 - Simple monocellular box girders For deck widths of less than 20 m.). One rib is used per standard segment. These cross-sections also feature a lower slab which lowers the centre of gravity and allows for efficient cabling on the pier. Fig. these ribs are made from reinforced concrete and they are of constant depth between the webs. 2.17). i. etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 30 septembre 2007 . On the other hand. We shall now describe them and specify their fields of application.1 Background information The large overhangs created in the construction phase require the use of a cross section with a high resistance to torsion. the most economical solution is almost always a box girder with two webs.3 - Monocellular box girders with ribs or struts For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m or more.3. prestressed concrete box girders with lightweight metallic webs.Choosing a cross-section 2. one every 3 to 4 m. When the decks are very wide. 2. featuring a ribbed upper slab and a solid lower slab (Fig. as construction by the cantilever method produces very large negative moments.50 to 4. parabolic. etc. as mentioned in Chapter 1. This type of box girder is compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant. the most common solution consists of a box girder with two webs. This is one of the reasons why designers opt for box girders. There are several types of box girders. For example. Upper slabs are made from reinforced concrete for widths of up to 15 or 16 m.) this technique has virtually disappeared in France.

18). which is extremely difficult and costly to carry out. thus allowing the tendons to pass freely. they are restricted in application to structures of a constant depth. For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m. the axes of the struts or the lateral walls must be distorted. The struts may also be replaced by two acutely angled lateral concrete walls (Fig. this form of box girder is compatible with all of the height variation laws. 2. 2. The webs are usually vertical and the steel or reinforced concrete struts are aligned under the cantilevers [GIL 96].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The presence of ribs complicates the formwork for the deck and thus the construction of the segments. These structures are aesthetically very pleasing. Because of this. Furthermore. the external tendons must not strike the ribs near the cross beam on the pier.18 – Example of a wide box girder with struts The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 31 septembre 2007 . although this is often prestressed (Fig. they are somewhat more difficult to construct than a box girder featuring an upper slab with ribs.19). Indeed.17 – Example of a wide box girder with slab featuring prestressed rib stiffeners Fig. 2. their use is restricted to structures with a maximum span of 80 to 90 m. Fig. if the depth of the box girder varies. Furthermore. 2. Before choosing a design for the transverse ribbing. it is also possible to design decks featuring a slab of constant longitudinal thickness without ribs. However. it is therefore advisable to verify the resulting weight gain in comparison to a prestressed slab that is thicker but of constant depth. Recesses in the ribs are therefore created close to the piers or shorter ribs are used. As in the previous example.

It should be mentioned that this type of structure is particularly suitable for the construction of wide prefabricated bridge decks. these structures are now very rarely used. due to the difficulty of guaranteeing the even distribution of forces between the webs. as this involves the construction of two narrow decks side by side which are then fixed together transversally.).3. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Furthermore. the installation of the transverse prestressing is highly complex. However. it is also possible to design a bridge deck consisting of two box girders connected by their internal cantilevers (Fig. Nevertheless. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 32 septembre 2007 . In France. it has recently been used on several occasions.4 - Double-cell box girders For large widths. including for the access viaducts built from prefabricated segments for the new bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. It also remains widely used in Asia. in other countries. linear.3. it is possible to design box girders with three webs (Fig. etc. double-cell box girders are compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant.20).5 - Monocellular box girders with three webs (for information) For widths of between 15 and 20 m. and the viaducts for the second crossing of Severn estuary in England [COM 96]. in the case of structures with skew lines of support or those featuring shifted piers for each box girder. In France. controlling the creep-induced deformations in each of the box girders made from concrete of different ages remains a major problem during the construction of these structures. this solution is now rarely used on very wide structures. Indeed: • • • They are difficult and costly to build because two formwork cores must be used For the same cost. 2. Like the simple monocellular box girders. parabolic. 2. more aesthetically pleasing structures with struts or transverse ribs are often preferred Certain structures of this type have been affected by major pathologies.21). 2.19 – Example of a wide box girder with thin lateral walls 2.

in which the conventional full webs are replaced by an ultra-lightweight concrete truss. in the Jura region of France. different in height. as for the Bubiyan bridge in Kuwait. the Boulonnais viaducts also feature bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments with truss webs. 2. but these are made from corrugated metal sheets [REI 94]. also features a bridge deck with ultra-lightweight webs. The Corniche viaduct in Dôle.21 – Older solution consisting of a box girder with three webs These box girders are still constructed overseas and particularly in South-East Asia.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. First. where labour is cheaper. constructed for the A40 highway near Nantua at the end of the 1980s. western companies have exported their equipment to these countries. Built in the 1990s to support the Al6 highway. which on this occasion are made from metal tubes [MEU 98]. Furthermore.20 – Example of a bridge deck consisting of two box girders joined together transversally Fig. 2. These viaducts feature two independent.3.6 - Special transverse structures A number of structures featuring highly original and innovative bridge decks were constructed in France during the 1990s. prefabricated prestressed bridge decks. 2. The fourth bridge with corrugated metal webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 33 septembre 2007 . we shall mention the Sylans and Glacières viaducts.

however.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to be built in France after the structures in Cognac. At this stage of the guide. it is essential to provide some basic information about these tendons. after a brief preamble on the subject of cabling. 2. consisting of two parallel concrete slabs connected by triangular concrete elements acting as webs [PAU 00]. The figure below specifies the notations used: Fig. the Dôle viaduct was the first French bridge of this type to be built using the cantilever method.Pre-design of a simple cross-section 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 34 septembre 2007 .4 . The Vecchio viaduct. we shall examine the design of the different elements that make up a standard monocellular box girder.23 – Tendons used on standard bridges 2. also has a highly original bridge deck.4.22 – Notations used Fig.1 Background information In the following section. Charolles and the Parc Astérix.2 - Preamble concerning cabling A detailed description of the longitudinal cabling used on bridges built using the cantilever method is given in Chapter 3. 2.4. built in Corsica at the end of the 1990s. which is dedicated to longitudinal bending and primary cabling. 2.

the thermal gradient and delayed concrete deformations. They are situated in the lower gussets of the box girder close to the webs and are anchored in anchor blocks. e3 and e4 by approximately 10% if there is sufficient space to house the cantilever tendons. At the fixed support point. as the effectiveness of these operations can also determine the thickness of the end of the slab. External continuity tendons complement the internal prestressing. and external continuity tendons. It is a minimum of: – 16 to 18 cm for a pedestrian parapet – 23 cm for a normal BN1 barrier – 24 cm for a normal BN4 barrier. Their anchorages are often situated on the edge of the segments at the nodes between the webs and the upper slab. They are situated between the webs and slabs. Ribbed slabs. or even D/35 for very wide transversally prestressed box girders. of course. internal continuity tendons. Its thickness at mid-span e4 is equal to D/25 or D/30.5 e4 In light of the preceding information.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The cabling on standard modern structures consists of three types of tendons: cantilever tendons.10 meters +D/25 (with D representing the centre distance between the webs expressed in meters). In the end spans. we also verify that: e3 > e2 – 0. Their thickness varies between 22 cm for a normal centre distance of 3 m to 3. They are housed in the upper gussets. not including the gussets used for connecting to the webs of the box girder. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 35 septembre 2007 . The thickness of the upper slab at the end e1 depends on the retaining system used (see the Sétra technical guide for security barriers).3 - Upper slab In a simple box girder. the thickness e2 depends on the superstructures and the functional cross section. 2. The upper slab is solid and its thickness varies transversally in order to adapt to the transverse forces encountered. and 10 cm for a much smaller centre distance. measured from the start of the gusset. taking take up the operating loads and the weight of superstructures. This value can be reduced for prestressed concrete. It is important to pay particular attention to ensuring that the transverse tendons are properly covered and that they are correctly anchored at the ends of the slab. we could use 1/7 to 1/8 of the width of the cantilever for e2. the webs are often situated at a quarter of the width of the box girder (C ≈ B / 4). The transverse prestressing makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of e2. At the anchorage of the cantilever.10 m and e3 > 1. with a minimum of 20 cm. Cantilever tendons take up the negative moments. are thinner. In general. As an initial estimate for a reinforced concrete slab.50 m between ribs. both during construction and when the bridge is in service. Internal continuity tendons are designed to take up the positive moments that occur during construction due to site loads. the mean thickness of the slab for a simple box girder amounts to between 22 and 26 cm. outside the standard section. the value e3 can be estimated at 0. they must also take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework sections.4. They are anchored in massive cross beams on piers or abutments and are deflected via concrete beams called deviators. It also depends upon the construction method used for the segments (cast-in-situ or prefabricated).

The total thickness Ea of the two webs can be estimated at Ea = L/275 + l. Minimal thickness of webs in special situations It is sometimes desirable to pass the cantilever tendons down through the webs in order to increase the reduction in shear forces brought about by the prestressing. Minimal thickness of webs in standard situations Usually. Longitudinally. This formula (somewhat less favorable than the previous formula for The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 36 septembre 2007 . L and B expressed in meters).4. the webs are almost always the same thickness throughout their entire height.125: a relation in which L is the main span and B is the width of the upper slab (with Ea.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. This becomes compulsory for very wide structures with large spans. as the external tendons have not yet been tightened.1 – Background information Box girder webs are usually angled because this arrangement facilitates the removal of formwork and reduces the width of the pier heads. the webs are normally of constant thickness for bridges of variable depth and of variable thickness for decks of constant depth. However. (As an initial estimate. the external cladding of the webs is often of better quality when they are angled. Also. in which the fixing of a single pair of tendons per segment is not sufficient. The angle typically adopted varies between 10 and 30%.4 - Thickness of the webs 2. 2. Fig. as the web is not breached by the tendons. while benefiting from the significant reduction in shear forces brought about by the raising of the external tendons. the thickness of the webs must also conform to a certain number of conditions concerning the proper concreting and anchoring of the tendons on the edge of the segments: – a > 2(e + 2d + V) + ∅g.25 x B/L – 0. In this case. For spans in excess of approximately 100 meters and in certain projects in which performance is maximized. Vertically. with V = 7 cm minimum (concreting and vibration chute) – a > 2D with D being the cover thickness of the anchor plates given by the regulations for prestressing systems according to the strength of the concrete. In this case.4. the webs are sometimes thickened in proximity to the upper deck as the shear forces are greatest in this area. of course) in order to facilitate the construction. during the construction phase.26 + L/500. there is virtually no reduction of the shear force. When thickening is required near the piers. we could state that D = 18 cm for 12T13 tendons and D = 20 cm for 12T15 cables) – a > 3∅g with ∅g = 7 cm for 12T13 tendons and ∅g = 8 cm for 12T15 tendons. with Ea and L in meters. the cantilever tendons are anchored in the upper gusset or in a high-level anchor block. a sudden variation is built in (by benching and from the inside. its thickness can be reduced to the strict minimum needed to resist shear forces when the bridge is in service.24 – Thickness of webs It can also be added that shear force strength requires the conservation of an effective web thickness of Ea equal to 0.

this system finally resulted in cracking due to the distribution of the prestressing force to the area around the anchorages. also known as “on demand” variations. As the power of the tendons increased. This thickness must be increased for wider decks. It is advisable to adopt a safety margin for the maximum stress level in order to limit the redistributions due to creep. this slab used to house continuity tendons which had to be protected against corrosion by a layer of concrete equal to at least half of the diameter of the duct. 2. Stepped variations in thickness. 2. 2.4. For wide structures. continuity tendons are housed in the lower gussets of the box girders and the cover thickness requirement specified above no longer applies to the slab. so that the box girder can be considered to be impervious to transversal deformations. For structures which vary in depth parabolically or cubically. In the cast-on-falsework sections. The latter variation law is used to maintain the minimum thickness of the slab over a large length and to save weight. the lower slab must be as thin as possible (18 to 22 cm) in order to limit the selfweight of the box girder. This value. are sometimes used. Minimum thickness In the central section of the spans. It is also recommended that this thickness should not be less than one third of the thickness of the webs. In structures of an older design. and for deck widths of less than 15 m. However. parabolic or of the fourth degree.6 - Design of the upper gussets The upper gussets must fulfil several functions which generally influence their dimensions: • • • They thicken the slabs in areas subject to significant transverse forces Their funnel shape facilitates the concreting of the webs They house the cantilever tendons and ensure that their cover thickness The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 37 septembre 2007 . transverse bending predominates and thickness tends to be in the region of 25 cm.4. The thickness variation laws according to the horizontal axis are either linear.25 – Detail of the lower slab Maximum thickness The thickness of the lower slab on the pier Ep is determined by the limitation of compression in the bottom fiber when the bridge is in service.5 - Thickness of the lower slab The thickness of the lower slab is minimal at the crown and maximal at the pier. the lower slab must also be transversally resistant to sideways thrust due to the combined effects of the compression of this slab and its curvature. Today. varies between 35 and 80 cm or even more. Ec ≥ 2 ∅ + d + e avec Ec ≥ 18à 22 cm Fig. the thickness of the lower slabs remains constant and is equal to that of the crown. which is largely dependent on the span and widths of the slabs. it is advisable to adjust the minimal thickness of the slab Ec in order to ensure that the upper layer of its transverse reinforcements do not come into contact with the ducts of prestressing in the gussets. gives good results for spans of between 70 and 170 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide short spans and relatively narrow box girders).

In conclusion. On the other hand. These blocks must therefore be situated in the webs/slab nodes and they may also influence the dimensions of the upper gussets. Fig. the lower gussets must also house the internal continuity tendons (Fig. 2. prefabricated concrete blocks incorporating the anchorages for cantilever tendons are still sometimes used. 2. allowing them to absorb the forces due to the distribution of the cantilever tendons which are now almost always anchored at these nodes.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • They allow for the deflection of the cantilever tendons prior to their anchorages They thicken the nodes of the webs/upper slab. the gussets are empirically designed and accounted for in the rough calculations and are only precisely established after the cantilever tendons and transverse reinforcements have been accurately calculated. the gussets are not cast in formwork but simply smoothed over during the concreting process. situated at the junction between the webs and the lower slab (Fig. As we have previously mentioned. as this system allows the tendons to be tightened a few hours after the segments have been cast. They are angled at a slope of 40 to 45° in order to facilitate the flow of the concrete and prevent the formation of accumulations of pebbles or concreting defects. 2.26 – Detail of the upper gussets In light of the preceding points.27 – Detail of the lower gussets The lower gussets are normally boxed in by the lower part of the central core of the formwork for the segment. In cast-in-situ structures. the internal continuity tendons are anchored in the protruding anchor blocks. it should be noted that the internal shape of the gussets is always rectilinear. 2. their external form is often circular for purely aesthetic reasons. presenting an angle of between 30 and 45° to facilitate casting. In these situations. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 38 septembre 2007 . α Fig.28).4.7 - Design of the lower gussets In addition to their mechanical role in which they act as a transition between the webs and the lower slab. These anchor blocks are generally a little shorter than the standard segments. When the lower slab is wide. They are constructed at the same time as the rest of the segment. the angle of the gussets can drop as low as 15 or even 10° from the horizontal in order to improve the take-up of transverse bending forces.27). 2.

3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 39 septembre 2007 .4. 2. 2.3) By taking up the local loads on the upper slab between the webs By providing anchorages for the external prestressing tendons distributing their forces By transmitting the vertical component of the external prestress tendons that are deviated inside the segments on piers to the bearings and piers (see 4.3.5.2.4). • • • • During the construction phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by the the shear force and torsion of the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the temporary bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the temporary bearings and piers By taking up the forces caused by the cantilever stabilizing systems and transmitting them to the temporary bearings. • • Concrete deviators situated in the different spans are used to deflect the external prestressing tendons (Fig.3.2. 2.29).1 Background information We have already seen that the longitudinal geometry of the structure is dictated entirely by its mode of construction. This also influences its breakdown into segments (Fig.2. 2.Breakdown into segments 2.28 – Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons 2.1 and 4.5 . Cross beams on piers play a particularly important role: In the operating phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by shear force and torsion in the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the bearings and piers (see 4. These usually consist of a lower rectangular beam capped by two thin trapezoid walls.8 - Cross beams and deviators Bridges built using the cantilever method incorporate major cross beams directly above the piers and abutments.30).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

we shall see how the lengths of different types of segments are determined. it should be noted that the shorter the segments. The edges of the segments are usually perpendicular to the structure’s extrados.00 m close to the piers to 5. 2. The main aim when determining the length of prefabricated segments is to reduce their weight. the length was constant and equal to 3. 2.25 m).00 m in mid-span (at the design stage. the harder it is to conform to the geometry of the cantilever.2 - Standard segments Standard segments are of a constant length which varies between 2.29 – Deflection of the external tendons Fig. However. the most important selection criteria are the casting time and minimizing the number of construction cycles and thus the number of segments.5.50 m and 4 or even 5 m according to the structures. the segments for the new bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg vary in length from 3. it should be noted that the breakdown into segments may also be conditioned or influenced by the need to have a uniform distribution of: • • The bridge deck’s transverse ribs or struts. Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 40 septembre 2007 . if applicable Cornice elements with architectural design features that must be evenly matched to the BN4 posts. Indeed.30 – Breakdown into segments 2. in order to optimize the construction cycles. This optimization policy can sometimes lead to the construction of segments of different lengths for the same half-cantilever.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the following section. as we shall see in Chapter 6. and thus to the longitudinal section. but vertical joints may also be used. For cast-in-situ segments. prefabricated segments must be moved using special equipment which obviously has a limited capacity. In certain specific situations. For example.

it must be twice as long as the standard segments plus an additional length of 50 centimeters to one meter. But this is only one option and it is often necessary to anchor two pairs of tendons per segment for very wide structures featuring large spans. the closing segments are slightly shorter in length than the standard segments because one of the form travelers is generally used for their construction. A joint of this length is made from non-reinforced concrete. Therefore. in order to ensure that it is capable of supporting two form travelers during the construction of the first pair of segments. This closure is thus reduced to its simplest form. Therefore. temporary lashing provides the only form of prestressing before the jointing takes place. The SOPs are therefore divided into two or three sections to be assembled by prestressing.3 - Segments on piers For cast-in-situ structures. The segment on pier represents a very large volume of concrete which can very rarely be constructed in a single phase.5 to 3m are designed for very wide structures or bridges featuring large spans. Its shortness makes it impossible to tighten the cantilever tendons usually attached to the last standard segments. In this case. Thus. in order to use form travelers built for a previous site or to reduce the number of segments and optimize the construction cycles.4 + 0. usually made from wood.5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the preliminary design stage. To support the installation of the pair of form travelers on the segment on pier. but this is permissible given the small moment arms at this stage of the construction. the length of segments calculated in this way in the preliminary design may be modified during the construction surveys. 2. Furthermore. For cast-in-situ structures with a small number of piers. The length of the closing segments must also facilitate the overlapping of longitudinal reinforcements and the tightening of the last segments cantilever tendons. their minimum length is approximately two meters. which can be broken down into components small enough to be removed via a manhole. it may be beneficial to reduce the length of the SOP. and longer segments of 3 to 4 m can be used for narrow or short-span structures. However. the dimensions of the segment on pier are often incompatible with the capacity of the equipment used for transporting and installing the segments. 2. segments of 2.5. it is common to calculate the length of the segments in such a way as to ensure that there is the same number of standard segments as there are pairs of cantilever tendons determined by the calculations. its formwork must be designed to resist the significant thrusts exerted by the fresh concrete. For cast-in-situ structures. the segment on pier (SOP) generally measures at least 8 m.6 .0035 L (L being the length of the principal span of the structure in meters and e in meters) Page 41 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . 2. Regardless of the method adopted. it can be considered that smaller cross sections have longer segments. the closing of segments on prefabricated structures is carried out using the simplest possible system. not exceeding 15 to 20 cm in length.Main ratios The statistics for standard structures give the following ratios: • • Equivalent thickness: e = 0. the second segment of the first pair is constructed after the first form traveler has been moved. The cantilever is highly unbalanced before the installation of the second form traveler. the closing segments must not be so short that it becomes difficult to dismantle the internal formwork from the form traveler.4 - Closing segments The length of the closing segments varies considerably according to the technique used. For prefabricated structures. The closing segments require specific formwork. As we have already established. For economic reasons.

ribbed slab. etc.). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 42 septembre 2007 . the ratio is strongly dependent on the type and thickness of the upper slab (thick slab. because they often have a lower equivalent thickness than cast-in-situ structures and because reinforcements for temporary lashing and hoisting equipment must be added.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Longitudinal prestressing: 40 to 50 Kg/m3 Transverse prestressing: 5 to 7 Kg/m² of deck Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: – Without transverse prestressing: 130 to 170 Kg/m3 (*) – With transverse prestressing: 110 to 130 Kg/m3 (*) The ratio of non-prestressed reinforcement bars is generally somewhat higher for prefabricated structures. on the conditions imposed for the cumulation of distribution. (*) For non-prestressed reinforcement bars. shear and bending reinforcements and on the accepted value for the elastic limit of the reinforcement bars in the calculations (400 ou 500 MPa).

i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3 . For a structure with three spans. 3. is used on a virtually automatic basis in France. 3. Until the mid-1980s.2 – Internal continuity tendons on the end spans • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete at the crown of the main span in order to make the structure continuous (Fig.1 – Cantilever tendons • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete to secure the cast-on-falsework sections of the end spans to the two cantilevers (Fig. As mentioned in the previous chapter. mixed prestressing technology.2) Fig. Today.1 . all of the pre-stressing on structures built using the cantilever method was situated inside the concrete. 3. Please note that the verification of tangential stress is covered in Chapter 4.Design and verification of longitudinal cabling This chapter covers the design and calculation-based verification of the longitudinal cabling for prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method. 3.1) Fig.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 43 septembre 2007 .Cabling principles The layout of the prestress tendons depends on the construction method used and on successive developments. the following sequence of operations applies to the stressing of these different tendons: • Tensioning of the cantilever tendons inside the concrete for assembly of the standard segments (Fig. different types of cables are used: • • Cantilever tendons: used for the assembly of consecutive segments Continuity tendons: designed to take up the forces resulting from all of the additional structures added to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers.e featuring tendons both inside and outside the concrete. 3. 3.

depending on the design rules used Cantilever tendons undergo significant angular deflections. which results in signicativ losses due to friction.1. 3.1 - Cantilever prestressing Cantilever tendons are designed: • For the assembly of consecutive segments and to take up negative moments due to the selfweight of the cantilevers and site loads during the construction phase To help take up negative moments due to dead loads and imposed loads.4 – Externall continuity tendons on the end spans 3. In virtually all cases.1. they are positioned inside the concrete in order to obtain the maximum effect. The main advantage of this arrangement was to reduce the shear force due to the angle of the tendons. • These tendons are situated at the area of the upper axis of the bridge deck in order to act efficiently against negative moments. 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3 – Internal continuity tendons on the central spans • Stressing of the continuity tendons outside the concrete. along with the external continuity tendons when the bridge is in service. this layout also had its disadvantages: • • • The presence of tendons in the webs creates an obstacle during casting The bulkiness of the anchoring plates requires a large minimum web thickness (normally around 45 cm) In accordance with the french design regulations. However. 3-4). stretching across one or two spans. Fig. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 44 septembre 2007 . the thickness of a web must be reduced by the thickness of a half to one cable duct for the calculation of shearing stresses. in order to take up any additional loads (Fig. which was particularly favourable in proximity to the piers.1.1 – Principle of cantilever tendons on older structures (for information) In older designs. 3. these tendons were almost always deviated vertically at their extremities and their anchorages were positioned inside the webs.

3. the vertical deflections are dissociated from the horizontal deflections (Fig. it is possible to create a recess in the gusset gussetcorresponding to the size of the anchorages for the additional prestress tendons (cf. which simplifies their installation (Fig.5 – Conventional cantilever tendons The tendons must have a rectilinear alignment when they pass through the joints. Likewise. and they can be anchored directly in the upper nodes.1. Therefore. § 3.1). Indeed. it may be necessary to anchor two cables per web and per segment.5). Fig. 3. it is no longer necessary to drop the tendons down into the webs at their extremities. In order to guarantee the correct assembly of the duct elements. For upper slabs of common widths (10 to 12 m).1. such a layout: • Always uses the same points of passage through the joints so that a single facing can be used The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 45 septembre 2007 . 3-6). Because of this.1.3 – Alignment of cantilever tendons on modern structures Standard alignment Cantilever tendons undergo vertical and horizontal deflections in the upper node.2 – Principle of cantilever tendons on modern structures In conventional modern designs.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. shear force is reduced by placing the continuity tendons on the outside of the concrete. 3. Whenever possible. the alignment of the cables in the passage through the joints is usually perpendicular to the formwork surface of the facing. one tendon is anchored per web and per segment.1.3.1. The drawbacks of the old cantilever tendons systems are thus avoided. For wider upper slabs. Comb layout The "comb" cable layout aligns tendons automatically. the dimensions of the upper gusset gussets are directly related to the number and sizes of the tendon anchor plates and to the position of the cantilever tendon ducts.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Reduces the horizontal deflections and thus the losses by chafing Avoids having curved sections in line with joints Creates horizontal deflections throughout the exact length of the segment. because of the presence of the external continuity cables which span the entire length of the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 46 septembre 2007 . we decide not to anchor the tendons in the webs and want to avoid increasing the size of the gusset gusset. the most unfavourable situation generally occurs during the casting of the final pair of segments. The stresses relating to the recesses used for the attachment of the form travelers (cast-in-situ segments) and hoisting equipment (prefabricated segments) should also be mentioned. The cantilever tendons anchored in this final pair of segments are not tensioned in the design phase and are therefore not required for the construction of the cantilever.London – September 1996).1. It is also possible to position the anchor plates at the level of the gusset gussetand on the outside of the web reinforcements. Fig. Further information on “comb” cable layouts can be found in the article entitled "Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method” (FIP Symposium . In this case.1. the optimum number of tendons specified for the end of each segment is two (one tendon per web). experience shows that. 3. to prevent the systematic cutting of the vertical stirrups in proximity to the tendon anchors. 3. Cabling of the final pair of segments During the construction of a cantilever. This arrangement also makes it possible to attach two cables per web if necessary. Furthermore.6 – Comb cantilever tendon layout: plan view and detail of gussets On Figure above. we can observe the stress relating to the presence of stitching tendons on the support.4 – Specific design points Number of cantilever tendons Two or four cables can be specified per segment. This arrangement makes it possible to standardize the reinforcements for the segments. only the first tendons are anchored in line with the web: the following ones are anchored alternately on either side. If. It is also apparent that the anchor plate is automatically angled on the axis of the web in one direction and then in the other. for the aforementioned reasons.

7 – Lashing principle for prefabricated segments Cantilever tendons outside the concrete For very large structures (span > approximately 120 m). These bars hold the segment temporarily in place while exerting a minimal pressure of approximately 0. 3. lashing bars must be used to hold prefabricated segments in place parallel to the extrados until the cantilever tendon is tensioned.8). 3. However. This final pair then functions provisionally as reinforced concrete. “Extended cantilever” segments As described in Chapter 2. according to a design similar to the layouts used in older structures (Fig. decks can be designed without the need to anchor cantilever tendons in the final pair of segments. 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide structure. As a result. 3.8 – Cantilever tendons These provisions are used for structures of variable depth in which the aim is to reduce the depth on the pier. This arrangement is commonly used for bridges with prefabricated segments in which the shortness of the closing segment (20 to 30 cm) makes it impossible to tension these tendons. Cabling for structures with prefabricated segments During the assembly process. it is possible to drop a proportion of the cantilever cables down into the webs (generally those of the first segments). it may be necessary to construct one or more segments known as “extended cantilever segments” at a one end of the bridge only. Fig. a proportion of the cantilever tendons may be situated outside of the concrete in order to reduce the size of the upper gusset gussets and thus the dead loads Angle of the tendons In order to reduce the shear stress in certain types of structures.7). or to build spans of different lengths. they must be anchored at a sufficient distance from the section on the pier in order to allow for the dispersion of the prestressing force within this section. there are more cantilever tendons than needed when the bridge is in service. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 47 septembre 2007 . in order to reduce the cast-on-falsework sections close to the abutments.2 MPa on the adhesive in the segment joint. Fig. The segments are generally anchored in a staggered pattern on the vertical ribs built into the inner face of the webs. midway between the segment joints (Fig. The cantilever is thus asymmetrical and the cantilever tendons anchored in these segments may be asymmetrical in relation to the pier. and for structures of constant depth over 60 m in length.

10). Today. In older designs. 3. 3. i.10 – Internal continuity tendons on standard spans Designed to resist positive moments.e. 3.11 –Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons They are often offset in relation to the top of the lower deck in order to standardize their alignment in the anchor block. the reader is advised to refer to SétraSétra Technical Bulletin No.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3.11). these cables are situated inside the lower gusset gussets and are attached to the anchor blocks situated at the intersection of the web and lower slab (Fig. The large number of tendons meant that they had to be distributed throughout the entire width of the lower slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 48 septembre 2007 . 3.1. 3.9 – Internal continuity tendons on end spans Fig.2. This paragraph only concerns the use of mixed cables. these tendons were all located inside the concrete.1. consisting of tendons situated both inside and outside the concrete. or raised in the webs and anchored inside recesses built into the extrados of the bridge deck. Fig. 3.1 – Internal continuity cables Continuity tendons situated inside the concrete are strung across the central part of standard spans and inside the extremities of the end spans (Fig. They were aligned in the lower slab at midspan and were attached to the anchor blocks protruding over the slab.7 published in 1972.9 and 3. Fig.2 . continuity prestressing is generally mixed. continuity tendons are designed to take up all of the additional forces applied to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. For continuity tendons which are situated completely inside the concrete. which led to the development of major pathologies (see Chapter 8).Continuity prestressing In general.

e. internal continuity prestressing is designed to be capable of taking up the shrinkage after grouting. due to the effect of temperature variations.2. The deviators are generally situated between a third and a quarter of the way along the span (Fig.2 – External continuity cables External continuity cables are designed to take up: • Positive moments in the span due to dead loads (including shrinkage and the redistribution of forces due to creep) and imposed loads.g. 3 spans of 120 meters. a distance of approximately 5cm must also be allowed between the outside of the tendon sheaths and the concrete of the segment slabs and/or the anchor blocks. For curvilinear structures. 3. they are therefore situated close to the lower slab in mid-span (?) and close to the upper slab on supports. or even more. This value may be slightly exceeded. 3. in tandem with the internal continuity cables Negative moments on the pier due to dead loads and operating loads. it is necessary to recenter the tendons using additional deviators.12 – External continuity tendons on standard span According to the length of the structure and the number of spans.12). In a plan view. In order to account for construction tolerances. • In elevation. For the end spans. i. a distance of approximately 5cm must be allowed between the outside of the tendon ducts and the concrete of the segment slabs. 360 meters for 19T15 "super" tendons) have already been successfully tensioned. thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) and the reaction effects of the structure during the construction phases between the casting of the concrete fro the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. the external continuity cables are situated close to the webs. In this case. especially if the latter are rigid. Considering the difficulties involved in the threading and grouting of curved tendons. The attention of designers is drawn to the fact that.1. 3. in tandem with the cantilever cables. the provisional cantilever joints are liable to create significant forces in the bridge deck and supports. Longer curved tendons (e. resultings in a polygonal alignment which is rectilinear per section. they must be limited in length to approximately 200 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the minimum. especially in order to stretch a tendon across two spans of over 100 m in length. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 49 septembre 2007 . This minimum distance will be also observed in relation to the top of the anchor blocks for the continuity tendons. To take account of construction tolerances. The tendons are deflected via the cross beams on piers and intermediate cross beams (deviators) on the spans. These tendons may also stretch from span to span. they may be anchored in the deviator cross beams. Fig. they may be strung form one end of the deck to the other or overlapped across two or three consecutive spans. the internal continuity prestressing also has to take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework section.

too many tendons could risk overloading the box girder and lead to maintenance problems.). This leads to a significant reduction in the number of cantilever tendons compared with older structures in which the cantilever tendons had to take up all of the negative moments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. the external tendons play a major role in taking up the negative moments on the supports. which are more economical. Compulsory for cantilever tendons. inability to thread tendons. it is possible to: • • Avoid using the full capacity of the anchor plates. For example. the following numbers of tendons are used: At the crown: 2 ne1 + ne2 = nc tendons On the pier: ne1 + ne2 = np tendons There must be a sufficient number of external tendons to prevent any structural deficiencies in the event of the breaking or removal of a tendon.1 – Additional prestressing Specific precautions must be taken at the design stage in order to overcome any deficiencies in the internal prestressing inside the concrete during the construction phase (excessive friction. or by positioning the duct in such a way as to allow the tendon to be anchored in an additional anchor block.1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 50 septembre 2007 . These provisions must be designed to compensate for a prestressing deficiency of between 5 and 10 % of the probable prestressing force Pm for the category in question.13). 3.1. thus making it possible to attach additional strands Build in empty ducts which could be used to insert one or more pairs of additional cables if necessary. If there are no problems of shear force. It is interesting to note that in a mixed cabling system. 3. there are often between three and five pairs of internal continuity tendons. The last of these provisions does not apply to prefabricated segments. as they are shorter. the following design allows for a precise adjustment of the prestressing in each span using two types of tendons (Fig. either by making room in the gusset gusset for an anchor plate. The layout of these empty ducts must allow tensioning to be carried out at any time during construction. it is also possible to reduce the number of external tendons and to compensate for them in the central zones by using additional continuity tendons. However. In practice.13 – Different types of tendons used for optimizing the external cabling on a three-span bridge In this example. for a symmetrical three-span structure. these empty sheaths are also recommended for internal continuity cables. Unused empty ducts are injected at the end of the construction phase. 3. Fig. etc.3 - Miscellaneous construction provisions 3.3.

1. Fig. it is important to bear this in mind when determining the transversal positioning of the external and cantilever tendons. 3.3. cantilevers are stabilized by vertical prestressing cables housed in the segments on piers.14).3. The additional prestressing force must be equal to at least 20 % of the external continuity prestressing force determined during the construction of the bridge deck. Circular of February 28 2001 “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton" [Design of prestressing on the outside of the concrete]). In order to prevent this type of conflict.4 – Anti-vibration systems for external prestressing In order to prevent the development of resonance in the external tendons and avoid the risk of whip action in the event of an accident. Experience acquired in this field has shown that free lengths of approximately 25 m are acceptable. More precisely.3.1. The general provisions for external prestressing.5 – Possible geometrical conflicts between longitudinal tendons and other tendons In the majority of bridges covered by this guide. 3-15). 3. the products and materials used and their implementation are described in Chapter 7 of the supplement to the fascicule 65 A of the French CCTG (General Technical Clauses).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3.3. A geometrical conflict is also possible in transversally prestressed bridge decks between the transverse tendons on the one hand.14 – Anti-vibration devices for external tendons 3. 3.1. it is important to accurately define the position of the transverse prestressing and then to The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 51 septembre 2007 .2 – Replaceability of external prestressing It must be possible to replace the external prestressing.3.3 – Recesses for additional external prestressing Anchorages for additional prestressing and recesses in the deviators must be designed at outset in order to facilitate any necessary repairs or strengthening of the structure. As these tendons may conflict geometrically with the longitudinal prestressing. it must be possible to dismantle it without causing any damage to the structure apart from the possible destruction of the cable and its duct (cf. In practice. allowing for the progressive replacement of all of the external continuity tendons. at least one sheath per web is provided. the SétraSétra guide to external prestressing of February 1990 recommended the installation of intermediate tendon retention devices when the external part of the cable layout exceeds fifteen metres for a road structure and 10-12 meters for a railroad structure. and the cantilever and external continuity tendons on the other (Fig. Acting as intermediate supports and helping to hold the ducts in place during their replacement.1. these devices must be rigid (Fig.

In general. adjustments. Finally the selfweight of the bridge deck also depends on the weight of the ducts. it is necessary to carry out a precise analysis of the construction phases and of the subsequent loading phases (consecutive concrete casting and stressing operations. the unit mass of the concrete γt . the stresses are calculated using an elastic model for the bridge deck. support transfers. 3. the selfweight can be represented by a single nominal value calculated using the design drawings. tendons and grout used for the injection of the external prestressing. and of the bridge deck (prestressed and reinforced) is evaluated on the basis of the unit mass of the concrete alone γb. etc.2 - Selfweight of the bridge deck As the form travelers are built from rigid metal components. However.). 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide determine the location of the longitudinal tendons. If high or low density aggregates are used. in addition to the removal of formwork and the moving of form travelers.Stress calculations 3. Except under special circumstances.1 Background information For the majority of the verifications. Fig. diaphragms and deviators.85 × 7.85 . it is also important to account for the elements which are added to the bridge deck such as anchor blocks.2 .γb ( ) septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 52 .2. it is advisable to place the transverse tendons in the first bed and the cantilever tendons in the second. The calculation must take account of the successive phases in the loading of the structure. as recommended by the BPEL 91.5 t/m3.15 – Example of the crossing of transverse / cantilever tendons 3. Therefore. the unit mass of concrete is fixed at 2.2. revised in 1999 and notwithstanding the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979. measured for a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: γt = γb + ρ 7.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

In which ρ is the total ratio of non-prestressed and prestressed reinforcement bars in t/m3 (a value of p = 0.2 t/m3 is generally adopted).

Fig. 3.16 – Site loads to be considered for construction phase verifications

Standard concrete based on basaltic aggregates and high-performance concrete have higher densities (allow around 50 kg/m3 more for HPC).

3.2.3 -

Prestressing effects

For the verifications of longitudinal flexion, the prestressing can be represented by a single probable value Pm. For large structures, specific precautions are taken (empty ducts, measurement of transmission factors, etc.) to ensure that the probable prestressing value Pm is properly obtained. In this case, values of k = 0.02 and k’ = 0.95 should be used for the Service Limit State calculations, in accordance with Article 4.10.1 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999.

3.2.4 -

Random site loads

During the construction of the cantilevers, random site loads must be considered when calculating the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck (Fig. 3-16). These loads are: • • A distributed load QPRA1 of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever, in standard cases A concentrated load QPRA2 of 100 kN applied at the end of the cantilever, representing the weight of the cable rollers, compressors and other equipment likely to be used on the structure.

3.2.5 -

Delayed effects

Concrete shrinkage and creep in hyperstatic structures built according to flexible static plans gradually modifies the stresses and constraints that were initially calculated. It is difficult to give a quantitative evaluation of this redistribution. For this, a computerized calculation is required, which takes account of the construction phases and the laws of behavior of the different materials (including the scientific creep test for concrete). A calculation of this type will be performed at the design stage, in which certain construction phases may be grouped together. Two compulsory calculations must be performed in the framework of the construction surveys: • Firstly, an initial calculation of longitudinal flexion (A), is carried out according to the company’s provisional construction schedule, with coefficients of friction according to the type of prestressing used

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Secondly, after the complete construction of the bridge deck, and in order to determine the actual stress state of the structure in operation, a post-construction calculation (B) is performed according to the actual construction schedule, using the mean coefficient of friction measurements, and the actual mass of the segments for prefabricated structures.

Should significant changes be made to the work schedule, it is also necessary to perform a third calculation to take account of the rearranged work schedule. Any change of sequence of operations will be validated by a calculation. Finally, while awaiting the implementation of the Eurocodes, whose materials laws are considered to be more realistic, another calculation can also be performed in order to determine the reverse deflections during construction, using a creep law that is more realistic than that of the BPEL (quicker). Nevertheless, it is recommended to perform a creep test in order to make sure that the concrete creep law does not differ from the theoretical model of behaviour that was adopted.

3.2.6 -

Calculation programs

Several software programs have been designed by private or public engineering firms for bridge calculations including for structures built using the cantilever method. Sétra has developed two programs designed for these types of calculations amongst others: • • STl software ; The PCP (Ponts Construits par Phases [Bridges Built in Phases]) system.

These programs are used for calculating three-dimensional or flat structures made from bar components and are intended for the design of civil engineering structures. They can account for prestressing reinforcements, construction phases and imposed road loads. The calculations are performed according to the Strength of Materials theory applied to elastic beams, in which each segment is normally represented by a beam element. The calculation must closely follow all of the construction phases in order to consider the load application dates and the aging of the materials (shrinkage, creep and relaxation) between these different phases.

3.3 - Verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses
3.3.1 Preamble

Paragraph 3-3 describes the verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses due to normal force. These calculations must be performed at the Service Limit State and at the Ultimate Limit State, when the structure is under construction and in service. Verifications to be carried out with regard to shearing stresses are covered in Chapter 4.

3.3.2 -

Verification categories

Cast-in-situ structures are generally justified according to class II of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Considering the absence of longitudinal reinforcement bars passing through the joints, decks made from prefabricated segments are generally verified longitudinally according to class I of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Article 3.1.43 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 also describes the possibility of verifications being made

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in class II subject to the joints remaining fully compressed under Pm. In this case, in accordance with Article 6.1.32, the stressed zone must also be less than 5 cm in height. The choice of verification category must be clearly stated in the STC (Special Technical Clauses).

3.3.3 -

Verifications in the construction phase

In general, verifications must be carried out during all phases of construction. 3.3.3.1 – Verification of cantilever prestressing In addition to the verifications specific to the static balance which are covered in Chapter 5 of this guide, SLS (Service Limit State) verifications must be performed at all phases of the construction of the cantilever in order to verify the prestressing of the bridge deck. The loads to be used include the known site loads (form travelers etc.) and the random site loads defined in paragraph 3-2.4.F For structures verified in class II, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 can be applied and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can therefore be considered in the coating section. 3.3.3.2 – Verification of internal continuity prestressing The internal continuity prestressing inside the concrete is designed to take up shrinkage, creep and thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) during the construction phase between the casting of the concrete for the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. The uniform temperature variation can be considered to be equal to +/- 10° C. The positive thermal gradient can be considered to be equal to 8° C. A negative thermal gradient of 5° C must also be taken into account. In the case of structures with prefabricated segments, it is also important to consider the launch beam and the low-bed semi-trailer. For structures verified in class II and considering the very short site design phase, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999, can be applied, and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can be considered in the coating section.

3.3.4 -

Verifications at service limit state (SLS) in service

The verifications must be carried out: • • Upon commissioning After all of the delayed losses and redistributions have occurred (e.g. after 50,000 days, this period may be considered to be “infinite”, even if all of the losses and redistributions have not occurred according to the laws of the BPEL) With or without thermal gradient effects.

3.3.5 -

Verifications at ultimate limit state (ULS) in service

It is difficult to apply ULS coefficients to a structure built in phases. For the verification of longitudinal flexion in service, the following simplified method is proposed:

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Given that: • represents the empty states envelope (state upon commissioning, state after all losses) without weighting (this envelope was been used for SLS verifications) represents the state according to a new calculation performed by applying all of the dead loads at the same time (without prestressing) represents the effect of the imposed loads

The ULS combinations to be considered are: [ ] + [ 0.35 [ ] + [ 1.5 ] ] -I- [ 1.5 ]

With this method, the forces due to the prestress tendons have not been increased. Indeed, if we take: P: to be the prestressing G: to be the dead loads except for the prestressing [concrete (envelope before and after creep), equipment and asphalt] Q: to be imposed loads We can calculate the following: P + 1.35 G + 1.5 Q and P + G + 1.5 Q

With this calculation method, which is considered to be unfavorable, the Ultimate Limit State is not generally a key factor with regard to longitudinal flexion.

3.3.6 -

Dimensioning approach

The dimensioning of a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method is performed at the Service Limit State. Structures dimensioned in this way are then verified at the Ultimate Limit State. The dimensioning can be carried out according to the steps outlined below: 1st stage: determining the cantilever tendons The cantilever cabling is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the selfweight of the concrete in the cantilever and the site loads defined in paragraph 3-2 above. If it is possible to choose the length of the standard segments, i.e. if the length of the form traveler is not imposed, it may be beneficial to choose a segment length and prestressing units that are compatible with the attachment of two tendons per segment. In this situation, it is necessary to test most common prestressing units and to choose the one that gives a conventional segment length, i.e of between three and four meters.

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In most cases, the dimensioning of cantilever tendons takes account of the normal stresses in the upper axis of the section situated directly above the temporary blocks, at the moment of the casting of the final pair of segments, i.e. before the tensioning of any cantilever tendons that might be anchored in this segment. In the case of the final pair of segments without cantilever tendons, the casting of the closing segment may be the critical phase. 2nd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated inside the concrete The continuity cabling inside the concrete is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the effect of the thermal gradient in the construction phase before the stressing of the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete in addition to the effect of the selfweight of the end spans. The internal continuity cabling must also take up some of the redistributed delayed forces. In general, the same prestressing units are chosen for the internal continuity tendons and the cantilever tendons. 3rd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete These tendons are designed to take up the operating forces which are not absorbed by the two preceding families of tendons. This cabling has two roles: • • To keep the shear stress down to acceptable levels by reducing the shear force To keep the normal stress within acceptable levels.

Initally, it is important to concentrate on shear stresses and to discover which segments have permissible levels of shear stress without the reduction made by the external tendons. In this way, the location of the external prestressing deviator can be determined. This must be situated between a third and quarter of the way along the span (a third of the way along the span for variable thickness and a quarter for constant thickness). It should be noted that this method can only give an approximate alignment because the permissible shear stress depends on the normal stress, which is itself dependent on the prestressing that is used. After obtaining an initial alignment, the focus can then be switched to the normal stresses in order to determine the intensity of the prestressing. As the number of external tendons is always the greatest on piers, an initial estimate of the dimensions of the tendons can determined by concentrating on the lower axis of the crown section and by considering that the redistributions of forces due to concrete creep create a tensile stress of approximately 2 MPa. The final alignment can be obtained by making certain adjustments to these initial estimates such as: • • Altering the length of the different tendons (the tendons may cross one, two or three spans) Moving the deviators on one or two segments.

If there are no shear force problems, it is also possible to reduce the number of external cables and to compensate for them by using additional internal continuity tendons in the central zones, which are more economical because they are much shorter.

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Verification principles Apart from general longitudinal flexion. rather than to rely on complex calculations to remedy any problems. It is then possible to determine the reinforcements for the cross-section in accordance with the different accumulated actions taking into account their concomitance. with the taller section close to the pier being more flexible than the crown section.1 . In a structure of variable depth. caused mainly by the distribution of the anchoring forces. this chapter describes how to accurately account for the forces in specific elements such as segments on piers. In a section of bridge deck. Although the majority of the points covered are not specific to bridges built by the cantilever method. they are generally performed in a section close to a pier and in the crown section. at the gusset located on theinner side of the box-girder. This makes it possible to account for the differences in behavior between two sections of contrasting height.Transverse and localized behaviour This chapter covers the behavior of the bridge deck with regard to: – Stresses (flexion and shear) arising from the transverse behavior of the bridge deck – Tangential effects originating from the general longitudinal flexion covered in this chapter. 4. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 58 septembre 2007 . In a structure of constant depth. Furthermore. etc. the calculations for transverse flexion are performed in a standard section. we have decided to include them because they are not dealt with in any other guide. deviator segments. the main points to be considered in the dimensioning of structures are: • • • • Transverse flexion Tangential effects Specific elements such as the segments on piers and on abutments Localized forces.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4 . For structures of constant depth characterized by a thickening of the lower slab close to piers. it is important to design the cross-sections of structures properly in the first place. the main sections to be verified are: • -The upper slab: at the base of the cantilever. this variation is sufficiently localized that it is not normally necessary to perform a specific calculation in addition to the calculation for the standard section. Finally. anchor blocks. and in the centre of the slab -The webs: at the level of the centre of gravity and at the upper and lower extremities -The lower slab: primarily at the base of the gusset. because it is essential to combine them with localized effects when performing the detailed verifications and determining the reinforcements – The distribution of localized forces – The forces in specific elements (segments on piers and deviators).

weight of road traffic loads.2. any transverse prestressing. either by directly incorporating the statutory French loads (using Thénoz’ nomographs with loads from Fascicule 61 title II of the French CCTG.1 – Calculation with a 2D model (nomographs + frame calculations) For the upper slab. weight of the superstructures.2.2 . the usual actions must be considered: selfweight of the structure. loads on the lower slab.2 - Calculation of transverse stresses It should be remembered that monocellular bridge decks represent the vast majority of structures built by the cantilever method. In the construction phase. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. These forces include: • • • The forces developed by some of the tie bars for the form travelers The weight of a launch beam on the section of bridge deck that has already been constructed The weight of a segment stored on the segment to be calculated: a situation encountered on certain prefabrication areas with insufficient storage space. 4. it is possible to use nomographs to calculate the forces. to which the loads from any regulations can be applied (e. 4.g. In the case of more complex structures. etc.1 Actions to be considered When the structure is in service.Transverse flexion 4. apply to this type of structure. The methods described hereafter. additional actions must be introduced in order to account for the forces developed in certain situations encountered on site. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 59 septembre 2007 .1 – Sections to be verified 4. Transverse forces can be calculated in different ways according to the type of deck in question: • • • Using a 2D model Using a 3D model Using a finite element model. only sophisticated modeling techniques provide a satisfactory response to the problem posed. or more general methods (Pücher or Homberg). and especially the "simplified" methods.2.2.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Eurocode 1) or even loads that are not specified by a particular regulation.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 60 septembre 2007 . However. 4. the forces are calculated using nomographs for doubleembedded slabs for loads situated between the webs. the force is unevenly distributed along the fixed support and on the other. For concentrated loads (road traffic loads). This remains valid for the upper part of the webs. 4. of course Specific points concerning the modeling • The span of the central slab (for calculation by nomographs) is obtained by considering the point of intersection of the intrados of the slab and a line angled at 45° from the origin of the gusset on the web (Fig. the moments obtained at the embedded section are added at the upper nodes in a 2-D model representing a section of deck of a unitary length (Fig. this calculation is nowhere near as representative for the lower part of the box girder. The Thénoz and Pücher nomographs are only used for slabs of a constant thickness while the Homberg nomograph accounts for thickness variations.2 – Principle of the calculation method using nomographs [Sétra’s Bulletin Technique (Technical Bulletin) n° 1 and its Ouvrages d’art (Civil Engineering Structures) Bulletin n° 13 of November 1992 contain further details about this method. it does not represent the distribution of forces from the upper slab towards the webs and the lower slab. 4. Calculations using finite elements have shown that this type of calculation is reasonably accurate for the upper slab when the webs are sufficiently rigid. it is only an approximate calculation because on the one hand. Next. This principle of a two-dimensional calculation supposes that: • • The bridge deck is of a locally constant section All of the sections are loaded in the same way. For conventional structures (monocellular box girders). as there is not yet a significant distribution of forces in this area.] According to these calculations. Fig.2). the transverse moments acting in the box girder are: • • • M nomograph + M frame for the upper central slab M frame in the webs and lower slab And M nomograph in the cantilevers. this calculation is completely valid for distributed loads such as selfweight or the fittings. and nomographs for embedded slabs for loads situated on the cantilevers. Therefore.

by multiplying it by the distance between this theoretical end fixing and the upper node situated on the centerline of the web (Fig. this model must include two supports. which does not exist in reality. 4. calculations can be simplified not applying this equivalent flow and neglecting the normal effort in the web. it is necessary to free one of the supports transversally. but it is easy to calculate For stability. it is necessary to add the moment due to the shear force calculated at the theoretical edge of the slab. These supports must be situated at the bottom of the webs (in the case of inclined webs). This shear force is not given by the nomographs.3 – Relative positions of the forces calculated at the fixed support of the slab (for the nomographs) and of the upper node of the modeled frame to which the efforts are applied As the principle is obviously valid. this type of calculation requires a balancing of the loads for each load situation. In order to avoid parasitic forces resulting from a blockage of the nodes in the model. In the interests of accuracy.4).3). a compression appears in the bars representing the webs. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • For the introduction of the moments at the nodes of the frame. it is essential to apply the opposite of the load applied (vertical force and torsion moment) to all of the bars of the model in the form of shear flows on each bar. in the majority of the cases (monocellular bridge deck with a moderate width and a moderate height).4 – Shear flows due to a vertical force in a monocellular box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 61 septembre 2007 . This approximation is justified by the weak difference with the reinforcement calculated with the previous method. the fact of directly applying the fixed-end moments (with the nomographs giving a single value) presupposes that the structure and the forces are symmetrical. However. 4. Of course. Fig. • • • Fig. This presupposes that the unitary flows due to a vertical load or a torsional moment have first been determined using a calculation program for the characteristics of hollow sections (Fig. because the vertical reactions would then develop a horizontal component (of the normal force in the webs) which does not exist If we simply apply the fixed support reactions of the double-embedded slab at the upper nodes and place the frame supports in the lower nodes. this method can be extended to structures other than monocellular box girders. Then it is verified that the support reactions are zero However. 4.

