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Design guide

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The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures.

The Sétra supports the public owner
The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: • • • • • • improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects.

The Sétra, producer of the state of the art
Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: • • • • • takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community.

The Sétra, a work in partnership
• The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement – RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'Equipement – CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France – RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development… • The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals).

Design guide

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This document is the translation of the work " Ponts en béton précontraint construits par encorbellements successifs" published in June 2003 under the reference F0308.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Authors
This document was created by a working group consisting of: Pierre Barras, CETE (Centre d’études Techniques et de l’équipement - Technical Engineering Center for Infrastructure) du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Civil Engineering Structures Division) Daniel de Matteis, Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes -Technical Center for Highways and motorways) / Large Bridges Division) Jean-François Derais, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Michel Duviard, Engineering and Design Department, Jean Muller International Daniel Guillot, CETE de l’Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Michel Lacombe, DREIF (Direction régionale de l’équipement Ile de France – Ile de France Regional Public Works Directorate) / Bridges Group Gilles Lacoste, Sétra / Methodology and Software Division Daniel Lecointre, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Virgile Ojeda, CETE Méditerranée / Bridges Division Pierre Paillusseau, CETE du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Marc Reinhard, CETE de Lyon / Bridges Division The monographs, iconography, drawings and 3D images were produced by Stéphane Chevrot, Philippe Julien, Eric Lozinguez and Louis Resterrucci from the Sétra Large Bridges Division. Photographic credits: Sétra / Gérard Forquet (Sétra Large Bridges Division)

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank everyone who, through their help, comments and observations, contributed to the creation of this document, especially: Mr. Aubin (Bouygues), Mr. Bataille (Semi), Mr. Boileau (DDE 31), Mr. Chaboud (DDE 974), Mr. Doan (SNCF), Mr. Duclos (Thales), Mr. Gaudin (SPIE), Mr. Gausset (EEG), Mr. Heusse (ERSEM), Mr. Kirschner (SECOA), Mr. Le Faucheur (Sétra), Mr. Mossot (Demathieu et Bard), Mr. Poineau (Sétra), Mr. Primault (Vinci), Mr. Ryckaert (SETEC), Mr.Thibaux (Eiffage TP), Mr.Treffot (DDE 67) and Mr. Xercavins (PXDAM).

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Table of contents
AUTHORS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 - PREAMBLE 1.2 - TECHNICAL PROCESS 1.3 - FIELDS OF APPLICATION 1.4 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE IN FRANCE 1.5 - MAJOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 2 - GENERAL DESIGN 2.1 - FIELD OF APPLICATION 2.2 - STATIC LONGITUDINAL DESIGN 2.3 - CHOOSING A CROSS-SECTION 2.4 - PRE-DESIGN OF A SIMPLE CROSS-SECTION 2.5 - BREAKDOWN INTO SEGMENTS 2.6 - MAIN RATIOS 3 - DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LONGITUDINAL CABLING 3.1 - CABLING PRINCIPLES 3.2 - STRESS CALCULATIONS 3.3 - VERIFICATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITH REGARD TO NORMAL STRESSES 4 - TRANSVERSE AND LOCALIZED BEHAVIOUR 4.1 - VERIFICATION PRINCIPLES 4.2 - TRANSVERSE FLEXION 4.3 - GENERAL TANGENTIAL STRESSES 4.4 - SPECIFIC ELEMENTS 4.5 - LOCALIZED FORCES AND REINFORCEMENTS 4.6 - RULES TO COMBINE PASSIVE REINFORCEMENTS 4.7 - RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATIONS FOR REINFORCEMENTS 5 - CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.1 - PRINCIPLE OF CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.2 - STABILITY SYSTEMS FOR CANTILEVERS 5.3 - ACTIONS TO CONSIDERED 5.4 - COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION 5.5 - VERIFICATION AND DIMENSIONING OF THE ANCHORING ELEMENTS 5.6 - VERIFICATIONS OF OTHER STABILIZATION METHODS 6 - CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 6.1 - CONSTRUCTION USING CAST-IN-SITU SEGMENTS 6.2 - CONSTRUCTION BY PREFABRICATED SEGMENTS 7 - ON SITE MONITORING 7.1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.2 - INSPECTION OF GEOMETRY 7.3 - INSPECTION OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
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OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS 8 .4 – PRESTRESSING DESIGN FOR THE CLOSING SEGMENT A1.NATURE OF THE TENDER ENQUIRY 10.6 .3 .RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 219 10.PRICE SCHEDULE A1 DETERMINATION EXAMPLE A1.6 .CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 10.MAIN REPAIR TECHNIQUES 9 .0 – PURPOSE OF THIS APPENDIX A1.1 .1 .HISTORY OF THE REGULATIONS 8.5 – EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING DESIGN A2 MONOGRAPHS OF CAST-IN-SITU BRIDGES A3 BIBLIOGRAPHY A3-1 – OFFICIAL TEXTS A3-2 – SÉTRA GUIDES.PATHOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO THE CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE 8.SPECIAL TECHNICAL CLAUSES 10.4 .4 .ABUTMENTS 168 178 178 179 190 195 195 200 205 208 208 208 212 216 10 .INSPECTION OF FORMWORK 7.TENDER DOCUMENT 10.2 .2 – SOURCE DATA A1.BRIDGE DECK 9.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.ARTICLES IN MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS AFPC/AFGC PUBLICATIONS FOR FIB (FÉDÉRATION DE L’INDUSTRIE DU BÉTON-CONCRETE INDUSTRY FEDERATION) CONGRESSES REVUE TRAVAUX SÉTRA BULLETIN OUVRAGES D’ART BULLETIN DES LABORATOIRES DES PONTS ET CHAUSSÉES ANNALES DE L’ITBTP TECHNIQUES DE L’INGÉNIEUR PCI JOURNAL REVUE L’INDUSTRIA ITALIANA DEL CEMENTO (IIC) 219 219 220 221 222 224 229 230 230 230 235 240 243 252 264 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 6 septembre 2007 . SÉTRA-SNCF A3-3 – OTHER PUBLICATIONS A3-4 .PATHOLOGIES AND REPAIRS 8.TENDER REGULATIONS 10.3 .7 .INSPECTION OF CONCRETE 7.2 . SÉTRA-LCPC.4 .INSPECTION OF PRESTRESSING 7.PROVISIONS TO FACILITATE MAINTENANCE 9.REMINDERS A1.8 .3 – CANTILEVER PRESTRESSING DESIGN A1.5 .PIERS 9.SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAUSES 10.7 .2 .1 .INSPECTING THE REINFORCEMENTS 7.5 .1 .3 .GENERAL PRINCIPLES 9.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Foreword
The cantilever method is the most widely used technique for the construction of large prestressed concrete bridges in France and throughout the world. Since the beginning of the 1990s, concrete bridges built by this method have faced stiff competition in the medium-span category from composite bridges and, to a lesser extent, from concrete bridges erected by incremental launching. On the other hand, they are increasingly used for bridging large spans, as illustrated by the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur, the Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway and the new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. Intended for construction managers, consulting engineers and methods and project engineers, this guide provides a detailed review of these structures, their field of use and the technology used in their construction. For this reason, this guide replaces Technical Bulletin No.7 and its supplementary information, published by Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Technical Centre for Highways and Motorways in December 1972, which had become obsolete with regard to several important points such as calculation methods, prestressing design, the structure of form travelers and the management of delayed deformation. Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of this guide cover certain points which are very specific to the cantilever method: the general design of the structures, the design and calculation of longitudinal cabling, the stability of cantilevers and construction technology. Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are more generalized, respectively covering transverse flexion, site inspections, problems and their repair, precautions to be taken to facilitate maintenance, and finally, the contents of contractor tender documents. Although written with bridges constructed by the cantilever method in mind, the information in these chapters will also be useful for anyone involved in the design or construction of large civil engineering structures. This guide is the outcome of a major collective effort and is another illustration of the expertise of French contractors, engineering firms and construction agencies in the field of civil engineering. Emmanuel Bouchon Head of the Large Bridges Division at Sétra.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1 - Background information
This first chapter introduces the major principles concerning the construction of bridges by the cantilever method and its field of use. It also describes the history of the development of this method and of the applicable regulations from 1943 to the present day.

1.1 - Preamble
The cantilever construction method is a very ancient technique, in which a structure is built component by component above ground level. Since ancient times, this method has been used for the construction of arches in Europe (Fig. 1.1) and in South America (including the construction of Mayan arches), and for the building of wooden bridges (Fig. 1.2).

Fig. 1.1 – The “Treasure of Atreus”. Longitudinal section

Fig. 1.2 – Gallic wooden bridge

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, this method was applied to the construction of arched metal bridges, such as the Gabarit and Viaur viaducts, or lattice girder designs, such as the Forth Bridge, the Bénodet bridge or the old Pirmil bridge at Nantes (Fig. 1.3).

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Fig. 1.3 – The old Pirmil bridge in Nantes

Fig. 1.4 – The Normandie bridge

More recently, it has been used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Saint-Nazaire bridge over the River Loire and the Normandie bridge over the Seine (Fig. 1.4). As far as prestressed concrete is concerned, construction by the cantilever method mainly applies to bridges whose decks can be combined with straight or horizontally curving beams and which are built out from their piers, with cast-in-situ or prefabricated segments (Fig. 1.5 and 1.6). These types of bridges are the focus of this guide.

Fig. 1.5 – Bridge forming part of a continuous girder on single supports

Fig. 1.6 – Cantilever construction of prestressed concrete box-girder bridge decks with cast-in-situ segments on the left and prefabricated segments on the right

Many of the techniques used in this method are also employed in the construction of portal bridges with box girder decks, such as the Bonhomme bridge in the Morbihan region of Brittany, the Auray viaduct (Fig. 1.7) and the bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit.

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Fig. 1.7 – Construction of the Auray portal bridge

Fig. 1.8 – The cable-stayed bridge at Chalon-surSaône under construction

Finally, and although not strictly within the scope of this guide, it should be mentioned that the cantilever method is often used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Iroise bridge over the River Elorn, near Brest and the Bourgogne bridge at Chalon-sur-Saône (Fig. 1.8) and also for concrete arched bridges such as the Roche Bernard bridge over the River Vilaine (Fig. 1.9) and the bridge over the River Rance.

Fig. 1.9 – The arched bridge of La Roche-Bernard under construction

1.2 - Technical process
1.2.1 Description of the method

This construction method consists of erecting the majority of a bridge deck without falsework or scaffolding at ground level, by working in consecutive sections known as segments, each of which is cantilevered out from the preceding segment. After a segment is built, the prestressing tendons fixed to the extremities are tensioned,

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firmly attaching them to the preceding segments and thus forming a self-supporting cantilever which serves as a support for the subsequent operations. Construction is carried out: • Symmetrically in general, either side of a pier in order to minimize the moments transmitted to this support during erection; the resulting double overhang is called a balanced cantilever (Fig. 1.10)

Fig. 1.10 – Symmetrical construction from a pier

Sometimes asymmetrically on a single side of a balanced cantilever, when the other side is already joined to the adjacent span (Fig. 1.11)

Fig. 1.11 – Over-cantilevering construction

More rarely from an abutment; in this case, the overturning moment exerted by the span is compensated for by an appropriately dimensioned counterweight which forms part of the deck itself (Fig. 1.12).

Fig. 1.12 – Construction by the cantilever method using counterweighted spans

Although it is possible to build an entire structure using the cantilever method, the majority of structures include cast-on-falsework sections at the extremities of the end spans.

1.2.2 -

Association with other methods

Cantilever construction is often used in association with other methods such as: • • Construction on falsework, when parts of the structure are close to the ground and feature modest spans Construction by incremental launching, when the structure features a series of spans less than 65m in length, of constant depth, supporting a road whose geometry is compatible with this technique.

1.3 - Fields of application

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1.3.1 -

Background information

Spans of 80 to 150m are preferred for bridges with prestressed concrete box girder decks built by the cantilever method. However, this technique can be used for spans up to 200m in common widths without major problems. Above this size, the quantities of materials increase significantly, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness of the method. The world record span for concrete bridges built by the cantilever method currently stands at 301 m and is held by the Stolma Bridge in Norway. This is closely followed by the Raftsundet Bridge in the Lofoten Islands, also in Norway, with a central span of 298m. Opened to traffic at the end of 1998, both of these bridges have central spans partially made from lightweight concrete. These bridges both surpassed the Brisbane Bridge in Australia, built in 1986, whose span of 260m had beaten the previous record of 240 m held by the Hamana Bridge in Japan, built in 1977. For a long time, the Gennevilliers Bridge, built in 1976, held the French record for the longest span with its two spans of 172m. Following closely behind with spans of 172m and 144m was the Ottmarsheim Bridge, built over the Alsace canal in 1979 using concrete partly made from lightweight aggregates. With a single span of 190 m, the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur in the Aveyron (Fig. 1.13) captured the record in 1998 before being relegated to second place in 2002 by the new bridge over the River Rhine, south of Strasbourg, whose central span measures 205m.

Fig. 1.13 - The Tanus viaduct

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1.3.2 Advantages

Advantages and disadvantages of the method

The cantilever construction method offers many advantages. Firstly, the bridge decks are mostly built without any contact with the ground, making it possible to build structures over rivers subject to severe flooding or above very deep and rugged valleys. This method can also be used to erect structures with very different geometries. Thus, in elevation, it is possible to design decks of a constant or variable depth. For the latter, parabolic, cubic or linear variations are all possible. The method is extremely forgiving with regard to the geometry of the road supported by the bridge because, in contrast to incremental launching and pushing techniques, any horizontal and vertical alignments can be built without difficulty. Finally, construction using elements of 3 to 4 m in length is cost-effective in terms of the formwork tools required for the bridge deck, even if the spans are few in number and of different lengths. In the case of prefabricated segments, the small size of these components also helps to limit the weight of the elements to be assembled, thus reducing the cost of the installation equipment. Disadvantages However, there are also certain drawbacks to the cantilever construction method. For identical spans, bridges built using this method are much heavier than composite structures. They therefore need larger supports and foundations than those required for composite structures. Of course, this makes the cantilever method less attractive, especially when the foundation terrain is of mediocre quality or when the site is in an earthquake zone. Another major disadvantage to this method is the large number of tasks which have to be carried out in situ, both for the casting of the deck and for the development of the access routes to the site. Although the number of these tasks is reduced when the segments are prefabricated, of course, they are nevertheless greater in number than for an incrementally launched concrete bridge. When the structure crosses traffic bearing routes, the frequency of these tasks may compromise the safety of travelers and/or of workers on the site. These routes must then be closed, which often poses major problems. From an aesthetic point of view, bridges built by the cantilever method often have relatively thick decks, which can pose problems on certain sites. As a result, by breaking down their construction into small elements and multiple casting phases, there are more likely to be differences in color between two consecutive segments.
Spans 120 150 200 Type
- Bridges built using the cantilever - Incrementally launched concrete bridges - Composite beam bridges - Composite box girder bridges - Orthotropic slab box-section bridges - Cables stays bridges

1.14 – Fields of application for different types of bridges The area defined by the thickest line represents the most common field of application. It should be noted that suspension bridges are not included in this table, as they are primarily used for very wide spans. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 13 septembre 2007

300

35

70

90

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.3 -

Competing techniques

Now, prestressed concrete box-girder bridges built using the cantilever method are designed for spans between 60 m and 300 m in length. This technique has to compete with a number of different solutions operating within this very wide range of spans. For spans of less than 80 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are most commonly of a constant depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. If the geometry of the supported road is compatible, they also have to compete with incrementally-launched bridges made from prestressed concrete, which are economically viable for spans of between 35 and 70 m. For spans of between 70m and 120m, bridges built by the cantilever method may be of constant or variable depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. For practical or aestetic reasons, composite concrete and steel box girder bridges or cable-stayed bridges are also often designed to cover this range of spans. For spans of between 100 m and 200 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are almost always of variable depth and are in competition with composite or metal box girder bridges (beyond 140m) and cable-stayed bridges. Within this range of spans, presetressed concrete box girder solutions with lightweight metal webs may also prove to be economical.

1.4 - Development of the construction technique in France
There now follows a short history of the development of the construction technique and the regulations for concrete bridges built using the cantilever method.

1.4.1 -

1946-1952

Construction using the cantilever method was used for the first time in France by Albert Caquot for the building of the Donzère and Bezons reinforced concrete bridges in 1953, using a form traveler suspended from a metal girder (Fig.1.15). In Germany, Finsterwalder also used this technique for the construction of the Neckarsens and Baldunstein prestressed concrete bridges in 1950. It was then used for the construction of the Worms and Koblenz cantilever bridges in 1952, featuring a large span of 114 metres (using the form traveler technique). In the same year, Nicolas Esquillan used a very similar technique with a form traveler suspended from a metal beam to build the La Voulte railroad bridge, consisting of several 60 m-wide portal spans. It should be noted that at this time, there were no French design regulations concerning the cantilever construction method or even for prestressed concrete.

1.4.2 -

1953-1964

This period was marked by the introduction of regulations, the development of design methods, the improvement of the characteristics of prestressing reinforcements and the development of prestressing procedures. During this period, the bridge-building techniques using the cantilever method improved considerably. As a result, we can refer to two distinct generations of bridges.

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First generation bridges The bridge decks of first generation structures were embedded on piers and even on abutments and featured hinges at mid-span. Built in 1957 by GTM, the Chazey bridge over the River Ain was the first French bridge to be truly built by the cantilever method and the first in a series of major structures including the Beaucaire bridge over the River Rhône and the Savines bridge over the Serre-Ponçon reservoir dam in the Hautes-Alpes region. The Chazey and Beaucaire bridges suffered from prestressing defects and have since been demolished. The former was replaced by a new cantilever bridge in 1973 and the latter by a composite bridge in 1995. Second generation bridges As the first generation bridges suffered from an excessive deformation of their cantilever elements after several years, due to an underestimation of the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage, a second generation of bridges was designed and built with continuous spans and therefore without hinges at mid-span. Particularly noteworthy second generation bridges include: • The bridges at Goncelin, over the River Isère and Lacroix-Falgarde over the Ariège, designed by the STUP (Société Technique pour l’Utilisation de la Précontrainte – Engineering Company for the Use of Prestressing). These were the first continuously rendered structures (1962) The Layrac bridge, over the River Garonne, designed by GTM The bridges of Choisy-le-Roi, near Paris, and Pierre-Bénite, near Lyons, built in 1965 by CampenonBernard, which were the first structures to use prefabricated segments and glued conjugated joints.

• •

1.4.3 -

1965-1975

This was a period of enormous developments and constantly changing regulations. It began with the publication of the IP1 (Circular no. 44 of August 12 1965 relating to the provisional instruction for the use of prestressed concrete), and it finished with the publication of the Circular of April 2 1975, which brought an end to the second generation structures and paved the way for third generation bridges.

Fig. 1.15 – The Bezons bridge

The most notable bridges of the 1965-1975 period include:
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5m) were built using the cantilever method The 400m long Viaduc de Commelles on the “conventional” Paris-Brussels and Paris-Lille lines. 85m. such as: • The Tricastin bridge (1979). 85m. with a 4web box-girder deck carrying four railroad lines and featuring main span of 45m (1980). built with prefabricated segments (1980) The Mathilde bridge near Rouen. whose central span includes an independent 115m long metal span. with a span of 172 m (1976) The bridge over the River Loire at Orléans (1976).000m in length and built using prefabricated segments installed for the first time by a launching beam The Oissel bridge over the A13 highway: 700m long without an intermediate expansion joint (1970) The Calix viaduct in Caen. approximately 3. between the A4 and A86 highways near Paris.5m (48m.390 m whose two viaducts of 229 m (48m. supported on a 30-m cantilevered girder made from prestressed concrete (1980). whose box-girder deck featuring three webs with bar prestressing. whose collapsed cantilever prompted the Sétra to define its rules for the stability of cantilevers which are still in force today (1975) The Saint-Cloud bridge (1974). had to be reinforced in 1990 The Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine near Paris. The Ottmarsheim bridge. 40. which features a 172m lightweight concrete span (1980). • Two remarkable railroad structures were also built during this period: • The crossing of the Seine at Nanterre via the railroad spur for the new town of Cergy-Pontoise (1977). Designed in accordance with the rules established by the Circular of April 2 1975. which acts as a counterweight and compensates for a highly unfavourable arrangement between the spans (25m – 142m – 25m) . which was one of the first new-generation bridges (1977) The numerous interlaced viaducts of the Saint-Maurice interchange. 48m. which is a prestressed concrete structure of 1. • Between 1975 and 1982. 48m) and 221. whose very wide (20.4 m) and slender deck (spans of 100m and a 1/30 slenderness ratio). • • • • • 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The Oléron bridge (1966). these structures were much better designed and did not suffer from the difficulties encountered with previous generations of bridges. on the outskirts of Paris. several bridges were also made from lightweight concrete.4 - 1975-1982 Bridges built during this period can be described as third generation bridges. (including accounting for creep and thermal gradient).4. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 16 septembre 2007 . Worthy of note amongst the structures built of conventional concrete during this period are: • • The Mâcon bridge over the Saône. 48m. had to be repaired in 1978 and 1987. whose end spans and the beginnings of its central span are made from normal concrete.

1.3]. although this is not an exhaustive list: • The bridge over the River Loir at La Flèche.16) The construction of a parallel lane on the Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine [CHA 94] The Piou and Rioulong viaducts on the A75 highway. [JAC 96] and [JAC 98]) The Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur. [BOU 91]. [RIC 96].4.1]. [VIR 90 2]. Fig. which was the first bridge to be built by the cantilever method and positioned by rotation (1983) The Pont à Mousson viaduct over the River Moselle. near Lyons. [SER 90]) The viaducts of Bourran. [DAL 00] and [DEWOl] Page 17 septembre 2007 • • • • • • • • • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . The following structures are notable examples of traditional road bridges built during this period.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 1. on Reunion Island.17) The Viaduc de Rogerville on the A29. this period was characterized by the generalization of regulations concerning limit state calculations (BPEL 83 [Béton Précontraint par la méthode des Etats Limites – Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code]. spanning 190 m and featuring a pier of over 100 m in height (1998. [CON 91].000 m of prefabricated segments made from B60 category high-performance concrete The Arrêt-Darré viaduct. followed by BPEL 91 and finally BPEL 91 revised in 1999). whose cantilever segments are supported by metal struts (1995. consisting of two parallel structures of 650 m in length made from prefabricated segments assembled by combination prestressing (1993. On the technological level. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of french and european standardization also led to clear changes in the rules concerning the building of structures. at Rodez. [VIR 91 2] and [VIR 94]) The Arcins bridge. featuring two 680-m long decks made from prefabricated segments with innovative keyed expansion systems on certain spans (1996. major progress was made in the design of major civil engineering structures made from prestressed concrete.5 - 1983 to the present day On the regulatory level. [BOU 94. in Nantes. 1.2]) The Cheviré bridge. [SER 98] and [GAC 98]) The second Pont-Salomon viaduct. Fig. whose central span of 242 m includes an independent span of 162 m in length. [BOU 92] and [BOU 94. near Bordeaux. consisting of a box-girder with an orthotropic deck plate (1991. which represents one of the first applications of Eurocodes 1 and 2 (2000. and La Rivière Saint-Denis. [CRO 94] and [CIL 96]. [BOU 94. which was one of the first bridges to feature external prestressing The Sermenaz viaduct. whose cantilevers were angled at the end of construction to follow the longitudinal profile (1988. due largely to the development of external prestressing. with completely external galvanized prestressing The Île de Ré bridge (1988) whose deck consists of 3. [ABE 91] and [ABE 94]. whose design features double-shelled piers (1991.

• Noteworthy railroad structures built since 1983 include several viaducts on the TGV high-speed Rhône-Alpes line (extension of the TGV Paris-South Eastern line to Valence) and of the TGV high-speed Méditerranée line.210 m.16 – The Arcins bridge in Bordeaux Fig.19. this was built using a combination of the cantilever method and incremental launching techniques [BOUS 98.500-m long decks were prefabricated (Fig. including: For the TGV Rhône-Alpes high-speed line: • The Costière viaduct. with a semi-circular transverse cross section. [DEM 01. 1.18) The bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit. 900 m of which were built using successive cantilever segments with main spans of 88 m (1992). which relied upon incremental launching techniques. situated in the northern section of the eastern Lyons bypass: 1. Measuring 1. 1. successive cantilever segment construction and a rotated installation. For the TGV Méditerranée high-speed line: • The Avignon viaduct over the River Rhône.2] The 1.2].2]. 1. [DEM 00].725 m long in total. whose two independent 1. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 18 septembre 2007 . La Barricade (length: 150 m) and Tulle (length: 180 m). supporting the A89 highway [LAC 02] The new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. [DEM 01. [DEM 02]).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The viaducts of La Clidane (length: 132 m).734-m long Ventabren viaduct. with an opening of 109 m between the base of the portal legs (1989. which boasts a record single span structure of 205 m above the navigable channel of the Rhine (2002. [DEM 01. [BOUS 98. 1.3]. with an opening of 195 m between the base of the portal legs (1993.17 – The Piou viaduct Particularly notable portal road bridges built using the cantilever method since 1983 include: • The bridge over the Loch d’Auray.1]. Fig. [GIL 93] and [CAN 94]). • Fig. [VIR90.1]) The Vernègues viaduct.

on Reunion Island.5 . [CHU 02]. 1. 1. [COM 93]. a number of highly innovative road structures were also built during this period. [BOU 90]) The Corniche bridge at Dôle with corrugated webs. whose single 260-m span is made from two prestressed slabs linked by a triangular tubular metal structure (2002. Fig.18 – The portal bridge over the Loch d’Auray Fig. The following list features some of the most important examples: • • • • • • • Certain access viaducts to theVasco de Gama bridge in Lisbon. (1994. with open webs made of prefabricated triangular panels (1999. including: • The Sylans and Glacières viaducts over the A40. With respective lengths of 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. whose decks are made of prefabricated segments with four triangulated metallic webs [MEU 98] The bridge over the Vecchio in Corsica. Portugal Access viaducts to the new Severn Bridge in Great Britain [COM 94] and [COM 96] Access viaducts to the Storebelt suspension bridge in Denmark The Stolma and Rafsundet bridges in Northern Norway The Houston canal bridge in the USA The Brisbane Bridge in Australia The Hamana bridge in Japan The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 19 septembre 2007 . a very large number of bridges have been built using the cantilever method outside of France.20). 1. [LEB 94] and [REI 94]) The three Boulonnais viaducts over the Al6 highway. • • • • 1.Major civil engineering structures recently constructed outside of France In recent years. both of these structures featured two parallel decks with triangulated concrete webs (1987. [PAU 98] and [PAU 00]) The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine.19 –TGV high-speed railroad bridge over the Rhône at Avignon Finally.266 m and 214 m.

we should also make a special reference to extraordinary Confederation Bridge between the North American continent and Prince Edward Island in Canada.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • The new São João railroad bridge over the River Douro in Portugal The Medway Viaduct on the TGV high-speed rail line between the Channel Tunnel and London [POROl]. [BOI 96] and [COM 98]). 1. 1. Fig. 1.20 – The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine Fig.21. whose central section is made from forty 250-m long spans (Fig. Although built using a slightly different method to that described in this guide.21 – Transportation of a prefabricated cantilever for the Confederation Bridge The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 20 septembre 2007 .

the cantilever construction technique can be used to build a wide variety of prestressed concrete structures. The end spans are usually longer than a half-cantilever.1 .1 Distribution of spans Example of a structure consisting of identical cantilevers The simplest structures are made from main spans of identical length.). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 21 septembre 2007 . the bridge deck can be of constant or variable depth This method can be used regardless of the natural characteristics of the gap to be bridged (large depth. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2 . both horizontally and vertically Between 60 and 100 m. It helps to balance out the moments in the different spans under operating loads and ensures positive support reactions on the abutments.2. coastal site. is usually built on falsework as this is generally the most economical method. layout of the segments and ratios of materials.2 . 2. The chapter only covers road bridges. etc. Indeed: • • • • It is suitable for a very wide range of spans (from 40 to 200 m. It goes on to describe the more specific aspects of the project: design of a simple cross-section. This allows the construction of identical cantilevers.Static longitudinal design 2.General design This chapter starts by covering the more general aspects of the design of bridges with box girder decks built by the cantilever method: layout of the supports.Field of application As we have already seen in Chapter 1. We shall also see how piers are positioned in the gap to be bridged. deck height variation law and choice of a cross-section. The additional length. steep slopes. which simplifies the design of the erection and concrete casting equipment used and improves output. or even 300 m) The supported road can have any type of geometry. representing 10 to 20 percent of the length of the main spans. We shall cover each of these different points in detail during the course of this chapter. how the transverse structure of the deck is chosen and designed and how its formwork is accurately determined. very poor-quality soils.

1 – Distribution of spans for a simple bridge built by the cantilever method Fig. In both of these cases. The example in Figure 2. It should also be noted that the end spans are 60% of the length of the adjacent standard spans. The example in Figure 2. the use of counterweights and building out from a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 22 septembre 2007 . Example of a structure made from cantilevers of different lengths Gaps to be bridged often feature constraints that make it impossible to design a structure of the type we have just described. 2. Other examples Certain special techniques may be used to circumvent these strict rules concerning the distribution of spans and the balancing of cantilevers. It then becomes necessary to build structures incorporating several different types of cantilevers.2 – Bridges with a combination of large spans in the river section and shorter spans on land Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it should be emphasized that the transition from large to small spans is carried out via a span whose length is the mean of the two standard spans. 2. the most common structures consist of a series of equal spans flanked by end spans which are 60 to 70 percent of the length of the main spans. 2.3 shows another structure featuring a large span in the deepest part of the valley to be crossed and shorter spans elsewhere. as required by the need for a wide navigation channel. They include over-cantilevering.2 below shows a structure consisting of one or more large spans.3 – Bridge consisting of variable length spans according to the depth of the gap Therefore. and a series of shorter – and thus more economical – spans crossing unnavigable flood zones.

In this case.2 - Slenderness ratio and shape of the intrados We shall now discuss the variation laws which determine the possible depth of the bridge deck. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 23 septembre 2007 . a minimum of 2. These techniques are described in Paragraph 2.4). which are sensitive to the effects of wind both in service and during construction.2. etc. interchanges. it is possible to design unequal spans by shifting the joints (à valider pour "clavages"). the same applies to structures located in complex areas (urban sites.1 – Constant depth When the main spans of a structure are less than 65/70 m long. the depth of the deck is between 1/20 and 1/25 of the maximum span. • • 2. Due to their cost. With regard to the criteria concerning suitability for the site. while mentioning the most economical solution for each range of spans.4. 2. this phenomenon is even more noticeable as the surface area affected by the wind increases by approximately 25%. Nevertheless. the quantities of concrete and prestressing materials used increase significantly and the cost of a constant depth solution increases in comparison to a variable depth solution. It is then possible to shift certain piers slightly.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide counterweight span.20 m is required for satisfactory movement inside the box girder. For structures with very tall piers. However. Fig. which would otherwise be badly positioned (Fig. 2. because the savings made by simplifying the formwork tools for the deck (form travelers or prefabrication units) and reinforcement for the deck are much greater than any possible savings in materials.) A variable depth is generally quite well suited to deep valleys and large watercourses It is often a good idea to highlight certain sections of the gap by using spans of variable depths at its most outstanding sections. they are only used in very specific cases imposing the layout of piers (highly urbanized sites or the presence of railroad lines and canals) or when it is impossible or particularly costly to extend the bridge deck. it should be noted that: • If it is possible. bridge decks of a constant depth are generally the most economical. for structures of a constant depth. 2. However.4 – Slight shifting δ of the piers for a structure of constant depth (The shifting of the joints δ is thus double the value of δ) For spans of above 100 m in length. etc.2. it is very difficult to establish rules to dictate the most appropriate form for a given site. a constant depth is well suited to geometrically complex structures: especially very curved bridges.2.

For these structures.5 – Constant depth 2. because the variation in depth may be unsuited to the distribution of bending moments and shear forces. The cantilever must be symmetrical in order to guarantee its stability during construction.2. this may pose problems due to insufficient depth in the quarter-span area. The section of end span which is cast on falsework or built by over-cantilevering is always of a constant depth (the same depth as the crown). As the curvature is The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 24 septembre 2007 .2.2 – Parabolically variable depth In excess of 65 m/70 m. However. which slightly reduces the effects of selfweight. etc.2. 2. the unsuccessful concrete-based design for the Verrières viaduct featured a deck of a constant depth despite having a maximum span of 144 m. The depth at the crown is generally between 1/30 and 1/35 of this same distance.) In recent years.2. with a minimum of 2. certain structures have been built with a cubic-type variation in deck depth.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In spite of the previous comments. For example.6 – Parabolically variable depth A statistical study carried out for the publication of this guide shows that the following formulas can be applied to a deck on simple supports: On pier: l l = 14 + 45 hp At the crown: l l = 19 + hc 7 With l the length of the main span in meters. hc hp Fig. Fig. very large forces affect the cantilevers. 2. the variation in depth between the crown and the pier is generally parabolic in form. 2. This formula is applicable for any value of l included in the field of application for bridges built by the cantilever method. results in a somewhat more stretched appearance than a parabolic variation. It therefore becomes economically viable to build a deck of variable depth. This solution. cubic.20 m for ease of movement within the box girder. the depth at the pier hp is between 1/16 and 1/18 of the length of the span in question. In standard cases. the desire to create increasingly elegant and original structures has led to the design of structures with decks of a constant depth for spans well in excess of 90/100 m in recent years. requiring a large deck depth at piers which seems very excessive at the other sections of the span.3 – Variable depth according to other laws (linear.

this solution is only used for modest spans. Certain structures have also been designed featuring a linear variation in depth over 20 to 25% of the length of the main span.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide more pronounced near the piers. They are also available in several types – fixed models. models that slide one way and those that slide in multiple directions – thus absorbing the movements of the bridge deck at the end supports. it is possible to give the deck a variable depth in the large spans and a constant depth elsewhere (see the example in Figure 2. elastomeric pot bearing devices are used for the permanent bearings. 2. These are also used in earthquake zones. Although it is quite easy to implement. fixed support. It is sometimes adopted for architectural reasons or to create a slightly greater clearance than that which is given by a parabolic intrados.2. In such cases. which often leads to the adoption of a deeper deck than is necessary. for transition purposes.7). it is possible to use laminated rubber bearings.4 – Partly constant and partly variable depth Designers often design structures with spans of very different lengths in response to the constraints imposed by the gap to be crossed. It requires the presence of a cross beam at the level of the change in gradient. These are particularly suitable for bridges built by the cantilever method as they are extremely robust.3 - Support conditions We shall now describe the support conditions on piers possible for a bridge deck built using the cantilever method (simple supports.). etc.1 – Bridge deck on simple bearings The majority of bridges built by the cantilever method rest on simple bearings when in service. when the vertical forces are less than 7 MN per bearing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 25 septembre 2007 . Clearly. along with the field of application for each of these solutions.3). in order to take up the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab. Fig.2.3. they are embedded on piers using the cantilever stabilizing devices described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6. 2.2. as they improve the distribution of horizontal forces between the supports. 2. compatible with very large vertical loads and compact. 2.8 – Bridge deck on simple bearings In most cases. the depth of the large spans at the crown must be equal to the depth of the deck in the areas of constant depth. Fig. it is also important to ensure that the sideways thrust due to the compression of the lower slab is correctly accounted for.7 – Linearly variable depth 2. whereas during construction. 2. with the remainder of the spans being of a constant depth (Fig. However.

and thus with identical cantilevers. and in the Rodez and La Rivière Saint-Denis viaducts in which the piers are made from two thin walls [BOU 91] and [BOU 92]. the deck usually rests on simple bearings on all of the piers. If the piers are short and solid.9). This requires piers of very different heights. The Pont de Choisy-le-Roi over the River Seine was built according to this principle. the piers and central span form a frame which is sensitive to the linear deformations of the deck under the effects of temperature. In general. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 26 septembre 2007 . their great rigidity causes moments and shear forces which they are not usually capable of withstanding. The fixing in this situation is almost perfect as it uses the compressive and tensile stresses present in each of the shafts while remaining flexible with regard to horizontal movements. penetrating into the box girder (Fig. both consisting of a box girder.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. This solution was first used by Campenon Bernard in 1963 for the bridge over the Moulin à Poudre valley in Brest.3. It was recently used for the construction of several structures such as the Tulle viaduct in which the upper part of the main piers is made from double shafts. This technique was adopted for the viaduct over the River Viaur at Tanus [SER 98] and for the Pays de Tulle viaduct [LAC 02] over the A89 highway. When the gap is crossed by a series of identical standard spans. 2. it is often preferable to embed the bridge deck on top of the pier (Fig. This solution makes it possible to keep the structure very repetitive and therefore easy to construct.2. it is often advisable to embed the deck on top of the tallest piers and use simple bearings for the other piers. the piers consist of two separate shafts with a gap of several metres. Fig. rather than being hollow. because each shaft only offers a low level of resistance to flexion. this is only a viable solution for very tall structures on slender piers.10). 2. this can prove to be an excellent solution in earthquake areas as it gives the structure a high level of longitudinal flexibility. 2. 2. When the gap is bridged by a structure featuring spans of different lengths.3 – Bridge decks that are partly embedded and partly supported on simple bearings Many structures have to bridge gaps with significant variations in depth.2 – Bridge deck embedded on piers via reinforced concrete joints When the piers are very tall. shrinkage and creep. Therefore.9 – Bridge deck embedded on two hollow piers In certain cases. This technique offers the benefit of simplifying the bridge’s construction and service since no provisional cantilever stabilizing devices or bearings are used.3. However.

10 – Bridge deck embedded on two piers which are both made from two parallel walls This technique seriously complicates the cantilever cable layout for the segments forming the extended cantilever. Another good example of this technique is provided by the Nantua viaduct. this method can be used to extend one span in relation to the others. as the rear anchorages of these tendons cannot be placed on the edge of the segments. which was able to compensate for the imbalances. with a deep cross-section to act as a counterweight. thus complicating the formwork operations.11). the designer may decide to design a normal structure with piers either side of the central area and end spans equal to 60 % of the length of the central span.3. for example. The central span would therefore be entirely constructed by over-cantilevering out from these two spans (Fig 2.2.4 – Bridge deck embedded on two rows of bearings on piers (for information) In the interests of thoroughness. As this span was designed to be supported in the neighboring Chamoise tunnel. therefore being useless. Therefore.) in which it is impossible to erect any piers.2. it might be worth opting for two short end spans which are cast on falsework. they must be housed either inside anchor blocks within the box girder.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 27 septembre 2007 . On this viaduct.1 – Over-cantilevering The over-cantilevering technique consists of extending the length of one side of a cantilever by one or more segments. The bridge connecting the French island of Oléron to the mainland and the Blois bridge over the River Loire were built according to this principle. In these situations. we would like to mention that a third solution was used in the past and consisted of fitting two rows of laminated rubber bearings on top of each pier. 2.4. the engineers made this span as short as possible by giving it a very massive and thus very heavy cross-section. Over-cantilevering out from the adjacent pier was also difficult given the length of this section. Indeed. If this approach produces end spans which are located very close to ground level. The bridge over the River Est on Reunion Island is a good illustration of this method.2. very wide pier heads were required and these were considered to be visually unattractive. due to the bulkiness of the bearing devices. This created a elastic fixed support for the deck on the pier. it was impossible to build the far end of one of the end spans on falsework. which significantly lengthens these tendons.2 – Building out from a small cast-on-falsework end span A gap to be bridged sometimes features a very long and distinct central area (a river or a ravine etc. 2.12). 2.4. This solution is no longer in use today because. 2.4 - Specific problems 2. or in a cross beam on top of the pier. so the engineers decided to use the over-cantilevering technique from a small additional span built on falsework and situated on the adjacent slope. with the other side being already joined to the adjacent cantilever or to a cast-on-falsework section (Fig. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. This technique must therefore be used sparingly: when using a form traveler to build the section of an end span which would usually be cast on falsework in a very steep-sided valley.

there were no barriers to stand in the way of deformations due to concrete shrinkage or creep or temperature variations. 2. To prevent this phenomenon.4. Fig. For the large span. at least 55% of the length of the adjacent span. i. Therefore. For very short spans. with numerous cables anchored in the cross beams on abutments or in the interior anchor blocks.4 .3 – Counterweights on abutments It is sometimes impossible to design sufficiently long end spans. but in the counterweight spans it is very different.12 – Cantilever construction out from counterweight spans 2.e. 2. 2. as is the case for the Ottmarsheim and Beaumont-sur-Oise viaducts.4. The advantage of this solution was to create an isostatic structure in its permanent phase.2.13). Fig. 2.14) and to make the walls or posts of the abutments work in traction.2. the first structures to be built using the cantilever method incorporated a crown hinge (Fig. Therefore. the weight of the segment on the abutment and the end cross beam in which the external tendons are anchored is not enough to counteract the support uplift under the effect of a rare load applied in the central span. However. it is essential to ensure that the forces are properly transmitted from the bottom for the counterweight box to its vertical walls and up to the cantilever tendons which are anchored there.Hinges Historically speaking. the box girder can be filled with concrete poured during the second phase through hatches built into the upper slab. this closely resembles traditional cantilever cabling. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 28 septembre 2007 . when the support reactions on the abutments are still negative. 2.15). this is a highly complex solution. It is also possible to increase the thickness of the cross-section of the cast-on-falsework section of this span (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This technique requires the development of a specific cabling arrangement. it is possible to reverse the direction in which the bearings operate (Fig. which would eventually lead to the failure of the expansion joint. and there were no parasitic stresses. which can lead to significant problems during the changing of bearings and it should only be adopted when all of the very severe installation constraints have been taken into consideration.11 – The over-cantilevering construction technique It should be noted that large forces are transmitted to the counterweight. In this situation. 2.

The differential height difference between the ends of two adjacent cantilevers could be compensated for by applying a vertical force. As they are sources of major pathologies on these first structures to be built using the cantilever method. Furthermore. They are only found on a few very long structures (e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. the Cheviré bridge in Nantes. These devices. 2. 2. hinges are hardly ever used on modern bridges. it was difficult to adjust the hinges due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the deformations affecting the cantilevers during construction. several large span structures were partially built from lightweight concrete as this reduced the selfweight of the bridge deck box girder. Fig.g. This solution also requires the presence of a expansion joint which is expensive to maintain. but a sudden change in level remained and this became more pronounced over time under the effect of delayed deformations due to creep. they are no longer situated at the crowns of the spans. 2. the hinges have a limited life span and there is a risk of seizure or blockage. 2. or the Île de Ré bridge etc.2.4.) to allow for expansion and/or to reduce the risk of damage to the structure in event of impacts from heavy ships. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 29 septembre 2007 . make it possible to fit expansion joints in the deck while transmitting shear forces and bending moments.13 – End span with counterweight Fig. consisting of two metal beams parallel to the webs of the box girder.15 – Old structures with crown hinges In this interests of thoroughness.14 – Counterweighted end span with inverted bearing Fig.5 – Use of lightweight concrete (for information) In the 1980s. In all circumstances. we should also mention the devices used on the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway [UAC 98].

they are often transversally prestressed using low-strength tendons. the most economical solution is almost always a box girder with two webs. Fig. the most common solution consists of a box girder with two webs. These cross-sections also feature a lower slab which lowers the centre of gravity and allows for efficient cabling on the pier. One rib is used per standard segment. the ribs have a more elaborate geometry and are prestressed using medium-strength tendons (12T15 or 19T15). This type of box girder is compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant. When the decks are very wide. For longer widths.Choosing a cross-section 2. On the other hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Faced with stiff competition from other solutions (composite box girders.50 to 4.3 . i.2 - Simple monocellular box girders For deck widths of less than 20 m.). 2.3. We shall now describe them and specify their fields of application.1 Background information The large overhangs created in the construction phase require the use of a cross section with a high resistance to torsion. there may be three or four waxed or lubricated T 15 single strands per metre or four 4T15S tendons per 3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 30 septembre 2007 .) this technique has virtually disappeared in France.17). as mentioned in Chapter 1. these ribs are made from reinforced concrete and they are of constant depth between the webs.3. 2.3 - Monocellular box girders with ribs or struts For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m or more. parabolic. This is of paramount importance.16 – Example of a simple monocellular box girder 2. one every 3 to 4 m. 2. featuring two solid slabs. In the narrowest structures.00 metre segment. etc. featuring a ribbed upper slab and a solid lower slab (Fig.e. There are several types of box girders. 2. etc. as construction by the cantilever method produces very large negative moments.3. This is one of the reasons why designers opt for box girders. For example. the two largest bridges in the world built by the cantilever method feature lightweight concrete sections in their central span. prestressed concrete box girders with lightweight metallic webs. Upper slabs are made from reinforced concrete for widths of up to 15 or 16 m.

Because of this. which is extremely difficult and costly to carry out. The struts may also be replaced by two acutely angled lateral concrete walls (Fig. they are somewhat more difficult to construct than a box girder featuring an upper slab with ribs. As in the previous example. Furthermore. it is also possible to design decks featuring a slab of constant longitudinal thickness without ribs.18 – Example of a wide box girder with struts The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 31 septembre 2007 . Furthermore. this form of box girder is compatible with all of the height variation laws.17 – Example of a wide box girder with slab featuring prestressed rib stiffeners Fig. they are restricted in application to structures of a constant depth. For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m. These structures are aesthetically very pleasing. However.19). 2. 2. Recesses in the ribs are therefore created close to the piers or shorter ribs are used. the axes of the struts or the lateral walls must be distorted. 2.18). although this is often prestressed (Fig. thus allowing the tendons to pass freely. 2. Fig. it is therefore advisable to verify the resulting weight gain in comparison to a prestressed slab that is thicker but of constant depth. Indeed. if the depth of the box girder varies. Before choosing a design for the transverse ribbing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The presence of ribs complicates the formwork for the deck and thus the construction of the segments. their use is restricted to structures with a maximum span of 80 to 90 m. The webs are usually vertical and the steel or reinforced concrete struts are aligned under the cantilevers [GIL 96]. the external tendons must not strike the ribs near the cross beam on the pier.

in the case of structures with skew lines of support or those featuring shifted piers for each box girder. 2.21). It also remains widely used in Asia. Nevertheless.5 - Monocellular box girders with three webs (for information) For widths of between 15 and 20 m. It should be mentioned that this type of structure is particularly suitable for the construction of wide prefabricated bridge decks. In France. parabolic. Indeed: • • • They are difficult and costly to build because two formwork cores must be used For the same cost.). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 32 septembre 2007 . Furthermore. this solution is now rarely used on very wide structures. However. these structures are now very rarely used. controlling the creep-induced deformations in each of the box girders made from concrete of different ages remains a major problem during the construction of these structures. and the viaducts for the second crossing of Severn estuary in England [COM 96]. etc. Like the simple monocellular box girders. 2. it is possible to design box girders with three webs (Fig. 2.19 – Example of a wide box girder with thin lateral walls 2.4 - Double-cell box girders For large widths. including for the access viaducts built from prefabricated segments for the new bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. as this involves the construction of two narrow decks side by side which are then fixed together transversally. due to the difficulty of guaranteeing the even distribution of forces between the webs. the installation of the transverse prestressing is highly complex.20).3.3. more aesthetically pleasing structures with struts or transverse ribs are often preferred Certain structures of this type have been affected by major pathologies. linear. it has recently been used on several occasions. in other countries.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. In France. it is also possible to design a bridge deck consisting of two box girders connected by their internal cantilevers (Fig. double-cell box girders are compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant. 2.

First. Furthermore. prefabricated prestressed bridge decks. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. but these are made from corrugated metal sheets [REI 94].6 - Special transverse structures A number of structures featuring highly original and innovative bridge decks were constructed in France during the 1990s. where labour is cheaper. These viaducts feature two independent. constructed for the A40 highway near Nantua at the end of the 1980s. The Corniche viaduct in Dôle. western companies have exported their equipment to these countries. Built in the 1990s to support the Al6 highway. in which the conventional full webs are replaced by an ultra-lightweight concrete truss.21 – Older solution consisting of a box girder with three webs These box girders are still constructed overseas and particularly in South-East Asia. we shall mention the Sylans and Glacières viaducts. 2.3. the Boulonnais viaducts also feature bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments with truss webs. in the Jura region of France. different in height.20 – Example of a bridge deck consisting of two box girders joined together transversally Fig. as for the Bubiyan bridge in Kuwait. also features a bridge deck with ultra-lightweight webs. The fourth bridge with corrugated metal webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 33 septembre 2007 . 2. which on this occasion are made from metal tubes [MEU 98].

At this stage of the guide. built in Corsica at the end of the 1990s. however. also has a highly original bridge deck. Charolles and the Parc Astérix. 2.Pre-design of a simple cross-section 2.23 – Tendons used on standard bridges 2. consisting of two parallel concrete slabs connected by triangular concrete elements acting as webs [PAU 00].4 . which is dedicated to longitudinal bending and primary cabling.22 – Notations used Fig. the Dôle viaduct was the first French bridge of this type to be built using the cantilever method. we shall examine the design of the different elements that make up a standard monocellular box girder. 2. it is essential to provide some basic information about these tendons.4.2 - Preamble concerning cabling A detailed description of the longitudinal cabling used on bridges built using the cantilever method is given in Chapter 3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 34 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to be built in France after the structures in Cognac. 2. after a brief preamble on the subject of cabling.1 Background information In the following section. The figure below specifies the notations used: Fig. The Vecchio viaduct.4.

The transverse prestressing makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of e2. At the anchorage of the cantilever. of course. Their thickness varies between 22 cm for a normal centre distance of 3 m to 3. are thinner. as the effectiveness of these operations can also determine the thickness of the end of the slab. They are situated between the webs and slabs. with a minimum of 20 cm. we also verify that: e3 > e2 – 0. Ribbed slabs. and 10 cm for a much smaller centre distance. e3 and e4 by approximately 10% if there is sufficient space to house the cantilever tendons. or even D/35 for very wide transversally prestressed box girders. measured from the start of the gusset.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The cabling on standard modern structures consists of three types of tendons: cantilever tendons. the value e3 can be estimated at 0. 2. internal continuity tendons. and external continuity tendons. not including the gussets used for connecting to the webs of the box girder.3 - Upper slab In a simple box girder. In the end spans. they must also take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework sections.10 meters +D/25 (with D representing the centre distance between the webs expressed in meters). Cantilever tendons take up the negative moments. the mean thickness of the slab for a simple box girder amounts to between 22 and 26 cm.10 m and e3 > 1.50 m between ribs. The thickness of the upper slab at the end e1 depends on the retaining system used (see the Sétra technical guide for security barriers). They are situated in the lower gussets of the box girder close to the webs and are anchored in anchor blocks. The upper slab is solid and its thickness varies transversally in order to adapt to the transverse forces encountered. we could use 1/7 to 1/8 of the width of the cantilever for e2. taking take up the operating loads and the weight of superstructures.5 e4 In light of the preceding information.4. This value can be reduced for prestressed concrete. Its thickness at mid-span e4 is equal to D/25 or D/30. both during construction and when the bridge is in service. As an initial estimate for a reinforced concrete slab. Internal continuity tendons are designed to take up the positive moments that occur during construction due to site loads. They are housed in the upper gussets. It is important to pay particular attention to ensuring that the transverse tendons are properly covered and that they are correctly anchored at the ends of the slab. In general. They are anchored in massive cross beams on piers or abutments and are deflected via concrete beams called deviators. outside the standard section. At the fixed support point. It also depends upon the construction method used for the segments (cast-in-situ or prefabricated). External continuity tendons complement the internal prestressing. the webs are often situated at a quarter of the width of the box girder (C ≈ B / 4). It is a minimum of: – 16 to 18 cm for a pedestrian parapet – 23 cm for a normal BN1 barrier – 24 cm for a normal BN4 barrier. Their anchorages are often situated on the edge of the segments at the nodes between the webs and the upper slab. the thickness e2 depends on the superstructures and the functional cross section. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 35 septembre 2007 . the thermal gradient and delayed concrete deformations.

L and B expressed in meters). Minimal thickness of webs in standard situations Usually. This becomes compulsory for very wide structures with large spans. Fig. In this case. during the construction phase.4. In this case. in which the fixing of a single pair of tendons per segment is not sufficient. the cantilever tendons are anchored in the upper gusset or in a high-level anchor block. while benefiting from the significant reduction in shear forces brought about by the raising of the external tendons.24 – Thickness of webs It can also be added that shear force strength requires the conservation of an effective web thickness of Ea equal to 0.26 + L/500. with V = 7 cm minimum (concreting and vibration chute) – a > 2D with D being the cover thickness of the anchor plates given by the regulations for prestressing systems according to the strength of the concrete. However. its thickness can be reduced to the strict minimum needed to resist shear forces when the bridge is in service. with Ea and L in meters. Also. For spans in excess of approximately 100 meters and in certain projects in which performance is maximized. The angle typically adopted varies between 10 and 30%. the thickness of the webs must also conform to a certain number of conditions concerning the proper concreting and anchoring of the tendons on the edge of the segments: – a > 2(e + 2d + V) + ∅g. as the external tendons have not yet been tightened. of course) in order to facilitate the construction.25 x B/L – 0. Vertically. The total thickness Ea of the two webs can be estimated at Ea = L/275 + l.4.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. When thickening is required near the piers.125: a relation in which L is the main span and B is the width of the upper slab (with Ea. the webs are sometimes thickened in proximity to the upper deck as the shear forces are greatest in this area. a sudden variation is built in (by benching and from the inside. the webs are almost always the same thickness throughout their entire height. there is virtually no reduction of the shear force. Minimal thickness of webs in special situations It is sometimes desirable to pass the cantilever tendons down through the webs in order to increase the reduction in shear forces brought about by the prestressing. Longitudinally.4 - Thickness of the webs 2. 2.1 – Background information Box girder webs are usually angled because this arrangement facilitates the removal of formwork and reduces the width of the pier heads. we could state that D = 18 cm for 12T13 tendons and D = 20 cm for 12T15 cables) – a > 3∅g with ∅g = 7 cm for 12T13 tendons and ∅g = 8 cm for 12T15 tendons. This formula (somewhat less favorable than the previous formula for The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 36 septembre 2007 . the webs are normally of constant thickness for bridges of variable depth and of variable thickness for decks of constant depth. as the web is not breached by the tendons. (As an initial estimate. the external cladding of the webs is often of better quality when they are angled.

However.4. In the cast-on-falsework sections. are sometimes used. 2. it is advisable to adjust the minimal thickness of the slab Ec in order to ensure that the upper layer of its transverse reinforcements do not come into contact with the ducts of prestressing in the gussets. The latter variation law is used to maintain the minimum thickness of the slab over a large length and to save weight. continuity tendons are housed in the lower gussets of the box girders and the cover thickness requirement specified above no longer applies to the slab. 2. so that the box girder can be considered to be impervious to transversal deformations.5 - Thickness of the lower slab The thickness of the lower slab is minimal at the crown and maximal at the pier. This thickness must be increased for wider decks. This value. this slab used to house continuity tendons which had to be protected against corrosion by a layer of concrete equal to at least half of the diameter of the duct. and for deck widths of less than 15 m. Ec ≥ 2 ∅ + d + e avec Ec ≥ 18à 22 cm Fig. It is also recommended that this thickness should not be less than one third of the thickness of the webs. parabolic or of the fourth degree. the lower slab must also be transversally resistant to sideways thrust due to the combined effects of the compression of this slab and its curvature. the thickness of the lower slabs remains constant and is equal to that of the crown.25 – Detail of the lower slab Maximum thickness The thickness of the lower slab on the pier Ep is determined by the limitation of compression in the bottom fiber when the bridge is in service. 2. transverse bending predominates and thickness tends to be in the region of 25 cm. In structures of an older design. Stepped variations in thickness.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide short spans and relatively narrow box girders). For structures which vary in depth parabolically or cubically. Today.6 - Design of the upper gussets The upper gussets must fulfil several functions which generally influence their dimensions: • • • They thicken the slabs in areas subject to significant transverse forces Their funnel shape facilitates the concreting of the webs They house the cantilever tendons and ensure that their cover thickness The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 37 septembre 2007 . also known as “on demand” variations. varies between 35 and 80 cm or even more. For wide structures. which is largely dependent on the span and widths of the slabs. The thickness variation laws according to the horizontal axis are either linear. Minimum thickness In the central section of the spans. gives good results for spans of between 70 and 170 m. this system finally resulted in cracking due to the distribution of the prestressing force to the area around the anchorages. It is advisable to adopt a safety margin for the maximum stress level in order to limit the redistributions due to creep. As the power of the tendons increased. the lower slab must be as thin as possible (18 to 22 cm) in order to limit the selfweight of the box girder.

the internal continuity tendons are anchored in the protruding anchor blocks. These blocks must therefore be situated in the webs/slab nodes and they may also influence the dimensions of the upper gussets. 2. In conclusion.26 – Detail of the upper gussets In light of the preceding points. as this system allows the tendons to be tightened a few hours after the segments have been cast.28). 2. presenting an angle of between 30 and 45° to facilitate casting.7 - Design of the lower gussets In addition to their mechanical role in which they act as a transition between the webs and the lower slab. These anchor blocks are generally a little shorter than the standard segments.27). As we have previously mentioned. it should be noted that the internal shape of the gussets is always rectilinear. In these situations. the gussets are empirically designed and accounted for in the rough calculations and are only precisely established after the cantilever tendons and transverse reinforcements have been accurately calculated.27 – Detail of the lower gussets The lower gussets are normally boxed in by the lower part of the central core of the formwork for the segment. the lower gussets must also house the internal continuity tendons (Fig. In cast-in-situ structures. situated at the junction between the webs and the lower slab (Fig. prefabricated concrete blocks incorporating the anchorages for cantilever tendons are still sometimes used. 2. On the other hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • They allow for the deflection of the cantilever tendons prior to their anchorages They thicken the nodes of the webs/upper slab.4. allowing them to absorb the forces due to the distribution of the cantilever tendons which are now almost always anchored at these nodes. their external form is often circular for purely aesthetic reasons. They are constructed at the same time as the rest of the segment. 2. the gussets are not cast in formwork but simply smoothed over during the concreting process. Fig. 2. When the lower slab is wide. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 38 septembre 2007 . They are angled at a slope of 40 to 45° in order to facilitate the flow of the concrete and prevent the formation of accumulations of pebbles or concreting defects. the angle of the gussets can drop as low as 15 or even 10° from the horizontal in order to improve the take-up of transverse bending forces. α Fig.

