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Design guide

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The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures.

The Sétra supports the public owner
The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: • • • • • • improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects.

The Sétra, producer of the state of the art
Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: • • • • • takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community.

The Sétra, a work in partnership
• The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement – RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'Equipement – CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France – RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development… • The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals).

Design guide

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This document is the translation of the work " Ponts en béton précontraint construits par encorbellements successifs" published in June 2003 under the reference F0308.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Authors
This document was created by a working group consisting of: Pierre Barras, CETE (Centre d’études Techniques et de l’équipement - Technical Engineering Center for Infrastructure) du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Civil Engineering Structures Division) Daniel de Matteis, Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes -Technical Center for Highways and motorways) / Large Bridges Division) Jean-François Derais, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Michel Duviard, Engineering and Design Department, Jean Muller International Daniel Guillot, CETE de l’Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Michel Lacombe, DREIF (Direction régionale de l’équipement Ile de France – Ile de France Regional Public Works Directorate) / Bridges Group Gilles Lacoste, Sétra / Methodology and Software Division Daniel Lecointre, Sétra / Large Bridges Division Virgile Ojeda, CETE Méditerranée / Bridges Division Pierre Paillusseau, CETE du Sud-Ouest / Bridges Division Jean-Marc Reinhard, CETE de Lyon / Bridges Division The monographs, iconography, drawings and 3D images were produced by Stéphane Chevrot, Philippe Julien, Eric Lozinguez and Louis Resterrucci from the Sétra Large Bridges Division. Photographic credits: Sétra / Gérard Forquet (Sétra Large Bridges Division)

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank everyone who, through their help, comments and observations, contributed to the creation of this document, especially: Mr. Aubin (Bouygues), Mr. Bataille (Semi), Mr. Boileau (DDE 31), Mr. Chaboud (DDE 974), Mr. Doan (SNCF), Mr. Duclos (Thales), Mr. Gaudin (SPIE), Mr. Gausset (EEG), Mr. Heusse (ERSEM), Mr. Kirschner (SECOA), Mr. Le Faucheur (Sétra), Mr. Mossot (Demathieu et Bard), Mr. Poineau (Sétra), Mr. Primault (Vinci), Mr. Ryckaert (SETEC), Mr.Thibaux (Eiffage TP), Mr.Treffot (DDE 67) and Mr. Xercavins (PXDAM).

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Table of contents
AUTHORS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 - PREAMBLE 1.2 - TECHNICAL PROCESS 1.3 - FIELDS OF APPLICATION 1.4 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE IN FRANCE 1.5 - MAJOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 2 - GENERAL DESIGN 2.1 - FIELD OF APPLICATION 2.2 - STATIC LONGITUDINAL DESIGN 2.3 - CHOOSING A CROSS-SECTION 2.4 - PRE-DESIGN OF A SIMPLE CROSS-SECTION 2.5 - BREAKDOWN INTO SEGMENTS 2.6 - MAIN RATIOS 3 - DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LONGITUDINAL CABLING 3.1 - CABLING PRINCIPLES 3.2 - STRESS CALCULATIONS 3.3 - VERIFICATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITH REGARD TO NORMAL STRESSES 4 - TRANSVERSE AND LOCALIZED BEHAVIOUR 4.1 - VERIFICATION PRINCIPLES 4.2 - TRANSVERSE FLEXION 4.3 - GENERAL TANGENTIAL STRESSES 4.4 - SPECIFIC ELEMENTS 4.5 - LOCALIZED FORCES AND REINFORCEMENTS 4.6 - RULES TO COMBINE PASSIVE REINFORCEMENTS 4.7 - RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATIONS FOR REINFORCEMENTS 5 - CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.1 - PRINCIPLE OF CANTILEVER STABILITY 5.2 - STABILITY SYSTEMS FOR CANTILEVERS 5.3 - ACTIONS TO CONSIDERED 5.4 - COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION 5.5 - VERIFICATION AND DIMENSIONING OF THE ANCHORING ELEMENTS 5.6 - VERIFICATIONS OF OTHER STABILIZATION METHODS 6 - CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 6.1 - CONSTRUCTION USING CAST-IN-SITU SEGMENTS 6.2 - CONSTRUCTION BY PREFABRICATED SEGMENTS 7 - ON SITE MONITORING 7.1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.2 - INSPECTION OF GEOMETRY 7.3 - INSPECTION OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
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INSPECTION OF PRESTRESSING 7.1 .5 . SÉTRA-LCPC.1 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7.PATHOLOGIES AND REPAIRS 8.TENDER REGULATIONS 10.BRIDGE DECK 9.3 .4 – PRESTRESSING DESIGN FOR THE CLOSING SEGMENT A1.HISTORY OF THE REGULATIONS 8.3 .GENERAL PRINCIPLES 9.ARTICLES IN MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS AFPC/AFGC PUBLICATIONS FOR FIB (FÉDÉRATION DE L’INDUSTRIE DU BÉTON-CONCRETE INDUSTRY FEDERATION) CONGRESSES REVUE TRAVAUX SÉTRA BULLETIN OUVRAGES D’ART BULLETIN DES LABORATOIRES DES PONTS ET CHAUSSÉES ANNALES DE L’ITBTP TECHNIQUES DE L’INGÉNIEUR PCI JOURNAL REVUE L’INDUSTRIA ITALIANA DEL CEMENTO (IIC) 219 219 220 221 222 224 229 230 230 230 235 240 243 252 264 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 6 septembre 2007 .PIERS 9.OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS 8 .7 .4 .PATHOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO THE CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE 8.1 .REMINDERS A1.SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAUSES 10. SÉTRA-SNCF A3-3 – OTHER PUBLICATIONS A3-4 .5 – EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING DESIGN A2 MONOGRAPHS OF CAST-IN-SITU BRIDGES A3 BIBLIOGRAPHY A3-1 – OFFICIAL TEXTS A3-2 – SÉTRA GUIDES.CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 10.2 .3 – CANTILEVER PRESTRESSING DESIGN A1.ABUTMENTS 168 178 178 179 190 195 195 200 205 208 208 208 212 216 10 .7 .4 .0 – PURPOSE OF THIS APPENDIX A1.INSPECTION OF FORMWORK 7.2 .TENDER DOCUMENT 10.6 .INSPECTION OF CONCRETE 7.RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CREATION OF A CONTRACTOR TENDER DOCUMENT 219 10.MAIN REPAIR TECHNIQUES 9 .5 .8 .2 .3 .4 .PROVISIONS TO FACILITATE MAINTENANCE 9.PRICE SCHEDULE A1 DETERMINATION EXAMPLE A1.1 .NATURE OF THE TENDER ENQUIRY 10.6 .INSPECTING THE REINFORCEMENTS 7.2 – SOURCE DATA A1.SPECIAL TECHNICAL CLAUSES 10.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Foreword
The cantilever method is the most widely used technique for the construction of large prestressed concrete bridges in France and throughout the world. Since the beginning of the 1990s, concrete bridges built by this method have faced stiff competition in the medium-span category from composite bridges and, to a lesser extent, from concrete bridges erected by incremental launching. On the other hand, they are increasingly used for bridging large spans, as illustrated by the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur, the Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway and the new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. Intended for construction managers, consulting engineers and methods and project engineers, this guide provides a detailed review of these structures, their field of use and the technology used in their construction. For this reason, this guide replaces Technical Bulletin No.7 and its supplementary information, published by Sétra (Service d’études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Technical Centre for Highways and Motorways in December 1972, which had become obsolete with regard to several important points such as calculation methods, prestressing design, the structure of form travelers and the management of delayed deformation. Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of this guide cover certain points which are very specific to the cantilever method: the general design of the structures, the design and calculation of longitudinal cabling, the stability of cantilevers and construction technology. Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are more generalized, respectively covering transverse flexion, site inspections, problems and their repair, precautions to be taken to facilitate maintenance, and finally, the contents of contractor tender documents. Although written with bridges constructed by the cantilever method in mind, the information in these chapters will also be useful for anyone involved in the design or construction of large civil engineering structures. This guide is the outcome of a major collective effort and is another illustration of the expertise of French contractors, engineering firms and construction agencies in the field of civil engineering. Emmanuel Bouchon Head of the Large Bridges Division at Sétra.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1 - Background information
This first chapter introduces the major principles concerning the construction of bridges by the cantilever method and its field of use. It also describes the history of the development of this method and of the applicable regulations from 1943 to the present day.

1.1 - Preamble
The cantilever construction method is a very ancient technique, in which a structure is built component by component above ground level. Since ancient times, this method has been used for the construction of arches in Europe (Fig. 1.1) and in South America (including the construction of Mayan arches), and for the building of wooden bridges (Fig. 1.2).

Fig. 1.1 – The “Treasure of Atreus”. Longitudinal section

Fig. 1.2 – Gallic wooden bridge

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, this method was applied to the construction of arched metal bridges, such as the Gabarit and Viaur viaducts, or lattice girder designs, such as the Forth Bridge, the Bénodet bridge or the old Pirmil bridge at Nantes (Fig. 1.3).

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Fig. 1.3 – The old Pirmil bridge in Nantes

Fig. 1.4 – The Normandie bridge

More recently, it has been used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Saint-Nazaire bridge over the River Loire and the Normandie bridge over the Seine (Fig. 1.4). As far as prestressed concrete is concerned, construction by the cantilever method mainly applies to bridges whose decks can be combined with straight or horizontally curving beams and which are built out from their piers, with cast-in-situ or prefabricated segments (Fig. 1.5 and 1.6). These types of bridges are the focus of this guide.

Fig. 1.5 – Bridge forming part of a continuous girder on single supports

Fig. 1.6 – Cantilever construction of prestressed concrete box-girder bridge decks with cast-in-situ segments on the left and prefabricated segments on the right

Many of the techniques used in this method are also employed in the construction of portal bridges with box girder decks, such as the Bonhomme bridge in the Morbihan region of Brittany, the Auray viaduct (Fig. 1.7) and the bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit.

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

Fig. 1.7 – Construction of the Auray portal bridge

Fig. 1.8 – The cable-stayed bridge at Chalon-surSaône under construction

Finally, and although not strictly within the scope of this guide, it should be mentioned that the cantilever method is often used for the construction of cable-stayed bridges, such as the Iroise bridge over the River Elorn, near Brest and the Bourgogne bridge at Chalon-sur-Saône (Fig. 1.8) and also for concrete arched bridges such as the Roche Bernard bridge over the River Vilaine (Fig. 1.9) and the bridge over the River Rance.

Fig. 1.9 – The arched bridge of La Roche-Bernard under construction

1.2 - Technical process
1.2.1 Description of the method

This construction method consists of erecting the majority of a bridge deck without falsework or scaffolding at ground level, by working in consecutive sections known as segments, each of which is cantilevered out from the preceding segment. After a segment is built, the prestressing tendons fixed to the extremities are tensioned,

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firmly attaching them to the preceding segments and thus forming a self-supporting cantilever which serves as a support for the subsequent operations. Construction is carried out: • Symmetrically in general, either side of a pier in order to minimize the moments transmitted to this support during erection; the resulting double overhang is called a balanced cantilever (Fig. 1.10)

Fig. 1.10 – Symmetrical construction from a pier

Sometimes asymmetrically on a single side of a balanced cantilever, when the other side is already joined to the adjacent span (Fig. 1.11)

Fig. 1.11 – Over-cantilevering construction

More rarely from an abutment; in this case, the overturning moment exerted by the span is compensated for by an appropriately dimensioned counterweight which forms part of the deck itself (Fig. 1.12).

Fig. 1.12 – Construction by the cantilever method using counterweighted spans

Although it is possible to build an entire structure using the cantilever method, the majority of structures include cast-on-falsework sections at the extremities of the end spans.

1.2.2 -

Association with other methods

Cantilever construction is often used in association with other methods such as: • • Construction on falsework, when parts of the structure are close to the ground and feature modest spans Construction by incremental launching, when the structure features a series of spans less than 65m in length, of constant depth, supporting a road whose geometry is compatible with this technique.

1.3 - Fields of application

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1.3.1 -

Background information

Spans of 80 to 150m are preferred for bridges with prestressed concrete box girder decks built by the cantilever method. However, this technique can be used for spans up to 200m in common widths without major problems. Above this size, the quantities of materials increase significantly, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness of the method. The world record span for concrete bridges built by the cantilever method currently stands at 301 m and is held by the Stolma Bridge in Norway. This is closely followed by the Raftsundet Bridge in the Lofoten Islands, also in Norway, with a central span of 298m. Opened to traffic at the end of 1998, both of these bridges have central spans partially made from lightweight concrete. These bridges both surpassed the Brisbane Bridge in Australia, built in 1986, whose span of 260m had beaten the previous record of 240 m held by the Hamana Bridge in Japan, built in 1977. For a long time, the Gennevilliers Bridge, built in 1976, held the French record for the longest span with its two spans of 172m. Following closely behind with spans of 172m and 144m was the Ottmarsheim Bridge, built over the Alsace canal in 1979 using concrete partly made from lightweight aggregates. With a single span of 190 m, the Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur in the Aveyron (Fig. 1.13) captured the record in 1998 before being relegated to second place in 2002 by the new bridge over the River Rhine, south of Strasbourg, whose central span measures 205m.

Fig. 1.13 - The Tanus viaduct

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.2 Advantages

Advantages and disadvantages of the method

The cantilever construction method offers many advantages. Firstly, the bridge decks are mostly built without any contact with the ground, making it possible to build structures over rivers subject to severe flooding or above very deep and rugged valleys. This method can also be used to erect structures with very different geometries. Thus, in elevation, it is possible to design decks of a constant or variable depth. For the latter, parabolic, cubic or linear variations are all possible. The method is extremely forgiving with regard to the geometry of the road supported by the bridge because, in contrast to incremental launching and pushing techniques, any horizontal and vertical alignments can be built without difficulty. Finally, construction using elements of 3 to 4 m in length is cost-effective in terms of the formwork tools required for the bridge deck, even if the spans are few in number and of different lengths. In the case of prefabricated segments, the small size of these components also helps to limit the weight of the elements to be assembled, thus reducing the cost of the installation equipment. Disadvantages However, there are also certain drawbacks to the cantilever construction method. For identical spans, bridges built using this method are much heavier than composite structures. They therefore need larger supports and foundations than those required for composite structures. Of course, this makes the cantilever method less attractive, especially when the foundation terrain is of mediocre quality or when the site is in an earthquake zone. Another major disadvantage to this method is the large number of tasks which have to be carried out in situ, both for the casting of the deck and for the development of the access routes to the site. Although the number of these tasks is reduced when the segments are prefabricated, of course, they are nevertheless greater in number than for an incrementally launched concrete bridge. When the structure crosses traffic bearing routes, the frequency of these tasks may compromise the safety of travelers and/or of workers on the site. These routes must then be closed, which often poses major problems. From an aesthetic point of view, bridges built by the cantilever method often have relatively thick decks, which can pose problems on certain sites. As a result, by breaking down their construction into small elements and multiple casting phases, there are more likely to be differences in color between two consecutive segments.
Spans 120 150 200 Type
- Bridges built using the cantilever - Incrementally launched concrete bridges - Composite beam bridges - Composite box girder bridges - Orthotropic slab box-section bridges - Cables stays bridges

1.14 – Fields of application for different types of bridges The area defined by the thickest line represents the most common field of application. It should be noted that suspension bridges are not included in this table, as they are primarily used for very wide spans. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 13 septembre 2007

300

35

70

90

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

1.3.3 -

Competing techniques

Now, prestressed concrete box-girder bridges built using the cantilever method are designed for spans between 60 m and 300 m in length. This technique has to compete with a number of different solutions operating within this very wide range of spans. For spans of less than 80 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are most commonly of a constant depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. If the geometry of the supported road is compatible, they also have to compete with incrementally-launched bridges made from prestressed concrete, which are economically viable for spans of between 35 and 70 m. For spans of between 70m and 120m, bridges built by the cantilever method may be of constant or variable depth. They are in competition with girder bridges with a composite concrete and steel framework. For practical or aestetic reasons, composite concrete and steel box girder bridges or cable-stayed bridges are also often designed to cover this range of spans. For spans of between 100 m and 200 m, bridges built using the cantilever method are almost always of variable depth and are in competition with composite or metal box girder bridges (beyond 140m) and cable-stayed bridges. Within this range of spans, presetressed concrete box girder solutions with lightweight metal webs may also prove to be economical.

1.4 - Development of the construction technique in France
There now follows a short history of the development of the construction technique and the regulations for concrete bridges built using the cantilever method.

1.4.1 -

1946-1952

Construction using the cantilever method was used for the first time in France by Albert Caquot for the building of the Donzère and Bezons reinforced concrete bridges in 1953, using a form traveler suspended from a metal girder (Fig.1.15). In Germany, Finsterwalder also used this technique for the construction of the Neckarsens and Baldunstein prestressed concrete bridges in 1950. It was then used for the construction of the Worms and Koblenz cantilever bridges in 1952, featuring a large span of 114 metres (using the form traveler technique). In the same year, Nicolas Esquillan used a very similar technique with a form traveler suspended from a metal beam to build the La Voulte railroad bridge, consisting of several 60 m-wide portal spans. It should be noted that at this time, there were no French design regulations concerning the cantilever construction method or even for prestressed concrete.

1.4.2 -

1953-1964

This period was marked by the introduction of regulations, the development of design methods, the improvement of the characteristics of prestressing reinforcements and the development of prestressing procedures. During this period, the bridge-building techniques using the cantilever method improved considerably. As a result, we can refer to two distinct generations of bridges.

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First generation bridges The bridge decks of first generation structures were embedded on piers and even on abutments and featured hinges at mid-span. Built in 1957 by GTM, the Chazey bridge over the River Ain was the first French bridge to be truly built by the cantilever method and the first in a series of major structures including the Beaucaire bridge over the River Rhône and the Savines bridge over the Serre-Ponçon reservoir dam in the Hautes-Alpes region. The Chazey and Beaucaire bridges suffered from prestressing defects and have since been demolished. The former was replaced by a new cantilever bridge in 1973 and the latter by a composite bridge in 1995. Second generation bridges As the first generation bridges suffered from an excessive deformation of their cantilever elements after several years, due to an underestimation of the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage, a second generation of bridges was designed and built with continuous spans and therefore without hinges at mid-span. Particularly noteworthy second generation bridges include: • The bridges at Goncelin, over the River Isère and Lacroix-Falgarde over the Ariège, designed by the STUP (Société Technique pour l’Utilisation de la Précontrainte – Engineering Company for the Use of Prestressing). These were the first continuously rendered structures (1962) The Layrac bridge, over the River Garonne, designed by GTM The bridges of Choisy-le-Roi, near Paris, and Pierre-Bénite, near Lyons, built in 1965 by CampenonBernard, which were the first structures to use prefabricated segments and glued conjugated joints.

• •

1.4.3 -

1965-1975

This was a period of enormous developments and constantly changing regulations. It began with the publication of the IP1 (Circular no. 44 of August 12 1965 relating to the provisional instruction for the use of prestressed concrete), and it finished with the publication of the Circular of April 2 1975, which brought an end to the second generation structures and paved the way for third generation bridges.

Fig. 1.15 – The Bezons bridge

The most notable bridges of the 1965-1975 period include:
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(including accounting for creep and thermal gradient). The Ottmarsheim bridge. which acts as a counterweight and compensates for a highly unfavourable arrangement between the spans (25m – 142m – 25m) . 48m. • Between 1975 and 1982. Worthy of note amongst the structures built of conventional concrete during this period are: • • The Mâcon bridge over the Saône. 48m.000m in length and built using prefabricated segments installed for the first time by a launching beam The Oissel bridge over the A13 highway: 700m long without an intermediate expansion joint (1970) The Calix viaduct in Caen. had to be reinforced in 1990 The Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine near Paris.5m) were built using the cantilever method The 400m long Viaduc de Commelles on the “conventional” Paris-Brussels and Paris-Lille lines. approximately 3. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 16 septembre 2007 . whose collapsed cantilever prompted the Sétra to define its rules for the stability of cantilevers which are still in force today (1975) The Saint-Cloud bridge (1974). several bridges were also made from lightweight concrete. which features a 172m lightweight concrete span (1980).390 m whose two viaducts of 229 m (48m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The Oléron bridge (1966). these structures were much better designed and did not suffer from the difficulties encountered with previous generations of bridges. with a span of 172 m (1976) The bridge over the River Loire at Orléans (1976). between the A4 and A86 highways near Paris. such as: • The Tricastin bridge (1979). with a 4web box-girder deck carrying four railroad lines and featuring main span of 45m (1980). • Two remarkable railroad structures were also built during this period: • The crossing of the Seine at Nanterre via the railroad spur for the new town of Cergy-Pontoise (1977). 85m. whose central span includes an independent 115m long metal span. whose box-girder deck featuring three webs with bar prestressing. which is a prestressed concrete structure of 1. 48m) and 221.5m (48m. 85m. whose end spans and the beginnings of its central span are made from normal concrete. on the outskirts of Paris. Designed in accordance with the rules established by the Circular of April 2 1975. had to be repaired in 1978 and 1987. 40. built with prefabricated segments (1980) The Mathilde bridge near Rouen.4 - 1975-1982 Bridges built during this period can be described as third generation bridges. whose very wide (20. which was one of the first new-generation bridges (1977) The numerous interlaced viaducts of the Saint-Maurice interchange. supported on a 30-m cantilevered girder made from prestressed concrete (1980). • • • • • 1.4.4 m) and slender deck (spans of 100m and a 1/30 slenderness ratio).

whose cantilevers were angled at the end of construction to follow the longitudinal profile (1988.3]. The following structures are notable examples of traditional road bridges built during this period. whose central span of 242 m includes an independent span of 162 m in length. [SER 90]) The viaducts of Bourran. 1. [BOU 92] and [BOU 94. [DAL 00] and [DEWOl] Page 17 septembre 2007 • • • • • • • • • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . [BOU 94. major progress was made in the design of major civil engineering structures made from prestressed concrete. which represents one of the first applications of Eurocodes 1 and 2 (2000. although this is not an exhaustive list: • The bridge over the River Loir at La Flèche. 1.16) The construction of a parallel lane on the Gennevilliers bridge over the River Seine [CHA 94] The Piou and Rioulong viaducts on the A75 highway. near Lyons.17) The Viaduc de Rogerville on the A29.1]. at Rodez. On the technological level. on Reunion Island. [BOU 94. [SER 98] and [GAC 98]) The second Pont-Salomon viaduct. in Nantes. consisting of two parallel structures of 650 m in length made from prefabricated segments assembled by combination prestressing (1993. [ABE 91] and [ABE 94]. featuring two 680-m long decks made from prefabricated segments with innovative keyed expansion systems on certain spans (1996. this period was characterized by the generalization of regulations concerning limit state calculations (BPEL 83 [Béton Précontraint par la méthode des Etats Limites – Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code]. [VIR 91 2] and [VIR 94]) The Arcins bridge. [VIR 90 2]. whose cantilever segments are supported by metal struts (1995. Fig.2]) The Cheviré bridge. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of french and european standardization also led to clear changes in the rules concerning the building of structures. which was one of the first bridges to feature external prestressing The Sermenaz viaduct. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 1.000 m of prefabricated segments made from B60 category high-performance concrete The Arrêt-Darré viaduct.5 - 1983 to the present day On the regulatory level. and La Rivière Saint-Denis. [CRO 94] and [CIL 96].4. [JAC 96] and [JAC 98]) The Tanus viaduct over the River Viaur. consisting of a box-girder with an orthotropic deck plate (1991. whose design features double-shelled piers (1991. which was the first bridge to be built by the cantilever method and positioned by rotation (1983) The Pont à Mousson viaduct over the River Moselle. near Bordeaux. due largely to the development of external prestressing. [BOU 91]. [RIC 96]. [CON 91]. with completely external galvanized prestressing The Île de Ré bridge (1988) whose deck consists of 3. spanning 190 m and featuring a pier of over 100 m in height (1998. followed by BPEL 91 and finally BPEL 91 revised in 1999).

[BOUS 98.3]. • Noteworthy railroad structures built since 1983 include several viaducts on the TGV high-speed Rhône-Alpes line (extension of the TGV Paris-South Eastern line to Valence) and of the TGV high-speed Méditerranée line. with an opening of 109 m between the base of the portal legs (1989. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 18 septembre 2007 .725 m long in total.16 – The Arcins bridge in Bordeaux Fig. 900 m of which were built using successive cantilever segments with main spans of 88 m (1992). Fig. [GIL 93] and [CAN 94]). [DEM 01. situated in the northern section of the eastern Lyons bypass: 1. • Fig. 1. 1.1]) The Vernègues viaduct.734-m long Ventabren viaduct. La Barricade (length: 150 m) and Tulle (length: 180 m). For the TGV Méditerranée high-speed line: • The Avignon viaduct over the River Rhône. 1. [DEM 01. [VIR90. this was built using a combination of the cantilever method and incremental launching techniques [BOUS 98. with an opening of 195 m between the base of the portal legs (1993.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The viaducts of La Clidane (length: 132 m).18) The bridge over the River Truyère at Garabit. [DEM 02]). successive cantilever segment construction and a rotated installation. which boasts a record single span structure of 205 m above the navigable channel of the Rhine (2002.500-m long decks were prefabricated (Fig. whose two independent 1.1].17 – The Piou viaduct Particularly notable portal road bridges built using the cantilever method since 1983 include: • The bridge over the Loch d’Auray.2]. which relied upon incremental launching techniques. Measuring 1. supporting the A89 highway [LAC 02] The new bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. [DEM 00].19.2]. 1. with a semi-circular transverse cross section. including: For the TGV Rhône-Alpes high-speed line: • The Costière viaduct. [DEM 01.2] The 1.210 m.

266 m and 214 m. a number of highly innovative road structures were also built during this period.20). (1994. Fig. With respective lengths of 1. 1. [CHU 02]. both of these structures featured two parallel decks with triangulated concrete webs (1987. a very large number of bridges have been built using the cantilever method outside of France. with open webs made of prefabricated triangular panels (1999. Portugal Access viaducts to the new Severn Bridge in Great Britain [COM 94] and [COM 96] Access viaducts to the Storebelt suspension bridge in Denmark The Stolma and Rafsundet bridges in Northern Norway The Houston canal bridge in the USA The Brisbane Bridge in Australia The Hamana bridge in Japan The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 19 septembre 2007 . on Reunion Island.5 . 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. whose single 260-m span is made from two prestressed slabs linked by a triangular tubular metal structure (2002. [PAU 98] and [PAU 00]) The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine. The following list features some of the most important examples: • • • • • • • Certain access viaducts to theVasco de Gama bridge in Lisbon. [BOU 90]) The Corniche bridge at Dôle with corrugated webs. whose decks are made of prefabricated segments with four triangulated metallic webs [MEU 98] The bridge over the Vecchio in Corsica. [COM 93]. • • • • 1. 1.19 –TGV high-speed railroad bridge over the Rhône at Avignon Finally.18 – The portal bridge over the Loch d’Auray Fig.Major civil engineering structures recently constructed outside of France In recent years. [LEB 94] and [REI 94]) The three Boulonnais viaducts over the Al6 highway. including: • The Sylans and Glacières viaducts over the A40.

Fig. 1. [BOI 96] and [COM 98]). 1. we should also make a special reference to extraordinary Confederation Bridge between the North American continent and Prince Edward Island in Canada.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • The new São João railroad bridge over the River Douro in Portugal The Medway Viaduct on the TGV high-speed rail line between the Channel Tunnel and London [POROl]. Although built using a slightly different method to that described in this guide.21 – Transportation of a prefabricated cantilever for the Confederation Bridge The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 20 septembre 2007 .21. whose central section is made from forty 250-m long spans (Fig. 1.20 – The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine Fig.

coastal site.General design This chapter starts by covering the more general aspects of the design of bridges with box girder decks built by the cantilever method: layout of the supports. 2. representing 10 to 20 percent of the length of the main spans.1 Distribution of spans Example of a structure consisting of identical cantilevers The simplest structures are made from main spans of identical length. the cantilever construction technique can be used to build a wide variety of prestressed concrete structures. We shall cover each of these different points in detail during the course of this chapter. The chapter only covers road bridges. It helps to balance out the moments in the different spans under operating loads and ensures positive support reactions on the abutments. 2. both horizontally and vertically Between 60 and 100 m. We shall also see how piers are positioned in the gap to be bridged. This allows the construction of identical cantilevers.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2 .). layout of the segments and ratios of materials.Field of application As we have already seen in Chapter 1.2. steep slopes. very poor-quality soils. or even 300 m) The supported road can have any type of geometry. etc. Indeed: • • • • It is suitable for a very wide range of spans (from 40 to 200 m. The end spans are usually longer than a half-cantilever. The additional length. is usually built on falsework as this is generally the most economical method.2 . which simplifies the design of the erection and concrete casting equipment used and improves output. the bridge deck can be of constant or variable depth This method can be used regardless of the natural characteristics of the gap to be bridged (large depth.Static longitudinal design 2. deck height variation law and choice of a cross-section. It goes on to describe the more specific aspects of the project: design of a simple cross-section. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 21 septembre 2007 .1 . how the transverse structure of the deck is chosen and designed and how its formwork is accurately determined.

In both of these cases. the use of counterweights and building out from a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 22 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.2 below shows a structure consisting of one or more large spans. 2.1 – Distribution of spans for a simple bridge built by the cantilever method Fig. The example in Figure 2. The example in Figure 2.3 – Bridge consisting of variable length spans according to the depth of the gap Therefore. It then becomes necessary to build structures incorporating several different types of cantilevers. 2.2 – Bridges with a combination of large spans in the river section and shorter spans on land Fig. as required by the need for a wide navigation channel.3 shows another structure featuring a large span in the deepest part of the valley to be crossed and shorter spans elsewhere. the most common structures consist of a series of equal spans flanked by end spans which are 60 to 70 percent of the length of the main spans. Other examples Certain special techniques may be used to circumvent these strict rules concerning the distribution of spans and the balancing of cantilevers. It should also be noted that the end spans are 60% of the length of the adjacent standard spans. They include over-cantilevering. it should be emphasized that the transition from large to small spans is carried out via a span whose length is the mean of the two standard spans. and a series of shorter – and thus more economical – spans crossing unnavigable flood zones. 2. Example of a structure made from cantilevers of different lengths Gaps to be bridged often feature constraints that make it impossible to design a structure of the type we have just described.

2. it is very difficult to establish rules to dictate the most appropriate form for a given site. Nevertheless. the quantities of concrete and prestressing materials used increase significantly and the cost of a constant depth solution increases in comparison to a variable depth solution. etc. However. while mentioning the most economical solution for each range of spans. Fig.20 m is required for satisfactory movement inside the box girder. These techniques are described in Paragraph 2.2. a minimum of 2. this phenomenon is even more noticeable as the surface area affected by the wind increases by approximately 25%. In this case. they are only used in very specific cases imposing the layout of piers (highly urbanized sites or the presence of railroad lines and canals) or when it is impossible or particularly costly to extend the bridge deck.2. • • 2. the same applies to structures located in complex areas (urban sites. interchanges. With regard to the criteria concerning suitability for the site. it should be noted that: • If it is possible. It is then possible to shift certain piers slightly.) A variable depth is generally quite well suited to deep valleys and large watercourses It is often a good idea to highlight certain sections of the gap by using spans of variable depths at its most outstanding sections. it is possible to design unequal spans by shifting the joints (à valider pour "clavages"). 2. which are sensitive to the effects of wind both in service and during construction.1 – Constant depth When the main spans of a structure are less than 65/70 m long.2 - Slenderness ratio and shape of the intrados We shall now discuss the variation laws which determine the possible depth of the bridge deck.4. etc.2.4 – Slight shifting δ of the piers for a structure of constant depth (The shifting of the joints δ is thus double the value of δ) For spans of above 100 m in length.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide counterweight span. Due to their cost. which would otherwise be badly positioned (Fig. because the savings made by simplifying the formwork tools for the deck (form travelers or prefabrication units) and reinforcement for the deck are much greater than any possible savings in materials. the depth of the deck is between 1/20 and 1/25 of the maximum span. a constant depth is well suited to geometrically complex structures: especially very curved bridges. However. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 23 septembre 2007 . for structures of a constant depth.4). For structures with very tall piers. bridge decks of a constant depth are generally the most economical.2. 2.

It therefore becomes economically viable to build a deck of variable depth.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In spite of the previous comments. As the curvature is The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 24 septembre 2007 . with a minimum of 2. This solution. For example.2. requiring a large deck depth at piers which seems very excessive at the other sections of the span. etc.5 – Constant depth 2. which slightly reduces the effects of selfweight. because the variation in depth may be unsuited to the distribution of bending moments and shear forces. this may pose problems due to insufficient depth in the quarter-span area.3 – Variable depth according to other laws (linear. This formula is applicable for any value of l included in the field of application for bridges built by the cantilever method. the desire to create increasingly elegant and original structures has led to the design of structures with decks of a constant depth for spans well in excess of 90/100 m in recent years. For these structures.20 m for ease of movement within the box girder. In standard cases. the variation in depth between the crown and the pier is generally parabolic in form. The cantilever must be symmetrical in order to guarantee its stability during construction. hc hp Fig.2. results in a somewhat more stretched appearance than a parabolic variation. 2.2 – Parabolically variable depth In excess of 65 m/70 m.6 – Parabolically variable depth A statistical study carried out for the publication of this guide shows that the following formulas can be applied to a deck on simple supports: On pier: l l = 14 + 45 hp At the crown: l l = 19 + hc 7 With l the length of the main span in meters. 2. The depth at the crown is generally between 1/30 and 1/35 of this same distance. the unsuccessful concrete-based design for the Verrières viaduct featured a deck of a constant depth despite having a maximum span of 144 m. cubic. Fig. certain structures have been built with a cubic-type variation in deck depth. 2. The section of end span which is cast on falsework or built by over-cantilevering is always of a constant depth (the same depth as the crown).2.) In recent years. the depth at the pier hp is between 1/16 and 1/18 of the length of the span in question.2. very large forces affect the cantilevers. However.

for transition purposes. the depth of the large spans at the crown must be equal to the depth of the deck in the areas of constant depth. it is possible to use laminated rubber bearings. They are also available in several types – fixed models.3. 2. it is possible to give the deck a variable depth in the large spans and a constant depth elsewhere (see the example in Figure 2. These are also used in earthquake zones.2. Although it is quite easy to implement. as they improve the distribution of horizontal forces between the supports. they are embedded on piers using the cantilever stabilizing devices described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6.). Clearly.3). this solution is only used for modest spans.2. Fig. etc. with the remainder of the spans being of a constant depth (Fig. compatible with very large vertical loads and compact.4 – Partly constant and partly variable depth Designers often design structures with spans of very different lengths in response to the constraints imposed by the gap to be crossed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 25 septembre 2007 . It requires the presence of a cross beam at the level of the change in gradient. Certain structures have also been designed featuring a linear variation in depth over 20 to 25% of the length of the main span. 2. 2. which often leads to the adoption of a deeper deck than is necessary. along with the field of application for each of these solutions.2. Fig. 2. However.1 – Bridge deck on simple bearings The majority of bridges built by the cantilever method rest on simple bearings when in service. whereas during construction. when the vertical forces are less than 7 MN per bearing. models that slide one way and those that slide in multiple directions – thus absorbing the movements of the bridge deck at the end supports. In such cases. fixed support.7 – Linearly variable depth 2. 2. elastomeric pot bearing devices are used for the permanent bearings. in order to take up the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab. it is also important to ensure that the sideways thrust due to the compression of the lower slab is correctly accounted for.8 – Bridge deck on simple bearings In most cases.7).2. These are particularly suitable for bridges built by the cantilever method as they are extremely robust.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide more pronounced near the piers. It is sometimes adopted for architectural reasons or to create a slightly greater clearance than that which is given by a parabolic intrados.3 - Support conditions We shall now describe the support conditions on piers possible for a bridge deck built using the cantilever method (simple supports.

This technique was adopted for the viaduct over the River Viaur at Tanus [SER 98] and for the Pays de Tulle viaduct [LAC 02] over the A89 highway.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. The Pont de Choisy-le-Roi over the River Seine was built according to this principle. the piers consist of two separate shafts with a gap of several metres. it is often advisable to embed the deck on top of the tallest piers and use simple bearings for the other piers. and thus with identical cantilevers. the deck usually rests on simple bearings on all of the piers.2. rather than being hollow. This solution was first used by Campenon Bernard in 1963 for the bridge over the Moulin à Poudre valley in Brest. This solution makes it possible to keep the structure very repetitive and therefore easy to construct.9). Therefore. and in the Rodez and La Rivière Saint-Denis viaducts in which the piers are made from two thin walls [BOU 91] and [BOU 92]. this can prove to be an excellent solution in earthquake areas as it gives the structure a high level of longitudinal flexibility. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 26 septembre 2007 . However. 2.3 – Bridge decks that are partly embedded and partly supported on simple bearings Many structures have to bridge gaps with significant variations in depth.9 – Bridge deck embedded on two hollow piers In certain cases. because each shaft only offers a low level of resistance to flexion. This technique offers the benefit of simplifying the bridge’s construction and service since no provisional cantilever stabilizing devices or bearings are used.2 – Bridge deck embedded on piers via reinforced concrete joints When the piers are very tall.3. The fixing in this situation is almost perfect as it uses the compressive and tensile stresses present in each of the shafts while remaining flexible with regard to horizontal movements. penetrating into the box girder (Fig. 2. If the piers are short and solid. This requires piers of very different heights.10).2. the piers and central span form a frame which is sensitive to the linear deformations of the deck under the effects of temperature. this is only a viable solution for very tall structures on slender piers. It was recently used for the construction of several structures such as the Tulle viaduct in which the upper part of the main piers is made from double shafts. their great rigidity causes moments and shear forces which they are not usually capable of withstanding. In general. 2. shrinkage and creep.3. 2. When the gap is bridged by a structure featuring spans of different lengths. Fig. When the gap is crossed by a series of identical standard spans. it is often preferable to embed the bridge deck on top of the pier (Fig. both consisting of a box girder.

which was able to compensate for the imbalances. very wide pier heads were required and these were considered to be visually unattractive. therefore being useless. Therefore.2. due to the bulkiness of the bearing devices. 2. as the rear anchorages of these tendons cannot be placed on the edge of the segments. 2.4.10 – Bridge deck embedded on two piers which are both made from two parallel walls This technique seriously complicates the cantilever cable layout for the segments forming the extended cantilever. The bridge connecting the French island of Oléron to the mainland and the Blois bridge over the River Loire were built according to this principle. so the engineers decided to use the over-cantilevering technique from a small additional span built on falsework and situated on the adjacent slope. The bridge over the River Est on Reunion Island is a good illustration of this method.4 - Specific problems 2. with a deep cross-section to act as a counterweight. we would like to mention that a third solution was used in the past and consisted of fitting two rows of laminated rubber bearings on top of each pier. In these situations. they must be housed either inside anchor blocks within the box girder.3. On this viaduct. with the other side being already joined to the adjacent cantilever or to a cast-on-falsework section (Fig.2.) in which it is impossible to erect any piers. or in a cross beam on top of the pier. the engineers made this span as short as possible by giving it a very massive and thus very heavy cross-section. Another good example of this technique is provided by the Nantua viaduct. Fig. which significantly lengthens these tendons. If this approach produces end spans which are located very close to ground level.2. The central span would therefore be entirely constructed by over-cantilevering out from these two spans (Fig 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2.4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 27 septembre 2007 . Over-cantilevering out from the adjacent pier was also difficult given the length of this section. the designer may decide to design a normal structure with piers either side of the central area and end spans equal to 60 % of the length of the central span. This technique must therefore be used sparingly: when using a form traveler to build the section of an end span which would usually be cast on falsework in a very steep-sided valley. 2.11). This created a elastic fixed support for the deck on the pier.2. This solution is no longer in use today because.12). thus complicating the formwork operations.4 – Bridge deck embedded on two rows of bearings on piers (for information) In the interests of thoroughness. 2. As this span was designed to be supported in the neighboring Chamoise tunnel. this method can be used to extend one span in relation to the others.2 – Building out from a small cast-on-falsework end span A gap to be bridged sometimes features a very long and distinct central area (a river or a ravine etc. it was impossible to build the far end of one of the end spans on falsework. Indeed. for example. it might be worth opting for two short end spans which are cast on falsework.1 – Over-cantilevering The over-cantilevering technique consists of extending the length of one side of a cantilever by one or more segments.

