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Design guide

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The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures.

The Sétra supports the public owner
The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: • • • • • • improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects.

The Sétra, producer of the state of the art
Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: • • • • • takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community.

The Sétra, a work in partnership
• The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement – RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'Equipement – CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France – RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development… • The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals).

Design guide

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This document is the translation of the work " Ponts en béton précontraint construits par encorbellements successifs" published in June 2003 under the reference F0308.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Authors
This document was created by a working group consisting of: Pierre Barras, CETE (Centre d’études Techniques et de l’équipement - Technical Engineering Center for Infrastructure) du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Civil Engineering Structures Division) Daniel de Matteis, Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes -Technical Center for Highways and motorways) / Large Bridges Division) Jean-François Derais, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Michel Duviard, Engineering and Design Department, Jean Muller International Daniel Guillot, CETE de l’Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Michel Lacombe, DREIF (Direction régionale de l’équipement Ile de France – Ile de France Regional Public Works Directorate) / Bridges Group Gilles Lacoste, Sétra / Methodology and Software Division Daniel Lecointre, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Virgile Ojeda, CETE Méditerranée / Bridges Division Pierre Paillusseau, CETE du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Marc Reinhard, CETE de Lyon / Bridges Division The monographs, iconography, drawings and 3D images were produced by Stéphane Chevrot, Philippe Julien, Eric Lozinguez and Louis Resterrucci from the Sétra Large Bridges Division. Photographic credits: Sétra / Gérard Forquet (Sétra Large Bridges Division)

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank everyone who, through their help, comments and observations, contributed to the creation of this document, especially: Mr. Aubin (Bouygues), Mr. Bataille (Semi), Mr. Boileau (DDE 31), Mr. Chaboud (DDE 974), Mr. Doan (SNCF), Mr. Duclos (Thales), Mr. Gaudin (SPIE), Mr. Gausset (EEG), Mr. Heusse (ERSEM), Mr. Kirschner (SECOA), Mr. Le Faucheur (Sétra), Mr. Mossot (Demathieu et Bard), Mr. Poineau (Sétra), Mr. Primault (Vinci), Mr. Ryckaert (SETEC), Mr.Thibaux (Eiffage TP), Mr.Treffot (DDE 67) and Mr. Xercavins (PXDAM).

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Table of contents
AUTHORS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 - PREAMBLE 1.2 - TECHNICAL PROCESS 1.3 - FIELDS OF APPLICATION 1.4 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE IN FRANCE 1.5 - MAJOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 2 - GENERAL DESIGN 2.1 - FIELD OF APPLICATION 2.2 - STATIC LONGITUDINAL DESIGN 2.3 - CHOOSING A CROSS-SECTION 2.4 - PRE-DESIGN OF A SIMPLE CROSS-SECTION 2.5 - BREAKDOWN INTO SEGMENTS 2.6 - MAIN RATIOS 3 - DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LONGITUDINAL CABLING 3.1 - CABLING PRINCIPLES 3.2 - STRESS CALCULATIONS 3.3 - VERIFICATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITH REGARD TO NORMAL STRESSES 4 - TRANSVERSE AND LOCALIZED BEHAVIOUR 4.1 - VERIFICATION PRINCIPLES 4.2 - TRANSVERSE FLEXION 4.3 - GENERAL TANGENTIAL STRESSES 4.4 - SPECIFIC ELEMENTS 4.5 - LOCALIZED FORCES AND REINFORCEMENTS 4.6 - RULES TO COMBINE PASSIVE REINFORCEMENTS 4.7 - RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATIONS FOR REINFORCEMENTS 5 - CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.1 - PRINCIPLE OF CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.2 - STABILITY SYSTEMS FOR CANTILEVERS 5.3 - ACTIONS TO CONSIDERED 5.4 - COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION 5.5 - VERIFICATION AND DIMENSIONING OF THE ANCHORING ELEMENTS 5.6 - VERIFICATIONS OF OTHER STABILIZATION METHODS 6 - CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 6.1 - CONSTRUCTION USING CAST-IN-SITU SEGMENTS 6.2 - CONSTRUCTION BY PREFABRICATED SEGMENTS 7 - ON SITE MONITORING 7.1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.2 - INSPECTION OF GEOMETRY 7.3 - INSPECTION OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
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ARTICLES IN MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS AFPC/AFGC PUBLICATIONS FOR FIB (FÉDÉRATION DE L’INDUSTRIE DU BÉTON-CONCRETE INDUSTRY FEDERATION) CONGRESSES REVUE TRAVAUX SÉTRA BULLETIN OUVRAGES D’ART BULLETIN DES LABORATOIRES DES PONTS ET CHAUSSÉES ANNALES DE L’ITBTP TECHNIQUES DE L’INGÉNIEUR PCI JOURNAL REVUE L’INDUSTRIA ITALIANA DEL CEMENTO (IIC) 219 219 220 221 222 224 229 230 230 230 235 240 243 252 264 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 6 septembre 2007 .7 .INSPECTION OF FORMWORK 7.NATURE OF THE TENDER ENQUIRY 10.6 .6 .0 – PURPOSE OF THIS APPENDIX A1.PATHOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO THE CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE 8.PATHOLOGIES AND REPAIRS 8.INSPECTION OF CONCRETE 7.INSPECTION OF PRESTRESSING 7.4 .8 .7 .5 – EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING DESIGN A2 MONOGRAPHS OF CAST-IN-SITU BRIDGES A3 BIBLIOGRAPHY A3-1 – OFFICIAL TEXTS A3-2 – SÉTRA GUIDES.4 – PRESTRESSING DESIGN FOR THE CLOSING SEGMENT A1.3 – CANTILEVER PRESTRESSING DESIGN A1.4 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS 8 .INSPECTING THE REINFORCEMENTS 7.TENDER DOCUMENT 10.5 .MAIN REPAIR TECHNIQUES 9 .GENERAL PRINCIPLES 9. SÉTRA-SNCF A3-3 – OTHER PUBLICATIONS A3-4 .2 .BRIDGE DECK 9.3 .3 .RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 219 10.4 .TENDER REGULATIONS 10.1 .1 .1 .2 .HISTORY OF THE REGULATIONS 8.PIERS 9. SÉTRA-LCPC.SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAUSES 10.2 – SOURCE DATA A1.1 .SPECIAL TECHNICAL CLAUSES 10.2 .3 .PRICE SCHEDULE A1 DETERMINATION EXAMPLE A1.REMINDERS A1.CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 10.PROVISIONS TO FACILITATE MAINTENANCE 9.ABUTMENTS 168 178 178 179 190 195 195 200 205 208 208 208 212 216 10 .5 .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Foreword
The cantilever method is the most widely used technique for the construction of large prestressed concrete bridges in France and throughout the world. Since the beginning of the 1990s, concrete bridges built by this method have faced stiff competition in the medium-span category from composite bridges and, to a lesser extent, from concrete bridges erected by incremental launching. On the other hand, they are increasingly used for bridging large spans, as illustrated by the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur, the Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway and the new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. Intended for construction managers, consulting engineers and methods and project engineers, this guide provides a detailed review of these structures, their field of use and the technology used in their construction. For this reason, this guide replaces Technical Bulletin No.7 and its supplementary information, published by Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Technical Centre for Highways and Motorways in December 1972, which had become obsolete with regard to several important points such as calculation methods, prestressing design, the structure of form travelers and the management of delayed deformation. Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of this guide cover certain points which are very specific to the cantilever method: the general design of the structures, the design and calculation of longitudinal cabling, the stability of cantilevers and construction technology. Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are more generalized, respectively covering transverse flexion, site inspections, problems and their repair, precautions to be taken to facilitate maintenance, and finally, the contents of contractor tender documents. Although written with bridges constructed by the cantilever method in mind, the information in these chapters will also be useful for anyone involved in the design or construction of large civil engineering structures. This guide is the outcome of a major collective effort and is another illustration of the expertise of French contractors, engineering firms and construction agencies in the field of civil engineering. Emmanuel Bouchon Head of the Large Bridges Division at Sétra.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1 - Background information
This first chapter introduces the major principles concerning the construction of bridges by the cantilever method and its field of use. It also describes the history of the development of this method and of the applicable regulations from 1943 to the present day.

1.1 - Preamble
The cantilever construction method is a very ancient technique, in which a structure is built component by component above ground level. Since ancient times, this method has been used for the construction of arches in Europe (Fig. 1.1) and in South America (including the construction of Mayan arches), and for the building of wooden bridges (Fig. 1.2).

Fig. 1.1 – The “Treasure of Atreus”. Longitudinal section

Fig. 1.2 – Gallic wooden bridge

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, this method was applied to the construction of arched metal bridges, such as the Gabarit and Viaur viaducts, or lattice girder designs, such as the Forth Bridge, the Bénodet bridge or the old Pirmil bridge at Nantes (Fig. 1.3).

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Fig. 1.3 – The old Pirmil bridge in Nantes

Fig. 1.4 – The Normandie bridge

More recently, it has been used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Saint-Nazaire bridge over the River Loire and the Normandie bridge over the Seine (Fig. 1.4). As far as prestressed concrete is concerned, construction by the cantilever method mainly applies to bridges whose decks can be combined with straight or horizontally curving beams and which are built out from their piers, with cast-in-situ or prefabricated segments (Fig. 1.5 and 1.6). These types of bridges are the focus of this guide.

Fig. 1.5 – Bridge forming part of a continuous girder on single supports

Fig. 1.6 – Cantilever construction of prestressed concrete box-girder bridge decks with cast-in-situ segments on the left and prefabricated segments on the right

Many of the techniques used in this method are also employed in the construction of portal bridges with box girder decks, such as the Bonhomme bridge in the Morbihan region of Brittany, the Auray viaduct (Fig. 1.7) and the bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Fig. 1.7 – Construction of the Auray portal bridge

Fig. 1.8 – The cable-stayed bridge at Chalon-surSaône under construction

Finally, and although not strictly within the scope of this guide, it should be mentioned that the cantilever method is often used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Iroise bridge over the River Elorn, near Brest and the Bourgogne bridge at Chalon-sur-Saône (Fig. 1.8) and also for concrete arched bridges such as the Roche Bernard bridge over the River Vilaine (Fig. 1.9) and the bridge over the River Rance.

Fig. 1.9 – The arched bridge of La Roche-Bernard under construction

1.2 - Technical process
1.2.1 Description of the method

This construction method consists of erecting the majority of a bridge deck without falsework or scaffolding at ground level, by working in consecutive sections known as segments, each of which is cantilevered out from the preceding segment. After a segment is built, the prestressing tendons fixed to the extremities are tensioned,

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firmly attaching them to the preceding segments and thus forming a self-supporting cantilever which serves as a support for the subsequent operations. Construction is carried out: • Symmetrically in general, either side of a pier in order to minimize the moments transmitted to this support during erection; the resulting double overhang is called a balanced cantilever (Fig. 1.10)

Fig. 1.10 – Symmetrical construction from a pier

Sometimes asymmetrically on a single side of a balanced cantilever, when the other side is already joined to the adjacent span (Fig. 1.11)

Fig. 1.11 – Over-cantilevering construction

More rarely from an abutment; in this case, the overturning moment exerted by the span is compensated for by an appropriately dimensioned counterweight which forms part of the deck itself (Fig. 1.12).

Fig. 1.12 – Construction by the cantilever method using counterweighted spans

Although it is possible to build an entire structure using the cantilever method, the majority of structures include cast-on-falsework sections at the extremities of the end spans.

1.2.2 -

Association with other methods

Cantilever construction is often used in association with other methods such as: • • Construction on falsework, when parts of the structure are close to the ground and feature modest spans Construction by incremental launching, when the structure features a series of spans less than 65m in length, of constant depth, supporting a road whose geometry is compatible with this technique.

1.3 - Fields of application

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1.3.1 -

Background information

Spans of 80 to 150m are preferred for bridges with prestressed concrete box girder decks built by the cantilever method. However, this technique can be used for spans up to 200m in common widths without major problems. Above this size, the quantities of materials increase significantly, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness of the method. The world record span for concrete bridges built by the cantilever method currently stands at 301 m and is held by the Stolma Bridge in Norway. This is closely followed by the Raftsundet Bridge in the Lofoten Islands, also in Norway, with a central span of 298m. Opened to traffic at the end of 1998, both of these bridges have central spans partially made from lightweight concrete. These bridges both surpassed the Brisbane Bridge in Australia, built in 1986, whose span of 260m had beaten the previous record of 240 m held by the Hamana Bridge in Japan, built in 1977. For a long time, the Gennevilliers Bridge, built in 1976, held the French record for the longest span with its two spans of 172m. Following closely behind with spans of 172m and 144m was the Ottmarsheim Bridge, built over the Alsace canal in 1979 using concrete partly made from lightweight aggregates. With a single span of 190 m, the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur in the Aveyron (Fig. 1.13) captured the record in 1998 before being relegated to second place in 2002 by the new bridge over the River Rhine, south of Strasbourg, whose central span measures 205m.

Fig. 1.13 - The Tanus viaduct

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.2 Advantages

Advantages and disadvantages of the method

The cantilever construction method offers many advantages. Firstly, the bridge decks are mostly built without any contact with the ground, making it possible to build structures over rivers subject to severe flooding or above very deep and rugged valleys. This method can also be used to erect structures with very different geometries. Thus, in elevation, it is possible to design decks of a constant or variable depth. For the latter, parabolic, cubic or linear variations are all possible. The method is extremely forgiving with regard to the geometry of the road supported by the bridge because, in contrast to incremental launching and pushing techniques, any horizontal and vertical alignments can be built without difficulty. Finally, construction using elements of 3 to 4 m in length is cost-effective in terms of the formwork tools required for the bridge deck, even if the spans are few in number and of different lengths. In the case of prefabricated segments, the small size of these components also helps to limit the weight of the elements to be assembled, thus reducing the cost of the installation equipment. Disadvantages However, there are also certain drawbacks to the cantilever construction method. For identical spans, bridges built using this method are much heavier than composite structures. They therefore need larger supports and foundations than those required for composite structures. Of course, this makes the cantilever method less attractive, especially when the foundation terrain is of mediocre quality or when the site is in an earthquake zone. Another major disadvantage to this method is the large number of tasks which have to be carried out in situ, both for the casting of the deck and for the development of the access routes to the site. Although the number of these tasks is reduced when the segments are prefabricated, of course, they are nevertheless greater in number than for an incrementally launched concrete bridge. When the structure crosses traffic bearing routes, the frequency of these tasks may compromise the safety of travelers and/or of workers on the site. These routes must then be closed, which often poses major problems. From an aesthetic point of view, bridges built by the cantilever method often have relatively thick decks, which can pose problems on certain sites. As a result, by breaking down their construction into small elements and multiple casting phases, there are more likely to be differences in color between two consecutive segments.
Spans 120 150 200 Type
- Bridges built using the cantilever - Incrementally launched concrete bridges - Composite beam bridges - Composite box girder bridges - Orthotropic slab box-section bridges - Cables stays bridges

1.14 – Fields of application for different types of bridges The area defined by the thickest line represents the most common field of application. It should be noted that suspension bridges are not included in this table, as they are primarily used for very wide spans. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 13 septembre 2007

300

35

70

90

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.3 -

Competing techniques

Now, prestressed concrete box-girder bridges built using the cantilever method are designed for spans between 60 m and 300 m in length. This technique has to compete with a number of different solutions operating within this very wide range of spans. For spans of less than 80 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are most commonly of a constant depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. If the geometry of the supported road is compatible, they also have to compete with incrementally-launched bridges made from prestressed concrete, which are economically viable for spans of between 35 and 70 m. For spans of between 70m and 120m, bridges built by the cantilever method may be of constant or variable depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. For practical or aestetic reasons, composite concrete and steel box girder bridges or cable-stayed bridges are also often designed to cover this range of spans. For spans of between 100 m and 200 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are almost always of variable depth and are in competition with composite or metal box girder bridges (beyond 140m) and cable-stayed bridges. Within this range of spans, presetressed concrete box girder solutions with lightweight metal webs may also prove to be economical.

1.4 - Development of the construction technique in France
There now follows a short history of the development of the construction technique and the regulations for concrete bridges built using the cantilever method.

1.4.1 -

1946-1952

Construction using the cantilever method was used for the first time in France by Albert Caquot for the building of the Donzère and Bezons reinforced concrete bridges in 1953, using a form traveler suspended from a metal girder (Fig.1.15). In Germany, Finsterwalder also used this technique for the construction of the Neckarsens and Baldunstein prestressed concrete bridges in 1950. It was then used for the construction of the Worms and Koblenz cantilever bridges in 1952, featuring a large span of 114 metres (using the form traveler technique). In the same year, Nicolas Esquillan used a very similar technique with a form traveler suspended from a metal beam to build the La Voulte railroad bridge, consisting of several 60 m-wide portal spans. It should be noted that at this time, there were no French design regulations concerning the cantilever construction method or even for prestressed concrete.

1.4.2 -

1953-1964

This period was marked by the introduction of regulations, the development of design methods, the improvement of the characteristics of prestressing reinforcements and the development of prestressing procedures. During this period, the bridge-building techniques using the cantilever method improved considerably. As a result, we can refer to two distinct generations of bridges.

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First generation bridges The bridge decks of first generation structures were embedded on piers and even on abutments and featured hinges at mid-span. Built in 1957 by GTM, the Chazey bridge over the River Ain was the first French bridge to be truly built by the cantilever method and the first in a series of major structures including the Beaucaire bridge over the River Rhône and the Savines bridge over the Serre-Ponçon reservoir dam in the Hautes-Alpes region. The Chazey and Beaucaire bridges suffered from prestressing defects and have since been demolished. The former was replaced by a new cantilever bridge in 1973 and the latter by a composite bridge in 1995. Second generation bridges As the first generation bridges suffered from an excessive deformation of their cantilever elements after several years, due to an underestimation of the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage, a second generation of bridges was designed and built with continuous spans and therefore without hinges at mid-span. Particularly noteworthy second generation bridges include: • The bridges at Goncelin, over the River Isère and Lacroix-Falgarde over the Ariège, designed by the STUP (Société Technique pour l’Utilisation de la Précontrainte – Engineering Company for the Use of Prestressing). These were the first continuously rendered structures (1962) The Layrac bridge, over the River Garonne, designed by GTM The bridges of Choisy-le-Roi, near Paris, and Pierre-Bénite, near Lyons, built in 1965 by CampenonBernard, which were the first structures to use prefabricated segments and glued conjugated joints.

• •

1.4.3 -

1965-1975

This was a period of enormous developments and constantly changing regulations. It began with the publication of the IP1 (Circular no. 44 of August 12 1965 relating to the provisional instruction for the use of prestressed concrete), and it finished with the publication of the Circular of April 2 1975, which brought an end to the second generation structures and paved the way for third generation bridges.

Fig. 1.15 – The Bezons bridge

The most notable bridges of the 1965-1975 period include:
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on the outskirts of Paris. 85m. several bridges were also made from lightweight concrete. 85m. between the A4 and A86 highways near Paris. • Between 1975 and 1982. had to be reinforced in 1990 The Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine near Paris.390 m whose two viaducts of 229 m (48m. The Ottmarsheim bridge.5m) were built using the cantilever method The 400m long Viaduc de Commelles on the “conventional” Paris-Brussels and Paris-Lille lines.4 - 1975-1982 Bridges built during this period can be described as third generation bridges. (including accounting for creep and thermal gradient). which acts as a counterweight and compensates for a highly unfavourable arrangement between the spans (25m – 142m – 25m) . whose collapsed cantilever prompted the Sétra to define its rules for the stability of cantilevers which are still in force today (1975) The Saint-Cloud bridge (1974).4. such as: • The Tricastin bridge (1979). • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 16 septembre 2007 . supported on a 30-m cantilevered girder made from prestressed concrete (1980). Worthy of note amongst the structures built of conventional concrete during this period are: • • The Mâcon bridge over the Saône. approximately 3. built with prefabricated segments (1980) The Mathilde bridge near Rouen. which is a prestressed concrete structure of 1. whose end spans and the beginnings of its central span are made from normal concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The Oléron bridge (1966).4 m) and slender deck (spans of 100m and a 1/30 slenderness ratio). these structures were much better designed and did not suffer from the difficulties encountered with previous generations of bridges.5m (48m. • • • • • 1. • Two remarkable railroad structures were also built during this period: • The crossing of the Seine at Nanterre via the railroad spur for the new town of Cergy-Pontoise (1977). 48m) and 221. which was one of the first new-generation bridges (1977) The numerous interlaced viaducts of the Saint-Maurice interchange. had to be repaired in 1978 and 1987. Designed in accordance with the rules established by the Circular of April 2 1975. whose central span includes an independent 115m long metal span. whose box-girder deck featuring three webs with bar prestressing. with a span of 172 m (1976) The bridge over the River Loire at Orléans (1976). 48m.000m in length and built using prefabricated segments installed for the first time by a launching beam The Oissel bridge over the A13 highway: 700m long without an intermediate expansion joint (1970) The Calix viaduct in Caen. with a 4web box-girder deck carrying four railroad lines and featuring main span of 45m (1980). which features a 172m lightweight concrete span (1980). whose very wide (20. 48m. 40.

in Nantes.1]. followed by BPEL 91 and finally BPEL 91 revised in 1999). near Lyons. [SER 90]) The viaducts of Bourran.2]) The Cheviré bridge.000 m of prefabricated segments made from B60 category high-performance concrete The Arrêt-Darré viaduct. which represents one of the first applications of Eurocodes 1 and 2 (2000. which was one of the first bridges to feature external prestressing The Sermenaz viaduct. major progress was made in the design of major civil engineering structures made from prestressed concrete. consisting of a box-girder with an orthotropic deck plate (1991. whose cantilevers were angled at the end of construction to follow the longitudinal profile (1988. although this is not an exhaustive list: • The bridge over the River Loir at La Flèche. [RIC 96]. due largely to the development of external prestressing. Fig. [BOU 94. whose design features double-shelled piers (1991. at Rodez. whose cantilever segments are supported by metal struts (1995.16) The construction of a parallel lane on the Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine [CHA 94] The Piou and Rioulong viaducts on the A75 highway. On the technological level. with completely external galvanized prestressing The Île de Ré bridge (1988) whose deck consists of 3. [CRO 94] and [CIL 96]. 1. and La Rivière Saint-Denis. [BOU 92] and [BOU 94. The following structures are notable examples of traditional road bridges built during this period. this period was characterized by the generalization of regulations concerning limit state calculations (BPEL 83 [Béton Précontraint par la méthode des Etats Limites – Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code]. [ABE 91] and [ABE 94]. [VIR 91 2] and [VIR 94]) The Arcins bridge. [VIR 90 2]. featuring two 680-m long decks made from prefabricated segments with innovative keyed expansion systems on certain spans (1996. spanning 190 m and featuring a pier of over 100 m in height (1998. [SER 98] and [GAC 98]) The second Pont-Salomon viaduct. whose central span of 242 m includes an independent span of 162 m in length. consisting of two parallel structures of 650 m in length made from prefabricated segments assembled by combination prestressing (1993.17) The Viaduc de Rogerville on the A29.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 1. which was the first bridge to be built by the cantilever method and positioned by rotation (1983) The Pont à Mousson viaduct over the River Moselle. near Bordeaux. [DAL 00] and [DEWOl] Page 17 septembre 2007 • • • • • • • • • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . 1.4.5 - 1983 to the present day On the regulatory level. [BOU 94. Fig. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of french and european standardization also led to clear changes in the rules concerning the building of structures. on Reunion Island. [CON 91]. [BOU 91].3]. [JAC 96] and [JAC 98]) The Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The viaducts of La Clidane (length: 132 m). 1. • Noteworthy railroad structures built since 1983 include several viaducts on the TGV high-speed Rhône-Alpes line (extension of the TGV Paris-South Eastern line to Valence) and of the TGV high-speed Méditerranée line. situated in the northern section of the eastern Lyons bypass: 1.1].210 m. [GIL 93] and [CAN 94]). 1.2]. [DEM 01. [DEM 00]. 1.18) The bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 18 septembre 2007 .2] The 1. whose two independent 1. which boasts a record single span structure of 205 m above the navigable channel of the Rhine (2002. 1. successive cantilever segment construction and a rotated installation. Fig.3].16 – The Arcins bridge in Bordeaux Fig.1]) The Vernègues viaduct. [VIR90. supporting the A89 highway [LAC 02] The new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. Measuring 1. • Fig. For the TGV Méditerranée high-speed line: • The Avignon viaduct over the River Rhône.2].500-m long decks were prefabricated (Fig.17 – The Piou viaduct Particularly notable portal road bridges built using the cantilever method since 1983 include: • The bridge over the Loch d’Auray.19. 900 m of which were built using successive cantilever segments with main spans of 88 m (1992). La Barricade (length: 150 m) and Tulle (length: 180 m). [DEM 01. with a semi-circular transverse cross section.734-m long Ventabren viaduct. this was built using a combination of the cantilever method and incremental launching techniques [BOUS 98. [DEM 01. [DEM 02]). with an opening of 109 m between the base of the portal legs (1989.725 m long in total. including: For the TGV Rhône-Alpes high-speed line: • The Costière viaduct. [BOUS 98. with an opening of 195 m between the base of the portal legs (1993. which relied upon incremental launching techniques.

20). whose decks are made of prefabricated segments with four triangulated metallic webs [MEU 98] The bridge over the Vecchio in Corsica.19 –TGV high-speed railroad bridge over the Rhône at Avignon Finally.18 – The portal bridge over the Loch d’Auray Fig. 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. [CHU 02]. both of these structures featured two parallel decks with triangulated concrete webs (1987. The following list features some of the most important examples: • • • • • • • Certain access viaducts to theVasco de Gama bridge in Lisbon. • • • • 1. a number of highly innovative road structures were also built during this period.Major civil engineering structures recently constructed outside of France In recent years. whose single 260-m span is made from two prestressed slabs linked by a triangular tubular metal structure (2002.266 m and 214 m. 1. Portugal Access viaducts to the new Severn Bridge in Great Britain [COM 94] and [COM 96] Access viaducts to the Storebelt suspension bridge in Denmark The Stolma and Rafsundet bridges in Northern Norway The Houston canal bridge in the USA The Brisbane Bridge in Australia The Hamana bridge in Japan The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 19 septembre 2007 . a very large number of bridges have been built using the cantilever method outside of France. [PAU 98] and [PAU 00]) The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine. [COM 93]. including: • The Sylans and Glacières viaducts over the A40. [BOU 90]) The Corniche bridge at Dôle with corrugated webs. 1. (1994. Fig. With respective lengths of 1. [LEB 94] and [REI 94]) The three Boulonnais viaducts over the Al6 highway. with open webs made of prefabricated triangular panels (1999.5 . on Reunion Island.

21.20 – The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine Fig. [BOI 96] and [COM 98]). Although built using a slightly different method to that described in this guide.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • The new São João railroad bridge over the River Douro in Portugal The Medway Viaduct on the TGV high-speed rail line between the Channel Tunnel and London [POROl]. 1.21 – Transportation of a prefabricated cantilever for the Confederation Bridge The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 20 septembre 2007 . 1. 1. whose central section is made from forty 250-m long spans (Fig. we should also make a special reference to extraordinary Confederation Bridge between the North American continent and Prince Edward Island in Canada. Fig.

The additional length. both horizontally and vertically Between 60 and 100 m.1 . We shall also see how piers are positioned in the gap to be bridged. which simplifies the design of the erection and concrete casting equipment used and improves output.2 . Indeed: • • • • It is suitable for a very wide range of spans (from 40 to 200 m. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 21 septembre 2007 . It goes on to describe the more specific aspects of the project: design of a simple cross-section. 2. coastal site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2 . etc. It helps to balance out the moments in the different spans under operating loads and ensures positive support reactions on the abutments. representing 10 to 20 percent of the length of the main spans.General design This chapter starts by covering the more general aspects of the design of bridges with box girder decks built by the cantilever method: layout of the supports.Static longitudinal design 2.Field of application As we have already seen in Chapter 1. or even 300 m) The supported road can have any type of geometry. deck height variation law and choice of a cross-section. steep slopes. We shall cover each of these different points in detail during the course of this chapter. the cantilever construction technique can be used to build a wide variety of prestressed concrete structures.1 Distribution of spans Example of a structure consisting of identical cantilevers The simplest structures are made from main spans of identical length. the bridge deck can be of constant or variable depth This method can be used regardless of the natural characteristics of the gap to be bridged (large depth.2. how the transverse structure of the deck is chosen and designed and how its formwork is accurately determined.). layout of the segments and ratios of materials. very poor-quality soils. The end spans are usually longer than a half-cantilever. The chapter only covers road bridges. 2. is usually built on falsework as this is generally the most economical method. This allows the construction of identical cantilevers.

It should also be noted that the end spans are 60% of the length of the adjacent standard spans. 2. 2. and a series of shorter – and thus more economical – spans crossing unnavigable flood zones. The example in Figure 2. as required by the need for a wide navigation channel. It then becomes necessary to build structures incorporating several different types of cantilevers. Other examples Certain special techniques may be used to circumvent these strict rules concerning the distribution of spans and the balancing of cantilevers. The example in Figure 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the most common structures consist of a series of equal spans flanked by end spans which are 60 to 70 percent of the length of the main spans. They include over-cantilevering.2 – Bridges with a combination of large spans in the river section and shorter spans on land Fig. it should be emphasized that the transition from large to small spans is carried out via a span whose length is the mean of the two standard spans.2 below shows a structure consisting of one or more large spans. the use of counterweights and building out from a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 22 septembre 2007 .3 – Bridge consisting of variable length spans according to the depth of the gap Therefore. In both of these cases.1 – Distribution of spans for a simple bridge built by the cantilever method Fig. 2.3 shows another structure featuring a large span in the deepest part of the valley to be crossed and shorter spans elsewhere. Example of a structure made from cantilevers of different lengths Gaps to be bridged often feature constraints that make it impossible to design a structure of the type we have just described.

because the savings made by simplifying the formwork tools for the deck (form travelers or prefabrication units) and reinforcement for the deck are much greater than any possible savings in materials. 2. while mentioning the most economical solution for each range of spans. 2. which would otherwise be badly positioned (Fig.20 m is required for satisfactory movement inside the box girder. bridge decks of a constant depth are generally the most economical.4. for structures of a constant depth.2 - Slenderness ratio and shape of the intrados We shall now discuss the variation laws which determine the possible depth of the bridge deck. the same applies to structures located in complex areas (urban sites. For structures with very tall piers. it should be noted that: • If it is possible. it is possible to design unequal spans by shifting the joints (à valider pour "clavages").1 – Constant depth When the main spans of a structure are less than 65/70 m long. It is then possible to shift certain piers slightly.4).2. 2.2.2. it is very difficult to establish rules to dictate the most appropriate form for a given site. Due to their cost.) A variable depth is generally quite well suited to deep valleys and large watercourses It is often a good idea to highlight certain sections of the gap by using spans of variable depths at its most outstanding sections. With regard to the criteria concerning suitability for the site. However. However. this phenomenon is even more noticeable as the surface area affected by the wind increases by approximately 25%. a minimum of 2. In this case. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 23 septembre 2007 . etc. they are only used in very specific cases imposing the layout of piers (highly urbanized sites or the presence of railroad lines and canals) or when it is impossible or particularly costly to extend the bridge deck.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide counterweight span. the depth of the deck is between 1/20 and 1/25 of the maximum span. interchanges. • • 2. Fig. etc.4 – Slight shifting δ of the piers for a structure of constant depth (The shifting of the joints δ is thus double the value of δ) For spans of above 100 m in length. Nevertheless. a constant depth is well suited to geometrically complex structures: especially very curved bridges.2. the quantities of concrete and prestressing materials used increase significantly and the cost of a constant depth solution increases in comparison to a variable depth solution. which are sensitive to the effects of wind both in service and during construction. These techniques are described in Paragraph 2.

The cantilever must be symmetrical in order to guarantee its stability during construction.2. This solution. It therefore becomes economically viable to build a deck of variable depth.2 – Parabolically variable depth In excess of 65 m/70 m. In standard cases. the variation in depth between the crown and the pier is generally parabolic in form. cubic.2. As the curvature is The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 24 septembre 2007 . the desire to create increasingly elegant and original structures has led to the design of structures with decks of a constant depth for spans well in excess of 90/100 m in recent years. The depth at the crown is generally between 1/30 and 1/35 of this same distance. with a minimum of 2. Fig.5 – Constant depth 2.2. However. the depth at the pier hp is between 1/16 and 1/18 of the length of the span in question. 2. very large forces affect the cantilevers. 2. results in a somewhat more stretched appearance than a parabolic variation. For example. this may pose problems due to insufficient depth in the quarter-span area. This formula is applicable for any value of l included in the field of application for bridges built by the cantilever method.3 – Variable depth according to other laws (linear.20 m for ease of movement within the box girder.) In recent years. requiring a large deck depth at piers which seems very excessive at the other sections of the span. which slightly reduces the effects of selfweight. etc. because the variation in depth may be unsuited to the distribution of bending moments and shear forces. the unsuccessful concrete-based design for the Verrières viaduct featured a deck of a constant depth despite having a maximum span of 144 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In spite of the previous comments. 2.2. hc hp Fig. For these structures.6 – Parabolically variable depth A statistical study carried out for the publication of this guide shows that the following formulas can be applied to a deck on simple supports: On pier: l l = 14 + 45 hp At the crown: l l = 19 + hc 7 With l the length of the main span in meters. The section of end span which is cast on falsework or built by over-cantilevering is always of a constant depth (the same depth as the crown). certain structures have been built with a cubic-type variation in deck depth.

which often leads to the adoption of a deeper deck than is necessary. etc.4 – Partly constant and partly variable depth Designers often design structures with spans of very different lengths in response to the constraints imposed by the gap to be crossed. These are also used in earthquake zones. along with the field of application for each of these solutions.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide more pronounced near the piers.3 - Support conditions We shall now describe the support conditions on piers possible for a bridge deck built using the cantilever method (simple supports. compatible with very large vertical loads and compact.7). when the vertical forces are less than 7 MN per bearing. In such cases. 2. fixed support. Although it is quite easy to implement. 2. as they improve the distribution of horizontal forces between the supports. the depth of the large spans at the crown must be equal to the depth of the deck in the areas of constant depth. 2. 2. They are also available in several types – fixed models.8 – Bridge deck on simple bearings In most cases. models that slide one way and those that slide in multiple directions – thus absorbing the movements of the bridge deck at the end supports. for transition purposes. with the remainder of the spans being of a constant depth (Fig. Fig. These are particularly suitable for bridges built by the cantilever method as they are extremely robust. elastomeric pot bearing devices are used for the permanent bearings. it is also important to ensure that the sideways thrust due to the compression of the lower slab is correctly accounted for. in order to take up the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab. Clearly. It is sometimes adopted for architectural reasons or to create a slightly greater clearance than that which is given by a parabolic intrados. It requires the presence of a cross beam at the level of the change in gradient.7 – Linearly variable depth 2.2. it is possible to give the deck a variable depth in the large spans and a constant depth elsewhere (see the example in Figure 2.2.2. Certain structures have also been designed featuring a linear variation in depth over 20 to 25% of the length of the main span. this solution is only used for modest spans.1 – Bridge deck on simple bearings The majority of bridges built by the cantilever method rest on simple bearings when in service. whereas during construction.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 25 septembre 2007 .3).2. it is possible to use laminated rubber bearings. However. 2. they are embedded on piers using the cantilever stabilizing devices described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6.). Fig.

10). This technique offers the benefit of simplifying the bridge’s construction and service since no provisional cantilever stabilizing devices or bearings are used.3.3 – Bridge decks that are partly embedded and partly supported on simple bearings Many structures have to bridge gaps with significant variations in depth. the deck usually rests on simple bearings on all of the piers.3. 2. 2.9 – Bridge deck embedded on two hollow piers In certain cases.2 – Bridge deck embedded on piers via reinforced concrete joints When the piers are very tall.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. the piers consist of two separate shafts with a gap of several metres. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 26 septembre 2007 . this can prove to be an excellent solution in earthquake areas as it gives the structure a high level of longitudinal flexibility. because each shaft only offers a low level of resistance to flexion. In general. shrinkage and creep. If the piers are short and solid. rather than being hollow. it is often advisable to embed the deck on top of the tallest piers and use simple bearings for the other piers. and thus with identical cantilevers. their great rigidity causes moments and shear forces which they are not usually capable of withstanding.2. and in the Rodez and La Rivière Saint-Denis viaducts in which the piers are made from two thin walls [BOU 91] and [BOU 92]. Therefore. this is only a viable solution for very tall structures on slender piers. This solution was first used by Campenon Bernard in 1963 for the bridge over the Moulin à Poudre valley in Brest. 2. However. penetrating into the box girder (Fig. Fig. When the gap is crossed by a series of identical standard spans. This technique was adopted for the viaduct over the River Viaur at Tanus [SER 98] and for the Pays de Tulle viaduct [LAC 02] over the A89 highway. When the gap is bridged by a structure featuring spans of different lengths. the piers and central span form a frame which is sensitive to the linear deformations of the deck under the effects of temperature.9).2. This requires piers of very different heights. both consisting of a box girder. 2. The Pont de Choisy-le-Roi over the River Seine was built according to this principle. it is often preferable to embed the bridge deck on top of the pier (Fig. This solution makes it possible to keep the structure very repetitive and therefore easy to construct. The fixing in this situation is almost perfect as it uses the compressive and tensile stresses present in each of the shafts while remaining flexible with regard to horizontal movements. It was recently used for the construction of several structures such as the Tulle viaduct in which the upper part of the main piers is made from double shafts.

Therefore. This created a elastic fixed support for the deck on the pier.2. On this viaduct. Another good example of this technique is provided by the Nantua viaduct. The bridge connecting the French island of Oléron to the mainland and the Blois bridge over the River Loire were built according to this principle. for example. 2. we would like to mention that a third solution was used in the past and consisted of fitting two rows of laminated rubber bearings on top of each pier.4 - Specific problems 2.3. this method can be used to extend one span in relation to the others. Fig. As this span was designed to be supported in the neighboring Chamoise tunnel. Indeed.2 – Building out from a small cast-on-falsework end span A gap to be bridged sometimes features a very long and distinct central area (a river or a ravine etc. 2. 2. the engineers made this span as short as possible by giving it a very massive and thus very heavy cross-section.10 – Bridge deck embedded on two piers which are both made from two parallel walls This technique seriously complicates the cantilever cable layout for the segments forming the extended cantilever. due to the bulkiness of the bearing devices. which was able to compensate for the imbalances.4. or in a cross beam on top of the pier. In these situations. with the other side being already joined to the adjacent cantilever or to a cast-on-falsework section (Fig. they must be housed either inside anchor blocks within the box girder.2.4 – Bridge deck embedded on two rows of bearings on piers (for information) In the interests of thoroughness. If this approach produces end spans which are located very close to ground level. The bridge over the River Est on Reunion Island is a good illustration of this method. the designer may decide to design a normal structure with piers either side of the central area and end spans equal to 60 % of the length of the central span. with a deep cross-section to act as a counterweight. very wide pier heads were required and these were considered to be visually unattractive. thus complicating the formwork operations.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. as the rear anchorages of these tendons cannot be placed on the edge of the segments. it was impossible to build the far end of one of the end spans on falsework.11). The central span would therefore be entirely constructed by over-cantilevering out from these two spans (Fig 2. Over-cantilevering out from the adjacent pier was also difficult given the length of this section. This technique must therefore be used sparingly: when using a form traveler to build the section of an end span which would usually be cast on falsework in a very steep-sided valley.2. 2.12). This solution is no longer in use today because.4.) in which it is impossible to erect any piers. which significantly lengthens these tendons. it might be worth opting for two short end spans which are cast on falsework. so the engineers decided to use the over-cantilevering technique from a small additional span built on falsework and situated on the adjacent slope. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 27 septembre 2007 .2. therefore being useless.1 – Over-cantilevering The over-cantilevering technique consists of extending the length of one side of a cantilever by one or more segments.

with numerous cables anchored in the cross beams on abutments or in the interior anchor blocks. this closely resembles traditional cantilever cabling. For the large span. Therefore. 2.Hinges Historically speaking. this is a highly complex solution. at least 55% of the length of the adjacent span. 2. However.14) and to make the walls or posts of the abutments work in traction. For very short spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This technique requires the development of a specific cabling arrangement. In this situation.12 – Cantilever construction out from counterweight spans 2.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 28 septembre 2007 . Therefore. Fig.2.15). which can lead to significant problems during the changing of bearings and it should only be adopted when all of the very severe installation constraints have been taken into consideration.4 . the box girder can be filled with concrete poured during the second phase through hatches built into the upper slab. 2.e. The advantage of this solution was to create an isostatic structure in its permanent phase. the weight of the segment on the abutment and the end cross beam in which the external tendons are anchored is not enough to counteract the support uplift under the effect of a rare load applied in the central span. It is also possible to increase the thickness of the cross-section of the cast-on-falsework section of this span (Fig. it is essential to ensure that the forces are properly transmitted from the bottom for the counterweight box to its vertical walls and up to the cantilever tendons which are anchored there. To prevent this phenomenon. 2. when the support reactions on the abutments are still negative. Fig.11 – The over-cantilevering construction technique It should be noted that large forces are transmitted to the counterweight. the first structures to be built using the cantilever method incorporated a crown hinge (Fig. there were no barriers to stand in the way of deformations due to concrete shrinkage or creep or temperature variations.4.13). which would eventually lead to the failure of the expansion joint. 2.4. as is the case for the Ottmarsheim and Beaumont-sur-Oise viaducts.3 – Counterweights on abutments It is sometimes impossible to design sufficiently long end spans. i. 2. but in the counterweight spans it is very different. it is possible to reverse the direction in which the bearings operate (Fig. and there were no parasitic stresses.

In all circumstances. hinges are hardly ever used on modern bridges.g. the hinges have a limited life span and there is a risk of seizure or blockage. consisting of two metal beams parallel to the webs of the box girder. but a sudden change in level remained and this became more pronounced over time under the effect of delayed deformations due to creep. The differential height difference between the ends of two adjacent cantilevers could be compensated for by applying a vertical force.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. Fig. 2. This solution also requires the presence of a expansion joint which is expensive to maintain.5 – Use of lightweight concrete (for information) In the 1980s.15 – Old structures with crown hinges In this interests of thoroughness. As they are sources of major pathologies on these first structures to be built using the cantilever method. the Cheviré bridge in Nantes. several large span structures were partially built from lightweight concrete as this reduced the selfweight of the bridge deck box girder. or the Île de Ré bridge etc.14 – Counterweighted end span with inverted bearing Fig. They are only found on a few very long structures (e. they are no longer situated at the crowns of the spans. Furthermore. 2. we should also mention the devices used on the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway [UAC 98]. it was difficult to adjust the hinges due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the deformations affecting the cantilevers during construction. 2. make it possible to fit expansion joints in the deck while transmitting shear forces and bending moments. These devices.13 – End span with counterweight Fig.4. 2.) to allow for expansion and/or to reduce the risk of damage to the structure in event of impacts from heavy ships.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 29 septembre 2007 .

3 - Monocellular box girders with ribs or struts For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m or more.). etc. the most common solution consists of a box girder with two webs. featuring two solid slabs. These cross-sections also feature a lower slab which lowers the centre of gravity and allows for efficient cabling on the pier. On the other hand. they are often transversally prestressed using low-strength tendons.16 – Example of a simple monocellular box girder 2. featuring a ribbed upper slab and a solid lower slab (Fig. the most economical solution is almost always a box girder with two webs.Choosing a cross-section 2. One rib is used per standard segment.) this technique has virtually disappeared in France. as mentioned in Chapter 1. In the narrowest structures. these ribs are made from reinforced concrete and they are of constant depth between the webs. etc. There are several types of box girders. Upper slabs are made from reinforced concrete for widths of up to 15 or 16 m. the ribs have a more elaborate geometry and are prestressed using medium-strength tendons (12T15 or 19T15). the two largest bridges in the world built by the cantilever method feature lightweight concrete sections in their central span.00 metre segment. prestressed concrete box girders with lightweight metallic webs. parabolic. as construction by the cantilever method produces very large negative moments. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Faced with stiff competition from other solutions (composite box girders. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 30 septembre 2007 . 2.e. When the decks are very wide. one every 3 to 4 m. 2. For example.2 - Simple monocellular box girders For deck widths of less than 20 m. i. there may be three or four waxed or lubricated T 15 single strands per metre or four 4T15S tendons per 3. 2.3. We shall now describe them and specify their fields of application.3.3.17). For longer widths. 2.50 to 4. This type of box girder is compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant.3 . This is one of the reasons why designers opt for box girders.1 Background information The large overhangs created in the construction phase require the use of a cross section with a high resistance to torsion. This is of paramount importance.

they are somewhat more difficult to construct than a box girder featuring an upper slab with ribs.19). As in the previous example. The struts may also be replaced by two acutely angled lateral concrete walls (Fig. These structures are aesthetically very pleasing. Recesses in the ribs are therefore created close to the piers or shorter ribs are used. it is therefore advisable to verify the resulting weight gain in comparison to a prestressed slab that is thicker but of constant depth. The webs are usually vertical and the steel or reinforced concrete struts are aligned under the cantilevers [GIL 96]. Indeed. although this is often prestressed (Fig. thus allowing the tendons to pass freely. Furthermore. the external tendons must not strike the ribs near the cross beam on the pier. 2. 2.18 – Example of a wide box girder with struts The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 31 septembre 2007 . Because of this. For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m. Before choosing a design for the transverse ribbing. they are restricted in application to structures of a constant depth.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The presence of ribs complicates the formwork for the deck and thus the construction of the segments.18).17 – Example of a wide box girder with slab featuring prestressed rib stiffeners Fig. if the depth of the box girder varies. 2. which is extremely difficult and costly to carry out. the axes of the struts or the lateral walls must be distorted. it is also possible to design decks featuring a slab of constant longitudinal thickness without ribs. However. Furthermore. Fig. 2. their use is restricted to structures with a maximum span of 80 to 90 m. this form of box girder is compatible with all of the height variation laws.

it has recently been used on several occasions. In France.3. parabolic. In France. 2. it is also possible to design a bridge deck consisting of two box girders connected by their internal cantilevers (Fig. Furthermore. in the case of structures with skew lines of support or those featuring shifted piers for each box girder. in other countries. It also remains widely used in Asia.19 – Example of a wide box girder with thin lateral walls 2. 2. 2. etc. the installation of the transverse prestressing is highly complex.4 - Double-cell box girders For large widths.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.20). due to the difficulty of guaranteeing the even distribution of forces between the webs. 2. more aesthetically pleasing structures with struts or transverse ribs are often preferred Certain structures of this type have been affected by major pathologies. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 32 septembre 2007 . double-cell box girders are compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant. Nevertheless. Indeed: • • • They are difficult and costly to build because two formwork cores must be used For the same cost.21). Like the simple monocellular box girders. It should be mentioned that this type of structure is particularly suitable for the construction of wide prefabricated bridge decks. linear. However.). and the viaducts for the second crossing of Severn estuary in England [COM 96]. including for the access viaducts built from prefabricated segments for the new bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. these structures are now very rarely used. it is possible to design box girders with three webs (Fig. as this involves the construction of two narrow decks side by side which are then fixed together transversally.5 - Monocellular box girders with three webs (for information) For widths of between 15 and 20 m. controlling the creep-induced deformations in each of the box girders made from concrete of different ages remains a major problem during the construction of these structures. this solution is now rarely used on very wide structures.

prefabricated prestressed bridge decks. The Corniche viaduct in Dôle. These viaducts feature two independent.21 – Older solution consisting of a box girder with three webs These box girders are still constructed overseas and particularly in South-East Asia. 2. 2. western companies have exported their equipment to these countries.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. also features a bridge deck with ultra-lightweight webs. in the Jura region of France. different in height. where labour is cheaper. as for the Bubiyan bridge in Kuwait.3. First. which on this occasion are made from metal tubes [MEU 98]. we shall mention the Sylans and Glacières viaducts. the Boulonnais viaducts also feature bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments with truss webs. Furthermore.6 - Special transverse structures A number of structures featuring highly original and innovative bridge decks were constructed in France during the 1990s. Built in the 1990s to support the Al6 highway. but these are made from corrugated metal sheets [REI 94]. 2. constructed for the A40 highway near Nantua at the end of the 1980s. The fourth bridge with corrugated metal webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 33 septembre 2007 .20 – Example of a bridge deck consisting of two box girders joined together transversally Fig. in which the conventional full webs are replaced by an ultra-lightweight concrete truss.

2 - Preamble concerning cabling A detailed description of the longitudinal cabling used on bridges built using the cantilever method is given in Chapter 3. The Vecchio viaduct.1 Background information In the following section. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 34 septembre 2007 . 2. the Dôle viaduct was the first French bridge of this type to be built using the cantilever method. we shall examine the design of the different elements that make up a standard monocellular box girder. which is dedicated to longitudinal bending and primary cabling. built in Corsica at the end of the 1990s.4. 2.Pre-design of a simple cross-section 2. consisting of two parallel concrete slabs connected by triangular concrete elements acting as webs [PAU 00]. also has a highly original bridge deck. At this stage of the guide. it is essential to provide some basic information about these tendons. 2. Charolles and the Parc Astérix. The figure below specifies the notations used: Fig.23 – Tendons used on standard bridges 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to be built in France after the structures in Cognac. after a brief preamble on the subject of cabling.4.4 . however.22 – Notations used Fig.

the webs are often situated at a quarter of the width of the box girder (C ≈ B / 4). both during construction and when the bridge is in service. with a minimum of 20 cm. we could use 1/7 to 1/8 of the width of the cantilever for e2. the thickness e2 depends on the superstructures and the functional cross section. the thermal gradient and delayed concrete deformations. the mean thickness of the slab for a simple box girder amounts to between 22 and 26 cm. Its thickness at mid-span e4 is equal to D/25 or D/30. They are situated in the lower gussets of the box girder close to the webs and are anchored in anchor blocks. 2.10 meters +D/25 (with D representing the centre distance between the webs expressed in meters). measured from the start of the gusset. External continuity tendons complement the internal prestressing. of course. we also verify that: e3 > e2 – 0. Their anchorages are often situated on the edge of the segments at the nodes between the webs and the upper slab. The transverse prestressing makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of e2.4. It is important to pay particular attention to ensuring that the transverse tendons are properly covered and that they are correctly anchored at the ends of the slab. They are anchored in massive cross beams on piers or abutments and are deflected via concrete beams called deviators.3 - Upper slab In a simple box girder. Cantilever tendons take up the negative moments. and 10 cm for a much smaller centre distance. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 35 septembre 2007 . In general. The thickness of the upper slab at the end e1 depends on the retaining system used (see the Sétra technical guide for security barriers). e3 and e4 by approximately 10% if there is sufficient space to house the cantilever tendons. or even D/35 for very wide transversally prestressed box girders. Their thickness varies between 22 cm for a normal centre distance of 3 m to 3. outside the standard section. In the end spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The cabling on standard modern structures consists of three types of tendons: cantilever tendons. they must also take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework sections. As an initial estimate for a reinforced concrete slab. It also depends upon the construction method used for the segments (cast-in-situ or prefabricated). the value e3 can be estimated at 0. not including the gussets used for connecting to the webs of the box girder. are thinner.50 m between ribs. At the fixed support point. They are housed in the upper gussets. taking take up the operating loads and the weight of superstructures. as the effectiveness of these operations can also determine the thickness of the end of the slab. internal continuity tendons. This value can be reduced for prestressed concrete.5 e4 In light of the preceding information. Ribbed slabs. They are situated between the webs and slabs. Internal continuity tendons are designed to take up the positive moments that occur during construction due to site loads. The upper slab is solid and its thickness varies transversally in order to adapt to the transverse forces encountered. and external continuity tendons.10 m and e3 > 1. It is a minimum of: – 16 to 18 cm for a pedestrian parapet – 23 cm for a normal BN1 barrier – 24 cm for a normal BN4 barrier. At the anchorage of the cantilever.

Minimal thickness of webs in special situations It is sometimes desirable to pass the cantilever tendons down through the webs in order to increase the reduction in shear forces brought about by the prestressing. For spans in excess of approximately 100 meters and in certain projects in which performance is maximized. of course) in order to facilitate the construction. there is virtually no reduction of the shear force. Longitudinally. the webs are sometimes thickened in proximity to the upper deck as the shear forces are greatest in this area. with Ea and L in meters. Also. as the external tendons have not yet been tightened.25 x B/L – 0.24 – Thickness of webs It can also be added that shear force strength requires the conservation of an effective web thickness of Ea equal to 0. we could state that D = 18 cm for 12T13 tendons and D = 20 cm for 12T15 cables) – a > 3∅g with ∅g = 7 cm for 12T13 tendons and ∅g = 8 cm for 12T15 tendons. the webs are almost always the same thickness throughout their entire height. the webs are normally of constant thickness for bridges of variable depth and of variable thickness for decks of constant depth. The angle typically adopted varies between 10 and 30%.4. In this case. 2. the cantilever tendons are anchored in the upper gusset or in a high-level anchor block. Minimal thickness of webs in standard situations Usually.125: a relation in which L is the main span and B is the width of the upper slab (with Ea. (As an initial estimate. during the construction phase. with V = 7 cm minimum (concreting and vibration chute) – a > 2D with D being the cover thickness of the anchor plates given by the regulations for prestressing systems according to the strength of the concrete. This formula (somewhat less favorable than the previous formula for The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 36 septembre 2007 .4. in which the fixing of a single pair of tendons per segment is not sufficient. Vertically. a sudden variation is built in (by benching and from the inside.26 + L/500.4. while benefiting from the significant reduction in shear forces brought about by the raising of the external tendons.1 – Background information Box girder webs are usually angled because this arrangement facilitates the removal of formwork and reduces the width of the pier heads. the thickness of the webs must also conform to a certain number of conditions concerning the proper concreting and anchoring of the tendons on the edge of the segments: – a > 2(e + 2d + V) + ∅g. Fig. This becomes compulsory for very wide structures with large spans. However. L and B expressed in meters). The total thickness Ea of the two webs can be estimated at Ea = L/275 + l. its thickness can be reduced to the strict minimum needed to resist shear forces when the bridge is in service. the external cladding of the webs is often of better quality when they are angled. When thickening is required near the piers.4 - Thickness of the webs 2. In this case.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. as the web is not breached by the tendons.