Therefore. crossbeams on supports or deviator beams. . 4. and to a lesser extent on the thickness of the lower slab.2 – Calculation using a 3D model For conventional standard sections. a 3D model is not significantly more accurate.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 62 septembre 2007 . Despite its complexity. On the other hand. as mentioned in the preamble. For example.A.Presse des Ponts et Chaussées 88]. The analysis of this three-dimensional phenomenon also requires 3D modeling (Fig. thicker sections of webs. in spite of its lack of precision in the lower areas of the webs and in the lower slab.5). it is necessary to adopt another type of modeling (3D with bars or finite shell elements) which shows up local structural variations (ribs. which will then be moved transversally into different positions in order to obtain the maximum effects in the transverse structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For more complex structures (multi-cellular box girders). a common approach is to determine equivalent vertical loads giving the same moments in the middle of the slab and at the fixed support (uniformly distributed loads and knife-edge loads). refer to Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural Analysis of Bridge Decks) by J. the 2D model is usually adequate. and for section at the crown on the other. for elements with non-standard sections. Calgaro. Significant distorsions may be shown in the cross-section of multi-cellular bridge decks under the effects of both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads. this includes: • • • • • • Segments on piers (even for conventional box girders) Deviator segments for external cables (as above) Very wide monocellular box girders Box girders with transverse ribs Multicellular box girders Box girders with bracing. As the frame effect in a structure of variable depth depends on the rigidity of the webs (according to their height and thickness). [For further information about these methods.) or non-homogeneous behavior. a 2D calculation is often too simplistic and unrealistic in terms of the actual distribution of forces.2. etc. these calculations are almost always performed for the section on the pier on the one hand. 4.

To determine the rod center of gravity and inertia. rib. The external forces are applied to the segment in the form of flows in the end sections of the model.5 –3D model of a multi-cellular box girder Basic modeling recommendations A 3D model is a beam grid system. …) in order to account for the distribution of forces in both directions of the beam grid. we are using the bridge deck’s actual supports. Furthermore. because on the one hand. we can also limit the length of the modeled portion to a few sections (Fig. but does not apply for stiffener. as the external actions originate primarily from the flows on the end section. The loads applied to the section itself are balanced out by directly opposite flows (cf. it is necessary to be very careful to modelize conditions at the limits (the six degree of freedom of the nodes are not all embedded) to guarantee the representativity of the model.6).slabs. the breakdown must remain consistent with that used in the longitudinal direction. we are only interested in the forces in proximity to the crossbeam. deviator beams) modify the rods neutral axis. 4. webs. bending inertia) and the torsion inertia is considered to be equal to half of the bending inertia of the corresponding rectangular cross section (shell element . • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 63 septembre 2007 . equal to approximately ¼ to ½ of the height. It is advisable to divide the deck into sufficiently short sections.It is therefore necessary that end sections should modelize the section of a standard segment. § 4. In this case.2. it is possible to take account of the longitudinal symmetry in order to halve the size of the model. and on the other hand. 4. the longitudinal division can be varied in order to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy for the forces to be calculated: In order to study the behaviour of a complex standard section. in order to obtain the correct local forces For a segment on pier. The strengthening pieces (segment on pier.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. • According to the elements to be analysed (segments on supports or a standard sections of a complex structure). • In the other directions.1). it is necessary to model a portion of bridge deck that is long for the forces not to be disturbed by the conditions at the extremities. Each rod has its own specific characteristics (area. it is important to take account for the effective width of slab. which rapidly increases the size of the model.2.

or for any other reason (better curracy for example). especially in proximity to the bearings or perpendicular to the deviators.French Civil Engineering Association)]. featuring the same cross-section characteristics.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this type of modeling. Consequently. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 64 septembre 2007 . 4. For detailed information about modeling and calculation methods. but the engineer must have an excellent command of finite elements and a detailed analysis of both the structure itself and its modeling must be performed. Fig. but it gives a better representation of the direction of the forces. Of course. please refer to the "Emploi des éléments finis en génie civil" (Use of Finite Elements in Civil Engineering) documents published by the AFGC (Association française de génie civil . On the other hand. it is necessary to model a sufficiently long portion in order to obtain a reasonably large undisturbed “usable” area. a shell-type finite element calculation can be performed when the structure is not a traditional box girder. the segment of shells and bars are connected by an arrangement of rigid bars laid out in a “spider” configuration. For example. Basic modeling recommendations Several basic rules apply to this modeling: • The conditions at the limits are very important. 4. if an entire span is being modeled.7).3 – Calculation using finite shell elements As mentioned previously. the forces given by the model are directly usable.2. Under no circumstances can they compensate for a poor initial design. due to the fact that it is impossible to generate elements automatically. In general.6 – Modeling of a half-segment on pier using a 3D model This method is more cumbersome than the 2D calculation method. 4. it is extended by a segment of three times the height on each side (Fig. it can be considered that the zone to be ignored corresponds to approximately 2 to 3 times the height of the section.2. These programs are extremely powerful and are capable of solving complex problems. 3D modeling is generally reserved for segments on supports or deviators. it is also necessary to extend the shell model with bars representing the deck itself. and the forces at the extremities of the model are completely disturbed. In order to apply the general forces correctly.

the slabs and webs can be broken down into elements measuring approximately 0. with the crossbeams or deviators also having maximum thicknesses of 0. it is then necessary to add offset rods or 3D finite elements. One of the main advantages of this method is that it gives an effective representation of the behaviour of the structure. it is possible to determine the lines of influence (or rather the surfaces of influence) of the efforts in question in these sections. including on the bars outside the shell segment Traffic loads: in order to perform an accurate calculation. or “T” sections require a reconstitution of the forces on the section based upon the constraints for each element.1). and it also takes account of the interaction between the general effects and the local effects (general dispersion). because the system forms an independently balanced structure The dead loads are entered over the entire structure. in terms of their two-dimensional characteristics and their thickness.4. Thus. The structure should therefore be broken down in such a way that the centres of gravity of the elements are situated in line with the correct cross sections: at the gussets for example. This method must be used in very specific cases and require a high level in modelling with 3D finite elements. use triangular elements). the designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this method can be very cumbersome due to the need to move the imposed loads “manually” on the upper slab for certain finite elements programs which do not have an automatic load placement function.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The shape of the elements must not be too distended. but which present other difficulties. 4. None of these forces should be omitted (anchoring forces and thrusts close to the deviations). the reinforced concrete elements. which makes it possible to choose the positions of the loads in order to obtain the maximum effect required.7 – Breakdown of a bridge deck into finite shell elements Furthermore. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 65 septembre 2007 . after defining the calculation sections (in the transverse direction). Remarks The shell finite elements are not adapted to model properly the massive parts of a segment on pier (cross-beam or anchorage block for example) .50 to 0. the forces given by the model are directy exploitable. both in the standard parts and in specific areas such as the segments on piers or deviators. This type of model must not be used to determine highly localized dispersion forces such as those in the first regularization prism or the radial tendon forces in the deviators. such as determine the efforts and deduce the corresponding reinforcement (see also § 4. for which the ratio should also not exceed 2 (otherwise. In general. Consequently.50 m to 0. giving a shape similar to a rectangle. which we can continue to calculate manually. Otherwise. a maximum ratio of approximately 2 is recommended between the plan-view dimensions and the thickness. • • • • Fig.60 m It should be remembered that the results for finite elements are given at the centre of gravity of the element. however.60 m in the plan view. interpolations will have to be performed: a long manual operation that is a source of errors or inaccuracies The prestressing must be entered in the form of external forces.

This is a cylindrical shell subjected to longitudinal compression stresses which can be considered to be uniform transversally to the structure. The lateral thrust in a given section of the structure of a unitary length is expressed per (transverse) meter of slab. which stresses the upper axis on the centerline of the slab and the lower axis in line with the fixed end in the web. by: q = σ b moy e Rmoy with σb moy = mean stress in the lower slab for the segment in question e = thickness of the lower slab in this segment Rmoy = mean radius of the mean axis of the lower slab for the segment in question. In a cross-section. the longitudinal compression in the lower slab creates a lateral thrust (due to the curvature of the slab) which creates a transverse flexion of this slab. preferably using a gusset.3 - Lateral thrust in curved or deviated compressed or stressed elements 4. This stress field causes a lateral thrust towards the top of the slab which is balanced out by the embedding of the slab in the webs and causes a transverse bending moment. This slab is embedded in the webs of the box girder. the distribution of the fixed end moments in the webs and in the span also varies according to the relative stiffnesses of the slab and webs (with the upper slab generally being constant).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. This moment varies throughout the length of the structure due to the longitudinal variations in the thickness of the slab and the extent of the stresses in the section. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 66 septembre 2007 .2.3.1 – Lateral thrusts of concrete in curved slabs In bridge decks of variable depth.2.

Virlogeux – Annales de l'IBTP February 1981].3. these tendons are close to the centre of the span. this force is equal to f = – P the prestressing force of the tendon – R radius of curvature P with: R The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 67 septembre 2007 .8 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – longitudinal section Fig. The presence of tendons in the curved slabs generates similar forces to those described above. the presence of ducts reduces the strength of the section and thus increases the likelihood of the structure breaking along lines parallel to the ducts. 4. when the end or intermediate spans between consecutive cantilevers are closed. Faessel – Journée de l'AFPC April 1974 and M. 4. These tendons are tensioned in the second phase after the completion of the cantilevers. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. instability of this lower slab may occur under compression in the most curved zone.2. Two different situations are identified: • • Tendons in the curved slabs Construction irregularities. but in the opposite direction. By calling f the linear force of the radial thrust of the tendon. [See article from P.2 – Radial thrust of continuity tendons The presence of prestress tendons in the lower slab causes a phenomenon of the same type but in the opposite direction.9 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – transverse section Note In the case of a high curved lower slab (for example with a cubic depth variation). an area of low slab compression: the action of these tendons is therefore preponderant. However. Furthermore.

However this phenomenon is less severe because the thickness of the concrete enables better distribution of the forces. giving a concentrated effort which results in strong localized stresses in the lower slab.2.3-3 – Lateral thrust in a lower slab perpendicular to an angular point In bridge decks of variable depth with linear gussets. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Furthermore.2. The resultant is directed according to the bisector of the mean lines of the slab. Fig. the force increases significantly amd can lead to the breaking of the slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 68 septembre 2007 . 4. Note The lateral thrust also exists when continuity tendons are placed in the gussets. the horizontal component of this thrust is not negligeable. The same applies directly above the supports when the slope of the slab suddenly changes. localized lateral thrusts originate in the lower slab at the point of intersection of two rectilinear portions of lower slab subjected to longitudinal compression stresses. the differential shrinkage can cause cracks near the tendon layouts which can lead to the corrosion of the tendon. They thus develop large localized forces which must be taken up by these deviators. In the case of a bridge deck with a high curvature in the horizontal plane. a crossbeam is also needed to take up the torsion forces due to the asymmetrical loading of the bridge deck.4 – Thrust perpendicular to a deviator External prestressing tendons are deviated in deviator crossbeams with a small radius of curvature. with the radial thrust being directed according to the bisector of the tendons layouts. The principle is the same as above. irregularities in the alignment of the ducts during construction.10 – Forces perpendicular to angular points – longitudinal section This is why it is essential to place a stiffener or crossbeam in this area in order to transfer the force towards the webs and to take up the transverse flexion of the slab. Even for structures of constant depth. particularly in line with the segment joints. produce concentrated forces which can result in problems or even spalling in the lower slab. It is thus highly inadvisable to place tendons in the lower slab of bridge decks of variable depth. if the radius of curvature becomes very small (producing an angular point). because the segments are short and the large number of joints increases the risk of irregularities. this arrangement is not recommended. 4. On a support. Indeed. In addition.3.

11 – Forces perpendicular to a prestressing deviator 4.12 – Localized thermal gradient in the upper slab Note This gradient has some effect only in the case of multicellular box girders. The combination to use is the same as the one for general flexion : G + Wr + 0.2. we advise to place a minimum reinforcement ratio equal to 10-4 fc of the lower slab section (with fc expressed in MPa). This gradient results in transverse flexion which is added to the other stresses. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 69 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4. As concreting is made at the contact of the previous segment.5 Δθ. it gives 0. For example. in certain cases it is advisable to consider the localized effects caused by a gradient operating between the two faces of the upper slab. Fig. Therefore. Lower slab The lower slab requires generally few lateral reinforcements unless it is very wide.5. This phenomenon will be amplified with a high strength concrete. It shows that a thermal gradient exists in the upper slab. a wide lower slab or a cement with a high hydratation heat. For information only. The figure 4.4 Upper slab Forces due to thermal phenomena In addition to conventional flexion forces due to the thermal gradient. the shrinkage can cause a longitudinal cracking. we propose to consider a gradient of 10°C in the upper slab under the form of a linear gradient. the corresponding section of reinforcement is added to that which is determined by the general shear force. It is not necessary to take it into account in the case of monocellular box girder.4% for a C40/50 concrete. 4.12 represents the thermal gradient in a common concrete box-girder according to Eurocode 1 – Section 1. In the webs.

1 Verification principles The verification of the bridge deck under tangential stresses consists of checking: • Firstly. revised in 1999.2.Industrial Technical Centre for Steel Construction)/ SNCF (Société nationale de chemins de fer .3. the verification of the parts and the determination of the prestressing bars and reinforcements are carried out according Class III in the BPEL (Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code) 1991. But it is generally advised to increase the lateral prestressing because this latter is only determined by the condition of zero traction in concrete under dead loads while the imposed loads have a much bigger effect. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 70 septembre 2007 . The contract can also impose the amount of transversal prestressing. It should be remembered that verification at the service limit state is designed to control cracking and at the ultimate limit state the aim is to ensure safety by preventing brittle fractures.French Railways).13 where G1 and G2 are respectively the center of gravity of the vertical cross-sections and of the cross-section perpendicular to the mean axis. the class III rules have to be completed as followed : For the sake of good design and to prevent excessive cracking.5 - Verifications of the sections In the absence of transverse prestressing. in order to reduce the probability of cracking. that the non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to take up the forces due to the concomitance of flexion and shear forces are properly positioned and dimensioned with regard to the statutory requirements (verification at the Service Limit State and the Ultimate Limit State).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4.General tangential stresses 4. the upper slab must remain transversally compressed under a proportion of the imposed loads: for example. This is why calculation methods always have a greater safety margin for shearing Secondly. failure due to shear forces is a brittle rather than a ductile phenomenon. When the transverse section is prestressed (upper slab). The required amount of reinforcement would be high because the traffic loads would cause frequent and repetitive cracking. the verification of the parts and the calculation of the reinforcements are carried out according to the instructions in the BAEL (Béton armé à l’état limite . that the shear stresses are permissible at all points. Furthermore. Cracks caused by shear forces do not close up on their own like flexion cracks when the stress is reversed. revised in 1999.résistance à la fatigue" (Metal and Composite Bridges – Resistance to Fatigue) guide published by Sétra/CTICM (Centre technique industriel de la construction métallique .2 - General design assumptions Shear force calculations are carried out on sections of the beam perpendicular to the mean axis (Fig 4.3.Limit State Reinforced Concrete Code) 1991. Such a choice has to be written in the Special Technical Clauses (STC). specified in the "Ponts métalliques et mixtes . under the effects of the fatigue truck Bf (a single truck placed in the centerline of the slower lane). 4. To limit the amount of reinforcements (it is necessary to enable a good concreting) and to limit the fatigue risk in these reinforcements or their corrosion. Cracking is generally considered to be detrimental.3 . • 4.

on sections perpendicular to the upper axis.3).2).3.2.Influence of construction sequence of operations 1) Segment on pier The segment on pier is a large structure which is subjected to highly variable stresses during the construction of the bridge deck and when the structure is in service.3. the Resal Effect must also be considered.2. 4. detachment of form traveler) The transfer of supports after the grouting of closing segments The tensioning of the external prestressing in the segment on pier (maximum distribution forces) The service state (maximum flexion). or more precisely. § 4. 4. In addition. These major phases are: • Imbalances during the construction of the cantilever. with the segment on pier being embedded (asymmetrical casting . § 4. fittings and imposed loads) Thermal gradient The redistribution of forces due to creep Prestressing (cf. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 71 septembre 2007 . calculations of shear force are sometimes carried out on vertical sections. The following actions must be considered: • • • • External loads (selfweight. it is important to verify all of the major phases. This calculation is usually less favourable.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. rather than just concentrating on the definitive situation. as the distribution of areas and stresses may reverse the phenomenon (cf.13 – Shear force on straight sections To simplify.3. from construction through to commissioning. Therefore. although not always so.1 .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.15 – Segment on pier with double supports Fig.14 – Traditional segment on pier Fig. 4. 4.16 – Embedded segment on pier The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 72 septembre 2007 . 4.

other include them only at the other side of the segment. as the central web takes up the most force). Although the majority of structures are now mono-cellular box girders. this type of section is sensitive to the distorsion (deformation of the cross-section) that appears under loads.17 – Diagram of the reduction of shear force due to the tendons 4. the angle of the tendons in relation to the mean axis generally reduces the shear force according to the diagram 4. the support reaction is not equal to the sum of the shear forces to the right and left of this support. Consequently. may lead to problems in the webs (non-uniform distribution of shear forces.17. but the vertical component of the normal force in the section must be added to it. 4.4 – Transverse morphology The development of highways and urban structures has led to the construction of extremely wide structures. 3D modeling is required to account for the transverse and longitudinal stiffnesses of the section. when not fully understood.3 – Bridge deck of variable height For structures of variable height. 4. the mean axis presents an angular point directly above the support.2. Therefore.2.Certain design programs include them just after their anchorage. it is important to be consistent when using the design program to account for the reduction of shear force due to the tendons in order to avoid counting the same force twice. especially for box girders with three webs. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 73 septembre 2007 .3. Fig. multicellular structures are also sometimes used. Furthermore. In particular.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2) Standard segments The major phases for standard segments are: • • • The prestressing of the segment in question (maximum dispersion forces) The end of the construction of the cantilever (maximum prestressing in the section) The service state (maximum flexion).3. . These structures are more difficult to build and their complex transverse behavior. 4.3.2 – Method used to account for prestressing Tendons anchored at less than one regularization length from the section being studied create some distribution effects which add to the general effects (in particular shear force) provided by the design program.

It is important to consider this when evaluating flexion stresses. it is therefore not necessary to reduce the effective width in such a structure. The main disadvantage of this method is the differential shrinkage which appears between concrete of different ages: between the concrete used for the box girders on the one hand and that used for the transverse grouting on the other.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Another solution that has been virtually abandoned in France is to construct structures with two box girders joined together by the upper slab. this phenomenon can be accounted for according to the precepts of Article 5. The creep leads to a transfer of loads : • • Vertically the parts built in the second phase leans against the first box girder The normal force of the part built in the second phase tends to go to the part built in the first phase.4 l.3. the effective width of the upper slabs on very wide monocellular box girder structures (with or without struts and/or ribs) is reduced in relation to their total width (shear lag phenomenon). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 74 septembre 2007 . It is recommended to concentrate the cantilever prestress tendons perpendicular to the webs so that they can directly take up the loads applied by the webs (by shearing). this makes it possible to reach a total effective width of b = total thickness of webs + 0. However. the distribution of forces concentrated in this type of section is not compatible with the normal simplified rules and requires a specific study. 4.4 of the BPEL. Finally. this transfer of loads has only a moderate effect on the stresses.3.18 – Example of a very wide bridge deck 4. Furthermore. However. Fig.3. the presence of ribs improve the distribution of forces in the upper slab.1 – Basic principles In structures of variable depth. Finally. it is advisable to place a tendon at the end of each cantilever and position it so that it compresses the ends of the upper slab (see § 4. For an initial approximation. on either side of the web (for a box girder with two webs. we usually see an adjustment of the shear force due to the fact that the mean fibre is inclined in relation to the slab: the compression in the slabs presents a component in the direction of the shear force.3 for further details). in preventing the buckling of this slab . by limiting the effective width to 1/10th of the length of the span in question.3 - RESAL EFFECT 4.5.

there is a greater Resal effect due the lower slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 75 septembre 2007 . February 1981].3.B.ϕ) Nls + ϕNus with: ϕ the angle of the mean axis from the upper axis α the angle of the lower slab in relation to the upper slab Nls force (compression) of the lower slab Nus force (compression) of the upper slab According to the BPEL.P. the areas in question for the calculation of Nls and Nus are the slabs and gussets. calculations are systematically performed on section perpendicular to the neutral axis. see the article by M. excluding the webs. the upper slab exerts a Resal "counter-effect" in opposition to the effect in the lower slab.T.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4. The shear force is equal to V + ΔV. it is possible to perform calculations on vertical sections provided that: • • The extrados can be considered to be horizontal Shear forces are directed in the usual direction according to the cantilever. in contrast to what can happen in highly asymmetrical spans in which a reversal of the shear force can be observed. For the pre-design calculations. as the compression of the upper slab is limited. This is usually weak in proximity to the supports.3.2 – Vertical section calculations With modern calculation methods.T. As can be seen in the formula above. 391. ΔV is the correction of shear force by the Resal effect: ΔV = -(α . no.19 – Resal effect in the upper and lower slabs A part of the shear force is balanced by the normal force in the slab. 4. [For further details on theoretical methods. whereas because the variation in height is the greatest in this area.Virlogeux in the Annales de l’I.

1). The difference may be as much as 1 MPa in certain configurations. the width b is the straight width of the web in question and not its skewed width directly above the slice.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case. the formula is simplified to: ΔV = . 4.20 – Shear reaction of angled webs As for the value of the nominal width. it should be remembered that the whole diameter of the duct shall be deduced from the width when it is not injected. Vred I Reduced shear force Inertia of the entire section When the webs are angled.4 - Shear reaction due to shearing force For a traditional structure with two webs.5 - Torsion shear The pure Saint-Venant torsion shear is equal to: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 76 septembre 2007 .Nls sin α with α being the angle of the lower slab from the horizontal As mentioned previously. Additional steel reinforcement brought by the tendon anchorages are determined with the distribution calculations. of the part situated above the transverse slice in relation to the line passing through the centre of gravity). 4. 4. or injected with a flexible product. Fig. and less so in proximity to the crowns. in the event of there being a tendon in proximity to the joint (“internal” tendon). This formula supposes that there is no concentrated forces in the vicinity of the studied section. the shear reaction caused by shearing force can be expressed by the following formula: τ m = Vred S( y ) bn ( y ) I with bn(y) Total width at the y ordinate S(y) Static moment at the y ordinate (i.3.3.e. BAEL Article 7.4. This is especially true close to the supports due to the steeper angle of the mean line. the vertical section calculation is less favorable. and a half-diameter shall be deduced when it is injected with a cement grout (cf.

the torsion effect tends to load the support on the inner side The fittings weight applies on the continuous structure. and generates a torsion opposed to that of the selfweight The external prestressing having a polygonal layout.4 ftj ⎢ftj + ⎣ ⎡ 2 (σ x + σ t )⎤ (no failure due to cracking) ⎥ 3 ⎦ τ 2 −σ x σ t ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0.6 - Verification of the sections The sections are verified according to Article 7. This shear is algebraically added to the shearing force calculated previously. revised in 1999. must therefore satisfy the following inequalities at the service limit state: For σx > 0 τ 2 − σ x σ t ≤ 0.3. as the structures feature deviators which act as stiffeners and have webs with approximately the same thickness as the slabs (with quite similar stiffnesses). for self-weight. • • • 4.6 fcj − σ x − σ t )⎡ftj + 3 (σ x + σ t )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (no failure due to shearing and compression) In the general situation in which σt = 0 (no vertical prestressing). Area of tube defined by the middle surface of the box girder walls Thickness of the wall This torsion is caused by asymmetrical loads (dead loads and especially imposed loads) and by any curvature of the bridge deck in the horizontal plane.4 ftj ⎢ftj + σ x ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎤ and τ2 ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0. Beyond. which is generally the case. This undeformability hypothesis can be considered if the length between stiffeners does not exceed 5 to 6 times the box girder width. the torsion induced by the curvature has to be taken account for at different stages: At the construction of the cantilever. The stresses σx. • This calculation obviously supposes that the section is undeformable. we obtain: τ 2 ≤ 0. the box girder distorsion increases the difference of longitudinal flexion between the webs and can be expressed with an offset coefficient applied to the loads. the center of gravity of the arch portion is on the inner side of the curvature.In the case of a curved bridge which section is supposed undeformable as indicated above. generates a torsion which increases the load on the support on the inner side.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τT = T 2Ωe with T Ω e moment of torsion. σt and τ calculated at any point of a section.2 of the BPEL 1991.6 fcj − σ x )⎡ftj + 3 σ x ⎤ with the first formula nearly always ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ predominating. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 77 septembre 2007 . As a result.

their tension can differ considerably from the expected value due to the setting of anchorage wedges.95 is usually adopted for this k’ coefficient (BPEL.3. The procedure for calculating the non-prestressed reinforcements is similar to that laid down in the BPEL. These stirrups have to be inserted into the passive reinforcement of the web. for example) Finally. prestressing bars) The distribution of forces only occurs above a certain length . the shear force at the web/lower slab junction must be verified without taking account of this compression To guarantee the correct distribution of forces. The reinforcements are determined at the ultimate limit state (BPEL. It is also important to verify the shear stresses at the service limit state as mentioned above (cf.2) does not require verification at the service limit state. revised in 1999.1 .23 of the BPEL 91. we shall refer back to it when it is finally published. These bars are dimensioned in accordance with the instructions in Article 7. Only certain types of active reinforcements can guarantee the correct tension (compression fittings.10. a figure of 0.7 - Active stirrups (for information) This technique has sometimes been used to improve the shear resistance of webs. Special precautions must be taken with regard to structures built by the cantilever method due to their technical complexity.8 – Tying the slabs into the webs In order to prevent the fracturing of the vertical planes situated at the origin of the gussets (points S1.1 at § 4.u − bn st γ s ⎜ 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ tgβ u for reinforcements perpendicular to the mean axis. I1. which makes this a particularly costly solution (requiring sealed caps and ducts. with the contribution of the concrete accounted for in a similar way but with several additional refinements. S2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 78 septembre 2007 .3. 4.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When the calculations are performed with the probable value of prestressing Pm. Article 4.3. see Fig 4. it is important to tie in the shear strain using transverse reinforcement bars.2): ftj At fe ⎛ ≥ ⎜τ red . Article 7. Consequently. thus complicating the concreting process Due to their design.1). some of the vertical prestressing force is dissipated in localized areas of rigidity such as deviators or crossbeams (zones in which the greatest shear reaction is usually encountered reached). these reinforcements emerge in the upper slab and are thus extremely sensitive to corrosion. Therefore.hence there is a lack of compression between the anchorages at the bottom of the web. it is necessary to bring the active stirrups very close together. The only reason for its inclusion here is to remind readers of the drawbacks which led to its fall from grace: • Considering the very short length of the prestressing tendons. ⎟ ⎠ Eurocode 2 (EN 1992 1. It is thus necessary to use “offshore” types of protection techniques.3-6).Article 6. § 4. the limit stress τ must be multiplied by a coefficient k’. As this document is still under development.1) due to excessive shearforce. • • • • 4.

2. J.4. HPC.) which completely modify its behavior in comparison to a standard section.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1.3 – Strut and tie model It is also possible to use a strut-and-tie model [cf.2.1.4. Schlaich .1 Generalities It should be remembered that the initial static design of these parts of structures often does not allow for the application of Strength of Materials principles for the wire frame beams at all points. 4.5% seems to be sufficient under the most penalizing conditions (large width.2.4.g.2. crossbeam for definitive or temporary bearings).1. This model is used to verify the first three points presented above. The principle of this method is the following: • Construction of a model composed of struts and ties which replace the actual stresses fields by straight elements and which concentrate the stress deviation in the nodes Calculation of the effort statically balanced in the rods of the truss-model Page 79 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . a 3D model is generally used to model the segment on pier due to the presence of reinforcing elements (crossbeam.1 Segments on piers 4. The verifications focus mainly on: • The transmission of support reactions from the bearings (both temporary and permanent) towards the webs The take-up of torsion forces by the crossbeam The take-up of the lateral thrust of the lower slab by this same crossbeam for a variable height The distribution of the prestressing forces due to the tendons positioned in the segment on pier (SOP).21 – Tie bars to combat shear strain in the slab/web area For the lower slab. etc. 4. – see also § 4.PCI Journal – May / June 1987] to verify this transmission of forces.2 – 3D model As previously mentioned in § 4. • • • 4.4). etc.4. A value of 0.4 . the subsequent anchoring of the external continuity prestressing. It is thus important to verify that the morphology of the segment on pier is capable of withstanding the transmissions of internal forces (e. a minimum level of transverse reinforcement is necessary to reduce cracking due to thermal shrinkage in the central area of the slab. 4. thicker sections of web.Specific elements 4.

Figure 4.transmission of torsion As an example. It can require the use of a finite element model. But it is sometimes difficult to determine the load path. or strengthened frame. when evaluating the shear stresses at the level of the transverse slices. It is on this section that we shall consider the stresses to be evenly distributed. for a common type of crossbeam ("V" shape). The model is balanced with the force brought by this zone B. The latter choice would be a much more serious problem. which results in significant shear reactions in the webs close to the piers. The difficulty of this method is the construction of the model. Considering the relatively large depth of the bridge deck in this area (especially in the case of structures of a variable depth). The fourth point (distribution) is verified according to the usual principles (Appendix 4 of the BPEL). However. This has hardly any effect on the reinforcement which depends primarily on force rather than stresses. The load paths have to link the two sides of the studied zone without crossing each other. On the other hand. This can be quite cumbersome.22 represents the working of the crossbeam under the effect of the torsion transmitted by the box girder.4. the bridge deck is subjected to torsion moments caused by the curvature.22 Support crossbeam . it is reasonable to consider the actual section.1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 80 septembre 2007 . 4. including the additional thicknesses of the anchor blocks. it requires the engineer to have a very good understanding of structural behaviour. 4. The model is linked to the rest of the structure where the stress are supposed to be regularly distributed and linearized (B zone as Bernoulli.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Dimensioning of struts.e. i. it is necessary to make a choice between the sections in which the distribution of stresses is carried out.5). The reader’s attention is drawn to the fact that although this method is very effective for use with any irregular parts of this type. The usual method is the load path method. cf Schlaich). Obviously. The stress diagram of this B zone is divided in such a way as to balance the concentrated forces by the corresponding zone with regularly distributed stress. A poor choice of struts and ties could lead to an incorrect arrangement of reinforcement bars and the use of excessively or insufficiently large sections. The rods of the model have to be oriented according to the direction of the internal forces given by the Elasticity Theory.22 below shows the behavior of the support crossbeam under the effect of the torsion of the box girder. Other types of crossbeam can be considered : "A" shape. this distribution length generally includes the “standard” cross section of the bridge deck.3 – Particular points In the case of structures with high curvature. the figure 4. as the section is not constant (anchor blocks and thicker sections of web). Fig.3. the crossbeams on piers have to take up these additional forces (see also § 4. ties and nodes.

As it currently stands.2 - Segments on abutments Segments on abutments have to transfer much smaller forces to the supports than segments on piers. As the height is constant.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.5 . 4. 4. revised in 1999.23 – Section of a slice for distribution Remark To study the distribution of forces due to tendon anchorages in segments on piers. On the other hand.5. The rebars will be placed at the opposite side of the anchorages where as the cracking phenomena always occur near the anchorages.Localized forces and reinforcements 4.1 Distribution of forces caused by the prestressing anchorages In general. Anyway.4. as this article features several ambiguities or omissions. This prestressing enables also a cracking control. However. the following specific additions should be made – while awaiting modifications to this appendix. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 81 septembre 2007 . it is necessary to stiffen the end of the upper slab under the pavement joint in order to take up the localized flexion forces at this edge under the effects of the moving loads. This method was not satisfying since this "beam" is not a beam as a matter of fact because of the existence of the rest of the slab behind the element artificially isolated with length lr. (or in segments on abutments). The design principles are the same as for the segments on piers. Eurocode 2 does not have a chapter about the distribution of concentrated loads. it is advised to place some reinforcing bars in the opposite sides of the anchorage blocks to make it non brittle. the distribution forces are much greater due to the fact that all of the external tendons are anchored in the same section. This can lead to an incorrect arrangement of rebars and to severe problems in the structure. the phenomenon of lateral thrust due to the compression exerted by the lower slab does not exist. it is important not to wait too much before stripping not to obstruct the shrinkage. generally with a inner wood formwork. Furthermore. it is sufficient to anchor two longitudinal tendons in the inferior angle above the support. For this reason it is advised to place a transversal prestressing to reduce the passive reinforcement and make concreting easier. When concreting these segments. In general. the upper slab has been sometimes considered as a beam supported by the web and the reinforcement calculated as a flexion reinforcement. 4. The balance of the end strut will have to be studied very carefully. the distribution of prestressing is verified in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 of the BPEL 91.

in order to facilitate these calculations. It must be remembered that the cracks which are observed in examples of the distribution of concentrated efforts always appear near the anchorage. However. The areas of reinforcements in question must be the sum of the cross sections in both planes (horizontal and vertical). Finally.1 – Distribution in the horizontal plane For the regularization length. and that it is preferable to place them in line with the gussets at the junction with the web. the cross section is equal to : A1 = 0. and secondly. resulting firstly in very low shear forces and the use of insufficient reinforcements. it must not be assumed that the bridge deck is simply “rotated” through 90°. The transverse reinforcements in these anchor blocks must tie the blocks into the rest of the section. It is recommended to use half of the width of the bridge deck in the case of a box girder. For example. revised in 1999. with fe=500 MPa for classical reinforcement Fe E 500 (no limitation to 400 MPa).2.3-2) or even straight lower slabs. • • The aim of the calculations is to verify the safety at rupture for cracked concrete. The reinforcement elastic stress shall be taken with its real value. It should be remembered that it is highly inadvisable to situate anchor blocks or tendons inside the concrete in curved (cf.5. Because the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 82 septembre 2007 For the A1 reinforcements.2F is also used due to the fact that the prestressing force is directed towards the concrete and it thus exerts a component that is perpendicular to the “horizontal” calculation axis.2F. for the A2 reinforcements. σs This represents nearly all of the “surface” and “spalling” reinforcements described in the BPEL For the A3 reinforcements. in these reinforcements being positioned too far from the point at which the forces are applied. This would give an excessive length.2 F . two sections of reinforcements must be considered for A1 and the same applies to A2 and A3. considering the anchoring force at the service limit state and limiting the stress in the reinforcements to σs = 2 fe 3 with F being the force at the anchorage. § 4.1.1. 4. The following reinforcements must be used: • Reinforcement bars at the top of the anchor block in order to tie the block into the neighboring box girder wall (A1 reinforcements) Reinforcement bars taking up the radial thrust when the tendon deviates (A3 reinforcements) Tie bars for the rest of the anchor block (A2 reinforcements).5. because it is a ultimate limit state verification. this value is normally around 0.2 – Continuity tendon anchor blocks Reinforcement bars for the anchor blocks are determined in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 § 2 of the BPEL 91. a maximum value of 0. we simply use F sin α according to the deviation plane of the tendon. the problem is compared with a non-cracked state.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. For example.

4. behind the anchor blocks. results in the need to ensure that such large forces are securely anchored. by limiting their length near to tendon.5. These reinforcements are determined in accordance with the instructions given in Appendix 4 § 2. it is important to respect the concrete cover – not too small.3 of the BPEL 91. it is a matter of common sense to position the anchorages for external tendons in the crossbeams as close as possible to the webs and slabs in order to transmit the forces as directly as possible towards the walls of the box girder. it is essential to make the anchoring elements thick enough (in the longitudinal direction of the bridge deck) to ensure that they are capable of transmitting most of the force. 4.2 - Shear keys of prefabricated segments In prefabricated structures. Transmission via compressed concrete struts is always the most efficient method. rather than thickening the anchorage blocks to resist an inappropriate intermediary phase.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide excess of reinforcement leads to concreting difficulties. A lack of thickness results in punching shear in the element in relation to the box girder tube which cannot be taken up by the reinforcements alone.)] Fig. added to the fact that the force is obviously applied outside the concrete.5. we have to be careful not to overdimension this zone. Furthermore.5. The shear reaction is considered to be taken up over the shear keys cross-section according to the following formula: τ b = 0. (For further details. Finally. 4.24 – Reinforcement of an anchor block 4. the segments have multiple shear keys designed to transmit the shear force. see "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°11 from January 92 and comments and observations in n°12 from July 92 and n°14 from March 93.65 ftj + σ with The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 83 septembre 2007 .1.4 – External tendons The major characteristic of the external tendons is their great individual power which. In the first place.3 – Traction reinforcements Traction reinforcements may be necessary to take up the traction due to the obstructed shortening of the concrete. Furthermore. it is sometimes more appropriate to foresee a phasing which limits the dissymetry of tensioning forces. Mistakes in this area have sometimes led to complete failures which could have been avoided with a minimum of forethought at the design stage. not too high – to guarantee the concrete durability. revised in 1999.

which are becoming increasingly common. A conventional shear keys such as the one shown hereafter (cf.2. Once the adhesive has polymerized. Because some of the shear keys could break during stripping.25 – Prefabricated segment crowns 4. have specific behaviors and a reduced effective slab width. Fig. they suffer from a problem that increases with width. it is necessary to foresee additional keys. 4.10 is the height of the keyshear (Vn+1) In certain situations in which there is a rapid rate of assembly. In the case of prefabricated segments.4. shear keys have to be placed in the upper and lower slab to prevent the shifting of the slabs. we make the keys lead to the inner side of the box girder. the shear force is taken up throughout the entire height of the web.10 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide ftj σ characteristic tensile strength of the concrete normal stress at the centre of gravity of the section The shear keys alone have to take up the shear force before polymerization of the adhesive. Fig. Finally. Furthermore. The number of shear keys required is calculated accordingly: it is considered that the shear force of n segments is taken up by the shear keys alone in the first section at the end of polymerization. several segments may be lashed before the first joint has had time to polymerize (up to four segments on the Ile de Ré bridge. as for cast-in-situ structures. although this phenomenon is shared by all prefabricated structures: a transverse “banana-shaped” deformation occurs in the horizontal plane due to the thermal gradient between the segment in the process of hardening and the segment that has already been cast. 4. these keys take up the the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab which slopes gradually towards the supports. for the glue to evacuate when compressing the joint : for evident aesthetical reasons. It is advised to compress the joint section with 0.25) can take up: Vad = τ b .3 - Deformation of prefabricated segments It has already been mentioned in paragraph 4. 0. It is essential that the shear keys leads to a web side. for example).3.5. that extremely wide structures. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 84 septembre 2007 .2 MPa in order to spread the glue in all the section. b with b representing the width of the shear key (0. in the case of variable height decks with vertical joints.

application of the cantilever or continuity prestressing. refer to the article in the PCI journal . [For further information. In certain extreme projects. which can result in cracking at the ends of the joints. revised in 1999 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 85 septembre 2007 . 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This causes the joints to open up when the segments are brought together and thus leads to a non-uniform distribution of the stresses (in the transverse direction). like continuity tendons. are less powerful and it is rare to find more than one pair of them in the same section. • The reinforcements include: • • A standard transverse reinforcement designed to take up the general shear force An additional reinforcement positioned in proximity to the concentrated efforts in order to take up the distribution of these forces. which results in moderate distribution. revised in 1999 and A.Rules to combine passive reinforcements The stresses to be taken into consideration for the calculation of non-prestressed reinforcements result from: • • Transverse flexion General shear force (including torsion). an accumulated deformation of 24 mm can occur over a span of approximately 30 meters in length.6. and secondly because several of them are placed in the same section (usually on a support). The tangential stresses accompanying the general or localized flexion stresses result in shear stresses which are added to the shear stresses due to distribution described hereafter Localized forces (reactions from the support system. The distribution of these forces in the structure gives rise to stresses which are added to the shear stresses described above. The following rules must be observed: • The combination of shear force and torsion reinforcements is carried out according to Articles 7. firstly due to their high individual power.54 of the BPEL 91.July-August 1995].5.4.6 . forces due to the site loads or form travelers). It should be noted that the distribution forces are only high for the external tendons.26 – Deformation of prefabricated segments 4.4 of the BAEL 91. Fig. Cantilever tendons.

revised in 1999: ⎧ A1 ⎪ = max ⎨ ⎧1. Thus. Le Faucheur on this topic in the "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°41 October 2002]. it is not necessary for the areas of flexion and shear to be added up. there is no combination of tie bar reinforcements with the transverse flexion reinforcements according to Article A. we shall place reinforcements with a total section of Ae on the external side and Ai on the internal side must be implemented in such a way that. the reinforcements on the opposite side may take up the shear force. the combination of reinforcements must firstly take account of the non concomitance between the flexion forces. using the following notation for the sections used to calculate the flexion reinforcements: Afl ext Afl int Flexion reinforcements. we have to take up the shear force on the one hand and flexion on the other hand i. Particular case of webs In the webs. see the Article from D.5. external side Flexion reinforcements.5 A2 with A1 distribution reinforcements ⎪min ⎨ A + A 2 ⎩ 1 ⎩ Acis A2 shear force and torsion reinforcements • In the slabs.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The combination of dispersion and shear reinforcements is carried out according to Article 4 of Appendix 4 of the BPEL 1991. As a consequence. internal side the following formulas are observed: Acis + Afl ext 2 A Ai = k cis + Afl int 2 Ae = k Obviously. place a minimum reinforcement of: A = Ai + Ae ≥ Acis Principle Indeed. a loading case giving flexion reinforcements on the external side of Afl ext will not give reinforcements on the internal side Afl int ≈ 0 (except in the case of incorrect dimensioning requiring the use of compression reinforcements). [for further information on this theory.3. However when shear stress are close to limits or in the case of very important distribution stresses. Remarks The coefficient k represents the part of additional reinforcement necessary to take up the shear force. It is equal τu to : k = 2 f sin β cos β u u 3 bu The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 86 septembre 2007 .e. we will apply the combination rules quoted below for webs (zone of anchorage at the end of deck for example). revised in 1999. as this does not require a specific position in the section.2 of the BAEL 91. In a single horizontal section of web.

or due to losses of tension in the cables.444fc sin βu cos βu It has to be noted that this is a ultimate limite state calculation. Otherwise it would be too severe and not coherent with the theory developped in this article. Similarly. fc is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. maximum flexion is obtained when the bridge is in service. The complete study would be a useless complication. To simplify we can consider separately the characteristic combination for shear stress and the one for transversal flexion. the transversal flexion is maximal at the top of the web where as the combination of general shear force and distribution force is under the anchorage (because shear stresses have the same sign under the anchorage and opposite sign above the anchorage). Geometrically. This calculation principle is determining only for very thin webs. Upper slab As mentioned above. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 87 septembre 2007 . the coefficient k is equal to : k= τu 0. A symmetrical loading case produces maximum flexion in the webs. the reinforcements for flexion has to be calculated at ULS and not at Service Limit State (SLS) as it is the case for detrimental cracking. The theory quoted above use concomitant load cases. In both cases. Indeed. it is necessary to consider consistent loading cases for the accumulation of reinforcements: • If we consider the construction stages. whereas offset trucks produce maximum torsion and give a lower level of shear force. whereas distribution is lower due to the existence of a certain symmetry in the anchoring forces on supports. As a consequence. In this hypothesis.85 (for short term loads). Webs It is usually possible to limit the loading cases with regard to transverse flexion. relatively large cross sections are obtained. the transversal flexion use a great part of its capacity and consequently it is necessary to complete the reinforcements to take up concurrently the shear force. for a cantilever tendon anchored in the height of the web. • Three zones can be distinguished for the reinforcements: • • • Transverse reinforcements in the upper slab with tie bar reinforcements Transverse reinforcement of the webs with shearing and distribution force frames Transverse reinforcement of the lower slab with tie bar reinforcements.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τu being the shear stress at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and bu the angle of the strut associated with the shear force and limited to 30° (in case of casting in two phases. the value of bu is 45°). the tie bar reinforcements must not be added to those determined by transverse flexion.85 fc θ γc . The ultimate compressive strength of the concrete is equal to fbu = 0. It is then justified to take θ=0.

no more than two transverse reinforcements and one stirrup (i.50 m to 0.27 and Fig 4. it is advisable to position them underneath the two previous layers.e. This is the reason for the very long gussets which are usually used in this type of structure. or some rectangular stirrups as it is the case in the lower slab (Fig 4. it is necessary to place either some chair spacers between the two reinforcement layers. it is necessary to position duct supports sufficiently closely together in order to prevent the tendon from wobblingand make sure that there is no risk of the slab spalling once the tendons are stressed. In the case of very wide structures. it is preferable to position the transverse reinforcements (main bars with larger diameters) in the external layer and the longitudinal bars (secondary bars) in the internal layer.29). especially as this allows them to drop down inside the slab in accordance with bending moment. Fig. without being obstructed by longitudinal reinforcements.27 – Reinforcement of the upper slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 88 septembre 2007 . When the slab is transversally prestressed by tendons.7 . Bridge decks built by the cantilever method consist of box girders whose components are quite thin and are thus subjected to significant stresses. to avoid reinforcements deformation which could give an unsufficient reinforcement for the durability of the structure. In order to improve the casting quality of the slab and the webs. transverse flexion forces are reduced due to the distribution of the imposed loads from the upper slab through the webs.Recommended configurations for reinforcements This is an appropriate point to offer instructions and advice with a view to obtaining reinforcements that are satisfactory in terms of the behavior of the structure and feasible to implement. Upper slab In general.75 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Lower slab In the lower slab. Furthermore. attention should be focused on the relatively large tie bars between this slab and the web. It is important to use reinforcements which are properly designed and properly constructed. Given that it is common to find prestressing ducts in the upper slab. 4. The recommended spacing is approximately 0. three reinforcements in a plan view) should be placed side by side. 4.

Fig.29 – Reinforcement of the lower slab Lower gusset An example of the reinforcement of the lower gusset is provided below. the rectangular stirrups add greater rigidity to the reinforcement and thus help to improve the cover of the reinforcement bars. Indeed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 89 septembre 2007 . It is distinctly preferable to: • Thicken the slab.28 – Reinforcement of the upper gusset Lower slab In proximity to the piers. Information concerning the precautions to be taken with compressed parts can be found in § A.8 of the BAEL 91. revised in 1999). which weakens the overlapping areas and requires reinforcing with tie bars.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The tendon ducts must be supported by a special structure. • In all cases. which could lead to very strong radial thrust when tensioning with disastrous consequences. the slab tends to delaminate due to compression. Stiffness is necessary to prevent the ducts from shifting during the concreting under buoyancy. being aware that the weight gain is small as the variation in thickness is generally parabolic and that this thickness is only apparent near the supports Or increase the compressive strength of the concrete in the bridge deck. 4. hence the need for tie bars. the lower slab is submitted to very high compression. it is strongly recommended to place reinforcement rectangular stirrups rather than concrete chairs within the slabs in order to support the upper layers. 4. Consequently. In addition. a spalling force appears at the ends of compressed bars. which must be absolutely welded to the main reinforcement. It is not recommended to use compressed reinforcements to take up this force if the slab is of insufficient thickness.

Considering the depth of the decks of bridges built by the cantilever method. with the overlaps only occurring in the upper gusset (Fig. There are two possible ways to resolve this problem: • • By using two L-shaped parts. They generally consist of two overlapping parts. 4.30 – Reinforcement of the lower gusset Webs As for the slabs. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 90 septembre 2007 . the transverse reinforcements are positioned in the external layer. it is very rare for the web reinforcements to be contructed in full rectangular stirrup. which overlap in the full thickness of the upper and lower gussets Or by using large U-shaped part with a small U-shaped part as a top reinforcement. 4. i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. It is essential to avoid overlaps along the walls.31). in the standard section of the web.e.

Fig.23 from BAEL. instead. 4. Longitudinal reinforcement In the case of segments cast in situ. At least four stirrups should be used per square meter or two rectangular stirrups if this solution is used. 4.32 – Reinforcements of webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 91 septembre 2007 . it should be angled towards the inside of the bridge deck (Fig. 4.31 – Webs reinforcement The transverse reinforcements are joined by transverse rebars embedded inside the web. the longitudinal reinforcement cannot (save exception) respect the rules of alternated overlapping according to the Article 6.1. generally in the form of stirrups ending on one side in a hook and on the other in a simple angled return. it is better to place the hook on the external side of the bridge deck. because of a problem of lack of space given the dimensions of the segment. The angled return should not be placed parallel to the wall. For the sake of durability.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.32).

taking account of the type of cement and any provisions that might be implemented in order to promote the regular and homogeneous cooling of the concrete. This analysis may lead to the development of an optimized sequence of operations for the segment on pier. known as sulfate reaction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Phenomenon specific to massive parts The segments on piers are massive parts for which it is advisable to carry out a specific analysis in order to evaluate the stresses due to thermal shrinkage during differential cooling in the body of the concrete after hydration of the cement. around one meter for example. The temperatures rise in direct proportion to the volume and thickness of the cast concrete and its hydration heat.33 – A large SOP The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 92 septembre 2007 . The risk of such reaction appears only for very large thickness. this rise in temperature does not only produce forces. These can cause severe problems in the structure of the bridge itself. Whatever the circumstances. In addition. it is necessary to use crack control reinforcements capable of controlling any peripheral cracking in this structure. it can also lead to internal chemical reactions within the concrete itself. Fig. 4.