These usually consist of a lower rectangular beam capped by two thin trapezoid walls.1 Background information We have already seen that the longitudinal geometry of the structure is dictated entirely by its mode of construction.1 and 4.4). Cross beams on piers play a particularly important role: In the operating phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by shear force and torsion in the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the bearings and piers (see 4.3.2.5.2. • • Concrete deviators situated in the different spans are used to deflect the external prestressing tendons (Fig. 2. This also influences its breakdown into segments (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 39 septembre 2007 . 2.28 – Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.4.29).8 - Cross beams and deviators Bridges built using the cantilever method incorporate major cross beams directly above the piers and abutments. • • • • During the construction phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by the the shear force and torsion of the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the temporary bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the temporary bearings and piers By taking up the forces caused by the cantilever stabilizing systems and transmitting them to the temporary bearings.30). 2.5 . 2.3) By taking up the local loads on the upper slab between the webs By providing anchorages for the external prestressing tendons distributing their forces By transmitting the vertical component of the external prestress tendons that are deviated inside the segments on piers to the bearings and piers (see 4.3.Breakdown into segments 2.3.2.

5.30 – Breakdown into segments 2.2 - Standard segments Standard segments are of a constant length which varies between 2. if applicable Cornice elements with architectural design features that must be evenly matched to the BN4 posts. 2.50 m and 4 or even 5 m according to the structures. and thus to the longitudinal section.00 m in mid-span (at the design stage. we shall see how the lengths of different types of segments are determined. it should be noted that the shorter the segments. The main aim when determining the length of prefabricated segments is to reduce their weight. but vertical joints may also be used. The edges of the segments are usually perpendicular to the structure’s extrados. 2. prefabricated segments must be moved using special equipment which obviously has a limited capacity. the segments for the new bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg vary in length from 3. Fig. in order to optimize the construction cycles. it should be noted that the breakdown into segments may also be conditioned or influenced by the need to have a uniform distribution of: • • The bridge deck’s transverse ribs or struts. Indeed. the most important selection criteria are the casting time and minimizing the number of construction cycles and thus the number of segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 40 septembre 2007 . However.25 m). In certain specific situations. For cast-in-situ segments. the harder it is to conform to the geometry of the cantilever. For example. the length was constant and equal to 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the following section. This optimization policy can sometimes lead to the construction of segments of different lengths for the same half-cantilever. as we shall see in Chapter 6.00 m close to the piers to 5.29 – Deflection of the external tendons Fig.

6 . in order to ensure that it is capable of supporting two form travelers during the construction of the first pair of segments.5. Therefore. For cast-in-situ structures. 2. it may be beneficial to reduce the length of the SOP. Its shortness makes it impossible to tighten the cantilever tendons usually attached to the last standard segments. usually made from wood.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the preliminary design stage. but this is permissible given the small moment arms at this stage of the construction.4 + 0. the closing segments are slightly shorter in length than the standard segments because one of the form travelers is generally used for their construction. in order to use form travelers built for a previous site or to reduce the number of segments and optimize the construction cycles.5 to 3m are designed for very wide structures or bridges featuring large spans. Regardless of the method adopted. 2. segments of 2. it is common to calculate the length of the segments in such a way as to ensure that there is the same number of standard segments as there are pairs of cantilever tendons determined by the calculations. For cast-in-situ structures with a small number of piers. the segment on pier (SOP) generally measures at least 8 m. not exceeding 15 to 20 cm in length. its formwork must be designed to resist the significant thrusts exerted by the fresh concrete.3 - Segments on piers For cast-in-situ structures. the second segment of the first pair is constructed after the first form traveler has been moved. it can be considered that smaller cross sections have longer segments. However. Furthermore. The segment on pier represents a very large volume of concrete which can very rarely be constructed in a single phase. and longer segments of 3 to 4 m can be used for narrow or short-span structures. In this case. The closing segments require specific formwork. Thus. it must be twice as long as the standard segments plus an additional length of 50 centimeters to one meter. 2. The length of the closing segments must also facilitate the overlapping of longitudinal reinforcements and the tightening of the last segments cantilever tendons.5.4 - Closing segments The length of the closing segments varies considerably according to the technique used. To support the installation of the pair of form travelers on the segment on pier. But this is only one option and it is often necessary to anchor two pairs of tendons per segment for very wide structures featuring large spans. A joint of this length is made from non-reinforced concrete. This closure is thus reduced to its simplest form. The SOPs are therefore divided into two or three sections to be assembled by prestressing.Main ratios The statistics for standard structures give the following ratios: • • Equivalent thickness: e = 0. the length of segments calculated in this way in the preliminary design may be modified during the construction surveys. As we have already established. their minimum length is approximately two meters. which can be broken down into components small enough to be removed via a manhole. temporary lashing provides the only form of prestressing before the jointing takes place. For prefabricated structures.0035 L (L being the length of the principal span of the structure in meters and e in meters) Page 41 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . the dimensions of the segment on pier are often incompatible with the capacity of the equipment used for transporting and installing the segments. the closing segments must not be so short that it becomes difficult to dismantle the internal formwork from the form traveler. Therefore. The cantilever is highly unbalanced before the installation of the second form traveler. the closing of segments on prefabricated structures is carried out using the simplest possible system. For economic reasons.

the ratio is strongly dependent on the type and thickness of the upper slab (thick slab. (*) For non-prestressed reinforcement bars.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Longitudinal prestressing: 40 to 50 Kg/m3 Transverse prestressing: 5 to 7 Kg/m² of deck Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: – Without transverse prestressing: 130 to 170 Kg/m3 (*) – With transverse prestressing: 110 to 130 Kg/m3 (*) The ratio of non-prestressed reinforcement bars is generally somewhat higher for prefabricated structures. because they often have a lower equivalent thickness than cast-in-situ structures and because reinforcements for temporary lashing and hoisting equipment must be added. shear and bending reinforcements and on the accepted value for the elastic limit of the reinforcement bars in the calculations (400 ou 500 MPa). ribbed slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 42 septembre 2007 . etc. on the conditions imposed for the cumulation of distribution.).

different types of cables are used: • • Cantilever tendons: used for the assembly of consecutive segments Continuity tendons: designed to take up the forces resulting from all of the additional structures added to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 43 septembre 2007 . For a structure with three spans. 3.e featuring tendons both inside and outside the concrete.1 . Today. Until the mid-1980s.1 – Cantilever tendons • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete to secure the cast-on-falsework sections of the end spans to the two cantilevers (Fig. 3.Design and verification of longitudinal cabling This chapter covers the design and calculation-based verification of the longitudinal cabling for prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method. is used on a virtually automatic basis in France.1) Fig. all of the pre-stressing on structures built using the cantilever method was situated inside the concrete. 3.2) Fig. i. As mentioned in the previous chapter.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3 .2 – Internal continuity tendons on the end spans • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete at the crown of the main span in order to make the structure continuous (Fig. 3. the following sequence of operations applies to the stressing of these different tendons: • Tensioning of the cantilever tendons inside the concrete for assembly of the standard segments (Fig.Cabling principles The layout of the prestress tendons depends on the construction method used and on successive developments. 3. 3. Please note that the verification of tangential stress is covered in Chapter 4. mixed prestressing technology.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. • These tendons are situated at the area of the upper axis of the bridge deck in order to act efficiently against negative moments. in order to take up any additional loads (Fig.1 – Principle of cantilever tendons on older structures (for information) In older designs. depending on the design rules used Cantilever tendons undergo significant angular deflections.3 – Internal continuity tendons on the central spans • Stressing of the continuity tendons outside the concrete. which was particularly favourable in proximity to the piers. these tendons were almost always deviated vertically at their extremities and their anchorages were positioned inside the webs. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 44 septembre 2007 . 3. which results in signicativ losses due to friction.1. the thickness of a web must be reduced by the thickness of a half to one cable duct for the calculation of shearing stresses. However. 3.1. along with the external continuity tendons when the bridge is in service. 3. they are positioned inside the concrete in order to obtain the maximum effect.1. In virtually all cases. this layout also had its disadvantages: • • • The presence of tendons in the webs creates an obstacle during casting The bulkiness of the anchoring plates requires a large minimum web thickness (normally around 45 cm) In accordance with the french design regulations. 3-4). The main advantage of this arrangement was to reduce the shear force due to the angle of the tendons.4 – Externall continuity tendons on the end spans 3.1 - Cantilever prestressing Cantilever tendons are designed: • For the assembly of consecutive segments and to take up negative moments due to the selfweight of the cantilevers and site loads during the construction phase To help take up negative moments due to dead loads and imposed loads. stretching across one or two spans. Fig.

1. and they can be anchored directly in the upper nodes. the vertical deflections are dissociated from the horizontal deflections (Fig. Because of this.1. In order to guarantee the correct assembly of the duct elements.3 – Alignment of cantilever tendons on modern structures Standard alignment Cantilever tendons undergo vertical and horizontal deflections in the upper node. Likewise.5 – Conventional cantilever tendons The tendons must have a rectilinear alignment when they pass through the joints. § 3. Comb layout The "comb" cable layout aligns tendons automatically.2 – Principle of cantilever tendons on modern structures In conventional modern designs. it is no longer necessary to drop the tendons down into the webs at their extremities. For upper slabs of common widths (10 to 12 m).1. the alignment of the cables in the passage through the joints is usually perpendicular to the formwork surface of the facing. which simplifies their installation (Fig. Therefore. Indeed.1. Fig. For wider upper slabs. such a layout: • Always uses the same points of passage through the joints so that a single facing can be used The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 45 septembre 2007 . shear force is reduced by placing the continuity tendons on the outside of the concrete. it is possible to create a recess in the gusset gussetcorresponding to the size of the anchorages for the additional prestress tendons (cf. the dimensions of the upper gusset gussets are directly related to the number and sizes of the tendon anchor plates and to the position of the cantilever tendon ducts. one tendon is anchored per web and per segment.5).1). it may be necessary to anchor two cables per web and per segment. 3.1.3. Whenever possible. 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. The drawbacks of the old cantilever tendons systems are thus avoided. 3. 3-6).

only the first tendons are anchored in line with the web: the following ones are anchored alternately on either side. The stresses relating to the recesses used for the attachment of the form travelers (cast-in-situ segments) and hoisting equipment (prefabricated segments) should also be mentioned. experience shows that.London – September 1996). Fig. the most unfavourable situation generally occurs during the casting of the final pair of segments. If. we can observe the stress relating to the presence of stitching tendons on the support. we decide not to anchor the tendons in the webs and want to avoid increasing the size of the gusset gusset. In this case.6 – Comb cantilever tendon layout: plan view and detail of gussets On Figure above. Further information on “comb” cable layouts can be found in the article entitled "Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method” (FIP Symposium . to prevent the systematic cutting of the vertical stirrups in proximity to the tendon anchors. Furthermore. because of the presence of the external continuity cables which span the entire length of the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 46 septembre 2007 . The cantilever tendons anchored in this final pair of segments are not tensioned in the design phase and are therefore not required for the construction of the cantilever. Cabling of the final pair of segments During the construction of a cantilever. 3.1.4 – Specific design points Number of cantilever tendons Two or four cables can be specified per segment. This arrangement makes it possible to standardize the reinforcements for the segments. It is also apparent that the anchor plate is automatically angled on the axis of the web in one direction and then in the other.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Reduces the horizontal deflections and thus the losses by chafing Avoids having curved sections in line with joints Creates horizontal deflections throughout the exact length of the segment. for the aforementioned reasons. the optimum number of tendons specified for the end of each segment is two (one tendon per web). This arrangement also makes it possible to attach two cables per web if necessary. 3.1. It is also possible to position the anchor plates at the level of the gusset gussetand on the outside of the web reinforcements.

3. “Extended cantilever” segments As described in Chapter 2. it is possible to drop a proportion of the cantilever cables down into the webs (generally those of the first segments). a proportion of the cantilever tendons may be situated outside of the concrete in order to reduce the size of the upper gusset gussets and thus the dead loads Angle of the tendons In order to reduce the shear stress in certain types of structures. or to build spans of different lengths. there are more cantilever tendons than needed when the bridge is in service. and for structures of constant depth over 60 m in length. lashing bars must be used to hold prefabricated segments in place parallel to the extrados until the cantilever tendon is tensioned. As a result.7). However. 3. they must be anchored at a sufficient distance from the section on the pier in order to allow for the dispersion of the prestressing force within this section. Fig. midway between the segment joints (Fig.7 – Lashing principle for prefabricated segments Cantilever tendons outside the concrete For very large structures (span > approximately 120 m). in order to reduce the cast-on-falsework sections close to the abutments. The segments are generally anchored in a staggered pattern on the vertical ribs built into the inner face of the webs. according to a design similar to the layouts used in older structures (Fig. These bars hold the segment temporarily in place while exerting a minimal pressure of approximately 0.8). This final pair then functions provisionally as reinforced concrete. The cantilever is thus asymmetrical and the cantilever tendons anchored in these segments may be asymmetrical in relation to the pier.2 MPa on the adhesive in the segment joint.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide structure. 3. decks can be designed without the need to anchor cantilever tendons in the final pair of segments. Cabling for structures with prefabricated segments During the assembly process. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 47 septembre 2007 . This arrangement is commonly used for bridges with prefabricated segments in which the shortness of the closing segment (20 to 30 cm) makes it impossible to tension these tendons. it may be necessary to construct one or more segments known as “extended cantilever segments” at a one end of the bridge only.8 – Cantilever tendons These provisions are used for structures of variable depth in which the aim is to reduce the depth on the pier. Fig. 3.

these cables are situated inside the lower gusset gussets and are attached to the anchor blocks situated at the intersection of the web and lower slab (Fig. 3. 3. continuity tendons are designed to take up all of the additional forces applied to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. consisting of tendons situated both inside and outside the concrete. They were aligned in the lower slab at midspan and were attached to the anchor blocks protruding over the slab. 3. or raised in the webs and anchored inside recesses built into the extrados of the bridge deck.2.1.2 .10 – Internal continuity tendons on standard spans Designed to resist positive moments. 3. which led to the development of major pathologies (see Chapter 8).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. i.11). Fig.1. these tendons were all located inside the concrete. In older designs. The large number of tendons meant that they had to be distributed throughout the entire width of the lower slab. For continuity tendons which are situated completely inside the concrete.7 published in 1972. This paragraph only concerns the use of mixed cables. the reader is advised to refer to SétraSétra Technical Bulletin No.Continuity prestressing In general.11 –Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons They are often offset in relation to the top of the lower deck in order to standardize their alignment in the anchor block. continuity prestressing is generally mixed. 3. 3. Today. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 48 septembre 2007 .10).e.9 – Internal continuity tendons on end spans Fig.9 and 3. Fig.1 – Internal continuity cables Continuity tendons situated inside the concrete are strung across the central part of standard spans and inside the extremities of the end spans (Fig.

12). In a plan view. These tendons may also stretch from span to span. especially in order to stretch a tendon across two spans of over 100 m in length. 3. The tendons are deflected via the cross beams on piers and intermediate cross beams (deviators) on the spans. in tandem with the internal continuity cables Negative moments on the pier due to dead loads and operating loads.2. In order to account for construction tolerances.12 – External continuity tendons on standard span According to the length of the structure and the number of spans. thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) and the reaction effects of the structure during the construction phases between the casting of the concrete fro the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing.2 – External continuity cables External continuity cables are designed to take up: • Positive moments in the span due to dead loads (including shrinkage and the redistribution of forces due to creep) and imposed loads. Fig. they may be strung form one end of the deck to the other or overlapped across two or three consecutive spans. a distance of approximately 5cm must be allowed between the outside of the tendon ducts and the concrete of the segment slabs. i. 3. 360 meters for 19T15 "super" tendons) have already been successfully tensioned. 3 spans of 120 meters. internal continuity prestressing is designed to be capable of taking up the shrinkage after grouting. resultings in a polygonal alignment which is rectilinear per section. it is necessary to recenter the tendons using additional deviators. Considering the difficulties involved in the threading and grouting of curved tendons. in tandem with the cantilever cables. Longer curved tendons (e. The attention of designers is drawn to the fact that. • In elevation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the minimum. For the end spans. 3. This minimum distance will be also observed in relation to the top of the anchor blocks for the continuity tendons. the internal continuity prestressing also has to take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework section. they must be limited in length to approximately 200 m. The deviators are generally situated between a third and a quarter of the way along the span (Fig.1. the external continuity cables are situated close to the webs. especially if the latter are rigid. For curvilinear structures. This value may be slightly exceeded. the provisional cantilever joints are liable to create significant forces in the bridge deck and supports.e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 49 septembre 2007 . a distance of approximately 5cm must also be allowed between the outside of the tendon sheaths and the concrete of the segment slabs and/or the anchor blocks. due to the effect of temperature variations. they are therefore situated close to the lower slab in mid-span (?) and close to the upper slab on supports.g. or even more. To take account of construction tolerances. In this case. they may be anchored in the deviator cross beams.

it is possible to: • • Avoid using the full capacity of the anchor plates. the following numbers of tendons are used: At the crown: 2 ne1 + ne2 = nc tendons On the pier: ne1 + ne2 = np tendons There must be a sufficient number of external tendons to prevent any structural deficiencies in the event of the breaking or removal of a tendon. for a symmetrical three-span structure. which are more economical. The last of these provisions does not apply to prefabricated segments. In practice. 3.1. 3. It is interesting to note that in a mixed cabling system. either by making room in the gusset gusset for an anchor plate. or by positioning the duct in such a way as to allow the tendon to be anchored in an additional anchor block.13). the external tendons play a major role in taking up the negative moments on the supports. Unused empty ducts are injected at the end of the construction phase. However.1. These provisions must be designed to compensate for a prestressing deficiency of between 5 and 10 % of the probable prestressing force Pm for the category in question. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 50 septembre 2007 .1 – Additional prestressing Specific precautions must be taken at the design stage in order to overcome any deficiencies in the internal prestressing inside the concrete during the construction phase (excessive friction.13 – Different types of tendons used for optimizing the external cabling on a three-span bridge In this example. the following design allows for a precise adjustment of the prestressing in each span using two types of tendons (Fig.). Compulsory for cantilever tendons. too many tendons could risk overloading the box girder and lead to maintenance problems. Fig. inability to thread tendons. etc. This leads to a significant reduction in the number of cantilever tendons compared with older structures in which the cantilever tendons had to take up all of the negative moments. as they are shorter. there are often between three and five pairs of internal continuity tendons. The layout of these empty ducts must allow tensioning to be carried out at any time during construction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. If there are no problems of shear force.3. these empty sheaths are also recommended for internal continuity cables.3 - Miscellaneous construction provisions 3. 3. it is also possible to reduce the number of external tendons and to compensate for them in the central zones by using additional continuity tendons. thus making it possible to attach additional strands Build in empty ducts which could be used to insert one or more pairs of additional cables if necessary. For example.

Circular of February 28 2001 “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton" [Design of prestressing on the outside of the concrete]). 3. Experience acquired in this field has shown that free lengths of approximately 25 m are acceptable. Fig.1.14).1. Acting as intermediate supports and helping to hold the ducts in place during their replacement. More precisely.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3.3. The additional prestressing force must be equal to at least 20 % of the external continuity prestressing force determined during the construction of the bridge deck. it must be possible to dismantle it without causing any damage to the structure apart from the possible destruction of the cable and its duct (cf.4 – Anti-vibration systems for external prestressing In order to prevent the development of resonance in the external tendons and avoid the risk of whip action in the event of an accident. A geometrical conflict is also possible in transversally prestressed bridge decks between the transverse tendons on the one hand. In practice. cantilevers are stabilized by vertical prestressing cables housed in the segments on piers.3. at least one sheath per web is provided. and the cantilever and external continuity tendons on the other (Fig. the SétraSétra guide to external prestressing of February 1990 recommended the installation of intermediate tendon retention devices when the external part of the cable layout exceeds fifteen metres for a road structure and 10-12 meters for a railroad structure.3. 3-15). the products and materials used and their implementation are described in Chapter 7 of the supplement to the fascicule 65 A of the French CCTG (General Technical Clauses). 3. allowing for the progressive replacement of all of the external continuity tendons.14 – Anti-vibration devices for external tendons 3.1. 3. it is important to bear this in mind when determining the transversal positioning of the external and cantilever tendons. The general provisions for external prestressing. these devices must be rigid (Fig.5 – Possible geometrical conflicts between longitudinal tendons and other tendons In the majority of bridges covered by this guide.3.3.2 – Replaceability of external prestressing It must be possible to replace the external prestressing. As these tendons may conflict geometrically with the longitudinal prestressing. In order to prevent this type of conflict. it is important to accurately define the position of the transverse prestressing and then to The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 51 septembre 2007 .3 – Recesses for additional external prestressing Anchorages for additional prestressing and recesses in the deviators must be designed at outset in order to facilitate any necessary repairs or strengthening of the structure.

85 . adjustments. diaphragms and deviators. measured for a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: γt = γb + ρ 7.). 3. Therefore.Stress calculations 3.85 × 7.15 – Example of the crossing of transverse / cantilever tendons 3. the stresses are calculated using an elastic model for the bridge deck.2. and of the bridge deck (prestressed and reinforced) is evaluated on the basis of the unit mass of the concrete alone γb. the selfweight can be represented by a single nominal value calculated using the design drawings.2. 3. the unit mass of the concrete γt . The calculation must take account of the successive phases in the loading of the structure. revised in 1999 and notwithstanding the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979.1 Background information For the majority of the verifications. etc.5 t/m3. it is advisable to place the transverse tendons in the first bed and the cantilever tendons in the second. tendons and grout used for the injection of the external prestressing. as recommended by the BPEL 91. Fig. it is also important to account for the elements which are added to the bridge deck such as anchor blocks. support transfers.2 - Selfweight of the bridge deck As the form travelers are built from rigid metal components.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide determine the location of the longitudinal tendons.2 . However. In general. Finally the selfweight of the bridge deck also depends on the weight of the ducts. If high or low density aggregates are used. it is necessary to carry out a precise analysis of the construction phases and of the subsequent loading phases (consecutive concrete casting and stressing operations. in addition to the removal of formwork and the moving of form travelers. the unit mass of concrete is fixed at 2.γb ( ) septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 52 . Except under special circumstances.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

In which ρ is the total ratio of non-prestressed and prestressed reinforcement bars in t/m3 (a value of p = 0.2 t/m3 is generally adopted).

Fig. 3.16 – Site loads to be considered for construction phase verifications

Standard concrete based on basaltic aggregates and high-performance concrete have higher densities (allow around 50 kg/m3 more for HPC).

3.2.3 -

Prestressing effects

For the verifications of longitudinal flexion, the prestressing can be represented by a single probable value Pm. For large structures, specific precautions are taken (empty ducts, measurement of transmission factors, etc.) to ensure that the probable prestressing value Pm is properly obtained. In this case, values of k = 0.02 and k’ = 0.95 should be used for the Service Limit State calculations, in accordance with Article 4.10.1 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999.

3.2.4 -

Random site loads

During the construction of the cantilevers, random site loads must be considered when calculating the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck (Fig. 3-16). These loads are: • • A distributed load QPRA1 of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever, in standard cases A concentrated load QPRA2 of 100 kN applied at the end of the cantilever, representing the weight of the cable rollers, compressors and other equipment likely to be used on the structure.

3.2.5 -

Delayed effects

Concrete shrinkage and creep in hyperstatic structures built according to flexible static plans gradually modifies the stresses and constraints that were initially calculated. It is difficult to give a quantitative evaluation of this redistribution. For this, a computerized calculation is required, which takes account of the construction phases and the laws of behavior of the different materials (including the scientific creep test for concrete). A calculation of this type will be performed at the design stage, in which certain construction phases may be grouped together. Two compulsory calculations must be performed in the framework of the construction surveys: • Firstly, an initial calculation of longitudinal flexion (A), is carried out according to the company’s provisional construction schedule, with coefficients of friction according to the type of prestressing used

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Secondly, after the complete construction of the bridge deck, and in order to determine the actual stress state of the structure in operation, a post-construction calculation (B) is performed according to the actual construction schedule, using the mean coefficient of friction measurements, and the actual mass of the segments for prefabricated structures.

Should significant changes be made to the work schedule, it is also necessary to perform a third calculation to take account of the rearranged work schedule. Any change of sequence of operations will be validated by a calculation. Finally, while awaiting the implementation of the Eurocodes, whose materials laws are considered to be more realistic, another calculation can also be performed in order to determine the reverse deflections during construction, using a creep law that is more realistic than that of the BPEL (quicker). Nevertheless, it is recommended to perform a creep test in order to make sure that the concrete creep law does not differ from the theoretical model of behaviour that was adopted.

3.2.6 -

Calculation programs

Several software programs have been designed by private or public engineering firms for bridge calculations including for structures built using the cantilever method. Sétra has developed two programs designed for these types of calculations amongst others: • • STl software ; The PCP (Ponts Construits par Phases [Bridges Built in Phases]) system.

These programs are used for calculating three-dimensional or flat structures made from bar components and are intended for the design of civil engineering structures. They can account for prestressing reinforcements, construction phases and imposed road loads. The calculations are performed according to the Strength of Materials theory applied to elastic beams, in which each segment is normally represented by a beam element. The calculation must closely follow all of the construction phases in order to consider the load application dates and the aging of the materials (shrinkage, creep and relaxation) between these different phases.

3.3 - Verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses
3.3.1 Preamble

Paragraph 3-3 describes the verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses due to normal force. These calculations must be performed at the Service Limit State and at the Ultimate Limit State, when the structure is under construction and in service. Verifications to be carried out with regard to shearing stresses are covered in Chapter 4.

3.3.2 -

Verification categories

Cast-in-situ structures are generally justified according to class II of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Considering the absence of longitudinal reinforcement bars passing through the joints, decks made from prefabricated segments are generally verified longitudinally according to class I of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Article 3.1.43 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 also describes the possibility of verifications being made

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in class II subject to the joints remaining fully compressed under Pm. In this case, in accordance with Article 6.1.32, the stressed zone must also be less than 5 cm in height. The choice of verification category must be clearly stated in the STC (Special Technical Clauses).

3.3.3 -

Verifications in the construction phase

In general, verifications must be carried out during all phases of construction. 3.3.3.1 – Verification of cantilever prestressing In addition to the verifications specific to the static balance which are covered in Chapter 5 of this guide, SLS (Service Limit State) verifications must be performed at all phases of the construction of the cantilever in order to verify the prestressing of the bridge deck. The loads to be used include the known site loads (form travelers etc.) and the random site loads defined in paragraph 3-2.4.F For structures verified in class II, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 can be applied and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can therefore be considered in the coating section. 3.3.3.2 – Verification of internal continuity prestressing The internal continuity prestressing inside the concrete is designed to take up shrinkage, creep and thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) during the construction phase between the casting of the concrete for the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. The uniform temperature variation can be considered to be equal to +/- 10° C. The positive thermal gradient can be considered to be equal to 8° C. A negative thermal gradient of 5° C must also be taken into account. In the case of structures with prefabricated segments, it is also important to consider the launch beam and the low-bed semi-trailer. For structures verified in class II and considering the very short site design phase, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999, can be applied, and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can be considered in the coating section.

3.3.4 -

Verifications at service limit state (SLS) in service

The verifications must be carried out: • • Upon commissioning After all of the delayed losses and redistributions have occurred (e.g. after 50,000 days, this period may be considered to be “infinite”, even if all of the losses and redistributions have not occurred according to the laws of the BPEL) With or without thermal gradient effects.

3.3.5 -

Verifications at ultimate limit state (ULS) in service

It is difficult to apply ULS coefficients to a structure built in phases. For the verification of longitudinal flexion in service, the following simplified method is proposed:

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Given that: • represents the empty states envelope (state upon commissioning, state after all losses) without weighting (this envelope was been used for SLS verifications) represents the state according to a new calculation performed by applying all of the dead loads at the same time (without prestressing) represents the effect of the imposed loads

The ULS combinations to be considered are: [ ] + [ 0.35 [ ] + [ 1.5 ] ] -I- [ 1.5 ]

With this method, the forces due to the prestress tendons have not been increased. Indeed, if we take: P: to be the prestressing G: to be the dead loads except for the prestressing [concrete (envelope before and after creep), equipment and asphalt] Q: to be imposed loads We can calculate the following: P + 1.35 G + 1.5 Q and P + G + 1.5 Q

With this calculation method, which is considered to be unfavorable, the Ultimate Limit State is not generally a key factor with regard to longitudinal flexion.

3.3.6 -

Dimensioning approach

The dimensioning of a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method is performed at the Service Limit State. Structures dimensioned in this way are then verified at the Ultimate Limit State. The dimensioning can be carried out according to the steps outlined below: 1st stage: determining the cantilever tendons The cantilever cabling is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the selfweight of the concrete in the cantilever and the site loads defined in paragraph 3-2 above. If it is possible to choose the length of the standard segments, i.e. if the length of the form traveler is not imposed, it may be beneficial to choose a segment length and prestressing units that are compatible with the attachment of two tendons per segment. In this situation, it is necessary to test most common prestressing units and to choose the one that gives a conventional segment length, i.e of between three and four meters.

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In most cases, the dimensioning of cantilever tendons takes account of the normal stresses in the upper axis of the section situated directly above the temporary blocks, at the moment of the casting of the final pair of segments, i.e. before the tensioning of any cantilever tendons that might be anchored in this segment. In the case of the final pair of segments without cantilever tendons, the casting of the closing segment may be the critical phase. 2nd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated inside the concrete The continuity cabling inside the concrete is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the effect of the thermal gradient in the construction phase before the stressing of the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete in addition to the effect of the selfweight of the end spans. The internal continuity cabling must also take up some of the redistributed delayed forces. In general, the same prestressing units are chosen for the internal continuity tendons and the cantilever tendons. 3rd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete These tendons are designed to take up the operating forces which are not absorbed by the two preceding families of tendons. This cabling has two roles: • • To keep the shear stress down to acceptable levels by reducing the shear force To keep the normal stress within acceptable levels.

Initally, it is important to concentrate on shear stresses and to discover which segments have permissible levels of shear stress without the reduction made by the external tendons. In this way, the location of the external prestressing deviator can be determined. This must be situated between a third and quarter of the way along the span (a third of the way along the span for variable thickness and a quarter for constant thickness). It should be noted that this method can only give an approximate alignment because the permissible shear stress depends on the normal stress, which is itself dependent on the prestressing that is used. After obtaining an initial alignment, the focus can then be switched to the normal stresses in order to determine the intensity of the prestressing. As the number of external tendons is always the greatest on piers, an initial estimate of the dimensions of the tendons can determined by concentrating on the lower axis of the crown section and by considering that the redistributions of forces due to concrete creep create a tensile stress of approximately 2 MPa. The final alignment can be obtained by making certain adjustments to these initial estimates such as: • • Altering the length of the different tendons (the tendons may cross one, two or three spans) Moving the deviators on one or two segments.

If there are no shear force problems, it is also possible to reduce the number of external cables and to compensate for them by using additional internal continuity tendons in the central zones, which are more economical because they are much shorter.

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deviator segments. the calculations for transverse flexion are performed in a standard section. In a structure of constant depth. 4. this variation is sufficiently localized that it is not normally necessary to perform a specific calculation in addition to the calculation for the standard section. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 58 septembre 2007 . with the taller section close to the pier being more flexible than the crown section. at the gusset located on theinner side of the box-girder. For structures of constant depth characterized by a thickening of the lower slab close to piers. It is then possible to determine the reinforcements for the cross-section in accordance with the different accumulated actions taking into account their concomitance.Verification principles Apart from general longitudinal flexion. anchor blocks. Although the majority of the points covered are not specific to bridges built by the cantilever method. the main sections to be verified are: • -The upper slab: at the base of the cantilever. it is important to design the cross-sections of structures properly in the first place. this chapter describes how to accurately account for the forces in specific elements such as segments on piers. the main points to be considered in the dimensioning of structures are: • • • • Transverse flexion Tangential effects Specific elements such as the segments on piers and on abutments Localized forces. Furthermore. and in the centre of the slab -The webs: at the level of the centre of gravity and at the upper and lower extremities -The lower slab: primarily at the base of the gusset. In a structure of variable depth. In a section of bridge deck. caused mainly by the distribution of the anchoring forces. because it is essential to combine them with localized effects when performing the detailed verifications and determining the reinforcements – The distribution of localized forces – The forces in specific elements (segments on piers and deviators).1 . etc.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4 . we have decided to include them because they are not dealt with in any other guide.Transverse and localized behaviour This chapter covers the behavior of the bridge deck with regard to: – Stresses (flexion and shear) arising from the transverse behavior of the bridge deck – Tangential effects originating from the general longitudinal flexion covered in this chapter. they are generally performed in a section close to a pier and in the crown section. Finally. This makes it possible to account for the differences in behavior between two sections of contrasting height. rather than to rely on complex calculations to remedy any problems.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 59 septembre 2007 .2. to which the loads from any regulations can be applied (e. etc. In the case of more complex structures. 4. These forces include: • • • The forces developed by some of the tie bars for the form travelers The weight of a launch beam on the section of bridge deck that has already been constructed The weight of a segment stored on the segment to be calculated: a situation encountered on certain prefabrication areas with insufficient storage space.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. and especially the "simplified" methods.2. 4. it is possible to use nomographs to calculate the forces. In the construction phase.1 Actions to be considered When the structure is in service. the usual actions must be considered: selfweight of the structure.1 – Sections to be verified 4.2.1 – Calculation with a 2D model (nomographs + frame calculations) For the upper slab.Transverse flexion 4. weight of the superstructures.g. either by directly incorporating the statutory French loads (using Thénoz’ nomographs with loads from Fascicule 61 title II of the French CCTG.2 .2.2 - Calculation of transverse stresses It should be remembered that monocellular bridge decks represent the vast majority of structures built by the cantilever method. loads on the lower slab. apply to this type of structure. or more general methods (Pücher or Homberg). Transverse forces can be calculated in different ways according to the type of deck in question: • • • Using a 2D model Using a 3D model Using a finite element model. additional actions must be introduced in order to account for the forces developed in certain situations encountered on site. any transverse prestressing. 4. weight of road traffic loads. The methods described hereafter. only sophisticated modeling techniques provide a satisfactory response to the problem posed.

Calculations using finite elements have shown that this type of calculation is reasonably accurate for the upper slab when the webs are sufficiently rigid.2 – Principle of the calculation method using nomographs [Sétra’s Bulletin Technique (Technical Bulletin) n° 1 and its Ouvrages d’art (Civil Engineering Structures) Bulletin n° 13 of November 1992 contain further details about this method. However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Eurocode 1) or even loads that are not specified by a particular regulation. This remains valid for the upper part of the webs. the transverse moments acting in the box girder are: • • • M nomograph + M frame for the upper central slab M frame in the webs and lower slab And M nomograph in the cantilevers. the forces are calculated using nomographs for doubleembedded slabs for loads situated between the webs. Fig. this calculation is nowhere near as representative for the lower part of the box girder. Therefore.] According to these calculations. it is only an approximate calculation because on the one hand. it does not represent the distribution of forces from the upper slab towards the webs and the lower slab. For concentrated loads (road traffic loads). This principle of a two-dimensional calculation supposes that: • • The bridge deck is of a locally constant section All of the sections are loaded in the same way. 4. the force is unevenly distributed along the fixed support and on the other. The Thénoz and Pücher nomographs are only used for slabs of a constant thickness while the Homberg nomograph accounts for thickness variations.2). Next. this calculation is completely valid for distributed loads such as selfweight or the fittings. of course Specific points concerning the modeling • The span of the central slab (for calculation by nomographs) is obtained by considering the point of intersection of the intrados of the slab and a line angled at 45° from the origin of the gusset on the web (Fig. the moments obtained at the embedded section are added at the upper nodes in a 2-D model representing a section of deck of a unitary length (Fig. For conventional structures (monocellular box girders). 4. as there is not yet a significant distribution of forces in this area.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 60 septembre 2007 . 4. and nomographs for embedded slabs for loads situated on the cantilevers.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • For the introduction of the moments at the nodes of the frame. this method can be extended to structures other than monocellular box girders. 4.3). by multiplying it by the distance between this theoretical end fixing and the upper node situated on the centerline of the web (Fig. These supports must be situated at the bottom of the webs (in the case of inclined webs). Then it is verified that the support reactions are zero However. 4. This presupposes that the unitary flows due to a vertical load or a torsional moment have first been determined using a calculation program for the characteristics of hollow sections (Fig.3 – Relative positions of the forces calculated at the fixed support of the slab (for the nomographs) and of the upper node of the modeled frame to which the efforts are applied As the principle is obviously valid. Of course. However. Fig.4 – Shear flows due to a vertical force in a monocellular box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 61 septembre 2007 . In order to avoid parasitic forces resulting from a blockage of the nodes in the model. this type of calculation requires a balancing of the loads for each load situation. • • • Fig. it is necessary to add the moment due to the shear force calculated at the theoretical edge of the slab. the fact of directly applying the fixed-end moments (with the nomographs giving a single value) presupposes that the structure and the forces are symmetrical. it is essential to apply the opposite of the load applied (vertical force and torsion moment) to all of the bars of the model in the form of shear flows on each bar. it is necessary to free one of the supports transversally. This shear force is not given by the nomographs. which does not exist in reality.4). but it is easy to calculate For stability. a compression appears in the bars representing the webs. In the interests of accuracy. this model must include two supports. 4. 4. This approximation is justified by the weak difference with the reinforcement calculated with the previous method. because the vertical reactions would then develop a horizontal component (of the normal force in the webs) which does not exist If we simply apply the fixed support reactions of the double-embedded slab at the upper nodes and place the frame supports in the lower nodes. calculations can be simplified not applying this equivalent flow and neglecting the normal effort in the web. in the majority of the cases (monocellular bridge deck with a moderate width and a moderate height).

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 62 septembre 2007 . the 2D model is usually adequate. The analysis of this three-dimensional phenomenon also requires 3D modeling (Fig. as mentioned in the preamble. a common approach is to determine equivalent vertical loads giving the same moments in the middle of the slab and at the fixed support (uniformly distributed loads and knife-edge loads). Significant distorsions may be shown in the cross-section of multi-cellular bridge decks under the effects of both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads. Calgaro. a 3D model is not significantly more accurate.2. thicker sections of webs. 4. Therefore.A.5). 4. for elements with non-standard sections. Despite its complexity. and to a lesser extent on the thickness of the lower slab.2 – Calculation using a 3D model For conventional standard sections.2.Presse des Ponts et Chaussées 88]. these calculations are almost always performed for the section on the pier on the one hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For more complex structures (multi-cellular box girders). in spite of its lack of precision in the lower areas of the webs and in the lower slab. this includes: • • • • • • Segments on piers (even for conventional box girders) Deviator segments for external cables (as above) Very wide monocellular box girders Box girders with transverse ribs Multicellular box girders Box girders with bracing. For example. refer to Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural Analysis of Bridge Decks) by J. On the other hand. it is necessary to adopt another type of modeling (3D with bars or finite shell elements) which shows up local structural variations (ribs. . crossbeams on supports or deviator beams. etc.) or non-homogeneous behavior. a 2D calculation is often too simplistic and unrealistic in terms of the actual distribution of forces. and for section at the crown on the other. As the frame effect in a structure of variable depth depends on the rigidity of the webs (according to their height and thickness). which will then be moved transversally into different positions in order to obtain the maximum effects in the transverse structure. [For further information about these methods.

webs. …) in order to account for the distribution of forces in both directions of the beam grid. Furthermore. To determine the rod center of gravity and inertia. and on the other hand. The loads applied to the section itself are balanced out by directly opposite flows (cf. The external forces are applied to the segment in the form of flows in the end sections of the model.slabs.6). as the external actions originate primarily from the flows on the end section. it is necessary to be very careful to modelize conditions at the limits (the six degree of freedom of the nodes are not all embedded) to guarantee the representativity of the model. bending inertia) and the torsion inertia is considered to be equal to half of the bending inertia of the corresponding rectangular cross section (shell element . it is necessary to model a portion of bridge deck that is long for the forces not to be disturbed by the conditions at the extremities. In this case. the breakdown must remain consistent with that used in the longitudinal direction. it is important to take account for the effective width of slab. • In the other directions.2. which rapidly increases the size of the model. it is possible to take account of the longitudinal symmetry in order to halve the size of the model. because on the one hand. • According to the elements to be analysed (segments on supports or a standard sections of a complex structure). • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 63 septembre 2007 . deviator beams) modify the rods neutral axis. Each rod has its own specific characteristics (area. equal to approximately ¼ to ½ of the height. It is advisable to divide the deck into sufficiently short sections. we are using the bridge deck’s actual supports.It is therefore necessary that end sections should modelize the section of a standard segment. the longitudinal division can be varied in order to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy for the forces to be calculated: In order to study the behaviour of a complex standard section. we are only interested in the forces in proximity to the crossbeam. 4.1). rib.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.5 –3D model of a multi-cellular box girder Basic modeling recommendations A 3D model is a beam grid system. The strengthening pieces (segment on pier.2. 4. § 4. but does not apply for stiffener. we can also limit the length of the modeled portion to a few sections (Fig. in order to obtain the correct local forces For a segment on pier.

if an entire span is being modeled.French Civil Engineering Association)]. especially in proximity to the bearings or perpendicular to the deviators. the segment of shells and bars are connected by an arrangement of rigid bars laid out in a “spider” configuration. and the forces at the extremities of the model are completely disturbed. it is extended by a segment of three times the height on each side (Fig. Fig. On the other hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this type of modeling. Consequently. In general.7). Under no circumstances can they compensate for a poor initial design. 4.6 – Modeling of a half-segment on pier using a 3D model This method is more cumbersome than the 2D calculation method.2. featuring the same cross-section characteristics. Of course. In order to apply the general forces correctly. For detailed information about modeling and calculation methods. 4. Basic modeling recommendations Several basic rules apply to this modeling: • The conditions at the limits are very important. For example.3 – Calculation using finite shell elements As mentioned previously. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 64 septembre 2007 . but the engineer must have an excellent command of finite elements and a detailed analysis of both the structure itself and its modeling must be performed. 4. it can be considered that the zone to be ignored corresponds to approximately 2 to 3 times the height of the section. These programs are extremely powerful and are capable of solving complex problems. 3D modeling is generally reserved for segments on supports or deviators. it is necessary to model a sufficiently long portion in order to obtain a reasonably large undisturbed “usable” area. a shell-type finite element calculation can be performed when the structure is not a traditional box girder. it is also necessary to extend the shell model with bars representing the deck itself.2. due to the fact that it is impossible to generate elements automatically. or for any other reason (better curracy for example). but it gives a better representation of the direction of the forces. the forces given by the model are directly usable. please refer to the "Emploi des éléments finis en génie civil" (Use of Finite Elements in Civil Engineering) documents published by the AFGC (Association française de génie civil .

or “T” sections require a reconstitution of the forces on the section based upon the constraints for each element. This type of model must not be used to determine highly localized dispersion forces such as those in the first regularization prism or the radial tendon forces in the deviators. 4. but which present other difficulties. • • • • Fig.50 to 0.4. it is then necessary to add offset rods or 3D finite elements.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The shape of the elements must not be too distended. which makes it possible to choose the positions of the loads in order to obtain the maximum effect required. None of these forces should be omitted (anchoring forces and thrusts close to the deviations). including on the bars outside the shell segment Traffic loads: in order to perform an accurate calculation. Thus. the slabs and webs can be broken down into elements measuring approximately 0. Remarks The shell finite elements are not adapted to model properly the massive parts of a segment on pier (cross-beam or anchorage block for example) . Otherwise. with the crossbeams or deviators also having maximum thicknesses of 0. Consequently. it is possible to determine the lines of influence (or rather the surfaces of influence) of the efforts in question in these sections. which we can continue to calculate manually. the designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this method can be very cumbersome due to the need to move the imposed loads “manually” on the upper slab for certain finite elements programs which do not have an automatic load placement function. however.50 m to 0.60 m in the plan view. for which the ratio should also not exceed 2 (otherwise. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 65 septembre 2007 . because the system forms an independently balanced structure The dead loads are entered over the entire structure. giving a shape similar to a rectangle. In general. after defining the calculation sections (in the transverse direction). the forces given by the model are directy exploitable.1). This method must be used in very specific cases and require a high level in modelling with 3D finite elements. and it also takes account of the interaction between the general effects and the local effects (general dispersion). a maximum ratio of approximately 2 is recommended between the plan-view dimensions and the thickness. use triangular elements). such as determine the efforts and deduce the corresponding reinforcement (see also § 4.60 m It should be remembered that the results for finite elements are given at the centre of gravity of the element. One of the main advantages of this method is that it gives an effective representation of the behaviour of the structure. the reinforced concrete elements. interpolations will have to be performed: a long manual operation that is a source of errors or inaccuracies The prestressing must be entered in the form of external forces. both in the standard parts and in specific areas such as the segments on piers or deviators. in terms of their two-dimensional characteristics and their thickness. The structure should therefore be broken down in such a way that the centres of gravity of the elements are situated in line with the correct cross sections: at the gussets for example.7 – Breakdown of a bridge deck into finite shell elements Furthermore.

2.3 - Lateral thrust in curved or deviated compressed or stressed elements 4. This is a cylindrical shell subjected to longitudinal compression stresses which can be considered to be uniform transversally to the structure. which stresses the upper axis on the centerline of the slab and the lower axis in line with the fixed end in the web. by: q = σ b moy e Rmoy with σb moy = mean stress in the lower slab for the segment in question e = thickness of the lower slab in this segment Rmoy = mean radius of the mean axis of the lower slab for the segment in question. In a cross-section. This moment varies throughout the length of the structure due to the longitudinal variations in the thickness of the slab and the extent of the stresses in the section. This slab is embedded in the webs of the box girder. This stress field causes a lateral thrust towards the top of the slab which is balanced out by the embedding of the slab in the webs and causes a transverse bending moment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 66 septembre 2007 . preferably using a gusset.3.1 – Lateral thrusts of concrete in curved slabs In bridge decks of variable depth.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. the distribution of the fixed end moments in the webs and in the span also varies according to the relative stiffnesses of the slab and webs (with the upper slab generally being constant). The lateral thrust in a given section of the structure of a unitary length is expressed per (transverse) meter of slab. the longitudinal compression in the lower slab creates a lateral thrust (due to the curvature of the slab) which creates a transverse flexion of this slab.2.

These tendons are tensioned in the second phase after the completion of the cantilevers. By calling f the linear force of the radial thrust of the tendon. the presence of ducts reduces the strength of the section and thus increases the likelihood of the structure breaking along lines parallel to the ducts. Two different situations are identified: • • Tendons in the curved slabs Construction irregularities. However. this force is equal to f = – P the prestressing force of the tendon – R radius of curvature P with: R The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 67 septembre 2007 . 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Furthermore. [See article from P. Virlogeux – Annales de l'IBTP February 1981].8 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – longitudinal section Fig.3.9 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – transverse section Note In the case of a high curved lower slab (for example with a cubic depth variation).2 – Radial thrust of continuity tendons The presence of prestress tendons in the lower slab causes a phenomenon of the same type but in the opposite direction.2. an area of low slab compression: the action of these tendons is therefore preponderant. instability of this lower slab may occur under compression in the most curved zone. these tendons are close to the centre of the span. but in the opposite direction. The presence of tendons in the curved slabs generates similar forces to those described above. 4. when the end or intermediate spans between consecutive cantilevers are closed. Faessel – Journée de l'AFPC April 1974 and M. 4.

Note The lateral thrust also exists when continuity tendons are placed in the gussets.3. Indeed.10 – Forces perpendicular to angular points – longitudinal section This is why it is essential to place a stiffener or crossbeam in this area in order to transfer the force towards the webs and to take up the transverse flexion of the slab. a crossbeam is also needed to take up the torsion forces due to the asymmetrical loading of the bridge deck. The principle is the same as above. irregularities in the alignment of the ducts during construction. this arrangement is not recommended. localized lateral thrusts originate in the lower slab at the point of intersection of two rectilinear portions of lower slab subjected to longitudinal compression stresses. 4. because the segments are short and the large number of joints increases the risk of irregularities. In the case of a bridge deck with a high curvature in the horizontal plane. The resultant is directed according to the bisector of the mean lines of the slab.2.3-3 – Lateral thrust in a lower slab perpendicular to an angular point In bridge decks of variable depth with linear gussets. if the radius of curvature becomes very small (producing an angular point). On a support. 4. The same applies directly above the supports when the slope of the slab suddenly changes. the differential shrinkage can cause cracks near the tendon layouts which can lead to the corrosion of the tendon. Even for structures of constant depth. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 68 septembre 2007 . produce concentrated forces which can result in problems or even spalling in the lower slab. the horizontal component of this thrust is not negligeable. However this phenomenon is less severe because the thickness of the concrete enables better distribution of the forces. the force increases significantly amd can lead to the breaking of the slab. Fig. with the radial thrust being directed according to the bisector of the tendons layouts. They thus develop large localized forces which must be taken up by these deviators. particularly in line with the segment joints. 4. giving a concentrated effort which results in strong localized stresses in the lower slab. In addition. It is thus highly inadvisable to place tendons in the lower slab of bridge decks of variable depth.4 – Thrust perpendicular to a deviator External prestressing tendons are deviated in deviator crossbeams with a small radius of curvature.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Furthermore.2.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. This phenomenon will be amplified with a high strength concrete. the corresponding section of reinforcement is added to that which is determined by the general shear force. It is not necessary to take it into account in the case of monocellular box girder.12 – Localized thermal gradient in the upper slab Note This gradient has some effect only in the case of multicellular box girders. Fig.12 represents the thermal gradient in a common concrete box-girder according to Eurocode 1 – Section 1. the shrinkage can cause a longitudinal cracking. The figure 4. This gradient results in transverse flexion which is added to the other stresses.11 – Forces perpendicular to a prestressing deviator 4. a wide lower slab or a cement with a high hydratation heat.4% for a C40/50 concrete. 4. As concreting is made at the contact of the previous segment. it gives 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 69 septembre 2007 . in certain cases it is advisable to consider the localized effects caused by a gradient operating between the two faces of the upper slab. For information only. we propose to consider a gradient of 10°C in the upper slab under the form of a linear gradient. 4. we advise to place a minimum reinforcement ratio equal to 10-4 fc of the lower slab section (with fc expressed in MPa). Lower slab The lower slab requires generally few lateral reinforcements unless it is very wide.5 Δθ. In the webs.5. Therefore. The combination to use is the same as the one for general flexion : G + Wr + 0.4 Upper slab Forces due to thermal phenomena In addition to conventional flexion forces due to the thermal gradient. It shows that a thermal gradient exists in the upper slab.2. For example.

revised in 1999. that the shear stresses are permissible at all points.General tangential stresses 4.Limit State Reinforced Concrete Code) 1991.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. The contract can also impose the amount of transversal prestressing. Such a choice has to be written in the Special Technical Clauses (STC).3 . the verification of the parts and the determination of the prestressing bars and reinforcements are carried out according Class III in the BPEL (Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code) 1991. in order to reduce the probability of cracking. This is why calculation methods always have a greater safety margin for shearing Secondly.2 - General design assumptions Shear force calculations are carried out on sections of the beam perpendicular to the mean axis (Fig 4. To limit the amount of reinforcements (it is necessary to enable a good concreting) and to limit the fatigue risk in these reinforcements or their corrosion. the upper slab must remain transversally compressed under a proportion of the imposed loads: for example.French Railways).2. Cracks caused by shear forces do not close up on their own like flexion cracks when the stress is reversed. revised in 1999. But it is generally advised to increase the lateral prestressing because this latter is only determined by the condition of zero traction in concrete under dead loads while the imposed loads have a much bigger effect. • 4. failure due to shear forces is a brittle rather than a ductile phenomenon. Cracking is generally considered to be detrimental. the verification of the parts and the calculation of the reinforcements are carried out according to the instructions in the BAEL (Béton armé à l’état limite . The required amount of reinforcement would be high because the traffic loads would cause frequent and repetitive cracking.5 - Verifications of the sections In the absence of transverse prestressing. under the effects of the fatigue truck Bf (a single truck placed in the centerline of the slower lane).résistance à la fatigue" (Metal and Composite Bridges – Resistance to Fatigue) guide published by Sétra/CTICM (Centre technique industriel de la construction métallique . It should be remembered that verification at the service limit state is designed to control cracking and at the ultimate limit state the aim is to ensure safety by preventing brittle fractures. Furthermore. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 70 septembre 2007 . that the non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to take up the forces due to the concomitance of flexion and shear forces are properly positioned and dimensioned with regard to the statutory requirements (verification at the Service Limit State and the Ultimate Limit State).Industrial Technical Centre for Steel Construction)/ SNCF (Société nationale de chemins de fer .3.1 Verification principles The verification of the bridge deck under tangential stresses consists of checking: • Firstly. the class III rules have to be completed as followed : For the sake of good design and to prevent excessive cracking.13 where G1 and G2 are respectively the center of gravity of the vertical cross-sections and of the cross-section perpendicular to the mean axis.3. When the transverse section is prestressed (upper slab). 4. specified in the "Ponts métalliques et mixtes .

2. fittings and imposed loads) Thermal gradient The redistribution of forces due to creep Prestressing (cf. on sections perpendicular to the upper axis.Influence of construction sequence of operations 1) Segment on pier The segment on pier is a large structure which is subjected to highly variable stresses during the construction of the bridge deck and when the structure is in service. or more precisely. These major phases are: • Imbalances during the construction of the cantilever.3. the Resal Effect must also be considered.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. In addition. from construction through to commissioning. it is important to verify all of the major phases. § 4.3.2). detachment of form traveler) The transfer of supports after the grouting of closing segments The tensioning of the external prestressing in the segment on pier (maximum distribution forces) The service state (maximum flexion).3. This calculation is usually less favourable. with the segment on pier being embedded (asymmetrical casting . calculations of shear force are sometimes carried out on vertical sections. The following actions must be considered: • • • • External loads (selfweight. although not always so. as the distribution of areas and stresses may reverse the phenomenon (cf.1 .13 – Shear force on straight sections To simplify. 4. Therefore. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 71 septembre 2007 . rather than just concentrating on the definitive situation. § 4. 4.3).2.