4. Ec ≥ 2 ∅ + d + e avec Ec ≥ 18à 22 cm Fig. This thickness must be increased for wider decks. the thickness of the lower slabs remains constant and is equal to that of the crown. It is advisable to adopt a safety margin for the maximum stress level in order to limit the redistributions due to creep. varies between 35 and 80 cm or even more. the lower slab must also be transversally resistant to sideways thrust due to the combined effects of the compression of this slab and its curvature. 2. it is advisable to adjust the minimal thickness of the slab Ec in order to ensure that the upper layer of its transverse reinforcements do not come into contact with the ducts of prestressing in the gussets. In the cast-on-falsework sections. transverse bending predominates and thickness tends to be in the region of 25 cm. the lower slab must be as thin as possible (18 to 22 cm) in order to limit the selfweight of the box girder. so that the box girder can be considered to be impervious to transversal deformations. For structures which vary in depth parabolically or cubically. This value.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide short spans and relatively narrow box girders). For wide structures. The latter variation law is used to maintain the minimum thickness of the slab over a large length and to save weight. and for deck widths of less than 15 m. It is also recommended that this thickness should not be less than one third of the thickness of the webs.25 – Detail of the lower slab Maximum thickness The thickness of the lower slab on the pier Ep is determined by the limitation of compression in the bottom fiber when the bridge is in service.6 - Design of the upper gussets The upper gussets must fulfil several functions which generally influence their dimensions: • • • They thicken the slabs in areas subject to significant transverse forces Their funnel shape facilitates the concreting of the webs They house the cantilever tendons and ensure that their cover thickness The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 37 septembre 2007 . parabolic or of the fourth degree. continuity tendons are housed in the lower gussets of the box girders and the cover thickness requirement specified above no longer applies to the slab. As the power of the tendons increased. Stepped variations in thickness.4. 2. Minimum thickness In the central section of the spans. Today. The thickness variation laws according to the horizontal axis are either linear.5 - Thickness of the lower slab The thickness of the lower slab is minimal at the crown and maximal at the pier. this system finally resulted in cracking due to the distribution of the prestressing force to the area around the anchorages. In structures of an older design. also known as “on demand” variations. which is largely dependent on the span and widths of the slabs. this slab used to house continuity tendons which had to be protected against corrosion by a layer of concrete equal to at least half of the diameter of the duct. gives good results for spans of between 70 and 170 m. are sometimes used. However. 2.

presenting an angle of between 30 and 45° to facilitate casting. situated at the junction between the webs and the lower slab (Fig. the lower gussets must also house the internal continuity tendons (Fig. the gussets are empirically designed and accounted for in the rough calculations and are only precisely established after the cantilever tendons and transverse reinforcements have been accurately calculated. it should be noted that the internal shape of the gussets is always rectilinear. as this system allows the tendons to be tightened a few hours after the segments have been cast. the internal continuity tendons are anchored in the protruding anchor blocks. In cast-in-situ structures. As we have previously mentioned. These blocks must therefore be situated in the webs/slab nodes and they may also influence the dimensions of the upper gussets. On the other hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • They allow for the deflection of the cantilever tendons prior to their anchorages They thicken the nodes of the webs/upper slab. They are constructed at the same time as the rest of the segment. 2. 2.27 – Detail of the lower gussets The lower gussets are normally boxed in by the lower part of the central core of the formwork for the segment. 2. Fig. 2. These anchor blocks are generally a little shorter than the standard segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 38 septembre 2007 . In conclusion. When the lower slab is wide. allowing them to absorb the forces due to the distribution of the cantilever tendons which are now almost always anchored at these nodes.4. α Fig. their external form is often circular for purely aesthetic reasons. the angle of the gussets can drop as low as 15 or even 10° from the horizontal in order to improve the take-up of transverse bending forces. In these situations. prefabricated concrete blocks incorporating the anchorages for cantilever tendons are still sometimes used.27).28).7 - Design of the lower gussets In addition to their mechanical role in which they act as a transition between the webs and the lower slab. They are angled at a slope of 40 to 45° in order to facilitate the flow of the concrete and prevent the formation of accumulations of pebbles or concreting defects. the gussets are not cast in formwork but simply smoothed over during the concreting process.26 – Detail of the upper gussets In light of the preceding points. 2.

2.3.3. • • • • During the construction phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by the the shear force and torsion of the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the temporary bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the temporary bearings and piers By taking up the forces caused by the cantilever stabilizing systems and transmitting them to the temporary bearings.8 - Cross beams and deviators Bridges built using the cantilever method incorporate major cross beams directly above the piers and abutments. 2. 2.30).29).Breakdown into segments 2.4).5.1 Background information We have already seen that the longitudinal geometry of the structure is dictated entirely by its mode of construction.1 and 4.2.28 – Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons 2.3) By taking up the local loads on the upper slab between the webs By providing anchorages for the external prestressing tendons distributing their forces By transmitting the vertical component of the external prestress tendons that are deviated inside the segments on piers to the bearings and piers (see 4. These usually consist of a lower rectangular beam capped by two thin trapezoid walls.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 39 septembre 2007 .2. 2. Cross beams on piers play a particularly important role: In the operating phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by shear force and torsion in the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the bearings and piers (see 4. • • Concrete deviators situated in the different spans are used to deflect the external prestressing tendons (Fig. This also influences its breakdown into segments (Fig.2.4.5 .

it should be noted that the breakdown into segments may also be conditioned or influenced by the need to have a uniform distribution of: • • The bridge deck’s transverse ribs or struts. For cast-in-situ segments.50 m and 4 or even 5 m according to the structures. in order to optimize the construction cycles. prefabricated segments must be moved using special equipment which obviously has a limited capacity. Indeed. but vertical joints may also be used. However. The main aim when determining the length of prefabricated segments is to reduce their weight. In certain specific situations. we shall see how the lengths of different types of segments are determined.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the following section. Fig.00 m close to the piers to 5. if applicable Cornice elements with architectural design features that must be evenly matched to the BN4 posts. and thus to the longitudinal section.30 – Breakdown into segments 2.25 m).2 - Standard segments Standard segments are of a constant length which varies between 2. 2. it should be noted that the shorter the segments. the segments for the new bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg vary in length from 3.29 – Deflection of the external tendons Fig.5. the length was constant and equal to 3. For example. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 40 septembre 2007 . The edges of the segments are usually perpendicular to the structure’s extrados. 2. This optimization policy can sometimes lead to the construction of segments of different lengths for the same half-cantilever. the harder it is to conform to the geometry of the cantilever. as we shall see in Chapter 6.00 m in mid-span (at the design stage. the most important selection criteria are the casting time and minimizing the number of construction cycles and thus the number of segments.

not exceeding 15 to 20 cm in length. The SOPs are therefore divided into two or three sections to be assembled by prestressing. Thus. the closing segments must not be so short that it becomes difficult to dismantle the internal formwork from the form traveler.Main ratios The statistics for standard structures give the following ratios: • • Equivalent thickness: e = 0. in order to use form travelers built for a previous site or to reduce the number of segments and optimize the construction cycles. The length of the closing segments must also facilitate the overlapping of longitudinal reinforcements and the tightening of the last segments cantilever tendons. temporary lashing provides the only form of prestressing before the jointing takes place. Its shortness makes it impossible to tighten the cantilever tendons usually attached to the last standard segments. usually made from wood. For prefabricated structures. and longer segments of 3 to 4 m can be used for narrow or short-span structures. This closure is thus reduced to its simplest form. Regardless of the method adopted. which can be broken down into components small enough to be removed via a manhole. their minimum length is approximately two meters. it must be twice as long as the standard segments plus an additional length of 50 centimeters to one meter. For cast-in-situ structures.3 - Segments on piers For cast-in-situ structures. As we have already established. Therefore. Furthermore. To support the installation of the pair of form travelers on the segment on pier. For economic reasons.5. Therefore.5. in order to ensure that it is capable of supporting two form travelers during the construction of the first pair of segments. In this case. the dimensions of the segment on pier are often incompatible with the capacity of the equipment used for transporting and installing the segments.4 - Closing segments The length of the closing segments varies considerably according to the technique used. its formwork must be designed to resist the significant thrusts exerted by the fresh concrete.4 + 0. For cast-in-situ structures with a small number of piers. the length of segments calculated in this way in the preliminary design may be modified during the construction surveys. The cantilever is highly unbalanced before the installation of the second form traveler. the closing of segments on prefabricated structures is carried out using the simplest possible system. The closing segments require specific formwork. The segment on pier represents a very large volume of concrete which can very rarely be constructed in a single phase. the second segment of the first pair is constructed after the first form traveler has been moved. segments of 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the preliminary design stage. but this is permissible given the small moment arms at this stage of the construction. it may be beneficial to reduce the length of the SOP. the segment on pier (SOP) generally measures at least 8 m. 2. A joint of this length is made from non-reinforced concrete. it is common to calculate the length of the segments in such a way as to ensure that there is the same number of standard segments as there are pairs of cantilever tendons determined by the calculations.6 . But this is only one option and it is often necessary to anchor two pairs of tendons per segment for very wide structures featuring large spans. 2.5 to 3m are designed for very wide structures or bridges featuring large spans. 2. However.0035 L (L being the length of the principal span of the structure in meters and e in meters) Page 41 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . it can be considered that smaller cross sections have longer segments. the closing segments are slightly shorter in length than the standard segments because one of the form travelers is generally used for their construction.

because they often have a lower equivalent thickness than cast-in-situ structures and because reinforcements for temporary lashing and hoisting equipment must be added.). on the conditions imposed for the cumulation of distribution. (*) For non-prestressed reinforcement bars. etc. the ratio is strongly dependent on the type and thickness of the upper slab (thick slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Longitudinal prestressing: 40 to 50 Kg/m3 Transverse prestressing: 5 to 7 Kg/m² of deck Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: – Without transverse prestressing: 130 to 170 Kg/m3 (*) – With transverse prestressing: 110 to 130 Kg/m3 (*) The ratio of non-prestressed reinforcement bars is generally somewhat higher for prefabricated structures. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 42 septembre 2007 . ribbed slab. shear and bending reinforcements and on the accepted value for the elastic limit of the reinforcement bars in the calculations (400 ou 500 MPa).

3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 43 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3 . all of the pre-stressing on structures built using the cantilever method was situated inside the concrete.e featuring tendons both inside and outside the concrete.1 . the following sequence of operations applies to the stressing of these different tendons: • Tensioning of the cantilever tendons inside the concrete for assembly of the standard segments (Fig.1) Fig. For a structure with three spans. 3.Design and verification of longitudinal cabling This chapter covers the design and calculation-based verification of the longitudinal cabling for prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method. Today. 3.Cabling principles The layout of the prestress tendons depends on the construction method used and on successive developments. Please note that the verification of tangential stress is covered in Chapter 4. mixed prestressing technology.2 – Internal continuity tendons on the end spans • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete at the crown of the main span in order to make the structure continuous (Fig. 3. As mentioned in the previous chapter.1 – Cantilever tendons • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete to secure the cast-on-falsework sections of the end spans to the two cantilevers (Fig. 3.2) Fig. 3. is used on a virtually automatic basis in France. 3. different types of cables are used: • • Cantilever tendons: used for the assembly of consecutive segments Continuity tendons: designed to take up the forces resulting from all of the additional structures added to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. i. Until the mid-1980s.

stretching across one or two spans. Fig.1 – Principle of cantilever tendons on older structures (for information) In older designs. The main advantage of this arrangement was to reduce the shear force due to the angle of the tendons. which was particularly favourable in proximity to the piers.1. 3.1.1 - Cantilever prestressing Cantilever tendons are designed: • For the assembly of consecutive segments and to take up negative moments due to the selfweight of the cantilevers and site loads during the construction phase To help take up negative moments due to dead loads and imposed loads.4 – Externall continuity tendons on the end spans 3. they are positioned inside the concrete in order to obtain the maximum effect. In virtually all cases. along with the external continuity tendons when the bridge is in service.3 – Internal continuity tendons on the central spans • Stressing of the continuity tendons outside the concrete. which results in signicativ losses due to friction. 3-4). this layout also had its disadvantages: • • • The presence of tendons in the webs creates an obstacle during casting The bulkiness of the anchoring plates requires a large minimum web thickness (normally around 45 cm) In accordance with the french design regulations.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 3. the thickness of a web must be reduced by the thickness of a half to one cable duct for the calculation of shearing stresses. However. depending on the design rules used Cantilever tendons undergo significant angular deflections. in order to take up any additional loads (Fig. these tendons were almost always deviated vertically at their extremities and their anchorages were positioned inside the webs. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 44 septembre 2007 . • These tendons are situated at the area of the upper axis of the bridge deck in order to act efficiently against negative moments.1. 3.

1. For upper slabs of common widths (10 to 12 m). it may be necessary to anchor two cables per web and per segment.2 – Principle of cantilever tendons on modern structures In conventional modern designs. § 3. 3.5).3. In order to guarantee the correct assembly of the duct elements.1.1. 3-6). Indeed. it is no longer necessary to drop the tendons down into the webs at their extremities. For wider upper slabs. which simplifies their installation (Fig. The drawbacks of the old cantilever tendons systems are thus avoided. 3.5 – Conventional cantilever tendons The tendons must have a rectilinear alignment when they pass through the joints. Because of this. Whenever possible. one tendon is anchored per web and per segment. the alignment of the cables in the passage through the joints is usually perpendicular to the formwork surface of the facing. shear force is reduced by placing the continuity tendons on the outside of the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. Comb layout The "comb" cable layout aligns tendons automatically.1.1). Fig. the vertical deflections are dissociated from the horizontal deflections (Fig. such a layout: • Always uses the same points of passage through the joints so that a single facing can be used The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 45 septembre 2007 . it is possible to create a recess in the gusset gussetcorresponding to the size of the anchorages for the additional prestress tendons (cf. Likewise. the dimensions of the upper gusset gussets are directly related to the number and sizes of the tendon anchor plates and to the position of the cantilever tendon ducts.1.3 – Alignment of cantilever tendons on modern structures Standard alignment Cantilever tendons undergo vertical and horizontal deflections in the upper node. and they can be anchored directly in the upper nodes. 3. Therefore.

1. In this case. Furthermore. the optimum number of tendons specified for the end of each segment is two (one tendon per web). to prevent the systematic cutting of the vertical stirrups in proximity to the tendon anchors. only the first tendons are anchored in line with the web: the following ones are anchored alternately on either side. If. Cabling of the final pair of segments During the construction of a cantilever. we can observe the stress relating to the presence of stitching tendons on the support.4 – Specific design points Number of cantilever tendons Two or four cables can be specified per segment. Fig. This arrangement makes it possible to standardize the reinforcements for the segments. we decide not to anchor the tendons in the webs and want to avoid increasing the size of the gusset gusset. This arrangement also makes it possible to attach two cables per web if necessary. experience shows that.London – September 1996). The cantilever tendons anchored in this final pair of segments are not tensioned in the design phase and are therefore not required for the construction of the cantilever. It is also apparent that the anchor plate is automatically angled on the axis of the web in one direction and then in the other. 3. because of the presence of the external continuity cables which span the entire length of the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 46 septembre 2007 . 3.1. It is also possible to position the anchor plates at the level of the gusset gussetand on the outside of the web reinforcements.6 – Comb cantilever tendon layout: plan view and detail of gussets On Figure above. The stresses relating to the recesses used for the attachment of the form travelers (cast-in-situ segments) and hoisting equipment (prefabricated segments) should also be mentioned. for the aforementioned reasons. Further information on “comb” cable layouts can be found in the article entitled "Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method” (FIP Symposium . the most unfavourable situation generally occurs during the casting of the final pair of segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Reduces the horizontal deflections and thus the losses by chafing Avoids having curved sections in line with joints Creates horizontal deflections throughout the exact length of the segment.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 47 septembre 2007 . As a result. in order to reduce the cast-on-falsework sections close to the abutments. or to build spans of different lengths. Fig. 3. These bars hold the segment temporarily in place while exerting a minimal pressure of approximately 0.2 MPa on the adhesive in the segment joint. 3. a proportion of the cantilever tendons may be situated outside of the concrete in order to reduce the size of the upper gusset gussets and thus the dead loads Angle of the tendons In order to reduce the shear stress in certain types of structures.7 – Lashing principle for prefabricated segments Cantilever tendons outside the concrete For very large structures (span > approximately 120 m). The cantilever is thus asymmetrical and the cantilever tendons anchored in these segments may be asymmetrical in relation to the pier. “Extended cantilever” segments As described in Chapter 2. and for structures of constant depth over 60 m in length. according to a design similar to the layouts used in older structures (Fig. Cabling for structures with prefabricated segments During the assembly process.7). This final pair then functions provisionally as reinforced concrete. 3. This arrangement is commonly used for bridges with prefabricated segments in which the shortness of the closing segment (20 to 30 cm) makes it impossible to tension these tendons. However. lashing bars must be used to hold prefabricated segments in place parallel to the extrados until the cantilever tendon is tensioned.8). The segments are generally anchored in a staggered pattern on the vertical ribs built into the inner face of the webs.8 – Cantilever tendons These provisions are used for structures of variable depth in which the aim is to reduce the depth on the pier. decks can be designed without the need to anchor cantilever tendons in the final pair of segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide structure. midway between the segment joints (Fig. there are more cantilever tendons than needed when the bridge is in service. it may be necessary to construct one or more segments known as “extended cantilever segments” at a one end of the bridge only. it is possible to drop a proportion of the cantilever cables down into the webs (generally those of the first segments). Fig. they must be anchored at a sufficient distance from the section on the pier in order to allow for the dispersion of the prestressing force within this section. 3.

9 – Internal continuity tendons on end spans Fig.9 and 3.Continuity prestressing In general. In older designs.2 .10 – Internal continuity tendons on standard spans Designed to resist positive moments.11).11 –Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons They are often offset in relation to the top of the lower deck in order to standardize their alignment in the anchor block.1 – Internal continuity cables Continuity tendons situated inside the concrete are strung across the central part of standard spans and inside the extremities of the end spans (Fig.1. these tendons were all located inside the concrete. i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. 3.1. The large number of tendons meant that they had to be distributed throughout the entire width of the lower slab. For continuity tendons which are situated completely inside the concrete. 3. 3.10). Fig.7 published in 1972. or raised in the webs and anchored inside recesses built into the extrados of the bridge deck. consisting of tendons situated both inside and outside the concrete.e. continuity prestressing is generally mixed. Fig. 3. continuity tendons are designed to take up all of the additional forces applied to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. Today. This paragraph only concerns the use of mixed cables.2. They were aligned in the lower slab at midspan and were attached to the anchor blocks protruding over the slab. which led to the development of major pathologies (see Chapter 8). 3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 48 septembre 2007 . 3. these cables are situated inside the lower gusset gussets and are attached to the anchor blocks situated at the intersection of the web and lower slab (Fig. the reader is advised to refer to SétraSétra Technical Bulletin No.

3 spans of 120 meters. the provisional cantilever joints are liable to create significant forces in the bridge deck and supports. In order to account for construction tolerances.2. they may be strung form one end of the deck to the other or overlapped across two or three consecutive spans. 3. they are therefore situated close to the lower slab in mid-span (?) and close to the upper slab on supports. For curvilinear structures. especially in order to stretch a tendon across two spans of over 100 m in length. For the end spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the minimum.1. 360 meters for 19T15 "super" tendons) have already been successfully tensioned. it is necessary to recenter the tendons using additional deviators. The deviators are generally situated between a third and a quarter of the way along the span (Fig. The tendons are deflected via the cross beams on piers and intermediate cross beams (deviators) on the spans. or even more. the internal continuity prestressing also has to take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework section. In this case. Considering the difficulties involved in the threading and grouting of curved tendons. in tandem with the cantilever cables. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 49 septembre 2007 .12 – External continuity tendons on standard span According to the length of the structure and the number of spans. due to the effect of temperature variations. Longer curved tendons (e. In a plan view. internal continuity prestressing is designed to be capable of taking up the shrinkage after grouting. especially if the latter are rigid. a distance of approximately 5cm must be allowed between the outside of the tendon ducts and the concrete of the segment slabs. they must be limited in length to approximately 200 m. a distance of approximately 5cm must also be allowed between the outside of the tendon sheaths and the concrete of the segment slabs and/or the anchor blocks.e. resultings in a polygonal alignment which is rectilinear per section. This value may be slightly exceeded. 3. The attention of designers is drawn to the fact that.g. Fig. This minimum distance will be also observed in relation to the top of the anchor blocks for the continuity tendons. they may be anchored in the deviator cross beams. 3. the external continuity cables are situated close to the webs. thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) and the reaction effects of the structure during the construction phases between the casting of the concrete fro the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. • In elevation.12).2 – External continuity cables External continuity cables are designed to take up: • Positive moments in the span due to dead loads (including shrinkage and the redistribution of forces due to creep) and imposed loads. To take account of construction tolerances. i. These tendons may also stretch from span to span. in tandem with the internal continuity cables Negative moments on the pier due to dead loads and operating loads.

inability to thread tendons. these empty sheaths are also recommended for internal continuity cables. Fig. In practice. 3. the external tendons play a major role in taking up the negative moments on the supports. These provisions must be designed to compensate for a prestressing deficiency of between 5 and 10 % of the probable prestressing force Pm for the category in question.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 50 septembre 2007 . This leads to a significant reduction in the number of cantilever tendons compared with older structures in which the cantilever tendons had to take up all of the negative moments. it is possible to: • • Avoid using the full capacity of the anchor plates. For example. for a symmetrical three-span structure.13 – Different types of tendons used for optimizing the external cabling on a three-span bridge In this example.1 – Additional prestressing Specific precautions must be taken at the design stage in order to overcome any deficiencies in the internal prestressing inside the concrete during the construction phase (excessive friction. Compulsory for cantilever tendons. there are often between three and five pairs of internal continuity tendons. thus making it possible to attach additional strands Build in empty ducts which could be used to insert one or more pairs of additional cables if necessary. either by making room in the gusset gusset for an anchor plate. The layout of these empty ducts must allow tensioning to be carried out at any time during construction. It is interesting to note that in a mixed cabling system. If there are no problems of shear force. 3. it is also possible to reduce the number of external tendons and to compensate for them in the central zones by using additional continuity tendons. as they are shorter. etc.13).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. 3.1. the following numbers of tendons are used: At the crown: 2 ne1 + ne2 = nc tendons On the pier: ne1 + ne2 = np tendons There must be a sufficient number of external tendons to prevent any structural deficiencies in the event of the breaking or removal of a tendon. which are more economical. the following design allows for a precise adjustment of the prestressing in each span using two types of tendons (Fig. However.1. or by positioning the duct in such a way as to allow the tendon to be anchored in an additional anchor block.3 - Miscellaneous construction provisions 3.). too many tendons could risk overloading the box girder and lead to maintenance problems. The last of these provisions does not apply to prefabricated segments. Unused empty ducts are injected at the end of the construction phase.

3. A geometrical conflict is also possible in transversally prestressed bridge decks between the transverse tendons on the one hand. the SétraSétra guide to external prestressing of February 1990 recommended the installation of intermediate tendon retention devices when the external part of the cable layout exceeds fifteen metres for a road structure and 10-12 meters for a railroad structure. it is important to accurately define the position of the transverse prestressing and then to The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 51 septembre 2007 .5 – Possible geometrical conflicts between longitudinal tendons and other tendons In the majority of bridges covered by this guide.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. allowing for the progressive replacement of all of the external continuity tendons. The general provisions for external prestressing. In order to prevent this type of conflict.3.1.3 – Recesses for additional external prestressing Anchorages for additional prestressing and recesses in the deviators must be designed at outset in order to facilitate any necessary repairs or strengthening of the structure.3. Acting as intermediate supports and helping to hold the ducts in place during their replacement. In practice. these devices must be rigid (Fig.3. 3. it must be possible to dismantle it without causing any damage to the structure apart from the possible destruction of the cable and its duct (cf.14). cantilevers are stabilized by vertical prestressing cables housed in the segments on piers. 3.2 – Replaceability of external prestressing It must be possible to replace the external prestressing. Circular of February 28 2001 “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton" [Design of prestressing on the outside of the concrete]). 3-15). Fig. and the cantilever and external continuity tendons on the other (Fig.1. As these tendons may conflict geometrically with the longitudinal prestressing.3. Experience acquired in this field has shown that free lengths of approximately 25 m are acceptable.1. The additional prestressing force must be equal to at least 20 % of the external continuity prestressing force determined during the construction of the bridge deck.14 – Anti-vibration devices for external tendons 3.4 – Anti-vibration systems for external prestressing In order to prevent the development of resonance in the external tendons and avoid the risk of whip action in the event of an accident. at least one sheath per web is provided.1. the products and materials used and their implementation are described in Chapter 7 of the supplement to the fascicule 65 A of the French CCTG (General Technical Clauses). More precisely. it is important to bear this in mind when determining the transversal positioning of the external and cantilever tendons.3.

tendons and grout used for the injection of the external prestressing.1 Background information For the majority of the verifications.5 t/m3. it is necessary to carry out a precise analysis of the construction phases and of the subsequent loading phases (consecutive concrete casting and stressing operations. in addition to the removal of formwork and the moving of form travelers. the unit mass of concrete is fixed at 2. 3.85 . Finally the selfweight of the bridge deck also depends on the weight of the ducts.2 - Selfweight of the bridge deck As the form travelers are built from rigid metal components.85 × 7. as recommended by the BPEL 91. However. Fig. it is also important to account for the elements which are added to the bridge deck such as anchor blocks.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide determine the location of the longitudinal tendons.2 . the unit mass of the concrete γt . diaphragms and deviators. revised in 1999 and notwithstanding the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979. measured for a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: γt = γb + ρ 7. it is advisable to place the transverse tendons in the first bed and the cantilever tendons in the second. 3. etc.Stress calculations 3. If high or low density aggregates are used.15 – Example of the crossing of transverse / cantilever tendons 3. adjustments. the selfweight can be represented by a single nominal value calculated using the design drawings. The calculation must take account of the successive phases in the loading of the structure. Therefore.). In general. Except under special circumstances.γb ( ) septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 52 . and of the bridge deck (prestressed and reinforced) is evaluated on the basis of the unit mass of the concrete alone γb.2. support transfers.2. the stresses are calculated using an elastic model for the bridge deck.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

In which ρ is the total ratio of non-prestressed and prestressed reinforcement bars in t/m3 (a value of p = 0.2 t/m3 is generally adopted).

Fig. 3.16 – Site loads to be considered for construction phase verifications

Standard concrete based on basaltic aggregates and high-performance concrete have higher densities (allow around 50 kg/m3 more for HPC).

3.2.3 -

Prestressing effects

For the verifications of longitudinal flexion, the prestressing can be represented by a single probable value Pm. For large structures, specific precautions are taken (empty ducts, measurement of transmission factors, etc.) to ensure that the probable prestressing value Pm is properly obtained. In this case, values of k = 0.02 and k’ = 0.95 should be used for the Service Limit State calculations, in accordance with Article 4.10.1 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999.

3.2.4 -

Random site loads

During the construction of the cantilevers, random site loads must be considered when calculating the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck (Fig. 3-16). These loads are: • • A distributed load QPRA1 of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever, in standard cases A concentrated load QPRA2 of 100 kN applied at the end of the cantilever, representing the weight of the cable rollers, compressors and other equipment likely to be used on the structure.

3.2.5 -

Delayed effects

Concrete shrinkage and creep in hyperstatic structures built according to flexible static plans gradually modifies the stresses and constraints that were initially calculated. It is difficult to give a quantitative evaluation of this redistribution. For this, a computerized calculation is required, which takes account of the construction phases and the laws of behavior of the different materials (including the scientific creep test for concrete). A calculation of this type will be performed at the design stage, in which certain construction phases may be grouped together. Two compulsory calculations must be performed in the framework of the construction surveys: • Firstly, an initial calculation of longitudinal flexion (A), is carried out according to the company’s provisional construction schedule, with coefficients of friction according to the type of prestressing used

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Secondly, after the complete construction of the bridge deck, and in order to determine the actual stress state of the structure in operation, a post-construction calculation (B) is performed according to the actual construction schedule, using the mean coefficient of friction measurements, and the actual mass of the segments for prefabricated structures.

Should significant changes be made to the work schedule, it is also necessary to perform a third calculation to take account of the rearranged work schedule. Any change of sequence of operations will be validated by a calculation. Finally, while awaiting the implementation of the Eurocodes, whose materials laws are considered to be more realistic, another calculation can also be performed in order to determine the reverse deflections during construction, using a creep law that is more realistic than that of the BPEL (quicker). Nevertheless, it is recommended to perform a creep test in order to make sure that the concrete creep law does not differ from the theoretical model of behaviour that was adopted.

3.2.6 -

Calculation programs

Several software programs have been designed by private or public engineering firms for bridge calculations including for structures built using the cantilever method. Sétra has developed two programs designed for these types of calculations amongst others: • • STl software ; The PCP (Ponts Construits par Phases [Bridges Built in Phases]) system.

These programs are used for calculating three-dimensional or flat structures made from bar components and are intended for the design of civil engineering structures. They can account for prestressing reinforcements, construction phases and imposed road loads. The calculations are performed according to the Strength of Materials theory applied to elastic beams, in which each segment is normally represented by a beam element. The calculation must closely follow all of the construction phases in order to consider the load application dates and the aging of the materials (shrinkage, creep and relaxation) between these different phases.

3.3 - Verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses
3.3.1 Preamble

Paragraph 3-3 describes the verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses due to normal force. These calculations must be performed at the Service Limit State and at the Ultimate Limit State, when the structure is under construction and in service. Verifications to be carried out with regard to shearing stresses are covered in Chapter 4.

3.3.2 -

Verification categories

Cast-in-situ structures are generally justified according to class II of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Considering the absence of longitudinal reinforcement bars passing through the joints, decks made from prefabricated segments are generally verified longitudinally according to class I of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Article 3.1.43 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 also describes the possibility of verifications being made

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in class II subject to the joints remaining fully compressed under Pm. In this case, in accordance with Article 6.1.32, the stressed zone must also be less than 5 cm in height. The choice of verification category must be clearly stated in the STC (Special Technical Clauses).

3.3.3 -

Verifications in the construction phase

In general, verifications must be carried out during all phases of construction. 3.3.3.1 – Verification of cantilever prestressing In addition to the verifications specific to the static balance which are covered in Chapter 5 of this guide, SLS (Service Limit State) verifications must be performed at all phases of the construction of the cantilever in order to verify the prestressing of the bridge deck. The loads to be used include the known site loads (form travelers etc.) and the random site loads defined in paragraph 3-2.4.F For structures verified in class II, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 can be applied and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can therefore be considered in the coating section. 3.3.3.2 – Verification of internal continuity prestressing The internal continuity prestressing inside the concrete is designed to take up shrinkage, creep and thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) during the construction phase between the casting of the concrete for the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. The uniform temperature variation can be considered to be equal to +/- 10° C. The positive thermal gradient can be considered to be equal to 8° C. A negative thermal gradient of 5° C must also be taken into account. In the case of structures with prefabricated segments, it is also important to consider the launch beam and the low-bed semi-trailer. For structures verified in class II and considering the very short site design phase, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999, can be applied, and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can be considered in the coating section.

3.3.4 -

Verifications at service limit state (SLS) in service

The verifications must be carried out: • • Upon commissioning After all of the delayed losses and redistributions have occurred (e.g. after 50,000 days, this period may be considered to be “infinite”, even if all of the losses and redistributions have not occurred according to the laws of the BPEL) With or without thermal gradient effects.

3.3.5 -

Verifications at ultimate limit state (ULS) in service

It is difficult to apply ULS coefficients to a structure built in phases. For the verification of longitudinal flexion in service, the following simplified method is proposed:

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Given that: • represents the empty states envelope (state upon commissioning, state after all losses) without weighting (this envelope was been used for SLS verifications) represents the state according to a new calculation performed by applying all of the dead loads at the same time (without prestressing) represents the effect of the imposed loads

The ULS combinations to be considered are: [ ] + [ 0.35 [ ] + [ 1.5 ] ] -I- [ 1.5 ]

With this method, the forces due to the prestress tendons have not been increased. Indeed, if we take: P: to be the prestressing G: to be the dead loads except for the prestressing [concrete (envelope before and after creep), equipment and asphalt] Q: to be imposed loads We can calculate the following: P + 1.35 G + 1.5 Q and P + G + 1.5 Q

With this calculation method, which is considered to be unfavorable, the Ultimate Limit State is not generally a key factor with regard to longitudinal flexion.

3.3.6 -

Dimensioning approach

The dimensioning of a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method is performed at the Service Limit State. Structures dimensioned in this way are then verified at the Ultimate Limit State. The dimensioning can be carried out according to the steps outlined below: 1st stage: determining the cantilever tendons The cantilever cabling is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the selfweight of the concrete in the cantilever and the site loads defined in paragraph 3-2 above. If it is possible to choose the length of the standard segments, i.e. if the length of the form traveler is not imposed, it may be beneficial to choose a segment length and prestressing units that are compatible with the attachment of two tendons per segment. In this situation, it is necessary to test most common prestressing units and to choose the one that gives a conventional segment length, i.e of between three and four meters.

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In most cases, the dimensioning of cantilever tendons takes account of the normal stresses in the upper axis of the section situated directly above the temporary blocks, at the moment of the casting of the final pair of segments, i.e. before the tensioning of any cantilever tendons that might be anchored in this segment. In the case of the final pair of segments without cantilever tendons, the casting of the closing segment may be the critical phase. 2nd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated inside the concrete The continuity cabling inside the concrete is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the effect of the thermal gradient in the construction phase before the stressing of the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete in addition to the effect of the selfweight of the end spans. The internal continuity cabling must also take up some of the redistributed delayed forces. In general, the same prestressing units are chosen for the internal continuity tendons and the cantilever tendons. 3rd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete These tendons are designed to take up the operating forces which are not absorbed by the two preceding families of tendons. This cabling has two roles: • • To keep the shear stress down to acceptable levels by reducing the shear force To keep the normal stress within acceptable levels.

Initally, it is important to concentrate on shear stresses and to discover which segments have permissible levels of shear stress without the reduction made by the external tendons. In this way, the location of the external prestressing deviator can be determined. This must be situated between a third and quarter of the way along the span (a third of the way along the span for variable thickness and a quarter for constant thickness). It should be noted that this method can only give an approximate alignment because the permissible shear stress depends on the normal stress, which is itself dependent on the prestressing that is used. After obtaining an initial alignment, the focus can then be switched to the normal stresses in order to determine the intensity of the prestressing. As the number of external tendons is always the greatest on piers, an initial estimate of the dimensions of the tendons can determined by concentrating on the lower axis of the crown section and by considering that the redistributions of forces due to concrete creep create a tensile stress of approximately 2 MPa. The final alignment can be obtained by making certain adjustments to these initial estimates such as: • • Altering the length of the different tendons (the tendons may cross one, two or three spans) Moving the deviators on one or two segments.

If there are no shear force problems, it is also possible to reduce the number of external cables and to compensate for them by using additional internal continuity tendons in the central zones, which are more economical because they are much shorter.

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this variation is sufficiently localized that it is not normally necessary to perform a specific calculation in addition to the calculation for the standard section.1 . • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 58 septembre 2007 . caused mainly by the distribution of the anchoring forces. In a structure of variable depth. the main points to be considered in the dimensioning of structures are: • • • • Transverse flexion Tangential effects Specific elements such as the segments on piers and on abutments Localized forces. they are generally performed in a section close to a pier and in the crown section. 4. deviator segments. the main sections to be verified are: • -The upper slab: at the base of the cantilever. Finally. at the gusset located on theinner side of the box-girder. and in the centre of the slab -The webs: at the level of the centre of gravity and at the upper and lower extremities -The lower slab: primarily at the base of the gusset. It is then possible to determine the reinforcements for the cross-section in accordance with the different accumulated actions taking into account their concomitance. For structures of constant depth characterized by a thickening of the lower slab close to piers. this chapter describes how to accurately account for the forces in specific elements such as segments on piers. with the taller section close to the pier being more flexible than the crown section. Although the majority of the points covered are not specific to bridges built by the cantilever method. it is important to design the cross-sections of structures properly in the first place. we have decided to include them because they are not dealt with in any other guide. Furthermore. because it is essential to combine them with localized effects when performing the detailed verifications and determining the reinforcements – The distribution of localized forces – The forces in specific elements (segments on piers and deviators). anchor blocks. etc.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4 . In a section of bridge deck. the calculations for transverse flexion are performed in a standard section. This makes it possible to account for the differences in behavior between two sections of contrasting height. In a structure of constant depth.Transverse and localized behaviour This chapter covers the behavior of the bridge deck with regard to: – Stresses (flexion and shear) arising from the transverse behavior of the bridge deck – Tangential effects originating from the general longitudinal flexion covered in this chapter.Verification principles Apart from general longitudinal flexion. rather than to rely on complex calculations to remedy any problems.

2. to which the loads from any regulations can be applied (e. 4. Transverse forces can be calculated in different ways according to the type of deck in question: • • • Using a 2D model Using a 3D model Using a finite element model.1 Actions to be considered When the structure is in service.2.2 .2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 59 septembre 2007 . or more general methods (Pücher or Homberg).1 – Calculation with a 2D model (nomographs + frame calculations) For the upper slab. 4. apply to this type of structure. The methods described hereafter. weight of road traffic loads. either by directly incorporating the statutory French loads (using Thénoz’ nomographs with loads from Fascicule 61 title II of the French CCTG.Transverse flexion 4.g.2 - Calculation of transverse stresses It should be remembered that monocellular bridge decks represent the vast majority of structures built by the cantilever method.1 – Sections to be verified 4. etc. In the case of more complex structures.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. loads on the lower slab.2. In the construction phase. only sophisticated modeling techniques provide a satisfactory response to the problem posed. and especially the "simplified" methods. weight of the superstructures. 4. additional actions must be introduced in order to account for the forces developed in certain situations encountered on site. any transverse prestressing. the usual actions must be considered: selfweight of the structure. These forces include: • • • The forces developed by some of the tie bars for the form travelers The weight of a launch beam on the section of bridge deck that has already been constructed The weight of a segment stored on the segment to be calculated: a situation encountered on certain prefabrication areas with insufficient storage space. it is possible to use nomographs to calculate the forces.

2 – Principle of the calculation method using nomographs [Sétra’s Bulletin Technique (Technical Bulletin) n° 1 and its Ouvrages d’art (Civil Engineering Structures) Bulletin n° 13 of November 1992 contain further details about this method. 4. This remains valid for the upper part of the webs. Fig. and nomographs for embedded slabs for loads situated on the cantilevers. The Thénoz and Pücher nomographs are only used for slabs of a constant thickness while the Homberg nomograph accounts for thickness variations.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 60 septembre 2007 . it is only an approximate calculation because on the one hand. this calculation is completely valid for distributed loads such as selfweight or the fittings. However. 4. the moments obtained at the embedded section are added at the upper nodes in a 2-D model representing a section of deck of a unitary length (Fig. the forces are calculated using nomographs for doubleembedded slabs for loads situated between the webs.] According to these calculations. Calculations using finite elements have shown that this type of calculation is reasonably accurate for the upper slab when the webs are sufficiently rigid. of course Specific points concerning the modeling • The span of the central slab (for calculation by nomographs) is obtained by considering the point of intersection of the intrados of the slab and a line angled at 45° from the origin of the gusset on the web (Fig. it does not represent the distribution of forces from the upper slab towards the webs and the lower slab.2). For concentrated loads (road traffic loads). 4. the transverse moments acting in the box girder are: • • • M nomograph + M frame for the upper central slab M frame in the webs and lower slab And M nomograph in the cantilevers. the force is unevenly distributed along the fixed support and on the other. this calculation is nowhere near as representative for the lower part of the box girder. This principle of a two-dimensional calculation supposes that: • • The bridge deck is of a locally constant section All of the sections are loaded in the same way.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Eurocode 1) or even loads that are not specified by a particular regulation. For conventional structures (monocellular box girders). Next. Therefore. as there is not yet a significant distribution of forces in this area.

3). This shear force is not given by the nomographs. by multiplying it by the distance between this theoretical end fixing and the upper node situated on the centerline of the web (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • For the introduction of the moments at the nodes of the frame. it is necessary to add the moment due to the shear force calculated at the theoretical edge of the slab. calculations can be simplified not applying this equivalent flow and neglecting the normal effort in the web. which does not exist in reality. the fact of directly applying the fixed-end moments (with the nomographs giving a single value) presupposes that the structure and the forces are symmetrical. because the vertical reactions would then develop a horizontal component (of the normal force in the webs) which does not exist If we simply apply the fixed support reactions of the double-embedded slab at the upper nodes and place the frame supports in the lower nodes. This approximation is justified by the weak difference with the reinforcement calculated with the previous method. However. In the interests of accuracy.3 – Relative positions of the forces calculated at the fixed support of the slab (for the nomographs) and of the upper node of the modeled frame to which the efforts are applied As the principle is obviously valid. Then it is verified that the support reactions are zero However. this type of calculation requires a balancing of the loads for each load situation.4 – Shear flows due to a vertical force in a monocellular box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 61 septembre 2007 . it is essential to apply the opposite of the load applied (vertical force and torsion moment) to all of the bars of the model in the form of shear flows on each bar. but it is easy to calculate For stability. a compression appears in the bars representing the webs. Of course. 4.4). • • • Fig. 4. Fig. this model must include two supports. in the majority of the cases (monocellular bridge deck with a moderate width and a moderate height). 4. This presupposes that the unitary flows due to a vertical load or a torsional moment have first been determined using a calculation program for the characteristics of hollow sections (Fig. These supports must be situated at the bottom of the webs (in the case of inclined webs). In order to avoid parasitic forces resulting from a blockage of the nodes in the model. it is necessary to free one of the supports transversally. this method can be extended to structures other than monocellular box girders. 4.

a common approach is to determine equivalent vertical loads giving the same moments in the middle of the slab and at the fixed support (uniformly distributed loads and knife-edge loads). Despite its complexity.) or non-homogeneous behavior. for elements with non-standard sections.Presse des Ponts et Chaussées 88]. these calculations are almost always performed for the section on the pier on the one hand. as mentioned in the preamble.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For more complex structures (multi-cellular box girders).2 – Calculation using a 3D model For conventional standard sections.2. For example. The analysis of this three-dimensional phenomenon also requires 3D modeling (Fig. refer to Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural Analysis of Bridge Decks) by J.5). this includes: • • • • • • Segments on piers (even for conventional box girders) Deviator segments for external cables (as above) Very wide monocellular box girders Box girders with transverse ribs Multicellular box girders Box girders with bracing. the 2D model is usually adequate. On the other hand. Significant distorsions may be shown in the cross-section of multi-cellular bridge decks under the effects of both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads. which will then be moved transversally into different positions in order to obtain the maximum effects in the transverse structure. 4.2. As the frame effect in a structure of variable depth depends on the rigidity of the webs (according to their height and thickness). it is necessary to adopt another type of modeling (3D with bars or finite shell elements) which shows up local structural variations (ribs. a 3D model is not significantly more accurate. thicker sections of webs. and to a lesser extent on the thickness of the lower slab. etc. in spite of its lack of precision in the lower areas of the webs and in the lower slab. and for section at the crown on the other. . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 62 septembre 2007 .A. crossbeams on supports or deviator beams. a 2D calculation is often too simplistic and unrealistic in terms of the actual distribution of forces. [For further information about these methods. Therefore. Calgaro. 4.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. • According to the elements to be analysed (segments on supports or a standard sections of a complex structure).2. it is possible to take account of the longitudinal symmetry in order to halve the size of the model. and on the other hand. In this case.1).It is therefore necessary that end sections should modelize the section of a standard segment. the longitudinal division can be varied in order to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy for the forces to be calculated: In order to study the behaviour of a complex standard section. webs.slabs. it is necessary to model a portion of bridge deck that is long for the forces not to be disturbed by the conditions at the extremities. § 4. it is important to take account for the effective width of slab. which rapidly increases the size of the model. it is necessary to be very careful to modelize conditions at the limits (the six degree of freedom of the nodes are not all embedded) to guarantee the representativity of the model.6). 4. The loads applied to the section itself are balanced out by directly opposite flows (cf. the breakdown must remain consistent with that used in the longitudinal direction. • In the other directions. 4. we are using the bridge deck’s actual supports.5 –3D model of a multi-cellular box girder Basic modeling recommendations A 3D model is a beam grid system. The strengthening pieces (segment on pier. …) in order to account for the distribution of forces in both directions of the beam grid. • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 63 septembre 2007 . rib. equal to approximately ¼ to ½ of the height. The external forces are applied to the segment in the form of flows in the end sections of the model. as the external actions originate primarily from the flows on the end section. we are only interested in the forces in proximity to the crossbeam. bending inertia) and the torsion inertia is considered to be equal to half of the bending inertia of the corresponding rectangular cross section (shell element . It is advisable to divide the deck into sufficiently short sections. we can also limit the length of the modeled portion to a few sections (Fig.2. Furthermore. deviator beams) modify the rods neutral axis. but does not apply for stiffener. because on the one hand. Each rod has its own specific characteristics (area. To determine the rod center of gravity and inertia. in order to obtain the correct local forces For a segment on pier.

featuring the same cross-section characteristics. Fig. Of course. but it gives a better representation of the direction of the forces. Under no circumstances can they compensate for a poor initial design.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this type of modeling. Basic modeling recommendations Several basic rules apply to this modeling: • The conditions at the limits are very important. especially in proximity to the bearings or perpendicular to the deviators. 4. but the engineer must have an excellent command of finite elements and a detailed analysis of both the structure itself and its modeling must be performed. 4. Consequently. it is also necessary to extend the shell model with bars representing the deck itself.2. the segment of shells and bars are connected by an arrangement of rigid bars laid out in a “spider” configuration. On the other hand. or for any other reason (better curracy for example). please refer to the "Emploi des éléments finis en génie civil" (Use of Finite Elements in Civil Engineering) documents published by the AFGC (Association française de génie civil .6 – Modeling of a half-segment on pier using a 3D model This method is more cumbersome than the 2D calculation method.2. In order to apply the general forces correctly.3 – Calculation using finite shell elements As mentioned previously. due to the fact that it is impossible to generate elements automatically. For detailed information about modeling and calculation methods. and the forces at the extremities of the model are completely disturbed. the forces given by the model are directly usable. a shell-type finite element calculation can be performed when the structure is not a traditional box girder. In general. For example. 3D modeling is generally reserved for segments on supports or deviators. if an entire span is being modeled.7). • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 64 septembre 2007 . These programs are extremely powerful and are capable of solving complex problems. it can be considered that the zone to be ignored corresponds to approximately 2 to 3 times the height of the section. it is necessary to model a sufficiently long portion in order to obtain a reasonably large undisturbed “usable” area. 4. it is extended by a segment of three times the height on each side (Fig.French Civil Engineering Association)].

a maximum ratio of approximately 2 is recommended between the plan-view dimensions and the thickness. • • • • Fig. The structure should therefore be broken down in such a way that the centres of gravity of the elements are situated in line with the correct cross sections: at the gussets for example. Consequently.60 m in the plan view. use triangular elements). interpolations will have to be performed: a long manual operation that is a source of errors or inaccuracies The prestressing must be entered in the form of external forces. it is possible to determine the lines of influence (or rather the surfaces of influence) of the efforts in question in these sections. Remarks The shell finite elements are not adapted to model properly the massive parts of a segment on pier (cross-beam or anchorage block for example) . for which the ratio should also not exceed 2 (otherwise.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The shape of the elements must not be too distended.50 to 0. it is then necessary to add offset rods or 3D finite elements. or “T” sections require a reconstitution of the forces on the section based upon the constraints for each element. giving a shape similar to a rectangle. Otherwise.60 m It should be remembered that the results for finite elements are given at the centre of gravity of the element. the slabs and webs can be broken down into elements measuring approximately 0. and it also takes account of the interaction between the general effects and the local effects (general dispersion).4. including on the bars outside the shell segment Traffic loads: in order to perform an accurate calculation. but which present other difficulties. the designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this method can be very cumbersome due to the need to move the imposed loads “manually” on the upper slab for certain finite elements programs which do not have an automatic load placement function. This method must be used in very specific cases and require a high level in modelling with 3D finite elements.7 – Breakdown of a bridge deck into finite shell elements Furthermore. Thus.50 m to 0. such as determine the efforts and deduce the corresponding reinforcement (see also § 4.1). with the crossbeams or deviators also having maximum thicknesses of 0. in terms of their two-dimensional characteristics and their thickness. after defining the calculation sections (in the transverse direction). however. because the system forms an independently balanced structure The dead loads are entered over the entire structure. 4. which we can continue to calculate manually. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 65 septembre 2007 . the reinforced concrete elements. In general. One of the main advantages of this method is that it gives an effective representation of the behaviour of the structure. None of these forces should be omitted (anchoring forces and thrusts close to the deviations). the forces given by the model are directy exploitable. This type of model must not be used to determine highly localized dispersion forces such as those in the first regularization prism or the radial tendon forces in the deviators. both in the standard parts and in specific areas such as the segments on piers or deviators. which makes it possible to choose the positions of the loads in order to obtain the maximum effect required.

This stress field causes a lateral thrust towards the top of the slab which is balanced out by the embedding of the slab in the webs and causes a transverse bending moment.2. the longitudinal compression in the lower slab creates a lateral thrust (due to the curvature of the slab) which creates a transverse flexion of this slab.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 66 septembre 2007 . which stresses the upper axis on the centerline of the slab and the lower axis in line with the fixed end in the web.3 - Lateral thrust in curved or deviated compressed or stressed elements 4.2.1 – Lateral thrusts of concrete in curved slabs In bridge decks of variable depth. The lateral thrust in a given section of the structure of a unitary length is expressed per (transverse) meter of slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. This slab is embedded in the webs of the box girder. This is a cylindrical shell subjected to longitudinal compression stresses which can be considered to be uniform transversally to the structure. This moment varies throughout the length of the structure due to the longitudinal variations in the thickness of the slab and the extent of the stresses in the section. the distribution of the fixed end moments in the webs and in the span also varies according to the relative stiffnesses of the slab and webs (with the upper slab generally being constant). In a cross-section. preferably using a gusset. by: q = σ b moy e Rmoy with σb moy = mean stress in the lower slab for the segment in question e = thickness of the lower slab in this segment Rmoy = mean radius of the mean axis of the lower slab for the segment in question.

but in the opposite direction. 4. an area of low slab compression: the action of these tendons is therefore preponderant.3. 4. Two different situations are identified: • • Tendons in the curved slabs Construction irregularities. These tendons are tensioned in the second phase after the completion of the cantilevers. 4. when the end or intermediate spans between consecutive cantilevers are closed. Faessel – Journée de l'AFPC April 1974 and M.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. However. instability of this lower slab may occur under compression in the most curved zone. Virlogeux – Annales de l'IBTP February 1981]. The presence of tendons in the curved slabs generates similar forces to those described above. By calling f the linear force of the radial thrust of the tendon. these tendons are close to the centre of the span. this force is equal to f = – P the prestressing force of the tendon – R radius of curvature P with: R The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 67 septembre 2007 . [See article from P. the presence of ducts reduces the strength of the section and thus increases the likelihood of the structure breaking along lines parallel to the ducts.8 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – longitudinal section Fig.2 – Radial thrust of continuity tendons The presence of prestress tendons in the lower slab causes a phenomenon of the same type but in the opposite direction. Furthermore.9 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – transverse section Note In the case of a high curved lower slab (for example with a cubic depth variation).

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 68 septembre 2007 .10 – Forces perpendicular to angular points – longitudinal section This is why it is essential to place a stiffener or crossbeam in this area in order to transfer the force towards the webs and to take up the transverse flexion of the slab. 4. In addition. Indeed.2. giving a concentrated effort which results in strong localized stresses in the lower slab. the differential shrinkage can cause cracks near the tendon layouts which can lead to the corrosion of the tendon. 4. produce concentrated forces which can result in problems or even spalling in the lower slab. The same applies directly above the supports when the slope of the slab suddenly changes. with the radial thrust being directed according to the bisector of the tendons layouts. In the case of a bridge deck with a high curvature in the horizontal plane. However this phenomenon is less severe because the thickness of the concrete enables better distribution of the forces. irregularities in the alignment of the ducts during construction. the force increases significantly amd can lead to the breaking of the slab. the horizontal component of this thrust is not negligeable. if the radius of curvature becomes very small (producing an angular point). Note The lateral thrust also exists when continuity tendons are placed in the gussets. On a support.3-3 – Lateral thrust in a lower slab perpendicular to an angular point In bridge decks of variable depth with linear gussets. The principle is the same as above. It is thus highly inadvisable to place tendons in the lower slab of bridge decks of variable depth. localized lateral thrusts originate in the lower slab at the point of intersection of two rectilinear portions of lower slab subjected to longitudinal compression stresses. Even for structures of constant depth.4 – Thrust perpendicular to a deviator External prestressing tendons are deviated in deviator crossbeams with a small radius of curvature.2. particularly in line with the segment joints.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Furthermore.3. The resultant is directed according to the bisector of the mean lines of the slab. a crossbeam is also needed to take up the torsion forces due to the asymmetrical loading of the bridge deck. 4. this arrangement is not recommended. Fig. They thus develop large localized forces which must be taken up by these deviators. because the segments are short and the large number of joints increases the risk of irregularities.

in certain cases it is advisable to consider the localized effects caused by a gradient operating between the two faces of the upper slab. As concreting is made at the contact of the previous segment.2. In the webs. the shrinkage can cause a longitudinal cracking. Fig. This gradient results in transverse flexion which is added to the other stresses.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. we propose to consider a gradient of 10°C in the upper slab under the form of a linear gradient. The figure 4. we advise to place a minimum reinforcement ratio equal to 10-4 fc of the lower slab section (with fc expressed in MPa).11 – Forces perpendicular to a prestressing deviator 4. it gives 0. the corresponding section of reinforcement is added to that which is determined by the general shear force. a wide lower slab or a cement with a high hydratation heat.4 Upper slab Forces due to thermal phenomena In addition to conventional flexion forces due to the thermal gradient.12 represents the thermal gradient in a common concrete box-girder according to Eurocode 1 – Section 1.5 Δθ. 4. For example. The combination to use is the same as the one for general flexion : G + Wr + 0. This phenomenon will be amplified with a high strength concrete. Lower slab The lower slab requires generally few lateral reinforcements unless it is very wide. It is not necessary to take it into account in the case of monocellular box girder.4% for a C40/50 concrete. It shows that a thermal gradient exists in the upper slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 69 septembre 2007 . For information only.12 – Localized thermal gradient in the upper slab Note This gradient has some effect only in the case of multicellular box girders. 4. Therefore.5.

failure due to shear forces is a brittle rather than a ductile phenomenon. But it is generally advised to increase the lateral prestressing because this latter is only determined by the condition of zero traction in concrete under dead loads while the imposed loads have a much bigger effect. revised in 1999.Industrial Technical Centre for Steel Construction)/ SNCF (Société nationale de chemins de fer .13 where G1 and G2 are respectively the center of gravity of the vertical cross-sections and of the cross-section perpendicular to the mean axis. the verification of the parts and the calculation of the reinforcements are carried out according to the instructions in the BAEL (Béton armé à l’état limite . that the non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to take up the forces due to the concomitance of flexion and shear forces are properly positioned and dimensioned with regard to the statutory requirements (verification at the Service Limit State and the Ultimate Limit State). Such a choice has to be written in the Special Technical Clauses (STC).1 Verification principles The verification of the bridge deck under tangential stresses consists of checking: • Firstly.French Railways). the class III rules have to be completed as followed : For the sake of good design and to prevent excessive cracking. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 70 septembre 2007 . The contract can also impose the amount of transversal prestressing. specified in the "Ponts métalliques et mixtes . 4.3. The required amount of reinforcement would be high because the traffic loads would cause frequent and repetitive cracking. • 4.2.2 - General design assumptions Shear force calculations are carried out on sections of the beam perpendicular to the mean axis (Fig 4. the verification of the parts and the determination of the prestressing bars and reinforcements are carried out according Class III in the BPEL (Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code) 1991. in order to reduce the probability of cracking.Limit State Reinforced Concrete Code) 1991.5 - Verifications of the sections In the absence of transverse prestressing. the upper slab must remain transversally compressed under a proportion of the imposed loads: for example. under the effects of the fatigue truck Bf (a single truck placed in the centerline of the slower lane).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. Cracks caused by shear forces do not close up on their own like flexion cracks when the stress is reversed. that the shear stresses are permissible at all points. To limit the amount of reinforcements (it is necessary to enable a good concreting) and to limit the fatigue risk in these reinforcements or their corrosion. revised in 1999.3 . When the transverse section is prestressed (upper slab).General tangential stresses 4. Furthermore. It should be remembered that verification at the service limit state is designed to control cracking and at the ultimate limit state the aim is to ensure safety by preventing brittle fractures.résistance à la fatigue" (Metal and Composite Bridges – Resistance to Fatigue) guide published by Sétra/CTICM (Centre technique industriel de la construction métallique .3. This is why calculation methods always have a greater safety margin for shearing Secondly. Cracking is generally considered to be detrimental.

2). These major phases are: • Imbalances during the construction of the cantilever.Influence of construction sequence of operations 1) Segment on pier The segment on pier is a large structure which is subjected to highly variable stresses during the construction of the bridge deck and when the structure is in service.2. § 4.1 .3. rather than just concentrating on the definitive situation.13 – Shear force on straight sections To simplify. fittings and imposed loads) Thermal gradient The redistribution of forces due to creep Prestressing (cf. detachment of form traveler) The transfer of supports after the grouting of closing segments The tensioning of the external prestressing in the segment on pier (maximum distribution forces) The service state (maximum flexion).3). 4. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 71 septembre 2007 . although not always so. it is important to verify all of the major phases.3.2. calculations of shear force are sometimes carried out on vertical sections. with the segment on pier being embedded (asymmetrical casting . or more precisely. 4. on sections perpendicular to the upper axis. The following actions must be considered: • • • • External loads (selfweight. from construction through to commissioning. Therefore.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. This calculation is usually less favourable. § 4. In addition. the Resal Effect must also be considered. as the distribution of areas and stresses may reverse the phenomenon (cf.

15 – Segment on pier with double supports Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4.16 – Embedded segment on pier The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 72 septembre 2007 .14 – Traditional segment on pier Fig. 4. 4.