Cantilever stability This chapter is entirely devoted to the problem of the stability of cantilevers in the construction phases. in the second case. asymmetrical site loads or a rising wind acting on one of the half-cantilever An accidental situation corresponding to the collapse of a form traveler or pre-cast segment. the partial safety factors for the combinations used for this verification are identical to those used in the calculation of stability. In the first case. different stabilization solutions and finally. Two families of combinations should be analysed: basic combinations corresponding to the first situation and accidental combinations corresponding to the second. To evaluate this risk. the combinations of actions to be used relate to the static equilibrium limit state. it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the cantilever arms on their pier before they are joined to the neighbouring cantilever or to the cast-on-falsework section on the end span near to the abutments. • Fig. 5. the verifications to be carried out. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 93 septembre 2007 . a slight detachment is tolerated with a limited overstressing of the stressed reinforcements that are used to secure the cantilever to its pier. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5 . This second verification relates to the strength ultimate limit state.Principle of cantilever stability During the construction of segmental concrete bridges using the balanced cantilever method. It is also important to verify the strength of all of the mechanical components which contribute to the stability of the cantilever and of the whole pier and its foundations.1 . It successively covers the causes of instability. two types of situations leading to imbalances must be considered: • A temporary situation which occurs during construction when the cantilever is unbalanced due to the weight of a segment that is built or installed before its symmetrical counterpart is in place. For simplicity’s sake.1 – Prefabricated cantilever under construction In both cases. it is verified that the cantilever does not detach from its temporary supports. It is essential to prevent the cantilever from tipping on the pier crosshead.

Fig. The method consists of tensioning vertical reinforcements in order to secure the segment on pier to its supports.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This chapter only provides general recommendations applicable to standard situations. In principle. an additional ten-year wind value must also be carried out. Drafted by the site’s Organization and Methods Department. Thus. Furthermore. This procedure brings together the different design calculations and construction methods. for structures featuring large spans. the choice of the process used to stabilize the cantilevers depends on the general design of the structure (see Chapter 2).Stability systems for cantilevers 5. it must be approved by the engineering office and the site manager and must be read by everyone involved in the construction of the bridge deck.2. built high up on exposed sites. We shall now examine them in detail. Before the construction of the first cantilever. the contractor must supply the site with accurate. this is the most economical method for spans of less than 120 meters in length and whose relatively massive piers offer a large crosshead surface. A specific procedure must describe all of the construction phases.1 – Stitching by prestressing Stitching via prestress tendons is the most widely used method for stabilising cantilevers during the construction (Fig.1 Different stabilization methods for cantilevers To a large extent. 5. Six main solutions can be used to stabilize cantilevers on their piers. the loads to be used and the combinations of actions to be analysed must be adapted according to the sequence of construction operations and the equipment used on site. specify the order of phases that must be observed and provide warnings about any dangerous events with a reasonable probability of occurrence. showing all of the systems to be implemented along with their quality and tolerances. especially the site foremen and sub-foremen.2). It should also be noted that the rules included in this chapter do not include construction errors or the failure to comply with construction procedures relating to the casting or assembly of segments or to the movement of form travelers or assembly equipment. 5.2 . The operations laid down in this report cannot be modified without the prior permission of the author and of the engineering office which performed the stability verifications. 5. The span arrangement.2 – Stability stitching by prestressing The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 94 septembre 2007 . the final support system and the design of the piers are obviously major considerations when choosing this system.1. dimensioned plans. 5.

The use of the definitive bearings during the construction of the cantilevers is not recommended because there is a significant risk of damage and. it may be beneficial to reduce the number of tendons by offsetting them longitudinally. it is always important to check what would happen in the event of an error in the construction process. Their upper anchorages are generally placed in temporary prefabricated anchor blocks. it is also possible to offset the tendons transversally in order to balance out the torsion moment due to the curvature of the bridge deck. The stitching prestressing is generally centred on the centreline of the pier. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 95 septembre 2007 . in the event of an incorrect alignment between the recesses built into the segment on pier and the pier crosshead. This is only feasible when the bridge deck is situated at a reasonable height above the ground (less than 15 meters or so). The stitching reinforcements are positioned at the side of the temporary blocks.4). it is essential to adjust the bearings at the end of construction. This applies: • • When a given direction of assembly or order of casting for the segments must be followed When the half-cantilevers are asymmetrical or made from different types of concrete. the anchorages may be situated on the side of the foundations or in anchor blocks housed on the inside of the piers if they are hollow. In the case of curved cantilevers. Prestressing tendons are sometimes replaced by prestressing bars. a longitudinal offsetting from the base of the incremental launching beam produces a similar effect (due to the support reaction caused by its weight and its anchoring tendons). 5. 5. this solution is not recommended.3). Fig. They then drop down through the segment on pier passing close to the webs. next to or inside the support crossbeam. because.2. positioned on the upper slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During construction.1. However. In the latter case. the bar may be subjected to parasitic flexion which could cause it to fail. in any case. 5.2 – Temporary pilings This method consists of increasing the center distance between the temporary support blocks by placing them on temporary metal or concrete pilings (Fig.3 – Section through the SOP with its stitching tendons In the lower end. In certain specific cases. 5. the segment on pier rests on a set of temporary blocks on either side of the bridge bearing. the tendons are either tied off inside the pier shaft or anchored in the usual way. In these specific cases. sometimes on a metal cross beam (Fig. For prefabricated structures.

4 – Stabilization of a cantilever using temporary pilings This method is used on terrestrial sites in the following situations: • • • For total lengths in excess of 100 meters When the pier head dimensions are reduced. especially when: • • The site is obliged to follow a fixed order of assembly or casting A difference in weight due to the geometry or to the use of lightweight concrete affects both of the halfcantilevers The structure is a portal bridge. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 96 septembre 2007 .5). The cantilever is usually stabilized by two pilings positioned symmetrically in relation to the pier. 5. This is a viable solution for aquatic sites. If a single piling is used. However. a cantilever may sometimes be stabilized by a single piling.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. often for architectural reasons When the pier shafts do not have enough resistance to flexion to stabilize the cantilever on their own. this prestressing is essential in order to prevent the side opposite the piling from tipping over. as the portal legs cannot take up the vertical loads until the cantilevers are connected. • Vertical prestressing on pilings usually completes this system (Fig. provided that the pilings are supported on the foundation bulkhead for the pier. 5.

In the lower section. or fixed to the pier foundations (especially on aquatic sites where the lower anchorages can be housed on the bulkhead). they are anchored on massive counterweights on land. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 97 septembre 2007 . The tendons must be injected for adhesion to the foundations.2. 5.7).6 – Cantilever stability by counterweight For information. 5.6. [JAE 00]). They must be protected against corrosion and damage caused by impacts to their upper sections. This involves attaching the launch beam to one of the half-cantilevers via compression bracing in order to stabilize it. [JAE 00]) . 5. 5. 5.8. Fig. 5. In this case.3 – External tendons or temporary staying Stitching tendons may be positioned outside the pier in order to increase their efficiency. they are anchored in the first cantilever segments and pass outside the pier shaft (Fig.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.5 – Stability provided by a single piling This prestressing may also be replaced by a counterweight placed on the same side as the piling (Fig. a variant also exists for prefabricated structures. This method is especially used: • • For overall lengths of more than 100 meters When the dimensions of the pier head units are reduced and do not allow for a sufficient center distance between the stitching tendons (Fig.

5. In addition. especially for very tall structures that have a short total span (although this is quite a rare occurrence). 5. In this situation. it is possible to use the closure of the small spans to stabilize the adjacent half-cantilevers (Fig. At the start of the construction of the halfcantilever.9 [BOU 94. The stays usually consist of external prestressing tendons at moderate tension (30% of the tendon’s maximum tension). the structure must be stabilized using traditional methods. 5.7 – Cantilever stability by external tendons Fig.4 – Closure of the end span If the structure has spans of very unequal lengths or very short end spans. we should mention that it is sometimes better to stay the pier rather than the cantilever.10). The longer span is then built by overcantilevering.1. An efficient and economical anchorage can also be provided by attaching the stays to the foundations of neighbouring piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. These stays are very effective at absorbing the rocking motion around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the centerline of the bridge deck.3] and [GAC 98]). the stays are anchored to a segment situated at a third or a quarter of the length of the halfcantilever in the upper section and to a counterweight block on the ground equipped with vertical ties or pilings working in traction. 5. the central connection segment is assembled.2.8 – Stability via tendons outside a pier with a small crossheadl A genuine system of temporary staying can also be used to resist wind-related dynamic stresses for tall structures with large span lengths or more modest structures in windswept sites: Fig.9 – Staying of a cantilever on the Tanus bridge Certain angled stays may also be used to limit the torsion of the pier under asymmetrical horizontal forces due to the action of wind on each half-cantilever (or under dynamic wind effects). 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 98 septembre 2007 . They supplement the fixed support or vertical stitching produced by the tendons on piers. using the weight of the rear span to counteract the imbalance. When the cantilever reaches the middle of the shorter span. Fig. 5.

3).5 – Embedding on a pier When the cantilever is permanently embedded on its pier.10 – Closure of a rear span with counterweight and extended cantilever 5. the stability calculation is given by the strength calculations for the pier shaft and foundations (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 99 septembre 2007 . 5.11).1.12 – Pier with double shafts For structures subjected to very strong winds.2. 5.11 – Embedding of the cantilever on the pier Fig.2. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1. requiring extra verifications under dynamic wind effects (see 5. Fig. 5. additional stays are often necessary.

Suppliers’ catalogues are useful for evaluating the surface area required for elastomeric pot bearings.10 x 1.2 - Design of pier head units In the most common situations.2. it is possible to estimate the diameter of the pot bearing by considering that the elastomer stress reach 30 MPa under these same combinations. this surface area is calculated using a pressure of 13 to 15 MPa at the SLS under the same conditions as mentioned above.10 m or more for structures with large spans. The dimensions of the plate can be estimated by considering that the stress on the concrete of the pier is limited to 0.12). the minimum projecting ledge on the surface of the pier is 15 centimeters.6 fcj.13): • • • • • • The permanent bearings.13 – Diagram showing pier head design The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 100 septembre 2007 . the pier heads must be designed to receive the following components (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This solution is also required in the case of double pier shafts (Fig. 5. 5. In the absence of such catalogues. normally consisting of elastomeric pot bearings Stability blocks or temporary support blocks Stitching tendons Jacking points for cantilevers under construction or nearing completion. Fig. 5. or for changing bearings Systems for inspecting and testing bearings in service Seismic stops for protection in the event of earthquakes or impacts from boats. For modestly-sized structures in which the bridge deck rests on laminated rubber bearings.50 x 0.50 m for structures with short overall spans to 1. These give the plan view dimensions according to the maximum reaction under rare combinations at the service limit state. The size of the permanent bearings varies enormously according to the structures: from 0. In both cases. 5.

2. 5.5.50 m) in order to limit the stress on the concrete to approximately 20 MPa. However. The limit stress values obviously depend on the compressive strength of the concrete in the pier head units.2.14 – Leveling and adjusting jacks and permanent bearing The surface area of the temporary blocks is determined by calculating the stability of the cantilever (see paragraph 5. It should also be noted that the clearance required between the underside of the bridge deck and the bearing base is approximately fifty centimeters for jacks with a capacity of 500 tonnes.2). Solid blocks may also be replaced with sand boxes which can be removed without having to raise the bridge deck.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. For information. the deviator tubes used to house the continuous external tendons and the dispersion reinforcements in the anchorages for the external tendons on the pier (Fig. The jacks must be capable of raising the entire cantilever before the placement of the closing segment in order to insert the permanent bearings and change the bearings when the structure is in service. These are given in paragraph 5. it is possible to reuse the area of the crosshead that had previously been reserved for the temporary blocks. 500-tonne jacks have a diameter of 40 centimeters. 5. Therefore. 5. for the changing of the bearings. Indeed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 101 septembre 2007 .16).3 - Design of the segment on pier From the outset.5.50 x 0. measuring 0. They must be placed on metal blocks (e. stability systems which cross the segment on pier vertically (prestressing tendons or bars) interfere with the cantilever tendons situated in the upper gussets. the design of the segments on piers and pier head units must incorporate the constraints associated with the cantilever stability systems.g. the raising of the deck must only be considered in the construction phase.

In the upper part. a distribution beam and vertical uprights must also be envisaged for the transmission of the jacking force when the cantilever has been completed. the tendons must be anchored in thick areas. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 102 septembre 2007 .16 – Stitching of a cast-in-situ segment on pier It is also necessary to cross the highly reinforced areas of the lower slab. the stitching system shall be designed to transmit the forces towards the support blocks as directly as possible. In all cases. 5. The stitching tendons pass into the crossbeam on the pier if it is very thick or close to it and in proximity to the webs if it is thinner (Fig. in light of the problems concerning the transmission of temporary and permanent support reactions towards the webs of the box girder. 5.17).15 – Pier head unit on the Ile de Ré bridge Fig. 5. A system consisting of anchor blocks.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

3 . deviators. 5. This must be specified in the Special Technical Clauses. It should be noted that: • The loads defined hereafter are not described in any statutory document. The weight G of the cantilever is calculated using a unit weight γ of 24. Accidental situations are also considered. • 5. variable actions such as the wind (W) or a thermal gradient (Δθ).Actions to considered The loads to be considered in this particular phase in the building of a cantilever correspond to loads in a construction situation.5 t/m3). the BPEL 91 distinguishes between dead loads (G).1 - Dead loads The evaluation of dead loads. they represent the rules of good practice in the field and have been successfully used since 1975.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. If high or low density aggregates are used. construction loads whose size and position are known (QPRC). while taking account of the precise geometry of the bridge decks and particularly of the crossbeams. anchor blocks and the other morphological characteristics of the structure. must be performed with the greatest of accuracy. for this particular phase in the construction of the cantilever and for all of the construction and service phases for the structure. Thus. site loads and an accidental action (FA). using a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 103 septembre 2007 . For this situation. it is essential to formalize these loads in the contract The proposed design methods depart from the rules for the creation of combinations in the Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions) of 1979 (DC 79). however. the measurement of the unit mass γt of the concrete used for the bridge deck (prestressed or reinforced) is based on the unit mass of ordinary concrete γb.17 – Adjustment of a prefabricated segment on pier 5.3. random construction loads (QPRA) and finally. the BPEL 91 fixes the concrete’s unit mass at 2.5 KN/m3 according to the formwork plans (strictly speaking. these include dead loads.

It is included here for illustrative purposes but it is not intended to replace precise calculations which remain indispensable. with B1 designating the section on the pier and B0designating the crown section: P= d= (B1 + 2 B0 ) γ lf 3 (B1 + 5 B0 ) lf 4 × (B1 + 2 B0 ) with lf designating the length of the half-cantilever. This simplified method allows for a manual approach. and random loads.2 - Variable execution loads The BPEL makes a distinction between site loads whose size and position are known. For the rough calculations. 5.85 . For this type of concrete.18 at 0. A figure of ρ = 0.γb ( ) with ρ = total ratio of stressed and non-prestressed reinforcements (in t/m3). it is obviously important to consider the offsetting of the weight of the cantilever. approximately 50 Kg/m3 should therefore be added to the aforementioned values.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide γt = γb + ρ 7. if the depth of the bridge deck varies parabolically and the thickness of the lower slab varies in linear fashion. which can be used for the preliminary calculations for the structure. 5.22 t/m3 is normally used for bridges built by conventional cantilever segments. The weight of a half-cantilever situated on the unbalanced side is increased by 2% (Gmax). Fig. simplified formulae can be used to calculate the weight of a cantilever.3. for which a fixed allowance must be made. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 104 septembre 2007 . deviators and ancillary parts situated on the span).18 – Evaluation of the weight of a half-cantilever (NB: the selfweight of the half-cantilever calculated using this formula does not include the weight of the crossbeam on pier or the weight of the anchor blocks. whereas the weight of its corresponding half is decreased by 2% (Gmin). It should be noted that HPC is denser than traditional concrete.85 × 7. For example. For curved bridges. the approximate weight of the half-cantilever and the position of its centre of gravity can be determined using the following formulae (Krawsky’s formulae). which creates a transverse moment in the pier.

g. this weight is highly dependent on the system used to stiffen the form traveler under the weight of the fresh concrete. compressors).19 – Example of known site loads For cast-in-situ structures.20) correspond to the materials stored on the bridge deck (e. In reality. 5. cable rolls).1 – Known site loads Known loads are loads whose weight and position can be specified in each phase of construction. the weight of the structural steel can be significantly reduced.3. this mainly concerns the weight of the form traveler. 5. For prefabricated structures.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.2.2 – Random site loads Random site loads (Fig. cranes used assembling segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 105 septembre 2007 . (Fig. known site loads mainly concern the reactions at the base of the launch beam during the installation of the segments. launch beams. expressed as QPRC1. maximum and minimum characteristic values are determined and applied in the most unfavorable way.30 and 0.g. Fig. staff and various climatic effects not considered elsewhere (rising pressure of wind under a half-cantilever). 5. these loads must be increased by + 6% on the side of the heavier half-cantilever or decreased by 4 % on the opposite side (QPRC1 max or QPRC1 min) according to the same principle as for the selfweight of the cantilevers.2. At the rough calculation stage. With complex systems featuring prestressing bars.3. In the calculations. If there are significant uncertainties concerning weights or positions. e. small equipment (e. etc.19).90 MN according to the length of the segments and the width of the bridge deck. 5.g. whose standard value varies between 0. form travelers. the weight of the form traveler is sometimes considered to be equal to half the weight of the heaviest segment.

small equipment. For structures with an overall span of over 120 meters. This distributed load applies in a vertical direction from the bottom to the top on the horizontal frontal area of a half-cantilever. in exceptional cases. a dynamic study is essential in order to evaluate the behaviour of the cantilever on its pier and determine how to stabilize the cantilever before the closing segment has been completed (staying. compression bracing. this force applies from the end of the form traveler to the row of temporary blocks situated on the same side (or. etc. This load. Furthermore. 5. Transversally. It is essential to perform a specific study to analyze the nature of the site and the local climatic conditions before this load can be reduced for very large spans (over of 200 meters).3 of this chapter. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3 – Vertical wind force The load QPRA1 in the previous paragraph only includes the vertical wind force for structures with a total span of less than 120 meters. For other structures.4. etc. for example in steep-sided valleys or in unstable areas where strong gusts of wind are common. compressors. is applied to the completed segments and the form traveler A concentrated load (QPRA2) of (50 + 5 b) kN applied to the end of the cantilever. the width of application is the width of the upper slab of the box girder. this load represents the weight of cable rolls. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 106 septembre 2007 .2. • These loads are arranged in such a way as to produce the most penalizing effect. including those with more modest spans but which are exposed to frequent strong winds. which includes vertical wind force provided that the site is not exposed. (tall structures with a large overall span and relatively flexible piers). Longitudinally.). This is covered in paragraph 5.20 – Random site loads The following loads are used to cover unknown site loads: • An evenly distributed load (QPRA1) of 200 N/m²over a half-cantilever in standard situations (total span < 120 m). depending on the characteristics of the site. at the far end of the last completed segment (b designates the width of the upper slab of the box girder expressed in meters). it is important to consider an additional load.3. the intensities of the loads QPRA1 and QPRA2 must be calculated according to the equipment that is actually used on the site. to the centerline of the pier). The additional wind effect (Qw) is equivalent to a uniform load with an intensity of 100 to 200 N/m². more simply.

5.2. The intensity of this load depends particularly on the height of the bridge deck and the ruggedness of the site. 5. the dynamic analysis prescribed in the previous paragraph must account for this horizontal wind force. a lower value could be adopted if a specific analysis of the safety of the form traveler were to be carried out by the designers of this equipment at the start of the construction surveys (see Fascicule 65A of the French CCTG). it is possible for any part that is not lashed by prestressing to collapse during one or more phases of the assembly sequence.21 – Form traveler in the process of being moved For a cast-in-situ structure.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.3. However. In general the load is derived from the CECM (Convention Européenne de la Construction Métallique – European Convention for Structural Steelwork) regulations. This amounts to reversing the direction of the weight the form traveler QPRC1MAX or of the last prefabricated segment on one of the half-cantilevers (Fig.Combinations of actions during construction The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 107 septembre 2007 . For prefabricated structures. In the majority of cases.4 – Horizontal wind force Horizontal wind force only needs to be considered in particular cases: for tall structures in sites which are exposed to strong and irregular winds caused by the morphology of the site. • 5.4 . Such places often include coastal or mountain valleys or sites exposed to winds that are renowned for their intensity. we consider that one of the half-cantilevers is subjected to a uniform load of QWt. it is possible for any mobile load to collapse during one or more of the form traveler’s phases of movement. the calculations performed allow for the fact that the entire form traveler might fall. Fig.3 - Accidental actions The collapse of all or a part of an empty form traveler or a prefabricated segment during the assembly process (FA) is allowed for by a dynamic increase coefficient of 2 in order to take account of the energy accumulated by the deformation of a half-cantilever affected by the fall. This load must be evaluated on an individual basis for each project. the whole of the cantilever and its pier should be loaded For very tall structures.21). It should be noted that: • For the calculation of the piers and the foundations. In this case. 5.

considering the nature of the actions. or the form traveler has been emptied due to a defect in the concrete. a distinction can be made between a temporary construction situation. For the verification at ultimate limit states of strength. relating to a verification under an accidental combination.1 to the the selfweight of one side and 0. During the construction surveys. the cantilever is studied during the assembly of the final pair of segments. at the preliminary design phase for prefabricated structures. Therefore. whilst the casting of the other segment has not yet been performed. the rules described hereafter are not as strict as those in the 1979 Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions). these verifications must be systematically performed for the casting or assembly of every pair of segments. Likewise. the different elements (blocks. and an accidental situation. the perfect synchronization of operations cannot be guaranteed For a cast-in-situ structure.4. aiming to ensure the stability of the cantilevers on their pier The ultimate limit state of strength: for the different elements whose role is to provide stability and for the elements which are stressed during these phases. especially the pier head units. For cast-in-situ structures. an incident during casting may lead to fresh concrete being emptied from one of the form travelers. the piers and their foundations.9 to the selfweight of the other side. although the strength of the pier must be verified. no static equilibrium verification is required. The other segment has not yet been assembled. tendons. according to which it would be necessary to apply a load factor of 1. etc. It is assumed that one of the two segments has been lashed to the end of the cantilever and has been released by the assembly equipment.) and the supports and foundations are verified using partial coefficients of safety for the materials corresponding to the fundamental combination.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Cantilevers must be verified with regard to: • • The ultimate limit state of static equilibrium. pilings. As we have already mentioned. even if casting is carried out simultaneously. It is essential to analyse this imbalance on a systematic basis. as they are not regulations in the legal sense of the term. 5. the cantilever must not move from its temporary supports. If the cantilever is embedded on the pier. The following actions should therefore be studied: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 108 septembre 2007 . temporary stays. even if the sequence of assembly or construction operations calls for simultaneous operations. This is because: • • For a prefabricated structure. the key phase at the pre-design level can be considered to be casting of the final pair of segments.1 - Combinations in temporary construction situations (Type a) For the verification of static equilibrium at ultimate limit states. For each limit state. The cantilever is therefore analysed with an imbalance of one segment. it must be officially agreed in the Special Technical Clauses that these rules differ from the recommendations of the DC79. relating to a verification under a fundamental combination. It is assumed that both form travelers have been moved forward and that the casting of one of the two segments has been completed.

5.1 (G max + G min) + 1.23 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For cast-in-situ structures (Fig.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) Combination A2: 0.4. 5.22 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures (n .9 (G max + G min) + 1.2 - Accidental construction combinations (Type b) These combinaisons are used for verifications at ultimate limit states of strength under accidental combinations involving elements designed to provide the temporary fixed supports. Qw refers to the additional wind action to be considered for structures with a total span length of more than 120 meters.1 segments on left) (n segments on right) Fig.1 (G max + G min) + 1. the structure must be capable of resisting the collapse of a form traveler (or of a segment in the case of a prefabricated structure). 5.9 ((G max + G min) + 1.1 segments on left) The right-hand form traveler contains a segment (n segments on the right) Fig.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ QW]) Combination A2: 0.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) In these formulae. 5.22) Combination A1: 1. and the supports and foundations supporting the cantilevers.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) The left-hand form traveler is empty (n . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 109 septembre 2007 . In an accidental situation.23) Combination A1: 1.3. or which are exposed to strong and frequent winds (see 5.3) For prefabricated structures (Fig.

5.1 segments on the left) The left-hand form traveler contains a segment (nv .4.24) Combination B1: 1. For large cantilevers. Specific rules must be applied to them.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case. the French PCP program). not only to avoid penalizing them with an excessively high equivalent static pressure.g. 5. but security is maintained by bringing the full capacities of the materials into play.1 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. the cantilever may be lifted off its temporary support blocks. in the case of temporary prestressing.1 (G max + G min) + FA -+ (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. it is essential to perform a turbulent wind analysis at the ultimate limit state.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) The left-hand form traveler is empty (nv . when the sum of the span length and of the height of the pier exceeds 180 meters. but also to verify the behaviour of the cantilever under dynamic wind effects.1 segments on the right) Fig.g. which is carried out using one or more specialist wind effect programs (e.1 segments on the left) (nv segments on the right) Fig.g. the tendons could be overstressed. is designed to assess the amplitude of the oscillations caused by wind turbulence on a flexible structure. e.25) Combination B1: 1.3 - Specific rules for very tall structures Very tall structures are usually very sensitive to the action of the wind.25 – Accidental situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5. For cast-in-situ structures (Fig. 5. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 110 septembre 2007 .9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) (nv . This specific dynamic analysis.24 – Accidental situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures For prefabricated structures (Fig. e.

wind turbulence. we shall specifically study the stability of cantilevers resting on two rows of temporary blocks and stitched onto their piers by two rows of tendons (Fig. It is important to specify that the dynamic analysis of wind effects must be carried out at the design stage because it may raise questions about the design of the structure and also because the collection of data required for this calculation often takes quite a long time. altitude. The reader may also refer to the document entitled "Comportement au vent des ponts" (Behaviour of Bridges in Wind) published by the AFGC. (Some of these coefficients can by determined for simple shapes by applying the rules of Eurocode 1 – Actions du vent et de la neige sur les structures [Actions of wind and snow on structures]. The position of each block or temporary support includes an installation error of 5 centimeters (in the sense of a reduction in the space between these temporary supports).3] and "Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez " (The Bourran Viaduct at Rodez [BOU 91] for additional details. etc. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 111 septembre 2007 . giving the deformities and durations of the fundamental modes of vibration in addition to the corresponding generalized masses The aerodynamic characteristics (drag. in addition to the articles entitled "Pont de Tanus: Les études des effets du vent" (The Pont de Tanus: Wind Effect Analyses) [BOU 94. For these calculations. 5. the combinations of actions and the safety coefficients to be adopted. • • The accumulated static and dynamic effects are used to determine and verify the stresses in the concrete and the reinforcements for the pier shaft. The verifications of the stabilizing elements for the other methods are presented in a more summary fashion in the following section.) A dynamic modal analysis of the structure. which could cause problems with regard to the deadlines allowed for the construction surveys. Wind tunnel testing must be carried out for the others).Verification and dimensioning of the anchoring elements In this section. In the construction phase. As the current regulations are quite limited with regard to this type of verification. ruggedness of the site.26). the segment on pier is considered to be undeformable. lift and moment coefficients) of the bridge deck and piers. they are performed with a fifty-year wind at the ultimate limit state and also at the service limit state. the dynamic calculations are performed at the ultimate limit state only and by take account of the ten-year wind effect. the Special Technical Clauses must comprehensively describe the actions. In service.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This calculation requires: • A static description of the wind and its fluctuations (reference wind speed.5 .

27 – Geometry of the stitching system In the event that M/N < e/2.1 - Calculating the number of cables M and N are the stresses resulting from type A and B combinations. e is the distance between the centerlines of the two rows of temporary support blocks and d is the distance between one tendon and the opposite row of blocks (Fig. Fig. this means that stitching tendons are not necessary. 5. B1 and B2. M and N are calculated for each of the four combinations A1. however. we calculate the eccentricity of the resultant of forces M/N.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon.27).26 – System of stitching to a pier using tendons 5.80 f prg .g. one pair of 12T15 tendons per row of blocks). in theory. Firstly. 5. It is difficult to give advice with regard to the minimum values of e and d because they are highly dependent on the length of The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 112 septembre 2007 .5. there is no risk of the cantilever tipping over. A2. The values of e and d are derived from the dimensions of the segment and the pier head unit. a minimum of two pairs of tendons are used for safety reasons (e. We use: Ra = N M − + Fi2 2 e and Rb = N M + + Fi2 2 e With Fi2 = 2 × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of a line of two tendons with p the % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0. 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5.

This requires pier head units of between 4.29). 5.28). To calculate the number of tendons to be used. a distinction is made between type A and type B combinations. Values of 3. Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e with Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of n tendons of a line with p % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0.00 to 3.5. 5. the segment on pier remains in equilibrium due to the increase of the tendons tension ΔTg in a row of temporary supports and the compression Rb. The prestressing must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N (Fig.1. In the event that M/N > e/2.50 and 5. 5. Fig.5. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide the cantilever and the width of the box girder. we have: ⎛M N⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ e 2⎠ n×s = ⎝ (1 − p) × σp0 while still estimating the losses at p %. of the blocks in the other row supports (Fig.00 m wide.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift up. 5.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 113 septembre 2007 .2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) Under the action of the resultant N and the moment M of the loads applied to the cantilever.50 m are common for e and d.1. 0.28 – Forces in tendons and support reactions Therefore. stitching tendons must be used to restore the balance of the cantilever.80 f prg .

We and Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (with p being the % of losses) and: γp = 1. We obtain Fg and Fd according to Fu1 and Fi in the equations also know that: Ful = n × s × fpeg γp . Fi is their initial force.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.29 – Tipping of the cantilever with overtension of the tendons The equilibrium of the forces applied to the segment on pier when it rotates at an angle of dα around a row of blocks and when the tendons lengthen or shorten. according to the position of the blocks in relation to the tendons. with ΔTg and ΔTd being the variations in tension of each line of tendons (positive for a lengthening of the tendons). It should be noted that ΔTd is either negative or positive but less than ΔTg. Fu1 is their limit tension at the ULS.00 for accidental combinations fpeg already defined above From this. and and they are carried over into . can be expressed in the following way: Fg = Fi + ΔTg ≤ Ful Fd = Fi + ΔTd ΔTg ΔTd = d (e − d) Ne + M + Fd × (d − e ) = 0 2 − Fg × d − R b − Fg − Fd − N = 0 Fg and Fd refer to the tensions in each line of tendons. we can determine the number of tendons n: N× e ⎞ d ⎛ n × s = ⎜M − ⎟× 2 ⎠ K ⎝ The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 114 septembre 2007 . 5.

they are not usually injected with cement grout. we can now dimension the blocks in rows A and B. the response is to limit the increase of the tendons tension by establishing a reduction coefficient for the value of the ultimate force of the tendons Ful. the longer the tendons. 5. the greater will be the rotation. Consequently. it is necessary to add the rotation of the pier head unit under the effect of the unbalance moment M and the variations in tension of the stitching tendons. the rotation of the cantilever must be verified in the event of an accident. 2 [ ] Next. The variation in tension in the line of tendons situated on the side of the rising force is equal to: Δσ = fpeg γp − (1 − p ) × σ p0 ε= Δσ Es Δσ . The number given by the preceding calculations is rounded up to the next biggest even number. which corresponds to 6 centimeters for non-injected 20 meters cables. the rotation of the Es and the lengthening of the cables is equal to: For tendons with a free length of L. In standard situations in which losses are 20%. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 115 septembre 2007 . If the designer considers the rotation of the cantilever to be too great. In fact. the stretching ΔL can be evaluated at L × segment on pier is: tan(α ) = L Δσ × d Es For very tall or highly flexible piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide with s: cross-section of a tendon and K = (1 − p ) × σp0 × (2d − e ) × (e − d) + fpeg γp × d2 + (d − e ) . this stretching can reach approximately 3%. taking account of the need to place the bundles of tendons close to each web. under the effect of the stretching of the tendons. if they are anchored at the foot of a very tall pier. Therefore.2 - Calculating the surface area of the blocks We use the maximum number of tendons per row. The calculation of rotation gives an angle of 1 degree for a tendon situated 3.5.50 meters from the opposite row of blocks: a value which is considered to be acceptable. which may cause dynamic effects that could aggravate the phenomenon during the rotation of the cantilever. Knowing the prestressing force applied by each group of tendons. as the cantilever stabilization tendons are temporary. their extensibility and therefore their elasticity are significant.

04. = K fbu with: fbu Ultimate strength of the concrete at ULS fbu = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Article A. As the concrete of the blocks and the pier crosshead is hooped.8.3 ⎟ ⎜1− b ⎠⎦ ⎝ 3 a ⎠ ⎝ 3 b ⎠ ⎣ 3⎝ a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 116 septembre 2007 . The maximum value not to be exceeded is fclim. this gives approximately: fcd = fc28 + 20 MPa On the other hand. with an upper limit of 0. For example.85 × fcf θ × γb fc28 γb θ Characteristic strength of the concrete under compression 1.8 of the BAEL 91).5.4.1 – Normal construction situation (A combinations) The surface area of the blocks is such that they are compressed to fbu under the maximum reaction Rb. the compressive stress in the concrete used for the bearing block is limited in order to avoid splitting the pier (Article A. its characteristic strength under compression can be increased. 5.2.00 for loads with long duration of application ⎡ 4⎛a b ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4 a 0 ⎞ ⎛ 4 b0 ⎞ K = 1 + ⎢3 − ⎜ 0 + 0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 3. with 2% of hooping (a standard value).50 for Type A combinations 1. for blocks positioned on high and massive bearing blocks.23 of the BAEL 91 fixes this stress at: ⎛ f ⎞ fcf = fcj × ⎜1 + 2 × ρ t × e ⎟ ⎜ fcj ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ with p representing the percentage of steel in the single hooped core..4 and Appendix E.30 – Temporary blocks consisting of sand boxes 5.8.

820-2) may also be referred to. 5. which considers uniformly loaded B0 surfaces. but with an accidental combination.3 in the last formula. Therefore: γb θ 1. Appendix E. allowing for the dimensions of the permanent bearings and of all of the fittings on the pier heads.98 fcj a and b are determined by examining the plan view of the pier head unit. Such overhangs are rarely compatible with the dimensions of the pier head unit.15 0.65 fcj 0.61 to 0. we have: S = 2×a×b = Rb f c max fclim 0.4.2.85 for type B combinations for loads with a short duration of application The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 117 septembre 2007 .8 of the BAEL 91).75 fcj 0. Fig. Hooping identical to that used on the permanent bearings is calculated and added to the lower face of the segment on pier and underneath the temporary blocks (cf.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The same principle is applied.8.3 (classification T 47. 5. Article A. fcf) Supposing that there are two blocks of dimensions a × b per support row.72 to 0.94 to 0. the support surface must have a large overhang in relation to the blocks.5.31 – Plan view dimensions of a block and its bearing block The table below gives the orders of magnitude of the critical values given by this calculation according to the strength of the concrete and the type of verification to be carried out: Type of combinations at the Ultimate Limit State Fundamental combination only including permanent actions Fundamental combination with variable actions Accidental combinations The maximum stress that must not be exceeded is therefore: fcmax = Min (fclim . Appendix A of the standard NF EN 1337.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In order to obtain the critical value of 3.

The dimensions of the blocks determined in this way must be increased by 5 to 10 centimeters for the coating of the hoops. e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 118 septembre 2007 . Type A combinations are considered to be fundamental combinations. i.00).g. The vertical reinforcement bars of the pier shaft must be verified at the ultimate limit states for bending and compression under the action of N and M. Ra and Rb are calculated as if the cantilever was not lifting up: Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e If Ra is positive. we solve the equations This gives: Rb = K ⎞ e ⎛ × ⎜ Fi × K 4 + N × 3 + M ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ K1 ⎝ 2e ⎠ to .5. with: K 1 = d 2 + (d − e ) K 3 = 2 × K1 − e2 K 4 = (2d − e ) × K2 e × d2 2 K 2 = d3 + e × (2d − e ) × (d − e ) We determine the surface area of the blocks S using the same formula described previous paragraph.15. to 400 MPa. with the equivalent of type A combinations at SLS. we verify that the cantilever does lift up with the number of tendons determined previously. without modifying the coefficients of these combinations.3 - Calculation of the pier shafts and foundations The static equilibrium combinations calculated previously for the equilibrium of the cantilever and the verification of the anchoring elements are directly used to verify the pier and its foundation at the strength ultimate limit state. but this time Fg = Fi + ΔTg. whilst those of type B are accidental combinations (γb =l. It is thus important to limit the cracking of piers in temporary construction situations.e. For this. However. we can either perform an additional calculation at SLS by transposing type A combinations. there is no lifting up and the surface area of the blocks S is calculated by the formula: S = 2×a×b = Rb fc max If Ra is negative. < Fu1 (this time Fi is known). γs =l. or limit the working stress ratio of the reinforcement bars to the ULS under this same type of combinations. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this verification is only carried out at the ULS.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Firstly. the piers must also be verified at the SLS and ULS for all other situations in the construction and service phases. 5. To account for this phenomenon.

For short and massive pilings. The same type of calculation is used in the case of two pilings placed symmetrically in relation to the pier. of height h and constant inertia I. For very slender pilings. Under type B combinations. 5. the type A combination is only studied.6. while taking account of an additional eccentricity of the blocks in both directions or of a fault in the angle of the piling shaft.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. However. For this calculation. The details of the verifications are the same as those given in the preceding paragraphs to which the reader can refer.Verifications of other stabilization methods Without being exhaustive. The fact that there is no detachment from the support on the piling means that the stitching tendons placed in line with the piling can now be dimensioned. the verification rules are similar to those described previously.2 - Verifications of stability due to cable staying The cable stays must be arranged in the most symmetrical arrangement possible in order to minimize the disturbance to the geometry of the cantilever during construction. the cross section of one row of cables is s. we shall study the case of an imbalance on the opposite side to the piling during the assembly or casting of the second of the pair of segments.1 - Verifications of stability due to temporary pilings In the case of a single piling. The stability of the piling must then be verified. it is necessary to make the following simplifying assumptions (Fig. detachment from one of the pilings is authorized under type A and B combinations. is considered to be embedded on its foundation • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 119 septembre 2007 . the tension increase in the stitching tendons and the angle of rotation of the cantilever are limited to a value to be determined in the Special Technical Clauses (to approximately one degree). a deviated bending and compression calculation suffices. It is vital to connect the piling to at least the pier head and to connect very tall pilings to the shaft at one or more intermediate levels. Next. the stitching cables are situated in line with the temporary blocks. Type A and B combinations are studied by verifying the same criteria as for a cantilever secured exclusively by vertical stitching tendons situated in the pier. the force exerted by a row of cables is Fi The pier. 5. 5.32): • As a simplification. The cantilever then rests on one or two rows of blocks (type A or B combination) and on the piling situated on the side of the imbalance. the collapse of the form traveler is replaced by the collapse of the segment being moved in the aforementioned verifications.6. Here. it is essential to perform a calculation to the second geometrical and mechanical order in order to prevent the buckling of this support. the length of the cables is 1 and their modulus is E. e is the center distance between the two rows of cables. Therefore. this paragraph gives some information about the verification of cantilevers that are stabilized by temporary pilings or stays used outside the piers. For prefabricated structures. The blocks must not lift up under type A combinations.6 . because the form traveler or the prefabricated segment on the piling side has been made safe and is no longer likely to fall. Further details about the values to be used in the calculations can be found in the BAEL 91 or BPEL 91. we start by studying the imbalance on the side of the piling (the side where the first of a pair of segments is cast or assembled).

of modulus E^ and length 1’ . if the reaction RA is positive. the cross sections of the cable stays are dimensioned by limiting their increasing of the tension and the rotation of the cantilever under all combinations (types A and B) and by making sure that the blocks in row A are not decompressed under type A combinations Once the cross section of the cable stays has been determined. As this situation is of little relevance to this paragraph. the initial force of a row of cable stays is noted as Fi’ (or Fg’ and Fd’ taking account of the variations in tension due to the tilting of the cantilever) The cantilever is considered to be undeformable in terms of longitudinal flexion (this hypothesis remains valid if the cable stays are not attached too far from the pier). In order to calculate the cross-section of the cable stays. we differentiate between situations with type A and type B combinations. the cable stays are all identical. As with cantilevers stitched by two rows of cables. • The calculation described hereafter does not follow this scheme but the underlying principles are clearly shown. the cantilever does not need to be stayed. it must be remembered that the stabilizing cable stays contribute additional flexion forces that must be taken up by the cantilever tendons. the support reactions on the rows of blocks A and B are as follows: RA = RB = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e In general. 5. • Furthermore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Each row of cable stays has a cross section of s’. we shall instead assume that cable stays are required. Fig. there are two stages to the calculation: • Firstly.32 – Forces applied to the cantilever without detachment from the support In the absence of cable stays and supposing that the cantilever does not lift off. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 120 septembre 2007 . the support blocks are dimensioned by verifying the compression on row B for type A and B combinations.

In fact. the stitching tendons are not subjected to any tension increase.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. the cable stays are made to work at 30% of their maximum capacity. due to the flexibility of the pier under rotation. Given that: k is the flexibility of the pier under rotation: k = h E Ip ( θ = k Mp ) with hp : Ip : E: θ: Mp : height of pier its inertia modulus of the pier concrete angle of rotation of the cantilever moment applied to the pier head unit l' E s s' K’ is the flexibility of the cable stays: K ' = with Es : modulus of the cable stays ΔTg’ and ΔTd’ are the variations in tension of the cable stays under the effect of the rotation of the cantilever.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift off. Furthermore. Finally. they only undergo very small delayed losses. On the other hand. The staying must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N RA = RB = N M − + Fi + Fi ' ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi + Fi ' 2 e In general. when stressed in this way. Their tensions are equivalent to: Fg’=Fi’+ΔTg’ and Fd’=Fi’+ΔTd’ As the cantilever is undeformable.6. the cable stays are subjected to variations in tension and the cantilever rotates to a certain extent. As the cantilever does not lift off from its support blocks. we have: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 121 septembre 2007 . It is thus necessary to verify that there is no movement from the blocks and that there is an acceptable amount of variation in the tension of the cable stays and in rotation of the cantilever. the tension increases are larger than those of the tendons. this low initial tension means that they can be used as temporary cable stays on other cantilevers on the structure.

6. we obtain the support reactions: R A = Fi + Fi ' + k e' 2 N M⎛ − ⎜1− 2 e ⎜ 2 K ' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ R B = Fi + Fi ' + N − R A However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide θ ≈ tg θ = 2 Δl g ' e' = −2 Δl d ' e' (Δl'g et Δl'd are the variations in length of the cable stays) Given that: θ ≈ tg θ = 2 K' ΔTg ' e' = − 2 K' ΔTd ' e' e' k 2 K' θ = k Mp and therefore: ΔTg ' = Mp and ΔTd ' = − Mp e' k 2 K' The moment Mp is expressed by: Mp = M − ΔTg ' e' e' + ΔTd ' = M − ΔTg ' e' 2 2 We can therefore determine the tension in the cable stays and the rotation of the cantilever: Fg ' = Fi ' + M θ≈ 2 K' k 2 K ' + k e' 2 k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 M and Fd ' = Fi ' − M k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 By expressing the equilibrium on block B. it is necessary to verify that: ⎛ k e' 2 M ⎜1− ⎜ 2 K' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ≤ ⎜ Fi + Fi ' + N ⎞ e ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ 5. 5. Fig. Thus. but the detachment of the cantilever from block A is permitted while limiting the rotation of the cantilever.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The calculation is similar.33 – Forces applied to the cantilever in the event of its detachment from the support on side A The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 122 septembre 2007 . this calculation is only valid if a block A remains compressed.2.

and gives Fd’. we must add the effect of the overstressing of the tendons in row A under moment M.33): Fg’ = Fi’ + ΔTg‘ + ΔTg1’ et Fd’ = Fi’ + ΔTd’ + ΔTdl’ On the other hand. we obtain the support reaction RB: RB = Fd’ + Fg’ + 2Fi +N + ΔTg B The rotation of the cantilever is the sum of the flexion rotations of the shaft and of the rocking around the support B: θ ≈ 2 Fg ' − Fd ' ( ) K'' + ΔTg K e e The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 123 septembre 2007 . Their tension can be expressed as: Fg = Fi + ΔTg If we note K as the stiffness of the tendons ( K = l ) Es s as the cantilever is undeformable. 5. B By expressing the equilibrium on block B. we have: Mp = M − Fg ' e' e' e + Fd ' + ΔTg 2 2 2 or by replacement in the expression of ΔTg’ : ΔTg ' = Mp k e' k e' k e' 2 k e e' =M + Fd ' − Fg ' − ΔTg 2 K' 2 K' 4 K' 4 K' ( ) which can be introduced into Fg‘ : e + e' ⎞ ⎛ Fg ' 4 K ' + k e' 2 = 4 K ' Fi + 2 k e' M + k e' 2 Fd ' − ΔTg ⎜ k e e' − 2 K ⎟ e ⎠ ⎝ ( ) The sum of Fg’ and Fd’ gives: Fg ' + Fd ' = 2 Fi ' + ΔTg K K' and the equilibrium of the moments on block B M + Fd ' e' − e e' + e e − Fg ' − ΔTg e − N = 0 2 2 2 The resolution of equations . the variations in the lengths of the tendons and cable stays are proportional: ΔTg1 ' = ΔTg K (e + e' ) 2 e K' et ΔTd1 ' = ΔTg K (e − e' ) 2 e K' Finally. Fg’ and ΔTg. the tendons in row A are overstressed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The additional terms ΔTg1’ and ΔTdl’ due to the rocking of the bridge deck on block B are added to the expression of the tensions in the cable stays (Fig. Therefore.

The external formwork consists of fixed metal shuttering.). is externally rectangular in shape (Fig. 6. the Viaur viaduct at Tanus for the RN88 main road. the bridge deck is cast in-situ.1.1 . The second part is dedicated to structures made from prefabricated segments. numerous bridges are built using this method in France and abroad. this includes a detailed description of the prefabrication plant and the equipment used for the transportation and assembly of segments (launch beam. the second phase features the rest of the transverse section and the crossbeam on pier. the Brisbane Bridge in Australia and the Hamana bridge in Japan.) and cantilever stabilization systems. low-bed semi-trailer.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 . 6. the second Genevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway and the viaduct over the River Loire at Cheviré.Construction using cast-in-situ segments When fewer than 350 to 400 segments need to be constructed. all of which are notable for their great span. the gussets gusset and the base of the webs. crane. The The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 124 septembre 2007 .Construction technology This chapter covers the technology required for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges using the cantilever method.2). the length and thus the cost of the external shuttering for the SOP are reduced by using the external formwork of the form travelers to encase the lateral sections of these segments. The first part deals with cast-in-situ structures and pays particular attention to the design of temporary structures (form work for segments on piers.1). Every year.1 - Segments on piers Segments on piers are always built using special formwork which is specially designed for this part of the bridge deck and assembled on a work platform attached to the tops of the piers (Fig 6. This applies to the vast majority of bridges. Notable examples outside of France include the Norwegian bridges of Stolma and Rafsundet. Segments on piers are usually built in two phases: the first phase includes the lower slab. Some of the largest structures built in recent years include the bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. etc. Fig.1 – Construction of segments on piers The working platform. fixed to metal inserts embedded on the top of the pier head unit. 6. form travelers etc. On certain structures with only one or two piers. It has cut-outs in the middle for direct access to the underside of the segment on pier and the top of the stability blocks and bearings. Therefore. The internal formwork is either built from traditional wooden shuttering or carried out using an articulated metal tool. 6.

1.2 – Work platform for segment on pier formwork 6. These categories are: • Form travelers with supporting beams situated above the upper slab Page 125 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . 6.1. Depending on the situation.2 - Standard segments 6. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide completion time for a segment on pier is 6 to 10 weeks for a traditional structure but may stretch to 15 weeks for structures which are very wide and/or with a very lon span .3). each of which performs a particular function: • A metal structure: used for attaching the form traveler and the future segment to the most recently constructed segment Metal shuttering panels: used for giving the concrete the required shape Gangways and work platforms: for access and to allow employees to work in all areas of the segment being built. form travelers include three major elements. 6. they are usually broken down into three families according to the position of their supporting beams or their main beams in the metal framework. • • Fig.1 – Background information about form travelers Standard segments are built using highly complex formwork equipment called form travelers (Fig.2.3 – General view of a form traveler Although a large variety of form travelers are available. this equipment is either built specifically for the site or existing equipment is adapted to suit the site. Fig. Like many other formwork tools.

those with supporting beams situated along the webs. we have decided to concentrate exclusively on the second type of form travelers. which are commonly used for very tall or wide segments.5). The second and third types of form travelers are often called “below-slab” models. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Form travelers with supporting beams situated along the webs of the box girder Form travelers with supporting beams situated below the lower slab. the first type of form travelers is no longer widely used in France. In the rest of this chapter. In France. especially because the absence of any beams at the base of the segment to be constructed makes it possible to insert a reinforcing cage that has been entirely prefabricated at ground level (Fig 6. which are ideal for segments of a standard height and width.4). they are regularly used in other countries (Fig. Fig. with supporting beams situated along the webs. the second type of form travelers. However. and form travelers with a smaller cross beam and launch or transfer beams. as opposed to the first type of “above-slab” form travelers. 6.5 – Upper clearance of an “above-slab” form traveler The third type of form travelers is only used in very specific cases. i. This family of form travelers can be split into two subgroups: those with an upper beam of the same width as the box girder. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 126 septembre 2007 . is by far the most commonly used. Fig.e.4 – Upper clearance of a “below-slab” form traveler Frequently used after World War II. 6.

6 – Principle of the framework for a form traveler with lateral beams • A large U-shaped structure situated under the bridge deck. supporting the formwork for the underside of the cantilevers and the external faces of the webs.6 shows the specific example of a C-shaped upper beam) Sliding beams. sometimes referred to as a transverse transfer beam. which is also a lattice girder. • • 6. the Digoin viaduct [DIEU 00]. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 127 septembre 2007 . In certain cases. horizontal bracing is added to these two elements and situated under the lower slab An upper crossbeam. called supporting beams. Described schematically. etc.6): Fig. at its free end (Figure 6.2 – Simplified description of form travelers with full upper beams In recent years. their metal framework consists of three large sub-structures (Fig. this structure consists of two large longitudinal lattice girders. these rods are highly prestressed in order to reduce the deflection of the U-shape under the weight of the concrete The sliding beams are supported on the front beam on the side of segment n+1 and attached to the upper slab via transverse hangers on the side of segment n-1. cabling and concreting on the other.1.3 – Operation of form travelers with full upper beam The design of the different elements described above takes account of two very different situations: the movement of the equipment on the one hand. In the static phase.2. 6. positioned on the upper slab of segment n-1. these form travelers have been used in the construction of numerous bridge decks and notably those of the second Pont Salomon viaduct [DEW 01]. along with the formwork for the lower slab. and the reinforcement.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. supporting the formwork for the internal surfaces of segment n and situated under the central part of the upper slab. and one vertical “front” beam.2.1. with segment n being the segment to be cast. the Tanus bridge [SER 98]. This girder is situated at the end of the form traveler on the segment n + 1 side. the connections between the three sub-structures are as follows: • • The upper beam rests upon the upper slab of segment n-1 The U-shaped structure is fixed to the upper beam via rods across the upper slab that has already been constructed. 6.