4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4. 4.14 – Traditional segment on pier Fig.16 – Embedded segment on pier The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 72 septembre 2007 .15 – Segment on pier with double supports Fig.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 73 septembre 2007 .2. Consequently. the support reaction is not equal to the sum of the shear forces to the right and left of this support.4 – Transverse morphology The development of highways and urban structures has led to the construction of extremely wide structures.3 – Bridge deck of variable height For structures of variable height. the mean axis presents an angular point directly above the support.17. when not fully understood. other include them only at the other side of the segment.2 – Method used to account for prestressing Tendons anchored at less than one regularization length from the section being studied create some distribution effects which add to the general effects (in particular shear force) provided by the design program.3. 4. this type of section is sensitive to the distorsion (deformation of the cross-section) that appears under loads.3.2. These structures are more difficult to build and their complex transverse behavior.3.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2) Standard segments The major phases for standard segments are: • • • The prestressing of the segment in question (maximum dispersion forces) The end of the construction of the cantilever (maximum prestressing in the section) The service state (maximum flexion). the angle of the tendons in relation to the mean axis generally reduces the shear force according to the diagram 4. Therefore. 3D modeling is required to account for the transverse and longitudinal stiffnesses of the section. may lead to problems in the webs (non-uniform distribution of shear forces. multicellular structures are also sometimes used. Fig. Although the majority of structures are now mono-cellular box girders. but the vertical component of the normal force in the section must be added to it.17 – Diagram of the reduction of shear force due to the tendons 4. especially for box girders with three webs. In particular. 4. . it is important to be consistent when using the design program to account for the reduction of shear force due to the tendons in order to avoid counting the same force twice. Furthermore. 4.Certain design programs include them just after their anchorage. as the central web takes up the most force).

this makes it possible to reach a total effective width of b = total thickness of webs + 0.3. However. For an initial approximation.4 of the BPEL. it is advisable to place a tendon at the end of each cantilever and position it so that it compresses the ends of the upper slab (see § 4.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 74 septembre 2007 . it is therefore not necessary to reduce the effective width in such a structure. The creep leads to a transfer of loads : • • Vertically the parts built in the second phase leans against the first box girder The normal force of the part built in the second phase tends to go to the part built in the first phase.18 – Example of a very wide bridge deck 4. the effective width of the upper slabs on very wide monocellular box girder structures (with or without struts and/or ribs) is reduced in relation to their total width (shear lag phenomenon). on either side of the web (for a box girder with two webs. The main disadvantage of this method is the differential shrinkage which appears between concrete of different ages: between the concrete used for the box girders on the one hand and that used for the transverse grouting on the other.4 l. It is recommended to concentrate the cantilever prestress tendons perpendicular to the webs so that they can directly take up the loads applied by the webs (by shearing).3 - RESAL EFFECT 4. Finally. in preventing the buckling of this slab .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Another solution that has been virtually abandoned in France is to construct structures with two box girders joined together by the upper slab.1 – Basic principles In structures of variable depth.3 for further details). the presence of ribs improve the distribution of forces in the upper slab. However. this transfer of loads has only a moderate effect on the stresses. Fig. we usually see an adjustment of the shear force due to the fact that the mean fibre is inclined in relation to the slab: the compression in the slabs presents a component in the direction of the shear force. the distribution of forces concentrated in this type of section is not compatible with the normal simplified rules and requires a specific study. 4. this phenomenon can be accounted for according to the precepts of Article 5. Finally. by limiting the effective width to 1/10th of the length of the span in question.3.3. Furthermore. It is important to consider this when evaluating flexion stresses.

ΔV is the correction of shear force by the Resal effect: ΔV = -(α .3. in contrast to what can happen in highly asymmetrical spans in which a reversal of the shear force can be observed. the areas in question for the calculation of Nls and Nus are the slabs and gussets.3.2 – Vertical section calculations With modern calculation methods. as the compression of the upper slab is limited. no.T.P. 391. 4.ϕ) Nls + ϕNus with: ϕ the angle of the mean axis from the upper axis α the angle of the lower slab in relation to the upper slab Nls force (compression) of the lower slab Nus force (compression) of the upper slab According to the BPEL. 4.Virlogeux in the Annales de l’I.19 – Resal effect in the upper and lower slabs A part of the shear force is balanced by the normal force in the slab. whereas because the variation in height is the greatest in this area.B. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 75 septembre 2007 .T. As can be seen in the formula above. it is possible to perform calculations on vertical sections provided that: • • The extrados can be considered to be horizontal Shear forces are directed in the usual direction according to the cantilever. see the article by M. the upper slab exerts a Resal "counter-effect" in opposition to the effect in the lower slab. [For further details on theoretical methods. calculations are systematically performed on section perpendicular to the neutral axis.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. This is usually weak in proximity to the supports. For the pre-design calculations. there is a greater Resal effect due the lower slab. excluding the webs. February 1981]. The shear force is equal to V + ΔV.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case.1). Fig. the formula is simplified to: ΔV = . This formula supposes that there is no concentrated forces in the vicinity of the studied section. 4. it should be remembered that the whole diameter of the duct shall be deduced from the width when it is not injected.20 – Shear reaction of angled webs As for the value of the nominal width. of the part situated above the transverse slice in relation to the line passing through the centre of gravity). 4. the width b is the straight width of the web in question and not its skewed width directly above the slice. the shear reaction caused by shearing force can be expressed by the following formula: τ m = Vred S( y ) bn ( y ) I with bn(y) Total width at the y ordinate S(y) Static moment at the y ordinate (i.e. the vertical section calculation is less favorable.3.5 - Torsion shear The pure Saint-Venant torsion shear is equal to: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 76 septembre 2007 . 4.4.Nls sin α with α being the angle of the lower slab from the horizontal As mentioned previously. or injected with a flexible product.4 - Shear reaction due to shearing force For a traditional structure with two webs. and a half-diameter shall be deduced when it is injected with a cement grout (cf. in the event of there being a tendon in proximity to the joint (“internal” tendon). BAEL Article 7. The difference may be as much as 1 MPa in certain configurations.3. This is especially true close to the supports due to the steeper angle of the mean line. Additional steel reinforcement brought by the tendon anchorages are determined with the distribution calculations. and less so in proximity to the crowns. Vred I Reduced shear force Inertia of the entire section When the webs are angled.

In the case of a curved bridge which section is supposed undeformable as indicated above. The stresses σx. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 77 septembre 2007 . As a result. and generates a torsion opposed to that of the selfweight The external prestressing having a polygonal layout. Area of tube defined by the middle surface of the box girder walls Thickness of the wall This torsion is caused by asymmetrical loads (dead loads and especially imposed loads) and by any curvature of the bridge deck in the horizontal plane. as the structures feature deviators which act as stiffeners and have webs with approximately the same thickness as the slabs (with quite similar stiffnesses). the center of gravity of the arch portion is on the inner side of the curvature.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τT = T 2Ωe with T Ω e moment of torsion. revised in 1999.6 fcj − σ x − σ t )⎡ftj + 3 (σ x + σ t )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (no failure due to shearing and compression) In the general situation in which σt = 0 (no vertical prestressing).4 ftj ⎢ftj + σ x ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎤ and τ2 ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0. This undeformability hypothesis can be considered if the length between stiffeners does not exceed 5 to 6 times the box girder width.6 fcj − σ x )⎡ftj + 3 σ x ⎤ with the first formula nearly always ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ predominating. • • • 4. Beyond. must therefore satisfy the following inequalities at the service limit state: For σx > 0 τ 2 − σ x σ t ≤ 0. the box girder distorsion increases the difference of longitudinal flexion between the webs and can be expressed with an offset coefficient applied to the loads. generates a torsion which increases the load on the support on the inner side. the torsion induced by the curvature has to be taken account for at different stages: At the construction of the cantilever.6 - Verification of the sections The sections are verified according to Article 7. we obtain: τ 2 ≤ 0.3. σt and τ calculated at any point of a section. for self-weight. This shear is algebraically added to the shearing force calculated previously.4 ftj ⎢ftj + ⎣ ⎡ 2 (σ x + σ t )⎤ (no failure due to cracking) ⎥ 3 ⎦ τ 2 −σ x σ t ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0.2 of the BPEL 1991. which is generally the case. • This calculation obviously supposes that the section is undeformable. the torsion effect tends to load the support on the inner side The fittings weight applies on the continuous structure.

it is necessary to bring the active stirrups very close together.1).7 - Active stirrups (for information) This technique has sometimes been used to improve the shear resistance of webs. The reinforcements are determined at the ultimate limit state (BPEL. The procedure for calculating the non-prestressed reinforcements is similar to that laid down in the BPEL.Article 6. Article 4. revised in 1999.3. their tension can differ considerably from the expected value due to the setting of anchorage wedges.2) does not require verification at the service limit state. it is important to tie in the shear strain using transverse reinforcement bars. some of the vertical prestressing force is dissipated in localized areas of rigidity such as deviators or crossbeams (zones in which the greatest shear reaction is usually encountered reached).23 of the BPEL 91.8 – Tying the slabs into the webs In order to prevent the fracturing of the vertical planes situated at the origin of the gussets (points S1.10. It is also important to verify the shear stresses at the service limit state as mentioned above (cf.1 at § 4.1) due to excessive shearforce. prestressing bars) The distribution of forces only occurs above a certain length . these reinforcements emerge in the upper slab and are thus extremely sensitive to corrosion. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 78 septembre 2007 . S2. with the contribution of the concrete accounted for in a similar way but with several additional refinements. thus complicating the concreting process Due to their design. As this document is still under development. § 4. the shear force at the web/lower slab junction must be verified without taking account of this compression To guarantee the correct distribution of forces.95 is usually adopted for this k’ coefficient (BPEL. Therefore.3-6).u − bn st γ s ⎜ 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ tgβ u for reinforcements perpendicular to the mean axis. the limit stress τ must be multiplied by a coefficient k’. see Fig 4.1 . • • • • 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When the calculations are performed with the probable value of prestressing Pm. Article 7.2): ftj At fe ⎛ ≥ ⎜τ red . we shall refer back to it when it is finally published.3. The only reason for its inclusion here is to remind readers of the drawbacks which led to its fall from grace: • Considering the very short length of the prestressing tendons. Only certain types of active reinforcements can guarantee the correct tension (compression fittings. for example) Finally. Special precautions must be taken with regard to structures built by the cantilever method due to their technical complexity. Consequently.hence there is a lack of compression between the anchorages at the bottom of the web. ⎟ ⎠ Eurocode 2 (EN 1992 1. I1. a figure of 0. These bars are dimensioned in accordance with the instructions in Article 7. which makes this a particularly costly solution (requiring sealed caps and ducts.3. It is thus necessary to use “offshore” types of protection techniques. These stirrups have to be inserted into the passive reinforcement of the web. 4.3.

4.1. • • • 4. 4.PCI Journal – May / June 1987] to verify this transmission of forces. 4. the subsequent anchoring of the external continuity prestressing. a 3D model is generally used to model the segment on pier due to the presence of reinforcing elements (crossbeam. J. – see also § 4.4.Specific elements 4. The verifications focus mainly on: • The transmission of support reactions from the bearings (both temporary and permanent) towards the webs The take-up of torsion forces by the crossbeam The take-up of the lateral thrust of the lower slab by this same crossbeam for a variable height The distribution of the prestressing forces due to the tendons positioned in the segment on pier (SOP). HPC.21 – Tie bars to combat shear strain in the slab/web area For the lower slab.2 – 3D model As previously mentioned in § 4.3 – Strut and tie model It is also possible to use a strut-and-tie model [cf. A value of 0. crossbeam for definitive or temporary bearings). This model is used to verify the first three points presented above.4).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1 Segments on piers 4.1.2.4.2. etc.2. The principle of this method is the following: • Construction of a model composed of struts and ties which replace the actual stresses fields by straight elements and which concentrate the stress deviation in the nodes Calculation of the effort statically balanced in the rods of the truss-model Page 79 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .1.4 .2.5% seems to be sufficient under the most penalizing conditions (large width. Schlaich .4. 4. a minimum level of transverse reinforcement is necessary to reduce cracking due to thermal shrinkage in the central area of the slab.) which completely modify its behavior in comparison to a standard section. thicker sections of web.1 Generalities It should be remembered that the initial static design of these parts of structures often does not allow for the application of Strength of Materials principles for the wire frame beams at all points. It is thus important to verify that the morphology of the segment on pier is capable of withstanding the transmissions of internal forces (e.g. etc.

The model is balanced with the force brought by this zone B. But it is sometimes difficult to determine the load path. it is reasonable to consider the actual section. A poor choice of struts and ties could lead to an incorrect arrangement of reinforcement bars and the use of excessively or insufficiently large sections. the crossbeams on piers have to take up these additional forces (see also § 4.22 Support crossbeam . This can be quite cumbersome. as the section is not constant (anchor blocks and thicker sections of web). It is on this section that we shall consider the stresses to be evenly distributed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Dimensioning of struts.22 represents the working of the crossbeam under the effect of the torsion transmitted by the box girder. Fig.3 – Particular points In the case of structures with high curvature. The fourth point (distribution) is verified according to the usual principles (Appendix 4 of the BPEL). This has hardly any effect on the reinforcement which depends primarily on force rather than stresses.1.transmission of torsion As an example.4. when evaluating the shear stresses at the level of the transverse slices.22 below shows the behavior of the support crossbeam under the effect of the torsion of the box girder. it requires the engineer to have a very good understanding of structural behaviour. the bridge deck is subjected to torsion moments caused by the curvature.e. However.5). i. On the other hand. Figure 4. The stress diagram of this B zone is divided in such a way as to balance the concentrated forces by the corresponding zone with regularly distributed stress. The load paths have to link the two sides of the studied zone without crossing each other. the figure 4. for a common type of crossbeam ("V" shape). Other types of crossbeam can be considered : "A" shape. this distribution length generally includes the “standard” cross section of the bridge deck. The usual method is the load path method. The model is linked to the rest of the structure where the stress are supposed to be regularly distributed and linearized (B zone as Bernoulli. 4. including the additional thicknesses of the anchor blocks. cf Schlaich). ties and nodes. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 80 septembre 2007 . The latter choice would be a much more serious problem. The reader’s attention is drawn to the fact that although this method is very effective for use with any irregular parts of this type. Considering the relatively large depth of the bridge deck in this area (especially in the case of structures of a variable depth). The difficulty of this method is the construction of the model. it is necessary to make a choice between the sections in which the distribution of stresses is carried out. Obviously. It can require the use of a finite element model. 4. The rods of the model have to be oriented according to the direction of the internal forces given by the Elasticity Theory.3. which results in significant shear reactions in the webs close to the piers. or strengthened frame.

4.1 Distribution of forces caused by the prestressing anchorages In general. On the other hand. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 81 septembre 2007 . However. The design principles are the same as for the segments on piers. For this reason it is advised to place a transversal prestressing to reduce the passive reinforcement and make concreting easier. it is necessary to stiffen the end of the upper slab under the pavement joint in order to take up the localized flexion forces at this edge under the effects of the moving loads.4. the distribution of prestressing is verified in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 of the BPEL 91. it is sufficient to anchor two longitudinal tendons in the inferior angle above the support.23 – Section of a slice for distribution Remark To study the distribution of forces due to tendon anchorages in segments on piers. The rebars will be placed at the opposite side of the anchorages where as the cracking phenomena always occur near the anchorages. As the height is constant. it is important not to wait too much before stripping not to obstruct the shrinkage. Eurocode 2 does not have a chapter about the distribution of concentrated loads. the distribution forces are much greater due to the fact that all of the external tendons are anchored in the same section. it is advised to place some reinforcing bars in the opposite sides of the anchorage blocks to make it non brittle. In general. When concreting these segments.5 . This prestressing enables also a cracking control. the following specific additions should be made – while awaiting modifications to this appendix.2 - Segments on abutments Segments on abutments have to transfer much smaller forces to the supports than segments on piers. 4.Localized forces and reinforcements 4. the phenomenon of lateral thrust due to the compression exerted by the lower slab does not exist. Furthermore.5. revised in 1999. generally with a inner wood formwork. as this article features several ambiguities or omissions. 4. Anyway. (or in segments on abutments). the upper slab has been sometimes considered as a beam supported by the web and the reinforcement calculated as a flexion reinforcement. The balance of the end strut will have to be studied very carefully. This method was not satisfying since this "beam" is not a beam as a matter of fact because of the existence of the rest of the slab behind the element artificially isolated with length lr.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. As it currently stands. This can lead to an incorrect arrangement of rebars and to severe problems in the structure.

resulting firstly in very low shear forces and the use of insufficient reinforcements.2 – Continuity tendon anchor blocks Reinforcement bars for the anchor blocks are determined in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 § 2 of the BPEL 91. It should be remembered that it is highly inadvisable to situate anchor blocks or tendons inside the concrete in curved (cf.2. It must be remembered that the cracks which are observed in examples of the distribution of concentrated efforts always appear near the anchorage. for the A2 reinforcements.5. Finally. However. The transverse reinforcements in these anchor blocks must tie the blocks into the rest of the section. The areas of reinforcements in question must be the sum of the cross sections in both planes (horizontal and vertical). The following reinforcements must be used: • Reinforcement bars at the top of the anchor block in order to tie the block into the neighboring box girder wall (A1 reinforcements) Reinforcement bars taking up the radial thrust when the tendon deviates (A3 reinforcements) Tie bars for the rest of the anchor block (A2 reinforcements).1. with fe=500 MPa for classical reinforcement Fe E 500 (no limitation to 400 MPa). a maximum value of 0. Because the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 82 septembre 2007 For the A1 reinforcements.1 – Distribution in the horizontal plane For the regularization length.5. • • The aim of the calculations is to verify the safety at rupture for cracked concrete. For example. we simply use F sin α according to the deviation plane of the tendon. because it is a ultimate limit state verification. and secondly. σs This represents nearly all of the “surface” and “spalling” reinforcements described in the BPEL For the A3 reinforcements.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. it must not be assumed that the bridge deck is simply “rotated” through 90°. two sections of reinforcements must be considered for A1 and the same applies to A2 and A3. For example. It is recommended to use half of the width of the bridge deck in the case of a box girder.2F is also used due to the fact that the prestressing force is directed towards the concrete and it thus exerts a component that is perpendicular to the “horizontal” calculation axis. This would give an excessive length. the problem is compared with a non-cracked state. in order to facilitate these calculations. and that it is preferable to place them in line with the gussets at the junction with the web.2 F .1. revised in 1999. § 4. the cross section is equal to : A1 = 0. 4. this value is normally around 0. The reinforcement elastic stress shall be taken with its real value. considering the anchoring force at the service limit state and limiting the stress in the reinforcements to σs = 2 fe 3 with F being the force at the anchorage. in these reinforcements being positioned too far from the point at which the forces are applied.2F.3-2) or even straight lower slabs.

the segments have multiple shear keys designed to transmit the shear force. Furthermore. Furthermore.3 of the BPEL 91. (For further details. see "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°11 from January 92 and comments and observations in n°12 from July 92 and n°14 from March 93.5. 4.5. it is essential to make the anchoring elements thick enough (in the longitudinal direction of the bridge deck) to ensure that they are capable of transmitting most of the force.24 – Reinforcement of an anchor block 4. revised in 1999. 4. rather than thickening the anchorage blocks to resist an inappropriate intermediary phase. 4.3 – Traction reinforcements Traction reinforcements may be necessary to take up the traction due to the obstructed shortening of the concrete. it is sometimes more appropriate to foresee a phasing which limits the dissymetry of tensioning forces. by limiting their length near to tendon. behind the anchor blocks. In the first place.)] Fig.5. Transmission via compressed concrete struts is always the most efficient method. it is important to respect the concrete cover – not too small.4 – External tendons The major characteristic of the external tendons is their great individual power which. results in the need to ensure that such large forces are securely anchored.1. it is a matter of common sense to position the anchorages for external tendons in the crossbeams as close as possible to the webs and slabs in order to transmit the forces as directly as possible towards the walls of the box girder.2 - Shear keys of prefabricated segments In prefabricated structures. These reinforcements are determined in accordance with the instructions given in Appendix 4 § 2.1. not too high – to guarantee the concrete durability. Finally. The shear reaction is considered to be taken up over the shear keys cross-section according to the following formula: τ b = 0.65 ftj + σ with The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 83 septembre 2007 . we have to be careful not to overdimension this zone. A lack of thickness results in punching shear in the element in relation to the box girder tube which cannot be taken up by the reinforcements alone. Mistakes in this area have sometimes led to complete failures which could have been avoided with a minimum of forethought at the design stage. added to the fact that the force is obviously applied outside the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide excess of reinforcement leads to concreting difficulties.

10 . the shear force is taken up throughout the entire height of the web. Because some of the shear keys could break during stripping. in the case of variable height decks with vertical joints.2. Fig.25 – Prefabricated segment crowns 4. In the case of prefabricated segments. 0. although this phenomenon is shared by all prefabricated structures: a transverse “banana-shaped” deformation occurs in the horizontal plane due to the thermal gradient between the segment in the process of hardening and the segment that has already been cast.3 - Deformation of prefabricated segments It has already been mentioned in paragraph 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide ftj σ characteristic tensile strength of the concrete normal stress at the centre of gravity of the section The shear keys alone have to take up the shear force before polymerization of the adhesive.2 MPa in order to spread the glue in all the section.10 is the height of the keyshear (Vn+1) In certain situations in which there is a rapid rate of assembly. Furthermore. The number of shear keys required is calculated accordingly: it is considered that the shear force of n segments is taken up by the shear keys alone in the first section at the end of polymerization. have specific behaviors and a reduced effective slab width. Fig. b with b representing the width of the shear key (0. several segments may be lashed before the first joint has had time to polymerize (up to four segments on the Ile de Ré bridge. they suffer from a problem that increases with width. shear keys have to be placed in the upper and lower slab to prevent the shifting of the slabs.4. for the glue to evacuate when compressing the joint : for evident aesthetical reasons. which are becoming increasingly common. 4. as for cast-in-situ structures. these keys take up the the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab which slopes gradually towards the supports.3. Finally. for example). Once the adhesive has polymerized.25) can take up: Vad = τ b . A conventional shear keys such as the one shown hereafter (cf. 4. it is necessary to foresee additional keys.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 84 septembre 2007 . It is advised to compress the joint section with 0. It is essential that the shear keys leads to a web side. we make the keys lead to the inner side of the box girder. that extremely wide structures.

[For further information. an accumulated deformation of 24 mm can occur over a span of approximately 30 meters in length.6. firstly due to their high individual power. which can result in cracking at the ends of the joints. Fig. refer to the article in the PCI journal .4. revised in 1999 and A.4 of the BAEL 91. forces due to the site loads or form travelers). application of the cantilever or continuity prestressing.July-August 1995].5. revised in 1999 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 85 septembre 2007 . like continuity tendons. The distribution of these forces in the structure gives rise to stresses which are added to the shear stresses described above.54 of the BPEL 91. It should be noted that the distribution forces are only high for the external tendons. which results in moderate distribution.26 – Deformation of prefabricated segments 4. Cantilever tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This causes the joints to open up when the segments are brought together and thus leads to a non-uniform distribution of the stresses (in the transverse direction).6 . 4. are less powerful and it is rare to find more than one pair of them in the same section. In certain extreme projects. The tangential stresses accompanying the general or localized flexion stresses result in shear stresses which are added to the shear stresses due to distribution described hereafter Localized forces (reactions from the support system. The following rules must be observed: • The combination of shear force and torsion reinforcements is carried out according to Articles 7. • The reinforcements include: • • A standard transverse reinforcement designed to take up the general shear force An additional reinforcement positioned in proximity to the concentrated efforts in order to take up the distribution of these forces.Rules to combine passive reinforcements The stresses to be taken into consideration for the calculation of non-prestressed reinforcements result from: • • Transverse flexion General shear force (including torsion). and secondly because several of them are placed in the same section (usually on a support).

In a single horizontal section of web. we shall place reinforcements with a total section of Ae on the external side and Ai on the internal side must be implemented in such a way that. Particular case of webs In the webs. the combination of reinforcements must firstly take account of the non concomitance between the flexion forces. revised in 1999.5 A2 with A1 distribution reinforcements ⎪min ⎨ A + A 2 ⎩ 1 ⎩ Acis A2 shear force and torsion reinforcements • In the slabs.5. a loading case giving flexion reinforcements on the external side of Afl ext will not give reinforcements on the internal side Afl int ≈ 0 (except in the case of incorrect dimensioning requiring the use of compression reinforcements). see the Article from D. internal side the following formulas are observed: Acis + Afl ext 2 A Ai = k cis + Afl int 2 Ae = k Obviously. However when shear stress are close to limits or in the case of very important distribution stresses. the reinforcements on the opposite side may take up the shear force. there is no combination of tie bar reinforcements with the transverse flexion reinforcements according to Article A. Le Faucheur on this topic in the "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°41 October 2002]. As a consequence. place a minimum reinforcement of: A = Ai + Ae ≥ Acis Principle Indeed.3. [for further information on this theory. Remarks The coefficient k represents the part of additional reinforcement necessary to take up the shear force.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The combination of dispersion and shear reinforcements is carried out according to Article 4 of Appendix 4 of the BPEL 1991. we have to take up the shear force on the one hand and flexion on the other hand i. external side Flexion reinforcements. Thus. revised in 1999: ⎧ A1 ⎪ = max ⎨ ⎧1. using the following notation for the sections used to calculate the flexion reinforcements: Afl ext Afl int Flexion reinforcements. it is not necessary for the areas of flexion and shear to be added up. we will apply the combination rules quoted below for webs (zone of anchorage at the end of deck for example). It is equal τu to : k = 2 f sin β cos β u u 3 bu The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 86 septembre 2007 .e.2 of the BAEL 91. as this does not require a specific position in the section.

it is necessary to consider consistent loading cases for the accumulation of reinforcements: • If we consider the construction stages. This calculation principle is determining only for very thin webs. Otherwise it would be too severe and not coherent with the theory developped in this article.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τu being the shear stress at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and bu the angle of the strut associated with the shear force and limited to 30° (in case of casting in two phases. the tie bar reinforcements must not be added to those determined by transverse flexion. the transversal flexion use a great part of its capacity and consequently it is necessary to complete the reinforcements to take up concurrently the shear force.85 (for short term loads). A symmetrical loading case produces maximum flexion in the webs. the coefficient k is equal to : k= τu 0. Upper slab As mentioned above. whereas distribution is lower due to the existence of a certain symmetry in the anchoring forces on supports. the reinforcements for flexion has to be calculated at ULS and not at Service Limit State (SLS) as it is the case for detrimental cracking. for a cantilever tendon anchored in the height of the web. In both cases. To simplify we can consider separately the characteristic combination for shear stress and the one for transversal flexion. As a consequence.444fc sin βu cos βu It has to be noted that this is a ultimate limite state calculation. the transversal flexion is maximal at the top of the web where as the combination of general shear force and distribution force is under the anchorage (because shear stresses have the same sign under the anchorage and opposite sign above the anchorage).85 fc θ γc . Indeed. the value of bu is 45°). Webs It is usually possible to limit the loading cases with regard to transverse flexion. maximum flexion is obtained when the bridge is in service. The ultimate compressive strength of the concrete is equal to fbu = 0. In this hypothesis. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 87 septembre 2007 . Geometrically. • Three zones can be distinguished for the reinforcements: • • • Transverse reinforcements in the upper slab with tie bar reinforcements Transverse reinforcement of the webs with shearing and distribution force frames Transverse reinforcement of the lower slab with tie bar reinforcements. The theory quoted above use concomitant load cases. The complete study would be a useless complication. fc is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. Similarly. whereas offset trucks produce maximum torsion and give a lower level of shear force. relatively large cross sections are obtained. or due to losses of tension in the cables. It is then justified to take θ=0.

or some rectangular stirrups as it is the case in the lower slab (Fig 4. it is preferable to position the transverse reinforcements (main bars with larger diameters) in the external layer and the longitudinal bars (secondary bars) in the internal layer.75 m. In the case of very wide structures. transverse flexion forces are reduced due to the distribution of the imposed loads from the upper slab through the webs.50 m to 0. no more than two transverse reinforcements and one stirrup (i.Recommended configurations for reinforcements This is an appropriate point to offer instructions and advice with a view to obtaining reinforcements that are satisfactory in terms of the behavior of the structure and feasible to implement. Furthermore.29). When the slab is transversally prestressed by tendons. without being obstructed by longitudinal reinforcements. Fig. 4. it is advisable to position them underneath the two previous layers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Lower slab In the lower slab. Upper slab In general. Bridge decks built by the cantilever method consist of box girders whose components are quite thin and are thus subjected to significant stresses.e. it is necessary to position duct supports sufficiently closely together in order to prevent the tendon from wobblingand make sure that there is no risk of the slab spalling once the tendons are stressed.27 – Reinforcement of the upper slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 88 septembre 2007 . it is necessary to place either some chair spacers between the two reinforcement layers. attention should be focused on the relatively large tie bars between this slab and the web.27 and Fig 4. especially as this allows them to drop down inside the slab in accordance with bending moment. Given that it is common to find prestressing ducts in the upper slab. It is important to use reinforcements which are properly designed and properly constructed. The recommended spacing is approximately 0. This is the reason for the very long gussets which are usually used in this type of structure.7 . three reinforcements in a plan view) should be placed side by side. In order to improve the casting quality of the slab and the webs. 4. to avoid reinforcements deformation which could give an unsufficient reinforcement for the durability of the structure.

revised in 1999). a spalling force appears at the ends of compressed bars. 4.28 – Reinforcement of the upper gusset Lower slab In proximity to the piers. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 89 septembre 2007 . the lower slab is submitted to very high compression. In addition. Indeed.29 – Reinforcement of the lower slab Lower gusset An example of the reinforcement of the lower gusset is provided below. it is strongly recommended to place reinforcement rectangular stirrups rather than concrete chairs within the slabs in order to support the upper layers. It is not recommended to use compressed reinforcements to take up this force if the slab is of insufficient thickness. • In all cases. Information concerning the precautions to be taken with compressed parts can be found in § A. being aware that the weight gain is small as the variation in thickness is generally parabolic and that this thickness is only apparent near the supports Or increase the compressive strength of the concrete in the bridge deck. which weakens the overlapping areas and requires reinforcing with tie bars. the slab tends to delaminate due to compression. which could lead to very strong radial thrust when tensioning with disastrous consequences. hence the need for tie bars. It is distinctly preferable to: • Thicken the slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.8 of the BAEL 91. which must be absolutely welded to the main reinforcement. Fig. The tendon ducts must be supported by a special structure. Consequently. Stiffness is necessary to prevent the ducts from shifting during the concreting under buoyancy. the rectangular stirrups add greater rigidity to the reinforcement and thus help to improve the cover of the reinforcement bars. 4.

30 – Reinforcement of the lower gusset Webs As for the slabs. the transverse reinforcements are positioned in the external layer. There are two possible ways to resolve this problem: • • By using two L-shaped parts. it is very rare for the web reinforcements to be contructed in full rectangular stirrup. 4. Considering the depth of the decks of bridges built by the cantilever method. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 90 septembre 2007 . 4. with the overlaps only occurring in the upper gusset (Fig.31). It is essential to avoid overlaps along the walls.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. in the standard section of the web. They generally consist of two overlapping parts.e. which overlap in the full thickness of the upper and lower gussets Or by using large U-shaped part with a small U-shaped part as a top reinforcement. i.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.31 – Webs reinforcement The transverse reinforcements are joined by transverse rebars embedded inside the web. instead. it is better to place the hook on the external side of the bridge deck. generally in the form of stirrups ending on one side in a hook and on the other in a simple angled return. the longitudinal reinforcement cannot (save exception) respect the rules of alternated overlapping according to the Article 6. 4. Longitudinal reinforcement In the case of segments cast in situ. 4. For the sake of durability. because of a problem of lack of space given the dimensions of the segment. At least four stirrups should be used per square meter or two rectangular stirrups if this solution is used. The angled return should not be placed parallel to the wall.23 from BAEL.32). 4.32 – Reinforcements of webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 91 septembre 2007 . Fig. it should be angled towards the inside of the bridge deck (Fig.1.

These can cause severe problems in the structure of the bridge itself. it is necessary to use crack control reinforcements capable of controlling any peripheral cracking in this structure. The risk of such reaction appears only for very large thickness. The temperatures rise in direct proportion to the volume and thickness of the cast concrete and its hydration heat. Whatever the circumstances. In addition. taking account of the type of cement and any provisions that might be implemented in order to promote the regular and homogeneous cooling of the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Phenomenon specific to massive parts The segments on piers are massive parts for which it is advisable to carry out a specific analysis in order to evaluate the stresses due to thermal shrinkage during differential cooling in the body of the concrete after hydration of the cement. Fig. it can also lead to internal chemical reactions within the concrete itself.33 – A large SOP The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 92 septembre 2007 . this rise in temperature does not only produce forces. known as sulfate reaction. 4. This analysis may lead to the development of an optimized sequence of operations for the segment on pier. around one meter for example.

1 . It is also important to verify the strength of all of the mechanical components which contribute to the stability of the cantilever and of the whole pier and its foundations. asymmetrical site loads or a rising wind acting on one of the half-cantilever An accidental situation corresponding to the collapse of a form traveler or pre-cast segment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 93 septembre 2007 .Cantilever stability This chapter is entirely devoted to the problem of the stability of cantilevers in the construction phases. 5. a slight detachment is tolerated with a limited overstressing of the stressed reinforcements that are used to secure the cantilever to its pier. Two families of combinations should be analysed: basic combinations corresponding to the first situation and accidental combinations corresponding to the second. two types of situations leading to imbalances must be considered: • A temporary situation which occurs during construction when the cantilever is unbalanced due to the weight of a segment that is built or installed before its symmetrical counterpart is in place. the verifications to be carried out.Principle of cantilever stability During the construction of segmental concrete bridges using the balanced cantilever method. it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the cantilever arms on their pier before they are joined to the neighbouring cantilever or to the cast-on-falsework section on the end span near to the abutments.1 – Prefabricated cantilever under construction In both cases. In the first case. To evaluate this risk. the combinations of actions to be used relate to the static equilibrium limit state. in the second case. It is essential to prevent the cantilever from tipping on the pier crosshead. 5. it is verified that the cantilever does not detach from its temporary supports. This second verification relates to the strength ultimate limit state. the partial safety factors for the combinations used for this verification are identical to those used in the calculation of stability.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5 . • Fig. For simplicity’s sake. It successively covers the causes of instability. different stabilization solutions and finally.

this is the most economical method for spans of less than 120 meters in length and whose relatively massive piers offer a large crosshead surface. the choice of the process used to stabilize the cantilevers depends on the general design of the structure (see Chapter 2). it must be approved by the engineering office and the site manager and must be read by everyone involved in the construction of the bridge deck. especially the site foremen and sub-foremen. an additional ten-year wind value must also be carried out. We shall now examine them in detail. The operations laid down in this report cannot be modified without the prior permission of the author and of the engineering office which performed the stability verifications. Furthermore.2 – Stability stitching by prestressing The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 94 septembre 2007 . 5. 5. the final support system and the design of the piers are obviously major considerations when choosing this system. Six main solutions can be used to stabilize cantilevers on their piers.Stability systems for cantilevers 5. dimensioned plans.1 – Stitching by prestressing Stitching via prestress tendons is the most widely used method for stabilising cantilevers during the construction (Fig. The span arrangement.2. Thus.2 . In principle.1. specify the order of phases that must be observed and provide warnings about any dangerous events with a reasonable probability of occurrence. The method consists of tensioning vertical reinforcements in order to secure the segment on pier to its supports. for structures featuring large spans. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This chapter only provides general recommendations applicable to standard situations.2). 5. Before the construction of the first cantilever.2. built high up on exposed sites. the contractor must supply the site with accurate.1 Different stabilization methods for cantilevers To a large extent. It should also be noted that the rules included in this chapter do not include construction errors or the failure to comply with construction procedures relating to the casting or assembly of segments or to the movement of form travelers or assembly equipment. the loads to be used and the combinations of actions to be analysed must be adapted according to the sequence of construction operations and the equipment used on site. This procedure brings together the different design calculations and construction methods. Drafted by the site’s Organization and Methods Department. A specific procedure must describe all of the construction phases. 5. showing all of the systems to be implemented along with their quality and tolerances.

next to or inside the support crossbeam. the anchorages may be situated on the side of the foundations or in anchor blocks housed on the inside of the piers if they are hollow. it is always important to check what would happen in the event of an error in the construction process.1. For prefabricated structures. it is also possible to offset the tendons transversally in order to balance out the torsion moment due to the curvature of the bridge deck. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 95 septembre 2007 . in the event of an incorrect alignment between the recesses built into the segment on pier and the pier crosshead.3 – Section through the SOP with its stitching tendons In the lower end. 5. This applies: • • When a given direction of assembly or order of casting for the segments must be followed When the half-cantilevers are asymmetrical or made from different types of concrete. Their upper anchorages are generally placed in temporary prefabricated anchor blocks. Prestressing tendons are sometimes replaced by prestressing bars. a longitudinal offsetting from the base of the incremental launching beam produces a similar effect (due to the support reaction caused by its weight and its anchoring tendons).3). In the latter case.4). 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During construction. 5.2 – Temporary pilings This method consists of increasing the center distance between the temporary support blocks by placing them on temporary metal or concrete pilings (Fig. sometimes on a metal cross beam (Fig. this solution is not recommended.2. the bar may be subjected to parasitic flexion which could cause it to fail. In certain specific cases. Fig. it may be beneficial to reduce the number of tendons by offsetting them longitudinally. They then drop down through the segment on pier passing close to the webs. The use of the definitive bearings during the construction of the cantilevers is not recommended because there is a significant risk of damage and. positioned on the upper slab. it is essential to adjust the bearings at the end of construction. This is only feasible when the bridge deck is situated at a reasonable height above the ground (less than 15 meters or so). In the case of curved cantilevers. because. The stitching prestressing is generally centred on the centreline of the pier. in any case. In these specific cases. the segment on pier rests on a set of temporary blocks on either side of the bridge bearing. the tendons are either tied off inside the pier shaft or anchored in the usual way. 5. The stitching reinforcements are positioned at the side of the temporary blocks. However.

especially when: • • The site is obliged to follow a fixed order of assembly or casting A difference in weight due to the geometry or to the use of lightweight concrete affects both of the halfcantilevers The structure is a portal bridge. If a single piling is used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. provided that the pilings are supported on the foundation bulkhead for the pier. This is a viable solution for aquatic sites. often for architectural reasons When the pier shafts do not have enough resistance to flexion to stabilize the cantilever on their own. 5. However. this prestressing is essential in order to prevent the side opposite the piling from tipping over.5). a cantilever may sometimes be stabilized by a single piling. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 96 septembre 2007 .4 – Stabilization of a cantilever using temporary pilings This method is used on terrestrial sites in the following situations: • • • For total lengths in excess of 100 meters When the pier head dimensions are reduced. as the portal legs cannot take up the vertical loads until the cantilevers are connected. • Vertical prestressing on pilings usually completes this system (Fig. The cantilever is usually stabilized by two pilings positioned symmetrically in relation to the pier.

The tendons must be injected for adhesion to the foundations. they are anchored in the first cantilever segments and pass outside the pier shaft (Fig. In the lower section. 5. They must be protected against corrosion and damage caused by impacts to their upper sections.6 – Cantilever stability by counterweight For information.7). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 97 septembre 2007 .5 – Stability provided by a single piling This prestressing may also be replaced by a counterweight placed on the same side as the piling (Fig.3 – External tendons or temporary staying Stitching tendons may be positioned outside the pier in order to increase their efficiency. This method is especially used: • • For overall lengths of more than 100 meters When the dimensions of the pier head units are reduced and do not allow for a sufficient center distance between the stitching tendons (Fig. In this case. 5. 5. a variant also exists for prefabricated structures.6.8. Fig. This involves attaching the launch beam to one of the half-cantilevers via compression bracing in order to stabilize it. they are anchored on massive counterweights on land. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1. [JAE 00]). or fixed to the pier foundations (especially on aquatic sites where the lower anchorages can be housed on the bulkhead). 5. 5. [JAE 00]) .2.

In addition.1.4 – Closure of the end span If the structure has spans of very unequal lengths or very short end spans. When the cantilever reaches the middle of the shorter span.9 – Staying of a cantilever on the Tanus bridge Certain angled stays may also be used to limit the torsion of the pier under asymmetrical horizontal forces due to the action of wind on each half-cantilever (or under dynamic wind effects). 5. 5. 5. using the weight of the rear span to counteract the imbalance. They supplement the fixed support or vertical stitching produced by the tendons on piers. 5. The stays usually consist of external prestressing tendons at moderate tension (30% of the tendon’s maximum tension). especially for very tall structures that have a short total span (although this is quite a rare occurrence). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 98 septembre 2007 .8 – Stability via tendons outside a pier with a small crossheadl A genuine system of temporary staying can also be used to resist wind-related dynamic stresses for tall structures with large span lengths or more modest structures in windswept sites: Fig.9 [BOU 94. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it is possible to use the closure of the small spans to stabilize the adjacent half-cantilevers (Fig.7 – Cantilever stability by external tendons Fig. The longer span is then built by overcantilevering. 5. the structure must be stabilized using traditional methods. These stays are very effective at absorbing the rocking motion around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the centerline of the bridge deck. 5. the stays are anchored to a segment situated at a third or a quarter of the length of the halfcantilever in the upper section and to a counterweight block on the ground equipped with vertical ties or pilings working in traction.3] and [GAC 98]). the central connection segment is assembled. we should mention that it is sometimes better to stay the pier rather than the cantilever. At the start of the construction of the halfcantilever. In this situation.2.10). An efficient and economical anchorage can also be provided by attaching the stays to the foundations of neighbouring piers.

11). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 99 septembre 2007 .11 – Embedding of the cantilever on the pier Fig.12 – Pier with double shafts For structures subjected to very strong winds.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1.1. 5. 5. 5.10 – Closure of a rear span with counterweight and extended cantilever 5. 5.3). requiring extra verifications under dynamic wind effects (see 5. the stability calculation is given by the strength calculations for the pier shaft and foundations (Fig.5 – Embedding on a pier When the cantilever is permanently embedded on its pier. Fig. additional stays are often necessary.2.

The dimensions of the plate can be estimated by considering that the stress on the concrete of the pier is limited to 0. the minimum projecting ledge on the surface of the pier is 15 centimeters. In both cases. it is possible to estimate the diameter of the pot bearing by considering that the elastomer stress reach 30 MPa under these same combinations.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This solution is also required in the case of double pier shafts (Fig.2 - Design of pier head units In the most common situations.10 m or more for structures with large spans.50 m for structures with short overall spans to 1. 5.2. this surface area is calculated using a pressure of 13 to 15 MPa at the SLS under the same conditions as mentioned above.12).50 x 0. Suppliers’ catalogues are useful for evaluating the surface area required for elastomeric pot bearings. 5. 5. These give the plan view dimensions according to the maximum reaction under rare combinations at the service limit state. normally consisting of elastomeric pot bearings Stability blocks or temporary support blocks Stitching tendons Jacking points for cantilevers under construction or nearing completion. For modestly-sized structures in which the bridge deck rests on laminated rubber bearings. the pier heads must be designed to receive the following components (Fig.13): • • • • • • The permanent bearings. 5.6 fcj.13 – Diagram showing pier head design The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 100 septembre 2007 . or for changing bearings Systems for inspecting and testing bearings in service Seismic stops for protection in the event of earthquakes or impacts from boats.10 x 1. In the absence of such catalogues. The size of the permanent bearings varies enormously according to the structures: from 0. Fig.

g.14 – Leveling and adjusting jacks and permanent bearing The surface area of the temporary blocks is determined by calculating the stability of the cantilever (see paragraph 5.5.50 x 0.50 m) in order to limit the stress on the concrete to approximately 20 MPa. the design of the segments on piers and pier head units must incorporate the constraints associated with the cantilever stability systems. For information. measuring 0. It should also be noted that the clearance required between the underside of the bridge deck and the bearing base is approximately fifty centimeters for jacks with a capacity of 500 tonnes.2.16). Solid blocks may also be replaced with sand boxes which can be removed without having to raise the bridge deck.2). 5. They must be placed on metal blocks (e.3 - Design of the segment on pier From the outset. the deviator tubes used to house the continuous external tendons and the dispersion reinforcements in the anchorages for the external tendons on the pier (Fig. 500-tonne jacks have a diameter of 40 centimeters. Indeed. Therefore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. for the changing of the bearings. the raising of the deck must only be considered in the construction phase. The jacks must be capable of raising the entire cantilever before the placement of the closing segment in order to insert the permanent bearings and change the bearings when the structure is in service. The limit stress values obviously depend on the compressive strength of the concrete in the pier head units. stability systems which cross the segment on pier vertically (prestressing tendons or bars) interfere with the cantilever tendons situated in the upper gussets. These are given in paragraph 5. 5. it is possible to reuse the area of the crosshead that had previously been reserved for the temporary blocks.2. However. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 101 septembre 2007 .5.

The stitching tendons pass into the crossbeam on the pier if it is very thick or close to it and in proximity to the webs if it is thinner (Fig. A system consisting of anchor blocks.15 – Pier head unit on the Ile de Ré bridge Fig. the tendons must be anchored in thick areas.17). the stitching system shall be designed to transmit the forces towards the support blocks as directly as possible. In all cases. in light of the problems concerning the transmission of temporary and permanent support reactions towards the webs of the box girder. In the upper part.16 – Stitching of a cast-in-situ segment on pier It is also necessary to cross the highly reinforced areas of the lower slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 102 septembre 2007 . a distribution beam and vertical uprights must also be envisaged for the transmission of the jacking force when the cantilever has been completed. 5. 5.

the measurement of the unit mass γt of the concrete used for the bridge deck (prestressed or reinforced) is based on the unit mass of ordinary concrete γb. 5.5 t/m3).17 – Adjustment of a prefabricated segment on pier 5. must be performed with the greatest of accuracy. Accidental situations are also considered. For this situation. however.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3. This must be specified in the Special Technical Clauses. • 5. the BPEL 91 fixes the concrete’s unit mass at 2. while taking account of the precise geometry of the bridge decks and particularly of the crossbeams. The weight G of the cantilever is calculated using a unit weight γ of 24. If high or low density aggregates are used.Actions to considered The loads to be considered in this particular phase in the building of a cantilever correspond to loads in a construction situation. these include dead loads.5 KN/m3 according to the formwork plans (strictly speaking. the BPEL 91 distinguishes between dead loads (G). they represent the rules of good practice in the field and have been successfully used since 1975. using a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 103 septembre 2007 . for this particular phase in the construction of the cantilever and for all of the construction and service phases for the structure.1 - Dead loads The evaluation of dead loads. Thus. random construction loads (QPRA) and finally. construction loads whose size and position are known (QPRC).3 . deviators. site loads and an accidental action (FA). it is essential to formalize these loads in the contract The proposed design methods depart from the rules for the creation of combinations in the Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions) of 1979 (DC 79). variable actions such as the wind (W) or a thermal gradient (Δθ). It should be noted that: • The loads defined hereafter are not described in any statutory document. anchor blocks and the other morphological characteristics of the structure.

for which a fixed allowance must be made. simplified formulae can be used to calculate the weight of a cantilever.γb ( ) with ρ = total ratio of stressed and non-prestressed reinforcements (in t/m3). if the depth of the bridge deck varies parabolically and the thickness of the lower slab varies in linear fashion. This simplified method allows for a manual approach. For this type of concrete. with B1 designating the section on the pier and B0designating the crown section: P= d= (B1 + 2 B0 ) γ lf 3 (B1 + 5 B0 ) lf 4 × (B1 + 2 B0 ) with lf designating the length of the half-cantilever. It should be noted that HPC is denser than traditional concrete. and random loads. which can be used for the preliminary calculations for the structure. approximately 50 Kg/m3 should therefore be added to the aforementioned values.2 - Variable execution loads The BPEL makes a distinction between site loads whose size and position are known.18 at 0. which creates a transverse moment in the pier.18 – Evaluation of the weight of a half-cantilever (NB: the selfweight of the half-cantilever calculated using this formula does not include the weight of the crossbeam on pier or the weight of the anchor blocks. deviators and ancillary parts situated on the span). the approximate weight of the half-cantilever and the position of its centre of gravity can be determined using the following formulae (Krawsky’s formulae).22 t/m3 is normally used for bridges built by conventional cantilever segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide γt = γb + ρ 7.3.85 . The weight of a half-cantilever situated on the unbalanced side is increased by 2% (Gmax). A figure of ρ = 0. For curved bridges. For example. 5. It is included here for illustrative purposes but it is not intended to replace precise calculations which remain indispensable.85 × 7. it is obviously important to consider the offsetting of the weight of the cantilever. Fig. whereas the weight of its corresponding half is decreased by 2% (Gmin). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 104 septembre 2007 . For the rough calculations. 5.

expressed as QPRC1.1 – Known site loads Known loads are loads whose weight and position can be specified in each phase of construction.g. compressors). this weight is highly dependent on the system used to stiffen the form traveler under the weight of the fresh concrete.19 – Example of known site loads For cast-in-situ structures. For prefabricated structures. form travelers. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 105 septembre 2007 . etc. If there are significant uncertainties concerning weights or positions. At the rough calculation stage. these loads must be increased by + 6% on the side of the heavier half-cantilever or decreased by 4 % on the opposite side (QPRC1 max or QPRC1 min) according to the same principle as for the selfweight of the cantilevers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.3. the weight of the form traveler is sometimes considered to be equal to half the weight of the heaviest segment. launch beams. cranes used assembling segments. 5. In reality.19). 5. staff and various climatic effects not considered elsewhere (rising pressure of wind under a half-cantilever).90 MN according to the length of the segments and the width of the bridge deck.2. cable rolls). this mainly concerns the weight of the form traveler. whose standard value varies between 0. 5.2 – Random site loads Random site loads (Fig.30 and 0.2. e. the weight of the structural steel can be significantly reduced. (Fig. known site loads mainly concern the reactions at the base of the launch beam during the installation of the segments.g.20) correspond to the materials stored on the bridge deck (e. Fig.g. small equipment (e. maximum and minimum characteristic values are determined and applied in the most unfavorable way. In the calculations. 5.3. With complex systems featuring prestressing bars.

small equipment. For other structures. Furthermore. compressors. It is essential to perform a specific study to analyze the nature of the site and the local climatic conditions before this load can be reduced for very large spans (over of 200 meters).20 – Random site loads The following loads are used to cover unknown site loads: • An evenly distributed load (QPRA1) of 200 N/m²over a half-cantilever in standard situations (total span < 120 m).3. This distributed load applies in a vertical direction from the bottom to the top on the horizontal frontal area of a half-cantilever.3 of this chapter. (tall structures with a large overall span and relatively flexible piers). 5.). etc. a dynamic study is essential in order to evaluate the behaviour of the cantilever on its pier and determine how to stabilize the cantilever before the closing segment has been completed (staying. compression bracing. depending on the characteristics of the site. Transversally. etc.4. including those with more modest spans but which are exposed to frequent strong winds. This load. is applied to the completed segments and the form traveler A concentrated load (QPRA2) of (50 + 5 b) kN applied to the end of the cantilever. • These loads are arranged in such a way as to produce the most penalizing effect.2. at the far end of the last completed segment (b designates the width of the upper slab of the box girder expressed in meters). it is important to consider an additional load. The additional wind effect (Qw) is equivalent to a uniform load with an intensity of 100 to 200 N/m². the width of application is the width of the upper slab of the box girder. to the centerline of the pier). Longitudinally. this load represents the weight of cable rolls. This is covered in paragraph 5. For structures with an overall span of over 120 meters.3 – Vertical wind force The load QPRA1 in the previous paragraph only includes the vertical wind force for structures with a total span of less than 120 meters. more simply.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. in exceptional cases. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 106 septembre 2007 . for example in steep-sided valleys or in unstable areas where strong gusts of wind are common. which includes vertical wind force provided that the site is not exposed. the intensities of the loads QPRA1 and QPRA2 must be calculated according to the equipment that is actually used on the site. this force applies from the end of the form traveler to the row of temporary blocks situated on the same side (or.

the dynamic analysis prescribed in the previous paragraph must account for this horizontal wind force. Fig. 5.4 – Horizontal wind force Horizontal wind force only needs to be considered in particular cases: for tall structures in sites which are exposed to strong and irregular winds caused by the morphology of the site. In the majority of cases. 5. In this case. a lower value could be adopted if a specific analysis of the safety of the form traveler were to be carried out by the designers of this equipment at the start of the construction surveys (see Fascicule 65A of the French CCTG).3. This amounts to reversing the direction of the weight the form traveler QPRC1MAX or of the last prefabricated segment on one of the half-cantilevers (Fig.3 - Accidental actions The collapse of all or a part of an empty form traveler or a prefabricated segment during the assembly process (FA) is allowed for by a dynamic increase coefficient of 2 in order to take account of the energy accumulated by the deformation of a half-cantilever affected by the fall.2. However. it is possible for any mobile load to collapse during one or more of the form traveler’s phases of movement. it is possible for any part that is not lashed by prestressing to collapse during one or more phases of the assembly sequence. Such places often include coastal or mountain valleys or sites exposed to winds that are renowned for their intensity. In general the load is derived from the CECM (Convention Européenne de la Construction Métallique – European Convention for Structural Steelwork) regulations. The intensity of this load depends particularly on the height of the bridge deck and the ruggedness of the site.21). 5.3.21 – Form traveler in the process of being moved For a cast-in-situ structure. we consider that one of the half-cantilevers is subjected to a uniform load of QWt. This load must be evaluated on an individual basis for each project. the calculations performed allow for the fact that the entire form traveler might fall.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. • 5.4 . the whole of the cantilever and its pier should be loaded For very tall structures.Combinations of actions during construction The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 107 septembre 2007 . For prefabricated structures. It should be noted that: • For the calculation of the piers and the foundations.

according to which it would be necessary to apply a load factor of 1.9 to the selfweight of the other side. a distinction can be made between a temporary construction situation. the piers and their foundations. the cantilever must not move from its temporary supports. even if the sequence of assembly or construction operations calls for simultaneous operations. whilst the casting of the other segment has not yet been performed. This is because: • • For a prefabricated structure. Therefore. The following actions should therefore be studied: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 108 septembre 2007 . although the strength of the pier must be verified. If the cantilever is embedded on the pier. It is assumed that both form travelers have been moved forward and that the casting of one of the two segments has been completed. especially the pier head units. even if casting is carried out simultaneously. it must be officially agreed in the Special Technical Clauses that these rules differ from the recommendations of the DC79. these verifications must be systematically performed for the casting or assembly of every pair of segments. the rules described hereafter are not as strict as those in the 1979 Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions). temporary stays.1 - Combinations in temporary construction situations (Type a) For the verification of static equilibrium at ultimate limit states. relating to a verification under a fundamental combination. For cast-in-situ structures. As we have already mentioned. For each limit state. etc. the perfect synchronization of operations cannot be guaranteed For a cast-in-situ structure.) and the supports and foundations are verified using partial coefficients of safety for the materials corresponding to the fundamental combination.1 to the the selfweight of one side and 0. For the verification at ultimate limit states of strength. The cantilever is therefore analysed with an imbalance of one segment.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Cantilevers must be verified with regard to: • • The ultimate limit state of static equilibrium. the cantilever is studied during the assembly of the final pair of segments. relating to a verification under an accidental combination. at the preliminary design phase for prefabricated structures. It is assumed that one of the two segments has been lashed to the end of the cantilever and has been released by the assembly equipment. the different elements (blocks. pilings. as they are not regulations in the legal sense of the term. an incident during casting may lead to fresh concrete being emptied from one of the form travelers. the key phase at the pre-design level can be considered to be casting of the final pair of segments. It is essential to analyse this imbalance on a systematic basis. and an accidental situation. The other segment has not yet been assembled.4. aiming to ensure the stability of the cantilevers on their pier The ultimate limit state of strength: for the different elements whose role is to provide stability and for the elements which are stressed during these phases. or the form traveler has been emptied due to a defect in the concrete. Likewise. tendons. During the construction surveys. considering the nature of the actions. 5. no static equilibrium verification is required.