. the angle of the tendons in relation to the mean axis generally reduces the shear force according to the diagram 4.17. the support reaction is not equal to the sum of the shear forces to the right and left of this support. 4. These structures are more difficult to build and their complex transverse behavior. Consequently.4 – Transverse morphology The development of highways and urban structures has led to the construction of extremely wide structures.Certain design programs include them just after their anchorage.2. Furthermore. when not fully understood.3.2 – Method used to account for prestressing Tendons anchored at less than one regularization length from the section being studied create some distribution effects which add to the general effects (in particular shear force) provided by the design program.2. In particular. this type of section is sensitive to the distorsion (deformation of the cross-section) that appears under loads. multicellular structures are also sometimes used. but the vertical component of the normal force in the section must be added to it. especially for box girders with three webs. as the central web takes up the most force). Therefore. 4.3. the mean axis presents an angular point directly above the support. Fig. 3D modeling is required to account for the transverse and longitudinal stiffnesses of the section.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2) Standard segments The major phases for standard segments are: • • • The prestressing of the segment in question (maximum dispersion forces) The end of the construction of the cantilever (maximum prestressing in the section) The service state (maximum flexion). Although the majority of structures are now mono-cellular box girders. other include them only at the other side of the segment.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 73 septembre 2007 .3 – Bridge deck of variable height For structures of variable height. it is important to be consistent when using the design program to account for the reduction of shear force due to the tendons in order to avoid counting the same force twice.17 – Diagram of the reduction of shear force due to the tendons 4. may lead to problems in the webs (non-uniform distribution of shear forces. 4.2.

Finally.1 – Basic principles In structures of variable depth. Fig. Finally.4 l. It is recommended to concentrate the cantilever prestress tendons perpendicular to the webs so that they can directly take up the loads applied by the webs (by shearing).3. However. we usually see an adjustment of the shear force due to the fact that the mean fibre is inclined in relation to the slab: the compression in the slabs presents a component in the direction of the shear force. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 74 septembre 2007 .5. on either side of the web (for a box girder with two webs.18 – Example of a very wide bridge deck 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Another solution that has been virtually abandoned in France is to construct structures with two box girders joined together by the upper slab. Furthermore. However. It is important to consider this when evaluating flexion stresses. The creep leads to a transfer of loads : • • Vertically the parts built in the second phase leans against the first box girder The normal force of the part built in the second phase tends to go to the part built in the first phase. the distribution of forces concentrated in this type of section is not compatible with the normal simplified rules and requires a specific study. the effective width of the upper slabs on very wide monocellular box girder structures (with or without struts and/or ribs) is reduced in relation to their total width (shear lag phenomenon).3 for further details).3.3.3 - RESAL EFFECT 4. in preventing the buckling of this slab . it is therefore not necessary to reduce the effective width in such a structure. it is advisable to place a tendon at the end of each cantilever and position it so that it compresses the ends of the upper slab (see § 4. the presence of ribs improve the distribution of forces in the upper slab. For an initial approximation. this transfer of loads has only a moderate effect on the stresses. 4. by limiting the effective width to 1/10th of the length of the span in question. The main disadvantage of this method is the differential shrinkage which appears between concrete of different ages: between the concrete used for the box girders on the one hand and that used for the transverse grouting on the other. this phenomenon can be accounted for according to the precepts of Article 5. this makes it possible to reach a total effective width of b = total thickness of webs + 0.4 of the BPEL.

3. the upper slab exerts a Resal "counter-effect" in opposition to the effect in the lower slab. February 1981]. in contrast to what can happen in highly asymmetrical spans in which a reversal of the shear force can be observed. the areas in question for the calculation of Nls and Nus are the slabs and gussets.19 – Resal effect in the upper and lower slabs A part of the shear force is balanced by the normal force in the slab. As can be seen in the formula above.T. 4. [For further details on theoretical methods.T. This is usually weak in proximity to the supports.ϕ) Nls + ϕNus with: ϕ the angle of the mean axis from the upper axis α the angle of the lower slab in relation to the upper slab Nls force (compression) of the lower slab Nus force (compression) of the upper slab According to the BPEL. there is a greater Resal effect due the lower slab. The shear force is equal to V + ΔV. as the compression of the upper slab is limited. see the article by M. 391. calculations are systematically performed on section perpendicular to the neutral axis. it is possible to perform calculations on vertical sections provided that: • • The extrados can be considered to be horizontal Shear forces are directed in the usual direction according to the cantilever. excluding the webs. ΔV is the correction of shear force by the Resal effect: ΔV = -(α . no. For the pre-design calculations.Virlogeux in the Annales de l’I.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3.2 – Vertical section calculations With modern calculation methods.B. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 75 septembre 2007 . whereas because the variation in height is the greatest in this area. 4.P.

4. or injected with a flexible product. it should be remembered that the whole diameter of the duct shall be deduced from the width when it is not injected. 4. the width b is the straight width of the web in question and not its skewed width directly above the slice.e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case.3. BAEL Article 7.1). The difference may be as much as 1 MPa in certain configurations. 4. Additional steel reinforcement brought by the tendon anchorages are determined with the distribution calculations. This is especially true close to the supports due to the steeper angle of the mean line. This formula supposes that there is no concentrated forces in the vicinity of the studied section. in the event of there being a tendon in proximity to the joint (“internal” tendon). and a half-diameter shall be deduced when it is injected with a cement grout (cf.4 - Shear reaction due to shearing force For a traditional structure with two webs.5 - Torsion shear The pure Saint-Venant torsion shear is equal to: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 76 septembre 2007 . the shear reaction caused by shearing force can be expressed by the following formula: τ m = Vred S( y ) bn ( y ) I with bn(y) Total width at the y ordinate S(y) Static moment at the y ordinate (i. the vertical section calculation is less favorable. Fig.4. Vred I Reduced shear force Inertia of the entire section When the webs are angled. the formula is simplified to: ΔV = . of the part situated above the transverse slice in relation to the line passing through the centre of gravity). and less so in proximity to the crowns.20 – Shear reaction of angled webs As for the value of the nominal width.3.Nls sin α with α being the angle of the lower slab from the horizontal As mentioned previously.

• This calculation obviously supposes that the section is undeformable. This undeformability hypothesis can be considered if the length between stiffeners does not exceed 5 to 6 times the box girder width.In the case of a curved bridge which section is supposed undeformable as indicated above. which is generally the case. the box girder distorsion increases the difference of longitudinal flexion between the webs and can be expressed with an offset coefficient applied to the loads.6 fcj − σ x − σ t )⎡ftj + 3 (σ x + σ t )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (no failure due to shearing and compression) In the general situation in which σt = 0 (no vertical prestressing). σt and τ calculated at any point of a section.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τT = T 2Ωe with T Ω e moment of torsion. • • • 4. must therefore satisfy the following inequalities at the service limit state: For σx > 0 τ 2 − σ x σ t ≤ 0.6 - Verification of the sections The sections are verified according to Article 7.4 ftj ⎢ftj + ⎣ ⎡ 2 (σ x + σ t )⎤ (no failure due to cracking) ⎥ 3 ⎦ τ 2 −σ x σ t ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0. the torsion effect tends to load the support on the inner side The fittings weight applies on the continuous structure. As a result. the center of gravity of the arch portion is on the inner side of the curvature. Area of tube defined by the middle surface of the box girder walls Thickness of the wall This torsion is caused by asymmetrical loads (dead loads and especially imposed loads) and by any curvature of the bridge deck in the horizontal plane.4 ftj ⎢ftj + σ x ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎤ and τ2 ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0. The stresses σx. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 77 septembre 2007 . and generates a torsion opposed to that of the selfweight The external prestressing having a polygonal layout. we obtain: τ 2 ≤ 0. revised in 1999. as the structures feature deviators which act as stiffeners and have webs with approximately the same thickness as the slabs (with quite similar stiffnesses). generates a torsion which increases the load on the support on the inner side. the torsion induced by the curvature has to be taken account for at different stages: At the construction of the cantilever.3.2 of the BPEL 1991. Beyond. for self-weight.6 fcj − σ x )⎡ftj + 3 σ x ⎤ with the first formula nearly always ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ predominating. This shear is algebraically added to the shearing force calculated previously.

S2. As this document is still under development. It is also important to verify the shear stresses at the service limit state as mentioned above (cf. It is thus necessary to use “offshore” types of protection techniques.1 . These stirrups have to be inserted into the passive reinforcement of the web. I1. Article 4. it is important to tie in the shear strain using transverse reinforcement bars. some of the vertical prestressing force is dissipated in localized areas of rigidity such as deviators or crossbeams (zones in which the greatest shear reaction is usually encountered reached). the shear force at the web/lower slab junction must be verified without taking account of this compression To guarantee the correct distribution of forces. The reinforcements are determined at the ultimate limit state (BPEL. see Fig 4. The procedure for calculating the non-prestressed reinforcements is similar to that laid down in the BPEL.Article 6. with the contribution of the concrete accounted for in a similar way but with several additional refinements. Special precautions must be taken with regard to structures built by the cantilever method due to their technical complexity.7 - Active stirrups (for information) This technique has sometimes been used to improve the shear resistance of webs.u − bn st γ s ⎜ 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ tgβ u for reinforcements perpendicular to the mean axis.8 – Tying the slabs into the webs In order to prevent the fracturing of the vertical planes situated at the origin of the gussets (points S1. The only reason for its inclusion here is to remind readers of the drawbacks which led to its fall from grace: • Considering the very short length of the prestressing tendons. revised in 1999. Therefore.3-6). 4. it is necessary to bring the active stirrups very close together. these reinforcements emerge in the upper slab and are thus extremely sensitive to corrosion.3. § 4. their tension can differ considerably from the expected value due to the setting of anchorage wedges. thus complicating the concreting process Due to their design. prestressing bars) The distribution of forces only occurs above a certain length . Only certain types of active reinforcements can guarantee the correct tension (compression fittings.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When the calculations are performed with the probable value of prestressing Pm.hence there is a lack of compression between the anchorages at the bottom of the web. ⎟ ⎠ Eurocode 2 (EN 1992 1. a figure of 0.1) due to excessive shearforce. Consequently. These bars are dimensioned in accordance with the instructions in Article 7.2) does not require verification at the service limit state.1 at § 4.3.10. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 78 septembre 2007 . which makes this a particularly costly solution (requiring sealed caps and ducts. for example) Finally. • • • • 4.2): ftj At fe ⎛ ≥ ⎜τ red . Article 7.95 is usually adopted for this k’ coefficient (BPEL.3.23 of the BPEL 91.1). the limit stress τ must be multiplied by a coefficient k’. we shall refer back to it when it is finally published.3.

HPC.2. A value of 0.2. a 3D model is generally used to model the segment on pier due to the presence of reinforcing elements (crossbeam. The verifications focus mainly on: • The transmission of support reactions from the bearings (both temporary and permanent) towards the webs The take-up of torsion forces by the crossbeam The take-up of the lateral thrust of the lower slab by this same crossbeam for a variable height The distribution of the prestressing forces due to the tendons positioned in the segment on pier (SOP).21 – Tie bars to combat shear strain in the slab/web area For the lower slab.PCI Journal – May / June 1987] to verify this transmission of forces. a minimum level of transverse reinforcement is necessary to reduce cracking due to thermal shrinkage in the central area of the slab. thicker sections of web.2. crossbeam for definitive or temporary bearings).4.5% seems to be sufficient under the most penalizing conditions (large width. It is thus important to verify that the morphology of the segment on pier is capable of withstanding the transmissions of internal forces (e.Specific elements 4. 4. etc. – see also § 4.1 Segments on piers 4. the subsequent anchoring of the external continuity prestressing.) which completely modify its behavior in comparison to a standard section. J.4.4).1.1. 4. The principle of this method is the following: • Construction of a model composed of struts and ties which replace the actual stresses fields by straight elements and which concentrate the stress deviation in the nodes Calculation of the effort statically balanced in the rods of the truss-model Page 79 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . This model is used to verify the first three points presented above.2.4.4.4 .1 Generalities It should be remembered that the initial static design of these parts of structures often does not allow for the application of Strength of Materials principles for the wire frame beams at all points.3 – Strut and tie model It is also possible to use a strut-and-tie model [cf.g.2 – 3D model As previously mentioned in § 4. etc.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Schlaich .1. • • • 4. 4.

22 below shows the behavior of the support crossbeam under the effect of the torsion of the box girder.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Dimensioning of struts. This has hardly any effect on the reinforcement which depends primarily on force rather than stresses. Fig. The difficulty of this method is the construction of the model.22 represents the working of the crossbeam under the effect of the torsion transmitted by the box girder. This can be quite cumbersome.1. for a common type of crossbeam ("V" shape). The fourth point (distribution) is verified according to the usual principles (Appendix 4 of the BPEL).4. which results in significant shear reactions in the webs close to the piers. The model is linked to the rest of the structure where the stress are supposed to be regularly distributed and linearized (B zone as Bernoulli. i. However. It is on this section that we shall consider the stresses to be evenly distributed. the bridge deck is subjected to torsion moments caused by the curvature.5). The model is balanced with the force brought by this zone B.22 Support crossbeam . the figure 4. The usual method is the load path method. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 80 septembre 2007 . as the section is not constant (anchor blocks and thicker sections of web). cf Schlaich). On the other hand. The load paths have to link the two sides of the studied zone without crossing each other. Considering the relatively large depth of the bridge deck in this area (especially in the case of structures of a variable depth). The latter choice would be a much more serious problem. Obviously. The rods of the model have to be oriented according to the direction of the internal forces given by the Elasticity Theory.transmission of torsion As an example. 4. Other types of crossbeam can be considered : "A" shape. it requires the engineer to have a very good understanding of structural behaviour. But it is sometimes difficult to determine the load path. A poor choice of struts and ties could lead to an incorrect arrangement of reinforcement bars and the use of excessively or insufficiently large sections. including the additional thicknesses of the anchor blocks. The reader’s attention is drawn to the fact that although this method is very effective for use with any irregular parts of this type. ties and nodes. or strengthened frame. it is reasonable to consider the actual section. 4. It can require the use of a finite element model. this distribution length generally includes the “standard” cross section of the bridge deck.e. the crossbeams on piers have to take up these additional forces (see also § 4. Figure 4. it is necessary to make a choice between the sections in which the distribution of stresses is carried out. The stress diagram of this B zone is divided in such a way as to balance the concentrated forces by the corresponding zone with regularly distributed stress.3 – Particular points In the case of structures with high curvature. when evaluating the shear stresses at the level of the transverse slices.

5. the phenomenon of lateral thrust due to the compression exerted by the lower slab does not exist.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4. However.4. Anyway.5 . 4. On the other hand. it is advised to place some reinforcing bars in the opposite sides of the anchorage blocks to make it non brittle. the distribution of prestressing is verified in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 of the BPEL 91. The rebars will be placed at the opposite side of the anchorages where as the cracking phenomena always occur near the anchorages. it is sufficient to anchor two longitudinal tendons in the inferior angle above the support. Eurocode 2 does not have a chapter about the distribution of concentrated loads. it is necessary to stiffen the end of the upper slab under the pavement joint in order to take up the localized flexion forces at this edge under the effects of the moving loads. the upper slab has been sometimes considered as a beam supported by the web and the reinforcement calculated as a flexion reinforcement. the following specific additions should be made – while awaiting modifications to this appendix. The balance of the end strut will have to be studied very carefully. In general. This prestressing enables also a cracking control. The design principles are the same as for the segments on piers. (or in segments on abutments).2 - Segments on abutments Segments on abutments have to transfer much smaller forces to the supports than segments on piers. revised in 1999. generally with a inner wood formwork. it is important not to wait too much before stripping not to obstruct the shrinkage.Localized forces and reinforcements 4. Furthermore. As it currently stands. This method was not satisfying since this "beam" is not a beam as a matter of fact because of the existence of the rest of the slab behind the element artificially isolated with length lr. This can lead to an incorrect arrangement of rebars and to severe problems in the structure. as this article features several ambiguities or omissions. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 81 septembre 2007 . As the height is constant.1 Distribution of forces caused by the prestressing anchorages In general. the distribution forces are much greater due to the fact that all of the external tendons are anchored in the same section. When concreting these segments. For this reason it is advised to place a transversal prestressing to reduce the passive reinforcement and make concreting easier.23 – Section of a slice for distribution Remark To study the distribution of forces due to tendon anchorages in segments on piers. 4.

2F.2 – Continuity tendon anchor blocks Reinforcement bars for the anchor blocks are determined in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 § 2 of the BPEL 91.5. because it is a ultimate limit state verification. for the A2 reinforcements.2. and that it is preferable to place them in line with the gussets at the junction with the web. The areas of reinforcements in question must be the sum of the cross sections in both planes (horizontal and vertical). considering the anchoring force at the service limit state and limiting the stress in the reinforcements to σs = 2 fe 3 with F being the force at the anchorage. in these reinforcements being positioned too far from the point at which the forces are applied. For example. the problem is compared with a non-cracked state.1 – Distribution in the horizontal plane For the regularization length. 4. • • The aim of the calculations is to verify the safety at rupture for cracked concrete. It must be remembered that the cracks which are observed in examples of the distribution of concentrated efforts always appear near the anchorage. we simply use F sin α according to the deviation plane of the tendon. this value is normally around 0.5. σs This represents nearly all of the “surface” and “spalling” reinforcements described in the BPEL For the A3 reinforcements. This would give an excessive length. the cross section is equal to : A1 = 0.2 F .1. two sections of reinforcements must be considered for A1 and the same applies to A2 and A3. resulting firstly in very low shear forces and the use of insufficient reinforcements. The transverse reinforcements in these anchor blocks must tie the blocks into the rest of the section. § 4. For example. and secondly. in order to facilitate these calculations. It is recommended to use half of the width of the bridge deck in the case of a box girder. Because the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 82 septembre 2007 For the A1 reinforcements. it must not be assumed that the bridge deck is simply “rotated” through 90°. The reinforcement elastic stress shall be taken with its real value.2F is also used due to the fact that the prestressing force is directed towards the concrete and it thus exerts a component that is perpendicular to the “horizontal” calculation axis.3-2) or even straight lower slabs. The following reinforcements must be used: • Reinforcement bars at the top of the anchor block in order to tie the block into the neighboring box girder wall (A1 reinforcements) Reinforcement bars taking up the radial thrust when the tendon deviates (A3 reinforcements) Tie bars for the rest of the anchor block (A2 reinforcements).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. It should be remembered that it is highly inadvisable to situate anchor blocks or tendons inside the concrete in curved (cf. revised in 1999. a maximum value of 0. with fe=500 MPa for classical reinforcement Fe E 500 (no limitation to 400 MPa). However.1. Finally.

the segments have multiple shear keys designed to transmit the shear force. A lack of thickness results in punching shear in the element in relation to the box girder tube which cannot be taken up by the reinforcements alone. 4. added to the fact that the force is obviously applied outside the concrete. (For further details.5. behind the anchor blocks. In the first place.1.65 ftj + σ with The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 83 septembre 2007 . it is essential to make the anchoring elements thick enough (in the longitudinal direction of the bridge deck) to ensure that they are capable of transmitting most of the force. see "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°11 from January 92 and comments and observations in n°12 from July 92 and n°14 from March 93. it is sometimes more appropriate to foresee a phasing which limits the dissymetry of tensioning forces.5.2 - Shear keys of prefabricated segments In prefabricated structures.)] Fig. rather than thickening the anchorage blocks to resist an inappropriate intermediary phase. it is a matter of common sense to position the anchorages for external tendons in the crossbeams as close as possible to the webs and slabs in order to transmit the forces as directly as possible towards the walls of the box girder.4 – External tendons The major characteristic of the external tendons is their great individual power which. Transmission via compressed concrete struts is always the most efficient method. revised in 1999. Finally. not too high – to guarantee the concrete durability.3 – Traction reinforcements Traction reinforcements may be necessary to take up the traction due to the obstructed shortening of the concrete. we have to be careful not to overdimension this zone. 4.24 – Reinforcement of an anchor block 4. Furthermore. These reinforcements are determined in accordance with the instructions given in Appendix 4 § 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide excess of reinforcement leads to concreting difficulties.1. The shear reaction is considered to be taken up over the shear keys cross-section according to the following formula: τ b = 0. it is important to respect the concrete cover – not too small. Furthermore. by limiting their length near to tendon. Mistakes in this area have sometimes led to complete failures which could have been avoided with a minimum of forethought at the design stage.3 of the BPEL 91.5. results in the need to ensure that such large forces are securely anchored. 4.

which are becoming increasingly common. in the case of variable height decks with vertical joints. It is essential that the shear keys leads to a web side. Fig.10 is the height of the keyshear (Vn+1) In certain situations in which there is a rapid rate of assembly.10 . It is advised to compress the joint section with 0.4. have specific behaviors and a reduced effective slab width.25) can take up: Vad = τ b . shear keys have to be placed in the upper and lower slab to prevent the shifting of the slabs.2 MPa in order to spread the glue in all the section. we make the keys lead to the inner side of the box girder. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 84 septembre 2007 .3.3 - Deformation of prefabricated segments It has already been mentioned in paragraph 4. Furthermore. although this phenomenon is shared by all prefabricated structures: a transverse “banana-shaped” deformation occurs in the horizontal plane due to the thermal gradient between the segment in the process of hardening and the segment that has already been cast. The number of shear keys required is calculated accordingly: it is considered that the shear force of n segments is taken up by the shear keys alone in the first section at the end of polymerization. for the glue to evacuate when compressing the joint : for evident aesthetical reasons. Because some of the shear keys could break during stripping. Fig. Finally.5. they suffer from a problem that increases with width. In the case of prefabricated segments.25 – Prefabricated segment crowns 4. 0. as for cast-in-situ structures. that extremely wide structures.2. it is necessary to foresee additional keys. b with b representing the width of the shear key (0. 4. Once the adhesive has polymerized. for example).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide ftj σ characteristic tensile strength of the concrete normal stress at the centre of gravity of the section The shear keys alone have to take up the shear force before polymerization of the adhesive. these keys take up the the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab which slopes gradually towards the supports. A conventional shear keys such as the one shown hereafter (cf. several segments may be lashed before the first joint has had time to polymerize (up to four segments on the Ile de Ré bridge. 4. the shear force is taken up throughout the entire height of the web.

and secondly because several of them are placed in the same section (usually on a support).4. firstly due to their high individual power. application of the cantilever or continuity prestressing.Rules to combine passive reinforcements The stresses to be taken into consideration for the calculation of non-prestressed reinforcements result from: • • Transverse flexion General shear force (including torsion).July-August 1995]. The distribution of these forces in the structure gives rise to stresses which are added to the shear stresses described above.6 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This causes the joints to open up when the segments are brought together and thus leads to a non-uniform distribution of the stresses (in the transverse direction). revised in 1999 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 85 septembre 2007 . The following rules must be observed: • The combination of shear force and torsion reinforcements is carried out according to Articles 7.54 of the BPEL 91. an accumulated deformation of 24 mm can occur over a span of approximately 30 meters in length. In certain extreme projects. which can result in cracking at the ends of the joints. like continuity tendons. Fig. It should be noted that the distribution forces are only high for the external tendons. are less powerful and it is rare to find more than one pair of them in the same section. • The reinforcements include: • • A standard transverse reinforcement designed to take up the general shear force An additional reinforcement positioned in proximity to the concentrated efforts in order to take up the distribution of these forces. Cantilever tendons. forces due to the site loads or form travelers).4 of the BAEL 91. refer to the article in the PCI journal . revised in 1999 and A. The tangential stresses accompanying the general or localized flexion stresses result in shear stresses which are added to the shear stresses due to distribution described hereafter Localized forces (reactions from the support system. [For further information. 4.5.6. which results in moderate distribution.26 – Deformation of prefabricated segments 4.

internal side the following formulas are observed: Acis + Afl ext 2 A Ai = k cis + Afl int 2 Ae = k Obviously. In a single horizontal section of web.5 A2 with A1 distribution reinforcements ⎪min ⎨ A + A 2 ⎩ 1 ⎩ Acis A2 shear force and torsion reinforcements • In the slabs. Thus. as this does not require a specific position in the section. the combination of reinforcements must firstly take account of the non concomitance between the flexion forces. there is no combination of tie bar reinforcements with the transverse flexion reinforcements according to Article A.2 of the BAEL 91. it is not necessary for the areas of flexion and shear to be added up.3. revised in 1999. revised in 1999: ⎧ A1 ⎪ = max ⎨ ⎧1. As a consequence. It is equal τu to : k = 2 f sin β cos β u u 3 bu The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 86 septembre 2007 . we shall place reinforcements with a total section of Ae on the external side and Ai on the internal side must be implemented in such a way that. However when shear stress are close to limits or in the case of very important distribution stresses.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The combination of dispersion and shear reinforcements is carried out according to Article 4 of Appendix 4 of the BPEL 1991. the reinforcements on the opposite side may take up the shear force. Remarks The coefficient k represents the part of additional reinforcement necessary to take up the shear force. see the Article from D. place a minimum reinforcement of: A = Ai + Ae ≥ Acis Principle Indeed. using the following notation for the sections used to calculate the flexion reinforcements: Afl ext Afl int Flexion reinforcements. external side Flexion reinforcements.e. Le Faucheur on this topic in the "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°41 October 2002]. we will apply the combination rules quoted below for webs (zone of anchorage at the end of deck for example).5. Particular case of webs In the webs. we have to take up the shear force on the one hand and flexion on the other hand i. a loading case giving flexion reinforcements on the external side of Afl ext will not give reinforcements on the internal side Afl int ≈ 0 (except in the case of incorrect dimensioning requiring the use of compression reinforcements). [for further information on this theory.

the tie bar reinforcements must not be added to those determined by transverse flexion.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τu being the shear stress at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and bu the angle of the strut associated with the shear force and limited to 30° (in case of casting in two phases.444fc sin βu cos βu It has to be noted that this is a ultimate limite state calculation. It is then justified to take θ=0. the reinforcements for flexion has to be calculated at ULS and not at Service Limit State (SLS) as it is the case for detrimental cracking. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 87 septembre 2007 . The ultimate compressive strength of the concrete is equal to fbu = 0. This calculation principle is determining only for very thin webs. it is necessary to consider consistent loading cases for the accumulation of reinforcements: • If we consider the construction stages. Similarly. • Three zones can be distinguished for the reinforcements: • • • Transverse reinforcements in the upper slab with tie bar reinforcements Transverse reinforcement of the webs with shearing and distribution force frames Transverse reinforcement of the lower slab with tie bar reinforcements. Geometrically. or due to losses of tension in the cables. As a consequence. the coefficient k is equal to : k= τu 0.85 (for short term loads). the transversal flexion use a great part of its capacity and consequently it is necessary to complete the reinforcements to take up concurrently the shear force. for a cantilever tendon anchored in the height of the web.85 fc θ γc . In this hypothesis. In both cases. Webs It is usually possible to limit the loading cases with regard to transverse flexion. The complete study would be a useless complication. A symmetrical loading case produces maximum flexion in the webs. Indeed. maximum flexion is obtained when the bridge is in service. the transversal flexion is maximal at the top of the web where as the combination of general shear force and distribution force is under the anchorage (because shear stresses have the same sign under the anchorage and opposite sign above the anchorage). To simplify we can consider separately the characteristic combination for shear stress and the one for transversal flexion. the value of bu is 45°). Upper slab As mentioned above. whereas offset trucks produce maximum torsion and give a lower level of shear force. relatively large cross sections are obtained. The theory quoted above use concomitant load cases. whereas distribution is lower due to the existence of a certain symmetry in the anchoring forces on supports. fc is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. Otherwise it would be too severe and not coherent with the theory developped in this article.

Upper slab In general.e. This is the reason for the very long gussets which are usually used in this type of structure. attention should be focused on the relatively large tie bars between this slab and the web. The recommended spacing is approximately 0. it is necessary to place either some chair spacers between the two reinforcement layers. It is important to use reinforcements which are properly designed and properly constructed. Given that it is common to find prestressing ducts in the upper slab.27 and Fig 4. especially as this allows them to drop down inside the slab in accordance with bending moment. Bridge decks built by the cantilever method consist of box girders whose components are quite thin and are thus subjected to significant stresses.7 . it is advisable to position them underneath the two previous layers. In order to improve the casting quality of the slab and the webs.Recommended configurations for reinforcements This is an appropriate point to offer instructions and advice with a view to obtaining reinforcements that are satisfactory in terms of the behavior of the structure and feasible to implement.75 m. it is necessary to position duct supports sufficiently closely together in order to prevent the tendon from wobblingand make sure that there is no risk of the slab spalling once the tendons are stressed. transverse flexion forces are reduced due to the distribution of the imposed loads from the upper slab through the webs. When the slab is transversally prestressed by tendons. it is preferable to position the transverse reinforcements (main bars with larger diameters) in the external layer and the longitudinal bars (secondary bars) in the internal layer.27 – Reinforcement of the upper slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 88 septembre 2007 . to avoid reinforcements deformation which could give an unsufficient reinforcement for the durability of the structure. Fig. 4. In the case of very wide structures.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Lower slab In the lower slab. or some rectangular stirrups as it is the case in the lower slab (Fig 4.50 m to 0. no more than two transverse reinforcements and one stirrup (i.29). three reinforcements in a plan view) should be placed side by side. without being obstructed by longitudinal reinforcements. 4. Furthermore.

the rectangular stirrups add greater rigidity to the reinforcement and thus help to improve the cover of the reinforcement bars. Information concerning the precautions to be taken with compressed parts can be found in § A. hence the need for tie bars. It is not recommended to use compressed reinforcements to take up this force if the slab is of insufficient thickness.28 – Reinforcement of the upper gusset Lower slab In proximity to the piers. Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 89 septembre 2007 . a spalling force appears at the ends of compressed bars. which could lead to very strong radial thrust when tensioning with disastrous consequences. It is distinctly preferable to: • Thicken the slab. revised in 1999).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. being aware that the weight gain is small as the variation in thickness is generally parabolic and that this thickness is only apparent near the supports Or increase the compressive strength of the concrete in the bridge deck. In addition. Stiffness is necessary to prevent the ducts from shifting during the concreting under buoyancy. Consequently.29 – Reinforcement of the lower slab Lower gusset An example of the reinforcement of the lower gusset is provided below. The tendon ducts must be supported by a special structure. Indeed.8 of the BAEL 91. • In all cases. 4. 4. which must be absolutely welded to the main reinforcement. it is strongly recommended to place reinforcement rectangular stirrups rather than concrete chairs within the slabs in order to support the upper layers. the slab tends to delaminate due to compression. which weakens the overlapping areas and requires reinforcing with tie bars. the lower slab is submitted to very high compression.

30 – Reinforcement of the lower gusset Webs As for the slabs. the transverse reinforcements are positioned in the external layer. in the standard section of the web. It is essential to avoid overlaps along the walls.e. 4. i. which overlap in the full thickness of the upper and lower gussets Or by using large U-shaped part with a small U-shaped part as a top reinforcement.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. There are two possible ways to resolve this problem: • • By using two L-shaped parts. with the overlaps only occurring in the upper gusset (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 90 septembre 2007 . it is very rare for the web reinforcements to be contructed in full rectangular stirrup.31). They generally consist of two overlapping parts. 4. Considering the depth of the decks of bridges built by the cantilever method.

4.32). instead.32 – Reinforcements of webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 91 septembre 2007 . the longitudinal reinforcement cannot (save exception) respect the rules of alternated overlapping according to the Article 6. it is better to place the hook on the external side of the bridge deck. Longitudinal reinforcement In the case of segments cast in situ.31 – Webs reinforcement The transverse reinforcements are joined by transverse rebars embedded inside the web. At least four stirrups should be used per square meter or two rectangular stirrups if this solution is used. For the sake of durability.1. The angled return should not be placed parallel to the wall. 4. Fig.23 from BAEL. it should be angled towards the inside of the bridge deck (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4. generally in the form of stirrups ending on one side in a hook and on the other in a simple angled return. because of a problem of lack of space given the dimensions of the segment.

33 – A large SOP The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 92 septembre 2007 . In addition. taking account of the type of cement and any provisions that might be implemented in order to promote the regular and homogeneous cooling of the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Phenomenon specific to massive parts The segments on piers are massive parts for which it is advisable to carry out a specific analysis in order to evaluate the stresses due to thermal shrinkage during differential cooling in the body of the concrete after hydration of the cement. The temperatures rise in direct proportion to the volume and thickness of the cast concrete and its hydration heat. The risk of such reaction appears only for very large thickness. Fig. it can also lead to internal chemical reactions within the concrete itself. This analysis may lead to the development of an optimized sequence of operations for the segment on pier. Whatever the circumstances. known as sulfate reaction. around one meter for example. this rise in temperature does not only produce forces. 4. These can cause severe problems in the structure of the bridge itself. it is necessary to use crack control reinforcements capable of controlling any peripheral cracking in this structure.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 93 septembre 2007 . • Fig. asymmetrical site loads or a rising wind acting on one of the half-cantilever An accidental situation corresponding to the collapse of a form traveler or pre-cast segment. In the first case.1 .1 – Prefabricated cantilever under construction In both cases. the verifications to be carried out. It is essential to prevent the cantilever from tipping on the pier crosshead. in the second case. a slight detachment is tolerated with a limited overstressing of the stressed reinforcements that are used to secure the cantilever to its pier. For simplicity’s sake. 5. the partial safety factors for the combinations used for this verification are identical to those used in the calculation of stability.Principle of cantilever stability During the construction of segmental concrete bridges using the balanced cantilever method. different stabilization solutions and finally. it is verified that the cantilever does not detach from its temporary supports. It successively covers the causes of instability.Cantilever stability This chapter is entirely devoted to the problem of the stability of cantilevers in the construction phases. It is also important to verify the strength of all of the mechanical components which contribute to the stability of the cantilever and of the whole pier and its foundations. Two families of combinations should be analysed: basic combinations corresponding to the first situation and accidental combinations corresponding to the second. it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the cantilever arms on their pier before they are joined to the neighbouring cantilever or to the cast-on-falsework section on the end span near to the abutments. This second verification relates to the strength ultimate limit state. two types of situations leading to imbalances must be considered: • A temporary situation which occurs during construction when the cantilever is unbalanced due to the weight of a segment that is built or installed before its symmetrical counterpart is in place. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5 . To evaluate this risk. the combinations of actions to be used relate to the static equilibrium limit state.

The span arrangement.1 Different stabilization methods for cantilevers To a large extent. Before the construction of the first cantilever. the choice of the process used to stabilize the cantilevers depends on the general design of the structure (see Chapter 2).1.2.1 – Stitching by prestressing Stitching via prestress tendons is the most widely used method for stabilising cantilevers during the construction (Fig.Stability systems for cantilevers 5. We shall now examine them in detail. built high up on exposed sites. especially the site foremen and sub-foremen. Thus. The operations laid down in this report cannot be modified without the prior permission of the author and of the engineering office which performed the stability verifications. it must be approved by the engineering office and the site manager and must be read by everyone involved in the construction of the bridge deck. this is the most economical method for spans of less than 120 meters in length and whose relatively massive piers offer a large crosshead surface.2. Drafted by the site’s Organization and Methods Department.2). Furthermore. The method consists of tensioning vertical reinforcements in order to secure the segment on pier to its supports. A specific procedure must describe all of the construction phases. dimensioned plans. an additional ten-year wind value must also be carried out.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This chapter only provides general recommendations applicable to standard situations. for structures featuring large spans.2 . showing all of the systems to be implemented along with their quality and tolerances. 5. It should also be noted that the rules included in this chapter do not include construction errors or the failure to comply with construction procedures relating to the casting or assembly of segments or to the movement of form travelers or assembly equipment. In principle. Fig. 5. the contractor must supply the site with accurate. the final support system and the design of the piers are obviously major considerations when choosing this system. specify the order of phases that must be observed and provide warnings about any dangerous events with a reasonable probability of occurrence. 5.2 – Stability stitching by prestressing The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 94 septembre 2007 . This procedure brings together the different design calculations and construction methods. the loads to be used and the combinations of actions to be analysed must be adapted according to the sequence of construction operations and the equipment used on site. 5. Six main solutions can be used to stabilize cantilevers on their piers.

2 – Temporary pilings This method consists of increasing the center distance between the temporary support blocks by placing them on temporary metal or concrete pilings (Fig. it is always important to check what would happen in the event of an error in the construction process. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 95 septembre 2007 .4).3 – Section through the SOP with its stitching tendons In the lower end. this solution is not recommended. Prestressing tendons are sometimes replaced by prestressing bars. In the latter case. Their upper anchorages are generally placed in temporary prefabricated anchor blocks. The use of the definitive bearings during the construction of the cantilevers is not recommended because there is a significant risk of damage and. This is only feasible when the bridge deck is situated at a reasonable height above the ground (less than 15 meters or so). The stitching prestressing is generally centred on the centreline of the pier.1.3). For prefabricated structures. it is essential to adjust the bearings at the end of construction. 5. the bar may be subjected to parasitic flexion which could cause it to fail. a longitudinal offsetting from the base of the incremental launching beam produces a similar effect (due to the support reaction caused by its weight and its anchoring tendons). In the case of curved cantilevers. In these specific cases. next to or inside the support crossbeam. the anchorages may be situated on the side of the foundations or in anchor blocks housed on the inside of the piers if they are hollow. They then drop down through the segment on pier passing close to the webs. This applies: • • When a given direction of assembly or order of casting for the segments must be followed When the half-cantilevers are asymmetrical or made from different types of concrete. positioned on the upper slab. it is also possible to offset the tendons transversally in order to balance out the torsion moment due to the curvature of the bridge deck. the tendons are either tied off inside the pier shaft or anchored in the usual way. 5.2. However. Fig. 5. in the event of an incorrect alignment between the recesses built into the segment on pier and the pier crosshead. because. 5. the segment on pier rests on a set of temporary blocks on either side of the bridge bearing. The stitching reinforcements are positioned at the side of the temporary blocks. in any case. it may be beneficial to reduce the number of tendons by offsetting them longitudinally.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During construction. In certain specific cases. sometimes on a metal cross beam (Fig.

as the portal legs cannot take up the vertical loads until the cantilevers are connected. provided that the pilings are supported on the foundation bulkhead for the pier. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. If a single piling is used. especially when: • • The site is obliged to follow a fixed order of assembly or casting A difference in weight due to the geometry or to the use of lightweight concrete affects both of the halfcantilevers The structure is a portal bridge. this prestressing is essential in order to prevent the side opposite the piling from tipping over. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 96 septembre 2007 . 5. This is a viable solution for aquatic sites. • Vertical prestressing on pilings usually completes this system (Fig. However.5). a cantilever may sometimes be stabilized by a single piling.4 – Stabilization of a cantilever using temporary pilings This method is used on terrestrial sites in the following situations: • • • For total lengths in excess of 100 meters When the pier head dimensions are reduced. The cantilever is usually stabilized by two pilings positioned symmetrically in relation to the pier. often for architectural reasons When the pier shafts do not have enough resistance to flexion to stabilize the cantilever on their own.

5 – Stability provided by a single piling This prestressing may also be replaced by a counterweight placed on the same side as the piling (Fig. they are anchored in the first cantilever segments and pass outside the pier shaft (Fig. 5.7).6 – Cantilever stability by counterweight For information. a variant also exists for prefabricated structures.8. 5. 5. This method is especially used: • • For overall lengths of more than 100 meters When the dimensions of the pier head units are reduced and do not allow for a sufficient center distance between the stitching tendons (Fig. In the lower section. 5. they are anchored on massive counterweights on land. 5. [JAE 00]). They must be protected against corrosion and damage caused by impacts to their upper sections. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 97 septembre 2007 . This involves attaching the launch beam to one of the half-cantilevers via compression bracing in order to stabilize it.2. [JAE 00]) . The tendons must be injected for adhesion to the foundations.1. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5.6.3 – External tendons or temporary staying Stitching tendons may be positioned outside the pier in order to increase their efficiency. In this case. or fixed to the pier foundations (especially on aquatic sites where the lower anchorages can be housed on the bulkhead).

When the cantilever reaches the middle of the shorter span. In this situation.3] and [GAC 98]). An efficient and economical anchorage can also be provided by attaching the stays to the foundations of neighbouring piers. the structure must be stabilized using traditional methods. we should mention that it is sometimes better to stay the pier rather than the cantilever. These stays are very effective at absorbing the rocking motion around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the centerline of the bridge deck. 5.9 [BOU 94.10).2. 5. They supplement the fixed support or vertical stitching produced by the tendons on piers. In addition.1. The longer span is then built by overcantilevering.7 – Cantilever stability by external tendons Fig. 5.9 – Staying of a cantilever on the Tanus bridge Certain angled stays may also be used to limit the torsion of the pier under asymmetrical horizontal forces due to the action of wind on each half-cantilever (or under dynamic wind effects). At the start of the construction of the halfcantilever. 5. it is possible to use the closure of the small spans to stabilize the adjacent half-cantilevers (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 98 septembre 2007 . especially for very tall structures that have a short total span (although this is quite a rare occurrence). 5. the stays are anchored to a segment situated at a third or a quarter of the length of the halfcantilever in the upper section and to a counterweight block on the ground equipped with vertical ties or pilings working in traction. The stays usually consist of external prestressing tendons at moderate tension (30% of the tendon’s maximum tension).8 – Stability via tendons outside a pier with a small crossheadl A genuine system of temporary staying can also be used to resist wind-related dynamic stresses for tall structures with large span lengths or more modest structures in windswept sites: Fig. using the weight of the rear span to counteract the imbalance. 5.4 – Closure of the end span If the structure has spans of very unequal lengths or very short end spans. Fig. the central connection segment is assembled.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

5. Fig.1.10 – Closure of a rear span with counterweight and extended cantilever 5.2.3). requiring extra verifications under dynamic wind effects (see 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5.11).12 – Pier with double shafts For structures subjected to very strong winds. the stability calculation is given by the strength calculations for the pier shaft and foundations (Fig.1. additional stays are often necessary. 5. 5.5 – Embedding on a pier When the cantilever is permanently embedded on its pier.11 – Embedding of the cantilever on the pier Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 99 septembre 2007 .2.

it is possible to estimate the diameter of the pot bearing by considering that the elastomer stress reach 30 MPa under these same combinations.2.13 – Diagram showing pier head design The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 100 septembre 2007 . the pier heads must be designed to receive the following components (Fig. The dimensions of the plate can be estimated by considering that the stress on the concrete of the pier is limited to 0. 5. In the absence of such catalogues.6 fcj. 5. 5. Fig. 5.10 m or more for structures with large spans.13): • • • • • • The permanent bearings. In both cases. normally consisting of elastomeric pot bearings Stability blocks or temporary support blocks Stitching tendons Jacking points for cantilevers under construction or nearing completion. this surface area is calculated using a pressure of 13 to 15 MPa at the SLS under the same conditions as mentioned above.12).50 m for structures with short overall spans to 1.2 - Design of pier head units In the most common situations.50 x 0. For modestly-sized structures in which the bridge deck rests on laminated rubber bearings.10 x 1. The size of the permanent bearings varies enormously according to the structures: from 0. the minimum projecting ledge on the surface of the pier is 15 centimeters.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This solution is also required in the case of double pier shafts (Fig. These give the plan view dimensions according to the maximum reaction under rare combinations at the service limit state. Suppliers’ catalogues are useful for evaluating the surface area required for elastomeric pot bearings. or for changing bearings Systems for inspecting and testing bearings in service Seismic stops for protection in the event of earthquakes or impacts from boats.

Solid blocks may also be replaced with sand boxes which can be removed without having to raise the bridge deck.2).2. Indeed.5. These are given in paragraph 5.50 m) in order to limit the stress on the concrete to approximately 20 MPa. For information. Therefore.5.3 - Design of the segment on pier From the outset. They must be placed on metal blocks (e. for the changing of the bearings. It should also be noted that the clearance required between the underside of the bridge deck and the bearing base is approximately fifty centimeters for jacks with a capacity of 500 tonnes. However. 5. it is possible to reuse the area of the crosshead that had previously been reserved for the temporary blocks. 500-tonne jacks have a diameter of 40 centimeters.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the deviator tubes used to house the continuous external tendons and the dispersion reinforcements in the anchorages for the external tendons on the pier (Fig. measuring 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 101 septembre 2007 . The limit stress values obviously depend on the compressive strength of the concrete in the pier head units. The jacks must be capable of raising the entire cantilever before the placement of the closing segment in order to insert the permanent bearings and change the bearings when the structure is in service. the design of the segments on piers and pier head units must incorporate the constraints associated with the cantilever stability systems. 5.14 – Leveling and adjusting jacks and permanent bearing The surface area of the temporary blocks is determined by calculating the stability of the cantilever (see paragraph 5.2.16). 5. stability systems which cross the segment on pier vertically (prestressing tendons or bars) interfere with the cantilever tendons situated in the upper gussets.g.50 x 0. the raising of the deck must only be considered in the construction phase.

a distribution beam and vertical uprights must also be envisaged for the transmission of the jacking force when the cantilever has been completed. the tendons must be anchored in thick areas. The stitching tendons pass into the crossbeam on the pier if it is very thick or close to it and in proximity to the webs if it is thinner (Fig. In the upper part. 5.15 – Pier head unit on the Ile de Ré bridge Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 102 septembre 2007 . 5. A system consisting of anchor blocks. the stitching system shall be designed to transmit the forces towards the support blocks as directly as possible.17). In all cases.16 – Stitching of a cast-in-situ segment on pier It is also necessary to cross the highly reinforced areas of the lower slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. in light of the problems concerning the transmission of temporary and permanent support reactions towards the webs of the box girder. 5.

the BPEL 91 fixes the concrete’s unit mass at 2. • 5. This must be specified in the Special Technical Clauses. deviators. they represent the rules of good practice in the field and have been successfully used since 1975.3 . variable actions such as the wind (W) or a thermal gradient (Δθ).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. random construction loads (QPRA) and finally. for this particular phase in the construction of the cantilever and for all of the construction and service phases for the structure. construction loads whose size and position are known (QPRC). it is essential to formalize these loads in the contract The proposed design methods depart from the rules for the creation of combinations in the Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions) of 1979 (DC 79). The weight G of the cantilever is calculated using a unit weight γ of 24.17 – Adjustment of a prefabricated segment on pier 5.5 t/m3). For this situation. Accidental situations are also considered.5 KN/m3 according to the formwork plans (strictly speaking.Actions to considered The loads to be considered in this particular phase in the building of a cantilever correspond to loads in a construction situation. the measurement of the unit mass γt of the concrete used for the bridge deck (prestressed or reinforced) is based on the unit mass of ordinary concrete γb. anchor blocks and the other morphological characteristics of the structure. using a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 103 septembre 2007 . while taking account of the precise geometry of the bridge decks and particularly of the crossbeams. must be performed with the greatest of accuracy. It should be noted that: • The loads defined hereafter are not described in any statutory document. these include dead loads. 5.3. the BPEL 91 distinguishes between dead loads (G). however. Thus. site loads and an accidental action (FA). If high or low density aggregates are used.1 - Dead loads The evaluation of dead loads.

Fig. the approximate weight of the half-cantilever and the position of its centre of gravity can be determined using the following formulae (Krawsky’s formulae). it is obviously important to consider the offsetting of the weight of the cantilever. if the depth of the bridge deck varies parabolically and the thickness of the lower slab varies in linear fashion. For this type of concrete. and random loads.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide γt = γb + ρ 7. For example.85 × 7. The weight of a half-cantilever situated on the unbalanced side is increased by 2% (Gmax). A figure of ρ = 0. It should be noted that HPC is denser than traditional concrete. For curved bridges.2 - Variable execution loads The BPEL makes a distinction between site loads whose size and position are known. For the rough calculations.18 – Evaluation of the weight of a half-cantilever (NB: the selfweight of the half-cantilever calculated using this formula does not include the weight of the crossbeam on pier or the weight of the anchor blocks. which can be used for the preliminary calculations for the structure.18 at 0.γb ( ) with ρ = total ratio of stressed and non-prestressed reinforcements (in t/m3). whereas the weight of its corresponding half is decreased by 2% (Gmin). It is included here for illustrative purposes but it is not intended to replace precise calculations which remain indispensable. 5. which creates a transverse moment in the pier.85 . approximately 50 Kg/m3 should therefore be added to the aforementioned values. 5. with B1 designating the section on the pier and B0designating the crown section: P= d= (B1 + 2 B0 ) γ lf 3 (B1 + 5 B0 ) lf 4 × (B1 + 2 B0 ) with lf designating the length of the half-cantilever.22 t/m3 is normally used for bridges built by conventional cantilever segments. deviators and ancillary parts situated on the span).3. This simplified method allows for a manual approach. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 104 septembre 2007 . simplified formulae can be used to calculate the weight of a cantilever. for which a fixed allowance must be made.

this weight is highly dependent on the system used to stiffen the form traveler under the weight of the fresh concrete. In reality. these loads must be increased by + 6% on the side of the heavier half-cantilever or decreased by 4 % on the opposite side (QPRC1 max or QPRC1 min) according to the same principle as for the selfweight of the cantilevers.20) correspond to the materials stored on the bridge deck (e. known site loads mainly concern the reactions at the base of the launch beam during the installation of the segments.2.3. e. whose standard value varies between 0. the weight of the form traveler is sometimes considered to be equal to half the weight of the heaviest segment. small equipment (e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.g. cable rolls).3. cranes used assembling segments.90 MN according to the length of the segments and the width of the bridge deck.19).19 – Example of known site loads For cast-in-situ structures. 5. compressors). For prefabricated structures. maximum and minimum characteristic values are determined and applied in the most unfavorable way. staff and various climatic effects not considered elsewhere (rising pressure of wind under a half-cantilever). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 105 septembre 2007 . 5. If there are significant uncertainties concerning weights or positions. Fig.g. 5. launch beams.2.1 – Known site loads Known loads are loads whose weight and position can be specified in each phase of construction. In the calculations.g. At the rough calculation stage. expressed as QPRC1. form travelers.30 and 0. 5. With complex systems featuring prestressing bars. etc. this mainly concerns the weight of the form traveler.2 – Random site loads Random site loads (Fig. the weight of the structural steel can be significantly reduced. (Fig.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 106 septembre 2007 . The additional wind effect (Qw) is equivalent to a uniform load with an intensity of 100 to 200 N/m². compression bracing. for example in steep-sided valleys or in unstable areas where strong gusts of wind are common.3 of this chapter. This distributed load applies in a vertical direction from the bottom to the top on the horizontal frontal area of a half-cantilever. depending on the characteristics of the site. the intensities of the loads QPRA1 and QPRA2 must be calculated according to the equipment that is actually used on the site. Longitudinally. • These loads are arranged in such a way as to produce the most penalizing effect. which includes vertical wind force provided that the site is not exposed. Furthermore.2. This is covered in paragraph 5. small equipment. For other structures. This load. at the far end of the last completed segment (b designates the width of the upper slab of the box girder expressed in meters). For structures with an overall span of over 120 meters. this load represents the weight of cable rolls. to the centerline of the pier). the width of application is the width of the upper slab of the box girder.). in exceptional cases. etc. is applied to the completed segments and the form traveler A concentrated load (QPRA2) of (50 + 5 b) kN applied to the end of the cantilever. compressors. Transversally. It is essential to perform a specific study to analyze the nature of the site and the local climatic conditions before this load can be reduced for very large spans (over of 200 meters). it is important to consider an additional load.3 – Vertical wind force The load QPRA1 in the previous paragraph only includes the vertical wind force for structures with a total span of less than 120 meters.3.4. this force applies from the end of the form traveler to the row of temporary blocks situated on the same side (or. including those with more modest spans but which are exposed to frequent strong winds.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. etc.20 – Random site loads The following loads are used to cover unknown site loads: • An evenly distributed load (QPRA1) of 200 N/m²over a half-cantilever in standard situations (total span < 120 m). 5. a dynamic study is essential in order to evaluate the behaviour of the cantilever on its pier and determine how to stabilize the cantilever before the closing segment has been completed (staying. more simply. (tall structures with a large overall span and relatively flexible piers).

It should be noted that: • For the calculation of the piers and the foundations. In general the load is derived from the CECM (Convention Européenne de la Construction Métallique – European Convention for Structural Steelwork) regulations. Such places often include coastal or mountain valleys or sites exposed to winds that are renowned for their intensity. • 5.3. 5. This amounts to reversing the direction of the weight the form traveler QPRC1MAX or of the last prefabricated segment on one of the half-cantilevers (Fig.3 - Accidental actions The collapse of all or a part of an empty form traveler or a prefabricated segment during the assembly process (FA) is allowed for by a dynamic increase coefficient of 2 in order to take account of the energy accumulated by the deformation of a half-cantilever affected by the fall. However.4 – Horizontal wind force Horizontal wind force only needs to be considered in particular cases: for tall structures in sites which are exposed to strong and irregular winds caused by the morphology of the site. a lower value could be adopted if a specific analysis of the safety of the form traveler were to be carried out by the designers of this equipment at the start of the construction surveys (see Fascicule 65A of the French CCTG).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.3.21 – Form traveler in the process of being moved For a cast-in-situ structure. In this case. 5. the dynamic analysis prescribed in the previous paragraph must account for this horizontal wind force. 5. the calculations performed allow for the fact that the entire form traveler might fall.4 . The intensity of this load depends particularly on the height of the bridge deck and the ruggedness of the site. In the majority of cases. it is possible for any part that is not lashed by prestressing to collapse during one or more phases of the assembly sequence.2. the whole of the cantilever and its pier should be loaded For very tall structures.21). it is possible for any mobile load to collapse during one or more of the form traveler’s phases of movement. we consider that one of the half-cantilevers is subjected to a uniform load of QWt. Fig.Combinations of actions during construction The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 107 septembre 2007 . This load must be evaluated on an individual basis for each project. For prefabricated structures.

these verifications must be systematically performed for the casting or assembly of every pair of segments. The following actions should therefore be studied: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 108 septembre 2007 . Therefore. as they are not regulations in the legal sense of the term. The other segment has not yet been assembled. During the construction surveys. a distinction can be made between a temporary construction situation. even if the sequence of assembly or construction operations calls for simultaneous operations. relating to a verification under a fundamental combination.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Cantilevers must be verified with regard to: • • The ultimate limit state of static equilibrium.4. etc. As we have already mentioned. the key phase at the pre-design level can be considered to be casting of the final pair of segments. at the preliminary design phase for prefabricated structures. the perfect synchronization of operations cannot be guaranteed For a cast-in-situ structure. It is essential to analyse this imbalance on a systematic basis. For cast-in-situ structures. The cantilever is therefore analysed with an imbalance of one segment. it must be officially agreed in the Special Technical Clauses that these rules differ from the recommendations of the DC79. It is assumed that both form travelers have been moved forward and that the casting of one of the two segments has been completed. pilings. relating to a verification under an accidental combination. It is assumed that one of the two segments has been lashed to the end of the cantilever and has been released by the assembly equipment. the rules described hereafter are not as strict as those in the 1979 Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions). 5. temporary stays. even if casting is carried out simultaneously. the cantilever is studied during the assembly of the final pair of segments. according to which it would be necessary to apply a load factor of 1. Likewise.1 - Combinations in temporary construction situations (Type a) For the verification of static equilibrium at ultimate limit states. considering the nature of the actions. the different elements (blocks. tendons. aiming to ensure the stability of the cantilevers on their pier The ultimate limit state of strength: for the different elements whose role is to provide stability and for the elements which are stressed during these phases.9 to the selfweight of the other side. especially the pier head units. the piers and their foundations. the cantilever must not move from its temporary supports. For the verification at ultimate limit states of strength. an incident during casting may lead to fresh concrete being emptied from one of the form travelers.1 to the the selfweight of one side and 0. whilst the casting of the other segment has not yet been performed. although the strength of the pier must be verified. For each limit state. or the form traveler has been emptied due to a defect in the concrete. This is because: • • For a prefabricated structure.) and the supports and foundations are verified using partial coefficients of safety for the materials corresponding to the fundamental combination. and an accidental situation. If the cantilever is embedded on the pier. no static equilibrium verification is required.

1 segments on left) (n segments on right) Fig.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) The left-hand form traveler is empty (n .9 (G max + G min) + 1. 5. or which are exposed to strong and frequent winds (see 5.4. the structure must be capable of resisting the collapse of a form traveler (or of a segment in the case of a prefabricated structure). 5.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) Combination A2: 0.22 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures (n . 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 109 septembre 2007 .1 (G max + G min) + 1.1 segments on left) The right-hand form traveler contains a segment (n segments on the right) Fig. In an accidental situation.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ QW]) Combination A2: 0.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) In these formulae.3.22) Combination A1: 1.3) For prefabricated structures (Fig. and the supports and foundations supporting the cantilevers.23) Combination A1: 1. 5. Qw refers to the additional wind action to be considered for structures with a total span length of more than 120 meters.9 ((G max + G min) + 1.23 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For cast-in-situ structures (Fig.2.2 - Accidental construction combinations (Type b) These combinaisons are used for verifications at ultimate limit states of strength under accidental combinations involving elements designed to provide the temporary fixed supports.1 (G max + G min) + 1.