11). or via brackets extending out from the upper beam under the cantilevers (in which case. but this movement is stopped by wheels fixed to the rear of the supporting beams and blocked by the cantilevers that have already been constructed (Fig. the sliding beams are moved by tackle (Fig. Depending on the situation. the support conditions for these elements evolve in the following way: • • The upper beam still rests on the concrete The U-shaped structure is suspended on the upper beam.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the movement phase (Fig. 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 128 septembre 2007 . 6. it has a tendency to tip on the crown side.9). either via rods situated on either side of the box girder.7).7 – Static schema of the form traveler during translatory movement Fig.8 – Supporting beams rested on C-shaped upper beam ends The movement of the upper beam and the U-shaped structure is carried out using long-stroke horizontal jacks situated on the upper slab and pushing against the upper beam (Fig. 6.8) The sliding beams are cantilevered. As the centre of gravity of the U shape is situated well in front of the suspension plane.10) or by a second set of long-stroke jacks (Fig. Other methods are also used. 6. 6. and thus without crossing the upper slab which has already been constructed. 6. 6. • Fig. this is called a C-shaped upper beam).

6. 6.10 – Manually-operated sliding beam Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.9 – Upper beam with long-stroke jack (at bottom of photo) Fig. 6.11 – Sliding beam operated by a long-stroke jack The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 129 septembre 2007 .

situated along the two support beams.12) Longitudinal upper transfer beams. with two large support beams and one front beam. the suspension of the lower part of the form traveler from the ends of the upper beam requires very large and thus very costly upper beams. these form travelers consist of: • • • An upper beam without cantilevers. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 130 septembre 2007 . Very simply.1. with a construction cycle of between 48 and 72 hours per pair. 6.2.4 – Construction sequence for a standard segment Using the form travelers described above. as for the first type of form travelers Lower transfer beams.1 Dismantling of rods attaching U-shaped structure to the concrete of segment n . 6.1 Adjustment of the external formwork and formwork of lower slab Installation of lower reinforcement cage of segment N.2. only used in the movement phase (Fig.1 Installation of the upper reinforcement cage of segment n with its ducts and anchorages Casting of segment n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Standard segments of conventional dimensions and shapes are almost always cast in a single phase. it is thus increasingly common to use form travelers that are designed to move on a “transfer frame”. or sliding beams. For the construction of very wide bridge decks. usually in the form of lattice girders Sliding beams situated under the central section of the upper slab. the U-structure is now fully suspended from the upper beam Sliding of the upper beam and thus of the U-structure suspended from it Installation of rods attaching the U-structure to the concrete of segment n .1.2. the major stages in the construction of a standard segment are as follows: 1 2 Installation and stressing of cantilever tendons for segment n . which is positioned transversally.5 – Form travelers with transfer beams or launch beams For a large segment.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. very close to the webs.13) A main metal framework. which is virtually identical that used for the aforementioned type of form travelers. with its ducts and anchorages Dismantling of rods attaching the sliding beams and sliding of the latter Sliding and adjustment of the internal formwork Installation of rods fixing the sliding beams to the concrete of segment n . 6. supported at right angles to the webs (Fig.

in this phase.14). normally via long-stroke jacks Fix the main framework to the concrete and the upper beam Move the central section of the formwork forward Re-attach the lower transfer beams to the support beams. The main difference concerns the presence of lower transfer beams. Indeed. it is necessary to: • • Place the two upper transfer beams on the segment that has just been constructed Release the lower transfer beams and suspend them from the two upper transfer beams in order to form a frame capable of accommodating the main framework of the form traveler Release the main framework (both support beams and the front beam). • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 131 septembre 2007 . lower it onto the frame consisting of the four transfer beams and slide it into its new position.15). 6.13 – Upper transfer beam In the static phase (Fig. 6. Fig. which in this phase are fixed to the two support beams. 6.12 – Upper beam without cantilever Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the support and operating conditions for the form traveler are virtually identical to those for the first type of form travelers. separate them from the upper transfer beams and remove the latter. 6.14 – Form traveler in static phase The differences are greater in the movement phase (Fig. 6.

2. the Corniche bridge in Dole.1. efforts are often made on new projects to reuse equipment that was designed for a previous site. Considering the risks involved.) [CHU02]. [PAU 00]. this ratio is sometimes exceeded. 6. the lower beam and the deviator beams are built using wooden formwork with the concrete introduced through apertures left in the upper slabs directly above the beams (Fig. especially when a form traveler that was originally designed for a wider bridge deck is reused on a narrower project.in order to allow the inner core of the form traveler to slide freely. the Vecchio bridge.6 – Other comments regarding form travelers Other types of form travelers As mentioned at the beginning of paragraph 6.3 - Deviator segments The vast majority of deviator segments on composite prestressed concrete bridges are constructed in two phases: the standard section is built using the form traveler used for the standard segments. it is increasingly common to use mechanical couplers at the junction between the webs and the deviator beams. etc. Modification of form travelers for reuse Considering the very high manufacturing costs for a pair of form travelers.1. However. lateral shell elements or even hybrid structures (e. Special form travelers are commonly built for the construction of bridge decks with struts. Unfortunately. However. there are many different types of form travelers and the preceding presentation is far from exhaustive. the reinforcement bars awaiting insertion into the beams must be bent and then unbent . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 132 septembre 2007 . 6. of this guide. 6. the bridge over the Bras de la Plaine.16). significant modifications often have to be made to the form travelers in order to reuse them for the construction of a new bridge deck.2.requiring the use of ADX steel . It is now also possible to use special high bond strength reinforcing steels which are capable of withstanding a bending-unbending cycle without any loss of strength. 6. Weight of form travelers The weight of form travelers that are custom-made for a specific project is normally quite close to half of the weight of the heaviest standard segment.1. the engineering design and implementation of these modifications must be handled with the same care as for the original design and manufacturing phases. as the decks of large bridges have no standardized elements. With this method. making these operations unnecessary.1.15 – Form traveler in movement The form travelers used for the Pays de Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway are good examples of this type of form traveler [LAC 02].g.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

6.5 - Closing segments Closing segments are normally constructed in a single phase. If the formwork equipment is specially built. which allows them to remove their form travelers as quickly as possible. they are built using form travelers designed for these segments. 6. During the construction of the closing segment . this does not happen systematically. using one of the form travelers used for the construction of the standard segments. 6. and on certain projects. which is by far the most common situation. a special metal core was built specifically for these segments. the formwork equipment is positioned on simple supports at both ends of the cantilevers because it would not be strong enough to withstand the thermal effects that might develop in the continuously-rendered span. which can be broken down into small. It is important to prevent the development of significant thermal effects between the setting of the concrete – the moment at which the span becomes continuous – and the stressing of the first continuity tendons. Two to three days are required to complete a closing segment. If this is not the case. but if one of the standard form travelers is reused. easily transportable sections. contractors prefer to build special equipment for these segments.especially their rotation around the axis of the piers due to the effect of wind. segments built by over-cantilevering are similar to standard segments. the internal parts of the closing segments are encased using the original core. these support conditions pose no problems. If it is possible to remove the central core once the final segment is in place. It should be noted that the most common practice is to use standard form travelers for the construction of the closing segments. depending on the project. it is necessary to design and use a special inner core.4 - Segments built by over-cantilevering In terms of their construction. special precautions must be taken because the majority of these tools are designed to operate in an overhanging position. casting in the late evening is recommended during very sunny periods. Therefore.16 – Second phase in the construction of a deviator beams There are several structures in which the deviator beams were built in a single phase. Normally. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 133 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Therefore. However. as is the case for the standard segments. this system consists of longitudinal beams fixed to the overhangs of the last standard segment in each cantilever.1. The time of the casting of a closing segment must be chosen with care. On certain sites.1. In some of these structures. it is important for the aforementioned formwork equipment to be equipped with a system designed to prevent certain parasitic movements of the cantilevers .

by forming a loop in the shaft or on the foundation bulkheads.1. according to the piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. This is the most economical technique. In the upper section.18 – Construction using form traveler and temporary piling on the end section of an end span 6. it is possible to construct the end sections of the bridge deck on centuring towers.1 – Stitching prestressing Stitching prestressing is normally carried out by tendons. Fig.17 – Construction on centering of the end section of an end span However. if the natural terrain lends itself to this solution. This piling also helps to reduce flexion at the end of the bridge deck (Fig. 6.7 - Stabilization of cantilevers The following section contains technical information concerning the stabilization of cantilevers. these tendons may be anchored on the underside of the crosshead. 6. they must be anchored to anchor plates housed in the upper slab of the SOP.7. the anchorages are housed in The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 134 septembre 2007 . 6. End zones may also be built directly using the same form travelers used to construct the standard segments. 6. In order to limit the imbalance of the cantilever. The formwork for the bridge deck is then erected on this centering and the casting is carried out in sections of 3 to 4 m. Fig. 6. This supplements Chapter 5 of this guide.1.18) [DEM 02]. If this solution is impossible due to the density of reinforcements in these parts.17). a temporary piling is placed under the last standard segment on the abutment side and then caulked after the cantilever tendons associated with this segment have been stressed.6 - End sections In the majority of cases.1. the longitudinal profile of the natural terrain around the abutments makes it necessary to construct the end sections on horizontal centering resting on the abutment crosshead and on one or more temporary metal pilings (Fig. In the lower section.

However. 6.1.3 – Concrete blocks on sand boxes If the pier head units are too small to accommodate jacks and blocks side by side. Once the closing segment is in place. 6.21). Bringing the structure down onto the hardened caulking.19 – Concrete stabilizing blocks During construction. the support reaction of the bridge deck is gradually transferred from the stabilizing blocks onto the permanent bearings. In this way. 6.7.2 – Concrete blocks If the pier head unit is big enough to accommodate the bearings. the most economical stabilization system consists of temporary prestressing and hooped concrete blocks placed directly on the pier head (Fig. this solution is not to be recommended because any error in the positioning of the prestressing ducts could result in parasitic flexions in the bars or could even make it impossible to insert the bars.1. Thus. the sand is blown out of the boxes (Fig. This consists of: 1. Fig.20).19). the blocks are no longer in contact with the SOP and may be removed by a crane or other equipment (Fig.21). Some contractors also use bars to provide the temporary prestressing. the cantilevers are constructed on concrete blocks placed on sand boxes consisting of a removable metal shell filled with graded sand (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 135 septembre 2007 . the structure can be placed on the permanent bearings. A resin or mortar is inserted between these blocks and the SOP in order to guarantee the correct transmission of forces between these elements. the gap between the underside of the SOP and the top of the bearings is caulked as before. the cantilevers rest on the concrete blocks and the bearings are in place but not in contact with the SOP. 6. Caulking the gap above the bearings 3. Once these operations have been carried out. finally. 6. After the closing segment is in place. blocks.7. Raising the bridge deck using jacks 2. vertical forces are progressively and without jack transferred from stabilizing blocs to permanent bearings. stitching tendons and jacks simultaneously.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide prefabricated concrete blocks positioned on top of the SOP and removed after the stress has been released from the stitching tendons. 6. 6.

4 . thus resulting in structural and/or geometric disorders. these boxes must be dimensioned and designed to be undeformable. 6. the jacks are immobilized during the construction of the cantilevers. Whatever their type.21 – Detail of an open sand box A large variety of sand boxes are available. It should also be noted that the geometry of the cantilevers has to be perfect with this system.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. If not. 6. 6.Jacks Although this technique is rarely used. they are attached underneath the lower slab of the segments on piers or of the first standard segments.22). these pilings. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 136 septembre 2007 . it is also possible to construct a cantilever entirely on jacks. They must therefore be equipped with lock nuts. This technique has the benefit of using the same system to perform both jacking and blocking functions. For this to be possible. so that smaller pier heads can be used. 6. they are rectangular and four boxes are used per pier.7. On the simplest projects. it is possible to stabilize the cantilevers using temporary pilings placed either side of the piers (Fig. 6. because it is an “exact” match for an older design. it cannot be used to raise the bridge in case of problem. are attached on top of the foundation bulkhead. e.5 – Other methods When the structure is positioned quite low above the natural ground and if the pier head unit is too small to accommodate blocks. At the bottom. the sand boxes are proper cylindrical pot bearings and up to a dozen may be used per pier. which are usually metal tubes filled with concrete.1. because as a sand box can only be emptied. at the top.20 – Concrete stabilizing box placed on a sand box Fig.g.1. On more complex projects.7. this could lead to an uneven distribution of the support reactions between the sand boxes.

6. more and more contractors are using prefabricated cylindrical blocks whose only reinforcements are helical hoops with jointed coils which also form the external formwork of the prefabricated block (Fig. which was equipped with self-leveling pot bearings injected with silicone rubber [CHA 94]. rectangular blocks are still used when several tendons need to be anchored in close proximity to each other.23 – Cylindrical butt blocks The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 137 septembre 2007 .24). Today.23 and 6. However. In the interests of thoroughness. 6. for single tendons. As the cantilever tendons on older structures were often anchored quite low down.22 – Stabilization of a cantilever by tubular metal pilings For the second Saint-André de Cubzac viaduct. as their alignment was designed to reduce shear force. 6.8 – Prefabricated butt blocks In order to allow for the rapid stressing of cantilever tendons.1. these elements were situated in the webs of the box girder and were rectangular in shape. composite systems with blocks and cable stays were used tostabilize the cantilevers [JAE00]. we should also mention the second Gennevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway. 6. Fig. and still because of excessively small pier head units.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. contractors sometimes prefabricate the concrete which surrounds the anchor plates for these tendons.

as their operation relies on prestressing bars which cross the slabs close to the webs where the internal prestressing tendons are situated.Construction by prefabricated segments It is generally considered that it is more economical to prefabricate a bridge deck than build it in-situ when the number of segments to be constructed exceeds 350 to 400 units. The form travelers may also influence the positioning of the cantilever tendons and continuity tendons. particularly during the construction of the cantilevers.25 – Example of localized forces exerted by the form traveler on the box girder in the construction phase In conclusion.1. These forces usually lead to the localized strengthening of the reinforcements in the upper slab and in the top part of the webs (Fig. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. During the design stage for pretressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method using reused form travelers.24 – Cylindrical butt block in position in the form traveler 6.25). it is not possible to choose the position of these bars. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 138 septembre 2007 . as this increases the forces on the structure. Réaction de l'appui support de la poutre supérieure Précontrainte des suspentes des poutres latérales Fig. This must be accounted for in the design of the cantilever tendons.8 - Influence of form travelers on the dimensioning of bridge decks It is imperative for the weight of the form travelers to be considered in the calculations for longitudinal flexion. 6. It is also important to consider the forces caused by the form travelers when analyzing tranverse flexion.2 . 6. it is essential for the organization and methods department and the engineering firm to work very closely together during the construction surveys for a structure built by the cantilever method. 6.

longitudinally. 6. In order to maintain such high rates of production. 6. this method has definitively taken over from the costlier long bench method with an ogee mold (Fig. this function is carried out by a metal plate on the crown side and a by segment n-1 on the pier side.27 – Prefabrication using an ogee mold A prefabrication unit is a construction area the length of two to three standard segments. the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 [JAC 98]. 6.30). The lateral formwork consists of two metal sides.27) which also requires more space.26). the Avignon viaducts for the TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line. 6. which are manufactured on jigs by specialist workshops and are equipped with all inserts (ducts.26 – General view of the units of a prefabrication plant Prefabrication units have been preferred for the construction of segments for the past ten years or so. This is usually located next to the site. the Saint-André viaduct for the A43 highway in Maurienne. a lack of space close to the site or difficult access conditions may mean that there is no alternative to the in-situ construction of reasonably long structures. but it may also be situated several kilometers away. On the other hand. 6. in which the assembly of formwork and the casting of segments take place (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 139 septembre 2007 . A well designed unit produces one standard segment per day or one segment on pier every two days.29 and 6.2. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. 6. Thus. It can be broken down into two major areas: the first is used for the construction of the segments and the second is reserved for their storage (Fig. specific difficulties may raise or lower this threshold. the second A20 viaduct over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00]. They also take delivery of complete reinforcing cages. French bridges built recently using this technique include the Ile de Ré bridge. anchor plates. Fig. anchor rails). which results in a perfect joint between the different elements (Fig. Fig. the units are equipped with concrete distribution booms supplied by pipework or conveyors connected to a concrete plant on site.28). a very short contractual completion time or difficult climatic conditions may increase the appeal of prefabrication.1 - The segment prefabrication plant The prefabrication plant is set up on a site of approximately 2 hectares in area. Thanks to significant improvements in geometrical accuracy. and finally.

6.30 – Detail of a prefabrication unit (from left to right: the matched mold segment. internal formwork) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 140 septembre 2007 . 6. external formwork.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.28 – Breakdown of a prefabrication unit Fig.29 – Prefabrication units Fig. 6.

they may also be stored on two or even three levels. low-bed semi-trailer. The half-segments on piers are manufactured side by side in specialized units.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Depending on the number of segments to be constructed. Loaded is usually carried out by a gantry crane at the prefabrication site and unloading is performed by the assembly equipment (see 6. According to the project. the deviator segments are either built in specialized units or in the standard segment units.31). there may be between three and several dozen units in total. Segments on piers are always split into two in order to avoid the need for oversize transportation and hoisting equipment.g.1.31 – Semi-trailer used for transporting segments 6. etc. Depending on the sites and the chosen assembly mode. with the beams being constructed in the second phase outside of the unit in order to avoid having to modify the construction cycle for the standard segments. the closing segments are cast-in-situ rather than prefabricated.2 - Transportation of prefabricated segments 6. 6. initially from the prefabrication units to their storage area and then onto a mode of transport (barge. In general.2.2.2.3 above). The segments are stored on the prefabrication site for a period of one to three months. the prefabricated anchor blocks described previously (see 6.1 – Transportation by low-bed semi-trailer Tyre-mounted low-bed semi-trailers are the most widely used form of transport for segments (Fig. Some of these units specialize in segments on piers and abutments while the others are reserved for standard segments. after separation. and after verification of the segments. the segments are stored on just one level. by dredging [JAE 00].8) can be dispensed with.2 – Transportation by barge The segments can also be transported by barge if the structure crosses a navigable waterway or one that can be made navigable. The concrete is thus extremely strong when the segments are assembled. Considering the errors that they have to compensate forr.2. therefore. Fig. Specialized units are reserved for the construction of hinged segments. The segments are first transported by large traveling gantry. If necessary. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 141 septembre 2007 .2. the semi-trailer is either driven onto the portion of bridge deck that has already been constructed or onto a track marked out on the ground in line with the structure to be built. 6.2. e. 6. if these are included in the design of the bridge deck. They are also reduced to several tens of centimeters in length. they are transported to the units specializing in standard segments for use as matched molds for the first standard segments of each cantilever.).

but as it is usually designed to be used on several consecutive sites.3 - Assembly of prefabricated segments 6. This self-propelled handling device is supported by the bridge deck and piers and therefore is free from almost all of the constraints relating to the crossing (Fig. Fig. Examples in other countries include the access viaducts for the second Severn crossing in England [COM 96]. all of which are made of metal (Fig. the most notable examples include the Sylvans and Glacières viaducts on the A40 highway [BOU 90]. made from sections assembled using prestressing bars Two front and rear lattice towers.32 – Standard launch beams Structure of standard launch beams Standard launch beams can be broken down into around ten elements. acting as secondary supports Two bridge cranes traveling on the lattice girders and used to manoeuvre the segments.2. 6. In recent years. 6. acting as main supports Two front and rear legs.3-1 – Assembly using a launch beam Background information Launch beams are the most widely used method for assembling prefabricated beams in successive cantilever segments. The initial cost of a launch beam is very high. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 142 septembre 2007 . In France.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. numerous bridges have been built using this method. 6.32).2. it can be paid off over a long period. the access viaducts to the Prince Edward Island viaduct in Canada [COM 98] and numerous urban bridges in Thailand and Hong Kong.34): • Two triangular-section lattice girders of between 3 and 5 m tall and 100 to 250 m in length according to the beams. the Ile de Ré Bridge. the Boulonnais and the Rogerville viaducts on the A29 highway [JAC 98] and the Saint-André bridge on the Maurienne highway (A43).33 and 6.

6. 6. This transverse movement is required for the construction of curved sections. The lattice towers can also slide inside their supporting cross beams. A standard launch beam weighs between 300 and 600 tonnes.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 143 septembre 2007 . The completion time for its construction is approximately one year and it costs between 1. The bridge cranes are equipped with spreaders which are used to position the segments as closely as possible to their final position.33 – Cross-section of a standard launch beam Fig.34 – Main constituent elements of a launch beam The lattice towers and legs can be moved longitudinally along the lattice girders using to a system of capstans. both longitudinally and transversally and for any type of geometry. for example.5 and 3 million euros.

35 – Different stages in the sequence of operations for a launch beam During the construction of a cantilever. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 144 septembre 2007 . Special launch beams Without going into too much detail. the launch beam rests on its two lattice towers and the front leg. Once both half-SOPs have been assembled.35). so that it does not obstruct the assembly of the standard segments. This method. When the bridge deck consists of two parallel bridge decks. On some sites. it is worth mentioning certain launch beams that have been specially designed or used by French companies in France or abroad. the two lattice towers are placed on the transverse rails straddling the central gap. This method is also used when the bridge deck consists of two box girders joined in the middle and when each box girder is built and assembled on-site before the longitudinal grouting of these box girders is carried out. adjusted and stitched. 6. 6. it is very common for the adjacent cantilevers of the two decks Fa and Fb to be constructed simultaneously. In the case of box girders joined side by side. To this end. which allows the launch beam to cross over from one bridge deck to the other and thus to assemble cantilever Fa immediately after cantilever Fb.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Sequence of operations for the assembly of segments During the assembly of the segments on piers on support Pn. In general. the two symmetrical segments S and S' are normally assembled one after the other. which consists of synchronizing the release of the two S and S' segments by both carriages. This operation can now begin (Fig. this technique improves the speed of the assembly and prestressing of the segments. the rear leg is removed and the front lattice tower slides in place on top of the SOP on pile Pn. reduces the stresses imposed on the supports by eliminating non-accidental imbalances. The beam can then be moved forward so that the rear lattice tower is positioned at the end of the cantilever centred on Pn-1. this also significantly reduces the differential creep between the two box girders. Fig. a “symmetrical” assembly method has been used. The front leg is then placed at the end of the lattice tower on the Pn+1 side.

Fig. If the structure crosses an expanse of water.36). 6. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A cable-stayed launch beam was used on the construction of the Ile de Ré Bridge.36 – The cable-stayed launch beam used on the Ile de Ré viaduct The launch beam used for the construction of the H3 highway viaduct on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian archipelago in the United States. 6.38 – Assembly using a land-based crane The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 145 septembre 2007 . This solution helped to keep the lattice girders to a reasonable height despite the length of the spans to be crossed (110 m). the assembly is carried out using a tracked crane with a lattice boom of the same capacity (Fig. the crane constantly moves from one end of the cantilever to the other. These beams were connected by a bridge crane. 6. featured two independent upper beams.38). the assembly is carried out using a 200T to 500T lattice boom crane mounted on a barge (Fig. This also played an important role in helping to reduce wind effects (Fig. 6.2 – Assembly by crane If the piers are not too tall and it is possible to use heavy equipment at the foot of the bridge deck. If the structure crosses land. This arrangement made it possible to assemble the segments on two parallel bridge decks of different levels and separated by a very wide central gap.3. 6. 6. 6. which significantly reduces the initial investment costs.37). Given the order of assembly of the segments.37 –Assembly using a river crane Fig.2. prefabricated segments can be assembled using cranes. each of which was positioned on a separate bridge deck.

the segments were assembled using a gantry crane operating on both sides of the bridge deck (Fig.3 – Other assembly methods In addition to the launch beam and the crane. This method has been used on at least four sites in France: on the Falaises viaduct on the A20 highway. on the Ottmarsheim bridge. closer to home. it is better to offer up the segments in a position close to their final position. the segment can be guided by joining frames and the spreader can therefore be very simple.40). The same system was used for the Khurays Road viaducts in Riyad and. which requires much more complex spreaders with transverse and/or longitudinal adjustments. on the A10 highway bridge over the River Loire at Tours. Several structures have been built using this technique in recent years. 6. occupied a totally virgin site. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 146 septembre 2007 . in Hong Kong.39 – Winch assembly principle (on the site of the Arrêt-Darré viaduct) As the structure for the West Kowloon Expressway project. If the transverse slope or longitudinal profile is very pronounced. The most notable examples are the Arcins viaduct over the River Garonne in Bordeaux [ABE 94]. If the transverse slope and longitudinal profile are minimal. 6.3. Fig. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Whatever type of crane is used. 6. When each segment can be positioned on the ground in line with its final position. where it was used to raise whole segments and on the Sermenaz and Arrêt-Darré viaducts ([SER 90]. a spreader is positioned between the hook of the crane and the segments. it is possible to “winch” segments or parts of segments up to the bridge deck using lightweight metal girders.39). 6. the second viaduct for the A10 highway over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00] and the "central" and “Expo" viaducts of the bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. other methods exist for the assembly of prefabricated segments.2. where it was used to raise sections of segments.

6 - Sections on the abutment side of end spans As for in-situ casting. the extremities of end spans on the abutment side are usually built on falsework. 6. For such short joints.5 - Mid-span closures The mid-span closures between cantilevers are constructed in the traditional manner. in the web uprights or in the slabs (Fig 6.2.2 MPa must be exerted by these bars. A normal stress of approximately 0. contractors often use strip formwork (Fig. the segments being assembled can be lashed in place before the cantilever prestressing is brought into operation. by casting an in-situ joint of approximately 20 centimeters in length.2. It is dismantled after the stressing of the permanent tendons and the hardening of the epoxy adhesive.42 – Construction of a closing segment with strip formwork 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.41). 6. 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 147 septembre 2007 . 6. In the case of prefabricated segments. This lashing generally consists of Ø36 mm bars anchored in blocks at the top and bottom of the webs.42).2.4 - Temporary lashing In order to release the assembly equipment as quickly as possible. the corresponding segments are positioned and assembled on falsework. which guarantees the correct distribution of the adhesive and helps it to set. blocks or jacks are placed between the bottom of the segments and the top of the falsework. In order to allow the movement necessary for perfect joints at the crowns.41 – Anchor block for a lashing bar Fig. while preventing any decompression at the end of the segments.40 – Assembly using a gantry crane 6. 6. Fig.

as the loads applied to the cantilevers are limited to the weight of any work platforms that might be used. under normal operating conditions the speed of construction reaches 12 m or 4 segments per day.9 - Speed of construction The instantaneous construction rate on a site using prefabricated segments varies significantly.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. and for the B3 South viaduct to the north-east of Paris.10 - Influence of methods on the dimensioning of structures Assembly using a crane or gantry crane creates very few longitudinal forces on the bridge deck. 6. no more than 3 m per day are completed. This technique was used for the construction of the Baldwin viaduct in the USA [FUZ 94]. If conventional blocks are used.8 - Stabilization of cantilevers As mentioned in the part of this chapter devoted to cast-in-situ segments. as it is difficult to correct the geometry of the cantilevers once the segments are joined.2. as for the construction of bridge decks using cast-in-situ segments. the stabilization techniques for bridges made from prefabricated systems are the same as those described in section 6. the design and construction of bridge decks made from prefabricated segments using the cantilever method requires a very close collaboration between the engineers of the engineering and design department and those of the organization and methods department. regardless of the assembly method used.6 above. caulking must be applied between the top of the blocks and the bottom of the segments on piers in order to correct any construction defects or errors in the assembly of these parts.1. 6. If the assembly uses a launch beam and/or requires the use of a low-bed semi-trailer. it is important to perform a thorough analysis of the positioning of the handling hangers and the internal cables in order to prevent any interference between these elements. At the start of the project. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 148 septembre 2007 . the choice of a stabilization system for cantilevers is highly dependent on the size of the pier head units. Under these conditions. The average speed is therefore 6 m per day. it is also necessary to consider the localized forces created by this equipment when dimensioning the non-prestressed reinforcements of the segments. As for construction using cast-in-situ segments. If the segments are assembled using a launch beam or winch. However. an epoxy adhesive is spread on the pier-side face of the segment being assembled. 6. For localized flexion. To be exhaustive. it is worth mentioning that cantilevers are sometimes stabilized by the launch beam itself. the cantilevers are often built on supports featuring jacks equipped with lock nuts.2. it is important to verify that the reinforcing of the segments is capable of taking up any transverse moments that develop during the storage and handling of the segments.7 - Bonding of the segments Before assembly.2. greater forces develop in the bridge deck due to the weight of this equipment and the segments being handled and must therefore be allowed for in the design.2. This adhesive is spread by hand just before assembly to a thickness of approximately 1 mm. However. In conclusion.

including the certification of companies. If both of the previous types of inspections have been carried out.On site Monitoring This chapter covers the monitoring operations and particular precautions that need to be implemented during the project. they will receive only minimal coverage in this chapter. In the process. other monitoring operations performed prior to construction will be developed in the following subchapters. during and after construction. depends to a considerable extent on the care that is taken over the development of the geometric framework. It places particular emphasis on topics relating to the construction of bridges by the cantilever method. 7. Some of these monitoring operations will not be covered in this chapter. 7. Different aspects of these inspections will be described in the following sub-chapters. it provides a number of definitions which help to specify the vocabulary to be used for clarifying the exchanges in this field. Measuring point A measuring point is a point to which coordinates are attributed in order to monitor relative or absolute movements. it extends its scope to the monitoring that must be performed and the particular precautions that must be taken during the construction of all types of large engineering structures. The concepts of measuring points.2 .Background information On-site monitoring mainly relates to quality.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7 . However. and the Quality Assurance Plan itself. Inspections carried out during construction are designed to verify the correct application of the technical specifications and compliance with the rules of good practice. quantities and the monitoring of deadlines.1 . Monitoring prior to construction is primarily designed to evaluate the methods which are likely to be used by the contractor and which will go some way towards defining some of the specifications of the contract. frames of reference and networks are thus defined and are clearly explained in the following section. the monitoring of the materials used and process controls.Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme). post-construction inspections will be a formality. the inspection of the SOPAQ (Schéma organisationnel du plan d’assurance qualité . the monitoring of plans and design calculations. In Appendix 3. reference points. This chapter only covers qualitative monitoring. Three categories of measuring points can be defined: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 149 septembre 2007 . Therefore. including the inspection and approval of materials.Inspection of geometry The quality and accuracy of the topographic surveying that is carried out before. Post-construction inspections are designed to ascertain whether the initial objectives have been achieved. Technical Document 4 entitled “Instruction technique sur la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art : topométrie" (Technical instructions for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures: topographic surveying) is currently being prepared by Sétra.

the orthonormal reference point is defined by: • • • The Ox axis following the tangent to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. hole. This conventional system. Two types of networks may be used in the topographical monitoring of civil engineering structures: absolute reference networks or relative measurement networks. Oz) associated with a point of origin O. Network A network is an arrangement of points determined by a set of planimetric and/or altimetric measurements.1 - Inspection of pier geometry Obtaining the correct bridge deck geometry involves considering any data that might have a bearing on the geometry of the piers and using reverse deflections to negate any drift that these data are likely to produce. which is used to identify the position from any point in space.2.1. Oy. Reference point A reference point is the association of a system of orthonormal axes and a point representing the origin of the system of axes and whose movements are to be measured.2. in relation to a previously defined network. is used to calculate the position of the measuring points.1 – Accounting for vertical settlement The following effects must be carefully evaluated: • • The settlement of foundations under the action of the selfweight of the pier and the cantilever The elastic shortening of the pier due to the same actions Page 150 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . which is the working reference point established by the surveyor at the start of the topographical operations. The Oz ascending vertical axis. 7. 7. The Oy axis following the normal to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. Frame of reference A frame of reference is a system of orthonormal axes (Ox. paint mark. These points are usually marked out on the site. leveling stud A specific point in relation to a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure and designed to accommodate accessories positioned by forced centring. As a general rule.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • A visible point on the structure: rivet head. Topometric operations consist of determining the positions of certain points whose movements will be monitored. punch mark A point given by a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure: target.

000 tonnes and a vertical shortening of around 4 centimeters including creep. 7. this is a difficult operation requiring careful preparation. when a curved cantilever is built. In the case of relatively small structures. span lengths of approximately 180 m and a bridge deck of 20 m wide may result in downward loads of approximately 20. The bridge deck is normally supported by bridge bearings which operate between concrete support blocks. it is necessary to examine the effect of the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier by the cantilever under construction. rather than building a perfectly straight pier. However.2 – Accounting for other phenomena In the case of a rectilinear bridge deck. the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier causes flexion in the pier shaft which can alter the position of the pier head unit. Indeed. it is important to remember that a thermal gradient may act upon a pier shaft and cause a horizontal shift of the pier head unit capable of affecting the measurements of movement during the construction of the cantilevers.2. This approach guarantees a successful closure of the span. provided that the estimate was correct. The concrete must have consistent characteristics and the conditions of application must be the same throughout all stages in the construction of the pier shaft. Piers of a hundred or so meters tall. Therefore. This effect increases in proportion to the height and/or flexibility of the pier.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The effect of shrinkage and creep due to the weight of the cantilever. they increase in proportion to the height of the piers and the length of the spans.1. An inaccurate estimation of the vertical settlement of the pier may be compensated for by adjusting the thickness of these elements. Creep tests should therefore be performed on the chosen formula of concrete in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the deformations in the structure. 7. the construction tolerances inherent to any structure may lead to shifting in the horizontal plane between cantilevers. • The accuracy of the result is dependent on the awareness of the rheology of the concrete used.2. because the weight of these segments remains offset in relation to the plane containing the pile axis and tangent to the curve of the horizontal alignment of the bridge deck The construction of the following segments will gradually straighten out the pier until it becomes vertical. it is necessary to anticipate this movement by building in a pre-deformation in the opposite direction.1. However. it might be possible to consider the settlement of the foundations only. Each point has a specific function The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 151 septembre 2007 . The construction of the cantilever will have the following effects: • The pre-deformation will be accentuated for the first segments. While the aforementioned effects may be small for small bridges.3 – Measuring points to monitor geometry Several types of measuring points can be positioned on the structure in order to help the surveyor monitor the geometry. In the case of curved bridge decks.

this operation provides a good estimate of the position of the target point. The limitations of targets concern the mediocre accuracy of the measurements and the fact that their bonding fails after a few years. The horizontal plane tangent to the top of the sphere supports the sight. on uneven sites. Furthermore. If repeated from three markers. The prism must be sited and angled in such a way as to reduce the damaging effects of dust.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Rivets A rivet is a measuring device with a rounded head. It is used to monitor the leveling of a horizontal plane. Therefore. depending on the type of model used. A sufficient number of rivets must be used in order to monitor the elastic curve accurately. They are used for monitoring verticality in particular. This inexpensive tool must be made from a hard-wearing. A retroflective target gives a third component in space: namely the distance from the observation point to the measuring point. In certain cases. it can be difficult to position three markers with clear visibility between each one. bad weather and birds. exploitable data are only obtained if a sufficient number of medallions is used. A prism gives a direct measurement by defining the sighting angle and the distance to the measuring point from a single known reference marker to which it is permanently directed. As for the rivets. it is important to make sure that the type of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the target in question. It features a rounded upper support surface. Prisms Prisms are a little more expensive and are positioned on a bonded base in the form of a corner plate that allows the angle of the prism to be adjusted. This is particularly important if a bi-directional phenomenon is being monitored. Medallions are used to monitor the levelling of a vertical plane and cost approximately the same as the rivets. undeformable material designed to resist the effects of weather and impacts on the site. Medallions A medallion is a piece of rustproof metal which is fixed to the structure. as this may vary from one model to another. Targets Self-adhesive targets are discs marked with concentric circles which are attached to bonded metal elements or directly onto the concrete itself. Targets can be used to measure both angles of orientation of a viewing axis from a known reference marker. provided that this distance is no more than approximately 100 meters. this component can increase the accuracy of the calculations. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 152 septembre 2007 . This type of measuring point has numerous advantages: • • • Greater accuracy for a measuring point which is difficult to access Saves time for the surveyor Single measurement reduces the risk of error.

7. It is important to predict the exact extent of the deformation of the cantilever element in order to determine an adequate reverse deflection which will be implemented in the prefabrication unit if the segments are prefabricated or in the form travelers if the segments are cast in-situ. After the closure of the different cantilevers.2 - Monitoring the geometry of the bridge deck A cantilever consists of several segments. as this may vary from model to model. when the structure becomes continuous and hyperstatic. the deformation of the cantilever is due to: • • • The weight of the concrete beam The weight of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The cantilever prestressing (Fig. which are manufactured. the bridge deck continues to deform due to the following effects: • • • • The interior and/or exterior continuity prestressing The removal of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The removal of the temporary piers and the temporary cantilever stabilizing systems The erection of superstructures. The effects of concrete creep and the delayed prestressing losses are added to the instantaneous deformation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide As with targets. it is important to check that the modele of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the prism in question. assembled and stressed at different ages.1). 7.2. using a material whose characteristics and composition may vary over time. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 153 septembre 2007 . When the structure is isostatic.

Therefore. For a more detailed consideration of geometric monitoring. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 154 septembre 2007 .2 – Concreting curve for a standard bridge built by the cantilever method Following this. it is always difficult to predict and control the deformations resulting from the construction of a cantilever with accuracy. the frame of reference is absolute and relates to the pier. 7.2). The construction of a new segment makes it necessary to adjust the form traveler considering its position in space in relation to the overall geometry of the cantilever. This difficult problem obviously supposes that the actual position of the segment on pier in space is accurately known and is as close as possible to the theoretical position. the deformations due to concrete creep and delayed prestressing losses continue to develop. • The modulus of elasticity for concrete varies according to the age of the load and the duration of this load. 7. For segments which are cast in-situ using a form traveler. a different frame of reference applies to each of these methods of construction. The calculation of this reverse deflection must account for the probable values of the different applied loads: • • The density of the concrete must be realistic for the calculation of selfweight The coefficients of friction for the cantilever tendons in a straight line and on curves will only increase very slightly The weight of the form traveler and the site equipment situated at the end of the cantilever will be evaluated as accurately as possible. Indeed. It is therefore necessary to build in a reverse deflection in order to compensate for these different types of deformations (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1 – Concreting curve for a single cantilever Fig. it is important to distinguish between cast-in-situ segments and prefabricated segments. which is also globally referenced. 7.

This deformation assumption may include the deflection of the form traveler’s main girders if they were load tested during the acceptance inspection. This phenomenon must include the form traveler’s suspension bars. The only effect not to be considered in the engineering firm’s calculation is the deformation of the form travelers.2.3.e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For segments which are cast in a prefabrication unit. i.e. the frame of reference relates exclusively to the preceding segment. P5 P6 P1 P2 P3 P4 Fig. i. close to the webs. the alignment of the formwork equipment and horizontal adjustment of the form traveler are verified by theodolite. which will be the first measurement reference to be determined on site. When a new segment is constructed. The form traveler is now considered to be properly adjusted in relation to segment Vn-1 and the following operations are carried out: • • Inspection and adjustment of the leveling and horizontal alignment of points P5 and P6 Inspection of the levelling of the cantilevers and adjustment of points P1 and P4 if required The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 155 septembre 2007 . points P1to P4 shown on Figure 7. This pyramid is used to determine the dimensions for the adjustment of four key points on each segment joint: both cantilevered ends and both ends of the lower slab. When the form traveler has been moved forward in order to build segment Vn.3 – Key points for levelling adjustment Two additional points will be chosen on site in areas which seem to be the least affected by secondary deformation. namely points P5 and P6 in Figure 7.2. The other points will be verified in accordance with this reference. Adjustment of the form traveler The adjustment of the form traveler is carried out by localization using localized reference points in relation to the segment on pier. This indicates the theoretical dimensions to be obtained for each stage in the progression of the cantilever and for each segment joint. and before the final tightening of its lashing onto segment Vn-1.3. 7. 7. it is necessary to adjust the prefabrication unit in relation to the end of the segment that is postioned as a matched mold. The construction of the first segment will incorporate a deformation assumption which will then be adjusted in accordance with the measurements taken after casting. which is repositioned globally.1 – Bridge decks cast in-situ using form travelers Monitoring of levelling The monitoring of the levelling of segments under construction is based on a document drawn up by the engineering firm called the "construction pyramid". These dimensions incorporate all of the forces that apply to the cantilever under construction.

an additional levelling inspection is carried out at the level of the mask. and is repeated at each joint of the segment. Two corner irons are bolted onto the mask.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Adjustment and monitoring of the leveling of points P2 and P3 defining the height of segment V Inspection of the spacing of points P2 and P3. the risk of error becomes greater the closer we get to the closing segment with the cantilever already constructed The simultaneous monitoring of the geometry of the support is essential to ensure that the surveyor is always capable of relating the pyramid to the absolute dimensions of the objective to be achieved. it is necessary to carry out a general inspection of the levelling of the cantilever. It is important to pay great attention to the consistency of the measurements taken on site and the information given by the construction pyramid. Once the form traveler has been adjusted.e. If differences go uncorrected on the first cantilever. The internal formwork of the form traveler is adjusted: • • At the back. This upper face is kept clear of the concrete during casting. The levelling measurement is carried out from segment Vn. all of the reinforcements for the segments can be installed. The operation must be completed as quickly as possible. The corner iron is unbolted so that the mask can be removed. in order to ensure that the measurements are taken under identical load conditions. This operation begins as early as possible the following morning. The corner iron becomes the measuring point for monitoring the deformations of the cantilever. Particular attention must be paid if heavy equipment such as a mobile crane is present on the cantilever that has already been constructed. The values measured are recorded on the monitoring documents and are compared with the values given by the construction pyramid. corrections can be made to the adjustment of the form traveler for the construction of segment Vn+1. These are marked with a punch and are integral with the concrete of the upper slab close to points P5 and P6. by placing it against the concrete of the previous segment At the front. Monitoring the geometry Once the casting of the segment Vn has been carried out. The levelling measurements are completed before the form traveler is moved forward and before the prestressing is tightened. A cantilever that is subjected to a temperature gradient behaves like a highly sensitive bimetallic strip. which has just been concreted to the SOP. By analyzing the deviations that are observed (which is always a difficult operation).of the width of the bottom slab. The upper face of these corner irons is horizontal and is situated 20 mm underneath the extrados for protection. Additional measurements can be performed in other phases if necessary. by altimetric adjustment in relation to the external formwork at the level of the supporting beams (points P7 and P8). i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 156 septembre 2007 . This is the best time of day to avoid the manifestation of parasitic forces due to temperature. Finally. Any correction of the measurements must be performed after examining the assumptions and the data used to create the construction pyramid.

7. This means verifying: • • That the longitudinal axes of the units follow the same alignment. This point could consist of a measuring point on the structural steelwork of the unit or a graduated rule permanently attached to a concrete post.2. as it involves constructing the independent segments on the ground in such a way that they can be assembled in space in accordance with the established geometric data (Fig 7. a number of precautions must be taken to facilitate the work of the surveyor and increase its reliability.2. it should be mentioned that for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using form travelers. There is no point in accounting for this dissymmetry in the calculations if the form travelers are always adjusted on the basis of the measurements made in the morning.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 157 septembre 2007 . On site.4). this sequence of operations could be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the cantilever. which reduces the size of the alignment corrections That the support for the theodolite and the level are correctly in line with the prefabrication axis and that these appliances are placed slightly above the upper level of the concrete of the segments That the reference point used for measuring the levelling is separate from the mask. which is called the prefabrication axis That the points which are used to measure the alignment and to mark out the prefabrication axis are adequately spaced and perfectly visible from the units That the theodolite support frame is not exposed to hot sunshine. however.2 – Bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments During the setting up and commissioning of the prefabrication units in the prefabrication workshop or plant. • • • Adjustment of the match-cast segment This is a complex topographical problem. the sequence of operations always starts on the same side of the cantilever in general.

consiting of the mold base. the sides.28 of this guide. placed on jacks used to adjust the angle and position according to the geometric data. The measuring points may also consist of small plates capable of housing a mini-prism.2. the mold or the unit itself. better still. this is fixed and its assembly requires great precision A second mobile part: the matched mold. consisting of the previous cast segment. • • The choice of adjustment points is thus of paramount importance. which leans against the mask on the one hand and the matched mold on the other.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The recommended configuration for these corner plates is shown in Figure 7. it requires no adjustment A fixed part. 7.5: • • The adjustment points for levelling are situated in the areas least affected by deformations The adjustment points for alignment follow the segment’s true axis. in theory. wings and the mask. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 158 septembre 2007 .1 and Figure 6.4 – Adjustment of the match-cast segment A prefabrication unit is described in Paragraph 6. Their positions are identified by corner plates bearing a punch mark or. Three parts of this unit can be considered from the perspective of adjustments and monitoring: • An initial mobile part: the core or internal formwork of the segment. with a hemispherical indentation into which a ball bearing can roll.

An additional precaution is taken for structures with a curved longitudinal profile or a variable transverse slope: the distance from the measuring points to the joint and the axis of the segment shall be identical from one segment to another. wedges.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Accuracy is of the utmost importance because the accuracy of the geometry of the cantilever to be built depends upon this adjustment. 7. 7. it is also important to provide secondary alignment measuring points which mark out the entire width of the transverse axis of the segment (Fig. as slight deformations may affect the base of the theodolite (due to strong sunshine or instability). During the manufacture of the segment in the prefabrication unit.6). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 159 septembre 2007 . etc. to make fine adjustments to the position of the segment. Adjustment of the segment on pier The segment on pier is particularly difficult to adjust. Topographical inspection in standard construction cycles The construction of a standard segment Vn requires three topographical inspections to be carried out on segment Vn-1: • • • Mapping of the levelling points and the prefabrication axis on Vn-1 in the prefabrication unit Adjustment of Vn-1 in the match cast position Mapping of Vn-1 in the match cast position after casting of Vn. as any impacts could compromise the accuracy of the measurements taken It is advisable to check both alignment measuring points systematically before and after each operation.5 – Adjustment points for a prefabricated segment It is essential to position the points in such a way as to avoid any possibility of them being moved at elevation when the casting is completed and to set them back slightly from the joint in order to protect them. bolts. • The final inspection concerns the recording of measurements of length. In order to obtain a precise adjustment in space. it is possible to use angled blocks. Two precautions must be taken during these operations: • The surveyor must take the measurements before the removal of any of the formwork.

thus leading to a fault in the geometry of the cantilever during the assembly process. The remaining spaces between the joints must be caulked before the segments are prestressed. 7. These inspections obviously incorporate the adjustment dimensions that result from the measurement of the existing segments and are applied to the next segments to be manufactured. the solution might be to disconnect one or more segments and carefully place wedges in the joints with the segments securely lashed together.e the longitudinal profiles given by the position of the rivets.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. namely the alignment curve and the two levelling curves i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 160 septembre 2007 . 7. are used to monitor and control changes in geometry. their calculation is only approximate and uncertainties remain with regard to the accuracy of the geometry.6 – Alignment markers on the segment on pier Fig. In order to track the changes in the actual geometry of the cantilever. To counteract this. The monitoring may reveal a systematic lateral drift if the stressing of the cantilever tendons always starts from the same web. In the event of a major fault. The effects of the weight and bevahior of the concrete. Method for monitoring changes in geometry Base curves. taking care not to create obstructions in the sheaths that pass through the modified joints. This illustrates the importance of ensuring the accuracy of the geometry for prefabricated segments.7 – Adjustment of the segment on pier at ground level These measuring points are used to make adjustments at ground level through the observation of both axes of the segment (Fig. base curves and the monitoring of lengths.7). Although it is essential to incorporate these reverse deflections. simultaneous digital and visual inspections are carried out in the form of graphs. Exceptional corrective actions It is possible that a mistake in the prefabrication might be overlooked on the prefabrication site. 7. prestressing and superstructures are anticipated and compensated for via reverse deflections calculated by the engineering office. the order in which the cantilever tendons are stressed can be alternated.

10 below shows these relative values for a structure designed according to these two methods. 7. By modifying the angular positions of the segments in small angles of α1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.2.9 for the example in question. the cantilever may be constructed in such a way that once completed. it is necessary to analyze each phase in the construction of the cantilever and to determine the deformation curve for each cantilever element. phase-byphase. In each section. Fig.8 – Deformations phase-by-phase Fig.. An example of a five-segment cantilever is shown in Figure 7. etc. it has a satisfactory longitudinal profile. as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7.2. The line 1-2-3-4-5 represents the envelope of the different deformations. α2.3 – Comments concerning both techniques Comparison of deformations For the construction of both cast-in-situ and prefabricated segments.9 – Correction of the profile to compensate deformations It is interesting to compare the relative importance of the deformations and reverse deflections affecting prefabricated and cast-in-situ segments.8 hereafter. 7. the modified profile will effectively compensate for the future deformation. or the trajectory followed in space by the end of the cantilever at each phase of construction. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 161 septembre 2007 .