23) Combination A1: 1.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) Combination A2: 0. In an accidental situation. 5. 5.9 ((G max + G min) + 1.4. 5. Qw refers to the additional wind action to be considered for structures with a total span length of more than 120 meters.1 (G max + G min) + 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For cast-in-situ structures (Fig. the structure must be capable of resisting the collapse of a form traveler (or of a segment in the case of a prefabricated structure).1 segments on left) (n segments on right) Fig. 5.3.9 (G max + G min) + 1.3) For prefabricated structures (Fig. and the supports and foundations supporting the cantilevers.23 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.22 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures (n .1 segments on left) The right-hand form traveler contains a segment (n segments on the right) Fig.22) Combination A1: 1.2 - Accidental construction combinations (Type b) These combinaisons are used for verifications at ultimate limit states of strength under accidental combinations involving elements designed to provide the temporary fixed supports.2.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ QW]) Combination A2: 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 109 septembre 2007 .25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) The left-hand form traveler is empty (n .25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) In these formulae. or which are exposed to strong and frequent winds (see 5.1 (G max + G min) + 1.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case.g.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) (nv . For large cantilevers.1 segments on the left) The left-hand form traveler contains a segment (nv . but also to verify the behaviour of the cantilever under dynamic wind effects. the cantilever may be lifted off its temporary support blocks. 5. For cast-in-situ structures (Fig.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) The left-hand form traveler is empty (nv .1 segments on the left) (nv segments on the right) Fig. the tendons could be overstressed.1 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. when the sum of the span length and of the height of the pier exceeds 180 meters. it is essential to perform a turbulent wind analysis at the ultimate limit state. Specific rules must be applied to them.24 – Accidental situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures For prefabricated structures (Fig.4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 110 septembre 2007 .1 (G max + G min) + FA -+ (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. not only to avoid penalizing them with an excessively high equivalent static pressure.g. 5. 5.g.25 – Accidental situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.3 - Specific rules for very tall structures Very tall structures are usually very sensitive to the action of the wind.25) Combination B1: 1. but security is maintained by bringing the full capacities of the materials into play. This specific dynamic analysis.24) Combination B1: 1. is designed to assess the amplitude of the oscillations caused by wind turbulence on a flexible structure. e. in the case of temporary prestressing. the French PCP program).1 segments on the right) Fig. e. 5. which is carried out using one or more specialist wind effect programs (e.

the combinations of actions and the safety coefficients to be adopted.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This calculation requires: • A static description of the wind and its fluctuations (reference wind speed. etc. (Some of these coefficients can by determined for simple shapes by applying the rules of Eurocode 1 – Actions du vent et de la neige sur les structures [Actions of wind and snow on structures].) A dynamic modal analysis of the structure. the dynamic calculations are performed at the ultimate limit state only and by take account of the ten-year wind effect.26). in addition to the articles entitled "Pont de Tanus: Les études des effets du vent" (The Pont de Tanus: Wind Effect Analyses) [BOU 94. ruggedness of the site. In service. the Special Technical Clauses must comprehensively describe the actions. It is important to specify that the dynamic analysis of wind effects must be carried out at the design stage because it may raise questions about the design of the structure and also because the collection of data required for this calculation often takes quite a long time. 5. which could cause problems with regard to the deadlines allowed for the construction surveys. The position of each block or temporary support includes an installation error of 5 centimeters (in the sense of a reduction in the space between these temporary supports). As the current regulations are quite limited with regard to this type of verification. 5.5 . altitude. The reader may also refer to the document entitled "Comportement au vent des ponts" (Behaviour of Bridges in Wind) published by the AFGC.Verification and dimensioning of the anchoring elements In this section. wind turbulence. Wind tunnel testing must be carried out for the others). the segment on pier is considered to be undeformable. giving the deformities and durations of the fundamental modes of vibration in addition to the corresponding generalized masses The aerodynamic characteristics (drag. For these calculations. lift and moment coefficients) of the bridge deck and piers. The verifications of the stabilizing elements for the other methods are presented in a more summary fashion in the following section.3] and "Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez " (The Bourran Viaduct at Rodez [BOU 91] for additional details. they are performed with a fifty-year wind at the ultimate limit state and also at the service limit state. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 111 septembre 2007 . we shall specifically study the stability of cantilevers resting on two rows of temporary blocks and stitched onto their piers by two rows of tendons (Fig. • • The accumulated static and dynamic effects are used to determine and verify the stresses in the concrete and the reinforcements for the pier shaft. In the construction phase.

80 f prg . 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. this means that stitching tendons are not necessary.27 – Geometry of the stitching system In the event that M/N < e/2. 5. M and N are calculated for each of the four combinations A1. e is the distance between the centerlines of the two rows of temporary support blocks and d is the distance between one tendon and the opposite row of blocks (Fig. 0. Fig.27).26 – System of stitching to a pier using tendons 5. we calculate the eccentricity of the resultant of forces M/N. It is difficult to give advice with regard to the minimum values of e and d because they are highly dependent on the length of The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 112 septembre 2007 . The values of e and d are derived from the dimensions of the segment and the pier head unit. however. A2. We use: Ra = N M − + Fi2 2 e and Rb = N M + + Fi2 2 e With Fi2 = 2 × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of a line of two tendons with p the % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0. Firstly. a minimum of two pairs of tendons are used for safety reasons (e.1 - Calculating the number of cables M and N are the stresses resulting from type A and B combinations.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon. B1 and B2. one pair of 12T15 tendons per row of blocks). there is no risk of the cantilever tipping over.g.5. in theory.

5. a distinction is made between type A and type B combinations.1.80 f prg .00 to 3.29).00 m wide.28). we have: ⎛M N⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ e 2⎠ n×s = ⎝ (1 − p) × σp0 while still estimating the losses at p %. Values of 3. 5.50 and 5. 0.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) Under the action of the resultant N and the moment M of the loads applied to the cantilever. of the blocks in the other row supports (Fig. Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e with Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of n tendons of a line with p % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0. 5.28 – Forces in tendons and support reactions Therefore.5. 5. the segment on pier remains in equilibrium due to the increase of the tendons tension ΔTg in a row of temporary supports and the compression Rb.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift up.5.50 m are common for e and d.1. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide the cantilever and the width of the box girder. This requires pier head units of between 4. The prestressing must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 113 septembre 2007 . Fig. stitching tendons must be used to restore the balance of the cantilever. In the event that M/N > e/2. To calculate the number of tendons to be used.

Fu1 is their limit tension at the ULS. and and they are carried over into .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.00 for accidental combinations fpeg already defined above From this. It should be noted that ΔTd is either negative or positive but less than ΔTg. with ΔTg and ΔTd being the variations in tension of each line of tendons (positive for a lengthening of the tendons). We obtain Fg and Fd according to Fu1 and Fi in the equations also know that: Ful = n × s × fpeg γp . we can determine the number of tendons n: N× e ⎞ d ⎛ n × s = ⎜M − ⎟× 2 ⎠ K ⎝ The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 114 septembre 2007 . can be expressed in the following way: Fg = Fi + ΔTg ≤ Ful Fd = Fi + ΔTd ΔTg ΔTd = d (e − d) Ne + M + Fd × (d − e ) = 0 2 − Fg × d − R b − Fg − Fd − N = 0 Fg and Fd refer to the tensions in each line of tendons. 5. Fi is their initial force. according to the position of the blocks in relation to the tendons.29 – Tipping of the cantilever with overtension of the tendons The equilibrium of the forces applied to the segment on pier when it rotates at an angle of dα around a row of blocks and when the tendons lengthen or shorten. We and Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (with p being the % of losses) and: γp = 1.

if they are anchored at the foot of a very tall pier. Consequently. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that.5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide with s: cross-section of a tendon and K = (1 − p ) × σp0 × (2d − e ) × (e − d) + fpeg γp × d2 + (d − e ) . under the effect of the stretching of the tendons. The number given by the preceding calculations is rounded up to the next biggest even number. The variation in tension in the line of tendons situated on the side of the rising force is equal to: Δσ = fpeg γp − (1 − p ) × σ p0 ε= Δσ Es Δσ . the rotation of the cantilever must be verified in the event of an accident. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 115 septembre 2007 . 5. this stretching can reach approximately 3%. In fact. the response is to limit the increase of the tendons tension by establishing a reduction coefficient for the value of the ultimate force of the tendons Ful. In standard situations in which losses are 20%. taking account of the need to place the bundles of tendons close to each web. their extensibility and therefore their elasticity are significant. it is necessary to add the rotation of the pier head unit under the effect of the unbalance moment M and the variations in tension of the stitching tendons. The calculation of rotation gives an angle of 1 degree for a tendon situated 3.50 meters from the opposite row of blocks: a value which is considered to be acceptable. the stretching ΔL can be evaluated at L × segment on pier is: tan(α ) = L Δσ × d Es For very tall or highly flexible piers.2 - Calculating the surface area of the blocks We use the maximum number of tendons per row. the rotation of the Es and the lengthening of the cables is equal to: For tendons with a free length of L. as the cantilever stabilization tendons are temporary. which corresponds to 6 centimeters for non-injected 20 meters cables. they are not usually injected with cement grout. 2 [ ] Next. the greater will be the rotation. If the designer considers the rotation of the cantilever to be too great. Therefore. we can now dimension the blocks in rows A and B. which may cause dynamic effects that could aggravate the phenomenon during the rotation of the cantilever. the longer the tendons. Knowing the prestressing force applied by each group of tendons.

50 for Type A combinations 1. its characteristic strength under compression can be increased.2. For example. with 2% of hooping (a standard value).8. Article A.4 and Appendix E.8 of the BAEL 91).23 of the BAEL 91 fixes this stress at: ⎛ f ⎞ fcf = fcj × ⎜1 + 2 × ρ t × e ⎟ ⎜ fcj ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ with p representing the percentage of steel in the single hooped core.3 ⎟ ⎜1− b ⎠⎦ ⎝ 3 a ⎠ ⎝ 3 b ⎠ ⎣ 3⎝ a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 116 septembre 2007 .5.4. for blocks positioned on high and massive bearing blocks.8. this gives approximately: fcd = fc28 + 20 MPa On the other hand. 5.30 – Temporary blocks consisting of sand boxes 5.04. The maximum value not to be exceeded is fclim.1 – Normal construction situation (A combinations) The surface area of the blocks is such that they are compressed to fbu under the maximum reaction Rb.. As the concrete of the blocks and the pier crosshead is hooped.00 for loads with long duration of application ⎡ 4⎛a b ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4 a 0 ⎞ ⎛ 4 b0 ⎞ K = 1 + ⎢3 − ⎜ 0 + 0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 3.85 × fcf θ × γb fc28 γb θ Characteristic strength of the concrete under compression 1. = K fbu with: fbu Ultimate strength of the concrete at ULS fbu = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the compressive stress in the concrete used for the bearing block is limited in order to avoid splitting the pier (Article A. with an upper limit of 0.

3 (classification T 47. but with an accidental combination.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The same principle is applied. 5.94 to 0.75 fcj 0. allowing for the dimensions of the permanent bearings and of all of the fittings on the pier heads.61 to 0.5. fcf) Supposing that there are two blocks of dimensions a × b per support row.65 fcj 0. Article A. Such overhangs are rarely compatible with the dimensions of the pier head unit.8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In order to obtain the critical value of 3. which considers uniformly loaded B0 surfaces. Appendix E. Hooping identical to that used on the permanent bearings is calculated and added to the lower face of the segment on pier and underneath the temporary blocks (cf.31 – Plan view dimensions of a block and its bearing block The table below gives the orders of magnitude of the critical values given by this calculation according to the strength of the concrete and the type of verification to be carried out: Type of combinations at the Ultimate Limit State Fundamental combination only including permanent actions Fundamental combination with variable actions Accidental combinations The maximum stress that must not be exceeded is therefore: fcmax = Min (fclim . Appendix A of the standard NF EN 1337.8 of the BAEL 91). 5.820-2) may also be referred to.3 in the last formula. we have: S = 2×a×b = Rb f c max fclim 0.2.15 0.4.85 for type B combinations for loads with a short duration of application The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 117 septembre 2007 .98 fcj a and b are determined by examining the plan view of the pier head unit. Therefore: γb θ 1. the support surface must have a large overhang in relation to the blocks. Fig.72 to 0.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 118 septembre 2007 . the piers must also be verified at the SLS and ULS for all other situations in the construction and service phases. whilst those of type B are accidental combinations (γb =l. The dimensions of the blocks determined in this way must be increased by 5 to 10 centimeters for the coating of the hoops. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this verification is only carried out at the ULS. 5. γs =l. Type A combinations are considered to be fundamental combinations. but this time Fg = Fi + ΔTg. For this. To account for this phenomenon. we verify that the cantilever does lift up with the number of tendons determined previously.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Firstly.g. The vertical reinforcement bars of the pier shaft must be verified at the ultimate limit states for bending and compression under the action of N and M. Ra and Rb are calculated as if the cantilever was not lifting up: Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e If Ra is positive. there is no lifting up and the surface area of the blocks S is calculated by the formula: S = 2×a×b = Rb fc max If Ra is negative. without modifying the coefficients of these combinations. < Fu1 (this time Fi is known). It is thus important to limit the cracking of piers in temporary construction situations.00). we solve the equations This gives: Rb = K ⎞ e ⎛ × ⎜ Fi × K 4 + N × 3 + M ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ K1 ⎝ 2e ⎠ to . i. we can either perform an additional calculation at SLS by transposing type A combinations.3 - Calculation of the pier shafts and foundations The static equilibrium combinations calculated previously for the equilibrium of the cantilever and the verification of the anchoring elements are directly used to verify the pier and its foundation at the strength ultimate limit state.5. to 400 MPa. or limit the working stress ratio of the reinforcement bars to the ULS under this same type of combinations. e.e. with the equivalent of type A combinations at SLS. with: K 1 = d 2 + (d − e ) K 3 = 2 × K1 − e2 K 4 = (2d − e ) × K2 e × d2 2 K 2 = d3 + e × (2d − e ) × (d − e ) We determine the surface area of the blocks S using the same formula described previous paragraph.15. However.

Type A and B combinations are studied by verifying the same criteria as for a cantilever secured exclusively by vertical stitching tendons situated in the pier. this paragraph gives some information about the verification of cantilevers that are stabilized by temporary pilings or stays used outside the piers.2 - Verifications of stability due to cable staying The cable stays must be arranged in the most symmetrical arrangement possible in order to minimize the disturbance to the geometry of the cantilever during construction. It is vital to connect the piling to at least the pier head and to connect very tall pilings to the shaft at one or more intermediate levels.6. the tension increase in the stitching tendons and the angle of rotation of the cantilever are limited to a value to be determined in the Special Technical Clauses (to approximately one degree). detachment from one of the pilings is authorized under type A and B combinations. The same type of calculation is used in the case of two pilings placed symmetrically in relation to the pier. Here. The fact that there is no detachment from the support on the piling means that the stitching tendons placed in line with the piling can now be dimensioned. we shall study the case of an imbalance on the opposite side to the piling during the assembly or casting of the second of the pair of segments. of height h and constant inertia I.1 - Verifications of stability due to temporary pilings In the case of a single piling. The blocks must not lift up under type A combinations.6. 5. e is the center distance between the two rows of cables. The stability of the piling must then be verified. the collapse of the form traveler is replaced by the collapse of the segment being moved in the aforementioned verifications.32): • As a simplification. the verification rules are similar to those described previously. Therefore. The details of the verifications are the same as those given in the preceding paragraphs to which the reader can refer.Verifications of other stabilization methods Without being exhaustive. For very slender pilings. the length of the cables is 1 and their modulus is E. the cross section of one row of cables is s. The cantilever then rests on one or two rows of blocks (type A or B combination) and on the piling situated on the side of the imbalance. 5. For prefabricated structures. because the form traveler or the prefabricated segment on the piling side has been made safe and is no longer likely to fall.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5.6 . we start by studying the imbalance on the side of the piling (the side where the first of a pair of segments is cast or assembled). a deviated bending and compression calculation suffices. the type A combination is only studied. the force exerted by a row of cables is Fi The pier. the stitching cables are situated in line with the temporary blocks. For short and massive pilings. Under type B combinations. However. Further details about the values to be used in the calculations can be found in the BAEL 91 or BPEL 91. is considered to be embedded on its foundation • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 119 septembre 2007 . 5. while taking account of an additional eccentricity of the blocks in both directions or of a fault in the angle of the piling shaft. it is necessary to make the following simplifying assumptions (Fig. Next. it is essential to perform a calculation to the second geometrical and mechanical order in order to prevent the buckling of this support. For this calculation.

Fig. • The calculation described hereafter does not follow this scheme but the underlying principles are clearly shown. the cable stays are all identical. the support blocks are dimensioned by verifying the compression on row B for type A and B combinations. of modulus E^ and length 1’ . • Furthermore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Each row of cable stays has a cross section of s’. As with cantilevers stitched by two rows of cables. the support reactions on the rows of blocks A and B are as follows: RA = RB = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e In general. it must be remembered that the stabilizing cable stays contribute additional flexion forces that must be taken up by the cantilever tendons. if the reaction RA is positive. the initial force of a row of cable stays is noted as Fi’ (or Fg’ and Fd’ taking account of the variations in tension due to the tilting of the cantilever) The cantilever is considered to be undeformable in terms of longitudinal flexion (this hypothesis remains valid if the cable stays are not attached too far from the pier). the cross sections of the cable stays are dimensioned by limiting their increasing of the tension and the rotation of the cantilever under all combinations (types A and B) and by making sure that the blocks in row A are not decompressed under type A combinations Once the cross section of the cable stays has been determined. As this situation is of little relevance to this paragraph. In order to calculate the cross-section of the cable stays. we differentiate between situations with type A and type B combinations. 5.32 – Forces applied to the cantilever without detachment from the support In the absence of cable stays and supposing that the cantilever does not lift off. the cantilever does not need to be stayed. we shall instead assume that cable stays are required. there are two stages to the calculation: • Firstly. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 120 septembre 2007 .

Their tensions are equivalent to: Fg’=Fi’+ΔTg’ and Fd’=Fi’+ΔTd’ As the cantilever is undeformable. the cable stays are made to work at 30% of their maximum capacity.2. we have: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 121 septembre 2007 . On the other hand.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. Given that: k is the flexibility of the pier under rotation: k = h E Ip ( θ = k Mp ) with hp : Ip : E: θ: Mp : height of pier its inertia modulus of the pier concrete angle of rotation of the cantilever moment applied to the pier head unit l' E s s' K’ is the flexibility of the cable stays: K ' = with Es : modulus of the cable stays ΔTg’ and ΔTd’ are the variations in tension of the cable stays under the effect of the rotation of the cantilever. the tension increases are larger than those of the tendons. the cable stays are subjected to variations in tension and the cantilever rotates to a certain extent. the stitching tendons are not subjected to any tension increase.6. Furthermore. In fact.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift off. when stressed in this way. this low initial tension means that they can be used as temporary cable stays on other cantilevers on the structure. It is thus necessary to verify that there is no movement from the blocks and that there is an acceptable amount of variation in the tension of the cable stays and in rotation of the cantilever. As the cantilever does not lift off from its support blocks. due to the flexibility of the pier under rotation. The staying must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N RA = RB = N M − + Fi + Fi ' ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi + Fi ' 2 e In general. they only undergo very small delayed losses. Finally.

5. this calculation is only valid if a block A remains compressed.6. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide θ ≈ tg θ = 2 Δl g ' e' = −2 Δl d ' e' (Δl'g et Δl'd are the variations in length of the cable stays) Given that: θ ≈ tg θ = 2 K' ΔTg ' e' = − 2 K' ΔTd ' e' e' k 2 K' θ = k Mp and therefore: ΔTg ' = Mp and ΔTd ' = − Mp e' k 2 K' The moment Mp is expressed by: Mp = M − ΔTg ' e' e' + ΔTd ' = M − ΔTg ' e' 2 2 We can therefore determine the tension in the cable stays and the rotation of the cantilever: Fg ' = Fi ' + M θ≈ 2 K' k 2 K ' + k e' 2 k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 M and Fd ' = Fi ' − M k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 By expressing the equilibrium on block B.2. it is necessary to verify that: ⎛ k e' 2 M ⎜1− ⎜ 2 K' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ≤ ⎜ Fi + Fi ' + N ⎞ e ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ 5. Thus.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The calculation is similar. but the detachment of the cantilever from block A is permitted while limiting the rotation of the cantilever. we obtain the support reactions: R A = Fi + Fi ' + k e' 2 N M⎛ − ⎜1− 2 e ⎜ 2 K ' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ R B = Fi + Fi ' + N − R A However.33 – Forces applied to the cantilever in the event of its detachment from the support on side A The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 122 septembre 2007 .

and gives Fd’. we obtain the support reaction RB: RB = Fd’ + Fg’ + 2Fi +N + ΔTg B The rotation of the cantilever is the sum of the flexion rotations of the shaft and of the rocking around the support B: θ ≈ 2 Fg ' − Fd ' ( ) K'' + ΔTg K e e The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 123 septembre 2007 . Their tension can be expressed as: Fg = Fi + ΔTg If we note K as the stiffness of the tendons ( K = l ) Es s as the cantilever is undeformable. the variations in the lengths of the tendons and cable stays are proportional: ΔTg1 ' = ΔTg K (e + e' ) 2 e K' et ΔTd1 ' = ΔTg K (e − e' ) 2 e K' Finally. the tendons in row A are overstressed. Therefore. we must add the effect of the overstressing of the tendons in row A under moment M. 5.33): Fg’ = Fi’ + ΔTg‘ + ΔTg1’ et Fd’ = Fi’ + ΔTd’ + ΔTdl’ On the other hand. Fg’ and ΔTg. B By expressing the equilibrium on block B.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The additional terms ΔTg1’ and ΔTdl’ due to the rocking of the bridge deck on block B are added to the expression of the tensions in the cable stays (Fig. we have: Mp = M − Fg ' e' e' e + Fd ' + ΔTg 2 2 2 or by replacement in the expression of ΔTg’ : ΔTg ' = Mp k e' k e' k e' 2 k e e' =M + Fd ' − Fg ' − ΔTg 2 K' 2 K' 4 K' 4 K' ( ) which can be introduced into Fg‘ : e + e' ⎞ ⎛ Fg ' 4 K ' + k e' 2 = 4 K ' Fi + 2 k e' M + k e' 2 Fd ' − ΔTg ⎜ k e e' − 2 K ⎟ e ⎠ ⎝ ( ) The sum of Fg’ and Fd’ gives: Fg ' + Fd ' = 2 Fi ' + ΔTg K K' and the equilibrium of the moments on block B M + Fd ' e' − e e' + e e − Fg ' − ΔTg e − N = 0 2 2 2 The resolution of equations .

Therefore. The The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 124 septembre 2007 . The external formwork consists of fixed metal shuttering. the Viaur viaduct at Tanus for the RN88 main road. form travelers etc. all of which are notable for their great span. numerous bridges are built using this method in France and abroad. crane. is externally rectangular in shape (Fig.1). Segments on piers are usually built in two phases: the first phase includes the lower slab. Some of the largest structures built in recent years include the bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. the Brisbane Bridge in Australia and the Hamana bridge in Japan. this includes a detailed description of the prefabrication plant and the equipment used for the transportation and assembly of segments (launch beam. low-bed semi-trailer. fixed to metal inserts embedded on the top of the pier head unit.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 . the second Genevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway and the viaduct over the River Loire at Cheviré. 6.Construction technology This chapter covers the technology required for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges using the cantilever method.) and cantilever stabilization systems. This applies to the vast majority of bridges.1 - Segments on piers Segments on piers are always built using special formwork which is specially designed for this part of the bridge deck and assembled on a work platform attached to the tops of the piers (Fig 6. Notable examples outside of France include the Norwegian bridges of Stolma and Rafsundet. the bridge deck is cast in-situ. the second phase features the rest of the transverse section and the crossbeam on pier. The first part deals with cast-in-situ structures and pays particular attention to the design of temporary structures (form work for segments on piers. etc. 6.Construction using cast-in-situ segments When fewer than 350 to 400 segments need to be constructed. the length and thus the cost of the external shuttering for the SOP are reduced by using the external formwork of the form travelers to encase the lateral sections of these segments. Fig. the gussets gusset and the base of the webs.1.). The internal formwork is either built from traditional wooden shuttering or carried out using an articulated metal tool. The second part is dedicated to structures made from prefabricated segments. Every year. 6.1 – Construction of segments on piers The working platform.1 . On certain structures with only one or two piers. It has cut-outs in the middle for direct access to the underside of the segment on pier and the top of the stability blocks and bearings.2). 6.

2 – Work platform for segment on pier formwork 6. Like many other formwork tools.3 – General view of a form traveler Although a large variety of form travelers are available. 6. each of which performs a particular function: • A metal structure: used for attaching the form traveler and the future segment to the most recently constructed segment Metal shuttering panels: used for giving the concrete the required shape Gangways and work platforms: for access and to allow employees to work in all areas of the segment being built. These categories are: • Form travelers with supporting beams situated above the upper slab Page 125 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . 6. form travelers include three major elements. • • Fig. Fig.3).1 – Background information about form travelers Standard segments are built using highly complex formwork equipment called form travelers (Fig.2 - Standard segments 6. 6. Depending on the situation.1. they are usually broken down into three families according to the position of their supporting beams or their main beams in the metal framework. this equipment is either built specifically for the site or existing equipment is adapted to suit the site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide completion time for a segment on pier is 6 to 10 weeks for a traditional structure but may stretch to 15 weeks for structures which are very wide and/or with a very lon span .2.1.

Fig. they are regularly used in other countries (Fig. as opposed to the first type of “above-slab” form travelers. is by far the most commonly used.5). This family of form travelers can be split into two subgroups: those with an upper beam of the same width as the box girder.e. 6. i. which are ideal for segments of a standard height and width. 6. which are commonly used for very tall or wide segments. The second and third types of form travelers are often called “below-slab” models. In France. especially because the absence of any beams at the base of the segment to be constructed makes it possible to insert a reinforcing cage that has been entirely prefabricated at ground level (Fig 6. Fig. and form travelers with a smaller cross beam and launch or transfer beams.4 – Upper clearance of a “below-slab” form traveler Frequently used after World War II. the second type of form travelers. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 126 septembre 2007 . we have decided to concentrate exclusively on the second type of form travelers.4). However.5 – Upper clearance of an “above-slab” form traveler The third type of form travelers is only used in very specific cases.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Form travelers with supporting beams situated along the webs of the box girder Form travelers with supporting beams situated below the lower slab. 6. In the rest of this chapter. with supporting beams situated along the webs. those with supporting beams situated along the webs. the first type of form travelers is no longer widely used in France.

and the reinforcement. etc.2. • • 6. along with the formwork for the lower slab. these form travelers have been used in the construction of numerous bridge decks and notably those of the second Pont Salomon viaduct [DEW 01]. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 127 septembre 2007 . called supporting beams. positioned on the upper slab of segment n-1.2. supporting the formwork for the internal surfaces of segment n and situated under the central part of the upper slab.6 – Principle of the framework for a form traveler with lateral beams • A large U-shaped structure situated under the bridge deck. the Tanus bridge [SER 98]. with segment n being the segment to be cast. cabling and concreting on the other. their metal framework consists of three large sub-structures (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. supporting the formwork for the underside of the cantilevers and the external faces of the webs. Described schematically. and one vertical “front” beam. In the static phase. sometimes referred to as a transverse transfer beam. at its free end (Figure 6. In certain cases. this structure consists of two large longitudinal lattice girders. which is also a lattice girder. 6. horizontal bracing is added to these two elements and situated under the lower slab An upper crossbeam. these rods are highly prestressed in order to reduce the deflection of the U-shape under the weight of the concrete The sliding beams are supported on the front beam on the side of segment n+1 and attached to the upper slab via transverse hangers on the side of segment n-1. 6. the connections between the three sub-structures are as follows: • • The upper beam rests upon the upper slab of segment n-1 The U-shaped structure is fixed to the upper beam via rods across the upper slab that has already been constructed.6 shows the specific example of a C-shaped upper beam) Sliding beams.1. the Digoin viaduct [DIEU 00].1. This girder is situated at the end of the form traveler on the segment n + 1 side.3 – Operation of form travelers with full upper beam The design of the different elements described above takes account of two very different situations: the movement of the equipment on the one hand.6): Fig.2 – Simplified description of form travelers with full upper beams In recent years.

7 – Static schema of the form traveler during translatory movement Fig. this is called a C-shaped upper beam). and thus without crossing the upper slab which has already been constructed.9).8 – Supporting beams rested on C-shaped upper beam ends The movement of the upper beam and the U-shaped structure is carried out using long-stroke horizontal jacks situated on the upper slab and pushing against the upper beam (Fig. Depending on the situation.11). 6. 6. the support conditions for these elements evolve in the following way: • • The upper beam still rests on the concrete The U-shaped structure is suspended on the upper beam. As the centre of gravity of the U shape is situated well in front of the suspension plane.7). Other methods are also used. either via rods situated on either side of the box girder. • Fig. the sliding beams are moved by tackle (Fig. it has a tendency to tip on the crown side. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 128 septembre 2007 . but this movement is stopped by wheels fixed to the rear of the supporting beams and blocked by the cantilevers that have already been constructed (Fig. 6. 6. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the movement phase (Fig. 6.10) or by a second set of long-stroke jacks (Fig. 6.8) The sliding beams are cantilevered. or via brackets extending out from the upper beam under the cantilevers (in which case.

6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.11 – Sliding beam operated by a long-stroke jack The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 129 septembre 2007 . 6. 6.9 – Upper beam with long-stroke jack (at bottom of photo) Fig.10 – Manually-operated sliding beam Fig.

as for the first type of form travelers Lower transfer beams.12) Longitudinal upper transfer beams.1. with a construction cycle of between 48 and 72 hours per pair. 6.4 – Construction sequence for a standard segment Using the form travelers described above. the major stages in the construction of a standard segment are as follows: 1 2 Installation and stressing of cantilever tendons for segment n . with two large support beams and one front beam. 6.2. or sliding beams.1 Installation of the upper reinforcement cage of segment n with its ducts and anchorages Casting of segment n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Standard segments of conventional dimensions and shapes are almost always cast in a single phase.1 Dismantling of rods attaching U-shaped structure to the concrete of segment n . 6.5 – Form travelers with transfer beams or launch beams For a large segment. Very simply.1 Adjustment of the external formwork and formwork of lower slab Installation of lower reinforcement cage of segment N. only used in the movement phase (Fig. usually in the form of lattice girders Sliding beams situated under the central section of the upper slab. the U-structure is now fully suspended from the upper beam Sliding of the upper beam and thus of the U-structure suspended from it Installation of rods attaching the U-structure to the concrete of segment n . these form travelers consist of: • • • An upper beam without cantilevers. it is thus increasingly common to use form travelers that are designed to move on a “transfer frame”. very close to the webs. For the construction of very wide bridge decks. situated along the two support beams. the suspension of the lower part of the form traveler from the ends of the upper beam requires very large and thus very costly upper beams. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 130 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. which is virtually identical that used for the aforementioned type of form travelers. with its ducts and anchorages Dismantling of rods attaching the sliding beams and sliding of the latter Sliding and adjustment of the internal formwork Installation of rods fixing the sliding beams to the concrete of segment n .2.1. which is positioned transversally.2. supported at right angles to the webs (Fig.13) A main metal framework.

in this phase. Fig. the support and operating conditions for the form traveler are virtually identical to those for the first type of form travelers. separate them from the upper transfer beams and remove the latter. lower it onto the frame consisting of the four transfer beams and slide it into its new position.15).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 6. normally via long-stroke jacks Fix the main framework to the concrete and the upper beam Move the central section of the formwork forward Re-attach the lower transfer beams to the support beams.14). 6.12 – Upper beam without cantilever Fig. which in this phase are fixed to the two support beams. • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 131 septembre 2007 .14 – Form traveler in static phase The differences are greater in the movement phase (Fig. Indeed. 6.13 – Upper transfer beam In the static phase (Fig. The main difference concerns the presence of lower transfer beams. 6. 6. it is necessary to: • • Place the two upper transfer beams on the segment that has just been constructed Release the lower transfer beams and suspend them from the two upper transfer beams in order to form a frame capable of accommodating the main framework of the form traveler Release the main framework (both support beams and the front beam).

16). significant modifications often have to be made to the form travelers in order to reuse them for the construction of a new bridge deck.6 – Other comments regarding form travelers Other types of form travelers As mentioned at the beginning of paragraph 6. 6. making these operations unnecessary. efforts are often made on new projects to reuse equipment that was designed for a previous site. With this method. the reinforcement bars awaiting insertion into the beams must be bent and then unbent . the Corniche bridge in Dole.15 – Form traveler in movement The form travelers used for the Pays de Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway are good examples of this type of form traveler [LAC 02]. etc.) [CHU02].3 - Deviator segments The vast majority of deviator segments on composite prestressed concrete bridges are constructed in two phases: the standard section is built using the form traveler used for the standard segments. the bridge over the Bras de la Plaine. the lower beam and the deviator beams are built using wooden formwork with the concrete introduced through apertures left in the upper slabs directly above the beams (Fig.1. the Vecchio bridge. this ratio is sometimes exceeded. 6. Weight of form travelers The weight of form travelers that are custom-made for a specific project is normally quite close to half of the weight of the heaviest standard segment. the engineering design and implementation of these modifications must be handled with the same care as for the original design and manufacturing phases. It is now also possible to use special high bond strength reinforcing steels which are capable of withstanding a bending-unbending cycle without any loss of strength. it is increasingly common to use mechanical couplers at the junction between the webs and the deviator beams. Unfortunately. of this guide. especially when a form traveler that was originally designed for a wider bridge deck is reused on a narrower project.1. 6. 6.2. Modification of form travelers for reuse Considering the very high manufacturing costs for a pair of form travelers.in order to allow the inner core of the form traveler to slide freely.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Special form travelers are commonly built for the construction of bridge decks with struts. lateral shell elements or even hybrid structures (e. Considering the risks involved. However. However. there are many different types of form travelers and the preceding presentation is far from exhaustive.2.g. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 132 septembre 2007 .1.1.requiring the use of ADX steel . as the decks of large bridges have no standardized elements. [PAU 00].

5 - Closing segments Closing segments are normally constructed in a single phase. casting in the late evening is recommended during very sunny periods. the internal parts of the closing segments are encased using the original core.especially their rotation around the axis of the piers due to the effect of wind.16 – Second phase in the construction of a deviator beams There are several structures in which the deviator beams were built in a single phase. this does not happen systematically.1. depending on the project. easily transportable sections. but if one of the standard form travelers is reused. it is necessary to design and use a special inner core.1. If this is not the case. they are built using form travelers designed for these segments. It is important to prevent the development of significant thermal effects between the setting of the concrete – the moment at which the span becomes continuous – and the stressing of the first continuity tendons. special precautions must be taken because the majority of these tools are designed to operate in an overhanging position. Normally. 6. During the construction of the closing segment . which allows them to remove their form travelers as quickly as possible. The time of the casting of a closing segment must be chosen with care. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 133 septembre 2007 . Two to three days are required to complete a closing segment. It should be noted that the most common practice is to use standard form travelers for the construction of the closing segments. If it is possible to remove the central core once the final segment is in place. using one of the form travelers used for the construction of the standard segments. segments built by over-cantilevering are similar to standard segments. the formwork equipment is positioned on simple supports at both ends of the cantilevers because it would not be strong enough to withstand the thermal effects that might develop in the continuously-rendered span. 6. Therefore. On certain sites. this system consists of longitudinal beams fixed to the overhangs of the last standard segment in each cantilever. which is by far the most common situation. If the formwork equipment is specially built. a special metal core was built specifically for these segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it is important for the aforementioned formwork equipment to be equipped with a system designed to prevent certain parasitic movements of the cantilevers . However. these support conditions pose no problems. 6. and on certain projects. which can be broken down into small.4 - Segments built by over-cantilevering In terms of their construction. as is the case for the standard segments. contractors prefer to build special equipment for these segments. Therefore. In some of these structures.

In the lower section. This is the most economical technique. 6.7 - Stabilization of cantilevers The following section contains technical information concerning the stabilization of cantilevers.1. End zones may also be built directly using the same form travelers used to construct the standard segments. if the natural terrain lends itself to this solution. Fig. they must be anchored to anchor plates housed in the upper slab of the SOP. 6.17 – Construction on centering of the end section of an end span However. In the upper section.6 - End sections In the majority of cases.18) [DEM 02]. it is possible to construct the end sections of the bridge deck on centuring towers.18 – Construction using form traveler and temporary piling on the end section of an end span 6.17). 6. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. Fig. the longitudinal profile of the natural terrain around the abutments makes it necessary to construct the end sections on horizontal centering resting on the abutment crosshead and on one or more temporary metal pilings (Fig. by forming a loop in the shaft or on the foundation bulkheads. according to the piers.7. If this solution is impossible due to the density of reinforcements in these parts.1. a temporary piling is placed under the last standard segment on the abutment side and then caulked after the cantilever tendons associated with this segment have been stressed. the anchorages are housed in The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 134 septembre 2007 . these tendons may be anchored on the underside of the crosshead. This supplements Chapter 5 of this guide. This piling also helps to reduce flexion at the end of the bridge deck (Fig.1 – Stitching prestressing Stitching prestressing is normally carried out by tendons. The formwork for the bridge deck is then erected on this centering and the casting is carried out in sections of 3 to 4 m. In order to limit the imbalance of the cantilever. 6.1.

6. Thus. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide prefabricated concrete blocks positioned on top of the SOP and removed after the stress has been released from the stitching tendons.2 – Concrete blocks If the pier head unit is big enough to accommodate the bearings. 6. the support reaction of the bridge deck is gradually transferred from the stabilizing blocks onto the permanent bearings.21). In this way.7. Bringing the structure down onto the hardened caulking. Once these operations have been carried out.20). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 135 septembre 2007 . Raising the bridge deck using jacks 2. stitching tendons and jacks simultaneously. 6. 6. the cantilevers are constructed on concrete blocks placed on sand boxes consisting of a removable metal shell filled with graded sand (Fig. blocks. Caulking the gap above the bearings 3. the blocks are no longer in contact with the SOP and may be removed by a crane or other equipment (Fig. finally.1. After the closing segment is in place. Some contractors also use bars to provide the temporary prestressing.1. A resin or mortar is inserted between these blocks and the SOP in order to guarantee the correct transmission of forces between these elements. the gap between the underside of the SOP and the top of the bearings is caulked as before.19). Once the closing segment is in place. However.7. this solution is not to be recommended because any error in the positioning of the prestressing ducts could result in parasitic flexions in the bars or could even make it impossible to insert the bars. 6. the structure can be placed on the permanent bearings. vertical forces are progressively and without jack transferred from stabilizing blocs to permanent bearings. the most economical stabilization system consists of temporary prestressing and hooped concrete blocks placed directly on the pier head (Fig. This consists of: 1. the cantilevers rest on the concrete blocks and the bearings are in place but not in contact with the SOP. Fig. 6.19 – Concrete stabilizing blocks During construction.21). the sand is blown out of the boxes (Fig.3 – Concrete blocks on sand boxes If the pier head units are too small to accommodate jacks and blocks side by side.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. thus resulting in structural and/or geometric disorders. at the top. so that smaller pier heads can be used. it is possible to stabilize the cantilevers using temporary pilings placed either side of the piers (Fig.7.Jacks Although this technique is rarely used. the jacks are immobilized during the construction of the cantilevers. 6. 6. They must therefore be equipped with lock nuts. because it is an “exact” match for an older design. This technique has the benefit of using the same system to perform both jacking and blocking functions. this could lead to an uneven distribution of the support reactions between the sand boxes.4 . e.21 – Detail of an open sand box A large variety of sand boxes are available.g. these boxes must be dimensioned and designed to be undeformable. it is also possible to construct a cantilever entirely on jacks. 6. they are attached underneath the lower slab of the segments on piers or of the first standard segments. On the simplest projects. are attached on top of the foundation bulkhead.22). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 136 septembre 2007 . these pilings.5 – Other methods When the structure is positioned quite low above the natural ground and if the pier head unit is too small to accommodate blocks. At the bottom. If not. which are usually metal tubes filled with concrete. 6. On more complex projects. it cannot be used to raise the bridge in case of problem. 6.7. It should also be noted that the geometry of the cantilevers has to be perfect with this system.1.20 – Concrete stabilizing box placed on a sand box Fig. they are rectangular and four boxes are used per pier.1. the sand boxes are proper cylindrical pot bearings and up to a dozen may be used per pier. For this to be possible. because as a sand box can only be emptied. Whatever their type.

1. we should also mention the second Gennevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway. As the cantilever tendons on older structures were often anchored quite low down. 6. Fig. rectangular blocks are still used when several tendons need to be anchored in close proximity to each other.23 and 6. However. composite systems with blocks and cable stays were used tostabilize the cantilevers [JAE00]. 6. and still because of excessively small pier head units. for single tendons. as their alignment was designed to reduce shear force. Today. In the interests of thoroughness. contractors sometimes prefabricate the concrete which surrounds the anchor plates for these tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.8 – Prefabricated butt blocks In order to allow for the rapid stressing of cantilever tendons.24). these elements were situated in the webs of the box girder and were rectangular in shape. 6.23 – Cylindrical butt blocks The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 137 septembre 2007 . more and more contractors are using prefabricated cylindrical blocks whose only reinforcements are helical hoops with jointed coils which also form the external formwork of the prefabricated block (Fig. 6.22 – Stabilization of a cantilever by tubular metal pilings For the second Saint-André de Cubzac viaduct. which was equipped with self-leveling pot bearings injected with silicone rubber [CHA 94].

8 - Influence of form travelers on the dimensioning of bridge decks It is imperative for the weight of the form travelers to be considered in the calculations for longitudinal flexion. 6. Réaction de l'appui support de la poutre supérieure Précontrainte des suspentes des poutres latérales Fig. During the design stage for pretressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method using reused form travelers. The form travelers may also influence the positioning of the cantilever tendons and continuity tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 138 septembre 2007 . 6.25).Construction by prefabricated segments It is generally considered that it is more economical to prefabricate a bridge deck than build it in-situ when the number of segments to be constructed exceeds 350 to 400 units. as their operation relies on prestressing bars which cross the slabs close to the webs where the internal prestressing tendons are situated. it is essential for the organization and methods department and the engineering firm to work very closely together during the construction surveys for a structure built by the cantilever method. This must be accounted for in the design of the cantilever tendons.2 .24 – Cylindrical butt block in position in the form traveler 6. 6. it is not possible to choose the position of these bars. as this increases the forces on the structure.1.25 – Example of localized forces exerted by the form traveler on the box girder in the construction phase In conclusion. It is also important to consider the forces caused by the form travelers when analyzing tranverse flexion. These forces usually lead to the localized strengthening of the reinforcements in the upper slab and in the top part of the webs (Fig. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. particularly during the construction of the cantilevers.

On the other hand. the Avignon viaducts for the TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line. which are manufactured on jigs by specialist workshops and are equipped with all inserts (ducts.27 – Prefabrication using an ogee mold A prefabrication unit is a construction area the length of two to three standard segments. A well designed unit produces one standard segment per day or one segment on pier every two days.30). anchor rails). this method has definitively taken over from the costlier long bench method with an ogee mold (Fig. In order to maintain such high rates of production. a lack of space close to the site or difficult access conditions may mean that there is no alternative to the in-situ construction of reasonably long structures.27) which also requires more space. The lateral formwork consists of two metal sides. anchor plates.1 - The segment prefabrication plant The prefabrication plant is set up on a site of approximately 2 hectares in area.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. 6. Fig. It can be broken down into two major areas: the first is used for the construction of the segments and the second is reserved for their storage (Fig. this function is carried out by a metal plate on the crown side and a by segment n-1 on the pier side. 6.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 139 septembre 2007 .28). specific difficulties may raise or lower this threshold. but it may also be situated several kilometers away.26). Thanks to significant improvements in geometrical accuracy. 6. a very short contractual completion time or difficult climatic conditions may increase the appeal of prefabrication. 6. They also take delivery of complete reinforcing cages. longitudinally. Fig. the units are equipped with concrete distribution booms supplied by pipework or conveyors connected to a concrete plant on site. 6. which results in a perfect joint between the different elements (Fig. Thus. 6. the Saint-André viaduct for the A43 highway in Maurienne. and finally. in which the assembly of formwork and the casting of segments take place (Fig. 6. This is usually located next to the site.26 – General view of the units of a prefabrication plant Prefabrication units have been preferred for the construction of segments for the past ten years or so. the second A20 viaduct over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00].29 and 6. French bridges built recently using this technique include the Ile de Ré bridge. the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 [JAC 98].

28 – Breakdown of a prefabrication unit Fig. 6. external formwork. 6. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.30 – Detail of a prefabrication unit (from left to right: the matched mold segment.29 – Prefabrication units Fig. internal formwork) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 140 septembre 2007 .

by dredging [JAE 00]. the semi-trailer is either driven onto the portion of bridge deck that has already been constructed or onto a track marked out on the ground in line with the structure to be built.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Depending on the number of segments to be constructed.31). if these are included in the design of the bridge deck. they may also be stored on two or even three levels.g.2. According to the project. with the beams being constructed in the second phase outside of the unit in order to avoid having to modify the construction cycle for the standard segments.2 - Transportation of prefabricated segments 6. low-bed semi-trailer.1. The half-segments on piers are manufactured side by side in specialized units. Segments on piers are always split into two in order to avoid the need for oversize transportation and hoisting equipment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 141 septembre 2007 .2.8) can be dispensed with.1 – Transportation by low-bed semi-trailer Tyre-mounted low-bed semi-trailers are the most widely used form of transport for segments (Fig. the deviator segments are either built in specialized units or in the standard segment units. initially from the prefabrication units to their storage area and then onto a mode of transport (barge. they are transported to the units specializing in standard segments for use as matched molds for the first standard segments of each cantilever.2.2. and after verification of the segments. Loaded is usually carried out by a gantry crane at the prefabrication site and unloading is performed by the assembly equipment (see 6. The segments are stored on the prefabrication site for a period of one to three months. after separation.2 – Transportation by barge The segments can also be transported by barge if the structure crosses a navigable waterway or one that can be made navigable. e. They are also reduced to several tens of centimeters in length. the prefabricated anchor blocks described previously (see 6. 6. The concrete is thus extremely strong when the segments are assembled. 6.31 – Semi-trailer used for transporting segments 6. the closing segments are cast-in-situ rather than prefabricated. If necessary. 6. Considering the errors that they have to compensate forr. there may be between three and several dozen units in total.3 above). etc. therefore. The segments are first transported by large traveling gantry. Some of these units specialize in segments on piers and abutments while the others are reserved for standard segments. In general.).2.2. the segments are stored on just one level. Specialized units are reserved for the construction of hinged segments. Fig. Depending on the sites and the chosen assembly mode.

6. In France. but as it is usually designed to be used on several consecutive sites. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 142 septembre 2007 .34): • Two triangular-section lattice girders of between 3 and 5 m tall and 100 to 250 m in length according to the beams. The initial cost of a launch beam is very high. 6.32 – Standard launch beams Structure of standard launch beams Standard launch beams can be broken down into around ten elements.32). the access viaducts to the Prince Edward Island viaduct in Canada [COM 98] and numerous urban bridges in Thailand and Hong Kong.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. the most notable examples include the Sylvans and Glacières viaducts on the A40 highway [BOU 90]. 6. numerous bridges have been built using this method. Fig.2. made from sections assembled using prestressing bars Two front and rear lattice towers. all of which are made of metal (Fig. acting as secondary supports Two bridge cranes traveling on the lattice girders and used to manoeuvre the segments.3 - Assembly of prefabricated segments 6. the Boulonnais and the Rogerville viaducts on the A29 highway [JAC 98] and the Saint-André bridge on the Maurienne highway (A43). it can be paid off over a long period. In recent years.33 and 6. the Ile de Ré Bridge. acting as main supports Two front and rear legs.2. Examples in other countries include the access viaducts for the second Severn crossing in England [COM 96].3-1 – Assembly using a launch beam Background information Launch beams are the most widely used method for assembling prefabricated beams in successive cantilever segments. This self-propelled handling device is supported by the bridge deck and piers and therefore is free from almost all of the constraints relating to the crossing (Fig.

34 – Main constituent elements of a launch beam The lattice towers and legs can be moved longitudinally along the lattice girders using to a system of capstans. A standard launch beam weighs between 300 and 600 tonnes. This transverse movement is required for the construction of curved sections. The lattice towers can also slide inside their supporting cross beams.33 – Cross-section of a standard launch beam Fig.5 and 3 million euros.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. both longitudinally and transversally and for any type of geometry. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 143 septembre 2007 . The completion time for its construction is approximately one year and it costs between 1. The bridge cranes are equipped with spreaders which are used to position the segments as closely as possible to their final position. for example. 6. 6.

the two lattice towers are placed on the transverse rails straddling the central gap.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Sequence of operations for the assembly of segments During the assembly of the segments on piers on support Pn. reduces the stresses imposed on the supports by eliminating non-accidental imbalances. This method is also used when the bridge deck consists of two box girders joined in the middle and when each box girder is built and assembled on-site before the longitudinal grouting of these box girders is carried out.35). 6. Once both half-SOPs have been assembled. so that it does not obstruct the assembly of the standard segments. this also significantly reduces the differential creep between the two box girders. which consists of synchronizing the release of the two S and S' segments by both carriages. 6. it is worth mentioning certain launch beams that have been specially designed or used by French companies in France or abroad. In the case of box girders joined side by side. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 144 septembre 2007 . To this end. Special launch beams Without going into too much detail. The front leg is then placed at the end of the lattice tower on the Pn+1 side. a “symmetrical” assembly method has been used. which allows the launch beam to cross over from one bridge deck to the other and thus to assemble cantilever Fa immediately after cantilever Fb. This operation can now begin (Fig. the launch beam rests on its two lattice towers and the front leg. adjusted and stitched. Fig. When the bridge deck consists of two parallel bridge decks. In general. This method.35 – Different stages in the sequence of operations for a launch beam During the construction of a cantilever. this technique improves the speed of the assembly and prestressing of the segments. The beam can then be moved forward so that the rear lattice tower is positioned at the end of the cantilever centred on Pn-1. it is very common for the adjacent cantilevers of the two decks Fa and Fb to be constructed simultaneously. On some sites. the two symmetrical segments S and S' are normally assembled one after the other. the rear leg is removed and the front lattice tower slides in place on top of the SOP on pile Pn.

37). If the structure crosses land. 6. 6. This solution helped to keep the lattice girders to a reasonable height despite the length of the spans to be crossed (110 m).37 –Assembly using a river crane Fig. which significantly reduces the initial investment costs. featured two independent upper beams.38). 6. Fig. This also played an important role in helping to reduce wind effects (Fig. 6. the crane constantly moves from one end of the cantilever to the other. the assembly is carried out using a 200T to 500T lattice boom crane mounted on a barge (Fig. 6. the assembly is carried out using a tracked crane with a lattice boom of the same capacity (Fig.2. This arrangement made it possible to assemble the segments on two parallel bridge decks of different levels and separated by a very wide central gap.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A cable-stayed launch beam was used on the construction of the Ile de Ré Bridge. 6. Fig. If the structure crosses an expanse of water. each of which was positioned on a separate bridge deck.36 – The cable-stayed launch beam used on the Ile de Ré viaduct The launch beam used for the construction of the H3 highway viaduct on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian archipelago in the United States. 6.2 – Assembly by crane If the piers are not too tall and it is possible to use heavy equipment at the foot of the bridge deck.38 – Assembly using a land-based crane The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 145 septembre 2007 .36).3. Given the order of assembly of the segments. These beams were connected by a bridge crane. prefabricated segments can be assembled using cranes.

2. where it was used to raise whole segments and on the Sermenaz and Arrêt-Darré viaducts ([SER 90]. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 146 septembre 2007 . the segment can be guided by joining frames and the spreader can therefore be very simple. Several structures have been built using this technique in recent years.39). a spreader is positioned between the hook of the crane and the segments. where it was used to raise sections of segments. If the transverse slope or longitudinal profile is very pronounced.40). The same system was used for the Khurays Road viaducts in Riyad and. it is better to offer up the segments in a position close to their final position.3. other methods exist for the assembly of prefabricated segments. If the transverse slope and longitudinal profile are minimal. 6. closer to home.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Whatever type of crane is used.3 – Other assembly methods In addition to the launch beam and the crane. 6. in Hong Kong. Fig. 6. the segments were assembled using a gantry crane operating on both sides of the bridge deck (Fig. The most notable examples are the Arcins viaduct over the River Garonne in Bordeaux [ABE 94]. occupied a totally virgin site. Fig. This method has been used on at least four sites in France: on the Falaises viaduct on the A20 highway. it is possible to “winch” segments or parts of segments up to the bridge deck using lightweight metal girders. 6. When each segment can be positioned on the ground in line with its final position.39 – Winch assembly principle (on the site of the Arrêt-Darré viaduct) As the structure for the West Kowloon Expressway project. on the Ottmarsheim bridge. which requires much more complex spreaders with transverse and/or longitudinal adjustments. the second viaduct for the A10 highway over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00] and the "central" and “Expo" viaducts of the bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. on the A10 highway bridge over the River Loire at Tours.

42 – Construction of a closing segment with strip formwork 6.2.42). which guarantees the correct distribution of the adhesive and helps it to set. 6. blocks or jacks are placed between the bottom of the segments and the top of the falsework.6 - Sections on the abutment side of end spans As for in-situ casting. the extremities of end spans on the abutment side are usually built on falsework. 6.5 - Mid-span closures The mid-span closures between cantilevers are constructed in the traditional manner.41 – Anchor block for a lashing bar Fig.41).4 - Temporary lashing In order to release the assembly equipment as quickly as possible.40 – Assembly using a gantry crane 6. 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 147 septembre 2007 . This lashing generally consists of Ø36 mm bars anchored in blocks at the top and bottom of the webs. Fig. by casting an in-situ joint of approximately 20 centimeters in length.2. the segments being assembled can be lashed in place before the cantilever prestressing is brought into operation. 6. In order to allow the movement necessary for perfect joints at the crowns. 6. the corresponding segments are positioned and assembled on falsework. It is dismantled after the stressing of the permanent tendons and the hardening of the epoxy adhesive.2. For such short joints. contractors often use strip formwork (Fig.2 MPa must be exerted by these bars. In the case of prefabricated segments. in the web uprights or in the slabs (Fig 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. A normal stress of approximately 0. while preventing any decompression at the end of the segments.

no more than 3 m per day are completed. If the segments are assembled using a launch beam or winch. However. To be exhaustive. 6. Under these conditions. For localized flexion. If the assembly uses a launch beam and/or requires the use of a low-bed semi-trailer. as the loads applied to the cantilevers are limited to the weight of any work platforms that might be used. 6. As for construction using cast-in-situ segments. it is important to verify that the reinforcing of the segments is capable of taking up any transverse moments that develop during the storage and handling of the segments. caulking must be applied between the top of the blocks and the bottom of the segments on piers in order to correct any construction defects or errors in the assembly of these parts. it is also necessary to consider the localized forces created by this equipment when dimensioning the non-prestressed reinforcements of the segments. 6. and for the B3 South viaduct to the north-east of Paris.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. under normal operating conditions the speed of construction reaches 12 m or 4 segments per day.6 above. This adhesive is spread by hand just before assembly to a thickness of approximately 1 mm.10 - Influence of methods on the dimensioning of structures Assembly using a crane or gantry crane creates very few longitudinal forces on the bridge deck.8 - Stabilization of cantilevers As mentioned in the part of this chapter devoted to cast-in-situ segments. This technique was used for the construction of the Baldwin viaduct in the USA [FUZ 94]. the stabilization techniques for bridges made from prefabricated systems are the same as those described in section 6. the cantilevers are often built on supports featuring jacks equipped with lock nuts. the choice of a stabilization system for cantilevers is highly dependent on the size of the pier head units. it is important to perform a thorough analysis of the positioning of the handling hangers and the internal cables in order to prevent any interference between these elements. as for the construction of bridge decks using cast-in-situ segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 148 septembre 2007 . In conclusion.7 - Bonding of the segments Before assembly. If conventional blocks are used. However.2. greater forces develop in the bridge deck due to the weight of this equipment and the segments being handled and must therefore be allowed for in the design. the design and construction of bridge decks made from prefabricated segments using the cantilever method requires a very close collaboration between the engineers of the engineering and design department and those of the organization and methods department. The average speed is therefore 6 m per day.1. At the start of the project. it is worth mentioning that cantilevers are sometimes stabilized by the launch beam itself. an epoxy adhesive is spread on the pier-side face of the segment being assembled.2. as it is difficult to correct the geometry of the cantilevers once the segments are joined.2. regardless of the assembly method used.9 - Speed of construction The instantaneous construction rate on a site using prefabricated segments varies significantly.