1 segments on the left) (nv segments on the right) Fig.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) (nv .g. the cantilever may be lifted off its temporary support blocks. 5.g. e.25 – Accidental situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.3 - Specific rules for very tall structures Very tall structures are usually very sensitive to the action of the wind. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 110 septembre 2007 . but also to verify the behaviour of the cantilever under dynamic wind effects. but security is maintained by bringing the full capacities of the materials into play. which is carried out using one or more specialist wind effect programs (e.25) Combination B1: 1.1 (G max + G min) + FA -+ (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case. it is essential to perform a turbulent wind analysis at the ultimate limit state. For cast-in-situ structures (Fig. Specific rules must be applied to them. the French PCP program). 5.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) The left-hand form traveler is empty (nv . This specific dynamic analysis.1 segments on the right) Fig. not only to avoid penalizing them with an excessively high equivalent static pressure. the tendons could be overstressed.1 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. For large cantilevers. is designed to assess the amplitude of the oscillations caused by wind turbulence on a flexible structure. when the sum of the span length and of the height of the pier exceeds 180 meters. 5.4.24) Combination B1: 1.g. e.1 segments on the left) The left-hand form traveler contains a segment (nv . in the case of temporary prestressing.24 – Accidental situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures For prefabricated structures (Fig. 5.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 111 septembre 2007 . 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This calculation requires: • A static description of the wind and its fluctuations (reference wind speed. • • The accumulated static and dynamic effects are used to determine and verify the stresses in the concrete and the reinforcements for the pier shaft. For these calculations. The reader may also refer to the document entitled "Comportement au vent des ponts" (Behaviour of Bridges in Wind) published by the AFGC. which could cause problems with regard to the deadlines allowed for the construction surveys.Verification and dimensioning of the anchoring elements In this section. The position of each block or temporary support includes an installation error of 5 centimeters (in the sense of a reduction in the space between these temporary supports). wind turbulence.) A dynamic modal analysis of the structure. the segment on pier is considered to be undeformable. etc. (Some of these coefficients can by determined for simple shapes by applying the rules of Eurocode 1 – Actions du vent et de la neige sur les structures [Actions of wind and snow on structures].26). giving the deformities and durations of the fundamental modes of vibration in addition to the corresponding generalized masses The aerodynamic characteristics (drag.3] and "Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez " (The Bourran Viaduct at Rodez [BOU 91] for additional details. The verifications of the stabilizing elements for the other methods are presented in a more summary fashion in the following section. In the construction phase.5 . the Special Technical Clauses must comprehensively describe the actions. 5. Wind tunnel testing must be carried out for the others). they are performed with a fifty-year wind at the ultimate limit state and also at the service limit state. It is important to specify that the dynamic analysis of wind effects must be carried out at the design stage because it may raise questions about the design of the structure and also because the collection of data required for this calculation often takes quite a long time. ruggedness of the site. lift and moment coefficients) of the bridge deck and piers. altitude. In service. the dynamic calculations are performed at the ultimate limit state only and by take account of the ten-year wind effect. we shall specifically study the stability of cantilevers resting on two rows of temporary blocks and stitched onto their piers by two rows of tendons (Fig. in addition to the articles entitled "Pont de Tanus: Les études des effets du vent" (The Pont de Tanus: Wind Effect Analyses) [BOU 94. the combinations of actions and the safety coefficients to be adopted. As the current regulations are quite limited with regard to this type of verification.

g.80 f prg . M and N are calculated for each of the four combinations A1.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon. there is no risk of the cantilever tipping over. A2. 5.5. e is the distance between the centerlines of the two rows of temporary support blocks and d is the distance between one tendon and the opposite row of blocks (Fig. we calculate the eccentricity of the resultant of forces M/N. 0. It is difficult to give advice with regard to the minimum values of e and d because they are highly dependent on the length of The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 112 septembre 2007 . one pair of 12T15 tendons per row of blocks).27). 5. B1 and B2. however. in theory. Firstly. We use: Ra = N M − + Fi2 2 e and Rb = N M + + Fi2 2 e With Fi2 = 2 × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of a line of two tendons with p the % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0.27 – Geometry of the stitching system In the event that M/N < e/2. The values of e and d are derived from the dimensions of the segment and the pier head unit. a minimum of two pairs of tendons are used for safety reasons (e. this means that stitching tendons are not necessary. Fig.26 – System of stitching to a pier using tendons 5.1 - Calculating the number of cables M and N are the stresses resulting from type A and B combinations.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5.

5. of the blocks in the other row supports (Fig. In the event that M/N > e/2. 5. 5. 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide the cantilever and the width of the box girder. we have: ⎛M N⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ e 2⎠ n×s = ⎝ (1 − p) × σp0 while still estimating the losses at p %. Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e with Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of n tendons of a line with p % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0. The prestressing must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N (Fig. 5.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift up. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 113 septembre 2007 . Values of 3. This requires pier head units of between 4. stitching tendons must be used to restore the balance of the cantilever.50 m are common for e and d. a distinction is made between type A and type B combinations. the segment on pier remains in equilibrium due to the increase of the tendons tension ΔTg in a row of temporary supports and the compression Rb.80 f prg .1. 5. To calculate the number of tendons to be used.00 m wide. 5.28).00 to 3. Fig.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) Under the action of the resultant N and the moment M of the loads applied to the cantilever.50 and 5.5.1.28 – Forces in tendons and support reactions Therefore.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon.29).

It should be noted that ΔTd is either negative or positive but less than ΔTg. according to the position of the blocks in relation to the tendons. We and Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (with p being the % of losses) and: γp = 1. We obtain Fg and Fd according to Fu1 and Fi in the equations also know that: Ful = n × s × fpeg γp . and and they are carried over into . we can determine the number of tendons n: N× e ⎞ d ⎛ n × s = ⎜M − ⎟× 2 ⎠ K ⎝ The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 114 septembre 2007 . with ΔTg and ΔTd being the variations in tension of each line of tendons (positive for a lengthening of the tendons). Fu1 is their limit tension at the ULS. can be expressed in the following way: Fg = Fi + ΔTg ≤ Ful Fd = Fi + ΔTd ΔTg ΔTd = d (e − d) Ne + M + Fd × (d − e ) = 0 2 − Fg × d − R b − Fg − Fd − N = 0 Fg and Fd refer to the tensions in each line of tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. Fi is their initial force.00 for accidental combinations fpeg already defined above From this.29 – Tipping of the cantilever with overtension of the tendons The equilibrium of the forces applied to the segment on pier when it rotates at an angle of dα around a row of blocks and when the tendons lengthen or shorten.

the longer the tendons. which corresponds to 6 centimeters for non-injected 20 meters cables. they are not usually injected with cement grout. The number given by the preceding calculations is rounded up to the next biggest even number. If the designer considers the rotation of the cantilever to be too great. which may cause dynamic effects that could aggravate the phenomenon during the rotation of the cantilever. the rotation of the cantilever must be verified in the event of an accident. the stretching ΔL can be evaluated at L × segment on pier is: tan(α ) = L Δσ × d Es For very tall or highly flexible piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide with s: cross-section of a tendon and K = (1 − p ) × σp0 × (2d − e ) × (e − d) + fpeg γp × d2 + (d − e ) . their extensibility and therefore their elasticity are significant. the greater will be the rotation. The calculation of rotation gives an angle of 1 degree for a tendon situated 3. under the effect of the stretching of the tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 115 septembre 2007 . 2 [ ] Next.5. Therefore. we can now dimension the blocks in rows A and B. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that.50 meters from the opposite row of blocks: a value which is considered to be acceptable.2 - Calculating the surface area of the blocks We use the maximum number of tendons per row. Consequently. as the cantilever stabilization tendons are temporary. In fact. Knowing the prestressing force applied by each group of tendons. this stretching can reach approximately 3%. it is necessary to add the rotation of the pier head unit under the effect of the unbalance moment M and the variations in tension of the stitching tendons. the rotation of the Es and the lengthening of the cables is equal to: For tendons with a free length of L. The variation in tension in the line of tendons situated on the side of the rising force is equal to: Δσ = fpeg γp − (1 − p ) × σ p0 ε= Δσ Es Δσ . the response is to limit the increase of the tendons tension by establishing a reduction coefficient for the value of the ultimate force of the tendons Ful. 5. if they are anchored at the foot of a very tall pier. In standard situations in which losses are 20%. taking account of the need to place the bundles of tendons close to each web.

= K fbu with: fbu Ultimate strength of the concrete at ULS fbu = 0. 5.00 for loads with long duration of application ⎡ 4⎛a b ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4 a 0 ⎞ ⎛ 4 b0 ⎞ K = 1 + ⎢3 − ⎜ 0 + 0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 3. its characteristic strength under compression can be increased.30 – Temporary blocks consisting of sand boxes 5.8.23 of the BAEL 91 fixes this stress at: ⎛ f ⎞ fcf = fcj × ⎜1 + 2 × ρ t × e ⎟ ⎜ fcj ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ with p representing the percentage of steel in the single hooped core.1 – Normal construction situation (A combinations) The surface area of the blocks is such that they are compressed to fbu under the maximum reaction Rb. with 2% of hooping (a standard value).50 for Type A combinations 1.4. for blocks positioned on high and massive bearing blocks. this gives approximately: fcd = fc28 + 20 MPa On the other hand. Article A.8 of the BAEL 91). For example. The maximum value not to be exceeded is fclim. the compressive stress in the concrete used for the bearing block is limited in order to avoid splitting the pier (Article A.85 × fcf θ × γb fc28 γb θ Characteristic strength of the concrete under compression 1.04.4 and Appendix E.3 ⎟ ⎜1− b ⎠⎦ ⎝ 3 a ⎠ ⎝ 3 b ⎠ ⎣ 3⎝ a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 116 septembre 2007 .2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.5.. with an upper limit of 0.8. As the concrete of the blocks and the pier crosshead is hooped.

allowing for the dimensions of the permanent bearings and of all of the fittings on the pier heads.61 to 0.4. we have: S = 2×a×b = Rb f c max fclim 0.3 (classification T 47. fcf) Supposing that there are two blocks of dimensions a × b per support row.98 fcj a and b are determined by examining the plan view of the pier head unit.94 to 0. Appendix A of the standard NF EN 1337.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The same principle is applied.31 – Plan view dimensions of a block and its bearing block The table below gives the orders of magnitude of the critical values given by this calculation according to the strength of the concrete and the type of verification to be carried out: Type of combinations at the Ultimate Limit State Fundamental combination only including permanent actions Fundamental combination with variable actions Accidental combinations The maximum stress that must not be exceeded is therefore: fcmax = Min (fclim .65 fcj 0.3 in the last formula. Article A.5. 5. Such overhangs are rarely compatible with the dimensions of the pier head unit.75 fcj 0. Fig. 5.85 for type B combinations for loads with a short duration of application The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 117 septembre 2007 . Appendix E.15 0. the support surface must have a large overhang in relation to the blocks.8 of the BAEL 91).820-2) may also be referred to. which considers uniformly loaded B0 surfaces.72 to 0.2. Therefore: γb θ 1. Hooping identical to that used on the permanent bearings is calculated and added to the lower face of the segment on pier and underneath the temporary blocks (cf. but with an accidental combination.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In order to obtain the critical value of 3.8.

e. to 400 MPa. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 118 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Firstly. or limit the working stress ratio of the reinforcement bars to the ULS under this same type of combinations. 5. For this. there is no lifting up and the surface area of the blocks S is calculated by the formula: S = 2×a×b = Rb fc max If Ra is negative. γs =l. whilst those of type B are accidental combinations (γb =l. e. we solve the equations This gives: Rb = K ⎞ e ⎛ × ⎜ Fi × K 4 + N × 3 + M ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ K1 ⎝ 2e ⎠ to . Type A combinations are considered to be fundamental combinations. The vertical reinforcement bars of the pier shaft must be verified at the ultimate limit states for bending and compression under the action of N and M.15.3 - Calculation of the pier shafts and foundations The static equilibrium combinations calculated previously for the equilibrium of the cantilever and the verification of the anchoring elements are directly used to verify the pier and its foundation at the strength ultimate limit state. However. The dimensions of the blocks determined in this way must be increased by 5 to 10 centimeters for the coating of the hoops. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this verification is only carried out at the ULS. the piers must also be verified at the SLS and ULS for all other situations in the construction and service phases. i. with the equivalent of type A combinations at SLS. but this time Fg = Fi + ΔTg. To account for this phenomenon. without modifying the coefficients of these combinations. we can either perform an additional calculation at SLS by transposing type A combinations. Ra and Rb are calculated as if the cantilever was not lifting up: Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e If Ra is positive. we verify that the cantilever does lift up with the number of tendons determined previously.g.5. with: K 1 = d 2 + (d − e ) K 3 = 2 × K1 − e2 K 4 = (2d − e ) × K2 e × d2 2 K 2 = d3 + e × (2d − e ) × (d − e ) We determine the surface area of the blocks S using the same formula described previous paragraph.00). It is thus important to limit the cracking of piers in temporary construction situations. < Fu1 (this time Fi is known).

The stability of the piling must then be verified. this paragraph gives some information about the verification of cantilevers that are stabilized by temporary pilings or stays used outside the piers.32): • As a simplification. 5. the force exerted by a row of cables is Fi The pier. the type A combination is only studied.6. Further details about the values to be used in the calculations can be found in the BAEL 91 or BPEL 91. it is essential to perform a calculation to the second geometrical and mechanical order in order to prevent the buckling of this support. e is the center distance between the two rows of cables. the cross section of one row of cables is s. Type A and B combinations are studied by verifying the same criteria as for a cantilever secured exclusively by vertical stitching tendons situated in the pier. For prefabricated structures. 5. However. the length of the cables is 1 and their modulus is E. For short and massive pilings. Next. The fact that there is no detachment from the support on the piling means that the stitching tendons placed in line with the piling can now be dimensioned. Under type B combinations. The cantilever then rests on one or two rows of blocks (type A or B combination) and on the piling situated on the side of the imbalance. The same type of calculation is used in the case of two pilings placed symmetrically in relation to the pier. 5. It is vital to connect the piling to at least the pier head and to connect very tall pilings to the shaft at one or more intermediate levels.1 - Verifications of stability due to temporary pilings In the case of a single piling. The details of the verifications are the same as those given in the preceding paragraphs to which the reader can refer. the collapse of the form traveler is replaced by the collapse of the segment being moved in the aforementioned verifications. Therefore. the verification rules are similar to those described previously.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. detachment from one of the pilings is authorized under type A and B combinations. we shall study the case of an imbalance on the opposite side to the piling during the assembly or casting of the second of the pair of segments. while taking account of an additional eccentricity of the blocks in both directions or of a fault in the angle of the piling shaft. the stitching cables are situated in line with the temporary blocks.2 - Verifications of stability due to cable staying The cable stays must be arranged in the most symmetrical arrangement possible in order to minimize the disturbance to the geometry of the cantilever during construction. For this calculation. the tension increase in the stitching tendons and the angle of rotation of the cantilever are limited to a value to be determined in the Special Technical Clauses (to approximately one degree). it is necessary to make the following simplifying assumptions (Fig. of height h and constant inertia I. For very slender pilings. a deviated bending and compression calculation suffices.6. is considered to be embedded on its foundation • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 119 septembre 2007 . because the form traveler or the prefabricated segment on the piling side has been made safe and is no longer likely to fall.6 .Verifications of other stabilization methods Without being exhaustive. The blocks must not lift up under type A combinations. Here. we start by studying the imbalance on the side of the piling (the side where the first of a pair of segments is cast or assembled).

we shall instead assume that cable stays are required. Fig. the cable stays are all identical.32 – Forces applied to the cantilever without detachment from the support In the absence of cable stays and supposing that the cantilever does not lift off. the initial force of a row of cable stays is noted as Fi’ (or Fg’ and Fd’ taking account of the variations in tension due to the tilting of the cantilever) The cantilever is considered to be undeformable in terms of longitudinal flexion (this hypothesis remains valid if the cable stays are not attached too far from the pier). the cantilever does not need to be stayed. the support reactions on the rows of blocks A and B are as follows: RA = RB = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e In general.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Each row of cable stays has a cross section of s’. the support blocks are dimensioned by verifying the compression on row B for type A and B combinations. the cross sections of the cable stays are dimensioned by limiting their increasing of the tension and the rotation of the cantilever under all combinations (types A and B) and by making sure that the blocks in row A are not decompressed under type A combinations Once the cross section of the cable stays has been determined. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 120 septembre 2007 . In order to calculate the cross-section of the cable stays. • Furthermore. of modulus E^ and length 1’ . it must be remembered that the stabilizing cable stays contribute additional flexion forces that must be taken up by the cantilever tendons. As with cantilevers stitched by two rows of cables. • The calculation described hereafter does not follow this scheme but the underlying principles are clearly shown. if the reaction RA is positive. As this situation is of little relevance to this paragraph. 5. there are two stages to the calculation: • Firstly. we differentiate between situations with type A and type B combinations.

6. In fact. this low initial tension means that they can be used as temporary cable stays on other cantilevers on the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. due to the flexibility of the pier under rotation.2.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift off. we have: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 121 septembre 2007 . It is thus necessary to verify that there is no movement from the blocks and that there is an acceptable amount of variation in the tension of the cable stays and in rotation of the cantilever. the cable stays are subjected to variations in tension and the cantilever rotates to a certain extent. As the cantilever does not lift off from its support blocks. when stressed in this way. Their tensions are equivalent to: Fg’=Fi’+ΔTg’ and Fd’=Fi’+ΔTd’ As the cantilever is undeformable. On the other hand. Finally. The staying must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N RA = RB = N M − + Fi + Fi ' ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi + Fi ' 2 e In general. Furthermore. they only undergo very small delayed losses. the tension increases are larger than those of the tendons. Given that: k is the flexibility of the pier under rotation: k = h E Ip ( θ = k Mp ) with hp : Ip : E: θ: Mp : height of pier its inertia modulus of the pier concrete angle of rotation of the cantilever moment applied to the pier head unit l' E s s' K’ is the flexibility of the cable stays: K ' = with Es : modulus of the cable stays ΔTg’ and ΔTd’ are the variations in tension of the cable stays under the effect of the rotation of the cantilever. the stitching tendons are not subjected to any tension increase. the cable stays are made to work at 30% of their maximum capacity.

but the detachment of the cantilever from block A is permitted while limiting the rotation of the cantilever. it is necessary to verify that: ⎛ k e' 2 M ⎜1− ⎜ 2 K' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ≤ ⎜ Fi + Fi ' + N ⎞ e ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ 5. Thus. we obtain the support reactions: R A = Fi + Fi ' + k e' 2 N M⎛ − ⎜1− 2 e ⎜ 2 K ' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ R B = Fi + Fi ' + N − R A However.33 – Forces applied to the cantilever in the event of its detachment from the support on side A The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 122 septembre 2007 .6. 5.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide θ ≈ tg θ = 2 Δl g ' e' = −2 Δl d ' e' (Δl'g et Δl'd are the variations in length of the cable stays) Given that: θ ≈ tg θ = 2 K' ΔTg ' e' = − 2 K' ΔTd ' e' e' k 2 K' θ = k Mp and therefore: ΔTg ' = Mp and ΔTd ' = − Mp e' k 2 K' The moment Mp is expressed by: Mp = M − ΔTg ' e' e' + ΔTd ' = M − ΔTg ' e' 2 2 We can therefore determine the tension in the cable stays and the rotation of the cantilever: Fg ' = Fi ' + M θ≈ 2 K' k 2 K ' + k e' 2 k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 M and Fd ' = Fi ' − M k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 By expressing the equilibrium on block B. this calculation is only valid if a block A remains compressed. Fig.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The calculation is similar.

we have: Mp = M − Fg ' e' e' e + Fd ' + ΔTg 2 2 2 or by replacement in the expression of ΔTg’ : ΔTg ' = Mp k e' k e' k e' 2 k e e' =M + Fd ' − Fg ' − ΔTg 2 K' 2 K' 4 K' 4 K' ( ) which can be introduced into Fg‘ : e + e' ⎞ ⎛ Fg ' 4 K ' + k e' 2 = 4 K ' Fi + 2 k e' M + k e' 2 Fd ' − ΔTg ⎜ k e e' − 2 K ⎟ e ⎠ ⎝ ( ) The sum of Fg’ and Fd’ gives: Fg ' + Fd ' = 2 Fi ' + ΔTg K K' and the equilibrium of the moments on block B M + Fd ' e' − e e' + e e − Fg ' − ΔTg e − N = 0 2 2 2 The resolution of equations . Their tension can be expressed as: Fg = Fi + ΔTg If we note K as the stiffness of the tendons ( K = l ) Es s as the cantilever is undeformable.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The additional terms ΔTg1’ and ΔTdl’ due to the rocking of the bridge deck on block B are added to the expression of the tensions in the cable stays (Fig. Fg’ and ΔTg. we must add the effect of the overstressing of the tendons in row A under moment M. 5. the tendons in row A are overstressed. we obtain the support reaction RB: RB = Fd’ + Fg’ + 2Fi +N + ΔTg B The rotation of the cantilever is the sum of the flexion rotations of the shaft and of the rocking around the support B: θ ≈ 2 Fg ' − Fd ' ( ) K'' + ΔTg K e e The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 123 septembre 2007 . Therefore. the variations in the lengths of the tendons and cable stays are proportional: ΔTg1 ' = ΔTg K (e + e' ) 2 e K' et ΔTd1 ' = ΔTg K (e − e' ) 2 e K' Finally. and gives Fd’. B By expressing the equilibrium on block B.33): Fg’ = Fi’ + ΔTg‘ + ΔTg1’ et Fd’ = Fi’ + ΔTd’ + ΔTdl’ On the other hand.

1 . 6. Notable examples outside of France include the Norwegian bridges of Stolma and Rafsundet. Therefore.1. low-bed semi-trailer.) and cantilever stabilization systems. the Brisbane Bridge in Australia and the Hamana bridge in Japan. The The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 124 septembre 2007 .1). 6. The internal formwork is either built from traditional wooden shuttering or carried out using an articulated metal tool. Every year. fixed to metal inserts embedded on the top of the pier head unit. 6. the gussets gusset and the base of the webs. 6. The external formwork consists of fixed metal shuttering. all of which are notable for their great span. This applies to the vast majority of bridges.1 - Segments on piers Segments on piers are always built using special formwork which is specially designed for this part of the bridge deck and assembled on a work platform attached to the tops of the piers (Fig 6. etc. Fig. crane.1 – Construction of segments on piers The working platform.). this includes a detailed description of the prefabrication plant and the equipment used for the transportation and assembly of segments (launch beam. Segments on piers are usually built in two phases: the first phase includes the lower slab.Construction using cast-in-situ segments When fewer than 350 to 400 segments need to be constructed.2). the second Genevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway and the viaduct over the River Loire at Cheviré.Construction technology This chapter covers the technology required for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges using the cantilever method.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 . It has cut-outs in the middle for direct access to the underside of the segment on pier and the top of the stability blocks and bearings. the Viaur viaduct at Tanus for the RN88 main road. On certain structures with only one or two piers. the length and thus the cost of the external shuttering for the SOP are reduced by using the external formwork of the form travelers to encase the lateral sections of these segments. numerous bridges are built using this method in France and abroad. The second part is dedicated to structures made from prefabricated segments. is externally rectangular in shape (Fig. Some of the largest structures built in recent years include the bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. the second phase features the rest of the transverse section and the crossbeam on pier. form travelers etc. The first part deals with cast-in-situ structures and pays particular attention to the design of temporary structures (form work for segments on piers. the bridge deck is cast in-situ.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide completion time for a segment on pier is 6 to 10 weeks for a traditional structure but may stretch to 15 weeks for structures which are very wide and/or with a very lon span . each of which performs a particular function: • A metal structure: used for attaching the form traveler and the future segment to the most recently constructed segment Metal shuttering panels: used for giving the concrete the required shape Gangways and work platforms: for access and to allow employees to work in all areas of the segment being built. they are usually broken down into three families according to the position of their supporting beams or their main beams in the metal framework.2 - Standard segments 6. this equipment is either built specifically for the site or existing equipment is adapted to suit the site.1. • • Fig.3). 6. 6. form travelers include three major elements. 6. Like many other formwork tools.1.2 – Work platform for segment on pier formwork 6. Fig.1 – Background information about form travelers Standard segments are built using highly complex formwork equipment called form travelers (Fig. Depending on the situation.2. These categories are: • Form travelers with supporting beams situated above the upper slab Page 125 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .3 – General view of a form traveler Although a large variety of form travelers are available.

6. which are commonly used for very tall or wide segments. the first type of form travelers is no longer widely used in France. those with supporting beams situated along the webs. especially because the absence of any beams at the base of the segment to be constructed makes it possible to insert a reinforcing cage that has been entirely prefabricated at ground level (Fig 6. 6. the second type of form travelers. i. with supporting beams situated along the webs. they are regularly used in other countries (Fig.4 – Upper clearance of a “below-slab” form traveler Frequently used after World War II. In the rest of this chapter.5 – Upper clearance of an “above-slab” form traveler The third type of form travelers is only used in very specific cases.5). In France.e. is by far the most commonly used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Form travelers with supporting beams situated along the webs of the box girder Form travelers with supporting beams situated below the lower slab. which are ideal for segments of a standard height and width. Fig. as opposed to the first type of “above-slab” form travelers. and form travelers with a smaller cross beam and launch or transfer beams. Fig. The second and third types of form travelers are often called “below-slab” models.4). However. 6. This family of form travelers can be split into two subgroups: those with an upper beam of the same width as the box girder. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 126 septembre 2007 . we have decided to concentrate exclusively on the second type of form travelers.

This girder is situated at the end of the form traveler on the segment n + 1 side.3 – Operation of form travelers with full upper beam The design of the different elements described above takes account of two very different situations: the movement of the equipment on the one hand. sometimes referred to as a transverse transfer beam. supporting the formwork for the underside of the cantilevers and the external faces of the webs. supporting the formwork for the internal surfaces of segment n and situated under the central part of the upper slab.6): Fig. the connections between the three sub-structures are as follows: • • The upper beam rests upon the upper slab of segment n-1 The U-shaped structure is fixed to the upper beam via rods across the upper slab that has already been constructed.1. • • 6. 6. the Tanus bridge [SER 98].6 shows the specific example of a C-shaped upper beam) Sliding beams.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. along with the formwork for the lower slab. with segment n being the segment to be cast. positioned on the upper slab of segment n-1. which is also a lattice girder. horizontal bracing is added to these two elements and situated under the lower slab An upper crossbeam. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 127 septembre 2007 .2 – Simplified description of form travelers with full upper beams In recent years. 6. the Digoin viaduct [DIEU 00]. In the static phase. and one vertical “front” beam. etc. called supporting beams. at its free end (Figure 6. their metal framework consists of three large sub-structures (Fig. In certain cases.6 – Principle of the framework for a form traveler with lateral beams • A large U-shaped structure situated under the bridge deck.1. these form travelers have been used in the construction of numerous bridge decks and notably those of the second Pont Salomon viaduct [DEW 01]. this structure consists of two large longitudinal lattice girders. these rods are highly prestressed in order to reduce the deflection of the U-shape under the weight of the concrete The sliding beams are supported on the front beam on the side of segment n+1 and attached to the upper slab via transverse hangers on the side of segment n-1.2. Described schematically. cabling and concreting on the other.2. and the reinforcement.

7 – Static schema of the form traveler during translatory movement Fig. or via brackets extending out from the upper beam under the cantilevers (in which case.11).9).8 – Supporting beams rested on C-shaped upper beam ends The movement of the upper beam and the U-shaped structure is carried out using long-stroke horizontal jacks situated on the upper slab and pushing against the upper beam (Fig. it has a tendency to tip on the crown side. • Fig. 6. the sliding beams are moved by tackle (Fig. 6. Other methods are also used.7). 6. 6.10) or by a second set of long-stroke jacks (Fig. Depending on the situation. and thus without crossing the upper slab which has already been constructed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 128 septembre 2007 . 6. either via rods situated on either side of the box girder.8) The sliding beams are cantilevered. but this movement is stopped by wheels fixed to the rear of the supporting beams and blocked by the cantilevers that have already been constructed (Fig. 6. As the centre of gravity of the U shape is situated well in front of the suspension plane. this is called a C-shaped upper beam).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the movement phase (Fig. the support conditions for these elements evolve in the following way: • • The upper beam still rests on the concrete The U-shaped structure is suspended on the upper beam. 6.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 6.10 – Manually-operated sliding beam Fig.9 – Upper beam with long-stroke jack (at bottom of photo) Fig. 6. 6.11 – Sliding beam operated by a long-stroke jack The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 129 septembre 2007 .

6. very close to the webs. Very simply.4 – Construction sequence for a standard segment Using the form travelers described above. which is virtually identical that used for the aforementioned type of form travelers. as for the first type of form travelers Lower transfer beams. the suspension of the lower part of the form traveler from the ends of the upper beam requires very large and thus very costly upper beams.1.2.1 Dismantling of rods attaching U-shaped structure to the concrete of segment n . only used in the movement phase (Fig. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 130 septembre 2007 .12) Longitudinal upper transfer beams. situated along the two support beams.1 Adjustment of the external formwork and formwork of lower slab Installation of lower reinforcement cage of segment N.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. 6. with a construction cycle of between 48 and 72 hours per pair.13) A main metal framework.2. or sliding beams. the U-structure is now fully suspended from the upper beam Sliding of the upper beam and thus of the U-structure suspended from it Installation of rods attaching the U-structure to the concrete of segment n . For the construction of very wide bridge decks.2. it is thus increasingly common to use form travelers that are designed to move on a “transfer frame”. with its ducts and anchorages Dismantling of rods attaching the sliding beams and sliding of the latter Sliding and adjustment of the internal formwork Installation of rods fixing the sliding beams to the concrete of segment n .5 – Form travelers with transfer beams or launch beams For a large segment.1. usually in the form of lattice girders Sliding beams situated under the central section of the upper slab. these form travelers consist of: • • • An upper beam without cantilevers. 6.1 Installation of the upper reinforcement cage of segment n with its ducts and anchorages Casting of segment n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Standard segments of conventional dimensions and shapes are almost always cast in a single phase. supported at right angles to the webs (Fig. which is positioned transversally. with two large support beams and one front beam. the major stages in the construction of a standard segment are as follows: 1 2 Installation and stressing of cantilever tendons for segment n .

• • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 131 septembre 2007 .13 – Upper transfer beam In the static phase (Fig. which in this phase are fixed to the two support beams. Indeed.15). normally via long-stroke jacks Fix the main framework to the concrete and the upper beam Move the central section of the formwork forward Re-attach the lower transfer beams to the support beams. 6. in this phase.12 – Upper beam without cantilever Fig. The main difference concerns the presence of lower transfer beams. 6. 6. the support and operating conditions for the form traveler are virtually identical to those for the first type of form travelers. separate them from the upper transfer beams and remove the latter. Fig. it is necessary to: • • Place the two upper transfer beams on the segment that has just been constructed Release the lower transfer beams and suspend them from the two upper transfer beams in order to form a frame capable of accommodating the main framework of the form traveler Release the main framework (both support beams and the front beam). lower it onto the frame consisting of the four transfer beams and slide it into its new position.14). 6. 6.14 – Form traveler in static phase The differences are greater in the movement phase (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

significant modifications often have to be made to the form travelers in order to reuse them for the construction of a new bridge deck.) [CHU02]. this ratio is sometimes exceeded. However. efforts are often made on new projects to reuse equipment that was designed for a previous site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. lateral shell elements or even hybrid structures (e. Unfortunately. there are many different types of form travelers and the preceding presentation is far from exhaustive. it is increasingly common to use mechanical couplers at the junction between the webs and the deviator beams. With this method. 6.15 – Form traveler in movement The form travelers used for the Pays de Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway are good examples of this type of form traveler [LAC 02].1. as the decks of large bridges have no standardized elements.1. the reinforcement bars awaiting insertion into the beams must be bent and then unbent .2. of this guide. 6. 6. Special form travelers are commonly built for the construction of bridge decks with struts.1. making these operations unnecessary. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 132 septembre 2007 . the Corniche bridge in Dole. Considering the risks involved.16). the lower beam and the deviator beams are built using wooden formwork with the concrete introduced through apertures left in the upper slabs directly above the beams (Fig.1.6 – Other comments regarding form travelers Other types of form travelers As mentioned at the beginning of paragraph 6.2.3 - Deviator segments The vast majority of deviator segments on composite prestressed concrete bridges are constructed in two phases: the standard section is built using the form traveler used for the standard segments. etc. the Vecchio bridge. especially when a form traveler that was originally designed for a wider bridge deck is reused on a narrower project. Modification of form travelers for reuse Considering the very high manufacturing costs for a pair of form travelers.requiring the use of ADX steel . [PAU 00].g.in order to allow the inner core of the form traveler to slide freely. the engineering design and implementation of these modifications must be handled with the same care as for the original design and manufacturing phases. Weight of form travelers The weight of form travelers that are custom-made for a specific project is normally quite close to half of the weight of the heaviest standard segment. However. 6. It is now also possible to use special high bond strength reinforcing steels which are capable of withstanding a bending-unbending cycle without any loss of strength. the bridge over the Bras de la Plaine.

segments built by over-cantilevering are similar to standard segments. 6. a special metal core was built specifically for these segments. It should be noted that the most common practice is to use standard form travelers for the construction of the closing segments. Normally. and on certain projects. depending on the project. During the construction of the closing segment . Therefore. Therefore. which allows them to remove their form travelers as quickly as possible. which can be broken down into small. this does not happen systematically. this system consists of longitudinal beams fixed to the overhangs of the last standard segment in each cantilever.1. In some of these structures. On certain sites. the formwork equipment is positioned on simple supports at both ends of the cantilevers because it would not be strong enough to withstand the thermal effects that might develop in the continuously-rendered span. special precautions must be taken because the majority of these tools are designed to operate in an overhanging position. using one of the form travelers used for the construction of the standard segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 133 septembre 2007 . The time of the casting of a closing segment must be chosen with care.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Two to three days are required to complete a closing segment. However. these support conditions pose no problems. but if one of the standard form travelers is reused.4 - Segments built by over-cantilevering In terms of their construction. casting in the late evening is recommended during very sunny periods. it is important for the aforementioned formwork equipment to be equipped with a system designed to prevent certain parasitic movements of the cantilevers . If the formwork equipment is specially built. If it is possible to remove the central core once the final segment is in place. 6. as is the case for the standard segments. which is by far the most common situation.16 – Second phase in the construction of a deviator beams There are several structures in which the deviator beams were built in a single phase. they are built using form travelers designed for these segments. easily transportable sections.1. It is important to prevent the development of significant thermal effects between the setting of the concrete – the moment at which the span becomes continuous – and the stressing of the first continuity tendons. it is necessary to design and use a special inner core. 6.5 - Closing segments Closing segments are normally constructed in a single phase. contractors prefer to build special equipment for these segments.especially their rotation around the axis of the piers due to the effect of wind. the internal parts of the closing segments are encased using the original core. If this is not the case.

7 - Stabilization of cantilevers The following section contains technical information concerning the stabilization of cantilevers. 6. If this solution is impossible due to the density of reinforcements in these parts. if the natural terrain lends itself to this solution. In the lower section.1. according to the piers. by forming a loop in the shaft or on the foundation bulkheads. these tendons may be anchored on the underside of the crosshead. This piling also helps to reduce flexion at the end of the bridge deck (Fig. it is possible to construct the end sections of the bridge deck on centuring towers. 6.17). This supplements Chapter 5 of this guide. 6.1.7.1.17 – Construction on centering of the end section of an end span However. The formwork for the bridge deck is then erected on this centering and the casting is carried out in sections of 3 to 4 m. the longitudinal profile of the natural terrain around the abutments makes it necessary to construct the end sections on horizontal centering resting on the abutment crosshead and on one or more temporary metal pilings (Fig. Fig.6 - End sections In the majority of cases.1 – Stitching prestressing Stitching prestressing is normally carried out by tendons.18 – Construction using form traveler and temporary piling on the end section of an end span 6. 6. End zones may also be built directly using the same form travelers used to construct the standard segments. This is the most economical technique.18) [DEM 02]. In order to limit the imbalance of the cantilever. a temporary piling is placed under the last standard segment on the abutment side and then caulked after the cantilever tendons associated with this segment have been stressed. the anchorages are housed in The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 134 septembre 2007 . In the upper section. Fig. they must be anchored to anchor plates housed in the upper slab of the SOP. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6.

finally. 6. the sand is blown out of the boxes (Fig.7.19). Once the closing segment is in place. the most economical stabilization system consists of temporary prestressing and hooped concrete blocks placed directly on the pier head (Fig. Thus.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide prefabricated concrete blocks positioned on top of the SOP and removed after the stress has been released from the stitching tendons. the structure can be placed on the permanent bearings. the support reaction of the bridge deck is gradually transferred from the stabilizing blocks onto the permanent bearings. 6. Once these operations have been carried out. 6.20). 6. the cantilevers are constructed on concrete blocks placed on sand boxes consisting of a removable metal shell filled with graded sand (Fig. After the closing segment is in place. Some contractors also use bars to provide the temporary prestressing. the cantilevers rest on the concrete blocks and the bearings are in place but not in contact with the SOP. the gap between the underside of the SOP and the top of the bearings is caulked as before. However.21).2 – Concrete blocks If the pier head unit is big enough to accommodate the bearings. blocks. 6. Fig.1.3 – Concrete blocks on sand boxes If the pier head units are too small to accommodate jacks and blocks side by side. 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 135 septembre 2007 . 6. this solution is not to be recommended because any error in the positioning of the prestressing ducts could result in parasitic flexions in the bars or could even make it impossible to insert the bars.7. the blocks are no longer in contact with the SOP and may be removed by a crane or other equipment (Fig. In this way.21).19 – Concrete stabilizing blocks During construction. This consists of: 1. A resin or mortar is inserted between these blocks and the SOP in order to guarantee the correct transmission of forces between these elements. Bringing the structure down onto the hardened caulking. vertical forces are progressively and without jack transferred from stabilizing blocs to permanent bearings. Caulking the gap above the bearings 3. Raising the bridge deck using jacks 2. stitching tendons and jacks simultaneously.

because it is an “exact” match for an older design. On more complex projects. 6.22). Whatever their type. it is possible to stabilize the cantilevers using temporary pilings placed either side of the piers (Fig. the jacks are immobilized during the construction of the cantilevers. It should also be noted that the geometry of the cantilevers has to be perfect with this system.1. they are rectangular and four boxes are used per pier.1. 6. the sand boxes are proper cylindrical pot bearings and up to a dozen may be used per pier. 6. which are usually metal tubes filled with concrete.20 – Concrete stabilizing box placed on a sand box Fig. e. they are attached underneath the lower slab of the segments on piers or of the first standard segments. so that smaller pier heads can be used. If not. it is also possible to construct a cantilever entirely on jacks. this could lead to an uneven distribution of the support reactions between the sand boxes.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.21 – Detail of an open sand box A large variety of sand boxes are available. these pilings.5 – Other methods When the structure is positioned quite low above the natural ground and if the pier head unit is too small to accommodate blocks. thus resulting in structural and/or geometric disorders.4 .Jacks Although this technique is rarely used. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 136 septembre 2007 . are attached on top of the foundation bulkhead.g. these boxes must be dimensioned and designed to be undeformable. it cannot be used to raise the bridge in case of problem. because as a sand box can only be emptied. For this to be possible. 6.7. 6. On the simplest projects. at the top. At the bottom. They must therefore be equipped with lock nuts. This technique has the benefit of using the same system to perform both jacking and blocking functions.7.

we should also mention the second Gennevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway. rectangular blocks are still used when several tendons need to be anchored in close proximity to each other.24). 6. and still because of excessively small pier head units. these elements were situated in the webs of the box girder and were rectangular in shape. which was equipped with self-leveling pot bearings injected with silicone rubber [CHA 94].1. Today. more and more contractors are using prefabricated cylindrical blocks whose only reinforcements are helical hoops with jointed coils which also form the external formwork of the prefabricated block (Fig. composite systems with blocks and cable stays were used tostabilize the cantilevers [JAE00]. As the cantilever tendons on older structures were often anchored quite low down. contractors sometimes prefabricate the concrete which surrounds the anchor plates for these tendons. However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. for single tendons.23 and 6.8 – Prefabricated butt blocks In order to allow for the rapid stressing of cantilever tendons.23 – Cylindrical butt blocks The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 137 septembre 2007 . In the interests of thoroughness. 6. 6. Fig.22 – Stabilization of a cantilever by tubular metal pilings For the second Saint-André de Cubzac viaduct. 6. as their alignment was designed to reduce shear force.

These forces usually lead to the localized strengthening of the reinforcements in the upper slab and in the top part of the webs (Fig. as this increases the forces on the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.8 - Influence of form travelers on the dimensioning of bridge decks It is imperative for the weight of the form travelers to be considered in the calculations for longitudinal flexion. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 138 septembre 2007 .Construction by prefabricated segments It is generally considered that it is more economical to prefabricate a bridge deck than build it in-situ when the number of segments to be constructed exceeds 350 to 400 units. 6. it is essential for the organization and methods department and the engineering firm to work very closely together during the construction surveys for a structure built by the cantilever method. This must be accounted for in the design of the cantilever tendons. it is not possible to choose the position of these bars. particularly during the construction of the cantilevers.25). Réaction de l'appui support de la poutre supérieure Précontrainte des suspentes des poutres latérales Fig.2 . 6. The form travelers may also influence the positioning of the cantilever tendons and continuity tendons.24 – Cylindrical butt block in position in the form traveler 6. During the design stage for pretressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method using reused form travelers. 6. It is also important to consider the forces caused by the form travelers when analyzing tranverse flexion.25 – Example of localized forces exerted by the form traveler on the box girder in the construction phase In conclusion. as their operation relies on prestressing bars which cross the slabs close to the webs where the internal prestressing tendons are situated.1. 6.

this function is carried out by a metal plate on the crown side and a by segment n-1 on the pier side. anchor rails). longitudinally.1 - The segment prefabrication plant The prefabrication plant is set up on a site of approximately 2 hectares in area. French bridges built recently using this technique include the Ile de Ré bridge. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. On the other hand. 6. It can be broken down into two major areas: the first is used for the construction of the segments and the second is reserved for their storage (Fig. but it may also be situated several kilometers away. the units are equipped with concrete distribution booms supplied by pipework or conveyors connected to a concrete plant on site. the second A20 viaduct over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00]. the Avignon viaducts for the TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line. which results in a perfect joint between the different elements (Fig. In order to maintain such high rates of production. Fig. a very short contractual completion time or difficult climatic conditions may increase the appeal of prefabrication.29 and 6. 6. A well designed unit produces one standard segment per day or one segment on pier every two days. a lack of space close to the site or difficult access conditions may mean that there is no alternative to the in-situ construction of reasonably long structures. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 139 septembre 2007 .30). 6.26). this method has definitively taken over from the costlier long bench method with an ogee mold (Fig.27) which also requires more space.2. 6. This is usually located next to the site. Thus. the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 [JAC 98].28).27 – Prefabrication using an ogee mold A prefabrication unit is a construction area the length of two to three standard segments. which are manufactured on jigs by specialist workshops and are equipped with all inserts (ducts.26 – General view of the units of a prefabrication plant Prefabrication units have been preferred for the construction of segments for the past ten years or so. 6. Thanks to significant improvements in geometrical accuracy. the Saint-André viaduct for the A43 highway in Maurienne. specific difficulties may raise or lower this threshold. 6. anchor plates. The lateral formwork consists of two metal sides. and finally. Fig. in which the assembly of formwork and the casting of segments take place (Fig. They also take delivery of complete reinforcing cages.

6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. external formwork.29 – Prefabrication units Fig. 6.30 – Detail of a prefabrication unit (from left to right: the matched mold segment. 6.28 – Breakdown of a prefabrication unit Fig. internal formwork) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 140 septembre 2007 .

the closing segments are cast-in-situ rather than prefabricated. Segments on piers are always split into two in order to avoid the need for oversize transportation and hoisting equipment. there may be between three and several dozen units in total. They are also reduced to several tens of centimeters in length. after separation. and after verification of the segments. if these are included in the design of the bridge deck. the deviator segments are either built in specialized units or in the standard segment units.1.2. initially from the prefabrication units to their storage area and then onto a mode of transport (barge. In general. If necessary.2.1 – Transportation by low-bed semi-trailer Tyre-mounted low-bed semi-trailers are the most widely used form of transport for segments (Fig.8) can be dispensed with. Specialized units are reserved for the construction of hinged segments. e. they are transported to the units specializing in standard segments for use as matched molds for the first standard segments of each cantilever.g. Loaded is usually carried out by a gantry crane at the prefabrication site and unloading is performed by the assembly equipment (see 6. Some of these units specialize in segments on piers and abutments while the others are reserved for standard segments. Considering the errors that they have to compensate forr. etc. Depending on the sites and the chosen assembly mode. The half-segments on piers are manufactured side by side in specialized units. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 141 septembre 2007 . 6.2.2.3 above). Fig.). According to the project.2. therefore. the prefabricated anchor blocks described previously (see 6. The segments are first transported by large traveling gantry.2.2 - Transportation of prefabricated segments 6. 6. The segments are stored on the prefabrication site for a period of one to three months. they may also be stored on two or even three levels. 6. the segments are stored on just one level. The concrete is thus extremely strong when the segments are assembled.31).2 – Transportation by barge The segments can also be transported by barge if the structure crosses a navigable waterway or one that can be made navigable. the semi-trailer is either driven onto the portion of bridge deck that has already been constructed or onto a track marked out on the ground in line with the structure to be built. with the beams being constructed in the second phase outside of the unit in order to avoid having to modify the construction cycle for the standard segments. by dredging [JAE 00]. low-bed semi-trailer.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Depending on the number of segments to be constructed.31 – Semi-trailer used for transporting segments 6.

32 – Standard launch beams Structure of standard launch beams Standard launch beams can be broken down into around ten elements. In recent years. This self-propelled handling device is supported by the bridge deck and piers and therefore is free from almost all of the constraints relating to the crossing (Fig. Fig. it can be paid off over a long period. the access viaducts to the Prince Edward Island viaduct in Canada [COM 98] and numerous urban bridges in Thailand and Hong Kong. Examples in other countries include the access viaducts for the second Severn crossing in England [COM 96]. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 142 septembre 2007 . the Ile de Ré Bridge. the most notable examples include the Sylvans and Glacières viaducts on the A40 highway [BOU 90]. but as it is usually designed to be used on several consecutive sites. made from sections assembled using prestressing bars Two front and rear lattice towers.34): • Two triangular-section lattice girders of between 3 and 5 m tall and 100 to 250 m in length according to the beams.3 - Assembly of prefabricated segments 6.2. In France.32). The initial cost of a launch beam is very high. acting as main supports Two front and rear legs. 6.2.33 and 6. 6.3-1 – Assembly using a launch beam Background information Launch beams are the most widely used method for assembling prefabricated beams in successive cantilever segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. numerous bridges have been built using this method. all of which are made of metal (Fig. 6. the Boulonnais and the Rogerville viaducts on the A29 highway [JAC 98] and the Saint-André bridge on the Maurienne highway (A43). acting as secondary supports Two bridge cranes traveling on the lattice girders and used to manoeuvre the segments.

The lattice towers can also slide inside their supporting cross beams. 6.34 – Main constituent elements of a launch beam The lattice towers and legs can be moved longitudinally along the lattice girders using to a system of capstans. The completion time for its construction is approximately one year and it costs between 1. both longitudinally and transversally and for any type of geometry.33 – Cross-section of a standard launch beam Fig. This transverse movement is required for the construction of curved sections. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 143 septembre 2007 .5 and 3 million euros. 6. A standard launch beam weighs between 300 and 600 tonnes. The bridge cranes are equipped with spreaders which are used to position the segments as closely as possible to their final position. for example.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

6. this technique improves the speed of the assembly and prestressing of the segments. To this end.35 – Different stages in the sequence of operations for a launch beam During the construction of a cantilever. 6. On some sites. reduces the stresses imposed on the supports by eliminating non-accidental imbalances. which consists of synchronizing the release of the two S and S' segments by both carriages. a “symmetrical” assembly method has been used. it is worth mentioning certain launch beams that have been specially designed or used by French companies in France or abroad. the launch beam rests on its two lattice towers and the front leg. In the case of box girders joined side by side. this also significantly reduces the differential creep between the two box girders. In general. it is very common for the adjacent cantilevers of the two decks Fa and Fb to be constructed simultaneously.35). Special launch beams Without going into too much detail. Fig. This operation can now begin (Fig. The front leg is then placed at the end of the lattice tower on the Pn+1 side. This method is also used when the bridge deck consists of two box girders joined in the middle and when each box girder is built and assembled on-site before the longitudinal grouting of these box girders is carried out. The beam can then be moved forward so that the rear lattice tower is positioned at the end of the cantilever centred on Pn-1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 144 septembre 2007 . This method. which allows the launch beam to cross over from one bridge deck to the other and thus to assemble cantilever Fa immediately after cantilever Fb.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Sequence of operations for the assembly of segments During the assembly of the segments on piers on support Pn. so that it does not obstruct the assembly of the standard segments. the rear leg is removed and the front lattice tower slides in place on top of the SOP on pile Pn. Once both half-SOPs have been assembled. adjusted and stitched. the two lattice towers are placed on the transverse rails straddling the central gap. When the bridge deck consists of two parallel bridge decks. the two symmetrical segments S and S' are normally assembled one after the other.

6. 6. the assembly is carried out using a 200T to 500T lattice boom crane mounted on a barge (Fig. This arrangement made it possible to assemble the segments on two parallel bridge decks of different levels and separated by a very wide central gap. If the structure crosses an expanse of water.36 – The cable-stayed launch beam used on the Ile de Ré viaduct The launch beam used for the construction of the H3 highway viaduct on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian archipelago in the United States. which significantly reduces the initial investment costs.3. 6. Fig. 6.37).36). featured two independent upper beams. prefabricated segments can be assembled using cranes. 6.2 – Assembly by crane If the piers are not too tall and it is possible to use heavy equipment at the foot of the bridge deck.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A cable-stayed launch beam was used on the construction of the Ile de Ré Bridge. the crane constantly moves from one end of the cantilever to the other. This also played an important role in helping to reduce wind effects (Fig. 6. 6.37 –Assembly using a river crane Fig. If the structure crosses land.38 – Assembly using a land-based crane The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 145 septembre 2007 . Given the order of assembly of the segments.38).2. This solution helped to keep the lattice girders to a reasonable height despite the length of the spans to be crossed (110 m). the assembly is carried out using a tracked crane with a lattice boom of the same capacity (Fig. each of which was positioned on a separate bridge deck. These beams were connected by a bridge crane. Fig.

the segments were assembled using a gantry crane operating on both sides of the bridge deck (Fig. the second viaduct for the A10 highway over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00] and the "central" and “Expo" viaducts of the bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. a spreader is positioned between the hook of the crane and the segments. where it was used to raise sections of segments. it is better to offer up the segments in a position close to their final position. If the transverse slope and longitudinal profile are minimal. the segment can be guided by joining frames and the spreader can therefore be very simple. 6. This method has been used on at least four sites in France: on the Falaises viaduct on the A20 highway. The most notable examples are the Arcins viaduct over the River Garonne in Bordeaux [ABE 94]. where it was used to raise whole segments and on the Sermenaz and Arrêt-Darré viaducts ([SER 90]. in Hong Kong. on the A10 highway bridge over the River Loire at Tours. 6.39). Fig. it is possible to “winch” segments or parts of segments up to the bridge deck using lightweight metal girders. occupied a totally virgin site. Fig. Several structures have been built using this technique in recent years. The same system was used for the Khurays Road viaducts in Riyad and. When each segment can be positioned on the ground in line with its final position. other methods exist for the assembly of prefabricated segments.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 146 septembre 2007 . which requires much more complex spreaders with transverse and/or longitudinal adjustments. on the Ottmarsheim bridge.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Whatever type of crane is used. 6. If the transverse slope or longitudinal profile is very pronounced.2.39 – Winch assembly principle (on the site of the Arrêt-Darré viaduct) As the structure for the West Kowloon Expressway project.40). 6. closer to home.3 – Other assembly methods In addition to the launch beam and the crane.

6.4 - Temporary lashing In order to release the assembly equipment as quickly as possible.41 – Anchor block for a lashing bar Fig. A normal stress of approximately 0. blocks or jacks are placed between the bottom of the segments and the top of the falsework. the extremities of end spans on the abutment side are usually built on falsework. In the case of prefabricated segments. This lashing generally consists of Ø36 mm bars anchored in blocks at the top and bottom of the webs. 6. while preventing any decompression at the end of the segments.2. which guarantees the correct distribution of the adhesive and helps it to set.6 - Sections on the abutment side of end spans As for in-situ casting.40 – Assembly using a gantry crane 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. in the web uprights or in the slabs (Fig 6.42 – Construction of a closing segment with strip formwork 6.42). 6. Fig. the segments being assembled can be lashed in place before the cantilever prestressing is brought into operation.2.5 - Mid-span closures The mid-span closures between cantilevers are constructed in the traditional manner.2. contractors often use strip formwork (Fig. 6. by casting an in-situ joint of approximately 20 centimeters in length. the corresponding segments are positioned and assembled on falsework.41). For such short joints.2 MPa must be exerted by these bars. In order to allow the movement necessary for perfect joints at the crowns. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 147 septembre 2007 . It is dismantled after the stressing of the permanent tendons and the hardening of the epoxy adhesive. 6.

To be exhaustive. it is important to verify that the reinforcing of the segments is capable of taking up any transverse moments that develop during the storage and handling of the segments. At the start of the project. under normal operating conditions the speed of construction reaches 12 m or 4 segments per day. an epoxy adhesive is spread on the pier-side face of the segment being assembled. as it is difficult to correct the geometry of the cantilevers once the segments are joined. However. the design and construction of bridge decks made from prefabricated segments using the cantilever method requires a very close collaboration between the engineers of the engineering and design department and those of the organization and methods department. The average speed is therefore 6 m per day. as for the construction of bridge decks using cast-in-situ segments. as the loads applied to the cantilevers are limited to the weight of any work platforms that might be used. it is important to perform a thorough analysis of the positioning of the handling hangers and the internal cables in order to prevent any interference between these elements.2. it is also necessary to consider the localized forces created by this equipment when dimensioning the non-prestressed reinforcements of the segments. the choice of a stabilization system for cantilevers is highly dependent on the size of the pier head units. regardless of the assembly method used.2. it is worth mentioning that cantilevers are sometimes stabilized by the launch beam itself. 6. the cantilevers are often built on supports featuring jacks equipped with lock nuts. the stabilization techniques for bridges made from prefabricated systems are the same as those described in section 6. no more than 3 m per day are completed. If conventional blocks are used. This adhesive is spread by hand just before assembly to a thickness of approximately 1 mm. For localized flexion. This technique was used for the construction of the Baldwin viaduct in the USA [FUZ 94].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6.9 - Speed of construction The instantaneous construction rate on a site using prefabricated segments varies significantly. If the segments are assembled using a launch beam or winch. However. As for construction using cast-in-situ segments.1. greater forces develop in the bridge deck due to the weight of this equipment and the segments being handled and must therefore be allowed for in the design. In conclusion.10 - Influence of methods on the dimensioning of structures Assembly using a crane or gantry crane creates very few longitudinal forces on the bridge deck. If the assembly uses a launch beam and/or requires the use of a low-bed semi-trailer.7 - Bonding of the segments Before assembly. 6. Under these conditions.6 above. and for the B3 South viaduct to the north-east of Paris.2. caulking must be applied between the top of the blocks and the bottom of the segments on piers in order to correct any construction defects or errors in the assembly of these parts.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 148 septembre 2007 .8 - Stabilization of cantilevers As mentioned in the part of this chapter devoted to cast-in-situ segments. 6.

Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme). Inspections carried out during construction are designed to verify the correct application of the technical specifications and compliance with the rules of good practice. 7.2 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7 . including the inspection and approval of materials. other monitoring operations performed prior to construction will be developed in the following subchapters. However. Monitoring prior to construction is primarily designed to evaluate the methods which are likely to be used by the contractor and which will go some way towards defining some of the specifications of the contract.Background information On-site monitoring mainly relates to quality. it extends its scope to the monitoring that must be performed and the particular precautions that must be taken during the construction of all types of large engineering structures. the monitoring of plans and design calculations. This chapter only covers qualitative monitoring. the monitoring of the materials used and process controls. If both of the previous types of inspections have been carried out.On site Monitoring This chapter covers the monitoring operations and particular precautions that need to be implemented during the project. the inspection of the SOPAQ (Schéma organisationnel du plan d’assurance qualité . Different aspects of these inspections will be described in the following sub-chapters. including the certification of companies. Three categories of measuring points can be defined: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 149 septembre 2007 . It places particular emphasis on topics relating to the construction of bridges by the cantilever method. depends to a considerable extent on the care that is taken over the development of the geometric framework. quantities and the monitoring of deadlines. In the process. post-construction inspections will be a formality.1 . In Appendix 3. The concepts of measuring points. Technical Document 4 entitled “Instruction technique sur la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art : topométrie" (Technical instructions for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures: topographic surveying) is currently being prepared by Sétra. they will receive only minimal coverage in this chapter. during and after construction. Measuring point A measuring point is a point to which coordinates are attributed in order to monitor relative or absolute movements. it provides a number of definitions which help to specify the vocabulary to be used for clarifying the exchanges in this field. Therefore. Post-construction inspections are designed to ascertain whether the initial objectives have been achieved.Inspection of geometry The quality and accuracy of the topographic surveying that is carried out before. Some of these monitoring operations will not be covered in this chapter. frames of reference and networks are thus defined and are clearly explained in the following section. 7. and the Quality Assurance Plan itself. reference points.

Oy. 7.2. Frame of reference A frame of reference is a system of orthonormal axes (Ox. As a general rule. leveling stud A specific point in relation to a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure and designed to accommodate accessories positioned by forced centring.1 – Accounting for vertical settlement The following effects must be carefully evaluated: • • The settlement of foundations under the action of the selfweight of the pier and the cantilever The elastic shortening of the pier due to the same actions Page 150 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . punch mark A point given by a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure: target. hole. Network A network is an arrangement of points determined by a set of planimetric and/or altimetric measurements. 7. in relation to a previously defined network. Topometric operations consist of determining the positions of certain points whose movements will be monitored.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • A visible point on the structure: rivet head. The Oz ascending vertical axis. which is used to identify the position from any point in space. Two types of networks may be used in the topographical monitoring of civil engineering structures: absolute reference networks or relative measurement networks.2. the orthonormal reference point is defined by: • • • The Ox axis following the tangent to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. which is the working reference point established by the surveyor at the start of the topographical operations. These points are usually marked out on the site. The Oy axis following the normal to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck.1 - Inspection of pier geometry Obtaining the correct bridge deck geometry involves considering any data that might have a bearing on the geometry of the piers and using reverse deflections to negate any drift that these data are likely to produce. Reference point A reference point is the association of a system of orthonormal axes and a point representing the origin of the system of axes and whose movements are to be measured. Oz) associated with a point of origin O. This conventional system.1. paint mark. is used to calculate the position of the measuring points.

it is necessary to examine the effect of the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier by the cantilever under construction. Creep tests should therefore be performed on the chosen formula of concrete in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the deformations in the structure. the construction tolerances inherent to any structure may lead to shifting in the horizontal plane between cantilevers. While the aforementioned effects may be small for small bridges. The concrete must have consistent characteristics and the conditions of application must be the same throughout all stages in the construction of the pier shaft. because the weight of these segments remains offset in relation to the plane containing the pile axis and tangent to the curve of the horizontal alignment of the bridge deck The construction of the following segments will gradually straighten out the pier until it becomes vertical.2. the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier causes flexion in the pier shaft which can alter the position of the pier head unit.1. However. they increase in proportion to the height of the piers and the length of the spans. it is necessary to anticipate this movement by building in a pre-deformation in the opposite direction. The bridge deck is normally supported by bridge bearings which operate between concrete support blocks. This effect increases in proportion to the height and/or flexibility of the pier.2. However. it is important to remember that a thermal gradient may act upon a pier shaft and cause a horizontal shift of the pier head unit capable of affecting the measurements of movement during the construction of the cantilevers.000 tonnes and a vertical shortening of around 4 centimeters including creep. In the case of relatively small structures. The construction of the cantilever will have the following effects: • The pre-deformation will be accentuated for the first segments. 7.1. An inaccurate estimation of the vertical settlement of the pier may be compensated for by adjusting the thickness of these elements.2 – Accounting for other phenomena In the case of a rectilinear bridge deck. • The accuracy of the result is dependent on the awareness of the rheology of the concrete used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The effect of shrinkage and creep due to the weight of the cantilever. when a curved cantilever is built. Piers of a hundred or so meters tall. In the case of curved bridge decks. rather than building a perfectly straight pier. Each point has a specific function The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 151 septembre 2007 . Indeed. it might be possible to consider the settlement of the foundations only. this is a difficult operation requiring careful preparation. provided that the estimate was correct. 7.3 – Measuring points to monitor geometry Several types of measuring points can be positioned on the structure in order to help the surveyor monitor the geometry. This approach guarantees a successful closure of the span. span lengths of approximately 180 m and a bridge deck of 20 m wide may result in downward loads of approximately 20. Therefore.

In certain cases. The horizontal plane tangent to the top of the sphere supports the sight. as this may vary from one model to another. it is important to make sure that the type of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the target in question. exploitable data are only obtained if a sufficient number of medallions is used. bad weather and birds. This type of measuring point has numerous advantages: • • • Greater accuracy for a measuring point which is difficult to access Saves time for the surveyor Single measurement reduces the risk of error. depending on the type of model used. A sufficient number of rivets must be used in order to monitor the elastic curve accurately. The limitations of targets concern the mediocre accuracy of the measurements and the fact that their bonding fails after a few years. this component can increase the accuracy of the calculations. A prism gives a direct measurement by defining the sighting angle and the distance to the measuring point from a single known reference marker to which it is permanently directed. The prism must be sited and angled in such a way as to reduce the damaging effects of dust. This inexpensive tool must be made from a hard-wearing. provided that this distance is no more than approximately 100 meters. Prisms Prisms are a little more expensive and are positioned on a bonded base in the form of a corner plate that allows the angle of the prism to be adjusted. This is particularly important if a bi-directional phenomenon is being monitored. It is used to monitor the leveling of a horizontal plane. on uneven sites. As for the rivets. Medallions are used to monitor the levelling of a vertical plane and cost approximately the same as the rivets. It features a rounded upper support surface. Furthermore. A retroflective target gives a third component in space: namely the distance from the observation point to the measuring point.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Rivets A rivet is a measuring device with a rounded head. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 152 septembre 2007 . Therefore. Targets Self-adhesive targets are discs marked with concentric circles which are attached to bonded metal elements or directly onto the concrete itself. Targets can be used to measure both angles of orientation of a viewing axis from a known reference marker. Medallions A medallion is a piece of rustproof metal which is fixed to the structure. If repeated from three markers. it can be difficult to position three markers with clear visibility between each one. They are used for monitoring verticality in particular. undeformable material designed to resist the effects of weather and impacts on the site. this operation provides a good estimate of the position of the target point.

when the structure becomes continuous and hyperstatic. using a material whose characteristics and composition may vary over time. the bridge deck continues to deform due to the following effects: • • • • The interior and/or exterior continuity prestressing The removal of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The removal of the temporary piers and the temporary cantilever stabilizing systems The erection of superstructures.1). assembled and stressed at different ages. the deformation of the cantilever is due to: • • • The weight of the concrete beam The weight of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The cantilever prestressing (Fig. 7. it is important to check that the modele of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the prism in question.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide As with targets.2 - Monitoring the geometry of the bridge deck A cantilever consists of several segments. as this may vary from model to model. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 153 septembre 2007 . After the closure of the different cantilevers. 7. When the structure is isostatic. The effects of concrete creep and the delayed prestressing losses are added to the instantaneous deformation.2. It is important to predict the exact extent of the deformation of the cantilever element in order to determine an adequate reverse deflection which will be implemented in the prefabrication unit if the segments are prefabricated or in the form travelers if the segments are cast in-situ. which are manufactured.

This difficult problem obviously supposes that the actual position of the segment on pier in space is accurately known and is as close as possible to the theoretical position.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The construction of a new segment makes it necessary to adjust the form traveler considering its position in space in relation to the overall geometry of the cantilever.2). Indeed. The calculation of this reverse deflection must account for the probable values of the different applied loads: • • The density of the concrete must be realistic for the calculation of selfweight The coefficients of friction for the cantilever tendons in a straight line and on curves will only increase very slightly The weight of the form traveler and the site equipment situated at the end of the cantilever will be evaluated as accurately as possible.1 – Concreting curve for a single cantilever Fig. it is important to distinguish between cast-in-situ segments and prefabricated segments. 7. For a more detailed consideration of geometric monitoring. it is always difficult to predict and control the deformations resulting from the construction of a cantilever with accuracy. the deformations due to concrete creep and delayed prestressing losses continue to develop. a different frame of reference applies to each of these methods of construction. the frame of reference is absolute and relates to the pier. For segments which are cast in-situ using a form traveler. which is also globally referenced. • The modulus of elasticity for concrete varies according to the age of the load and the duration of this load. Therefore. 7. 7. It is therefore necessary to build in a reverse deflection in order to compensate for these different types of deformations (Fig.2 – Concreting curve for a standard bridge built by the cantilever method Following this. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 154 septembre 2007 .

1 – Bridge decks cast in-situ using form travelers Monitoring of levelling The monitoring of the levelling of segments under construction is based on a document drawn up by the engineering firm called the "construction pyramid". namely points P5 and P6 in Figure 7.2. 7.3. P5 P6 P1 P2 P3 P4 Fig.3. The construction of the first segment will incorporate a deformation assumption which will then be adjusted in accordance with the measurements taken after casting. This indicates the theoretical dimensions to be obtained for each stage in the progression of the cantilever and for each segment joint. the alignment of the formwork equipment and horizontal adjustment of the form traveler are verified by theodolite. Adjustment of the form traveler The adjustment of the form traveler is carried out by localization using localized reference points in relation to the segment on pier. These dimensions incorporate all of the forces that apply to the cantilever under construction. the frame of reference relates exclusively to the preceding segment. i.e. The only effect not to be considered in the engineering firm’s calculation is the deformation of the form travelers.2. This deformation assumption may include the deflection of the form traveler’s main girders if they were load tested during the acceptance inspection.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For segments which are cast in a prefabrication unit. close to the webs. The form traveler is now considered to be properly adjusted in relation to segment Vn-1 and the following operations are carried out: • • Inspection and adjustment of the leveling and horizontal alignment of points P5 and P6 Inspection of the levelling of the cantilevers and adjustment of points P1 and P4 if required The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 155 septembre 2007 . points P1to P4 shown on Figure 7. i. which is repositioned globally. When the form traveler has been moved forward in order to build segment Vn. This pyramid is used to determine the dimensions for the adjustment of four key points on each segment joint: both cantilevered ends and both ends of the lower slab.e. The other points will be verified in accordance with this reference. which will be the first measurement reference to be determined on site. and before the final tightening of its lashing onto segment Vn-1. it is necessary to adjust the prefabrication unit in relation to the end of the segment that is postioned as a matched mold. 7. This phenomenon must include the form traveler’s suspension bars. When a new segment is constructed.3 – Key points for levelling adjustment Two additional points will be chosen on site in areas which seem to be the least affected by secondary deformation.

by placing it against the concrete of the previous segment At the front. This is the best time of day to avoid the manifestation of parasitic forces due to temperature. By analyzing the deviations that are observed (which is always a difficult operation). The upper face of these corner irons is horizontal and is situated 20 mm underneath the extrados for protection. The levelling measurement is carried out from segment Vn. it is necessary to carry out a general inspection of the levelling of the cantilever. Any correction of the measurements must be performed after examining the assumptions and the data used to create the construction pyramid.of the width of the bottom slab. by altimetric adjustment in relation to the external formwork at the level of the supporting beams (points P7 and P8). all of the reinforcements for the segments can be installed. Once the form traveler has been adjusted. i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Adjustment and monitoring of the leveling of points P2 and P3 defining the height of segment V Inspection of the spacing of points P2 and P3.e. the risk of error becomes greater the closer we get to the closing segment with the cantilever already constructed The simultaneous monitoring of the geometry of the support is essential to ensure that the surveyor is always capable of relating the pyramid to the absolute dimensions of the objective to be achieved. This upper face is kept clear of the concrete during casting. an additional levelling inspection is carried out at the level of the mask. It is important to pay great attention to the consistency of the measurements taken on site and the information given by the construction pyramid. The values measured are recorded on the monitoring documents and are compared with the values given by the construction pyramid. Finally. If differences go uncorrected on the first cantilever. The corner iron is unbolted so that the mask can be removed. Particular attention must be paid if heavy equipment such as a mobile crane is present on the cantilever that has already been constructed. These are marked with a punch and are integral with the concrete of the upper slab close to points P5 and P6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 156 septembre 2007 . The corner iron becomes the measuring point for monitoring the deformations of the cantilever. Additional measurements can be performed in other phases if necessary. Monitoring the geometry Once the casting of the segment Vn has been carried out. which has just been concreted to the SOP. corrections can be made to the adjustment of the form traveler for the construction of segment Vn+1. in order to ensure that the measurements are taken under identical load conditions. Two corner irons are bolted onto the mask. The levelling measurements are completed before the form traveler is moved forward and before the prestressing is tightened. A cantilever that is subjected to a temperature gradient behaves like a highly sensitive bimetallic strip. The operation must be completed as quickly as possible. The internal formwork of the form traveler is adjusted: • • At the back. and is repeated at each joint of the segment. This operation begins as early as possible the following morning.

4). as it involves constructing the independent segments on the ground in such a way that they can be assembled in space in accordance with the established geometric data (Fig 7. • • • Adjustment of the match-cast segment This is a complex topographical problem.2 – Bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments During the setting up and commissioning of the prefabrication units in the prefabrication workshop or plant. This point could consist of a measuring point on the structural steelwork of the unit or a graduated rule permanently attached to a concrete post. a number of precautions must be taken to facilitate the work of the surveyor and increase its reliability. There is no point in accounting for this dissymmetry in the calculations if the form travelers are always adjusted on the basis of the measurements made in the morning. 7. This means verifying: • • That the longitudinal axes of the units follow the same alignment. this sequence of operations could be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the cantilever. it should be mentioned that for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using form travelers.2.2. the sequence of operations always starts on the same side of the cantilever in general. On site. however. which is called the prefabrication axis That the points which are used to measure the alignment and to mark out the prefabrication axis are adequately spaced and perfectly visible from the units That the theodolite support frame is not exposed to hot sunshine. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 157 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. which reduces the size of the alignment corrections That the support for the theodolite and the level are correctly in line with the prefabrication axis and that these appliances are placed slightly above the upper level of the concrete of the segments That the reference point used for measuring the levelling is separate from the mask.

The recommended configuration for these corner plates is shown in Figure 7.2. it requires no adjustment A fixed part. which leans against the mask on the one hand and the matched mold on the other. this is fixed and its assembly requires great precision A second mobile part: the matched mold.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Three parts of this unit can be considered from the perspective of adjustments and monitoring: • An initial mobile part: the core or internal formwork of the segment. consiting of the mold base.4 – Adjustment of the match-cast segment A prefabrication unit is described in Paragraph 6.5: • • The adjustment points for levelling are situated in the areas least affected by deformations The adjustment points for alignment follow the segment’s true axis. 7. consisting of the previous cast segment.28 of this guide. the mold or the unit itself. the sides.1 and Figure 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 158 septembre 2007 . in theory. The measuring points may also consist of small plates capable of housing a mini-prism. better still. placed on jacks used to adjust the angle and position according to the geometric data. with a hemispherical indentation into which a ball bearing can roll. wings and the mask. Their positions are identified by corner plates bearing a punch mark or. • • The choice of adjustment points is thus of paramount importance.

bolts. 7. During the manufacture of the segment in the prefabrication unit. Accuracy is of the utmost importance because the accuracy of the geometry of the cantilever to be built depends upon this adjustment.6).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it is also important to provide secondary alignment measuring points which mark out the entire width of the transverse axis of the segment (Fig. etc. 7. In order to obtain a precise adjustment in space. An additional precaution is taken for structures with a curved longitudinal profile or a variable transverse slope: the distance from the measuring points to the joint and the axis of the segment shall be identical from one segment to another. Adjustment of the segment on pier The segment on pier is particularly difficult to adjust. to make fine adjustments to the position of the segment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 159 septembre 2007 . it is possible to use angled blocks. Topographical inspection in standard construction cycles The construction of a standard segment Vn requires three topographical inspections to be carried out on segment Vn-1: • • • Mapping of the levelling points and the prefabrication axis on Vn-1 in the prefabrication unit Adjustment of Vn-1 in the match cast position Mapping of Vn-1 in the match cast position after casting of Vn. as any impacts could compromise the accuracy of the measurements taken It is advisable to check both alignment measuring points systematically before and after each operation. as slight deformations may affect the base of the theodolite (due to strong sunshine or instability).5 – Adjustment points for a prefabricated segment It is essential to position the points in such a way as to avoid any possibility of them being moved at elevation when the casting is completed and to set them back slightly from the joint in order to protect them. wedges. • The final inspection concerns the recording of measurements of length. Two precautions must be taken during these operations: • The surveyor must take the measurements before the removal of any of the formwork.

6 – Alignment markers on the segment on pier Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.e the longitudinal profiles given by the position of the rivets. the solution might be to disconnect one or more segments and carefully place wedges in the joints with the segments securely lashed together. the order in which the cantilever tendons are stressed can be alternated. Method for monitoring changes in geometry Base curves. 7. The effects of the weight and bevahior of the concrete. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 160 septembre 2007 . Exceptional corrective actions It is possible that a mistake in the prefabrication might be overlooked on the prefabrication site. 7. their calculation is only approximate and uncertainties remain with regard to the accuracy of the geometry. This illustrates the importance of ensuring the accuracy of the geometry for prefabricated segments. The remaining spaces between the joints must be caulked before the segments are prestressed. namely the alignment curve and the two levelling curves i. To counteract this. thus leading to a fault in the geometry of the cantilever during the assembly process. In the event of a major fault. The monitoring may reveal a systematic lateral drift if the stressing of the cantilever tendons always starts from the same web. base curves and the monitoring of lengths. These inspections obviously incorporate the adjustment dimensions that result from the measurement of the existing segments and are applied to the next segments to be manufactured. taking care not to create obstructions in the sheaths that pass through the modified joints.7). prestressing and superstructures are anticipated and compensated for via reverse deflections calculated by the engineering office. In order to track the changes in the actual geometry of the cantilever. simultaneous digital and visual inspections are carried out in the form of graphs. Although it is essential to incorporate these reverse deflections.7 – Adjustment of the segment on pier at ground level These measuring points are used to make adjustments at ground level through the observation of both axes of the segment (Fig. 7. are used to monitor and control changes in geometry.

etc. α2.. as shown in Figure 7. phase-byphase. An example of a five-segment cantilever is shown in Figure 7.9 – Correction of the profile to compensate deformations It is interesting to compare the relative importance of the deformations and reverse deflections affecting prefabricated and cast-in-situ segments. In each section.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 161 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. the cantilever may be constructed in such a way that once completed. By modifying the angular positions of the segments in small angles of α1.10 below shows these relative values for a structure designed according to these two methods. the modified profile will effectively compensate for the future deformation. 7. Figure 7.3 – Comments concerning both techniques Comparison of deformations For the construction of both cast-in-situ and prefabricated segments. it is necessary to analyze each phase in the construction of the cantilever and to determine the deformation curve for each cantilever element. The line 1-2-3-4-5 represents the envelope of the different deformations. 7.8 hereafter.8 – Deformations phase-by-phase Fig.9 for the example in question. Fig. it has a satisfactory longitudinal profile. or the trajectory followed in space by the end of the cantilever at each phase of construction.2.

the general longitudinal profile will have to be rectified. This may require the modification of the adjustment pyramid for the adjacent cantilever if it has not yet been constructed. if the cantilever is simply supported on the pier. If the entire cantilever is incorrectly aligned. However. or the loading of the higher cantilever may partly rectify this misalignment. the deformations affecting a cast-in-situ cantilever will normally be two to three times greater than for an equivalent prefabricated cantilever. the difference between the methods will be greater if a cycle of less than one week is used for the in-situ casting of the segment and if the prefabricated segments are stored for more than two weeks. as it has the disadvantage of modifying the stress state that was designed for the structure. The advantage for a cast-in situ cantilever is that corrections are made after each casting. This involves plotting curves corresponding to all of the measuring points in order to obtain a geometrical representation of the area obtained.10 – Comparison of deformations for prefabrication and casting in-situ The design assumptions given in this figure show that in the majority of cases. Corrections are therefore less likely to be needed when the cantilever is completed. Inspecting the geometry of the competed cantilever Once completed. If the cantilever is embedded on its pier. it is possible to improve its geometry to a certain extent by using hydraulic jacks to alter the position of the segment on pier after the stitching tendons have been slackened off.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. this inspection must be carried out as early as possible in the morning. such a manoeuvre is ill-advised. 7. If the curves corresponding to all of the measuring points reveal localized irregularities. the geometry of the cantilever must be inspected. Whatever the circumstances. If the errors are significant. provided that a sufficient thickness of concrete remains over the reinforcements The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 162 septembre 2007 . the misalignment can only be compensated for over the length of the closing segment. The lashing of the last cantilever segment to the opposite cantilever. the following actions may be considered once the whole structure is completed and continuous: • It may be possible to plane off the humps.

After the application of the waterproofing. If the structure consists of a large number of almost identical spans. 7. It is essential that the chosen profile and the profile that is actually obtained are clearly defined in an appropriately referenced document. After this time. supposing that the profile has been accurately determined in advance and allows for thermal effects. Although load tests involve no more than a simple observation.2 – Monitoring the deformation of structures subjected to loading tests For non-standard structures.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • If hollows exist. this is illustrated by a lowering of the reference axis. On the other hand.2. Therefore. the evolution of delayed deformation is normally no longer significant.3 – Monitoring the geometry of the finished structure 7.2. it is important to carry out a load test on the middle of each span.1 – The compromise between commissioning and infinite time For 15 to 25 years after the bridge is commissioned. Carrying out the measurements When test trucks are used. The disadvantage of such a process is that it limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date An extra layer of asphalt may be sufficient to level out the irregularities. a number of special precautions must be taken. The corresponding topographical measurements are recorded for information purposes. Both of these elements must form part of the as-built file and shall be included in the zero-point file for the structure. However. in the first part of the life span of the structure. A second layer will then be applied. a policy of aiming to achieve the theoretical profile in the long term would result in a structure that might be uncomfortable at the start of its service life. This may be adapted throughout the decades in which the structure is in use. a first layer of asphalt will be applied and then planed in order to modify the profile. at least the sections on supports and the sections of greatest flexion on the span. it is important to start by loading the supports. these tests shall involve the systematic testing of all of the characteristic sections of the structure. The theoretical reference axis during construction must therefore be specified. a compromise can be sought: the target profile is considered to be midway between the profile when the bridge is commissioned and the long-term profile. deformations continue to affect the bridge deck. corresponding to the development of creep within the structure. this would lead to a gradual decrease in user comfort over the years. For the majority of structures. The comfort of the structure can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the surfacing. but this technique also limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date.3. the testing of bearing sections can be limited to just a few spans. • 7.2.e. they must first be outlined by a trench of at least 10 mm.3. creep continues to affect the structure. but this would improve with age. i. Therefore. A zero-point measurement is then taken which is used to accurately determine the height differences between the supports and the middle of spans. they can then be filled with resin. for example. the extent of which varies according to the sections in question. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 163 septembre 2007 . If the theoretical longitudinal profile were to be obtained at the start of the bridge’s service life.

In any event. Before performing the measurements under load. it is important to account for: • • • • • • • Deformation due to shear force in the beams The contribution of the superstructures to the rigidity of the structure The law of the actual behavior of the materials derived from the testing of test samples The rigidity of the supports. it is necessary to wait for the structure to stabilize. it may be beneficial to perform precise levelling measurements from inside the box girder as this provides good measuring conditions and there is no interference from the trucks. corresponds to a design-based approach that is more accurate than the current methods. if on-site incidents have led to modifications. Laser sightings may also be performed.8 times the probable values). The deflection values obtained during the tests are considered to be satisfactory when the measurements taken coincide with the authorized range for the values calculated (1. In particular. abnormal changes in the deflections measured for a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 164 septembre 2007 . Instead. • • • If the deflection values are unsatisfactory. The measurements are taken from points marked by studs or rivets with rounded heads which have been carefully positioned and provide a single point of contact with the base of the levelling rod. allowing for the uncertainty of the measurement.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For box girder bridge decks. Analyzing the results The precise analysis of the results requires an adequate knowledge of the unladen thermal behavior of the structure is established. This range. which conforms to the value recommended by the "Guide des épreuves des ouvrages routiers" (Guide to Testing for Road Structures) currently being prepared by Sétra. the measurements cannot be taken until the trucks’ engines have stopped. This period can be estimated at 10 minutes after the trucks have been positioned.1 times the probable values / 0. which also allows the thermal effects to be dissociated from the combined effects of the test loads. the results must be examined with a critical eye in order to find an explanation for the anomalies: non-linearity of the behavior. The design assumptions must not be too conservative. they should be as realistic as possible as physical quantities will be measured. mainly with regard to rotation The skew of the structures The curvature of structures The cracking of parts operating as reinforced concrete and the reduction of torsional inertia due to the cracking The effective width of the slab on supports The probable prestressing value (using the results of the measurements of transmission factors) for partially prestressed structures The actual geometry of the structure.

7. either at the design stage or during construction on site. A new calculation must establish a range of theoretical values to be monitored on the structure. It must be rounded off by a definitive acceptance report attesting to the conformity of the equipment i. • External inspection by the Construction Manager who verifies that all documents guaranteeing the traceability of the different inspections are available in accordance with the company’s Quality system Manufacturer’s inspection of the equipment in order to verify the conformity of the different manufacturing stages External inspection of the conformity of the assembly of the form traveler on the segment on pier. under any circumstances. It is important to emphasize that the COP cannot. the engineering office draws up a summary report. The Owner decides whether or not the deflections are satisfactory according to the Construction Manager’s recommendations. working platforms and protective structures. from its design through to its use. • These inspections are carried out by an organization approved by the Ministry of Labor such as french APAVE. SOCOTEC. This important point should be clearly explained in the STC (Special Technical Clauses). based on realistic high and low assumptions made for the significant physical values. VERITAS. etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 165 septembre 2007 .e. replace an external inspection agency approved by the French Ministère du Travail (Ministry of Labour). confirming that all of the inspections required for the approval of the equipment have been performed and guaranteeing that the construction is consistent with the design. Article 42 of this fascicule defines the role of the Chargé des Ouvrages Provisoires (Head of Temporary Structures – COP).3 . carried out by an approved organization upon completion of the assembly and before casting. etc. External inspection of the supporting beams using load testing to examine their elastic behavior and evaluate their remanent deformations. 7. In all cases.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide non-standard section. This inspection must produce a general report. This does not include scaffolding. after performing a global analysis.1 - Inspection of form travelers The different phases in the inspection of a form traveler. are sequenced in the following way: • External inspection of the design calculations for the dimensioning of the form traveler focusing particularly on the load-bearing elements.3. • • It should be emphasized that an inspection by an approved organization involves much more than a simple visual inspection of the apparent condition of the equipment.Inspection of temporary structures It is increasingly common for temporary structures to be listed in the first category under the terms of Article 41 of fascicule 65A of french CCTG. to examine the welds after loading and to measure and monitor the deflections. its fitness for use.

in order to test the supporting beams. it is important to mention that the contractor shall perform an internal inspection of the adjustment of the equipment after it has been moved forward and before the reinforcements are installed. To this end.3.2 – Inspection of equipment The inspection of the equipment used in the centering must be covered in the company’s QAP. and then by measuring how far it sinks down. For typical cases concerning 1 m x 1 m sole plates. Plate load testing provides a model. in opposition with the insertion of jacks. This involves determining a value for the modulus of the soil by subjecting it to the action of a plate whose diameter and stiffness are normalized according to a standardized procedure. 7.3. This procedure will also be internally monitored on a systematic basis every time the equipment is moved forward.2 - Trial assembly of a form traveler This does not refer to an assembly carried out by the manufacturer of the equipment in the factory.3.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 166 septembre 2007 . it is important to be particularly attentive to the risk of differential compaction due to the presence of a large number of supports and to the effects of successive compactions on the geometry and stresses. 7. although this concerns the use to which the equipment is put rather than the form traveler itself.5).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection by the COP of the conformity of the assembly of the equipment on the segment on pier. Finally. 7. performed upon completion of the assembly and before casting Inspection by the COP of the validity of the procedure used to move the form traveler forward.3. with compaction limited to 3 mm and for soils with no underlying soft layers. the inspection of bearing capacity may be performed while assuming that the value of the modulus at the plate Ev2 is 350 times greater than the permissible soil pressure. In the case of vertical types of centering. it is essential to define the maximum number of times the high-tensile steel bars forming the hangers can be used. • Before the first time the form traveler is properly used. The resulting deflections in these elements are verified under loads which increase progressively until the nominal load corresponding to the forces encountered when the equipment is in service is reached. These beams are assembled on a flat surface. with centering specifically described in Article 45. it is possible to perform a static plate load test defined by the standard NF P 94-117-1 of April 2000. 7.1 – Testing of bearing capacity of the soil The testing of the bearing capacity of the soil for centering must be covered in the company’s QAP. which are the main structural components.3 - Centering Chapter IV of fascicule 65A of the french CCTG covers temporary structures. It is essential to verify the soil that will support the centering. This number shall be determined prior to the start of work on site (see paragraph 7. but to a “test” assembly that is normally carried out on site.3. but the design verifications for centering are expressed in the form of pressure exerted on the soil.

thin particles of oxide) 0.85 Major corrosion: the element cannot be used The two coefficients α and β are accumulated. In the intermediate section: • • • Inspect the bracing on towers. two factors must be considered: the wear of the equipment and the extent of any corrosion. At the top of the centering: • Follow the same precautions as at the base The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 167 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide It is important to highlight the dangers that could be caused by any laxity with regard to the inspection of the equipment in use.3 – Inspection of the erection The inspection of the centering erection must be covered in the coontractor’s QAP.3. posts and girders Verify the convergence of the joints in the centering structure Makes sure that the horizontal forces are correctly taken up. Any makeshift repairs could soon lead to a catastrophe. The inspections must target the areas of greatest risk in the centering structures. In the same way. When inspecting the centering. 7. The value of this coefficient can be as low as 0. the following areas and inspections must be covered: At the base of the centering: • • • Verify that the manufacturer’s recommended runout ranges for the jacks are not exceeded Check that drainage has been installed on the platform in order to channel the runoff Make sure that improvised extensions and wedges are not used. in addition to Article 44) uses a coefficient α in order to reduce the bearing capacity of the equipment. the corrosion of the equipment due to its different uses and periods of storage is determined in the calculations using a reduction factor β equal to: Corrosion condition β Absence of corrosion 1 Slight corrosion (presence of oxide modifying 0. The wear of the equipment relates to its use on other sites. Fascicule 65A (Article 4 of Appendix B. Therefore.75 for equipment with more than 10 consecutive uses.3. the COP must certify that all of the elements used in the centering are fully functional. Therefore.95 the color of the element) Notable corrosion (small.

A simple way to monitor this compaction consists of attaching vertical bars under the centering which meet a fixed independent marker at ground level. Drinking water usually conforms to the standard.1 – Inspection of the mixing water The mixing water must conform to the standard P 18-303 of August 1999 which prescribes appearance tests.4 . 7.Inspection of concrete Article 76 in fascicule 65A of the french CCTG defines all of the elements involved in the inspection of the manufacture and application of concrete.1 - Inspection of the components Article 23 of fascicule 65A describes the inspection procedures for the constituents. At the level of the planking: • • • • • Check that the load transmission areas have been stiffened Verify that there is no irregular and/or complex stacking Check the reliability of the support conditions Verify the existence of lateral limit stops if there is a danger of slippage Make sure that bracing is fitted in all directions. drinking water may not conform to the requirements of the standard. However.4 – Inspection of deformations It is important to inspect any deformations of the centering throughout the entire casting phase and to monitor the compaction of the supporting soils. The monitoring of deflections is designed to: • • Verify whether the final target profile will be obtained Detect any anomalies that might be indicative of an imminent accident. The following additional points should also be noted. the frequency of these tests and how to evaluate the conformity of the water being tested.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 168 septembre 2007 .4.4. 7. under specific climatic conditions. chemical tests and defines the testing methods. 7. 7.3. The use of seawater is strictly prohibited. particularly in tropical regions.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verify that the structural beams or girders are correctly centred in the forks Make sure that any risk of accidental relative movement is avoided above the metal-to-metal contacts.

or shrinkage test if these characteristics are significant. hygrometry • For chippings and pebbles: particle size and cleanliness • For aggregates: sulfate. etc.4. Their main elements are: • For sands: Sand equivalent.3 – Inspection of aggregates and additives Internal inspections must be carried out at two levels: by the producer and by the contractor.1.4. External monitoring tests in the framework of the standard P 15-300 of December 1981 enable to contractor to confirm this conformity. Inspections of storage conditions for the aggregates and additives may be added to these. Furthermore.4 – Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of the aggregates Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of aggregates is a complex task which is covered in detail in the “Recommandations pour la prévention des désordres dus à l’alcali-réaction" (Recommendations for the Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity” published by the LCPC (Central Public Works Research Laboratory) and in the appended document "Guide pour l’élaboration du dossier carrière" (Guide to the Creation of the Quarry File). Sétra’s "Guide pour la rédaction des pièces écrites des marchés" (Guide to the Drafting of Written Documents for Contracts) concerning the "Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity" lists the clauses to be inserted into the written documents for the DCE (Document de consultation des entreprises) [Contactor Tender Document] and the contracts. The contractor’s external inspection consists of an acceptance inspection and possibly spot checks corresponding to tests laid down in the standard P 18-540 of October 1997.1. 7. particle size. 7. these tests may involve the following operations: • • • Measurement of specific surface Determination of strength after 2 days Measurement of anhydride sulfurique SO3 content. tricalcium aluminate C3A content. Precautionary samples are thus taken. For example.4. fineness. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 169 septembre 2007 . or shrinkage test for cements exposed to the action of deicing salts Measurement of hydration heat.1. • External inspection tests are carried out by the Construction Checker and its laboratory. or Na20 equivalent.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. characteristics specified by the standards. sulfide and chloride content • For additives: expiry date.2 – Monitoring of cement The acceptance inspection involving the rapid identification test defined by the standard P 15-466 of August 1983 is used by the contractor to verify the conformity of the cement at every delivery.

This indicates that it is a more complex. These consituents are required for slowing down the setting of the concrete.1. has been observed in many countries. Parts of the structure which are subjected to alternate wetting and drying. It is true that it remains a limited phenomenon. and their recommendations relate more to a precautionary approach than to objective studies. which modifies the hydration reactions of concrete. However. are all the more vulnerable. The type of aggregates must finally be mentioned. sulfates and alkalis. The composition of the cement is important in terms of the contents of three of its constituents: tricalcium aluminate. a different type of pathology. it bring sulfates in the cement into play. Indeed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Considering these two documents. this temperasture range does depend on the type of cement used. Problems. it wouild appear to be important to summarize the current levels of knowledge about this problem ([DIV 98] and [DIV 00]). as it only concerns around 10 structures in France at present. Temperature increases are equally important. This is a known effect and the recommendations of the standard NFP 18-011 of June 1992 help to control it via the choice of cements and the concrete formulas. It is noticed that there is a greater number of parameters than for alkali reactivity. However. which seems to prevent interstitial dissolution. analyses and precautions The problems observed have three underlying causes: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 170 septembre 2007 . major structures are usually placed in category C. 7.5 – Ettringite formation in concrete Presentation The deterioration of concrete due to sulfates has been known about since the beginning of the 20th century. the cement mixture has better adhesive properties. Moisture is essential to the process. although France has only recently started to pay serious attention to it. If the problem has internal origins.4. for example). less is known about it. but which are. This sulfate reaction of endogenous origin. As the problem appeared relatively recently. only NR (non-reactive) or PRP (potentially reactive to pessium effect) aggregates shall be used in their construction. Different authors suggest different upper limits. its existence was only reported in 1986. the presence of sea water or the action of constituents of the soil in contact with the concrete (this applies to gypsum. If it has external origins. with a limestone aggregate. as certain application conditions and certain current trends appear to be favorable to its appearance. Indeed. though less frequent phenomenon. Parameters While the alkali reactivity of concrete is governed by the three main parameters of moisture. it is caused by industrial emissions. such as those exposed to differences in water level. concerning problems in prefabricated parts which look similar to those caused by alkali reactivity. It may have internal or external origins. ettringite formation in concrete seems to be a more complex phenomenon. A low sulfate and alkali content allows for a higher temperature limit. As a consequence. alkali content and reactive silica content. in fact.

Indeed it would not be reasonable to allow concrete temperatures to reach 80 or 90° C as this could risk reducing the life span of our structures.1. a period in which the temperature of the concrete is higher Use of cements that are too rich in high-risk components Use of highly exothermic cements.5 "Cure et protection des bétons coulés" (Curing and Protection of Cast Concrete) limits the temperature in large parts to 65°C The European pre-standard Pr EN 13 369 of 1999. Article 77. 7.6 – Suitability test and control test The suitability test is used to verify the likelihood that the nominal formula of the concrete and its implementation conditons satisfy the requirements of the contract in terms of its strength and the application conditions. especially with regard to ambient temperatures. which requires testing and recommends very low temperature limits. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 171 septembre 2007 . is above a predetermined value fcj .1 – The main information test The aim of the information test is to verify that. France is far behind many other industrialized nations. the strength achieved at an early age j. The control test is used to verify the conformity of a batch of concrete.4. in this case.2 - Information tests 7. corresponding to a very precise phase of construction. Paragraphe 8. There are certain statutory texts which cover this problem at least partially: • Standard ENV 13 670-1 of September 1999 (construction of concrete structures). The control procedure is detailed in Article 77.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Construction systematically carried out during the summer. in a dry environment. where necessary.4. • In this respect. It is particularly useful for verifying the concrete resistance to frost and the effects of deicing salts. This risk seems to increase for the construction of bigger parts. Indeed. Based on the current state of knowledge.2 of fascicule 65A. the risks are obviously very small. particularly in the casting program or prestressing program. 7.4. under actual hardening conditions. particular care should be taken to choose less exothermic cements. • • This demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct type of cement. the clinkers in modern cements are ground increasingly finely. This value fcj is establishjed after analysis in order to make sure that the strength of the concrete us compatible with the construction procedures set out in the QAP. rendering the mixture particularly volatile and subject to large increases in temperature.2. it would seem to be advisable to check the moisture levels of the environment.1 of fascicule 65A provides information about the nature of this test. but in a wet environment every precaution should be taken to ensure that the temperature of the concrete does not exceed 65 to 70° C and to opt for cement with a low alkali content.

these tests could be considered to be control tests. it will have the same mechanical strength.3 of the P18-504 documentation booklet.4. 7.4.g. long-term strength.6 of fascicule 65A. • The information test may also have other aims. a genuine guarantee of durability. conforms to the expected values. In physical terms.5 and 6.3 - Maturometry 7.2.3 – Conditions of execution The test samples used fore the information tests shall be obtained and conserved in accordance with the provisions of the standard P18-405. to verify that the compactness of the concrete. this is shown by the fact that the hydration levels of the concrete will be identical. etc. 7. e. these tests shall concern: • • • • • • Removal of formwork from pier shafts Removal of formwork from pier crossheads Removal of formwork from lateral overhangs on the bridge deck cross section Removal of formwork equipment from inside the box girder Removal of falsework from parts of the structure built on centering Stressing of certain tendons (generally cantilever tendons): in this case. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 172 septembre 2007 . In this case.4. 7. tensile strength (if this was not evaluated in the main information test). the tensile strength value ftj is just as important as fcj A temporary or permanent loading operation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. If the same type of concrete is subjected to different thermal conditions but releases the same amount of heat since the start of the manufacturing process. The concrete shall be cured in accordance with the recommendations of Article 74.3. and of articles 1.4. creep effects.2.1 – The principle of maturometry Maturometry is based on the existence of a relationship between the quantity of heat released by concrete when setting and its mechanical properties.2 – Additional information tests Additional tests are normally carried out as of the 7th day in order to make sure that the required level of strength at is likely to be obtained at 28 days. A third type of information test may be performed in order to obtain information about characteristics that are not specified in the contract such as the modulus of elasticity.

7.3 – Advantages of maturometry In practice.4. it is necessary to: • Transform the actual age of the concrete into an equivalent age (time required for the concrete to develop the same degree of hydration under isothermic conditions at 20° C) • Read off the strength value corresponding to this equivalent age on the reference curve for the concrete. the validity of the laboratory compression test is affected by the method used to remove the samples from their container. This activation energy will then be confirmed or adjusted by referring to the strength/equivalent age curves obtained from the analysis of test samples. 7. the temperature histories of the test samples used for the information tests are very different to those of the concrete that forms part of the structure.4. This illustrates the advantages of maturometry.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Arrhenius’ Law is used to express the changes in the strength of concrete according to a temporal parameter: the concept of equivalent age. In addition. It also shows the advantage to measure the maximum temperature obtained in the middle of the concrete.2 – Practical evaluation of strengths The reference curve is established by measuring the strength of standardized test samples stored at 20°C on precise dates. Furthermore.3. there is a risk that the strength measurements obtained for these samples may not be representative of the actual situation.3.4 – Requirements for the use of maturometry The method requires the use of an activation energy value that corresponds to the type of cement. although it is essential to use a sufficient number of samples to guarantee the validity of the measurements. The concrete is characterized in an instrinsic manner using a “reference curve”.4. To exploit the data from these measurements. one test sample shall be verified using a conventional information test. because this process is not affected by different temperature histories and only uses the total quantity of heat. The significant reduction in the number of test samples required is also an advantage of this process. which is independent of temperature.g. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 173 septembre 2007 . to any additives used (e. extra fillers). For every five findings by maturometry. The apparent activation energy of the concrete must be known for this last operation. which shows the level of strength obtained in the concrete at the different positions where the thermistors have been implanted. Therefore.3. thermistors linked to a central readout station are implanted in the concrete of the most recently cast part of the structure and the temperature is recorded at regular intervals. The thermal monitoring of the concrete in these test samples is used to calculate an equivalent age of this concrete at the desired reference temperature on each of the test dates at which the strength is tested until breaking. and to the external ambient temperature. This depends on the type of cement used and is adjusted according to the temperature. This evaluation can be performed directly by the maturometer.

etc. It should also be noted that the maturometer must be recalibrated at regular intervals (see manufacturer’s instructions). for example.g.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These tests are performed on samples stored at different temperatures.4. in an isothermic box kept in the laboratory. Remote temperature sensing elements are used to evaluate the mass effect in the webs.4 - Inspecting the application of concrete 7.11 below. and the water content of the aggregates so that the total quantity of water can be recalculated • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 174 septembre 2007 .11– Maturometry: an example of a layout for temperature sensing elements 7. externally. it will therefore be necessary to allow a sufficient period of time for this process starting from when the concrete formula has been specified (3 to 4 months may be required). for example. the planned sequence of operations generally starts at the same side of the cantilever. 7. The inspection of the application of concrete must focus on the following points: • • • Cleanliness of the bottom of the formwork Availability and condition of the equipment required The release of pressure from the jacks used to adjust the matched mold for segments prefabricated in the prefabrication unit The conformity of the composition of the concrete shown by the information given on the delivery slip. in the laboratory.4. These can be positioned according to the plan shown in Figure 7. It is essential that the delivery slip shows the following information: the differences between the theoretical weight and the actual weight of the constituents expressed as a percentage.Application For the construction of cast-in-situ segments. This sequence of operations can be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the balanced cantilever. It is also necessary to position thermocouples so that information can be obtained for parts of the bridge deck box girder. As far as the measurements themselves are concerned.4. Fig. the first choice to be made is to determine the critical areas of the structure in which the evolution of strength is representative of the operation to be tested. If the aim is to determine the age at which the concrete is strong enough to resist the removal of formwork. Calibration may be quite a lengthy process. and measure heat losses in the upper slab close to the edges. instruments will be placed in the area in which the last mix of concrete was added. which helps the maturing process. e.1 .

Figure 7. These consist of expanded metal mesh cylinders which are securely attached to the reinforcements.12 – Precautions to take for the casting of segments It is particularly important to comply with the casting plan. vibration.12 above shows the main precautions to be taken. height of drop. the vibration of the concrete must be carefully controlled in order to eliminate segregation and voids. casting phases. guide channels can be used in conjunction with the vibrating needle. It is particularly important to make sure that vibration is not carried out in the immediate vicinity of prestressing ducts. cleaning of starter bars.13 below. The main precautions to be taken are summarized in Figure 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The slump test and the estimate of entrained air. possible use of thermal protection devices. The presence of this information will be verified during the acceptance inspections Compliance with the casting plan for the application of the concrete (fascicule 65A.3): maximum time from the end of the manufacturing process to the completion of casting. Article 75. As a precaution. floating of the upper face of the lower slab for which formwork was not used At the end of casting: surface condition. therefore minimizing the risk of segregation. An addtional precaution to be taken for the casting of very tall segments is to use tubes which are designed to reduce the height from which the concrete is supplied. • • • Fig. The slump test is difficult to perform when the concrete is in liquid form: the wattmetric readings of the output of the mixer motor are therefore an important source of information and these readings must be attached to the delivery slips. and treatment of construction joint surfaces Check that any thermal devices are operating correctly. These tubes can be shortened as the operation progresses. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 175 septembre 2007 . For high-quality casting. 7.

Boiteau. This element must be manufactured under actual site conditions in order to give an accurate picture of the problems encountered in the casting of segments. special provisions must be made to produce concrete at a temperature of approximately 15 to 20°C. These provisions are described in detail in "Procédés généraux de construction .3 of fascicule 65A must be followed for the treatment of construction joints.4.M.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.tome 1" (General Construction Procedures-Information Document 1) by J. either at the extremity of the cantilever or in the reception area for a prefabricated segment. this segment will normally be at least two meters long in order to include a prestress anchor block. Upper and lower limits of 5°C and 40°C must not be exceeded during the manufacturing process. This may be reduced to a half-test segment for economic reasons. This element must be truly representative of the difficulties that are likely to be encountered on site.4. Mathivat and C. Therefore the test piece will be artificially subjected to the full range of potential problems. In this case. Geoffray [GEO 96]. • After the inspection of a prefabricated segment in the reception area. 7. a specific identification number is painted onto the concrete of the web inside the box girder on the side of the mask. Special conditions apply to the manufacture and application of concrete if the temperature recorded on the site falls below 5°C or rises above 25°C. and "Le béton hydraulique . The recommendations of Article 74.13 – Precautions for the vibration of concrete The final inspections for the application of concrete consist of: • Verifying that the required levels of strength have been obtained before authorizing the removal of formwork Performing a general inspection of the segment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 176 septembre 2007 .mise en œuvre" (Hydraulic Concrete – Application) by J. 7.2 – The test segment It is always essential to construct a test segment. Therefore.

When transported in the truck mixer. because as the water contained within the concrete has been used up in the hydration process. Slump test measurements are neither appropriate nor accurate for fluid concrete. there is practically no more free water. it also increases the risk of cracking in areas where shrinkage could be obstructed. the concrete behaves like a fluid. The concrete plant must be capable of handling silica fume. In view of the fluidity of HPC. it is important pay attention to the proportion and design of the non-prestressed reinforcements. • Differences and changes in temperature over time may also be recorded. unambiguous and fully understood by everyone working on site. The floating and levelling of the surfaces must be carried out by teams of workers aware of the viscous and self-adhering behavior of this type of concrete. Vigilance is therefore required. The curing of HPC must also be more meticulous and more intense than for ordinary concrete. appearance.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The following points will be verified in particular: • • • • Conformity of the facings (color. transverse single-strand tendons and reinforcing bars. Full-scale testing is required to verify this. etc. In the case of a structure with variable inertia. drying) The setting behavior of the fresh concrete in lower slabs without upper formwork The practicality of the implementation of internal ducts.5 - The application of high-performance concrete A certain number of specific precautions must be taken with regard to the manufacture and application of highperformance concrete. with the associated risks of spillage. and staff must be properly trained. A specific procedure must be developed for the construction of the test segment. as the slightest loss of laitance could result in segregation. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 177 septembre 2007 . vibration.) Casting methodology (application. Therefore. the angle of the lower slab on segments close to the piers could be steep enough to cause the concrete to slide down the slope. The application of the concrete requires completely leak-tight formwork. It may also be beneficial to use concrete of different consistencies for the webs and slabs. particularly in problematical areas It will also be verified that the physical references for the adjustment of the alignment of prestress tendons are accurate. using small diameters and reduced center distances between the bars. While this constraint improves the durability of the concrete. Formwork must then be erected on the extrados of the slab. HPC is more sensitive to the effects of drying. 7. Samples may also be extracted for subsequent testing. This is particularly important for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using the cantilever method. the consistency of the fresh concrete must be inspected on site by measuring its spread on a flow table in accordance with the P 18-432 and NF EN 12350-5 standards.4.

compliance with reinforcement bar list. stem clamps and of the rigidity of the equipment Condition of the equipment: structural condition. the hanger is be scrapped – or better still. In particular. The rigorousness of the inspection procedures reduces the likelihood of accidents. absence of distortion at the edges which form joints. flatness of panels. squareness of application of load and performance of lock-nuts Conformity of inserts and fixings in relation to the plans: positioning. The number of uses could be painted on the hanger after each operation in order to monitor their use.Inspection of formwork The inspection of the formwork on the form traveler or in the prefabrication unit covers the following points: • • • Numbers and indices of the plans used (which must be approved plans) Cleanliness of the work area and flushing out of the formwork bases before installation of reinforcements Systematic verification that any laitance deposits on construction joint surfaces have been purged and cleaned prior to the closure of the formwork Stability of centering. Checks shall also be performed to ensure that bolts are easy to tighten and that they act squarely on the plates. systematic visual inspections of the hangers are carried out in order to check for straightness and the absence of impact marks or welding spots.6 .5 . the hangers must be new at the start of construction on site. length and bending Page 178 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . If there are any doubts. cut into one metre long pieces and replaced. 7. dirt.Inspecting the reinforcements The following list describes the main inspections to be performed concerning the reinforcements for a segment prior to casting: • • Inspection of the numbers and indices of the plans used Acceptance inspection of the reinforcement bars: existence of the approval certificate. cleanliness. it is very important to scrupulously observe the procedures governing the movement of formwork tools and systematically inspect the supporting and attaching elements. condition of the bars (straightness. elimination of traces of laitance and oxidation. leak-tightness of different seams and foam strips.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. the hangers will be reused no more than 30 to 40 times and they will be automatically replaced when this limit is reached. Needless to say. type and number. Furthermore. and oiling of outer skin Tolerances of panels for unevenness and the conformity of the dimensions in relation to plans Hydraulic jacks positioned under the segment acting as a matched mold . • • • • • For the construction of cast-in-situ segments.). rust. dimensions.straightness. welds Verification of conformity to the reinforcement plan: diameter.

2 of its supplement.Storage Storage procedures are defined in Article 92. The renewal of the protection is carried out in compliance with the stipulations of Article 66.3 of fascicule 65A and Article 76. The accuracy of the positioning of the hoops on the prestress anchorages must be carefully inspected. whose expertise is recognized by the Construction Manager and approved by the distributor of the prestressing process used. 86-64 of September 4 1986 concerning the delivery conditions for parts and the checks to be performed.1 to 4. 7.4. and also in Articles 4.7 .1.2 . 7. Titre II. factory-oiled prestressing cable reels must be stored in enclosed and well-ventilated premises. The scale of the plans used for these areas must be large enough to allow for the precise management of the positions and sizes of the reinforcements.1. They shall be placed on battens or pallets in order to keep the rims off the floor The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 179 septembre 2007 . coating and setting.4.3 of Circular 94-34 of April 19 1994).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection of implementation: position.Prestressing Manager). The test segment (see 7.2 of the supplement to fascicule 65A. These conditions must also comply with the provisions of Article 3-5 of Circular no.2 of fascicule 65A and Article 71. with the minimum deviation allowed from this position. It is better to use frames to make stiffening trusses. The bar chairs should not be used to improve the rigidity of excessively flexible cages. Article 95.1.1 .2 of its supplement.7.2) will provide important information about the feasibility of these arrangements.7. The storage conditions for prestressing elements must be rigorously inspected and particular attention should be paid to the following points: • The hard steel. it is important to verify that the reinforcement cage is not inverted. The delivery of all of the components of the anchorages must be protected according to the provisions of Article 92. 7. length of overlapping between the reinforcement bars and the starter bars Inspection of stability.7. solidity of binding of blocks which must be clean and made from concrete.1.1 of fascicule 65A describes the CMP’s role.1 - Inspection of materials 7.Procurement The delivery conditions for the prestress reinforcements conform to Article 5 of fascicule 4. • It is important to pay particular attention to the hooped reinforcements required due to the application of concentrated forces. rigidity and strength of the entire reinforcement cage with a view to casting. The centering on the trumplate must conform to its theoretical positioning. absence of contact between these bindings and the near wall.Inspection of prestressing Prestressing is carried out under the supervision of a specially qualified manager called the CMP (Chargé de la Mise en Précontrainte . For parts whose formwork has one or two lines of symmetry but whose reinforcements are asymmetrical. The inserts designed for the structural element in question will also be inspected. Three-dimensional modeling may be used for certain critical areas.

7.1 – Geometry of ducts The inspection of the installation of the ducts is a complex matter.7.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Prior to use.75 m must be allowed between the ducts supports. They are also placed on battens or pallets to avoid contact with the ground. It is unrealistic to demand accuracy greater than 5 mm. 7. as this could affect the oiling Anchorages must be stored under a ventilated shelter and their crates or packaging are placed on battens or platted to avoid contact with the ground.7. This applies to the internal continuity tendons which may move during casting if they are incorrectly attached. 7. 7. These systems are designed to align the ducts perfectly in accordance with the prestressing plans. the parts can be stored temporarily under a shelter with a removable roof or under ventilated tarpaulins.2 - Inspection of implementation The accuracy of the installation of the prestress components is dependent on the methods used on site.14 – Risks related to inaccurate duct geometry Fig. The same precautions must be taken for the cantilever tendons close to the facing on the upper slab.15). making sure there is no contact between the tarpaulin and metal.14 and 7. Rigid sections of ducts can be specified around joints with a view to maintaining the continuity of this alignment. Wood with a high tannin content must not be interposed between the reels. Key bolts are kept in their original packaging until use Ducts are stored in bundles under ventilated tarpaulins. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 180 septembre 2007 .15 – Spalling of the lower slab/Angled view from below These problems must be borne in mind when designing the reinforcement plans. Indeed. problems regularly arise on site due to inadequate positioning. It may also result in the spalling of the lower slab due to delamination under the parasitic radial tendon forces that are thus generated (Fig. Fig. The calculations and construction provisions must take account of this. with regard to the systems used to fix the internal continuity tendons in place and during the construction and implementation of these systems. • • 7. A spacing of approximately 0.

inverting the deviators – it is important to carry out general inspections and to take a regular overview. deviator tubes should be designed in such a way that the pressure exerted by the tendon on the concrete is directed into the body of the structure and stops before the facings in the coating areas. 7. 7. The reader is advised to consult the Sétra document entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). the concrete formwork tubes must be bell-mouthed so that the curvature of the tendon effectively starts around 10 cm from the facings (Fig.18 – Cross-section of a deviator tube 7. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Problems due to the incorrect geometrical positioning of the ducts are also observed on the external tendons.g. in the contract documents. Figures 7. including their edges. Fig. or an excessively high number of breakages of single-strand tendons when the structure is stressed and if parasitic angular cracks have developed close to the anchorages.2. Finally.16 and 7. it is necessary to designate a person in charge of monitoring the geometry of the prestress ducts before and after casting. because the large-diameter bars which are commonly used require large bending radii.17 – The deviator after cleaning To prevent these problems. it is first of all important to make sure that an efficient procedure exists for adjusting the angle of the deviator tubes. Fig. Accordingly. These problems could have been minimized by the addition of small-diameter nonprestressed reinforcement bars positioned close to the facings. It is also important to make sure that the beams situated at the base of the deviator beams are correctly reinforced.16 – Spalling of a deviator when the structure is stressed Fig. published in February 1990. The geometrical accuracy of the ducts is very important. 7.18).7. As many basic errors are still committed on sites – e. These problems normally concern two phenomena: the localized spalling of the concrete due to parasitic forces resulting from badly positioned deviators.2 – Installation of the prestressing components The following inspections must be performed during the installation of the prestressing elements: • Verification that the sleeves of the thin metal ducts are correctly tightened: the prefabricated lengths of ducts with sleeve extensions are designed to provide a satisfactory fit at the level of the facing Page 181 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . Therefore.17 show the problems caused by an incorrect reinforcement of one of these edges on a deviator beam.