However.12 – Cantilever construction out from counterweight spans 2.Hinges Historically speaking. when the support reactions on the abutments are still negative.e. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 28 septembre 2007 . 2.14) and to make the walls or posts of the abutments work in traction.2. it is essential to ensure that the forces are properly transmitted from the bottom for the counterweight box to its vertical walls and up to the cantilever tendons which are anchored there. Fig. the box girder can be filled with concrete poured during the second phase through hatches built into the upper slab.2. To prevent this phenomenon. The advantage of this solution was to create an isostatic structure in its permanent phase. In this situation. at least 55% of the length of the adjacent span. It is also possible to increase the thickness of the cross-section of the cast-on-falsework section of this span (Fig.3 – Counterweights on abutments It is sometimes impossible to design sufficiently long end spans. as is the case for the Ottmarsheim and Beaumont-sur-Oise viaducts.4 . there were no barriers to stand in the way of deformations due to concrete shrinkage or creep or temperature variations.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This technique requires the development of a specific cabling arrangement.13). Therefore.11 – The over-cantilevering construction technique It should be noted that large forces are transmitted to the counterweight. 2. which can lead to significant problems during the changing of bearings and it should only be adopted when all of the very severe installation constraints have been taken into consideration. 2. the weight of the segment on the abutment and the end cross beam in which the external tendons are anchored is not enough to counteract the support uplift under the effect of a rare load applied in the central span. which would eventually lead to the failure of the expansion joint. it is possible to reverse the direction in which the bearings operate (Fig. Fig. 2. with numerous cables anchored in the cross beams on abutments or in the interior anchor blocks.4. 2. For the large span. 2. For very short spans. this closely resembles traditional cantilever cabling. the first structures to be built using the cantilever method incorporated a crown hinge (Fig.15). i. and there were no parasitic stresses. Therefore. this is a highly complex solution. but in the counterweight spans it is very different.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 29 septembre 2007 . These devices. They are only found on a few very long structures (e. the hinges have a limited life span and there is a risk of seizure or blockage. In all circumstances. or the Île de Ré bridge etc.) to allow for expansion and/or to reduce the risk of damage to the structure in event of impacts from heavy ships. 2. 2. we should also mention the devices used on the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway [UAC 98].2.4.15 – Old structures with crown hinges In this interests of thoroughness. 2.g. hinges are hardly ever used on modern bridges. This solution also requires the presence of a expansion joint which is expensive to maintain. The differential height difference between the ends of two adjacent cantilevers could be compensated for by applying a vertical force. 2.14 – Counterweighted end span with inverted bearing Fig.5 – Use of lightweight concrete (for information) In the 1980s. As they are sources of major pathologies on these first structures to be built using the cantilever method.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. Furthermore. they are no longer situated at the crowns of the spans. but a sudden change in level remained and this became more pronounced over time under the effect of delayed deformations due to creep.13 – End span with counterweight Fig. make it possible to fit expansion joints in the deck while transmitting shear forces and bending moments. the Cheviré bridge in Nantes. Fig. several large span structures were partially built from lightweight concrete as this reduced the selfweight of the bridge deck box girder. consisting of two metal beams parallel to the webs of the box girder. it was difficult to adjust the hinges due to the fact that it is difficult to estimate the deformations affecting the cantilevers during construction.

1 Background information The large overhangs created in the construction phase require the use of a cross section with a high resistance to torsion.e.50 to 4.3 - Monocellular box girders with ribs or struts For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m or more. On the other hand. This is of paramount importance.) this technique has virtually disappeared in France. these ribs are made from reinforced concrete and they are of constant depth between the webs. In the narrowest structures. the most common solution consists of a box girder with two webs.2 - Simple monocellular box girders For deck widths of less than 20 m. etc.Choosing a cross-section 2. etc. For example.16 – Example of a simple monocellular box girder 2. When the decks are very wide. We shall now describe them and specify their fields of application. i. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 30 septembre 2007 .3. 2.3. one every 3 to 4 m. One rib is used per standard segment.3 . There are several types of box girders.3.00 metre segment.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Faced with stiff competition from other solutions (composite box girders. This is one of the reasons why designers opt for box girders.). featuring two solid slabs. as mentioned in Chapter 1. 2.17). there may be three or four waxed or lubricated T 15 single strands per metre or four 4T15S tendons per 3. Upper slabs are made from reinforced concrete for widths of up to 15 or 16 m. they are often transversally prestressed using low-strength tendons. parabolic. featuring a ribbed upper slab and a solid lower slab (Fig. prestressed concrete box girders with lightweight metallic webs. 2. These cross-sections also feature a lower slab which lowers the centre of gravity and allows for efficient cabling on the pier. as construction by the cantilever method produces very large negative moments. For longer widths. Fig. This type of box girder is compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant. 2. the most economical solution is almost always a box girder with two webs. the ribs have a more elaborate geometry and are prestressed using medium-strength tendons (12T15 or 19T15). the two largest bridges in the world built by the cantilever method feature lightweight concrete sections in their central span.

The webs are usually vertical and the steel or reinforced concrete struts are aligned under the cantilevers [GIL 96]. thus allowing the tendons to pass freely.18). The struts may also be replaced by two acutely angled lateral concrete walls (Fig.17 – Example of a wide box girder with slab featuring prestressed rib stiffeners Fig. These structures are aesthetically very pleasing. 2. although this is often prestressed (Fig. they are restricted in application to structures of a constant depth. 2.19). Recesses in the ribs are therefore created close to the piers or shorter ribs are used. this form of box girder is compatible with all of the height variation laws. Because of this. However. For deck widths of between 18 and 25 m. which is extremely difficult and costly to carry out. As in the previous example. their use is restricted to structures with a maximum span of 80 to 90 m. if the depth of the box girder varies. 2. Furthermore. the axes of the struts or the lateral walls must be distorted. it is also possible to design decks featuring a slab of constant longitudinal thickness without ribs. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The presence of ribs complicates the formwork for the deck and thus the construction of the segments. Before choosing a design for the transverse ribbing. 2. Furthermore. it is therefore advisable to verify the resulting weight gain in comparison to a prestressed slab that is thicker but of constant depth. the external tendons must not strike the ribs near the cross beam on the pier.18 – Example of a wide box girder with struts The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 31 septembre 2007 . Indeed. they are somewhat more difficult to construct than a box girder featuring an upper slab with ribs.

these structures are now very rarely used. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 32 septembre 2007 . it is possible to design box girders with three webs (Fig. 2. etc. more aesthetically pleasing structures with struts or transverse ribs are often preferred Certain structures of this type have been affected by major pathologies. linear. In France. including for the access viaducts built from prefabricated segments for the new bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. Like the simple monocellular box girders. as this involves the construction of two narrow decks side by side which are then fixed together transversally. In France. controlling the creep-induced deformations in each of the box girders made from concrete of different ages remains a major problem during the construction of these structures. 2. the installation of the transverse prestressing is highly complex. 2. this solution is now rarely used on very wide structures. double-cell box girders are compatible with all of the deck depth variation laws (constant.19 – Example of a wide box girder with thin lateral walls 2. it is also possible to design a bridge deck consisting of two box girders connected by their internal cantilevers (Fig.21). and the viaducts for the second crossing of Severn estuary in England [COM 96]. Nevertheless. due to the difficulty of guaranteeing the even distribution of forces between the webs. It also remains widely used in Asia. Indeed: • • • They are difficult and costly to build because two formwork cores must be used For the same cost. in the case of structures with skew lines of support or those featuring shifted piers for each box girder.). in other countries. it has recently been used on several occasions. It should be mentioned that this type of structure is particularly suitable for the construction of wide prefabricated bridge decks. 2. parabolic. Furthermore.3.20).3. However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.5 - Monocellular box girders with three webs (for information) For widths of between 15 and 20 m.4 - Double-cell box girders For large widths.

also features a bridge deck with ultra-lightweight webs.6 - Special transverse structures A number of structures featuring highly original and innovative bridge decks were constructed in France during the 1990s. First. 2. as for the Bubiyan bridge in Kuwait. the Boulonnais viaducts also feature bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments with truss webs. Built in the 1990s to support the Al6 highway.3. These viaducts feature two independent. constructed for the A40 highway near Nantua at the end of the 1980s. western companies have exported their equipment to these countries. which on this occasion are made from metal tubes [MEU 98]. but these are made from corrugated metal sheets [REI 94]. 2. we shall mention the Sylans and Glacières viaducts.21 – Older solution consisting of a box girder with three webs These box girders are still constructed overseas and particularly in South-East Asia.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. prefabricated prestressed bridge decks. in the Jura region of France. different in height. in which the conventional full webs are replaced by an ultra-lightweight concrete truss. where labour is cheaper. The fourth bridge with corrugated metal webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 33 septembre 2007 . The Corniche viaduct in Dôle. Furthermore. 2.20 – Example of a bridge deck consisting of two box girders joined together transversally Fig.

also has a highly original bridge deck. we shall examine the design of the different elements that make up a standard monocellular box girder.4.1 Background information In the following section.Pre-design of a simple cross-section 2. after a brief preamble on the subject of cabling. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to be built in France after the structures in Cognac. 2. built in Corsica at the end of the 1990s.4 . it is essential to provide some basic information about these tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 34 septembre 2007 . The figure below specifies the notations used: Fig. Charolles and the Parc Astérix. the Dôle viaduct was the first French bridge of this type to be built using the cantilever method.4. 2. however.23 – Tendons used on standard bridges 2. consisting of two parallel concrete slabs connected by triangular concrete elements acting as webs [PAU 00].2 - Preamble concerning cabling A detailed description of the longitudinal cabling used on bridges built using the cantilever method is given in Chapter 3.22 – Notations used Fig. At this stage of the guide. which is dedicated to longitudinal bending and primary cabling. The Vecchio viaduct.

They are housed in the upper gussets. In general. The transverse prestressing makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of e2. the thermal gradient and delayed concrete deformations.10 meters +D/25 (with D representing the centre distance between the webs expressed in meters). It is important to pay particular attention to ensuring that the transverse tendons are properly covered and that they are correctly anchored at the ends of the slab. with a minimum of 20 cm. The upper slab is solid and its thickness varies transversally in order to adapt to the transverse forces encountered. and external continuity tendons. It is a minimum of: – 16 to 18 cm for a pedestrian parapet – 23 cm for a normal BN1 barrier – 24 cm for a normal BN4 barrier. and 10 cm for a much smaller centre distance. they must also take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework sections.10 m and e3 > 1. This value can be reduced for prestressed concrete. Internal continuity tendons are designed to take up the positive moments that occur during construction due to site loads. They are situated between the webs and slabs. of course.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The cabling on standard modern structures consists of three types of tendons: cantilever tendons. or even D/35 for very wide transversally prestressed box girders. internal continuity tendons. we could use 1/7 to 1/8 of the width of the cantilever for e2. are thinner. Cantilever tendons take up the negative moments. the mean thickness of the slab for a simple box girder amounts to between 22 and 26 cm. e3 and e4 by approximately 10% if there is sufficient space to house the cantilever tendons.5 e4 In light of the preceding information. They are anchored in massive cross beams on piers or abutments and are deflected via concrete beams called deviators. Their anchorages are often situated on the edge of the segments at the nodes between the webs and the upper slab. we also verify that: e3 > e2 – 0. outside the standard section. the thickness e2 depends on the superstructures and the functional cross section.4. the webs are often situated at a quarter of the width of the box girder (C ≈ B / 4). At the anchorage of the cantilever. measured from the start of the gusset.3 - Upper slab In a simple box girder. 2. as the effectiveness of these operations can also determine the thickness of the end of the slab. not including the gussets used for connecting to the webs of the box girder. the value e3 can be estimated at 0. It also depends upon the construction method used for the segments (cast-in-situ or prefabricated). They are situated in the lower gussets of the box girder close to the webs and are anchored in anchor blocks. Their thickness varies between 22 cm for a normal centre distance of 3 m to 3. At the fixed support point. Its thickness at mid-span e4 is equal to D/25 or D/30. Ribbed slabs. In the end spans. As an initial estimate for a reinforced concrete slab. The thickness of the upper slab at the end e1 depends on the retaining system used (see the Sétra technical guide for security barriers). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 35 septembre 2007 . External continuity tendons complement the internal prestressing. both during construction and when the bridge is in service. taking take up the operating loads and the weight of superstructures.50 m between ribs.

Longitudinally. However. The total thickness Ea of the two webs can be estimated at Ea = L/275 + l.26 + L/500. as the web is not breached by the tendons. the cantilever tendons are anchored in the upper gusset or in a high-level anchor block.24 – Thickness of webs It can also be added that shear force strength requires the conservation of an effective web thickness of Ea equal to 0. during the construction phase. the webs are normally of constant thickness for bridges of variable depth and of variable thickness for decks of constant depth. Minimal thickness of webs in special situations It is sometimes desirable to pass the cantilever tendons down through the webs in order to increase the reduction in shear forces brought about by the prestressing.4. (As an initial estimate. of course) in order to facilitate the construction. In this case. in which the fixing of a single pair of tendons per segment is not sufficient. while benefiting from the significant reduction in shear forces brought about by the raising of the external tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2. we could state that D = 18 cm for 12T13 tendons and D = 20 cm for 12T15 cables) – a > 3∅g with ∅g = 7 cm for 12T13 tendons and ∅g = 8 cm for 12T15 tendons. Also. Fig.4 - Thickness of the webs 2. 2. with Ea and L in meters.125: a relation in which L is the main span and B is the width of the upper slab (with Ea. the webs are almost always the same thickness throughout their entire height. In this case. the external cladding of the webs is often of better quality when they are angled. This formula (somewhat less favorable than the previous formula for The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 36 septembre 2007 . the webs are sometimes thickened in proximity to the upper deck as the shear forces are greatest in this area. as the external tendons have not yet been tightened. Minimal thickness of webs in standard situations Usually. there is virtually no reduction of the shear force.1 – Background information Box girder webs are usually angled because this arrangement facilitates the removal of formwork and reduces the width of the pier heads.25 x B/L – 0. its thickness can be reduced to the strict minimum needed to resist shear forces when the bridge is in service. The angle typically adopted varies between 10 and 30%. This becomes compulsory for very wide structures with large spans. For spans in excess of approximately 100 meters and in certain projects in which performance is maximized. L and B expressed in meters). the thickness of the webs must also conform to a certain number of conditions concerning the proper concreting and anchoring of the tendons on the edge of the segments: – a > 2(e + 2d + V) + ∅g.4.4. a sudden variation is built in (by benching and from the inside. Vertically. with V = 7 cm minimum (concreting and vibration chute) – a > 2D with D being the cover thickness of the anchor plates given by the regulations for prestressing systems according to the strength of the concrete. When thickening is required near the piers.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide short spans and relatively narrow box girders). also known as “on demand” variations. the lower slab must also be transversally resistant to sideways thrust due to the combined effects of the compression of this slab and its curvature. For wide structures. parabolic or of the fourth degree. In structures of an older design. It is also recommended that this thickness should not be less than one third of the thickness of the webs. are sometimes used. This value. The latter variation law is used to maintain the minimum thickness of the slab over a large length and to save weight. 2. varies between 35 and 80 cm or even more. Minimum thickness In the central section of the spans. so that the box girder can be considered to be impervious to transversal deformations. the thickness of the lower slabs remains constant and is equal to that of the crown. which is largely dependent on the span and widths of the slabs. Stepped variations in thickness. Ec ≥ 2 ∅ + d + e avec Ec ≥ 18à 22 cm Fig.4. and for deck widths of less than 15 m.6 - Design of the upper gussets The upper gussets must fulfil several functions which generally influence their dimensions: • • • They thicken the slabs in areas subject to significant transverse forces Their funnel shape facilitates the concreting of the webs They house the cantilever tendons and ensure that their cover thickness The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 37 septembre 2007 .4. continuity tendons are housed in the lower gussets of the box girders and the cover thickness requirement specified above no longer applies to the slab. 2. it is advisable to adjust the minimal thickness of the slab Ec in order to ensure that the upper layer of its transverse reinforcements do not come into contact with the ducts of prestressing in the gussets. It is advisable to adopt a safety margin for the maximum stress level in order to limit the redistributions due to creep. this slab used to house continuity tendons which had to be protected against corrosion by a layer of concrete equal to at least half of the diameter of the duct. this system finally resulted in cracking due to the distribution of the prestressing force to the area around the anchorages. the lower slab must be as thin as possible (18 to 22 cm) in order to limit the selfweight of the box girder. 2.25 – Detail of the lower slab Maximum thickness The thickness of the lower slab on the pier Ep is determined by the limitation of compression in the bottom fiber when the bridge is in service. gives good results for spans of between 70 and 170 m. Today.5 - Thickness of the lower slab The thickness of the lower slab is minimal at the crown and maximal at the pier. For structures which vary in depth parabolically or cubically. The thickness variation laws according to the horizontal axis are either linear. However. In the cast-on-falsework sections. As the power of the tendons increased. transverse bending predominates and thickness tends to be in the region of 25 cm. This thickness must be increased for wider decks.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • They allow for the deflection of the cantilever tendons prior to their anchorages They thicken the nodes of the webs/upper slab.27 – Detail of the lower gussets The lower gussets are normally boxed in by the lower part of the central core of the formwork for the segment. 2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 38 septembre 2007 .28). the gussets are empirically designed and accounted for in the rough calculations and are only precisely established after the cantilever tendons and transverse reinforcements have been accurately calculated. presenting an angle of between 30 and 45° to facilitate casting. Fig. the internal continuity tendons are anchored in the protruding anchor blocks. 2. as this system allows the tendons to be tightened a few hours after the segments have been cast. it should be noted that the internal shape of the gussets is always rectilinear. In conclusion.26 – Detail of the upper gussets In light of the preceding points.27). In these situations. 2. situated at the junction between the webs and the lower slab (Fig. On the other hand. In cast-in-situ structures. They are angled at a slope of 40 to 45° in order to facilitate the flow of the concrete and prevent the formation of accumulations of pebbles or concreting defects. They are constructed at the same time as the rest of the segment.4. These blocks must therefore be situated in the webs/slab nodes and they may also influence the dimensions of the upper gussets. allowing them to absorb the forces due to the distribution of the cantilever tendons which are now almost always anchored at these nodes. These anchor blocks are generally a little shorter than the standard segments. When the lower slab is wide. the gussets are not cast in formwork but simply smoothed over during the concreting process. 2. 2. prefabricated concrete blocks incorporating the anchorages for cantilever tendons are still sometimes used. As we have previously mentioned. the angle of the gussets can drop as low as 15 or even 10° from the horizontal in order to improve the take-up of transverse bending forces. α Fig. the lower gussets must also house the internal continuity tendons (Fig.7 - Design of the lower gussets In addition to their mechanical role in which they act as a transition between the webs and the lower slab. their external form is often circular for purely aesthetic reasons.

29).8 - Cross beams and deviators Bridges built using the cantilever method incorporate major cross beams directly above the piers and abutments.1 Background information We have already seen that the longitudinal geometry of the structure is dictated entirely by its mode of construction.1 and 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3.4).30). 2. • • Concrete deviators situated in the different spans are used to deflect the external prestressing tendons (Fig. This also influences its breakdown into segments (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 39 septembre 2007 . 2.Breakdown into segments 2.2.3) By taking up the local loads on the upper slab between the webs By providing anchorages for the external prestressing tendons distributing their forces By transmitting the vertical component of the external prestress tendons that are deviated inside the segments on piers to the bearings and piers (see 4.5.5 . Cross beams on piers play a particularly important role: In the operating phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by shear force and torsion in the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the bearings and piers (see 4.2.4.3. • • • • During the construction phase: • By transmitting the shearing flows caused by the the shear force and torsion of the bridge deck from the webs and slabs to the temporary bearings and piers By transmitting the vertical component of normal stress in the lower slab (Resal effect) to the temporary bearings and piers By taking up the forces caused by the cantilever stabilizing systems and transmitting them to the temporary bearings. 2.28 – Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons 2. 2.3. These usually consist of a lower rectangular beam capped by two thin trapezoid walls.2.

50 m and 4 or even 5 m according to the structures. For cast-in-situ segments. the segments for the new bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg vary in length from 3.25 m).00 m in mid-span (at the design stage. the length was constant and equal to 3.2 - Standard segments Standard segments are of a constant length which varies between 2. In certain specific situations. we shall see how the lengths of different types of segments are determined.5. prefabricated segments must be moved using special equipment which obviously has a limited capacity.29 – Deflection of the external tendons Fig. 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the following section. The main aim when determining the length of prefabricated segments is to reduce their weight. it should be noted that the breakdown into segments may also be conditioned or influenced by the need to have a uniform distribution of: • • The bridge deck’s transverse ribs or struts. The edges of the segments are usually perpendicular to the structure’s extrados. and thus to the longitudinal section. but vertical joints may also be used. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 40 septembre 2007 . as we shall see in Chapter 6. if applicable Cornice elements with architectural design features that must be evenly matched to the BN4 posts. in order to optimize the construction cycles. This optimization policy can sometimes lead to the construction of segments of different lengths for the same half-cantilever.00 m close to the piers to 5. Indeed. it should be noted that the shorter the segments. Fig. the harder it is to conform to the geometry of the cantilever. However. 2.30 – Breakdown into segments 2. For example. the most important selection criteria are the casting time and minimizing the number of construction cycles and thus the number of segments.

the length of segments calculated in this way in the preliminary design may be modified during the construction surveys. In this case. which can be broken down into components small enough to be removed via a manhole.5. Thus. Regardless of the method adopted. but this is permissible given the small moment arms at this stage of the construction. 2.5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the preliminary design stage. not exceeding 15 to 20 cm in length. The segment on pier represents a very large volume of concrete which can very rarely be constructed in a single phase. its formwork must be designed to resist the significant thrusts exerted by the fresh concrete. This closure is thus reduced to its simplest form. For economic reasons. and longer segments of 3 to 4 m can be used for narrow or short-span structures. But this is only one option and it is often necessary to anchor two pairs of tendons per segment for very wide structures featuring large spans.3 - Segments on piers For cast-in-situ structures.Main ratios The statistics for standard structures give the following ratios: • • Equivalent thickness: e = 0. The length of the closing segments must also facilitate the overlapping of longitudinal reinforcements and the tightening of the last segments cantilever tendons. 2. The cantilever is highly unbalanced before the installation of the second form traveler. it may be beneficial to reduce the length of the SOP. the closing of segments on prefabricated structures is carried out using the simplest possible system.6 . the second segment of the first pair is constructed after the first form traveler has been moved. in order to use form travelers built for a previous site or to reduce the number of segments and optimize the construction cycles. For prefabricated structures. in order to ensure that it is capable of supporting two form travelers during the construction of the first pair of segments. 2. the closing segments are slightly shorter in length than the standard segments because one of the form travelers is generally used for their construction. Therefore. it must be twice as long as the standard segments plus an additional length of 50 centimeters to one meter. temporary lashing provides the only form of prestressing before the jointing takes place.5 to 3m are designed for very wide structures or bridges featuring large spans.4 - Closing segments The length of the closing segments varies considerably according to the technique used. The closing segments require specific formwork. For cast-in-situ structures. As we have already established. segments of 2. Furthermore. However. their minimum length is approximately two meters. usually made from wood. the closing segments must not be so short that it becomes difficult to dismantle the internal formwork from the form traveler.0035 L (L being the length of the principal span of the structure in meters and e in meters) Page 41 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . The SOPs are therefore divided into two or three sections to be assembled by prestressing. A joint of this length is made from non-reinforced concrete. it can be considered that smaller cross sections have longer segments. the segment on pier (SOP) generally measures at least 8 m. it is common to calculate the length of the segments in such a way as to ensure that there is the same number of standard segments as there are pairs of cantilever tendons determined by the calculations.4 + 0. To support the installation of the pair of form travelers on the segment on pier. the dimensions of the segment on pier are often incompatible with the capacity of the equipment used for transporting and installing the segments. Its shortness makes it impossible to tighten the cantilever tendons usually attached to the last standard segments. For cast-in-situ structures with a small number of piers. Therefore.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 42 septembre 2007 . because they often have a lower equivalent thickness than cast-in-situ structures and because reinforcements for temporary lashing and hoisting equipment must be added.). etc. on the conditions imposed for the cumulation of distribution. ribbed slab.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Longitudinal prestressing: 40 to 50 Kg/m3 Transverse prestressing: 5 to 7 Kg/m² of deck Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: – Without transverse prestressing: 130 to 170 Kg/m3 (*) – With transverse prestressing: 110 to 130 Kg/m3 (*) The ratio of non-prestressed reinforcement bars is generally somewhat higher for prefabricated structures. (*) For non-prestressed reinforcement bars. the ratio is strongly dependent on the type and thickness of the upper slab (thick slab. shear and bending reinforcements and on the accepted value for the elastic limit of the reinforcement bars in the calculations (400 ou 500 MPa).

3.1) Fig. Please note that the verification of tangential stress is covered in Chapter 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3 . 3. 3. For a structure with three spans. Today.1 .Cabling principles The layout of the prestress tendons depends on the construction method used and on successive developments.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 43 septembre 2007 . As mentioned in the previous chapter. 3.2 – Internal continuity tendons on the end spans • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete at the crown of the main span in order to make the structure continuous (Fig. all of the pre-stressing on structures built using the cantilever method was situated inside the concrete. different types of cables are used: • • Cantilever tendons: used for the assembly of consecutive segments Continuity tendons: designed to take up the forces resulting from all of the additional structures added to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. the following sequence of operations applies to the stressing of these different tendons: • Tensioning of the cantilever tendons inside the concrete for assembly of the standard segments (Fig. mixed prestressing technology. i.Design and verification of longitudinal cabling This chapter covers the design and calculation-based verification of the longitudinal cabling for prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method. Until the mid-1980s. 3.2) Fig. is used on a virtually automatic basis in France.e featuring tendons both inside and outside the concrete. 3.1 – Cantilever tendons • Tensioning of the continuity tendons inside the concrete to secure the cast-on-falsework sections of the end spans to the two cantilevers (Fig.

1 - Cantilever prestressing Cantilever tendons are designed: • For the assembly of consecutive segments and to take up negative moments due to the selfweight of the cantilevers and site loads during the construction phase To help take up negative moments due to dead loads and imposed loads. 3. the thickness of a web must be reduced by the thickness of a half to one cable duct for the calculation of shearing stresses. However.3 – Internal continuity tendons on the central spans • Stressing of the continuity tendons outside the concrete.1. stretching across one or two spans. In virtually all cases. 3. Fig. 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. this layout also had its disadvantages: • • • The presence of tendons in the webs creates an obstacle during casting The bulkiness of the anchoring plates requires a large minimum web thickness (normally around 45 cm) In accordance with the french design regulations. in order to take up any additional loads (Fig. they are positioned inside the concrete in order to obtain the maximum effect. 3-4). • These tendons are situated at the area of the upper axis of the bridge deck in order to act efficiently against negative moments. which results in signicativ losses due to friction. along with the external continuity tendons when the bridge is in service. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 44 septembre 2007 . The main advantage of this arrangement was to reduce the shear force due to the angle of the tendons.1 – Principle of cantilever tendons on older structures (for information) In older designs. these tendons were almost always deviated vertically at their extremities and their anchorages were positioned inside the webs.1. which was particularly favourable in proximity to the piers. depending on the design rules used Cantilever tendons undergo significant angular deflections.1.4 – Externall continuity tendons on the end spans 3.

the dimensions of the upper gusset gussets are directly related to the number and sizes of the tendon anchor plates and to the position of the cantilever tendon ducts. it is possible to create a recess in the gusset gussetcorresponding to the size of the anchorages for the additional prestress tendons (cf. it may be necessary to anchor two cables per web and per segment.1).5 – Conventional cantilever tendons The tendons must have a rectilinear alignment when they pass through the joints. Fig.1.1. the vertical deflections are dissociated from the horizontal deflections (Fig. Likewise. and they can be anchored directly in the upper nodes. which simplifies their installation (Fig. 3. it is no longer necessary to drop the tendons down into the webs at their extremities. For wider upper slabs. Because of this. 3-6). In order to guarantee the correct assembly of the duct elements.1.1.3. Comb layout The "comb" cable layout aligns tendons automatically.2 – Principle of cantilever tendons on modern structures In conventional modern designs.3 – Alignment of cantilever tendons on modern structures Standard alignment Cantilever tendons undergo vertical and horizontal deflections in the upper node. the alignment of the cables in the passage through the joints is usually perpendicular to the formwork surface of the facing. The drawbacks of the old cantilever tendons systems are thus avoided. Whenever possible.5). one tendon is anchored per web and per segment.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3.1. Indeed. Therefore. 3. such a layout: • Always uses the same points of passage through the joints so that a single facing can be used The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 45 septembre 2007 . shear force is reduced by placing the continuity tendons on the outside of the concrete. § 3. 3. For upper slabs of common widths (10 to 12 m).

the most unfavourable situation generally occurs during the casting of the final pair of segments.London – September 1996). This arrangement also makes it possible to attach two cables per web if necessary. Cabling of the final pair of segments During the construction of a cantilever.1.4 – Specific design points Number of cantilever tendons Two or four cables can be specified per segment. we can observe the stress relating to the presence of stitching tendons on the support. Fig. Further information on “comb” cable layouts can be found in the article entitled "Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method” (FIP Symposium . In this case. for the aforementioned reasons. we decide not to anchor the tendons in the webs and want to avoid increasing the size of the gusset gusset. experience shows that. Furthermore. If. The stresses relating to the recesses used for the attachment of the form travelers (cast-in-situ segments) and hoisting equipment (prefabricated segments) should also be mentioned.6 – Comb cantilever tendon layout: plan view and detail of gussets On Figure above. the optimum number of tendons specified for the end of each segment is two (one tendon per web). It is also possible to position the anchor plates at the level of the gusset gussetand on the outside of the web reinforcements. to prevent the systematic cutting of the vertical stirrups in proximity to the tendon anchors. The cantilever tendons anchored in this final pair of segments are not tensioned in the design phase and are therefore not required for the construction of the cantilever.1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Reduces the horizontal deflections and thus the losses by chafing Avoids having curved sections in line with joints Creates horizontal deflections throughout the exact length of the segment. 3. It is also apparent that the anchor plate is automatically angled on the axis of the web in one direction and then in the other. 3. because of the presence of the external continuity cables which span the entire length of the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 46 septembre 2007 . only the first tendons are anchored in line with the web: the following ones are anchored alternately on either side. This arrangement makes it possible to standardize the reinforcements for the segments.

Cabling for structures with prefabricated segments During the assembly process.8). lashing bars must be used to hold prefabricated segments in place parallel to the extrados until the cantilever tendon is tensioned. and for structures of constant depth over 60 m in length. in order to reduce the cast-on-falsework sections close to the abutments.7 – Lashing principle for prefabricated segments Cantilever tendons outside the concrete For very large structures (span > approximately 120 m). or to build spans of different lengths. Fig. The cantilever is thus asymmetrical and the cantilever tendons anchored in these segments may be asymmetrical in relation to the pier. This arrangement is commonly used for bridges with prefabricated segments in which the shortness of the closing segment (20 to 30 cm) makes it impossible to tension these tendons. there are more cantilever tendons than needed when the bridge is in service.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide structure. “Extended cantilever” segments As described in Chapter 2. 3.2 MPa on the adhesive in the segment joint. However.7). The segments are generally anchored in a staggered pattern on the vertical ribs built into the inner face of the webs. This final pair then functions provisionally as reinforced concrete. 3. As a result. 3. 3. midway between the segment joints (Fig.8 – Cantilever tendons These provisions are used for structures of variable depth in which the aim is to reduce the depth on the pier. a proportion of the cantilever tendons may be situated outside of the concrete in order to reduce the size of the upper gusset gussets and thus the dead loads Angle of the tendons In order to reduce the shear stress in certain types of structures. Fig. according to a design similar to the layouts used in older structures (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 47 septembre 2007 . decks can be designed without the need to anchor cantilever tendons in the final pair of segments. These bars hold the segment temporarily in place while exerting a minimal pressure of approximately 0. it may be necessary to construct one or more segments known as “extended cantilever segments” at a one end of the bridge only. they must be anchored at a sufficient distance from the section on the pier in order to allow for the dispersion of the prestressing force within this section. it is possible to drop a proportion of the cantilever cables down into the webs (generally those of the first segments).

Fig. 3. which led to the development of major pathologies (see Chapter 8).11 –Anchor blocks for internal continuity tendons They are often offset in relation to the top of the lower deck in order to standardize their alignment in the anchor block.10). 3. continuity tendons are designed to take up all of the additional forces applied to the structure after the construction of the cantilevers. or raised in the webs and anchored inside recesses built into the extrados of the bridge deck. 3.1. They were aligned in the lower slab at midspan and were attached to the anchor blocks protruding over the slab. This paragraph only concerns the use of mixed cables. consisting of tendons situated both inside and outside the concrete. In older designs.1 – Internal continuity cables Continuity tendons situated inside the concrete are strung across the central part of standard spans and inside the extremities of the end spans (Fig.1.2.Continuity prestressing In general. these cables are situated inside the lower gusset gussets and are attached to the anchor blocks situated at the intersection of the web and lower slab (Fig. Today.9 – Internal continuity tendons on end spans Fig. the reader is advised to refer to SétraSétra Technical Bulletin No. these tendons were all located inside the concrete. For continuity tendons which are situated completely inside the concrete. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 48 septembre 2007 . i.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. continuity prestressing is generally mixed.11).2 . 3.e. Fig.9 and 3.7 published in 1972. 3. The large number of tendons meant that they had to be distributed throughout the entire width of the lower slab.10 – Internal continuity tendons on standard spans Designed to resist positive moments. 3.

resultings in a polygonal alignment which is rectilinear per section. These tendons may also stretch from span to span. In a plan view. 360 meters for 19T15 "super" tendons) have already been successfully tensioned.1. The deviators are generally situated between a third and a quarter of the way along the span (Fig. 3. in tandem with the cantilever cables. it is necessary to recenter the tendons using additional deviators. i. This value may be slightly exceeded. the provisional cantilever joints are liable to create significant forces in the bridge deck and supports. they may be anchored in the deviator cross beams. due to the effect of temperature variations. In order to account for construction tolerances. in tandem with the internal continuity cables Negative moments on the pier due to dead loads and operating loads. The tendons are deflected via the cross beams on piers and intermediate cross beams (deviators) on the spans. For the end spans. 3. they must be limited in length to approximately 200 m. Fig. • In elevation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide At the minimum. internal continuity prestressing is designed to be capable of taking up the shrinkage after grouting. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 49 septembre 2007 . especially in order to stretch a tendon across two spans of over 100 m in length. the internal continuity prestressing also has to take up the weight of the cast-on-falsework section. especially if the latter are rigid.e. To take account of construction tolerances. thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) and the reaction effects of the structure during the construction phases between the casting of the concrete fro the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. For curvilinear structures. Considering the difficulties involved in the threading and grouting of curved tendons. 3 spans of 120 meters.2 – External continuity cables External continuity cables are designed to take up: • Positive moments in the span due to dead loads (including shrinkage and the redistribution of forces due to creep) and imposed loads. a distance of approximately 5cm must also be allowed between the outside of the tendon sheaths and the concrete of the segment slabs and/or the anchor blocks. 3. a distance of approximately 5cm must be allowed between the outside of the tendon ducts and the concrete of the segment slabs.g. Longer curved tendons (e.2. This minimum distance will be also observed in relation to the top of the anchor blocks for the continuity tendons. they are therefore situated close to the lower slab in mid-span (?) and close to the upper slab on supports. The attention of designers is drawn to the fact that. they may be strung form one end of the deck to the other or overlapped across two or three consecutive spans. or even more. the external continuity cables are situated close to the webs.12 – External continuity tendons on standard span According to the length of the structure and the number of spans. In this case.12).