Therefore.Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme). and the Quality Assurance Plan itself.1 . including the inspection and approval of materials. the monitoring of the materials used and process controls. Inspections carried out during construction are designed to verify the correct application of the technical specifications and compliance with the rules of good practice. This chapter only covers qualitative monitoring. Measuring point A measuring point is a point to which coordinates are attributed in order to monitor relative or absolute movements. Post-construction inspections are designed to ascertain whether the initial objectives have been achieved. However. it extends its scope to the monitoring that must be performed and the particular precautions that must be taken during the construction of all types of large engineering structures. the monitoring of plans and design calculations. If both of the previous types of inspections have been carried out. reference points. depends to a considerable extent on the care that is taken over the development of the geometric framework. post-construction inspections will be a formality.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7 . Monitoring prior to construction is primarily designed to evaluate the methods which are likely to be used by the contractor and which will go some way towards defining some of the specifications of the contract. they will receive only minimal coverage in this chapter. Some of these monitoring operations will not be covered in this chapter.On site Monitoring This chapter covers the monitoring operations and particular precautions that need to be implemented during the project. In the process. 7. In Appendix 3. the inspection of the SOPAQ (Schéma organisationnel du plan d’assurance qualité . It places particular emphasis on topics relating to the construction of bridges by the cantilever method.Background information On-site monitoring mainly relates to quality. The concepts of measuring points. during and after construction. quantities and the monitoring of deadlines. frames of reference and networks are thus defined and are clearly explained in the following section.2 .Inspection of geometry The quality and accuracy of the topographic surveying that is carried out before. 7. Different aspects of these inspections will be described in the following sub-chapters. Technical Document 4 entitled “Instruction technique sur la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art : topométrie" (Technical instructions for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures: topographic surveying) is currently being prepared by Sétra. other monitoring operations performed prior to construction will be developed in the following subchapters. including the certification of companies. Three categories of measuring points can be defined: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 149 septembre 2007 . it provides a number of definitions which help to specify the vocabulary to be used for clarifying the exchanges in this field.

hole.1 - Inspection of pier geometry Obtaining the correct bridge deck geometry involves considering any data that might have a bearing on the geometry of the piers and using reverse deflections to negate any drift that these data are likely to produce. Oy.2. punch mark A point given by a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure: target.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • A visible point on the structure: rivet head. in relation to a previously defined network. leveling stud A specific point in relation to a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure and designed to accommodate accessories positioned by forced centring. The Oz ascending vertical axis. Frame of reference A frame of reference is a system of orthonormal axes (Ox. 7. As a general rule. which is used to identify the position from any point in space. These points are usually marked out on the site. the orthonormal reference point is defined by: • • • The Ox axis following the tangent to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. Topometric operations consist of determining the positions of certain points whose movements will be monitored. Two types of networks may be used in the topographical monitoring of civil engineering structures: absolute reference networks or relative measurement networks. Reference point A reference point is the association of a system of orthonormal axes and a point representing the origin of the system of axes and whose movements are to be measured. This conventional system.1. 7. The Oy axis following the normal to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. is used to calculate the position of the measuring points.1 – Accounting for vertical settlement The following effects must be carefully evaluated: • • The settlement of foundations under the action of the selfweight of the pier and the cantilever The elastic shortening of the pier due to the same actions Page 150 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . which is the working reference point established by the surveyor at the start of the topographical operations. Network A network is an arrangement of points determined by a set of planimetric and/or altimetric measurements. Oz) associated with a point of origin O.2. paint mark.

when a curved cantilever is built. it is important to remember that a thermal gradient may act upon a pier shaft and cause a horizontal shift of the pier head unit capable of affecting the measurements of movement during the construction of the cantilevers. it is necessary to anticipate this movement by building in a pre-deformation in the opposite direction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The effect of shrinkage and creep due to the weight of the cantilever. The construction of the cantilever will have the following effects: • The pre-deformation will be accentuated for the first segments.1. In the case of curved bridge decks.1. • The accuracy of the result is dependent on the awareness of the rheology of the concrete used. this is a difficult operation requiring careful preparation. Each point has a specific function The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 151 septembre 2007 . Piers of a hundred or so meters tall.000 tonnes and a vertical shortening of around 4 centimeters including creep. This effect increases in proportion to the height and/or flexibility of the pier.2 – Accounting for other phenomena In the case of a rectilinear bridge deck. 7. Indeed. However. it is necessary to examine the effect of the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier by the cantilever under construction.3 – Measuring points to monitor geometry Several types of measuring points can be positioned on the structure in order to help the surveyor monitor the geometry.2. the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier causes flexion in the pier shaft which can alter the position of the pier head unit.2. rather than building a perfectly straight pier. However. it might be possible to consider the settlement of the foundations only. provided that the estimate was correct. Creep tests should therefore be performed on the chosen formula of concrete in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the deformations in the structure. This approach guarantees a successful closure of the span. While the aforementioned effects may be small for small bridges. the construction tolerances inherent to any structure may lead to shifting in the horizontal plane between cantilevers. because the weight of these segments remains offset in relation to the plane containing the pile axis and tangent to the curve of the horizontal alignment of the bridge deck The construction of the following segments will gradually straighten out the pier until it becomes vertical. An inaccurate estimation of the vertical settlement of the pier may be compensated for by adjusting the thickness of these elements. The concrete must have consistent characteristics and the conditions of application must be the same throughout all stages in the construction of the pier shaft. span lengths of approximately 180 m and a bridge deck of 20 m wide may result in downward loads of approximately 20. In the case of relatively small structures. 7. Therefore. they increase in proportion to the height of the piers and the length of the spans. The bridge deck is normally supported by bridge bearings which operate between concrete support blocks.

Medallions are used to monitor the levelling of a vertical plane and cost approximately the same as the rivets. undeformable material designed to resist the effects of weather and impacts on the site. The horizontal plane tangent to the top of the sphere supports the sight. This inexpensive tool must be made from a hard-wearing. Targets Self-adhesive targets are discs marked with concentric circles which are attached to bonded metal elements or directly onto the concrete itself. A prism gives a direct measurement by defining the sighting angle and the distance to the measuring point from a single known reference marker to which it is permanently directed. Furthermore. exploitable data are only obtained if a sufficient number of medallions is used. Targets can be used to measure both angles of orientation of a viewing axis from a known reference marker. In certain cases. They are used for monitoring verticality in particular. provided that this distance is no more than approximately 100 meters. this component can increase the accuracy of the calculations. A sufficient number of rivets must be used in order to monitor the elastic curve accurately. depending on the type of model used. A retroflective target gives a third component in space: namely the distance from the observation point to the measuring point. It is used to monitor the leveling of a horizontal plane. The limitations of targets concern the mediocre accuracy of the measurements and the fact that their bonding fails after a few years. Prisms Prisms are a little more expensive and are positioned on a bonded base in the form of a corner plate that allows the angle of the prism to be adjusted. as this may vary from one model to another. It features a rounded upper support surface. This is particularly important if a bi-directional phenomenon is being monitored. As for the rivets. Therefore. Medallions A medallion is a piece of rustproof metal which is fixed to the structure. bad weather and birds. The prism must be sited and angled in such a way as to reduce the damaging effects of dust. it can be difficult to position three markers with clear visibility between each one.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Rivets A rivet is a measuring device with a rounded head. this operation provides a good estimate of the position of the target point. on uneven sites. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 152 septembre 2007 . it is important to make sure that the type of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the target in question. This type of measuring point has numerous advantages: • • • Greater accuracy for a measuring point which is difficult to access Saves time for the surveyor Single measurement reduces the risk of error. If repeated from three markers.

2 - Monitoring the geometry of the bridge deck A cantilever consists of several segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 153 septembre 2007 . When the structure is isostatic.1). The effects of concrete creep and the delayed prestressing losses are added to the instantaneous deformation. 7.2. It is important to predict the exact extent of the deformation of the cantilever element in order to determine an adequate reverse deflection which will be implemented in the prefabrication unit if the segments are prefabricated or in the form travelers if the segments are cast in-situ. After the closure of the different cantilevers. which are manufactured. using a material whose characteristics and composition may vary over time. assembled and stressed at different ages. the deformation of the cantilever is due to: • • • The weight of the concrete beam The weight of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The cantilever prestressing (Fig. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide As with targets. the bridge deck continues to deform due to the following effects: • • • • The interior and/or exterior continuity prestressing The removal of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The removal of the temporary piers and the temporary cantilever stabilizing systems The erection of superstructures. when the structure becomes continuous and hyperstatic. it is important to check that the modele of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the prism in question. as this may vary from model to model.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 7. Indeed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 154 septembre 2007 .2). • The modulus of elasticity for concrete varies according to the age of the load and the duration of this load. the deformations due to concrete creep and delayed prestressing losses continue to develop.1 – Concreting curve for a single cantilever Fig.2 – Concreting curve for a standard bridge built by the cantilever method Following this. For a more detailed consideration of geometric monitoring. 7. 7. the frame of reference is absolute and relates to the pier. The calculation of this reverse deflection must account for the probable values of the different applied loads: • • The density of the concrete must be realistic for the calculation of selfweight The coefficients of friction for the cantilever tendons in a straight line and on curves will only increase very slightly The weight of the form traveler and the site equipment situated at the end of the cantilever will be evaluated as accurately as possible. Therefore. This difficult problem obviously supposes that the actual position of the segment on pier in space is accurately known and is as close as possible to the theoretical position. The construction of a new segment makes it necessary to adjust the form traveler considering its position in space in relation to the overall geometry of the cantilever. For segments which are cast in-situ using a form traveler. It is therefore necessary to build in a reverse deflection in order to compensate for these different types of deformations (Fig. it is important to distinguish between cast-in-situ segments and prefabricated segments. it is always difficult to predict and control the deformations resulting from the construction of a cantilever with accuracy. a different frame of reference applies to each of these methods of construction. which is also globally referenced.

7.3. This deformation assumption may include the deflection of the form traveler’s main girders if they were load tested during the acceptance inspection. P5 P6 P1 P2 P3 P4 Fig. points P1to P4 shown on Figure 7.2.3.e. the frame of reference relates exclusively to the preceding segment. The other points will be verified in accordance with this reference.3 – Key points for levelling adjustment Two additional points will be chosen on site in areas which seem to be the least affected by secondary deformation. the alignment of the formwork equipment and horizontal adjustment of the form traveler are verified by theodolite. 7.2. which will be the first measurement reference to be determined on site. When the form traveler has been moved forward in order to build segment Vn.1 – Bridge decks cast in-situ using form travelers Monitoring of levelling The monitoring of the levelling of segments under construction is based on a document drawn up by the engineering firm called the "construction pyramid". This pyramid is used to determine the dimensions for the adjustment of four key points on each segment joint: both cantilevered ends and both ends of the lower slab. These dimensions incorporate all of the forces that apply to the cantilever under construction. i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For segments which are cast in a prefabrication unit. This phenomenon must include the form traveler’s suspension bars. namely points P5 and P6 in Figure 7. i. Adjustment of the form traveler The adjustment of the form traveler is carried out by localization using localized reference points in relation to the segment on pier. The form traveler is now considered to be properly adjusted in relation to segment Vn-1 and the following operations are carried out: • • Inspection and adjustment of the leveling and horizontal alignment of points P5 and P6 Inspection of the levelling of the cantilevers and adjustment of points P1 and P4 if required The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 155 septembre 2007 . When a new segment is constructed. which is repositioned globally. it is necessary to adjust the prefabrication unit in relation to the end of the segment that is postioned as a matched mold. The construction of the first segment will incorporate a deformation assumption which will then be adjusted in accordance with the measurements taken after casting. close to the webs. and before the final tightening of its lashing onto segment Vn-1. This indicates the theoretical dimensions to be obtained for each stage in the progression of the cantilever and for each segment joint. The only effect not to be considered in the engineering firm’s calculation is the deformation of the form travelers.e.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Adjustment and monitoring of the leveling of points P2 and P3 defining the height of segment V Inspection of the spacing of points P2 and P3. Additional measurements can be performed in other phases if necessary. By analyzing the deviations that are observed (which is always a difficult operation). The levelling measurements are completed before the form traveler is moved forward and before the prestressing is tightened. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 156 septembre 2007 . in order to ensure that the measurements are taken under identical load conditions. i. Particular attention must be paid if heavy equipment such as a mobile crane is present on the cantilever that has already been constructed. and is repeated at each joint of the segment. by placing it against the concrete of the previous segment At the front. it is necessary to carry out a general inspection of the levelling of the cantilever. Once the form traveler has been adjusted. The corner iron is unbolted so that the mask can be removed. This is the best time of day to avoid the manifestation of parasitic forces due to temperature.of the width of the bottom slab. The operation must be completed as quickly as possible.e. The corner iron becomes the measuring point for monitoring the deformations of the cantilever. the risk of error becomes greater the closer we get to the closing segment with the cantilever already constructed The simultaneous monitoring of the geometry of the support is essential to ensure that the surveyor is always capable of relating the pyramid to the absolute dimensions of the objective to be achieved. The values measured are recorded on the monitoring documents and are compared with the values given by the construction pyramid. Monitoring the geometry Once the casting of the segment Vn has been carried out. Two corner irons are bolted onto the mask. The upper face of these corner irons is horizontal and is situated 20 mm underneath the extrados for protection. This operation begins as early as possible the following morning. by altimetric adjustment in relation to the external formwork at the level of the supporting beams (points P7 and P8). These are marked with a punch and are integral with the concrete of the upper slab close to points P5 and P6. If differences go uncorrected on the first cantilever. which has just been concreted to the SOP. The internal formwork of the form traveler is adjusted: • • At the back. corrections can be made to the adjustment of the form traveler for the construction of segment Vn+1. all of the reinforcements for the segments can be installed. This upper face is kept clear of the concrete during casting. an additional levelling inspection is carried out at the level of the mask. A cantilever that is subjected to a temperature gradient behaves like a highly sensitive bimetallic strip. The levelling measurement is carried out from segment Vn. Any correction of the measurements must be performed after examining the assumptions and the data used to create the construction pyramid. Finally. It is important to pay great attention to the consistency of the measurements taken on site and the information given by the construction pyramid.

• • • Adjustment of the match-cast segment This is a complex topographical problem.2 – Bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments During the setting up and commissioning of the prefabrication units in the prefabrication workshop or plant. 7. There is no point in accounting for this dissymmetry in the calculations if the form travelers are always adjusted on the basis of the measurements made in the morning.4). which is called the prefabrication axis That the points which are used to measure the alignment and to mark out the prefabrication axis are adequately spaced and perfectly visible from the units That the theodolite support frame is not exposed to hot sunshine. a number of precautions must be taken to facilitate the work of the surveyor and increase its reliability. this sequence of operations could be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the cantilever. the sequence of operations always starts on the same side of the cantilever in general. as it involves constructing the independent segments on the ground in such a way that they can be assembled in space in accordance with the established geometric data (Fig 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 157 septembre 2007 . This point could consist of a measuring point on the structural steelwork of the unit or a graduated rule permanently attached to a concrete post. however. This means verifying: • • That the longitudinal axes of the units follow the same alignment.2.2. On site. it should be mentioned that for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using form travelers. which reduces the size of the alignment corrections That the support for the theodolite and the level are correctly in line with the prefabrication axis and that these appliances are placed slightly above the upper level of the concrete of the segments That the reference point used for measuring the levelling is separate from the mask.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally.

Three parts of this unit can be considered from the perspective of adjustments and monitoring: • An initial mobile part: the core or internal formwork of the segment. in theory. the sides. 7.28 of this guide.5: • • The adjustment points for levelling are situated in the areas least affected by deformations The adjustment points for alignment follow the segment’s true axis. which leans against the mask on the one hand and the matched mold on the other. consiting of the mold base. this is fixed and its assembly requires great precision A second mobile part: the matched mold.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. better still. consisting of the previous cast segment. The measuring points may also consist of small plates capable of housing a mini-prism.2. • • The choice of adjustment points is thus of paramount importance. Their positions are identified by corner plates bearing a punch mark or. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 158 septembre 2007 . the mold or the unit itself.1 and Figure 6. with a hemispherical indentation into which a ball bearing can roll. The recommended configuration for these corner plates is shown in Figure 7.4 – Adjustment of the match-cast segment A prefabrication unit is described in Paragraph 6. wings and the mask. placed on jacks used to adjust the angle and position according to the geometric data. it requires no adjustment A fixed part.

During the manufacture of the segment in the prefabrication unit. In order to obtain a precise adjustment in space. Adjustment of the segment on pier The segment on pier is particularly difficult to adjust.6).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. An additional precaution is taken for structures with a curved longitudinal profile or a variable transverse slope: the distance from the measuring points to the joint and the axis of the segment shall be identical from one segment to another. to make fine adjustments to the position of the segment. 7. Accuracy is of the utmost importance because the accuracy of the geometry of the cantilever to be built depends upon this adjustment. it is also important to provide secondary alignment measuring points which mark out the entire width of the transverse axis of the segment (Fig. as any impacts could compromise the accuracy of the measurements taken It is advisable to check both alignment measuring points systematically before and after each operation. • The final inspection concerns the recording of measurements of length. it is possible to use angled blocks. as slight deformations may affect the base of the theodolite (due to strong sunshine or instability). 7. wedges. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 159 septembre 2007 . Two precautions must be taken during these operations: • The surveyor must take the measurements before the removal of any of the formwork. Topographical inspection in standard construction cycles The construction of a standard segment Vn requires three topographical inspections to be carried out on segment Vn-1: • • • Mapping of the levelling points and the prefabrication axis on Vn-1 in the prefabrication unit Adjustment of Vn-1 in the match cast position Mapping of Vn-1 in the match cast position after casting of Vn. bolts.5 – Adjustment points for a prefabricated segment It is essential to position the points in such a way as to avoid any possibility of them being moved at elevation when the casting is completed and to set them back slightly from the joint in order to protect them. etc.

These inspections obviously incorporate the adjustment dimensions that result from the measurement of the existing segments and are applied to the next segments to be manufactured.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. thus leading to a fault in the geometry of the cantilever during the assembly process. simultaneous digital and visual inspections are carried out in the form of graphs. This illustrates the importance of ensuring the accuracy of the geometry for prefabricated segments. are used to monitor and control changes in geometry. Method for monitoring changes in geometry Base curves. base curves and the monitoring of lengths.6 – Alignment markers on the segment on pier Fig. The monitoring may reveal a systematic lateral drift if the stressing of the cantilever tendons always starts from the same web. In order to track the changes in the actual geometry of the cantilever. the order in which the cantilever tendons are stressed can be alternated. their calculation is only approximate and uncertainties remain with regard to the accuracy of the geometry. taking care not to create obstructions in the sheaths that pass through the modified joints. Exceptional corrective actions It is possible that a mistake in the prefabrication might be overlooked on the prefabrication site. To counteract this. The effects of the weight and bevahior of the concrete. the solution might be to disconnect one or more segments and carefully place wedges in the joints with the segments securely lashed together.7 – Adjustment of the segment on pier at ground level These measuring points are used to make adjustments at ground level through the observation of both axes of the segment (Fig. 7.e the longitudinal profiles given by the position of the rivets. In the event of a major fault. prestressing and superstructures are anticipated and compensated for via reverse deflections calculated by the engineering office. 7. The remaining spaces between the joints must be caulked before the segments are prestressed.7). Although it is essential to incorporate these reverse deflections. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 160 septembre 2007 . 7. namely the alignment curve and the two levelling curves i.

3 – Comments concerning both techniques Comparison of deformations For the construction of both cast-in-situ and prefabricated segments. The line 1-2-3-4-5 represents the envelope of the different deformations.2.9 for the example in question. as shown in Figure 7. the modified profile will effectively compensate for the future deformation. or the trajectory followed in space by the end of the cantilever at each phase of construction. α2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 161 septembre 2007 .8 – Deformations phase-by-phase Fig. Figure 7.. the cantilever may be constructed in such a way that once completed. it is necessary to analyze each phase in the construction of the cantilever and to determine the deformation curve for each cantilever element.2. 7. etc.8 hereafter.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. phase-byphase. In each section. Fig. An example of a five-segment cantilever is shown in Figure 7. By modifying the angular positions of the segments in small angles of α1. 7. it has a satisfactory longitudinal profile.10 below shows these relative values for a structure designed according to these two methods.9 – Correction of the profile to compensate deformations It is interesting to compare the relative importance of the deformations and reverse deflections affecting prefabricated and cast-in-situ segments.

the difference between the methods will be greater if a cycle of less than one week is used for the in-situ casting of the segment and if the prefabricated segments are stored for more than two weeks. This involves plotting curves corresponding to all of the measuring points in order to obtain a geometrical representation of the area obtained. Inspecting the geometry of the competed cantilever Once completed. If the cantilever is embedded on its pier. If the curves corresponding to all of the measuring points reveal localized irregularities. the general longitudinal profile will have to be rectified. Corrections are therefore less likely to be needed when the cantilever is completed. If the errors are significant. it is possible to improve its geometry to a certain extent by using hydraulic jacks to alter the position of the segment on pier after the stitching tendons have been slackened off. provided that a sufficient thickness of concrete remains over the reinforcements The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 162 septembre 2007 . the deformations affecting a cast-in-situ cantilever will normally be two to three times greater than for an equivalent prefabricated cantilever. The lashing of the last cantilever segment to the opposite cantilever. or the loading of the higher cantilever may partly rectify this misalignment. 7. the geometry of the cantilever must be inspected. as it has the disadvantage of modifying the stress state that was designed for the structure. the following actions may be considered once the whole structure is completed and continuous: • It may be possible to plane off the humps. this inspection must be carried out as early as possible in the morning. This may require the modification of the adjustment pyramid for the adjacent cantilever if it has not yet been constructed. such a manoeuvre is ill-advised.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Whatever the circumstances. If the entire cantilever is incorrectly aligned.10 – Comparison of deformations for prefabrication and casting in-situ The design assumptions given in this figure show that in the majority of cases. if the cantilever is simply supported on the pier. However. The advantage for a cast-in situ cantilever is that corrections are made after each casting. the misalignment can only be compensated for over the length of the closing segment.

for example. The theoretical reference axis during construction must therefore be specified.1 – The compromise between commissioning and infinite time For 15 to 25 years after the bridge is commissioned. A second layer will then be applied. these tests shall involve the systematic testing of all of the characteristic sections of the structure. supposing that the profile has been accurately determined in advance and allows for thermal effects. 7. this is illustrated by a lowering of the reference axis. creep continues to affect the structure. the extent of which varies according to the sections in question. but this would improve with age. The corresponding topographical measurements are recorded for information purposes. deformations continue to affect the bridge deck. in the first part of the life span of the structure.2. this would lead to a gradual decrease in user comfort over the years.2 – Monitoring the deformation of structures subjected to loading tests For non-standard structures.2.3. After this time. it is important to start by loading the supports. If the theoretical longitudinal profile were to be obtained at the start of the bridge’s service life. After the application of the waterproofing. On the other hand. For the majority of structures. corresponding to the development of creep within the structure. If the structure consists of a large number of almost identical spans.2. a first layer of asphalt will be applied and then planed in order to modify the profile. i.3. Therefore. The disadvantage of such a process is that it limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date An extra layer of asphalt may be sufficient to level out the irregularities. Although load tests involve no more than a simple observation. Carrying out the measurements When test trucks are used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • If hollows exist. • 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 163 septembre 2007 . It is essential that the chosen profile and the profile that is actually obtained are clearly defined in an appropriately referenced document. they must first be outlined by a trench of at least 10 mm. but this technique also limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date. This may be adapted throughout the decades in which the structure is in use. A zero-point measurement is then taken which is used to accurately determine the height differences between the supports and the middle of spans. it is important to carry out a load test on the middle of each span. a policy of aiming to achieve the theoretical profile in the long term would result in a structure that might be uncomfortable at the start of its service life. However. The comfort of the structure can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the surfacing.e. they can then be filled with resin.3 – Monitoring the geometry of the finished structure 7. a number of special precautions must be taken. the testing of bearing sections can be limited to just a few spans. the evolution of delayed deformation is normally no longer significant. at least the sections on supports and the sections of greatest flexion on the span. Both of these elements must form part of the as-built file and shall be included in the zero-point file for the structure. a compromise can be sought: the target profile is considered to be midway between the profile when the bridge is commissioned and the long-term profile. Therefore.

it may be beneficial to perform precise levelling measurements from inside the box girder as this provides good measuring conditions and there is no interference from the trucks.8 times the probable values). This range. This period can be estimated at 10 minutes after the trucks have been positioned. Laser sightings may also be performed. the measurements cannot be taken until the trucks’ engines have stopped. they should be as realistic as possible as physical quantities will be measured. Analyzing the results The precise analysis of the results requires an adequate knowledge of the unladen thermal behavior of the structure is established. In particular.1 times the probable values / 0. • • • If the deflection values are unsatisfactory. The measurements are taken from points marked by studs or rivets with rounded heads which have been carefully positioned and provide a single point of contact with the base of the levelling rod. it is necessary to wait for the structure to stabilize. corresponds to a design-based approach that is more accurate than the current methods.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For box girder bridge decks. which also allows the thermal effects to be dissociated from the combined effects of the test loads. mainly with regard to rotation The skew of the structures The curvature of structures The cracking of parts operating as reinforced concrete and the reduction of torsional inertia due to the cracking The effective width of the slab on supports The probable prestressing value (using the results of the measurements of transmission factors) for partially prestressed structures The actual geometry of the structure. allowing for the uncertainty of the measurement. Before performing the measurements under load. abnormal changes in the deflections measured for a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 164 septembre 2007 . The deflection values obtained during the tests are considered to be satisfactory when the measurements taken coincide with the authorized range for the values calculated (1. In any event. The design assumptions must not be too conservative. Instead. the results must be examined with a critical eye in order to find an explanation for the anomalies: non-linearity of the behavior. it is important to account for: • • • • • • • Deformation due to shear force in the beams The contribution of the superstructures to the rigidity of the structure The law of the actual behavior of the materials derived from the testing of test samples The rigidity of the supports. which conforms to the value recommended by the "Guide des épreuves des ouvrages routiers" (Guide to Testing for Road Structures) currently being prepared by Sétra. if on-site incidents have led to modifications.

It must be rounded off by a definitive acceptance report attesting to the conformity of the equipment i. Article 42 of this fascicule defines the role of the Chargé des Ouvrages Provisoires (Head of Temporary Structures – COP). under any circumstances. This inspection must produce a general report.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide non-standard section. the engineering office draws up a summary report. 7. based on realistic high and low assumptions made for the significant physical values. This important point should be clearly explained in the STC (Special Technical Clauses).1 - Inspection of form travelers The different phases in the inspection of a form traveler. SOCOTEC. from its design through to its use.3. confirming that all of the inspections required for the approval of the equipment have been performed and guaranteeing that the construction is consistent with the design.e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 165 septembre 2007 . • External inspection by the Construction Manager who verifies that all documents guaranteeing the traceability of the different inspections are available in accordance with the company’s Quality system Manufacturer’s inspection of the equipment in order to verify the conformity of the different manufacturing stages External inspection of the conformity of the assembly of the form traveler on the segment on pier. either at the design stage or during construction on site.Inspection of temporary structures It is increasingly common for temporary structures to be listed in the first category under the terms of Article 41 of fascicule 65A of french CCTG. This does not include scaffolding. to examine the welds after loading and to measure and monitor the deflections. working platforms and protective structures. its fitness for use. VERITAS.3 . The Owner decides whether or not the deflections are satisfactory according to the Construction Manager’s recommendations. etc. • These inspections are carried out by an organization approved by the Ministry of Labor such as french APAVE. carried out by an approved organization upon completion of the assembly and before casting. etc. are sequenced in the following way: • External inspection of the design calculations for the dimensioning of the form traveler focusing particularly on the load-bearing elements. • • It should be emphasized that an inspection by an approved organization involves much more than a simple visual inspection of the apparent condition of the equipment. External inspection of the supporting beams using load testing to examine their elastic behavior and evaluate their remanent deformations. replace an external inspection agency approved by the French Ministère du Travail (Ministry of Labour). after performing a global analysis. In all cases. A new calculation must establish a range of theoretical values to be monitored on the structure. 7. It is important to emphasize that the COP cannot.

with compaction limited to 3 mm and for soils with no underlying soft layers. and then by measuring how far it sinks down. it is important to mention that the contractor shall perform an internal inspection of the adjustment of the equipment after it has been moved forward and before the reinforcements are installed. 7. performed upon completion of the assembly and before casting Inspection by the COP of the validity of the procedure used to move the form traveler forward. In the case of vertical types of centering. in order to test the supporting beams.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection by the COP of the conformity of the assembly of the equipment on the segment on pier.2 – Inspection of equipment The inspection of the equipment used in the centering must be covered in the company’s QAP.5). 7. It is essential to verify the soil that will support the centering. but the design verifications for centering are expressed in the form of pressure exerted on the soil. To this end. it is possible to perform a static plate load test defined by the standard NF P 94-117-1 of April 2000.3. These beams are assembled on a flat surface.3.1 – Testing of bearing capacity of the soil The testing of the bearing capacity of the soil for centering must be covered in the company’s QAP. with centering specifically described in Article 45.3. which are the main structural components. but to a “test” assembly that is normally carried out on site.2 - Trial assembly of a form traveler This does not refer to an assembly carried out by the manufacturer of the equipment in the factory. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 166 septembre 2007 .3. This number shall be determined prior to the start of work on site (see paragraph 7.3. the inspection of bearing capacity may be performed while assuming that the value of the modulus at the plate Ev2 is 350 times greater than the permissible soil pressure.3 - Centering Chapter IV of fascicule 65A of the french CCTG covers temporary structures. although this concerns the use to which the equipment is put rather than the form traveler itself. This procedure will also be internally monitored on a systematic basis every time the equipment is moved forward. • Before the first time the form traveler is properly used.3. Finally. 7. 7. The resulting deflections in these elements are verified under loads which increase progressively until the nominal load corresponding to the forces encountered when the equipment is in service is reached. in opposition with the insertion of jacks. Plate load testing provides a model. This involves determining a value for the modulus of the soil by subjecting it to the action of a plate whose diameter and stiffness are normalized according to a standardized procedure. it is important to be particularly attentive to the risk of differential compaction due to the presence of a large number of supports and to the effects of successive compactions on the geometry and stresses. For typical cases concerning 1 m x 1 m sole plates. it is essential to define the maximum number of times the high-tensile steel bars forming the hangers can be used.

The wear of the equipment relates to its use on other sites.95 the color of the element) Notable corrosion (small. the COP must certify that all of the elements used in the centering are fully functional. Any makeshift repairs could soon lead to a catastrophe. Fascicule 65A (Article 4 of Appendix B.3. The inspections must target the areas of greatest risk in the centering structures. At the top of the centering: • Follow the same precautions as at the base The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 167 septembre 2007 . Therefore. in addition to Article 44) uses a coefficient α in order to reduce the bearing capacity of the equipment. In the same way. the following areas and inspections must be covered: At the base of the centering: • • • Verify that the manufacturer’s recommended runout ranges for the jacks are not exceeded Check that drainage has been installed on the platform in order to channel the runoff Make sure that improvised extensions and wedges are not used. The value of this coefficient can be as low as 0.85 Major corrosion: the element cannot be used The two coefficients α and β are accumulated.3.3 – Inspection of the erection The inspection of the centering erection must be covered in the coontractor’s QAP.75 for equipment with more than 10 consecutive uses. When inspecting the centering.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide It is important to highlight the dangers that could be caused by any laxity with regard to the inspection of the equipment in use. posts and girders Verify the convergence of the joints in the centering structure Makes sure that the horizontal forces are correctly taken up. thin particles of oxide) 0. the corrosion of the equipment due to its different uses and periods of storage is determined in the calculations using a reduction factor β equal to: Corrosion condition β Absence of corrosion 1 Slight corrosion (presence of oxide modifying 0. Therefore. In the intermediate section: • • • Inspect the bracing on towers. two factors must be considered: the wear of the equipment and the extent of any corrosion. 7.

1 - Inspection of the components Article 23 of fascicule 65A describes the inspection procedures for the constituents. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 168 septembre 2007 .3. drinking water may not conform to the requirements of the standard.4. under specific climatic conditions. chemical tests and defines the testing methods. At the level of the planking: • • • • • Check that the load transmission areas have been stiffened Verify that there is no irregular and/or complex stacking Check the reliability of the support conditions Verify the existence of lateral limit stops if there is a danger of slippage Make sure that bracing is fitted in all directions. 7.4 . 7.3. The use of seawater is strictly prohibited. 7. However.1 – Inspection of the mixing water The mixing water must conform to the standard P 18-303 of August 1999 which prescribes appearance tests.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verify that the structural beams or girders are correctly centred in the forks Make sure that any risk of accidental relative movement is avoided above the metal-to-metal contacts. The monitoring of deflections is designed to: • • Verify whether the final target profile will be obtained Detect any anomalies that might be indicative of an imminent accident. the frequency of these tests and how to evaluate the conformity of the water being tested. Drinking water usually conforms to the standard. The following additional points should also be noted. A simple way to monitor this compaction consists of attaching vertical bars under the centering which meet a fixed independent marker at ground level.4 – Inspection of deformations It is important to inspect any deformations of the centering throughout the entire casting phase and to monitor the compaction of the supporting soils.4.Inspection of concrete Article 76 in fascicule 65A of the french CCTG defines all of the elements involved in the inspection of the manufacture and application of concrete.1. particularly in tropical regions. 7.

or shrinkage test for cements exposed to the action of deicing salts Measurement of hydration heat. characteristics specified by the standards. etc.2 – Monitoring of cement The acceptance inspection involving the rapid identification test defined by the standard P 15-466 of August 1983 is used by the contractor to verify the conformity of the cement at every delivery. hygrometry • For chippings and pebbles: particle size and cleanliness • For aggregates: sulfate. The contractor’s external inspection consists of an acceptance inspection and possibly spot checks corresponding to tests laid down in the standard P 18-540 of October 1997. Sétra’s "Guide pour la rédaction des pièces écrites des marchés" (Guide to the Drafting of Written Documents for Contracts) concerning the "Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity" lists the clauses to be inserted into the written documents for the DCE (Document de consultation des entreprises) [Contactor Tender Document] and the contracts.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. sulfide and chloride content • For additives: expiry date. fineness. Their main elements are: • For sands: Sand equivalent. Precautionary samples are thus taken. For example. or shrinkage test if these characteristics are significant.1.4. Inspections of storage conditions for the aggregates and additives may be added to these.1. 7. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 169 septembre 2007 .4 – Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of the aggregates Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of aggregates is a complex task which is covered in detail in the “Recommandations pour la prévention des désordres dus à l’alcali-réaction" (Recommendations for the Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity” published by the LCPC (Central Public Works Research Laboratory) and in the appended document "Guide pour l’élaboration du dossier carrière" (Guide to the Creation of the Quarry File). particle size. Furthermore.3 – Inspection of aggregates and additives Internal inspections must be carried out at two levels: by the producer and by the contractor.4. or Na20 equivalent.1. these tests may involve the following operations: • • • Measurement of specific surface Determination of strength after 2 days Measurement of anhydride sulfurique SO3 content. External monitoring tests in the framework of the standard P 15-300 of December 1981 enable to contractor to confirm this conformity. tricalcium aluminate C3A content.4. • External inspection tests are carried out by the Construction Checker and its laboratory.

These consituents are required for slowing down the setting of the concrete. as certain application conditions and certain current trends appear to be favorable to its appearance. Indeed. although France has only recently started to pay serious attention to it. Temperature increases are equally important. The type of aggregates must finally be mentioned. its existence was only reported in 1986. which modifies the hydration reactions of concrete.1. Parameters While the alkali reactivity of concrete is governed by the three main parameters of moisture. Indeed.4. Problems. It may have internal or external origins. it bring sulfates in the cement into play. If the problem has internal origins. It is true that it remains a limited phenomenon. as it only concerns around 10 structures in France at present. such as those exposed to differences in water level. sulfates and alkalis. are all the more vulnerable. it wouild appear to be important to summarize the current levels of knowledge about this problem ([DIV 98] and [DIV 00]). major structures are usually placed in category C. but which are. the presence of sea water or the action of constituents of the soil in contact with the concrete (this applies to gypsum. A low sulfate and alkali content allows for a higher temperature limit. This indicates that it is a more complex. with a limestone aggregate. has been observed in many countries.5 – Ettringite formation in concrete Presentation The deterioration of concrete due to sulfates has been known about since the beginning of the 20th century. which seems to prevent interstitial dissolution. this temperasture range does depend on the type of cement used. it is caused by industrial emissions. in fact. However. This is a known effect and the recommendations of the standard NFP 18-011 of June 1992 help to control it via the choice of cements and the concrete formulas. less is known about it. As the problem appeared relatively recently. for example). As a consequence. It is noticed that there is a greater number of parameters than for alkali reactivity. However. analyses and precautions The problems observed have three underlying causes: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 170 septembre 2007 . alkali content and reactive silica content. 7. If it has external origins. ettringite formation in concrete seems to be a more complex phenomenon. concerning problems in prefabricated parts which look similar to those caused by alkali reactivity. This sulfate reaction of endogenous origin. though less frequent phenomenon. Moisture is essential to the process. Parts of the structure which are subjected to alternate wetting and drying. a different type of pathology. the cement mixture has better adhesive properties. Different authors suggest different upper limits. only NR (non-reactive) or PRP (potentially reactive to pessium effect) aggregates shall be used in their construction. and their recommendations relate more to a precautionary approach than to objective studies.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Considering these two documents. The composition of the cement is important in terms of the contents of three of its constituents: tricalcium aluminate.

This value fcj is establishjed after analysis in order to make sure that the strength of the concrete us compatible with the construction procedures set out in the QAP.4. is above a predetermined value fcj . Based on the current state of knowledge. Indeed it would not be reasonable to allow concrete temperatures to reach 80 or 90° C as this could risk reducing the life span of our structures. • • This demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct type of cement.4. particular care should be taken to choose less exothermic cements. This risk seems to increase for the construction of bigger parts. the clinkers in modern cements are ground increasingly finely.1 of fascicule 65A provides information about the nature of this test. • In this respect.5 "Cure et protection des bétons coulés" (Curing and Protection of Cast Concrete) limits the temperature in large parts to 65°C The European pre-standard Pr EN 13 369 of 1999. where necessary.6 – Suitability test and control test The suitability test is used to verify the likelihood that the nominal formula of the concrete and its implementation conditons satisfy the requirements of the contract in terms of its strength and the application conditions. It is particularly useful for verifying the concrete resistance to frost and the effects of deicing salts. the risks are obviously very small. Article 77. which requires testing and recommends very low temperature limits.2 - Information tests 7. corresponding to a very precise phase of construction. particularly in the casting program or prestressing program. France is far behind many other industrialized nations. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 171 septembre 2007 . but in a wet environment every precaution should be taken to ensure that the temperature of the concrete does not exceed 65 to 70° C and to opt for cement with a low alkali content. Paragraphe 8. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Construction systematically carried out during the summer. rendering the mixture particularly volatile and subject to large increases in temperature. a period in which the temperature of the concrete is higher Use of cements that are too rich in high-risk components Use of highly exothermic cements.2. 7. especially with regard to ambient temperatures. There are certain statutory texts which cover this problem at least partially: • Standard ENV 13 670-1 of September 1999 (construction of concrete structures).4. it would seem to be advisable to check the moisture levels of the environment.1. The control test is used to verify the conformity of a batch of concrete. Indeed. in this case. the strength achieved at an early age j.2 of fascicule 65A. in a dry environment. under actual hardening conditions.1 – The main information test The aim of the information test is to verify that. The control procedure is detailed in Article 77.

and of articles 1. • The information test may also have other aims.4.3.2. e.4. The concrete shall be cured in accordance with the recommendations of Article 74. to verify that the compactness of the concrete. conforms to the expected values.1 – The principle of maturometry Maturometry is based on the existence of a relationship between the quantity of heat released by concrete when setting and its mechanical properties. A third type of information test may be performed in order to obtain information about characteristics that are not specified in the contract such as the modulus of elasticity. 7. 7. these tests shall concern: • • • • • • Removal of formwork from pier shafts Removal of formwork from pier crossheads Removal of formwork from lateral overhangs on the bridge deck cross section Removal of formwork equipment from inside the box girder Removal of falsework from parts of the structure built on centering Stressing of certain tendons (generally cantilever tendons): in this case. long-term strength. these tests could be considered to be control tests. etc. In physical terms. tensile strength (if this was not evaluated in the main information test).g.6 of fascicule 65A. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. a genuine guarantee of durability.4.3 of the P18-504 documentation booklet. In this case. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 172 septembre 2007 . it will have the same mechanical strength.2 – Additional information tests Additional tests are normally carried out as of the 7th day in order to make sure that the required level of strength at is likely to be obtained at 28 days.2.3 – Conditions of execution The test samples used fore the information tests shall be obtained and conserved in accordance with the provisions of the standard P18-405. the tensile strength value ftj is just as important as fcj A temporary or permanent loading operation. this is shown by the fact that the hydration levels of the concrete will be identical.3 - Maturometry 7. creep effects.4.5 and 6. If the same type of concrete is subjected to different thermal conditions but releases the same amount of heat since the start of the manufacturing process.

g.3. and to the external ambient temperature. Therefore. thermistors linked to a central readout station are implanted in the concrete of the most recently cast part of the structure and the temperature is recorded at regular intervals. it is necessary to: • Transform the actual age of the concrete into an equivalent age (time required for the concrete to develop the same degree of hydration under isothermic conditions at 20° C) • Read off the strength value corresponding to this equivalent age on the reference curve for the concrete.3 – Advantages of maturometry In practice. Furthermore. To exploit the data from these measurements.4. 7. one test sample shall be verified using a conventional information test. 7. which shows the level of strength obtained in the concrete at the different positions where the thermistors have been implanted.3. there is a risk that the strength measurements obtained for these samples may not be representative of the actual situation. The significant reduction in the number of test samples required is also an advantage of this process. extra fillers). This illustrates the advantages of maturometry. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 173 septembre 2007 .4 – Requirements for the use of maturometry The method requires the use of an activation energy value that corresponds to the type of cement.4. The thermal monitoring of the concrete in these test samples is used to calculate an equivalent age of this concrete at the desired reference temperature on each of the test dates at which the strength is tested until breaking.2 – Practical evaluation of strengths The reference curve is established by measuring the strength of standardized test samples stored at 20°C on precise dates. In addition. the temperature histories of the test samples used for the information tests are very different to those of the concrete that forms part of the structure. This evaluation can be performed directly by the maturometer. The concrete is characterized in an instrinsic manner using a “reference curve”. For every five findings by maturometry. It also shows the advantage to measure the maximum temperature obtained in the middle of the concrete. This activation energy will then be confirmed or adjusted by referring to the strength/equivalent age curves obtained from the analysis of test samples.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Arrhenius’ Law is used to express the changes in the strength of concrete according to a temporal parameter: the concept of equivalent age. 7. The apparent activation energy of the concrete must be known for this last operation. although it is essential to use a sufficient number of samples to guarantee the validity of the measurements. the validity of the laboratory compression test is affected by the method used to remove the samples from their container. which is independent of temperature. to any additives used (e.4. because this process is not affected by different temperature histories and only uses the total quantity of heat. This depends on the type of cement used and is adjusted according to the temperature.3.

The inspection of the application of concrete must focus on the following points: • • • Cleanliness of the bottom of the formwork Availability and condition of the equipment required The release of pressure from the jacks used to adjust the matched mold for segments prefabricated in the prefabrication unit The conformity of the composition of the concrete shown by the information given on the delivery slip. It is essential that the delivery slip shows the following information: the differences between the theoretical weight and the actual weight of the constituents expressed as a percentage. instruments will be placed in the area in which the last mix of concrete was added. it will therefore be necessary to allow a sufficient period of time for this process starting from when the concrete formula has been specified (3 to 4 months may be required).4. and the water content of the aggregates so that the total quantity of water can be recalculated • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 174 septembre 2007 . for example. This sequence of operations can be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the balanced cantilever. These can be positioned according to the plan shown in Figure 7. Fig. and measure heat losses in the upper slab close to the edges. Calibration may be quite a lengthy process.g. It is also necessary to position thermocouples so that information can be obtained for parts of the bridge deck box girder. Remote temperature sensing elements are used to evaluate the mass effect in the webs. which helps the maturing process.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These tests are performed on samples stored at different temperatures. e. It should also be noted that the maturometer must be recalibrated at regular intervals (see manufacturer’s instructions).11 below. in the laboratory. the planned sequence of operations generally starts at the same side of the cantilever.4. for example. As far as the measurements themselves are concerned.Application For the construction of cast-in-situ segments.11– Maturometry: an example of a layout for temperature sensing elements 7. If the aim is to determine the age at which the concrete is strong enough to resist the removal of formwork. the first choice to be made is to determine the critical areas of the structure in which the evolution of strength is representative of the operation to be tested. externally.4 - Inspecting the application of concrete 7. in an isothermic box kept in the laboratory.1 . 7.4. etc.

therefore minimizing the risk of segregation. and treatment of construction joint surfaces Check that any thermal devices are operating correctly. It is particularly important to make sure that vibration is not carried out in the immediate vicinity of prestressing ducts.12 above shows the main precautions to be taken. 7. An addtional precaution to be taken for the casting of very tall segments is to use tubes which are designed to reduce the height from which the concrete is supplied. height of drop. the vibration of the concrete must be carefully controlled in order to eliminate segregation and voids. vibration. Figure 7. These tubes can be shortened as the operation progresses. These consist of expanded metal mesh cylinders which are securely attached to the reinforcements. The presence of this information will be verified during the acceptance inspections Compliance with the casting plan for the application of the concrete (fascicule 65A. Article 75. The slump test is difficult to perform when the concrete is in liquid form: the wattmetric readings of the output of the mixer motor are therefore an important source of information and these readings must be attached to the delivery slips.13 below. cleaning of starter bars. possible use of thermal protection devices.12 – Precautions to take for the casting of segments It is particularly important to comply with the casting plan. For high-quality casting. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 175 septembre 2007 . casting phases.3): maximum time from the end of the manufacturing process to the completion of casting. The main precautions to be taken are summarized in Figure 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The slump test and the estimate of entrained air. As a precaution. floating of the upper face of the lower slab for which formwork was not used At the end of casting: surface condition. • • • Fig. guide channels can be used in conjunction with the vibrating needle.

Mathivat and C.4. These provisions are described in detail in "Procédés généraux de construction . In this case.2 – The test segment It is always essential to construct a test segment.M. This may be reduced to a half-test segment for economic reasons.mise en œuvre" (Hydraulic Concrete – Application) by J.4. 7. this segment will normally be at least two meters long in order to include a prestress anchor block. Geoffray [GEO 96]. The recommendations of Article 74. Therefore the test piece will be artificially subjected to the full range of potential problems.13 – Precautions for the vibration of concrete The final inspections for the application of concrete consist of: • Verifying that the required levels of strength have been obtained before authorizing the removal of formwork Performing a general inspection of the segment. special provisions must be made to produce concrete at a temperature of approximately 15 to 20°C.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.tome 1" (General Construction Procedures-Information Document 1) by J. Boiteau. • After the inspection of a prefabricated segment in the reception area. Therefore. a specific identification number is painted onto the concrete of the web inside the box girder on the side of the mask. and "Le béton hydraulique . This element must be manufactured under actual site conditions in order to give an accurate picture of the problems encountered in the casting of segments. 7. Upper and lower limits of 5°C and 40°C must not be exceeded during the manufacturing process. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 176 septembre 2007 .3 of fascicule 65A must be followed for the treatment of construction joints. Special conditions apply to the manufacture and application of concrete if the temperature recorded on the site falls below 5°C or rises above 25°C. either at the extremity of the cantilever or in the reception area for a prefabricated segment. This element must be truly representative of the difficulties that are likely to be encountered on site.

Slump test measurements are neither appropriate nor accurate for fluid concrete. there is practically no more free water.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The following points will be verified in particular: • • • • Conformity of the facings (color. Formwork must then be erected on the extrados of the slab. In view of the fluidity of HPC. unambiguous and fully understood by everyone working on site. using small diameters and reduced center distances between the bars. Samples may also be extracted for subsequent testing. When transported in the truck mixer. and staff must be properly trained. HPC is more sensitive to the effects of drying. vibration. as the slightest loss of laitance could result in segregation. it is important pay attention to the proportion and design of the non-prestressed reinforcements. etc. 7. A specific procedure must be developed for the construction of the test segment. Full-scale testing is required to verify this. The curing of HPC must also be more meticulous and more intense than for ordinary concrete. Therefore. While this constraint improves the durability of the concrete. It may also be beneficial to use concrete of different consistencies for the webs and slabs.5 - The application of high-performance concrete A certain number of specific precautions must be taken with regard to the manufacture and application of highperformance concrete. drying) The setting behavior of the fresh concrete in lower slabs without upper formwork The practicality of the implementation of internal ducts. The floating and levelling of the surfaces must be carried out by teams of workers aware of the viscous and self-adhering behavior of this type of concrete. transverse single-strand tendons and reinforcing bars. because as the water contained within the concrete has been used up in the hydration process. The concrete plant must be capable of handling silica fume. particularly in problematical areas It will also be verified that the physical references for the adjustment of the alignment of prestress tendons are accurate. the angle of the lower slab on segments close to the piers could be steep enough to cause the concrete to slide down the slope. This is particularly important for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using the cantilever method. appearance. The application of the concrete requires completely leak-tight formwork. it also increases the risk of cracking in areas where shrinkage could be obstructed. In the case of a structure with variable inertia.) Casting methodology (application. with the associated risks of spillage. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 177 septembre 2007 . Vigilance is therefore required. • Differences and changes in temperature over time may also be recorded. the concrete behaves like a fluid.4. the consistency of the fresh concrete must be inspected on site by measuring its spread on a flow table in accordance with the P 18-432 and NF EN 12350-5 standards.

6 . absence of distortion at the edges which form joints. flatness of panels.5 . 7. systematic visual inspections of the hangers are carried out in order to check for straightness and the absence of impact marks or welding spots. welds Verification of conformity to the reinforcement plan: diameter. stem clamps and of the rigidity of the equipment Condition of the equipment: structural condition. length and bending Page 178 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . leak-tightness of different seams and foam strips. cleanliness.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. The number of uses could be painted on the hanger after each operation in order to monitor their use. the hangers will be reused no more than 30 to 40 times and they will be automatically replaced when this limit is reached. dirt. The rigorousness of the inspection procedures reduces the likelihood of accidents.). squareness of application of load and performance of lock-nuts Conformity of inserts and fixings in relation to the plans: positioning. In particular. elimination of traces of laitance and oxidation.Inspecting the reinforcements The following list describes the main inspections to be performed concerning the reinforcements for a segment prior to casting: • • Inspection of the numbers and indices of the plans used Acceptance inspection of the reinforcement bars: existence of the approval certificate. cut into one metre long pieces and replaced. the hanger is be scrapped – or better still. and oiling of outer skin Tolerances of panels for unevenness and the conformity of the dimensions in relation to plans Hydraulic jacks positioned under the segment acting as a matched mold .straightness. it is very important to scrupulously observe the procedures governing the movement of formwork tools and systematically inspect the supporting and attaching elements. condition of the bars (straightness. Needless to say. If there are any doubts. compliance with reinforcement bar list. Furthermore. • • • • • For the construction of cast-in-situ segments. the hangers must be new at the start of construction on site. rust. Checks shall also be performed to ensure that bolts are easy to tighten and that they act squarely on the plates. type and number. dimensions.Inspection of formwork The inspection of the formwork on the form traveler or in the prefabrication unit covers the following points: • • • Numbers and indices of the plans used (which must be approved plans) Cleanliness of the work area and flushing out of the formwork bases before installation of reinforcements Systematic verification that any laitance deposits on construction joint surfaces have been purged and cleaned prior to the closure of the formwork Stability of centering.

Article 95.Prestressing Manager).7. absence of contact between these bindings and the near wall. • It is important to pay particular attention to the hooped reinforcements required due to the application of concentrated forces.2 of the supplement to fascicule 65A.2) will provide important information about the feasibility of these arrangements. with the minimum deviation allowed from this position. length of overlapping between the reinforcement bars and the starter bars Inspection of stability. For parts whose formwork has one or two lines of symmetry but whose reinforcements are asymmetrical. The bar chairs should not be used to improve the rigidity of excessively flexible cages.7.1 to 4.1.Procurement The delivery conditions for the prestress reinforcements conform to Article 5 of fascicule 4.3 of fascicule 65A and Article 76. 86-64 of September 4 1986 concerning the delivery conditions for parts and the checks to be performed.1.1. whose expertise is recognized by the Construction Manager and approved by the distributor of the prestressing process used. solidity of binding of blocks which must be clean and made from concrete.1. They shall be placed on battens or pallets in order to keep the rims off the floor The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 179 septembre 2007 . These conditions must also comply with the provisions of Article 3-5 of Circular no. 7. It is better to use frames to make stiffening trusses.2 of fascicule 65A and Article 71. The accuracy of the positioning of the hoops on the prestress anchorages must be carefully inspected.7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection of implementation: position.1 of fascicule 65A describes the CMP’s role. it is important to verify that the reinforcement cage is not inverted. rigidity and strength of the entire reinforcement cage with a view to casting. The renewal of the protection is carried out in compliance with the stipulations of Article 66. Titre II. Three-dimensional modeling may be used for certain critical areas. The centering on the trumplate must conform to its theoretical positioning.4. The scale of the plans used for these areas must be large enough to allow for the precise management of the positions and sizes of the reinforcements.2 of its supplement.Storage Storage procedures are defined in Article 92.1 - Inspection of materials 7. The delivery of all of the components of the anchorages must be protected according to the provisions of Article 92.2 .7 . and also in Articles 4.Inspection of prestressing Prestressing is carried out under the supervision of a specially qualified manager called the CMP (Chargé de la Mise en Précontrainte . The storage conditions for prestressing elements must be rigorously inspected and particular attention should be paid to the following points: • The hard steel. The inserts designed for the structural element in question will also be inspected.2 of its supplement. The test segment (see 7.3 of Circular 94-34 of April 19 1994).4.1 . coating and setting. 7. 7. factory-oiled prestressing cable reels must be stored in enclosed and well-ventilated premises.

Key bolts are kept in their original packaging until use Ducts are stored in bundles under ventilated tarpaulins. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 180 septembre 2007 . as this could affect the oiling Anchorages must be stored under a ventilated shelter and their crates or packaging are placed on battens or platted to avoid contact with the ground.1 – Geometry of ducts The inspection of the installation of the ducts is a complex matter. 7.2. Wood with a high tannin content must not be interposed between the reels.15 – Spalling of the lower slab/Angled view from below These problems must be borne in mind when designing the reinforcement plans.2 - Inspection of implementation The accuracy of the installation of the prestress components is dependent on the methods used on site. The calculations and construction provisions must take account of this. problems regularly arise on site due to inadequate positioning. with regard to the systems used to fix the internal continuity tendons in place and during the construction and implementation of these systems. They are also placed on battens or pallets to avoid contact with the ground.7.14 and 7. These systems are designed to align the ducts perfectly in accordance with the prestressing plans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Prior to use. 7. Fig. The same precautions must be taken for the cantilever tendons close to the facing on the upper slab.7. making sure there is no contact between the tarpaulin and metal.75 m must be allowed between the ducts supports. It may also result in the spalling of the lower slab due to delamination under the parasitic radial tendon forces that are thus generated (Fig. 7. It is unrealistic to demand accuracy greater than 5 mm.15). Rigid sections of ducts can be specified around joints with a view to maintaining the continuity of this alignment. • • 7. This applies to the internal continuity tendons which may move during casting if they are incorrectly attached. A spacing of approximately 0. Indeed. 7.14 – Risks related to inaccurate duct geometry Fig. the parts can be stored temporarily under a shelter with a removable roof or under ventilated tarpaulins.