7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verification that the alignment of the ducts and their attachments conforms to the plan (Fig. This tip can also be applied to the deviator tubes for the external prestressing ducts. it is possible to mark out the outline of the curvature of the duct by making a light saw mark on the end sections of tube. It is assumed that the plans show dimensions relating to existing physical objects or lines marked out on site.). particularly in the areas of deviation close to the anchor block attachments (Fig.20 – Verification of a duct alignment in space The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 182 septembre 2007 . in which it is better to use rigid tubes rather than thin steel ducts. • • • In general. etc. 7. In areas of large deviations (emergence of tendon from anchor block.19 – Conflict between non-prestressed reinforcements and ducts Fig. 7. deviation area close to an anchorage.19) Verification that the ducts are in good condition and that there are no significant distorsions or out-ofroundness Adjustment of the duct supports in relation to formwork if necessary Inspection of the attachment of all ducts to the non-prestressed reinforcements Accurate inspections of the alignment of the ducts. this inspection must be carried out according to unambiguous physical references which are fully understood by everyone working on the site. 7. Fig.20).

e. Furthermore. 7. rigidity of the fixing and angle of the injection hole Fitting of the duct in the end of the trumplate via a coupling sleeve Absence of sudden changes of angle. These stiffening solutions may be used for the ducts throughout the entire length of the segment to be cast. A spacing of 4 to 5 m is typically used. 7. without sudden changes of angle. 7. The number and spacing of the supports will depend on the number and strength of the prestressing units. verification of the coaxiality of the different elements and of the adhesive sealing Distribution of vents and the positioning of the vent outlets in the facings.22). the angles at which the ducts emerge from the joint sections are inspected for compliance with the values shown on the plans Use of coupling sleeves and the adhesive sealing of the sleeving joints Fixing of the trumplate to the formwork: verification of orientation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When completed. 7. it is necessary to use temporary supports for the ducts in order to make sure that the tendon is in the correct position before it is stressed (Fig. Should transverse prestressing be required. this also applies to the ducts left empty in reserve (Fig. the type and frequency of the tendon supports should be carefully inspected in view of the forces exerted during casting. the installation of the ducts and the anchorages must be verified by a competent surveyor who must check the following points: • That stiffening devices are used to ensure a continuous alignment of the ducts around the joints. to verify the accuracy of the duct alignment and the presence of a support system designed to maintain this alignment (Fig. Fig.21 – Support system for HDPE ducts for external tendons If the prestressing passes through the webs. it is advisable to stiffen the reinforcement cages in order to make sure that the ducts remain in the correct position. as tranverse reinforcement made from small-diameter bars is likely to be significantly t distorted during casting. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 183 septembre 2007 . given the thinness of the parts.23). i.21). • • • • • For the external prestressing. it is particularly important.

7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.22 – Inspection of supports for transverse prestressing Fig. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 184 septembre 2007 .23 – Supports for prestress ducts in the webs It is also important to make sure that “removable” elements can actually be removed. especially when double ducting is used on the deviators.

7.3 - Inspection of stressing 7. speed of threading is preferred to force in order to prevent the jamming of the last strands on the approach to the outlet) After the threading of every strand of an external prestressing tendon and the positioning of the anchorages.2. During this operation. cans.7.3 – Visual inspection of strands It is essential to reject strands showing signs of pitting due to oxidation. i. We consider this table to be far too lax and believe that corroded reinforcements should never be accepted.Threading Strand-by-strand threading is the most commonly-used threading method for bridges constructed by the cantilever method. it is important to verify that the entire tendon can move inside the duct. it is highly advisable to verify that the ductsducts have not been blocked by any foreign objects: bottles. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 185 septembre 2007 .3. before casting. etc. of which only the fifth level was unacceptable. as these are always the most difficult to thread through the duct (for long tendons. • • • • • • • 7. it is particularly important to make sure that: • • The strands have been sufficiently well oiled in order to reduce the friction forces in the later phases The distance between the pay-off reel and the cable pusher is kept to a minimum and that. 7. oxidation and cleanliness play a vital role in the correct installation of a traditional strand-jaws anchorage. This inspection can be carried out by flushing a ball through the sheath with compressed air.e. this particularly applies to the last strands to be threaded. so that the strand tends to pull itself tight while is unwinding Each tendon is made up of strands from the same supplier The additional length required for the stressing has been allowed for before the strand is cut to length The strand has not been marked by the rollers on the cable pusher.7.1 – Inspections prior to stressing Lubrication.7. A corrosion table specifying up to five levels of corrosion. the strand is well protected by a tube or duct The cable reel has been placed in the static pay-off reel in such a way that the lay of the coil being unwound lies in the same direction as lay of the stranding.2. nicks or other defects likely to affect their mechanical strength.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. over 50 m in length. when the pressure of the rollers tends to increase A thick wooden shield is securely fitted over the strand outlet in order to protect staff Particular attention is paid to the threading of the last two strands of the tendon. over this distance. was once used by certain contractors. This helps to position one strand in relation to another and also helps to check that there are no blockages.7. tools.4 . scratches.

In addition to the fact that successful stressing depends on the quality of casting in the anchorage area. solution. These inspections may be systematic in terms of: • • Measuring the extension and pressure in stages Monitoring the position of tendons during threading in order to detect any possibility of crossed ducts.7. Oxidation must not be considered to be acceptable in the mechanical assembly of the anchorage. These three parameters are vital for the correct operation of the conical wedging of the strand-jaws in the anchorage. it is necessary to verify that engineering office has allowed for the additional lengths of cable which are gripped by the jacks in their calculations of the extension of the tendons. so that there are no brakages due to crossed strands near the anchorage That the conical holes in the anchor head are clean and have no rust that cannot be wiped off. the following points require special attention: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 186 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The anchorage must be properly lubricated if it is to work correctly and the lubrication conditions must be specified in the internal procedures recommended by specialist distribution companies.2 – Inspection plan An inspection plan must be drawn up prior to the start of the stressing operations. • It is also important to check that the jack is aligned concentrically on the anchor head and coaxially in relation to the tendon. 7. Finally. this shows up any problems with the jaws and reveals any broken strands. The marking of the strands at the back of the jack is another.7. it is also important to verify the following points when fitting the anchor head on the tendon: • • That the strands are clean That they are disentangled if necessary. e.3 – Precautions during stressing During stressing. The exact type of lubricant to be used must also be specified. Finally.3. and then are checked at random. They may also take the form of spot checks. it is advisable to cut all of the strands to the same length. Before the jacks are threaded. the frequency of the inspections and identifies the tendons to be inspected.g. which at first are systematically verified for each family of tendons at the start of stressing operations. before the start of operations. albeit less effective. It specifies the types of inspections. when measuring transmission factors. 7. cleanliness is essential and a there must be no laitance whatsoever.3.

2 of fascicule 65A and Appendix I of its supplement. Normally. It is also important to verify the calibration chart for the manometers on the pumps (test date). but particular vigilance is required with regard to the localized stresses applied to the new concrete.4 – Coefficients of friction Coefficients of friction are monitored by measuring the transmission factor.7.4 - Inspection of injection 7.1 . This operation must be described in a detailed construction procedure and the engineering office must apply specific design calculations to it. it is essential to make sure that the jacks have been properly tared (using a calibration chart). The combination of these three fundamental actions produces a permanent barrier against corrosion and guarantees the longevity of the prestressing. This operation. which is indicative Check that the correction for the compaction of the jaws has been properly allowed for in the measurement of the extension on the piston of the jack. The principle behind this measurement is described in detail in Article 95. The use of a sclerometer to perform this verification is strictly prohibited. means that the last segment to be cast behaves as reinforced concrete with regard to the loads exerted by the form traveler.7.4. Before carrying out this measurement.7.4. The cantilever tendons are sometimes only stressed after the form traveler has been moved forward. • • 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that the internal friction on the jacks and their anchorages has been correctly accounted for in the interpretation of the pressure readings on the manometer Do not forget to correct the pressure reading in accordance with the calibration chart for the pump manometer: the pressure is used as the reference measurement and not the extension. 7.7. this poses no problems in terms of general flexion. which is designed to shorten the segment construction cycle. it is essential to verify that the value fcmin which is mentioned on the french CIP (Commission Interministérielle de la Précontrainte-Interministry Prestressing Committee] accreditation and in the construction design calculations has been achieved by the concrete before stressing is carried out. 7.2 – Cement grout Two types of grouts are identified: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 187 septembre 2007 . 7.7.4.3.5 – Precautions to be taken with regard to concrete During the construction of a cantilever with cast-in-situ segments.Injection The injection of prestressing ducts and anchorages is intended to: • • • Completely fill the void left in a duct Passivate of the steels due to the action of the products used Protect steels against corrosive external agents.3.

which is fluid after manufacture Thixotropic grout: a traditional grout to which a thixotropifying agent is added at the end of the manufacturing process. using the method described in Appendix 3. the equipment used for their injection and the temperature conditions for their application comply with the the conditions described in the technical evaluation report. which determines the flow Measuring exudation. These are specified by European standards and are referenced in Article 92. is essential in view of the representativeness of this test and the unsuitability of the other tests with regard to the characterization of the in-situ stability of grout.1 of Circular no. the phasing of the injection must be adapted to suit the alignment of the tendon in question. This has two advantages: the injection conditions remain the same as for a traditional grout. provided that the components of the grout. 99-54 of August 20 1999.7.3 – Specific inspections and precautions during the injection of cement grout Precaution to be taken during the injection study Injection tests have shown that the appearance of pockets of air due to the collapse of the front wall of the grout as it passes through high points can be prevented by optimizing the speed of advancement of the grout in accordance with the alignments and the prestressing units used. except when testing is specifically requested by the Construction Checker.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Traditional grout. Numerous tests must be performed on the grout. it is important to use an appropriate speed of injection. which characterizes the filling volume Measuring compressive strength. it is essential to perform a new inclined tube test on site. The main characteristic of this second type of grout is its capacity to change from a gel when stationary to a liquid when shaken. If just one of the conditions is not respected. generally: Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 8 to 14 m per min Φ < 100 mm Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 16 to 20 m per min Φ > 100 mm Vertical or steeply angled tendons 3 to 8 m per min Furthermore. and the front wall of the grout remains almost perpendicular to the duct and does not collapse as it passes through high points. This analysis must be carried out upstream of the process in order to make sure that the position of the vents is consistent with this phasing. They involve: • • • • Measuring fluidity.3 of fascicule 65A. grouts may be used without preliminary testing if they have been given a favorable technical evaluation report or a favorable provisional report by the CIP. this property depends on the shearing threshold of the grout for a given slope and on the steepness of the slope for a given grout. which defines the stability of the grout Measuring the variation in volume. 7. Therefore. However. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 188 septembre 2007 .4. However. Testing using a transparent inclined tube.

Pre-injection inspections Before any injection takes place. the different levels will be inspected in order to make sure that the ducts are properly filled. The bleeder valves are kept open. If the test shows the existence of any connections between the ducts.50 m). An air compressor and a pressurized water inlet must be operational on the structure and kept ready in case of problems during the injection process. Finally. if allowed by the thickness of the concrete (e < 0.l. it is compulsory to test the leak-tightness of the ducts in order to identify any potential anomalies. The rheology of the grout must be adapted to the ambient temperature and humidity. the tendons concerned will be injected simultaneously. Preparations for the injection must also take account of the weather forecast. It is also necessary to perform systematic tests of the bleeding of the anchor caps and vents at the high points.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Precautions to be taken during construction Bleeder valves and vents are identified by marking or labeling according to the vent plan which must be supplied by the contractor.5 MPa.B of fascicule 65A. the monitoring of the injection pressure is of paramount importance to the success of the operation. This also helps to check that the numbering of the ducts matches that of the vents. This test can be carried out using compressed air or by creating a partial vacuum. Inspections during injection During pressurized injection. During the construction of the bridge.5. these vents must be closed in order to prevent water from seeping into the ducts. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 189 septembre 2007 . it is important to remember to check the equipment and make sure that the necessary materials are supplied in sufficient quantities. Fluidity and exudation tests are performed according to the recommendations of Article 95. This involves: • • • • Visual inspections of the ducts A statistical inspection by removing the caps An acoustic sounding inspection A gammagraphic inspection. The fundamental value to be considered is that the pressure in the duct must not exceed 1. Post-injection inspections After the injection. Precautions taken when preparing for the injection Mixers and storage tanks must be protected from water penetration and prevented from drying out due to direct sunshine.

4 – Injection of external prestressing Circular no.7. the wax contracts significantly. it is important to take special precautions such as re-injecting the high points. 7. 2001-16 of February 28 2001 relative to the “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton” (The design of prestressing external concrete) describes the possible solutions used for the design of external prestressing and mentions the risks involved in its removal. To reduce this risk to a minimum. certain important precautions must be taken. in the case of the external prestressing. Therefore.5 – Flexible products Wax Wax is a malleable. between 90 and 120° C. crystallized solid material which is preferred to grease due to the absence of syneresis. During cooling.4.Characteristics The adhesive used for prefabricated segments consists of epoxy resins mixed with a hardener. this leads to the use of protected and sheathed single strands in a general duct injected with cement grout or ungalvanized strands in a general duct injected with a flexible product.4. 7.50 Compressive strength of between 15 and 25 MPa The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 190 septembre 2007 . it is of paramount importance to consider the thermal exchanges with the adjacent materials and the ambient temperature during the injection process. Its main properties are: • • Density of approximately 1. For self-shielded units such as those which are often used in transverse prestressing. it is important to ensure that everyone present is protected against the risk of burning by the wax).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. staff could be burned and the surrounding concrete could be impregnated with wax.8.8. it is prohibited to use grease for the protection of prestressing units that are not selfshielded. which improves its stability over time.Other important points 7. usually petroleum wax. a large proportion of the shrinkage of the wax is compensated for by the cooling of the HDPE duct. In practice. Grease Because of its syneresis. with disastrous consequences. The greatest care must be taken to ensure there are no leaks. It is absolutely essential to prevent any leakage of wax during the injections. and this can lead to the creation of voids. which was heated by the passage of the hot wax.1. it is important to only use materials which are resistant to high temperatures and to make sure that the ducts and anchorages are perfectly leakproof by carrying out rigorous inpections and tests (As the risks can never be entirely eliminated. However.1 . the protection of anchorages using grease must be carried out on site.7.1 Adhesive and its application (prefabricated segments) 7. As wax must be injected at temperatures higher than its melting point.8 . Firstly. If this happens. to the order of 5 to 10 %.

4 – Application precautions The following precautions should be taken when applying the adhesive: • Ensure that if it rains.8. In fact. it is necessary to test the time taken for the adhesive to set. structural demolitions and analyses of structural behavior show that under normal conditons on construction sites. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • A low modulus of elasticity of between 1. Adhesives bearing the "NF-Produits spéciaux destinés aux constructions en béton hydraulique" (French Standard – Special products intended for hydraulic concrete structures) label in the structural adhesives category.500 and 2. protective measures such as the sheeting of the bonding area and the creation of an run-off barrier near the joint are implemented in order to prevent contact with rainwater run-off before and after the bonding of the segments and until they are securely lashed together Verify that a sufficient amount of adhesive is applied to the joints of both segments to form a seam of excess adhesive on the edges of the joints • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 191 septembre 2007 .1. The following precautions must be taken when performing this test: • The components of the test sample must be similar in quantity to the mixture that will be used on site in practice Care must be taken to avoid trapping air when mixing the components of the glue The temperature and humidity conditions for the test must be representative of the actual conditions and conform to the specifications.8.1. i. or products bearing an equivalent European label are highly recommended.2 – Adhesives and their role The term “adhesive” is not strictly accurate. results from the laboratory testing of concrete-to-concrete bonding.3 mm in size Partially correcting imperfections in joints because the adhesive has a similar compressive strength to the concrete Lubricating the surfaces when the parts are brought together. • • 7.500 MPa. the joints are not actually bonded because tensile strength is not created in the joint.e. • • • • 7. Nevertheless.1.3 – Testing of setting time Before the segments are assembled and bonded. the time between the start of the mixing of the components and the moment when the mixture no longer adheres on contact. minimizing the damage caused by the inevitable minor impacts during handling operations Helping to center the match casted surfaces Sealing prestress ducts.8. these openings may reach 0. adhesive plays an important role by: • Filling the openings between joints caused by the differential shrinkage of different parts of the section of the box-girder.

Minor defects such as impact damage to the concrete on the edge of a joint are better left exposed.2 - Segment facing The inspection of the general appearance of a segment concerns three criteria: shape. For example. It is particularly important to account for the variation in the water content of the components. interdependent factors which must be controlled. helps to improve the management of the quality of concrete. In fact. It should be noted that the formation of a seam of adhesive as mentioned below simplifies inspections in the short and long term by guaranteeing that the joint has not been been altered after the clamping of the parts. the proportions of additives and the temperature are the three key. These three criteria are interrelated. Resurfacing with cement mortar may make it harder to evaluate the type and extent of any defects. as it can be The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 192 septembre 2007 . A reference formula for spring and autumn has to be changed to allow for higher temperatures and lower rainfall in summer and is changed again in winter to account for the reversals of these same parameters.and color. Maturometry.8. the type of surface finish can attenuate differences in the color of the concrete. 7.2. Only a detailed rheological study will satisfy this requirement.5 – Repair of bonding defects A major bonding defect can only be repaired by an injection of resin according to a specific procedure adapted to each case. This evaluation must imperatively be carried out before any repairs are made. except on the bridge deck extrados. The additives and their effects on the water and temperature are particularly important. It is now known that changing the formula of the concrete to suit the season plays a key role in producing a high-quality facing. Concrete for the construction of bridges built by the cantilever method is now manufactured during several seasons.1 – Concrete quality The final appearance of the segment facings should be considered when choosing the concrete formula because the color depends on the rheology of the concrete. The amount of water used. in order to facilitate the surfacing required for the application of the waterproofing layer. The color obtained also depends on the number of times the formwork is reused – which turn depends on the resources allocated to the project.texture. 7. If resurfacing is necessary.8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that this seam has not been ground down after polymerization. which generalizes the evolution of the hydration parameters for concrete. which is governed by the concrete. Three factors play an important role in determining the color of the segment facings on structures built by the cantilever method: the quality of the concrete. corresponding to the different geometrical dimensions of the segment .8. which is given by the formwork skin . It is also a valuable indicator for the removal of formwork. Color therefore relates to texture. 7. the formwork and vibration. a recess should first be created around the damaged area and an epoxy resin-based mortar should be used for the repair. color is quite difficult evaluate in isolation because it depends on how the surface reacts to the light.1.

made from composite materials which can be reused at least three hundred times.g. This factor is particularly important for the prefabrication of segments in prefabrication units.8.8. This plan is drawn up by a specialist or with specialist help (see paragraph 7.meaning that part of a component has been vibrated for too long. In this case. is actually quite hard to reconcile with the stoppage of work at the weekend.Vibration A large number of defects are caused by incorrect vibration. 7. of a slab. often creates intermittent vibrations in the reinforcements which act as secondary vibrators when the concrete is tightly compacted.involving the creation of secondary vibrations caused by the hard spots of the reinforcements or formwork structures.4. e. These materials are very expensive. may cause problems depending on the type of aggregates used). These materials are used primarily for economic reasons and their characteristics are not ideal for the creation of high-quality facings. To make sure that the upper section of a layer of freshly-poured concrete is sufficiently vibrated. A double formwork skin is better suited to this task. this means that another part of the component has not been vibrated for long enough Post-vibration . Finally. are a new arrival on the market.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide used to determine how long the formwork needs to remain on the part and this is one of the key factors in determining the homogeneity of the facing.2 – Formwork and formwork skins Today. Flat vibration. The drawback to this technique relates to the time required for the assembly and the dismantling of the formwork skin each time it is replaced. the most widely used formwork is made of steel or bakelite plywood (film-faced plywood. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 193 septembre 2007 . the formation of bug holes can be prevented by making sure that the wood fibres are aligned in the same direction as the pouring of the concrete. This consists of a thickness of no more than 10 mm of ordinary plywood fixed to the standard formwork. which is less expensive. 7. Indeed. The daily cycle which leads to the removal of formwork in the morning. and are not suitable for all shapes. it is important to follow a vibration plan corresponding to the shape of the component.4 concerning the inspection of application). rather than the costs of the materials. it is necessary to vibrate it for one to two minutes after air bubbles have ceased to emerge from the concrete. Another important contribution of the formwork skin to the creation of a high-quality facing is to dampen the vibrations transmitted to the formwork during the vibration of the concrete. Formwork skins. thanks to the column of air between the formwork skin and the formwork itself. Two pitfalls must be avoided: • Over-vibration . which is the most common situation. • The importance of the type of formwork skin is illustrated by the fact different materials have different capacities to absorb vibrations. beveled vertical slats of unfinished wood have already been used for this purpose. however.2.3 .2. On a constant cycle.

if the skin is made from painted sheet metal. As fascicule 65A does not address all of the issues relating to facings. it is also necessary to anticipate changes in the quality of the formwork skin. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 194 septembre 2007 . this paint will gradually disappear. thus changing the final appearance. and CPJ-CEM Il/A and B cements produce light-colored facings. The test segment is used to experiment with all of the aforementioned factors and eventually arrive at a comprehensive solution for the production of high-quality facing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Differences in the appearance of the facing can be reduced by the use of white cement or light-colored cement. the Construction Manager may also refer to the Projet National Qualibé (National Concrete Quality Project) report for additional information. Clinker has a distinctive color and additives can be used to attenuate its impact. For example. However. Therefore CHF-CEM III/A and B.

1. Cylinder strength at 28 days replaced cube strength at 90 days. 8.2 - 1953-1964: the first regulations for prestressed concrete The first French regulations applicable to prestressed concrete appeared on October 1 1953. It made changes to the “construction” section of the IPl and insisted on: • • The need for a waterproofing layer The use of APC (Artificial Portland Cement) 325 or CFA (Cement – Fly Ash) 400 cement. 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 8 . It also made the use of strong sealed metal ducts compulsory for prestressing by post-tensioning.Pathologies and repairs This chapter begins with a quick reminder of the changes in the regulations applicable to structures built by the cantilever method. Circular no.History of the regulations This paragraph mentions certain key events in the evolution of French regulations and the technical texts relating to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method.g.a Provisional Instruction concerning the use of prestressed concrete). in order to reduce the risks of corrosion (the use of PCS [Portland Slag Cement] cement had to be approved by the LCPC) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 195 septembre 2007 . It incorporated the advances made since 1953. This was intended to prevent accidents during the construction of bridges or on structures in use. 1966 saw the publication of the Provisional Directive for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges. This instruction recommended the inclusion of certain clauses in the Cahiers des prescriptions spéciales (Special Conditions) [CPS]) relating to the composition of concrete (minimum cement batching of 400 kg/m3) and the quality of prestressing reinforcements. Essentially. but it hinted at the use of partially prestressed structures. 8. des Transports et du Tourisme [Minsistry of Public Works. formulae for relaxation losses). relating to the instruction provisoire (Provisional Instruction) for the use of prestressed concrete (called “IPl”). (Circular no. especially regarding the calculation of losses of tension (e. It should be noted that this circular was written primarly for bridges with prefabricated girders. 141 issued by the Ministère des Travaux Publics.1.44 of August 12 1965. In 1965. It then goes on to describe the main pathologies affecting these structures and the corresponding repair techniques. there were no French regulations concerning prestressed concrete. it recommended the use of fully compressed concrete (with minimum compression on one axis equal to at least 8% of the maximum compression). Transport and Tourism] .1.1 . but there was no lower compression limit (σmin ≥ 0). batched at 400 kg/m2 for the manufacture of concrete.1 - 1946-1952: the first prestressed bridges In this era. replaced the 1953 Provisional Instruction.3 - 1965-1975: constantly changing regulations This was a time of enormous changes and constantly changing regulations. 8. Complete prestressing remained.

reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. Appendix II included a collection of 55 monographs on structures built between 1960 and 1972 in France and abroad. This consisted of a design rule based on “limit states” methods. Circular no. the manufacturing conditions for grouts.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The almost total prohibition of admixtures after the collapse of a beam on the Guerville viaduct. In December 1972. engineering. etc. the execution and inspection of injected materials. This directive led to real improvements in the quality of the protection applied to prestress tendons. etc. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 196 septembre 2007 . design and construction of these structures. This accident was caused when an incorrect dose of an admixture prevented the concrete from hardening properly. The IP2 introduced the use of: • • The characteristic strength of concrete instead of the nominal strength Types or classes of prestressing (from type I: no decompression of concrete. In the same year. which was the first document to cover the concept of limit states. • • • 1971 saw the introduction of the Directives Communes relatives au Calcul des Constructions (DC71) [Common Guidelines relating to Structural Design]. again with a view to reducing the risks of stress corrosion (only APC 325 cement was allowed for the injection grout and sealing mortar). In 1973. 2 (called “IP2”) relating to the use of prestressed concrete. These guidelines were intended to be used as the basis for the creation of new design rules for metal. This highly informative document covered the requirements for grouts (traditional and special). in order to reduce the risks of stress corrosion Inspections during stressing operations in order to reduce prestress losses The care to be taken over the injection of ducts and the need to allow a maximum period of 8 days between the stressing and injection operations. creep. called “BT7”. This regulation significantly reduced the intensity of the distributed loads A (l) for bridges of moderate length (between 15 and 80 m) and introduced degressivity factors according to the number of loaded lanes and the category of structure. 73-153 of August 13 1973 introduced Provisional Instruction no. the bottom flange of the girder was crushed during prestressing Precautions for the storage of prestressing reinforcements on site. This document covered the history. The Provisional Directive for the injection of ducts on prestressed concrete structures appeared on March 28 1973. the 1960 load regulation was replaced by Titre II of fascicule 61 of the Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (CPC) [Common Conditions]. Appendix I of this document featured a design example incorporating changes due to creep and thermal gradients. Sétra published the first version of its Technical Bulletin on bridges built by the cantilever method. accidents. the characteristics of study and suitability tests. as a result. to type III: limitation of the opening of cracks) Characteristic values of actions due to prestressing (P1 and P2) Specific rules relating to end or support areas and to concentrated forces during post and pre-tensioning Rules to account for delayed deformations in concrete due to shrinkage.

Circular no. 8.1. Therefore. difficulty of applying the range of characteristic values of the prestressing when there was a redistribution of efforts due to delayed obstructed deformations. on the one hand. 69-92.000 hours Article 12 reduced the initial tension of the tendons The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ specified in the IP1 were used in the certificates of approval. the IPl. abandoned the "allowable stresses" calculation in favor of "limit-states" calculations. and March 26 1973: • Article 10.). etc. 74-60 of April 23 1974 made changes to the following articles of the IP1 in accordance with the new Titre II in fascicule 4 of the CPC of March 5 1971. relating to the calculation of relaxation losses in the prestressing reinforcements. 1979 saw the publication of four important circulars: • Circular no. • • • • By introducing rules to allow for creep and the thermal gradient. • • The Direction des Routes et de la Circulation Routière (Department of Roads and Traffic) published a circular on April 2 1975. and described in Circular no. or in a usable form within Appendix B of the IP2) Page 197 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . except for structures with numerous joints for which they were determined by the CPS (Special Conditions).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During this period. which remained valid. continued to be used except for the pretensioning. 79-23 of March 9 1979. after analyzing and determining the causes of cracking observed on a number of bridges built by the cantilever method. the distribution of concentrated forces and for the precise calculation of delayed deformation effects. incorporated the concept of quality and on the other.4 - 1975-1982 This period saw the publication of new regulations which. etc. private and public engineering firms were not ready to face up to the practical difficulties relating to the application of this new regulation (complete overhaul of design programs. which included the instruction of January 15 1979 relating to the inspection of concrete quality (conditions for the execution and interpretation of study. suitability and inspection tests which were not included in fascicule 65 of August 13 1969. This document was designed to supplement the IPl with regard to the following points: • • Redistribution of forces due to delayed deformation Distribution of prestressing loads (concentrated forces) and the accumulation of shearing stresses with or without transverse or vertical prestressing (stressed stirrups) Traction forces exerted by tendons anchored in the slab of a box girder Thermal gradients (5°C under rare combinations and 10°C under practically permanent combinations in the sense of the BPEL 91. this circular brought an end to the era of second-generation bridges (see Chapter 1) and paved the way for a new generation of much better dimensioned bridges. established relaxation at 3. while taking account of the instantaneous deformation modulus of the concrete) radial tendon forces in curved slabs The continuity of reinforcements close to joints.

All of these notions concerning quality were applied to each of the texts relating to the construction of structures. 79-121 of December 14 1979 concerning the reprint of the IPl.C. internal and external inspections and independent inspections.7 Frg for reinforcements with a small radius of curvature (stressed stirrups) The strength of the concrete close to the anchorages and the minimum distances to the facings of the anchor plates The conditions of execution for the tensioning The need and the implementation conditions for temporary protection and sealing • Circular no. and much less of an influence on the development of prestressing reinforcements.C. Significant changes were made to the design of large prestressed concrete structures. which established: – – – – – – – – The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ (according to the radius of curvature.5 - 1983 to the present day This period was marked by the generalization of "limit states" design rules.79) [Common Guidelines for Structural Design]. technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures according to the limit states method.1. design examples. the number of joints crossed and the type of tendons: smooth wires or strands) The moduli of elasticity of the wires (200.000 MPa) The measuring conditions for the transmission factors The choice of ducts (ducts and tubes). measurement of transmission factors. form travelers.7 also appeared in April 1979. the regulations relating to the design of prestressed concrete bridges were revolutionized by the appearance of fascicule 62 Titre l Section 11 of the french CCTG (General Technical Clauses. stressed stirrups. in addition to the diameters. construction advice (prefabricated segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Circular no. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of French and European standardization led to significant changes in the rules relating to the construction of structures. the organization of quality. workability.). called the “BPEL The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 198 septembre 2007 . These guidelines served as the basis for the creation of BAEL and BPEL rules and the design rules for foundations. new design programs. etc. The development of “external prestressing” had a major impact on the development of prestressing procedures. protection of anchorages. • A supplement to Technical Bulletin No. but construction techniques remained very similar. This involved the notions of quality of use. which incorporated the modifications made by Circulars 74-60 of April 23 1974 and 77-67 of April 25 1977 Circular no. the stability of cantilevers under construction.000 MPa) and strands (190. 79-78 of August 16 1979 relating to the implementation of prestressing units. 8. etc.C. introducing the requirements of the Circular of April 2 1975 and its implications concerning the quantities of materials. 79-25 of March 13 1979 relating to the new Directives Communes pour le Calcul des Constructions (D. radii of curvature and the continuity of the ducts The limit of the initial stress to be 0. In 1983. It should also be noted that the effects of Circular 82-50 of May 24 1982 began to felt. segregation of concrete.

• In February 1990. instead of range calculations using P1 and P2 (characteristic values). covering “partial prestressing”. It gave additional information on subjects covered by the BPEL 83. as a function of the duration of applied of loads Reduction of the 1983 shear limit stress which was considered to be too forgiving Reduction of the working stress ratio for stressed stirrups For coastal structures: increasing the depth of coating on non-prestressed reinforcements without individual protection from 4 to 5 cm • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 199 septembre 2007 . Class III. is used for major bridges and large standard bridges or those situated in harsh environments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 83”). certain types of standard bridges in reasonably benign environments (2nd and 3rd category road bridges) and for bridge slabs with transverse prestressing A characteristic thermal gradient value of 12° C for verifications at service limit state Characteristic strength as the specified strength for concrete The possibility of performing verifications with the probable prestressing Pm. the CTOA (Centre des techniques d’ouvrages d’art . • • • In 1984. a division of Sétra. published a guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). The major modifications introduced by this new version included: • • • Extending the rules to concrete with characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa Improving SLS verifications for the different classes I. It should be noted that the BPEL 83. II and III Introducing a "θ" coefficient into the formula giving the value of the compression limit stress of concrete at ULS. the precautions to be taken with keyed anchoring and problems relating to the use of “super” strands. The BPEL 83 rules were replaced by the BPEL 91 rules at the start of 1992. the IPl and the IP2 were all applicable until December 31 1985 according to certain procedures established by decree. was applied to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. in which the tensile stresses are limited. Class II. with a particular emphasis on external prestressing technology. Sétra published two information notes: • The first covered the anchoring strength of external prestress tendons in the event of overtension in order to prevent the blockage of wedges by the cement grout The second dealt with the use of single and multi-strand couplers. The BPEL 83 rules introduced: • • External prestressing The notion of verification categories for structures (Class I authorizes no traction and is mainly used for prefabricated bridges.Center for Engineering Structure Techniques).

becoming the BPEL 91. In the interests of relevance.7.4.2 of the second part of the Instruction technique pour la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures). published in 1979 and modified in 1995. the BPEL 83 was modified again.1 - Reminder concerning cracking on prestressed structures The appearance of significant deformations and/or cracks on prestressed concrete structures may be evidence of structural disorders. 8. The end of the 1990s was also marked by the appearance of two circulars relating to prestressing using posttensioning techniques: • The first. use.1. When analyzing the problems on a structure. dated August 20 1999.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Appendix 3. Not all of the cracks found on prestressed concrete structures are signs of defective behavior. etc.2 . maintenance. relating to concrete with a characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa.) are not exclusive to the cantilever construction method. it is important to consider all of the characteristics of the cracks observed. sheathed and protected strands and tendons outside the concrete. this information is insufficient in itself to evaluate the condition of the structure. • 8.4). which assigned numerical values to the coefficients of friction f and φ for tendons inside the concrete. An additional appendix (Appendix 14) was included in this new version. At the end of the 1990s. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 200 septembre 2007 . the reader is invited to refer to Sub-Section 32. as problems caused by other factors (materials. 8.1 – Opening and widening of cracks over time The opening and widening of cracks if they are active are obviously the first elements to consider. established a number of new requirements for HDPE tubes and promoted the injection of external tendons with wax The second was published on February 28 2001 and imposed new requirements concerning the injection of external prestress tendons (see paragraph 7.Pathologies specific to the cantilever construction technique As for most other types of bridges. revised in 1999. specific types of problems have affected the first prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method. For more detailed information about problems affecting prestressed concrete structures. we shall only cover problems with structural origins. It should be noted that the BAEL 83 rules were simultaneously replaced by the BAEL 91 rules. However.2. The purpose of this section is to briefly outline the principal specific disorders that have been identified for these structures and to describe the lessons that have been learnt with regard to the design of modern structures built by the cantilever method. prohibited the washing of sheathed tendons with water.

these are evidence of normal transverse flexion behavior in reinforced concrete. 8. As a result. are usually evidence of normal behaviour in prestressed concrete. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 201 septembre 2007 . etc. 1) or the BPEL in Class I were designed to be totally prestressed.2 - Stability of cantilevers 8. when the first cantilever tipped over. fine longitudinal cracks may develop and in most cases. These openings are values under dead loads and were established in the framework of studies relating to the penetration of corrosive agents into the concrete.1 mm in the case of systematic cracking (multiple. As a guide. It also applies to the fine cracks found in the deviators on structures with external prestressing. Excessive cracking (open cracks when the structure is not loaded. Efforts are made to keep the opening and widening of any cracks to acceptable levels in order to: – Prevent the risk of fatigue in the tendons crossing areas likely to be tensioned – Limit the penetration of corrosive agents through the gaps caused by excessively wide cracks. no traction is allowed with regard to flexion when the bridge is in service. tensile forces are allowed at the design level for structures dimensioned according to Classes II or III of the BPEL. for the average width of all of these cracks – 0. 8.2. These structures were built more recently and benefit from the lessons learnt on older structures.2. They therefore behave like reinforced concrete in the transverse direction. Fine transverse cracks. On this type of structure.1 – Problems observed and their causes Problems arose during the construction the cantilevers on some of the first structures built using the cantilever method and a spectacular accident occurred on the site of the Viosne viaduct on November 13 1970. In particular.1). it shall be considered that the opening of the cracks on elements behaving like reinforced concrete must not exceed: – 0. This applies to the fine cracks that can be observed in the upper slabs. cracks crossed by prestress tendons are problematic because of the risk of fatigue in the prestressing reinforcements. With this in mind.2. minimal longitudinal reinforcement is used and this would be incapable of compensating for any unforeseen tensile forces.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method are often only prestressed longitudinally.2 – Design assumptions and the influence of regulations Structures built according to the Instruction Provisoire n° 1 (Provisional Instruction no. stresses or stress variations within the concrete and reinforcements are minimized and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement bars are added to control the cracking. On the other hand. in theory. in accordance with the regulations.2 mm for the average width of an individual crack – 0. 8.3 mm in localized cases for the width of an individual crack. evenly-distributed cracks). For structures or parts of structures situated in relatively noncorrosive environments. fortunately without any serious consequences (Fig. As a result. transverse cracks are usually evidence of abnormal longitudinal flexion behavior.2. these values could therefore be increased.1. as. which are closed when the structure is not loaded.) is obviously a sign of abnormal behavior.

1 – Problems observed and their causes The majority of structures built using the cantilever method prior to 1975 have suffered from transverse cracking or the opening of joints in the lower slab. Fig. published by Sétra in 1979.2 – Impact on design Design rules governing the stability of cantilevers under construction were established and published in the supplement to Technical Bulletin (BT) no. despite the collapse of several form travelers. This type of cracking is particularly serious given that the cracks or open joints are often crossed by continuity tendons inside the concrete. 8. thus exposing these reinforcements to the risk of fatigue.3 - Cracks due to insufficient longitudinal strength 8. 8. on the bridges of Calix. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 202 septembre 2007 .2.3. towards the middle of the central spans or in so-called “low bending moment” zones (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. have now been successfully used for over twenty years. which are included in this guide along with several additions.2). 8. in 1975 and Bellegarde in 1982.2.2 – Flexion cracks These cracks are evidence of insufficient resistance to longitudinal flexion. e.g. 8.2. These rules. 8.1 – Tipping of the first cantilever of the viaduct over the Viosne Accidents have also been caused by the collapse of prefabricated segments and form travelers. 7. No cantilevers have collapsed since their publication.2.

the design allows for the use of additional prestressing (anchorages. from l/50th to 1/40th. these forces are often put down to "redistribution by creep" (in general.2. 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These cracks have several causes which are often cumulative and include: • The failure to account for the redistribution of forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials in the calculations. the values adopted by the BPEL were more conservative than those in the previous regulations. 8. i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 203 septembre 2007 . etc. correction of reverse deflections.3.) in order to facilitate any future structural repairs or reinforcements (see the recommendations in Chapter 3 of this guide). The BPEL paid particular attention to the case of tendons crossing numerous joints.2. this error leads to the normal stress in the lower axis at the crown being overestimated by 2 to 3 MPa) The failure to account for the thermal gradient in the calculations (in general. In addition. Finally.). unforeseen site loads. deviator tubes. empty ducts allow for additional prestressing to be used if the actual friction is greater than the friction values allowed for in the design.e. the bridge deck became considerable thicker in this area.2 – Impacts on design The Circular of April 2 1975 and the supplement to the BT7 of April 1979 defined the design rules to be adopted in response to redistributed forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials and in response to the thermal gradient. this resulted in a significant reduction in the recommended slenderness ratio at the crown. With regard to the coefficients of losses by friction. • • • 8. as happens on bridges built by the cantilever method. For structures dimensioned according to the IPl. delamination or spalling of the concrete.2.4 - Cracks and problems due to excessive radial tendon forces 8.4. Longitudinal cracking in the lower slab is caused by downward thrusts in continuity tendons inside the concrete in structures of variable depth and most commonly affects the central span (Fig.4). incorrectly controlled weight of the form traveler etc. For simplicity’s sake.1 – Problems observed and their causes Two types of disorders may point to the existence of excessive radial tendon forces: longitudinal cracking in the lower slab in the crown area and localized cracking. due to over-optimistic coefficients of friction or underestimations of relaxation losses Parasitic forces locked into the structure when the closing segment is assembled due to adjustments made on site (realignment of cantilevers.3 and 8. this omission also leads to an overestimation of the normal stress in the lower horizontal plane at the crown of approximately 2 MPa for a thermal gradient of 6° C) The overestimation of the prestress effect.

Localized cracks. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 204 septembre 2007 . the Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et l’Entretien des Ouvrages d’Art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures) recommends using a reinforcement plan that is designed to take up any parasitic radial tendon forces due to angular fractures in proximity to the joints. 8.3 – Cracking due to downward thrust at the web-slab junction Fig. especially for bridge decks of variable depth.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. mainly in the central span. 8. sudden changes in angle close to the joints etc. 8. badly-positioned tendons. delamination and the spalling of concrete are caused by the errors in the positioning of the ducts such as the festooning of ducts between two joints.4 – Cracks caused by downward thrust These problems affected first-generation structures because a large number of low-strength continuity tendons were spread across the entire width of the lower slab.4. Tendons are now usually placed in the gussets or very close to them. many of these early structures were built without gussets at the junction between the web and lower slab.2 – Impacts on the design Gussets are now systematically used at the junction of the webs and the lower slab of box girders. Furthermore. To combat problems caused by incorrectly positioned ducts.2. the practice of spreading the tendons across the full width of the lower slab has now been abandoned. These problems create radial tendon forces. which is made easier by the fact that fewer internal continuity tendons are needed for mixed prestressing. Also.

In the latter case.3. injection defects.Main repair techniques In France.3 . not immune to the more general problems affecting prestressed concrete structures (distribution of concentrated prestressing forces.5 - Other pathologies For information. the first significant repairs to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method were carried out at the beginning of the 1970s (Bussang bridge etc. Longitudinal prestressing The tendon layout may be rectilinear or polygonal.proved to be particularly damaging in terms of the corrosion of tendons and was quickly abandoned. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 205 septembre 2007 . the original prestressing must be dismantled. Since then. especially for tendons situated inside the concrete. It should be noted that the positioning of cantilever tendons inside poorly protected channels on the extrados .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it is angled by deviators added to the initial structure (Fig. 8. of course.). 8. corrosion of tendons. It should be noted that these techniques are also used for reinforcing operations. 8.1 - Addition or replacement of prestressing The most commonly used repair technique consists of adding extra prestressing or replacing the original prestressing. major structural repairs have been carried out on around sixty structures using a variety of techniques described below.5 – Suggested reinforcement plan designed to compensate for accidental radial tendon forces close to joints 8.2. To round off this section. we shall also mention two other important pathologies found on prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method: • • Badly fitting joints in the case of prefabricated segments Deflections of cantilever arms close to joints. it should be mentioned that external prestress tendons have failed on several occasions in recent years. This problem has affected tendons whose ducts were injected with a cement grout which had failed to set properly in certain areas due to the phenomenon of settling (fresh grout). which is a difficult process.).a technique specific to bridges built by the cantilever method . Bridges built by the cantilever method are. etc.6). 8. In the latter case.

these include adjusting the height of the supports and adding extra material.7 – Anchor block for additional longitudinal prestressing The additional anchor blocks may be situated beyond the abutment. or more conventionally. 8. For information.7 above). [BOUT 1] and [GIA 01] listed in the bibliography in the appendix to this guide.2 - Other techniques Other techniques are also used. in Essonne. 8.Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie Spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle (Standard NFP 95-104 – Repair and Reinforcement of Concrete and Masonry Structures – Specifications Relating to the Additional Prestressing Technique) Ponts en béton précontraint par post-tension (Post-tensioned Prestressed Concrete Bridges) [HA. 501 of February 1992: Information Days for the Repair and Reinforcement of Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures). However. Sétra. TRL. inside the box girder (Fig. [PER 94].3 - Repair design There is little information concerning repair design for prestressed concrete civil engineering structures. LCPC] Annales de l’ITBTP n° 501 de février 1992 : Journées réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art (Annals of the ITBTP no. or both (Fig. article [POI 92]). [JEH 94].3. glued steel plate sheet or FRP (cf. [DEL 98]. 8. the webs. [POI 99].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. [BAR 98]. Further information on this subject is given by the following articles [RIC 93]. [DEL 94].9). 8.6 – Additional longitudinal prestressing Fig. [TAV 00].3. Transverse prestressing Transverse prestressing may be carried out on the lower slab (Fig. 8.8). • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 206 septembre 2007 . 8. as on the Corbeil bridge. [BAR 94]. 8. the following documents provide useful information for anyone interested in the repair of prestressed concrete bridges: • • Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge Maintenance and Repair) [Presses de l’ENPC – 1997] French standard NF P 95-104 .

8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 8.9 – Additional vertical prestressing of a web and transverse prestressing of the lower slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 207 septembre 2007 .8 – Additional transverse prestressing of the lower slab Fig.

It should be noted that a large number of the provisions specified in this guide are included in Chapter 7 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG and that. and placing extra trumplates in the cross beams. it is important to allow this possibility by building in the means to add additional external tendons if they are required. The provisions concerning the injection of these tendons are defined by the french circular of February 2001 relating to the injection of prestress tendons situated outside the concrete. unless special equipment capable of absorbing the energy of the tendon during its removal is used.2. It is also necessary to allow the forces added by this extra pair of tendons when dimensioning the reinforcements for the deviators and cross beams.1 Prestressing 9. 9. notwithstanding any contrary provisions in the STC. including the interior of hollow sections. it must be possible to replace these tendons without having to demolish any part of the structure.General principles In general.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9 .1. it must be possible to perform bridge management and maintenance operations in accordance with labour legislation and particularly with regard to french Law no. but they are also applicable to concrete structures with box-girder bridge decks built by other methods (on falsework. The requirements concerning the tendons and their layout are set out in the Sétra guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). by incremental launching and by temporary cable-staying). the bridge’s design and construction should incorporate measures to facilitate the inspection and maintenance of all parts of the structure.Bridge deck 9. these access arrangements must not make the structure vulnerable to acts of vandalism. They The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 208 septembre 2007 . 9.Provisions to facilitate maintenance This chapter describes the provisions to be made at the design stage with a view to facilitating the maintenance of bridges incorporating box-girder bridge decks. To benefit fully from this technique. The original type of tendons is used for the extra tendons and they are aligned according to the same rules.2. This means that a certain number of tendons are situated outside the concrete. With these provisions in place. which introduced the Dossier d’Intervention Ultérieur sur Ouvrage (DIUO) [Post-Construction Works File]. without requiring heavy equipment. These provisions are intended for prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. This may be due to a pathology affecting the structure or to a change in its functional design. It should be remembered that this circular only authorizes the use of non-adhesive products (factory-applied grease and wax). it may be decided to strengthen the prestressing. This includes leaving room to pass formwork tubes housing an extra pair of tendons through cross beams and deviators.1 . Finally. 93-14-18 of December 31 1993.2 . For a box-girder structure.1 – Replaceability of external prestressing Mixed prestressing has been used on the vast majority of large bridges built in recent years.1.2.2 – Provisions for the implementation of additional prestressing At a given moment in the life of a bridge. 9. published in 1979. these provisions are compulsory.

75 m – between the external tendons nearest to the middle of the box girder to walk comfortably on the concrete surface of the lower slab. Fig. there is sufficient room – at least 0. it is necessary to add the internal height of the ribs (usually 0.1 – Minimal depth of bridge deck To allow for easy movement inside the box girder (Fig. If the box girder is too narrow for normal maintenance. It is important to note that these depths are given for bridge decks without transverse ribs.1 – Example of a very small box girder 9. For bridge decks of a constant depth.2.2. which is not as bulky as mixed prestressing).2 - Access inside the box girder 9.2. 91).2. it is important to design bridge decks of sufficient depth. When this is not the case.20 m. therefore.2 – Passageway clearances The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 209 septembre 2007 .B. (Further information on this point can be found in Article 64 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the CCTG and its comments).75 m to 1 meter) to the minimum depth. This passageway may be cramped in the middle of the spans due to tendons rising up close to the piers. the problems caused by an insufficient depth could affect the entire structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide are then stressed according to the same procedures used for replacement external tendons. Fig.2. (N. the access problems are occasional and only concern areas in the middle of the spans or close to the abutments. 9. so a minimum depth of 2 m can be accepted. For bridge decks of variable depth. For bridge decks with transverse ribs. 9. either because the lower slab is very narrow or because there are too many external tendons.2 – Normal movement In the majority of structures. 9. it is possible to install a gridded steel walkway over the tendons. it is possible to use completely internal prestressing. it is recommended to fix the minimum total external depth at 2.

2.3 – Crossing of cross beams and deviators Cross beams on modern box girder bridges always have access shafts to allow access for construction workers and. it is essential to keep this shaft closed under normal conditions.2. For safety reasons. risk-free movement through this passageway. If the total length of the structure does not exceed 400 to 500 m. maintenance staff. Furthermore.2. For this purpose. using a metal grid which cannot be removed and closes automatically. when the bridge is in service.4 – Access to pier head units An access shaft must be made in line with each pier in order to allow access from the bridge deck to the piers and vice-versa. it is also possible The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 210 septembre 2007 .3.2. In order to prevent this shaft from adversely affecting the mechanical behavior of the slab or lower part of the cross beam. above all. 9. it is recommended to organize the lighting system into sections of 300 to 400 m. etc. bracket lights with spherical light bulbs or. An effective system consists of placing a square metal grid inside a square rebate built into the top of round access hole. 9. more commonly. it is important to ensure that the height clearances in the shafts correspond to the values shown in Figure 9. in order to control the lighting for sections N and N+1. in addition to the two switches on the abutments. this shaft must be positioned in line with the inspection pits in the pier head units (see 9. power drills. For bridges of over 500 m in length. In the interests of economy.2. two-way switches must also be fitted at the ends of each section N.1 below). Fig. these elements must be equipped with guard rails.).2. These lights are positioned centrally underneath the upper slab with a longitudinal centerto-center spacing of no more than fifteen meters and the high-risk areas around the cross beams and deviators must be adequately lit.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. In this case. 9.4). all of the bracket lights can be operated simultaneously using 2 two-way switches situated at both ends of the bridge deck. neon tubes or fluorescent strip lights are used. For easy and.3 – Ramp for crossing the lower beam of a deviator 9. it should be circular in shape and 80 cm to 1 m in diameter. For obvious reasons. 9.5 – Electrical system All large prestressed concrete bridges must have an electrical system that is used to light the inside of the bridge deck and to supply power for any tools required during maintenance operations (flood lights. The lighting in the box girder must be powerful enough to allow staff to move around in complete safety (Fig.2. Important: if the vertical height exceeds 1.50 m.3). if these deviators and crossbeams have low beams which hinder the movement of staff and equipment – a common situation – it is advisable to install metal or concrete stairways or concrete ramps on either side of these elements (Fig.2.

and for transporting the equipment needed for their installation. Fig. another solution would involve making a 1 m x 0. These hatches may also be used to supply any other equipment. so that a problem with a tool does not suddenly extinguish the internal lighting.2.2.4 – Internal lighting in a box girder Electricity is supplied by power sockets. After installation. The electrical system must comply with the general standards in force for low-voltage electrical systems (i. For further information about this point.1 – Access hatches for equipment As explained in the Sétra “Précontrainte Extérieure” (External Prestressing) guide. the NF C 15-100 standard on the publication date of this guide).e.5 and 9-6). 9. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 211 septembre 2007 . To allow for the use of power tools inside the box girder. a 220. There must be no risk of damaging the non-prestressed reinforcements or the prestress tendons during the installation of the system. the reader is recommended to refer to section 5. it is necessary to examine different ways of routing extra or replacement tendons through the bridge deck. of course. but this must be set to stay on for a long time (at least 10 hours) in order to avoid plunging workers into darkness when they are still inside the box girder. directly below the light fittings.80 m hole in the lower slab. Under normal conditions. 9. these sockets are accompanied by safety sockets supplying 24-volt current. In certain systems. If it turns out to be impossible to route the tendons via the abutments. which are usually positioned one meter above the lower slab. the power socket circuit in the box girder must be totally independent from the lighting circuit. it must be approved by an accredited organization. In all cases.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to fit a timer to the lighting system.45 in the guide mentioned above. 9.volt system with a frequency of 50 Hertz must be installed. directly in line with a road lane if possible. Fig.3.5 – Access hatch for cabling 9. this hole would be closed using a galvanized steel hatch (Fig.3 - Miscellaneous 9.

Drainage of the lower slab Water frequently penetrates into the box girder due to leaks in the structure or during maintenance operations. 9. In order to allow this water to drain away quickly.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the past.3.3. these fittings form the upper anchorages for the bars to which pipework. which is very different to the longitudinal profile of the road for a bridge deck of variable depth. orientation.3 – Fixing rails for future networks In order to facilitate the installation of networks inside the box-girder at some future date. This type of identification prevents the use of different numbering systems in inspection reports carried out over the years. nominal load. The longitudinal positioning of theses holes must take account of the longitudinal profile of the top of the lower slab.2 . this technique must be completely prohibited.3. Fittings situated close to the tendon anchorages on piers may also be used for jack hoists. Transversally.) must be determined according to a precise set of specifications for the networks they are designed to support.4 – Identification and orientation It is advisable to number the segments using indelible paint and a stencil according to the construction plans. On certain very large structures.2. or a metal frame supporting the networks. Fig. subject to their nominal load being greater than 20 kN.3 . can be attached.2. equipped with a beveled tube extending through the intrados to form a drip groove.Piers The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 212 septembre 2007 . etc. Care must betaken to ensure that this configuration does cause water to run down the facing of the piers. 9.2. Usually made from galvanized or stainless steel. it is also important to account for the transverse slope of the top of the lower slab and of the tendons which might be installed there. cross section. it might also be useful to label cross beams on piers with the number of their corresponding pier as this could facilitate the identification of certain works. 9. it is essential to leave holes of 10 to 15 cm in diameter in the lower slab. which form a barrier preventing the drainage of water. The principal characteristics of these rails and bushes (position. 9. certain box-girder structures featured access hatches in the central part of the upper slab. it is common practice to install anchor rails or couplings on the underside of the upper slab. As these hatches cause maintenance and durability problems.6 – Piercing of a lower slab required by the lack of an access hatch 9. This guarantees their suitability for their future tasks. It is also important to consider the position of the cross beams and deviators. length.

3. in spite of the limited space between the top of the pier and the underside of the bridge deck (Fig. These points will also be be situated as close to the webs as possible. 9.80 to 1 m deep and one meter wide.3. it is possible to use binoculars or additional ladders if stairs are fitted. reset the slide plates or make adjustments due to the subsidence of a pier or a geometrical defect. The size and location of these jacking points depends on the amount of space available on the pier head unit.2.) may be used if the geometry of the structure prevents the use of blocks.1 – Access and inspection pits If the height of the piers exceeds 8 to 10 m.8). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 213 septembre 2007 . two jacking points are provided for each bearing. if the pier head unit is too short to accommodate two jacking points per bearing. Support blocks (Fig. This pit. A ∅ 100 mm drain hole is built into the pit for the drainage of any water that might enter. 9. However.2 – Position of the jacking points for the bridge deck A bridge deck often has to be jacked up after commissioning in order to change the bearings.3. 9. although durable markers (studs.Inspection Hollow piers are usually equipped with a system of safety ladders and landings throughout their full height (Fig. especially during construction. To prevent problems or damage to the structure during jacking.50 m between the top of the piers and the underside of the bridge deck.1 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of piers In order to facilitate monitoring and maintenance operations.1 .3. For more detailed inspections. it is recommended to build a pit into the pier head units. 9.e. their length depends on the center distance between the bearings. It is also important to position the jacking point as close to the axis of the nearest web as possible.7 and 9.9) are usually used for this operation. In general.3 - Inspection of hollow piers 9. 9.3. resembling a bathtub in shape. it is necessary to determine the position of the jacking points at the design stage. This system is allows for the regular examination of the inside of piers with a level of accuracy that satisfies the requirements of scheduled inspections. etc. These pits are usually 0. 9. it is possible to allow two points between both bearings. the next stage is to design and install the reinforcements or prestressing required to take up the forces generated in the piers and bridge deck under these support conditions. one point per bearing. It is also necessary to mark the jacking points on the plans and identify their positions on the top of the pier.2. Once these jacking points have been determined. allows work to be carried out "comfortably" in the pier head area.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. it is recommended to leave a minimum space of 0.10) for use during internal monitoring and inspection operations.3.2 - Design of the pier head units 9. i.