3.3 - Miscellaneous construction provisions 3. 3. or by positioning the duct in such a way as to allow the tendon to be anchored in an additional anchor block. Compulsory for cantilever tendons.13). too many tendons could risk overloading the box girder and lead to maintenance problems. If there are no problems of shear force. For example. it is possible to: • • Avoid using the full capacity of the anchor plates.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example.3.1 – Additional prestressing Specific precautions must be taken at the design stage in order to overcome any deficiencies in the internal prestressing inside the concrete during the construction phase (excessive friction. these empty sheaths are also recommended for internal continuity cables.13 – Different types of tendons used for optimizing the external cabling on a three-span bridge In this example. In practice.). for a symmetrical three-span structure. The layout of these empty ducts must allow tensioning to be carried out at any time during construction.1. the following numbers of tendons are used: At the crown: 2 ne1 + ne2 = nc tendons On the pier: ne1 + ne2 = np tendons There must be a sufficient number of external tendons to prevent any structural deficiencies in the event of the breaking or removal of a tendon. the external tendons play a major role in taking up the negative moments on the supports. etc. inability to thread tendons. These provisions must be designed to compensate for a prestressing deficiency of between 5 and 10 % of the probable prestressing force Pm for the category in question. thus making it possible to attach additional strands Build in empty ducts which could be used to insert one or more pairs of additional cables if necessary.1. which are more economical. Fig. This leads to a significant reduction in the number of cantilever tendons compared with older structures in which the cantilever tendons had to take up all of the negative moments. either by making room in the gusset gusset for an anchor plate. the following design allows for a precise adjustment of the prestressing in each span using two types of tendons (Fig. there are often between three and five pairs of internal continuity tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 50 septembre 2007 . It is interesting to note that in a mixed cabling system. as they are shorter. However. 3. The last of these provisions does not apply to prefabricated segments. Unused empty ducts are injected at the end of the construction phase. it is also possible to reduce the number of external tendons and to compensate for them in the central zones by using additional continuity tendons.

it is important to accurately define the position of the transverse prestressing and then to The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 51 septembre 2007 .1.3. allowing for the progressive replacement of all of the external continuity tendons. the SétraSétra guide to external prestressing of February 1990 recommended the installation of intermediate tendon retention devices when the external part of the cable layout exceeds fifteen metres for a road structure and 10-12 meters for a railroad structure. cantilevers are stabilized by vertical prestressing cables housed in the segments on piers.14).1. Circular of February 28 2001 “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton" [Design of prestressing on the outside of the concrete]). 3.14 – Anti-vibration devices for external tendons 3. In order to prevent this type of conflict. Acting as intermediate supports and helping to hold the ducts in place during their replacement. it is important to bear this in mind when determining the transversal positioning of the external and cantilever tendons.3. these devices must be rigid (Fig. 3-15).1. As these tendons may conflict geometrically with the longitudinal prestressing. The additional prestressing force must be equal to at least 20 % of the external continuity prestressing force determined during the construction of the bridge deck. Fig. it must be possible to dismantle it without causing any damage to the structure apart from the possible destruction of the cable and its duct (cf.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 3. In practice. More precisely. A geometrical conflict is also possible in transversally prestressed bridge decks between the transverse tendons on the one hand.5 – Possible geometrical conflicts between longitudinal tendons and other tendons In the majority of bridges covered by this guide. and the cantilever and external continuity tendons on the other (Fig. at least one sheath per web is provided.3. the products and materials used and their implementation are described in Chapter 7 of the supplement to the fascicule 65 A of the French CCTG (General Technical Clauses). 3.4 – Anti-vibration systems for external prestressing In order to prevent the development of resonance in the external tendons and avoid the risk of whip action in the event of an accident.2 – Replaceability of external prestressing It must be possible to replace the external prestressing. Experience acquired in this field has shown that free lengths of approximately 25 m are acceptable.3 – Recesses for additional external prestressing Anchorages for additional prestressing and recesses in the deviators must be designed at outset in order to facilitate any necessary repairs or strengthening of the structure.3. 3.1. The general provisions for external prestressing.

Fig.2 . However. adjustments.Stress calculations 3. If high or low density aggregates are used.).15 – Example of the crossing of transverse / cantilever tendons 3. in addition to the removal of formwork and the moving of form travelers. the unit mass of concrete is fixed at 2.2 - Selfweight of the bridge deck As the form travelers are built from rigid metal components. The calculation must take account of the successive phases in the loading of the structure. tendons and grout used for the injection of the external prestressing.85 . it is also important to account for the elements which are added to the bridge deck such as anchor blocks. it is necessary to carry out a precise analysis of the construction phases and of the subsequent loading phases (consecutive concrete casting and stressing operations. 3.γb ( ) septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 52 . measured for a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: γt = γb + ρ 7. the unit mass of the concrete γt . 3.5 t/m3.2. and of the bridge deck (prestressed and reinforced) is evaluated on the basis of the unit mass of the concrete alone γb. it is advisable to place the transverse tendons in the first bed and the cantilever tendons in the second. revised in 1999 and notwithstanding the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979. Therefore.2. Except under special circumstances. support transfers. Finally the selfweight of the bridge deck also depends on the weight of the ducts.1 Background information For the majority of the verifications.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide determine the location of the longitudinal tendons. the selfweight can be represented by a single nominal value calculated using the design drawings.85 × 7. In general. as recommended by the BPEL 91. etc. diaphragms and deviators. the stresses are calculated using an elastic model for the bridge deck.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

In which ρ is the total ratio of non-prestressed and prestressed reinforcement bars in t/m3 (a value of p = 0.2 t/m3 is generally adopted).

Fig. 3.16 – Site loads to be considered for construction phase verifications

Standard concrete based on basaltic aggregates and high-performance concrete have higher densities (allow around 50 kg/m3 more for HPC).

3.2.3 -

Prestressing effects

For the verifications of longitudinal flexion, the prestressing can be represented by a single probable value Pm. For large structures, specific precautions are taken (empty ducts, measurement of transmission factors, etc.) to ensure that the probable prestressing value Pm is properly obtained. In this case, values of k = 0.02 and k’ = 0.95 should be used for the Service Limit State calculations, in accordance with Article 4.10.1 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999.

3.2.4 -

Random site loads

During the construction of the cantilevers, random site loads must be considered when calculating the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck (Fig. 3-16). These loads are: • • A distributed load QPRA1 of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever, in standard cases A concentrated load QPRA2 of 100 kN applied at the end of the cantilever, representing the weight of the cable rollers, compressors and other equipment likely to be used on the structure.

3.2.5 -

Delayed effects

Concrete shrinkage and creep in hyperstatic structures built according to flexible static plans gradually modifies the stresses and constraints that were initially calculated. It is difficult to give a quantitative evaluation of this redistribution. For this, a computerized calculation is required, which takes account of the construction phases and the laws of behavior of the different materials (including the scientific creep test for concrete). A calculation of this type will be performed at the design stage, in which certain construction phases may be grouped together. Two compulsory calculations must be performed in the framework of the construction surveys: • Firstly, an initial calculation of longitudinal flexion (A), is carried out according to the company’s provisional construction schedule, with coefficients of friction according to the type of prestressing used

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Secondly, after the complete construction of the bridge deck, and in order to determine the actual stress state of the structure in operation, a post-construction calculation (B) is performed according to the actual construction schedule, using the mean coefficient of friction measurements, and the actual mass of the segments for prefabricated structures.

Should significant changes be made to the work schedule, it is also necessary to perform a third calculation to take account of the rearranged work schedule. Any change of sequence of operations will be validated by a calculation. Finally, while awaiting the implementation of the Eurocodes, whose materials laws are considered to be more realistic, another calculation can also be performed in order to determine the reverse deflections during construction, using a creep law that is more realistic than that of the BPEL (quicker). Nevertheless, it is recommended to perform a creep test in order to make sure that the concrete creep law does not differ from the theoretical model of behaviour that was adopted.

3.2.6 -

Calculation programs

Several software programs have been designed by private or public engineering firms for bridge calculations including for structures built using the cantilever method. Sétra has developed two programs designed for these types of calculations amongst others: • • STl software ; The PCP (Ponts Construits par Phases [Bridges Built in Phases]) system.

These programs are used for calculating three-dimensional or flat structures made from bar components and are intended for the design of civil engineering structures. They can account for prestressing reinforcements, construction phases and imposed road loads. The calculations are performed according to the Strength of Materials theory applied to elastic beams, in which each segment is normally represented by a beam element. The calculation must closely follow all of the construction phases in order to consider the load application dates and the aging of the materials (shrinkage, creep and relaxation) between these different phases.

3.3 - Verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses
3.3.1 Preamble

Paragraph 3-3 describes the verifications to be carried out with regard to normal stresses due to normal force. These calculations must be performed at the Service Limit State and at the Ultimate Limit State, when the structure is under construction and in service. Verifications to be carried out with regard to shearing stresses are covered in Chapter 4.

3.3.2 -

Verification categories

Cast-in-situ structures are generally justified according to class II of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Considering the absence of longitudinal reinforcement bars passing through the joints, decks made from prefabricated segments are generally verified longitudinally according to class I of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999. Article 3.1.43 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 also describes the possibility of verifications being made

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in class II subject to the joints remaining fully compressed under Pm. In this case, in accordance with Article 6.1.32, the stressed zone must also be less than 5 cm in height. The choice of verification category must be clearly stated in the STC (Special Technical Clauses).

3.3.3 -

Verifications in the construction phase

In general, verifications must be carried out during all phases of construction. 3.3.3.1 – Verification of cantilever prestressing In addition to the verifications specific to the static balance which are covered in Chapter 5 of this guide, SLS (Service Limit State) verifications must be performed at all phases of the construction of the cantilever in order to verify the prestressing of the bridge deck. The loads to be used include the known site loads (form travelers etc.) and the random site loads defined in paragraph 3-2.4.F For structures verified in class II, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999 can be applied and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can therefore be considered in the coating section. 3.3.3.2 – Verification of internal continuity prestressing The internal continuity prestressing inside the concrete is designed to take up shrinkage, creep and thermal effects (thermal gradient and uniform temperature variation) during the construction phase between the casting of the concrete for the closing segment and the tensioning of the external continuity prestressing. The uniform temperature variation can be considered to be equal to +/- 10° C. The positive thermal gradient can be considered to be equal to 8° C. A negative thermal gradient of 5° C must also be taken into account. In the case of structures with prefabricated segments, it is also important to consider the launch beam and the low-bed semi-trailer. For structures verified in class II and considering the very short site design phase, the comment in Article 6.1.23 of the BPEL 91, revised in 1999, can be applied, and a tensile stress limit equal to ftj instead of 0.7ftj can be considered in the coating section.

3.3.4 -

Verifications at service limit state (SLS) in service

The verifications must be carried out: • • Upon commissioning After all of the delayed losses and redistributions have occurred (e.g. after 50,000 days, this period may be considered to be “infinite”, even if all of the losses and redistributions have not occurred according to the laws of the BPEL) With or without thermal gradient effects.

3.3.5 -

Verifications at ultimate limit state (ULS) in service

It is difficult to apply ULS coefficients to a structure built in phases. For the verification of longitudinal flexion in service, the following simplified method is proposed:

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Given that: • represents the empty states envelope (state upon commissioning, state after all losses) without weighting (this envelope was been used for SLS verifications) represents the state according to a new calculation performed by applying all of the dead loads at the same time (without prestressing) represents the effect of the imposed loads

The ULS combinations to be considered are: [ ] + [ 0.35 [ ] + [ 1.5 ] ] -I- [ 1.5 ]

With this method, the forces due to the prestress tendons have not been increased. Indeed, if we take: P: to be the prestressing G: to be the dead loads except for the prestressing [concrete (envelope before and after creep), equipment and asphalt] Q: to be imposed loads We can calculate the following: P + 1.35 G + 1.5 Q and P + G + 1.5 Q

With this calculation method, which is considered to be unfavorable, the Ultimate Limit State is not generally a key factor with regard to longitudinal flexion.

3.3.6 -

Dimensioning approach

The dimensioning of a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method is performed at the Service Limit State. Structures dimensioned in this way are then verified at the Ultimate Limit State. The dimensioning can be carried out according to the steps outlined below: 1st stage: determining the cantilever tendons The cantilever cabling is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the selfweight of the concrete in the cantilever and the site loads defined in paragraph 3-2 above. If it is possible to choose the length of the standard segments, i.e. if the length of the form traveler is not imposed, it may be beneficial to choose a segment length and prestressing units that are compatible with the attachment of two tendons per segment. In this situation, it is necessary to test most common prestressing units and to choose the one that gives a conventional segment length, i.e of between three and four meters.

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In most cases, the dimensioning of cantilever tendons takes account of the normal stresses in the upper axis of the section situated directly above the temporary blocks, at the moment of the casting of the final pair of segments, i.e. before the tensioning of any cantilever tendons that might be anchored in this segment. In the case of the final pair of segments without cantilever tendons, the casting of the closing segment may be the critical phase. 2nd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated inside the concrete The continuity cabling inside the concrete is dimensioned in the construction phase. It must take up the effect of the thermal gradient in the construction phase before the stressing of the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete in addition to the effect of the selfweight of the end spans. The internal continuity cabling must also take up some of the redistributed delayed forces. In general, the same prestressing units are chosen for the internal continuity tendons and the cantilever tendons. 3rd stage: determining the continuity tendons situated outside the concrete These tendons are designed to take up the operating forces which are not absorbed by the two preceding families of tendons. This cabling has two roles: • • To keep the shear stress down to acceptable levels by reducing the shear force To keep the normal stress within acceptable levels.

Initally, it is important to concentrate on shear stresses and to discover which segments have permissible levels of shear stress without the reduction made by the external tendons. In this way, the location of the external prestressing deviator can be determined. This must be situated between a third and quarter of the way along the span (a third of the way along the span for variable thickness and a quarter for constant thickness). It should be noted that this method can only give an approximate alignment because the permissible shear stress depends on the normal stress, which is itself dependent on the prestressing that is used. After obtaining an initial alignment, the focus can then be switched to the normal stresses in order to determine the intensity of the prestressing. As the number of external tendons is always the greatest on piers, an initial estimate of the dimensions of the tendons can determined by concentrating on the lower axis of the crown section and by considering that the redistributions of forces due to concrete creep create a tensile stress of approximately 2 MPa. The final alignment can be obtained by making certain adjustments to these initial estimates such as: • • Altering the length of the different tendons (the tendons may cross one, two or three spans) Moving the deviators on one or two segments.

If there are no shear force problems, it is also possible to reduce the number of external cables and to compensate for them by using additional internal continuity tendons in the central zones, which are more economical because they are much shorter.

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Finally. this variation is sufficiently localized that it is not normally necessary to perform a specific calculation in addition to the calculation for the standard section. Furthermore. the main sections to be verified are: • -The upper slab: at the base of the cantilever.1 . This makes it possible to account for the differences in behavior between two sections of contrasting height. deviator segments. etc.Transverse and localized behaviour This chapter covers the behavior of the bridge deck with regard to: – Stresses (flexion and shear) arising from the transverse behavior of the bridge deck – Tangential effects originating from the general longitudinal flexion covered in this chapter. at the gusset located on theinner side of the box-girder. it is important to design the cross-sections of structures properly in the first place.Verification principles Apart from general longitudinal flexion.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4 . we have decided to include them because they are not dealt with in any other guide. In a structure of constant depth. For structures of constant depth characterized by a thickening of the lower slab close to piers. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 58 septembre 2007 . and in the centre of the slab -The webs: at the level of the centre of gravity and at the upper and lower extremities -The lower slab: primarily at the base of the gusset. caused mainly by the distribution of the anchoring forces. In a section of bridge deck. the main points to be considered in the dimensioning of structures are: • • • • Transverse flexion Tangential effects Specific elements such as the segments on piers and on abutments Localized forces. 4. because it is essential to combine them with localized effects when performing the detailed verifications and determining the reinforcements – The distribution of localized forces – The forces in specific elements (segments on piers and deviators). the calculations for transverse flexion are performed in a standard section. they are generally performed in a section close to a pier and in the crown section. this chapter describes how to accurately account for the forces in specific elements such as segments on piers. In a structure of variable depth. It is then possible to determine the reinforcements for the cross-section in accordance with the different accumulated actions taking into account their concomitance. Although the majority of the points covered are not specific to bridges built by the cantilever method. rather than to rely on complex calculations to remedy any problems. anchor blocks. with the taller section close to the pier being more flexible than the crown section.

The methods described hereafter. 4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 59 septembre 2007 .1 – Calculation with a 2D model (nomographs + frame calculations) For the upper slab. 4. the usual actions must be considered: selfweight of the structure. apply to this type of structure.Transverse flexion 4. only sophisticated modeling techniques provide a satisfactory response to the problem posed. weight of the superstructures. either by directly incorporating the statutory French loads (using Thénoz’ nomographs with loads from Fascicule 61 title II of the French CCTG.2. These forces include: • • • The forces developed by some of the tie bars for the form travelers The weight of a launch beam on the section of bridge deck that has already been constructed The weight of a segment stored on the segment to be calculated: a situation encountered on certain prefabrication areas with insufficient storage space. to which the loads from any regulations can be applied (e. or more general methods (Pücher or Homberg).2.1 Actions to be considered When the structure is in service. etc. loads on the lower slab.2 .2.2. In the construction phase. In the case of more complex structures.2 - Calculation of transverse stresses It should be remembered that monocellular bridge decks represent the vast majority of structures built by the cantilever method.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. any transverse prestressing.1 – Sections to be verified 4. 4. weight of road traffic loads.g. additional actions must be introduced in order to account for the forces developed in certain situations encountered on site. and especially the "simplified" methods. Transverse forces can be calculated in different ways according to the type of deck in question: • • • Using a 2D model Using a 3D model Using a finite element model. it is possible to use nomographs to calculate the forces.

it does not represent the distribution of forces from the upper slab towards the webs and the lower slab. Fig. the forces are calculated using nomographs for doubleembedded slabs for loads situated between the webs.2). 4.] According to these calculations. 4. Next. and nomographs for embedded slabs for loads situated on the cantilevers. However. 4. the transverse moments acting in the box girder are: • • • M nomograph + M frame for the upper central slab M frame in the webs and lower slab And M nomograph in the cantilevers. The Thénoz and Pücher nomographs are only used for slabs of a constant thickness while the Homberg nomograph accounts for thickness variations. as there is not yet a significant distribution of forces in this area. the force is unevenly distributed along the fixed support and on the other. For concentrated loads (road traffic loads).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Eurocode 1) or even loads that are not specified by a particular regulation. this calculation is completely valid for distributed loads such as selfweight or the fittings. of course Specific points concerning the modeling • The span of the central slab (for calculation by nomographs) is obtained by considering the point of intersection of the intrados of the slab and a line angled at 45° from the origin of the gusset on the web (Fig. Therefore.2 – Principle of the calculation method using nomographs [Sétra’s Bulletin Technique (Technical Bulletin) n° 1 and its Ouvrages d’art (Civil Engineering Structures) Bulletin n° 13 of November 1992 contain further details about this method. the moments obtained at the embedded section are added at the upper nodes in a 2-D model representing a section of deck of a unitary length (Fig. This remains valid for the upper part of the webs. it is only an approximate calculation because on the one hand. Calculations using finite elements have shown that this type of calculation is reasonably accurate for the upper slab when the webs are sufficiently rigid. This principle of a two-dimensional calculation supposes that: • • The bridge deck is of a locally constant section All of the sections are loaded in the same way.3) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 60 septembre 2007 . this calculation is nowhere near as representative for the lower part of the box girder. For conventional structures (monocellular box girders).

because the vertical reactions would then develop a horizontal component (of the normal force in the webs) which does not exist If we simply apply the fixed support reactions of the double-embedded slab at the upper nodes and place the frame supports in the lower nodes. but it is easy to calculate For stability. a compression appears in the bars representing the webs. it is essential to apply the opposite of the load applied (vertical force and torsion moment) to all of the bars of the model in the form of shear flows on each bar. this type of calculation requires a balancing of the loads for each load situation. This shear force is not given by the nomographs. 4. In the interests of accuracy. Then it is verified that the support reactions are zero However. Of course.4). However. calculations can be simplified not applying this equivalent flow and neglecting the normal effort in the web. In order to avoid parasitic forces resulting from a blockage of the nodes in the model. This presupposes that the unitary flows due to a vertical load or a torsional moment have first been determined using a calculation program for the characteristics of hollow sections (Fig. This approximation is justified by the weak difference with the reinforcement calculated with the previous method.3). • • • Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • For the introduction of the moments at the nodes of the frame. by multiplying it by the distance between this theoretical end fixing and the upper node situated on the centerline of the web (Fig. the fact of directly applying the fixed-end moments (with the nomographs giving a single value) presupposes that the structure and the forces are symmetrical. in the majority of the cases (monocellular bridge deck with a moderate width and a moderate height). These supports must be situated at the bottom of the webs (in the case of inclined webs). 4.4 – Shear flows due to a vertical force in a monocellular box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 61 septembre 2007 . 4. it is necessary to free one of the supports transversally.3 – Relative positions of the forces calculated at the fixed support of the slab (for the nomographs) and of the upper node of the modeled frame to which the efforts are applied As the principle is obviously valid. this model must include two supports. it is necessary to add the moment due to the shear force calculated at the theoretical edge of the slab. which does not exist in reality. this method can be extended to structures other than monocellular box girders. Fig. 4.

in spite of its lack of precision in the lower areas of the webs and in the lower slab. The analysis of this three-dimensional phenomenon also requires 3D modeling (Fig. as mentioned in the preamble. these calculations are almost always performed for the section on the pier on the one hand. . and for section at the crown on the other.5).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For more complex structures (multi-cellular box girders). [For further information about these methods.2 – Calculation using a 3D model For conventional standard sections. etc.A. a 2D calculation is often too simplistic and unrealistic in terms of the actual distribution of forces. Calgaro.Presse des Ponts et Chaussées 88]. Significant distorsions may be shown in the cross-section of multi-cellular bridge decks under the effects of both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads.2. a 3D model is not significantly more accurate. it is necessary to adopt another type of modeling (3D with bars or finite shell elements) which shows up local structural variations (ribs. the 2D model is usually adequate. refer to Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural Analysis of Bridge Decks) by J. Therefore. this includes: • • • • • • Segments on piers (even for conventional box girders) Deviator segments for external cables (as above) Very wide monocellular box girders Box girders with transverse ribs Multicellular box girders Box girders with bracing. crossbeams on supports or deviator beams. thicker sections of webs. For example. 4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 62 septembre 2007 . Despite its complexity. a common approach is to determine equivalent vertical loads giving the same moments in the middle of the slab and at the fixed support (uniformly distributed loads and knife-edge loads). and to a lesser extent on the thickness of the lower slab. for elements with non-standard sections. As the frame effect in a structure of variable depth depends on the rigidity of the webs (according to their height and thickness).) or non-homogeneous behavior. 4.2. which will then be moved transversally into different positions in order to obtain the maximum effects in the transverse structure. On the other hand.

we are only interested in the forces in proximity to the crossbeam. we are using the bridge deck’s actual supports. in order to obtain the correct local forces For a segment on pier. the longitudinal division can be varied in order to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy for the forces to be calculated: In order to study the behaviour of a complex standard section.2. § 4. rib. • According to the elements to be analysed (segments on supports or a standard sections of a complex structure). we can also limit the length of the modeled portion to a few sections (Fig. Furthermore. The strengthening pieces (segment on pier. To determine the rod center of gravity and inertia. it is necessary to model a portion of bridge deck that is long for the forces not to be disturbed by the conditions at the extremities. it is possible to take account of the longitudinal symmetry in order to halve the size of the model. equal to approximately ¼ to ½ of the height. as the external actions originate primarily from the flows on the end section. 4.1). Each rod has its own specific characteristics (area. In this case. because on the one hand. 4. which rapidly increases the size of the model.It is therefore necessary that end sections should modelize the section of a standard segment. the breakdown must remain consistent with that used in the longitudinal direction.5 –3D model of a multi-cellular box girder Basic modeling recommendations A 3D model is a beam grid system.6). deviator beams) modify the rods neutral axis. The loads applied to the section itself are balanced out by directly opposite flows (cf. …) in order to account for the distribution of forces in both directions of the beam grid. but does not apply for stiffener.slabs. it is important to take account for the effective width of slab. bending inertia) and the torsion inertia is considered to be equal to half of the bending inertia of the corresponding rectangular cross section (shell element .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. webs.2. It is advisable to divide the deck into sufficiently short sections. • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 63 septembre 2007 . • In the other directions. and on the other hand. it is necessary to be very careful to modelize conditions at the limits (the six degree of freedom of the nodes are not all embedded) to guarantee the representativity of the model. The external forces are applied to the segment in the form of flows in the end sections of the model.

For example.2. or for any other reason (better curracy for example). and the forces at the extremities of the model are completely disturbed. it is also necessary to extend the shell model with bars representing the deck itself. These programs are extremely powerful and are capable of solving complex problems. 4. For detailed information about modeling and calculation methods. especially in proximity to the bearings or perpendicular to the deviators. it can be considered that the zone to be ignored corresponds to approximately 2 to 3 times the height of the section.2. On the other hand. Of course. but the engineer must have an excellent command of finite elements and a detailed analysis of both the structure itself and its modeling must be performed. it is extended by a segment of three times the height on each side (Fig. featuring the same cross-section characteristics. 4. the segment of shells and bars are connected by an arrangement of rigid bars laid out in a “spider” configuration.3 – Calculation using finite shell elements As mentioned previously. Basic modeling recommendations Several basic rules apply to this modeling: • The conditions at the limits are very important. due to the fact that it is impossible to generate elements automatically. Under no circumstances can they compensate for a poor initial design. In general. the forces given by the model are directly usable. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 64 septembre 2007 . 3D modeling is generally reserved for segments on supports or deviators.6 – Modeling of a half-segment on pier using a 3D model This method is more cumbersome than the 2D calculation method. Fig. it is necessary to model a sufficiently long portion in order to obtain a reasonably large undisturbed “usable” area. if an entire span is being modeled.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this type of modeling.French Civil Engineering Association)].7). In order to apply the general forces correctly. please refer to the "Emploi des éléments finis en génie civil" (Use of Finite Elements in Civil Engineering) documents published by the AFGC (Association française de génie civil . 4. but it gives a better representation of the direction of the forces. a shell-type finite element calculation can be performed when the structure is not a traditional box girder. Consequently.

and it also takes account of the interaction between the general effects and the local effects (general dispersion). a maximum ratio of approximately 2 is recommended between the plan-view dimensions and the thickness. because the system forms an independently balanced structure The dead loads are entered over the entire structure. One of the main advantages of this method is that it gives an effective representation of the behaviour of the structure.1). interpolations will have to be performed: a long manual operation that is a source of errors or inaccuracies The prestressing must be entered in the form of external forces. which we can continue to calculate manually. but which present other difficulties. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 65 septembre 2007 . it is possible to determine the lines of influence (or rather the surfaces of influence) of the efforts in question in these sections. or “T” sections require a reconstitution of the forces on the section based upon the constraints for each element. 4. Remarks The shell finite elements are not adapted to model properly the massive parts of a segment on pier (cross-beam or anchorage block for example) .60 m It should be remembered that the results for finite elements are given at the centre of gravity of the element.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The shape of the elements must not be too distended. Consequently. Otherwise. however. it is then necessary to add offset rods or 3D finite elements. This type of model must not be used to determine highly localized dispersion forces such as those in the first regularization prism or the radial tendon forces in the deviators. including on the bars outside the shell segment Traffic loads: in order to perform an accurate calculation.7 – Breakdown of a bridge deck into finite shell elements Furthermore. In general. the reinforced concrete elements. the slabs and webs can be broken down into elements measuring approximately 0. both in the standard parts and in specific areas such as the segments on piers or deviators. the designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this method can be very cumbersome due to the need to move the imposed loads “manually” on the upper slab for certain finite elements programs which do not have an automatic load placement function. use triangular elements).4. after defining the calculation sections (in the transverse direction). which makes it possible to choose the positions of the loads in order to obtain the maximum effect required. This method must be used in very specific cases and require a high level in modelling with 3D finite elements. Thus. in terms of their two-dimensional characteristics and their thickness. None of these forces should be omitted (anchoring forces and thrusts close to the deviations). • • • • Fig. with the crossbeams or deviators also having maximum thicknesses of 0. The structure should therefore be broken down in such a way that the centres of gravity of the elements are situated in line with the correct cross sections: at the gussets for example. for which the ratio should also not exceed 2 (otherwise. such as determine the efforts and deduce the corresponding reinforcement (see also § 4.50 m to 0.60 m in the plan view. the forces given by the model are directy exploitable.50 to 0. giving a shape similar to a rectangle.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. This is a cylindrical shell subjected to longitudinal compression stresses which can be considered to be uniform transversally to the structure.2. In a cross-section. the distribution of the fixed end moments in the webs and in the span also varies according to the relative stiffnesses of the slab and webs (with the upper slab generally being constant). by: q = σ b moy e Rmoy with σb moy = mean stress in the lower slab for the segment in question e = thickness of the lower slab in this segment Rmoy = mean radius of the mean axis of the lower slab for the segment in question. the longitudinal compression in the lower slab creates a lateral thrust (due to the curvature of the slab) which creates a transverse flexion of this slab.3 - Lateral thrust in curved or deviated compressed or stressed elements 4.3.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 66 septembre 2007 . This moment varies throughout the length of the structure due to the longitudinal variations in the thickness of the slab and the extent of the stresses in the section. The lateral thrust in a given section of the structure of a unitary length is expressed per (transverse) meter of slab.1 – Lateral thrusts of concrete in curved slabs In bridge decks of variable depth. preferably using a gusset. which stresses the upper axis on the centerline of the slab and the lower axis in line with the fixed end in the web. This stress field causes a lateral thrust towards the top of the slab which is balanced out by the embedding of the slab in the webs and causes a transverse bending moment. This slab is embedded in the webs of the box girder.

this force is equal to f = – P the prestressing force of the tendon – R radius of curvature P with: R The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 67 septembre 2007 . 4. These tendons are tensioned in the second phase after the completion of the cantilevers. Virlogeux – Annales de l'IBTP February 1981]. these tendons are close to the centre of the span.3.2 – Radial thrust of continuity tendons The presence of prestress tendons in the lower slab causes a phenomenon of the same type but in the opposite direction. but in the opposite direction. 4.9 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – transverse section Note In the case of a high curved lower slab (for example with a cubic depth variation).2. [See article from P. the presence of ducts reduces the strength of the section and thus increases the likelihood of the structure breaking along lines parallel to the ducts.8 – Vertical thrust of a curved slab – longitudinal section Fig. The presence of tendons in the curved slabs generates similar forces to those described above. By calling f the linear force of the radial thrust of the tendon. Furthermore. Faessel – Journée de l'AFPC April 1974 and M. However. 4. Two different situations are identified: • • Tendons in the curved slabs Construction irregularities. an area of low slab compression: the action of these tendons is therefore preponderant. instability of this lower slab may occur under compression in the most curved zone. when the end or intermediate spans between consecutive cantilevers are closed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

the force increases significantly amd can lead to the breaking of the slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 68 septembre 2007 . produce concentrated forces which can result in problems or even spalling in the lower slab. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Furthermore. In the case of a bridge deck with a high curvature in the horizontal plane. The same applies directly above the supports when the slope of the slab suddenly changes. irregularities in the alignment of the ducts during construction. giving a concentrated effort which results in strong localized stresses in the lower slab. 4. Indeed. 4.2. the horizontal component of this thrust is not negligeable.4 – Thrust perpendicular to a deviator External prestressing tendons are deviated in deviator crossbeams with a small radius of curvature.10 – Forces perpendicular to angular points – longitudinal section This is why it is essential to place a stiffener or crossbeam in this area in order to transfer the force towards the webs and to take up the transverse flexion of the slab. if the radius of curvature becomes very small (producing an angular point). Even for structures of constant depth.2. this arrangement is not recommended. It is thus highly inadvisable to place tendons in the lower slab of bridge decks of variable depth. They thus develop large localized forces which must be taken up by these deviators.3.3-3 – Lateral thrust in a lower slab perpendicular to an angular point In bridge decks of variable depth with linear gussets. On a support. Note The lateral thrust also exists when continuity tendons are placed in the gussets. because the segments are short and the large number of joints increases the risk of irregularities. particularly in line with the segment joints. localized lateral thrusts originate in the lower slab at the point of intersection of two rectilinear portions of lower slab subjected to longitudinal compression stresses. a crossbeam is also needed to take up the torsion forces due to the asymmetrical loading of the bridge deck. the differential shrinkage can cause cracks near the tendon layouts which can lead to the corrosion of the tendon. 4. The resultant is directed according to the bisector of the mean lines of the slab. The principle is the same as above. In addition. However this phenomenon is less severe because the thickness of the concrete enables better distribution of the forces. with the radial thrust being directed according to the bisector of the tendons layouts.

12 represents the thermal gradient in a common concrete box-girder according to Eurocode 1 – Section 1. For information only. This phenomenon will be amplified with a high strength concrete. Therefore. It shows that a thermal gradient exists in the upper slab.5 Δθ. we propose to consider a gradient of 10°C in the upper slab under the form of a linear gradient.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. we advise to place a minimum reinforcement ratio equal to 10-4 fc of the lower slab section (with fc expressed in MPa).2.5. 4. Lower slab The lower slab requires generally few lateral reinforcements unless it is very wide. in certain cases it is advisable to consider the localized effects caused by a gradient operating between the two faces of the upper slab. The combination to use is the same as the one for general flexion : G + Wr + 0. the corresponding section of reinforcement is added to that which is determined by the general shear force. It is not necessary to take it into account in the case of monocellular box girder. The figure 4.4 Upper slab Forces due to thermal phenomena In addition to conventional flexion forces due to the thermal gradient. 4. This gradient results in transverse flexion which is added to the other stresses.11 – Forces perpendicular to a prestressing deviator 4. Fig. In the webs. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 69 septembre 2007 . the shrinkage can cause a longitudinal cracking. a wide lower slab or a cement with a high hydratation heat. As concreting is made at the contact of the previous segment. For example.12 – Localized thermal gradient in the upper slab Note This gradient has some effect only in the case of multicellular box girders. it gives 0.4% for a C40/50 concrete.

3 . This is why calculation methods always have a greater safety margin for shearing Secondly. the class III rules have to be completed as followed : For the sake of good design and to prevent excessive cracking. Furthermore.2 - General design assumptions Shear force calculations are carried out on sections of the beam perpendicular to the mean axis (Fig 4. The required amount of reinforcement would be high because the traffic loads would cause frequent and repetitive cracking. that the non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to take up the forces due to the concomitance of flexion and shear forces are properly positioned and dimensioned with regard to the statutory requirements (verification at the Service Limit State and the Ultimate Limit State). But it is generally advised to increase the lateral prestressing because this latter is only determined by the condition of zero traction in concrete under dead loads while the imposed loads have a much bigger effect. Cracks caused by shear forces do not close up on their own like flexion cracks when the stress is reversed. failure due to shear forces is a brittle rather than a ductile phenomenon. under the effects of the fatigue truck Bf (a single truck placed in the centerline of the slower lane). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 70 septembre 2007 . It should be remembered that verification at the service limit state is designed to control cracking and at the ultimate limit state the aim is to ensure safety by preventing brittle fractures. • 4. revised in 1999.3. 4.Industrial Technical Centre for Steel Construction)/ SNCF (Société nationale de chemins de fer . the upper slab must remain transversally compressed under a proportion of the imposed loads: for example. the verification of the parts and the determination of the prestressing bars and reinforcements are carried out according Class III in the BPEL (Limit State Prestressed Concrete Code) 1991.1 Verification principles The verification of the bridge deck under tangential stresses consists of checking: • Firstly. The contract can also impose the amount of transversal prestressing.French Railways). the verification of the parts and the calculation of the reinforcements are carried out according to the instructions in the BAEL (Béton armé à l’état limite . revised in 1999. When the transverse section is prestressed (upper slab). Such a choice has to be written in the Special Technical Clauses (STC).13 where G1 and G2 are respectively the center of gravity of the vertical cross-sections and of the cross-section perpendicular to the mean axis. To limit the amount of reinforcements (it is necessary to enable a good concreting) and to limit the fatigue risk in these reinforcements or their corrosion.2. specified in the "Ponts métalliques et mixtes . in order to reduce the probability of cracking. that the shear stresses are permissible at all points.3.Limit State Reinforced Concrete Code) 1991.5 - Verifications of the sections In the absence of transverse prestressing.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. Cracking is generally considered to be detrimental.résistance à la fatigue" (Metal and Composite Bridges – Resistance to Fatigue) guide published by Sétra/CTICM (Centre technique industriel de la construction métallique .General tangential stresses 4.

Therefore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. In addition. as the distribution of areas and stresses may reverse the phenomenon (cf. calculations of shear force are sometimes carried out on vertical sections. § 4.13 – Shear force on straight sections To simplify.3). 4. or more precisely. fittings and imposed loads) Thermal gradient The redistribution of forces due to creep Prestressing (cf.1 . These major phases are: • Imbalances during the construction of the cantilever.3. This calculation is usually less favourable. from construction through to commissioning. it is important to verify all of the major phases.2. The following actions must be considered: • • • • External loads (selfweight. 4.Influence of construction sequence of operations 1) Segment on pier The segment on pier is a large structure which is subjected to highly variable stresses during the construction of the bridge deck and when the structure is in service. rather than just concentrating on the definitive situation. detachment of form traveler) The transfer of supports after the grouting of closing segments The tensioning of the external prestressing in the segment on pier (maximum distribution forces) The service state (maximum flexion). with the segment on pier being embedded (asymmetrical casting . the Resal Effect must also be considered.2). on sections perpendicular to the upper axis.2. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 71 septembre 2007 .3. although not always so. § 4.3.

15 – Segment on pier with double supports Fig. 4.16 – Embedded segment on pier The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 72 septembre 2007 . 4.14 – Traditional segment on pier Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 4.

the mean axis presents an angular point directly above the support.17 – Diagram of the reduction of shear force due to the tendons 4. 3D modeling is required to account for the transverse and longitudinal stiffnesses of the section. when not fully understood.2.3 – Bridge deck of variable height For structures of variable height.Certain design programs include them just after their anchorage.3. especially for box girders with three webs.2. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 2) Standard segments The major phases for standard segments are: • • • The prestressing of the segment in question (maximum dispersion forces) The end of the construction of the cantilever (maximum prestressing in the section) The service state (maximum flexion). multicellular structures are also sometimes used. the support reaction is not equal to the sum of the shear forces to the right and left of this support. it is important to be consistent when using the design program to account for the reduction of shear force due to the tendons in order to avoid counting the same force twice. Fig. Furthermore. other include them only at the other side of the segment. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 73 septembre 2007 . These structures are more difficult to build and their complex transverse behavior. 4. In particular.2 – Method used to account for prestressing Tendons anchored at less than one regularization length from the section being studied create some distribution effects which add to the general effects (in particular shear force) provided by the design program. as the central web takes up the most force).17. Although the majority of structures are now mono-cellular box girders. 4. this type of section is sensitive to the distorsion (deformation of the cross-section) that appears under loads. may lead to problems in the webs (non-uniform distribution of shear forces.2.3.4 – Transverse morphology The development of highways and urban structures has led to the construction of extremely wide structures. . Consequently. Therefore. the angle of the tendons in relation to the mean axis generally reduces the shear force according to the diagram 4. but the vertical component of the normal force in the section must be added to it.3.

in preventing the buckling of this slab . by limiting the effective width to 1/10th of the length of the span in question. we usually see an adjustment of the shear force due to the fact that the mean fibre is inclined in relation to the slab: the compression in the slabs presents a component in the direction of the shear force. it is advisable to place a tendon at the end of each cantilever and position it so that it compresses the ends of the upper slab (see § 4. it is therefore not necessary to reduce the effective width in such a structure.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 74 septembre 2007 . However. It is recommended to concentrate the cantilever prestress tendons perpendicular to the webs so that they can directly take up the loads applied by the webs (by shearing). Fig. For an initial approximation. It is important to consider this when evaluating flexion stresses.3 - RESAL EFFECT 4.3. on either side of the web (for a box girder with two webs.4 of the BPEL. Furthermore. the distribution of forces concentrated in this type of section is not compatible with the normal simplified rules and requires a specific study.3.1 – Basic principles In structures of variable depth. 4. the effective width of the upper slabs on very wide monocellular box girder structures (with or without struts and/or ribs) is reduced in relation to their total width (shear lag phenomenon). However. this makes it possible to reach a total effective width of b = total thickness of webs + 0. the presence of ribs improve the distribution of forces in the upper slab.18 – Example of a very wide bridge deck 4. The main disadvantage of this method is the differential shrinkage which appears between concrete of different ages: between the concrete used for the box girders on the one hand and that used for the transverse grouting on the other.3.4 l. Finally. this transfer of loads has only a moderate effect on the stresses. this phenomenon can be accounted for according to the precepts of Article 5. Finally. The creep leads to a transfer of loads : • • Vertically the parts built in the second phase leans against the first box girder The normal force of the part built in the second phase tends to go to the part built in the first phase.3 for further details).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Another solution that has been virtually abandoned in France is to construct structures with two box girders joined together by the upper slab.