Whatever the circumstances. 7. The advantage for a cast-in situ cantilever is that corrections are made after each casting. the deformations affecting a cast-in-situ cantilever will normally be two to three times greater than for an equivalent prefabricated cantilever. If the entire cantilever is incorrectly aligned. However. This may require the modification of the adjustment pyramid for the adjacent cantilever if it has not yet been constructed. The lashing of the last cantilever segment to the opposite cantilever. if the cantilever is simply supported on the pier. provided that a sufficient thickness of concrete remains over the reinforcements The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 162 septembre 2007 . If the cantilever is embedded on its pier. or the loading of the higher cantilever may partly rectify this misalignment. Inspecting the geometry of the competed cantilever Once completed. such a manoeuvre is ill-advised. this inspection must be carried out as early as possible in the morning. If the errors are significant.10 – Comparison of deformations for prefabrication and casting in-situ The design assumptions given in this figure show that in the majority of cases. it is possible to improve its geometry to a certain extent by using hydraulic jacks to alter the position of the segment on pier after the stitching tendons have been slackened off. the misalignment can only be compensated for over the length of the closing segment. Corrections are therefore less likely to be needed when the cantilever is completed. the general longitudinal profile will have to be rectified. the geometry of the cantilever must be inspected. as it has the disadvantage of modifying the stress state that was designed for the structure. the following actions may be considered once the whole structure is completed and continuous: • It may be possible to plane off the humps. the difference between the methods will be greater if a cycle of less than one week is used for the in-situ casting of the segment and if the prefabricated segments are stored for more than two weeks. If the curves corresponding to all of the measuring points reveal localized irregularities. This involves plotting curves corresponding to all of the measuring points in order to obtain a geometrical representation of the area obtained.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

It is essential that the chosen profile and the profile that is actually obtained are clearly defined in an appropriately referenced document. This may be adapted throughout the decades in which the structure is in use. a compromise can be sought: the target profile is considered to be midway between the profile when the bridge is commissioned and the long-term profile. After this time. • 7.e.2. it is important to start by loading the supports.2. After the application of the waterproofing. If the theoretical longitudinal profile were to be obtained at the start of the bridge’s service life. Although load tests involve no more than a simple observation. Carrying out the measurements When test trucks are used. The theoretical reference axis during construction must therefore be specified. If the structure consists of a large number of almost identical spans. they can then be filled with resin. 7. a policy of aiming to achieve the theoretical profile in the long term would result in a structure that might be uncomfortable at the start of its service life. Both of these elements must form part of the as-built file and shall be included in the zero-point file for the structure. supposing that the profile has been accurately determined in advance and allows for thermal effects. a number of special precautions must be taken. A second layer will then be applied. a first layer of asphalt will be applied and then planed in order to modify the profile. deformations continue to affect the bridge deck.2 – Monitoring the deformation of structures subjected to loading tests For non-standard structures. creep continues to affect the structure.1 – The compromise between commissioning and infinite time For 15 to 25 years after the bridge is commissioned. Therefore. the evolution of delayed deformation is normally no longer significant. the testing of bearing sections can be limited to just a few spans. corresponding to the development of creep within the structure. On the other hand. but this would improve with age. these tests shall involve the systematic testing of all of the characteristic sections of the structure.3. The disadvantage of such a process is that it limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date An extra layer of asphalt may be sufficient to level out the irregularities. A zero-point measurement is then taken which is used to accurately determine the height differences between the supports and the middle of spans.3. this would lead to a gradual decrease in user comfort over the years. However.3 – Monitoring the geometry of the finished structure 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • If hollows exist. but this technique also limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date. the extent of which varies according to the sections in question. for example. they must first be outlined by a trench of at least 10 mm. this is illustrated by a lowering of the reference axis. For the majority of structures. at least the sections on supports and the sections of greatest flexion on the span. The corresponding topographical measurements are recorded for information purposes. i. The comfort of the structure can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the surfacing. in the first part of the life span of the structure. Therefore.2. it is important to carry out a load test on the middle of each span. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 163 septembre 2007 .

they should be as realistic as possible as physical quantities will be measured. In particular. which conforms to the value recommended by the "Guide des épreuves des ouvrages routiers" (Guide to Testing for Road Structures) currently being prepared by Sétra. if on-site incidents have led to modifications.1 times the probable values / 0. This period can be estimated at 10 minutes after the trucks have been positioned. This range. it may be beneficial to perform precise levelling measurements from inside the box girder as this provides good measuring conditions and there is no interference from the trucks. Laser sightings may also be performed. Instead. the measurements cannot be taken until the trucks’ engines have stopped. The measurements are taken from points marked by studs or rivets with rounded heads which have been carefully positioned and provide a single point of contact with the base of the levelling rod. which also allows the thermal effects to be dissociated from the combined effects of the test loads. The design assumptions must not be too conservative. Before performing the measurements under load. corresponds to a design-based approach that is more accurate than the current methods.8 times the probable values). it is necessary to wait for the structure to stabilize.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For box girder bridge decks. • • • If the deflection values are unsatisfactory. abnormal changes in the deflections measured for a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 164 septembre 2007 . Analyzing the results The precise analysis of the results requires an adequate knowledge of the unladen thermal behavior of the structure is established. The deflection values obtained during the tests are considered to be satisfactory when the measurements taken coincide with the authorized range for the values calculated (1. allowing for the uncertainty of the measurement. it is important to account for: • • • • • • • Deformation due to shear force in the beams The contribution of the superstructures to the rigidity of the structure The law of the actual behavior of the materials derived from the testing of test samples The rigidity of the supports. mainly with regard to rotation The skew of the structures The curvature of structures The cracking of parts operating as reinforced concrete and the reduction of torsional inertia due to the cracking The effective width of the slab on supports The probable prestressing value (using the results of the measurements of transmission factors) for partially prestressed structures The actual geometry of the structure. the results must be examined with a critical eye in order to find an explanation for the anomalies: non-linearity of the behavior. In any event.

External inspection of the supporting beams using load testing to examine their elastic behavior and evaluate their remanent deformations.3. The Owner decides whether or not the deflections are satisfactory according to the Construction Manager’s recommendations. This important point should be clearly explained in the STC (Special Technical Clauses). SOCOTEC. This inspection must produce a general report. confirming that all of the inspections required for the approval of the equipment have been performed and guaranteeing that the construction is consistent with the design. In all cases. A new calculation must establish a range of theoretical values to be monitored on the structure. based on realistic high and low assumptions made for the significant physical values. after performing a global analysis. It must be rounded off by a definitive acceptance report attesting to the conformity of the equipment i. etc. • External inspection by the Construction Manager who verifies that all documents guaranteeing the traceability of the different inspections are available in accordance with the company’s Quality system Manufacturer’s inspection of the equipment in order to verify the conformity of the different manufacturing stages External inspection of the conformity of the assembly of the form traveler on the segment on pier. 7.Inspection of temporary structures It is increasingly common for temporary structures to be listed in the first category under the terms of Article 41 of fascicule 65A of french CCTG. It is important to emphasize that the COP cannot. working platforms and protective structures. either at the design stage or during construction on site.e. replace an external inspection agency approved by the French Ministère du Travail (Ministry of Labour). are sequenced in the following way: • External inspection of the design calculations for the dimensioning of the form traveler focusing particularly on the load-bearing elements. 7. VERITAS. • These inspections are carried out by an organization approved by the Ministry of Labor such as french APAVE.1 - Inspection of form travelers The different phases in the inspection of a form traveler. the engineering office draws up a summary report.3 . This does not include scaffolding. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 165 septembre 2007 . its fitness for use. to examine the welds after loading and to measure and monitor the deflections. carried out by an approved organization upon completion of the assembly and before casting. from its design through to its use. under any circumstances.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide non-standard section. Article 42 of this fascicule defines the role of the Chargé des Ouvrages Provisoires (Head of Temporary Structures – COP). etc. • • It should be emphasized that an inspection by an approved organization involves much more than a simple visual inspection of the apparent condition of the equipment.

the inspection of bearing capacity may be performed while assuming that the value of the modulus at the plate Ev2 is 350 times greater than the permissible soil pressure. it is essential to define the maximum number of times the high-tensile steel bars forming the hangers can be used.3. it is important to mention that the contractor shall perform an internal inspection of the adjustment of the equipment after it has been moved forward and before the reinforcements are installed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 166 septembre 2007 .3 - Centering Chapter IV of fascicule 65A of the french CCTG covers temporary structures. in opposition with the insertion of jacks. it is important to be particularly attentive to the risk of differential compaction due to the presence of a large number of supports and to the effects of successive compactions on the geometry and stresses. Plate load testing provides a model.3. although this concerns the use to which the equipment is put rather than the form traveler itself. and then by measuring how far it sinks down. • Before the first time the form traveler is properly used.5).3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection by the COP of the conformity of the assembly of the equipment on the segment on pier. This number shall be determined prior to the start of work on site (see paragraph 7. In the case of vertical types of centering.2 - Trial assembly of a form traveler This does not refer to an assembly carried out by the manufacturer of the equipment in the factory. This procedure will also be internally monitored on a systematic basis every time the equipment is moved forward.3.3. but to a “test” assembly that is normally carried out on site. in order to test the supporting beams. 7. For typical cases concerning 1 m x 1 m sole plates. with centering specifically described in Article 45. performed upon completion of the assembly and before casting Inspection by the COP of the validity of the procedure used to move the form traveler forward.2 – Inspection of equipment The inspection of the equipment used in the centering must be covered in the company’s QAP.1 – Testing of bearing capacity of the soil The testing of the bearing capacity of the soil for centering must be covered in the company’s QAP. 7. It is essential to verify the soil that will support the centering. Finally. 7. The resulting deflections in these elements are verified under loads which increase progressively until the nominal load corresponding to the forces encountered when the equipment is in service is reached. with compaction limited to 3 mm and for soils with no underlying soft layers. 7. but the design verifications for centering are expressed in the form of pressure exerted on the soil. These beams are assembled on a flat surface. To this end. This involves determining a value for the modulus of the soil by subjecting it to the action of a plate whose diameter and stiffness are normalized according to a standardized procedure. it is possible to perform a static plate load test defined by the standard NF P 94-117-1 of April 2000. which are the main structural components.3.

The inspections must target the areas of greatest risk in the centering structures. posts and girders Verify the convergence of the joints in the centering structure Makes sure that the horizontal forces are correctly taken up.3. When inspecting the centering. thin particles of oxide) 0. two factors must be considered: the wear of the equipment and the extent of any corrosion. the following areas and inspections must be covered: At the base of the centering: • • • Verify that the manufacturer’s recommended runout ranges for the jacks are not exceeded Check that drainage has been installed on the platform in order to channel the runoff Make sure that improvised extensions and wedges are not used.3 – Inspection of the erection The inspection of the centering erection must be covered in the coontractor’s QAP. At the top of the centering: • Follow the same precautions as at the base The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 167 septembre 2007 . The value of this coefficient can be as low as 0. In the same way. Fascicule 65A (Article 4 of Appendix B. in addition to Article 44) uses a coefficient α in order to reduce the bearing capacity of the equipment.85 Major corrosion: the element cannot be used The two coefficients α and β are accumulated. the COP must certify that all of the elements used in the centering are fully functional.95 the color of the element) Notable corrosion (small. the corrosion of the equipment due to its different uses and periods of storage is determined in the calculations using a reduction factor β equal to: Corrosion condition β Absence of corrosion 1 Slight corrosion (presence of oxide modifying 0. The wear of the equipment relates to its use on other sites. Therefore. Any makeshift repairs could soon lead to a catastrophe. Therefore.3. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide It is important to highlight the dangers that could be caused by any laxity with regard to the inspection of the equipment in use.75 for equipment with more than 10 consecutive uses. In the intermediate section: • • • Inspect the bracing on towers.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verify that the structural beams or girders are correctly centred in the forks Make sure that any risk of accidental relative movement is avoided above the metal-to-metal contacts. particularly in tropical regions. 7. Drinking water usually conforms to the standard. At the level of the planking: • • • • • Check that the load transmission areas have been stiffened Verify that there is no irregular and/or complex stacking Check the reliability of the support conditions Verify the existence of lateral limit stops if there is a danger of slippage Make sure that bracing is fitted in all directions.4 – Inspection of deformations It is important to inspect any deformations of the centering throughout the entire casting phase and to monitor the compaction of the supporting soils. under specific climatic conditions.4 . The use of seawater is strictly prohibited.1 – Inspection of the mixing water The mixing water must conform to the standard P 18-303 of August 1999 which prescribes appearance tests. 7.4. 7.4. chemical tests and defines the testing methods. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 168 septembre 2007 .1 - Inspection of the components Article 23 of fascicule 65A describes the inspection procedures for the constituents. A simple way to monitor this compaction consists of attaching vertical bars under the centering which meet a fixed independent marker at ground level.3. The following additional points should also be noted. the frequency of these tests and how to evaluate the conformity of the water being tested.3.Inspection of concrete Article 76 in fascicule 65A of the french CCTG defines all of the elements involved in the inspection of the manufacture and application of concrete. 7. drinking water may not conform to the requirements of the standard.1. The monitoring of deflections is designed to: • • Verify whether the final target profile will be obtained Detect any anomalies that might be indicative of an imminent accident. However.

7. Sétra’s "Guide pour la rédaction des pièces écrites des marchés" (Guide to the Drafting of Written Documents for Contracts) concerning the "Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity" lists the clauses to be inserted into the written documents for the DCE (Document de consultation des entreprises) [Contactor Tender Document] and the contracts.4 – Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of the aggregates Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of aggregates is a complex task which is covered in detail in the “Recommandations pour la prévention des désordres dus à l’alcali-réaction" (Recommendations for the Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity” published by the LCPC (Central Public Works Research Laboratory) and in the appended document "Guide pour l’élaboration du dossier carrière" (Guide to the Creation of the Quarry File). or Na20 equivalent. • External inspection tests are carried out by the Construction Checker and its laboratory.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. The contractor’s external inspection consists of an acceptance inspection and possibly spot checks corresponding to tests laid down in the standard P 18-540 of October 1997.2 – Monitoring of cement The acceptance inspection involving the rapid identification test defined by the standard P 15-466 of August 1983 is used by the contractor to verify the conformity of the cement at every delivery. particle size. these tests may involve the following operations: • • • Measurement of specific surface Determination of strength after 2 days Measurement of anhydride sulfurique SO3 content.1.4. tricalcium aluminate C3A content.3 – Inspection of aggregates and additives Internal inspections must be carried out at two levels: by the producer and by the contractor. or shrinkage test for cements exposed to the action of deicing salts Measurement of hydration heat. External monitoring tests in the framework of the standard P 15-300 of December 1981 enable to contractor to confirm this conformity.4. or shrinkage test if these characteristics are significant.1. Precautionary samples are thus taken. Inspections of storage conditions for the aggregates and additives may be added to these. Their main elements are: • For sands: Sand equivalent.1.4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 169 septembre 2007 . For example. etc. Furthermore. sulfide and chloride content • For additives: expiry date. fineness. 7. hygrometry • For chippings and pebbles: particle size and cleanliness • For aggregates: sulfate. characteristics specified by the standards.

As the problem appeared relatively recently. this temperasture range does depend on the type of cement used. its existence was only reported in 1986. If it has external origins. This sulfate reaction of endogenous origin. major structures are usually placed in category C. These consituents are required for slowing down the setting of the concrete.4. It is noticed that there is a greater number of parameters than for alkali reactivity. Different authors suggest different upper limits. Indeed. it bring sulfates in the cement into play. Problems. It is true that it remains a limited phenomenon. it is caused by industrial emissions. which seems to prevent interstitial dissolution. However. This indicates that it is a more complex. with a limestone aggregate. analyses and precautions The problems observed have three underlying causes: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 170 septembre 2007 . A low sulfate and alkali content allows for a higher temperature limit. Temperature increases are equally important. The type of aggregates must finally be mentioned. for example). This is a known effect and the recommendations of the standard NFP 18-011 of June 1992 help to control it via the choice of cements and the concrete formulas.1. sulfates and alkalis. ettringite formation in concrete seems to be a more complex phenomenon. which modifies the hydration reactions of concrete. such as those exposed to differences in water level. Indeed. concerning problems in prefabricated parts which look similar to those caused by alkali reactivity. a different type of pathology. Moisture is essential to the process. only NR (non-reactive) or PRP (potentially reactive to pessium effect) aggregates shall be used in their construction. the presence of sea water or the action of constituents of the soil in contact with the concrete (this applies to gypsum. 7. in fact. has been observed in many countries. as certain application conditions and certain current trends appear to be favorable to its appearance. Parts of the structure which are subjected to alternate wetting and drying. alkali content and reactive silica content. Parameters While the alkali reactivity of concrete is governed by the three main parameters of moisture. The composition of the cement is important in terms of the contents of three of its constituents: tricalcium aluminate. As a consequence. the cement mixture has better adhesive properties.5 – Ettringite formation in concrete Presentation The deterioration of concrete due to sulfates has been known about since the beginning of the 20th century. as it only concerns around 10 structures in France at present. and their recommendations relate more to a precautionary approach than to objective studies. are all the more vulnerable. However. although France has only recently started to pay serious attention to it. If the problem has internal origins.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Considering these two documents. but which are. it wouild appear to be important to summarize the current levels of knowledge about this problem ([DIV 98] and [DIV 00]). though less frequent phenomenon. It may have internal or external origins. less is known about it.

which requires testing and recommends very low temperature limits.1 – The main information test The aim of the information test is to verify that. corresponding to a very precise phase of construction. Based on the current state of knowledge. Indeed it would not be reasonable to allow concrete temperatures to reach 80 or 90° C as this could risk reducing the life span of our structures. There are certain statutory texts which cover this problem at least partially: • Standard ENV 13 670-1 of September 1999 (construction of concrete structures).4. This risk seems to increase for the construction of bigger parts. 7. The control procedure is detailed in Article 77. particular care should be taken to choose less exothermic cements. Paragraphe 8. a period in which the temperature of the concrete is higher Use of cements that are too rich in high-risk components Use of highly exothermic cements.2. the clinkers in modern cements are ground increasingly finely.1 of fascicule 65A provides information about the nature of this test. but in a wet environment every precaution should be taken to ensure that the temperature of the concrete does not exceed 65 to 70° C and to opt for cement with a low alkali content.4. It is particularly useful for verifying the concrete resistance to frost and the effects of deicing salts. 7. under actual hardening conditions. particularly in the casting program or prestressing program. The control test is used to verify the conformity of a batch of concrete. where necessary. France is far behind many other industrialized nations. in a dry environment. is above a predetermined value fcj . Article 77. especially with regard to ambient temperatures.4. the strength achieved at an early age j. This value fcj is establishjed after analysis in order to make sure that the strength of the concrete us compatible with the construction procedures set out in the QAP.2 of fascicule 65A. • In this respect.1.2 - Information tests 7. Indeed. it would seem to be advisable to check the moisture levels of the environment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 171 septembre 2007 . rendering the mixture particularly volatile and subject to large increases in temperature.5 "Cure et protection des bétons coulés" (Curing and Protection of Cast Concrete) limits the temperature in large parts to 65°C The European pre-standard Pr EN 13 369 of 1999. • • This demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct type of cement. the risks are obviously very small.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Construction systematically carried out during the summer. in this case.6 – Suitability test and control test The suitability test is used to verify the likelihood that the nominal formula of the concrete and its implementation conditons satisfy the requirements of the contract in terms of its strength and the application conditions.

etc. e. tensile strength (if this was not evaluated in the main information test). a genuine guarantee of durability. it will have the same mechanical strength.2. this is shown by the fact that the hydration levels of the concrete will be identical. 7.2. these tests could be considered to be control tests.3 – Conditions of execution The test samples used fore the information tests shall be obtained and conserved in accordance with the provisions of the standard P18-405. the tensile strength value ftj is just as important as fcj A temporary or permanent loading operation.3 of the P18-504 documentation booklet.4.6 of fascicule 65A. In physical terms. conforms to the expected values.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example.g. A third type of information test may be performed in order to obtain information about characteristics that are not specified in the contract such as the modulus of elasticity. long-term strength. these tests shall concern: • • • • • • Removal of formwork from pier shafts Removal of formwork from pier crossheads Removal of formwork from lateral overhangs on the bridge deck cross section Removal of formwork equipment from inside the box girder Removal of falsework from parts of the structure built on centering Stressing of certain tendons (generally cantilever tendons): in this case.3 - Maturometry 7.1 – The principle of maturometry Maturometry is based on the existence of a relationship between the quantity of heat released by concrete when setting and its mechanical properties. 7.4. to verify that the compactness of the concrete. In this case. • The information test may also have other aims. creep effects.4.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 172 septembre 2007 .5 and 6. 7.2 – Additional information tests Additional tests are normally carried out as of the 7th day in order to make sure that the required level of strength at is likely to be obtained at 28 days. The concrete shall be cured in accordance with the recommendations of Article 74.4. If the same type of concrete is subjected to different thermal conditions but releases the same amount of heat since the start of the manufacturing process. and of articles 1.

4 – Requirements for the use of maturometry The method requires the use of an activation energy value that corresponds to the type of cement.2 – Practical evaluation of strengths The reference curve is established by measuring the strength of standardized test samples stored at 20°C on precise dates. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Arrhenius’ Law is used to express the changes in the strength of concrete according to a temporal parameter: the concept of equivalent age.4. extra fillers). 7. and to the external ambient temperature.4.g. In addition. one test sample shall be verified using a conventional information test. It also shows the advantage to measure the maximum temperature obtained in the middle of the concrete. This illustrates the advantages of maturometry. The apparent activation energy of the concrete must be known for this last operation.3. The significant reduction in the number of test samples required is also an advantage of this process. thermistors linked to a central readout station are implanted in the concrete of the most recently cast part of the structure and the temperature is recorded at regular intervals. For every five findings by maturometry. This activation energy will then be confirmed or adjusted by referring to the strength/equivalent age curves obtained from the analysis of test samples. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 173 septembre 2007 . although it is essential to use a sufficient number of samples to guarantee the validity of the measurements. it is necessary to: • Transform the actual age of the concrete into an equivalent age (time required for the concrete to develop the same degree of hydration under isothermic conditions at 20° C) • Read off the strength value corresponding to this equivalent age on the reference curve for the concrete.3. Therefore. which is independent of temperature. This depends on the type of cement used and is adjusted according to the temperature. 7. because this process is not affected by different temperature histories and only uses the total quantity of heat. Furthermore. The concrete is characterized in an instrinsic manner using a “reference curve”. there is a risk that the strength measurements obtained for these samples may not be representative of the actual situation.4. the validity of the laboratory compression test is affected by the method used to remove the samples from their container. the temperature histories of the test samples used for the information tests are very different to those of the concrete that forms part of the structure. which shows the level of strength obtained in the concrete at the different positions where the thermistors have been implanted. The thermal monitoring of the concrete in these test samples is used to calculate an equivalent age of this concrete at the desired reference temperature on each of the test dates at which the strength is tested until breaking.3. This evaluation can be performed directly by the maturometer. To exploit the data from these measurements.3 – Advantages of maturometry In practice. to any additives used (e.

in an isothermic box kept in the laboratory. The inspection of the application of concrete must focus on the following points: • • • Cleanliness of the bottom of the formwork Availability and condition of the equipment required The release of pressure from the jacks used to adjust the matched mold for segments prefabricated in the prefabrication unit The conformity of the composition of the concrete shown by the information given on the delivery slip. instruments will be placed in the area in which the last mix of concrete was added. Remote temperature sensing elements are used to evaluate the mass effect in the webs.4 - Inspecting the application of concrete 7. Fig.Application For the construction of cast-in-situ segments. which helps the maturing process. the first choice to be made is to determine the critical areas of the structure in which the evolution of strength is representative of the operation to be tested. It is also necessary to position thermocouples so that information can be obtained for parts of the bridge deck box girder. it will therefore be necessary to allow a sufficient period of time for this process starting from when the concrete formula has been specified (3 to 4 months may be required). the planned sequence of operations generally starts at the same side of the cantilever. externally. e. and measure heat losses in the upper slab close to the edges.4. in the laboratory. If the aim is to determine the age at which the concrete is strong enough to resist the removal of formwork. for example.1 .4.11 below.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These tests are performed on samples stored at different temperatures.11– Maturometry: an example of a layout for temperature sensing elements 7. It should also be noted that the maturometer must be recalibrated at regular intervals (see manufacturer’s instructions). for example.4. It is essential that the delivery slip shows the following information: the differences between the theoretical weight and the actual weight of the constituents expressed as a percentage.g. These can be positioned according to the plan shown in Figure 7. Calibration may be quite a lengthy process. 7. etc. As far as the measurements themselves are concerned. This sequence of operations can be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the balanced cantilever. and the water content of the aggregates so that the total quantity of water can be recalculated • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 174 septembre 2007 .

casting phases. • • • Fig. The main precautions to be taken are summarized in Figure 7. possible use of thermal protection devices. It is particularly important to make sure that vibration is not carried out in the immediate vicinity of prestressing ducts. and treatment of construction joint surfaces Check that any thermal devices are operating correctly. The slump test is difficult to perform when the concrete is in liquid form: the wattmetric readings of the output of the mixer motor are therefore an important source of information and these readings must be attached to the delivery slips. These tubes can be shortened as the operation progresses. therefore minimizing the risk of segregation.13 below. Figure 7. cleaning of starter bars. As a precaution.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The slump test and the estimate of entrained air. 7.12 above shows the main precautions to be taken.3): maximum time from the end of the manufacturing process to the completion of casting. These consist of expanded metal mesh cylinders which are securely attached to the reinforcements. vibration. height of drop. An addtional precaution to be taken for the casting of very tall segments is to use tubes which are designed to reduce the height from which the concrete is supplied. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 175 septembre 2007 . guide channels can be used in conjunction with the vibrating needle. The presence of this information will be verified during the acceptance inspections Compliance with the casting plan for the application of the concrete (fascicule 65A. For high-quality casting. Article 75. the vibration of the concrete must be carefully controlled in order to eliminate segregation and voids.12 – Precautions to take for the casting of segments It is particularly important to comply with the casting plan. floating of the upper face of the lower slab for which formwork was not used At the end of casting: surface condition.

special provisions must be made to produce concrete at a temperature of approximately 15 to 20°C.13 – Precautions for the vibration of concrete The final inspections for the application of concrete consist of: • Verifying that the required levels of strength have been obtained before authorizing the removal of formwork Performing a general inspection of the segment. 7.4. Therefore the test piece will be artificially subjected to the full range of potential problems. This may be reduced to a half-test segment for economic reasons.tome 1" (General Construction Procedures-Information Document 1) by J. In this case. These provisions are described in detail in "Procédés généraux de construction . a specific identification number is painted onto the concrete of the web inside the box girder on the side of the mask. Boiteau. This element must be truly representative of the difficulties that are likely to be encountered on site. this segment will normally be at least two meters long in order to include a prestress anchor block. Therefore. This element must be manufactured under actual site conditions in order to give an accurate picture of the problems encountered in the casting of segments. Mathivat and C. The recommendations of Article 74.2 – The test segment It is always essential to construct a test segment. Upper and lower limits of 5°C and 40°C must not be exceeded during the manufacturing process.M. Geoffray [GEO 96].4. and "Le béton hydraulique . either at the extremity of the cantilever or in the reception area for a prefabricated segment. • After the inspection of a prefabricated segment in the reception area.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3 of fascicule 65A must be followed for the treatment of construction joints. Special conditions apply to the manufacture and application of concrete if the temperature recorded on the site falls below 5°C or rises above 25°C. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 176 septembre 2007 .mise en œuvre" (Hydraulic Concrete – Application) by J. 7.

The application of the concrete requires completely leak-tight formwork. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 177 septembre 2007 . While this constraint improves the durability of the concrete. Formwork must then be erected on the extrados of the slab.5 - The application of high-performance concrete A certain number of specific precautions must be taken with regard to the manufacture and application of highperformance concrete. The concrete plant must be capable of handling silica fume. using small diameters and reduced center distances between the bars. Vigilance is therefore required. because as the water contained within the concrete has been used up in the hydration process. Therefore. The curing of HPC must also be more meticulous and more intense than for ordinary concrete. as the slightest loss of laitance could result in segregation. drying) The setting behavior of the fresh concrete in lower slabs without upper formwork The practicality of the implementation of internal ducts.4. The floating and levelling of the surfaces must be carried out by teams of workers aware of the viscous and self-adhering behavior of this type of concrete. HPC is more sensitive to the effects of drying. vibration. unambiguous and fully understood by everyone working on site. particularly in problematical areas It will also be verified that the physical references for the adjustment of the alignment of prestress tendons are accurate. the angle of the lower slab on segments close to the piers could be steep enough to cause the concrete to slide down the slope. In the case of a structure with variable inertia. transverse single-strand tendons and reinforcing bars. it also increases the risk of cracking in areas where shrinkage could be obstructed. It may also be beneficial to use concrete of different consistencies for the webs and slabs. This is particularly important for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using the cantilever method. appearance.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The following points will be verified in particular: • • • • Conformity of the facings (color. and staff must be properly trained. When transported in the truck mixer. with the associated risks of spillage. A specific procedure must be developed for the construction of the test segment. the concrete behaves like a fluid. Full-scale testing is required to verify this. there is practically no more free water. • Differences and changes in temperature over time may also be recorded. Slump test measurements are neither appropriate nor accurate for fluid concrete. 7. it is important pay attention to the proportion and design of the non-prestressed reinforcements. In view of the fluidity of HPC. etc. the consistency of the fresh concrete must be inspected on site by measuring its spread on a flow table in accordance with the P 18-432 and NF EN 12350-5 standards. Samples may also be extracted for subsequent testing.) Casting methodology (application.

the hanger is be scrapped – or better still. dirt. the hangers must be new at the start of construction on site.Inspection of formwork The inspection of the formwork on the form traveler or in the prefabrication unit covers the following points: • • • Numbers and indices of the plans used (which must be approved plans) Cleanliness of the work area and flushing out of the formwork bases before installation of reinforcements Systematic verification that any laitance deposits on construction joint surfaces have been purged and cleaned prior to the closure of the formwork Stability of centering. compliance with reinforcement bar list. If there are any doubts. In particular. cleanliness.Inspecting the reinforcements The following list describes the main inspections to be performed concerning the reinforcements for a segment prior to casting: • • Inspection of the numbers and indices of the plans used Acceptance inspection of the reinforcement bars: existence of the approval certificate. it is very important to scrupulously observe the procedures governing the movement of formwork tools and systematically inspect the supporting and attaching elements.). the hangers will be reused no more than 30 to 40 times and they will be automatically replaced when this limit is reached. The rigorousness of the inspection procedures reduces the likelihood of accidents.5 . rust. elimination of traces of laitance and oxidation. dimensions. type and number. 7. cut into one metre long pieces and replaced. The number of uses could be painted on the hanger after each operation in order to monitor their use. leak-tightness of different seams and foam strips.6 . length and bending Page 178 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . stem clamps and of the rigidity of the equipment Condition of the equipment: structural condition. Checks shall also be performed to ensure that bolts are easy to tighten and that they act squarely on the plates. systematic visual inspections of the hangers are carried out in order to check for straightness and the absence of impact marks or welding spots.straightness. absence of distortion at the edges which form joints. Furthermore. • • • • • For the construction of cast-in-situ segments. condition of the bars (straightness. and oiling of outer skin Tolerances of panels for unevenness and the conformity of the dimensions in relation to plans Hydraulic jacks positioned under the segment acting as a matched mold . flatness of panels. Needless to say. welds Verification of conformity to the reinforcement plan: diameter. squareness of application of load and performance of lock-nuts Conformity of inserts and fixings in relation to the plans: positioning.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.

7.1 . and also in Articles 4. It is better to use frames to make stiffening trusses. rigidity and strength of the entire reinforcement cage with a view to casting. • It is important to pay particular attention to the hooped reinforcements required due to the application of concentrated forces. These conditions must also comply with the provisions of Article 3-5 of Circular no. The bar chairs should not be used to improve the rigidity of excessively flexible cages.7.3 of Circular 94-34 of April 19 1994). 7.1. 86-64 of September 4 1986 concerning the delivery conditions for parts and the checks to be performed. The test segment (see 7.Prestressing Manager).2 of fascicule 65A and Article 71. coating and setting. with the minimum deviation allowed from this position.1 to 4.2 . The accuracy of the positioning of the hoops on the prestress anchorages must be carefully inspected. it is important to verify that the reinforcement cage is not inverted. 7.2 of its supplement.4. absence of contact between these bindings and the near wall.7.Inspection of prestressing Prestressing is carried out under the supervision of a specially qualified manager called the CMP (Chargé de la Mise en Précontrainte . Article 95. factory-oiled prestressing cable reels must be stored in enclosed and well-ventilated premises.1 of fascicule 65A describes the CMP’s role.7 .2 of its supplement.1 - Inspection of materials 7. Titre II. The scale of the plans used for these areas must be large enough to allow for the precise management of the positions and sizes of the reinforcements. The storage conditions for prestressing elements must be rigorously inspected and particular attention should be paid to the following points: • The hard steel.Storage Storage procedures are defined in Article 92. The delivery of all of the components of the anchorages must be protected according to the provisions of Article 92.1. For parts whose formwork has one or two lines of symmetry but whose reinforcements are asymmetrical. whose expertise is recognized by the Construction Manager and approved by the distributor of the prestressing process used.2) will provide important information about the feasibility of these arrangements. Three-dimensional modeling may be used for certain critical areas.1. 7.2 of the supplement to fascicule 65A.1. solidity of binding of blocks which must be clean and made from concrete. length of overlapping between the reinforcement bars and the starter bars Inspection of stability. The inserts designed for the structural element in question will also be inspected.3 of fascicule 65A and Article 76. They shall be placed on battens or pallets in order to keep the rims off the floor The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 179 septembre 2007 .4. The renewal of the protection is carried out in compliance with the stipulations of Article 66. The centering on the trumplate must conform to its theoretical positioning.Procurement The delivery conditions for the prestress reinforcements conform to Article 5 of fascicule 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection of implementation: position.

14 and 7. They are also placed on battens or pallets to avoid contact with the ground.15 – Spalling of the lower slab/Angled view from below These problems must be borne in mind when designing the reinforcement plans.75 m must be allowed between the ducts supports. 7.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Prior to use.2 - Inspection of implementation The accuracy of the installation of the prestress components is dependent on the methods used on site. The calculations and construction provisions must take account of this.7. The same precautions must be taken for the cantilever tendons close to the facing on the upper slab. 7. 7. with regard to the systems used to fix the internal continuity tendons in place and during the construction and implementation of these systems. It is unrealistic to demand accuracy greater than 5 mm. Fig. It may also result in the spalling of the lower slab due to delamination under the parasitic radial tendon forces that are thus generated (Fig.14 – Risks related to inaccurate duct geometry Fig. Wood with a high tannin content must not be interposed between the reels. Rigid sections of ducts can be specified around joints with a view to maintaining the continuity of this alignment. as this could affect the oiling Anchorages must be stored under a ventilated shelter and their crates or packaging are placed on battens or platted to avoid contact with the ground.7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 180 septembre 2007 . A spacing of approximately 0. These systems are designed to align the ducts perfectly in accordance with the prestressing plans.15). This applies to the internal continuity tendons which may move during casting if they are incorrectly attached. 7. Key bolts are kept in their original packaging until use Ducts are stored in bundles under ventilated tarpaulins. making sure there is no contact between the tarpaulin and metal. • • 7.1 – Geometry of ducts The inspection of the installation of the ducts is a complex matter. Indeed. the parts can be stored temporarily under a shelter with a removable roof or under ventilated tarpaulins. problems regularly arise on site due to inadequate positioning.

18 – Cross-section of a deviator tube 7.17 – The deviator after cleaning To prevent these problems. deviator tubes should be designed in such a way that the pressure exerted by the tendon on the concrete is directed into the body of the structure and stops before the facings in the coating areas. 7. it is necessary to designate a person in charge of monitoring the geometry of the prestress ducts before and after casting. because the large-diameter bars which are commonly used require large bending radii. or an excessively high number of breakages of single-strand tendons when the structure is stressed and if parasitic angular cracks have developed close to the anchorages. These problems could have been minimized by the addition of small-diameter nonprestressed reinforcement bars positioned close to the facings. 7.2. the concrete formwork tubes must be bell-mouthed so that the curvature of the tendon effectively starts around 10 cm from the facings (Fig. Figures 7. Fig. As many basic errors are still committed on sites – e. including their edges.2 – Installation of the prestressing components The following inspections must be performed during the installation of the prestressing elements: • Verification that the sleeves of the thin metal ducts are correctly tightened: the prefabricated lengths of ducts with sleeve extensions are designed to provide a satisfactory fit at the level of the facing Page 181 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . Therefore. Accordingly.16 and 7. Finally.18).17 show the problems caused by an incorrect reinforcement of one of these edges on a deviator beam. 7.g. The geometrical accuracy of the ducts is very important. in the contract documents. It is also important to make sure that the beams situated at the base of the deviator beams are correctly reinforced. published in February 1990. it is first of all important to make sure that an efficient procedure exists for adjusting the angle of the deviator tubes. 7. The reader is advised to consult the Sétra document entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Problems due to the incorrect geometrical positioning of the ducts are also observed on the external tendons. These problems normally concern two phenomena: the localized spalling of the concrete due to parasitic forces resulting from badly positioned deviators. Fig.16 – Spalling of a deviator when the structure is stressed Fig. inverting the deviators – it is important to carry out general inspections and to take a regular overview.7.

in which it is better to use rigid tubes rather than thin steel ducts. In areas of large deviations (emergence of tendon from anchor block. 7.19 – Conflict between non-prestressed reinforcements and ducts Fig. 7. it is possible to mark out the outline of the curvature of the duct by making a light saw mark on the end sections of tube. It is assumed that the plans show dimensions relating to existing physical objects or lines marked out on site. Fig. particularly in the areas of deviation close to the anchor block attachments (Fig.20).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verification that the alignment of the ducts and their attachments conforms to the plan (Fig. etc.). This tip can also be applied to the deviator tubes for the external prestressing ducts. deviation area close to an anchorage.19) Verification that the ducts are in good condition and that there are no significant distorsions or out-ofroundness Adjustment of the duct supports in relation to formwork if necessary Inspection of the attachment of all ducts to the non-prestressed reinforcements Accurate inspections of the alignment of the ducts. 7. 7.20 – Verification of a duct alignment in space The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 182 septembre 2007 . • • • In general. this inspection must be carried out according to unambiguous physical references which are fully understood by everyone working on the site.

the installation of the ducts and the anchorages must be verified by a competent surveyor who must check the following points: • That stiffening devices are used to ensure a continuous alignment of the ducts around the joints. i. 7. this also applies to the ducts left empty in reserve (Fig.22). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 183 septembre 2007 . it is particularly important. it is necessary to use temporary supports for the ducts in order to make sure that the tendon is in the correct position before it is stressed (Fig.23). 7. The number and spacing of the supports will depend on the number and strength of the prestressing units.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When completed. to verify the accuracy of the duct alignment and the presence of a support system designed to maintain this alignment (Fig. 7. verification of the coaxiality of the different elements and of the adhesive sealing Distribution of vents and the positioning of the vent outlets in the facings. 7. the type and frequency of the tendon supports should be carefully inspected in view of the forces exerted during casting. as tranverse reinforcement made from small-diameter bars is likely to be significantly t distorted during casting. without sudden changes of angle. Furthermore. given the thinness of the parts. Fig. These stiffening solutions may be used for the ducts throughout the entire length of the segment to be cast. it is advisable to stiffen the reinforcement cages in order to make sure that the ducts remain in the correct position. A spacing of 4 to 5 m is typically used.e. • • • • • For the external prestressing.21). the angles at which the ducts emerge from the joint sections are inspected for compliance with the values shown on the plans Use of coupling sleeves and the adhesive sealing of the sleeving joints Fixing of the trumplate to the formwork: verification of orientation. rigidity of the fixing and angle of the injection hole Fitting of the duct in the end of the trumplate via a coupling sleeve Absence of sudden changes of angle.21 – Support system for HDPE ducts for external tendons If the prestressing passes through the webs. Should transverse prestressing be required.

especially when double ducting is used on the deviators.22 – Inspection of supports for transverse prestressing Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 7.23 – Supports for prestress ducts in the webs It is also important to make sure that “removable” elements can actually be removed. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 184 septembre 2007 .

oxidation and cleanliness play a vital role in the correct installation of a traditional strand-jaws anchorage. when the pressure of the rollers tends to increase A thick wooden shield is securely fitted over the strand outlet in order to protect staff Particular attention is paid to the threading of the last two strands of the tendon.4 .7. etc. We consider this table to be far too lax and believe that corroded reinforcements should never be accepted. it is important to verify that the entire tendon can move inside the duct. was once used by certain contractors. over 50 m in length. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 185 septembre 2007 . During this operation. of which only the fifth level was unacceptable. A corrosion table specifying up to five levels of corrosion. cans.1 – Inspections prior to stressing Lubrication.7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. it is highly advisable to verify that the ductsducts have not been blocked by any foreign objects: bottles. before casting. This helps to position one strand in relation to another and also helps to check that there are no blockages.2. it is particularly important to make sure that: • • The strands have been sufficiently well oiled in order to reduce the friction forces in the later phases The distance between the pay-off reel and the cable pusher is kept to a minimum and that.3. the strand is well protected by a tube or duct The cable reel has been placed in the static pay-off reel in such a way that the lay of the coil being unwound lies in the same direction as lay of the stranding.2.7. This inspection can be carried out by flushing a ball through the sheath with compressed air.3 – Visual inspection of strands It is essential to reject strands showing signs of pitting due to oxidation. scratches. as these are always the most difficult to thread through the duct (for long tendons.Threading Strand-by-strand threading is the most commonly-used threading method for bridges constructed by the cantilever method. 7. tools.7. i.e. this particularly applies to the last strands to be threaded. 7. • • • • • • • 7. speed of threading is preferred to force in order to prevent the jamming of the last strands on the approach to the outlet) After the threading of every strand of an external prestressing tendon and the positioning of the anchorages. so that the strand tends to pull itself tight while is unwinding Each tendon is made up of strands from the same supplier The additional length required for the stressing has been allowed for before the strand is cut to length The strand has not been marked by the rollers on the cable pusher. over this distance.3 - Inspection of stressing 7. nicks or other defects likely to affect their mechanical strength.

7. the following points require special attention: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 186 septembre 2007 . It specifies the types of inspections. Finally. this shows up any problems with the jaws and reveals any broken strands. and then are checked at random. These inspections may be systematic in terms of: • • Measuring the extension and pressure in stages Monitoring the position of tendons during threading in order to detect any possibility of crossed ducts. so that there are no brakages due to crossed strands near the anchorage That the conical holes in the anchor head are clean and have no rust that cannot be wiped off. The marking of the strands at the back of the jack is another. Before the jacks are threaded. Finally. solution. albeit less effective.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The anchorage must be properly lubricated if it is to work correctly and the lubrication conditions must be specified in the internal procedures recommended by specialist distribution companies. before the start of operations. These three parameters are vital for the correct operation of the conical wedging of the strand-jaws in the anchorage. Oxidation must not be considered to be acceptable in the mechanical assembly of the anchorage. which at first are systematically verified for each family of tendons at the start of stressing operations. In addition to the fact that successful stressing depends on the quality of casting in the anchorage area.3 – Precautions during stressing During stressing.g. The exact type of lubricant to be used must also be specified.7. it is also important to verify the following points when fitting the anchor head on the tendon: • • That the strands are clean That they are disentangled if necessary.7. the frequency of the inspections and identifies the tendons to be inspected.3.3. it is necessary to verify that engineering office has allowed for the additional lengths of cable which are gripped by the jacks in their calculations of the extension of the tendons. • It is also important to check that the jack is aligned concentrically on the anchor head and coaxially in relation to the tendon. when measuring transmission factors. e. it is advisable to cut all of the strands to the same length.2 – Inspection plan An inspection plan must be drawn up prior to the start of the stressing operations. They may also take the form of spot checks. 7. cleanliness is essential and a there must be no laitance whatsoever.

Normally. 7.3.7.2 of fascicule 65A and Appendix I of its supplement.Injection The injection of prestressing ducts and anchorages is intended to: • • • Completely fill the void left in a duct Passivate of the steels due to the action of the products used Protect steels against corrosive external agents.7. This operation.4. It is also important to verify the calibration chart for the manometers on the pumps (test date).1 . which is designed to shorten the segment construction cycle.4 – Coefficients of friction Coefficients of friction are monitored by measuring the transmission factor. This operation must be described in a detailed construction procedure and the engineering office must apply specific design calculations to it. The cantilever tendons are sometimes only stressed after the form traveler has been moved forward.7. it is essential to verify that the value fcmin which is mentioned on the french CIP (Commission Interministérielle de la Précontrainte-Interministry Prestressing Committee] accreditation and in the construction design calculations has been achieved by the concrete before stressing is carried out.4 - Inspection of injection 7. The combination of these three fundamental actions produces a permanent barrier against corrosion and guarantees the longevity of the prestressing. this poses no problems in terms of general flexion. • • 7.3. 7. The use of a sclerometer to perform this verification is strictly prohibited. Before carrying out this measurement. The principle behind this measurement is described in detail in Article 95.7. it is essential to make sure that the jacks have been properly tared (using a calibration chart). means that the last segment to be cast behaves as reinforced concrete with regard to the loads exerted by the form traveler.4. which is indicative Check that the correction for the compaction of the jaws has been properly allowed for in the measurement of the extension on the piston of the jack. 7.2 – Cement grout Two types of grouts are identified: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 187 septembre 2007 .7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that the internal friction on the jacks and their anchorages has been correctly accounted for in the interpretation of the pressure readings on the manometer Do not forget to correct the pressure reading in accordance with the calibration chart for the pump manometer: the pressure is used as the reference measurement and not the extension. but particular vigilance is required with regard to the localized stresses applied to the new concrete.4.5 – Precautions to be taken with regard to concrete During the construction of a cantilever with cast-in-situ segments.

which defines the stability of the grout Measuring the variation in volume. They involve: • • • • Measuring fluidity. If just one of the conditions is not respected. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 188 septembre 2007 . it is important to use an appropriate speed of injection.7. and the front wall of the grout remains almost perpendicular to the duct and does not collapse as it passes through high points. which determines the flow Measuring exudation. This analysis must be carried out upstream of the process in order to make sure that the position of the vents is consistent with this phasing. which characterizes the filling volume Measuring compressive strength. 99-54 of August 20 1999. the phasing of the injection must be adapted to suit the alignment of the tendon in question. generally: Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 8 to 14 m per min Φ < 100 mm Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 16 to 20 m per min Φ > 100 mm Vertical or steeply angled tendons 3 to 8 m per min Furthermore. Testing using a transparent inclined tube. it is essential to perform a new inclined tube test on site. grouts may be used without preliminary testing if they have been given a favorable technical evaluation report or a favorable provisional report by the CIP. The main characteristic of this second type of grout is its capacity to change from a gel when stationary to a liquid when shaken.3 – Specific inspections and precautions during the injection of cement grout Precaution to be taken during the injection study Injection tests have shown that the appearance of pockets of air due to the collapse of the front wall of the grout as it passes through high points can be prevented by optimizing the speed of advancement of the grout in accordance with the alignments and the prestressing units used.3 of fascicule 65A.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Traditional grout. using the method described in Appendix 3. except when testing is specifically requested by the Construction Checker. this property depends on the shearing threshold of the grout for a given slope and on the steepness of the slope for a given grout. is essential in view of the representativeness of this test and the unsuitability of the other tests with regard to the characterization of the in-situ stability of grout. 7.1 of Circular no. Therefore. These are specified by European standards and are referenced in Article 92. the equipment used for their injection and the temperature conditions for their application comply with the the conditions described in the technical evaluation report. provided that the components of the grout.4. which is fluid after manufacture Thixotropic grout: a traditional grout to which a thixotropifying agent is added at the end of the manufacturing process. Numerous tests must be performed on the grout. However. However. This has two advantages: the injection conditions remain the same as for a traditional grout.

the monitoring of the injection pressure is of paramount importance to the success of the operation. the different levels will be inspected in order to make sure that the ducts are properly filled. these vents must be closed in order to prevent water from seeping into the ducts. Preparations for the injection must also take account of the weather forecast.5. The rheology of the grout must be adapted to the ambient temperature and humidity. This involves: • • • • Visual inspections of the ducts A statistical inspection by removing the caps An acoustic sounding inspection A gammagraphic inspection. The fundamental value to be considered is that the pressure in the duct must not exceed 1. It is also necessary to perform systematic tests of the bleeding of the anchor caps and vents at the high points.B of fascicule 65A.5 MPa. it is compulsory to test the leak-tightness of the ducts in order to identify any potential anomalies.l. the tendons concerned will be injected simultaneously. it is important to remember to check the equipment and make sure that the necessary materials are supplied in sufficient quantities. Post-injection inspections After the injection. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 189 septembre 2007 . Fluidity and exudation tests are performed according to the recommendations of Article 95. Finally.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Precautions to be taken during construction Bleeder valves and vents are identified by marking or labeling according to the vent plan which must be supplied by the contractor. Pre-injection inspections Before any injection takes place.50 m). During the construction of the bridge. An air compressor and a pressurized water inlet must be operational on the structure and kept ready in case of problems during the injection process. If the test shows the existence of any connections between the ducts. Inspections during injection During pressurized injection. This also helps to check that the numbering of the ducts matches that of the vents. if allowed by the thickness of the concrete (e < 0. Precautions taken when preparing for the injection Mixers and storage tanks must be protected from water penetration and prevented from drying out due to direct sunshine. This test can be carried out using compressed air or by creating a partial vacuum. The bleeder valves are kept open.

The greatest care must be taken to ensure there are no leaks. 7. it is important to take special precautions such as re-injecting the high points. in the case of the external prestressing.Other important points 7.4. which improves its stability over time. between 90 and 120° C. In practice.7.50 Compressive strength of between 15 and 25 MPa The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 190 septembre 2007 . It is absolutely essential to prevent any leakage of wax during the injections. Grease Because of its syneresis.8 . However. staff could be burned and the surrounding concrete could be impregnated with wax.8.5 – Flexible products Wax Wax is a malleable. the protection of anchorages using grease must be carried out on site.8. certain important precautions must be taken.1.4 – Injection of external prestressing Circular no. During cooling. 2001-16 of February 28 2001 relative to the “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton” (The design of prestressing external concrete) describes the possible solutions used for the design of external prestressing and mentions the risks involved in its removal. crystallized solid material which is preferred to grease due to the absence of syneresis. it is of paramount importance to consider the thermal exchanges with the adjacent materials and the ambient temperature during the injection process. it is important to ensure that everyone present is protected against the risk of burning by the wax).1 Adhesive and its application (prefabricated segments) 7. which was heated by the passage of the hot wax. For self-shielded units such as those which are often used in transverse prestressing. As wax must be injected at temperatures higher than its melting point. 7. Therefore.Characteristics The adhesive used for prefabricated segments consists of epoxy resins mixed with a hardener. Firstly. it is prohibited to use grease for the protection of prestressing units that are not selfshielded. a large proportion of the shrinkage of the wax is compensated for by the cooling of the HDPE duct. to the order of 5 to 10 %. usually petroleum wax.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. To reduce this risk to a minimum. the wax contracts significantly.7. If this happens.1 . this leads to the use of protected and sheathed single strands in a general duct injected with cement grout or ungalvanized strands in a general duct injected with a flexible product.4. Its main properties are: • • Density of approximately 1. it is important to only use materials which are resistant to high temperatures and to make sure that the ducts and anchorages are perfectly leakproof by carrying out rigorous inpections and tests (As the risks can never be entirely eliminated. and this can lead to the creation of voids. with disastrous consequences.