This system reduces the initial investment costs and guarantees that inspections will be carried using the latest totally compliant equipment. NF E 85-010 "Échelles métalliques fixes avec ou sans crinolines" (Fixed Metal Stairs With or Without Safety Bows) was the applicable standard on the publication date of this guide. an inspection of the piers under these conditions requires more equipment and more time. precautions must be taken to guarantee its longevity. Stairs or ladders must be made from hot galvanized steel thick enough to ensure that minor corrosion does not affect the strength of these elements. This creates a working platform from which inspectors equipped with climbing gear can operate. which also increases the cost of the operation. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 214 septembre 2007 . In recent years.12). Landings can be made from galvanized steel or the same concrete that was used to construct the pier shafts. Considering the financial investment required for this type of equipment. some Owners have decided to restrict the fittings inside hollow piers on large bridges to a single metal gridded platform situated just underneath the crosshead and couplings to which harnesses can be attached (Fig. 9. However. 9. of course. 9.8 – Inspection pit on pier head unit Fig. frequency of landings) are determined according to the standards in force relating to stairs in buildings.7 – Access to bridge deck from piers and vice-versa Fig.9 – Block marking the location of a jacking point The dimensions of the system (height and depth of steps.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 9.

These doors are rarely aesthetically pleasing and it is important to make sure that the architecture of the pier is as complimentary as possible. 9. piers on the sea bed.3.11). 9.3.12 – Minimal fittings inside a pier 9. Indeed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 215 septembre 2007 . any victims will also have to be evacuated via this single passageway.3. etc. it is necessary to allow access to hollow piers from the bridge deck. Considering the risks of vandalism. insufficient strength.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3.3 .2 and Fig. a shaft is usually created at the bottom of the inspection pit described in Paragraph 9.3.2 . As before.11 – Access door to a pier or an abutment with five-point safety lock Fig. requiring a ladder for access. a second access point is also provided via a metal door at the base of the pier. If it is impossible to provide doors at the base of the piers (e. this passageway must be big enough to be used for transporting and removing maintenance equipment.). In the event of an accident during a maintenance operation. to make sure that if someone falls from the bridge deck. this hole must normally be closed using a metal grid or plate.10 – Safety ladders and landings inside a pier Fig. they will not fall further than the bottom of this pit.4. It is also possible to situate these doors three or four meters above ground level. It must also be offet in relation to the shaft built into the cross beam on pier. it is necessary to use the same type of doors as those recommended for the abutments (see 9.1.2. 9. For this.Lighting Hollow piers must be equipped with a lighting system similar in design to the system used for the bridge deck. 9. In the majority of cases. risk of vandalism too great. it is necessary to create a reasonably large shaft leading from piers to the bridge deck. 9.Access Whatever the context.g.

As mentioned in section 5. the design of an abutment must incorporate a cable pulling chamber if the external tendons are attached to stressed anchorages on the cross beam directly above the abutment. an abutment must have the same type of electrical system (lighting and power sockets).13). this key phase in the design of this chamber is when the new tendons are in their ducts and the tensioning jack is positioned at the end of the strands prior to “swallowing” them up (Fig. In addition to this important provision.4. which is entered through a metal door.4. 9.e. it is also possible to enter abutments from another road below the structure if parking spaces are provided. 9. 9. This solution is also aesthetically pleasing.2 - Restricting access in the abutments On large bridges built in recent years. It is important to fit a light switch next to the door mentioned in 9. However. including between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the central part of the concealing wall. guard rails if necessary.4. concrete or wooden stairs. However.Plenary Assembly of Damage Insurance Companies) are particularly suitable for this task (see Fig.11 on previous page). they must also be as unobtrusive as possible in order to avoid attracting unwanted attention.4. access is gained from the supported road. the space required corresponds to the length of the jack Lv plus the length of the strands connected to the jack prior to stressing Lt. as little room as possible should be left between the concealing wall and the outer edges of the box girder.42 of the "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing) guide published by Sétra.). Fivepoint safety locks bearing the "A2P trois étoiles" label awarded by the french APSAD (Assemblée Plénière des Sociétés d’Assurances Dommage . This system is highly recommended. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 216 septembre 2007 .Abutments 9. given that these walls hide the inside of the abutments which are never very attractive. it is necessary to consider the phase of the replacement process which requires the most room. No more than 15 cm should be allowed for this gap.4 . These access points must be created with care (concrete surfacing. via the return walls of the abutments. For external tendons injected with a flexible product (wax or grease). i. external continuity prestressing and the guttering under the joints.2 above.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. In this phase.1 Access to abutments Access points to the abutments must be designed and built with care.4. the front face of an abutment is usually closed off by a concealing wall. It is also important to fit high-quality locks on the doors. In general. as it denies access to unauthorized persons and therefore prevents malicious damage to the bridge bearings.3 - Electrical system Although covering a much smaller area than a bridge deck.4 - Depth of abutments Typical example of abutments with cable pulling chamber One of the essential requirements for changing the external prestressing is the ability to gain access to the anchorages to stress the new tendons. the distance between the internal face of the abutment wall and the end of the bridge deck. 9. not including the corbel. etc. 9. In order to determine the effective length L of this chamber.

40 1.16 Lt 1. the additional length described above is no longer required.40 m for 19T15S cabling and 2. these joints are never totally watertight. The pipes must then be protected from freezing. 9.5 - Collection of water under the expansion joint Expansiont joints are fitted at the ends of almost all large modern bridges. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 217 septembre 2007 .34 37T15S Lv + Lt 2.25 Lv 1.18 Lt 1.14 to 9. In order to prevent splashes. cable pulling chambers may not be built into abutments. Supported by galvanized steel brackets.20 1.41 2.58 2.40 1.13 – Key design phase for determining the minimum length of the cable pulling chamber The following table gives the lengths Lv. it can therefore be considered that the effective length L of the chambers must be at least 2. The best systems are shown in Figures 9. These splash guards.29 1.12 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Therefore. Lt and (Lv+Lt) for the 19T15S. 9.60 m for 27T15S or 37T15S cabling.4.25 1.33 2.08 1. which requires a corbel of 30 to 40 cm on the side of the bridge deck. it is recommended to fit a water tap on the abutment.39 2. consisting of a metal gutter positioned under the joint.07 1.80 m to 1 m is essential for inspecting and correctly maintaining these parts of the structure. Specific examples of abutments without cable pulling chambers In certain very specific cases.14 Lt 1.18 1.38 Lv + Lt 2. it is necessary to collect any water that percolates through them in order to protect the abutment crossheads. which are usually different to those supplied with the joint.56 At the design stage. To facilitate the cleaning of the gutter. the distance between the end of the bridge deck and the abutment wall must not be reduced too much.60 2.28 1. provided that the structure can be connected to the drinking water network at reasonable cost.41 Lv 1.20 Lv 1.11 1. Despite the care and attention devoted to their design and fitting. Unit Supplier Freyssinet SEEE Spie Précontrainte 19T15S System C with jack Cl 000F FUT SB 27T15S Lv + Lt 2. must be weighted for maximum resistance to the draft of air created by passing trucks. In this case. this gutter must be positioned centrally under the expansion joint. it is necessary to channel the water using vertical neoprene splash guards enclosing the space between the joint and the gutter.25 1. and are therefore situated directly above the abutments. bridge bearings and the external prestressing anchorages situated at the ends of the structure. A minimum distance of 0. 27T15S and 37T15S types of tendons used in certain French prestressing systems.33 2. However.l6.

2 above. These are determined according to the procedures described in paragraph 9.6 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the crossheads As for the piers. it is advisable to leave a minimum gap of 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 218 septembre 2007 .2.3.15 – Gutter under joint (the distance to the slab allows for easy cleaning) Fig.4. 9.7 - Bridge deck jacking points Like piers. 9.4.50 m between the top of the abutment crossheads and the underside of the bridge deck in order to facilitate maintenance operations.14 – Collection of water under pavement joints Fig. 9.16 – Gutter attachment 9. 9. abutments must have jacking points for the bridge deck.

Recommendations for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document This section contains a number of recommendations and instructions for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document for a prestressed concrete bridge built by the cantilever method.e. draft the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives et Particulières [CCAP]). Sub-group 0 is reserved for the tender regulations (règlement de la consultation [RC]). may sometimes be broken down into tranches in order to stagger the financing of the works. Given that it is impossible cover all of these aspects.e. the Special Technical Clauses (STC).1 . and particularly with regard to the drafting of the written documents required. cost estimate. It contains the frameworks for the tender document. the price schedule. 10. It also includes a series of documents appended to the STC. with a preliminary shortlisting of applicants.2 . price breakdowns and breakdown frameworks. Very large projects. including: • • • • • • • • • Site plan Plan view Longitudinal cross-section Transverse cross-sections of bridge deck Detailed plan of cross beams and deviators Detailed plan of bridge deck superstructures Pier formwork plans Abutment formwork plans Contractual part of the geotechnical survey. although this system is not be recommended because the tranches can rarely be considered in isolation.Creation of a Contractor Tender Document Apart from in very specific situations. 10. these recommendations focus above all on items which are strongly influenced by this particular construction method and on the associated bridge deck structures. i.Nature of the tender enquiry In France. usually consisting of the borehole logs. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 219 septembre 2007 . the vast majority of bridges built by the cantilever method are constructed in the framework of a restricted invitation to tender. and occasionally.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10 . however. In most cases. the contract is not divided into tranches or packages. i. Contractor Tender Documents consist of three sub-groups or schedules. Sub-group I contains the documents that make up the contract.

if the structure has to be built over or close to a traffic-bearing road. sub-group I must also contain a document listing the road. frost and salt-resistant formulas. Article 2. etc. etc. In other cases. certain architectural studies may also be included in sub-group I in order to make the information relating exclusively to these studies contractually binding (reference to a matrix for the bottom shuttering matrix.Tender regulations 10.1 Supplements to the Special Technical Clauses / Technical proposals Technical proposals are detailed precisions that contractors are obliged to include in their bid in addition to their proposed basic solution. aggregates. including the results of specific studies carried out upstream by the Construction Manager (HPC. this sub-group usually includes the following items: • • • • • • • • • • Plan of the areas capable of accommodating the site installations Plan of possible access routes to the site Longitudinal cabling plan Transverse cabling plan (for structures featuring transverse prestressing) Plan of the bridge deck showing a breakdown of segments Scheme of construction operations Plan of the cantilever stabilization system Preliminary quantity survey Architectural study The non-contractual part of the geotechnical survey: usually the pre-design for the foundations produced by the laboratory in charge of this survey. With regard to the bridge deck of a structure built using the cantilever method. wind-effect study. For structures built by the cantilever method.) 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In certain cases.3. the composition and the application of the concrete Bridge bearings The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 220 septembre 2007 . etc. the following points must be covered in these proposals: • • Origin of the components. rail or water-related constraints facing the contractor during the works. In addition.3 .). sub-group I also contains specific studies which have a direct influence on the design of the structure: hydraulic studies. sub-group II of certain Contractor Tender Documents has also included reports concerning the formulation of concrete. Sub-group II is made up of documents intended for information purposes only. along with design calculations or miscellaneous studies containing information for contractors. alkali reactivity. sub-group II sometimes contains initial plans for the bridge deck reinforcements.3 b of the Tender regulations specifies the structural elements for which technical proposals must be submitted. railway or waterway. Finally. In recent years.

• 10. cost estimate and of course the Special Technical Clauses and the attached plans. The permissible technical variants are listed in Article 2. Sufficient time must also be allowed for Construction Managers to evaluate these surveys.1 Period of validity for bids The evaluation phase for the bids for a structure to be built by the cantilever method is often longer than for a basic structure. In order to prevent the interruption of work due to delays in the availability of construction plans that have been approved by the Contruction Manager. or even longer if contractors are likely to propose major variants. with or without pilings depending on the situation (for moderately long bridges of a constant depth) A change of construction technique for the foundations of one or more supports. For certain structures. it is essential to allow a sufficiently long preparation period in which the engineering firms can reach a stage that is well ahead of the work carried out on site. The period required varies The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 221 septembre 2007 . Contrary to the technical proposals. may require alterations to be made to the price schedule. 10. Therefore. The most common variations include: • • • • • The breakdown into segments Types of prestressing units used Internal form of bridge deck gussets Scheme of construction operations Cantilever stabilization system.3.2 - Preparation period As we have already mentioned. These may include: • • The replacement of concrete webs with lightweight metal webs (for long span bridges) Substitution of the cantilever construction technique by the incremental launching method. work on site may sometimes advance at a faster rate than the construction surveys can be carried out.4. if they are accepted.2 – Technical variants The Owner may authorize contractors to offer variants with a view to encouraging competition. construction surveys for structures built by the cantilever method are long and complex.4. the first article of the tender document should specify a reasonably long period of validity for the bids (a minimum of 180 days).3 of the Tender Regulations. these variants.4 . More flexible variants are sometimes permitted.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Prestressing processes Procedure for the waterproofing layer Expansion joints. 10.Tender document 10.

R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels.5 .Section I of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 62 Titre I .Special Administrative Clauses 10. it is also necessary to mention: • French Circular no. 10. définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Exceptionally Large Trucks: Definition of Standard Loads and Rules for the Verification of Civil Engineering Structures). • • • • • • For structures supporting oversize loads.Section II of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BPEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 65-A of the french GTC and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Civil Engineering Structures) in their updates published in August 2000 Fascicule 62 Titre V of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Civil Engineering Structures) Fascicule 68 of the french GTC: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil” (Construction of the Foundations for Civil Engineering Structures). published by the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 222 septembre 2007 . edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (AFPS) [French Seismic Engineering Association]. but the amount of time required is inversely proportional to the time allowed for the construction of the piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide from structure to structure. for structures supporting these types of vehicles. it is also necessary to add the following specific documents: • The AFPS 92 guide for the seismic protection of bridges. In earthquake zones. the list of general documents to be included in the contract includes at least the following documents: • Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (Common Conditions) [CPC]) : "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Program of Loads and Tests for Road Bridges) Fascicule 61 Titre IV Section II of the french General Technical Clauses (GTC): “Actions de la neige sur les constructions” (Effects of Snow on Structures) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) Fascicule 62 Titre I .1 General contract documents For a structure built by the cantilever method. published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department).5.

these periods start on the arrival date of the last document. it is necessary to wait until the traffic on these arteries has been interrupted before carrying out certain operations. reinforcement plans and design calculations for the section concerned). The Construction Manager shall notify the contractor of his findings in writing and within a maximum period of forty-five (45) working days for the first examination of the "longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck" and “transverse flexion of the bridge deck" groups and twenty-five (25) working days for the first inspection of the other groups of documents. accompanied by the corresponding construction procedures. it is recommended that Article 8. in the framework of the first and subsequent evaluations of the documents. the following text could serve as an example for this text: Delays for the examination and approval of construction documents The contractor must submit the construction surveys for each part of the structure to the Construction Manager for approval in the form of homogeneous groups of documents (e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 223 septembre 2007 .5.5. Although it could probably be improved. These deadlines are reduced to fifteen (15) and five (5) working days for the subsequent examinations of these groups of documents. 10.2 of this chapter.1 of the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives particulières [SAC]) specifies the length of the preparation period and indicates whether or not this is included in the contract period. either by describing the constraints directly in these articles.4 and 8. As traffic can normally only be interrupted at certain times of the day. work on site may be disrupted.5. 10. or by referring the reader to another of the documents included in the Contractor Tender Document. formwork plans.3 - Examination period for construction surveys As conflicts between the Contractor and Construction Manager often arise over compliance with acceptance deadlines.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The officially approved standard NF P 06-013.4 - Operating constraints in the public domain Many bridges are built immediately next to or even above other traffic-bearing routes.PS92" (Antiseismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92). with regard to the foundations Order no.4. It should be noted that in the event of the staggered arrival of documents within the same group. more commonly known as the "Règles de construction parasismique .2 - Preparation period Article 8. Under these conditions and for safety reasons. Further details concerning this point are given in article 10. • 10.5 of the SAC. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of seismic risks and to the Decree of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category.2 of the Special Administrative Clauses should contain a text which clearly mentions: • • The documents considered by the Construction Manager to form an indivisible whole The deadlines that the Construction Manager agrees to observe.règles applicables aux bâtiments .g. It is important to mention these constraints clearly in articles 8.

As these points concern conventional types of box girders built by the cantilever method. The second category concerns the options proposed by these texts. great care should be taken with regard to the quality and execution of the surveys. Hold points Casting and formwork removal Acceptance of the quality control element Authorization for the casting of a part of the structure Authorization to move form travelers forward Authorization to remove falsework from a section of bridge deck Prestressing Authorization for tensioning of prestressing Acceptance of tensioning before reinforcements are cut Authorization for the injection of prestressing ducts Bridge bearings Acceptance of bearing blocks Acceptance at moment of delivery Acceptance of the fitting of bridge bearings (adjustment and positioning) Fittings Acceptance of waterproofing substrate Acceptance of waterproofing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 224 septembre 2007 . authorization to apply surfacing materials Acceptance of a quality control element for the prefabricated concrete cornice Acceptance of the adjustment of cornices before sealing Acceptance of pavement joints before fixing or sealing Acceptance of retaining systems before sealing Testing Authorization to perform loading tests Time required 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 10.5 - Duration of hold points Article 91 of the SAC outlines the main hold points on the site as well as the time necessary for the Construction Manager to cancel these hold points.Special Technical Clauses 10. it is advisable to include an article entitled “Programme des études d’exécution” (Construction Survey Program) in the Special Technical Clauses.6 . either because these documents are incomplete. because they are already binding for the contractor. The first concerns elements of additional information to that provided in the GTC and by the applicable standards. or because none of them cover the field in question. With this in mind.1 Preamble There now follows a list of points that must be clearly specified in the Special Technical Clauses (STC) for the Contractor Tender Document.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10. 10. none of these points repeats the requirements laid down in the GTC and the applicable standards. These points may be broken down into two categories. In line with the standard STC included in the CAPT-DCE-OA software published by Sétra. additional information may be required for more sophisticated box girder designs.2 - Construction survey program for the structure As we have already mentioned.6.6. The following table gives a non-exhaustive list of the hold points likely to apply to the bridge deck of a structure built by the cantilever method in addition to the average delay before they can be lifted. This can be worded in the following manner: Construction Survey Program The Contractor must submit a construction survey program which includes a list and a provisional schedule of the documents to be drawn up.5.

launch beam. forces transmitted by launch beam supports.6. These actions must be accompanied by certain actions which are specific to box girder bridge decks and the method of construction. These must be specified in the STC and relate toconcern: • • Selfweight of temporary structures (form travelers. • Depending on the situation.3-1 -Actions The STC must state all of the actions to be considered in the verifying calculations for the structure. also described in Chapter 5 of this guide.2 of the SAC.).g. etc.) Site overloads defined in Chapters 3 and 5 of this guide.3 - Construction surveys for the structure 10. Many of these actions are defined in fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC and in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. including fatigue trucks. only to be used for calculations in the construction phase before the closure of a cantilever Specific site actions (e. The provisional schedule includes the deadlines for the submission of documents and the fixed or tentative deadlines for approval by the Construction Manager. It presented in the form of a bar chart clearly showing the critical tasks and the time allowed. it may also be necessary to mention certain additional actions such as: • • • Impacts on cetain supports Thrust due to water or ice Wind and/or ice to be considered for certain very exposed sites The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 225 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The list enumerates the documents that must be submitted for the construction of both temporary and permanent structures. These actions. etc. if used Impacts on restraint systems. in accordance with the minimum deadlines established by Article 8. It shall be drawn up in accordance with the framework of surveys specified in the contract. an unbalanced segment.6. which are normally listed and described in the STC are: • • • • • • • • Selfweight of the bridge deck (specify the unit mass of the concrete) Weight of the fittings added to the bridge deck Prestress forces Concrete shrinkage and creep (specify the area in which the structure is situated) General thermal effects (gradient and uniform variation) Thermal effects (uniform variation) to be considered for the expansion joints Predicted overloads from road vehicles and pedestrians on the structure. 10. collapse of one of the form travelers.

3 of the BAEL 91 revised in 1999.6. 10.2 – Combined actions The STC usually mentions the different combined actions that have to be considered.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.3. depending on the structure in question. it is important to note that an as-built calculation must be performed after the completion of the construction work. If not. a broken strand that was not replaced). cross beams. the STC must specify whether Article 6. or whether different permissible stresses must be adopted.3.2). as described in Article 1. It may also consider the estimated coefficients of friction given by measurements taken on site. These values are directly related to the requirements formulated by the Construction Manager with regard to empty ducts and the measurement of transmission factors (see our recommendations in 3.10 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.3.2) The cracking categories. deviators. The combinations to be used for the in-service verification of the structure are specified in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Seismic effects Etc. As the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 does not include any rules for the accumulation of non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to compensate for transverse flexion on the one hand.2.) The thermal gradient and the thermal expansions to be adopted in the construction phase (see Paragraph 3. Finally. with the actual dates of casting and any incidents that occurred on site (e. This calculation takes account of the actual phasing of the work carried out on a bridge built by the cantilever method.3 in construction situations). as described in Article A 4.3).3. The STC must also state whether it is compulsory to perform a range calculation for prestress effects.g. for the verification of reinforced concrete parts (transverse flexion.6. Paragraph 3.5.3.2. (For example.1. the following requirements may also be specified in the STC: • Allow for the curvature of the structure on the horizontal plane in the calculations of longitudinal flexion The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 226 septembre 2007 .2.2.5. it is essential to include a rule of this type in the STC (see Chapter 4 of this guide). In accordance with Paragraph 3. etc.3 of this guide recommends the application of the comment in Article 6.3. • • As differences of opinion exist between Construction Managers.3 –Verification of the bridge deck The STC must specify: • The verification categories. and the tangent general flexion and distribution forces on the other. the STC must specify the values of k and k’ to be adopted for the application of Article 4.3.5). Combinations to be used for verifying the structure with regard to the risks of cantilever instability are given in Chapter 5 of this guide.1.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 is applicable in the strict sense. 10. It would also be advisable to add a rule governing how to allow for different construction phases in the calculation of stresses at the ULS (see our proposals in paragraph 3. It should be noted that they differ from those mentioned in the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979. used to verify the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck and the transverse flexion of the upper slab on structures with transverse prestressing (see Paragraph 3.

measurement of flatness of facings.1 – Cantilever tendons The STC must precisely state the number and type of strands to be used for the cantilever tendons. the STC must specify the design assumptions for the horizontal forces in the pier heads) Etc.1 . etc. This category must conform to the definitions provided in Article 52 of Fascicule 65A of the french CCTG.3 – Removal of formwork It is advisable to establish a minimum strength requirement for the concrete at the moment the formwork is removed.6. 10.4 - Bridge deck formwork 10.2 – Small control slabs or test segment The STC must specify whether the contractor must manufacture a test segment for the suitability tests or whether small control slabs or elements will suffice. the type of injection product to be used.Continuity tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the continuity tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. along with their strength and relaxation categories.6. core sampling in the sheath areas.6. 10.4.5.) Perform a second-order calculation for one or more piers if they are very slender (in this case. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 227 septembre 2007 .6. segment on abutment. 10.5 - Prestressing 10. etc. of course.5. It must also mention the type of duct and.2 . 10.g. Furthermore. The Owner’s requirements for the permanent protection to be used on the anchorages (e.4. the STC must clearly define the acceptance conditions for these tests: inspection of facings. the STC must clearly mention: • • • The dimensions of these elements The ducts and non-prestressed reinforcement bars that they must contain. This must not be less than 15 MPa.6.6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Perform a finite elements calculation for a section of the bridge deck Perform a finite elements calculation for a specific part of the structure (segment on pier. 10.6. ribs. Whether continuity cable anchor blocks must be fitted.Formwork The STC must specify the category of facing to be used for the inner and outer surfaces of the box girder. In all cases. • • Chapter 3 of this guide gives a lot of valuable advice on choosing the coefficients and rules mentioned in this paragraph.4.

the STC must clearly state the applicable requirements. metal caps. the Owner’s requirements with regard to additional prestressing.6.5.6 - Special fittings in the box girder As these fittings are not always clearly marked on the plans included in the Contractor Tender Document. The Contractor Tender Document (SAC. which are identical to those for the continuity tendons.) for the access points to the bridge deck (manholes in cross beams on abutments. the STC must clearly describe the maintenance fittings that the Owner has requested for the structure. if any. etc. The type of deviator tubes and corrosion inhibitors to be used in the structural deviators. 10. the inspection of work carried out on a structure built by the cantilever method is an important and complex task which the Construction Manager must start to organize quite a long time in advance. etc. in line with any hatches that may be built into the lower slab Rails used in the deployment of tensioning jacks for the external prestress tendons Inspection equipment for hollow piers.) must also be specified. STC) must clearly specify these inspections. must also be specified. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 228 septembre 2007 . manholes in the lower slab.5. which may be used for the immediate or subsequent installation of networks in the box girder Handling rails fitted in the upper slab.6.7 - Inspection of work As mentioned in Chapter 7.6. in addition to the types of anti-vibration systems to be adopted. These fittings include: • • • The electrical system for the box girder. must also be specified.4 – External tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the external tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. 10. including the internal lighting Stairways or ramps for passing the cross beams and deviators Closing devices (doors. to the capacity of this prestressing.3 – Transverse tendons If the project calls for the installation of transverse tendons in the upper slab or ribs.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide conventional sealing. which usually correspond to hold points for contractors. Finally. 10. on piers or close to abutments) Anchor rails fixed to the upper slab or webs. 10. grids. and more specifically. • • • • Chapter 9 of this guide contains numerous guidelines for the drafting of the corresponding clauses. guaranteeing a consistent alignment without any concentration of radial tendon forces.6. Certain Construction Managers demand rigid ducts for the ducts at the level of the anchor blocks. plates.

Price schedule A standard price schedule which is perfectly suited to the construction of all standard structures is appended to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG. in addition to the cost of external inspections.7 . construction. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 229 septembre 2007 . The price for the centuring of end sections includes the design. Payment is often on a fixed-price or fixed price per abutment basis. especially during the transfer onto permanent bearings. The price also covers any jacking operations required during construction. In view of the large sums of money involved. and eventual removal of the temporary stability blocks. In addition to the prices normally shown in this appendix. plus the costs of external inspections. adjustments. it will be necessary to use the services of an external inspection company. for very large structures. This normally includes the design. adjustments. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of structures used for centering and encasing the segments on piers. These inspections must be clearly defined and paid for separately. if necessary. The price for the cantilever stabilization system is normally given as a “fixed price” or a “fixed price per pier”. the price schedule for a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method using cast-in-situ segments must also include prices for the following elements: • • • • Cantilever stabilization systems Form travelers Formwork tool for segments on piers Centering for end sections. the temporary pilings or cable-stays. The price of the formwork tool for the segment on pier is given as a fixed or “fixed per pier” price. the temporary prestressing and. a “per pair” price. it may not be possible for the Contract Manager and his or her laboratory to carry out certain inspections. in addition to cost of external inspections. 10. construction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In addition. although a price per square meter may also be charged according to the area of bridge deck to be shored up. this price is normally paid in instalments as the work advances on site. covering the supply. assembly and removal of the centuring used for the sections of bridge deck not built by form travelers. installation. transportation. transportation. The price for the form travelers usually includes the design. If this is the case. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of form travelers used on site. This is either a fixed price or.

this method is not designed to determine the definitive formwork and cabling.Notation Figure A1-1 describes the notation used. A1.1 .g.Reminders A1. this appendix has been drawn up in accordance with the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 and fascicule 61 Titre II of french CPC.0 – Purpose of this appendix Based on a concrete example.1 . breakdown into segments.1. formwork. It also provides information about specific aspects of the design. this appendix describes a simplified method for roughly calculating the formwork and prestressing for a bridge deck of a cast in-situ structure built by the cantilever method. We take: G to be the centre of gravity of the cross-section v to be the distance from G to the upper axis v’ to be the distance from G to the lower axis h = v + v’ to be the total height of the section eo to be the off-setting (off-centring?) of the mean tendon d to be the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons d’ to be the minimal distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 230 septembre 2007 . Considering the complexity of the calculations to be performed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1 Determination example Example of the determination of a bridge deck built by the cantilever method This appendix presents an example of the calculation of the bridge deck for a structure built by the cantilever method. Instead. A1. Like the rest of this guide. cantilever tendons) required for the preparation of a more sophisticated computerized design model. it is used to provide the minimum amount of information (e.

we use the same indices for shear forces (T) as for the moments. – A1. the limit stresses are: .1 – Notations Furthermore.02 for such a structure The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 231 septembre 2007 . we take: B to be the area of the section I to be its moment of inertia in relation to a horizontal axis passing through G ρ= I to be the geometric output of the cross-section Bvv ' c = ρv to be the ordinate (in relation to G) of the highest point of the central core c’= ρv’ to be the ordinate of the lowest point of the central core Mg to be the moments due to the selfweight Mq `to be the moments due to the fittings Ms1 and Ms2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively (counted algebraically) due to the imposed loads Ml and M2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively applied to a cross section M = M 1 . A1.in compression: σ c = 0.2.2 – Reminders about prestressing A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.6 f cj − k f c with k = 0.M2 F to be the prestress force (effective traction). Finally.1.1 – Limit stresses In Class II of the BPEL.1.

A1. we can choose them in such a way that I I ΔM (with Δσ being the range of stress variation = = v v' Δσ σ c + σ t ). under extreme loading cases. we may obtain the four limit stresses (Fig.2 – Sub-critical sections These are sections in which we are not restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons.1. but if an excessively thick member is dictated (e.g. P can therefore be chosen so that: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − = c− 1+ P v P ¨P v ' P so P= ΔM − Bσ t c + c' and e0 = c − M1 I σ t M I σt + = − c' − 2 − with − (v '−d ') ≤ e0 ≤ v − d P v' P P v P In so far as we can choose the thicknesses of the two members. .σt 0 I ΔM normally applies) we will only be able to > v Δσ ²σ b σb - σt - 0 ≤ σb σt 0 σt 0 σb The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 232 septembre 2007 . A1.2a).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .2. Thus. in each section we should have: below Mmini = M2 σ sup = P P e0 + M 2 + v ≥ σ t (1) B I σ inf = P P e0 + M 2 − v ' ≤ σ c (2) B I P P e0 + M 1 + v ≤ σ c (3) B I below Mmaxi = M1 σ sup = σ inf = P P e0 + M 1 − v' ≥ σ t (4) B I This can be expressed as: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − ≤ e0 ≤ c − 1 + P v P ¨P v ' P A1. an upper member for which obtain three limit stresses (Fig.in traction: − σ t = − f tj − k f c ( ) Given that the hyperstatic forces due to prestressing are ignored.2b).

A1.2 – Limit stress diagrams for a sub-critical section A1.3 – Over-critical sections These are sections in which we are restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons. Let us consider the example of a section that is mainly subjected to negative moments (e. therefore M2 (the minimum algebraic value) is structurally significant.3b) with: P=− M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' 0 -σt sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 ≤ σb sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 0 σb (a) Fig. If.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. A 1. it will be possible to obtain three limit stresses (Fig.3 – Limit stress diagrams for an over-critical section ≥ (b) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 233 septembre 2007 . A1. Based on compliance with the minimum stress. we will only be able to obtain two limit stresses (Fig. with: P=− M2 I c' + v − d + σ t v' and I ΔM = v Δσ (compliance with the change of stress σb. this gives: P≥ ΔM ΔM − Bσ t = − Bσ t c+c ' ρh P must therefore be at least equal to the higher of the two values below (according to the structurally significant moment): M1 I c + v ' −d ' + σ t v and − M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' As in the previous situation.2. in the upper axis). the size of the upper member is imposed (excessively thick).3a). as is usually the case. If we are able to modify the thickness of the upper structural member.g.1. the number of limit stresses that can be obtained depends whether or not it is possible to modify the thickness of the members. a section on an intermediate support). A1.

Stress: MegaPascal (MPa). (φi) and right. A1. ω 'i + ω "i ϕ 'i bi ( 1 Mi-1 = ϕ iϕ 'i − 1) ω 'i + Mi = bi ( ω "i ϕi − 1) 1 ϕ iϕ 'i The moments on the other supports are determined by the following focal point ratios: Mi-2 = -ϕi-1 Mi-1 Mi+1 = -ϕ‘i+1 Mi Mi-3 = -ϕi-2 Mi-2 Mi+2 = -ϕ‘i+2 Mi+1 etc. bi and ci for each span to calculate the focal point ratios for the left.7. which is also equal to 1 N/mm² or 103 kN/m².bn ϕ‘n ϕ ' n −1 bi ϕ 'i ϕ2 ϕ i +1 bi +1 = ai+1 + ci .bn-1 ϕn-1 b1 = c1 + a2 . (φ’i).1 - Focal point method for the design of a continuous beam Using the notation adopted by M.81 m/s2 for gravity acceleration. In addition.Mass: tonne (t) .1. Both groups of equations are given below: ϕ1 ψ1 = 0 b2 ϕ‘n = 0 = a2 + c1 .4 – Units of measurement The following units of measurement are systematically used in this example (unless otherwise specified) : .bi+1 ϕ‘i+1 ϕn = an + cn-1 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10. etc.bi ϕi bn = ci + ai+1 . the focal point method consists of using the mechanical constants ai.b1 ϕ1 bn −1 = cn-1 + an .b2 ϕ‘2 ϕ '1 Having ascertained the the focal point ratios and the rotations ω’i and ω"i for the end of span i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 234 septembre 2007 . Courbon.Force: MegaNewton (MN) . we can calculate the bending moments on the supports Ai-1 and Ai when span Ai-1 Ai is loaded.Length: meter (m) . we shall adopt a value of g = 9. which is considered to be independent and subjected to the loading case in question.

Given the need to comply with clearance dimensions.2.2 – Source data A1. A1.4 – Longitudinal section of the structure The example involves the determination of a structure with three asymmetrical spans totaling 214. There are two end spans of 53.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.5 – Cross-section of the structure According to fascicule 61 Titre II of french CCTG.A1.50 m between the centers of the end supports.(2 x 0. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/18 ho = 2.5.4).1 – Length and depth of bridge deck Fig. as the complete structure consists of two bridges fastened together.15 .00 m long and the closing segment for the central span is 2.375 m and one central span of 97. the distributed overload A is given as: Usable width = 10.15/3) = 3 lanes The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 235 septembre 2007 . giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/43 (*). A1. However. only one side of the traffic lanes is shown.50) = 9. A1. .At the crown The segments on piers are 8.2.75 m. The bridge deck is cast in-situ due to its moderate length (Fig.15 m Number of loadable lanes = entire section (9.30 m .30 m.375 m and 63.00 m long.15 m first category bridge Loadable width = 10.2 – Functional cross section The supported platform is illustrated in Figure A1.On pier: h1 = 5. Fig. the height of the box girder varies parabolically between: . (*) This is quite a low slenderness ratio but it is imposed due to the fact that this structure is designed to double the capacity of an existing bridge.

15 / 3 = 3.5 – Cross sections of the bridge deck The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 236 septembre 2007 .For the concrete: compressive strength fc28 = 35 MPa.95 MN.2. for a permissible in-service compression stress = 0.45 A( ) 36000 (A(l) in kg/m² and l in m . the linear loads according to the length of loaded section is given by: ≤ 200 m s = 9.4 kN/m.2. we use 19T15S prestress units. A1.15 x 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide a1 = 0. the overall diameter of the ducts is 80 mm -For the external tendons.6 x 35 = 21 MPa .21.9 as the bridge features three lanes Width of lane = 9.15 A( ) = 9. l + 12 with A( ) = 230 + A1.15 Considering the third comment in Article 4.90 x 1.5/3. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 1.3 – Weight of fittings The probable linear weight of the fittings is taken to be q = 47. the overall diameter of the ducts is 100 mm. we use 12T15S prestress units.For the cantilever and continuity tendons. A1.05 m a2 = 3.05 = 1.2. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 3.1 MN.units used in fascicule 61 Titre II).15 A2( ) = 9.4 – Characteristics of materials The characteristics of the materials used are as follows: .

95 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.6 – Cross sections of the bridge deck As the total width of the slab is equal to 10. we know that there must be room to accommodate gussets in the slabs. Vertical webs were chosen for aesthetic reasons. A1. whereas the thickness of the webs (36 cm) is determined by the casting conditions.7. Finally. it is logical to design a box girder with two webs positioned according to the findings of a summary analysis of the transverse behavior. Figure Al. This analysis was also used to establish the thickness of the upper slab between the webs at 25 cm. The mean thickness of the upper slab is therefore 27 cm. allowing for the diameter of the ducts. including the longitudinal anchoring girders for the safety barriers. we shall use the dimensions given in Figure A1.6 shows the cross-sections used as the basis for the first approximate calculations. we must allow for them in our calculations. Although we do not yet know the precise dimensions of the formwork for these elements. As an initial estimate. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 237 septembre 2007 . The thickness of the cantilevers varies between 25 cm on the BN4 side and 30 cm on the web side.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 238 septembre 2007 . A1. A1.20 2 − π x 0.40 x 0. close to CO and C3.7 – Detail of the gussets in the box girder The transverse surface area represented by the gussets is: ⎡1.08⎥ = 0.20 ⎤ + + + + 0.4905 m ² S=2 x ⎢ 4 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ In the central spans.8 – Variation in height of bridge deck in central span In the end spans (Fig. the total height of the box girder varies parabolically according to following the law: h(x) = h0 + (h1 . A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.9).h0) ⎜ using the notation shown in Figure A1. the total height varies parabolically at first (section closest to pier).40 2 0. and then it becomes constant and equal to h0.60 2 0.08 0.8 below: ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 Fig.40 x 0.4 x 0.

we shall use the sequence of construction operations shown below: 1 2 3 4 5 Construction of cantilever on P1 Construction of the cast-on-falsework section near to C0 Closure of C0-Pl.ε0) ⎜ ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 As an initial estimate. for this.612 Section on pier 5.450 m 9.7 – Sequence of construction operations In the following calculations.3129 m2 2.240 m 6.300 m 0. we shall use ε0 = 24 cm: a value which is imposed by the casting conditions. with ε0 and ε1 the thicknesses at the crown and on the pier: ε(x) = ε0 + (ε1 .0965 m2 0. in fact.620 m4 0.420 m 2. A1.2.440 m 4.300 m 0.10. A1.2.10 – Calculation of the mechanical characteristics of the bridge deck We then have to establish the thickness ε (x) of the lower slab.880 m 41. stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl and transition to permanent bearings for P1 Construction of cantilever on P2 Construction of cast-on-falsework section near to C3 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 239 septembre 2007 . A1.860 m 1.9 – Variation in height of bridge deck We can schematize the sections according to Figure A1. Section at the crown h(x) ε(x) B v v’ I ρ 2. we shall use a parabolic variation law similar to the one used for h(x). and ε1 = 45 cm: a value chosen in view of the span lengths and the slenderness ratios. Fig.6 – Characteristics of the sections A computerized calculation gives us the mechanical characteristics of the sections on pier and at the crown.532 m4 0.640 A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

10-6 x3 . Fig.30 + 3.10-6 x2 .02.11 below.Tg(x) = ∫ g (ξ )dξ 0 x g x = 0.00⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 5.e.00 m (½ closing segment). A1. it is necessary to add the moment due to the known site loads (Qc1) in addition to the moment due to random site loads (Qc2 and Qc3). this gives Mg = . assumed to be equal to approximately 40 t.00 m / 2 + 1 m = 2.149990 x + 11.074995 x2 + 2.3. therefore a unit weight of 0. 0.01. i.e.11 – Determination of the support moment during the casting of the final segments The calculation of Mg is shown hereafter (with x defined in Figure A1.40 MN. we consider that the bridge deck is supported on the centerline of the pier.24 + 0.23 x 0.4905 ⎝ 48.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 7 8 9 Closure of P2-C3.Mg(x) = ∫ − T (ξ )dξ 0 = 0. for x = 48. and exerted at 3.Moment on pier during the casting of the final segments The complete cantilever is shown in Figure A1.75.21⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 0.03 ⎢0. At this moment Mg.8): 2 2 ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ B( x) = 10.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence. stressing of tendons for P2-C3 and transition to permanent bearings for P2 Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for Pl-P2 Stressing of external tendons Installation of fittings and commissioning A1.024525 MN/m3: g (x) = 0.1 .27 + 0. i.5 m from the crown: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 240 septembre 2007 .10-6 x4 For the section on pier. The moment resulting from this assumption is slightly higher than if the calculation were to be performed in line with the temporary stabilizing blocks. with a unit mass of 2.3 – Cantilever prestressing design A1.34 MNm.149990 + 33. Qc1 Moment due to the weight of the form traveler.5 t/m3.186.875 – 1. In order to simplify the calculations.024525 B (x) = 0.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 48.72 ⎢2.

A1.19 MPa The force N developed by the cantilever tendons in the section on pier must satisfy the following condition: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 241 septembre 2007 .0.000001 x (47. with b being the width of the upper slab of the box girder: MQc2 = .12 below.6 + 0.001 x (47.2.(200 x 10.55 – 2.7 x (0.875) x 0.06 x fcj) – 0.12 – Bending moment in the cantilever under selfweight + form traveler A1.55 MNm Qc2 Moment due to a distributed load of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever Qc3 Moment due to a concentrated load of (50 + 5b) kN.[(50 + (5 x 10.186. The shape of the moment curve in cantilever Mg is shown in Figure A1. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the casting of final pair of segments is taken to be fcj = 35 MPa.70 MNm We can therefore consider that: Mg = .875 – 3. The allowable stress in the upper axis is therefore: σt = 0. Fig.95 x 47.70 = .00) = .95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 We consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.10 MNm.2 – Calculation of cantilever cabling Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.375 = .02 σt = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide MQc1 = Mform traveler = .06 x 35) – 0.3.02 x fcj = 0.51 – 4.4.6 + 0. measurement of transmission factors).34 – 18.95) 1 x 0.18.02 x 35 = 1.875 / 2) = .k fcj with k = 0.7 x (0.212.7 ftj .40 x 46.51 MNm MQc3 = .

14 below. Fig. I = 41.13 below).258 x 2. We therefore have 13 pairs of 12T15S tendons.19 + 212.258 m position of the mean tendon supposing its distribution over two beds e0 = v .95 to which we add two tendons in order to prestress the final pair of segments. A1.532 n tendons ≥ 46.10 MNm e0 = 2.42 + 9.3 .15).375 m in length (see Figure A1.13 – Breakdown of cantilevers into segments The shape of the moment curve in the cantilever under selfweight and prestressing is given in Figure A1.2 φg with φg = 0. To this end. A1.10 x 2. These The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 242 septembre 2007 .532 m4 . it is advisable to make sure that the cantilever tendons are strong enough to take up the weight of the bridge deck and form traveler during the construction of the central closing segment.v = 2.14 – Bending moment in the cantilevers A1.420 m and M = -212. allowing us to divide the cantilever into 2 x 13 standard segments of 3.3129 m2.081 m N ≥ −σb − Mv I 1 e0 v + B I = − 1.532 = 46. two vertical forces are applied in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1.42 41. Fig.Verification during the casting of the P1-P2 closing segment At this stage in the design.74 ≈ 24 tendons 1.74 MN 1 2.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide N e0 v M v N + + ≥ σb B I I with B = 9.3129 41.

Closure of P2-C3 and stressing of continuity tendons for P2-C3 .19 MPa ==> The dimensioning is therefore correct.532 σ i = − 0. A1.15 – Effects of the weight of the form traveler and of the closing segment In this new phase.7 x 2.7 that the closing segments were constructed in the following order: .v 50.34 .Closure of C0-Pl and stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl .212. at this stage.3129 41.Preamble We have seen in A1.48) x 2.48 MN.95 = 50.45 MN.84 = . Fig. the two halves of the bridge have not yet been connected.0 .4.7 MN Misocantilever = 50.(18. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 243 septembre 2007 .42 + = + B I 9. These forces are exerted on two independent and isostatic structures because.m σs = N M .258 = 114.m Ncantilever = 2 x 13 x 1.2. A1.4 – Prestressing design for the closing segment A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide forces represent the effect of the weight of the form traveler and the concrete for the closing segment when still wet.26 MPa ≥ σ b = − 1.186.Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for P1-P2.7 (−212. the forces and stress in the upper horizontal plane along the centerline of the piers can be expressed as follows: M = .55/2) – 16.45 + 114.

In the first part. the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the effects of the thermal gradient. the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons stressed during the previous closing operations is not an unknown. A1. In the second part. the bridge deck still consists of two independent isostatic structures. Fig. 16 below represents the structure at the moment of the P1-P2 closure. these forces will be replaced with a uniformly distributed load directed in a downward direction and representing the set concrete (Figure A1. two vertical forces are applied in an upward direction at each end of the cantilevers (Figure A1.1 . In contrast to the other continuity tendons. this phase has no bearing on the calculation of the continuity tendons.17 – Diagram of moments due to the removal of the form traveler The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 244 septembre 2007 . Fig. the structure is hyperstatic.15). By starting at the final closing segment.18). A1.1.1. A1. Therefore. we shall study each phase of the closure and determine its effect on the structure. Al.1 – Closing segment between PI and P2 The continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 must take up the selfweight of the closing segment. they develop both isostatic and hyperstatic moments.4.17). These forces represent the effect of the removal of the form traveler and the concrete used for the closing segment (fresh concrete).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The continuity tendons must be determined in reverse order. the first stage of the closure can be simulated by applying two vertical forces in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1.4.2 – Effect of the removal of the form traveler This phase can be broken down into two parts. Figure Al. In this phase.16 – Detail of central closing segment In order to determine the number of tendons necessary for the closing segment in the central span.4.Effect of the selfweight of the closing segment and the form traveler As mentioned previously. In this phase. A1.

4. Fig.1.65 MN.75 + 3.m A1.4. e0 with N = normal force due to the tendons in the section and e0 = offsetting of the mean tendon In our example: N = 1.318 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 245 septembre 2007 . The isostatic moment is calculated in the following way: Miso = N .20).19 below represents the bending moment due to a thermal gradient of 12° C.40 = .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.4 – Isostatic moment of continuity tendons for P1-P2 The isostatic moment is an unknown and is proportional to the prestressing that is used (Figure A1.1.3 – Effect of the thermal gradient Figure A1. A1.19 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12°C The value of the moment at the crown used for the calculation of the continuity tendons for P1-P2 is therefore: Mtherm = 12.95 x ntendons and e0 at the crown = 1.m A1.35 MN.18 – Diagram of moments due to weight of closing segment At the end of these two stages. A1.4. the moment to be considered for the calculation of the continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 is: MG = -7.

This hyperstatic moment is an unknown and depends on the intensity and the distribution of the prestressing in the span (alignment and length of tendons) and on the characteristics of the structure in question (whether or not there is variation of inertia). A1. a hyperstatic moment is set up in the central span which is of the opposite sign to the isostatic moment developed by the tendons. In this case.20 – Diagram of isostatic moments for continuity tendons A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.21 below. the hyperstatic moment can be evaluated in the following way: M hyper = − area of isostatic moment diagram length of span The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 246 septembre 2007 .21 – Diagram of the moments due exclusively to the hyperstatic effect of the P1-P2 continuity tendons At the pre-design stage. A1. The diagram for this is shown in Figure Al. Fig. it is possible to use a simplification which consists of considering the span to be embedded on its supports (Figure Al.1.22).4.5 – Hyperstatic moment for P1-P2 continuity tendons As the structure is hyperstatic when the continuity tendons are stressed.

22 – Diagram of moments exclusively due to the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons according to a simplified calculation A1.02 x 16 = 0.02 σ b = 0.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0. Therefore. A1.(v – 1.0965 m2 I = 4.57 MN.6 + 0.4.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: M Hyper v ' M v' N e0 v ' MTherm v ' N − G − − − ≥ −σ b B I I I I with B = 6.6 + 0.081 m As we do not know the number of tendons required.m e0 = -1.02 x fcj = 0.318 m position of mean tendon e0 = . starting with a single pair of tendons 22.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.06 x fcj) – 0.06 x 16) – 0. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the removal of the form traveler used for the closing segment is taken to be fcj = 16 MPa.440 m M = 13.25 m long.6 – Calculation of P1-P2 continuity tendons Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 247 septembre 2007 . an iterative calculation is performed.7 x (0. we consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.375 m and the closing segment of 2 m. The allowable stress in the bottom axis is therefore: σ b = 0.1.620 m4 v’= 1.7 x (0.5 φg) with φg = 0. measurement of transmission factors). spanning six segments of 3. we also do not know their position in the box girder or their isostatic moment diagram.

25 m Miso = Fp x e0 = -5.0965 m² close to the abutments (h = 2.23 – Detail of the structure during placement of the closing segment on the C0 side A1.2.0965 x 0.2 – Closing segment between C0 and P1 The continuity tendons for the span C0-Pl must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section. Fig. the load due to the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section is equal to Q = 6.17 MN.02453 = 0.75 m lc = 22. shear force and bending moment As the cross-section of the bridge deck is 6.(lc x Miso) / L = 1.24): The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 248 septembre 2007 .23 below shows the structure at the moment the span is closed.318 m at the crown L = 97.4.m at the crown Mhyper = . The hyperstatic moment is therefore: ntendons = 2 fu = 1.30 m).4. A1.A1.14955 MN/m. it would be necessary to repeat the calculation with two pairs of tendons and recalculate the hyperstatic moment with the newly tendons arrangement.95 MN Fp = 3. Figure Al.m hence σ b = − 0.1 – Calculation of support reactions.14 MN.90 MN e0 = -1. we can easily calculate the support reactions and the longitudinal bending moment using static equations (Fig. As the structure in question is isostatic.71 MPa ⇒ σ b ≥ −σ b We will therefore choose one pair of 12T15S tendons. A1. In the event of one pair of tendons being insufficient.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The distribution of the prestressing produces an isostatic moment which is distributed almost uniformly if a single pair of tendons is used (subject to the variation in e0 and the variation of inertia of the section).

m Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. x2 2 so for x = 5.2.24 – Determination of the forces on the C0 side due to the closure of the span Support reactions: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP1 = 0.03 MN. x − Q .50 m long section between C0 and the closing segment. A1. A1.26 – Bending moment on C0 side due to the closure of the span A1.25 – Diagram of shear forces due to closure on C0 side Bending moment diagram: For the 5.04238 MN and RC0 = 0. A1.4. the bending moment is equal to: M(x) = R C0 .78015 MN Shear force diagram: Fig.2 – Calculation of continuity tendons between C0 and P1 Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.217 m ⇒ M = 2.95 MN The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 249 septembre 2007 .

2.620 m4. M = 2.74 + In principle. etc.m x 5.06 x 16) – 0. The allowable stress in the lower axis is thus: σ b = 0.65 MN.318 x 1.l4 MN.03 MN NcontinuityC0P1 = 2 x 1.03 MN.121 MN.6 + 0.6 + 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Duct diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.440 m.7 x (0. v’ = 1.440 + 6.620 = − 0. In this new phase.(v – 1. the bridge deck is considered to be cast in place with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts and measurement of transmission factor) and the strength of the concrete is taken to be the value obtained when the falsework is removed fcj = 16 MPa.318 = -5.m e0 = -1. somewhat higher forces develop in this area after the closure of P1-P2.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.375 = 0.65 MN.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 250 septembre 2007 .06 x fcj) – 0.4. the forces and stress in the lower axis are: Mg = 2.081 m N ≥ − σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 2.02 x 16 = 0.620 − 0.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.m x 5. as the structure is now hyperstatic.02 x fcj = 0. we shall specify one pair of 12T15S tendons.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.5 x 12. to which is added the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons for P1-P2. in order to prevent any cracking due to parasitic phenomena (obstructed shrinkage.95 = 3.5 φg) with φg = 0.50 / 53. the bridge deck becomes sensitive to the effects of thermal gradients.03 x 1.02 = 0.0965 m2.440 4.3 .0965 4. A1. However. Indeed.375 = 0. However.7 x (0.9 x -1.9 MN McontinuityC0P1 = 3. no tendons are necessary. I = 4.Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 The calculation that we have just performed is intended to determine the amount of continuity cabling needed to consolidate the structure after the removal of falsework from the cast-on falsework section.m MΔt = 0.).50 / 53.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .17 MN.19 MN 1 1.

4.03456 MN M = 13.09 MPa ≥ σ b = − 2.620 m4. Figure A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide σs = 1.318 x 1.081 m N ≥ −σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 13.620 = 6. v' − = .0 MPa (with j = 28 days) The continuity cabling is therefore adequate.3 – Closing segment between P2 and C3 The continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.07 MN 1 1.097 ⎝ 4.57 x 1.03 . v’ = 1.0965 4.4. I = 4.14 + 0.440 4. M = 13.74 + The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 251 septembre 2007 .(v – 1.440 + 6.⎜ (2.44 ⎞ 3.m A1.0965 m2.27 below represents the structure at the step when the span is closed.65) x ⎟ 6.28374 MN et RC3 = 2.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .57 MN.3. A1.27 – Determination of forces on C3 side due to the closure of the span A1.9 ⎛ N M .5. Fig.4.12 + 0.62 ⎠ B I σ i = − 0.3-2 – Calculation of the continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.57 MN.m e0 = -1.620 − 0. A1.5 φg) with φg = 0.1 – Calculation of support reactions and bending moments A calculation similar to the one performed for the C0-Pl closing segment gives the support reactions and the bending moment: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP2 = 0.440 m.

Preamble concerning the geometry of the external tendons between CO and C3 For an initial estimation.Computerized calculation of the envelope of longitudinal moments due to A(l) .3.Determination of geometry of tendons .95 A1.375 = 0.50 / 63.50 / 63. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 252 septembre 2007 .17 MN.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.286 MN.318 = .m The continuity cabling is therefore sufficient.5.4. A1. In this new phase.5.375 = 1.m MΔt = 0.58 MN. the forces and stressing in the lower horizontal plane are: Mg= 3.28 MN.1 .5 x 12. we can use certain rules to define the mean alignment of the external prestress tendons.m x 15.5.8 x – 1. 6.57 MN NcontinuityP2C3 = 4 x 1. it is important to verify the suitability of the cabling after the closure of the span P1-P2 and the stressing of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.5 – External prestressing design A1.1 – Determination of forces A1.95 = 7.Choice of critical sections to be dimensioned or verified .10.0 .3 – Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 As before. A1.Calculation of creep effects .8 MN McontinuityP2C3 = 7.Computerized calculation of effects of thermal gradient .Presentation of the design method The external prestress tendons must take up the forces due to the fittings.07 ≈ 3 1.m x 15. prior to the stressing of the external tendons. traffic loads A(l). we shall proceed in stages: .94 MN. In order to calculate the number of tendons required. we will opt for two pairs of 12T15S tendons.1.Determination of prestressing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide n tendons ≥ Therefore. thermal gradient and creep.

Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 253 septembre 2007 .29 – Transverse geometry of external tendons A1. i.29). also at 32. 0.1. we shall make the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis equal to the thickness of the upper slab. the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis shall be equal to the thickness of the lower slab plus 0. whereas the intermediate deviators position these same tendons close to the lower axis (positive longitudinal bending moment).28). at 32. A1.A1.A1. Fig. Remember that the deviators on piers position the external prestress tendons as close as possible to the upper axis of the bridge deck (negative longitudinal bending moment. This value allows a gap of 0. A1. we shall place the intermediate deviators for the central span one third of the way along the span.10 m to be left between the sheath of the prestressing tendon and the top of the lower slab (Fig. We shall also place a deviator on the end spans.30).e.583 m from the centerline of the piers (Fig.e.15 m. i.5. For the section at the crown.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Longitudinally.2 .583 m from the centerline of the piers.Overload A(l) A computerized calculation gives us the envelope of the longitudinal moments due to the imposed loads A(1) (Fig. Al.25 m.28 – Longitudinal geometry of alignment for external tendons at end of segments Transversally on the section on pier.

m 23.59 MN.A1.m . Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments Min .m Type of calculation Max 8.m 11. A1.m dimensioning verification verification dimensioning verification verification dimensioning A1.m .43.m 21.1.45.31).4 kN/lm). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 254 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.36 MN.m .62 MN.41 MN.23 MN.m 19.m 19.71 MN.15.9.87 MN. Fig.6.50 MN.5.40 MN.4.m 6.3 .m .19.30 – Diagram of moments due to the imposed load A(1) The characteristic values of the enveloped curve below are used to determine the dimensioning sections and the verification sections for the external prestressing (Fig. A1.31 – Position of the sections used to analyze the external prestressing The following table summarizes the forces due to A(l) and the type of calculation to be performed in each section.42 MN.50 MN.m .Fittings A computerized calculation is used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the fittings.m .75 MN.39 MN.63 MN. (Remember that the linear weight of the fittings is equal to q = 47.

23 MN.m 5.m 5.m 6. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1. A1.25 MN.94 MN.m 12.98 MN. Fig.m -41.36 MN.m -0.44 MN.5.33 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12° C The table below summarizes the forces due to the thermal gradient in each section.18 MN.16 MN.m -45.94 MN.m 4.m 12.4 – Thermal gradient A computerized calculation is again used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the thermal gradient of 12° C.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.65 MN.m 3.m 12. A1. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.1.32 – Diagram of the moments due to the weight of the fittings The table on the left summarizes the forces due to the fittings in each section.16 MN.37 MN.27 MN.97 MN.m A1.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 255 septembre 2007 .m 12.

2. the moment corresponding to this compression reserve will be determined by a linear interpolation between M = 0 MN.63 MN.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = .m on the pier. we reserve a margin of 2 MPa for the stress in the lower axis.m 1.5.27 = 47.5 .5.42 MN.62 MN. for the section Σ4: v’ = 1.m MΔt = 12.4.m Mcreep = 6.m on the abutment and M = 6.62 = 6.m MG fittings = 12.35 + 12.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 256 septembre 2007 .36 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.17 and A1.5 MΔt MQ min = -7.35 MN.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MG equip) + MQ min = -4.31 MN.97 MN. This reserve is used to calculate a creep moment in the central span: σb = − I M v' ⇒ M = − σb I v' Thus.1.97 + 6.42 MN. see Figures Al.2 – Dimensioning of external prestressing As the calculations are similar and repetitive.m MA(1) min = -6. A1.42 MN. A1. we shall only dimension the external tendons close to the closing segment sections.97 – 7.Creep As an initial estimate.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MG equip + MG creep) + MQ max = -4.44 m I = 4.m MQ =1.2 MA(1) + 0.42 + 32.44 In the end spans.5.1 – Calculation in section Σ4 (closing segment between P1 and P2) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction.65 MN.63 = 0.27 MN.35 + 12.99 MN.m or MQ = MΔt with the values above gives: MQ max = 32.62 m4 M creep = 2 x 4.m and M MA(1) max = 21.

e0 = 1.10 / 2)) = -1.17 m fu = 3.375) + 2.m Me2 = n .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper = 1.n MN.m Mpeci =Miso +Mhyper =-5.14 MN.26. e0 = fu .25 = 2. (-1.34 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in the central span e01 = .420-0.17 MN.17) = 6.05) = -3.5.95 x 2 x -1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig. e2 = n .m = 5. A1.97 MN.n MN.(1.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon n= number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n .10 . 3. 3.17 =-3.(0. (+2.73.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 257 septembre 2007 . n .95 MN =-1. el = n .05 m e02 = 2.440 – 0.318 = .75 = 1.14 + 1. fu . fu .1 .24 – 0.14 x [(6 x 3.00] 97.1 .

A1.712 .44 σi = (1.061 .2 – Calculation in the Σ1 section (closing segment between CO and P1) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .14 + 1.v ' N M .17 ) + (− 3.26 .3. n S3 = 3.2.546 .583 = 21.33.see figures A 1.0 MPa for n = 8 σ i = − 0.958 = 147. A1.067 .94 MN.66 MN. n 6. n . n = − 0. n Calculation of stress: σi = M Pecl + M Pext .625 = .33 . n 97.958 m 6.375 = 0.1.n M hyper = − 7.17.73 + 3.73 .26 . n )] x 1.73 x 32. n .75 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .5.35 – Diagram of isostatic moment of external tendons in central span x = 6.0965 − 47.106. n 2 x S2 = 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 258 septembre 2007 . 10.50 MPa > − σ b = − 2.v ' P + Pext M .072 .34. 32. n .620 [(− 5.26 .31 x 1.584 .50 / 53.584 = .26 Hyperstatic moment 2 x S1 = 6.0 MPa We will therefore opt for 4 pairs of 19T15S tendons.87 4.620 for n = 6 σ i = − 3.58 MN.m MGfittings = 1.18) Fittings Creep MG1 = 0.07 = -3.m Mcreep = 6.60 MPa < − σ b = − 2.n) – 12. n – 0. n 7.42 x 5.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1. 21.95) + 3.067.44 − 4.

18 MN.2 MA(1) + 0.58 + 1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 259 septembre 2007 .14 MN.50 5. which gives the following with the values above: MQ max = 10.m =-5.m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 53.94 – 5.14 + 0.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax and MQ min = -5.88 MN. e0 = fu .5 MΔt or MQ = MΔt.66 + 10.70 =-3.95 x 2 x -1.95 MN =-1.318 = .27 MN.m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 1. n .06 MN.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MA(1) min = -4.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-5.94+0.58 + 1.375 53.50 − 0.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .m =0 for the end span tendons = 1.m M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1+ MGfittings) + MQ min = 0.39 MN.70 = 13.17 5.70 MN.06 MN.m MQ =1.08 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Overload A(1) 8.5.576 = 0.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1+ MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 0.75 MN.70 MN. e0 = 1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.

292 .n MN.n M hyper = 2.n .1 . n .10 / 2)) = -1.958)/2 = 73. n .17.583 = 10.73 Hyperstatic moment on pier S1 = (6.n MN.m Fig. n S2 = (3.500) / 2 = .24 – 0.3. 2 = 0.163 .15.(-1.625)/2 = . n 53.420-0. e2 = n .73.26 .10.(0.n S3 = (3.440 – 0.292) = .1 .081 .1 MN effective force of one 19T15S tendon n = number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n .26.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.25 = 2.e1 = n .49. A1. n S4 = (3.26.26. fu . 3.625 m 3.73 . (+2. A1.(1.10 .05) =-3. 5.951 .m Me2 = n . n .8.375 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 260 septembre 2007 .37 – Isostatic moment diagram for external tendons in span C0-P1 x = 3.17 m fu = 3.36 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span CO-P1 e1 = .26 + 6. 21.17) = 6.fu .26 x 32.05 m e2 = 2.n.755 .856 .

v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.09) + (− 3.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 261 septembre 2007 .m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 3. n + 0.95) + 3.255 .n)-5.30 = -3.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) 19.1.09 MN.163 . n = -3.620 [(− 5.2 MA(1) + 0.m MQ = MΔt and which.50 / 63.5 MΔt or MQ max = 25.524.m MA(1) min = -9.15 + 6.16 MN.37 MN.57 MN.44 − 4.17 and A1. n = 0. gives: MQ min =-11.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = -3.3 – Calculation in section Σ7 (closing segment between P2 and C3) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .78 MN.14 + 0.42 x 15.25 .081× 5.5.00 MPa We will therefore opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.44 4.n M hyper (Σ1 ) = 0.v ' P + Pext M .m MQ=1.see Figures A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide -2.26 for n = 2 for n = 4 σi =-2. n 6.00 MPa σi = 0.88 x 1.11 MN.m MGfittings = 6. A1. n 53.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MGfittings) + MQ min = 1.m Mcreep = 6.2.25.50 . using the values above.20 MPa <-σt =-2.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = 1.v ' N M .620 σi = (l.008 .59 MN.008 .0965 − 13.37 – 11. n Calculation of stress in Σ1 σi = M Pecl + M Pext .375 = 1.42 MN. n )] x 1.30 MN.84 MPa >-σt =-2.

37 + 1. (+2.05 m = 2.e2 = n .15 MN.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.440 – 0. fu.25 = 2. A1. 3.576 = 0.09 = 34.17 m = 3.28 MN.n MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 1.13 MN.318 = .26.145 MN.m =0 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons for the end span tendons = 1.420-0.(0.24 – 0.318 m =4 = N e0 = 1.m = n .375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-10.375 63.m = -10. e1 = n .m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 63.50 15.10 .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 262 septembre 2007 .17 15. fu.95 MN = -1.73.1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon = number of 19T15S external tendons = n .50 − 0.38 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span P2-C3 e01 e02 fu n Me1 Me2 = .28 + 0.(1.10 / 2)) = -1.15 + 6.1 .18 MN.1 .95 x 4 x -1.57 + 25.3.10.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.05) = -3.n MN. (-1.17) = 6.

26 . 21.581 .142 .28) + (− 3.292 . A1.n .620 σi = (l.v ' N M .25. n 6.113.226 .n.856 .404 for n = 4 for n = 6 σi =-2.73 Hyperstatic moment on support: S1 = (6. n S4 = (3.755 .3.00 MPa σi = 0. n = 0.n S3 = (3.113 .44 − 4.10.26 x 32. n . n .39 – Isostatic moment diagram of the external tendons in span P2-C3 x = 3. n -18. n .417 .v ' P + Pext M .1. n = .49.18 x 1.17.26.620 [(− 10.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (4 x 1.26 .26 + 6.625) / 2 = .3.73 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.49 MPa <-σt = -2.583 = 10. n Calculation of stress σi = M Pecl + M Pext . n 63.50 . n + 0.44 4.958) / 2 = 73.292) = . n S2 = (3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 263 septembre 2007 .375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = . n )] x 1. 2 = 0.95) + 3.581.26.375 M hyper (Σ 7 ) = 0.500) / 2 = .0965 − 34. 15. n 63.142 .625 m 3.n)-8.00 MPa We shall thus opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons. n M hyper = 18.417 .47 MPa >-σt = -2.480. 15.15.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A2 Monographs of cast-in-situ bridges The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 264 septembre 2007 .

60 m in diameter and 6.CITRA et des May 1984 .Jan. P4. The right bank abutment is built directly on the ground. the left bank abutment is built on four Ø 1.SOGEA . Due to the presence of a thick layer of peat. 1989 A3 Revue Travaux Apr. P3 : Four 5 m x 3 m H-shaped rectangular foundation piles Champ du Comte viaduct (RN 90) Consortium: . 1986 . 1987 A1 Oct.13m x l4m x 3 m). or on deep foundations: P2: 12.040 m) Supports and foundations: double portal frame configuration “Puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) 4 to 5. 1989 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Feb. PI.10 m diameter piles.00 to 22. 1989 A2 June 1986 Poncin viaduct (A40) The supports are all built on the bedrock.GTM-BTP Dec. Contractors. C6 . Construction dates REF. P5. 1986 .00 m in depth The “Les outils" Collection – Sétra page 265 septembre 2007 . P3. 1988 Consortium: Revue DTP (Dragages Générale et Travaux des Routes Publics) .5m diameter box girder built from diaphragm wall elements.Sept. either directly on superficial footings (CO. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Beaumont sur Revue Travaux Oise bridge Contractor: Dragages et Travaux Publics Feb. 1990 Champ du Comte viaduct (1.40 m piles anchored in the limestone bedrock.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Aérodromes 1986 Oct. 1988 The piers are supported by six Ø1.Dec. Revue Travaux Oct.

B30 concrete: 8.266.36 m on the first 3 segments then 0. Length of standard segments: 3.000 kg .400 kg (45.270m3 .Transverse prestress bars: 77. 0.Bridge deck prestressing: half using 9T15 tendons and 12T15 internal tendons & the other half using replaceable 19T15 tendons – End span fixed to a weighted abutment acting as a counterweight with a solid 9.860 kg (126 kg/m3) .continuity tendons: 2 x 5 12T15 External prestress tendons: 2 x 3 19T15 2 x 1 12T15 tendons Cross-section of 1 box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 266 septembre 2007 .Concrete: 1.92 m over entire structure.850m² .00m long rectangular section at the end.50 m.36 m – Thickness of webs in end span: 0.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 225.At the crown: h = 3.Concrete: 11.Surface area of bridge deck :1.900 kg (112 kg/ m3) .Longitudinal prestress bars: 516.B45 concrete: 17.At crown of main span: h = 4. Length of standard segments 3.20 – 1.00 m before reaching the solid section.On support PI or P2: h = 10.800.80 m s = 1/17 At crown of main span: h = 2.5 .continuity: 2x7 12T15 tendons –External prestressing: 2 x 10 19T15 tendons Cast-in-situ segments of variable depth.On support: h = 6.Formwork: 27.793 m3 including 585 m3 of lightweight concrete .53 m: End spans built on falsework HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .Mean thickness of bridge deck: 0.5 Main quantities: .cantilever: 2 x 27 19T15 tendons .60 m s (slenderness) = 1/18 .77 m in the central span. Solid rectangular section inside the counterweighted abutment .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.950 m² .Longitudinal prestress bars: 850.10 – 0.00 m s = 1/40 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: . 0.8 kg/ m3) . P4 and P5: 1.500 m3 . For the bridge deck: .Thickness of webs in central span: 0.450 kg COMMENTS .650 kg (41 kg/m3) (37 kg/m2) .000 kg Internal prestressing: -cantilever tendons: 2 x 13 12T15 2 x 1 19T15 tendons .90 m s = 1/34.00 m s = 1/39 ON SUPPORTS P1 and P2 CONSTANT DEPTH AT PI-P2 CROWN Thickness of webs near P3. Internal prestressing: .30 m (weight: 120 to 220 tonnes) Incremental launching of end sections (constant depth) .000 m3 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.00 m s= 1/15.90 m respectively Viaduct with 2 separate bridge decks Cast-in-situ segments On support: h = 5.Prestressing bars: 72.70 m and finally 1.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.

1986 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Oct. 1989 June 1986 A4 Lalleyriat viaduct (A40) Revue Générale des Routes et des A5 Aérodromes Nov. Construction dates Nantua viaduct (A40) Consortium: -GTM . 198 The variabile quality of the terrain required a wide range of foundations: P7 and P9: Four Ø2. P4 & P6: four piles of Ø 1. 1986 The structure consists of two independent bridge decks with a height difference of approximately 6 m. 1989 Revue Travaux Jan. 3 spans * South deck: 194 m.75 m * South deck: 11.: * North deck: 130 m. 4 spans and different widths: * North deck: 8. P5 et P6: superficial footings of approx.40 m shafts) or cast-in-situ piles (P2. P3. Contractors.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Jan. Deep pile foundation shafts (P5: four Ø 2.20 m to Ø 1.Campenon Bernard June 1983 Nov.75 m Length of central span for both decks: 58 m The majority of the foundations consist of footings built on sound bedrock. 1986 REF.50 m) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 267 septembre 2007 . 10 m x 10 m x 2.20 m “puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) P8: one Ø 6 m deep pile foundation shaft PI. Tacon viaduct Contractor: CITRA France A6 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Nov.5 m The structure consists of two bridge decks of different lengths with a height difference of 5 to 7 m. P2 and P3: Ø 10 m diaphragm walls P4.

height of bridge deck = 6 m .At the crown h = 3m s = 1/38 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .50 m long.500 t.On support: h = 6.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 554.000 kg (126kg/m3) .50 to 3.On support: h=6m s = 1/15 . Length of segments: 2.Fixed support of ½ cantilever: h = 8. Internal prestressing (12T15 tendons) with possibility of adding extra external and internal prestressing.55 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 268 septembre 2007 . To build & balance this span.50 m (60 to 85 t). 3.820 m3 .Nonprestressed reinforcement bars: 1.Prestress bars: 430 000 kg (44 kg/m3) COMMENTS The viaduct ends in a 124 m span supported in the tunnel.Prestress bars: 185. each with a capacity of 1.Concrete: 4.000 kg (115 kg/m3) . This consists of two mobile sliding counterweights.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.44 m . At the crown Cast-in-situ segments. a counterweighted span of approx.000 t was built on centuring.Concrete: 9.At the crown and for segments of constant depth: h = 3m s = 1/30 For the bridge deck: .80 m dictated by site s = 1/21 access problems).Thickness of bridge deck = 0. Cast-in-situ Constant depth of segments (method 2.250.800m3 . Internal prestressing with possibility of adding extra external prestressing. Internal prestressing using 12T15 tendons HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .000 kg (38 kg/m3) On support (for the spans of variable depth): .65 m s = 1/17 .. Each segment measures 3. .

80 m piles Consortium: Pertuy-Bouygues 1982 A8 Chinon bridge AFPC in Indre-et(French Loire Construction Association) Study Day. P6: Six Ø 1. . Construction dates Cheviré bridge over the River Loire Consortium: Concrete package: Quillery et Vezin Metal package: Baudin Châteauneuf et ACP Dec. The abutments are built on four Ø 0. P7 : Four Ø 1.The SNCF (French state rail network) railroad crossing. 1984 Revue A9 Travaux Jan. 12 June 1986 Sept. 1987 – Oct. 1986 Entreprise: GTM The piers are built on footings within a cofferdam.30 m piles P1 : Six Ø 0.The main crossing of the River Moselle and its lateral canal. 1990 REF. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Apr. Contractors.80 m piles. 1985 The viaduct consists of two independent structures: . 1989 A7 Presence of joints between N5 and N6 & between S5 and S6 Pont à Mousson viaduct over the Moselle Revue Travaux Jan. Cast-in-situ pile foundations: P2. P5.30 m piles P4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 269 septembre 2007 . P3.

50 m s = 1/17 .20m QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the concrete bridge deck: .Beyond the length of the parabolically variable section (18 m) either side of these supports: h = 2.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.500 kg external tendons (in total: 50 t or 36 are somewhat kg/m3) limited in power Equivalent thickness: 75 cm For the entire bridge deck (including the caston-falsework sections): .000 kg (140 kg/ m3) -Prestress reinforcements (longitudinal and transverse): 1.B35 concrete: 27.Prestress x7 12T15 reinforcements: internal: 28. strong radial tendon forces of the deviators close to piers have resulted in the latter being reinforced. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .80 m s = 1/25 With its oversized dimensions.Prestressing: int: (cantilever & continuity) 19T15 ext. .385 m3 cantilever: .Non-prestressed 2 x 9 12T15 reinforcements: continuity: 205.Standard spans (constant depth): h = 4. The rest of the structure is cast on falsework.850.The first 6 meters of the end spans were cast on falsework.600 kg ext. 5 & 6: h = 4.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 466.70 m.70 m (111 t) Length of segments on piers: 8. tendons: 2 .B35 concrete: 3. this bridge was designed to support thirty-meter long EDF (Electricité de France –French electricity supply utility) convoys weighing 650 tonnes Large spans: cantilever: 24 x 12T15 continuity: 6 x 12T15 external: 8 x 19T15 Given the complex 2dimensional alignment of the tendons and the thinness of the deviators.Prestress reinforcements: int.On support: h = 9.00 m at level of NI and SI .5 The initial pre-design did not feature any external prestressing. The end of the end spans is cast on falsework.: 63.On support: h = 4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 270 septembre 2007 .B35 concrete: prestressing: .int.000 kg (44 kg/ m3) COMMENTS . tendons: 1.55 m s = 1/14 . A summary analysis of mixed cabling was included but the dimensions of the structure were not modified due to a lack of time ½ -section at crown ½. .At end of cantilever above the River Loire: H = 5.50 m s= 1/15. For the bridge deck: Mixed .section on pier Cast-in-situ segments.: 27T15 ½ section on span Segments of the 3 large cantilevers are cast in-situ.At the crown: h = 2.75 m s = 1/27.On supports 4.ext. The central metal span was hoisted onto its permanent bearings in one operation. .500 kg Comment: external: 21. Length of standard segments: 2.216.437 m3 .000 kg (150 2 x 4 12T15 kg/m3) .5 . Segments on piers are cast horizontally then tilted to the required angle before the construction of the cantilever begins.000 kg (in total: 39 kg/m3) Comment: The structure supports oversize Class E loads.: 71.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.000 kg (136 kg/m3) .

P. situated directly above a rocky spur embedded in the sand. Abutment C0.E.T. 1986 – Mar. Prestressing Federation) 1989 Congress.O. Nov. Congress. The three piers are built on superficial footings.Aug. Contractor: 12th FIP DODIN Sud (International Aug.Campenon 11th FIP Bernard (International . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. 1989 . 1991 Washington A12 1994 Revue Travaux July 1992 Bourran viaduct at Rodez Engineering geology: risk of landslides Deep pile foundation shafts: one Ø3 m or Ø4 m shaft for each pier sunk to depths of 11 to 15 m. . Island 12th FIP (International Contractor: Prestressing SBTPC Federation) Aug. is supported by two Ø2 m deep pile foundation shafts.June Prestressing 1991 Federation) Congress.1989 . Contractors. The ground had to be injected under P1. Al0 Hamburg 1990 Revue Travaux June 1991 La Technique Française du Béton Précontraint.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Construction dates Bridge over the Loch d’Auray REF. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 271 septembre 2007 . 1991 July 1992 La Bridge over Technique the SaintDenis river on Française du Béton Reunion Précontraint. A11 Washington 1994 Revue Travaux Oct. one of which is extended by micropiles.

Concrete: 3.Longitudinal prestress bars: 59 t 12T15 62 t 19T15 (in total 39 kg/m3) Prestressing of upper slab via sheathed & greased single strands: 20.69 %). Length of standard segments: 3.71 m .On support: h = 5.5 kg/m3) .External tendons 2x4 19T15 .At the crown: h = 3. To avoid any difference in the height of the webs.Highly problematical construction of foundations. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers. rectilinear external prestressing.50 m s = 1/31 For the bridge deck: . has been added in order to restore a normal force virtually equal to that created by the thrust of the portal legs in the large span. Two temporary pilings supported the portal legs before placement of the final segment.190 kg (40 kg/m³) Large cantilevers: .Prestressing: cantilever : 2 x 14 12T15 continuity : 2 x 2 12T15 external tendons : 2 x 6 19T15 .100 kg (141 kg/m3) . Length of standard segments: 3.External tendons (from portal leg to portal leg) 2 x 2 12T15 The ribs are transversally prestressed.000 m² . .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 365. Slightly asymmetrical box girder: the transverse slopes begin at the centerline of the pavement which is not aligned with the centerline of the box girder.On support: h = 4. . Construction using “from below” type of form travelers.Concrete: 3. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework.00 m s= 1/16. COMMENTS In addition to the usual tendons In the end spans.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 437.70 m.At the crown: h = 2. segments on piers: 7.000 kg (122 kg/m3) .100 m3 .Continuity 2x3 12T15 .Longitudinal prestress bars: 119. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 272 septembre 2007 .000 kg (6. the winds effects were calculated very accurately. Directly above portal legs Thickness of webs in segments on P1 and P4: 60 cm.00 m in span T5).On support: h = 6.Vertical prestressing of segment on P1 .50 m s = 1/17 .5 . the entire box girder has been tilted transversally (gradient of 0.50 m s = 1/33. segments on piers: 9 m.At the crown: h = 2.5 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the cantilever sections: Mixed prestressing: .20 m s = 1/16 . extending from the abutment to portal leg.Cantilever 2 X 16 12T15 .Possibility of adding extra tendons.80 m. but in the end.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments The large span has 2 cantilevers (3 m segments) built using form travelers. no bracing was provided. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework (17. weight: 120 t).provisional bracing of curved pier shells to take up forces due to cyclonic winds .00 m s = 1/33 For the bridge deck: . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . The rest of the structure was built on falsework.Internal tendons Cantilever: 12T15 Continuity: 2 x 6 12T15 .45 m (max. .70m in span S1 and 6.Mean thickness of concrete: 0.Given the flexibility of the piers in rotation (2 bent pier shafts for P2 & P3).

Federation) 1997 Congress.81. 1995 .DODIN Sud (International .SPIE T.Four Ø 1. P6.80 m piles for C1 La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint.Dec. Construction dates Piou and Rioulong viaducts REF.40 m piles for P4 and P5 . 63 m).P1 and P2 are erected on superficial foundations. P7 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. . A13 Washington Foundations: via footings for PI. 6 % slope A14 Foundations via cast-in-situ piles: .Six Ø 1.Nord France TP .Four Ø 1.Chantiers (International Modernes Prestressing .P3 and P4 are supported on footings anchored to the rock by four 3 m shafts excavated using explosives . Amsterdam A15 1998 Viaur valley viaduct (RN 88) .The bridge deck is embedded on P3 and P4. P2 and P5 (with stitched reinforcement of the footings of the very 1994 tall pier P2). 72. Contractors.R 13th FIP . 1993 Rioulong viaduct: 5 spans (45. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 273 septembre 2007 .Eight Ø 0. . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. via 7 m shafts for P3 and P4 Limay viaduct in Yvelines Consortium: .Quillery 12th FIP .40 m piles for P2. Their footings were temporarily anchored to the rock via 10 stressed 12T15 ties designed to take up the wind effects during construction.Borie SAE Federation) Congress. 81. .20 m piles for C8 .SOGEA Prestressing Feb.Holzmann 1992 Revue Travaux Apr. P3.

(cantilevers and crowns) super 19K15 ext.Concrete: 4. tendons 27T15 . Length of segments on piers: 9.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3. .000 kg (in total: 47 kg/m3) COMMENTS Half-section of a standard section Half-section of sections close to piers Construction using Constant depth h=5m “from below” type of form travelers.Prestressing: 650 t The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 274 septembre 2007 .Movements of major spans due to wind effects during construction limited by the use of vertical prestress tendons.When casting segment n. Length of standard segments: 2.680 m² .000 kg (35 kg/m3) int. Mixed prestressing: .Mixed prestressing: Int.30 m s = 1/17 .Concrete: 6.Longitudinal prestress bars 228.900 t . tendons: 12 (at mid-span) to 8 (on pier) 19T15S . Incoprporation of bracing: .60 m Length of standard segments: 3. Continuity: 14 (in the 90 m spans) to 2 (for spans on the island) 12T15S.73 m For the bridge deck: .The real strut was attached to segment n + 1 by bolting on the lower part and casting on the upper part.On support: h= 12m s = 1/16 .8 m on pier).At the crown and in the spans of constant depth.000 kg External: 103.tendons 19T15 Ext. . Construction using form travelers. using a false strut to give the required accuracy. .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 769. Length s = 1/18 of segments: 3 m (6.Ext.Concrete: 21. The extremities of the end spans are built on falsework.90 m.000 m3 . with a stagger in the construction of the cantilevers to allow the incorporation of metal struts. 4 fixing sockets were sealed in the bottom flange of the web. h = 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED Piou viaduct: .000 kg (164 kg/m3) -Internal longitudinal prestress bars: 119.Cantilever tendons: 20 (piers on the island) to 30 (piers in the river) 12T15S.On support: h = 5.000 kg (14 kg/m3) 3C15 .50 m s = 1/42 Main quantities: .Transverse prestressing via single strands .equivalent thickness: 0.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 819. .000 kg (126kg/m3) .76 m.At the crown and in spans of constant depth: h = 2.70 m s = 1/33 Construction using form travelers.: 27K15 super transversal: 92.

Length: 163 m (3 spans: 51 m + 67 m + 45 m).Mar.40 m. 1993 Structure with two separate bridge decks.Feb. in Nantes Contractor: ETPO Jan.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. 8 spans: 52 m + 77 m + 136 m + 77 m + 3 x 55 m + 45 m.Dumez July 1990 . Usable width of each of the two decks: 11m./Aug.1994 viaducts in the Côte d’Or Consortium of contractors: . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux April 1989 A16 Revue Ouvrages d’art n° 16 Nov 1993 Two independent but connected bridge decks. 1987 . 1989 REF. Contractors.Dodin Ouest Sept.GTM-BTP . Construction dates Doubling of the Général Audibert bridge over the Loire. made from prestressed concrete box girders of variable depth. 1991 – Nov.SOGEA : . Length: 308 m (3 spans: 82 m + 144 m + 82 m). Width: 17.Dodin Sud : . Width:21 m. Bridge over the Truyère at Garabit Consortium: . Auxonne and Revue Travaux Maillys Jul. 1993 A17 Portal bridge with a prestressed concrete box girder. Bridge deck embedded on the portal legs and on simple supports on the abutments. A18 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 275 septembre 2007 .

On support: h = 6.840 m3 COMMENTS SEGMENTS ON PIERS SEGMENTS AT CROWN UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Prestress tendons inside concrete: 12T 13 20.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 338. Closing segments: 2m.Int.50 Cast-in-situ segments. . Large span and 2 adjacent ½ spans: successive cast-insitu cantilever segments built using 2 x 2 form travelers. .a 20.20 m directly above the portal legs to 0.50 m s = 1/21 .two webs angled at 30%. Weight of standard segments: 45 tonnes. Cast-on-falsework end spans For the segments built by the cantilever method .80 m s = 1/37 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .20 m s = 1/42 For the sections built on falsework: h = constant = 3.Concrete: 2. . -At the level of the portal legs: 8 m. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .60 m (1.50 m.At the crown: h = 1. SECTION THROUGH P3-P4 CANTILEVER On support In span .300 m³ .Concrete: 16.60 m.520 tonnes. .Continuity tendons outside concrete: 19T 15. The box girder features: .At the crown: h = 3.Int. .On support: h = 3. prestress tendons: cantilever (2 X 35 per cantilever) and continuity (2 X 7 on end span and 2 X 2 on central span): FUC 19-620 . remobvable on end spans .Prestressing: 362 t. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 276 septembre 2007 . .50 m upper slab which is transversally prestressed by 4T15 tendons at intervals of 0.B40 concrete: 10.Ext.700 m3 .80 m s = 1/18 .190 Kg . prestressing: 260 tonnes.On the abutment supports: 10 m.Ext.a lower slab whose thickness varies between 1.20 m towards the portal legs).Continuity tendons: 12T15. prestressing: 325 tonnes.000 m3 .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.At the crown: 3 m. Length of segments on piers: 9 m.Prestressing: 85. prestress tendons: FUC 19620.150 m3 . Length of standard segments: 3.Cantilever tendons: 12 T 15.25 m at the crown. with vertical thickness of 0.Transverse prestressing of upper slab: FUC 4-620 .000 Kg Usable area of the structure: 2.20 m s= 1/17 For the bridge deck: . . . .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 13.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.50 m.50 m and 1001. 10 m wide.Royans Travaux July 1995 . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Corniche bridge in Dole Ouvrages Consortium: . 1993 .50 m + 42. Revue Ouvrages d’art Dec. Contractors.Nov. Construction dates REF. Two concentric bridge decks with radii at the left edge of 984.1997 A20 Two independent structures.Roux SA Feb. 1996 d’art Nov. 1995 Revue Travaux Jul. des Aérodromes Width: 14. Nov.Campenon Bernard Régions . 1995 A19 Rivoire viaduct in Isère Consortium: .Apr.FougerolleBallot . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 277 septembre 2007 .10 m./Aug.25 m).25 m + 137.15 m: center distance of 24. Length: 247 m ( 64 m + 113 m + 70 m). 1998 VIVARIO VENACO Vecchio bridge in Corsica Contractor: Razel A21 3-span prestressed concrete structure (42. 1994 Revue Générale des Routes et Length: 496 m (48 m + 5 x 80 m + 48 m).Razel .

On support: h= 11 m s= 1/12 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments. . due to the variation in width of the lower slab.At the crown: h = 2.prestressing bar in web panels. Construction of central span in halfcantilevers using successive 3.20 m on central span and 17 x 3.100 m3 .cantilever tendons in the upper slab.50 m e = 1/14 .Prestressing: 190 tonnes. .On support: h =5. .B35 concrete: 4.continuity tendons outside the concrete stretching from abutment to abutment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 278 septembre 2007 . Length of segments on piers: 8.000 m² .20m. Length of segments on piers: 6. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .50 m s = 1/32 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .20 m on end span. Length of standard segments: 3. COMMENTS First bridge with corrugated webs to be built by the cantilever method in France.internal continuity tendons in central span.50 m. For the bridge deck: .B35 concrete: 4.Prestressing: 174 t .50 m s = 1/39 Prestressing: .40 m.Formwork: 15. These are of variable depth and angle. Standard segments built using “from below” type of form travelers.At the crown: h = 3.60 m long cantilever segments using form travelers into which the prefabricated webs were placed.200m² -Reinforcements: 690t . Length of standard segments: 16 x 3.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.SPIE Batignolles . Width: 18.1992 Length: 568 m (110 m + 169 m + 96 m + 169 m + 114 m). Construction dates Bridge over the Rhine in Strasbourg Consortium: .75 m.Berger and Max Früh 2001 .2002 REF.GTM .06 m.Bilfinger .Fougerolles 1990 . A22 Bridge over the Seine at Gennevilliers Consortium: . 2002 Length: 457 m (121 m + 205 m + 131 m). A23 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 279 septembre 2007 . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux n° 783 FebThe piers. Contractors. Width: 14.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK

CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments
Cast-in-situ segments. Standard segments vary in length from 3.50 to 5.00 m. Length of segments on piers: 9.50 m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios
- On pier: h = 9.00 m s = 1/23 - At the crown: h = 4.50 m s = 1/45 - On abutment: h = 3.20 m Variation according to a parabolic curve for the central span and a cubic curve for the end spans. - On pier: h = 9.00 m - At the crown: h = 3.50 m

QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED
For the bridge deck: - B65 concrete: 7,750 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 913,000 kg (118 kg/m3) - Prestressing: 598,000 kg (77 kg/m3)

COMMENTS

SECTION ON PIER PILE

SECTION AT CROWN

Cast-in-situ segments. Length of standard segments: 3.30m for the 96 m span and 3.60 m for the other spans.

For the bridge deck: - Concrete: 13,900 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 1,711,000 kg (124 kg/m3) - Prestressing: External 241 t Internal 728 t Temporary 22 t

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

A3 Bibliography
This appendix firstly mentions all of the official french texts relating to the engineering and design of bridges built by the cantilever method. It then goes on to list a large number of documents and articles dedicated to this technique.

A3-1 – Official texts
French texts related to all structures
- Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC: "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Loading and testing program for road bridges). - Circular no. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels, définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Oversize loads, definition of standard convoys and rules for the verification of civil engineering structures) published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department), for structures supporting these types of vehicles - Fascicule 6l Titre IV Section II of the french CCTG: "Actions de la neige sur les constructions" (Effects of snow on constructions) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) - Fascicule 62 Titre I - Section I of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for reinforced concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999)] - Fascicule62 Titre I - Section II of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for prestressed concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) (BPEL 91 revised in 1999) - Fascicule 65-A of the french CCTG and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of reinforced or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) - Fascicule62 Titre V of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical engineering and design rules for the foundations of civil engineering structures) - Fascicule 68 of the french CCTG: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil" (Construction of the foundations for civil engineering structures) - Standard NFP 95-104: "Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie; spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle" (Repair and reinforcement of concrete and masonry structures; specifications relating to the additional prestressing technique)

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Texts exclusively related to structures situated in earthquake zones

- Decree no. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of earthquake risks and the Order of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category - Guide AFPS 92 for the seismic protection of bridges, edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (French Seismic Engineering Association), published on the presses of the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) - The french standard NE P 06-013, more commonly called the "Règles de construction parasismique – règles applicables aux bâtiments - PS92" (Seismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92), with regard to foundations.

A3-2 – Sétra, Sétra-LCPC, Sétra-SNCF Guides
- Sétra Technical Bulletin no.7 "Ponts construits par encorbellements successifs" - This Design Guide - Sétra Technical Guide "Précontrainte Extérieure" (External Prestressing) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui en caoutchouc fretté" (Laminated rubber pot bearings) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui à pot de caoutchouc" (Rubber pot bearings) - The guide to the ordering and management of studies for civil engineering bridges - Fascicule 32.2 of the technical instruction for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures, published in 1979 and modified in 1995 - The document entitled "l’Image de la Qualité des Ouvrages d’Art (Iqoa); catalogue des principaux défauts, aide à leur classification - ponts à poutre caisson en béton précontraint" (Image of the quality of civil engineering structures [IQOA]; catalog of the major defects and support for their classification – prestressed concrete box girder bridges) published by Sétra in 1997.

A3-3 – Other publications
Presse de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées

- La conception des ponts (Bridge design) [J.A. Calgaro and A. Bernard-Gely] - Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural analysis of bridge decks) [J.A. Calgaro and M.Virlogeux] - Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge maintenance and repair)
Thomas Telford, London

- Ponts en béton précontraint par post tension (Post-tensioned prestressed concrete bridges) HA - TRL - LCPC – Sétra
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La collection de l’Irex

- Projet National Qualité (National Quality Project) - Opération du Plan Génie Civil (Operation of the Civil Engineering Plan) – Documentation booklet "Parements en béton" (Concrete facings)
Éditions Eyrolles

- Procédés généraux de construction (General construction process ) – Vol.1 (J. Mathivat and C. Boiteau)

A3-4 - Articles in miscellaneous publications
There now follows a list of articles relating to construction using the cantilever method, published between 1990 and mid - 2002 in the main French civil engineering journals and in certain foreign publications. Each of these articles is followed by a code indicating the topic(s) covered. The following table shows the meanings of these codes:

Research, calculations Design & construction of a bridge with cast-in-situ segments Design and construction of a bridge with prefabricated segments Design and execution of a repair or reinforcement project Materials

AFPC/AFGC publications for FIB (Fédération de l’Industrie du BétonConcrete Industry Federation) congresses
- [VIR 90.1] M. Virlogeux: La résistance à l’effort tranchant des ouvrages constitués de voussoirs préfabriqués, La technique française du béton précontraint (The resistance to shear force of structures made from prefabricated segments, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [MOS 90] J. Mossot: Le viaduc du Champs du Comte, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Champs du Comte viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [BOU 90] J. Boudot: Le viaduc de Sylans et des Glacières - Les structures triangulées en béton précontraint, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Sylans et Glacières viaducts – Triangulated structures made from prestressed concrete, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [SER 90] C. Servant, R Gallet, Ph. Lecroq, R Barras: Le viaduc de l’Arrêt-Darré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arrêt-Darré viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [VIR 90.2] M. Virlogeux, G. Lacoste, M. Legall, RY. Bot, J-R Runigo, J. Combault, M. Duviard, G. Suinot and P. Fraleu: Le pont sur le Loch d Auray, La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990)

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- [VIR 94] M. Virlogeux, E. Bouchon, J.C. Martin, J. Lefevre, Y. Maury, T. Guyot, M. Pottier, A. Heusse, P. Fraleu, J. Ryckaert, J. Mathivat and B. Lenoir : Pont de Cheviré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Cheviré bridge, The French Prestressing Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [FUZ 94] J-R Fuzier, C. Adib: Poutres de lancement: le pont de Baldwin, La technique française du béton précontraint (Launch beams: the Baldwin bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [BOU 94.1] E. Bouchon, D. Lecointre, M. Virlogeux, R. Gachiteguy, G. Viossanges, R. Gai, M. Boy, P. Ballester, M. Roudanes, P. Fraleu : Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Bourran Viaduct in Rodez, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

- [BOU 94.2] E. Bouchon, E. Conti, D. de Matteis, E Pero, M. Virlogeux, R. Damour, A. Abastado, E Edon, M. Tassone, A. Demozay, P. Jacques, F. Veyres, C. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (Océan Indien), La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island [Indian Ocean], The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CHA 94] P. Chassagnette, J.J. Lagane: Doublement du pont sur la Seine à Gennevilliers, La technique française du béton précontraint (Doubling the width of the bridge over the River Seine at Gennevilliers, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CRO 94] A. Crocherie, G. Gillet, B. Canitrot, F. Edon, P. Kirschner, B. Fournier, F. Renaud, T. Thibaux, P. Doguet : Les viaducs du Piou et du Rioulong, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Piou and Rioulong viaducts, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CAN 94] B. Canitrot, G. Gillet, B. Bouvy, A. Palacci, B. Raspaud: Le pont de l’autoroute A75 sur la Truyère à Garabit, La technique française du béton précontraint (The A75 highway bridge over the Truyère at Garabit, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [LEB 94] J-D Lebon, A. Leveille: Le pont de la Corniche à Dôle, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Corniche bridge at Dôle, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [COM 94] J. Combault, J.P Teyssandier, N.D. Haste, P Richard, M.S. Fletcher, Y. Maury, J. Mac Farlane: Le second pont sur la Severn, La technique française du béton précontraint (The second Severn Bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [MUL 94] J. Muller, G. Causse: Le pont à voussoirs préfabriqués de l’autoroute H3 à Hawaï, La technique française du béton précontraint (The H3 highway bridge made from prefabricated segments in Hawaï, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [GAS 94] C. Gasaignes, J. Boudot, O. Martin: Ponts à voussoirs préfabriqués en Asie - L’exemple du projet du KwunTong By-Pass, La technique française du béton précontraint (Bridges built from prefabricated segments in Asia – The example of the KwunTong By-Pass project, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique, Washington (1994) - [ABE 94] H. Abel, G. Causse, C. Outteryck, D. de Matteis, H. Capdessus, J. Bouillot, B. Grezes, G. Perez, J. Combault, A. Leveille,Y. Faup, F. Zirk: Le pont d’Arcins sur la Garonne à Bordeaux, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arcins bridge over the Garonne in Bordeaux, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

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Amsterdam (1998) . Viossanges. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). La technique française du béton précontraint (The Confederation Bridge [Prince Edward Island . Preyssas (Spie-BatignoUes TP): Record de portée dans la vallée du Viaur. P Fraleu. Foucriat. V. Bousquet. projet et suivi des travaux.[VIR 91. J.1] C. M.Tassone. Duviard. K. Bouchon. P. Virlogeux. Poineau: Réparation du pont de Blagnac . R.[SER 98] C. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vecchio bridge.[COM 98] J.M. G. La technique française du béton précontraint (Span length record in the Viaur valley. Bousquet.Canada]. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). A.P. C. Roudanes. Bouchon. Demozay. E. J. Lagane. Fauvelle. D. Gachiteguy (Aveyron DDE [Departmental Public Works Directorate]). Gachiteguy. D. J. A.[BOUS 98. Gillet. M. Amsterdam (1998) Revue travaux .J. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). L. X.[BAR 94] P. FIP Symposium. design and monitoring of works. Gharbi. Bustamante. R Ballester. Boy. M.2] M.[JAC 98] P Jacquet. P. Abastado. M.[BOUS 98. B. Viallon: Une nouvelle génération de ponts mixtes: les viaducs du Boulonnais. M. Suinot. R.Virlogeux. Virlogeux.C.[BOU 92] E.P. M. Lacoste.[JOU 91] A. J. E. A. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vernegues TGV high-speed rail line viaduct. J. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique. M. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). J. J. Combault (Dumez-GTM): Le pont de la Confédération (Ile du prince Edouard . A. Virlogeux. M. J.Jacques. La technique française du béton précontraint (A new generation of composite bridges: viaducts in the Boulogne area. Gai.Études. Bouchon (Sétra).Y. Paulik. M. B. G.[VIR 96] M.[DEWI 98] M. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island) (July-August 1992) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 285 septembre 2007 . Washington (1994) . J.Canada). Lacombe. Le Bourdonnec: Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method.P Runigo. La technique française du béton précontraint (Repair of the Blagnac bridge – Studies. De Wissocq. F. R. Damour. E. M. Legall. J. Edon. G. R Fraleu: Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez (The Bourran viaduct at Rodez) (October 1991) . Goyet: Autoroute A75 dans le Cantal: Les études du pont sur la Truyère (Studies for the bridge over the Truyère) (October 1991) . The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Amsterdam (1998) . La technique française du béton précontraint (The Rogerville viaduct. Valotaire: Le viaduc TGV de Vernegues. G.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . E Vacher. Chassagnette.[MEU 98] P. Le Corre: Le pont sur le Loch d’Auray (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray) (June 1991) . Amsterdam (1998) / . Amsterdam (1998) .[BOU 91] E. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). de Matteis. Bouvy. Jung. Pham. M.2] C. Vassord: Pont du Vecchio. D. E Veyres. Amsterdam (1998) . Conti. Meurisse. Combault. The French prestressed Concrete Technique). Bot . Amsterdam (1998) . R. Servant (Serf). Cussac.M. Lecointre. London (1996) . Duviard: Le viaduc de Rogerville. Jouanno.Lot 2H -Viaducs sur le Rhône. La technique française du béton précontraint (The TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line – Package 2H – Viaducts over the Rhône. Radiguet : TGV Méditerranée . Barras. P. Placidi.

Marneffe. Paulik: Le pont du Vecchio en Corse (The Vecchio Bridge in Corsica) (January 2000) . Une construction anticipée pour faciliter la circulation de chantier (The Rivoire viaduct [Isère] Anticipatory construction in order to facilitate the movement of site traffic).Les viaducs sur le Doubs et la Loue (A39 Highway – viaducts over the Doubs and the Loue) (February 1998) . Durand. Deleporte. G. J. R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville (The Rogerville Viaduct) (April 1996) .[DEL 98] G. Creppy.Y.[DEM 00] A.Vesval: Le second franchissement de l’estuaire de la Severn (The second crossing of the Severn estuary) (April 1996) .[COM 96] J. B. Boisset. D.[HUM 93] E.[BER 95] A. L. Richard. Quivy.[DOG 98] P. G. Conti. Bouvy. Desgagne. Maire: Le pont de l’île du Prince-Edouard (The Prince Edward Island Bridge) (July and August 1996) / .[ROI 99] D. J. Frantz. Y.[QUI 98] D. X. J. Delfosse. H. Perez: Confortement par précontrainte additionnelle du pont de la Seudre en Charente-Maritime (Reinforcement of the Seudre bridge in the Charente-Maritime by additional prestressing) (February 1998) .[MON 99] J. Yvelines) (1993) . V. G.[RIC 93] C.Tréffot: Le projet du second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg (The design of the second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg) (January 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 286 septembre 2007 .[BOI 96] A. P. J. Y. Mondon: Le Hung Hom by-pass à Hong Kong (The Hung Hom by-pass in Hong Kong) (January 1999) . Dhiver: Remise en état du pont de la RD220 sur le canal d’amenée de la chute de Bourg-lès-Valence (Renovation of the RD220 road bridge over the head race canal for the Bourg-lès-Valence waterfall) (November 1993) . Ph. Hooghe. H.[RIC 96] D. Yvelines (The Limay viaduct.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .[MAG 97] H. Demare. Combault. Lacombe. R Ribolzi. (July-August 1997) .J. Poineau. Magnon-Pujo. Ricard. Picard: Le viaduc de Limay. Doguet: Un grand ouvrage sur l’Agout .[PAU 00] L. Hervet. Combault. Duflot.[CON 95] E.Le viaduc de Castres (A major structure over the Agout – the Castres viaduct) (February 1998) . Oudin-Hograindleur: Passerelle tournée sur l’autoroute A4 à Noisy-le-Grand (Rotated footbridge on the A4 highway at Noisy-le-Grand) (April 1995) . Humbert. B. G. Vandeputte. Zanker: La réparation du pont de Châlons-en-Champagne (The repair of the Châlons-enChampagne bridge (April 1999) . Lefebvre. B.[DIEU 00] R Dieuaide: Le viaduc de Digoin (The Digoin viaduct) (January 2000) .M. B. Bernardo: Le pont du Rambler Channel à Hong Kong (The Rambler Channel bridge in Hong Kong) (April 1995) .Vincent: A39 . R. Deberle: Le viaduc de la Rivoire (Isère). Eaure.Jouves. M. C.

C. C. Giacomelli. Ferez: L’exécution du pont d’Arcins (The construction of the Arcins bridge) (July 1991) . Demare.M. F.[GIA 01] D. Lecointre. design and monitoring of work) (November 1993) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 287 septembre 2007 .Tanis.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .[DEW 01] V.[LEC 92] D.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg: Les travaux sont commencés (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: Work has begun) (May 2001) .M. D.[DEM 01. G.[ABE 91] H.[CAY 01] F. Roude. G.[CON 91] E.[POR 01] T. Dewilde. Dallot. Conti. G. Marraci: Conception de la réhabilitation du pont de Saint-André-de-Cubzac (Design of the renovation of the Saint-André-de-Cubzac bridge) (November 2001) . JJ.Le viaduc du Pays de Tulle (A89 Highway – The Pays de Tulle viaduct) (January 2002) . Duviard. P.[BAR 93] R Barras: La réparation du pont de Blagnac: études.[DEM 02] A. R Chatelard.[JAE 00] J. Jaeger. L. Demare. Combault.[BOUT 01] L. Giacomelli. Barlet. Vesval. D.[VIO 93] P. Tavakoli. Nunez.Vion: L’exécution du pont de Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Construction of the Villeneuve-sur-Lot bridge) (July 1993) . de nouveaux plis dans le Jura (The Corniche bridge at Dole. Vacher: Le pont sur la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the SaintDenis river on Reunion Island) (July 1991) . Rosset: Le viaduc sur la Medway (The Medway viaduct) (December 2001) . Lefaucheur: Ferraillage passif des bossages (Non-prestressed reinforcement of anchor blocks) (January 1992) . T. Jamet. Lacaze. E. B.R Chuniaud. projet et suivi des travaux (Repair of the Blagnac bridge: studies. P. E. D. Outteryck. Portefaix. Cote: Un nouveau viaduc ferroviaire dans les nouveaux territoires de Hong Kong (A new railroad viaduct in the New Territories of Hong Kong) (December 2001) . C.Le viaduc de la Dordogne (A10 Highway – The Dordogne viaduct) (January 2000) .R Viailon: Le pont sur le Bras de la Plaine (Ile de la Réunion): un ouvrage d’exception dans un site grandiose (The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine [Reunion Island]: an exceptional structure in a magnificent setting) (January 2002) . J. Boutonnet: Kingston Bridge à Glasgow (The Kingston Bridge in Glasgow) (December 2001) . Charlon.[CHU 02] J. V.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: La grande travée au-dessus du fleuve est achevée (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: The large span above the river is finished) (February 2002) Sétra Bulletin ouvrages d’art . S. J. Sandre: A89 .[LAC 02] J. Primault: A10 . D. Blanchi. Menuel. new undulations in the Jura) (March 1993) . E.J. L. E. Flourens: Le pont de la corniche à Dole.[COM 93] J.1] A. B. D. Abel-Michel. M. Grèzes. Cayron. Guio. de Matteis: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (January 2001) .

L. J.Viossanges: Le viaduc du Viaur.3] E. Reinhard: Le Pont de la corniche à Dole (The Corniche Bridge at Dole) (November 1994) .[GOD 00] B.[GIL 96] G.[PER 94] G. du Rioulong et de la Planchette (The Marvejols By-pass: the Piou.[JEH 94] J. Bernard: La démolition du pont de Beaucaire sur le Rhône (Demolition of the Beaucaire bridge over the Rhône) (July 1994) . Ferez: Renforcement par précontrainte extérieure (Reinforcement via external prestressing) (November 1994) .Jehan. F. P. Godart.[GIL 93] G. Demare.Tavakoli: Modélisation STl d’un pont construit par encorbellements successifs (STL modeling of a bridge built by the cantilever method) (November 1996) . Canitrot. Dallot.[PAU 98] L. Paulik: Le pont sur le Vecchio (The bridge over the Vecchio) (December 1998) . D. Goyet: Le pont sur la Truyère à Garabit (The bridge over the Truyère at Garabit) (November 1993) .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . G.[DEM 01. Palacci. Rioulong and Planchette viaducts) (July 1996) . Dewilde. B. des fléaux sous haute surveillance (The Viaur viaduct: cantilevers under close surveillance) (March 1998) . V.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: études de faisabilité des BHP (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: HPC feasibility studies) (March 2001) . Tavakoli: Renforcement du pont sur la Saône à Lyon (Reinforcement of the bridge over the Saône in Lyon) (December 2000) .[BOU 94.[REl 94] J. J. B. Froissac. Gillet.L.[GAC 98] R.3] A.Tavakoli: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (August 2000) . Bouvy.[DAL 00] F.[TAV 96] F. Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: des piles et des fondations profondes dans le fleuve pour résister aux séismes et aux chocs de bateaux (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: piers and deep foundations in the river to resist earthquakes and impacts from boats) (June 2001) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 288 septembre 2007 . G. de Matteis. Delfosse. B. Gachiteguy.Taimiot: Le renforcement du pont de Bergerac (The reinforcement of Bergerac bridge) (July 1994) .M.[DEM 01. Barras: Réparation de l’ouvrage sur le quai Deschamps à Bordeaux (Structural repair on the Quai Deschamps in Bordeaux) (August 1998) . Gillet: Contournement de Marvejols: les viaducs du Piou.[TAV 00] F. G. D. Lefevre: Pont de Tanus. Bouchon. Divet: Une nouvelle réaction de gonflement interne des bétons: la réaction sulfatique (A new internal swelling reaction in concrete: ettringite formation) (May 2000) .[JAC 96] R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville sur l’autoroute A29 (The Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway) (July 1996) . les effets du vent (Wind effects on the Tanus Bridge) (November 1994) .A.J. Demare.2] A.[BAR 98] P. Gernigon.[DEL 94] G. Ferez. G.C.

Marco Renga: Il ponte di Chivaso sulla S.[ITA 99] Ing.[SMI 97] Dennis R. Schlaich.E. Cusin: Réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art.S.Smith. M.[DIV 00] L.[GEO 96] J. Le Faucheur: Cumul des aciers de cisaillement et des aciers de flexion (Cumulation of shear and flexion reinforcements) (July 2002) Bulletin des laboratoires des ponts et chaussées . le cas du pont d’Ondes (Risk of the development of ettringite formation in massive concrete parts.E. F Guerrier. Roberts-Woolman.[VIR 81] M. the example of the Ondes bridge) (January-February 1998) . Virlogeux: Analyse de quelques problèmes spécifiques du calcul des ponts construits par encorbellements successifs (Analysis of certain problems specific to the design of bridges built by the cantilever method) (February 1981) . 458 di Casalborgone (Torino) (July-August 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 289 septembre 2007 . application des techniques de tôles collées et de précontrainte additionnelle (Structural repair and reinforcement of buildings and civil engineering structures) (February 1992) Techniques de l’ingénieur .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Divet: État des connaissances sur les causes possibles des réactions sulfatiques internes au béton (Extent of the understanding of the possible causes of ettringite formation in concrete) (July-August 2000) Annales de l’I TBTP . Theillout. Poineau.A. PhD: Attraversando la baia di Narragansett.[POI 92] D. F.P. G. K. Salvatore Giuseppe Italiano: II ponte sul fiume Ticino nei pressi di Pavia (January 1999) .[REN 00] Ing. Brein. Kregle: Towards a consistent design for structural concrete (May-June 1997) Revue l’Industria italiana del cemento ( IIC ) .L. Jennewein: Temperature induced deformations in match cast segments (July-August 1995) .[DIV 98] L. Geoffray: Le béton hydraulique . Le Mestre: Risque de développement de réactions sulfatiques dans les pièces en béton de grande masse.[ROB 97] C. J.M.[ROS 00] Marco Rosignoli: Ponti in C. ad anime reticolani (May 2000) . Divet.Verrazzano (mars 1997) . M.[SCH 95] J.[LEF 02] D. Schaefer. la costruzione del ponte Jamestown . J. Rhodes Island USA.Mise en œuvre (Hydraulic concrete – Application) (May 1996) P CI JOURNAL .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 290 septembre 2007 .

Thanks to its comprehensive coverage of the subject.fr Cover . construction managers.Reference: XXXX . Highly informative and lavishly illustrated. This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Sétra website: http://www.gouv.ISRN: XXXX The Sétra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST) .This guide provides a highly detailed description of the design and construction of prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. etc.setra. preparation of the invitation to tender. detailed design. maintenance. calculating and verifying concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. calculations.equipement. this guide will be of interest to anyone involved in the design and construction of bridges built by the cantilever method (project managers. monitoring of works. construction. This technical guide is intended for engineers and architects involved in designing.Photographers: XXXXXXA compléter par l'auteur The Sétra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) © 2007 Sétra . works inspectors and architects) in addition to teachers specialising in civil engineering. each of the ten chapters covers one of the stages in the development of these types of structures: preliminary design. consulting engineers or technicians.

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