ΔV is the correction of shear force by the Resal effect: ΔV = -(α .19 – Resal effect in the upper and lower slabs A part of the shear force is balanced by the normal force in the slab.3. [For further details on theoretical methods. it is possible to perform calculations on vertical sections provided that: • • The extrados can be considered to be horizontal Shear forces are directed in the usual direction according to the cantilever. whereas because the variation in height is the greatest in this area.2 – Vertical section calculations With modern calculation methods. the areas in question for the calculation of Nls and Nus are the slabs and gussets.P. excluding the webs. no. in contrast to what can happen in highly asymmetrical spans in which a reversal of the shear force can be observed. For the pre-design calculations. 4. 391. there is a greater Resal effect due the lower slab. as the compression of the upper slab is limited.B. As can be seen in the formula above. This is usually weak in proximity to the supports.3. the upper slab exerts a Resal "counter-effect" in opposition to the effect in the lower slab. see the article by M.T.Virlogeux in the Annales de l’I.ϕ) Nls + ϕNus with: ϕ the angle of the mean axis from the upper axis α the angle of the lower slab in relation to the upper slab Nls force (compression) of the lower slab Nus force (compression) of the upper slab According to the BPEL. calculations are systematically performed on section perpendicular to the neutral axis. February 1981].T. The shear force is equal to V + ΔV. 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 75 septembre 2007 .

Additional steel reinforcement brought by the tendon anchorages are determined with the distribution calculations.3. This formula supposes that there is no concentrated forces in the vicinity of the studied section. Fig. of the part situated above the transverse slice in relation to the line passing through the centre of gravity).4 - Shear reaction due to shearing force For a traditional structure with two webs.4. BAEL Article 7. the width b is the straight width of the web in question and not its skewed width directly above the slice. Vred I Reduced shear force Inertia of the entire section When the webs are angled. it should be remembered that the whole diameter of the duct shall be deduced from the width when it is not injected. This is especially true close to the supports due to the steeper angle of the mean line.e. The difference may be as much as 1 MPa in certain configurations.20 – Shear reaction of angled webs As for the value of the nominal width. or injected with a flexible product.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case. 4.1). the vertical section calculation is less favorable. the formula is simplified to: ΔV = .3. and a half-diameter shall be deduced when it is injected with a cement grout (cf. 4.Nls sin α with α being the angle of the lower slab from the horizontal As mentioned previously. the shear reaction caused by shearing force can be expressed by the following formula: τ m = Vred S( y ) bn ( y ) I with bn(y) Total width at the y ordinate S(y) Static moment at the y ordinate (i. and less so in proximity to the crowns. 4.5 - Torsion shear The pure Saint-Venant torsion shear is equal to: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 76 septembre 2007 . in the event of there being a tendon in proximity to the joint (“internal” tendon).

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τT = T 2Ωe with T Ω e moment of torsion. • • • 4. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 77 septembre 2007 .2 of the BPEL 1991. The stresses σx. This shear is algebraically added to the shearing force calculated previously. we obtain: τ 2 ≤ 0.4 ftj ⎢ftj + ⎣ ⎡ 2 (σ x + σ t )⎤ (no failure due to cracking) ⎥ 3 ⎦ τ 2 −σ x σ t ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0.4 ftj ⎢ftj + σ x ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎤ and τ2 ≤ 2 ftj fcj 2 (0. • This calculation obviously supposes that the section is undeformable. generates a torsion which increases the load on the support on the inner side. Beyond. and generates a torsion opposed to that of the selfweight The external prestressing having a polygonal layout. the center of gravity of the arch portion is on the inner side of the curvature. which is generally the case.In the case of a curved bridge which section is supposed undeformable as indicated above. the torsion induced by the curvature has to be taken account for at different stages: At the construction of the cantilever. for self-weight. σt and τ calculated at any point of a section. revised in 1999.6 fcj − σ x − σ t )⎡ftj + 3 (σ x + σ t )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (no failure due to shearing and compression) In the general situation in which σt = 0 (no vertical prestressing). the torsion effect tends to load the support on the inner side The fittings weight applies on the continuous structure. This undeformability hypothesis can be considered if the length between stiffeners does not exceed 5 to 6 times the box girder width.6 fcj − σ x )⎡ftj + 3 σ x ⎤ with the first formula nearly always ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ predominating. must therefore satisfy the following inequalities at the service limit state: For σx > 0 τ 2 − σ x σ t ≤ 0. Area of tube defined by the middle surface of the box girder walls Thickness of the wall This torsion is caused by asymmetrical loads (dead loads and especially imposed loads) and by any curvature of the bridge deck in the horizontal plane. as the structures feature deviators which act as stiffeners and have webs with approximately the same thickness as the slabs (with quite similar stiffnesses).3.6 - Verification of the sections The sections are verified according to Article 7. the box girder distorsion increases the difference of longitudinal flexion between the webs and can be expressed with an offset coefficient applied to the loads. As a result.

prestressing bars) The distribution of forces only occurs above a certain length .Article 6. 4.1 at § 4. Therefore.1) due to excessive shearforce. Article 4. some of the vertical prestressing force is dissipated in localized areas of rigidity such as deviators or crossbeams (zones in which the greatest shear reaction is usually encountered reached). The procedure for calculating the non-prestressed reinforcements is similar to that laid down in the BPEL. Consequently.7 - Active stirrups (for information) This technique has sometimes been used to improve the shear resistance of webs.1 . Only certain types of active reinforcements can guarantee the correct tension (compression fittings.95 is usually adopted for this k’ coefficient (BPEL.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When the calculations are performed with the probable value of prestressing Pm. it is important to tie in the shear strain using transverse reinforcement bars. for example) Finally. S2. The reinforcements are determined at the ultimate limit state (BPEL. which makes this a particularly costly solution (requiring sealed caps and ducts. Article 7. the shear force at the web/lower slab junction must be verified without taking account of this compression To guarantee the correct distribution of forces.3. revised in 1999. I1.23 of the BPEL 91. thus complicating the concreting process Due to their design. with the contribution of the concrete accounted for in a similar way but with several additional refinements. see Fig 4. a figure of 0. • • • • 4. Special precautions must be taken with regard to structures built by the cantilever method due to their technical complexity. These stirrups have to be inserted into the passive reinforcement of the web. these reinforcements emerge in the upper slab and are thus extremely sensitive to corrosion.hence there is a lack of compression between the anchorages at the bottom of the web. their tension can differ considerably from the expected value due to the setting of anchorage wedges.1). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 78 septembre 2007 .u − bn st γ s ⎜ 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ tgβ u for reinforcements perpendicular to the mean axis. The only reason for its inclusion here is to remind readers of the drawbacks which led to its fall from grace: • Considering the very short length of the prestressing tendons.3. § 4. It is also important to verify the shear stresses at the service limit state as mentioned above (cf.2): ftj At fe ⎛ ≥ ⎜τ red . we shall refer back to it when it is finally published. ⎟ ⎠ Eurocode 2 (EN 1992 1.3. These bars are dimensioned in accordance with the instructions in Article 7. it is necessary to bring the active stirrups very close together.10. It is thus necessary to use “offshore” types of protection techniques.2) does not require verification at the service limit state.8 – Tying the slabs into the webs In order to prevent the fracturing of the vertical planes situated at the origin of the gussets (points S1. As this document is still under development.3-6). the limit stress τ must be multiplied by a coefficient k’.3.

Specific elements 4.4.5% seems to be sufficient under the most penalizing conditions (large width. A value of 0.2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1.1. thicker sections of web. crossbeam for definitive or temporary bearings).g. etc. 4.1 Segments on piers 4. a 3D model is generally used to model the segment on pier due to the presence of reinforcing elements (crossbeam. It is thus important to verify that the morphology of the segment on pier is capable of withstanding the transmissions of internal forces (e. J.3 – Strut and tie model It is also possible to use a strut-and-tie model [cf.1 Generalities It should be remembered that the initial static design of these parts of structures often does not allow for the application of Strength of Materials principles for the wire frame beams at all points.2. Schlaich . – see also § 4. The principle of this method is the following: • Construction of a model composed of struts and ties which replace the actual stresses fields by straight elements and which concentrate the stress deviation in the nodes Calculation of the effort statically balanced in the rods of the truss-model Page 79 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .4. HPC. a minimum level of transverse reinforcement is necessary to reduce cracking due to thermal shrinkage in the central area of the slab. The verifications focus mainly on: • The transmission of support reactions from the bearings (both temporary and permanent) towards the webs The take-up of torsion forces by the crossbeam The take-up of the lateral thrust of the lower slab by this same crossbeam for a variable height The distribution of the prestressing forces due to the tendons positioned in the segment on pier (SOP).2.PCI Journal – May / June 1987] to verify this transmission of forces.4 . 4. etc.2 – 3D model As previously mentioned in § 4. This model is used to verify the first three points presented above. the subsequent anchoring of the external continuity prestressing.4.21 – Tie bars to combat shear strain in the slab/web area For the lower slab.) which completely modify its behavior in comparison to a standard section.1.2.4.4). 4. • • • 4.

The usual method is the load path method. it requires the engineer to have a very good understanding of structural behaviour.3 – Particular points In the case of structures with high curvature.transmission of torsion As an example. The difficulty of this method is the construction of the model. 4. the bridge deck is subjected to torsion moments caused by the curvature. This can be quite cumbersome. It is on this section that we shall consider the stresses to be evenly distributed. or strengthened frame. The model is linked to the rest of the structure where the stress are supposed to be regularly distributed and linearized (B zone as Bernoulli. as the section is not constant (anchor blocks and thicker sections of web). which results in significant shear reactions in the webs close to the piers. it is necessary to make a choice between the sections in which the distribution of stresses is carried out. this distribution length generally includes the “standard” cross section of the bridge deck. the figure 4.5). Fig.4.22 below shows the behavior of the support crossbeam under the effect of the torsion of the box girder. Considering the relatively large depth of the bridge deck in this area (especially in the case of structures of a variable depth). This has hardly any effect on the reinforcement which depends primarily on force rather than stresses. The rods of the model have to be oriented according to the direction of the internal forces given by the Elasticity Theory.3. Figure 4. it is reasonable to consider the actual section.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Dimensioning of struts. But it is sometimes difficult to determine the load path.22 Support crossbeam . the crossbeams on piers have to take up these additional forces (see also § 4. for a common type of crossbeam ("V" shape). cf Schlaich).e.22 represents the working of the crossbeam under the effect of the torsion transmitted by the box girder. The stress diagram of this B zone is divided in such a way as to balance the concentrated forces by the corresponding zone with regularly distributed stress. The reader’s attention is drawn to the fact that although this method is very effective for use with any irregular parts of this type. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 80 septembre 2007 . ties and nodes. Obviously. A poor choice of struts and ties could lead to an incorrect arrangement of reinforcement bars and the use of excessively or insufficiently large sections. However. The fourth point (distribution) is verified according to the usual principles (Appendix 4 of the BPEL). Other types of crossbeam can be considered : "A" shape. when evaluating the shear stresses at the level of the transverse slices. It can require the use of a finite element model. On the other hand.1. including the additional thicknesses of the anchor blocks. The load paths have to link the two sides of the studied zone without crossing each other. The latter choice would be a much more serious problem. The model is balanced with the force brought by this zone B. i. 4.

Eurocode 2 does not have a chapter about the distribution of concentrated loads. the upper slab has been sometimes considered as a beam supported by the web and the reinforcement calculated as a flexion reinforcement. the distribution of prestressing is verified in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 of the BPEL 91. the following specific additions should be made – while awaiting modifications to this appendix. (or in segments on abutments).1 Distribution of forces caused by the prestressing anchorages In general. On the other hand. As it currently stands. it is advised to place some reinforcing bars in the opposite sides of the anchorage blocks to make it non brittle.23 – Section of a slice for distribution Remark To study the distribution of forces due to tendon anchorages in segments on piers. the distribution forces are much greater due to the fact that all of the external tendons are anchored in the same section. as this article features several ambiguities or omissions. In general. it is important not to wait too much before stripping not to obstruct the shrinkage. 4. Anyway.4. 4. This method was not satisfying since this "beam" is not a beam as a matter of fact because of the existence of the rest of the slab behind the element artificially isolated with length lr. Furthermore. it is necessary to stiffen the end of the upper slab under the pavement joint in order to take up the localized flexion forces at this edge under the effects of the moving loads. However.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. it is sufficient to anchor two longitudinal tendons in the inferior angle above the support.5 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 81 septembre 2007 .2 - Segments on abutments Segments on abutments have to transfer much smaller forces to the supports than segments on piers. For this reason it is advised to place a transversal prestressing to reduce the passive reinforcement and make concreting easier. generally with a inner wood formwork. The balance of the end strut will have to be studied very carefully. As the height is constant. 4. This prestressing enables also a cracking control.5. the phenomenon of lateral thrust due to the compression exerted by the lower slab does not exist.Localized forces and reinforcements 4. This can lead to an incorrect arrangement of rebars and to severe problems in the structure. When concreting these segments. The design principles are the same as for the segments on piers. revised in 1999. The rebars will be placed at the opposite side of the anchorages where as the cracking phenomena always occur near the anchorages.

It should be remembered that it is highly inadvisable to situate anchor blocks or tendons inside the concrete in curved (cf.2F is also used due to the fact that the prestressing force is directed towards the concrete and it thus exerts a component that is perpendicular to the “horizontal” calculation axis. § 4.1.2 F . Because the The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 82 septembre 2007 For the A1 reinforcements. with fe=500 MPa for classical reinforcement Fe E 500 (no limitation to 400 MPa).1. σs This represents nearly all of the “surface” and “spalling” reinforcements described in the BPEL For the A3 reinforcements. Finally. considering the anchoring force at the service limit state and limiting the stress in the reinforcements to σs = 2 fe 3 with F being the force at the anchorage.5. This would give an excessive length. It is recommended to use half of the width of the bridge deck in the case of a box girder.2F. and that it is preferable to place them in line with the gussets at the junction with the web. It must be remembered that the cracks which are observed in examples of the distribution of concentrated efforts always appear near the anchorage. revised in 1999.1 – Distribution in the horizontal plane For the regularization length. the cross section is equal to : A1 = 0. because it is a ultimate limit state verification. For example. for the A2 reinforcements. a maximum value of 0. in order to facilitate these calculations. in these reinforcements being positioned too far from the point at which the forces are applied. The reinforcement elastic stress shall be taken with its real value. However. 4.2.3-2) or even straight lower slabs.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 4. it must not be assumed that the bridge deck is simply “rotated” through 90°. The areas of reinforcements in question must be the sum of the cross sections in both planes (horizontal and vertical). we simply use F sin α according to the deviation plane of the tendon. and secondly. • • The aim of the calculations is to verify the safety at rupture for cracked concrete. The transverse reinforcements in these anchor blocks must tie the blocks into the rest of the section. this value is normally around 0. For example. resulting firstly in very low shear forces and the use of insufficient reinforcements. the problem is compared with a non-cracked state. two sections of reinforcements must be considered for A1 and the same applies to A2 and A3.2 – Continuity tendon anchor blocks Reinforcement bars for the anchor blocks are determined in accordance with the instructions in Appendix 4 § 2 of the BPEL 91. The following reinforcements must be used: • Reinforcement bars at the top of the anchor block in order to tie the block into the neighboring box girder wall (A1 reinforcements) Reinforcement bars taking up the radial thrust when the tendon deviates (A3 reinforcements) Tie bars for the rest of the anchor block (A2 reinforcements).5.

In the first place. we have to be careful not to overdimension this zone. The shear reaction is considered to be taken up over the shear keys cross-section according to the following formula: τ b = 0.5. 4.4 – External tendons The major characteristic of the external tendons is their great individual power which. not too high – to guarantee the concrete durability.2 - Shear keys of prefabricated segments In prefabricated structures. rather than thickening the anchorage blocks to resist an inappropriate intermediary phase.24 – Reinforcement of an anchor block 4.3 of the BPEL 91. it is a matter of common sense to position the anchorages for external tendons in the crossbeams as close as possible to the webs and slabs in order to transmit the forces as directly as possible towards the walls of the box girder.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide excess of reinforcement leads to concreting difficulties. added to the fact that the force is obviously applied outside the concrete.65 ftj + σ with The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 83 septembre 2007 . revised in 1999.3 – Traction reinforcements Traction reinforcements may be necessary to take up the traction due to the obstructed shortening of the concrete. by limiting their length near to tendon. (For further details. results in the need to ensure that such large forces are securely anchored.1. Mistakes in this area have sometimes led to complete failures which could have been avoided with a minimum of forethought at the design stage. A lack of thickness results in punching shear in the element in relation to the box girder tube which cannot be taken up by the reinforcements alone. behind the anchor blocks. Finally. it is important to respect the concrete cover – not too small.)] Fig. it is essential to make the anchoring elements thick enough (in the longitudinal direction of the bridge deck) to ensure that they are capable of transmitting most of the force.1. Transmission via compressed concrete struts is always the most efficient method. These reinforcements are determined in accordance with the instructions given in Appendix 4 § 2. 4.5. it is sometimes more appropriate to foresee a phasing which limits the dissymetry of tensioning forces. 4. see "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°11 from January 92 and comments and observations in n°12 from July 92 and n°14 from March 93. Furthermore. Furthermore.5. the segments have multiple shear keys designed to transmit the shear force.

It is essential that the shear keys leads to a web side.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide ftj σ characteristic tensile strength of the concrete normal stress at the centre of gravity of the section The shear keys alone have to take up the shear force before polymerization of the adhesive.3 - Deformation of prefabricated segments It has already been mentioned in paragraph 4. Once the adhesive has polymerized. the shear force is taken up throughout the entire height of the web. which are becoming increasingly common. In the case of prefabricated segments.10 is the height of the keyshear (Vn+1) In certain situations in which there is a rapid rate of assembly.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 84 septembre 2007 .4.25) can take up: Vad = τ b . although this phenomenon is shared by all prefabricated structures: a transverse “banana-shaped” deformation occurs in the horizontal plane due to the thermal gradient between the segment in the process of hardening and the segment that has already been cast.25 – Prefabricated segment crowns 4. these keys take up the the vertical component of the compression in the lower slab which slopes gradually towards the supports.2. as for cast-in-situ structures. The number of shear keys required is calculated accordingly: it is considered that the shear force of n segments is taken up by the shear keys alone in the first section at the end of polymerization. Because some of the shear keys could break during stripping. Finally.5. in the case of variable height decks with vertical joints. A conventional shear keys such as the one shown hereafter (cf.10 . Fig. 4. 4. they suffer from a problem that increases with width. for example). have specific behaviors and a reduced effective slab width. Fig. 0. Furthermore.2 MPa in order to spread the glue in all the section. it is necessary to foresee additional keys. b with b representing the width of the shear key (0. shear keys have to be placed in the upper and lower slab to prevent the shifting of the slabs. for the glue to evacuate when compressing the joint : for evident aesthetical reasons. we make the keys lead to the inner side of the box girder. It is advised to compress the joint section with 0. that extremely wide structures. several segments may be lashed before the first joint has had time to polymerize (up to four segments on the Ile de Ré bridge.

4. an accumulated deformation of 24 mm can occur over a span of approximately 30 meters in length. The following rules must be observed: • The combination of shear force and torsion reinforcements is carried out according to Articles 7. Cantilever tendons.4 of the BAEL 91.6 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This causes the joints to open up when the segments are brought together and thus leads to a non-uniform distribution of the stresses (in the transverse direction). refer to the article in the PCI journal . are less powerful and it is rare to find more than one pair of them in the same section.26 – Deformation of prefabricated segments 4.6. application of the cantilever or continuity prestressing. and secondly because several of them are placed in the same section (usually on a support). The tangential stresses accompanying the general or localized flexion stresses result in shear stresses which are added to the shear stresses due to distribution described hereafter Localized forces (reactions from the support system. revised in 1999 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 85 septembre 2007 .Rules to combine passive reinforcements The stresses to be taken into consideration for the calculation of non-prestressed reinforcements result from: • • Transverse flexion General shear force (including torsion).4. revised in 1999 and A. • The reinforcements include: • • A standard transverse reinforcement designed to take up the general shear force An additional reinforcement positioned in proximity to the concentrated efforts in order to take up the distribution of these forces.5.July-August 1995]. It should be noted that the distribution forces are only high for the external tendons. [For further information. which can result in cracking at the ends of the joints. The distribution of these forces in the structure gives rise to stresses which are added to the shear stresses described above. forces due to the site loads or form travelers). In certain extreme projects. Fig. which results in moderate distribution. firstly due to their high individual power.54 of the BPEL 91. like continuity tendons.

we will apply the combination rules quoted below for webs (zone of anchorage at the end of deck for example). Particular case of webs In the webs. a loading case giving flexion reinforcements on the external side of Afl ext will not give reinforcements on the internal side Afl int ≈ 0 (except in the case of incorrect dimensioning requiring the use of compression reinforcements). using the following notation for the sections used to calculate the flexion reinforcements: Afl ext Afl int Flexion reinforcements. place a minimum reinforcement of: A = Ai + Ae ≥ Acis Principle Indeed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The combination of dispersion and shear reinforcements is carried out according to Article 4 of Appendix 4 of the BPEL 1991.2 of the BAEL 91. However when shear stress are close to limits or in the case of very important distribution stresses. we have to take up the shear force on the one hand and flexion on the other hand i. we shall place reinforcements with a total section of Ae on the external side and Ai on the internal side must be implemented in such a way that. [for further information on this theory. It is equal τu to : k = 2 f sin β cos β u u 3 bu The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 86 septembre 2007 . internal side the following formulas are observed: Acis + Afl ext 2 A Ai = k cis + Afl int 2 Ae = k Obviously. external side Flexion reinforcements. see the Article from D. Le Faucheur on this topic in the "bulletin Ouvrages d'Art" from Sétra n°41 October 2002]. as this does not require a specific position in the section.5. Remarks The coefficient k represents the part of additional reinforcement necessary to take up the shear force. there is no combination of tie bar reinforcements with the transverse flexion reinforcements according to Article A.e. the combination of reinforcements must firstly take account of the non concomitance between the flexion forces. the reinforcements on the opposite side may take up the shear force. Thus. revised in 1999.3. As a consequence.5 A2 with A1 distribution reinforcements ⎪min ⎨ A + A 2 ⎩ 1 ⎩ Acis A2 shear force and torsion reinforcements • In the slabs. revised in 1999: ⎧ A1 ⎪ = max ⎨ ⎧1. In a single horizontal section of web. it is not necessary for the areas of flexion and shear to be added up.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide τu being the shear stress at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and bu the angle of the strut associated with the shear force and limited to 30° (in case of casting in two phases. the tie bar reinforcements must not be added to those determined by transverse flexion. Indeed. In this hypothesis. whereas offset trucks produce maximum torsion and give a lower level of shear force. fc is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. To simplify we can consider separately the characteristic combination for shear stress and the one for transversal flexion. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 87 septembre 2007 . it is necessary to consider consistent loading cases for the accumulation of reinforcements: • If we consider the construction stages. the reinforcements for flexion has to be calculated at ULS and not at Service Limit State (SLS) as it is the case for detrimental cracking.444fc sin βu cos βu It has to be noted that this is a ultimate limite state calculation. relatively large cross sections are obtained. The theory quoted above use concomitant load cases. or due to losses of tension in the cables. Otherwise it would be too severe and not coherent with the theory developped in this article. The ultimate compressive strength of the concrete is equal to fbu = 0. Similarly. for a cantilever tendon anchored in the height of the web. the value of bu is 45°).85 (for short term loads). Webs It is usually possible to limit the loading cases with regard to transverse flexion. the transversal flexion is maximal at the top of the web where as the combination of general shear force and distribution force is under the anchorage (because shear stresses have the same sign under the anchorage and opposite sign above the anchorage). the transversal flexion use a great part of its capacity and consequently it is necessary to complete the reinforcements to take up concurrently the shear force. whereas distribution is lower due to the existence of a certain symmetry in the anchoring forces on supports.85 fc θ γc . maximum flexion is obtained when the bridge is in service. In both cases. Geometrically. Upper slab As mentioned above. the coefficient k is equal to : k= τu 0. • Three zones can be distinguished for the reinforcements: • • • Transverse reinforcements in the upper slab with tie bar reinforcements Transverse reinforcement of the webs with shearing and distribution force frames Transverse reinforcement of the lower slab with tie bar reinforcements. It is then justified to take θ=0. This calculation principle is determining only for very thin webs. The complete study would be a useless complication. As a consequence. A symmetrical loading case produces maximum flexion in the webs.

transverse flexion forces are reduced due to the distribution of the imposed loads from the upper slab through the webs.Recommended configurations for reinforcements This is an appropriate point to offer instructions and advice with a view to obtaining reinforcements that are satisfactory in terms of the behavior of the structure and feasible to implement. It is important to use reinforcements which are properly designed and properly constructed. Given that it is common to find prestressing ducts in the upper slab. Upper slab In general.7 . The recommended spacing is approximately 0. When the slab is transversally prestressed by tendons.50 m to 0. it is preferable to position the transverse reinforcements (main bars with larger diameters) in the external layer and the longitudinal bars (secondary bars) in the internal layer. especially as this allows them to drop down inside the slab in accordance with bending moment. Fig. it is necessary to position duct supports sufficiently closely together in order to prevent the tendon from wobblingand make sure that there is no risk of the slab spalling once the tendons are stressed. attention should be focused on the relatively large tie bars between this slab and the web. In order to improve the casting quality of the slab and the webs. Furthermore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Lower slab In the lower slab.29). Bridge decks built by the cantilever method consist of box girders whose components are quite thin and are thus subjected to significant stresses. This is the reason for the very long gussets which are usually used in this type of structure.27 – Reinforcement of the upper slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 88 septembre 2007 . 4. to avoid reinforcements deformation which could give an unsufficient reinforcement for the durability of the structure. without being obstructed by longitudinal reinforcements. In the case of very wide structures. 4. or some rectangular stirrups as it is the case in the lower slab (Fig 4.27 and Fig 4. it is advisable to position them underneath the two previous layers. no more than two transverse reinforcements and one stirrup (i. it is necessary to place either some chair spacers between the two reinforcement layers. three reinforcements in a plan view) should be placed side by side.75 m.e.

revised in 1999). the slab tends to delaminate due to compression. hence the need for tie bars.29 – Reinforcement of the lower slab Lower gusset An example of the reinforcement of the lower gusset is provided below. • In all cases. In addition. Stiffness is necessary to prevent the ducts from shifting during the concreting under buoyancy. It is distinctly preferable to: • Thicken the slab. which could lead to very strong radial thrust when tensioning with disastrous consequences. Indeed. being aware that the weight gain is small as the variation in thickness is generally parabolic and that this thickness is only apparent near the supports Or increase the compressive strength of the concrete in the bridge deck. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 89 septembre 2007 . Fig. which must be absolutely welded to the main reinforcement. 4. the rectangular stirrups add greater rigidity to the reinforcement and thus help to improve the cover of the reinforcement bars. the lower slab is submitted to very high compression. Consequently. it is strongly recommended to place reinforcement rectangular stirrups rather than concrete chairs within the slabs in order to support the upper layers. 4. Information concerning the precautions to be taken with compressed parts can be found in § A.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.28 – Reinforcement of the upper gusset Lower slab In proximity to the piers. It is not recommended to use compressed reinforcements to take up this force if the slab is of insufficient thickness. The tendon ducts must be supported by a special structure.8 of the BAEL 91. a spalling force appears at the ends of compressed bars. which weakens the overlapping areas and requires reinforcing with tie bars.

31). Considering the depth of the decks of bridges built by the cantilever method. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 90 septembre 2007 . 4. it is very rare for the web reinforcements to be contructed in full rectangular stirrup. There are two possible ways to resolve this problem: • • By using two L-shaped parts. 4. It is essential to avoid overlaps along the walls.30 – Reinforcement of the lower gusset Webs As for the slabs. which overlap in the full thickness of the upper and lower gussets Or by using large U-shaped part with a small U-shaped part as a top reinforcement. with the overlaps only occurring in the upper gusset (Fig. i. They generally consist of two overlapping parts. the transverse reinforcements are positioned in the external layer. in the standard section of the web.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.e.

32 – Reinforcements of webs The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 91 septembre 2007 . Longitudinal reinforcement In the case of segments cast in situ. it is better to place the hook on the external side of the bridge deck. At least four stirrups should be used per square meter or two rectangular stirrups if this solution is used.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. generally in the form of stirrups ending on one side in a hook and on the other in a simple angled return. 4.23 from BAEL. the longitudinal reinforcement cannot (save exception) respect the rules of alternated overlapping according to the Article 6. For the sake of durability. it should be angled towards the inside of the bridge deck (Fig. instead. The angled return should not be placed parallel to the wall. because of a problem of lack of space given the dimensions of the segment.31 – Webs reinforcement The transverse reinforcements are joined by transverse rebars embedded inside the web. 4.32). 4. Fig.1.

it is necessary to use crack control reinforcements capable of controlling any peripheral cracking in this structure. In addition. taking account of the type of cement and any provisions that might be implemented in order to promote the regular and homogeneous cooling of the concrete. The risk of such reaction appears only for very large thickness. This analysis may lead to the development of an optimized sequence of operations for the segment on pier. These can cause severe problems in the structure of the bridge itself.33 – A large SOP The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 92 septembre 2007 . The temperatures rise in direct proportion to the volume and thickness of the cast concrete and its hydration heat. it can also lead to internal chemical reactions within the concrete itself. Whatever the circumstances.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Phenomenon specific to massive parts The segments on piers are massive parts for which it is advisable to carry out a specific analysis in order to evaluate the stresses due to thermal shrinkage during differential cooling in the body of the concrete after hydration of the cement. this rise in temperature does not only produce forces. 4. known as sulfate reaction. Fig. around one meter for example.

Principle of cantilever stability During the construction of segmental concrete bridges using the balanced cantilever method. it is verified that the cantilever does not detach from its temporary supports. For simplicity’s sake. To evaluate this risk. In the first case.Cantilever stability This chapter is entirely devoted to the problem of the stability of cantilevers in the construction phases. it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the cantilever arms on their pier before they are joined to the neighbouring cantilever or to the cast-on-falsework section on the end span near to the abutments.1 – Prefabricated cantilever under construction In both cases. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 93 septembre 2007 . It is also important to verify the strength of all of the mechanical components which contribute to the stability of the cantilever and of the whole pier and its foundations. Two families of combinations should be analysed: basic combinations corresponding to the first situation and accidental combinations corresponding to the second. a slight detachment is tolerated with a limited overstressing of the stressed reinforcements that are used to secure the cantilever to its pier. the partial safety factors for the combinations used for this verification are identical to those used in the calculation of stability.1 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5 . asymmetrical site loads or a rising wind acting on one of the half-cantilever An accidental situation corresponding to the collapse of a form traveler or pre-cast segment. It is essential to prevent the cantilever from tipping on the pier crosshead. It successively covers the causes of instability. the verifications to be carried out. This second verification relates to the strength ultimate limit state. • Fig. in the second case. 5. the combinations of actions to be used relate to the static equilibrium limit state. two types of situations leading to imbalances must be considered: • A temporary situation which occurs during construction when the cantilever is unbalanced due to the weight of a segment that is built or installed before its symmetrical counterpart is in place. different stabilization solutions and finally. 5.

5.2.2 – Stability stitching by prestressing The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 94 septembre 2007 . The operations laid down in this report cannot be modified without the prior permission of the author and of the engineering office which performed the stability verifications. The span arrangement. 5. it must be approved by the engineering office and the site manager and must be read by everyone involved in the construction of the bridge deck. the loads to be used and the combinations of actions to be analysed must be adapted according to the sequence of construction operations and the equipment used on site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This chapter only provides general recommendations applicable to standard situations.Stability systems for cantilevers 5. Thus. Drafted by the site’s Organization and Methods Department. the contractor must supply the site with accurate. 5. built high up on exposed sites. an additional ten-year wind value must also be carried out. Before the construction of the first cantilever. the final support system and the design of the piers are obviously major considerations when choosing this system. this is the most economical method for spans of less than 120 meters in length and whose relatively massive piers offer a large crosshead surface. 5. This procedure brings together the different design calculations and construction methods.1. Fig. especially the site foremen and sub-foremen. showing all of the systems to be implemented along with their quality and tolerances. dimensioned plans.1 Different stabilization methods for cantilevers To a large extent. We shall now examine them in detail. Six main solutions can be used to stabilize cantilevers on their piers.1 – Stitching by prestressing Stitching via prestress tendons is the most widely used method for stabilising cantilevers during the construction (Fig. for structures featuring large spans.2 . It should also be noted that the rules included in this chapter do not include construction errors or the failure to comply with construction procedures relating to the casting or assembly of segments or to the movement of form travelers or assembly equipment. The method consists of tensioning vertical reinforcements in order to secure the segment on pier to its supports. Furthermore. specify the order of phases that must be observed and provide warnings about any dangerous events with a reasonable probability of occurrence.2).2. In principle. A specific procedure must describe all of the construction phases. the choice of the process used to stabilize the cantilevers depends on the general design of the structure (see Chapter 2).

Prestressing tendons are sometimes replaced by prestressing bars. in any case. it is essential to adjust the bearings at the end of construction. a longitudinal offsetting from the base of the incremental launching beam produces a similar effect (due to the support reaction caused by its weight and its anchoring tendons). because. 5. However.2. in the event of an incorrect alignment between the recesses built into the segment on pier and the pier crosshead.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During construction. 5. it may be beneficial to reduce the number of tendons by offsetting them longitudinally. next to or inside the support crossbeam. the tendons are either tied off inside the pier shaft or anchored in the usual way.1. In these specific cases. this solution is not recommended.3). it is always important to check what would happen in the event of an error in the construction process.2 – Temporary pilings This method consists of increasing the center distance between the temporary support blocks by placing them on temporary metal or concrete pilings (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 95 septembre 2007 . The use of the definitive bearings during the construction of the cantilevers is not recommended because there is a significant risk of damage and.4). This applies: • • When a given direction of assembly or order of casting for the segments must be followed When the half-cantilevers are asymmetrical or made from different types of concrete. the segment on pier rests on a set of temporary blocks on either side of the bridge bearing. In the latter case. The stitching reinforcements are positioned at the side of the temporary blocks. They then drop down through the segment on pier passing close to the webs. sometimes on a metal cross beam (Fig. In the case of curved cantilevers. This is only feasible when the bridge deck is situated at a reasonable height above the ground (less than 15 meters or so). For prefabricated structures. Their upper anchorages are generally placed in temporary prefabricated anchor blocks. positioned on the upper slab. 5. it is also possible to offset the tendons transversally in order to balance out the torsion moment due to the curvature of the bridge deck. In certain specific cases.3 – Section through the SOP with its stitching tendons In the lower end. the anchorages may be situated on the side of the foundations or in anchor blocks housed on the inside of the piers if they are hollow. Fig. The stitching prestressing is generally centred on the centreline of the pier. 5. the bar may be subjected to parasitic flexion which could cause it to fail.

this prestressing is essential in order to prevent the side opposite the piling from tipping over. as the portal legs cannot take up the vertical loads until the cantilevers are connected. 5. If a single piling is used. 5. a cantilever may sometimes be stabilized by a single piling. However. especially when: • • The site is obliged to follow a fixed order of assembly or casting A difference in weight due to the geometry or to the use of lightweight concrete affects both of the halfcantilevers The structure is a portal bridge.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. • Vertical prestressing on pilings usually completes this system (Fig.5).4 – Stabilization of a cantilever using temporary pilings This method is used on terrestrial sites in the following situations: • • • For total lengths in excess of 100 meters When the pier head dimensions are reduced. The cantilever is usually stabilized by two pilings positioned symmetrically in relation to the pier. often for architectural reasons When the pier shafts do not have enough resistance to flexion to stabilize the cantilever on their own. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 96 septembre 2007 . provided that the pilings are supported on the foundation bulkhead for the pier. This is a viable solution for aquatic sites.

6. Fig.8. a variant also exists for prefabricated structures.3 – External tendons or temporary staying Stitching tendons may be positioned outside the pier in order to increase their efficiency. In the lower section. [JAE 00]). 5. This involves attaching the launch beam to one of the half-cantilevers via compression bracing in order to stabilize it. 5. The tendons must be injected for adhesion to the foundations. 5. In this case. 5.2. or fixed to the pier foundations (especially on aquatic sites where the lower anchorages can be housed on the bulkhead).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 97 septembre 2007 . This method is especially used: • • For overall lengths of more than 100 meters When the dimensions of the pier head units are reduced and do not allow for a sufficient center distance between the stitching tendons (Fig. 5. 5. they are anchored on massive counterweights on land.5 – Stability provided by a single piling This prestressing may also be replaced by a counterweight placed on the same side as the piling (Fig.6 – Cantilever stability by counterweight For information. [JAE 00]) .7). they are anchored in the first cantilever segments and pass outside the pier shaft (Fig.1. They must be protected against corrosion and damage caused by impacts to their upper sections.