3 – Testing of setting time Before the segments are assembled and bonded. the joints are not actually bonded because tensile strength is not created in the joint. In fact.e.1. minimizing the damage caused by the inevitable minor impacts during handling operations Helping to center the match casted surfaces Sealing prestress ducts.4 – Application precautions The following precautions should be taken when applying the adhesive: • Ensure that if it rains.1. structural demolitions and analyses of structural behavior show that under normal conditons on construction sites. The following precautions must be taken when performing this test: • The components of the test sample must be similar in quantity to the mixture that will be used on site in practice Care must be taken to avoid trapping air when mixing the components of the glue The temperature and humidity conditions for the test must be representative of the actual conditions and conform to the specifications.3 mm in size Partially correcting imperfections in joints because the adhesive has a similar compressive strength to the concrete Lubricating the surfaces when the parts are brought together. i. results from the laboratory testing of concrete-to-concrete bonding.1. protective measures such as the sheeting of the bonding area and the creation of an run-off barrier near the joint are implemented in order to prevent contact with rainwater run-off before and after the bonding of the segments and until they are securely lashed together Verify that a sufficient amount of adhesive is applied to the joints of both segments to form a seam of excess adhesive on the edges of the joints • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 191 septembre 2007 .500 MPa. or products bearing an equivalent European label are highly recommended.8.8. these openings may reach 0.2 – Adhesives and their role The term “adhesive” is not strictly accurate.8. Adhesives bearing the "NF-Produits spéciaux destinés aux constructions en béton hydraulique" (French Standard – Special products intended for hydraulic concrete structures) label in the structural adhesives category. the time between the start of the mixing of the components and the moment when the mixture no longer adheres on contact.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • A low modulus of elasticity of between 1. Nevertheless.500 and 2. 7. • • • • 7. adhesive plays an important role by: • Filling the openings between joints caused by the differential shrinkage of different parts of the section of the box-girder. it is necessary to test the time taken for the adhesive to set. • • 7.

1 – Concrete quality The final appearance of the segment facings should be considered when choosing the concrete formula because the color depends on the rheology of the concrete. It is now known that changing the formula of the concrete to suit the season plays a key role in producing a high-quality facing. 7. except on the bridge deck extrados. Only a detailed rheological study will satisfy this requirement. 7.8.1. color is quite difficult evaluate in isolation because it depends on how the surface reacts to the light. interdependent factors which must be controlled. A reference formula for spring and autumn has to be changed to allow for higher temperatures and lower rainfall in summer and is changed again in winter to account for the reversals of these same parameters. Color therefore relates to texture. This evaluation must imperatively be carried out before any repairs are made. corresponding to the different geometrical dimensions of the segment . the type of surface finish can attenuate differences in the color of the concrete.texture. as it can be The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 192 septembre 2007 . The color obtained also depends on the number of times the formwork is reused – which turn depends on the resources allocated to the project. It is also a valuable indicator for the removal of formwork. in order to facilitate the surfacing required for the application of the waterproofing layer.8. which is given by the formwork skin . Minor defects such as impact damage to the concrete on the edge of a joint are better left exposed. These three criteria are interrelated. Resurfacing with cement mortar may make it harder to evaluate the type and extent of any defects.2. The amount of water used. Three factors play an important role in determining the color of the segment facings on structures built by the cantilever method: the quality of the concrete. In fact. Maturometry. 7. It is particularly important to account for the variation in the water content of the components. The additives and their effects on the water and temperature are particularly important.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that this seam has not been ground down after polymerization.5 – Repair of bonding defects A major bonding defect can only be repaired by an injection of resin according to a specific procedure adapted to each case. helps to improve the management of the quality of concrete. a recess should first be created around the damaged area and an epoxy resin-based mortar should be used for the repair.and color. Concrete for the construction of bridges built by the cantilever method is now manufactured during several seasons. which is governed by the concrete. which generalizes the evolution of the hydration parameters for concrete. It should be noted that the formation of a seam of adhesive as mentioned below simplifies inspections in the short and long term by guaranteeing that the joint has not been been altered after the clamping of the parts. If resurfacing is necessary. the formwork and vibration.2 - Segment facing The inspection of the general appearance of a segment concerns three criteria: shape. the proportions of additives and the temperature are the three key.8. For example.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide used to determine how long the formwork needs to remain on the part and this is one of the key factors in determining the homogeneity of the facing. and are not suitable for all shapes. In this case. e.8.2 – Formwork and formwork skins Today. which is less expensive. Finally. Indeed.4. On a constant cycle. which is the most common situation. often creates intermittent vibrations in the reinforcements which act as secondary vibrators when the concrete is tightly compacted. however. 7. beveled vertical slats of unfinished wood have already been used for this purpose. A double formwork skin is better suited to this task. 7. rather than the costs of the materials. To make sure that the upper section of a layer of freshly-poured concrete is sufficiently vibrated. may cause problems depending on the type of aggregates used). the most widely used formwork is made of steel or bakelite plywood (film-faced plywood. it is necessary to vibrate it for one to two minutes after air bubbles have ceased to emerge from the concrete.2. The daily cycle which leads to the removal of formwork in the morning. made from composite materials which can be reused at least three hundred times. Formwork skins. it is important to follow a vibration plan corresponding to the shape of the component. are a new arrival on the market.8. The drawback to this technique relates to the time required for the assembly and the dismantling of the formwork skin each time it is replaced.meaning that part of a component has been vibrated for too long.2.involving the creation of secondary vibrations caused by the hard spots of the reinforcements or formwork structures. Two pitfalls must be avoided: • Over-vibration . These materials are used primarily for economic reasons and their characteristics are not ideal for the creation of high-quality facings. of a slab. • The importance of the type of formwork skin is illustrated by the fact different materials have different capacities to absorb vibrations. thanks to the column of air between the formwork skin and the formwork itself.3 . Flat vibration. These materials are very expensive. Another important contribution of the formwork skin to the creation of a high-quality facing is to dampen the vibrations transmitted to the formwork during the vibration of the concrete.g. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 193 septembre 2007 . This consists of a thickness of no more than 10 mm of ordinary plywood fixed to the standard formwork. the formation of bug holes can be prevented by making sure that the wood fibres are aligned in the same direction as the pouring of the concrete. is actually quite hard to reconcile with the stoppage of work at the weekend. this means that another part of the component has not been vibrated for long enough Post-vibration . This factor is particularly important for the prefabrication of segments in prefabrication units.Vibration A large number of defects are caused by incorrect vibration. This plan is drawn up by a specialist or with specialist help (see paragraph 7.4 concerning the inspection of application).

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 194 septembre 2007 . the Construction Manager may also refer to the Projet National Qualibé (National Concrete Quality Project) report for additional information.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Differences in the appearance of the facing can be reduced by the use of white cement or light-colored cement. However. For example. Therefore CHF-CEM III/A and B. The test segment is used to experiment with all of the aforementioned factors and eventually arrive at a comprehensive solution for the production of high-quality facing. As fascicule 65A does not address all of the issues relating to facings. thus changing the final appearance. if the skin is made from painted sheet metal. and CPJ-CEM Il/A and B cements produce light-colored facings. it is also necessary to anticipate changes in the quality of the formwork skin. this paint will gradually disappear. Clinker has a distinctive color and additives can be used to attenuate its impact.

1 . (Circular no. It then goes on to describe the main pathologies affecting these structures and the corresponding repair techniques. It also made the use of strong sealed metal ducts compulsory for prestressing by post-tensioning.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 8 . It made changes to the “construction” section of the IPl and insisted on: • • The need for a waterproofing layer The use of APC (Artificial Portland Cement) 325 or CFA (Cement – Fly Ash) 400 cement. 8.1.Pathologies and repairs This chapter begins with a quick reminder of the changes in the regulations applicable to structures built by the cantilever method.1 - 1946-1952: the first prestressed bridges In this era. Transport and Tourism] . des Transports et du Tourisme [Minsistry of Public Works. relating to the instruction provisoire (Provisional Instruction) for the use of prestressed concrete (called “IPl”). 1966 saw the publication of the Provisional Directive for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges. formulae for relaxation losses). Cylinder strength at 28 days replaced cube strength at 90 days. This was intended to prevent accidents during the construction of bridges or on structures in use. 8. It should be noted that this circular was written primarly for bridges with prefabricated girders. there were no French regulations concerning prestressed concrete. In 1965.g. 141 issued by the Ministère des Travaux Publics.1. in order to reduce the risks of corrosion (the use of PCS [Portland Slag Cement] cement had to be approved by the LCPC) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 195 septembre 2007 .3 - 1965-1975: constantly changing regulations This was a time of enormous changes and constantly changing regulations.a Provisional Instruction concerning the use of prestressed concrete). replaced the 1953 Provisional Instruction. but it hinted at the use of partially prestressed structures. especially regarding the calculation of losses of tension (e. This instruction recommended the inclusion of certain clauses in the Cahiers des prescriptions spéciales (Special Conditions) [CPS]) relating to the composition of concrete (minimum cement batching of 400 kg/m3) and the quality of prestressing reinforcements. Complete prestressing remained.2 - 1953-1964: the first regulations for prestressed concrete The first French regulations applicable to prestressed concrete appeared on October 1 1953. 8. batched at 400 kg/m2 for the manufacture of concrete. Essentially. 8. Circular no. but there was no lower compression limit (σmin ≥ 0). It incorporated the advances made since 1953.History of the regulations This paragraph mentions certain key events in the evolution of French regulations and the technical texts relating to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. it recommended the use of fully compressed concrete (with minimum compression on one axis equal to at least 8% of the maximum compression).44 of August 12 1965.

• • • 1971 saw the introduction of the Directives Communes relatives au Calcul des Constructions (DC71) [Common Guidelines relating to Structural Design]. This highly informative document covered the requirements for grouts (traditional and special). reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. called “BT7”. which was the first document to cover the concept of limit states. etc. etc. the 1960 load regulation was replaced by Titre II of fascicule 61 of the Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (CPC) [Common Conditions]. to type III: limitation of the opening of cracks) Characteristic values of actions due to prestressing (P1 and P2) Specific rules relating to end or support areas and to concentrated forces during post and pre-tensioning Rules to account for delayed deformations in concrete due to shrinkage. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 196 septembre 2007 . again with a view to reducing the risks of stress corrosion (only APC 325 cement was allowed for the injection grout and sealing mortar). These guidelines were intended to be used as the basis for the creation of new design rules for metal. This document covered the history. the bottom flange of the girder was crushed during prestressing Precautions for the storage of prestressing reinforcements on site. Circular no. as a result. 2 (called “IP2”) relating to the use of prestressed concrete. 73-153 of August 13 1973 introduced Provisional Instruction no. This regulation significantly reduced the intensity of the distributed loads A (l) for bridges of moderate length (between 15 and 80 m) and introduced degressivity factors according to the number of loaded lanes and the category of structure. In the same year. engineering. the characteristics of study and suitability tests. in order to reduce the risks of stress corrosion Inspections during stressing operations in order to reduce prestress losses The care to be taken over the injection of ducts and the need to allow a maximum period of 8 days between the stressing and injection operations. the execution and inspection of injected materials. This accident was caused when an incorrect dose of an admixture prevented the concrete from hardening properly.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The almost total prohibition of admixtures after the collapse of a beam on the Guerville viaduct. In 1973. the manufacturing conditions for grouts. This consisted of a design rule based on “limit states” methods. Appendix II included a collection of 55 monographs on structures built between 1960 and 1972 in France and abroad. The IP2 introduced the use of: • • The characteristic strength of concrete instead of the nominal strength Types or classes of prestressing (from type I: no decompression of concrete. Sétra published the first version of its Technical Bulletin on bridges built by the cantilever method. creep. Appendix I of this document featured a design example incorporating changes due to creep and thermal gradients. In December 1972. design and construction of these structures. The Provisional Directive for the injection of ducts on prestressed concrete structures appeared on March 28 1973. This directive led to real improvements in the quality of the protection applied to prestress tendons. accidents.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During this period. which remained valid. on the one hand.4 - 1975-1982 This period saw the publication of new regulations which. private and public engineering firms were not ready to face up to the practical difficulties relating to the application of this new regulation (complete overhaul of design programs. the IPl. This document was designed to supplement the IPl with regard to the following points: • • Redistribution of forces due to delayed deformation Distribution of prestressing loads (concentrated forces) and the accumulation of shearing stresses with or without transverse or vertical prestressing (stressed stirrups) Traction forces exerted by tendons anchored in the slab of a box girder Thermal gradients (5°C under rare combinations and 10°C under practically permanent combinations in the sense of the BPEL 91. • • • • By introducing rules to allow for creep and the thermal gradient. Therefore. 1979 saw the publication of four important circulars: • Circular no. while taking account of the instantaneous deformation modulus of the concrete) radial tendon forces in curved slabs The continuity of reinforcements close to joints. incorporated the concept of quality and on the other. 8. established relaxation at 3. etc. 69-92. 74-60 of April 23 1974 made changes to the following articles of the IP1 in accordance with the new Titre II in fascicule 4 of the CPC of March 5 1971. the distribution of concentrated forces and for the precise calculation of delayed deformation effects. after analyzing and determining the causes of cracking observed on a number of bridges built by the cantilever method. Circular no. continued to be used except for the pretensioning. or in a usable form within Appendix B of the IP2) Page 197 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .1. 79-23 of March 9 1979. difficulty of applying the range of characteristic values of the prestressing when there was a redistribution of efforts due to delayed obstructed deformations. and March 26 1973: • Article 10. this circular brought an end to the era of second-generation bridges (see Chapter 1) and paved the way for a new generation of much better dimensioned bridges. etc. suitability and inspection tests which were not included in fascicule 65 of August 13 1969. which included the instruction of January 15 1979 relating to the inspection of concrete quality (conditions for the execution and interpretation of study. relating to the calculation of relaxation losses in the prestressing reinforcements. and described in Circular no.). • • The Direction des Routes et de la Circulation Routière (Department of Roads and Traffic) published a circular on April 2 1975. abandoned the "allowable stresses" calculation in favor of "limit-states" calculations. except for structures with numerous joints for which they were determined by the CPS (Special Conditions).000 hours Article 12 reduced the initial tension of the tendons The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ specified in the IP1 were used in the certificates of approval.

It should also be noted that the effects of Circular 82-50 of May 24 1982 began to felt. This involved the notions of quality of use.7 also appeared in April 1979. protection of anchorages.). etc.000 MPa) and strands (190. segregation of concrete. the organization of quality. measurement of transmission factors.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Circular no. Significant changes were made to the design of large prestressed concrete structures.C.5 - 1983 to the present day This period was marked by the generalization of "limit states" design rules. stressed stirrups.C. All of these notions concerning quality were applied to each of the texts relating to the construction of structures. and much less of an influence on the development of prestressing reinforcements. but construction techniques remained very similar. 8. • A supplement to Technical Bulletin No. form travelers. radii of curvature and the continuity of the ducts The limit of the initial stress to be 0. etc. design examples. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of French and European standardization led to significant changes in the rules relating to the construction of structures.79) [Common Guidelines for Structural Design]. in addition to the diameters. which established: – – – – – – – – The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ (according to the radius of curvature. internal and external inspections and independent inspections.7 Frg for reinforcements with a small radius of curvature (stressed stirrups) The strength of the concrete close to the anchorages and the minimum distances to the facings of the anchor plates The conditions of execution for the tensioning The need and the implementation conditions for temporary protection and sealing • Circular no.000 MPa) The measuring conditions for the transmission factors The choice of ducts (ducts and tubes). The development of “external prestressing” had a major impact on the development of prestressing procedures. the number of joints crossed and the type of tendons: smooth wires or strands) The moduli of elasticity of the wires (200.1. the stability of cantilevers under construction. These guidelines served as the basis for the creation of BAEL and BPEL rules and the design rules for foundations. technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures according to the limit states method. construction advice (prefabricated segments. 79-25 of March 13 1979 relating to the new Directives Communes pour le Calcul des Constructions (D. 79-78 of August 16 1979 relating to the implementation of prestressing units. workability. new design programs. 79-121 of December 14 1979 concerning the reprint of the IPl.C. the regulations relating to the design of prestressed concrete bridges were revolutionized by the appearance of fascicule 62 Titre l Section 11 of the french CCTG (General Technical Clauses. In 1983. introducing the requirements of the Circular of April 2 1975 and its implications concerning the quantities of materials. which incorporated the modifications made by Circulars 74-60 of April 23 1974 and 77-67 of April 25 1977 Circular no. called the “BPEL The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 198 septembre 2007 .

with a particular emphasis on external prestressing technology.Center for Engineering Structure Techniques). in which the tensile stresses are limited. the CTOA (Centre des techniques d’ouvrages d’art . is used for major bridges and large standard bridges or those situated in harsh environments. It should be noted that the BPEL 83. the precautions to be taken with keyed anchoring and problems relating to the use of “super” strands. Sétra published two information notes: • The first covered the anchoring strength of external prestress tendons in the event of overtension in order to prevent the blockage of wedges by the cement grout The second dealt with the use of single and multi-strand couplers. • • • In 1984. the IPl and the IP2 were all applicable until December 31 1985 according to certain procedures established by decree. The BPEL 83 rules introduced: • • External prestressing The notion of verification categories for structures (Class I authorizes no traction and is mainly used for prefabricated bridges. Class II. covering “partial prestressing”. certain types of standard bridges in reasonably benign environments (2nd and 3rd category road bridges) and for bridge slabs with transverse prestressing A characteristic thermal gradient value of 12° C for verifications at service limit state Characteristic strength as the specified strength for concrete The possibility of performing verifications with the probable prestressing Pm. was applied to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. as a function of the duration of applied of loads Reduction of the 1983 shear limit stress which was considered to be too forgiving Reduction of the working stress ratio for stressed stirrups For coastal structures: increasing the depth of coating on non-prestressed reinforcements without individual protection from 4 to 5 cm • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 199 septembre 2007 . • In February 1990. published a guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). a division of Sétra. instead of range calculations using P1 and P2 (characteristic values). II and III Introducing a "θ" coefficient into the formula giving the value of the compression limit stress of concrete at ULS. It gave additional information on subjects covered by the BPEL 83. The major modifications introduced by this new version included: • • • Extending the rules to concrete with characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa Improving SLS verifications for the different classes I. The BPEL 83 rules were replaced by the BPEL 91 rules at the start of 1992.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 83”). Class III.

revised in 1999.4. For more detailed information about problems affecting prestressed concrete structures. published in 1979 and modified in 1995. 8.4).Pathologies specific to the cantilever construction technique As for most other types of bridges. the reader is invited to refer to Sub-Section 32. maintenance. dated August 20 1999. becoming the BPEL 91. Not all of the cracks found on prestressed concrete structures are signs of defective behavior. etc. which assigned numerical values to the coefficients of friction f and φ for tendons inside the concrete. use.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 200 septembre 2007 . established a number of new requirements for HDPE tubes and promoted the injection of external tendons with wax The second was published on February 28 2001 and imposed new requirements concerning the injection of external prestress tendons (see paragraph 7.) are not exclusive to the cantilever construction method. It should be noted that the BAEL 83 rules were simultaneously replaced by the BAEL 91 rules. it is important to consider all of the characteristics of the cracks observed. The purpose of this section is to briefly outline the principal specific disorders that have been identified for these structures and to describe the lessons that have been learnt with regard to the design of modern structures built by the cantilever method. An additional appendix (Appendix 14) was included in this new version. specific types of problems have affected the first prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Appendix 3. At the end of the 1990s.1 – Opening and widening of cracks over time The opening and widening of cracks if they are active are obviously the first elements to consider.7. However. The end of the 1990s was also marked by the appearance of two circulars relating to prestressing using posttensioning techniques: • The first. as problems caused by other factors (materials.2. the BPEL 83 was modified again.1. prohibited the washing of sheathed tendons with water. we shall only cover problems with structural origins.2 of the second part of the Instruction technique pour la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures). When analyzing the problems on a structure. 8.1 - Reminder concerning cracking on prestressed structures The appearance of significant deformations and/or cracks on prestressed concrete structures may be evidence of structural disorders.2 . this information is insufficient in itself to evaluate the condition of the structure. relating to concrete with a characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa. • 8. sheathed and protected strands and tendons outside the concrete. In the interests of relevance.

In particular. tensile forces are allowed at the design level for structures dimensioned according to Classes II or III of the BPEL. 8. As a result. With this in mind.1).2 – Design assumptions and the influence of regulations Structures built according to the Instruction Provisoire n° 1 (Provisional Instruction no.1. Fine transverse cracks. Excessive cracking (open cracks when the structure is not loaded. stresses or stress variations within the concrete and reinforcements are minimized and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement bars are added to control the cracking. On this type of structure. in accordance with the regulations.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 201 septembre 2007 .3 mm in localized cases for the width of an individual crack. On the other hand. transverse cracks are usually evidence of abnormal longitudinal flexion behavior.2. These structures were built more recently and benefit from the lessons learnt on older structures.2. etc. no traction is allowed with regard to flexion when the bridge is in service. are usually evidence of normal behaviour in prestressed concrete. these values could therefore be increased. It also applies to the fine cracks found in the deviators on structures with external prestressing.2. fortunately without any serious consequences (Fig. For structures or parts of structures situated in relatively noncorrosive environments. cracks crossed by prestress tendons are problematic because of the risk of fatigue in the prestressing reinforcements. as.2 mm for the average width of an individual crack – 0. Efforts are made to keep the opening and widening of any cracks to acceptable levels in order to: – Prevent the risk of fatigue in the tendons crossing areas likely to be tensioned – Limit the penetration of corrosive agents through the gaps caused by excessively wide cracks.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method are often only prestressed longitudinally. which are closed when the structure is not loaded. it shall be considered that the opening of the cracks on elements behaving like reinforced concrete must not exceed: – 0. when the first cantilever tipped over. 8. in theory. for the average width of all of these cracks – 0. these are evidence of normal transverse flexion behavior in reinforced concrete. fine longitudinal cracks may develop and in most cases. These openings are values under dead loads and were established in the framework of studies relating to the penetration of corrosive agents into the concrete.) is obviously a sign of abnormal behavior.1 mm in the case of systematic cracking (multiple. evenly-distributed cracks). 1) or the BPEL in Class I were designed to be totally prestressed. 8.2 - Stability of cantilevers 8. They therefore behave like reinforced concrete in the transverse direction. As a result. minimal longitudinal reinforcement is used and this would be incapable of compensating for any unforeseen tensile forces. As a guide. This applies to the fine cracks that can be observed in the upper slabs.1 – Problems observed and their causes Problems arose during the construction the cantilevers on some of the first structures built using the cantilever method and a spectacular accident occurred on the site of the Viosne viaduct on November 13 1970.

1 – Tipping of the first cantilever of the viaduct over the Viosne Accidents have also been caused by the collapse of prefabricated segments and form travelers.3 - Cracks due to insufficient longitudinal strength 8.2.2).2. towards the middle of the central spans or in so-called “low bending moment” zones (Fig. 8. e. thus exposing these reinforcements to the risk of fatigue. Fig. 8. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 202 septembre 2007 . 8. This type of cracking is particularly serious given that the cracks or open joints are often crossed by continuity tendons inside the concrete. 7. published by Sétra in 1979. in 1975 and Bellegarde in 1982.2.2.1 – Problems observed and their causes The majority of structures built using the cantilever method prior to 1975 have suffered from transverse cracking or the opening of joints in the lower slab. which are included in this guide along with several additions. 8. have now been successfully used for over twenty years. 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.g.2 – Impact on design Design rules governing the stability of cantilevers under construction were established and published in the supplement to Technical Bulletin (BT) no. These rules.2 – Flexion cracks These cracks are evidence of insufficient resistance to longitudinal flexion. on the bridges of Calix.3. despite the collapse of several form travelers. No cantilevers have collapsed since their publication.

correction of reverse deflections. from l/50th to 1/40th. this error leads to the normal stress in the lower axis at the crown being overestimated by 2 to 3 MPa) The failure to account for the thermal gradient in the calculations (in general. the bridge deck became considerable thicker in this area. For structures dimensioned according to the IPl. i. due to over-optimistic coefficients of friction or underestimations of relaxation losses Parasitic forces locked into the structure when the closing segment is assembled due to adjustments made on site (realignment of cantilevers. Finally. The BPEL paid particular attention to the case of tendons crossing numerous joints. unforeseen site loads.2 – Impacts on design The Circular of April 2 1975 and the supplement to the BT7 of April 1979 defined the design rules to be adopted in response to redistributed forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials and in response to the thermal gradient.2. as happens on bridges built by the cantilever method.) in order to facilitate any future structural repairs or reinforcements (see the recommendations in Chapter 3 of this guide).). • • • 8. Longitudinal cracking in the lower slab is caused by downward thrusts in continuity tendons inside the concrete in structures of variable depth and most commonly affects the central span (Fig. etc.1 – Problems observed and their causes Two types of disorders may point to the existence of excessive radial tendon forces: longitudinal cracking in the lower slab in the crown area and localized cracking. With regard to the coefficients of losses by friction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These cracks have several causes which are often cumulative and include: • The failure to account for the redistribution of forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials in the calculations. delamination or spalling of the concrete. 8. 8.4 - Cracks and problems due to excessive radial tendon forces 8. For simplicity’s sake.4).3. the design allows for the use of additional prestressing (anchorages. this resulted in a significant reduction in the recommended slenderness ratio at the crown. these forces are often put down to "redistribution by creep" (in general.e. this omission also leads to an overestimation of the normal stress in the lower horizontal plane at the crown of approximately 2 MPa for a thermal gradient of 6° C) The overestimation of the prestress effect. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 203 septembre 2007 .4. deviator tubes.2.2. incorrectly controlled weight of the form traveler etc. the values adopted by the BPEL were more conservative than those in the previous regulations. empty ducts allow for additional prestressing to be used if the actual friction is greater than the friction values allowed for in the design.3 and 8. In addition.

the Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et l’Entretien des Ouvrages d’Art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures) recommends using a reinforcement plan that is designed to take up any parasitic radial tendon forces due to angular fractures in proximity to the joints. mainly in the central span. sudden changes in angle close to the joints etc. Tendons are now usually placed in the gussets or very close to them.4. Localized cracks. Also. the practice of spreading the tendons across the full width of the lower slab has now been abandoned. many of these early structures were built without gussets at the junction between the web and lower slab. Furthermore. 8. 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.2 – Impacts on the design Gussets are now systematically used at the junction of the webs and the lower slab of box girders. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 204 septembre 2007 . which is made easier by the fact that fewer internal continuity tendons are needed for mixed prestressing. 8. These problems create radial tendon forces.3 – Cracking due to downward thrust at the web-slab junction Fig. especially for bridge decks of variable depth. delamination and the spalling of concrete are caused by the errors in the positioning of the ducts such as the festooning of ducts between two joints.4 – Cracks caused by downward thrust These problems affected first-generation structures because a large number of low-strength continuity tendons were spread across the entire width of the lower slab. To combat problems caused by incorrectly positioned ducts.2. badly-positioned tendons.

5 – Suggested reinforcement plan designed to compensate for accidental radial tendon forces close to joints 8. In the latter case.). It should be noted that the positioning of cantilever tendons inside poorly protected channels on the extrados .). major structural repairs have been carried out on around sixty structures using a variety of techniques described below. This problem has affected tendons whose ducts were injected with a cement grout which had failed to set properly in certain areas due to the phenomenon of settling (fresh grout).3. which is a difficult process. especially for tendons situated inside the concrete. In the latter case. not immune to the more general problems affecting prestressed concrete structures (distribution of concentrated prestressing forces. it is angled by deviators added to the initial structure (Fig. the original prestressing must be dismantled.6).1 - Addition or replacement of prestressing The most commonly used repair technique consists of adding extra prestressing or replacing the original prestressing. etc.5 - Other pathologies For information. corrosion of tendons. we shall also mention two other important pathologies found on prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method: • • Badly fitting joints in the case of prefabricated segments Deflections of cantilever arms close to joints.2. Since then. 8. To round off this section. of course.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.Main repair techniques In France. Bridges built by the cantilever method are. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 205 septembre 2007 .proved to be particularly damaging in terms of the corrosion of tendons and was quickly abandoned. 8.3 . it should be mentioned that external prestress tendons have failed on several occasions in recent years. Longitudinal prestressing The tendon layout may be rectilinear or polygonal. the first significant repairs to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method were carried out at the beginning of the 1970s (Bussang bridge etc. 8.a technique specific to bridges built by the cantilever method . It should be noted that these techniques are also used for reinforcing operations. 8. injection defects.

3 - Repair design There is little information concerning repair design for prestressed concrete civil engineering structures.9). 501 of February 1992: Information Days for the Repair and Reinforcement of Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures). For information. [JEH 94]. [DEL 94].3. Sétra.8).2 - Other techniques Other techniques are also used. the following documents provide useful information for anyone interested in the repair of prestressed concrete bridges: • • Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge Maintenance and Repair) [Presses de l’ENPC – 1997] French standard NF P 95-104 . 8. the webs. [TAV 00]. 8. [PER 94]. article [POI 92]). in Essonne. 8. TRL. 8. inside the box girder (Fig. or both (Fig. 8. [BOUT 1] and [GIA 01] listed in the bibliography in the appendix to this guide. glued steel plate sheet or FRP (cf.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Further information on this subject is given by the following articles [RIC 93].3. [BAR 94].Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie Spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle (Standard NFP 95-104 – Repair and Reinforcement of Concrete and Masonry Structures – Specifications Relating to the Additional Prestressing Technique) Ponts en béton précontraint par post-tension (Post-tensioned Prestressed Concrete Bridges) [HA. However. or more conventionally. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 206 septembre 2007 . 8. [BAR 98].7 above). these include adjusting the height of the supports and adding extra material. 8. [POI 99]. LCPC] Annales de l’ITBTP n° 501 de février 1992 : Journées réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art (Annals of the ITBTP no.7 – Anchor block for additional longitudinal prestressing The additional anchor blocks may be situated beyond the abutment. as on the Corbeil bridge. Transverse prestressing Transverse prestressing may be carried out on the lower slab (Fig. [DEL 98].6 – Additional longitudinal prestressing Fig.

8. 8.9 – Additional vertical prestressing of a web and transverse prestressing of the lower slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 207 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.8 – Additional transverse prestressing of the lower slab Fig.

1 – Replaceability of external prestressing Mixed prestressing has been used on the vast majority of large bridges built in recent years. the bridge’s design and construction should incorporate measures to facilitate the inspection and maintenance of all parts of the structure. and placing extra trumplates in the cross beams. Finally. The original type of tendons is used for the extra tendons and they are aligned according to the same rules. it is important to allow this possibility by building in the means to add additional external tendons if they are required. 9. With these provisions in place. This may be due to a pathology affecting the structure or to a change in its functional design. 9.1. these access arrangements must not make the structure vulnerable to acts of vandalism.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9 . To benefit fully from this technique. 93-14-18 of December 31 1993.2.2. published in 1979. The requirements concerning the tendons and their layout are set out in the Sétra guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing).Provisions to facilitate maintenance This chapter describes the provisions to be made at the design stage with a view to facilitating the maintenance of bridges incorporating box-girder bridge decks.1 .2.1. including the interior of hollow sections. It should be remembered that this circular only authorizes the use of non-adhesive products (factory-applied grease and wax).2 . it must be possible to replace these tendons without having to demolish any part of the structure. This includes leaving room to pass formwork tubes housing an extra pair of tendons through cross beams and deviators. These provisions are intended for prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. It is also necessary to allow the forces added by this extra pair of tendons when dimensioning the reinforcements for the deviators and cross beams. but they are also applicable to concrete structures with box-girder bridge decks built by other methods (on falsework.1 Prestressing 9. these provisions are compulsory. It should be noted that a large number of the provisions specified in this guide are included in Chapter 7 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG and that. by incremental launching and by temporary cable-staying). unless special equipment capable of absorbing the energy of the tendon during its removal is used. This means that a certain number of tendons are situated outside the concrete. For a box-girder structure.Bridge deck 9. it must be possible to perform bridge management and maintenance operations in accordance with labour legislation and particularly with regard to french Law no. it may be decided to strengthen the prestressing. without requiring heavy equipment.2 – Provisions for the implementation of additional prestressing At a given moment in the life of a bridge. The provisions concerning the injection of these tendons are defined by the french circular of February 2001 relating to the injection of prestress tendons situated outside the concrete. 9. They The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 208 septembre 2007 . notwithstanding any contrary provisions in the STC.General principles In general. which introduced the Dossier d’Intervention Ultérieur sur Ouvrage (DIUO) [Post-Construction Works File].

When this is not the case. the access problems are occasional and only concern areas in the middle of the spans or close to the abutments.2. (Further information on this point can be found in Article 64 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the CCTG and its comments).1 – Minimal depth of bridge deck To allow for easy movement inside the box girder (Fig.75 m to 1 meter) to the minimum depth. either because the lower slab is very narrow or because there are too many external tendons. It is important to note that these depths are given for bridge decks without transverse ribs. For bridge decks of variable depth. it is important to design bridge decks of sufficient depth. it is possible to use completely internal prestressing.2 – Normal movement In the majority of structures. it is possible to install a gridded steel walkway over the tendons. which is not as bulky as mixed prestressing).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide are then stressed according to the same procedures used for replacement external tendons. 9. it is recommended to fix the minimum total external depth at 2.20 m. Fig.2 – Passageway clearances The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 209 septembre 2007 .2. For bridge decks with transverse ribs.B. 9. there is sufficient room – at least 0.2.1 – Example of a very small box girder 9. Fig. 9. the problems caused by an insufficient depth could affect the entire structure. 91). This passageway may be cramped in the middle of the spans due to tendons rising up close to the piers. (N. so a minimum depth of 2 m can be accepted. For bridge decks of a constant depth.2. therefore.75 m – between the external tendons nearest to the middle of the box girder to walk comfortably on the concrete surface of the lower slab. If the box girder is too narrow for normal maintenance. it is necessary to add the internal height of the ribs (usually 0.2.2 - Access inside the box girder 9.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. it is recommended to organize the lighting system into sections of 300 to 400 m. it should be circular in shape and 80 cm to 1 m in diameter. it is important to ensure that the height clearances in the shafts correspond to the values shown in Figure 9.50 m.2. above all. If the total length of the structure does not exceed 400 to 500 m. bracket lights with spherical light bulbs or. The lighting in the box girder must be powerful enough to allow staff to move around in complete safety (Fig. it is also possible The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 210 septembre 2007 .3 – Ramp for crossing the lower beam of a deviator 9.4). etc.5 – Electrical system All large prestressed concrete bridges must have an electrical system that is used to light the inside of the bridge deck and to supply power for any tools required during maintenance operations (flood lights. neon tubes or fluorescent strip lights are used. Fig.2. more commonly. using a metal grid which cannot be removed and closes automatically.2. Furthermore. For easy and. it is essential to keep this shaft closed under normal conditions. In order to prevent this shaft from adversely affecting the mechanical behavior of the slab or lower part of the cross beam. power drills. For this purpose. if these deviators and crossbeams have low beams which hinder the movement of staff and equipment – a common situation – it is advisable to install metal or concrete stairways or concrete ramps on either side of these elements (Fig. in order to control the lighting for sections N and N+1. two-way switches must also be fitted at the ends of each section N.4 – Access to pier head units An access shaft must be made in line with each pier in order to allow access from the bridge deck to the piers and vice-versa. These lights are positioned centrally underneath the upper slab with a longitudinal centerto-center spacing of no more than fifteen meters and the high-risk areas around the cross beams and deviators must be adequately lit. For obvious reasons.2. risk-free movement through this passageway.2. Important: if the vertical height exceeds 1. For bridges of over 500 m in length.3 – Crossing of cross beams and deviators Cross beams on modern box girder bridges always have access shafts to allow access for construction workers and. these elements must be equipped with guard rails.1 below). all of the bracket lights can be operated simultaneously using 2 two-way switches situated at both ends of the bridge deck. In this case. 9.3).2.2. In the interests of economy. An effective system consists of placing a square metal grid inside a square rebate built into the top of round access hole. in addition to the two switches on the abutments. For safety reasons. maintenance staff. this shaft must be positioned in line with the inspection pits in the pier head units (see 9. 9.). when the bridge is in service.3.2. 9. 9.

9. For further information about this point. 9. of course.80 m hole in the lower slab. this hole would be closed using a galvanized steel hatch (Fig.volt system with a frequency of 50 Hertz must be installed. the NF C 15-100 standard on the publication date of this guide).45 in the guide mentioned above.4 – Internal lighting in a box girder Electricity is supplied by power sockets. which are usually positioned one meter above the lower slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to fit a timer to the lighting system. There must be no risk of damaging the non-prestressed reinforcements or the prestress tendons during the installation of the system.1 – Access hatches for equipment As explained in the Sétra “Précontrainte Extérieure” (External Prestressing) guide. directly in line with a road lane if possible.2. but this must be set to stay on for a long time (at least 10 hours) in order to avoid plunging workers into darkness when they are still inside the box girder. These hatches may also be used to supply any other equipment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 211 septembre 2007 .5 and 9-6).5 – Access hatch for cabling 9. these sockets are accompanied by safety sockets supplying 24-volt current. a 220. it must be approved by an accredited organization. In all cases.2. and for transporting the equipment needed for their installation. so that a problem with a tool does not suddenly extinguish the internal lighting. To allow for the use of power tools inside the box girder. Fig. After installation. it is necessary to examine different ways of routing extra or replacement tendons through the bridge deck.3 - Miscellaneous 9.e. In certain systems. Under normal conditions. the reader is recommended to refer to section 5. If it turns out to be impossible to route the tendons via the abutments. directly below the light fittings. 9. The electrical system must comply with the general standards in force for low-voltage electrical systems (i. the power socket circuit in the box girder must be totally independent from the lighting circuit. Fig. another solution would involve making a 1 m x 0.3.

which form a barrier preventing the drainage of water.) must be determined according to a precise set of specifications for the networks they are designed to support.3. it is also important to account for the transverse slope of the top of the lower slab and of the tendons which might be installed there. 9.2 . Care must betaken to ensure that this configuration does cause water to run down the facing of the piers. etc. This guarantees their suitability for their future tasks. 9.2. It is also important to consider the position of the cross beams and deviators. or a metal frame supporting the networks.3 . it might also be useful to label cross beams on piers with the number of their corresponding pier as this could facilitate the identification of certain works. cross section. On certain very large structures. it is common practice to install anchor rails or couplings on the underside of the upper slab.3.Drainage of the lower slab Water frequently penetrates into the box girder due to leaks in the structure or during maintenance operations.2. 9. these fittings form the upper anchorages for the bars to which pipework. Transversally.3 – Fixing rails for future networks In order to facilitate the installation of networks inside the box-girder at some future date.6 – Piercing of a lower slab required by the lack of an access hatch 9. nominal load. orientation. The longitudinal positioning of theses holes must take account of the longitudinal profile of the top of the lower slab. can be attached.2. As these hatches cause maintenance and durability problems. The principal characteristics of these rails and bushes (position. This type of identification prevents the use of different numbering systems in inspection reports carried out over the years. Fittings situated close to the tendon anchorages on piers may also be used for jack hoists.4 – Identification and orientation It is advisable to number the segments using indelible paint and a stencil according to the construction plans. length.Piers The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 212 septembre 2007 .3. equipped with a beveled tube extending through the intrados to form a drip groove. Usually made from galvanized or stainless steel. Fig. certain box-girder structures featured access hatches in the central part of the upper slab. which is very different to the longitudinal profile of the road for a bridge deck of variable depth. it is essential to leave holes of 10 to 15 cm in diameter in the lower slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the past. subject to their nominal load being greater than 20 kN. In order to allow this water to drain away quickly. 9. this technique must be completely prohibited.

their length depends on the center distance between the bearings. resembling a bathtub in shape. In general. it is possible to allow two points between both bearings. 9. This system is allows for the regular examination of the inside of piers with a level of accuracy that satisfies the requirements of scheduled inspections.2. it is necessary to determine the position of the jacking points at the design stage. reset the slide plates or make adjustments due to the subsidence of a pier or a geometrical defect. However.8).3. 9. Support blocks (Fig. 9.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. Once these jacking points have been determined. it is possible to use binoculars or additional ladders if stairs are fitted. it is recommended to leave a minimum space of 0.3.3.3.50 m between the top of the piers and the underside of the bridge deck.10) for use during internal monitoring and inspection operations.) may be used if the geometry of the structure prevents the use of blocks.Inspection Hollow piers are usually equipped with a system of safety ladders and landings throughout their full height (Fig.2. To prevent problems or damage to the structure during jacking.3 - Inspection of hollow piers 9.3. although durable markers (studs. i. the next stage is to design and install the reinforcements or prestressing required to take up the forces generated in the piers and bridge deck under these support conditions.3. These points will also be be situated as close to the webs as possible.9) are usually used for this operation. The size and location of these jacking points depends on the amount of space available on the pier head unit. one point per bearing. two jacking points are provided for each bearing. allows work to be carried out "comfortably" in the pier head area. This pit. For more detailed inspections. It is also necessary to mark the jacking points on the plans and identify their positions on the top of the pier. especially during construction. etc. 9. 9. These pits are usually 0.e.1 . if the pier head unit is too short to accommodate two jacking points per bearing. it is recommended to build a pit into the pier head units.1 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of piers In order to facilitate monitoring and maintenance operations. A ∅ 100 mm drain hole is built into the pit for the drainage of any water that might enter.80 to 1 m deep and one meter wide. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 213 septembre 2007 . in spite of the limited space between the top of the pier and the underside of the bridge deck (Fig.3. 9. It is also important to position the jacking point as close to the axis of the nearest web as possible.1 – Access and inspection pits If the height of the piers exceeds 8 to 10 m.7 and 9.2 – Position of the jacking points for the bridge deck A bridge deck often has to be jacked up after commissioning in order to change the bearings.2 - Design of the pier head units 9.

9. precautions must be taken to guarantee its longevity.8 – Inspection pit on pier head unit Fig. However.9 – Block marking the location of a jacking point The dimensions of the system (height and depth of steps. Landings can be made from galvanized steel or the same concrete that was used to construct the pier shafts. Stairs or ladders must be made from hot galvanized steel thick enough to ensure that minor corrosion does not affect the strength of these elements. 9.12). some Owners have decided to restrict the fittings inside hollow piers on large bridges to a single metal gridded platform situated just underneath the crosshead and couplings to which harnesses can be attached (Fig. In recent years. an inspection of the piers under these conditions requires more equipment and more time. which also increases the cost of the operation. 9. frequency of landings) are determined according to the standards in force relating to stairs in buildings.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. of course. NF E 85-010 "Échelles métalliques fixes avec ou sans crinolines" (Fixed Metal Stairs With or Without Safety Bows) was the applicable standard on the publication date of this guide. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 214 septembre 2007 .7 – Access to bridge deck from piers and vice-versa Fig. This creates a working platform from which inspectors equipped with climbing gear can operate. This system reduces the initial investment costs and guarantees that inspections will be carried using the latest totally compliant equipment. Considering the financial investment required for this type of equipment. 9.

3. it is necessary to allow access to hollow piers from the bridge deck. a second access point is also provided via a metal door at the base of the pier. 9. piers on the sea bed. etc. Considering the risks of vandalism. 9. any victims will also have to be evacuated via this single passageway. 9.). risk of vandalism too great. it is necessary to use the same type of doors as those recommended for the abutments (see 9. It is also possible to situate these doors three or four meters above ground level.3 . this hole must normally be closed using a metal grid or plate. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 215 septembre 2007 . These doors are rarely aesthetically pleasing and it is important to make sure that the architecture of the pier is as complimentary as possible. If it is impossible to provide doors at the base of the piers (e.2. they will not fall further than the bottom of this pit. requiring a ladder for access.11 – Access door to a pier or an abutment with five-point safety lock Fig.g.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. For this.2 and Fig. insufficient strength.Lighting Hollow piers must be equipped with a lighting system similar in design to the system used for the bridge deck. 9.11). As before.3.Access Whatever the context. it is necessary to create a reasonably large shaft leading from piers to the bridge deck.2 .3.3.10 – Safety ladders and landings inside a pier Fig. In the majority of cases. It must also be offet in relation to the shaft built into the cross beam on pier. to make sure that if someone falls from the bridge deck. a shaft is usually created at the bottom of the inspection pit described in Paragraph 9.12 – Minimal fittings inside a pier 9.1.3. In the event of an accident during a maintenance operation. Indeed.4. this passageway must be big enough to be used for transporting and removing maintenance equipment. 9.

as little room as possible should be left between the concealing wall and the outer edges of the box girder. an abutment must have the same type of electrical system (lighting and power sockets). concrete or wooden stairs.4 . including between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the central part of the concealing wall. access is gained from the supported road. Fivepoint safety locks bearing the "A2P trois étoiles" label awarded by the french APSAD (Assemblée Plénière des Sociétés d’Assurances Dommage .2 - Restricting access in the abutments On large bridges built in recent years.1 Access to abutments Access points to the abutments must be designed and built with care. 9. 9. given that these walls hide the inside of the abutments which are never very attractive. i. However. These access points must be created with care (concrete surfacing.42 of the "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing) guide published by Sétra. 9. the front face of an abutment is usually closed off by a concealing wall. via the return walls of the abutments. It is also important to fit high-quality locks on the doors.11 on previous page). As mentioned in section 5.4.4. this key phase in the design of this chamber is when the new tendons are in their ducts and the tensioning jack is positioned at the end of the strands prior to “swallowing” them up (Fig. the distance between the internal face of the abutment wall and the end of the bridge deck.4.e. guard rails if necessary.3 - Electrical system Although covering a much smaller area than a bridge deck.).13).4 - Depth of abutments Typical example of abutments with cable pulling chamber One of the essential requirements for changing the external prestressing is the ability to gain access to the anchorages to stress the new tendons. it is also possible to enter abutments from another road below the structure if parking spaces are provided. In this phase. In addition to this important provision. the space required corresponds to the length of the jack Lv plus the length of the strands connected to the jack prior to stressing Lt. etc. it is necessary to consider the phase of the replacement process which requires the most room.4.4.Plenary Assembly of Damage Insurance Companies) are particularly suitable for this task (see Fig. which is entered through a metal door. No more than 15 cm should be allowed for this gap. In order to determine the effective length L of this chamber.Abutments 9.2 above. the design of an abutment must incorporate a cable pulling chamber if the external tendons are attached to stressed anchorages on the cross beam directly above the abutment. For external tendons injected with a flexible product (wax or grease). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 216 septembre 2007 . This solution is also aesthetically pleasing. However. as it denies access to unauthorized persons and therefore prevents malicious damage to the bridge bearings. It is important to fit a light switch next to the door mentioned in 9. 9. In general. external continuity prestressing and the guttering under the joints. they must also be as unobtrusive as possible in order to avoid attracting unwanted attention. This system is highly recommended. not including the corbel.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. 9.

cable pulling chambers may not be built into abutments.14 to 9. the distance between the end of the bridge deck and the abutment wall must not be reduced too much.41 Lv 1.40 1.20 1. these joints are never totally watertight. must be weighted for maximum resistance to the draft of air created by passing trucks.18 1.4. Therefore. These splash guards. Supported by galvanized steel brackets.20 Lv 1.13 – Key design phase for determining the minimum length of the cable pulling chamber The following table gives the lengths Lv. which requires a corbel of 30 to 40 cm on the side of the bridge deck.56 At the design stage.34 37T15S Lv + Lt 2.14 Lt 1. it is necessary to collect any water that percolates through them in order to protect the abutment crossheads.16 Lt 1. 9. 27T15S and 37T15S types of tendons used in certain French prestressing systems. Specific examples of abutments without cable pulling chambers In certain very specific cases.39 2.11 1. consisting of a metal gutter positioned under the joint. it is recommended to fit a water tap on the abutment. bridge bearings and the external prestressing anchorages situated at the ends of the structure. which are usually different to those supplied with the joint.25 1. 9.33 2. provided that the structure can be connected to the drinking water network at reasonable cost.l6. Unit Supplier Freyssinet SEEE Spie Précontrainte 19T15S System C with jack Cl 000F FUT SB 27T15S Lv + Lt 2. In this case. and are therefore situated directly above the abutments.33 2.18 Lt 1.41 2. The best systems are shown in Figures 9.5 - Collection of water under the expansion joint Expansiont joints are fitted at the ends of almost all large modern bridges. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 217 septembre 2007 .25 Lv 1. However. it is necessary to channel the water using vertical neoprene splash guards enclosing the space between the joint and the gutter. the additional length described above is no longer required.28 1.38 Lv + Lt 2.12 1.60 m for 27T15S or 37T15S cabling. this gutter must be positioned centrally under the expansion joint.80 m to 1 m is essential for inspecting and correctly maintaining these parts of the structure.07 1. Despite the care and attention devoted to their design and fitting. The pipes must then be protected from freezing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Lt and (Lv+Lt) for the 19T15S.40 1.08 1. To facilitate the cleaning of the gutter.60 2. it can therefore be considered that the effective length L of the chambers must be at least 2.29 1.25 1.40 m for 19T15S cabling and 2.58 2. In order to prevent splashes. A minimum distance of 0.

2 above. 9.4. it is advisable to leave a minimum gap of 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 218 septembre 2007 .4.16 – Gutter attachment 9.3.50 m between the top of the abutment crossheads and the underside of the bridge deck in order to facilitate maintenance operations. 9. These are determined according to the procedures described in paragraph 9.7 - Bridge deck jacking points Like piers.6 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the crossheads As for the piers. abutments must have jacking points for the bridge deck. 9.2.15 – Gutter under joint (the distance to the slab allows for easy cleaning) Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.14 – Collection of water under pavement joints Fig. 9.

usually consisting of the borehole logs. In most cases. Very large projects. and occasionally. Sub-group I contains the documents that make up the contract.Nature of the tender enquiry In France.1 .Recommendations for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document This section contains a number of recommendations and instructions for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document for a prestressed concrete bridge built by the cantilever method. the price schedule. Given that it is impossible cover all of these aspects. although this system is not be recommended because the tranches can rarely be considered in isolation. It also includes a series of documents appended to the STC. including: • • • • • • • • • Site plan Plan view Longitudinal cross-section Transverse cross-sections of bridge deck Detailed plan of cross beams and deviators Detailed plan of bridge deck superstructures Pier formwork plans Abutment formwork plans Contractual part of the geotechnical survey. cost estimate. the Special Technical Clauses (STC). the vast majority of bridges built by the cantilever method are constructed in the framework of a restricted invitation to tender. It contains the frameworks for the tender document. price breakdowns and breakdown frameworks. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 219 septembre 2007 . the contract is not divided into tranches or packages. Sub-group 0 is reserved for the tender regulations (règlement de la consultation [RC]).e. i. may sometimes be broken down into tranches in order to stagger the financing of the works.2 . these recommendations focus above all on items which are strongly influenced by this particular construction method and on the associated bridge deck structures. Contractor Tender Documents consist of three sub-groups or schedules. 10. draft the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives et Particulières [CCAP]). 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10 . and particularly with regard to the drafting of the written documents required.e. however.Creation of a Contractor Tender Document Apart from in very specific situations. with a preliminary shortlisting of applicants. i.

the following points must be covered in these proposals: • • Origin of the components. In addition. Article 2. sub-group I also contains specific studies which have a direct influence on the design of the structure: hydraulic studies. sub-group I must also contain a document listing the road. this sub-group usually includes the following items: • • • • • • • • • • Plan of the areas capable of accommodating the site installations Plan of possible access routes to the site Longitudinal cabling plan Transverse cabling plan (for structures featuring transverse prestressing) Plan of the bridge deck showing a breakdown of segments Scheme of construction operations Plan of the cantilever stabilization system Preliminary quantity survey Architectural study The non-contractual part of the geotechnical survey: usually the pre-design for the foundations produced by the laboratory in charge of this survey. Finally.Tender regulations 10. With regard to the bridge deck of a structure built using the cantilever method. Sub-group II is made up of documents intended for information purposes only.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In certain cases. alkali reactivity. certain architectural studies may also be included in sub-group I in order to make the information relating exclusively to these studies contractually binding (reference to a matrix for the bottom shuttering matrix. railway or waterway. etc. etc. wind-effect study.3. In other cases. aggregates. including the results of specific studies carried out upstream by the Construction Manager (HPC.) 10. along with design calculations or miscellaneous studies containing information for contractors. rail or water-related constraints facing the contractor during the works.1 Supplements to the Special Technical Clauses / Technical proposals Technical proposals are detailed precisions that contractors are obliged to include in their bid in addition to their proposed basic solution.).3 b of the Tender regulations specifies the structural elements for which technical proposals must be submitted. In recent years. etc. For structures built by the cantilever method.3 . if the structure has to be built over or close to a traffic-bearing road. sub-group II of certain Contractor Tender Documents has also included reports concerning the formulation of concrete. frost and salt-resistant formulas. sub-group II sometimes contains initial plans for the bridge deck reinforcements. the composition and the application of the concrete Bridge bearings The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 220 septembre 2007 .