Fig.18 – Cross-section of a deviator tube 7. 7. 7. the concrete formwork tubes must be bell-mouthed so that the curvature of the tendon effectively starts around 10 cm from the facings (Fig. it is necessary to designate a person in charge of monitoring the geometry of the prestress ducts before and after casting. including their edges. inverting the deviators – it is important to carry out general inspections and to take a regular overview.17 show the problems caused by an incorrect reinforcement of one of these edges on a deviator beam.2 – Installation of the prestressing components The following inspections must be performed during the installation of the prestressing elements: • Verification that the sleeves of the thin metal ducts are correctly tightened: the prefabricated lengths of ducts with sleeve extensions are designed to provide a satisfactory fit at the level of the facing Page 181 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . or an excessively high number of breakages of single-strand tendons when the structure is stressed and if parasitic angular cracks have developed close to the anchorages. published in February 1990.17 – The deviator after cleaning To prevent these problems. because the large-diameter bars which are commonly used require large bending radii. 7. As many basic errors are still committed on sites – e.g. Fig.7. Therefore. It is also important to make sure that the beams situated at the base of the deviator beams are correctly reinforced. These problems normally concern two phenomena: the localized spalling of the concrete due to parasitic forces resulting from badly positioned deviators. it is first of all important to make sure that an efficient procedure exists for adjusting the angle of the deviator tubes. deviator tubes should be designed in such a way that the pressure exerted by the tendon on the concrete is directed into the body of the structure and stops before the facings in the coating areas. The reader is advised to consult the Sétra document entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). in the contract documents. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Problems due to the incorrect geometrical positioning of the ducts are also observed on the external tendons.2. Accordingly.16 – Spalling of a deviator when the structure is stressed Fig. Finally. Figures 7.16 and 7. The geometrical accuracy of the ducts is very important.18). These problems could have been minimized by the addition of small-diameter nonprestressed reinforcement bars positioned close to the facings.

• • • In general. This tip can also be applied to the deviator tubes for the external prestressing ducts. 7. it is possible to mark out the outline of the curvature of the duct by making a light saw mark on the end sections of tube. In areas of large deviations (emergence of tendon from anchor block. 7. this inspection must be carried out according to unambiguous physical references which are fully understood by everyone working on the site.19) Verification that the ducts are in good condition and that there are no significant distorsions or out-ofroundness Adjustment of the duct supports in relation to formwork if necessary Inspection of the attachment of all ducts to the non-prestressed reinforcements Accurate inspections of the alignment of the ducts. It is assumed that the plans show dimensions relating to existing physical objects or lines marked out on site.20). particularly in the areas of deviation close to the anchor block attachments (Fig. etc. Fig. deviation area close to an anchorage.20 – Verification of a duct alignment in space The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 182 septembre 2007 . 7. 7.19 – Conflict between non-prestressed reinforcements and ducts Fig.). in which it is better to use rigid tubes rather than thin steel ducts.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verification that the alignment of the ducts and their attachments conforms to the plan (Fig.

as tranverse reinforcement made from small-diameter bars is likely to be significantly t distorted during casting. These stiffening solutions may be used for the ducts throughout the entire length of the segment to be cast. it is advisable to stiffen the reinforcement cages in order to make sure that the ducts remain in the correct position. i. 7.21).22). it is necessary to use temporary supports for the ducts in order to make sure that the tendon is in the correct position before it is stressed (Fig. to verify the accuracy of the duct alignment and the presence of a support system designed to maintain this alignment (Fig. Fig. the installation of the ducts and the anchorages must be verified by a competent surveyor who must check the following points: • That stiffening devices are used to ensure a continuous alignment of the ducts around the joints. • • • • • For the external prestressing. Furthermore. rigidity of the fixing and angle of the injection hole Fitting of the duct in the end of the trumplate via a coupling sleeve Absence of sudden changes of angle. the angles at which the ducts emerge from the joint sections are inspected for compliance with the values shown on the plans Use of coupling sleeves and the adhesive sealing of the sleeving joints Fixing of the trumplate to the formwork: verification of orientation.e. 7.23).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When completed. verification of the coaxiality of the different elements and of the adhesive sealing Distribution of vents and the positioning of the vent outlets in the facings. 7. 7. Should transverse prestressing be required. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 183 septembre 2007 . given the thinness of the parts. it is particularly important. The number and spacing of the supports will depend on the number and strength of the prestressing units. the type and frequency of the tendon supports should be carefully inspected in view of the forces exerted during casting. this also applies to the ducts left empty in reserve (Fig. A spacing of 4 to 5 m is typically used. without sudden changes of angle.21 – Support system for HDPE ducts for external tendons If the prestressing passes through the webs.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 184 septembre 2007 .23 – Supports for prestress ducts in the webs It is also important to make sure that “removable” elements can actually be removed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 7. especially when double ducting is used on the deviators.22 – Inspection of supports for transverse prestressing Fig. 7.

7. A corrosion table specifying up to five levels of corrosion.7. of which only the fifth level was unacceptable.3 – Visual inspection of strands It is essential to reject strands showing signs of pitting due to oxidation.3. the strand is well protected by a tube or duct The cable reel has been placed in the static pay-off reel in such a way that the lay of the coil being unwound lies in the same direction as lay of the stranding. over this distance.e. This inspection can be carried out by flushing a ball through the sheath with compressed air.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. speed of threading is preferred to force in order to prevent the jamming of the last strands on the approach to the outlet) After the threading of every strand of an external prestressing tendon and the positioning of the anchorages.2. cans. it is important to verify that the entire tendon can move inside the duct.3 - Inspection of stressing 7. • • • • • • • 7. This helps to position one strand in relation to another and also helps to check that there are no blockages. it is particularly important to make sure that: • • The strands have been sufficiently well oiled in order to reduce the friction forces in the later phases The distance between the pay-off reel and the cable pusher is kept to a minimum and that. i. when the pressure of the rollers tends to increase A thick wooden shield is securely fitted over the strand outlet in order to protect staff Particular attention is paid to the threading of the last two strands of the tendon.7. scratches. During this operation. etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 185 septembre 2007 .Threading Strand-by-strand threading is the most commonly-used threading method for bridges constructed by the cantilever method.1 – Inspections prior to stressing Lubrication. over 50 m in length. so that the strand tends to pull itself tight while is unwinding Each tendon is made up of strands from the same supplier The additional length required for the stressing has been allowed for before the strand is cut to length The strand has not been marked by the rollers on the cable pusher. tools. this particularly applies to the last strands to be threaded. was once used by certain contractors. 7.7. We consider this table to be far too lax and believe that corroded reinforcements should never be accepted. 7. before casting. it is highly advisable to verify that the ductsducts have not been blocked by any foreign objects: bottles. nicks or other defects likely to affect their mechanical strength.2. as these are always the most difficult to thread through the duct (for long tendons. oxidation and cleanliness play a vital role in the correct installation of a traditional strand-jaws anchorage.4 .

The marking of the strands at the back of the jack is another. cleanliness is essential and a there must be no laitance whatsoever. 7.g. These three parameters are vital for the correct operation of the conical wedging of the strand-jaws in the anchorage. albeit less effective. it is also important to verify the following points when fitting the anchor head on the tendon: • • That the strands are clean That they are disentangled if necessary. • It is also important to check that the jack is aligned concentrically on the anchor head and coaxially in relation to the tendon. They may also take the form of spot checks. In addition to the fact that successful stressing depends on the quality of casting in the anchorage area. before the start of operations. Oxidation must not be considered to be acceptable in the mechanical assembly of the anchorage.7.3. which at first are systematically verified for each family of tendons at the start of stressing operations.3. Finally. when measuring transmission factors.2 – Inspection plan An inspection plan must be drawn up prior to the start of the stressing operations. The exact type of lubricant to be used must also be specified. the following points require special attention: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 186 septembre 2007 . Before the jacks are threaded. so that there are no brakages due to crossed strands near the anchorage That the conical holes in the anchor head are clean and have no rust that cannot be wiped off. the frequency of the inspections and identifies the tendons to be inspected. it is necessary to verify that engineering office has allowed for the additional lengths of cable which are gripped by the jacks in their calculations of the extension of the tendons. it is advisable to cut all of the strands to the same length. These inspections may be systematic in terms of: • • Measuring the extension and pressure in stages Monitoring the position of tendons during threading in order to detect any possibility of crossed ducts. this shows up any problems with the jaws and reveals any broken strands. 7. and then are checked at random. It specifies the types of inspections.3 – Precautions during stressing During stressing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The anchorage must be properly lubricated if it is to work correctly and the lubrication conditions must be specified in the internal procedures recommended by specialist distribution companies. Finally. e. solution.7.

5 – Precautions to be taken with regard to concrete During the construction of a cantilever with cast-in-situ segments. Normally.4. 7. This operation must be described in a detailed construction procedure and the engineering office must apply specific design calculations to it.3. The cantilever tendons are sometimes only stressed after the form traveler has been moved forward.7. This operation. this poses no problems in terms of general flexion. it is essential to make sure that the jacks have been properly tared (using a calibration chart).7. • • 7.7.4. The principle behind this measurement is described in detail in Article 95. but particular vigilance is required with regard to the localized stresses applied to the new concrete. Before carrying out this measurement.2 of fascicule 65A and Appendix I of its supplement.7. The combination of these three fundamental actions produces a permanent barrier against corrosion and guarantees the longevity of the prestressing. The use of a sclerometer to perform this verification is strictly prohibited. it is essential to verify that the value fcmin which is mentioned on the french CIP (Commission Interministérielle de la Précontrainte-Interministry Prestressing Committee] accreditation and in the construction design calculations has been achieved by the concrete before stressing is carried out. which is indicative Check that the correction for the compaction of the jaws has been properly allowed for in the measurement of the extension on the piston of the jack.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that the internal friction on the jacks and their anchorages has been correctly accounted for in the interpretation of the pressure readings on the manometer Do not forget to correct the pressure reading in accordance with the calibration chart for the pump manometer: the pressure is used as the reference measurement and not the extension. 7.2 – Cement grout Two types of grouts are identified: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 187 septembre 2007 .Injection The injection of prestressing ducts and anchorages is intended to: • • • Completely fill the void left in a duct Passivate of the steels due to the action of the products used Protect steels against corrosive external agents.4 – Coefficients of friction Coefficients of friction are monitored by measuring the transmission factor. which is designed to shorten the segment construction cycle.1 . means that the last segment to be cast behaves as reinforced concrete with regard to the loads exerted by the form traveler.7. 7.3.4 - Inspection of injection 7. It is also important to verify the calibration chart for the manometers on the pumps (test date).

However. They involve: • • • • Measuring fluidity. This has two advantages: the injection conditions remain the same as for a traditional grout.7. is essential in view of the representativeness of this test and the unsuitability of the other tests with regard to the characterization of the in-situ stability of grout.3 of fascicule 65A. which is fluid after manufacture Thixotropic grout: a traditional grout to which a thixotropifying agent is added at the end of the manufacturing process. which determines the flow Measuring exudation. and the front wall of the grout remains almost perpendicular to the duct and does not collapse as it passes through high points. the equipment used for their injection and the temperature conditions for their application comply with the the conditions described in the technical evaluation report. Testing using a transparent inclined tube. 99-54 of August 20 1999. it is essential to perform a new inclined tube test on site. which characterizes the filling volume Measuring compressive strength. These are specified by European standards and are referenced in Article 92.4. it is important to use an appropriate speed of injection. grouts may be used without preliminary testing if they have been given a favorable technical evaluation report or a favorable provisional report by the CIP.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Traditional grout. the phasing of the injection must be adapted to suit the alignment of the tendon in question. 7. using the method described in Appendix 3. Numerous tests must be performed on the grout. This analysis must be carried out upstream of the process in order to make sure that the position of the vents is consistent with this phasing. Therefore.3 – Specific inspections and precautions during the injection of cement grout Precaution to be taken during the injection study Injection tests have shown that the appearance of pockets of air due to the collapse of the front wall of the grout as it passes through high points can be prevented by optimizing the speed of advancement of the grout in accordance with the alignments and the prestressing units used. this property depends on the shearing threshold of the grout for a given slope and on the steepness of the slope for a given grout. provided that the components of the grout.1 of Circular no. However. which defines the stability of the grout Measuring the variation in volume. generally: Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 8 to 14 m per min Φ < 100 mm Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 16 to 20 m per min Φ > 100 mm Vertical or steeply angled tendons 3 to 8 m per min Furthermore. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 188 septembre 2007 . except when testing is specifically requested by the Construction Checker. The main characteristic of this second type of grout is its capacity to change from a gel when stationary to a liquid when shaken. If just one of the conditions is not respected.

Finally.l. The fundamental value to be considered is that the pressure in the duct must not exceed 1. Pre-injection inspections Before any injection takes place. The rheology of the grout must be adapted to the ambient temperature and humidity.50 m).B of fascicule 65A. it is compulsory to test the leak-tightness of the ducts in order to identify any potential anomalies. It is also necessary to perform systematic tests of the bleeding of the anchor caps and vents at the high points. Fluidity and exudation tests are performed according to the recommendations of Article 95. if allowed by the thickness of the concrete (e < 0. the different levels will be inspected in order to make sure that the ducts are properly filled. If the test shows the existence of any connections between the ducts. During the construction of the bridge. An air compressor and a pressurized water inlet must be operational on the structure and kept ready in case of problems during the injection process. these vents must be closed in order to prevent water from seeping into the ducts. it is important to remember to check the equipment and make sure that the necessary materials are supplied in sufficient quantities. Preparations for the injection must also take account of the weather forecast. Post-injection inspections After the injection. This test can be carried out using compressed air or by creating a partial vacuum.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 189 septembre 2007 . Inspections during injection During pressurized injection. the tendons concerned will be injected simultaneously. This involves: • • • • Visual inspections of the ducts A statistical inspection by removing the caps An acoustic sounding inspection A gammagraphic inspection.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Precautions to be taken during construction Bleeder valves and vents are identified by marking or labeling according to the vent plan which must be supplied by the contractor. Precautions taken when preparing for the injection Mixers and storage tanks must be protected from water penetration and prevented from drying out due to direct sunshine. the monitoring of the injection pressure is of paramount importance to the success of the operation. The bleeder valves are kept open.5 MPa. This also helps to check that the numbering of the ducts matches that of the vents.

the protection of anchorages using grease must be carried out on site.4. and this can lead to the creation of voids. it is of paramount importance to consider the thermal exchanges with the adjacent materials and the ambient temperature during the injection process.8 . Firstly. with disastrous consequences.1 Adhesive and its application (prefabricated segments) 7. As wax must be injected at temperatures higher than its melting point. The greatest care must be taken to ensure there are no leaks.4 – Injection of external prestressing Circular no. a large proportion of the shrinkage of the wax is compensated for by the cooling of the HDPE duct. Grease Because of its syneresis. which improves its stability over time.1 .7. which was heated by the passage of the hot wax. Therefore. staff could be burned and the surrounding concrete could be impregnated with wax. it is prohibited to use grease for the protection of prestressing units that are not selfshielded.Other important points 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. 7.7.1. this leads to the use of protected and sheathed single strands in a general duct injected with cement grout or ungalvanized strands in a general duct injected with a flexible product.4. usually petroleum wax.5 – Flexible products Wax Wax is a malleable.8.50 Compressive strength of between 15 and 25 MPa The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 190 septembre 2007 . crystallized solid material which is preferred to grease due to the absence of syneresis. For self-shielded units such as those which are often used in transverse prestressing. However. During cooling. in the case of the external prestressing. certain important precautions must be taken. In practice. It is absolutely essential to prevent any leakage of wax during the injections. the wax contracts significantly. 7. Its main properties are: • • Density of approximately 1. 2001-16 of February 28 2001 relative to the “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton” (The design of prestressing external concrete) describes the possible solutions used for the design of external prestressing and mentions the risks involved in its removal. to the order of 5 to 10 %.Characteristics The adhesive used for prefabricated segments consists of epoxy resins mixed with a hardener. it is important to ensure that everyone present is protected against the risk of burning by the wax). If this happens.8. it is important to take special precautions such as re-injecting the high points. it is important to only use materials which are resistant to high temperatures and to make sure that the ducts and anchorages are perfectly leakproof by carrying out rigorous inpections and tests (As the risks can never be entirely eliminated. between 90 and 120° C. To reduce this risk to a minimum.

8.4 – Application precautions The following precautions should be taken when applying the adhesive: • Ensure that if it rains. i. protective measures such as the sheeting of the bonding area and the creation of an run-off barrier near the joint are implemented in order to prevent contact with rainwater run-off before and after the bonding of the segments and until they are securely lashed together Verify that a sufficient amount of adhesive is applied to the joints of both segments to form a seam of excess adhesive on the edges of the joints • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 191 septembre 2007 .1. In fact. • • • • 7. it is necessary to test the time taken for the adhesive to set. the time between the start of the mixing of the components and the moment when the mixture no longer adheres on contact.500 and 2.3 – Testing of setting time Before the segments are assembled and bonded. Adhesives bearing the "NF-Produits spéciaux destinés aux constructions en béton hydraulique" (French Standard – Special products intended for hydraulic concrete structures) label in the structural adhesives category. the joints are not actually bonded because tensile strength is not created in the joint.500 MPa. or products bearing an equivalent European label are highly recommended. Nevertheless.2 – Adhesives and their role The term “adhesive” is not strictly accurate. minimizing the damage caused by the inevitable minor impacts during handling operations Helping to center the match casted surfaces Sealing prestress ducts.8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • A low modulus of elasticity of between 1.3 mm in size Partially correcting imperfections in joints because the adhesive has a similar compressive strength to the concrete Lubricating the surfaces when the parts are brought together.e.1. results from the laboratory testing of concrete-to-concrete bonding. adhesive plays an important role by: • Filling the openings between joints caused by the differential shrinkage of different parts of the section of the box-girder.1. The following precautions must be taken when performing this test: • The components of the test sample must be similar in quantity to the mixture that will be used on site in practice Care must be taken to avoid trapping air when mixing the components of the glue The temperature and humidity conditions for the test must be representative of the actual conditions and conform to the specifications. structural demolitions and analyses of structural behavior show that under normal conditons on construction sites.8. 7. • • 7. these openings may reach 0.

For example. It is also a valuable indicator for the removal of formwork. It should be noted that the formation of a seam of adhesive as mentioned below simplifies inspections in the short and long term by guaranteeing that the joint has not been been altered after the clamping of the parts. 7. a recess should first be created around the damaged area and an epoxy resin-based mortar should be used for the repair.8. which is given by the formwork skin .8. as it can be The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 192 septembre 2007 .2 - Segment facing The inspection of the general appearance of a segment concerns three criteria: shape. In fact. The color obtained also depends on the number of times the formwork is reused – which turn depends on the resources allocated to the project. Maturometry. the type of surface finish can attenuate differences in the color of the concrete. Concrete for the construction of bridges built by the cantilever method is now manufactured during several seasons. corresponding to the different geometrical dimensions of the segment .2. 7.8. which is governed by the concrete. Three factors play an important role in determining the color of the segment facings on structures built by the cantilever method: the quality of the concrete. It is now known that changing the formula of the concrete to suit the season plays a key role in producing a high-quality facing. except on the bridge deck extrados. 7. A reference formula for spring and autumn has to be changed to allow for higher temperatures and lower rainfall in summer and is changed again in winter to account for the reversals of these same parameters. helps to improve the management of the quality of concrete.1. the formwork and vibration. It is particularly important to account for the variation in the water content of the components. Only a detailed rheological study will satisfy this requirement. which generalizes the evolution of the hydration parameters for concrete. interdependent factors which must be controlled.and color.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that this seam has not been ground down after polymerization. The amount of water used.1 – Concrete quality The final appearance of the segment facings should be considered when choosing the concrete formula because the color depends on the rheology of the concrete. Minor defects such as impact damage to the concrete on the edge of a joint are better left exposed. Color therefore relates to texture. The additives and their effects on the water and temperature are particularly important.5 – Repair of bonding defects A major bonding defect can only be repaired by an injection of resin according to a specific procedure adapted to each case. the proportions of additives and the temperature are the three key. Resurfacing with cement mortar may make it harder to evaluate the type and extent of any defects. If resurfacing is necessary. color is quite difficult evaluate in isolation because it depends on how the surface reacts to the light. These three criteria are interrelated. This evaluation must imperatively be carried out before any repairs are made.texture. in order to facilitate the surfacing required for the application of the waterproofing layer.

• The importance of the type of formwork skin is illustrated by the fact different materials have different capacities to absorb vibrations. the formation of bug holes can be prevented by making sure that the wood fibres are aligned in the same direction as the pouring of the concrete. of a slab. These materials are used primarily for economic reasons and their characteristics are not ideal for the creation of high-quality facings. This consists of a thickness of no more than 10 mm of ordinary plywood fixed to the standard formwork.meaning that part of a component has been vibrated for too long. are a new arrival on the market.3 .involving the creation of secondary vibrations caused by the hard spots of the reinforcements or formwork structures. rather than the costs of the materials. The drawback to this technique relates to the time required for the assembly and the dismantling of the formwork skin each time it is replaced. The daily cycle which leads to the removal of formwork in the morning.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide used to determine how long the formwork needs to remain on the part and this is one of the key factors in determining the homogeneity of the facing. beveled vertical slats of unfinished wood have already been used for this purpose. This plan is drawn up by a specialist or with specialist help (see paragraph 7. which is the most common situation.2 – Formwork and formwork skins Today. This factor is particularly important for the prefabrication of segments in prefabrication units. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 193 septembre 2007 . however. and are not suitable for all shapes. Indeed. Finally. On a constant cycle. it is necessary to vibrate it for one to two minutes after air bubbles have ceased to emerge from the concrete. thanks to the column of air between the formwork skin and the formwork itself.2. Two pitfalls must be avoided: • Over-vibration . These materials are very expensive. 7.g. e. In this case. Formwork skins. this means that another part of the component has not been vibrated for long enough Post-vibration . Flat vibration. which is less expensive. it is important to follow a vibration plan corresponding to the shape of the component. the most widely used formwork is made of steel or bakelite plywood (film-faced plywood.Vibration A large number of defects are caused by incorrect vibration. To make sure that the upper section of a layer of freshly-poured concrete is sufficiently vibrated.4 concerning the inspection of application).2.8. may cause problems depending on the type of aggregates used). Another important contribution of the formwork skin to the creation of a high-quality facing is to dampen the vibrations transmitted to the formwork during the vibration of the concrete. A double formwork skin is better suited to this task.4. often creates intermittent vibrations in the reinforcements which act as secondary vibrators when the concrete is tightly compacted.8. made from composite materials which can be reused at least three hundred times. is actually quite hard to reconcile with the stoppage of work at the weekend. 7.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Differences in the appearance of the facing can be reduced by the use of white cement or light-colored cement. Therefore CHF-CEM III/A and B. if the skin is made from painted sheet metal. As fascicule 65A does not address all of the issues relating to facings. For example. However. and CPJ-CEM Il/A and B cements produce light-colored facings. The test segment is used to experiment with all of the aforementioned factors and eventually arrive at a comprehensive solution for the production of high-quality facing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 194 septembre 2007 . it is also necessary to anticipate changes in the quality of the formwork skin. this paint will gradually disappear. Clinker has a distinctive color and additives can be used to attenuate its impact. the Construction Manager may also refer to the Projet National Qualibé (National Concrete Quality Project) report for additional information. thus changing the final appearance.

Essentially. des Transports et du Tourisme [Minsistry of Public Works. formulae for relaxation losses). This was intended to prevent accidents during the construction of bridges or on structures in use. in order to reduce the risks of corrosion (the use of PCS [Portland Slag Cement] cement had to be approved by the LCPC) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 195 septembre 2007 .44 of August 12 1965. 141 issued by the Ministère des Travaux Publics.g.1. batched at 400 kg/m2 for the manufacture of concrete.3 - 1965-1975: constantly changing regulations This was a time of enormous changes and constantly changing regulations. 8. 8.1 .2 - 1953-1964: the first regulations for prestressed concrete The first French regulations applicable to prestressed concrete appeared on October 1 1953. there were no French regulations concerning prestressed concrete. It also made the use of strong sealed metal ducts compulsory for prestressing by post-tensioning. 8.1 - 1946-1952: the first prestressed bridges In this era.History of the regulations This paragraph mentions certain key events in the evolution of French regulations and the technical texts relating to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method.Pathologies and repairs This chapter begins with a quick reminder of the changes in the regulations applicable to structures built by the cantilever method. In 1965. but there was no lower compression limit (σmin ≥ 0). It made changes to the “construction” section of the IPl and insisted on: • • The need for a waterproofing layer The use of APC (Artificial Portland Cement) 325 or CFA (Cement – Fly Ash) 400 cement. especially regarding the calculation of losses of tension (e. 1966 saw the publication of the Provisional Directive for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges. It should be noted that this circular was written primarly for bridges with prefabricated girders.1. (Circular no. It incorporated the advances made since 1953.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 8 . Complete prestressing remained. It then goes on to describe the main pathologies affecting these structures and the corresponding repair techniques. relating to the instruction provisoire (Provisional Instruction) for the use of prestressed concrete (called “IPl”). Transport and Tourism] . 8. it recommended the use of fully compressed concrete (with minimum compression on one axis equal to at least 8% of the maximum compression). replaced the 1953 Provisional Instruction. Circular no.1.a Provisional Instruction concerning the use of prestressed concrete). This instruction recommended the inclusion of certain clauses in the Cahiers des prescriptions spéciales (Special Conditions) [CPS]) relating to the composition of concrete (minimum cement batching of 400 kg/m3) and the quality of prestressing reinforcements. but it hinted at the use of partially prestressed structures. Cylinder strength at 28 days replaced cube strength at 90 days.

again with a view to reducing the risks of stress corrosion (only APC 325 cement was allowed for the injection grout and sealing mortar).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The almost total prohibition of admixtures after the collapse of a beam on the Guerville viaduct. etc. This document covered the history. Sétra published the first version of its Technical Bulletin on bridges built by the cantilever method. to type III: limitation of the opening of cracks) Characteristic values of actions due to prestressing (P1 and P2) Specific rules relating to end or support areas and to concentrated forces during post and pre-tensioning Rules to account for delayed deformations in concrete due to shrinkage. called “BT7”. etc. the bottom flange of the girder was crushed during prestressing Precautions for the storage of prestressing reinforcements on site. This regulation significantly reduced the intensity of the distributed loads A (l) for bridges of moderate length (between 15 and 80 m) and introduced degressivity factors according to the number of loaded lanes and the category of structure. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 196 septembre 2007 . These guidelines were intended to be used as the basis for the creation of new design rules for metal. the execution and inspection of injected materials. This highly informative document covered the requirements for grouts (traditional and special). In December 1972. 2 (called “IP2”) relating to the use of prestressed concrete. design and construction of these structures. The Provisional Directive for the injection of ducts on prestressed concrete structures appeared on March 28 1973. Appendix I of this document featured a design example incorporating changes due to creep and thermal gradients. This accident was caused when an incorrect dose of an admixture prevented the concrete from hardening properly. which was the first document to cover the concept of limit states. In the same year. The IP2 introduced the use of: • • The characteristic strength of concrete instead of the nominal strength Types or classes of prestressing (from type I: no decompression of concrete. This directive led to real improvements in the quality of the protection applied to prestress tendons. Circular no. the manufacturing conditions for grouts. the characteristics of study and suitability tests. reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. This consisted of a design rule based on “limit states” methods. as a result. In 1973. in order to reduce the risks of stress corrosion Inspections during stressing operations in order to reduce prestress losses The care to be taken over the injection of ducts and the need to allow a maximum period of 8 days between the stressing and injection operations. • • • 1971 saw the introduction of the Directives Communes relatives au Calcul des Constructions (DC71) [Common Guidelines relating to Structural Design]. Appendix II included a collection of 55 monographs on structures built between 1960 and 1972 in France and abroad. the 1960 load regulation was replaced by Titre II of fascicule 61 of the Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (CPC) [Common Conditions]. 73-153 of August 13 1973 introduced Provisional Instruction no. accidents. creep. engineering.

1979 saw the publication of four important circulars: • Circular no. • • • • By introducing rules to allow for creep and the thermal gradient. or in a usable form within Appendix B of the IP2) Page 197 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . This document was designed to supplement the IPl with regard to the following points: • • Redistribution of forces due to delayed deformation Distribution of prestressing loads (concentrated forces) and the accumulation of shearing stresses with or without transverse or vertical prestressing (stressed stirrups) Traction forces exerted by tendons anchored in the slab of a box girder Thermal gradients (5°C under rare combinations and 10°C under practically permanent combinations in the sense of the BPEL 91. private and public engineering firms were not ready to face up to the practical difficulties relating to the application of this new regulation (complete overhaul of design programs.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During this period. 74-60 of April 23 1974 made changes to the following articles of the IP1 in accordance with the new Titre II in fascicule 4 of the CPC of March 5 1971.000 hours Article 12 reduced the initial tension of the tendons The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ specified in the IP1 were used in the certificates of approval. • • The Direction des Routes et de la Circulation Routière (Department of Roads and Traffic) published a circular on April 2 1975. Therefore. this circular brought an end to the era of second-generation bridges (see Chapter 1) and paved the way for a new generation of much better dimensioned bridges.1. after analyzing and determining the causes of cracking observed on a number of bridges built by the cantilever method. except for structures with numerous joints for which they were determined by the CPS (Special Conditions). etc. difficulty of applying the range of characteristic values of the prestressing when there was a redistribution of efforts due to delayed obstructed deformations.4 - 1975-1982 This period saw the publication of new regulations which. which remained valid. incorporated the concept of quality and on the other. Circular no. continued to be used except for the pretensioning. abandoned the "allowable stresses" calculation in favor of "limit-states" calculations. on the one hand. 69-92. and described in Circular no. established relaxation at 3. etc. 79-23 of March 9 1979. while taking account of the instantaneous deformation modulus of the concrete) radial tendon forces in curved slabs The continuity of reinforcements close to joints. which included the instruction of January 15 1979 relating to the inspection of concrete quality (conditions for the execution and interpretation of study. the distribution of concentrated forces and for the precise calculation of delayed deformation effects.). 8. and March 26 1973: • Article 10. relating to the calculation of relaxation losses in the prestressing reinforcements. suitability and inspection tests which were not included in fascicule 65 of August 13 1969. the IPl.

79-25 of March 13 1979 relating to the new Directives Communes pour le Calcul des Constructions (D.C. and much less of an influence on the development of prestressing reinforcements. form travelers. 8. segregation of concrete.000 MPa) The measuring conditions for the transmission factors The choice of ducts (ducts and tubes). 79-78 of August 16 1979 relating to the implementation of prestressing units. In 1983.). internal and external inspections and independent inspections. introducing the requirements of the Circular of April 2 1975 and its implications concerning the quantities of materials. construction advice (prefabricated segments. the number of joints crossed and the type of tendons: smooth wires or strands) The moduli of elasticity of the wires (200.1. the organization of quality. Significant changes were made to the design of large prestressed concrete structures.000 MPa) and strands (190.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Circular no. The development of “external prestressing” had a major impact on the development of prestressing procedures. etc. in addition to the diameters. • A supplement to Technical Bulletin No.7 also appeared in April 1979. which incorporated the modifications made by Circulars 74-60 of April 23 1974 and 77-67 of April 25 1977 Circular no. stressed stirrups. etc.79) [Common Guidelines for Structural Design]. 79-121 of December 14 1979 concerning the reprint of the IPl. It should also be noted that the effects of Circular 82-50 of May 24 1982 began to felt.C. new design programs. measurement of transmission factors. the stability of cantilevers under construction. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of French and European standardization led to significant changes in the rules relating to the construction of structures. All of these notions concerning quality were applied to each of the texts relating to the construction of structures. protection of anchorages.5 - 1983 to the present day This period was marked by the generalization of "limit states" design rules. called the “BPEL The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 198 septembre 2007 . the regulations relating to the design of prestressed concrete bridges were revolutionized by the appearance of fascicule 62 Titre l Section 11 of the french CCTG (General Technical Clauses. but construction techniques remained very similar. These guidelines served as the basis for the creation of BAEL and BPEL rules and the design rules for foundations. technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures according to the limit states method. workability. This involved the notions of quality of use.C. radii of curvature and the continuity of the ducts The limit of the initial stress to be 0. which established: – – – – – – – – The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ (according to the radius of curvature. design examples.7 Frg for reinforcements with a small radius of curvature (stressed stirrups) The strength of the concrete close to the anchorages and the minimum distances to the facings of the anchor plates The conditions of execution for the tensioning The need and the implementation conditions for temporary protection and sealing • Circular no.

in which the tensile stresses are limited. Class II. published a guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). • In February 1990. Sétra published two information notes: • The first covered the anchoring strength of external prestress tendons in the event of overtension in order to prevent the blockage of wedges by the cement grout The second dealt with the use of single and multi-strand couplers. It gave additional information on subjects covered by the BPEL 83.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 83”). is used for major bridges and large standard bridges or those situated in harsh environments. the precautions to be taken with keyed anchoring and problems relating to the use of “super” strands. as a function of the duration of applied of loads Reduction of the 1983 shear limit stress which was considered to be too forgiving Reduction of the working stress ratio for stressed stirrups For coastal structures: increasing the depth of coating on non-prestressed reinforcements without individual protection from 4 to 5 cm • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 199 septembre 2007 . with a particular emphasis on external prestressing technology. covering “partial prestressing”. was applied to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. the CTOA (Centre des techniques d’ouvrages d’art . • • • In 1984. The BPEL 83 rules were replaced by the BPEL 91 rules at the start of 1992. The BPEL 83 rules introduced: • • External prestressing The notion of verification categories for structures (Class I authorizes no traction and is mainly used for prefabricated bridges. II and III Introducing a "θ" coefficient into the formula giving the value of the compression limit stress of concrete at ULS. The major modifications introduced by this new version included: • • • Extending the rules to concrete with characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa Improving SLS verifications for the different classes I. the IPl and the IP2 were all applicable until December 31 1985 according to certain procedures established by decree. instead of range calculations using P1 and P2 (characteristic values).Center for Engineering Structure Techniques). Class III. certain types of standard bridges in reasonably benign environments (2nd and 3rd category road bridges) and for bridge slabs with transverse prestressing A characteristic thermal gradient value of 12° C for verifications at service limit state Characteristic strength as the specified strength for concrete The possibility of performing verifications with the probable prestressing Pm. a division of Sétra. It should be noted that the BPEL 83.

• 8.2. relating to concrete with a characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa. as problems caused by other factors (materials. sheathed and protected strands and tendons outside the concrete. published in 1979 and modified in 1995. this information is insufficient in itself to evaluate the condition of the structure.7. An additional appendix (Appendix 14) was included in this new version.) are not exclusive to the cantilever construction method.2 of the second part of the Instruction technique pour la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures).1 – Opening and widening of cracks over time The opening and widening of cracks if they are active are obviously the first elements to consider. specific types of problems have affected the first prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method. prohibited the washing of sheathed tendons with water. When analyzing the problems on a structure. 8. the BPEL 83 was modified again. revised in 1999.1. the reader is invited to refer to Sub-Section 32.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Appendix 3. The end of the 1990s was also marked by the appearance of two circulars relating to prestressing using posttensioning techniques: • The first. For more detailed information about problems affecting prestressed concrete structures. becoming the BPEL 91.2 . However. which assigned numerical values to the coefficients of friction f and φ for tendons inside the concrete. established a number of new requirements for HDPE tubes and promoted the injection of external tendons with wax The second was published on February 28 2001 and imposed new requirements concerning the injection of external prestress tendons (see paragraph 7. In the interests of relevance. The purpose of this section is to briefly outline the principal specific disorders that have been identified for these structures and to describe the lessons that have been learnt with regard to the design of modern structures built by the cantilever method.4). 8. At the end of the 1990s. use. it is important to consider all of the characteristics of the cracks observed. etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 200 septembre 2007 .Pathologies specific to the cantilever construction technique As for most other types of bridges. dated August 20 1999.2.1 - Reminder concerning cracking on prestressed structures The appearance of significant deformations and/or cracks on prestressed concrete structures may be evidence of structural disorders. maintenance. Not all of the cracks found on prestressed concrete structures are signs of defective behavior.4. It should be noted that the BAEL 83 rules were simultaneously replaced by the BAEL 91 rules. we shall only cover problems with structural origins.

As a guide. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 201 septembre 2007 . as. 8.2 – Design assumptions and the influence of regulations Structures built according to the Instruction Provisoire n° 1 (Provisional Instruction no.2. stresses or stress variations within the concrete and reinforcements are minimized and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement bars are added to control the cracking.1). Fine transverse cracks. in theory. 8. Excessive cracking (open cracks when the structure is not loaded. These structures were built more recently and benefit from the lessons learnt on older structures.1 mm in the case of systematic cracking (multiple. in accordance with the regulations. As a result. As a result. They therefore behave like reinforced concrete in the transverse direction. This applies to the fine cracks that can be observed in the upper slabs. which are closed when the structure is not loaded. minimal longitudinal reinforcement is used and this would be incapable of compensating for any unforeseen tensile forces. For structures or parts of structures situated in relatively noncorrosive environments. tensile forces are allowed at the design level for structures dimensioned according to Classes II or III of the BPEL.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method are often only prestressed longitudinally.2 - Stability of cantilevers 8. when the first cantilever tipped over. 8.2. it shall be considered that the opening of the cracks on elements behaving like reinforced concrete must not exceed: – 0. Efforts are made to keep the opening and widening of any cracks to acceptable levels in order to: – Prevent the risk of fatigue in the tendons crossing areas likely to be tensioned – Limit the penetration of corrosive agents through the gaps caused by excessively wide cracks.1 – Problems observed and their causes Problems arose during the construction the cantilevers on some of the first structures built using the cantilever method and a spectacular accident occurred on the site of the Viosne viaduct on November 13 1970. With this in mind.) is obviously a sign of abnormal behavior. On this type of structure. It also applies to the fine cracks found in the deviators on structures with external prestressing. no traction is allowed with regard to flexion when the bridge is in service. In particular. are usually evidence of normal behaviour in prestressed concrete. fine longitudinal cracks may develop and in most cases.2 mm for the average width of an individual crack – 0. 1) or the BPEL in Class I were designed to be totally prestressed. fortunately without any serious consequences (Fig. these are evidence of normal transverse flexion behavior in reinforced concrete. etc. for the average width of all of these cracks – 0.2. These openings are values under dead loads and were established in the framework of studies relating to the penetration of corrosive agents into the concrete. these values could therefore be increased. evenly-distributed cracks). cracks crossed by prestress tendons are problematic because of the risk of fatigue in the prestressing reinforcements.3 mm in localized cases for the width of an individual crack.2. transverse cracks are usually evidence of abnormal longitudinal flexion behavior. On the other hand.

towards the middle of the central spans or in so-called “low bending moment” zones (Fig. 8. These rules.3. This type of cracking is particularly serious given that the cracks or open joints are often crossed by continuity tendons inside the concrete.g.1 – Tipping of the first cantilever of the viaduct over the Viosne Accidents have also been caused by the collapse of prefabricated segments and form travelers. 7. No cantilevers have collapsed since their publication. have now been successfully used for over twenty years.2.2.2. published by Sétra in 1979. 8. despite the collapse of several form travelers. 8.2. 8.1 – Problems observed and their causes The majority of structures built using the cantilever method prior to 1975 have suffered from transverse cracking or the opening of joints in the lower slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.2 – Impact on design Design rules governing the stability of cantilevers under construction were established and published in the supplement to Technical Bulletin (BT) no. thus exposing these reinforcements to the risk of fatigue. which are included in this guide along with several additions. on the bridges of Calix. e.2). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 202 septembre 2007 . Fig. 8. in 1975 and Bellegarde in 1982.3 - Cracks due to insufficient longitudinal strength 8.2 – Flexion cracks These cracks are evidence of insufficient resistance to longitudinal flexion.

delamination or spalling of the concrete. Longitudinal cracking in the lower slab is caused by downward thrusts in continuity tendons inside the concrete in structures of variable depth and most commonly affects the central span (Fig. incorrectly controlled weight of the form traveler etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 203 septembre 2007 . 8. this omission also leads to an overestimation of the normal stress in the lower horizontal plane at the crown of approximately 2 MPa for a thermal gradient of 6° C) The overestimation of the prestress effect. For structures dimensioned according to the IPl.). this error leads to the normal stress in the lower axis at the crown being overestimated by 2 to 3 MPa) The failure to account for the thermal gradient in the calculations (in general. as happens on bridges built by the cantilever method.4.2. • • • 8. The BPEL paid particular attention to the case of tendons crossing numerous joints. the design allows for the use of additional prestressing (anchorages. these forces are often put down to "redistribution by creep" (in general. 8. this resulted in a significant reduction in the recommended slenderness ratio at the crown.4). In addition. the bridge deck became considerable thicker in this area. For simplicity’s sake.e.2. Finally.) in order to facilitate any future structural repairs or reinforcements (see the recommendations in Chapter 3 of this guide).4 - Cracks and problems due to excessive radial tendon forces 8. empty ducts allow for additional prestressing to be used if the actual friction is greater than the friction values allowed for in the design.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These cracks have several causes which are often cumulative and include: • The failure to account for the redistribution of forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials in the calculations. from l/50th to 1/40th. the values adopted by the BPEL were more conservative than those in the previous regulations.2 – Impacts on design The Circular of April 2 1975 and the supplement to the BT7 of April 1979 defined the design rules to be adopted in response to redistributed forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials and in response to the thermal gradient.3 and 8. deviator tubes.3. etc. unforeseen site loads.1 – Problems observed and their causes Two types of disorders may point to the existence of excessive radial tendon forces: longitudinal cracking in the lower slab in the crown area and localized cracking. With regard to the coefficients of losses by friction. i. correction of reverse deflections. due to over-optimistic coefficients of friction or underestimations of relaxation losses Parasitic forces locked into the structure when the closing segment is assembled due to adjustments made on site (realignment of cantilevers.

2 – Impacts on the design Gussets are now systematically used at the junction of the webs and the lower slab of box girders. Furthermore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. These problems create radial tendon forces. badly-positioned tendons. Tendons are now usually placed in the gussets or very close to them. To combat problems caused by incorrectly positioned ducts. the practice of spreading the tendons across the full width of the lower slab has now been abandoned. Also. the Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et l’Entretien des Ouvrages d’Art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures) recommends using a reinforcement plan that is designed to take up any parasitic radial tendon forces due to angular fractures in proximity to the joints.4. mainly in the central span. sudden changes in angle close to the joints etc. delamination and the spalling of concrete are caused by the errors in the positioning of the ducts such as the festooning of ducts between two joints.3 – Cracking due to downward thrust at the web-slab junction Fig.4 – Cracks caused by downward thrust These problems affected first-generation structures because a large number of low-strength continuity tendons were spread across the entire width of the lower slab.2. 8. many of these early structures were built without gussets at the junction between the web and lower slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 204 septembre 2007 . which is made easier by the fact that fewer internal continuity tendons are needed for mixed prestressing. 8. especially for bridge decks of variable depth. Localized cracks. 8.

2. it should be mentioned that external prestress tendons have failed on several occasions in recent years.Main repair techniques In France. It should be noted that these techniques are also used for reinforcing operations.3 . Since then. of course. 8.proved to be particularly damaging in terms of the corrosion of tendons and was quickly abandoned. 8. not immune to the more general problems affecting prestressed concrete structures (distribution of concentrated prestressing forces.5 – Suggested reinforcement plan designed to compensate for accidental radial tendon forces close to joints 8.3.1 - Addition or replacement of prestressing The most commonly used repair technique consists of adding extra prestressing or replacing the original prestressing. major structural repairs have been carried out on around sixty structures using a variety of techniques described below. the original prestressing must be dismantled. etc. corrosion of tendons. Bridges built by the cantilever method are. In the latter case. To round off this section. This problem has affected tendons whose ducts were injected with a cement grout which had failed to set properly in certain areas due to the phenomenon of settling (fresh grout).a technique specific to bridges built by the cantilever method . we shall also mention two other important pathologies found on prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method: • • Badly fitting joints in the case of prefabricated segments Deflections of cantilever arms close to joints.5 - Other pathologies For information.6). it is angled by deviators added to the initial structure (Fig. injection defects. 8.). In the latter case. especially for tendons situated inside the concrete. Longitudinal prestressing The tendon layout may be rectilinear or polygonal.). It should be noted that the positioning of cantilever tendons inside poorly protected channels on the extrados . the first significant repairs to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method were carried out at the beginning of the 1970s (Bussang bridge etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 205 septembre 2007 . which is a difficult process.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 8.

8.Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie Spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle (Standard NFP 95-104 – Repair and Reinforcement of Concrete and Masonry Structures – Specifications Relating to the Additional Prestressing Technique) Ponts en béton précontraint par post-tension (Post-tensioned Prestressed Concrete Bridges) [HA. Transverse prestressing Transverse prestressing may be carried out on the lower slab (Fig. 8. 8.8). [DEL 94]. as on the Corbeil bridge. or more conventionally. in Essonne.9). LCPC] Annales de l’ITBTP n° 501 de février 1992 : Journées réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art (Annals of the ITBTP no.3 - Repair design There is little information concerning repair design for prestressed concrete civil engineering structures. [TAV 00]. Further information on this subject is given by the following articles [RIC 93].3. inside the box girder (Fig. TRL. or both (Fig. 8.2 - Other techniques Other techniques are also used.7 above). 8. glued steel plate sheet or FRP (cf.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. [JEH 94]. the following documents provide useful information for anyone interested in the repair of prestressed concrete bridges: • • Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge Maintenance and Repair) [Presses de l’ENPC – 1997] French standard NF P 95-104 . • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 206 septembre 2007 . [PER 94]. 8. [DEL 98].7 – Anchor block for additional longitudinal prestressing The additional anchor blocks may be situated beyond the abutment. [BAR 94]. Sétra.6 – Additional longitudinal prestressing Fig. [BOUT 1] and [GIA 01] listed in the bibliography in the appendix to this guide.3. article [POI 92]). the webs. [BAR 98]. For information. 501 of February 1992: Information Days for the Repair and Reinforcement of Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures). these include adjusting the height of the supports and adding extra material. 8. [POI 99]. However.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 8. 8.9 – Additional vertical prestressing of a web and transverse prestressing of the lower slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 207 septembre 2007 .8 – Additional transverse prestressing of the lower slab Fig.

The requirements concerning the tendons and their layout are set out in the Sétra guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). without requiring heavy equipment. This may be due to a pathology affecting the structure or to a change in its functional design.General principles In general. these access arrangements must not make the structure vulnerable to acts of vandalism.1 – Replaceability of external prestressing Mixed prestressing has been used on the vast majority of large bridges built in recent years. They The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 208 septembre 2007 . The provisions concerning the injection of these tendons are defined by the french circular of February 2001 relating to the injection of prestress tendons situated outside the concrete.2. unless special equipment capable of absorbing the energy of the tendon during its removal is used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9 .1.1 Prestressing 9. It should be remembered that this circular only authorizes the use of non-adhesive products (factory-applied grease and wax).2 – Provisions for the implementation of additional prestressing At a given moment in the life of a bridge. and placing extra trumplates in the cross beams.1 . These provisions are intended for prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. Finally.1. It is also necessary to allow the forces added by this extra pair of tendons when dimensioning the reinforcements for the deviators and cross beams. 9. 93-14-18 of December 31 1993. The original type of tendons is used for the extra tendons and they are aligned according to the same rules. This includes leaving room to pass formwork tubes housing an extra pair of tendons through cross beams and deviators. published in 1979. which introduced the Dossier d’Intervention Ultérieur sur Ouvrage (DIUO) [Post-Construction Works File]. This means that a certain number of tendons are situated outside the concrete.2. 9. For a box-girder structure. it must be possible to perform bridge management and maintenance operations in accordance with labour legislation and particularly with regard to french Law no. It should be noted that a large number of the provisions specified in this guide are included in Chapter 7 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG and that. it must be possible to replace these tendons without having to demolish any part of the structure. the bridge’s design and construction should incorporate measures to facilitate the inspection and maintenance of all parts of the structure. it may be decided to strengthen the prestressing. including the interior of hollow sections.Provisions to facilitate maintenance This chapter describes the provisions to be made at the design stage with a view to facilitating the maintenance of bridges incorporating box-girder bridge decks.2 .2. With these provisions in place. notwithstanding any contrary provisions in the STC. but they are also applicable to concrete structures with box-girder bridge decks built by other methods (on falsework. To benefit fully from this technique. by incremental launching and by temporary cable-staying).Bridge deck 9. 9. it is important to allow this possibility by building in the means to add additional external tendons if they are required. these provisions are compulsory.

(Further information on this point can be found in Article 64 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the CCTG and its comments). Fig. it is possible to install a gridded steel walkway over the tendons. (N.2.B. it is possible to use completely internal prestressing.2. Fig.75 m to 1 meter) to the minimum depth. If the box girder is too narrow for normal maintenance.2. therefore.1 – Minimal depth of bridge deck To allow for easy movement inside the box girder (Fig.2. there is sufficient room – at least 0. 9. For bridge decks with transverse ribs.2 – Normal movement In the majority of structures. the access problems are occasional and only concern areas in the middle of the spans or close to the abutments. It is important to note that these depths are given for bridge decks without transverse ribs. the problems caused by an insufficient depth could affect the entire structure.2.20 m. 9.1 – Example of a very small box girder 9. it is recommended to fix the minimum total external depth at 2. which is not as bulky as mixed prestressing). either because the lower slab is very narrow or because there are too many external tendons. For bridge decks of a constant depth. it is necessary to add the internal height of the ribs (usually 0.75 m – between the external tendons nearest to the middle of the box girder to walk comfortably on the concrete surface of the lower slab. so a minimum depth of 2 m can be accepted. When this is not the case. This passageway may be cramped in the middle of the spans due to tendons rising up close to the piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide are then stressed according to the same procedures used for replacement external tendons. 9. For bridge decks of variable depth.2 - Access inside the box girder 9. 91).2 – Passageway clearances The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 209 septembre 2007 . it is important to design bridge decks of sufficient depth.

2. it is also possible The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 210 septembre 2007 .3 – Ramp for crossing the lower beam of a deviator 9. etc. In order to prevent this shaft from adversely affecting the mechanical behavior of the slab or lower part of the cross beam. Furthermore. In the interests of economy. An effective system consists of placing a square metal grid inside a square rebate built into the top of round access hole.3). For bridges of over 500 m in length. These lights are positioned centrally underneath the upper slab with a longitudinal centerto-center spacing of no more than fifteen meters and the high-risk areas around the cross beams and deviators must be adequately lit. it is recommended to organize the lighting system into sections of 300 to 400 m.2. For this purpose. The lighting in the box girder must be powerful enough to allow staff to move around in complete safety (Fig.1 below).2. For obvious reasons. when the bridge is in service. For safety reasons.3. this shaft must be positioned in line with the inspection pits in the pier head units (see 9. For easy and. in addition to the two switches on the abutments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. If the total length of the structure does not exceed 400 to 500 m. risk-free movement through this passageway.2. In this case.5 – Electrical system All large prestressed concrete bridges must have an electrical system that is used to light the inside of the bridge deck and to supply power for any tools required during maintenance operations (flood lights.2.4). 9.). 9. it is important to ensure that the height clearances in the shafts correspond to the values shown in Figure 9. power drills. bracket lights with spherical light bulbs or.2. two-way switches must also be fitted at the ends of each section N. 9. these elements must be equipped with guard rails.4 – Access to pier head units An access shaft must be made in line with each pier in order to allow access from the bridge deck to the piers and vice-versa.50 m. it is essential to keep this shaft closed under normal conditions. Fig. in order to control the lighting for sections N and N+1.2. if these deviators and crossbeams have low beams which hinder the movement of staff and equipment – a common situation – it is advisable to install metal or concrete stairways or concrete ramps on either side of these elements (Fig. using a metal grid which cannot be removed and closes automatically.2. 9. it should be circular in shape and 80 cm to 1 m in diameter. neon tubes or fluorescent strip lights are used. Important: if the vertical height exceeds 1. maintenance staff. all of the bracket lights can be operated simultaneously using 2 two-way switches situated at both ends of the bridge deck. more commonly.3 – Crossing of cross beams and deviators Cross beams on modern box girder bridges always have access shafts to allow access for construction workers and. above all.

There must be no risk of damaging the non-prestressed reinforcements or the prestress tendons during the installation of the system. another solution would involve making a 1 m x 0.1 – Access hatches for equipment As explained in the Sétra “Précontrainte Extérieure” (External Prestressing) guide.2.80 m hole in the lower slab. To allow for the use of power tools inside the box girder. directly below the light fittings.e. so that a problem with a tool does not suddenly extinguish the internal lighting. Under normal conditions. and for transporting the equipment needed for their installation. of course. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 211 septembre 2007 . For further information about this point. Fig. which are usually positioned one meter above the lower slab. the reader is recommended to refer to section 5. it must be approved by an accredited organization. After installation. 9.3. These hatches may also be used to supply any other equipment. In certain systems.5 and 9-6). directly in line with a road lane if possible.5 – Access hatch for cabling 9. a 220. the NF C 15-100 standard on the publication date of this guide).volt system with a frequency of 50 Hertz must be installed. If it turns out to be impossible to route the tendons via the abutments.4 – Internal lighting in a box girder Electricity is supplied by power sockets. Fig.45 in the guide mentioned above. these sockets are accompanied by safety sockets supplying 24-volt current. but this must be set to stay on for a long time (at least 10 hours) in order to avoid plunging workers into darkness when they are still inside the box girder. the power socket circuit in the box girder must be totally independent from the lighting circuit. it is necessary to examine different ways of routing extra or replacement tendons through the bridge deck. 9. In all cases. this hole would be closed using a galvanized steel hatch (Fig. The electrical system must comply with the general standards in force for low-voltage electrical systems (i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to fit a timer to the lighting system. 9.2.3 - Miscellaneous 9.