At the start of the construction of the halfcantilever. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 98 septembre 2007 . 5. using the weight of the rear span to counteract the imbalance.9 – Staying of a cantilever on the Tanus bridge Certain angled stays may also be used to limit the torsion of the pier under asymmetrical horizontal forces due to the action of wind on each half-cantilever (or under dynamic wind effects). These stays are very effective at absorbing the rocking motion around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the centerline of the bridge deck. it is possible to use the closure of the small spans to stabilize the adjacent half-cantilevers (Fig.2. The stays usually consist of external prestressing tendons at moderate tension (30% of the tendon’s maximum tension). When the cantilever reaches the middle of the shorter span. In addition. the structure must be stabilized using traditional methods. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5. In this situation. 5. we should mention that it is sometimes better to stay the pier rather than the cantilever.9 [BOU 94. 5.7 – Cantilever stability by external tendons Fig. especially for very tall structures that have a short total span (although this is quite a rare occurrence).8 – Stability via tendons outside a pier with a small crossheadl A genuine system of temporary staying can also be used to resist wind-related dynamic stresses for tall structures with large span lengths or more modest structures in windswept sites: Fig. An efficient and economical anchorage can also be provided by attaching the stays to the foundations of neighbouring piers.10). They supplement the fixed support or vertical stitching produced by the tendons on piers. 5. the central connection segment is assembled.1. the stays are anchored to a segment situated at a third or a quarter of the length of the halfcantilever in the upper section and to a counterweight block on the ground equipped with vertical ties or pilings working in traction. The longer span is then built by overcantilevering. Fig.3] and [GAC 98]).4 – Closure of the end span If the structure has spans of very unequal lengths or very short end spans.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.11 – Embedding of the cantilever on the pier Fig. Fig.12 – Pier with double shafts For structures subjected to very strong winds.2.11). requiring extra verifications under dynamic wind effects (see 5. additional stays are often necessary. 5.1.1.5 – Embedding on a pier When the cantilever is permanently embedded on its pier.3). 5. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 99 septembre 2007 . the stability calculation is given by the strength calculations for the pier shaft and foundations (Fig.10 – Closure of a rear span with counterweight and extended cantilever 5. 5.2.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This solution is also required in the case of double pier shafts (Fig. Suppliers’ catalogues are useful for evaluating the surface area required for elastomeric pot bearings.10 x 1. the pier heads must be designed to receive the following components (Fig.12). 5.50 m for structures with short overall spans to 1. this surface area is calculated using a pressure of 13 to 15 MPa at the SLS under the same conditions as mentioned above. These give the plan view dimensions according to the maximum reaction under rare combinations at the service limit state. normally consisting of elastomeric pot bearings Stability blocks or temporary support blocks Stitching tendons Jacking points for cantilevers under construction or nearing completion. 5.6 fcj.2 - Design of pier head units In the most common situations.2. In the absence of such catalogues.13): • • • • • • The permanent bearings. The dimensions of the plate can be estimated by considering that the stress on the concrete of the pier is limited to 0. In both cases. or for changing bearings Systems for inspecting and testing bearings in service Seismic stops for protection in the event of earthquakes or impacts from boats.10 m or more for structures with large spans. Fig. 5. For modestly-sized structures in which the bridge deck rests on laminated rubber bearings. The size of the permanent bearings varies enormously according to the structures: from 0.13 – Diagram showing pier head design The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 100 septembre 2007 .50 x 0. it is possible to estimate the diameter of the pot bearing by considering that the elastomer stress reach 30 MPa under these same combinations. 5. the minimum projecting ledge on the surface of the pier is 15 centimeters.

Indeed.3 - Design of the segment on pier From the outset. For information. Therefore. measuring 0.2. 5. 5. 5. The jacks must be capable of raising the entire cantilever before the placement of the closing segment in order to insert the permanent bearings and change the bearings when the structure is in service.g.16). the design of the segments on piers and pier head units must incorporate the constraints associated with the cantilever stability systems. These are given in paragraph 5.5. However. Solid blocks may also be replaced with sand boxes which can be removed without having to raise the bridge deck. They must be placed on metal blocks (e. the deviator tubes used to house the continuous external tendons and the dispersion reinforcements in the anchorages for the external tendons on the pier (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The limit stress values obviously depend on the compressive strength of the concrete in the pier head units. stability systems which cross the segment on pier vertically (prestressing tendons or bars) interfere with the cantilever tendons situated in the upper gussets. the raising of the deck must only be considered in the construction phase. It should also be noted that the clearance required between the underside of the bridge deck and the bearing base is approximately fifty centimeters for jacks with a capacity of 500 tonnes.50 x 0.2. it is possible to reuse the area of the crosshead that had previously been reserved for the temporary blocks.5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 101 septembre 2007 . for the changing of the bearings.2).50 m) in order to limit the stress on the concrete to approximately 20 MPa. 500-tonne jacks have a diameter of 40 centimeters.14 – Leveling and adjusting jacks and permanent bearing The surface area of the temporary blocks is determined by calculating the stability of the cantilever (see paragraph 5.

A system consisting of anchor blocks. In the upper part. in light of the problems concerning the transmission of temporary and permanent support reactions towards the webs of the box girder. 5. The stitching tendons pass into the crossbeam on the pier if it is very thick or close to it and in proximity to the webs if it is thinner (Fig. the tendons must be anchored in thick areas. a distribution beam and vertical uprights must also be envisaged for the transmission of the jacking force when the cantilever has been completed.16 – Stitching of a cast-in-situ segment on pier It is also necessary to cross the highly reinforced areas of the lower slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 102 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 5.15 – Pier head unit on the Ile de Ré bridge Fig. In all cases.17). 5. the stitching system shall be designed to transmit the forces towards the support blocks as directly as possible.

3. deviators. it is essential to formalize these loads in the contract The proposed design methods depart from the rules for the creation of combinations in the Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions) of 1979 (DC 79).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. for this particular phase in the construction of the cantilever and for all of the construction and service phases for the structure. If high or low density aggregates are used.Actions to considered The loads to be considered in this particular phase in the building of a cantilever correspond to loads in a construction situation. Accidental situations are also considered. For this situation. the BPEL 91 fixes the concrete’s unit mass at 2. variable actions such as the wind (W) or a thermal gradient (Δθ).1 - Dead loads The evaluation of dead loads. construction loads whose size and position are known (QPRC). however. Thus. while taking account of the precise geometry of the bridge decks and particularly of the crossbeams.5 KN/m3 according to the formwork plans (strictly speaking.5 t/m3). • 5.17 – Adjustment of a prefabricated segment on pier 5. random construction loads (QPRA) and finally. the measurement of the unit mass γt of the concrete used for the bridge deck (prestressed or reinforced) is based on the unit mass of ordinary concrete γb. they represent the rules of good practice in the field and have been successfully used since 1975. This must be specified in the Special Technical Clauses. The weight G of the cantilever is calculated using a unit weight γ of 24. must be performed with the greatest of accuracy. site loads and an accidental action (FA).3 . It should be noted that: • The loads defined hereafter are not described in any statutory document. using a laboratory sample of concrete without reinforcements using the following formula: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 103 septembre 2007 . these include dead loads. anchor blocks and the other morphological characteristics of the structure. the BPEL 91 distinguishes between dead loads (G). 5.

3. which can be used for the preliminary calculations for the structure. A figure of ρ = 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide γt = γb + ρ 7. deviators and ancillary parts situated on the span). approximately 50 Kg/m3 should therefore be added to the aforementioned values.85 . simplified formulae can be used to calculate the weight of a cantilever. which creates a transverse moment in the pier. For curved bridges. whereas the weight of its corresponding half is decreased by 2% (Gmin).2 - Variable execution loads The BPEL makes a distinction between site loads whose size and position are known.85 × 7. it is obviously important to consider the offsetting of the weight of the cantilever. It is included here for illustrative purposes but it is not intended to replace precise calculations which remain indispensable. For the rough calculations. if the depth of the bridge deck varies parabolically and the thickness of the lower slab varies in linear fashion. 5. for which a fixed allowance must be made.γb ( ) with ρ = total ratio of stressed and non-prestressed reinforcements (in t/m3). with B1 designating the section on the pier and B0designating the crown section: P= d= (B1 + 2 B0 ) γ lf 3 (B1 + 5 B0 ) lf 4 × (B1 + 2 B0 ) with lf designating the length of the half-cantilever. For example. This simplified method allows for a manual approach. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 104 septembre 2007 .18 – Evaluation of the weight of a half-cantilever (NB: the selfweight of the half-cantilever calculated using this formula does not include the weight of the crossbeam on pier or the weight of the anchor blocks. Fig.22 t/m3 is normally used for bridges built by conventional cantilever segments. 5. and random loads. the approximate weight of the half-cantilever and the position of its centre of gravity can be determined using the following formulae (Krawsky’s formulae). It should be noted that HPC is denser than traditional concrete. The weight of a half-cantilever situated on the unbalanced side is increased by 2% (Gmax).18 at 0. For this type of concrete.

With complex systems featuring prestressing bars. Fig.3. cable rolls).1 – Known site loads Known loads are loads whose weight and position can be specified in each phase of construction. the weight of the structural steel can be significantly reduced.g.30 and 0.90 MN according to the length of the segments and the width of the bridge deck. launch beams. the weight of the form traveler is sometimes considered to be equal to half the weight of the heaviest segment. this weight is highly dependent on the system used to stiffen the form traveler under the weight of the fresh concrete. small equipment (e. etc. cranes used assembling segments. these loads must be increased by + 6% on the side of the heavier half-cantilever or decreased by 4 % on the opposite side (QPRC1 max or QPRC1 min) according to the same principle as for the selfweight of the cantilevers.2.19 – Example of known site loads For cast-in-situ structures.20) correspond to the materials stored on the bridge deck (e.2 – Random site loads Random site loads (Fig. this mainly concerns the weight of the form traveler. For prefabricated structures. whose standard value varies between 0. (Fig. staff and various climatic effects not considered elsewhere (rising pressure of wind under a half-cantilever). compressors). In reality. expressed as QPRC1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 105 septembre 2007 . maximum and minimum characteristic values are determined and applied in the most unfavorable way.2.g. 5.g.19). 5.3. If there are significant uncertainties concerning weights or positions.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. 5. In the calculations. e. At the rough calculation stage. 5. known site loads mainly concern the reactions at the base of the launch beam during the installation of the segments. form travelers.

depending on the characteristics of the site. • These loads are arranged in such a way as to produce the most penalizing effect.20 – Random site loads The following loads are used to cover unknown site loads: • An evenly distributed load (QPRA1) of 200 N/m²over a half-cantilever in standard situations (total span < 120 m).3. this force applies from the end of the form traveler to the row of temporary blocks situated on the same side (or. which includes vertical wind force provided that the site is not exposed. Transversally. in exceptional cases. 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Furthermore. compressors. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 106 septembre 2007 . Longitudinally. a dynamic study is essential in order to evaluate the behaviour of the cantilever on its pier and determine how to stabilize the cantilever before the closing segment has been completed (staying. it is important to consider an additional load. etc. small equipment. It is essential to perform a specific study to analyze the nature of the site and the local climatic conditions before this load can be reduced for very large spans (over of 200 meters). For other structures.).4. For structures with an overall span of over 120 meters. This is covered in paragraph 5. the intensities of the loads QPRA1 and QPRA2 must be calculated according to the equipment that is actually used on the site. compression bracing. The additional wind effect (Qw) is equivalent to a uniform load with an intensity of 100 to 200 N/m². (tall structures with a large overall span and relatively flexible piers). for example in steep-sided valleys or in unstable areas where strong gusts of wind are common. the width of application is the width of the upper slab of the box girder. to the centerline of the pier).3 – Vertical wind force The load QPRA1 in the previous paragraph only includes the vertical wind force for structures with a total span of less than 120 meters. etc. this load represents the weight of cable rolls.2. This distributed load applies in a vertical direction from the bottom to the top on the horizontal frontal area of a half-cantilever. more simply. This load.3 of this chapter. is applied to the completed segments and the form traveler A concentrated load (QPRA2) of (50 + 5 b) kN applied to the end of the cantilever. at the far end of the last completed segment (b designates the width of the upper slab of the box girder expressed in meters). including those with more modest spans but which are exposed to frequent strong winds. 5.

3 - Accidental actions The collapse of all or a part of an empty form traveler or a prefabricated segment during the assembly process (FA) is allowed for by a dynamic increase coefficient of 2 in order to take account of the energy accumulated by the deformation of a half-cantilever affected by the fall. a lower value could be adopted if a specific analysis of the safety of the form traveler were to be carried out by the designers of this equipment at the start of the construction surveys (see Fascicule 65A of the French CCTG).4 – Horizontal wind force Horizontal wind force only needs to be considered in particular cases: for tall structures in sites which are exposed to strong and irregular winds caused by the morphology of the site. The intensity of this load depends particularly on the height of the bridge deck and the ruggedness of the site. • 5. In this case. Such places often include coastal or mountain valleys or sites exposed to winds that are renowned for their intensity.4 . This load must be evaluated on an individual basis for each project. Fig.Combinations of actions during construction The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 107 septembre 2007 . However. 5.3.21 – Form traveler in the process of being moved For a cast-in-situ structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. it is possible for any mobile load to collapse during one or more of the form traveler’s phases of movement. In the majority of cases. This amounts to reversing the direction of the weight the form traveler QPRC1MAX or of the last prefabricated segment on one of the half-cantilevers (Fig.2. For prefabricated structures. the calculations performed allow for the fact that the entire form traveler might fall. It should be noted that: • For the calculation of the piers and the foundations. we consider that one of the half-cantilevers is subjected to a uniform load of QWt. the dynamic analysis prescribed in the previous paragraph must account for this horizontal wind force. the whole of the cantilever and its pier should be loaded For very tall structures. 5.21).3. it is possible for any part that is not lashed by prestressing to collapse during one or more phases of the assembly sequence. In general the load is derived from the CECM (Convention Européenne de la Construction Métallique – European Convention for Structural Steelwork) regulations. 5.

a distinction can be made between a temporary construction situation. even if the sequence of assembly or construction operations calls for simultaneous operations. an incident during casting may lead to fresh concrete being emptied from one of the form travelers. the cantilever must not move from its temporary supports. pilings. temporary stays. whilst the casting of the other segment has not yet been performed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Cantilevers must be verified with regard to: • • The ultimate limit state of static equilibrium. It is essential to analyse this imbalance on a systematic basis. As we have already mentioned.9 to the selfweight of the other side. etc.1 to the the selfweight of one side and 0. at the preliminary design phase for prefabricated structures. If the cantilever is embedded on the pier. For the verification at ultimate limit states of strength.1 - Combinations in temporary construction situations (Type a) For the verification of static equilibrium at ultimate limit states. the key phase at the pre-design level can be considered to be casting of the final pair of segments. Therefore. as they are not regulations in the legal sense of the term. The other segment has not yet been assembled. the perfect synchronization of operations cannot be guaranteed For a cast-in-situ structure. It is assumed that one of the two segments has been lashed to the end of the cantilever and has been released by the assembly equipment.) and the supports and foundations are verified using partial coefficients of safety for the materials corresponding to the fundamental combination.4. This is because: • • For a prefabricated structure. or the form traveler has been emptied due to a defect in the concrete. although the strength of the pier must be verified. relating to a verification under an accidental combination. the different elements (blocks. according to which it would be necessary to apply a load factor of 1. relating to a verification under a fundamental combination. It is assumed that both form travelers have been moved forward and that the casting of one of the two segments has been completed. the piers and their foundations. even if casting is carried out simultaneously. the cantilever is studied during the assembly of the final pair of segments. During the construction surveys. The following actions should therefore be studied: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 108 septembre 2007 . especially the pier head units. considering the nature of the actions. it must be officially agreed in the Special Technical Clauses that these rules differ from the recommendations of the DC79. no static equilibrium verification is required. and an accidental situation. aiming to ensure the stability of the cantilevers on their pier The ultimate limit state of strength: for the different elements whose role is to provide stability and for the elements which are stressed during these phases. these verifications must be systematically performed for the casting or assembly of every pair of segments. the rules described hereafter are not as strict as those in the 1979 Directives Communes sur le Calcul des Constructions (Common Guidelines for the Design of Constructions). Likewise. 5. tendons. For each limit state. For cast-in-situ structures. The cantilever is therefore analysed with an imbalance of one segment.

25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) The left-hand form traveler is empty (n .25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ QW]) Combination A2: 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For cast-in-situ structures (Fig. Qw refers to the additional wind action to be considered for structures with a total span length of more than 120 meters.3) For prefabricated structures (Fig.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) Combination A2: 0.3.1 (G max + G min) + 1. In an accidental situation. 5.1 segments on left) (n segments on right) Fig.25 (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2 [+ Qw]) In these formulae.2.9 (G max + G min) + 1. and the supports and foundations supporting the cantilevers.4. 5.1 (G max + G min) + 1.2 - Accidental construction combinations (Type b) These combinaisons are used for verifications at ultimate limit states of strength under accidental combinations involving elements designed to provide the temporary fixed supports. 5. or which are exposed to strong and frequent winds (see 5.1 segments on left) The right-hand form traveler contains a segment (n segments on the right) Fig.23) Combination A1: 1. 5. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 109 septembre 2007 .23 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.9 ((G max + G min) + 1.22 – Temporary construction situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures (n .22) Combination A1: 1. the structure must be capable of resisting the collapse of a form traveler (or of a segment in the case of a prefabricated structure).

but also to verify the behaviour of the cantilever under dynamic wind effects. is designed to assess the amplitude of the oscillations caused by wind turbulence on a flexible structure. the tendons could be overstressed. the cantilever may be lifted off its temporary support blocks. 5. e. the French PCP program).1 segments on the left) (nv segments on the right) Fig.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) (nv .g. 5.g. which is carried out using one or more specialist wind effect programs (e.1 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0.1 segments on the left) The left-hand form traveler contains a segment (nv . 5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In this case.24 – Accidental situation to be considered for cast-in-situ structures For prefabricated structures (Fig.3 - Specific rules for very tall structures Very tall structures are usually very sensitive to the action of the wind. 5. For cast-in-situ structures (Fig.1 (G max + G min) + FA -+ (QPRC1 max + QPRC1 min + QPRA1 + QPRA2) Combination B2: 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 110 septembre 2007 .25) Combination B1: 1.1 segments on the right) Fig. when the sum of the span length and of the height of the pier exceeds 180 meters. For large cantilevers. This specific dynamic analysis. Specific rules must be applied to them. but security is maintained by bringing the full capacities of the materials into play.g.9 (G max + G min) + FA + (QPRC1 max + QPRA1 + QPRA2) The left-hand form traveler is empty (nv .25 – Accidental situation to be considered for prefabricated structures 5.4.24) Combination B1: 1. not only to avoid penalizing them with an excessively high equivalent static pressure. e. it is essential to perform a turbulent wind analysis at the ultimate limit state. in the case of temporary prestressing.

the dynamic calculations are performed at the ultimate limit state only and by take account of the ten-year wind effect. In service.Verification and dimensioning of the anchoring elements In this section. we shall specifically study the stability of cantilevers resting on two rows of temporary blocks and stitched onto their piers by two rows of tendons (Fig. The position of each block or temporary support includes an installation error of 5 centimeters (in the sense of a reduction in the space between these temporary supports).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide This calculation requires: • A static description of the wind and its fluctuations (reference wind speed. ruggedness of the site. the combinations of actions and the safety coefficients to be adopted. The verifications of the stabilizing elements for the other methods are presented in a more summary fashion in the following section. in addition to the articles entitled "Pont de Tanus: Les études des effets du vent" (The Pont de Tanus: Wind Effect Analyses) [BOU 94. 5. • • The accumulated static and dynamic effects are used to determine and verify the stresses in the concrete and the reinforcements for the pier shaft.) A dynamic modal analysis of the structure. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 111 septembre 2007 . etc. lift and moment coefficients) of the bridge deck and piers. giving the deformities and durations of the fundamental modes of vibration in addition to the corresponding generalized masses The aerodynamic characteristics (drag. the Special Technical Clauses must comprehensively describe the actions. they are performed with a fifty-year wind at the ultimate limit state and also at the service limit state. which could cause problems with regard to the deadlines allowed for the construction surveys.3] and "Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez " (The Bourran Viaduct at Rodez [BOU 91] for additional details. the segment on pier is considered to be undeformable. For these calculations. 5. Wind tunnel testing must be carried out for the others). It is important to specify that the dynamic analysis of wind effects must be carried out at the design stage because it may raise questions about the design of the structure and also because the collection of data required for this calculation often takes quite a long time. The reader may also refer to the document entitled "Comportement au vent des ponts" (Behaviour of Bridges in Wind) published by the AFGC. As the current regulations are quite limited with regard to this type of verification. altitude. (Some of these coefficients can by determined for simple shapes by applying the rules of Eurocode 1 – Actions du vent et de la neige sur les structures [Actions of wind and snow on structures].5 . In the construction phase. wind turbulence.26).

27 – Geometry of the stitching system In the event that M/N < e/2. 5.g.5. M and N are calculated for each of the four combinations A1. a minimum of two pairs of tendons are used for safety reasons (e. e is the distance between the centerlines of the two rows of temporary support blocks and d is the distance between one tendon and the opposite row of blocks (Fig. 0. one pair of 12T15 tendons per row of blocks). in theory.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. B1 and B2. this means that stitching tendons are not necessary. Fig.26 – System of stitching to a pier using tendons 5. Firstly.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon. we calculate the eccentricity of the resultant of forces M/N. however. A2. The values of e and d are derived from the dimensions of the segment and the pier head unit.1 - Calculating the number of cables M and N are the stresses resulting from type A and B combinations. It is difficult to give advice with regard to the minimum values of e and d because they are highly dependent on the length of The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 112 septembre 2007 . 5.80 f prg .27). We use: Ra = N M − + Fi2 2 e and Rb = N M + + Fi2 2 e With Fi2 = 2 × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of a line of two tendons with p the % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0. there is no risk of the cantilever tipping over. 5.

1. 5. Fig. To calculate the number of tendons to be used.00 to 3.28). 5. stitching tendons must be used to restore the balance of the cantilever. Values of 3.28 – Forces in tendons and support reactions Therefore. Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e with Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (force of n tendons of a line with p % of losses) σ p0 = Min 0.5.80 f prg .29). In the event that M/N > e/2.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) Under the action of the resultant N and the moment M of the loads applied to the cantilever. we have: ⎛M N⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ e 2⎠ n×s = ⎝ (1 − p) × σp0 while still estimating the losses at p %.1. 0. a distinction is made between type A and type B combinations. 5.50 and 5. the segment on pier remains in equilibrium due to the increase of the tendons tension ΔTg in a row of temporary supports and the compression Rb. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 113 septembre 2007 .00 m wide. This requires pier head units of between 4.5. The prestressing must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N (Fig. 5.90 f peg ( ) with fprg and fpeg the tensile strength and elastic limits and s the cross-section of the tendon. of the blocks in the other row supports (Fig.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift up.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide the cantilever and the width of the box girder. 5.50 m are common for e and d.

according to the position of the blocks in relation to the tendons.00 for accidental combinations fpeg already defined above From this. We and Fi = n × (1 − p ) × σp0 × s (with p being the % of losses) and: γp = 1. 5. It should be noted that ΔTd is either negative or positive but less than ΔTg. we can determine the number of tendons n: N× e ⎞ d ⎛ n × s = ⎜M − ⎟× 2 ⎠ K ⎝ The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 114 septembre 2007 . Fi is their initial force. can be expressed in the following way: Fg = Fi + ΔTg ≤ Ful Fd = Fi + ΔTd ΔTg ΔTd = d (e − d) Ne + M + Fd × (d − e ) = 0 2 − Fg × d − R b − Fg − Fd − N = 0 Fg and Fd refer to the tensions in each line of tendons. and and they are carried over into . We obtain Fg and Fd according to Fu1 and Fi in the equations also know that: Ful = n × s × fpeg γp .29 – Tipping of the cantilever with overtension of the tendons The equilibrium of the forces applied to the segment on pier when it rotates at an angle of dα around a row of blocks and when the tendons lengthen or shorten. with ΔTg and ΔTd being the variations in tension of each line of tendons (positive for a lengthening of the tendons). Fu1 is their limit tension at the ULS.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

Therefore. which may cause dynamic effects that could aggravate the phenomenon during the rotation of the cantilever. In standard situations in which losses are 20%. The variation in tension in the line of tendons situated on the side of the rising force is equal to: Δσ = fpeg γp − (1 − p ) × σ p0 ε= Δσ Es Δσ . which corresponds to 6 centimeters for non-injected 20 meters cables.5. their extensibility and therefore their elasticity are significant. The calculation of rotation gives an angle of 1 degree for a tendon situated 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide with s: cross-section of a tendon and K = (1 − p ) × σp0 × (2d − e ) × (e − d) + fpeg γp × d2 + (d − e ) . 5. the longer the tendons. this stretching can reach approximately 3%. In fact. the stretching ΔL can be evaluated at L × segment on pier is: tan(α ) = L Δσ × d Es For very tall or highly flexible piers. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that. the response is to limit the increase of the tendons tension by establishing a reduction coefficient for the value of the ultimate force of the tendons Ful. The number given by the preceding calculations is rounded up to the next biggest even number.50 meters from the opposite row of blocks: a value which is considered to be acceptable. the greater will be the rotation. If the designer considers the rotation of the cantilever to be too great. 2 [ ] Next. Knowing the prestressing force applied by each group of tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 115 septembre 2007 . the rotation of the cantilever must be verified in the event of an accident. the rotation of the Es and the lengthening of the cables is equal to: For tendons with a free length of L. under the effect of the stretching of the tendons.2 - Calculating the surface area of the blocks We use the maximum number of tendons per row. Consequently. taking account of the need to place the bundles of tendons close to each web. we can now dimension the blocks in rows A and B. if they are anchored at the foot of a very tall pier. it is necessary to add the rotation of the pier head unit under the effect of the unbalance moment M and the variations in tension of the stitching tendons. they are not usually injected with cement grout. as the cantilever stabilization tendons are temporary.

4..2.04. with an upper limit of 0. For example.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.85 × fcf θ × γb fc28 γb θ Characteristic strength of the concrete under compression 1. with 2% of hooping (a standard value). the compressive stress in the concrete used for the bearing block is limited in order to avoid splitting the pier (Article A. this gives approximately: fcd = fc28 + 20 MPa On the other hand.8.00 for loads with long duration of application ⎡ 4⎛a b ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4 a 0 ⎞ ⎛ 4 b0 ⎞ K = 1 + ⎢3 − ⎜ 0 + 0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 3. its characteristic strength under compression can be increased. = K fbu with: fbu Ultimate strength of the concrete at ULS fbu = 0.5. The maximum value not to be exceeded is fclim.8. As the concrete of the blocks and the pier crosshead is hooped.30 – Temporary blocks consisting of sand boxes 5.1 – Normal construction situation (A combinations) The surface area of the blocks is such that they are compressed to fbu under the maximum reaction Rb.23 of the BAEL 91 fixes this stress at: ⎛ f ⎞ fcf = fcj × ⎜1 + 2 × ρ t × e ⎟ ⎜ fcj ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ with p representing the percentage of steel in the single hooped core.8 of the BAEL 91). Article A.3 ⎟ ⎜1− b ⎠⎦ ⎝ 3 a ⎠ ⎝ 3 b ⎠ ⎣ 3⎝ a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 116 septembre 2007 . 5. for blocks positioned on high and massive bearing blocks.4 and Appendix E.50 for Type A combinations 1.

Therefore: γb θ 1.5.8 of the BAEL 91).75 fcj 0.3 (classification T 47. Fig. fcf) Supposing that there are two blocks of dimensions a × b per support row.85 for type B combinations for loads with a short duration of application The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 117 septembre 2007 . which considers uniformly loaded B0 surfaces. 5.4. allowing for the dimensions of the permanent bearings and of all of the fittings on the pier heads.65 fcj 0. we have: S = 2×a×b = Rb f c max fclim 0.94 to 0. the support surface must have a large overhang in relation to the blocks.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In order to obtain the critical value of 3. 5. Appendix E.15 0. Article A. but with an accidental combination.98 fcj a and b are determined by examining the plan view of the pier head unit.61 to 0.2. Hooping identical to that used on the permanent bearings is calculated and added to the lower face of the segment on pier and underneath the temporary blocks (cf.8.3 in the last formula.31 – Plan view dimensions of a block and its bearing block The table below gives the orders of magnitude of the critical values given by this calculation according to the strength of the concrete and the type of verification to be carried out: Type of combinations at the Ultimate Limit State Fundamental combination only including permanent actions Fundamental combination with variable actions Accidental combinations The maximum stress that must not be exceeded is therefore: fcmax = Min (fclim . Such overhangs are rarely compatible with the dimensions of the pier head unit.72 to 0.820-2) may also be referred to. Appendix A of the standard NF EN 1337.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The same principle is applied.

However. The dimensions of the blocks determined in this way must be increased by 5 to 10 centimeters for the coating of the hoops. < Fu1 (this time Fi is known). To account for this phenomenon. there is no lifting up and the surface area of the blocks S is calculated by the formula: S = 2×a×b = Rb fc max If Ra is negative.g. whilst those of type B are accidental combinations (γb =l. but this time Fg = Fi + ΔTg. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 118 septembre 2007 . we verify that the cantilever does lift up with the number of tendons determined previously. we solve the equations This gives: Rb = K ⎞ e ⎛ × ⎜ Fi × K 4 + N × 3 + M ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ K1 ⎝ 2e ⎠ to . to 400 MPa. i. γs =l. with the equivalent of type A combinations at SLS. Type A combinations are considered to be fundamental combinations.00).e.15. The vertical reinforcement bars of the pier shaft must be verified at the ultimate limit states for bending and compression under the action of N and M. Ra and Rb are calculated as if the cantilever was not lifting up: Ra = Rb = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e If Ra is positive.3 - Calculation of the pier shafts and foundations The static equilibrium combinations calculated previously for the equilibrium of the cantilever and the verification of the anchoring elements are directly used to verify the pier and its foundation at the strength ultimate limit state. It is thus important to limit the cracking of piers in temporary construction situations. 5.5. the piers must also be verified at the SLS and ULS for all other situations in the construction and service phases. The designer’s attention is drawn to the fact that this verification is only carried out at the ULS. For this.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Firstly. e. we can either perform an additional calculation at SLS by transposing type A combinations. or limit the working stress ratio of the reinforcement bars to the ULS under this same type of combinations. without modifying the coefficients of these combinations. with: K 1 = d 2 + (d − e ) K 3 = 2 × K1 − e2 K 4 = (2d − e ) × K2 e × d2 2 K 2 = d3 + e × (2d − e ) × (d − e ) We determine the surface area of the blocks S using the same formula described previous paragraph.

Next. Type A and B combinations are studied by verifying the same criteria as for a cantilever secured exclusively by vertical stitching tendons situated in the pier. the cross section of one row of cables is s. Therefore. we start by studying the imbalance on the side of the piling (the side where the first of a pair of segments is cast or assembled). while taking account of an additional eccentricity of the blocks in both directions or of a fault in the angle of the piling shaft. the tension increase in the stitching tendons and the angle of rotation of the cantilever are limited to a value to be determined in the Special Technical Clauses (to approximately one degree). 5. of height h and constant inertia I.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. For very slender pilings. we shall study the case of an imbalance on the opposite side to the piling during the assembly or casting of the second of the pair of segments. the length of the cables is 1 and their modulus is E. For short and massive pilings. e is the center distance between the two rows of cables. The stability of the piling must then be verified. The same type of calculation is used in the case of two pilings placed symmetrically in relation to the pier. However.6 .6.6. The fact that there is no detachment from the support on the piling means that the stitching tendons placed in line with the piling can now be dimensioned. Further details about the values to be used in the calculations can be found in the BAEL 91 or BPEL 91. detachment from one of the pilings is authorized under type A and B combinations. a deviated bending and compression calculation suffices. is considered to be embedded on its foundation • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 119 septembre 2007 . For this calculation. the type A combination is only studied. the collapse of the form traveler is replaced by the collapse of the segment being moved in the aforementioned verifications. The blocks must not lift up under type A combinations. it is essential to perform a calculation to the second geometrical and mechanical order in order to prevent the buckling of this support. this paragraph gives some information about the verification of cantilevers that are stabilized by temporary pilings or stays used outside the piers. The cantilever then rests on one or two rows of blocks (type A or B combination) and on the piling situated on the side of the imbalance. it is necessary to make the following simplifying assumptions (Fig. 5. the force exerted by a row of cables is Fi The pier.1 - Verifications of stability due to temporary pilings In the case of a single piling. The details of the verifications are the same as those given in the preceding paragraphs to which the reader can refer. Under type B combinations. the stitching cables are situated in line with the temporary blocks. It is vital to connect the piling to at least the pier head and to connect very tall pilings to the shaft at one or more intermediate levels.32): • As a simplification. because the form traveler or the prefabricated segment on the piling side has been made safe and is no longer likely to fall. the verification rules are similar to those described previously. Here.2 - Verifications of stability due to cable staying The cable stays must be arranged in the most symmetrical arrangement possible in order to minimize the disturbance to the geometry of the cantilever during construction. For prefabricated structures. 5.Verifications of other stabilization methods Without being exhaustive.

the cable stays are all identical. the cantilever does not need to be stayed. Fig. the support reactions on the rows of blocks A and B are as follows: RA = RB = N M − + Fi 2 e N M + + Fi 2 e In general. As with cantilevers stitched by two rows of cables. the initial force of a row of cable stays is noted as Fi’ (or Fg’ and Fd’ taking account of the variations in tension due to the tilting of the cantilever) The cantilever is considered to be undeformable in terms of longitudinal flexion (this hypothesis remains valid if the cable stays are not attached too far from the pier). there are two stages to the calculation: • Firstly. 5. of modulus E^ and length 1’ . the cross sections of the cable stays are dimensioned by limiting their increasing of the tension and the rotation of the cantilever under all combinations (types A and B) and by making sure that the blocks in row A are not decompressed under type A combinations Once the cross section of the cable stays has been determined. • The calculation described hereafter does not follow this scheme but the underlying principles are clearly shown. the support blocks are dimensioned by verifying the compression on row B for type A and B combinations. In order to calculate the cross-section of the cable stays. • Furthermore. it must be remembered that the stabilizing cable stays contribute additional flexion forces that must be taken up by the cantilever tendons. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 120 septembre 2007 . we shall instead assume that cable stays are required.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Each row of cable stays has a cross section of s’. if the reaction RA is positive. As this situation is of little relevance to this paragraph. we differentiate between situations with type A and type B combinations.32 – Forces applied to the cantilever without detachment from the support In the absence of cable stays and supposing that the cantilever does not lift off.

6. this low initial tension means that they can be used as temporary cable stays on other cantilevers on the structure. Furthermore. when stressed in this way. In fact. the cable stays are subjected to variations in tension and the cantilever rotates to a certain extent. the tension increases are larger than those of the tendons. due to the flexibility of the pier under rotation. Their tensions are equivalent to: Fg’=Fi’+ΔTg’ and Fd’=Fi’+ΔTd’ As the cantilever is undeformable.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 5. they only undergo very small delayed losses. we have: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 121 septembre 2007 . The staying must therefore compensate for the rising reaction force of block A under the action of M and N RA = RB = N M − + Fi + Fi ' ≥ 0 2 e N M + + Fi + Fi ' 2 e In general. Finally. On the other hand.2.1 – Temporary construction situation (A combinations) The cantilever must not lift off. It is thus necessary to verify that there is no movement from the blocks and that there is an acceptable amount of variation in the tension of the cable stays and in rotation of the cantilever. the cable stays are made to work at 30% of their maximum capacity. Given that: k is the flexibility of the pier under rotation: k = h E Ip ( θ = k Mp ) with hp : Ip : E: θ: Mp : height of pier its inertia modulus of the pier concrete angle of rotation of the cantilever moment applied to the pier head unit l' E s s' K’ is the flexibility of the cable stays: K ' = with Es : modulus of the cable stays ΔTg’ and ΔTd’ are the variations in tension of the cable stays under the effect of the rotation of the cantilever. As the cantilever does not lift off from its support blocks. the stitching tendons are not subjected to any tension increase.

2. this calculation is only valid if a block A remains compressed. Thus.6. it is necessary to verify that: ⎛ k e' 2 M ⎜1− ⎜ 2 K' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ≤ ⎜ Fi + Fi ' + N ⎞ e ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ 5. we obtain the support reactions: R A = Fi + Fi ' + k e' 2 N M⎛ − ⎜1− 2 e ⎜ 2 K ' + k e' 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ R B = Fi + Fi ' + N − R A However. 5.33 – Forces applied to the cantilever in the event of its detachment from the support on side A The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 122 septembre 2007 . Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide θ ≈ tg θ = 2 Δl g ' e' = −2 Δl d ' e' (Δl'g et Δl'd are the variations in length of the cable stays) Given that: θ ≈ tg θ = 2 K' ΔTg ' e' = − 2 K' ΔTd ' e' e' k 2 K' θ = k Mp and therefore: ΔTg ' = Mp and ΔTd ' = − Mp e' k 2 K' The moment Mp is expressed by: Mp = M − ΔTg ' e' e' + ΔTd ' = M − ΔTg ' e' 2 2 We can therefore determine the tension in the cable stays and the rotation of the cantilever: Fg ' = Fi ' + M θ≈ 2 K' k 2 K ' + k e' 2 k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 M and Fd ' = Fi ' − M k e' 2 K ' + k e' 2 By expressing the equilibrium on block B.2 – Accidental situation (B combinations) The calculation is similar. but the detachment of the cantilever from block A is permitted while limiting the rotation of the cantilever.

Fg’ and ΔTg. we have: Mp = M − Fg ' e' e' e + Fd ' + ΔTg 2 2 2 or by replacement in the expression of ΔTg’ : ΔTg ' = Mp k e' k e' k e' 2 k e e' =M + Fd ' − Fg ' − ΔTg 2 K' 2 K' 4 K' 4 K' ( ) which can be introduced into Fg‘ : e + e' ⎞ ⎛ Fg ' 4 K ' + k e' 2 = 4 K ' Fi + 2 k e' M + k e' 2 Fd ' − ΔTg ⎜ k e e' − 2 K ⎟ e ⎠ ⎝ ( ) The sum of Fg’ and Fd’ gives: Fg ' + Fd ' = 2 Fi ' + ΔTg K K' and the equilibrium of the moments on block B M + Fd ' e' − e e' + e e − Fg ' − ΔTg e − N = 0 2 2 2 The resolution of equations . the tendons in row A are overstressed. and gives Fd’. the variations in the lengths of the tendons and cable stays are proportional: ΔTg1 ' = ΔTg K (e + e' ) 2 e K' et ΔTd1 ' = ΔTg K (e − e' ) 2 e K' Finally. Therefore.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The additional terms ΔTg1’ and ΔTdl’ due to the rocking of the bridge deck on block B are added to the expression of the tensions in the cable stays (Fig. 5. Their tension can be expressed as: Fg = Fi + ΔTg If we note K as the stiffness of the tendons ( K = l ) Es s as the cantilever is undeformable. B By expressing the equilibrium on block B.33): Fg’ = Fi’ + ΔTg‘ + ΔTg1’ et Fd’ = Fi’ + ΔTd’ + ΔTdl’ On the other hand. we obtain the support reaction RB: RB = Fd’ + Fg’ + 2Fi +N + ΔTg B The rotation of the cantilever is the sum of the flexion rotations of the shaft and of the rocking around the support B: θ ≈ 2 Fg ' − Fd ' ( ) K'' + ΔTg K e e The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 123 septembre 2007 . we must add the effect of the overstressing of the tendons in row A under moment M.