10. • 10. these variants.2 - Preparation period As we have already mentioned.3. In order to prevent the interruption of work due to delays in the availability of construction plans that have been approved by the Contruction Manager.4 . or even longer if contractors are likely to propose major variants. it is essential to allow a sufficiently long preparation period in which the engineering firms can reach a stage that is well ahead of the work carried out on site. For certain structures.1 Period of validity for bids The evaluation phase for the bids for a structure to be built by the cantilever method is often longer than for a basic structure.4.3 of the Tender Regulations. may require alterations to be made to the price schedule. Contrary to the technical proposals.2 – Technical variants The Owner may authorize contractors to offer variants with a view to encouraging competition. Sufficient time must also be allowed for Construction Managers to evaluate these surveys.Tender document 10. work on site may sometimes advance at a faster rate than the construction surveys can be carried out. 10. cost estimate and of course the Special Technical Clauses and the attached plans. The most common variations include: • • • • • The breakdown into segments Types of prestressing units used Internal form of bridge deck gussets Scheme of construction operations Cantilever stabilization system. with or without pilings depending on the situation (for moderately long bridges of a constant depth) A change of construction technique for the foundations of one or more supports. construction surveys for structures built by the cantilever method are long and complex.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Prestressing processes Procedure for the waterproofing layer Expansion joints. These may include: • • The replacement of concrete webs with lightweight metal webs (for long span bridges) Substitution of the cantilever construction technique by the incremental launching method. The period required varies The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 221 septembre 2007 . More flexible variants are sometimes permitted. the first article of the tender document should specify a reasonably long period of validity for the bids (a minimum of 180 days). if they are accepted. Therefore. The permissible technical variants are listed in Article 2.

In earthquake zones. for structures supporting these types of vehicles. but the amount of time required is inversely proportional to the time allowed for the construction of the piers. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels.5. it is also necessary to add the following specific documents: • The AFPS 92 guide for the seismic protection of bridges. • • • • • • For structures supporting oversize loads. edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (AFPS) [French Seismic Engineering Association].Section I of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 62 Titre I . published by the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 222 septembre 2007 . published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide from structure to structure. it is also necessary to mention: • French Circular no. définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Exceptionally Large Trucks: Definition of Standard Loads and Rules for the Verification of Civil Engineering Structures).Special Administrative Clauses 10.Section II of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BPEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 65-A of the french GTC and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Civil Engineering Structures) in their updates published in August 2000 Fascicule 62 Titre V of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Civil Engineering Structures) Fascicule 68 of the french GTC: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil” (Construction of the Foundations for Civil Engineering Structures). the list of general documents to be included in the contract includes at least the following documents: • Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (Common Conditions) [CPC]) : "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Program of Loads and Tests for Road Bridges) Fascicule 61 Titre IV Section II of the french General Technical Clauses (GTC): “Actions de la neige sur les constructions” (Effects of Snow on Structures) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) Fascicule 62 Titre I . 10.1 General contract documents For a structure built by the cantilever method.5 .

The Construction Manager shall notify the contractor of his findings in writing and within a maximum period of forty-five (45) working days for the first examination of the "longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck" and “transverse flexion of the bridge deck" groups and twenty-five (25) working days for the first inspection of the other groups of documents. Further details concerning this point are given in article 10. As traffic can normally only be interrupted at certain times of the day. 10. reinforcement plans and design calculations for the section concerned). either by describing the constraints directly in these articles. work on site may be disrupted. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 223 septembre 2007 . formwork plans. or by referring the reader to another of the documents included in the Contractor Tender Document.4 - Operating constraints in the public domain Many bridges are built immediately next to or even above other traffic-bearing routes. in the framework of the first and subsequent evaluations of the documents. accompanied by the corresponding construction procedures.PS92" (Antiseismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92).5. it is necessary to wait until the traffic on these arteries has been interrupted before carrying out certain operations.3 - Examination period for construction surveys As conflicts between the Contractor and Construction Manager often arise over compliance with acceptance deadlines. • 10.5. These deadlines are reduced to fifteen (15) and five (5) working days for the subsequent examinations of these groups of documents. these periods start on the arrival date of the last document. it is recommended that Article 8. the following text could serve as an example for this text: Delays for the examination and approval of construction documents The contractor must submit the construction surveys for each part of the structure to the Construction Manager for approval in the form of homogeneous groups of documents (e. It is important to mention these constraints clearly in articles 8.5 of the SAC. Under these conditions and for safety reasons.5. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of seismic risks and to the Decree of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category. with regard to the foundations Order no. It should be noted that in the event of the staggered arrival of documents within the same group.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The officially approved standard NF P 06-013. more commonly known as the "Règles de construction parasismique . Although it could probably be improved.2 of this chapter.2 of the Special Administrative Clauses should contain a text which clearly mentions: • • The documents considered by the Construction Manager to form an indivisible whole The deadlines that the Construction Manager agrees to observe.4. 10.g.2 - Preparation period Article 8.règles applicables aux bâtiments .4 and 8.1 of the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives particulières [SAC]) specifies the length of the preparation period and indicates whether or not this is included in the contract period.

10. either because these documents are incomplete. or because none of them cover the field in question. authorization to apply surfacing materials Acceptance of a quality control element for the prefabricated concrete cornice Acceptance of the adjustment of cornices before sealing Acceptance of pavement joints before fixing or sealing Acceptance of retaining systems before sealing Testing Authorization to perform loading tests Time required 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 10.6.6 . The following table gives a non-exhaustive list of the hold points likely to apply to the bridge deck of a structure built by the cantilever method in addition to the average delay before they can be lifted.6. Hold points Casting and formwork removal Acceptance of the quality control element Authorization for the casting of a part of the structure Authorization to move form travelers forward Authorization to remove falsework from a section of bridge deck Prestressing Authorization for tensioning of prestressing Acceptance of tensioning before reinforcements are cut Authorization for the injection of prestressing ducts Bridge bearings Acceptance of bearing blocks Acceptance at moment of delivery Acceptance of the fitting of bridge bearings (adjustment and positioning) Fittings Acceptance of waterproofing substrate Acceptance of waterproofing.2 - Construction survey program for the structure As we have already mentioned. The second category concerns the options proposed by these texts. additional information may be required for more sophisticated box girder designs. In line with the standard STC included in the CAPT-DCE-OA software published by Sétra. it is advisable to include an article entitled “Programme des études d’exécution” (Construction Survey Program) in the Special Technical Clauses.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10. These points may be broken down into two categories. The first concerns elements of additional information to that provided in the GTC and by the applicable standards.As these points concern conventional types of box girders built by the cantilever method. because they are already binding for the contractor.5.5 - Duration of hold points Article 91 of the SAC outlines the main hold points on the site as well as the time necessary for the Construction Manager to cancel these hold points. This can be worded in the following manner: Construction Survey Program The Contractor must submit a construction survey program which includes a list and a provisional schedule of the documents to be drawn up. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 224 septembre 2007 .Special Technical Clauses 10. great care should be taken with regard to the quality and execution of the surveys. none of these points repeats the requirements laid down in the GTC and the applicable standards.1 Preamble There now follows a list of points that must be clearly specified in the Special Technical Clauses (STC) for the Contractor Tender Document. With this in mind.

These actions.2 of the SAC. forces transmitted by launch beam supports.) Site overloads defined in Chapters 3 and 5 of this guide. collapse of one of the form travelers. These actions must be accompanied by certain actions which are specific to box girder bridge decks and the method of construction. an unbalanced segment.3 - Construction surveys for the structure 10. The provisional schedule includes the deadlines for the submission of documents and the fixed or tentative deadlines for approval by the Construction Manager. including fatigue trucks. which are normally listed and described in the STC are: • • • • • • • • Selfweight of the bridge deck (specify the unit mass of the concrete) Weight of the fittings added to the bridge deck Prestress forces Concrete shrinkage and creep (specify the area in which the structure is situated) General thermal effects (gradient and uniform variation) Thermal effects (uniform variation) to be considered for the expansion joints Predicted overloads from road vehicles and pedestrians on the structure.6. only to be used for calculations in the construction phase before the closure of a cantilever Specific site actions (e. launch beam. in accordance with the minimum deadlines established by Article 8.3-1 -Actions The STC must state all of the actions to be considered in the verifying calculations for the structure. It shall be drawn up in accordance with the framework of surveys specified in the contract. • Depending on the situation.).6. also described in Chapter 5 of this guide. It presented in the form of a bar chart clearly showing the critical tasks and the time allowed. etc. etc. 10. it may also be necessary to mention certain additional actions such as: • • • Impacts on cetain supports Thrust due to water or ice Wind and/or ice to be considered for certain very exposed sites The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 225 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The list enumerates the documents that must be submitted for the construction of both temporary and permanent structures.g. if used Impacts on restraint systems. Many of these actions are defined in fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC and in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. These must be specified in the STC and relate toconcern: • • Selfweight of temporary structures (form travelers.

3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. (For example. depending on the structure in question.3. the STC must specify the values of k and k’ to be adopted for the application of Article 4. used to verify the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck and the transverse flexion of the upper slab on structures with transverse prestressing (see Paragraph 3.2. etc. a broken strand that was not replaced). In accordance with Paragraph 3.3.3 –Verification of the bridge deck The STC must specify: • The verification categories. It may also consider the estimated coefficients of friction given by measurements taken on site. it is important to note that an as-built calculation must be performed after the completion of the construction work.3 of the BAEL 91 revised in 1999.1.3.5. 10.1. If not.6. for the verification of reinforced concrete parts (transverse flexion. • • As differences of opinion exist between Construction Managers.10 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. Paragraph 3.3.) The thermal gradient and the thermal expansions to be adopted in the construction phase (see Paragraph 3.3 of this guide recommends the application of the comment in Article 6. with the actual dates of casting and any incidents that occurred on site (e.2. the following requirements may also be specified in the STC: • Allow for the curvature of the structure on the horizontal plane in the calculations of longitudinal flexion The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 226 septembre 2007 .6.2.2). It would also be advisable to add a rule governing how to allow for different construction phases in the calculation of stresses at the ULS (see our proposals in paragraph 3. deviators.5). or whether different permissible stresses must be adopted.2) The cracking categories. Finally.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Seismic effects Etc.3. The combinations to be used for the in-service verification of the structure are specified in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. as described in Article 1.5. it is essential to include a rule of this type in the STC (see Chapter 4 of this guide). cross beams. The STC must also state whether it is compulsory to perform a range calculation for prestress effects.2 – Combined actions The STC usually mentions the different combined actions that have to be considered. This calculation takes account of the actual phasing of the work carried out on a bridge built by the cantilever method. Combinations to be used for verifying the structure with regard to the risks of cantilever instability are given in Chapter 5 of this guide.3.g.3.3).3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 is applicable in the strict sense. as described in Article A 4. the STC must specify whether Article 6. It should be noted that they differ from those mentioned in the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979.3 in construction situations). These values are directly related to the requirements formulated by the Construction Manager with regard to empty ducts and the measurement of transmission factors (see our recommendations in 3.2. As the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 does not include any rules for the accumulation of non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to compensate for transverse flexion on the one hand. and the tangent general flexion and distribution forces on the other. 10.

) Perform a second-order calculation for one or more piers if they are very slender (in this case.4 - Bridge deck formwork 10. measurement of flatness of facings. Whether continuity cable anchor blocks must be fitted.2 – Small control slabs or test segment The STC must specify whether the contractor must manufacture a test segment for the suitability tests or whether small control slabs or elements will suffice.6.6.Continuity tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the continuity tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. the STC must clearly define the acceptance conditions for these tests: inspection of facings. This category must conform to the definitions provided in Article 52 of Fascicule 65A of the french CCTG. It must also mention the type of duct and. 10. Furthermore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Perform a finite elements calculation for a section of the bridge deck Perform a finite elements calculation for a specific part of the structure (segment on pier.4.1 – Cantilever tendons The STC must precisely state the number and type of strands to be used for the cantilever tendons. 10.3 – Removal of formwork It is advisable to establish a minimum strength requirement for the concrete at the moment the formwork is removed.4. 10.Formwork The STC must specify the category of facing to be used for the inner and outer surfaces of the box girder. core sampling in the sheath areas. The Owner’s requirements for the permanent protection to be used on the anchorages (e.4. 10.5 - Prestressing 10. along with their strength and relaxation categories.g. the STC must clearly mention: • • • The dimensions of these elements The ducts and non-prestressed reinforcement bars that they must contain.6. segment on abutment.6. the STC must specify the design assumptions for the horizontal forces in the pier heads) Etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 227 septembre 2007 .6. In all cases.6. ribs. etc. the type of injection product to be used.2 .5.5. of course. etc. • • Chapter 3 of this guide gives a lot of valuable advice on choosing the coefficients and rules mentioned in this paragraph.1 . 10.6. This must not be less than 15 MPa.

Certain Construction Managers demand rigid ducts for the ducts at the level of the anchor blocks. the STC must clearly state the applicable requirements. which are identical to those for the continuity tendons. which usually correspond to hold points for contractors. 10. 10.4 – External tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the external tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. • • • • Chapter 9 of this guide contains numerous guidelines for the drafting of the corresponding clauses. metal caps.6.6. on piers or close to abutments) Anchor rails fixed to the upper slab or webs. to the capacity of this prestressing. Finally.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide conventional sealing. and more specifically.3 – Transverse tendons If the project calls for the installation of transverse tendons in the upper slab or ribs. The Contractor Tender Document (SAC.6. in addition to the types of anti-vibration systems to be adopted.7 - Inspection of work As mentioned in Chapter 7. including the internal lighting Stairways or ramps for passing the cross beams and deviators Closing devices (doors. the Owner’s requirements with regard to additional prestressing. The type of deviator tubes and corrosion inhibitors to be used in the structural deviators.) for the access points to the bridge deck (manholes in cross beams on abutments.) must also be specified. the STC must clearly describe the maintenance fittings that the Owner has requested for the structure. STC) must clearly specify these inspections. 10. etc. if any. manholes in the lower slab. etc. must also be specified. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 228 septembre 2007 . which may be used for the immediate or subsequent installation of networks in the box girder Handling rails fitted in the upper slab. must also be specified. These fittings include: • • • The electrical system for the box girder.5. 10. guaranteeing a consistent alignment without any concentration of radial tendon forces.5.6.6 - Special fittings in the box girder As these fittings are not always clearly marked on the plans included in the Contractor Tender Document. plates. the inspection of work carried out on a structure built by the cantilever method is an important and complex task which the Construction Manager must start to organize quite a long time in advance. grids. in line with any hatches that may be built into the lower slab Rails used in the deployment of tensioning jacks for the external prestress tendons Inspection equipment for hollow piers.

The price for the centuring of end sections includes the design. Payment is often on a fixed-price or fixed price per abutment basis. This normally includes the design. plus the costs of external inspections.Price schedule A standard price schedule which is perfectly suited to the construction of all standard structures is appended to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG. in addition to the cost of external inspections. the price schedule for a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method using cast-in-situ segments must also include prices for the following elements: • • • • Cantilever stabilization systems Form travelers Formwork tool for segments on piers Centering for end sections. in addition to cost of external inspections. it may not be possible for the Contract Manager and his or her laboratory to carry out certain inspections. this price is normally paid in instalments as the work advances on site. These inspections must be clearly defined and paid for separately. a “per pair” price. In view of the large sums of money involved. The price for the form travelers usually includes the design. the temporary prestressing and. In addition to the prices normally shown in this appendix. covering the supply. especially during the transfer onto permanent bearings. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of structures used for centering and encasing the segments on piers. and eventual removal of the temporary stability blocks. This is either a fixed price or. the temporary pilings or cable-stays. if necessary. adjustments. it will be necessary to use the services of an external inspection company. The price also covers any jacking operations required during construction. installation. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 229 septembre 2007 . construction. although a price per square meter may also be charged according to the area of bridge deck to be shored up.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In addition. construction. transportation. If this is the case. for very large structures. The price of the formwork tool for the segment on pier is given as a fixed or “fixed per pier” price. The price for the cantilever stabilization system is normally given as a “fixed price” or a “fixed price per pier”. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of form travelers used on site.7 . 10. assembly and removal of the centuring used for the sections of bridge deck not built by form travelers. transportation. adjustments.

A1.1.Notation Figure A1-1 describes the notation used. Considering the complexity of the calculations to be performed. Like the rest of this guide.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1 Determination example Example of the determination of a bridge deck built by the cantilever method This appendix presents an example of the calculation of the bridge deck for a structure built by the cantilever method. it is used to provide the minimum amount of information (e. cantilever tendons) required for the preparation of a more sophisticated computerized design model. A1.g. this method is not designed to determine the definitive formwork and cabling. We take: G to be the centre of gravity of the cross-section v to be the distance from G to the upper axis v’ to be the distance from G to the lower axis h = v + v’ to be the total height of the section eo to be the off-setting (off-centring?) of the mean tendon d to be the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons d’ to be the minimal distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 230 septembre 2007 . breakdown into segments. It also provides information about specific aspects of the design. formwork.0 – Purpose of this appendix Based on a concrete example.1 . this appendix has been drawn up in accordance with the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 and fascicule 61 Titre II of french CPC.1 .Reminders A1. this appendix describes a simplified method for roughly calculating the formwork and prestressing for a bridge deck of a cast in-situ structure built by the cantilever method. Instead.

2 – Reminders about prestressing A1. the limit stresses are: .M2 F to be the prestress force (effective traction). we use the same indices for shear forces (T) as for the moments. A1.6 f cj − k f c with k = 0.1. we take: B to be the area of the section I to be its moment of inertia in relation to a horizontal axis passing through G ρ= I to be the geometric output of the cross-section Bvv ' c = ρv to be the ordinate (in relation to G) of the highest point of the central core c’= ρv’ to be the ordinate of the lowest point of the central core Mg to be the moments due to the selfweight Mq `to be the moments due to the fittings Ms1 and Ms2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively (counted algebraically) due to the imposed loads Ml and M2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively applied to a cross section M = M 1 .1.1 – Notations Furthermore.02 for such a structure The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 231 septembre 2007 .1 – Limit stresses In Class II of the BPEL. – A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.in compression: σ c = 0. Finally.2.

we can choose them in such a way that I I ΔM (with Δσ being the range of stress variation = = v v' Δσ σ c + σ t ).A1. in each section we should have: below Mmini = M2 σ sup = P P e0 + M 2 + v ≥ σ t (1) B I σ inf = P P e0 + M 2 − v ' ≤ σ c (2) B I P P e0 + M 1 + v ≤ σ c (3) B I below Mmaxi = M1 σ sup = σ inf = P P e0 + M 1 − v' ≥ σ t (4) B I This can be expressed as: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − ≤ e0 ≤ c − 1 + P v P ¨P v ' P A1.2a). .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .2b). but if an excessively thick member is dictated (e. an upper member for which obtain three limit stresses (Fig.1.σt 0 I ΔM normally applies) we will only be able to > v Δσ ²σ b σb - σt - 0 ≤ σb σt 0 σt 0 σb The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 232 septembre 2007 . under extreme loading cases.2. we may obtain the four limit stresses (Fig. Thus. P can therefore be chosen so that: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − = c− 1+ P v P ¨P v ' P so P= ΔM − Bσ t c + c' and e0 = c − M1 I σ t M I σt + = − c' − 2 − with − (v '−d ') ≤ e0 ≤ v − d P v' P P v P In so far as we can choose the thicknesses of the two members.g.2 – Sub-critical sections These are sections in which we are not restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons.in traction: − σ t = − f tj − k f c ( ) Given that the hyperstatic forces due to prestressing are ignored. A1.

therefore M2 (the minimum algebraic value) is structurally significant.3 – Limit stress diagrams for an over-critical section ≥ (b) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 233 septembre 2007 . we will only be able to obtain two limit stresses (Fig.g.2 – Limit stress diagrams for a sub-critical section A1. Let us consider the example of a section that is mainly subjected to negative moments (e. in the upper axis). it will be possible to obtain three limit stresses (Fig. the size of the upper member is imposed (excessively thick). A1.2. A1. the number of limit stresses that can be obtained depends whether or not it is possible to modify the thickness of the members. A1. If we are able to modify the thickness of the upper structural member. a section on an intermediate support).3a). this gives: P≥ ΔM ΔM − Bσ t = − Bσ t c+c ' ρh P must therefore be at least equal to the higher of the two values below (according to the structurally significant moment): M1 I c + v ' −d ' + σ t v and − M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' As in the previous situation. If. as is usually the case.3b) with: P=− M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' 0 -σt sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 ≤ σb sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 0 σb (a) Fig. Based on compliance with the minimum stress. with: P=− M2 I c' + v − d + σ t v' and I ΔM = v Δσ (compliance with the change of stress σb. A 1.3 – Over-critical sections These are sections in which we are restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

Mass: tonne (t) . A1.7.81 m/s2 for gravity acceleration.Stress: MegaPascal (MPa). the focal point method consists of using the mechanical constants ai. which is also equal to 1 N/mm² or 103 kN/m².Length: meter (m) .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10.4 – Units of measurement The following units of measurement are systematically used in this example (unless otherwise specified) : .bn ϕ‘n ϕ ' n −1 bi ϕ 'i ϕ2 ϕ i +1 bi +1 = ai+1 + ci . we can calculate the bending moments on the supports Ai-1 and Ai when span Ai-1 Ai is loaded. which is considered to be independent and subjected to the loading case in question.Force: MegaNewton (MN) . ω 'i + ω "i ϕ 'i bi ( 1 Mi-1 = ϕ iϕ 'i − 1) ω 'i + Mi = bi ( ω "i ϕi − 1) 1 ϕ iϕ 'i The moments on the other supports are determined by the following focal point ratios: Mi-2 = -ϕi-1 Mi-1 Mi+1 = -ϕ‘i+1 Mi Mi-3 = -ϕi-2 Mi-2 Mi+2 = -ϕ‘i+2 Mi+1 etc. (φ’i).1. we shall adopt a value of g = 9.bi+1 ϕ‘i+1 ϕn = an + cn-1 . Courbon.b1 ϕ1 bn −1 = cn-1 + an . In addition.1 - Focal point method for the design of a continuous beam Using the notation adopted by M. etc. bi and ci for each span to calculate the focal point ratios for the left. Both groups of equations are given below: ϕ1 ψ1 = 0 b2 ϕ‘n = 0 = a2 + c1 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 234 septembre 2007 . (φi) and right.bi ϕi bn = ci + ai+1 .b2 ϕ‘2 ϕ '1 Having ascertained the the focal point ratios and the rotations ω’i and ω"i for the end of span i.bn-1 ϕn-1 b1 = c1 + a2 .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1. A1. The bridge deck is cast in-situ due to its moderate length (Fig.(2 x 0.15 m first category bridge Loadable width = 10.On pier: h1 = 5.15/3) = 3 lanes The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 235 septembre 2007 .2.1 – Length and depth of bridge deck Fig.4).30 m. Fig. as the complete structure consists of two bridges fastened together.2. (*) This is quite a low slenderness ratio but it is imposed due to the fact that this structure is designed to double the capacity of an existing bridge.At the crown The segments on piers are 8.50) = 9. A1.2 – Functional cross section The supported platform is illustrated in Figure A1.4 – Longitudinal section of the structure The example involves the determination of a structure with three asymmetrical spans totaling 214. There are two end spans of 53. the height of the box girder varies parabolically between: .00 m long and the closing segment for the central span is 2. However.00 m long. A1. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/43 (*). the distributed overload A is given as: Usable width = 10. Given the need to comply with clearance dimensions.30 m .75 m.15 .5 – Cross-section of the structure According to fascicule 61 Titre II of french CCTG.A1. only one side of the traffic lanes is shown.375 m and one central span of 97. .15 m Number of loadable lanes = entire section (9.2 – Source data A1. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/18 ho = 2.5.50 m between the centers of the end supports.375 m and 63.

For the cantilever and continuity tendons.4 – Characteristics of materials The characteristics of the materials used are as follows: .units used in fascicule 61 Titre II).1 MN.15 A2( ) = 9.5 – Cross sections of the bridge deck The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 236 septembre 2007 .5/3. for a permissible in-service compression stress = 0. the linear loads according to the length of loaded section is given by: ≤ 200 m s = 9. A1.21.For the concrete: compressive strength fc28 = 35 MPa.15 Considering the third comment in Article 4.9 as the bridge features three lanes Width of lane = 9.2. l + 12 with A( ) = 230 + A1. we use 19T15S prestress units.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide a1 = 0.15 / 3 = 3.2.90 x 1.95 MN.3 – Weight of fittings The probable linear weight of the fittings is taken to be q = 47.15 A( ) = 9.45 A( ) 36000 (A(l) in kg/m² and l in m . giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 1.15 x 0. A1. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 3.2. the overall diameter of the ducts is 100 mm. the overall diameter of the ducts is 80 mm -For the external tendons.05 = 1.4 kN/m.05 m a2 = 3. we use 12T15S prestress units.6 x 35 = 21 MPa .

As an initial estimate. Vertical webs were chosen for aesthetic reasons.95 m. allowing for the diameter of the ducts.7. Figure Al. whereas the thickness of the webs (36 cm) is determined by the casting conditions. we shall use the dimensions given in Figure A1. This analysis was also used to establish the thickness of the upper slab between the webs at 25 cm. Although we do not yet know the precise dimensions of the formwork for these elements. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 237 septembre 2007 . we must allow for them in our calculations. it is logical to design a box girder with two webs positioned according to the findings of a summary analysis of the transverse behavior.6 shows the cross-sections used as the basis for the first approximate calculations.6 – Cross sections of the bridge deck As the total width of the slab is equal to 10. The thickness of the cantilevers varies between 25 cm on the BN4 side and 30 cm on the web side.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. including the longitudinal anchoring girders for the safety barriers. The mean thickness of the upper slab is therefore 27 cm. Finally. we know that there must be room to accommodate gussets in the slabs. A1.

the total height of the box girder varies parabolically according to following the law: h(x) = h0 + (h1 .8 – Variation in height of bridge deck in central span In the end spans (Fig. the total height varies parabolically at first (section closest to pier).40 x 0.4 x 0.40 x 0.4905 m ² S=2 x ⎢ 4 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ In the central spans. close to CO and C3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 238 septembre 2007 .08⎥ = 0. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. and then it becomes constant and equal to h0.h0) ⎜ using the notation shown in Figure A1.7 – Detail of the gussets in the box girder The transverse surface area represented by the gussets is: ⎡1.60 2 0.08 0.20 2 − π x 0.20 ⎤ + + + + 0. A1.8 below: ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 Fig.9). A1.40 2 0.

9 – Variation in height of bridge deck We can schematize the sections according to Figure A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. we shall use the sequence of construction operations shown below: 1 2 3 4 5 Construction of cantilever on P1 Construction of the cast-on-falsework section near to C0 Closure of C0-Pl.420 m 2.240 m 6.300 m 0.300 m 0.10 – Calculation of the mechanical characteristics of the bridge deck We then have to establish the thickness ε (x) of the lower slab. we shall use ε0 = 24 cm: a value which is imposed by the casting conditions. and ε1 = 45 cm: a value chosen in view of the span lengths and the slenderness ratios.0965 m2 0. in fact.640 A1. Section at the crown h(x) ε(x) B v v’ I ρ 2.880 m 41. A1.2. stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl and transition to permanent bearings for P1 Construction of cantilever on P2 Construction of cast-on-falsework section near to C3 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 239 septembre 2007 .440 m 4.7 – Sequence of construction operations In the following calculations. with ε0 and ε1 the thicknesses at the crown and on the pier: ε(x) = ε0 + (ε1 .6 – Characteristics of the sections A computerized calculation gives us the mechanical characteristics of the sections on pier and at the crown. A1.3129 m2 2.450 m 9. we shall use a parabolic variation law similar to the one used for h(x).620 m4 0.860 m 1. Fig. A1.612 Section on pier 5.10. for this.ε0) ⎜ ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 As an initial estimate.532 m4 0.2.

10-6 x4 For the section on pier. assumed to be equal to approximately 40 t.3 – Cantilever prestressing design A1.02.1 .5 t/m3. At this moment Mg. 0.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 48. In order to simplify the calculations.23 x 0.Tg(x) = ∫ g (ξ )dξ 0 x g x = 0.10-6 x2 .24 + 0.01. A1.03 ⎢0. Qc1 Moment due to the weight of the form traveler. for x = 48.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence.074995 x2 + 2.00 m (½ closing segment).00 m / 2 + 1 m = 2.e.186.8): 2 2 ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ B( x) = 10.11 below.75.149990 + 33.875 – 1.21⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 0. we consider that the bridge deck is supported on the centerline of the pier.72 ⎢2. stressing of tendons for P2-C3 and transition to permanent bearings for P2 Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for Pl-P2 Stressing of external tendons Installation of fittings and commissioning A1. with a unit mass of 2.11 – Determination of the support moment during the casting of the final segments The calculation of Mg is shown hereafter (with x defined in Figure A1.149990 x + 11. Fig.Moment on pier during the casting of the final segments The complete cantilever is shown in Figure A1. therefore a unit weight of 0.5 m from the crown: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 240 septembre 2007 . i.10-6 x3 .27 + 0.Mg(x) = ∫ − T (ξ )dξ 0 = 0.3.024525 B (x) = 0.30 + 3.40 MN. and exerted at 3.024525 MN/m3: g (x) = 0. i.e. The moment resulting from this assumption is slightly higher than if the calculation were to be performed in line with the temporary stabilizing blocks.00⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 5. it is necessary to add the moment due to the known site loads (Qc1) in addition to the moment due to random site loads (Qc2 and Qc3).4905 ⎝ 48. this gives Mg = .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 7 8 9 Closure of P2-C3.34 MNm.

875 – 3.186.0. The shape of the moment curve in cantilever Mg is shown in Figure A1.212.51 MNm MQc3 = .7 x (0. A1.70 MNm We can therefore consider that: Mg = .34 – 18.02 σt = 0.875 / 2) = .375 = .6 + 0. measurement of transmission factors).6 + 0.(200 x 10.2 – Calculation of cantilever cabling Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.00) = .55 MNm Qc2 Moment due to a distributed load of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever Qc3 Moment due to a concentrated load of (50 + 5b) kN.19 MPa The force N developed by the cantilever tendons in the section on pier must satisfy the following condition: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 241 septembre 2007 .95) 1 x 0.k fcj with k = 0.12 – Bending moment in the cantilever under selfweight + form traveler A1.[(50 + (5 x 10.40 x 46.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 We consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the casting of final pair of segments is taken to be fcj = 35 MPa.001 x (47.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide MQc1 = Mform traveler = .3.02 x 35 = 1.06 x fcj) – 0. with b being the width of the upper slab of the box girder: MQc2 = .02 x fcj = 0.7 x (0. Fig.875) x 0.55 – 2.000001 x (47.51 – 4.4.06 x 35) – 0.10 MNm.95 x 47.18.12 below. The allowable stress in the upper axis is therefore: σt = 0.2.70 = .7 ftj .

081 m N ≥ −σb − Mv I 1 e0 v + B I = − 1.19 + 212.420 m and M = -212.3.95 to which we add two tendons in order to prestress the final pair of segments.3129 41.3129 m2.74 ≈ 24 tendons 1.42 41.v = 2.74 MN 1 2. it is advisable to make sure that the cantilever tendons are strong enough to take up the weight of the bridge deck and form traveler during the construction of the central closing segment.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide N e0 v M v N + + ≥ σb B I I with B = 9.258 x 2.15).14 below. A1.532 = 46. These The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 242 septembre 2007 .3 .13 – Breakdown of cantilevers into segments The shape of the moment curve in the cantilever under selfweight and prestressing is given in Figure A1. I = 41.13 below).258 m position of the mean tendon supposing its distribution over two beds e0 = v . To this end.10 MNm e0 = 2.10 x 2. A1. We therefore have 13 pairs of 12T15S tendons. Fig.14 – Bending moment in the cantilevers A1.2 φg with φg = 0.532 m4 . Fig. two vertical forces are applied in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1.532 n tendons ≥ 46. allowing us to divide the cantilever into 2 x 13 standard segments of 3.375 m in length (see Figure A1.Verification during the casting of the P1-P2 closing segment At this stage in the design.42 + 9.

at this stage. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 243 septembre 2007 .45 + 114.48) x 2.34 .55/2) – 16.42 + = + B I 9.4 – Prestressing design for the closing segment A1.26 MPa ≥ σ b = − 1.3129 41. Fig.m Ncantilever = 2 x 13 x 1.15 – Effects of the weight of the form traveler and of the closing segment In this new phase.Closure of P2-C3 and stressing of continuity tendons for P2-C3 .Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for P1-P2.212. A1.48 MN.186. the forces and stress in the upper horizontal plane along the centerline of the piers can be expressed as follows: M = .7 x 2.532 σ i = − 0. A1.7 that the closing segments were constructed in the following order: .Closure of C0-Pl and stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl .7 MN Misocantilever = 50.258 = 114.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide forces represent the effect of the weight of the form traveler and the concrete for the closing segment when still wet.19 MPa ==> The dimensioning is therefore correct.45 MN.v 50.m σs = N M . These forces are exerted on two independent and isostatic structures because.0 .(18.95 = 50.7 (−212.2.4.84 = . the two halves of the bridge have not yet been connected.Preamble We have seen in A1.

A1. Fig. A1. they develop both isostatic and hyperstatic moments. the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons stressed during the previous closing operations is not an unknown.Effect of the selfweight of the closing segment and the form traveler As mentioned previously. these forces will be replaced with a uniformly distributed load directed in a downward direction and representing the set concrete (Figure A1.1. Therefore. In this phase.1 – Closing segment between PI and P2 The continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 must take up the selfweight of the closing segment. In the first part.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The continuity tendons must be determined in reverse order.4. the structure is hyperstatic.16 – Detail of central closing segment In order to determine the number of tendons necessary for the closing segment in the central span. By starting at the final closing segment.17 – Diagram of moments due to the removal of the form traveler The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 244 septembre 2007 . A1. Fig.4.17). two vertical forces are applied in an upward direction at each end of the cantilevers (Figure A1. the bridge deck still consists of two independent isostatic structures. In contrast to the other continuity tendons. the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the effects of the thermal gradient. In this phase. 16 below represents the structure at the moment of the P1-P2 closure.1 .2 – Effect of the removal of the form traveler This phase can be broken down into two parts. this phase has no bearing on the calculation of the continuity tendons. we shall study each phase of the closure and determine its effect on the structure.4. A1. Al.1. These forces represent the effect of the removal of the form traveler and the concrete used for the closing segment (fresh concrete). the first stage of the closure can be simulated by applying two vertical forces in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1. In the second part.18). Figure Al.15).

4.1.4.19 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12°C The value of the moment at the crown used for the calculation of the continuity tendons for P1-P2 is therefore: Mtherm = 12.4 – Isostatic moment of continuity tendons for P1-P2 The isostatic moment is an unknown and is proportional to the prestressing that is used (Figure A1.m A1. A1.4.35 MN.318 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 245 septembre 2007 .65 MN.40 = .m A1. Fig. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.75 + 3.95 x ntendons and e0 at the crown = 1. the moment to be considered for the calculation of the continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 is: MG = -7.18 – Diagram of moments due to weight of closing segment At the end of these two stages. e0 with N = normal force due to the tendons in the section and e0 = offsetting of the mean tendon In our example: N = 1. The isostatic moment is calculated in the following way: Miso = N .3 – Effect of the thermal gradient Figure A1.20).1.19 below represents the bending moment due to a thermal gradient of 12° C.

21 – Diagram of the moments due exclusively to the hyperstatic effect of the P1-P2 continuity tendons At the pre-design stage. Fig. The diagram for this is shown in Figure Al. the hyperstatic moment can be evaluated in the following way: M hyper = − area of isostatic moment diagram length of span The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 246 septembre 2007 .5 – Hyperstatic moment for P1-P2 continuity tendons As the structure is hyperstatic when the continuity tendons are stressed.22).4.1. A1. A1.20 – Diagram of isostatic moments for continuity tendons A1.21 below. a hyperstatic moment is set up in the central span which is of the opposite sign to the isostatic moment developed by the tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. In this case. it is possible to use a simplification which consists of considering the span to be embedded on its supports (Figure Al. This hyperstatic moment is an unknown and depends on the intensity and the distribution of the prestressing in the span (alignment and length of tendons) and on the characteristics of the structure in question (whether or not there is variation of inertia).

spanning six segments of 3.440 m M = 13.06 x fcj) – 0.4. starting with a single pair of tendons 22. measurement of transmission factors).22 – Diagram of moments exclusively due to the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons according to a simplified calculation A1.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.25 m long.5 φg) with φg = 0.57 MN. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the removal of the form traveler used for the closing segment is taken to be fcj = 16 MPa.6 – Calculation of P1-P2 continuity tendons Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.0965 m2 I = 4.620 m4 v’= 1.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: M Hyper v ' M v' N e0 v ' MTherm v ' N − G − − − ≥ −σ b B I I I I with B = 6.02 x fcj = 0.02 σ b = 0.02 x 16 = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.081 m As we do not know the number of tendons required. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 247 septembre 2007 .6 + 0. an iterative calculation is performed.7 x (0.1. we also do not know their position in the box girder or their isostatic moment diagram. we consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.m e0 = -1.06 x 16) – 0.(v – 1.6 + 0. The allowable stress in the bottom axis is therefore: σ b = 0.318 m position of mean tendon e0 = .375 m and the closing segment of 2 m.7 x (0. Therefore. A1.

it would be necessary to repeat the calculation with two pairs of tendons and recalculate the hyperstatic moment with the newly tendons arrangement.4.4.0965 x 0.A1.25 m Miso = Fp x e0 = -5. we can easily calculate the support reactions and the longitudinal bending moment using static equations (Fig.95 MN Fp = 3. A1. Fig. shear force and bending moment As the cross-section of the bridge deck is 6.318 m at the crown L = 97. Figure Al.02453 = 0.90 MN e0 = -1. A1. the load due to the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section is equal to Q = 6.30 m).(lc x Miso) / L = 1.14955 MN/m.24): The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 248 septembre 2007 .23 – Detail of the structure during placement of the closing segment on the C0 side A1.2 – Closing segment between C0 and P1 The continuity tendons for the span C0-Pl must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.1 – Calculation of support reactions.2.75 m lc = 22.17 MN.71 MPa ⇒ σ b ≥ −σ b We will therefore choose one pair of 12T15S tendons.0965 m² close to the abutments (h = 2.m hence σ b = − 0. As the structure in question is isostatic.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The distribution of the prestressing produces an isostatic moment which is distributed almost uniformly if a single pair of tendons is used (subject to the variation in e0 and the variation of inertia of the section). The hyperstatic moment is therefore: ntendons = 2 fu = 1. In the event of one pair of tendons being insufficient.23 below shows the structure at the moment the span is closed.m at the crown Mhyper = .14 MN.

50 m long section between C0 and the closing segment. A1. A1. x2 2 so for x = 5.03 MN.2 – Calculation of continuity tendons between C0 and P1 Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. A1.25 – Diagram of shear forces due to closure on C0 side Bending moment diagram: For the 5.24 – Determination of the forces on the C0 side due to the closure of the span Support reactions: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP1 = 0. x − Q . the bending moment is equal to: M(x) = R C0 .26 – Bending moment on C0 side due to the closure of the span A1.4.95 MN The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 249 septembre 2007 .217 m ⇒ M = 2.04238 MN and RC0 = 0.2.78015 MN Shear force diagram: Fig.m Fig.

etc.318 = -5. the bridge deck becomes sensitive to the effects of thermal gradients. In this new phase.121 MN.9 MN McontinuityC0P1 = 3.02 x 16 = 0.50 / 53. the forces and stress in the lower axis are: Mg = 2.6 + 0.m e0 = -1. M = 2.(v – 1.03 MN. However. However. v’ = 1.06 x 16) – 0.375 = 0.03 x 1.50 / 53. The allowable stress in the lower axis is thus: σ b = 0.081 m N ≥ − σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 2.440 4.l4 MN. as the structure is now hyperstatic. to which is added the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.m MΔt = 0.2.95 = 3.).5 x 12.06 x fcj) – 0. no tendons are necessary. A1.7 x (0.0965 m2.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .02 x fcj = 0.7 x (0.02 = 0.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.0965 4.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0. in order to prevent any cracking due to parasitic phenomena (obstructed shrinkage.440 m.4. the bridge deck is considered to be cast in place with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts and measurement of transmission factor) and the strength of the concrete is taken to be the value obtained when the falsework is removed fcj = 16 MPa.74 + In principle.m x 5.6 + 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Duct diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.17 MN.318 x 1.440 + 6.620 m4.65 MN.65 MN. I = 4.375 = 0.03 MN NcontinuityC0P1 = 2 x 1.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.620 = − 0. somewhat higher forces develop in this area after the closure of P1-P2.3 .620 − 0.5 φg) with φg = 0.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 250 septembre 2007 .19 MN 1 1.m x 5. we shall specify one pair of 12T15S tendons. Indeed.9 x -1.Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 The calculation that we have just performed is intended to determine the amount of continuity cabling needed to consolidate the structure after the removal of falsework from the cast-on falsework section.

65) x ⎟ 6.0 MPa (with j = 28 days) The continuity cabling is therefore adequate.620 = 6.3-2 – Calculation of the continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.4.14 + 0.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = . A1.28374 MN et RC3 = 2.03456 MN M = 13. A1.⎜ (2.57 x 1.1 – Calculation of support reactions and bending moments A calculation similar to the one performed for the C0-Pl closing segment gives the support reactions and the bending moment: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP2 = 0.03 . Fig.0965 4.097 ⎝ 4.(v – 1.440 m.57 MN.09 MPa ≥ σ b = − 2.27 below represents the structure at the step when the span is closed.318 x 1.5.m e0 = -1.4.4.5 φg) with φg = 0. I = 4.440 4.0965 m2.620 m4.620 − 0.m A1. v’ = 1.440 + 6.44 ⎞ 3.12 + 0.62 ⎠ B I σ i = − 0.57 MN.081 m N ≥ −σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 13.27 – Determination of forces on C3 side due to the closure of the span A1.3 – Closing segment between P2 and C3 The continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section. Figure A1.3. M = 13.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide σs = 1.07 MN 1 1.9 ⎛ N M .74 + The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 251 septembre 2007 . v' − = .

In this new phase.m MΔt = 0.50 / 63.10. we can use certain rules to define the mean alignment of the external prestress tendons.286 MN. it is important to verify the suitability of the cabling after the closure of the span P1-P2 and the stressing of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.Determination of geometry of tendons . thermal gradient and creep.3 – Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 As before. prior to the stressing of the external tendons.95 = 7.5.5.m The continuity cabling is therefore sufficient.07 ≈ 3 1.3.318 = . we shall proceed in stages: .Computerized calculation of the envelope of longitudinal moments due to A(l) .Computerized calculation of effects of thermal gradient .58 MN.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1. we will opt for two pairs of 12T15S tendons.50 / 63. the forces and stressing in the lower horizontal plane are: Mg= 3. traffic loads A(l).1 – Determination of forces A1.5 – External prestressing design A1.95 A1.1 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide n tendons ≥ Therefore.94 MN.Preamble concerning the geometry of the external tendons between CO and C3 For an initial estimation.5 x 12.28 MN.0 .57 MN NcontinuityP2C3 = 4 x 1.Choice of critical sections to be dimensioned or verified .Presentation of the design method The external prestress tendons must take up the forces due to the fittings.8 x – 1.375 = 0.5.375 = 1. A1.8 MN McontinuityP2C3 = 7.Determination of prestressing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 252 septembre 2007 .m x 15.m x 15.1.17 MN. In order to calculate the number of tendons required.Calculation of creep effects . 6. A1.4.

2 .e.1. A1.583 m from the centerline of the piers (Fig. This value allows a gap of 0. A1.15 m. also at 32.Overload A(l) A computerized calculation gives us the envelope of the longitudinal moments due to the imposed loads A(1) (Fig. For the section at the crown.e.28). 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Longitudinally. i.29).583 m from the centerline of the piers. Fig. i.A1.30).28 – Longitudinal geometry of alignment for external tendons at end of segments Transversally on the section on pier. we shall place the intermediate deviators for the central span one third of the way along the span. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 253 septembre 2007 . Al.29 – Transverse geometry of external tendons A1.10 m to be left between the sheath of the prestressing tendon and the top of the lower slab (Fig.5. at 32. the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis shall be equal to the thickness of the lower slab plus 0. Remember that the deviators on piers position the external prestress tendons as close as possible to the upper axis of the bridge deck (negative longitudinal bending moment. whereas the intermediate deviators position these same tendons close to the lower axis (positive longitudinal bending moment). Fig.25 m.A1. We shall also place a deviator on the end spans. we shall make the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis equal to the thickness of the upper slab.

42 MN.m .43.50 MN.m .62 MN.4 kN/lm).41 MN.39 MN.31).36 MN.5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.19. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 254 septembre 2007 .1.9.m 21.m Type of calculation Max 8.87 MN.Fittings A computerized calculation is used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the fittings. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments Min .75 MN.4.23 MN.6.m .m 19.m 23.m 11. (Remember that the linear weight of the fittings is equal to q = 47.50 MN.15.30 – Diagram of moments due to the imposed load A(1) The characteristic values of the enveloped curve below are used to determine the dimensioning sections and the verification sections for the external prestressing (Fig.3 .A1.63 MN.m .m 6.m . A1.59 MN.31 – Position of the sections used to analyze the external prestressing The following table summarizes the forces due to A(l) and the type of calculation to be performed in each section. Fig.m 19. A1.m dimensioning verification verification dimensioning verification verification dimensioning A1.45.71 MN.40 MN.m .

5. A1.23 MN.97 MN.m 12.65 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.m 3.m -45.m 12.16 MN.32 – Diagram of the moments due to the weight of the fittings The table on the left summarizes the forces due to the fittings in each section.36 MN.44 MN.94 MN.37 MN. A1. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.m 5.27 MN.m 5.33 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12° C The table below summarizes the forces due to the thermal gradient in each section.m 12. Fig.25 MN.1.m -0.4 – Thermal gradient A computerized calculation is again used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the thermal gradient of 12° C.m 4.m 12.m 6.98 MN.m A1.m -41.18 MN.16 MN. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.94 MN.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 255 septembre 2007 .

62 = 6.m on the pier.65 MN.63 MN.m Mcreep = 6.36 MN.44 In the end spans.97 – 7.35 + 12.31 MN.m 1.35 + 12.m or MQ = MΔt with the values above gives: MQ max = 32. the moment corresponding to this compression reserve will be determined by a linear interpolation between M = 0 MN.42 + 32.5. for the section Σ4: v’ = 1.42 MN.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = .42 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.44 m I = 4.m on the abutment and M = 6.99 MN.42 MN.m MG fittings = 12.1. we shall only dimension the external tendons close to the closing segment sections.97 + 6.2 MA(1) + 0. see Figures Al.Creep As an initial estimate.62 MN.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MG equip) + MQ min = -4.5.62 m4 M creep = 2 x 4. This reserve is used to calculate a creep moment in the central span: σb = − I M v' ⇒ M = − σb I v' Thus.63 = 0.m and M MA(1) max = 21.1 – Calculation in section Σ4 (closing segment between P1 and P2) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction.5.4.m MΔt = 12.5 .17 and A1.2 – Dimensioning of external prestressing As the calculations are similar and repetitive.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 256 septembre 2007 .m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MG equip + MG creep) + MQ max = -4.5 MΔt MQ min = -7.97 MN. A1. A1.27 = 47. we reserve a margin of 2 MPa for the stress in the lower axis.m MQ =1.m MA(1) min = -6.35 MN.27 MN.2.

17 =-3.n MN.m = 5.26.73. e0 = 1.420-0.14 x [(6 x 3.97 MN.00] 97. (+2.17 MN.95 MN =-1.14 MN.5.318 = .17) = 6.14 + 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper = 1. fu . n .75 = 1. 3.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.95 x 2 x -1. fu .1 .m Mpeci =Miso +Mhyper =-5.05 m e02 = 2.(1.375) + 2. el = n .10 .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 257 septembre 2007 .10 / 2)) = -1. 3.1 .25 = 2.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N . (-1.34 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in the central span e01 = .m Me2 = n .05) = -3. e0 = fu .1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon n= number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n . A1. e2 = n .(0.17 m fu = 3.440 – 0.n MN.24 – 0.

584 .067 . n S3 = 3.18) Fittings Creep MG1 = 0. n – 0.m Mcreep = 6. n 97.625 = .583 = 21.375 = 0. n )] x 1. 32.14 + 1.0 MPa for n = 8 σ i = − 0.34.2.620 for n = 6 σ i = − 3. n .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 258 septembre 2007 .44 − 4. n 2 x S2 = 3.2 – Calculation in the Σ1 section (closing segment between CO and P1) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .95) + 3.072 .1.87 4.n M hyper = − 7.73 + 3.17.712 . n 6.067.26 Hyperstatic moment 2 x S1 = 6.94 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.31 x 1.v ' P + Pext M .v ' N M .73 .17 ) + (− 3.66 MN.26 .v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.546 .106.50 MPa > − σ b = − 2.42 x 5. A1. n 7.33 . n .m MGfittings = 1. A1.33.26 .73 x 32.3.958 m 6.60 MPa < − σ b = − 2.n) – 12. n = − 0.50 / 53.35 – Diagram of isostatic moment of external tendons in central span x = 6.26 . n Calculation of stress: σi = M Pecl + M Pext .07 = -3.061 .see figures A 1.58 MN.620 [(− 5.44 σi = (1.958 = 147.5.584 = .0965 − 47.0 MPa We will therefore opt for 4 pairs of 19T15S tendons. 21.75 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = . n . 10.