9. As these hatches cause maintenance and durability problems.4 – Identification and orientation It is advisable to number the segments using indelible paint and a stencil according to the construction plans.2 . it might also be useful to label cross beams on piers with the number of their corresponding pier as this could facilitate the identification of certain works. Care must betaken to ensure that this configuration does cause water to run down the facing of the piers.Piers The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 212 septembre 2007 . The longitudinal positioning of theses holes must take account of the longitudinal profile of the top of the lower slab. nominal load. which is very different to the longitudinal profile of the road for a bridge deck of variable depth. The principal characteristics of these rails and bushes (position. length. On certain very large structures.3. etc. certain box-girder structures featured access hatches in the central part of the upper slab. Fittings situated close to the tendon anchorages on piers may also be used for jack hoists. 9.Drainage of the lower slab Water frequently penetrates into the box girder due to leaks in the structure or during maintenance operations. 9. it is essential to leave holes of 10 to 15 cm in diameter in the lower slab.2. or a metal frame supporting the networks. It is also important to consider the position of the cross beams and deviators. orientation.3 .3 – Fixing rails for future networks In order to facilitate the installation of networks inside the box-girder at some future date. which form a barrier preventing the drainage of water. Transversally. subject to their nominal load being greater than 20 kN. this technique must be completely prohibited.2. 9. This type of identification prevents the use of different numbering systems in inspection reports carried out over the years. Usually made from galvanized or stainless steel.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the past.) must be determined according to a precise set of specifications for the networks they are designed to support.3. cross section. In order to allow this water to drain away quickly. can be attached. equipped with a beveled tube extending through the intrados to form a drip groove. it is common practice to install anchor rails or couplings on the underside of the upper slab.6 – Piercing of a lower slab required by the lack of an access hatch 9. it is also important to account for the transverse slope of the top of the lower slab and of the tendons which might be installed there. these fittings form the upper anchorages for the bars to which pipework. This guarantees their suitability for their future tasks. Fig.3.2.

reset the slide plates or make adjustments due to the subsidence of a pier or a geometrical defect. the next stage is to design and install the reinforcements or prestressing required to take up the forces generated in the piers and bridge deck under these support conditions.3.3.9) are usually used for this operation. It is also important to position the jacking point as close to the axis of the nearest web as possible.10) for use during internal monitoring and inspection operations. These pits are usually 0. A ∅ 100 mm drain hole is built into the pit for the drainage of any water that might enter.2.3 - Inspection of hollow piers 9. However. etc. two jacking points are provided for each bearing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9.2. 9.) may be used if the geometry of the structure prevents the use of blocks.Inspection Hollow piers are usually equipped with a system of safety ladders and landings throughout their full height (Fig. one point per bearing. 9. especially during construction. if the pier head unit is too short to accommodate two jacking points per bearing. i. These points will also be be situated as close to the webs as possible.7 and 9. This system is allows for the regular examination of the inside of piers with a level of accuracy that satisfies the requirements of scheduled inspections. Once these jacking points have been determined.1 . 9.80 to 1 m deep and one meter wide. allows work to be carried out "comfortably" in the pier head area. To prevent problems or damage to the structure during jacking. This pit.3.3. it is possible to use binoculars or additional ladders if stairs are fitted.50 m between the top of the piers and the underside of the bridge deck.1 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of piers In order to facilitate monitoring and maintenance operations. their length depends on the center distance between the bearings. it is possible to allow two points between both bearings. resembling a bathtub in shape.2 – Position of the jacking points for the bridge deck A bridge deck often has to be jacked up after commissioning in order to change the bearings.3.3.3. it is recommended to build a pit into the pier head units. It is also necessary to mark the jacking points on the plans and identify their positions on the top of the pier. it is recommended to leave a minimum space of 0.8).e. The size and location of these jacking points depends on the amount of space available on the pier head unit. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 213 septembre 2007 . For more detailed inspections. although durable markers (studs. 9.1 – Access and inspection pits If the height of the piers exceeds 8 to 10 m. in spite of the limited space between the top of the pier and the underside of the bridge deck (Fig. 9. In general. it is necessary to determine the position of the jacking points at the design stage. 9. Support blocks (Fig.2 - Design of the pier head units 9.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 214 septembre 2007 . 9. However. Landings can be made from galvanized steel or the same concrete that was used to construct the pier shafts. NF E 85-010 "Échelles métalliques fixes avec ou sans crinolines" (Fixed Metal Stairs With or Without Safety Bows) was the applicable standard on the publication date of this guide. 9. Stairs or ladders must be made from hot galvanized steel thick enough to ensure that minor corrosion does not affect the strength of these elements.9 – Block marking the location of a jacking point The dimensions of the system (height and depth of steps.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. precautions must be taken to guarantee its longevity. frequency of landings) are determined according to the standards in force relating to stairs in buildings. an inspection of the piers under these conditions requires more equipment and more time. This creates a working platform from which inspectors equipped with climbing gear can operate. of course. 9.8 – Inspection pit on pier head unit Fig. which also increases the cost of the operation.12). some Owners have decided to restrict the fittings inside hollow piers on large bridges to a single metal gridded platform situated just underneath the crosshead and couplings to which harnesses can be attached (Fig. This system reduces the initial investment costs and guarantees that inspections will be carried using the latest totally compliant equipment. Considering the financial investment required for this type of equipment. In recent years. 9.7 – Access to bridge deck from piers and vice-versa Fig.

a second access point is also provided via a metal door at the base of the pier. As before.4. any victims will also have to be evacuated via this single passageway. 9. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 215 septembre 2007 .3.). 9. to make sure that if someone falls from the bridge deck.g. 9. Indeed. etc. For this. insufficient strength.3.3. If it is impossible to provide doors at the base of the piers (e.3 . a shaft is usually created at the bottom of the inspection pit described in Paragraph 9.2 . it is necessary to create a reasonably large shaft leading from piers to the bridge deck.3.2 and Fig. this passageway must be big enough to be used for transporting and removing maintenance equipment.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. this hole must normally be closed using a metal grid or plate. In the majority of cases. it is necessary to allow access to hollow piers from the bridge deck. Considering the risks of vandalism.Lighting Hollow piers must be equipped with a lighting system similar in design to the system used for the bridge deck. In the event of an accident during a maintenance operation.10 – Safety ladders and landings inside a pier Fig. requiring a ladder for access.2. it is necessary to use the same type of doors as those recommended for the abutments (see 9. they will not fall further than the bottom of this pit. 9.11 – Access door to a pier or an abutment with five-point safety lock Fig.3. It must also be offet in relation to the shaft built into the cross beam on pier. risk of vandalism too great. 9. These doors are rarely aesthetically pleasing and it is important to make sure that the architecture of the pier is as complimentary as possible. It is also possible to situate these doors three or four meters above ground level.Access Whatever the context.12 – Minimal fittings inside a pier 9. piers on the sea bed.11).

the space required corresponds to the length of the jack Lv plus the length of the strands connected to the jack prior to stressing Lt.2 above. In order to determine the effective length L of this chamber. It is important to fit a light switch next to the door mentioned in 9. this key phase in the design of this chamber is when the new tendons are in their ducts and the tensioning jack is positioned at the end of the strands prior to “swallowing” them up (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 216 septembre 2007 . As mentioned in section 5. However. via the return walls of the abutments. as it denies access to unauthorized persons and therefore prevents malicious damage to the bridge bearings.Plenary Assembly of Damage Insurance Companies) are particularly suitable for this task (see Fig. 9. as little room as possible should be left between the concealing wall and the outer edges of the box girder.4. it is necessary to consider the phase of the replacement process which requires the most room.4. they must also be as unobtrusive as possible in order to avoid attracting unwanted attention. etc. No more than 15 cm should be allowed for this gap. access is gained from the supported road. it is also possible to enter abutments from another road below the structure if parking spaces are provided. This system is highly recommended.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. external continuity prestressing and the guttering under the joints. This solution is also aesthetically pleasing. not including the corbel. 9. 9. For external tendons injected with a flexible product (wax or grease). 9. However. the front face of an abutment is usually closed off by a concealing wall. the distance between the internal face of the abutment wall and the end of the bridge deck.4 - Depth of abutments Typical example of abutments with cable pulling chamber One of the essential requirements for changing the external prestressing is the ability to gain access to the anchorages to stress the new tendons.4.2 - Restricting access in the abutments On large bridges built in recent years.42 of the "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing) guide published by Sétra. In this phase. i. In general.4. which is entered through a metal door. given that these walls hide the inside of the abutments which are never very attractive. These access points must be created with care (concrete surfacing. In addition to this important provision.11 on previous page).3 - Electrical system Although covering a much smaller area than a bridge deck.). 9.Abutments 9.1 Access to abutments Access points to the abutments must be designed and built with care. concrete or wooden stairs. including between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the central part of the concealing wall. It is also important to fit high-quality locks on the doors. guard rails if necessary. Fivepoint safety locks bearing the "A2P trois étoiles" label awarded by the french APSAD (Assemblée Plénière des Sociétés d’Assurances Dommage .e.4 .13). an abutment must have the same type of electrical system (lighting and power sockets). the design of an abutment must incorporate a cable pulling chamber if the external tendons are attached to stressed anchorages on the cross beam directly above the abutment.

cable pulling chambers may not be built into abutments. this gutter must be positioned centrally under the expansion joint.20 1.12 1. it is recommended to fit a water tap on the abutment. The best systems are shown in Figures 9.38 Lv + Lt 2.58 2.16 Lt 1.25 1.5 - Collection of water under the expansion joint Expansiont joints are fitted at the ends of almost all large modern bridges. A minimum distance of 0. Supported by galvanized steel brackets. these joints are never totally watertight. it can therefore be considered that the effective length L of the chambers must be at least 2.33 2.34 37T15S Lv + Lt 2. Despite the care and attention devoted to their design and fitting.l6.40 1.14 to 9.39 2. which requires a corbel of 30 to 40 cm on the side of the bridge deck. it is necessary to channel the water using vertical neoprene splash guards enclosing the space between the joint and the gutter. 9.07 1. In this case.56 At the design stage. Lt and (Lv+Lt) for the 19T15S. it is necessary to collect any water that percolates through them in order to protect the abutment crossheads.20 Lv 1.18 Lt 1. In order to prevent splashes. bridge bearings and the external prestressing anchorages situated at the ends of the structure.14 Lt 1.25 Lv 1. the distance between the end of the bridge deck and the abutment wall must not be reduced too much.40 m for 19T15S cabling and 2.25 1. 9. Unit Supplier Freyssinet SEEE Spie Précontrainte 19T15S System C with jack Cl 000F FUT SB 27T15S Lv + Lt 2. These splash guards.11 1.60 2. and are therefore situated directly above the abutments. provided that the structure can be connected to the drinking water network at reasonable cost. 27T15S and 37T15S types of tendons used in certain French prestressing systems. Therefore. The pipes must then be protected from freezing. must be weighted for maximum resistance to the draft of air created by passing trucks. which are usually different to those supplied with the joint.08 1. However.18 1. To facilitate the cleaning of the gutter.4.33 2.41 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 217 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the additional length described above is no longer required. consisting of a metal gutter positioned under the joint. Specific examples of abutments without cable pulling chambers In certain very specific cases.60 m for 27T15S or 37T15S cabling.40 1.13 – Key design phase for determining the minimum length of the cable pulling chamber The following table gives the lengths Lv.29 1.28 1.80 m to 1 m is essential for inspecting and correctly maintaining these parts of the structure.41 Lv 1.

9. 9. it is advisable to leave a minimum gap of 0. These are determined according to the procedures described in paragraph 9. 9.16 – Gutter attachment 9.50 m between the top of the abutment crossheads and the underside of the bridge deck in order to facilitate maintenance operations.6 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the crossheads As for the piers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 218 septembre 2007 . abutments must have jacking points for the bridge deck.2 above.4.14 – Collection of water under pavement joints Fig. 9.2.3.7 - Bridge deck jacking points Like piers.15 – Gutter under joint (the distance to the slab allows for easy cleaning) Fig.

however.Recommendations for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document This section contains a number of recommendations and instructions for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document for a prestressed concrete bridge built by the cantilever method. Sub-group I contains the documents that make up the contract. the price schedule. usually consisting of the borehole logs. It contains the frameworks for the tender document. 10. may sometimes be broken down into tranches in order to stagger the financing of the works. the contract is not divided into tranches or packages.1 . including: • • • • • • • • • Site plan Plan view Longitudinal cross-section Transverse cross-sections of bridge deck Detailed plan of cross beams and deviators Detailed plan of bridge deck superstructures Pier formwork plans Abutment formwork plans Contractual part of the geotechnical survey.Creation of a Contractor Tender Document Apart from in very specific situations. In most cases. these recommendations focus above all on items which are strongly influenced by this particular construction method and on the associated bridge deck structures. the vast majority of bridges built by the cantilever method are constructed in the framework of a restricted invitation to tender.Nature of the tender enquiry In France. cost estimate. Sub-group 0 is reserved for the tender regulations (règlement de la consultation [RC]). Given that it is impossible cover all of these aspects. although this system is not be recommended because the tranches can rarely be considered in isolation. i.2 .e. draft the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives et Particulières [CCAP]). price breakdowns and breakdown frameworks. and particularly with regard to the drafting of the written documents required. i. with a preliminary shortlisting of applicants. and occasionally. It also includes a series of documents appended to the STC. 10. the Special Technical Clauses (STC).e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 219 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10 . Very large projects. Contractor Tender Documents consist of three sub-groups or schedules.

3 . wind-effect study.3 b of the Tender regulations specifies the structural elements for which technical proposals must be submitted. etc. For structures built by the cantilever method.Tender regulations 10. frost and salt-resistant formulas. sub-group II of certain Contractor Tender Documents has also included reports concerning the formulation of concrete. In other cases.3. With regard to the bridge deck of a structure built using the cantilever method. along with design calculations or miscellaneous studies containing information for contractors. Sub-group II is made up of documents intended for information purposes only. In recent years. In addition. sub-group I must also contain a document listing the road. alkali reactivity. sub-group I also contains specific studies which have a direct influence on the design of the structure: hydraulic studies.). the composition and the application of the concrete Bridge bearings The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 220 septembre 2007 . etc.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In certain cases. Article 2. including the results of specific studies carried out upstream by the Construction Manager (HPC. rail or water-related constraints facing the contractor during the works. if the structure has to be built over or close to a traffic-bearing road. Finally.) 10. the following points must be covered in these proposals: • • Origin of the components. etc. aggregates. railway or waterway. this sub-group usually includes the following items: • • • • • • • • • • Plan of the areas capable of accommodating the site installations Plan of possible access routes to the site Longitudinal cabling plan Transverse cabling plan (for structures featuring transverse prestressing) Plan of the bridge deck showing a breakdown of segments Scheme of construction operations Plan of the cantilever stabilization system Preliminary quantity survey Architectural study The non-contractual part of the geotechnical survey: usually the pre-design for the foundations produced by the laboratory in charge of this survey.1 Supplements to the Special Technical Clauses / Technical proposals Technical proposals are detailed precisions that contractors are obliged to include in their bid in addition to their proposed basic solution. sub-group II sometimes contains initial plans for the bridge deck reinforcements. certain architectural studies may also be included in sub-group I in order to make the information relating exclusively to these studies contractually binding (reference to a matrix for the bottom shuttering matrix.

• 10.4 . if they are accepted. cost estimate and of course the Special Technical Clauses and the attached plans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Prestressing processes Procedure for the waterproofing layer Expansion joints.4. work on site may sometimes advance at a faster rate than the construction surveys can be carried out. The permissible technical variants are listed in Article 2.1 Period of validity for bids The evaluation phase for the bids for a structure to be built by the cantilever method is often longer than for a basic structure.3. More flexible variants are sometimes permitted. the first article of the tender document should specify a reasonably long period of validity for the bids (a minimum of 180 days). The most common variations include: • • • • • The breakdown into segments Types of prestressing units used Internal form of bridge deck gussets Scheme of construction operations Cantilever stabilization system.Tender document 10. These may include: • • The replacement of concrete webs with lightweight metal webs (for long span bridges) Substitution of the cantilever construction technique by the incremental launching method.2 – Technical variants The Owner may authorize contractors to offer variants with a view to encouraging competition. or even longer if contractors are likely to propose major variants. 10. it is essential to allow a sufficiently long preparation period in which the engineering firms can reach a stage that is well ahead of the work carried out on site. In order to prevent the interruption of work due to delays in the availability of construction plans that have been approved by the Contruction Manager. may require alterations to be made to the price schedule. 10.4. with or without pilings depending on the situation (for moderately long bridges of a constant depth) A change of construction technique for the foundations of one or more supports. Contrary to the technical proposals. Sufficient time must also be allowed for Construction Managers to evaluate these surveys. The period required varies The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 221 septembre 2007 . construction surveys for structures built by the cantilever method are long and complex. For certain structures.3 of the Tender Regulations. these variants.2 - Preparation period As we have already mentioned. Therefore.

Section I of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 62 Titre I . 10. published by the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 222 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide from structure to structure.5 . • • • • • • For structures supporting oversize loads. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels. the list of general documents to be included in the contract includes at least the following documents: • Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (Common Conditions) [CPC]) : "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Program of Loads and Tests for Road Bridges) Fascicule 61 Titre IV Section II of the french General Technical Clauses (GTC): “Actions de la neige sur les constructions” (Effects of Snow on Structures) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) Fascicule 62 Titre I . it is also necessary to mention: • French Circular no.Special Administrative Clauses 10. edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (AFPS) [French Seismic Engineering Association]. définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Exceptionally Large Trucks: Definition of Standard Loads and Rules for the Verification of Civil Engineering Structures). it is also necessary to add the following specific documents: • The AFPS 92 guide for the seismic protection of bridges. published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department).5. In earthquake zones. but the amount of time required is inversely proportional to the time allowed for the construction of the piers.Section II of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BPEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 65-A of the french GTC and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Civil Engineering Structures) in their updates published in August 2000 Fascicule 62 Titre V of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Civil Engineering Structures) Fascicule 68 of the french GTC: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil” (Construction of the Foundations for Civil Engineering Structures).1 General contract documents For a structure built by the cantilever method. for structures supporting these types of vehicles.

5. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of seismic risks and to the Decree of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category. more commonly known as the "Règles de construction parasismique . accompanied by the corresponding construction procedures. either by describing the constraints directly in these articles.2 of the Special Administrative Clauses should contain a text which clearly mentions: • • The documents considered by the Construction Manager to form an indivisible whole The deadlines that the Construction Manager agrees to observe. in the framework of the first and subsequent evaluations of the documents.2 - Preparation period Article 8. It should be noted that in the event of the staggered arrival of documents within the same group. with regard to the foundations Order no.5 of the SAC. these periods start on the arrival date of the last document.4 - Operating constraints in the public domain Many bridges are built immediately next to or even above other traffic-bearing routes. or by referring the reader to another of the documents included in the Contractor Tender Document.2 of this chapter. formwork plans. it is necessary to wait until the traffic on these arteries has been interrupted before carrying out certain operations.g. 10.4.5. It is important to mention these constraints clearly in articles 8. it is recommended that Article 8. Although it could probably be improved. reinforcement plans and design calculations for the section concerned). Further details concerning this point are given in article 10.5.3 - Examination period for construction surveys As conflicts between the Contractor and Construction Manager often arise over compliance with acceptance deadlines. work on site may be disrupted. • 10. the following text could serve as an example for this text: Delays for the examination and approval of construction documents The contractor must submit the construction surveys for each part of the structure to the Construction Manager for approval in the form of homogeneous groups of documents (e. The Construction Manager shall notify the contractor of his findings in writing and within a maximum period of forty-five (45) working days for the first examination of the "longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck" and “transverse flexion of the bridge deck" groups and twenty-five (25) working days for the first inspection of the other groups of documents. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 223 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The officially approved standard NF P 06-013.4 and 8.règles applicables aux bâtiments . 10. As traffic can normally only be interrupted at certain times of the day. Under these conditions and for safety reasons.1 of the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives particulières [SAC]) specifies the length of the preparation period and indicates whether or not this is included in the contract period.PS92" (Antiseismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92). These deadlines are reduced to fifteen (15) and five (5) working days for the subsequent examinations of these groups of documents.

it is advisable to include an article entitled “Programme des études d’exécution” (Construction Survey Program) in the Special Technical Clauses. or because none of them cover the field in question. additional information may be required for more sophisticated box girder designs. This can be worded in the following manner: Construction Survey Program The Contractor must submit a construction survey program which includes a list and a provisional schedule of the documents to be drawn up. none of these points repeats the requirements laid down in the GTC and the applicable standards. The second category concerns the options proposed by these texts.As these points concern conventional types of box girders built by the cantilever method.2 - Construction survey program for the structure As we have already mentioned.6.6 . With this in mind. because they are already binding for the contractor. Hold points Casting and formwork removal Acceptance of the quality control element Authorization for the casting of a part of the structure Authorization to move form travelers forward Authorization to remove falsework from a section of bridge deck Prestressing Authorization for tensioning of prestressing Acceptance of tensioning before reinforcements are cut Authorization for the injection of prestressing ducts Bridge bearings Acceptance of bearing blocks Acceptance at moment of delivery Acceptance of the fitting of bridge bearings (adjustment and positioning) Fittings Acceptance of waterproofing substrate Acceptance of waterproofing. The following table gives a non-exhaustive list of the hold points likely to apply to the bridge deck of a structure built by the cantilever method in addition to the average delay before they can be lifted.Special Technical Clauses 10. In line with the standard STC included in the CAPT-DCE-OA software published by Sétra. 10.5 - Duration of hold points Article 91 of the SAC outlines the main hold points on the site as well as the time necessary for the Construction Manager to cancel these hold points. authorization to apply surfacing materials Acceptance of a quality control element for the prefabricated concrete cornice Acceptance of the adjustment of cornices before sealing Acceptance of pavement joints before fixing or sealing Acceptance of retaining systems before sealing Testing Authorization to perform loading tests Time required 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10.1 Preamble There now follows a list of points that must be clearly specified in the Special Technical Clauses (STC) for the Contractor Tender Document.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 224 septembre 2007 .6. great care should be taken with regard to the quality and execution of the surveys. These points may be broken down into two categories. The first concerns elements of additional information to that provided in the GTC and by the applicable standards. either because these documents are incomplete.

It shall be drawn up in accordance with the framework of surveys specified in the contract.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The list enumerates the documents that must be submitted for the construction of both temporary and permanent structures. Many of these actions are defined in fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC and in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. only to be used for calculations in the construction phase before the closure of a cantilever Specific site actions (e. forces transmitted by launch beam supports. etc. also described in Chapter 5 of this guide. in accordance with the minimum deadlines established by Article 8. The provisional schedule includes the deadlines for the submission of documents and the fixed or tentative deadlines for approval by the Construction Manager. if used Impacts on restraint systems. including fatigue trucks. These actions must be accompanied by certain actions which are specific to box girder bridge decks and the method of construction. an unbalanced segment.2 of the SAC.6. etc. collapse of one of the form travelers. it may also be necessary to mention certain additional actions such as: • • • Impacts on cetain supports Thrust due to water or ice Wind and/or ice to be considered for certain very exposed sites The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 225 septembre 2007 . 10. • Depending on the situation.).3 - Construction surveys for the structure 10. which are normally listed and described in the STC are: • • • • • • • • Selfweight of the bridge deck (specify the unit mass of the concrete) Weight of the fittings added to the bridge deck Prestress forces Concrete shrinkage and creep (specify the area in which the structure is situated) General thermal effects (gradient and uniform variation) Thermal effects (uniform variation) to be considered for the expansion joints Predicted overloads from road vehicles and pedestrians on the structure.) Site overloads defined in Chapters 3 and 5 of this guide. These must be specified in the STC and relate toconcern: • • Selfweight of temporary structures (form travelers. launch beam. It presented in the form of a bar chart clearly showing the critical tasks and the time allowed.g.6.3-1 -Actions The STC must state all of the actions to be considered in the verifying calculations for the structure. These actions.

3 –Verification of the bridge deck The STC must specify: • The verification categories. deviators.g.3 in construction situations).2.10 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. It should be noted that they differ from those mentioned in the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979.2. it is important to note that an as-built calculation must be performed after the completion of the construction work. depending on the structure in question. Finally.3. with the actual dates of casting and any incidents that occurred on site (e. In accordance with Paragraph 3. The combinations to be used for the in-service verification of the structure are specified in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.5.3. the STC must specify the values of k and k’ to be adopted for the application of Article 4. it is essential to include a rule of this type in the STC (see Chapter 4 of this guide). or whether different permissible stresses must be adopted. the following requirements may also be specified in the STC: • Allow for the curvature of the structure on the horizontal plane in the calculations of longitudinal flexion The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 226 septembre 2007 . as described in Article A 4. These values are directly related to the requirements formulated by the Construction Manager with regard to empty ducts and the measurement of transmission factors (see our recommendations in 3.6. (For example.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 is applicable in the strict sense.2).3.2 – Combined actions The STC usually mentions the different combined actions that have to be considered. a broken strand that was not replaced).3). The STC must also state whether it is compulsory to perform a range calculation for prestress effects.3.6. used to verify the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck and the transverse flexion of the upper slab on structures with transverse prestressing (see Paragraph 3.5. for the verification of reinforced concrete parts (transverse flexion.3 of this guide recommends the application of the comment in Article 6. 10.3. the STC must specify whether Article 6. and the tangent general flexion and distribution forces on the other. If not.3.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. This calculation takes account of the actual phasing of the work carried out on a bridge built by the cantilever method.) The thermal gradient and the thermal expansions to be adopted in the construction phase (see Paragraph 3.2) The cracking categories. as described in Article 1.5). It would also be advisable to add a rule governing how to allow for different construction phases in the calculation of stresses at the ULS (see our proposals in paragraph 3.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Seismic effects Etc.1. etc. Paragraph 3. cross beams.2.1. 10. As the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 does not include any rules for the accumulation of non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to compensate for transverse flexion on the one hand.3 of the BAEL 91 revised in 1999. Combinations to be used for verifying the structure with regard to the risks of cantilever instability are given in Chapter 5 of this guide.3. • • As differences of opinion exist between Construction Managers. It may also consider the estimated coefficients of friction given by measurements taken on site.

segment on abutment. 10. The Owner’s requirements for the permanent protection to be used on the anchorages (e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 227 septembre 2007 .5.1 .4.2 – Small control slabs or test segment The STC must specify whether the contractor must manufacture a test segment for the suitability tests or whether small control slabs or elements will suffice.) Perform a second-order calculation for one or more piers if they are very slender (in this case.4. It must also mention the type of duct and. 10. This must not be less than 15 MPa. etc.5 - Prestressing 10.6. • • Chapter 3 of this guide gives a lot of valuable advice on choosing the coefficients and rules mentioned in this paragraph.1 – Cantilever tendons The STC must precisely state the number and type of strands to be used for the cantilever tendons. Furthermore. along with their strength and relaxation categories. This category must conform to the definitions provided in Article 52 of Fascicule 65A of the french CCTG.6.3 – Removal of formwork It is advisable to establish a minimum strength requirement for the concrete at the moment the formwork is removed. of course. 10.6.g. measurement of flatness of facings.6.2 . the STC must clearly mention: • • • The dimensions of these elements The ducts and non-prestressed reinforcement bars that they must contain.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Perform a finite elements calculation for a section of the bridge deck Perform a finite elements calculation for a specific part of the structure (segment on pier.6. the STC must clearly define the acceptance conditions for these tests: inspection of facings. 10.6. core sampling in the sheath areas.4 - Bridge deck formwork 10.5. the STC must specify the design assumptions for the horizontal forces in the pier heads) Etc. Whether continuity cable anchor blocks must be fitted. the type of injection product to be used.4.Continuity tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the continuity tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons.6. In all cases. 10. etc.Formwork The STC must specify the category of facing to be used for the inner and outer surfaces of the box girder. ribs.

STC) must clearly specify these inspections. 10. the STC must clearly state the applicable requirements. metal caps. 10. which may be used for the immediate or subsequent installation of networks in the box girder Handling rails fitted in the upper slab. which usually correspond to hold points for contractors. Finally. grids. • • • • Chapter 9 of this guide contains numerous guidelines for the drafting of the corresponding clauses.) for the access points to the bridge deck (manholes in cross beams on abutments. etc. guaranteeing a consistent alignment without any concentration of radial tendon forces. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 228 septembre 2007 .6.7 - Inspection of work As mentioned in Chapter 7.) must also be specified.6. must also be specified. plates. 10. and more specifically.3 – Transverse tendons If the project calls for the installation of transverse tendons in the upper slab or ribs. These fittings include: • • • The electrical system for the box girder.5. which are identical to those for the continuity tendons. The type of deviator tubes and corrosion inhibitors to be used in the structural deviators. in addition to the types of anti-vibration systems to be adopted.4 – External tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the external tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. including the internal lighting Stairways or ramps for passing the cross beams and deviators Closing devices (doors. 10. manholes in the lower slab.6. the STC must clearly describe the maintenance fittings that the Owner has requested for the structure.5. to the capacity of this prestressing. must also be specified. the inspection of work carried out on a structure built by the cantilever method is an important and complex task which the Construction Manager must start to organize quite a long time in advance. Certain Construction Managers demand rigid ducts for the ducts at the level of the anchor blocks. on piers or close to abutments) Anchor rails fixed to the upper slab or webs. if any. etc. The Contractor Tender Document (SAC.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide conventional sealing.6 - Special fittings in the box girder As these fittings are not always clearly marked on the plans included in the Contractor Tender Document. the Owner’s requirements with regard to additional prestressing. in line with any hatches that may be built into the lower slab Rails used in the deployment of tensioning jacks for the external prestress tendons Inspection equipment for hollow piers.6.

construction. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 229 septembre 2007 . The price also covers any jacking operations required during construction. assembly and removal of the centuring used for the sections of bridge deck not built by form travelers. this price is normally paid in instalments as the work advances on site. the price schedule for a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method using cast-in-situ segments must also include prices for the following elements: • • • • Cantilever stabilization systems Form travelers Formwork tool for segments on piers Centering for end sections.Price schedule A standard price schedule which is perfectly suited to the construction of all standard structures is appended to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG. The price for the centuring of end sections includes the design. construction. in addition to cost of external inspections. installation. it may not be possible for the Contract Manager and his or her laboratory to carry out certain inspections. The price for the form travelers usually includes the design. Payment is often on a fixed-price or fixed price per abutment basis. it will be necessary to use the services of an external inspection company. for very large structures. plus the costs of external inspections. If this is the case. and eventual removal of the temporary stability blocks. the temporary prestressing and. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of form travelers used on site. especially during the transfer onto permanent bearings. in addition to the cost of external inspections. the temporary pilings or cable-stays. These inspections must be clearly defined and paid for separately. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of structures used for centering and encasing the segments on piers. transportation. 10. although a price per square meter may also be charged according to the area of bridge deck to be shored up. covering the supply. transportation. adjustments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In addition. The price of the formwork tool for the segment on pier is given as a fixed or “fixed per pier” price. The price for the cantilever stabilization system is normally given as a “fixed price” or a “fixed price per pier”. This is either a fixed price or. This normally includes the design.7 . In view of the large sums of money involved. adjustments. a “per pair” price. if necessary. In addition to the prices normally shown in this appendix.

It also provides information about specific aspects of the design. this appendix has been drawn up in accordance with the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 and fascicule 61 Titre II of french CPC. Considering the complexity of the calculations to be performed. it is used to provide the minimum amount of information (e.Reminders A1. breakdown into segments. Instead. Like the rest of this guide.1 .g.Notation Figure A1-1 describes the notation used. A1. this appendix describes a simplified method for roughly calculating the formwork and prestressing for a bridge deck of a cast in-situ structure built by the cantilever method.1 .0 – Purpose of this appendix Based on a concrete example. A1. We take: G to be the centre of gravity of the cross-section v to be the distance from G to the upper axis v’ to be the distance from G to the lower axis h = v + v’ to be the total height of the section eo to be the off-setting (off-centring?) of the mean tendon d to be the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons d’ to be the minimal distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 230 septembre 2007 . this method is not designed to determine the definitive formwork and cabling.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1 Determination example Example of the determination of a bridge deck built by the cantilever method This appendix presents an example of the calculation of the bridge deck for a structure built by the cantilever method. formwork. cantilever tendons) required for the preparation of a more sophisticated computerized design model.

1. A1.2.2 – Reminders about prestressing A1.02 for such a structure The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 231 septembre 2007 .6 f cj − k f c with k = 0.in compression: σ c = 0. we use the same indices for shear forces (T) as for the moments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. – A1.1 – Limit stresses In Class II of the BPEL. Finally.1.1 – Notations Furthermore. we take: B to be the area of the section I to be its moment of inertia in relation to a horizontal axis passing through G ρ= I to be the geometric output of the cross-section Bvv ' c = ρv to be the ordinate (in relation to G) of the highest point of the central core c’= ρv’ to be the ordinate of the lowest point of the central core Mg to be the moments due to the selfweight Mq `to be the moments due to the fittings Ms1 and Ms2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively (counted algebraically) due to the imposed loads Ml and M2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively applied to a cross section M = M 1 .M2 F to be the prestress force (effective traction). the limit stresses are: .

2. in each section we should have: below Mmini = M2 σ sup = P P e0 + M 2 + v ≥ σ t (1) B I σ inf = P P e0 + M 2 − v ' ≤ σ c (2) B I P P e0 + M 1 + v ≤ σ c (3) B I below Mmaxi = M1 σ sup = σ inf = P P e0 + M 1 − v' ≥ σ t (4) B I This can be expressed as: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − ≤ e0 ≤ c − 1 + P v P ¨P v ' P A1. . A1.g.A1.in traction: − σ t = − f tj − k f c ( ) Given that the hyperstatic forces due to prestressing are ignored. we can choose them in such a way that I I ΔM (with Δσ being the range of stress variation = = v v' Δσ σ c + σ t ).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . we may obtain the four limit stresses (Fig. under extreme loading cases.1. Thus.2b). but if an excessively thick member is dictated (e. an upper member for which obtain three limit stresses (Fig.2a).σt 0 I ΔM normally applies) we will only be able to > v Δσ ²σ b σb - σt - 0 ≤ σb σt 0 σt 0 σb The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 232 septembre 2007 . P can therefore be chosen so that: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − = c− 1+ P v P ¨P v ' P so P= ΔM − Bσ t c + c' and e0 = c − M1 I σ t M I σt + = − c' − 2 − with − (v '−d ') ≤ e0 ≤ v − d P v' P P v P In so far as we can choose the thicknesses of the two members.2 – Sub-critical sections These are sections in which we are not restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons.

3a). as is usually the case. Based on compliance with the minimum stress. it will be possible to obtain three limit stresses (Fig. a section on an intermediate support).g.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. in the upper axis). A1.1.2. If we are able to modify the thickness of the upper structural member. A1. this gives: P≥ ΔM ΔM − Bσ t = − Bσ t c+c ' ρh P must therefore be at least equal to the higher of the two values below (according to the structurally significant moment): M1 I c + v ' −d ' + σ t v and − M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' As in the previous situation.3b) with: P=− M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' 0 -σt sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 ≤ σb sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 0 σb (a) Fig.3 – Limit stress diagrams for an over-critical section ≥ (b) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 233 septembre 2007 . we will only be able to obtain two limit stresses (Fig. with: P=− M2 I c' + v − d + σ t v' and I ΔM = v Δσ (compliance with the change of stress σb. Let us consider the example of a section that is mainly subjected to negative moments (e. A 1.3 – Over-critical sections These are sections in which we are restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons. the size of the upper member is imposed (excessively thick). A1. If. the number of limit stresses that can be obtained depends whether or not it is possible to modify the thickness of the members. therefore M2 (the minimum algebraic value) is structurally significant.2 – Limit stress diagrams for a sub-critical section A1.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10.1 - Focal point method for the design of a continuous beam Using the notation adopted by M.7.bi ϕi bn = ci + ai+1 .bi+1 ϕ‘i+1 ϕn = an + cn-1 . etc.bn-1 ϕn-1 b1 = c1 + a2 . which is also equal to 1 N/mm² or 103 kN/m².Mass: tonne (t) .b1 ϕ1 bn −1 = cn-1 + an . (φ’i). (φi) and right. bi and ci for each span to calculate the focal point ratios for the left. Both groups of equations are given below: ϕ1 ψ1 = 0 b2 ϕ‘n = 0 = a2 + c1 . A1.b2 ϕ‘2 ϕ '1 Having ascertained the the focal point ratios and the rotations ω’i and ω"i for the end of span i.Force: MegaNewton (MN) .81 m/s2 for gravity acceleration.Stress: MegaPascal (MPa). the focal point method consists of using the mechanical constants ai. we can calculate the bending moments on the supports Ai-1 and Ai when span Ai-1 Ai is loaded. ω 'i + ω "i ϕ 'i bi ( 1 Mi-1 = ϕ iϕ 'i − 1) ω 'i + Mi = bi ( ω "i ϕi − 1) 1 ϕ iϕ 'i The moments on the other supports are determined by the following focal point ratios: Mi-2 = -ϕi-1 Mi-1 Mi+1 = -ϕ‘i+1 Mi Mi-3 = -ϕi-2 Mi-2 Mi+2 = -ϕ‘i+2 Mi+1 etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 234 septembre 2007 . Courbon. In addition.Length: meter (m) . which is considered to be independent and subjected to the loading case in question. we shall adopt a value of g = 9.4 – Units of measurement The following units of measurement are systematically used in this example (unless otherwise specified) : .1.bn ϕ‘n ϕ ' n −1 bi ϕ 'i ϕ2 ϕ i +1 bi +1 = ai+1 + ci .

00 m long.1 – Length and depth of bridge deck Fig.A1. the height of the box girder varies parabolically between: .00 m long and the closing segment for the central span is 2.30 m .15/3) = 3 lanes The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 235 septembre 2007 .15 m Number of loadable lanes = entire section (9.At the crown The segments on piers are 8.2.50 m between the centers of the end supports.15 . only one side of the traffic lanes is shown.15 m first category bridge Loadable width = 10. A1. .4 – Longitudinal section of the structure The example involves the determination of a structure with three asymmetrical spans totaling 214. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/43 (*).(2 x 0.50) = 9.5. However. the distributed overload A is given as: Usable width = 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.2 – Source data A1.75 m.375 m and 63. as the complete structure consists of two bridges fastened together. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/18 ho = 2. Fig.30 m.On pier: h1 = 5. Given the need to comply with clearance dimensions. The bridge deck is cast in-situ due to its moderate length (Fig. (*) This is quite a low slenderness ratio but it is imposed due to the fact that this structure is designed to double the capacity of an existing bridge. A1.4).5 – Cross-section of the structure According to fascicule 61 Titre II of french CCTG. A1. There are two end spans of 53.2.2 – Functional cross section The supported platform is illustrated in Figure A1.375 m and one central span of 97.

the overall diameter of the ducts is 100 mm.15 x 0.For the concrete: compressive strength fc28 = 35 MPa. A1.6 x 35 = 21 MPa .90 x 1.15 Considering the third comment in Article 4.3 – Weight of fittings The probable linear weight of the fittings is taken to be q = 47.15 / 3 = 3.units used in fascicule 61 Titre II). the overall diameter of the ducts is 80 mm -For the external tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide a1 = 0.45 A( ) 36000 (A(l) in kg/m² and l in m . giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 3.4 – Characteristics of materials The characteristics of the materials used are as follows: . A1.05 = 1.9 as the bridge features three lanes Width of lane = 9.21.05 m a2 = 3. we use 19T15S prestress units. l + 12 with A( ) = 230 + A1.For the cantilever and continuity tendons. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 1. for a permissible in-service compression stress = 0.15 A( ) = 9.2.2. the linear loads according to the length of loaded section is given by: ≤ 200 m s = 9.1 MN.5/3.4 kN/m.2.5 – Cross sections of the bridge deck The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 236 septembre 2007 . we use 12T15S prestress units.15 A2( ) = 9.95 MN.

we shall use the dimensions given in Figure A1. Finally. A1.6 shows the cross-sections used as the basis for the first approximate calculations. whereas the thickness of the webs (36 cm) is determined by the casting conditions.95 m. allowing for the diameter of the ducts.7. it is logical to design a box girder with two webs positioned according to the findings of a summary analysis of the transverse behavior.6 – Cross sections of the bridge deck As the total width of the slab is equal to 10. Vertical webs were chosen for aesthetic reasons. Figure Al.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 237 septembre 2007 . including the longitudinal anchoring girders for the safety barriers. This analysis was also used to establish the thickness of the upper slab between the webs at 25 cm. we must allow for them in our calculations. Although we do not yet know the precise dimensions of the formwork for these elements. The thickness of the cantilevers varies between 25 cm on the BN4 side and 30 cm on the web side. we know that there must be room to accommodate gussets in the slabs. As an initial estimate. The mean thickness of the upper slab is therefore 27 cm.

08⎥ = 0.20 2 − π x 0. A1. close to CO and C3.40 x 0. A1.h0) ⎜ using the notation shown in Figure A1.8 – Variation in height of bridge deck in central span In the end spans (Fig.8 below: ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 Fig.4 x 0.60 2 0. A1. and then it becomes constant and equal to h0.20 ⎤ + + + + 0.9).7 – Detail of the gussets in the box girder The transverse surface area represented by the gussets is: ⎡1. the total height varies parabolically at first (section closest to pier). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 238 septembre 2007 .40 x 0.4905 m ² S=2 x ⎢ 4 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ In the central spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.08 0.40 2 0. the total height of the box girder varies parabolically according to following the law: h(x) = h0 + (h1 .

and ε1 = 45 cm: a value chosen in view of the span lengths and the slenderness ratios.0965 m2 0.612 Section on pier 5. with ε0 and ε1 the thicknesses at the crown and on the pier: ε(x) = ε0 + (ε1 .300 m 0.10.450 m 9. Section at the crown h(x) ε(x) B v v’ I ρ 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.7 – Sequence of construction operations In the following calculations. in fact.440 m 4.10 – Calculation of the mechanical characteristics of the bridge deck We then have to establish the thickness ε (x) of the lower slab.420 m 2. we shall use a parabolic variation law similar to the one used for h(x).860 m 1. A1.240 m 6.9 – Variation in height of bridge deck We can schematize the sections according to Figure A1. Fig.300 m 0. A1. we shall use the sequence of construction operations shown below: 1 2 3 4 5 Construction of cantilever on P1 Construction of the cast-on-falsework section near to C0 Closure of C0-Pl. for this.640 A1. we shall use ε0 = 24 cm: a value which is imposed by the casting conditions.880 m 41.2.3129 m2 2. stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl and transition to permanent bearings for P1 Construction of cantilever on P2 Construction of cast-on-falsework section near to C3 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 239 septembre 2007 .ε0) ⎜ ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 As an initial estimate.532 m4 0. A1.2.620 m4 0.6 – Characteristics of the sections A computerized calculation gives us the mechanical characteristics of the sections on pier and at the crown.

024525 B (x) = 0.72 ⎢2.4905 ⎝ 48.27 + 0. A1.11 below.21⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 0. this gives Mg = . therefore a unit weight of 0.00 m (½ closing segment). assumed to be equal to approximately 40 t.01.149990 x + 11. The moment resulting from this assumption is slightly higher than if the calculation were to be performed in line with the temporary stabilizing blocks.34 MNm.10-6 x4 For the section on pier.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 48. In order to simplify the calculations.Mg(x) = ∫ − T (ξ )dξ 0 = 0. i.875 – 1.3.10-6 x2 .3 – Cantilever prestressing design A1. At this moment Mg.024525 MN/m3: g (x) = 0.8): 2 2 ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ B( x) = 10.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence.24 + 0. and exerted at 3. with a unit mass of 2. Fig.40 MN.Moment on pier during the casting of the final segments The complete cantilever is shown in Figure A1.149990 + 33.5 t/m3. Qc1 Moment due to the weight of the form traveler.75.1 .11 – Determination of the support moment during the casting of the final segments The calculation of Mg is shown hereafter (with x defined in Figure A1.e.074995 x2 + 2.Tg(x) = ∫ g (ξ )dξ 0 x g x = 0.10-6 x3 . it is necessary to add the moment due to the known site loads (Qc1) in addition to the moment due to random site loads (Qc2 and Qc3).30 + 3.00 m / 2 + 1 m = 2.e. for x = 48.03 ⎢0.186.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 7 8 9 Closure of P2-C3.23 x 0.02. stressing of tendons for P2-C3 and transition to permanent bearings for P2 Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for Pl-P2 Stressing of external tendons Installation of fittings and commissioning A1. i.5 m from the crown: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 240 septembre 2007 . 0.00⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 5. we consider that the bridge deck is supported on the centerline of the pier.

7 x (0.95) 1 x 0.375 = .7 x (0.2.02 x 35 = 1. with b being the width of the upper slab of the box girder: MQc2 = .7 ftj .186.06 x 35) – 0. A1.6 + 0.212.3.875 – 3.[(50 + (5 x 10. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide MQc1 = Mform traveler = .10 MNm.4.2 – Calculation of cantilever cabling Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1. The shape of the moment curve in cantilever Mg is shown in Figure A1.70 = .12 – Bending moment in the cantilever under selfweight + form traveler A1.12 below.0.55 MNm Qc2 Moment due to a distributed load of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever Qc3 Moment due to a concentrated load of (50 + 5b) kN.19 MPa The force N developed by the cantilever tendons in the section on pier must satisfy the following condition: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 241 septembre 2007 .51 MNm MQc3 = .40 x 46.34 – 18.95 x 47.000001 x (47.55 – 2.875) x 0.6 + 0.00) = .875 / 2) = .02 σt = 0. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the casting of final pair of segments is taken to be fcj = 35 MPa.51 – 4.001 x (47.k fcj with k = 0. measurement of transmission factors).02 x fcj = 0. The allowable stress in the upper axis is therefore: σt = 0.70 MNm We can therefore consider that: Mg = .18.06 x fcj) – 0.(200 x 10.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 We consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.

15).13 – Breakdown of cantilevers into segments The shape of the moment curve in the cantilever under selfweight and prestressing is given in Figure A1.2 φg with φg = 0.532 = 46.3129 41. Fig.42 41.v = 2.74 ≈ 24 tendons 1. A1.95 to which we add two tendons in order to prestress the final pair of segments. allowing us to divide the cantilever into 2 x 13 standard segments of 3. A1.42 + 9.14 – Bending moment in the cantilevers A1. We therefore have 13 pairs of 12T15S tendons.258 m position of the mean tendon supposing its distribution over two beds e0 = v .14 below. two vertical forces are applied in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1.258 x 2.3129 m2. These The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 242 septembre 2007 .532 m4 .Verification during the casting of the P1-P2 closing segment At this stage in the design. it is advisable to make sure that the cantilever tendons are strong enough to take up the weight of the bridge deck and form traveler during the construction of the central closing segment.10 x 2.74 MN 1 2.532 n tendons ≥ 46. Fig. To this end.081 m N ≥ −σb − Mv I 1 e0 v + B I = − 1.375 m in length (see Figure A1.3 . I = 41.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide N e0 v M v N + + ≥ σb B I I with B = 9.3.420 m and M = -212.19 + 212.13 below).10 MNm e0 = 2.

A1.212. A1.532 σ i = − 0.45 + 114. the forces and stress in the upper horizontal plane along the centerline of the piers can be expressed as follows: M = .7 that the closing segments were constructed in the following order: .7 (−212.Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for P1-P2.55/2) – 16.Preamble We have seen in A1.7 MN Misocantilever = 50. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 243 septembre 2007 .7 x 2.48 MN.258 = 114.45 MN.186.m σs = N M .95 = 50.15 – Effects of the weight of the form traveler and of the closing segment In this new phase.(18.26 MPa ≥ σ b = − 1.m Ncantilever = 2 x 13 x 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide forces represent the effect of the weight of the form traveler and the concrete for the closing segment when still wet.84 = .v 50. at this stage.Closure of C0-Pl and stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl .4.34 .2. Fig.0 .48) x 2. the two halves of the bridge have not yet been connected.3129 41.19 MPa ==> The dimensioning is therefore correct.4 – Prestressing design for the closing segment A1.42 + = + B I 9. These forces are exerted on two independent and isostatic structures because.Closure of P2-C3 and stressing of continuity tendons for P2-C3 .

two vertical forces are applied in an upward direction at each end of the cantilevers (Figure A1.4. the bridge deck still consists of two independent isostatic structures. these forces will be replaced with a uniformly distributed load directed in a downward direction and representing the set concrete (Figure A1. the first stage of the closure can be simulated by applying two vertical forces in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1. In the first part. By starting at the final closing segment. In this phase.1. Fig.17 – Diagram of moments due to the removal of the form traveler The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 244 septembre 2007 . the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons stressed during the previous closing operations is not an unknown. A1.4. In the second part. These forces represent the effect of the removal of the form traveler and the concrete used for the closing segment (fresh concrete).1. A1. Al.1 – Closing segment between PI and P2 The continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 must take up the selfweight of the closing segment. we shall study each phase of the closure and determine its effect on the structure.17).18). A1. Fig.1 . Therefore. Figure Al. In contrast to the other continuity tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The continuity tendons must be determined in reverse order.15).2 – Effect of the removal of the form traveler This phase can be broken down into two parts. 16 below represents the structure at the moment of the P1-P2 closure. In this phase.16 – Detail of central closing segment In order to determine the number of tendons necessary for the closing segment in the central span.Effect of the selfweight of the closing segment and the form traveler As mentioned previously. they develop both isostatic and hyperstatic moments. A1. this phase has no bearing on the calculation of the continuity tendons.4. the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the effects of the thermal gradient. the structure is hyperstatic.

65 MN.18 – Diagram of moments due to weight of closing segment At the end of these two stages.3 – Effect of the thermal gradient Figure A1.4.19 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12°C The value of the moment at the crown used for the calculation of the continuity tendons for P1-P2 is therefore: Mtherm = 12.35 MN. A1.19 below represents the bending moment due to a thermal gradient of 12° C.m A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1.4.4.40 = .1.4 – Isostatic moment of continuity tendons for P1-P2 The isostatic moment is an unknown and is proportional to the prestressing that is used (Figure A1. the moment to be considered for the calculation of the continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 is: MG = -7. A1. Fig.318 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 245 septembre 2007 .75 + 3.m A1.95 x ntendons and e0 at the crown = 1. e0 with N = normal force due to the tendons in the section and e0 = offsetting of the mean tendon In our example: N = 1.20). The isostatic moment is calculated in the following way: Miso = N .

21 below.21 – Diagram of the moments due exclusively to the hyperstatic effect of the P1-P2 continuity tendons At the pre-design stage.1.4. Fig.22). the hyperstatic moment can be evaluated in the following way: M hyper = − area of isostatic moment diagram length of span The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 246 septembre 2007 . a hyperstatic moment is set up in the central span which is of the opposite sign to the isostatic moment developed by the tendons.5 – Hyperstatic moment for P1-P2 continuity tendons As the structure is hyperstatic when the continuity tendons are stressed. The diagram for this is shown in Figure Al. A1. it is possible to use a simplification which consists of considering the span to be embedded on its supports (Figure Al. This hyperstatic moment is an unknown and depends on the intensity and the distribution of the prestressing in the span (alignment and length of tendons) and on the characteristics of the structure in question (whether or not there is variation of inertia).20 – Diagram of isostatic moments for continuity tendons A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. A1. In this case.

02 σ b = 0. The allowable stress in the bottom axis is therefore: σ b = 0. Therefore. A1.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.02 x 16 = 0.25 m long.7 x (0.4.440 m M = 13. starting with a single pair of tendons 22.m e0 = -1.1.(v – 1.06 x fcj) – 0.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.375 m and the closing segment of 2 m.5 φg) with φg = 0.6 + 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. spanning six segments of 3.22 – Diagram of moments exclusively due to the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons according to a simplified calculation A1.318 m position of mean tendon e0 = .6 – Calculation of P1-P2 continuity tendons Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.0965 m2 I = 4.06 x 16) – 0. we consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.7 x (0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 247 septembre 2007 .620 m4 v’= 1. an iterative calculation is performed.02 x fcj = 0.081 m As we do not know the number of tendons required.6 + 0. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the removal of the form traveler used for the closing segment is taken to be fcj = 16 MPa.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: M Hyper v ' M v' N e0 v ' MTherm v ' N − G − − − ≥ −σ b B I I I I with B = 6. we also do not know their position in the box girder or their isostatic moment diagram. measurement of transmission factors).57 MN.

24): The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 248 septembre 2007 . it would be necessary to repeat the calculation with two pairs of tendons and recalculate the hyperstatic moment with the newly tendons arrangement.23 below shows the structure at the moment the span is closed. In the event of one pair of tendons being insufficient.2 – Closing segment between C0 and P1 The continuity tendons for the span C0-Pl must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.23 – Detail of the structure during placement of the closing segment on the C0 side A1. As the structure in question is isostatic. the load due to the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section is equal to Q = 6. The hyperstatic moment is therefore: ntendons = 2 fu = 1.A1.318 m at the crown L = 97.4.m hence σ b = − 0. Figure Al.0965 x 0.1 – Calculation of support reactions.17 MN.m at the crown Mhyper = . shear force and bending moment As the cross-section of the bridge deck is 6. A1.0965 m² close to the abutments (h = 2.4.71 MPa ⇒ σ b ≥ −σ b We will therefore choose one pair of 12T15S tendons.30 m).75 m lc = 22.90 MN e0 = -1. we can easily calculate the support reactions and the longitudinal bending moment using static equations (Fig.95 MN Fp = 3.(lc x Miso) / L = 1.2. Fig.14 MN.02453 = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The distribution of the prestressing produces an isostatic moment which is distributed almost uniformly if a single pair of tendons is used (subject to the variation in e0 and the variation of inertia of the section).14955 MN/m.25 m Miso = Fp x e0 = -5. A1.

2 – Calculation of continuity tendons between C0 and P1 Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.24 – Determination of the forces on the C0 side due to the closure of the span Support reactions: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP1 = 0. A1.2.26 – Bending moment on C0 side due to the closure of the span A1. the bending moment is equal to: M(x) = R C0 .25 – Diagram of shear forces due to closure on C0 side Bending moment diagram: For the 5. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.50 m long section between C0 and the closing segment. x2 2 so for x = 5.95 MN The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 249 septembre 2007 .04238 MN and RC0 = 0.217 m ⇒ M = 2. x − Q .03 MN. A1.m Fig.78015 MN Shear force diagram: Fig.4.

9 MN McontinuityC0P1 = 3.9 x -1.65 MN.m e0 = -1.620 m4.50 / 53.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Duct diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before. to which is added the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.318 x 1.440 m.375 = 0. in order to prevent any cracking due to parasitic phenomena (obstructed shrinkage. as the structure is now hyperstatic. we shall specify one pair of 12T15S tendons. Indeed.121 MN. v’ = 1.7 x (0.19 MN 1 1.5 x 12.081 m N ≥ − σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 2. However.7 x (0.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.6 + 0.m MΔt = 0.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 250 septembre 2007 . the bridge deck becomes sensitive to the effects of thermal gradients.03 x 1.4.95 = 3.5 φg) with φg = 0.06 x fcj) – 0. the forces and stress in the lower axis are: Mg = 2. the bridge deck is considered to be cast in place with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts and measurement of transmission factor) and the strength of the concrete is taken to be the value obtained when the falsework is removed fcj = 16 MPa.06 x 16) – 0. etc. I = 4.0965 4.m x 5. no tendons are necessary. A1.02 = 0.03 MN NcontinuityC0P1 = 2 x 1.3 . somewhat higher forces develop in this area after the closure of P1-P2.65 MN.2.m x 5.318 = -5. However. The allowable stress in the lower axis is thus: σ b = 0.(v – 1.375 = 0.03 MN.0965 m2.17 MN.6 + 0.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .02 x fcj = 0.02 x 16 = 0.Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 The calculation that we have just performed is intended to determine the amount of continuity cabling needed to consolidate the structure after the removal of falsework from the cast-on falsework section.620 = − 0.l4 MN.440 + 6.50 / 53.440 4.).620 − 0.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6. In this new phase.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1. M = 2.74 + In principle.

3 – Closing segment between P2 and C3 The continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.12 + 0.440 m.62 ⎠ B I σ i = − 0.57 MN.4.27 below represents the structure at the step when the span is closed.14 + 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide σs = 1.09 MPa ≥ σ b = − 2.5.081 m N ≥ −σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 13.620 − 0.9 ⎛ N M . M = 13.(v – 1.5 φg) with φg = 0.097 ⎝ 4.318 x 1.57 MN.03 .27 – Determination of forces on C3 side due to the closure of the span A1.0 MPa (with j = 28 days) The continuity cabling is therefore adequate.440 4.1 – Calculation of support reactions and bending moments A calculation similar to the one performed for the C0-Pl closing segment gives the support reactions and the bending moment: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP2 = 0. v' − = . Fig.4.620 = 6.03456 MN M = 13. v’ = 1.m e0 = -1.440 + 6.57 x 1. Figure A1.28374 MN et RC3 = 2.⎜ (2.44 ⎞ 3.07 MN 1 1.m A1.0965 m2.4. A1.65) x ⎟ 6.3.74 + The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 251 septembre 2007 . I = 4.3-2 – Calculation of the continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.620 m4.0965 4. A1.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .

A1.1. we can use certain rules to define the mean alignment of the external prestress tendons.10.3.50 / 63.Determination of geometry of tendons . we shall proceed in stages: .94 MN.95 A1.286 MN.m x 15.4.Choice of critical sections to be dimensioned or verified .5.Calculation of creep effects .5. it is important to verify the suitability of the cabling after the closure of the span P1-P2 and the stressing of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.m x 15.8 x – 1.8 MN McontinuityP2C3 = 7.Computerized calculation of effects of thermal gradient .375 = 0.1 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 252 septembre 2007 .1 – Determination of forces A1.Preamble concerning the geometry of the external tendons between CO and C3 For an initial estimation.17 MN. In this new phase.m The continuity cabling is therefore sufficient. traffic loads A(l).Determination of prestressing. the forces and stressing in the lower horizontal plane are: Mg= 3.5. A1.95 = 7.57 MN NcontinuityP2C3 = 4 x 1.318 = .5 – External prestressing design A1.5 x 12.58 MN. In order to calculate the number of tendons required. prior to the stressing of the external tendons. thermal gradient and creep. we will opt for two pairs of 12T15S tendons.Computerized calculation of the envelope of longitudinal moments due to A(l) .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide n tendons ≥ Therefore.50 / 63.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.m MΔt = 0. 6.0 .28 MN.3 – Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 As before.375 = 1.07 ≈ 3 1.Presentation of the design method The external prestress tendons must take up the forces due to the fittings.

29). This value allows a gap of 0.29 – Transverse geometry of external tendons A1.583 m from the centerline of the piers. A1. Fig.15 m. A1. we shall make the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis equal to the thickness of the upper slab.1. we shall place the intermediate deviators for the central span one third of the way along the span.28). Remember that the deviators on piers position the external prestress tendons as close as possible to the upper axis of the bridge deck (negative longitudinal bending moment. We shall also place a deviator on the end spans. i.e. i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 253 septembre 2007 . 0.28 – Longitudinal geometry of alignment for external tendons at end of segments Transversally on the section on pier.10 m to be left between the sheath of the prestressing tendon and the top of the lower slab (Fig.25 m.2 .583 m from the centerline of the piers (Fig. at 32. Al. the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis shall be equal to the thickness of the lower slab plus 0. whereas the intermediate deviators position these same tendons close to the lower axis (positive longitudinal bending moment).30).5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Longitudinally.e.A1. also at 32.Overload A(l) A computerized calculation gives us the envelope of the longitudinal moments due to the imposed loads A(1) (Fig. For the section at the crown. Fig.A1.