6. crane.). It has cut-outs in the middle for direct access to the underside of the segment on pier and the top of the stability blocks and bearings.1 – Construction of segments on piers The working platform. 6. the gussets gusset and the base of the webs. Fig. 6.) and cantilever stabilization systems.Construction using cast-in-situ segments When fewer than 350 to 400 segments need to be constructed. the second Genevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway and the viaduct over the River Loire at Cheviré. fixed to metal inserts embedded on the top of the pier head unit. The internal formwork is either built from traditional wooden shuttering or carried out using an articulated metal tool. the bridge deck is cast in-situ. The external formwork consists of fixed metal shuttering. the Brisbane Bridge in Australia and the Hamana bridge in Japan. 6. the length and thus the cost of the external shuttering for the SOP are reduced by using the external formwork of the form travelers to encase the lateral sections of these segments. Segments on piers are usually built in two phases: the first phase includes the lower slab. The first part deals with cast-in-situ structures and pays particular attention to the design of temporary structures (form work for segments on piers.1 . the second phase features the rest of the transverse section and the crossbeam on pier.2). On certain structures with only one or two piers. low-bed semi-trailer.1 - Segments on piers Segments on piers are always built using special formwork which is specially designed for this part of the bridge deck and assembled on a work platform attached to the tops of the piers (Fig 6. form travelers etc. Therefore. the Viaur viaduct at Tanus for the RN88 main road. etc.1).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 . Some of the largest structures built in recent years include the bridge over the River Rhine to the south of Strasbourg. numerous bridges are built using this method in France and abroad. this includes a detailed description of the prefabrication plant and the equipment used for the transportation and assembly of segments (launch beam. is externally rectangular in shape (Fig. The The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 124 septembre 2007 . Notable examples outside of France include the Norwegian bridges of Stolma and Rafsundet.Construction technology This chapter covers the technology required for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges using the cantilever method. all of which are notable for their great span. This applies to the vast majority of bridges. The second part is dedicated to structures made from prefabricated segments.1. Every year.

3 – General view of a form traveler Although a large variety of form travelers are available. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide completion time for a segment on pier is 6 to 10 weeks for a traditional structure but may stretch to 15 weeks for structures which are very wide and/or with a very lon span . • • Fig. Like many other formwork tools. 6.2 – Work platform for segment on pier formwork 6. Fig.2.2 - Standard segments 6. each of which performs a particular function: • A metal structure: used for attaching the form traveler and the future segment to the most recently constructed segment Metal shuttering panels: used for giving the concrete the required shape Gangways and work platforms: for access and to allow employees to work in all areas of the segment being built.3). 6.1. this equipment is either built specifically for the site or existing equipment is adapted to suit the site.1 – Background information about form travelers Standard segments are built using highly complex formwork equipment called form travelers (Fig. form travelers include three major elements. they are usually broken down into three families according to the position of their supporting beams or their main beams in the metal framework. Depending on the situation. These categories are: • Form travelers with supporting beams situated above the upper slab Page 125 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .1.

e. those with supporting beams situated along the webs. 6. with supporting beams situated along the webs.5).5 – Upper clearance of an “above-slab” form traveler The third type of form travelers is only used in very specific cases. we have decided to concentrate exclusively on the second type of form travelers. the first type of form travelers is no longer widely used in France. and form travelers with a smaller cross beam and launch or transfer beams. which are commonly used for very tall or wide segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Form travelers with supporting beams situated along the webs of the box girder Form travelers with supporting beams situated below the lower slab. In the rest of this chapter.4 – Upper clearance of a “below-slab” form traveler Frequently used after World War II. Fig. i.4). 6. However. Fig. is by far the most commonly used. the second type of form travelers. This family of form travelers can be split into two subgroups: those with an upper beam of the same width as the box girder. which are ideal for segments of a standard height and width. especially because the absence of any beams at the base of the segment to be constructed makes it possible to insert a reinforcing cage that has been entirely prefabricated at ground level (Fig 6. In France. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 126 septembre 2007 . they are regularly used in other countries (Fig. as opposed to the first type of “above-slab” form travelers. 6. The second and third types of form travelers are often called “below-slab” models.

supporting the formwork for the internal surfaces of segment n and situated under the central part of the upper slab.6): Fig. and one vertical “front” beam. and the reinforcement.6 shows the specific example of a C-shaped upper beam) Sliding beams. cabling and concreting on the other. the connections between the three sub-structures are as follows: • • The upper beam rests upon the upper slab of segment n-1 The U-shaped structure is fixed to the upper beam via rods across the upper slab that has already been constructed.2. Described schematically. In certain cases.1. • • 6. • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 127 septembre 2007 . which is also a lattice girder.2 – Simplified description of form travelers with full upper beams In recent years. this structure consists of two large longitudinal lattice girders. supporting the formwork for the underside of the cantilevers and the external faces of the webs. the Tanus bridge [SER 98]. This girder is situated at the end of the form traveler on the segment n + 1 side. In the static phase. 6.6 – Principle of the framework for a form traveler with lateral beams • A large U-shaped structure situated under the bridge deck.3 – Operation of form travelers with full upper beam The design of the different elements described above takes account of two very different situations: the movement of the equipment on the one hand. the Digoin viaduct [DIEU 00]. called supporting beams. positioned on the upper slab of segment n-1. these rods are highly prestressed in order to reduce the deflection of the U-shape under the weight of the concrete The sliding beams are supported on the front beam on the side of segment n+1 and attached to the upper slab via transverse hangers on the side of segment n-1. sometimes referred to as a transverse transfer beam. these form travelers have been used in the construction of numerous bridge decks and notably those of the second Pont Salomon viaduct [DEW 01]. etc. along with the formwork for the lower slab.1. with segment n being the segment to be cast. at its free end (Figure 6. 6.2. their metal framework consists of three large sub-structures (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. horizontal bracing is added to these two elements and situated under the lower slab An upper crossbeam.

6. 6. Other methods are also used. or via brackets extending out from the upper beam under the cantilevers (in which case.9).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the movement phase (Fig. 6.7 – Static schema of the form traveler during translatory movement Fig.7).10) or by a second set of long-stroke jacks (Fig. 6. Depending on the situation.11). it has a tendency to tip on the crown side. 6. and thus without crossing the upper slab which has already been constructed. As the centre of gravity of the U shape is situated well in front of the suspension plane. either via rods situated on either side of the box girder. the sliding beams are moved by tackle (Fig.8) The sliding beams are cantilevered.8 – Supporting beams rested on C-shaped upper beam ends The movement of the upper beam and the U-shaped structure is carried out using long-stroke horizontal jacks situated on the upper slab and pushing against the upper beam (Fig. 6. but this movement is stopped by wheels fixed to the rear of the supporting beams and blocked by the cantilevers that have already been constructed (Fig. this is called a C-shaped upper beam). The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 128 septembre 2007 . • Fig. 6. the support conditions for these elements evolve in the following way: • • The upper beam still rests on the concrete The U-shaped structure is suspended on the upper beam.

9 – Upper beam with long-stroke jack (at bottom of photo) Fig. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.10 – Manually-operated sliding beam Fig.11 – Sliding beam operated by a long-stroke jack The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 129 septembre 2007 . 6. 6.

the major stages in the construction of a standard segment are as follows: 1 2 Installation and stressing of cantilever tendons for segment n .1. which is virtually identical that used for the aforementioned type of form travelers.1. which is positioned transversally.2. the suspension of the lower part of the form traveler from the ends of the upper beam requires very large and thus very costly upper beams. very close to the webs. situated along the two support beams.1 Installation of the upper reinforcement cage of segment n with its ducts and anchorages Casting of segment n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Standard segments of conventional dimensions and shapes are almost always cast in a single phase. with its ducts and anchorages Dismantling of rods attaching the sliding beams and sliding of the latter Sliding and adjustment of the internal formwork Installation of rods fixing the sliding beams to the concrete of segment n . 6.5 – Form travelers with transfer beams or launch beams For a large segment. it is thus increasingly common to use form travelers that are designed to move on a “transfer frame”. usually in the form of lattice girders Sliding beams situated under the central section of the upper slab. or sliding beams. as for the first type of form travelers Lower transfer beams.2.4 – Construction sequence for a standard segment Using the form travelers described above. Very simply.1 Dismantling of rods attaching U-shaped structure to the concrete of segment n . with two large support beams and one front beam. only used in the movement phase (Fig. supported at right angles to the webs (Fig.2. with a construction cycle of between 48 and 72 hours per pair. For the construction of very wide bridge decks. these form travelers consist of: • • • An upper beam without cantilevers.13) A main metal framework.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 130 septembre 2007 . 6.12) Longitudinal upper transfer beams.1 Adjustment of the external formwork and formwork of lower slab Installation of lower reinforcement cage of segment N. the U-structure is now fully suspended from the upper beam Sliding of the upper beam and thus of the U-structure suspended from it Installation of rods attaching the U-structure to the concrete of segment n . 6.

lower it onto the frame consisting of the four transfer beams and slide it into its new position. which in this phase are fixed to the two support beams.14 – Form traveler in static phase The differences are greater in the movement phase (Fig. the support and operating conditions for the form traveler are virtually identical to those for the first type of form travelers. normally via long-stroke jacks Fix the main framework to the concrete and the upper beam Move the central section of the formwork forward Re-attach the lower transfer beams to the support beams. • • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 131 septembre 2007 . Fig.14).13 – Upper transfer beam In the static phase (Fig. The main difference concerns the presence of lower transfer beams.12 – Upper beam without cantilever Fig. Indeed.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 6. 6.15). 6. 6. separate them from the upper transfer beams and remove the latter. 6. it is necessary to: • • Place the two upper transfer beams on the segment that has just been constructed Release the lower transfer beams and suspend them from the two upper transfer beams in order to form a frame capable of accommodating the main framework of the form traveler Release the main framework (both support beams and the front beam). in this phase.

With this method. Unfortunately. 6. [PAU 00].Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. significant modifications often have to be made to the form travelers in order to reuse them for the construction of a new bridge deck. there are many different types of form travelers and the preceding presentation is far from exhaustive.1. etc. It is now also possible to use special high bond strength reinforcing steels which are capable of withstanding a bending-unbending cycle without any loss of strength.16). the Corniche bridge in Dole. the Vecchio bridge. of this guide. lateral shell elements or even hybrid structures (e. Considering the risks involved. However. However. as the decks of large bridges have no standardized elements. the bridge over the Bras de la Plaine.1.in order to allow the inner core of the form traveler to slide freely. Weight of form travelers The weight of form travelers that are custom-made for a specific project is normally quite close to half of the weight of the heaviest standard segment. 6. especially when a form traveler that was originally designed for a wider bridge deck is reused on a narrower project. the engineering design and implementation of these modifications must be handled with the same care as for the original design and manufacturing phases. this ratio is sometimes exceeded.6 – Other comments regarding form travelers Other types of form travelers As mentioned at the beginning of paragraph 6.2.15 – Form traveler in movement The form travelers used for the Pays de Tulle viaduct on the A89 highway are good examples of this type of form traveler [LAC 02].1. 6.3 - Deviator segments The vast majority of deviator segments on composite prestressed concrete bridges are constructed in two phases: the standard section is built using the form traveler used for the standard segments.1. Modification of form travelers for reuse Considering the very high manufacturing costs for a pair of form travelers. the reinforcement bars awaiting insertion into the beams must be bent and then unbent . making these operations unnecessary.) [CHU02]. 6. efforts are often made on new projects to reuse equipment that was designed for a previous site. it is increasingly common to use mechanical couplers at the junction between the webs and the deviator beams. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 132 septembre 2007 .g.2. the lower beam and the deviator beams are built using wooden formwork with the concrete introduced through apertures left in the upper slabs directly above the beams (Fig. Special form travelers are commonly built for the construction of bridge decks with struts.requiring the use of ADX steel .

easily transportable sections. it is necessary to design and use a special inner core. If it is possible to remove the central core once the final segment is in place. this system consists of longitudinal beams fixed to the overhangs of the last standard segment in each cantilever. which can be broken down into small. as is the case for the standard segments. but if one of the standard form travelers is reused.1.1. However. they are built using form travelers designed for these segments. Two to three days are required to complete a closing segment. If the formwork equipment is specially built.4 - Segments built by over-cantilevering In terms of their construction. using one of the form travelers used for the construction of the standard segments. It should be noted that the most common practice is to use standard form travelers for the construction of the closing segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 133 septembre 2007 . the internal parts of the closing segments are encased using the original core. the formwork equipment is positioned on simple supports at both ends of the cantilevers because it would not be strong enough to withstand the thermal effects that might develop in the continuously-rendered span. depending on the project. casting in the late evening is recommended during very sunny periods. which is by far the most common situation. 6.5 - Closing segments Closing segments are normally constructed in a single phase. The time of the casting of a closing segment must be chosen with care. segments built by over-cantilevering are similar to standard segments. which allows them to remove their form travelers as quickly as possible.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.especially their rotation around the axis of the piers due to the effect of wind. this does not happen systematically. these support conditions pose no problems. If this is not the case. Normally. On certain sites. a special metal core was built specifically for these segments. It is important to prevent the development of significant thermal effects between the setting of the concrete – the moment at which the span becomes continuous – and the stressing of the first continuity tendons. In some of these structures. During the construction of the closing segment . and on certain projects. it is important for the aforementioned formwork equipment to be equipped with a system designed to prevent certain parasitic movements of the cantilevers . Therefore. special precautions must be taken because the majority of these tools are designed to operate in an overhanging position. 6. contractors prefer to build special equipment for these segments. Therefore.16 – Second phase in the construction of a deviator beams There are several structures in which the deviator beams were built in a single phase. 6.

In the lower section.1.7 - Stabilization of cantilevers The following section contains technical information concerning the stabilization of cantilevers. This supplements Chapter 5 of this guide. In order to limit the imbalance of the cantilever.6 - End sections In the majority of cases.1. The formwork for the bridge deck is then erected on this centering and the casting is carried out in sections of 3 to 4 m. 6.18 – Construction using form traveler and temporary piling on the end section of an end span 6.17 – Construction on centering of the end section of an end span However.18) [DEM 02]. a temporary piling is placed under the last standard segment on the abutment side and then caulked after the cantilever tendons associated with this segment have been stressed. by forming a loop in the shaft or on the foundation bulkheads. the longitudinal profile of the natural terrain around the abutments makes it necessary to construct the end sections on horizontal centering resting on the abutment crosshead and on one or more temporary metal pilings (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. End zones may also be built directly using the same form travelers used to construct the standard segments. This piling also helps to reduce flexion at the end of the bridge deck (Fig. 6. Fig. In the upper section. according to the piers.1. If this solution is impossible due to the density of reinforcements in these parts. 6.17). This is the most economical technique. Fig. they must be anchored to anchor plates housed in the upper slab of the SOP. these tendons may be anchored on the underside of the crosshead. the anchorages are housed in The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 134 septembre 2007 . it is possible to construct the end sections of the bridge deck on centuring towers.1 – Stitching prestressing Stitching prestressing is normally carried out by tendons.7. 6. 6. if the natural terrain lends itself to this solution.

2 – Concrete blocks If the pier head unit is big enough to accommodate the bearings. the most economical stabilization system consists of temporary prestressing and hooped concrete blocks placed directly on the pier head (Fig. the sand is blown out of the boxes (Fig.1. stitching tendons and jacks simultaneously. In this way.19 – Concrete stabilizing blocks During construction. However. the cantilevers are constructed on concrete blocks placed on sand boxes consisting of a removable metal shell filled with graded sand (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide prefabricated concrete blocks positioned on top of the SOP and removed after the stress has been released from the stitching tendons. Once the closing segment is in place. 6. 6.21). the gap between the underside of the SOP and the top of the bearings is caulked as before. vertical forces are progressively and without jack transferred from stabilizing blocs to permanent bearings. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 135 septembre 2007 . Bringing the structure down onto the hardened caulking.21).7. the blocks are no longer in contact with the SOP and may be removed by a crane or other equipment (Fig. 6. Some contractors also use bars to provide the temporary prestressing. the cantilevers rest on the concrete blocks and the bearings are in place but not in contact with the SOP.7. blocks. 6. the support reaction of the bridge deck is gradually transferred from the stabilizing blocks onto the permanent bearings. Once these operations have been carried out. Caulking the gap above the bearings 3. the structure can be placed on the permanent bearings.20). After the closing segment is in place. Raising the bridge deck using jacks 2. This consists of: 1. 6.1. finally. A resin or mortar is inserted between these blocks and the SOP in order to guarantee the correct transmission of forces between these elements.3 – Concrete blocks on sand boxes If the pier head units are too small to accommodate jacks and blocks side by side. Fig. this solution is not to be recommended because any error in the positioning of the prestressing ducts could result in parasitic flexions in the bars or could even make it impossible to insert the bars. 6.19). Thus. 6.

21 – Detail of an open sand box A large variety of sand boxes are available. For this to be possible.Jacks Although this technique is rarely used. thus resulting in structural and/or geometric disorders. this could lead to an uneven distribution of the support reactions between the sand boxes. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 136 septembre 2007 . so that smaller pier heads can be used. which are usually metal tubes filled with concrete. the sand boxes are proper cylindrical pot bearings and up to a dozen may be used per pier.1. the jacks are immobilized during the construction of the cantilevers. 6.g.4 . it is also possible to construct a cantilever entirely on jacks. If not. because it is an “exact” match for an older design. 6. e.22).20 – Concrete stabilizing box placed on a sand box Fig. They must therefore be equipped with lock nuts. these boxes must be dimensioned and designed to be undeformable.7. these pilings. On more complex projects. are attached on top of the foundation bulkhead.7.5 – Other methods When the structure is positioned quite low above the natural ground and if the pier head unit is too small to accommodate blocks. it cannot be used to raise the bridge in case of problem. 6. 6. they are attached underneath the lower slab of the segments on piers or of the first standard segments. it is possible to stabilize the cantilevers using temporary pilings placed either side of the piers (Fig. At the bottom.1. 6. Whatever their type. at the top. On the simplest projects. This technique has the benefit of using the same system to perform both jacking and blocking functions.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. they are rectangular and four boxes are used per pier. because as a sand box can only be emptied. It should also be noted that the geometry of the cantilevers has to be perfect with this system.

Fig. In the interests of thoroughness.24). for single tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Today.1. we should also mention the second Gennevilliers viaduct over the River Seine for the A15 highway. 6.23 – Cylindrical butt blocks The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 137 septembre 2007 . rectangular blocks are still used when several tendons need to be anchored in close proximity to each other. as their alignment was designed to reduce shear force. contractors sometimes prefabricate the concrete which surrounds the anchor plates for these tendons. more and more contractors are using prefabricated cylindrical blocks whose only reinforcements are helical hoops with jointed coils which also form the external formwork of the prefabricated block (Fig.8 – Prefabricated butt blocks In order to allow for the rapid stressing of cantilever tendons. However. 6. 6. composite systems with blocks and cable stays were used tostabilize the cantilevers [JAE00]. which was equipped with self-leveling pot bearings injected with silicone rubber [CHA 94].23 and 6.22 – Stabilization of a cantilever by tubular metal pilings For the second Saint-André de Cubzac viaduct. As the cantilever tendons on older structures were often anchored quite low down. and still because of excessively small pier head units. these elements were situated in the webs of the box girder and were rectangular in shape. 6.

The form travelers may also influence the positioning of the cantilever tendons and continuity tendons. 6. particularly during the construction of the cantilevers. 6. 6. This must be accounted for in the design of the cantilever tendons. Réaction de l'appui support de la poutre supérieure Précontrainte des suspentes des poutres latérales Fig. 6. These forces usually lead to the localized strengthening of the reinforcements in the upper slab and in the top part of the webs (Fig.25 – Example of localized forces exerted by the form traveler on the box girder in the construction phase In conclusion.2 . it is not possible to choose the position of these bars. it is essential for the organization and methods department and the engineering firm to work very closely together during the construction surveys for a structure built by the cantilever method. It is also important to consider the forces caused by the form travelers when analyzing tranverse flexion.25).Construction by prefabricated segments It is generally considered that it is more economical to prefabricate a bridge deck than build it in-situ when the number of segments to be constructed exceeds 350 to 400 units.24 – Cylindrical butt block in position in the form traveler 6. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 138 septembre 2007 .1.8 - Influence of form travelers on the dimensioning of bridge decks It is imperative for the weight of the form travelers to be considered in the calculations for longitudinal flexion. as their operation relies on prestressing bars which cross the slabs close to the webs where the internal prestressing tendons are situated. as this increases the forces on the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. During the design stage for pretressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method using reused form travelers.

6. the Avignon viaducts for the TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line. A well designed unit produces one standard segment per day or one segment on pier every two days. the second A20 viaduct over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00].28).27) which also requires more space. a very short contractual completion time or difficult climatic conditions may increase the appeal of prefabrication. this function is carried out by a metal plate on the crown side and a by segment n-1 on the pier side. 6.2. in which the assembly of formwork and the casting of segments take place (Fig. anchor plates. On the other hand. They also take delivery of complete reinforcing cages. 6. the Rogerville viaduct on the A29 [JAC 98]. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 139 septembre 2007 . Fig. In order to maintain such high rates of production. longitudinally. which results in a perfect joint between the different elements (Fig. a lack of space close to the site or difficult access conditions may mean that there is no alternative to the in-situ construction of reasonably long structures. 6.26 – General view of the units of a prefabrication plant Prefabrication units have been preferred for the construction of segments for the past ten years or so. the Saint-André viaduct for the A43 highway in Maurienne.1 - The segment prefabrication plant The prefabrication plant is set up on a site of approximately 2 hectares in area.26). French bridges built recently using this technique include the Ile de Ré bridge.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide However. 6. this method has definitively taken over from the costlier long bench method with an ogee mold (Fig. 6.30). which are manufactured on jigs by specialist workshops and are equipped with all inserts (ducts. This is usually located next to the site. specific difficulties may raise or lower this threshold.29 and 6. anchor rails). The lateral formwork consists of two metal sides. the units are equipped with concrete distribution booms supplied by pipework or conveyors connected to a concrete plant on site. Fig. Thanks to significant improvements in geometrical accuracy. 6. but it may also be situated several kilometers away. and finally. It can be broken down into two major areas: the first is used for the construction of the segments and the second is reserved for their storage (Fig.27 – Prefabrication using an ogee mold A prefabrication unit is a construction area the length of two to three standard segments. Thus.

30 – Detail of a prefabrication unit (from left to right: the matched mold segment. 6. external formwork.28 – Breakdown of a prefabrication unit Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. internal formwork) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 140 septembre 2007 .29 – Prefabrication units Fig. 6. 6.

6. Loaded is usually carried out by a gantry crane at the prefabrication site and unloading is performed by the assembly equipment (see 6. Considering the errors that they have to compensate forr. The segments are stored on the prefabrication site for a period of one to three months. by dredging [JAE 00]. e. The segments are first transported by large traveling gantry. after separation. The concrete is thus extremely strong when the segments are assembled.1. they are transported to the units specializing in standard segments for use as matched molds for the first standard segments of each cantilever.3 above). According to the project.). therefore. the closing segments are cast-in-situ rather than prefabricated. they may also be stored on two or even three levels.1 – Transportation by low-bed semi-trailer Tyre-mounted low-bed semi-trailers are the most widely used form of transport for segments (Fig. with the beams being constructed in the second phase outside of the unit in order to avoid having to modify the construction cycle for the standard segments.8) can be dispensed with.2 – Transportation by barge The segments can also be transported by barge if the structure crosses a navigable waterway or one that can be made navigable.2.31). and after verification of the segments. if these are included in the design of the bridge deck. Specialized units are reserved for the construction of hinged segments. low-bed semi-trailer.2. etc. the segments are stored on just one level. The half-segments on piers are manufactured side by side in specialized units.2.2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 141 septembre 2007 .2 - Transportation of prefabricated segments 6. 6. Fig. the deviator segments are either built in specialized units or in the standard segment units.2. there may be between three and several dozen units in total. Some of these units specialize in segments on piers and abutments while the others are reserved for standard segments. initially from the prefabrication units to their storage area and then onto a mode of transport (barge.31 – Semi-trailer used for transporting segments 6. If necessary.g. the prefabricated anchor blocks described previously (see 6.2. They are also reduced to several tens of centimeters in length. the semi-trailer is either driven onto the portion of bridge deck that has already been constructed or onto a track marked out on the ground in line with the structure to be built. Segments on piers are always split into two in order to avoid the need for oversize transportation and hoisting equipment. Depending on the sites and the chosen assembly mode. 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Depending on the number of segments to be constructed. In general.

the Boulonnais and the Rogerville viaducts on the A29 highway [JAC 98] and the Saint-André bridge on the Maurienne highway (A43). Examples in other countries include the access viaducts for the second Severn crossing in England [COM 96]. The initial cost of a launch beam is very high. acting as secondary supports Two bridge cranes traveling on the lattice girders and used to manoeuvre the segments. acting as main supports Two front and rear legs. the access viaducts to the Prince Edward Island viaduct in Canada [COM 98] and numerous urban bridges in Thailand and Hong Kong. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 142 septembre 2007 . Fig.2. This self-propelled handling device is supported by the bridge deck and piers and therefore is free from almost all of the constraints relating to the crossing (Fig. 6.34): • Two triangular-section lattice girders of between 3 and 5 m tall and 100 to 250 m in length according to the beams. In recent years.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6.32 – Standard launch beams Structure of standard launch beams Standard launch beams can be broken down into around ten elements. it can be paid off over a long period.32). but as it is usually designed to be used on several consecutive sites. the most notable examples include the Sylvans and Glacières viaducts on the A40 highway [BOU 90]. 6. all of which are made of metal (Fig.33 and 6. made from sections assembled using prestressing bars Two front and rear lattice towers. In France. the Ile de Ré Bridge.2. 6. numerous bridges have been built using this method.3 - Assembly of prefabricated segments 6.3-1 – Assembly using a launch beam Background information Launch beams are the most widely used method for assembling prefabricated beams in successive cantilever segments.

The lattice towers can also slide inside their supporting cross beams. A standard launch beam weighs between 300 and 600 tonnes. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 143 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. The completion time for its construction is approximately one year and it costs between 1. for example. This transverse movement is required for the construction of curved sections.33 – Cross-section of a standard launch beam Fig. The bridge cranes are equipped with spreaders which are used to position the segments as closely as possible to their final position. 6.5 and 3 million euros.34 – Main constituent elements of a launch beam The lattice towers and legs can be moved longitudinally along the lattice girders using to a system of capstans. 6. both longitudinally and transversally and for any type of geometry.

To this end. Special launch beams Without going into too much detail. The front leg is then placed at the end of the lattice tower on the Pn+1 side. this technique improves the speed of the assembly and prestressing of the segments. it is very common for the adjacent cantilevers of the two decks Fa and Fb to be constructed simultaneously. the two symmetrical segments S and S' are normally assembled one after the other. On some sites. 6. This method. This method is also used when the bridge deck consists of two box girders joined in the middle and when each box girder is built and assembled on-site before the longitudinal grouting of these box girders is carried out. This operation can now begin (Fig. The beam can then be moved forward so that the rear lattice tower is positioned at the end of the cantilever centred on Pn-1. In the case of box girders joined side by side.35 – Different stages in the sequence of operations for a launch beam During the construction of a cantilever. so that it does not obstruct the assembly of the standard segments.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Sequence of operations for the assembly of segments During the assembly of the segments on piers on support Pn. this also significantly reduces the differential creep between the two box girders. it is worth mentioning certain launch beams that have been specially designed or used by French companies in France or abroad. In general. the launch beam rests on its two lattice towers and the front leg. the two lattice towers are placed on the transverse rails straddling the central gap. When the bridge deck consists of two parallel bridge decks. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 144 septembre 2007 . reduces the stresses imposed on the supports by eliminating non-accidental imbalances. Once both half-SOPs have been assembled. Fig. the rear leg is removed and the front lattice tower slides in place on top of the SOP on pile Pn. which consists of synchronizing the release of the two S and S' segments by both carriages. a “symmetrical” assembly method has been used. adjusted and stitched. 6.35). which allows the launch beam to cross over from one bridge deck to the other and thus to assemble cantilever Fa immediately after cantilever Fb.

the crane constantly moves from one end of the cantilever to the other. These beams were connected by a bridge crane. Fig. the assembly is carried out using a 200T to 500T lattice boom crane mounted on a barge (Fig. 6. 6. which significantly reduces the initial investment costs.2 – Assembly by crane If the piers are not too tall and it is possible to use heavy equipment at the foot of the bridge deck. featured two independent upper beams.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A cable-stayed launch beam was used on the construction of the Ile de Ré Bridge. Given the order of assembly of the segments. prefabricated segments can be assembled using cranes.36). This arrangement made it possible to assemble the segments on two parallel bridge decks of different levels and separated by a very wide central gap. This solution helped to keep the lattice girders to a reasonable height despite the length of the spans to be crossed (110 m). 6. 6.37 –Assembly using a river crane Fig. If the structure crosses land.36 – The cable-stayed launch beam used on the Ile de Ré viaduct The launch beam used for the construction of the H3 highway viaduct on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian archipelago in the United States.3. 6. Fig. 6.2. each of which was positioned on a separate bridge deck.38 – Assembly using a land-based crane The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 145 septembre 2007 . 6.38). the assembly is carried out using a tracked crane with a lattice boom of the same capacity (Fig. If the structure crosses an expanse of water. This also played an important role in helping to reduce wind effects (Fig.37).

2. The same system was used for the Khurays Road viaducts in Riyad and. it is possible to “winch” segments or parts of segments up to the bridge deck using lightweight metal girders. Fig. 6. If the transverse slope or longitudinal profile is very pronounced. the segments were assembled using a gantry crane operating on both sides of the bridge deck (Fig. where it was used to raise whole segments and on the Sermenaz and Arrêt-Darré viaducts ([SER 90]. the second viaduct for the A10 highway over the River Dordogne at Saint-André de Cubzac [JAE 00] and the "central" and “Expo" viaducts of the bridge over the River Tage in Lisbon. occupied a totally virgin site.3. other methods exist for the assembly of prefabricated segments. on the A10 highway bridge over the River Loire at Tours. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 146 septembre 2007 . 6. 6. 6. This method has been used on at least four sites in France: on the Falaises viaduct on the A20 highway. closer to home. the segment can be guided by joining frames and the spreader can therefore be very simple. it is better to offer up the segments in a position close to their final position.3 – Other assembly methods In addition to the launch beam and the crane. where it was used to raise sections of segments.40).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Whatever type of crane is used. a spreader is positioned between the hook of the crane and the segments. which requires much more complex spreaders with transverse and/or longitudinal adjustments. If the transverse slope and longitudinal profile are minimal. When each segment can be positioned on the ground in line with its final position. Fig.39 – Winch assembly principle (on the site of the Arrêt-Darré viaduct) As the structure for the West Kowloon Expressway project. in Hong Kong. Several structures have been built using this technique in recent years. on the Ottmarsheim bridge. The most notable examples are the Arcins viaduct over the River Garonne in Bordeaux [ABE 94].39).

2 MPa must be exerted by these bars. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 147 septembre 2007 .2. In order to allow the movement necessary for perfect joints at the crowns.42 – Construction of a closing segment with strip formwork 6. This lashing generally consists of Ø36 mm bars anchored in blocks at the top and bottom of the webs.2. the segments being assembled can be lashed in place before the cantilever prestressing is brought into operation. In the case of prefabricated segments.42). contractors often use strip formwork (Fig. 6.2.40 – Assembly using a gantry crane 6. Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. It is dismantled after the stressing of the permanent tendons and the hardening of the epoxy adhesive. the extremities of end spans on the abutment side are usually built on falsework. For such short joints.6 - Sections on the abutment side of end spans As for in-situ casting. blocks or jacks are placed between the bottom of the segments and the top of the falsework. A normal stress of approximately 0. 6. which guarantees the correct distribution of the adhesive and helps it to set. the corresponding segments are positioned and assembled on falsework.5 - Mid-span closures The mid-span closures between cantilevers are constructed in the traditional manner. 6. 6.41 – Anchor block for a lashing bar Fig.41). while preventing any decompression at the end of the segments. in the web uprights or in the slabs (Fig 6. 6.4 - Temporary lashing In order to release the assembly equipment as quickly as possible. by casting an in-situ joint of approximately 20 centimeters in length.

under normal operating conditions the speed of construction reaches 12 m or 4 segments per day. As for construction using cast-in-situ segments. and for the B3 South viaduct to the north-east of Paris. regardless of the assembly method used. If the segments are assembled using a launch beam or winch. caulking must be applied between the top of the blocks and the bottom of the segments on piers in order to correct any construction defects or errors in the assembly of these parts. it is important to verify that the reinforcing of the segments is capable of taking up any transverse moments that develop during the storage and handling of the segments.2. the design and construction of bridge decks made from prefabricated segments using the cantilever method requires a very close collaboration between the engineers of the engineering and design department and those of the organization and methods department. 6.1. no more than 3 m per day are completed. To be exhaustive. the cantilevers are often built on supports featuring jacks equipped with lock nuts.2. The average speed is therefore 6 m per day. This technique was used for the construction of the Baldwin viaduct in the USA [FUZ 94]. However. However. At the start of the project. 6.2.7 - Bonding of the segments Before assembly. For localized flexion.2.6 above. the choice of a stabilization system for cantilevers is highly dependent on the size of the pier head units. the stabilization techniques for bridges made from prefabricated systems are the same as those described in section 6. If the assembly uses a launch beam and/or requires the use of a low-bed semi-trailer. as the loads applied to the cantilevers are limited to the weight of any work platforms that might be used.10 - Influence of methods on the dimensioning of structures Assembly using a crane or gantry crane creates very few longitudinal forces on the bridge deck. as it is difficult to correct the geometry of the cantilevers once the segments are joined.8 - Stabilization of cantilevers As mentioned in the part of this chapter devoted to cast-in-situ segments. it is worth mentioning that cantilevers are sometimes stabilized by the launch beam itself. 6. an epoxy adhesive is spread on the pier-side face of the segment being assembled. This adhesive is spread by hand just before assembly to a thickness of approximately 1 mm. Under these conditions.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6. as for the construction of bridge decks using cast-in-situ segments. it is also necessary to consider the localized forces created by this equipment when dimensioning the non-prestressed reinforcements of the segments.9 - Speed of construction The instantaneous construction rate on a site using prefabricated segments varies significantly. it is important to perform a thorough analysis of the positioning of the handling hangers and the internal cables in order to prevent any interference between these elements. greater forces develop in the bridge deck due to the weight of this equipment and the segments being handled and must therefore be allowed for in the design. In conclusion. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 148 septembre 2007 . If conventional blocks are used.

Technical Document 4 entitled “Instruction technique sur la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art : topométrie" (Technical instructions for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures: topographic surveying) is currently being prepared by Sétra. quantities and the monitoring of deadlines. Inspections carried out during construction are designed to verify the correct application of the technical specifications and compliance with the rules of good practice. the monitoring of the materials used and process controls.2 . it provides a number of definitions which help to specify the vocabulary to be used for clarifying the exchanges in this field. other monitoring operations performed prior to construction will be developed in the following subchapters. the monitoring of plans and design calculations. Therefore. including the certification of companies. Monitoring prior to construction is primarily designed to evaluate the methods which are likely to be used by the contractor and which will go some way towards defining some of the specifications of the contract.Background information On-site monitoring mainly relates to quality. Three categories of measuring points can be defined: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 149 septembre 2007 . Post-construction inspections are designed to ascertain whether the initial objectives have been achieved.1 . This chapter only covers qualitative monitoring. 7. Measuring point A measuring point is a point to which coordinates are attributed in order to monitor relative or absolute movements. The concepts of measuring points. post-construction inspections will be a formality. It places particular emphasis on topics relating to the construction of bridges by the cantilever method. frames of reference and networks are thus defined and are clearly explained in the following section.On site Monitoring This chapter covers the monitoring operations and particular precautions that need to be implemented during the project. In Appendix 3. they will receive only minimal coverage in this chapter. during and after construction. and the Quality Assurance Plan itself. Some of these monitoring operations will not be covered in this chapter. In the process. If both of the previous types of inspections have been carried out. the inspection of the SOPAQ (Schéma organisationnel du plan d’assurance qualité . Different aspects of these inspections will be described in the following sub-chapters. including the inspection and approval of materials. it extends its scope to the monitoring that must be performed and the particular precautions that must be taken during the construction of all types of large engineering structures. reference points. depends to a considerable extent on the care that is taken over the development of the geometric framework.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7 . 7.Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme). However.Inspection of geometry The quality and accuracy of the topographic surveying that is carried out before.