58 + 1. n .95 x 2 x -1.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax and MQ min = -5.66 + 10.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-5.75 MN.08 MN.5 MΔt or MQ = MΔt.18 MN.70 MN.88 MN.94 – 5. e0 = fu .m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MA(1) min = -4.06 MN.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1+ MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 0.95 MN =-1.50 − 0.318 = .5. e0 = 1. which gives the following with the values above: MQ max = 10.58 + 1.m =0 for the end span tendons = 1.70 MN.50 5.14 + 0.m M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1+ MGfittings) + MQ min = 0.14 MN.27 MN.m =-5.17 5.94+0.06 MN.70 = 13.m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 1.70 =-3.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.m MQ =1.2 MA(1) + 0.m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 53.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Overload A(1) 8.375 53.39 MN.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 259 septembre 2007 .576 = 0.

21.15.m Fig.8.fu .10 .26.37 – Isostatic moment diagram for external tendons in span C0-P1 x = 3.73.(0.163 . 2 = 0.n M hyper = 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.375 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 260 septembre 2007 . n S4 = (3.(1.n MN.n S3 = (3.26.17 m fu = 3.e1 = n .n .26.26 x 32. fu .440 – 0.n MN.10.49.625)/2 = .(-1.292) = .081 . n . n S2 = (3. n . 3.73 .24 – 0.m Me2 = n .856 .1 MN effective force of one 19T15S tendon n = number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n . n 53.1 .17.1 . A1. (+2.25 = 2.10 / 2)) = -1.05 m e2 = 2.292 .36 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span CO-P1 e1 = .73 Hyperstatic moment on pier S1 = (6.625 m 3.3.420-0.951 .n. e2 = n .755 .17) = 6.05) =-3.26 .500) / 2 = .26 + 6. n . 5.583 = 10. A1.958)/2 = 73.

42 x 15.m MQ=1. using the values above.17 and A1.m MQ = MΔt and which.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) 19. n 53.v ' N M .v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.163 .44 4.n)-5.524.see Figures A1.m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 3. n )] x 1.16 MN.37 MN.09 MN.m MGfittings = 6.3 – Calculation in section Σ7 (closing segment between P2 and C3) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .50 / 63.375 = 1. A1.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 261 septembre 2007 .44 − 4.008 .30 MN.1.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = -3.50 .v ' P + Pext M .5.n M hyper (Σ1 ) = 0.0965 − 13.95) + 3.620 σi = (l.081× 5.00 MPa We will therefore opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.26 for n = 2 for n = 4 σi =-2. n = -3.2.14 + 0.37 – 11.m MA(1) min = -9.5 MΔt or MQ max = 25.59 MN. n = 0.620 [(− 5.57 MN.15 + 6.84 MPa >-σt =-2.20 MPa <-σt =-2. n 6.m Mcreep = 6.30 = -3. n + 0.25 . n Calculation of stress in Σ1 σi = M Pecl + M Pext .88 x 1.255 .09) + (− 3.25.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide -2.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MGfittings) + MQ min = 1.78 MN.00 MPa σi = 0.11 MN.008 . gives: MQ min =-11.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = 1.2 MA(1) + 0.42 MN.

fu.18 MN.17) = 6.(0.10.1 .m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 63.m = -10.576 = 0.1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon = number of 19T15S external tendons = n .13 MN. e1 = n .50 − 0.73.95 MN = -1. (-1.24 – 0.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 262 septembre 2007 .05) = -3.57 + 25.10 / 2)) = -1.n MN.28 + 0.318 m =4 = N e0 = 1.375 63.05 m = 2.17 m = 3.n MN. (+2.17 15. fu.440 – 0.37 + 1. A1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.26.(1.09 = 34.15 + 6.95 x 4 x -1.318 = .28 MN.15 MN.m =0 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons for the end span tendons = 1. 3.3.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-10.m = n .1 .145 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 1.10 .25 = 2.420-0.e2 = n .38 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span P2-C3 e01 e02 fu n Me1 Me2 = .50 15.

26. n M hyper = 18. n .625) / 2 = .v ' N M . n = 0.00 MPa σi = 0.15.856 .142 .480. 2 = 0.583 = 10.958) / 2 = 73.581.625 m 3.620 σi = (l. n + 0.49. n Calculation of stress σi = M Pecl + M Pext .404 for n = 4 for n = 6 σi =-2.00 MPa We shall thus opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.581 . n -18.47 MPa >-σt = -2.26 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 263 septembre 2007 .18 x 1.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .26 x 32. n 63. n = .28) + (− 3.n S3 = (3.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (4 x 1. n S4 = (3.73 .142 .44 − 4.500) / 2 = .v ' P + Pext M .25.73 Hyperstatic moment on support: S1 = (6.3.113.n.17. 15. n .26.n)-8.49 MPa <-σt = -2.26 . n .375 M hyper (Σ 7 ) = 0.113 .50 .39 – Isostatic moment diagram of the external tendons in span P2-C3 x = 3. n S2 = (3.620 [(− 10.226 . n )] x 1.417 .95) + 3. n 6.292) = .417 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3. 15.292 .10.755 . A1.1.n . n 63.26 + 6. 21.44 4.0965 − 34.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A2 Monographs of cast-in-situ bridges The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 264 septembre 2007 .

P3 : Four 5 m x 3 m H-shaped rectangular foundation piles Champ du Comte viaduct (RN 90) Consortium: .40 m piles anchored in the limestone bedrock.Dec.SOGEA .00 to 22. 1987 A1 Oct. Aérodromes 1986 Oct.13m x l4m x 3 m). The right bank abutment is built directly on the ground. 1990 Champ du Comte viaduct (1.040 m) Supports and foundations: double portal frame configuration “Puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) 4 to 5. PI. 1989 A2 June 1986 Poncin viaduct (A40) The supports are all built on the bedrock. 1989 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Feb. Contractors. P5. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Beaumont sur Revue Travaux Oise bridge Contractor: Dragages et Travaux Publics Feb. C6 .Jan. 1988 Consortium: Revue DTP (Dragages Générale et Travaux des Routes Publics) .00 m in depth The “Les outils" Collection – Sétra page 265 septembre 2007 . Construction dates REF. Due to the presence of a thick layer of peat. either directly on superficial footings (CO. or on deep foundations: P2: 12.GTM-BTP Dec. the left bank abutment is built on four Ø 1.CITRA et des May 1984 .Sept. P3. 1986 .10 m diameter piles.5m diameter box girder built from diaphragm wall elements.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Revue Travaux Oct. 1989 A3 Revue Travaux Apr.60 m in diameter and 6. P4. 1986 . 1988 The piers are supported by six Ø1.

90 m respectively Viaduct with 2 separate bridge decks Cast-in-situ segments On support: h = 5.36 m – Thickness of webs in end span: 0. 0.00 m s = 1/40 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .8 kg/ m3) .500 m3 .Longitudinal prestress bars: 850.000 kg .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.450 kg COMMENTS . Length of standard segments 3.36 m on the first 3 segments then 0.Thickness of webs in central span: 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.00m long rectangular section at the end.Prestressing bars: 72.000 m3 .860 kg (126 kg/m3) .80 m s = 1/17 At crown of main span: h = 2.5 Main quantities: .Concrete: 11. Length of standard segments: 3.000 kg Internal prestressing: -cantilever tendons: 2 x 13 12T15 2 x 1 19T15 tendons .270m3 .793 m3 including 585 m3 of lightweight concrete .cantilever: 2 x 27 19T15 tendons . 0.Formwork: 27.77 m in the central span.Bridge deck prestressing: half using 9T15 tendons and 12T15 internal tendons & the other half using replaceable 19T15 tendons – End span fixed to a weighted abutment acting as a counterweight with a solid 9.266.400 kg (45. Internal prestressing: .650 kg (41 kg/m3) (37 kg/m2) .Surface area of bridge deck :1.Concrete: 1.On support PI or P2: h = 10.On support: h = 6.800. Solid rectangular section inside the counterweighted abutment .20 – 1.90 m s = 1/34.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.At the crown: h = 3.850m² .53 m: End spans built on falsework HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .60 m s (slenderness) = 1/18 .continuity tendons: 2 x 5 12T15 External prestress tendons: 2 x 3 19T15 2 x 1 12T15 tendons Cross-section of 1 box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 266 septembre 2007 .At crown of main span: h = 4.Mean thickness of bridge deck: 0.00 m before reaching the solid section.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 225.00 m s= 1/15.92 m over entire structure.B45 concrete: 17.5 .70 m and finally 1.00 m s = 1/39 ON SUPPORTS P1 and P2 CONSTANT DEPTH AT PI-P2 CROWN Thickness of webs near P3.continuity: 2x7 12T15 tendons –External prestressing: 2 x 10 19T15 tendons Cast-in-situ segments of variable depth.950 m² . For the bridge deck: .Transverse prestress bars: 77. P4 and P5: 1.900 kg (112 kg/ m3) .Longitudinal prestress bars: 516.B30 concrete: 8.30 m (weight: 120 to 220 tonnes) Incremental launching of end sections (constant depth) .50 m.10 – 0.

3 spans * South deck: 194 m. 1986 The structure consists of two independent bridge decks with a height difference of approximately 6 m. 4 spans and different widths: * North deck: 8.5 m The structure consists of two bridge decks of different lengths with a height difference of 5 to 7 m.40 m shafts) or cast-in-situ piles (P2.50 m) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 267 septembre 2007 .75 m Length of central span for both decks: 58 m The majority of the foundations consist of footings built on sound bedrock. Construction dates Nantua viaduct (A40) Consortium: -GTM . 1989 June 1986 A4 Lalleyriat viaduct (A40) Revue Générale des Routes et des A5 Aérodromes Nov. 10 m x 10 m x 2. 198 The variabile quality of the terrain required a wide range of foundations: P7 and P9: Four Ø2. 1989 Revue Travaux Jan. P5 et P6: superficial footings of approx. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Jan.20 m to Ø 1.: * North deck: 130 m. 1986 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Oct. P4 & P6: four piles of Ø 1. Deep pile foundation shafts (P5: four Ø 2. 1986 REF. P2 and P3: Ø 10 m diaphragm walls P4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.Campenon Bernard June 1983 Nov. Tacon viaduct Contractor: CITRA France A6 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Nov. P3. Contractors.75 m * South deck: 11.20 m “puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) P8: one Ø 6 m deep pile foundation shaft PI.

50 to 3.000 kg (126kg/m3) .000 t was built on centuring.Concrete: 9.50 m (60 to 85 t)..At the crown h = 3m s = 1/38 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .820 m3 . a counterweighted span of approx.50 m long. Each segment measures 3.250.Thickness of bridge deck = 0. each with a capacity of 1. To build & balance this span.On support: h=6m s = 1/15 .800m3 . Internal prestressing using 12T15 tendons HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .On support: h = 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.Prestress bars: 430 000 kg (44 kg/m3) COMMENTS The viaduct ends in a 124 m span supported in the tunnel.height of bridge deck = 6 m .000 kg (38 kg/m3) On support (for the spans of variable depth): .Fixed support of ½ cantilever: h = 8. Internal prestressing with possibility of adding extra external prestressing. Internal prestressing (12T15 tendons) with possibility of adding extra external and internal prestressing.55 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 268 septembre 2007 . Length of segments: 2.Concrete: 4.500 t. This consists of two mobile sliding counterweights. .65 m s = 1/17 .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 554.44 m . At the crown Cast-in-situ segments. 3.At the crown and for segments of constant depth: h = 3m s = 1/30 For the bridge deck: .Prestress bars: 185.Nonprestressed reinforcement bars: 1.000 kg (115 kg/m3) . Cast-in-situ Constant depth of segments (method 2.80 m dictated by site s = 1/21 access problems).

Construction dates Cheviré bridge over the River Loire Consortium: Concrete package: Quillery et Vezin Metal package: Baudin Châteauneuf et ACP Dec.The SNCF (French state rail network) railroad crossing.80 m piles. 1986 Entreprise: GTM The piers are built on footings within a cofferdam. . Contractors. 1984 Revue A9 Travaux Jan.The main crossing of the River Moselle and its lateral canal. 1990 REF. 1985 The viaduct consists of two independent structures: . 12 June 1986 Sept. 1989 A7 Presence of joints between N5 and N6 & between S5 and S6 Pont à Mousson viaduct over the Moselle Revue Travaux Jan.80 m piles Consortium: Pertuy-Bouygues 1982 A8 Chinon bridge AFPC in Indre-et(French Loire Construction Association) Study Day.30 m piles P1 : Six Ø 0. P6: Six Ø 1. Cast-in-situ pile foundations: P2. P7 : Four Ø 1. P5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. P3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 269 septembre 2007 . 1987 – Oct.30 m piles P4. The abutments are built on four Ø 0. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Apr.

B35 concrete: 27. The central metal span was hoisted onto its permanent bearings in one operation.20m QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the concrete bridge deck: . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .On support: h = 9.000 kg (150 2 x 4 12T15 kg/m3) .Prestress x7 12T15 reinforcements: internal: 28.B35 concrete: prestressing: .500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.int.55 m s = 1/14 .70 m (111 t) Length of segments on piers: 8.500 kg external tendons (in total: 50 t or 36 are somewhat kg/m3) limited in power Equivalent thickness: 75 cm For the entire bridge deck (including the caston-falsework sections): .Prestress reinforcements: int. .On supports 4. tendons: 2 .50 m s= 1/15.Prestressing: int: (cantilever & continuity) 19T15 ext. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 270 septembre 2007 .5 The initial pre-design did not feature any external prestressing. .At end of cantilever above the River Loire: H = 5.00 m at level of NI and SI .On support: h = 4. Length of standard segments: 2.B35 concrete: 3.000 kg (44 kg/ m3) COMMENTS . this bridge was designed to support thirty-meter long EDF (Electricité de France –French electricity supply utility) convoys weighing 650 tonnes Large spans: cantilever: 24 x 12T15 continuity: 6 x 12T15 external: 8 x 19T15 Given the complex 2dimensional alignment of the tendons and the thinness of the deviators.600 kg ext.At the crown: h = 2.section on pier Cast-in-situ segments.Non-prestressed 2 x 9 12T15 reinforcements: continuity: 205.75 m s = 1/27.Beyond the length of the parabolically variable section (18 m) either side of these supports: h = 2.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 466.500 kg Comment: external: 21. tendons: 1. strong radial tendon forces of the deviators close to piers have resulted in the latter being reinforced. .000 kg (136 kg/m3) .385 m3 cantilever: .50 m s = 1/17 . 5 & 6: h = 4. Segments on piers are cast horizontally then tilted to the required angle before the construction of the cantilever begins.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.: 27T15 ½ section on span Segments of the 3 large cantilevers are cast in-situ.70 m.: 63. A summary analysis of mixed cabling was included but the dimensions of the structure were not modified due to a lack of time ½ -section at crown ½.850.000 kg (140 kg/ m3) -Prestress reinforcements (longitudinal and transverse): 1.5 . The rest of the structure is cast on falsework. The end of the end spans is cast on falsework.The first 6 meters of the end spans were cast on falsework.80 m s = 1/25 With its oversized dimensions.000 kg (in total: 39 kg/m3) Comment: The structure supports oversize Class E loads.216.ext.437 m3 . For the bridge deck: Mixed .Standard spans (constant depth): h = 4.: 71.

1989 . Contractor: 12th FIP DODIN Sud (International Aug. Island 12th FIP (International Contractor: Prestressing SBTPC Federation) Aug. The three piers are built on superficial footings.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.June Prestressing 1991 Federation) Congress. Construction dates Bridge over the Loch d’Auray REF. Prestressing Federation) 1989 Congress. 1991 Washington A12 1994 Revue Travaux July 1992 Bourran viaduct at Rodez Engineering geology: risk of landslides Deep pile foundation shafts: one Ø3 m or Ø4 m shaft for each pier sunk to depths of 11 to 15 m.P. one of which is extended by micropiles.O. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint.Aug. is supported by two Ø2 m deep pile foundation shafts. Contractors. Nov. Abutment C0. 1991 July 1992 La Bridge over Technique the SaintDenis river on Française du Béton Reunion Précontraint.E.T. Al0 Hamburg 1990 Revue Travaux June 1991 La Technique Française du Béton Précontraint. A11 Washington 1994 Revue Travaux Oct. 1986 – Mar. The ground had to be injected under P1. situated directly above a rocky spur embedded in the sand. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 271 septembre 2007 . Congress. 1989 . .Campenon 11th FIP Bernard (International .

On support: h = 5. segments on piers: 7.00 m s= 1/16.Prestressing: cantilever : 2 x 14 12T15 continuity : 2 x 2 12T15 external tendons : 2 x 6 19T15 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 272 septembre 2007 .Internal tendons Cantilever: 12T15 Continuity: 2 x 6 12T15 .On support: h = 4.69 %).71 m . Length of standard segments: 3.Concrete: 3.On support: h = 6.000 m² .5 .Longitudinal prestress bars: 119. Slightly asymmetrical box girder: the transverse slopes begin at the centerline of the pavement which is not aligned with the centerline of the box girder.Possibility of adding extra tendons.At the crown: h = 3. extending from the abutment to portal leg. the winds effects were calculated very accurately.45 m (max.70m in span S1 and 6. the entire box girder has been tilted transversally (gradient of 0.Given the flexibility of the piers in rotation (2 bent pier shafts for P2 & P3). The rest of the structure was built on falsework. Length of standard segments: 3.Cantilever 2 X 16 12T15 .000 kg (122 kg/m3) .80 m.190 kg (40 kg/m³) Large cantilevers: .50 m s = 1/33.00 m in span T5).00 m s = 1/33 For the bridge deck: . Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers.Continuity 2x3 12T15 .100 kg (141 kg/m3) .External tendons 2x4 19T15 . .Vertical prestressing of segment on P1 . no bracing was provided. COMMENTS In addition to the usual tendons In the end spans. Two temporary pilings supported the portal legs before placement of the final segment. has been added in order to restore a normal force virtually equal to that created by the thrust of the portal legs in the large span.50 m s = 1/17 .000 kg (6.20 m s = 1/16 . . rectilinear external prestressing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments The large span has 2 cantilevers (3 m segments) built using form travelers.External tendons (from portal leg to portal leg) 2 x 2 12T15 The ribs are transversally prestressed.Longitudinal prestress bars: 59 t 12T15 62 t 19T15 (in total 39 kg/m3) Prestressing of upper slab via sheathed & greased single strands: 20. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers. weight: 120 t).100 m3 .Mean thickness of concrete: 0.70 m. .5 kg/m3) . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .At the crown: h = 2.50 m s = 1/31 For the bridge deck: .At the crown: h = 2.Highly problematical construction of foundations. To avoid any difference in the height of the webs. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework (17.Concrete: 3.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 365.provisional bracing of curved pier shells to take up forces due to cyclonic winds . segments on piers: 9 m. Directly above portal legs Thickness of webs in segments on P1 and P4: 60 cm. but in the end.5 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the cantilever sections: Mixed prestressing: .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 437.

SPIE T.SOGEA Prestressing Feb.81.Dec. 63 m). Amsterdam A15 1998 Viaur valley viaduct (RN 88) .P3 and P4 are supported on footings anchored to the rock by four 3 m shafts excavated using explosives .Four Ø 1.80 m piles for C1 La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. P3. Contractors. A13 Washington Foundations: via footings for PI. P7 .The bridge deck is embedded on P3 and P4.R 13th FIP . Federation) 1997 Congress. Their footings were temporarily anchored to the rock via 10 stressed 12T15 ties designed to take up the wind effects during construction. 81. . 1995 . 6 % slope A14 Foundations via cast-in-situ piles: .Eight Ø 0.Holzmann 1992 Revue Travaux Apr.Chantiers (International Modernes Prestressing .40 m piles for P2. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. . Construction dates Piou and Rioulong viaducts REF. 72.Four Ø 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. P6.P1 and P2 are erected on superficial foundations.40 m piles for P4 and P5 .Six Ø 1.DODIN Sud (International .Nord France TP . P2 and P5 (with stitched reinforcement of the footings of the very 1994 tall pier P2).20 m piles for C8 .Borie SAE Federation) Congress.Quillery 12th FIP . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 273 septembre 2007 . via 7 m shafts for P3 and P4 Limay viaduct in Yvelines Consortium: . . 1993 Rioulong viaduct: 5 spans (45.

At the crown and in the spans of constant depth.Longitudinal prestress bars 228. Length of segments on piers: 9.Prestressing: 650 t The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 274 septembre 2007 . Length s = 1/18 of segments: 3 m (6.000 kg (14 kg/m3) 3C15 . Continuity: 14 (in the 90 m spans) to 2 (for spans on the island) 12T15S. h = 4.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 819.At the crown and in spans of constant depth: h = 2. The extremities of the end spans are built on falsework.000 m3 .Ext. using a false strut to give the required accuracy.: 27K15 super transversal: 92. .50 m s = 1/42 Main quantities: .Concrete: 6. 4 fixing sockets were sealed in the bottom flange of the web. with a stagger in the construction of the cantilevers to allow the incorporation of metal struts.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED Piou viaduct: . Construction using form travelers. (cantilevers and crowns) super 19K15 ext.000 kg (in total: 47 kg/m3) COMMENTS Half-section of a standard section Half-section of sections close to piers Construction using Constant depth h=5m “from below” type of form travelers.On support: h = 5.8 m on pier).tendons 19T15 Ext. Incoprporation of bracing: .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 769. Length of standard segments: 2. .equivalent thickness: 0.70 m s = 1/33 Construction using form travelers.000 kg (126kg/m3) .680 m² . .90 m.900 t . tendons: 12 (at mid-span) to 8 (on pier) 19T15S .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.When casting segment n.The real strut was attached to segment n + 1 by bolting on the lower part and casting on the upper part.Cantilever tendons: 20 (piers on the island) to 30 (piers in the river) 12T15S.Concrete: 4.On support: h= 12m s = 1/16 .000 kg External: 103.73 m For the bridge deck: .60 m Length of standard segments: 3. tendons 27T15 .000 kg (35 kg/m3) int. .Movements of major spans due to wind effects during construction limited by the use of vertical prestress tendons.76 m. Mixed prestressing: .000 kg (164 kg/m3) -Internal longitudinal prestress bars: 119.30 m s = 1/17 .Mixed prestressing: Int.Transverse prestressing via single strands .Concrete: 21.

Mar. 1987 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.1994 viaducts in the Côte d’Or Consortium of contractors: . Width: 17. Width:21 m.Dumez July 1990 . in Nantes Contractor: ETPO Jan. 1993 A17 Portal bridge with a prestressed concrete box girder. Auxonne and Revue Travaux Maillys Jul.Feb. 8 spans: 52 m + 77 m + 136 m + 77 m + 3 x 55 m + 45 m. 1993 Structure with two separate bridge decks. Construction dates Doubling of the Général Audibert bridge over the Loire. 1991 – Nov. A18 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 275 septembre 2007 .SOGEA : . Bridge over the Truyère at Garabit Consortium: . Length: 308 m (3 spans: 82 m + 144 m + 82 m)./Aug. made from prestressed concrete box girders of variable depth.GTM-BTP . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux April 1989 A16 Revue Ouvrages d’art n° 16 Nov 1993 Two independent but connected bridge decks.Dodin Ouest Sept. 1989 REF. Length: 163 m (3 spans: 51 m + 67 m + 45 m).40 m. Contractors.Dodin Sud : . Bridge deck embedded on the portal legs and on simple supports on the abutments. Usable width of each of the two decks: 11m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . Length of segments on piers: 9 m.Ext.50 m upper slab which is transversally prestressed by 4T15 tendons at intervals of 0.Int. remobvable on end spans .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 13.Concrete: 16.300 m³ .190 Kg .80 m s = 1/37 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .Concrete: 2. prestress tendons: cantilever (2 X 35 per cantilever) and continuity (2 X 7 on end span and 2 X 2 on central span): FUC 19-620 .Continuity tendons outside concrete: 19T 15. . .000 Kg Usable area of the structure: 2.two webs angled at 30%. SECTION THROUGH P3-P4 CANTILEVER On support In span .On support: h = 3. prestress tendons: FUC 19620.Prestressing: 85.60 m.a lower slab whose thickness varies between 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.At the crown: 3 m.25 m at the crown.Prestressing: 362 t. .Continuity tendons: 12T15.700 m3 . The box girder features: .20 m s= 1/17 For the bridge deck: .20 m s = 1/42 For the sections built on falsework: h = constant = 3.60 m (1.840 m3 COMMENTS SEGMENTS ON PIERS SEGMENTS AT CROWN UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Prestress tendons inside concrete: 12T 13 20. with vertical thickness of 0.50 Cast-in-situ segments. Large span and 2 adjacent ½ spans: successive cast-insitu cantilever segments built using 2 x 2 form travelers. . Weight of standard segments: 45 tonnes. .80 m s = 1/18 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 276 septembre 2007 .150 m3 .On the abutment supports: 10 m.50 m. prestressing: 325 tonnes. Length of standard segments: 3.50 m s = 1/21 . Cast-on-falsework end spans For the segments built by the cantilever method . -At the level of the portal legs: 8 m.B40 concrete: 10.20 m towards the portal legs).a 20.At the crown: h = 3. . . . .Cantilever tendons: 12 T 15.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.Ext. Closing segments: 2m.On support: h = 6.000 m3 . prestressing: 260 tonnes.At the crown: h = 1.Int.20 m directly above the portal legs to 0.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 338.Transverse prestressing of upper slab: FUC 4-620 .520 tonnes.

1994 Revue Générale des Routes et Length: 496 m (48 m + 5 x 80 m + 48 m).Royans Travaux July 1995 .1997 A20 Two independent structures. Contractors.Roux SA Feb.25 m + 137. Length: 247 m ( 64 m + 113 m + 70 m). SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Corniche bridge in Dole Ouvrages Consortium: . 1998 VIVARIO VENACO Vecchio bridge in Corsica Contractor: Razel A21 3-span prestressed concrete structure (42.Campenon Bernard Régions . des Aérodromes Width: 14.Nov. 10 m wide.15 m: center distance of 24. Nov. 1993 . Construction dates REF./Aug. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 277 septembre 2007 .Razel .50 m + 42.25 m). Revue Ouvrages d’art Dec.Apr.50 m.50 m and 1001.10 m. 1996 d’art Nov. 1995 A19 Rivoire viaduct in Isère Consortium: .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Two concentric bridge decks with radii at the left edge of 984. 1995 Revue Travaux Jul.FougerolleBallot .

At the crown: h = 3. Length of segments on piers: 6.50 m. Length of segments on piers: 8.Formwork: 15.On support: h =5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 278 septembre 2007 .60 m long cantilever segments using form travelers into which the prefabricated webs were placed.Prestressing: 174 t .continuity tendons outside the concrete stretching from abutment to abutment. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .Prestressing: 190 tonnes.On support: h= 11 m s= 1/12 . .B35 concrete: 4. due to the variation in width of the lower slab. These are of variable depth and angle. . .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.20 m on end span.40 m.50 m s = 1/32 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .cantilever tendons in the upper slab.100 m3 . Construction of central span in halfcantilevers using successive 3.20 m on central span and 17 x 3.internal continuity tendons in central span.000 m² .20m. For the bridge deck: .B35 concrete: 4. Length of standard segments: 3.50 m e = 1/14 .prestressing bar in web panels.50 m s = 1/39 Prestressing: . COMMENTS First bridge with corrugated webs to be built by the cantilever method in France.At the crown: h = 2.200m² -Reinforcements: 690t . Length of standard segments: 16 x 3. Standard segments built using “from below” type of form travelers.

Fougerolles 1990 . Width: 14.SPIE Batignolles . A22 Bridge over the Seine at Gennevilliers Consortium: .Bilfinger .75 m. A23 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 279 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.Berger and Max Früh 2001 . 2002 Length: 457 m (121 m + 205 m + 131 m).GTM .2002 REF. Contractors. Width: 18.1992 Length: 568 m (110 m + 169 m + 96 m + 169 m + 114 m). SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux n° 783 FebThe piers.06 m. Construction dates Bridge over the Rhine in Strasbourg Consortium: .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK

CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments
Cast-in-situ segments. Standard segments vary in length from 3.50 to 5.00 m. Length of segments on piers: 9.50 m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios
- On pier: h = 9.00 m s = 1/23 - At the crown: h = 4.50 m s = 1/45 - On abutment: h = 3.20 m Variation according to a parabolic curve for the central span and a cubic curve for the end spans. - On pier: h = 9.00 m - At the crown: h = 3.50 m

QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED
For the bridge deck: - B65 concrete: 7,750 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 913,000 kg (118 kg/m3) - Prestressing: 598,000 kg (77 kg/m3)

COMMENTS

SECTION ON PIER PILE

SECTION AT CROWN

Cast-in-situ segments. Length of standard segments: 3.30m for the 96 m span and 3.60 m for the other spans.

For the bridge deck: - Concrete: 13,900 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 1,711,000 kg (124 kg/m3) - Prestressing: External 241 t Internal 728 t Temporary 22 t

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

A3 Bibliography
This appendix firstly mentions all of the official french texts relating to the engineering and design of bridges built by the cantilever method. It then goes on to list a large number of documents and articles dedicated to this technique.

A3-1 – Official texts
French texts related to all structures
- Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC: "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Loading and testing program for road bridges). - Circular no. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels, définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Oversize loads, definition of standard convoys and rules for the verification of civil engineering structures) published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department), for structures supporting these types of vehicles - Fascicule 6l Titre IV Section II of the french CCTG: "Actions de la neige sur les constructions" (Effects of snow on constructions) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) - Fascicule 62 Titre I - Section I of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for reinforced concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999)] - Fascicule62 Titre I - Section II of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for prestressed concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) (BPEL 91 revised in 1999) - Fascicule 65-A of the french CCTG and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of reinforced or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) - Fascicule62 Titre V of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical engineering and design rules for the foundations of civil engineering structures) - Fascicule 68 of the french CCTG: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil" (Construction of the foundations for civil engineering structures) - Standard NFP 95-104: "Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie; spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle" (Repair and reinforcement of concrete and masonry structures; specifications relating to the additional prestressing technique)

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Texts exclusively related to structures situated in earthquake zones

- Decree no. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of earthquake risks and the Order of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category - Guide AFPS 92 for the seismic protection of bridges, edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (French Seismic Engineering Association), published on the presses of the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) - The french standard NE P 06-013, more commonly called the "Règles de construction parasismique – règles applicables aux bâtiments - PS92" (Seismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92), with regard to foundations.

A3-2 – Sétra, Sétra-LCPC, Sétra-SNCF Guides
- Sétra Technical Bulletin no.7 "Ponts construits par encorbellements successifs" - This Design Guide - Sétra Technical Guide "Précontrainte Extérieure" (External Prestressing) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui en caoutchouc fretté" (Laminated rubber pot bearings) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui à pot de caoutchouc" (Rubber pot bearings) - The guide to the ordering and management of studies for civil engineering bridges - Fascicule 32.2 of the technical instruction for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures, published in 1979 and modified in 1995 - The document entitled "l’Image de la Qualité des Ouvrages d’Art (Iqoa); catalogue des principaux défauts, aide à leur classification - ponts à poutre caisson en béton précontraint" (Image of the quality of civil engineering structures [IQOA]; catalog of the major defects and support for their classification – prestressed concrete box girder bridges) published by Sétra in 1997.

A3-3 – Other publications
Presse de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées

- La conception des ponts (Bridge design) [J.A. Calgaro and A. Bernard-Gely] - Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural analysis of bridge decks) [J.A. Calgaro and M.Virlogeux] - Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge maintenance and repair)
Thomas Telford, London

- Ponts en béton précontraint par post tension (Post-tensioned prestressed concrete bridges) HA - TRL - LCPC – Sétra
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La collection de l’Irex

- Projet National Qualité (National Quality Project) - Opération du Plan Génie Civil (Operation of the Civil Engineering Plan) – Documentation booklet "Parements en béton" (Concrete facings)
Éditions Eyrolles

- Procédés généraux de construction (General construction process ) – Vol.1 (J. Mathivat and C. Boiteau)

A3-4 - Articles in miscellaneous publications
There now follows a list of articles relating to construction using the cantilever method, published between 1990 and mid - 2002 in the main French civil engineering journals and in certain foreign publications. Each of these articles is followed by a code indicating the topic(s) covered. The following table shows the meanings of these codes:

Research, calculations Design & construction of a bridge with cast-in-situ segments Design and construction of a bridge with prefabricated segments Design and execution of a repair or reinforcement project Materials

AFPC/AFGC publications for FIB (Fédération de l’Industrie du BétonConcrete Industry Federation) congresses
- [VIR 90.1] M. Virlogeux: La résistance à l’effort tranchant des ouvrages constitués de voussoirs préfabriqués, La technique française du béton précontraint (The resistance to shear force of structures made from prefabricated segments, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [MOS 90] J. Mossot: Le viaduc du Champs du Comte, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Champs du Comte viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [BOU 90] J. Boudot: Le viaduc de Sylans et des Glacières - Les structures triangulées en béton précontraint, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Sylans et Glacières viaducts – Triangulated structures made from prestressed concrete, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [SER 90] C. Servant, R Gallet, Ph. Lecroq, R Barras: Le viaduc de l’Arrêt-Darré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arrêt-Darré viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [VIR 90.2] M. Virlogeux, G. Lacoste, M. Legall, RY. Bot, J-R Runigo, J. Combault, M. Duviard, G. Suinot and P. Fraleu: Le pont sur le Loch d Auray, La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990)

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- [VIR 94] M. Virlogeux, E. Bouchon, J.C. Martin, J. Lefevre, Y. Maury, T. Guyot, M. Pottier, A. Heusse, P. Fraleu, J. Ryckaert, J. Mathivat and B. Lenoir : Pont de Cheviré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Cheviré bridge, The French Prestressing Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [FUZ 94] J-R Fuzier, C. Adib: Poutres de lancement: le pont de Baldwin, La technique française du béton précontraint (Launch beams: the Baldwin bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [BOU 94.1] E. Bouchon, D. Lecointre, M. Virlogeux, R. Gachiteguy, G. Viossanges, R. Gai, M. Boy, P. Ballester, M. Roudanes, P. Fraleu : Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Bourran Viaduct in Rodez, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

- [BOU 94.2] E. Bouchon, E. Conti, D. de Matteis, E Pero, M. Virlogeux, R. Damour, A. Abastado, E Edon, M. Tassone, A. Demozay, P. Jacques, F. Veyres, C. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (Océan Indien), La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island [Indian Ocean], The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CHA 94] P. Chassagnette, J.J. Lagane: Doublement du pont sur la Seine à Gennevilliers, La technique française du béton précontraint (Doubling the width of the bridge over the River Seine at Gennevilliers, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CRO 94] A. Crocherie, G. Gillet, B. Canitrot, F. Edon, P. Kirschner, B. Fournier, F. Renaud, T. Thibaux, P. Doguet : Les viaducs du Piou et du Rioulong, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Piou and Rioulong viaducts, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CAN 94] B. Canitrot, G. Gillet, B. Bouvy, A. Palacci, B. Raspaud: Le pont de l’autoroute A75 sur la Truyère à Garabit, La technique française du béton précontraint (The A75 highway bridge over the Truyère at Garabit, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [LEB 94] J-D Lebon, A. Leveille: Le pont de la Corniche à Dôle, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Corniche bridge at Dôle, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [COM 94] J. Combault, J.P Teyssandier, N.D. Haste, P Richard, M.S. Fletcher, Y. Maury, J. Mac Farlane: Le second pont sur la Severn, La technique française du béton précontraint (The second Severn Bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [MUL 94] J. Muller, G. Causse: Le pont à voussoirs préfabriqués de l’autoroute H3 à Hawaï, La technique française du béton précontraint (The H3 highway bridge made from prefabricated segments in Hawaï, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [GAS 94] C. Gasaignes, J. Boudot, O. Martin: Ponts à voussoirs préfabriqués en Asie - L’exemple du projet du KwunTong By-Pass, La technique française du béton précontraint (Bridges built from prefabricated segments in Asia – The example of the KwunTong By-Pass project, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique, Washington (1994) - [ABE 94] H. Abel, G. Causse, C. Outteryck, D. de Matteis, H. Capdessus, J. Bouillot, B. Grezes, G. Perez, J. Combault, A. Leveille,Y. Faup, F. Zirk: Le pont d’Arcins sur la Garonne à Bordeaux, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arcins bridge over the Garonne in Bordeaux, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

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J.Y. Preyssas (Spie-BatignoUes TP): Record de portée dans la vallée du Viaur. Bouchon. Amsterdam (1998) . G. projet et suivi des travaux. Damour. La technique française du béton précontraint (Span length record in the Viaur valley. G. R Ballester. R.Virlogeux. Bustamante. Gai. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vernegues TGV high-speed rail line viaduct. M. Lacoste. J.P. Amsterdam (1998) . Jouanno. Abastado. Bouvy.[BOU 92] E. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). La technique française du béton précontraint (The Rogerville viaduct. M. G.[JAC 98] P Jacquet.[DEWI 98] M. E. Amsterdam (1998) / .[BOUS 98. E Veyres.[BOUS 98. P.Jacques. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).1] C. A.Études. La technique française du béton précontraint (A new generation of composite bridges: viaducts in the Boulogne area. Meurisse.2] M.C. M. Demozay. P. M. E. Suinot. Bot . Lacombe. Pham.M. Legall. R Fraleu: Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez (The Bourran viaduct at Rodez) (October 1991) . E. Virlogeux. Radiguet : TGV Méditerranée . London (1996) . G. FIP Symposium. M. Paulik. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Confederation Bridge [Prince Edward Island . M. J. M. P Fraleu. Conti. Edon. R. Placidi. Bousquet. A. Fauvelle. J. Vassord: Pont du Vecchio. Chassagnette. Bouchon. Combault (Dumez-GTM): Le pont de la Confédération (Ile du prince Edouard . M. Cussac. Bouchon (Sétra). Jung.[JOU 91] A. Valotaire: Le viaduc TGV de Vernegues. P. Viallon: Une nouvelle génération de ponts mixtes: les viaducs du Boulonnais. De Wissocq. M. C. M. Boy. B.P Runigo. F. Bousquet. Foucriat. The French prestressed Concrete Technique). Lagane. Gillet.[COM 98] J. X. J. Duviard: Le viaduc de Rogerville. J. D. B. R. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique. A. design and monitoring of works. La technique française du béton précontraint (The TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line – Package 2H – Viaducts over the Rhône. M.P. Washington (1994) . D. Le Bourdonnec: Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method.J.Lot 2H -Viaducs sur le Rhône. J. La technique française du béton précontraint (Repair of the Blagnac bridge – Studies.Canada]. J. Duviard. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).[VIR 91. Amsterdam (1998) Revue travaux . E Vacher. Gharbi. L. K. A. Barras. V. J. R. Le Corre: Le pont sur le Loch d’Auray (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray) (June 1991) .M.2] C.Tassone.[VIR 96] M.[MEU 98] P. Servant (Serf). Amsterdam (1998) . Gachiteguy. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vecchio bridge. Roudanes. J.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Amsterdam (1998) . Viossanges.Canada).[BAR 94] P. D. Amsterdam (1998) . Lecointre. de Matteis. Goyet: Autoroute A75 dans le Cantal: Les études du pont sur la Truyère (Studies for the bridge over the Truyère) (October 1991) .[SER 98] C. Virlogeux. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Virlogeux. Poineau: Réparation du pont de Blagnac .[BOU 91] E. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Gachiteguy (Aveyron DDE [Departmental Public Works Directorate]). Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island) (July-August 1992) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 285 septembre 2007 . Combault. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).

H. J. Zanker: La réparation du pont de Châlons-en-Champagne (The repair of the Châlons-enChampagne bridge (April 1999) . V. Vandeputte. Une construction anticipée pour faciliter la circulation de chantier (The Rivoire viaduct [Isère] Anticipatory construction in order to facilitate the movement of site traffic). Ph. Mondon: Le Hung Hom by-pass à Hong Kong (The Hung Hom by-pass in Hong Kong) (January 1999) .[PAU 00] L. B.[ROI 99] D. R. J.Vincent: A39 . J.[DIEU 00] R Dieuaide: Le viaduc de Digoin (The Digoin viaduct) (January 2000) .[CON 95] E. Boisset.[HUM 93] E. G.[BOI 96] A.Tréffot: Le projet du second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg (The design of the second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg) (January 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 286 septembre 2007 . Frantz. H. Picard: Le viaduc de Limay. R Ribolzi.Y. Magnon-Pujo. J. P. Conti.[DEM 00] A. G.Le viaduc de Castres (A major structure over the Agout – the Castres viaduct) (February 1998) . Maire: Le pont de l’île du Prince-Edouard (The Prince Edward Island Bridge) (July and August 1996) / . (July-August 1997) .[QUI 98] D. G. Deberle: Le viaduc de la Rivoire (Isère). Combault. L. G. M. Hervet. Perez: Confortement par précontrainte additionnelle du pont de la Seudre en Charente-Maritime (Reinforcement of the Seudre bridge in the Charente-Maritime by additional prestressing) (February 1998) .[DOG 98] P. Bouvy. Quivy.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Desgagne.[MAG 97] H. B. Deleporte.[RIC 96] D.M. B. X. Durand. Combault.[BER 95] A. Dhiver: Remise en état du pont de la RD220 sur le canal d’amenée de la chute de Bourg-lès-Valence (Renovation of the RD220 road bridge over the head race canal for the Bourg-lès-Valence waterfall) (November 1993) .Les viaducs sur le Doubs et la Loue (A39 Highway – viaducts over the Doubs and the Loue) (February 1998) . B. Humbert. Marneffe. D. C.J. Paulik: Le pont du Vecchio en Corse (The Vecchio Bridge in Corsica) (January 2000) .Jouves.[DEL 98] G. Yvelines (The Limay viaduct. Poineau. Delfosse.[MON 99] J. Demare.[RIC 93] C. Bernardo: Le pont du Rambler Channel à Hong Kong (The Rambler Channel bridge in Hong Kong) (April 1995) . Y. R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville (The Rogerville Viaduct) (April 1996) . Ricard. Eaure. Oudin-Hograindleur: Passerelle tournée sur l’autoroute A4 à Noisy-le-Grand (Rotated footbridge on the A4 highway at Noisy-le-Grand) (April 1995) . Hooghe. Creppy. Y. Duflot. Yvelines) (1993) .Vesval: Le second franchissement de l’estuaire de la Severn (The second crossing of the Severn estuary) (April 1996) . Lefebvre. Doguet: Un grand ouvrage sur l’Agout .[COM 96] J. Richard. Lacombe.

[CHU 02] J.R Chuniaud. Duviard. Tavakoli. Dewilde. Vesval. L. Primault: A10 . R Chatelard. P.[CON 91] E. Demare. Giacomelli.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: La grande travée au-dessus du fleuve est achevée (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: The large span above the river is finished) (February 2002) Sétra Bulletin ouvrages d’art . Rosset: Le viaduc sur la Medway (The Medway viaduct) (December 2001) . E. de Matteis: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (January 2001) . C. Menuel. M. E. Grèzes. Dallot. D. Giacomelli.[BOUT 01] L.Vion: L’exécution du pont de Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Construction of the Villeneuve-sur-Lot bridge) (July 1993) . Outteryck.[DEM 02] A. Flourens: Le pont de la corniche à Dole.[VIO 93] P. V. Jaeger. D. Lefaucheur: Ferraillage passif des bossages (Non-prestressed reinforcement of anchor blocks) (January 1992) . Lacaze.Le viaduc de la Dordogne (A10 Highway – The Dordogne viaduct) (January 2000) . Guio.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .M. Marraci: Conception de la réhabilitation du pont de Saint-André-de-Cubzac (Design of the renovation of the Saint-André-de-Cubzac bridge) (November 2001) . Demare. D. design and monitoring of work) (November 1993) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 287 septembre 2007 .[DEM 01.Tanis. Charlon.[POR 01] T. G.R Viailon: Le pont sur le Bras de la Plaine (Ile de la Réunion): un ouvrage d’exception dans un site grandiose (The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine [Reunion Island]: an exceptional structure in a magnificent setting) (January 2002) . Jamet. new undulations in the Jura) (March 1993) . D.[COM 93] J. G. Vacher: Le pont sur la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the SaintDenis river on Reunion Island) (July 1991) .Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg: Les travaux sont commencés (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: Work has begun) (May 2001) .[DEW 01] V. Blanchi. B. P.[ABE 91] H. S. Boutonnet: Kingston Bridge à Glasgow (The Kingston Bridge in Glasgow) (December 2001) .[LEC 92] D. L. G. J.[JAE 00] J. B.[LAC 02] J. T. Cayron. Lecointre. C.[CAY 01] F. de nouveaux plis dans le Jura (The Corniche bridge at Dole. Combault. E. J.1] A. Abel-Michel.J. Cote: Un nouveau viaduc ferroviaire dans les nouveaux territoires de Hong Kong (A new railroad viaduct in the New Territories of Hong Kong) (December 2001) . Nunez. projet et suivi des travaux (Repair of the Blagnac bridge: studies. C. F. Roude. Portefaix. Conti. Sandre: A89 .[BAR 93] R Barras: La réparation du pont de Blagnac: études. Ferez: L’exécution du pont d’Arcins (The construction of the Arcins bridge) (July 1991) .[GIA 01] D. E. Barlet. D. JJ.Le viaduc du Pays de Tulle (A89 Highway – The Pays de Tulle viaduct) (January 2002) .M.

B.[JEH 94] J.C. Tavakoli: Renforcement du pont sur la Saône à Lyon (Reinforcement of the bridge over the Saône in Lyon) (December 2000) .A. Divet: Une nouvelle réaction de gonflement interne des bétons: la réaction sulfatique (A new internal swelling reaction in concrete: ettringite formation) (May 2000) .Jehan. Goyet: Le pont sur la Truyère à Garabit (The bridge over the Truyère at Garabit) (November 1993) .[GOD 00] B. F. Reinhard: Le Pont de la corniche à Dole (The Corniche Bridge at Dole) (November 1994) . B. D. les effets du vent (Wind effects on the Tanus Bridge) (November 1994) . Bouchon.[GIL 93] G. Canitrot. Delfosse. Gachiteguy.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: études de faisabilité des BHP (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: HPC feasibility studies) (March 2001) .[REl 94] J.[DEM 01. Paulik: Le pont sur le Vecchio (The bridge over the Vecchio) (December 1998) . Rioulong and Planchette viaducts) (July 1996) . G.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Barras: Réparation de l’ouvrage sur le quai Deschamps à Bordeaux (Structural repair on the Quai Deschamps in Bordeaux) (August 1998) . du Rioulong et de la Planchette (The Marvejols By-pass: the Piou. G.Tavakoli: Modélisation STl d’un pont construit par encorbellements successifs (STL modeling of a bridge built by the cantilever method) (November 1996) . Ferez: Renforcement par précontrainte extérieure (Reinforcement via external prestressing) (November 1994) . Lefevre: Pont de Tanus.2] A. Gillet: Contournement de Marvejols: les viaducs du Piou.[JAC 96] R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville sur l’autoroute A29 (The Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway) (July 1996) . V.[DAL 00] F.[TAV 96] F. Froissac.[BAR 98] P. Dallot.Tavakoli: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (August 2000) .L.[BOU 94. Demare. Godart.3] E. D.Viossanges: Le viaduc du Viaur. Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: des piles et des fondations profondes dans le fleuve pour résister aux séismes et aux chocs de bateaux (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: piers and deep foundations in the river to resist earthquakes and impacts from boats) (June 2001) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 288 septembre 2007 .Taimiot: Le renforcement du pont de Bergerac (The reinforcement of Bergerac bridge) (July 1994) .[DEL 94] G.[DEM 01. J. Ferez. Dewilde. L. Demare.[GIL 96] G.J.[PAU 98] L. J. B. G.3] A. Palacci. Bouvy. de Matteis. Gillet. Bernard: La démolition du pont de Beaucaire sur le Rhône (Demolition of the Beaucaire bridge over the Rhône) (July 1994) . des fléaux sous haute surveillance (The Viaur viaduct: cantilevers under close surveillance) (March 1998) . Gernigon.[GAC 98] R. G.[PER 94] G.[TAV 00] F. P.M.

Divet: État des connaissances sur les causes possibles des réactions sulfatiques internes au béton (Extent of the understanding of the possible causes of ettringite formation in concrete) (July-August 2000) Annales de l’I TBTP .[LEF 02] D. G.[ROB 97] C. Roberts-Woolman.P. Rhodes Island USA.E. application des techniques de tôles collées et de précontrainte additionnelle (Structural repair and reinforcement of buildings and civil engineering structures) (February 1992) Techniques de l’ingénieur .[VIR 81] M.Mise en œuvre (Hydraulic concrete – Application) (May 1996) P CI JOURNAL . la costruzione del ponte Jamestown .L. Cusin: Réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art. K.[SCH 95] J. F Guerrier. Le Faucheur: Cumul des aciers de cisaillement et des aciers de flexion (Cumulation of shear and flexion reinforcements) (July 2002) Bulletin des laboratoires des ponts et chaussées .E.[ITA 99] Ing.A.[REN 00] Ing. Virlogeux: Analyse de quelques problèmes spécifiques du calcul des ponts construits par encorbellements successifs (Analysis of certain problems specific to the design of bridges built by the cantilever method) (February 1981) . M.[POI 92] D. Salvatore Giuseppe Italiano: II ponte sul fiume Ticino nei pressi di Pavia (January 1999) .[ROS 00] Marco Rosignoli: Ponti in C. 458 di Casalborgone (Torino) (July-August 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 289 septembre 2007 . PhD: Attraversando la baia di Narragansett. Poineau. Geoffray: Le béton hydraulique . F.[SMI 97] Dennis R. Theillout. M. Brein. ad anime reticolani (May 2000) . the example of the Ondes bridge) (January-February 1998) .Verrazzano (mars 1997) . J.S.[DIV 98] L. Schlaich.Smith. Schaefer. Divet. Kregle: Towards a consistent design for structural concrete (May-June 1997) Revue l’Industria italiana del cemento ( IIC ) . Marco Renga: Il ponte di Chivaso sulla S. Le Mestre: Risque de développement de réactions sulfatiques dans les pièces en béton de grande masse.[GEO 96] J. le cas du pont d’Ondes (Risk of the development of ettringite formation in massive concrete parts.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . J.[DIV 00] L.M. Jennewein: Temperature induced deformations in match cast segments (July-August 1995) .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 290 septembre 2007 .

fr Cover .ISRN: XXXX The Sétra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST) . construction. maintenance. this guide will be of interest to anyone involved in the design and construction of bridges built by the cantilever method (project managers.gouv.This guide provides a highly detailed description of the design and construction of prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. consulting engineers or technicians. detailed design. each of the ten chapters covers one of the stages in the development of these types of structures: preliminary design. construction managers. preparation of the invitation to tender.equipement. monitoring of works. calculating and verifying concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Sétra website: http://www. etc.setra. works inspectors and architects) in addition to teachers specialising in civil engineering. calculations. This technical guide is intended for engineers and architects involved in designing.Photographers: XXXXXXA compléter par l'auteur The Sétra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) © 2007 Sétra . Highly informative and lavishly illustrated.Reference: XXXX . Thanks to its comprehensive coverage of the subject.

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