39 MN.9.m 23.m dimensioning verification verification dimensioning verification verification dimensioning A1.m Type of calculation Max 8.m 19.m .3 . (Remember that the linear weight of the fittings is equal to q = 47. A1.19. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments Min .30 – Diagram of moments due to the imposed load A(1) The characteristic values of the enveloped curve below are used to determine the dimensioning sections and the verification sections for the external prestressing (Fig.36 MN.Fittings A computerized calculation is used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the fittings.41 MN.40 MN. A1.m 21. Fig.m 11.62 MN.42 MN.50 MN.45.m .31).23 MN.m . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 254 septembre 2007 .4 kN/lm).1.m .A1.59 MN.15.5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.6.87 MN.63 MN.31 – Position of the sections used to analyze the external prestressing The following table summarizes the forces due to A(l) and the type of calculation to be performed in each section.43.4.50 MN.75 MN.m 19.m .71 MN.m .m 6.

4 – Thermal gradient A computerized calculation is again used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the thermal gradient of 12° C.16 MN.25 MN.m 6. A1.m 5.37 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.m 12.65 MN.23 MN.m A1. A1.44 MN.5.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 255 septembre 2007 .98 MN.m 3.32 – Diagram of the moments due to the weight of the fittings The table on the left summarizes the forces due to the fittings in each section.1.m 4. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.m 12.m 12.36 MN.16 MN.m -41.97 MN.33 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12° C The table below summarizes the forces due to the thermal gradient in each section.94 MN. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1. Fig.27 MN.m -0.18 MN.m 5.94 MN.m -45.m 12.

27 = 47.m or MQ = MΔt with the values above gives: MQ max = 32.42 MN. see Figures Al.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 256 septembre 2007 .m and M MA(1) max = 21.44 In the end spans.m MQ =1.35 + 12. for the section Σ4: v’ = 1.1 – Calculation in section Σ4 (closing segment between P1 and P2) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction.4.m MA(1) min = -6.5 MΔt MQ min = -7.5.5. the moment corresponding to this compression reserve will be determined by a linear interpolation between M = 0 MN. This reserve is used to calculate a creep moment in the central span: σb = − I M v' ⇒ M = − σb I v' Thus.42 + 32.42 MN.Creep As an initial estimate.5.m on the abutment and M = 6.63 = 0.62 MN.2 – Dimensioning of external prestressing As the calculations are similar and repetitive.35 + 12.27 MN.31 MN.97 – 7.17 and A1.35 MN. A1.36 MN.m 1. we reserve a margin of 2 MPa for the stress in the lower axis.5 .2 MA(1) + 0. A1.62 = 6.63 MN.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MG equip + MG creep) + MQ max = -4.97 + 6.99 MN.2. we shall only dimension the external tendons close to the closing segment sections.m MG fittings = 12.m MΔt = 12.m on the pier.m Mcreep = 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.62 m4 M creep = 2 x 4.97 MN.44 m I = 4.65 MN.42 MN.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = .m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MG equip) + MQ min = -4.1.

95 x 2 x -1.00] 97.17 m fu = 3.05 m e02 = 2.1 .318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon n= number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n .97 MN.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 257 septembre 2007 . 3. A1. (-1.95 MN =-1.440 – 0.10 .318 = .n MN.14 x [(6 x 3. 3.26. fu .05) = -3. (+2.1 .25 = 2.m Mpeci =Miso +Mhyper =-5.17 MN.14 MN.73. el = n .(0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper = 1. e0 = fu .14 + 1. e2 = n .24 – 0.m Me2 = n . e0 = 1.17 =-3.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.m = 5. n .17) = 6.420-0.(1.34 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in the central span e01 = .10 / 2)) = -1.375) + 2.5.75 = 1. fu .n MN.

958 m 6.061 .958 = 147.584 = . n = − 0.620 for n = 6 σ i = − 3.375 = 0.067.067 .60 MPa < − σ b = − 2.35 – Diagram of isostatic moment of external tendons in central span x = 6.1. A1.33.583 = 21.n) – 12.75 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .94 MN.58 MN.42 x 5. n – 0.26 Hyperstatic moment 2 x S1 = 6.625 = . n 6.50 MPa > − σ b = − 2.18) Fittings Creep MG1 = 0.66 MN.87 4.5.see figures A 1. n . n 2 x S2 = 3. n .v ' N M .73 x 32.2 – Calculation in the Σ1 section (closing segment between CO and P1) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .73 .m MGfittings = 1. n S3 = 3. n )] x 1.14 + 1.34.07 = -3.26 . 21.n M hyper = − 7. n .44 σi = (1.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.17 ) + (− 3.0 MPa for n = 8 σ i = − 0.31 x 1.620 [(− 5.0 MPa We will therefore opt for 4 pairs of 19T15S tendons.0965 − 47.44 − 4.v ' P + Pext M .26 .2.106.95) + 3.33 . 10. n 7. 32. A1.712 .17. n Calculation of stress: σi = M Pecl + M Pext .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. n 97.26 .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 258 septembre 2007 .072 .3.50 / 53.584 .73 + 3.m Mcreep = 6.546 .

e0 = 1.18 MN.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-5.94 – 5.27 MN.50 5. e0 = fu .39 MN.94+0.70 =-3.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax and MQ min = -5.5.2 MA(1) + 0.m =0 for the end span tendons = 1.14 + 0.70 MN.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MA(1) min = -4.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1+ MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 0.318 = .m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 259 septembre 2007 .m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 53.95 x 2 x -1.5 MΔt or MQ = MΔt.58 + 1.06 MN.70 = 13.66 + 10. which gives the following with the values above: MQ max = 10. n .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Overload A(1) 8.75 MN.m MQ =1.95 MN =-1.50 − 0.576 = 0.14 MN.58 + 1.m M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1+ MGfittings) + MQ min = 0.17 5.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .m =-5.70 MN.88 MN.08 MN.06 MN.m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 1.375 53.

n 53.17 m fu = 3.26.(0.(-1.n S3 = (3.625)/2 = .73. fu .1 .73 . n .163 .24 – 0.05 m e2 = 2.e1 = n .10.05) =-3.856 .(1.25 = 2.500) / 2 = .26 x 32.583 = 10.15.26.n .625 m 3.49. A1. e2 = n .n MN.958)/2 = 73.081 . 5. n S2 = (3.n. 21. 2 = 0.1 MN effective force of one 19T15S tendon n = number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n . (+2.26 .m Me2 = n .m Fig. n .26.292 .26 + 6. A1.37 – Isostatic moment diagram for external tendons in span C0-P1 x = 3.36 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span CO-P1 e1 = .440 – 0.10 / 2)) = -1.755 .1 .17.951 .8. n S4 = (3. 3.73 Hyperstatic moment on pier S1 = (6.420-0.375 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 260 septembre 2007 .n MN.3.n M hyper = 2.10 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.17) = 6.292) = .fu . n .

gives: MQ min =-11.1.3 – Calculation in section Σ7 (closing segment between P2 and C3) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .620 σi = (l.30 = -3.m Mcreep = 6.n M hyper (Σ1 ) = 0. n 6.30 MN.008 .57 MN.15 + 6.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) 19.5 MΔt or MQ max = 25. n 53.95) + 3.37 – 11.44 4.25 .50 / 63.88 x 1.00 MPa We will therefore opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons. n )] x 1.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MGfittings) + MQ min = 1.m MQ = MΔt and which.255 . using the values above.42 x 15.524. n = 0.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = -3. n = -3. n + 0.375 = 1.16 MN.m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 3.00 MPa σi = 0.17 and A1.620 [(− 5.2 MA(1) + 0.163 .008 .11 MN.59 MN.26 for n = 2 for n = 4 σi =-2.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.m MQ=1.25.50 .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 261 septembre 2007 .see Figures A1.20 MPa <-σt =-2.v ' N M .m MGfittings = 6.081× 5.m MA(1) min = -9.n)-5.09 MN.37 MN.0965 − 13.78 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide -2.14 + 0.44 − 4.5. n Calculation of stress in Σ1 σi = M Pecl + M Pext . A1.09) + (− 3.v ' P + Pext M .84 MPa >-σt =-2.42 MN.2.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = 1.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 1.37 + 1.n MN.17) = 6.26.38 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span P2-C3 e01 e02 fu n Me1 Me2 = . fu.50 15.24 – 0.15 MN.e2 = n .25 = 2. (+2.m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 63.95 x 4 x -1.3. A1.17 m = 3.15 + 6.440 – 0.375 63.1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon = number of 19T15S external tendons = n .m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 262 septembre 2007 .m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.28 + 0.73.17 15.09 = 34. (-1.1 .318 = . e1 = n .n MN.10.18 MN.05 m = 2.420-0.m = -10. fu.57 + 25.05) = -3.28 MN.10 .95 MN = -1.13 MN.(0.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.10 / 2)) = -1.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-10.318 m =4 = N e0 = 1.576 = 0.1 .145 MN.(1.m =0 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons for the end span tendons = 1.m = n .50 − 0. 3.

142 .n .0965 − 34.404 for n = 4 for n = 6 σi =-2. n -18.v ' N M .26 .581.375 M hyper (Σ 7 ) = 0.44 4.95) + 3.3.226 .17.26.581 . n = . n S2 = (3.39 – Isostatic moment diagram of the external tendons in span P2-C3 x = 3.10.26 + 6.625 m 3.620 σi = (l.26. n .49 MPa <-σt = -2.113.3.28) + (− 3.n S3 = (3. n )] x 1.47 MPa >-σt = -2.44 − 4.73 Hyperstatic moment on support: S1 = (6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 263 septembre 2007 . n 63.73 .755 . n .26 x 32. 15.620 [(− 10. 15.18 x 1. n .480.1.500) / 2 = .292) = . n = 0.00 MPa σi = 0. n + 0.958) / 2 = 73.292 .v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (4 x 1.625) / 2 = .49.856 .n)-8. n 6.50 . n Calculation of stress σi = M Pecl + M Pext .375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .417 . n M hyper = 18.n.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.00 MPa We shall thus opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.113 .v ' P + Pext M . A1.583 = 10. n 63.25.417 . 21.26 .15. 2 = 0.142 . n S4 = (3.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A2 Monographs of cast-in-situ bridges The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 264 septembre 2007 .

SOGEA . 1988 Consortium: Revue DTP (Dragages Générale et Travaux des Routes Publics) . either directly on superficial footings (CO. 1990 Champ du Comte viaduct (1. 1989 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Feb.Dec. 1989 A3 Revue Travaux Apr.Sept. 1988 The piers are supported by six Ø1.GTM-BTP Dec. or on deep foundations: P2: 12. 1986 .040 m) Supports and foundations: double portal frame configuration “Puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) 4 to 5. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Beaumont sur Revue Travaux Oise bridge Contractor: Dragages et Travaux Publics Feb.40 m piles anchored in the limestone bedrock. PI.00 to 22.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Aérodromes 1986 Oct. 1989 A2 June 1986 Poncin viaduct (A40) The supports are all built on the bedrock. Contractors. P5. 1987 A1 Oct.00 m in depth The “Les outils" Collection – Sétra page 265 septembre 2007 .60 m in diameter and 6. C6 .Jan.CITRA et des May 1984 . Construction dates REF. the left bank abutment is built on four Ø 1.5m diameter box girder built from diaphragm wall elements. P4. P3. Revue Travaux Oct. 1986 .13m x l4m x 3 m). Due to the presence of a thick layer of peat. The right bank abutment is built directly on the ground. P3 : Four 5 m x 3 m H-shaped rectangular foundation piles Champ du Comte viaduct (RN 90) Consortium: .10 m diameter piles.

90 m s = 1/34.800.Mean thickness of bridge deck: 0.53 m: End spans built on falsework HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .5 Main quantities: .77 m in the central span.cantilever: 2 x 27 19T15 tendons .B45 concrete: 17.00m long rectangular section at the end.Transverse prestress bars: 77.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.B30 concrete: 8.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.900 kg (112 kg/ m3) .10 – 0.Concrete: 1.266.Longitudinal prestress bars: 850.00 m s= 1/15.400 kg (45.60 m s (slenderness) = 1/18 . Internal prestressing: . For the bridge deck: .5 .650 kg (41 kg/m3) (37 kg/m2) .Formwork: 27.450 kg COMMENTS .At crown of main span: h = 4.80 m s = 1/17 At crown of main span: h = 2.8 kg/ m3) .Concrete: 11.Bridge deck prestressing: half using 9T15 tendons and 12T15 internal tendons & the other half using replaceable 19T15 tendons – End span fixed to a weighted abutment acting as a counterweight with a solid 9. 0.At the crown: h = 3.00 m s = 1/40 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .860 kg (126 kg/m3) .270m3 .92 m over entire structure.36 m on the first 3 segments then 0.000 kg .continuity tendons: 2 x 5 12T15 External prestress tendons: 2 x 3 19T15 2 x 1 12T15 tendons Cross-section of 1 box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 266 septembre 2007 .continuity: 2x7 12T15 tendons –External prestressing: 2 x 10 19T15 tendons Cast-in-situ segments of variable depth.30 m (weight: 120 to 220 tonnes) Incremental launching of end sections (constant depth) . Length of standard segments: 3.00 m before reaching the solid section.90 m respectively Viaduct with 2 separate bridge decks Cast-in-situ segments On support: h = 5.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 225.36 m – Thickness of webs in end span: 0.Thickness of webs in central span: 0.On support: h = 6.Surface area of bridge deck :1. P4 and P5: 1. Solid rectangular section inside the counterweighted abutment .950 m² .70 m and finally 1.850m² .00 m s = 1/39 ON SUPPORTS P1 and P2 CONSTANT DEPTH AT PI-P2 CROWN Thickness of webs near P3. 0.500 m3 .Prestressing bars: 72.Longitudinal prestress bars: 516.20 – 1.50 m.000 kg Internal prestressing: -cantilever tendons: 2 x 13 12T15 2 x 1 19T15 tendons .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments. Length of standard segments 3.000 m3 .793 m3 including 585 m3 of lightweight concrete .On support PI or P2: h = 10.

4 spans and different widths: * North deck: 8.40 m shafts) or cast-in-situ piles (P2. 1989 Revue Travaux Jan.75 m Length of central span for both decks: 58 m The majority of the foundations consist of footings built on sound bedrock. P3.75 m * South deck: 11.20 m “puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) P8: one Ø 6 m deep pile foundation shaft PI.5 m The structure consists of two bridge decks of different lengths with a height difference of 5 to 7 m. Construction dates Nantua viaduct (A40) Consortium: -GTM . P4 & P6: four piles of Ø 1. 1986 The structure consists of two independent bridge decks with a height difference of approximately 6 m.50 m) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 267 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. 198 The variabile quality of the terrain required a wide range of foundations: P7 and P9: Four Ø2. 1986 REF. P2 and P3: Ø 10 m diaphragm walls P4. 10 m x 10 m x 2. P5 et P6: superficial footings of approx. Deep pile foundation shafts (P5: four Ø 2. Contractors. 1986 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Oct. 1989 June 1986 A4 Lalleyriat viaduct (A40) Revue Générale des Routes et des A5 Aérodromes Nov. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Jan.20 m to Ø 1. Tacon viaduct Contractor: CITRA France A6 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Nov. 3 spans * South deck: 194 m.Campenon Bernard June 1983 Nov.: * North deck: 130 m.

000 t was built on centuring.50 m (60 to 85 t).Fixed support of ½ cantilever: h = 8.Concrete: 4.Concrete: 9. To build & balance this span. This consists of two mobile sliding counterweights.Prestress bars: 430 000 kg (44 kg/m3) COMMENTS The viaduct ends in a 124 m span supported in the tunnel.44 m .65 m s = 1/17 .Nonprestressed reinforcement bars: 1.000 kg (115 kg/m3) .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 554. each with a capacity of 1.Thickness of bridge deck = 0.000 kg (38 kg/m3) On support (for the spans of variable depth): .50 m long. .000 kg (126kg/m3) . Length of segments: 2. Cast-in-situ Constant depth of segments (method 2.On support: h = 6. a counterweighted span of approx. Each segment measures 3.800m3 .820 m3 . Internal prestressing with possibility of adding extra external prestressing.55 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 268 septembre 2007 . Internal prestressing using 12T15 tendons HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .height of bridge deck = 6 m .At the crown and for segments of constant depth: h = 3m s = 1/30 For the bridge deck: . At the crown Cast-in-situ segments..50 to 3.On support: h=6m s = 1/15 .250.Prestress bars: 185.500 t.80 m dictated by site s = 1/21 access problems). 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments. Internal prestressing (12T15 tendons) with possibility of adding extra external and internal prestressing.At the crown h = 3m s = 1/38 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .

Contractors. 1985 The viaduct consists of two independent structures: . 1984 Revue A9 Travaux Jan. Cast-in-situ pile foundations: P2. Construction dates Cheviré bridge over the River Loire Consortium: Concrete package: Quillery et Vezin Metal package: Baudin Châteauneuf et ACP Dec.The SNCF (French state rail network) railroad crossing. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Apr.30 m piles P1 : Six Ø 0. P3.80 m piles. P7 : Four Ø 1. 1990 REF.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. 1986 Entreprise: GTM The piers are built on footings within a cofferdam. 1987 – Oct. .The main crossing of the River Moselle and its lateral canal. P5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 269 septembre 2007 .80 m piles Consortium: Pertuy-Bouygues 1982 A8 Chinon bridge AFPC in Indre-et(French Loire Construction Association) Study Day. P6: Six Ø 1. The abutments are built on four Ø 0. 12 June 1986 Sept.30 m piles P4. 1989 A7 Presence of joints between N5 and N6 & between S5 and S6 Pont à Mousson viaduct over the Moselle Revue Travaux Jan.

850.B35 concrete: 27.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 466. .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.B35 concrete: prestressing: . tendons: 1.70 m (111 t) Length of segments on piers: 8. The central metal span was hoisted onto its permanent bearings in one operation.At end of cantilever above the River Loire: H = 5.437 m3 .216.80 m s = 1/25 With its oversized dimensions.385 m3 cantilever: .At the crown: h = 2. A summary analysis of mixed cabling was included but the dimensions of the structure were not modified due to a lack of time ½ -section at crown ½.: 63. Segments on piers are cast horizontally then tilted to the required angle before the construction of the cantilever begins.Standard spans (constant depth): h = 4.500 kg external tendons (in total: 50 t or 36 are somewhat kg/m3) limited in power Equivalent thickness: 75 cm For the entire bridge deck (including the caston-falsework sections): . this bridge was designed to support thirty-meter long EDF (Electricité de France –French electricity supply utility) convoys weighing 650 tonnes Large spans: cantilever: 24 x 12T15 continuity: 6 x 12T15 external: 8 x 19T15 Given the complex 2dimensional alignment of the tendons and the thinness of the deviators.5 The initial pre-design did not feature any external prestressing.5 .B35 concrete: 3.55 m s = 1/14 .500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3. . For the bridge deck: Mixed . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . 5 & 6: h = 4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 270 septembre 2007 .000 kg (in total: 39 kg/m3) Comment: The structure supports oversize Class E loads.Non-prestressed 2 x 9 12T15 reinforcements: continuity: 205.On supports 4.50 m s = 1/17 .000 kg (140 kg/ m3) -Prestress reinforcements (longitudinal and transverse): 1.Prestress x7 12T15 reinforcements: internal: 28. .Beyond the length of the parabolically variable section (18 m) either side of these supports: h = 2. strong radial tendon forces of the deviators close to piers have resulted in the latter being reinforced.On support: h = 9.On support: h = 4. The rest of the structure is cast on falsework.Prestress reinforcements: int.50 m s= 1/15.600 kg ext.Prestressing: int: (cantilever & continuity) 19T15 ext. The end of the end spans is cast on falsework.20m QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the concrete bridge deck: .: 27T15 ½ section on span Segments of the 3 large cantilevers are cast in-situ. Length of standard segments: 2.: 71.500 kg Comment: external: 21.70 m.The first 6 meters of the end spans were cast on falsework.000 kg (44 kg/ m3) COMMENTS .ext. tendons: 2 .int.000 kg (150 2 x 4 12T15 kg/m3) .000 kg (136 kg/m3) .75 m s = 1/27.section on pier Cast-in-situ segments.00 m at level of NI and SI .

Aug. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. Contractor: 12th FIP DODIN Sud (International Aug. Al0 Hamburg 1990 Revue Travaux June 1991 La Technique Française du Béton Précontraint. 1991 Washington A12 1994 Revue Travaux July 1992 Bourran viaduct at Rodez Engineering geology: risk of landslides Deep pile foundation shafts: one Ø3 m or Ø4 m shaft for each pier sunk to depths of 11 to 15 m. Island 12th FIP (International Contractor: Prestressing SBTPC Federation) Aug. 1991 July 1992 La Bridge over Technique the SaintDenis river on Française du Béton Reunion Précontraint. 1989 . The three piers are built on superficial footings.E.P.O.June Prestressing 1991 Federation) Congress. Abutment C0. one of which is extended by micropiles.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.1989 . 1986 – Mar.T. Construction dates Bridge over the Loch d’Auray REF. . A11 Washington 1994 Revue Travaux Oct. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 271 septembre 2007 . Nov. is supported by two Ø2 m deep pile foundation shafts. Congress. Prestressing Federation) 1989 Congress. situated directly above a rocky spur embedded in the sand. The ground had to be injected under P1.Campenon 11th FIP Bernard (International . Contractors.

70 m.50 m s = 1/33.Vertical prestressing of segment on P1 .On support: h = 5.100 m3 .80 m.External tendons 2x4 19T15 . .Prestressing: cantilever : 2 x 14 12T15 continuity : 2 x 2 12T15 external tendons : 2 x 6 19T15 . Length of standard segments: 3.Longitudinal prestress bars: 59 t 12T15 62 t 19T15 (in total 39 kg/m3) Prestressing of upper slab via sheathed & greased single strands: 20. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers.00 m in span T5).190 kg (40 kg/m³) Large cantilevers: . segments on piers: 9 m. Directly above portal legs Thickness of webs in segments on P1 and P4: 60 cm. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework (17. . extending from the abutment to portal leg.At the crown: h = 2.Concrete: 3.71 m .45 m (max.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 437. COMMENTS In addition to the usual tendons In the end spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments The large span has 2 cantilevers (3 m segments) built using form travelers. has been added in order to restore a normal force virtually equal to that created by the thrust of the portal legs in the large span.5 kg/m3) . but in the end.69 %).On support: h = 4.Given the flexibility of the piers in rotation (2 bent pier shafts for P2 & P3).000 kg (6.Cantilever 2 X 16 12T15 .Concrete: 3.00 m s= 1/16. no bracing was provided.Continuity 2x3 12T15 . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . segments on piers: 7.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 365.On support: h = 6. The rest of the structure was built on falsework.5 .Mean thickness of concrete: 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 272 septembre 2007 . rectilinear external prestressing.70m in span S1 and 6.Possibility of adding extra tendons. .5 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the cantilever sections: Mixed prestressing: .000 kg (122 kg/m3) . Two temporary pilings supported the portal legs before placement of the final segment. the winds effects were calculated very accurately.20 m s = 1/16 .Highly problematical construction of foundations.100 kg (141 kg/m3) .provisional bracing of curved pier shells to take up forces due to cyclonic winds .50 m s = 1/17 . Length of standard segments: 3. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework.Internal tendons Cantilever: 12T15 Continuity: 2 x 6 12T15 .50 m s = 1/31 For the bridge deck: . weight: 120 t). To avoid any difference in the height of the webs.At the crown: h = 3.At the crown: h = 2.000 m² . Slightly asymmetrical box girder: the transverse slopes begin at the centerline of the pavement which is not aligned with the centerline of the box girder. the entire box girder has been tilted transversally (gradient of 0.External tendons (from portal leg to portal leg) 2 x 2 12T15 The ribs are transversally prestressed.00 m s = 1/33 For the bridge deck: . Construction using “from below” type of form travelers.Longitudinal prestress bars: 119.

Construction dates Piou and Rioulong viaducts REF.20 m piles for C8 .R 13th FIP . A13 Washington Foundations: via footings for PI.Holzmann 1992 Revue Travaux Apr.Six Ø 1. Federation) 1997 Congress. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 273 septembre 2007 .Nord France TP .The bridge deck is embedded on P3 and P4. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. P3. 1993 Rioulong viaduct: 5 spans (45.80 m piles for C1 La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. 81.Borie SAE Federation) Congress.Four Ø 1.Chantiers (International Modernes Prestressing . Contractors.Four Ø 1. 1995 .81. P7 .SPIE T. . Amsterdam A15 1998 Viaur valley viaduct (RN 88) . 6 % slope A14 Foundations via cast-in-situ piles: . .40 m piles for P2. via 7 m shafts for P3 and P4 Limay viaduct in Yvelines Consortium: .P1 and P2 are erected on superficial foundations.P3 and P4 are supported on footings anchored to the rock by four 3 m shafts excavated using explosives . 63 m). P2 and P5 (with stitched reinforcement of the footings of the very 1994 tall pier P2).40 m piles for P4 and P5 .DODIN Sud (International . 72. P6.SOGEA Prestressing Feb.Dec. Their footings were temporarily anchored to the rock via 10 stressed 12T15 ties designed to take up the wind effects during construction.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.Quillery 12th FIP . .Eight Ø 0.

Transverse prestressing via single strands .On support: h= 12m s = 1/16 .000 m3 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED Piou viaduct: .When casting segment n.000 kg External: 103.30 m s = 1/17 .The real strut was attached to segment n + 1 by bolting on the lower part and casting on the upper part. . .At the crown and in the spans of constant depth. Length of segments on piers: 9. (cantilevers and crowns) super 19K15 ext.000 kg (14 kg/m3) 3C15 .680 m² .Cantilever tendons: 20 (piers on the island) to 30 (piers in the river) 12T15S.equivalent thickness: 0.Concrete: 21. tendons 27T15 . tendons: 12 (at mid-span) to 8 (on pier) 19T15S .90 m.000 kg (in total: 47 kg/m3) COMMENTS Half-section of a standard section Half-section of sections close to piers Construction using Constant depth h=5m “from below” type of form travelers.Concrete: 4.At the crown and in spans of constant depth: h = 2.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.Longitudinal prestress bars 228. using a false strut to give the required accuracy. Continuity: 14 (in the 90 m spans) to 2 (for spans on the island) 12T15S.000 kg (126kg/m3) .70 m s = 1/33 Construction using form travelers.Prestressing: 650 t The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 274 septembre 2007 .Mixed prestressing: Int.: 27K15 super transversal: 92. .Ext.000 kg (164 kg/m3) -Internal longitudinal prestress bars: 119. Incoprporation of bracing: . Length s = 1/18 of segments: 3 m (6.50 m s = 1/42 Main quantities: .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 769. h = 4. Mixed prestressing: . Length of standard segments: 2. .Concrete: 6.On support: h = 5.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 819.60 m Length of standard segments: 3.900 t .73 m For the bridge deck: .000 kg (35 kg/m3) int. The extremities of the end spans are built on falsework.8 m on pier). Construction using form travelers.tendons 19T15 Ext. with a stagger in the construction of the cantilevers to allow the incorporation of metal struts. 4 fixing sockets were sealed in the bottom flange of the web.Movements of major spans due to wind effects during construction limited by the use of vertical prestress tendons.76 m.

in Nantes Contractor: ETPO Jan.GTM-BTP .Dumez July 1990 . 1989 REF. Construction dates Doubling of the Général Audibert bridge over the Loire. 1987 .1994 viaducts in the Côte d’Or Consortium of contractors: . Bridge over the Truyère at Garabit Consortium: .SOGEA : . 1993 Structure with two separate bridge decks. Length: 308 m (3 spans: 82 m + 144 m + 82 m). SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux April 1989 A16 Revue Ouvrages d’art n° 16 Nov 1993 Two independent but connected bridge decks.40 m. 1991 – Nov. 1993 A17 Portal bridge with a prestressed concrete box girder. Width: 17. Contractors.Feb.Dodin Sud : .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.Mar. A18 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 275 septembre 2007 .Dodin Ouest Sept. Length: 163 m (3 spans: 51 m + 67 m + 45 m). Auxonne and Revue Travaux Maillys Jul. 8 spans: 52 m + 77 m + 136 m + 77 m + 3 x 55 m + 45 m. made from prestressed concrete box girders of variable depth. Bridge deck embedded on the portal legs and on simple supports on the abutments. Usable width of each of the two decks: 11m. Width:21 m./Aug.

Cast-on-falsework end spans For the segments built by the cantilever method .60 m.50 m upper slab which is transversally prestressed by 4T15 tendons at intervals of 0. . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 276 septembre 2007 .Concrete: 16.50 Cast-in-situ segments.Int. . .520 tonnes. Length of segments on piers: 9 m. with vertical thickness of 0.On the abutment supports: 10 m. prestressing: 325 tonnes.At the crown: h = 1.190 Kg . prestress tendons: cantilever (2 X 35 per cantilever) and continuity (2 X 7 on end span and 2 X 2 on central span): FUC 19-620 .25 m at the crown.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 338.a lower slab whose thickness varies between 1. Weight of standard segments: 45 tonnes. The box girder features: .Int.two webs angled at 30%.Prestressing: 362 t.20 m s = 1/42 For the sections built on falsework: h = constant = 3.300 m³ .Ext.150 m3 .700 m3 .50 m s = 1/21 .At the crown: h = 3.000 Kg Usable area of the structure: 2. remobvable on end spans .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1. .Prestressing: 85. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .80 m s = 1/37 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .On support: h = 6.50 m. . .Transverse prestressing of upper slab: FUC 4-620 .Concrete: 2.Continuity tendons outside concrete: 19T 15.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 13.Continuity tendons: 12T15. SECTION THROUGH P3-P4 CANTILEVER On support In span .000 m3 .Cantilever tendons: 12 T 15. Closing segments: 2m. . . prestress tendons: FUC 19620.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments. Large span and 2 adjacent ½ spans: successive cast-insitu cantilever segments built using 2 x 2 form travelers.At the crown: 3 m. Length of standard segments: 3.Ext. .20 m directly above the portal legs to 0.80 m s = 1/18 .20 m s= 1/17 For the bridge deck: .20 m towards the portal legs).On support: h = 3. -At the level of the portal legs: 8 m. prestressing: 260 tonnes.a 20.B40 concrete: 10.60 m (1.840 m3 COMMENTS SEGMENTS ON PIERS SEGMENTS AT CROWN UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Prestress tendons inside concrete: 12T 13 20.

15 m: center distance of 24.50 m and 1001.50 m. 1998 VIVARIO VENACO Vecchio bridge in Corsica Contractor: Razel A21 3-span prestressed concrete structure (42. 10 m wide. 1995 A19 Rivoire viaduct in Isère Consortium: . Contractors. 1995 Revue Travaux Jul. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 277 septembre 2007 . 1994 Revue Générale des Routes et Length: 496 m (48 m + 5 x 80 m + 48 m).FougerolleBallot .Razel . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Corniche bridge in Dole Ouvrages Consortium: . Revue Ouvrages d’art Dec.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.50 m + 42. 1996 d’art Nov. des Aérodromes Width: 14./Aug.Roux SA Feb. Nov. Length: 247 m ( 64 m + 113 m + 70 m).Royans Travaux July 1995 . 1993 .25 m).Nov. Two concentric bridge decks with radii at the left edge of 984.Apr.Campenon Bernard Régions .25 m + 137. Construction dates REF.1997 A20 Two independent structures.10 m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . Construction of central span in halfcantilevers using successive 3. For the bridge deck: . Length of segments on piers: 6.At the crown: h = 3. COMMENTS First bridge with corrugated webs to be built by the cantilever method in France.000 m² . .B35 concrete: 4.continuity tendons outside the concrete stretching from abutment to abutment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 278 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.20 m on end span.On support: h= 11 m s= 1/12 .cantilever tendons in the upper slab. Length of standard segments: 16 x 3.Prestressing: 190 tonnes. Standard segments built using “from below” type of form travelers.At the crown: h = 2.prestressing bar in web panels.50 m s = 1/39 Prestressing: . Length of standard segments: 3.50 m s = 1/32 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: . due to the variation in width of the lower slab.internal continuity tendons in central span.20m.On support: h =5.60 m long cantilever segments using form travelers into which the prefabricated webs were placed. .20 m on central span and 17 x 3.50 m e = 1/14 .B35 concrete: 4. Length of segments on piers: 8. These are of variable depth and angle.Prestressing: 174 t .40 m.50 m.Formwork: 15. .100 m3 .200m² -Reinforcements: 690t .

Width: 18. Construction dates Bridge over the Rhine in Strasbourg Consortium: . SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux n° 783 FebThe piers. A23 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 279 septembre 2007 .75 m.Berger and Max Früh 2001 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.2002 REF.Fougerolles 1990 .06 m.SPIE Batignolles . Contractors.GTM .1992 Length: 568 m (110 m + 169 m + 96 m + 169 m + 114 m). Width: 14. A22 Bridge over the Seine at Gennevilliers Consortium: .Bilfinger . 2002 Length: 457 m (121 m + 205 m + 131 m).

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK

CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments
Cast-in-situ segments. Standard segments vary in length from 3.50 to 5.00 m. Length of segments on piers: 9.50 m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios
- On pier: h = 9.00 m s = 1/23 - At the crown: h = 4.50 m s = 1/45 - On abutment: h = 3.20 m Variation according to a parabolic curve for the central span and a cubic curve for the end spans. - On pier: h = 9.00 m - At the crown: h = 3.50 m

QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED
For the bridge deck: - B65 concrete: 7,750 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 913,000 kg (118 kg/m3) - Prestressing: 598,000 kg (77 kg/m3)

COMMENTS

SECTION ON PIER PILE

SECTION AT CROWN

Cast-in-situ segments. Length of standard segments: 3.30m for the 96 m span and 3.60 m for the other spans.

For the bridge deck: - Concrete: 13,900 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 1,711,000 kg (124 kg/m3) - Prestressing: External 241 t Internal 728 t Temporary 22 t

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

A3 Bibliography
This appendix firstly mentions all of the official french texts relating to the engineering and design of bridges built by the cantilever method. It then goes on to list a large number of documents and articles dedicated to this technique.

A3-1 – Official texts
French texts related to all structures
- Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC: "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Loading and testing program for road bridges). - Circular no. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels, définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Oversize loads, definition of standard convoys and rules for the verification of civil engineering structures) published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department), for structures supporting these types of vehicles - Fascicule 6l Titre IV Section II of the french CCTG: "Actions de la neige sur les constructions" (Effects of snow on constructions) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) - Fascicule 62 Titre I - Section I of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for reinforced concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999)] - Fascicule62 Titre I - Section II of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for prestressed concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) (BPEL 91 revised in 1999) - Fascicule 65-A of the french CCTG and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of reinforced or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) - Fascicule62 Titre V of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical engineering and design rules for the foundations of civil engineering structures) - Fascicule 68 of the french CCTG: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil" (Construction of the foundations for civil engineering structures) - Standard NFP 95-104: "Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie; spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle" (Repair and reinforcement of concrete and masonry structures; specifications relating to the additional prestressing technique)

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Texts exclusively related to structures situated in earthquake zones

- Decree no. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of earthquake risks and the Order of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category - Guide AFPS 92 for the seismic protection of bridges, edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (French Seismic Engineering Association), published on the presses of the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) - The french standard NE P 06-013, more commonly called the "Règles de construction parasismique – règles applicables aux bâtiments - PS92" (Seismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92), with regard to foundations.

A3-2 – Sétra, Sétra-LCPC, Sétra-SNCF Guides
- Sétra Technical Bulletin no.7 "Ponts construits par encorbellements successifs" - This Design Guide - Sétra Technical Guide "Précontrainte Extérieure" (External Prestressing) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui en caoutchouc fretté" (Laminated rubber pot bearings) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui à pot de caoutchouc" (Rubber pot bearings) - The guide to the ordering and management of studies for civil engineering bridges - Fascicule 32.2 of the technical instruction for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures, published in 1979 and modified in 1995 - The document entitled "l’Image de la Qualité des Ouvrages d’Art (Iqoa); catalogue des principaux défauts, aide à leur classification - ponts à poutre caisson en béton précontraint" (Image of the quality of civil engineering structures [IQOA]; catalog of the major defects and support for their classification – prestressed concrete box girder bridges) published by Sétra in 1997.

A3-3 – Other publications
Presse de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées

- La conception des ponts (Bridge design) [J.A. Calgaro and A. Bernard-Gely] - Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural analysis of bridge decks) [J.A. Calgaro and M.Virlogeux] - Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge maintenance and repair)
Thomas Telford, London

- Ponts en béton précontraint par post tension (Post-tensioned prestressed concrete bridges) HA - TRL - LCPC – Sétra
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La collection de l’Irex

- Projet National Qualité (National Quality Project) - Opération du Plan Génie Civil (Operation of the Civil Engineering Plan) – Documentation booklet "Parements en béton" (Concrete facings)
Éditions Eyrolles

- Procédés généraux de construction (General construction process ) – Vol.1 (J. Mathivat and C. Boiteau)

A3-4 - Articles in miscellaneous publications
There now follows a list of articles relating to construction using the cantilever method, published between 1990 and mid - 2002 in the main French civil engineering journals and in certain foreign publications. Each of these articles is followed by a code indicating the topic(s) covered. The following table shows the meanings of these codes:

Research, calculations Design & construction of a bridge with cast-in-situ segments Design and construction of a bridge with prefabricated segments Design and execution of a repair or reinforcement project Materials

AFPC/AFGC publications for FIB (Fédération de l’Industrie du BétonConcrete Industry Federation) congresses
- [VIR 90.1] M. Virlogeux: La résistance à l’effort tranchant des ouvrages constitués de voussoirs préfabriqués, La technique française du béton précontraint (The resistance to shear force of structures made from prefabricated segments, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [MOS 90] J. Mossot: Le viaduc du Champs du Comte, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Champs du Comte viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [BOU 90] J. Boudot: Le viaduc de Sylans et des Glacières - Les structures triangulées en béton précontraint, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Sylans et Glacières viaducts – Triangulated structures made from prestressed concrete, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [SER 90] C. Servant, R Gallet, Ph. Lecroq, R Barras: Le viaduc de l’Arrêt-Darré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arrêt-Darré viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [VIR 90.2] M. Virlogeux, G. Lacoste, M. Legall, RY. Bot, J-R Runigo, J. Combault, M. Duviard, G. Suinot and P. Fraleu: Le pont sur le Loch d Auray, La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990)

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- [VIR 94] M. Virlogeux, E. Bouchon, J.C. Martin, J. Lefevre, Y. Maury, T. Guyot, M. Pottier, A. Heusse, P. Fraleu, J. Ryckaert, J. Mathivat and B. Lenoir : Pont de Cheviré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Cheviré bridge, The French Prestressing Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [FUZ 94] J-R Fuzier, C. Adib: Poutres de lancement: le pont de Baldwin, La technique française du béton précontraint (Launch beams: the Baldwin bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [BOU 94.1] E. Bouchon, D. Lecointre, M. Virlogeux, R. Gachiteguy, G. Viossanges, R. Gai, M. Boy, P. Ballester, M. Roudanes, P. Fraleu : Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Bourran Viaduct in Rodez, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

- [BOU 94.2] E. Bouchon, E. Conti, D. de Matteis, E Pero, M. Virlogeux, R. Damour, A. Abastado, E Edon, M. Tassone, A. Demozay, P. Jacques, F. Veyres, C. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (Océan Indien), La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island [Indian Ocean], The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CHA 94] P. Chassagnette, J.J. Lagane: Doublement du pont sur la Seine à Gennevilliers, La technique française du béton précontraint (Doubling the width of the bridge over the River Seine at Gennevilliers, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CRO 94] A. Crocherie, G. Gillet, B. Canitrot, F. Edon, P. Kirschner, B. Fournier, F. Renaud, T. Thibaux, P. Doguet : Les viaducs du Piou et du Rioulong, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Piou and Rioulong viaducts, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CAN 94] B. Canitrot, G. Gillet, B. Bouvy, A. Palacci, B. Raspaud: Le pont de l’autoroute A75 sur la Truyère à Garabit, La technique française du béton précontraint (The A75 highway bridge over the Truyère at Garabit, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [LEB 94] J-D Lebon, A. Leveille: Le pont de la Corniche à Dôle, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Corniche bridge at Dôle, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [COM 94] J. Combault, J.P Teyssandier, N.D. Haste, P Richard, M.S. Fletcher, Y. Maury, J. Mac Farlane: Le second pont sur la Severn, La technique française du béton précontraint (The second Severn Bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [MUL 94] J. Muller, G. Causse: Le pont à voussoirs préfabriqués de l’autoroute H3 à Hawaï, La technique française du béton précontraint (The H3 highway bridge made from prefabricated segments in Hawaï, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [GAS 94] C. Gasaignes, J. Boudot, O. Martin: Ponts à voussoirs préfabriqués en Asie - L’exemple du projet du KwunTong By-Pass, La technique française du béton précontraint (Bridges built from prefabricated segments in Asia – The example of the KwunTong By-Pass project, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique, Washington (1994) - [ABE 94] H. Abel, G. Causse, C. Outteryck, D. de Matteis, H. Capdessus, J. Bouillot, B. Grezes, G. Perez, J. Combault, A. Leveille,Y. Faup, F. Zirk: Le pont d’Arcins sur la Garonne à Bordeaux, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arcins bridge over the Garonne in Bordeaux, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

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Gillet. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). E.Études. E Vacher.[SER 98] C. Bouchon (Sétra).P. Amsterdam (1998) . Edon. De Wissocq. R. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vecchio bridge.M. Amsterdam (1998) / . Virlogeux. Vassord: Pont du Vecchio. E. Preyssas (Spie-BatignoUes TP): Record de portée dans la vallée du Viaur. X. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Bot . J. projet et suivi des travaux. K.[BOUS 98.[BAR 94] P.1] C. La technique française du béton précontraint (Span length record in the Viaur valley. Lagane. G.[BOU 91] E. Radiguet : TGV Méditerranée .Virlogeux. Le Bourdonnec: Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method. M. J. M. Le Corre: Le pont sur le Loch d’Auray (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray) (June 1991) .Lot 2H -Viaducs sur le Rhône. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Confederation Bridge [Prince Edward Island . Meurisse. Amsterdam (1998) Revue travaux . Cussac. Bouchon. J. Lacoste. V. A. Bousquet. Servant (Serf). R. Roudanes. D. Virlogeux. de Matteis. J. J. Pham. London (1996) .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Amsterdam (1998) . G. FIP Symposium. M. G. J. Foucriat. The French prestressed Concrete Technique). Viossanges. J. F. P Fraleu. Damour. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island) (July-August 1992) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 285 septembre 2007 . L. Jung. Bustamante. Jouanno. M. Virlogeux. A.[VIR 91.M. P. Gachiteguy (Aveyron DDE [Departmental Public Works Directorate]). J. D. Paulik.[VIR 96] M. Bousquet. M. J. Amsterdam (1998) .Canada). Barras. B. Lacombe. Gachiteguy.Tassone. Washington (1994) . E. G. Abastado. M.[DEWI 98] M. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). M. Combault (Dumez-GTM): Le pont de la Confédération (Ile du prince Edouard . R. Legall.J. R Ballester. E Veyres.P.Y. Amsterdam (1998) . A. Chassagnette. J. Placidi. Duviard. D.2] C.Jacques. La technique française du béton précontraint (The TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line – Package 2H – Viaducts over the Rhône. La technique française du béton précontraint (A new generation of composite bridges: viaducts in the Boulogne area. Bouvy. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).[COM 98] J.[BOUS 98. R Fraleu: Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez (The Bourran viaduct at Rodez) (October 1991) . Conti. Gharbi.[MEU 98] P.[JAC 98] P Jacquet. Gai. A. Duviard: Le viaduc de Rogerville. M. Viallon: Une nouvelle génération de ponts mixtes: les viaducs du Boulonnais.[JOU 91] A. B.C. Boy. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Poineau: Réparation du pont de Blagnac . The French Prestressed Concrete Technique. R. Lecointre. C. P. P. Goyet: Autoroute A75 dans le Cantal: Les études du pont sur la Truyère (Studies for the bridge over the Truyère) (October 1991) . La technique française du béton précontraint (The Rogerville viaduct. Suinot.P Runigo. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vernegues TGV high-speed rail line viaduct. Valotaire: Le viaduc TGV de Vernegues. Amsterdam (1998) .[BOU 92] E. Bouchon. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). M.Canada]. design and monitoring of works. La technique française du béton précontraint (Repair of the Blagnac bridge – Studies. Demozay. Fauvelle. Combault.2] M. M. M.

Mondon: Le Hung Hom by-pass à Hong Kong (The Hung Hom by-pass in Hong Kong) (January 1999) . Deberle: Le viaduc de la Rivoire (Isère). D.[DOG 98] P. G.M. Delfosse. (July-August 1997) . Bernardo: Le pont du Rambler Channel à Hong Kong (The Rambler Channel bridge in Hong Kong) (April 1995) . J. R.[HUM 93] E.Jouves.[DEM 00] A.[DEL 98] G.[MON 99] J. Une construction anticipée pour faciliter la circulation de chantier (The Rivoire viaduct [Isère] Anticipatory construction in order to facilitate the movement of site traffic).Les viaducs sur le Doubs et la Loue (A39 Highway – viaducts over the Doubs and the Loue) (February 1998) .Y.J. X. J. P. H.[CON 95] E. Quivy.[BOI 96] A. H.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . J. Combault. Hervet. V. R Ribolzi. Zanker: La réparation du pont de Châlons-en-Champagne (The repair of the Châlons-enChampagne bridge (April 1999) . Desgagne.Vincent: A39 . Picard: Le viaduc de Limay. Yvelines (The Limay viaduct. Demare.[BER 95] A. B. Y. Duflot. Boisset. G. Durand. Humbert. Deleporte. B. Hooghe. Dhiver: Remise en état du pont de la RD220 sur le canal d’amenée de la chute de Bourg-lès-Valence (Renovation of the RD220 road bridge over the head race canal for the Bourg-lès-Valence waterfall) (November 1993) . Oudin-Hograindleur: Passerelle tournée sur l’autoroute A4 à Noisy-le-Grand (Rotated footbridge on the A4 highway at Noisy-le-Grand) (April 1995) . B. C.[RIC 96] D. J. G. R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville (The Rogerville Viaduct) (April 1996) .[RIC 93] C. Doguet: Un grand ouvrage sur l’Agout . Eaure. Lacombe. Conti. Richard. Poineau. M. Yvelines) (1993) .Vesval: Le second franchissement de l’estuaire de la Severn (The second crossing of the Severn estuary) (April 1996) . Paulik: Le pont du Vecchio en Corse (The Vecchio Bridge in Corsica) (January 2000) . Ph.Le viaduc de Castres (A major structure over the Agout – the Castres viaduct) (February 1998) .[ROI 99] D. Creppy.[QUI 98] D. Lefebvre. Vandeputte. Marneffe. L. Maire: Le pont de l’île du Prince-Edouard (The Prince Edward Island Bridge) (July and August 1996) / . Frantz. Combault. Y. Perez: Confortement par précontrainte additionnelle du pont de la Seudre en Charente-Maritime (Reinforcement of the Seudre bridge in the Charente-Maritime by additional prestressing) (February 1998) .[COM 96] J. G.[DIEU 00] R Dieuaide: Le viaduc de Digoin (The Digoin viaduct) (January 2000) . B.[PAU 00] L. Magnon-Pujo.[MAG 97] H. Bouvy. Ricard.Tréffot: Le projet du second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg (The design of the second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg) (January 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 286 septembre 2007 .

Duviard. T. R Chatelard. D. Tavakoli. B. Boutonnet: Kingston Bridge à Glasgow (The Kingston Bridge in Glasgow) (December 2001) .[COM 93] J. Dewilde. V.Le viaduc de la Dordogne (A10 Highway – The Dordogne viaduct) (January 2000) .[DEM 01. J. C. Cote: Un nouveau viaduc ferroviaire dans les nouveaux territoires de Hong Kong (A new railroad viaduct in the New Territories of Hong Kong) (December 2001) . Sandre: A89 . Demare. D. M. D.[LEC 92] D. L.J. S. Combault. E.[DEW 01] V.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg: Les travaux sont commencés (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: Work has begun) (May 2001) . Demare. P. Menuel.[BOUT 01] L. Lefaucheur: Ferraillage passif des bossages (Non-prestressed reinforcement of anchor blocks) (January 1992) .Le viaduc du Pays de Tulle (A89 Highway – The Pays de Tulle viaduct) (January 2002) . Cayron. projet et suivi des travaux (Repair of the Blagnac bridge: studies. Portefaix. Abel-Michel. Lacaze. JJ.[POR 01] T. Jamet. Roude.[BAR 93] R Barras: La réparation du pont de Blagnac: études. Dallot. G. Charlon. Grèzes. Nunez. design and monitoring of work) (November 1993) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 287 septembre 2007 .[DEM 02] A. C. Giacomelli. D.[CAY 01] F. Giacomelli.1] A. Rosset: Le viaduc sur la Medway (The Medway viaduct) (December 2001) . Lecointre.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: La grande travée au-dessus du fleuve est achevée (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: The large span above the river is finished) (February 2002) Sétra Bulletin ouvrages d’art . G. Blanchi. Flourens: Le pont de la corniche à Dole.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Jaeger. Guio.[VIO 93] P. de nouveaux plis dans le Jura (The Corniche bridge at Dole. Vacher: Le pont sur la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the SaintDenis river on Reunion Island) (July 1991) . E.M. Ferez: L’exécution du pont d’Arcins (The construction of the Arcins bridge) (July 1991) . G.[GIA 01] D.[LAC 02] J.R Viailon: Le pont sur le Bras de la Plaine (Ile de la Réunion): un ouvrage d’exception dans un site grandiose (The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine [Reunion Island]: an exceptional structure in a magnificent setting) (January 2002) . Primault: A10 . Barlet. E.Vion: L’exécution du pont de Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Construction of the Villeneuve-sur-Lot bridge) (July 1993) .R Chuniaud. de Matteis: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (January 2001) . B.[CON 91] E. new undulations in the Jura) (March 1993) . J. F. Marraci: Conception de la réhabilitation du pont de Saint-André-de-Cubzac (Design of the renovation of the Saint-André-de-Cubzac bridge) (November 2001) . L.M.[JAE 00] J.[CHU 02] J.Tanis.[ABE 91] H. D. Outteryck. Conti. C. P. Vesval. E.

Palacci.[DEM 01. Rioulong and Planchette viaducts) (July 1996) . B. Dallot. G.[BOU 94. Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: des piles et des fondations profondes dans le fleuve pour résister aux séismes et aux chocs de bateaux (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: piers and deep foundations in the river to resist earthquakes and impacts from boats) (June 2001) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 288 septembre 2007 .Jehan.[PAU 98] L.[JEH 94] J. J.[GIL 93] G. Paulik: Le pont sur le Vecchio (The bridge over the Vecchio) (December 1998) .[PER 94] G. Froissac. P. des fléaux sous haute surveillance (The Viaur viaduct: cantilevers under close surveillance) (March 1998) . Tavakoli: Renforcement du pont sur la Saône à Lyon (Reinforcement of the bridge over the Saône in Lyon) (December 2000) . Demare.Viossanges: Le viaduc du Viaur.[JAC 96] R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville sur l’autoroute A29 (The Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway) (July 1996) .[GOD 00] B. V. F. G.2] A.[DEL 94] G.J. les effets du vent (Wind effects on the Tanus Bridge) (November 1994) . Bouvy. Gernigon.[GIL 96] G. Gillet.Tavakoli: Modélisation STl d’un pont construit par encorbellements successifs (STL modeling of a bridge built by the cantilever method) (November 1996) . Demare.[DEM 01.Tavakoli: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (August 2000) .3] E. Bernard: La démolition du pont de Beaucaire sur le Rhône (Demolition of the Beaucaire bridge over the Rhône) (July 1994) . du Rioulong et de la Planchette (The Marvejols By-pass: the Piou. Canitrot.[DAL 00] F.[TAV 96] F.M. Gachiteguy. Dewilde. Divet: Une nouvelle réaction de gonflement interne des bétons: la réaction sulfatique (A new internal swelling reaction in concrete: ettringite formation) (May 2000) . Lefevre: Pont de Tanus.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . G. Barras: Réparation de l’ouvrage sur le quai Deschamps à Bordeaux (Structural repair on the Quai Deschamps in Bordeaux) (August 1998) . Reinhard: Le Pont de la corniche à Dole (The Corniche Bridge at Dole) (November 1994) .Taimiot: Le renforcement du pont de Bergerac (The reinforcement of Bergerac bridge) (July 1994) . Ferez: Renforcement par précontrainte extérieure (Reinforcement via external prestressing) (November 1994) . B. Bouchon. B. D.C. L. G.3] A. D. Delfosse.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: études de faisabilité des BHP (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: HPC feasibility studies) (March 2001) .L.[REl 94] J.[BAR 98] P. Ferez.[TAV 00] F. Goyet: Le pont sur la Truyère à Garabit (The bridge over the Truyère at Garabit) (November 1993) . Godart.[GAC 98] R.A. J. Gillet: Contournement de Marvejols: les viaducs du Piou. de Matteis.

Geoffray: Le béton hydraulique . Schlaich. Le Faucheur: Cumul des aciers de cisaillement et des aciers de flexion (Cumulation of shear and flexion reinforcements) (July 2002) Bulletin des laboratoires des ponts et chaussées .[SCH 95] J.[DIV 98] L.M.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . M. J.E. Poineau. J.[ROB 97] C.Smith. G.Verrazzano (mars 1997) .A. F. ad anime reticolani (May 2000) . Jennewein: Temperature induced deformations in match cast segments (July-August 1995) .[ROS 00] Marco Rosignoli: Ponti in C. Brein. la costruzione del ponte Jamestown . Kregle: Towards a consistent design for structural concrete (May-June 1997) Revue l’Industria italiana del cemento ( IIC ) . Virlogeux: Analyse de quelques problèmes spécifiques du calcul des ponts construits par encorbellements successifs (Analysis of certain problems specific to the design of bridges built by the cantilever method) (February 1981) .L. application des techniques de tôles collées et de précontrainte additionnelle (Structural repair and reinforcement of buildings and civil engineering structures) (February 1992) Techniques de l’ingénieur .[GEO 96] J. Roberts-Woolman. Theillout. Le Mestre: Risque de développement de réactions sulfatiques dans les pièces en béton de grande masse. PhD: Attraversando la baia di Narragansett. Salvatore Giuseppe Italiano: II ponte sul fiume Ticino nei pressi di Pavia (January 1999) .E. Marco Renga: Il ponte di Chivaso sulla S. K. Cusin: Réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art. F Guerrier.[REN 00] Ing. the example of the Ondes bridge) (January-February 1998) .Mise en œuvre (Hydraulic concrete – Application) (May 1996) P CI JOURNAL . le cas du pont d’Ondes (Risk of the development of ettringite formation in massive concrete parts.P.[VIR 81] M. Schaefer. M.[POI 92] D.[LEF 02] D. Rhodes Island USA.[SMI 97] Dennis R.[ITA 99] Ing. 458 di Casalborgone (Torino) (July-August 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 289 septembre 2007 . Divet.[DIV 00] L.S. Divet: État des connaissances sur les causes possibles des réactions sulfatiques internes au béton (Extent of the understanding of the possible causes of ettringite formation in concrete) (July-August 2000) Annales de l’I TBTP .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 290 septembre 2007 .

preparation of the invitation to tender.This guide provides a highly detailed description of the design and construction of prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. etc. each of the ten chapters covers one of the stages in the development of these types of structures: preliminary design. construction. Thanks to its comprehensive coverage of the subject. calculating and verifying concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. detailed design.Photographers: XXXXXXA compléter par l'auteur The Sétra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) © 2007 Sétra . maintenance.gouv.Reference: XXXX .fr Cover . construction managers.setra. this guide will be of interest to anyone involved in the design and construction of bridges built by the cantilever method (project managers.equipement. This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Sétra website: http://www. consulting engineers or technicians.ISRN: XXXX The Sétra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST) . monitoring of works. calculations. This technical guide is intended for engineers and architects involved in designing. Highly informative and lavishly illustrated. works inspectors and architects) in addition to teachers specialising in civil engineering.

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