2.1 – Accounting for vertical settlement The following effects must be carefully evaluated: • • The settlement of foundations under the action of the selfweight of the pier and the cantilever The elastic shortening of the pier due to the same actions Page 150 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .1. the orthonormal reference point is defined by: • • • The Ox axis following the tangent to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck.1 - Inspection of pier geometry Obtaining the correct bridge deck geometry involves considering any data that might have a bearing on the geometry of the piers and using reverse deflections to negate any drift that these data are likely to produce. Two types of networks may be used in the topographical monitoring of civil engineering structures: absolute reference networks or relative measurement networks. punch mark A point given by a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure: target. Oy. 7. This conventional system. which is the working reference point established by the surveyor at the start of the topographical operations. hole.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • A visible point on the structure: rivet head.2. which is used to identify the position from any point in space. in relation to a previously defined network. is used to calculate the position of the measuring points. Frame of reference A frame of reference is a system of orthonormal axes (Ox. Oz) associated with a point of origin O. These points are usually marked out on the site. Topometric operations consist of determining the positions of certain points whose movements will be monitored. The Oz ascending vertical axis. Reference point A reference point is the association of a system of orthonormal axes and a point representing the origin of the system of axes and whose movements are to be measured. 7. As a general rule. paint mark. Network A network is an arrangement of points determined by a set of planimetric and/or altimetric measurements. The Oy axis following the normal to the longitudinal axis of the bridge deck. leveling stud A specific point in relation to a part that has been fixed or welded to the structure and designed to accommodate accessories positioned by forced centring.

span lengths of approximately 180 m and a bridge deck of 20 m wide may result in downward loads of approximately 20.1. However. rather than building a perfectly straight pier. they increase in proportion to the height of the piers and the length of the spans.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The effect of shrinkage and creep due to the weight of the cantilever. the construction tolerances inherent to any structure may lead to shifting in the horizontal plane between cantilevers. In the case of relatively small structures. 7. While the aforementioned effects may be small for small bridges. Creep tests should therefore be performed on the chosen formula of concrete in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the deformations in the structure. However. it is necessary to anticipate this movement by building in a pre-deformation in the opposite direction.1. it is important to remember that a thermal gradient may act upon a pier shaft and cause a horizontal shift of the pier head unit capable of affecting the measurements of movement during the construction of the cantilevers.2 – Accounting for other phenomena In the case of a rectilinear bridge deck. Piers of a hundred or so meters tall.2. Therefore. it might be possible to consider the settlement of the foundations only. The concrete must have consistent characteristics and the conditions of application must be the same throughout all stages in the construction of the pier shaft.000 tonnes and a vertical shortening of around 4 centimeters including creep. when a curved cantilever is built. 7. This approach guarantees a successful closure of the span. Each point has a specific function The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 151 septembre 2007 .3 – Measuring points to monitor geometry Several types of measuring points can be positioned on the structure in order to help the surveyor monitor the geometry. it is necessary to examine the effect of the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier by the cantilever under construction. An inaccurate estimation of the vertical settlement of the pier may be compensated for by adjusting the thickness of these elements. Indeed. provided that the estimate was correct. because the weight of these segments remains offset in relation to the plane containing the pile axis and tangent to the curve of the horizontal alignment of the bridge deck The construction of the following segments will gradually straighten out the pier until it becomes vertical. This effect increases in proportion to the height and/or flexibility of the pier.2. The bridge deck is normally supported by bridge bearings which operate between concrete support blocks. this is a difficult operation requiring careful preparation. • The accuracy of the result is dependent on the awareness of the rheology of the concrete used. The construction of the cantilever will have the following effects: • The pre-deformation will be accentuated for the first segments. the torsional moment applied to the segment on pier causes flexion in the pier shaft which can alter the position of the pier head unit. In the case of curved bridge decks.

The horizontal plane tangent to the top of the sphere supports the sight. A retroflective target gives a third component in space: namely the distance from the observation point to the measuring point. undeformable material designed to resist the effects of weather and impacts on the site. The limitations of targets concern the mediocre accuracy of the measurements and the fact that their bonding fails after a few years. Medallions A medallion is a piece of rustproof metal which is fixed to the structure. this operation provides a good estimate of the position of the target point. Prisms Prisms are a little more expensive and are positioned on a bonded base in the form of a corner plate that allows the angle of the prism to be adjusted. It features a rounded upper support surface. on uneven sites. Medallions are used to monitor the levelling of a vertical plane and cost approximately the same as the rivets. Targets Self-adhesive targets are discs marked with concentric circles which are attached to bonded metal elements or directly onto the concrete itself. A sufficient number of rivets must be used in order to monitor the elastic curve accurately. exploitable data are only obtained if a sufficient number of medallions is used. depending on the type of model used. It is used to monitor the leveling of a horizontal plane. They are used for monitoring verticality in particular. The prism must be sited and angled in such a way as to reduce the damaging effects of dust. This type of measuring point has numerous advantages: • • • Greater accuracy for a measuring point which is difficult to access Saves time for the surveyor Single measurement reduces the risk of error. In certain cases. If repeated from three markers. A prism gives a direct measurement by defining the sighting angle and the distance to the measuring point from a single known reference marker to which it is permanently directed. bad weather and birds. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 152 septembre 2007 . Furthermore. As for the rivets. Therefore. it can be difficult to position three markers with clear visibility between each one. this component can increase the accuracy of the calculations. as this may vary from one model to another.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Rivets A rivet is a measuring device with a rounded head. Targets can be used to measure both angles of orientation of a viewing axis from a known reference marker. provided that this distance is no more than approximately 100 meters. This is particularly important if a bi-directional phenomenon is being monitored. it is important to make sure that the type of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the target in question. This inexpensive tool must be made from a hard-wearing.

the deformation of the cantilever is due to: • • • The weight of the concrete beam The weight of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The cantilever prestressing (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide As with targets. It is important to predict the exact extent of the deformation of the cantilever element in order to determine an adequate reverse deflection which will be implemented in the prefabrication unit if the segments are prefabricated or in the form travelers if the segments are cast in-situ. it is important to check that the modele of theodolite used is compatible with the constant of the prism in question. After the closure of the different cantilevers.1). using a material whose characteristics and composition may vary over time. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 153 septembre 2007 . The effects of concrete creep and the delayed prestressing losses are added to the instantaneous deformation. when the structure becomes continuous and hyperstatic. 7. 7. When the structure is isostatic. as this may vary from model to model. assembled and stressed at different ages.2 - Monitoring the geometry of the bridge deck A cantilever consists of several segments. which are manufactured.2. the bridge deck continues to deform due to the following effects: • • • • The interior and/or exterior continuity prestressing The removal of the form traveler or the assembly equipment The removal of the temporary piers and the temporary cantilever stabilizing systems The erection of superstructures.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.1 – Concreting curve for a single cantilever Fig. a different frame of reference applies to each of these methods of construction. it is always difficult to predict and control the deformations resulting from the construction of a cantilever with accuracy. This difficult problem obviously supposes that the actual position of the segment on pier in space is accurately known and is as close as possible to the theoretical position. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 154 septembre 2007 . 7. The calculation of this reverse deflection must account for the probable values of the different applied loads: • • The density of the concrete must be realistic for the calculation of selfweight The coefficients of friction for the cantilever tendons in a straight line and on curves will only increase very slightly The weight of the form traveler and the site equipment situated at the end of the cantilever will be evaluated as accurately as possible. the frame of reference is absolute and relates to the pier. For segments which are cast in-situ using a form traveler. • The modulus of elasticity for concrete varies according to the age of the load and the duration of this load. For a more detailed consideration of geometric monitoring. Therefore. Indeed. it is important to distinguish between cast-in-situ segments and prefabricated segments. It is therefore necessary to build in a reverse deflection in order to compensate for these different types of deformations (Fig. the deformations due to concrete creep and delayed prestressing losses continue to develop. The construction of a new segment makes it necessary to adjust the form traveler considering its position in space in relation to the overall geometry of the cantilever. 7.2). 7. which is also globally referenced.2 – Concreting curve for a standard bridge built by the cantilever method Following this.

points P1to P4 shown on Figure 7. This indicates the theoretical dimensions to be obtained for each stage in the progression of the cantilever and for each segment joint. These dimensions incorporate all of the forces that apply to the cantilever under construction. and before the final tightening of its lashing onto segment Vn-1. This deformation assumption may include the deflection of the form traveler’s main girders if they were load tested during the acceptance inspection. the frame of reference relates exclusively to the preceding segment. This phenomenon must include the form traveler’s suspension bars.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For segments which are cast in a prefabrication unit. the alignment of the formwork equipment and horizontal adjustment of the form traveler are verified by theodolite.1 – Bridge decks cast in-situ using form travelers Monitoring of levelling The monitoring of the levelling of segments under construction is based on a document drawn up by the engineering firm called the "construction pyramid". which is repositioned globally. it is necessary to adjust the prefabrication unit in relation to the end of the segment that is postioned as a matched mold.3.e. i. When the form traveler has been moved forward in order to build segment Vn. namely points P5 and P6 in Figure 7.3 – Key points for levelling adjustment Two additional points will be chosen on site in areas which seem to be the least affected by secondary deformation. 7. When a new segment is constructed. The other points will be verified in accordance with this reference. i. The form traveler is now considered to be properly adjusted in relation to segment Vn-1 and the following operations are carried out: • • Inspection and adjustment of the leveling and horizontal alignment of points P5 and P6 Inspection of the levelling of the cantilevers and adjustment of points P1 and P4 if required The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 155 septembre 2007 . close to the webs. which will be the first measurement reference to be determined on site.2.3.2. The construction of the first segment will incorporate a deformation assumption which will then be adjusted in accordance with the measurements taken after casting. Adjustment of the form traveler The adjustment of the form traveler is carried out by localization using localized reference points in relation to the segment on pier. P5 P6 P1 P2 P3 P4 Fig. This pyramid is used to determine the dimensions for the adjustment of four key points on each segment joint: both cantilevered ends and both ends of the lower slab. 7. The only effect not to be considered in the engineering firm’s calculation is the deformation of the form travelers.e.

and is repeated at each joint of the segment. i. These are marked with a punch and are integral with the concrete of the upper slab close to points P5 and P6. all of the reinforcements for the segments can be installed. by altimetric adjustment in relation to the external formwork at the level of the supporting beams (points P7 and P8). Additional measurements can be performed in other phases if necessary. The values measured are recorded on the monitoring documents and are compared with the values given by the construction pyramid. A cantilever that is subjected to a temperature gradient behaves like a highly sensitive bimetallic strip. Two corner irons are bolted onto the mask. The levelling measurement is carried out from segment Vn. an additional levelling inspection is carried out at the level of the mask. which has just been concreted to the SOP. Monitoring the geometry Once the casting of the segment Vn has been carried out. in order to ensure that the measurements are taken under identical load conditions. This upper face is kept clear of the concrete during casting. it is necessary to carry out a general inspection of the levelling of the cantilever.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Adjustment and monitoring of the leveling of points P2 and P3 defining the height of segment V Inspection of the spacing of points P2 and P3. Once the form traveler has been adjusted. The internal formwork of the form traveler is adjusted: • • At the back. The corner iron is unbolted so that the mask can be removed. Finally. By analyzing the deviations that are observed (which is always a difficult operation).of the width of the bottom slab.e. The levelling measurements are completed before the form traveler is moved forward and before the prestressing is tightened. This is the best time of day to avoid the manifestation of parasitic forces due to temperature. by placing it against the concrete of the previous segment At the front. Particular attention must be paid if heavy equipment such as a mobile crane is present on the cantilever that has already been constructed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 156 septembre 2007 . Any correction of the measurements must be performed after examining the assumptions and the data used to create the construction pyramid. It is important to pay great attention to the consistency of the measurements taken on site and the information given by the construction pyramid. This operation begins as early as possible the following morning. The operation must be completed as quickly as possible. corrections can be made to the adjustment of the form traveler for the construction of segment Vn+1. If differences go uncorrected on the first cantilever. the risk of error becomes greater the closer we get to the closing segment with the cantilever already constructed The simultaneous monitoring of the geometry of the support is essential to ensure that the surveyor is always capable of relating the pyramid to the absolute dimensions of the objective to be achieved. The corner iron becomes the measuring point for monitoring the deformations of the cantilever. The upper face of these corner irons is horizontal and is situated 20 mm underneath the extrados for protection.

which is called the prefabrication axis That the points which are used to measure the alignment and to mark out the prefabrication axis are adequately spaced and perfectly visible from the units That the theodolite support frame is not exposed to hot sunshine. This means verifying: • • That the longitudinal axes of the units follow the same alignment. There is no point in accounting for this dissymmetry in the calculations if the form travelers are always adjusted on the basis of the measurements made in the morning. On site. it should be mentioned that for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using form travelers. a number of precautions must be taken to facilitate the work of the surveyor and increase its reliability.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. however. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 157 septembre 2007 . which reduces the size of the alignment corrections That the support for the theodolite and the level are correctly in line with the prefabrication axis and that these appliances are placed slightly above the upper level of the concrete of the segments That the reference point used for measuring the levelling is separate from the mask. this sequence of operations could be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the cantilever.2 – Bridge decks consisting of prefabricated segments During the setting up and commissioning of the prefabrication units in the prefabrication workshop or plant. 7. • • • Adjustment of the match-cast segment This is a complex topographical problem. This point could consist of a measuring point on the structural steelwork of the unit or a graduated rule permanently attached to a concrete post. the sequence of operations always starts on the same side of the cantilever in general. as it involves constructing the independent segments on the ground in such a way that they can be assembled in space in accordance with the established geometric data (Fig 7.2.2.4).

the mold or the unit itself. Their positions are identified by corner plates bearing a punch mark or. consisting of the previous cast segment. wings and the mask. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 158 septembre 2007 . this is fixed and its assembly requires great precision A second mobile part: the matched mold.1 and Figure 6.28 of this guide. • • The choice of adjustment points is thus of paramount importance.4 – Adjustment of the match-cast segment A prefabrication unit is described in Paragraph 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the sides. it requires no adjustment A fixed part. better still. with a hemispherical indentation into which a ball bearing can roll. consiting of the mold base.5: • • The adjustment points for levelling are situated in the areas least affected by deformations The adjustment points for alignment follow the segment’s true axis. The measuring points may also consist of small plates capable of housing a mini-prism. 7. in theory. which leans against the mask on the one hand and the matched mold on the other. Three parts of this unit can be considered from the perspective of adjustments and monitoring: • An initial mobile part: the core or internal formwork of the segment. The recommended configuration for these corner plates is shown in Figure 7.2. placed on jacks used to adjust the angle and position according to the geometric data.

During the manufacture of the segment in the prefabrication unit. Topographical inspection in standard construction cycles The construction of a standard segment Vn requires three topographical inspections to be carried out on segment Vn-1: • • • Mapping of the levelling points and the prefabrication axis on Vn-1 in the prefabrication unit Adjustment of Vn-1 in the match cast position Mapping of Vn-1 in the match cast position after casting of Vn.6). as any impacts could compromise the accuracy of the measurements taken It is advisable to check both alignment measuring points systematically before and after each operation.5 – Adjustment points for a prefabricated segment It is essential to position the points in such a way as to avoid any possibility of them being moved at elevation when the casting is completed and to set them back slightly from the joint in order to protect them. 7. Two precautions must be taken during these operations: • The surveyor must take the measurements before the removal of any of the formwork. as slight deformations may affect the base of the theodolite (due to strong sunshine or instability). An additional precaution is taken for structures with a curved longitudinal profile or a variable transverse slope: the distance from the measuring points to the joint and the axis of the segment shall be identical from one segment to another. In order to obtain a precise adjustment in space.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Adjustment of the segment on pier The segment on pier is particularly difficult to adjust. it is also important to provide secondary alignment measuring points which mark out the entire width of the transverse axis of the segment (Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 159 septembre 2007 . bolts. to make fine adjustments to the position of the segment. wedges. Accuracy is of the utmost importance because the accuracy of the geometry of the cantilever to be built depends upon this adjustment. it is possible to use angled blocks. etc. • The final inspection concerns the recording of measurements of length. 7.

This illustrates the importance of ensuring the accuracy of the geometry for prefabricated segments. prestressing and superstructures are anticipated and compensated for via reverse deflections calculated by the engineering office. To counteract this. their calculation is only approximate and uncertainties remain with regard to the accuracy of the geometry. 7. base curves and the monitoring of lengths. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 160 septembre 2007 . The monitoring may reveal a systematic lateral drift if the stressing of the cantilever tendons always starts from the same web.6 – Alignment markers on the segment on pier Fig. simultaneous digital and visual inspections are carried out in the form of graphs.e the longitudinal profiles given by the position of the rivets. the order in which the cantilever tendons are stressed can be alternated. Although it is essential to incorporate these reverse deflections. 7. the solution might be to disconnect one or more segments and carefully place wedges in the joints with the segments securely lashed together. Method for monitoring changes in geometry Base curves. The remaining spaces between the joints must be caulked before the segments are prestressed.7 – Adjustment of the segment on pier at ground level These measuring points are used to make adjustments at ground level through the observation of both axes of the segment (Fig.7). taking care not to create obstructions in the sheaths that pass through the modified joints. namely the alignment curve and the two levelling curves i. In order to track the changes in the actual geometry of the cantilever. These inspections obviously incorporate the adjustment dimensions that result from the measurement of the existing segments and are applied to the next segments to be manufactured. 7. thus leading to a fault in the geometry of the cantilever during the assembly process. Exceptional corrective actions It is possible that a mistake in the prefabrication might be overlooked on the prefabrication site. In the event of a major fault. are used to monitor and control changes in geometry. The effects of the weight and bevahior of the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

An example of a five-segment cantilever is shown in Figure 7. as shown in Figure 7..2. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 161 septembre 2007 . In each section. Figure 7. the modified profile will effectively compensate for the future deformation. it has a satisfactory longitudinal profile.10 below shows these relative values for a structure designed according to these two methods.2.8 hereafter.9 – Correction of the profile to compensate deformations It is interesting to compare the relative importance of the deformations and reverse deflections affecting prefabricated and cast-in-situ segments. α2. etc. The line 1-2-3-4-5 represents the envelope of the different deformations. or the trajectory followed in space by the end of the cantilever at each phase of construction. it is necessary to analyze each phase in the construction of the cantilever and to determine the deformation curve for each cantilever element.8 – Deformations phase-by-phase Fig. Fig. the cantilever may be constructed in such a way that once completed. 7. By modifying the angular positions of the segments in small angles of α1.3 – Comments concerning both techniques Comparison of deformations For the construction of both cast-in-situ and prefabricated segments. phase-byphase.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. 7.9 for the example in question.

Inspecting the geometry of the competed cantilever Once completed. Corrections are therefore less likely to be needed when the cantilever is completed. the geometry of the cantilever must be inspected. or the loading of the higher cantilever may partly rectify this misalignment. This may require the modification of the adjustment pyramid for the adjacent cantilever if it has not yet been constructed. If the errors are significant. provided that a sufficient thickness of concrete remains over the reinforcements The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 162 septembre 2007 . this inspection must be carried out as early as possible in the morning. The advantage for a cast-in situ cantilever is that corrections are made after each casting. as it has the disadvantage of modifying the stress state that was designed for the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. such a manoeuvre is ill-advised. The lashing of the last cantilever segment to the opposite cantilever. However. If the cantilever is embedded on its pier. the misalignment can only be compensated for over the length of the closing segment. the difference between the methods will be greater if a cycle of less than one week is used for the in-situ casting of the segment and if the prefabricated segments are stored for more than two weeks. If the entire cantilever is incorrectly aligned.10 – Comparison of deformations for prefabrication and casting in-situ The design assumptions given in this figure show that in the majority of cases. the following actions may be considered once the whole structure is completed and continuous: • It may be possible to plane off the humps. the deformations affecting a cast-in-situ cantilever will normally be two to three times greater than for an equivalent prefabricated cantilever. the general longitudinal profile will have to be rectified. If the curves corresponding to all of the measuring points reveal localized irregularities. if the cantilever is simply supported on the pier. Whatever the circumstances. This involves plotting curves corresponding to all of the measuring points in order to obtain a geometrical representation of the area obtained. it is possible to improve its geometry to a certain extent by using hydraulic jacks to alter the position of the segment on pier after the stitching tendons have been slackened off. 7.

the evolution of delayed deformation is normally no longer significant. Therefore. the extent of which varies according to the sections in question. deformations continue to affect the bridge deck. After this time. it is important to start by loading the supports. at least the sections on supports and the sections of greatest flexion on the span. it is important to carry out a load test on the middle of each span.2. Although load tests involve no more than a simple observation. this is illustrated by a lowering of the reference axis. the testing of bearing sections can be limited to just a few spans. A second layer will then be applied. in the first part of the life span of the structure. a policy of aiming to achieve the theoretical profile in the long term would result in a structure that might be uncomfortable at the start of its service life. It is essential that the chosen profile and the profile that is actually obtained are clearly defined in an appropriately referenced document. a number of special precautions must be taken. this would lead to a gradual decrease in user comfort over the years.2 – Monitoring the deformation of structures subjected to loading tests For non-standard structures. for example. 7. but this technique also limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date. Carrying out the measurements When test trucks are used. If the structure consists of a large number of almost identical spans. they can then be filled with resin. After the application of the waterproofing. corresponding to the development of creep within the structure.2. However. supposing that the profile has been accurately determined in advance and allows for thermal effects.1 – The compromise between commissioning and infinite time For 15 to 25 years after the bridge is commissioned. The corresponding topographical measurements are recorded for information purposes. On the other hand. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 163 septembre 2007 . creep continues to affect the structure.3. a compromise can be sought: the target profile is considered to be midway between the profile when the bridge is commissioned and the long-term profile.3. Both of these elements must form part of the as-built file and shall be included in the zero-point file for the structure.2. For the majority of structures. Therefore. a first layer of asphalt will be applied and then planed in order to modify the profile. The theoretical reference axis during construction must therefore be specified. i. they must first be outlined by a trench of at least 10 mm. This may be adapted throughout the decades in which the structure is in use. these tests shall involve the systematic testing of all of the characteristic sections of the structure. A zero-point measurement is then taken which is used to accurately determine the height differences between the supports and the middle of spans.3 – Monitoring the geometry of the finished structure 7.e. The disadvantage of such a process is that it limits the thickness of any new layers of asphalt that will be added to the pavement at a later date An extra layer of asphalt may be sufficient to level out the irregularities. The comfort of the structure can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the surfacing. but this would improve with age. If the theoretical longitudinal profile were to be obtained at the start of the bridge’s service life. • 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • If hollows exist.

8 times the probable values). This period can be estimated at 10 minutes after the trucks have been positioned. • • • If the deflection values are unsatisfactory. it is important to account for: • • • • • • • Deformation due to shear force in the beams The contribution of the superstructures to the rigidity of the structure The law of the actual behavior of the materials derived from the testing of test samples The rigidity of the supports. Analyzing the results The precise analysis of the results requires an adequate knowledge of the unladen thermal behavior of the structure is established. The deflection values obtained during the tests are considered to be satisfactory when the measurements taken coincide with the authorized range for the values calculated (1. the results must be examined with a critical eye in order to find an explanation for the anomalies: non-linearity of the behavior. if on-site incidents have led to modifications. The measurements are taken from points marked by studs or rivets with rounded heads which have been carefully positioned and provide a single point of contact with the base of the levelling rod. the measurements cannot be taken until the trucks’ engines have stopped.1 times the probable values / 0. The design assumptions must not be too conservative. Instead. mainly with regard to rotation The skew of the structures The curvature of structures The cracking of parts operating as reinforced concrete and the reduction of torsional inertia due to the cracking The effective width of the slab on supports The probable prestressing value (using the results of the measurements of transmission factors) for partially prestressed structures The actual geometry of the structure. corresponds to a design-based approach that is more accurate than the current methods. it is necessary to wait for the structure to stabilize.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For box girder bridge decks. In particular. they should be as realistic as possible as physical quantities will be measured. Laser sightings may also be performed. it may be beneficial to perform precise levelling measurements from inside the box girder as this provides good measuring conditions and there is no interference from the trucks. abnormal changes in the deflections measured for a The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 164 septembre 2007 . This range. which also allows the thermal effects to be dissociated from the combined effects of the test loads. which conforms to the value recommended by the "Guide des épreuves des ouvrages routiers" (Guide to Testing for Road Structures) currently being prepared by Sétra. In any event. allowing for the uncertainty of the measurement. Before performing the measurements under load.

are sequenced in the following way: • External inspection of the design calculations for the dimensioning of the form traveler focusing particularly on the load-bearing elements.3 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 165 septembre 2007 .Inspection of temporary structures It is increasingly common for temporary structures to be listed in the first category under the terms of Article 41 of fascicule 65A of french CCTG. replace an external inspection agency approved by the French Ministère du Travail (Ministry of Labour). from its design through to its use. confirming that all of the inspections required for the approval of the equipment have been performed and guaranteeing that the construction is consistent with the design. This important point should be clearly explained in the STC (Special Technical Clauses). In all cases. 7. carried out by an approved organization upon completion of the assembly and before casting. This inspection must produce a general report. based on realistic high and low assumptions made for the significant physical values. • These inspections are carried out by an organization approved by the Ministry of Labor such as french APAVE. Article 42 of this fascicule defines the role of the Chargé des Ouvrages Provisoires (Head of Temporary Structures – COP). This does not include scaffolding. The Owner decides whether or not the deflections are satisfactory according to the Construction Manager’s recommendations. VERITAS. etc. External inspection of the supporting beams using load testing to examine their elastic behavior and evaluate their remanent deformations. • • It should be emphasized that an inspection by an approved organization involves much more than a simple visual inspection of the apparent condition of the equipment. It must be rounded off by a definitive acceptance report attesting to the conformity of the equipment i.e. 7.3. working platforms and protective structures. after performing a global analysis.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide non-standard section. its fitness for use. It is important to emphasize that the COP cannot. • External inspection by the Construction Manager who verifies that all documents guaranteeing the traceability of the different inspections are available in accordance with the company’s Quality system Manufacturer’s inspection of the equipment in order to verify the conformity of the different manufacturing stages External inspection of the conformity of the assembly of the form traveler on the segment on pier. to examine the welds after loading and to measure and monitor the deflections. either at the design stage or during construction on site.1 - Inspection of form travelers The different phases in the inspection of a form traveler. etc. under any circumstances. SOCOTEC. the engineering office draws up a summary report. A new calculation must establish a range of theoretical values to be monitored on the structure.

2 – Inspection of equipment The inspection of the equipment used in the centering must be covered in the company’s QAP. The resulting deflections in these elements are verified under loads which increase progressively until the nominal load corresponding to the forces encountered when the equipment is in service is reached. the inspection of bearing capacity may be performed while assuming that the value of the modulus at the plate Ev2 is 350 times greater than the permissible soil pressure. This procedure will also be internally monitored on a systematic basis every time the equipment is moved forward. To this end. performed upon completion of the assembly and before casting Inspection by the COP of the validity of the procedure used to move the form traveler forward. This number shall be determined prior to the start of work on site (see paragraph 7. with compaction limited to 3 mm and for soils with no underlying soft layers. It is essential to verify the soil that will support the centering. it is essential to define the maximum number of times the high-tensile steel bars forming the hangers can be used.3 - Centering Chapter IV of fascicule 65A of the french CCTG covers temporary structures.3. in opposition with the insertion of jacks.2 - Trial assembly of a form traveler This does not refer to an assembly carried out by the manufacturer of the equipment in the factory.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection by the COP of the conformity of the assembly of the equipment on the segment on pier. These beams are assembled on a flat surface. Finally. it is important to be particularly attentive to the risk of differential compaction due to the presence of a large number of supports and to the effects of successive compactions on the geometry and stresses.3. which are the main structural components. For typical cases concerning 1 m x 1 m sole plates. In the case of vertical types of centering. it is possible to perform a static plate load test defined by the standard NF P 94-117-1 of April 2000. 7. with centering specifically described in Article 45. 7. Plate load testing provides a model. it is important to mention that the contractor shall perform an internal inspection of the adjustment of the equipment after it has been moved forward and before the reinforcements are installed.3. and then by measuring how far it sinks down.1 – Testing of bearing capacity of the soil The testing of the bearing capacity of the soil for centering must be covered in the company’s QAP.3.5). This involves determining a value for the modulus of the soil by subjecting it to the action of a plate whose diameter and stiffness are normalized according to a standardized procedure.3. in order to test the supporting beams. although this concerns the use to which the equipment is put rather than the form traveler itself. • Before the first time the form traveler is properly used. but the design verifications for centering are expressed in the form of pressure exerted on the soil.3. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 166 septembre 2007 . but to a “test” assembly that is normally carried out on site. 7.

Any makeshift repairs could soon lead to a catastrophe. in addition to Article 44) uses a coefficient α in order to reduce the bearing capacity of the equipment. the corrosion of the equipment due to its different uses and periods of storage is determined in the calculations using a reduction factor β equal to: Corrosion condition β Absence of corrosion 1 Slight corrosion (presence of oxide modifying 0. The value of this coefficient can be as low as 0. two factors must be considered: the wear of the equipment and the extent of any corrosion. 7. Therefore.75 for equipment with more than 10 consecutive uses.95 the color of the element) Notable corrosion (small.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide It is important to highlight the dangers that could be caused by any laxity with regard to the inspection of the equipment in use. the COP must certify that all of the elements used in the centering are fully functional. thin particles of oxide) 0. In the intermediate section: • • • Inspect the bracing on towers. The inspections must target the areas of greatest risk in the centering structures. When inspecting the centering. Therefore. posts and girders Verify the convergence of the joints in the centering structure Makes sure that the horizontal forces are correctly taken up. At the top of the centering: • Follow the same precautions as at the base The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 167 septembre 2007 . In the same way. The wear of the equipment relates to its use on other sites. Fascicule 65A (Article 4 of Appendix B. the following areas and inspections must be covered: At the base of the centering: • • • Verify that the manufacturer’s recommended runout ranges for the jacks are not exceeded Check that drainage has been installed on the platform in order to channel the runoff Make sure that improvised extensions and wedges are not used.3 – Inspection of the erection The inspection of the centering erection must be covered in the coontractor’s QAP.85 Major corrosion: the element cannot be used The two coefficients α and β are accumulated.3.3.

Inspection of concrete Article 76 in fascicule 65A of the french CCTG defines all of the elements involved in the inspection of the manufacture and application of concrete. 7. chemical tests and defines the testing methods.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verify that the structural beams or girders are correctly centred in the forks Make sure that any risk of accidental relative movement is avoided above the metal-to-metal contacts. the frequency of these tests and how to evaluate the conformity of the water being tested. The use of seawater is strictly prohibited. At the level of the planking: • • • • • Check that the load transmission areas have been stiffened Verify that there is no irregular and/or complex stacking Check the reliability of the support conditions Verify the existence of lateral limit stops if there is a danger of slippage Make sure that bracing is fitted in all directions.1 – Inspection of the mixing water The mixing water must conform to the standard P 18-303 of August 1999 which prescribes appearance tests. 7. The following additional points should also be noted.4 . The monitoring of deflections is designed to: • • Verify whether the final target profile will be obtained Detect any anomalies that might be indicative of an imminent accident. 7.4. drinking water may not conform to the requirements of the standard.4 – Inspection of deformations It is important to inspect any deformations of the centering throughout the entire casting phase and to monitor the compaction of the supporting soils.3.1 - Inspection of the components Article 23 of fascicule 65A describes the inspection procedures for the constituents.3. However. particularly in tropical regions.4. under specific climatic conditions. Drinking water usually conforms to the standard. A simple way to monitor this compaction consists of attaching vertical bars under the centering which meet a fixed independent marker at ground level. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 168 septembre 2007 .1. 7.

or shrinkage test for cements exposed to the action of deicing salts Measurement of hydration heat. Sétra’s "Guide pour la rédaction des pièces écrites des marchés" (Guide to the Drafting of Written Documents for Contracts) concerning the "Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity" lists the clauses to be inserted into the written documents for the DCE (Document de consultation des entreprises) [Contactor Tender Document] and the contracts.4. Inspections of storage conditions for the aggregates and additives may be added to these. or shrinkage test if these characteristics are significant.3 – Inspection of aggregates and additives Internal inspections must be carried out at two levels: by the producer and by the contractor. 7. characteristics specified by the standards. External monitoring tests in the framework of the standard P 15-300 of December 1981 enable to contractor to confirm this conformity. tricalcium aluminate C3A content. • External inspection tests are carried out by the Construction Checker and its laboratory. The contractor’s external inspection consists of an acceptance inspection and possibly spot checks corresponding to tests laid down in the standard P 18-540 of October 1997.1.1.4 – Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of the aggregates Monitoring the alkali reactivity potential of aggregates is a complex task which is covered in detail in the “Recommandations pour la prévention des désordres dus à l’alcali-réaction" (Recommendations for the Prevention of Problems Relating to Alkali Reactivity” published by the LCPC (Central Public Works Research Laboratory) and in the appended document "Guide pour l’élaboration du dossier carrière" (Guide to the Creation of the Quarry File). or Na20 equivalent. these tests may involve the following operations: • • • Measurement of specific surface Determination of strength after 2 days Measurement of anhydride sulfurique SO3 content.2 – Monitoring of cement The acceptance inspection involving the rapid identification test defined by the standard P 15-466 of August 1983 is used by the contractor to verify the conformity of the cement at every delivery.4.4. Their main elements are: • For sands: Sand equivalent. 7. Furthermore.1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 169 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. Precautionary samples are thus taken. hygrometry • For chippings and pebbles: particle size and cleanliness • For aggregates: sulfate. etc. particle size. sulfide and chloride content • For additives: expiry date. For example. fineness.

though less frequent phenomenon. Different authors suggest different upper limits. has been observed in many countries. it bring sulfates in the cement into play. The type of aggregates must finally be mentioned. 7. The composition of the cement is important in terms of the contents of three of its constituents: tricalcium aluminate. These consituents are required for slowing down the setting of the concrete. However. a different type of pathology. It is noticed that there is a greater number of parameters than for alkali reactivity. alkali content and reactive silica content. it is caused by industrial emissions. for example). Temperature increases are equally important.1. Parameters While the alkali reactivity of concrete is governed by the three main parameters of moisture. the cement mixture has better adhesive properties.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Considering these two documents. As the problem appeared relatively recently. As a consequence. which modifies the hydration reactions of concrete. Moisture is essential to the process. It is true that it remains a limited phenomenon. in fact. It may have internal or external origins. If it has external origins. but which are. it wouild appear to be important to summarize the current levels of knowledge about this problem ([DIV 98] and [DIV 00]). Parts of the structure which are subjected to alternate wetting and drying. are all the more vulnerable. this temperasture range does depend on the type of cement used. If the problem has internal origins.5 – Ettringite formation in concrete Presentation The deterioration of concrete due to sulfates has been known about since the beginning of the 20th century. the presence of sea water or the action of constituents of the soil in contact with the concrete (this applies to gypsum. its existence was only reported in 1986. This indicates that it is a more complex. and their recommendations relate more to a precautionary approach than to objective studies. This is a known effect and the recommendations of the standard NFP 18-011 of June 1992 help to control it via the choice of cements and the concrete formulas. sulfates and alkalis. Indeed. such as those exposed to differences in water level. A low sulfate and alkali content allows for a higher temperature limit. Problems.4. ettringite formation in concrete seems to be a more complex phenomenon. as certain application conditions and certain current trends appear to be favorable to its appearance. major structures are usually placed in category C. This sulfate reaction of endogenous origin. analyses and precautions The problems observed have three underlying causes: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 170 septembre 2007 . less is known about it. although France has only recently started to pay serious attention to it. concerning problems in prefabricated parts which look similar to those caused by alkali reactivity. as it only concerns around 10 structures in France at present. with a limestone aggregate. However. Indeed. only NR (non-reactive) or PRP (potentially reactive to pessium effect) aggregates shall be used in their construction. which seems to prevent interstitial dissolution.

4. especially with regard to ambient temperatures.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Construction systematically carried out during the summer.4. • • This demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct type of cement. Indeed it would not be reasonable to allow concrete temperatures to reach 80 or 90° C as this could risk reducing the life span of our structures. It is particularly useful for verifying the concrete resistance to frost and the effects of deicing salts. 7. a period in which the temperature of the concrete is higher Use of cements that are too rich in high-risk components Use of highly exothermic cements. but in a wet environment every precaution should be taken to ensure that the temperature of the concrete does not exceed 65 to 70° C and to opt for cement with a low alkali content.6 – Suitability test and control test The suitability test is used to verify the likelihood that the nominal formula of the concrete and its implementation conditons satisfy the requirements of the contract in terms of its strength and the application conditions. which requires testing and recommends very low temperature limits.1 – The main information test The aim of the information test is to verify that.1. France is far behind many other industrialized nations. This value fcj is establishjed after analysis in order to make sure that the strength of the concrete us compatible with the construction procedures set out in the QAP. particular care should be taken to choose less exothermic cements. under actual hardening conditions. the risks are obviously very small. The control procedure is detailed in Article 77. The control test is used to verify the conformity of a batch of concrete. rendering the mixture particularly volatile and subject to large increases in temperature. it would seem to be advisable to check the moisture levels of the environment. the clinkers in modern cements are ground increasingly finely. the strength achieved at an early age j. Based on the current state of knowledge. where necessary. particularly in the casting program or prestressing program. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 171 septembre 2007 .5 "Cure et protection des bétons coulés" (Curing and Protection of Cast Concrete) limits the temperature in large parts to 65°C The European pre-standard Pr EN 13 369 of 1999. 7. This risk seems to increase for the construction of bigger parts. is above a predetermined value fcj .2 of fascicule 65A. Paragraphe 8. • In this respect. in this case.1 of fascicule 65A provides information about the nature of this test.2 - Information tests 7. Indeed.4. Article 77.2. There are certain statutory texts which cover this problem at least partially: • Standard ENV 13 670-1 of September 1999 (construction of concrete structures). corresponding to a very precise phase of construction. in a dry environment.

creep effects.5 and 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide For example. If the same type of concrete is subjected to different thermal conditions but releases the same amount of heat since the start of the manufacturing process. it will have the same mechanical strength. The concrete shall be cured in accordance with the recommendations of Article 74. 7. tensile strength (if this was not evaluated in the main information test). a genuine guarantee of durability.3 - Maturometry 7.2 – Additional information tests Additional tests are normally carried out as of the 7th day in order to make sure that the required level of strength at is likely to be obtained at 28 days. these tests shall concern: • • • • • • Removal of formwork from pier shafts Removal of formwork from pier crossheads Removal of formwork from lateral overhangs on the bridge deck cross section Removal of formwork equipment from inside the box girder Removal of falsework from parts of the structure built on centering Stressing of certain tendons (generally cantilever tendons): in this case. In physical terms.4. to verify that the compactness of the concrete. these tests could be considered to be control tests.6 of fascicule 65A. etc. the tensile strength value ftj is just as important as fcj A temporary or permanent loading operation. • The information test may also have other aims.2.2.3 – Conditions of execution The test samples used fore the information tests shall be obtained and conserved in accordance with the provisions of the standard P18-405.g. e.4. In this case. this is shown by the fact that the hydration levels of the concrete will be identical. 7.3 of the P18-504 documentation booklet. conforms to the expected values. A third type of information test may be performed in order to obtain information about characteristics that are not specified in the contract such as the modulus of elasticity. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 172 septembre 2007 .4.4. and of articles 1. 7.1 – The principle of maturometry Maturometry is based on the existence of a relationship between the quantity of heat released by concrete when setting and its mechanical properties. long-term strength.3.

although it is essential to use a sufficient number of samples to guarantee the validity of the measurements.3. because this process is not affected by different temperature histories and only uses the total quantity of heat. the validity of the laboratory compression test is affected by the method used to remove the samples from their container. one test sample shall be verified using a conventional information test.2 – Practical evaluation of strengths The reference curve is established by measuring the strength of standardized test samples stored at 20°C on precise dates. In addition. to any additives used (e. and to the external ambient temperature. The apparent activation energy of the concrete must be known for this last operation. Furthermore. 7. there is a risk that the strength measurements obtained for these samples may not be representative of the actual situation. The significant reduction in the number of test samples required is also an advantage of this process. This depends on the type of cement used and is adjusted according to the temperature.g. 7.4. extra fillers). It also shows the advantage to measure the maximum temperature obtained in the middle of the concrete. For every five findings by maturometry. The concrete is characterized in an instrinsic manner using a “reference curve”. it is necessary to: • Transform the actual age of the concrete into an equivalent age (time required for the concrete to develop the same degree of hydration under isothermic conditions at 20° C) • Read off the strength value corresponding to this equivalent age on the reference curve for the concrete.4. which is independent of temperature. the temperature histories of the test samples used for the information tests are very different to those of the concrete that forms part of the structure. This activation energy will then be confirmed or adjusted by referring to the strength/equivalent age curves obtained from the analysis of test samples. thermistors linked to a central readout station are implanted in the concrete of the most recently cast part of the structure and the temperature is recorded at regular intervals. To exploit the data from these measurements. This illustrates the advantages of maturometry. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 173 septembre 2007 .3. 7. which shows the level of strength obtained in the concrete at the different positions where the thermistors have been implanted. The thermal monitoring of the concrete in these test samples is used to calculate an equivalent age of this concrete at the desired reference temperature on each of the test dates at which the strength is tested until breaking.3 – Advantages of maturometry In practice.4. Therefore.4 – Requirements for the use of maturometry The method requires the use of an activation energy value that corresponds to the type of cement.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Arrhenius’ Law is used to express the changes in the strength of concrete according to a temporal parameter: the concept of equivalent age.3. This evaluation can be performed directly by the maturometer.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These tests are performed on samples stored at different temperatures.4.Application For the construction of cast-in-situ segments.g. As far as the measurements themselves are concerned.11 below. It is essential that the delivery slip shows the following information: the differences between the theoretical weight and the actual weight of the constituents expressed as a percentage. This sequence of operations can be modified by reversing the order of casting if the levelling measurements reveal a systematic discrepancy between the two sides of the balanced cantilever.4 - Inspecting the application of concrete 7. It should also be noted that the maturometer must be recalibrated at regular intervals (see manufacturer’s instructions). which helps the maturing process. These can be positioned according to the plan shown in Figure 7. instruments will be placed in the area in which the last mix of concrete was added. 7. for example.11– Maturometry: an example of a layout for temperature sensing elements 7. Calibration may be quite a lengthy process.4. and the water content of the aggregates so that the total quantity of water can be recalculated • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 174 septembre 2007 .4. the planned sequence of operations generally starts at the same side of the cantilever. Fig. e.1 . Remote temperature sensing elements are used to evaluate the mass effect in the webs. for example. and measure heat losses in the upper slab close to the edges. the first choice to be made is to determine the critical areas of the structure in which the evolution of strength is representative of the operation to be tested. If the aim is to determine the age at which the concrete is strong enough to resist the removal of formwork. It is also necessary to position thermocouples so that information can be obtained for parts of the bridge deck box girder. externally. The inspection of the application of concrete must focus on the following points: • • • Cleanliness of the bottom of the formwork Availability and condition of the equipment required The release of pressure from the jacks used to adjust the matched mold for segments prefabricated in the prefabrication unit The conformity of the composition of the concrete shown by the information given on the delivery slip. in the laboratory. etc. in an isothermic box kept in the laboratory. it will therefore be necessary to allow a sufficient period of time for this process starting from when the concrete formula has been specified (3 to 4 months may be required).

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The slump test and the estimate of entrained air.12 – Precautions to take for the casting of segments It is particularly important to comply with the casting plan. The main precautions to be taken are summarized in Figure 7. The presence of this information will be verified during the acceptance inspections Compliance with the casting plan for the application of the concrete (fascicule 65A. For high-quality casting. the vibration of the concrete must be carefully controlled in order to eliminate segregation and voids. Article 75. and treatment of construction joint surfaces Check that any thermal devices are operating correctly. floating of the upper face of the lower slab for which formwork was not used At the end of casting: surface condition. therefore minimizing the risk of segregation. It is particularly important to make sure that vibration is not carried out in the immediate vicinity of prestressing ducts.13 below. Figure 7. height of drop. vibration. An addtional precaution to be taken for the casting of very tall segments is to use tubes which are designed to reduce the height from which the concrete is supplied. These consist of expanded metal mesh cylinders which are securely attached to the reinforcements.12 above shows the main precautions to be taken. • • • Fig. guide channels can be used in conjunction with the vibrating needle.3): maximum time from the end of the manufacturing process to the completion of casting. casting phases. 7. The slump test is difficult to perform when the concrete is in liquid form: the wattmetric readings of the output of the mixer motor are therefore an important source of information and these readings must be attached to the delivery slips. possible use of thermal protection devices. As a precaution. These tubes can be shortened as the operation progresses. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 175 septembre 2007 . cleaning of starter bars.

and "Le béton hydraulique .4.tome 1" (General Construction Procedures-Information Document 1) by J. this segment will normally be at least two meters long in order to include a prestress anchor block. 7. The recommendations of Article 74. either at the extremity of the cantilever or in the reception area for a prefabricated segment. Mathivat and C. In this case. 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. • After the inspection of a prefabricated segment in the reception area. Therefore the test piece will be artificially subjected to the full range of potential problems.4. a specific identification number is painted onto the concrete of the web inside the box girder on the side of the mask.2 – The test segment It is always essential to construct a test segment. Special conditions apply to the manufacture and application of concrete if the temperature recorded on the site falls below 5°C or rises above 25°C.3 of fascicule 65A must be followed for the treatment of construction joints.13 – Precautions for the vibration of concrete The final inspections for the application of concrete consist of: • Verifying that the required levels of strength have been obtained before authorizing the removal of formwork Performing a general inspection of the segment. Upper and lower limits of 5°C and 40°C must not be exceeded during the manufacturing process.M. Geoffray [GEO 96]. special provisions must be made to produce concrete at a temperature of approximately 15 to 20°C. This may be reduced to a half-test segment for economic reasons. This element must be manufactured under actual site conditions in order to give an accurate picture of the problems encountered in the casting of segments. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 176 septembre 2007 . Therefore. These provisions are described in detail in "Procédés généraux de construction .mise en œuvre" (Hydraulic Concrete – Application) by J. This element must be truly representative of the difficulties that are likely to be encountered on site. Boiteau.

In the case of a structure with variable inertia. Samples may also be extracted for subsequent testing. transverse single-strand tendons and reinforcing bars.4. 7. because as the water contained within the concrete has been used up in the hydration process. A specific procedure must be developed for the construction of the test segment. • Differences and changes in temperature over time may also be recorded. using small diameters and reduced center distances between the bars. it also increases the risk of cracking in areas where shrinkage could be obstructed. Slump test measurements are neither appropriate nor accurate for fluid concrete. Formwork must then be erected on the extrados of the slab. and staff must be properly trained. The concrete plant must be capable of handling silica fume. HPC is more sensitive to the effects of drying. It may also be beneficial to use concrete of different consistencies for the webs and slabs. Full-scale testing is required to verify this. The application of the concrete requires completely leak-tight formwork. the angle of the lower slab on segments close to the piers could be steep enough to cause the concrete to slide down the slope. While this constraint improves the durability of the concrete. it is important pay attention to the proportion and design of the non-prestressed reinforcements.) Casting methodology (application. drying) The setting behavior of the fresh concrete in lower slabs without upper formwork The practicality of the implementation of internal ducts. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 177 septembre 2007 . When transported in the truck mixer. etc. as the slightest loss of laitance could result in segregation. This is particularly important for the construction of cast-in-situ segments using the cantilever method. unambiguous and fully understood by everyone working on site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The following points will be verified in particular: • • • • Conformity of the facings (color. there is practically no more free water. The floating and levelling of the surfaces must be carried out by teams of workers aware of the viscous and self-adhering behavior of this type of concrete. In view of the fluidity of HPC. the concrete behaves like a fluid. with the associated risks of spillage. Vigilance is therefore required. the consistency of the fresh concrete must be inspected on site by measuring its spread on a flow table in accordance with the P 18-432 and NF EN 12350-5 standards. particularly in problematical areas It will also be verified that the physical references for the adjustment of the alignment of prestress tendons are accurate. Therefore.5 - The application of high-performance concrete A certain number of specific precautions must be taken with regard to the manufacture and application of highperformance concrete. appearance. vibration. The curing of HPC must also be more meticulous and more intense than for ordinary concrete.

stem clamps and of the rigidity of the equipment Condition of the equipment: structural condition. condition of the bars (straightness. and oiling of outer skin Tolerances of panels for unevenness and the conformity of the dimensions in relation to plans Hydraulic jacks positioned under the segment acting as a matched mold . 7. welds Verification of conformity to the reinforcement plan: diameter.). compliance with reinforcement bar list. cleanliness. Furthermore. dimensions. absence of distortion at the edges which form joints.Inspecting the reinforcements The following list describes the main inspections to be performed concerning the reinforcements for a segment prior to casting: • • Inspection of the numbers and indices of the plans used Acceptance inspection of the reinforcement bars: existence of the approval certificate. squareness of application of load and performance of lock-nuts Conformity of inserts and fixings in relation to the plans: positioning. cut into one metre long pieces and replaced. type and number. flatness of panels. the hangers will be reused no more than 30 to 40 times and they will be automatically replaced when this limit is reached. Checks shall also be performed to ensure that bolts are easy to tighten and that they act squarely on the plates. leak-tightness of different seams and foam strips. The number of uses could be painted on the hanger after each operation in order to monitor their use. dirt.straightness. • • • • • For the construction of cast-in-situ segments. the hangers must be new at the start of construction on site. length and bending Page 178 septembre 2007 • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . If there are any doubts. The rigorousness of the inspection procedures reduces the likelihood of accidents. systematic visual inspections of the hangers are carried out in order to check for straightness and the absence of impact marks or welding spots. Needless to say. In particular. the hanger is be scrapped – or better still.Inspection of formwork The inspection of the formwork on the form traveler or in the prefabrication unit covers the following points: • • • Numbers and indices of the plans used (which must be approved plans) Cleanliness of the work area and flushing out of the formwork bases before installation of reinforcements Systematic verification that any laitance deposits on construction joint surfaces have been purged and cleaned prior to the closure of the formwork Stability of centering. elimination of traces of laitance and oxidation.6 .5 . it is very important to scrupulously observe the procedures governing the movement of formwork tools and systematically inspect the supporting and attaching elements.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. rust.

1 .7. The test segment (see 7.1 - Inspection of materials 7. Article 95. absence of contact between these bindings and the near wall. The inserts designed for the structural element in question will also be inspected.1. The bar chairs should not be used to improve the rigidity of excessively flexible cages.Prestressing Manager). rigidity and strength of the entire reinforcement cage with a view to casting.7.3 of fascicule 65A and Article 76.3 of Circular 94-34 of April 19 1994). • It is important to pay particular attention to the hooped reinforcements required due to the application of concentrated forces.1.2) will provide important information about the feasibility of these arrangements.1 of fascicule 65A describes the CMP’s role. solidity of binding of blocks which must be clean and made from concrete. The storage conditions for prestressing elements must be rigorously inspected and particular attention should be paid to the following points: • The hard steel. length of overlapping between the reinforcement bars and the starter bars Inspection of stability. For parts whose formwork has one or two lines of symmetry but whose reinforcements are asymmetrical. The accuracy of the positioning of the hoops on the prestress anchorages must be carefully inspected.1 to 4. 7. The renewal of the protection is carried out in compliance with the stipulations of Article 66.2 of its supplement. coating and setting.Storage Storage procedures are defined in Article 92. These conditions must also comply with the provisions of Article 3-5 of Circular no. with the minimum deviation allowed from this position.2 of fascicule 65A and Article 71.7. Three-dimensional modeling may be used for certain critical areas.2 of its supplement. The centering on the trumplate must conform to its theoretical positioning. 7.Procurement The delivery conditions for the prestress reinforcements conform to Article 5 of fascicule 4. The scale of the plans used for these areas must be large enough to allow for the precise management of the positions and sizes of the reinforcements.2 of the supplement to fascicule 65A. factory-oiled prestressing cable reels must be stored in enclosed and well-ventilated premises. 86-64 of September 4 1986 concerning the delivery conditions for parts and the checks to be performed.1. It is better to use frames to make stiffening trusses. 7. and also in Articles 4.7 .2 . it is important to verify that the reinforcement cage is not inverted.4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Inspection of implementation: position. The delivery of all of the components of the anchorages must be protected according to the provisions of Article 92. Titre II.4. They shall be placed on battens or pallets in order to keep the rims off the floor The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 179 septembre 2007 .1. whose expertise is recognized by the Construction Manager and approved by the distributor of the prestressing process used.Inspection of prestressing Prestressing is carried out under the supervision of a specially qualified manager called the CMP (Chargé de la Mise en Précontrainte .

as this could affect the oiling Anchorages must be stored under a ventilated shelter and their crates or packaging are placed on battens or platted to avoid contact with the ground. • • 7. Wood with a high tannin content must not be interposed between the reels. The same precautions must be taken for the cantilever tendons close to the facing on the upper slab.15).1 – Geometry of ducts The inspection of the installation of the ducts is a complex matter. The calculations and construction provisions must take account of this. This applies to the internal continuity tendons which may move during casting if they are incorrectly attached. It is unrealistic to demand accuracy greater than 5 mm. problems regularly arise on site due to inadequate positioning.2. Fig. making sure there is no contact between the tarpaulin and metal.7.2 - Inspection of implementation The accuracy of the installation of the prestress components is dependent on the methods used on site.75 m must be allowed between the ducts supports. They are also placed on battens or pallets to avoid contact with the ground.14 – Risks related to inaccurate duct geometry Fig. Rigid sections of ducts can be specified around joints with a view to maintaining the continuity of this alignment.14 and 7. 7. 7. the parts can be stored temporarily under a shelter with a removable roof or under ventilated tarpaulins. 7. It may also result in the spalling of the lower slab due to delamination under the parasitic radial tendon forces that are thus generated (Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Prior to use. 7. These systems are designed to align the ducts perfectly in accordance with the prestressing plans. Indeed. Key bolts are kept in their original packaging until use Ducts are stored in bundles under ventilated tarpaulins.7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 180 septembre 2007 .15 – Spalling of the lower slab/Angled view from below These problems must be borne in mind when designing the reinforcement plans. with regard to the systems used to fix the internal continuity tendons in place and during the construction and implementation of these systems. A spacing of approximately 0.

Figures 7.2. because the large-diameter bars which are commonly used require large bending radii. it is necessary to designate a person in charge of monitoring the geometry of the prestress ducts before and after casting. Accordingly.17 – The deviator after cleaning To prevent these problems.16 – Spalling of a deviator when the structure is stressed Fig. The geometrical accuracy of the ducts is very important. it is first of all important to make sure that an efficient procedure exists for adjusting the angle of the deviator tubes. 7. in the contract documents. the concrete formwork tubes must be bell-mouthed so that the curvature of the tendon effectively starts around 10 cm from the facings (Fig. 7. These problems could have been minimized by the addition of small-diameter nonprestressed reinforcement bars positioned close to the facings. 7. These problems normally concern two phenomena: the localized spalling of the concrete due to parasitic forces resulting from badly positioned deviators. inverting the deviators – it is important to carry out general inspections and to take a regular overview.2 – Installation of the prestressing components The following inspections must be performed during the installation of the prestressing elements: • Verification that the sleeves of the thin metal ducts are correctly tightened: the prefabricated lengths of ducts with sleeve extensions are designed to provide a satisfactory fit at the level of the facing Page 181 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra .17 show the problems caused by an incorrect reinforcement of one of these edges on a deviator beam. Fig. Finally.7.18 – Cross-section of a deviator tube 7.16 and 7. or an excessively high number of breakages of single-strand tendons when the structure is stressed and if parasitic angular cracks have developed close to the anchorages.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Problems due to the incorrect geometrical positioning of the ducts are also observed on the external tendons. Therefore.g. deviator tubes should be designed in such a way that the pressure exerted by the tendon on the concrete is directed into the body of the structure and stops before the facings in the coating areas. 7.18). published in February 1990. The reader is advised to consult the Sétra document entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). It is also important to make sure that the beams situated at the base of the deviator beams are correctly reinforced. As many basic errors are still committed on sites – e. Fig. including their edges.

etc.20). • • • In general.20 – Verification of a duct alignment in space The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 182 septembre 2007 . it is possible to mark out the outline of the curvature of the duct by making a light saw mark on the end sections of tube. 7. this inspection must be carried out according to unambiguous physical references which are fully understood by everyone working on the site. particularly in the areas of deviation close to the anchor block attachments (Fig.19 – Conflict between non-prestressed reinforcements and ducts Fig.19) Verification that the ducts are in good condition and that there are no significant distorsions or out-ofroundness Adjustment of the duct supports in relation to formwork if necessary Inspection of the attachment of all ducts to the non-prestressed reinforcements Accurate inspections of the alignment of the ducts. It is assumed that the plans show dimensions relating to existing physical objects or lines marked out on site. This tip can also be applied to the deviator tubes for the external prestressing ducts. deviation area close to an anchorage. Fig. in which it is better to use rigid tubes rather than thin steel ducts. In areas of large deviations (emergence of tendon from anchor block. 7. 7.). 7.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Verification that the alignment of the ducts and their attachments conforms to the plan (Fig.

given the thinness of the parts. • • • • • For the external prestressing.21 – Support system for HDPE ducts for external tendons If the prestressing passes through the webs. the installation of the ducts and the anchorages must be verified by a competent surveyor who must check the following points: • That stiffening devices are used to ensure a continuous alignment of the ducts around the joints. it is particularly important.21). Should transverse prestressing be required. as tranverse reinforcement made from small-diameter bars is likely to be significantly t distorted during casting. the type and frequency of the tendon supports should be carefully inspected in view of the forces exerted during casting. the angles at which the ducts emerge from the joint sections are inspected for compliance with the values shown on the plans Use of coupling sleeves and the adhesive sealing of the sleeving joints Fixing of the trumplate to the formwork: verification of orientation.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide When completed. These stiffening solutions may be used for the ducts throughout the entire length of the segment to be cast.23). this also applies to the ducts left empty in reserve (Fig. Fig. Furthermore. 7. rigidity of the fixing and angle of the injection hole Fitting of the duct in the end of the trumplate via a coupling sleeve Absence of sudden changes of angle. A spacing of 4 to 5 m is typically used. 7. verification of the coaxiality of the different elements and of the adhesive sealing Distribution of vents and the positioning of the vent outlets in the facings. it is advisable to stiffen the reinforcement cages in order to make sure that the ducts remain in the correct position. 7.22). 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 183 septembre 2007 . without sudden changes of angle. to verify the accuracy of the duct alignment and the presence of a support system designed to maintain this alignment (Fig. it is necessary to use temporary supports for the ducts in order to make sure that the tendon is in the correct position before it is stressed (Fig.e. i. The number and spacing of the supports will depend on the number and strength of the prestressing units.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.23 – Supports for prestress ducts in the webs It is also important to make sure that “removable” elements can actually be removed.22 – Inspection of supports for transverse prestressing Fig. 7. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 184 septembre 2007 . especially when double ducting is used on the deviators. 7.

of which only the fifth level was unacceptable. as these are always the most difficult to thread through the duct (for long tendons. During this operation.3 - Inspection of stressing 7. 7. before casting. We consider this table to be far too lax and believe that corroded reinforcements should never be accepted. cans. nicks or other defects likely to affect their mechanical strength.4 .2.3. it is important to verify that the entire tendon can move inside the duct.7. when the pressure of the rollers tends to increase A thick wooden shield is securely fitted over the strand outlet in order to protect staff Particular attention is paid to the threading of the last two strands of the tendon. the strand is well protected by a tube or duct The cable reel has been placed in the static pay-off reel in such a way that the lay of the coil being unwound lies in the same direction as lay of the stranding. i. oxidation and cleanliness play a vital role in the correct installation of a traditional strand-jaws anchorage. so that the strand tends to pull itself tight while is unwinding Each tendon is made up of strands from the same supplier The additional length required for the stressing has been allowed for before the strand is cut to length The strand has not been marked by the rollers on the cable pusher. this particularly applies to the last strands to be threaded. etc. it is highly advisable to verify that the ductsducts have not been blocked by any foreign objects: bottles. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 185 septembre 2007 . This helps to position one strand in relation to another and also helps to check that there are no blockages. A corrosion table specifying up to five levels of corrosion.7. speed of threading is preferred to force in order to prevent the jamming of the last strands on the approach to the outlet) After the threading of every strand of an external prestressing tendon and the positioning of the anchorages.Threading Strand-by-strand threading is the most commonly-used threading method for bridges constructed by the cantilever method.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Finally. over 50 m in length. was once used by certain contractors. 7.1 – Inspections prior to stressing Lubrication.2. over this distance.3 – Visual inspection of strands It is essential to reject strands showing signs of pitting due to oxidation. This inspection can be carried out by flushing a ball through the sheath with compressed air. it is particularly important to make sure that: • • The strands have been sufficiently well oiled in order to reduce the friction forces in the later phases The distance between the pay-off reel and the cable pusher is kept to a minimum and that.7. • • • • • • • 7. tools.7. scratches.e.

7. Finally. These inspections may be systematic in terms of: • • Measuring the extension and pressure in stages Monitoring the position of tendons during threading in order to detect any possibility of crossed ducts. The marking of the strands at the back of the jack is another. In addition to the fact that successful stressing depends on the quality of casting in the anchorage area. it is necessary to verify that engineering office has allowed for the additional lengths of cable which are gripped by the jacks in their calculations of the extension of the tendons.3. the frequency of the inspections and identifies the tendons to be inspected. • It is also important to check that the jack is aligned concentrically on the anchor head and coaxially in relation to the tendon. it is also important to verify the following points when fitting the anchor head on the tendon: • • That the strands are clean That they are disentangled if necessary. solution. The exact type of lubricant to be used must also be specified. 7.7. it is advisable to cut all of the strands to the same length. before the start of operations. so that there are no brakages due to crossed strands near the anchorage That the conical holes in the anchor head are clean and have no rust that cannot be wiped off. Finally. and then are checked at random. Before the jacks are threaded. They may also take the form of spot checks. These three parameters are vital for the correct operation of the conical wedging of the strand-jaws in the anchorage.7.g.2 – Inspection plan An inspection plan must be drawn up prior to the start of the stressing operations.3. cleanliness is essential and a there must be no laitance whatsoever. Oxidation must not be considered to be acceptable in the mechanical assembly of the anchorage. e. the following points require special attention: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 186 septembre 2007 . It specifies the types of inspections. when measuring transmission factors. this shows up any problems with the jaws and reveals any broken strands. which at first are systematically verified for each family of tendons at the start of stressing operations.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The anchorage must be properly lubricated if it is to work correctly and the lubrication conditions must be specified in the internal procedures recommended by specialist distribution companies. albeit less effective.3 – Precautions during stressing During stressing.

It is also important to verify the calibration chart for the manometers on the pumps (test date). This operation must be described in a detailed construction procedure and the engineering office must apply specific design calculations to it. • • 7. it is essential to make sure that the jacks have been properly tared (using a calibration chart).Injection The injection of prestressing ducts and anchorages is intended to: • • • Completely fill the void left in a duct Passivate of the steels due to the action of the products used Protect steels against corrosive external agents. but particular vigilance is required with regard to the localized stresses applied to the new concrete. which is designed to shorten the segment construction cycle. which is indicative Check that the correction for the compaction of the jaws has been properly allowed for in the measurement of the extension on the piston of the jack. it is essential to verify that the value fcmin which is mentioned on the french CIP (Commission Interministérielle de la Précontrainte-Interministry Prestressing Committee] accreditation and in the construction design calculations has been achieved by the concrete before stressing is carried out. This operation. this poses no problems in terms of general flexion.4 - Inspection of injection 7.4. The use of a sclerometer to perform this verification is strictly prohibited.2 of fascicule 65A and Appendix I of its supplement.3. The principle behind this measurement is described in detail in Article 95.7.4. Before carrying out this measurement. Normally.7.4. The cantilever tendons are sometimes only stressed after the form traveler has been moved forward. means that the last segment to be cast behaves as reinforced concrete with regard to the loads exerted by the form traveler.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that the internal friction on the jacks and their anchorages has been correctly accounted for in the interpretation of the pressure readings on the manometer Do not forget to correct the pressure reading in accordance with the calibration chart for the pump manometer: the pressure is used as the reference measurement and not the extension.5 – Precautions to be taken with regard to concrete During the construction of a cantilever with cast-in-situ segments. The combination of these three fundamental actions produces a permanent barrier against corrosion and guarantees the longevity of the prestressing. 7. 7.1 .7.7.2 – Cement grout Two types of grouts are identified: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 187 septembre 2007 . 7.3.4 – Coefficients of friction Coefficients of friction are monitored by measuring the transmission factor.7.

If just one of the conditions is not respected. is essential in view of the representativeness of this test and the unsuitability of the other tests with regard to the characterization of the in-situ stability of grout. except when testing is specifically requested by the Construction Checker. it is essential to perform a new inclined tube test on site. which defines the stability of the grout Measuring the variation in volume. The main characteristic of this second type of grout is its capacity to change from a gel when stationary to a liquid when shaken. However. Therefore. the phasing of the injection must be adapted to suit the alignment of the tendon in question. which determines the flow Measuring exudation. These are specified by European standards and are referenced in Article 92. However. and the front wall of the grout remains almost perpendicular to the duct and does not collapse as it passes through high points. 7. which is fluid after manufacture Thixotropic grout: a traditional grout to which a thixotropifying agent is added at the end of the manufacturing process.4. They involve: • • • • Measuring fluidity. which characterizes the filling volume Measuring compressive strength. the equipment used for their injection and the temperature conditions for their application comply with the the conditions described in the technical evaluation report.3 of fascicule 65A. Testing using a transparent inclined tube. provided that the components of the grout. generally: Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 8 to 14 m per min Φ < 100 mm Horizontal or undulating tendons with ducts of 16 to 20 m per min Φ > 100 mm Vertical or steeply angled tendons 3 to 8 m per min Furthermore. This analysis must be carried out upstream of the process in order to make sure that the position of the vents is consistent with this phasing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 188 septembre 2007 . it is important to use an appropriate speed of injection. grouts may be used without preliminary testing if they have been given a favorable technical evaluation report or a favorable provisional report by the CIP.7. Numerous tests must be performed on the grout. using the method described in Appendix 3.1 of Circular no. 99-54 of August 20 1999.3 – Specific inspections and precautions during the injection of cement grout Precaution to be taken during the injection study Injection tests have shown that the appearance of pockets of air due to the collapse of the front wall of the grout as it passes through high points can be prevented by optimizing the speed of advancement of the grout in accordance with the alignments and the prestressing units used. this property depends on the shearing threshold of the grout for a given slope and on the steepness of the slope for a given grout.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Traditional grout. This has two advantages: the injection conditions remain the same as for a traditional grout.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 189 septembre 2007 . if allowed by the thickness of the concrete (e < 0. An air compressor and a pressurized water inlet must be operational on the structure and kept ready in case of problems during the injection process. This also helps to check that the numbering of the ducts matches that of the vents. This test can be carried out using compressed air or by creating a partial vacuum. Finally. This involves: • • • • Visual inspections of the ducts A statistical inspection by removing the caps An acoustic sounding inspection A gammagraphic inspection. Fluidity and exudation tests are performed according to the recommendations of Article 95. During the construction of the bridge. The bleeder valves are kept open.5. Pre-injection inspections Before any injection takes place.5 MPa. It is also necessary to perform systematic tests of the bleeding of the anchor caps and vents at the high points. The fundamental value to be considered is that the pressure in the duct must not exceed 1. it is important to remember to check the equipment and make sure that the necessary materials are supplied in sufficient quantities. Preparations for the injection must also take account of the weather forecast. the tendons concerned will be injected simultaneously. Post-injection inspections After the injection. The rheology of the grout must be adapted to the ambient temperature and humidity. Inspections during injection During pressurized injection. the monitoring of the injection pressure is of paramount importance to the success of the operation.B of fascicule 65A.50 m). Precautions taken when preparing for the injection Mixers and storage tanks must be protected from water penetration and prevented from drying out due to direct sunshine.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Precautions to be taken during construction Bleeder valves and vents are identified by marking or labeling according to the vent plan which must be supplied by the contractor. the different levels will be inspected in order to make sure that the ducts are properly filled. If the test shows the existence of any connections between the ducts. these vents must be closed in order to prevent water from seeping into the ducts. it is compulsory to test the leak-tightness of the ducts in order to identify any potential anomalies.l.

7.8.1. it is important to ensure that everyone present is protected against the risk of burning by the wax).7. It is absolutely essential to prevent any leakage of wax during the injections. the wax contracts significantly. However. 7. a large proportion of the shrinkage of the wax is compensated for by the cooling of the HDPE duct.Other important points 7. in the case of the external prestressing. crystallized solid material which is preferred to grease due to the absence of syneresis.8 . it is important to take special precautions such as re-injecting the high points.4. To reduce this risk to a minimum. it is prohibited to use grease for the protection of prestressing units that are not selfshielded.5 – Flexible products Wax Wax is a malleable. As wax must be injected at temperatures higher than its melting point. Firstly. 2001-16 of February 28 2001 relative to the “Conception de la précontrainte extérieure au béton” (The design of prestressing external concrete) describes the possible solutions used for the design of external prestressing and mentions the risks involved in its removal.Characteristics The adhesive used for prefabricated segments consists of epoxy resins mixed with a hardener. this leads to the use of protected and sheathed single strands in a general duct injected with cement grout or ungalvanized strands in a general duct injected with a flexible product. which improves its stability over time. the protection of anchorages using grease must be carried out on site.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 7. 7. certain important precautions must be taken.1 . Therefore.8. During cooling. with disastrous consequences. usually petroleum wax.50 Compressive strength of between 15 and 25 MPa The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 190 septembre 2007 . it is of paramount importance to consider the thermal exchanges with the adjacent materials and the ambient temperature during the injection process.1 Adhesive and its application (prefabricated segments) 7. between 90 and 120° C.4. If this happens.4 – Injection of external prestressing Circular no. staff could be burned and the surrounding concrete could be impregnated with wax. it is important to only use materials which are resistant to high temperatures and to make sure that the ducts and anchorages are perfectly leakproof by carrying out rigorous inpections and tests (As the risks can never be entirely eliminated. Its main properties are: • • Density of approximately 1. which was heated by the passage of the hot wax. The greatest care must be taken to ensure there are no leaks. For self-shielded units such as those which are often used in transverse prestressing. Grease Because of its syneresis. and this can lead to the creation of voids. In practice. to the order of 5 to 10 %.

minimizing the damage caused by the inevitable minor impacts during handling operations Helping to center the match casted surfaces Sealing prestress ducts.3 mm in size Partially correcting imperfections in joints because the adhesive has a similar compressive strength to the concrete Lubricating the surfaces when the parts are brought together.8.1. or products bearing an equivalent European label are highly recommended.8.8. Nevertheless. 7. the joints are not actually bonded because tensile strength is not created in the joint. structural demolitions and analyses of structural behavior show that under normal conditons on construction sites. • • • • 7.1. results from the laboratory testing of concrete-to-concrete bonding.e. In fact. i. the time between the start of the mixing of the components and the moment when the mixture no longer adheres on contact. The following precautions must be taken when performing this test: • The components of the test sample must be similar in quantity to the mixture that will be used on site in practice Care must be taken to avoid trapping air when mixing the components of the glue The temperature and humidity conditions for the test must be representative of the actual conditions and conform to the specifications. it is necessary to test the time taken for the adhesive to set.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • A low modulus of elasticity of between 1.4 – Application precautions The following precautions should be taken when applying the adhesive: • Ensure that if it rains. these openings may reach 0.2 – Adhesives and their role The term “adhesive” is not strictly accurate.500 MPa. Adhesives bearing the "NF-Produits spéciaux destinés aux constructions en béton hydraulique" (French Standard – Special products intended for hydraulic concrete structures) label in the structural adhesives category. protective measures such as the sheeting of the bonding area and the creation of an run-off barrier near the joint are implemented in order to prevent contact with rainwater run-off before and after the bonding of the segments and until they are securely lashed together Verify that a sufficient amount of adhesive is applied to the joints of both segments to form a seam of excess adhesive on the edges of the joints • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 191 septembre 2007 .3 – Testing of setting time Before the segments are assembled and bonded.500 and 2. • • 7. adhesive plays an important role by: • Filling the openings between joints caused by the differential shrinkage of different parts of the section of the box-girder.1.

If resurfacing is necessary.1 – Concrete quality The final appearance of the segment facings should be considered when choosing the concrete formula because the color depends on the rheology of the concrete. In fact. color is quite difficult evaluate in isolation because it depends on how the surface reacts to the light.texture.8.2 - Segment facing The inspection of the general appearance of a segment concerns three criteria: shape. interdependent factors which must be controlled.1. except on the bridge deck extrados. 7. Three factors play an important role in determining the color of the segment facings on structures built by the cantilever method: the quality of the concrete. A reference formula for spring and autumn has to be changed to allow for higher temperatures and lower rainfall in summer and is changed again in winter to account for the reversals of these same parameters. These three criteria are interrelated.8. in order to facilitate the surfacing required for the application of the waterproofing layer. It should be noted that the formation of a seam of adhesive as mentioned below simplifies inspections in the short and long term by guaranteeing that the joint has not been been altered after the clamping of the parts. Minor defects such as impact damage to the concrete on the edge of a joint are better left exposed. a recess should first be created around the damaged area and an epoxy resin-based mortar should be used for the repair. corresponding to the different geometrical dimensions of the segment . 7. the type of surface finish can attenuate differences in the color of the concrete.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Verify that this seam has not been ground down after polymerization. For example.and color. The additives and their effects on the water and temperature are particularly important. It is particularly important to account for the variation in the water content of the components. It is also a valuable indicator for the removal of formwork. The color obtained also depends on the number of times the formwork is reused – which turn depends on the resources allocated to the project. the formwork and vibration. which generalizes the evolution of the hydration parameters for concrete. helps to improve the management of the quality of concrete. which is given by the formwork skin . Color therefore relates to texture. This evaluation must imperatively be carried out before any repairs are made. the proportions of additives and the temperature are the three key. Concrete for the construction of bridges built by the cantilever method is now manufactured during several seasons. Resurfacing with cement mortar may make it harder to evaluate the type and extent of any defects.5 – Repair of bonding defects A major bonding defect can only be repaired by an injection of resin according to a specific procedure adapted to each case. which is governed by the concrete. Maturometry.2. It is now known that changing the formula of the concrete to suit the season plays a key role in producing a high-quality facing. 7.8. Only a detailed rheological study will satisfy this requirement. The amount of water used. as it can be The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 192 septembre 2007 .

This plan is drawn up by a specialist or with specialist help (see paragraph 7. may cause problems depending on the type of aggregates used). Finally. and are not suitable for all shapes. Indeed. To make sure that the upper section of a layer of freshly-poured concrete is sufficiently vibrated. • The importance of the type of formwork skin is illustrated by the fact different materials have different capacities to absorb vibrations.4 concerning the inspection of application). On a constant cycle. the formation of bug holes can be prevented by making sure that the wood fibres are aligned in the same direction as the pouring of the concrete.3 . The daily cycle which leads to the removal of formwork in the morning. this means that another part of the component has not been vibrated for long enough Post-vibration . These materials are very expensive.2. Flat vibration. In this case. Two pitfalls must be avoided: • Over-vibration . The drawback to this technique relates to the time required for the assembly and the dismantling of the formwork skin each time it is replaced. made from composite materials which can be reused at least three hundred times. Formwork skins. which is less expensive. 7. which is the most common situation. This factor is particularly important for the prefabrication of segments in prefabrication units.4. Another important contribution of the formwork skin to the creation of a high-quality facing is to dampen the vibrations transmitted to the formwork during the vibration of the concrete. rather than the costs of the materials. often creates intermittent vibrations in the reinforcements which act as secondary vibrators when the concrete is tightly compacted. beveled vertical slats of unfinished wood have already been used for this purpose. it is necessary to vibrate it for one to two minutes after air bubbles have ceased to emerge from the concrete.meaning that part of a component has been vibrated for too long. This consists of a thickness of no more than 10 mm of ordinary plywood fixed to the standard formwork. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 193 septembre 2007 . are a new arrival on the market.8. These materials are used primarily for economic reasons and their characteristics are not ideal for the creation of high-quality facings. 7. thanks to the column of air between the formwork skin and the formwork itself.g.involving the creation of secondary vibrations caused by the hard spots of the reinforcements or formwork structures. it is important to follow a vibration plan corresponding to the shape of the component. is actually quite hard to reconcile with the stoppage of work at the weekend.8. however.2 – Formwork and formwork skins Today.Vibration A large number of defects are caused by incorrect vibration. the most widely used formwork is made of steel or bakelite plywood (film-faced plywood. A double formwork skin is better suited to this task.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide used to determine how long the formwork needs to remain on the part and this is one of the key factors in determining the homogeneity of the facing. e.2. of a slab.

it is also necessary to anticipate changes in the quality of the formwork skin. However. this paint will gradually disappear. The test segment is used to experiment with all of the aforementioned factors and eventually arrive at a comprehensive solution for the production of high-quality facing. if the skin is made from painted sheet metal. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 194 septembre 2007 . the Construction Manager may also refer to the Projet National Qualibé (National Concrete Quality Project) report for additional information. and CPJ-CEM Il/A and B cements produce light-colored facings.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Differences in the appearance of the facing can be reduced by the use of white cement or light-colored cement. Clinker has a distinctive color and additives can be used to attenuate its impact. As fascicule 65A does not address all of the issues relating to facings. Therefore CHF-CEM III/A and B. For example. thus changing the final appearance.

8.Pathologies and repairs This chapter begins with a quick reminder of the changes in the regulations applicable to structures built by the cantilever method. It should be noted that this circular was written primarly for bridges with prefabricated girders.1. (Circular no. This was intended to prevent accidents during the construction of bridges or on structures in use. In 1965.1 - 1946-1952: the first prestressed bridges In this era. Complete prestressing remained. It made changes to the “construction” section of the IPl and insisted on: • • The need for a waterproofing layer The use of APC (Artificial Portland Cement) 325 or CFA (Cement – Fly Ash) 400 cement. 1966 saw the publication of the Provisional Directive for the construction of prestressed concrete bridges.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 8 . relating to the instruction provisoire (Provisional Instruction) for the use of prestressed concrete (called “IPl”). 141 issued by the Ministère des Travaux Publics. especially regarding the calculation of losses of tension (e. Cylinder strength at 28 days replaced cube strength at 90 days.History of the regulations This paragraph mentions certain key events in the evolution of French regulations and the technical texts relating to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. 8. formulae for relaxation losses). des Transports et du Tourisme [Minsistry of Public Works. replaced the 1953 Provisional Instruction. Essentially.g.3 - 1965-1975: constantly changing regulations This was a time of enormous changes and constantly changing regulations. batched at 400 kg/m2 for the manufacture of concrete. It then goes on to describe the main pathologies affecting these structures and the corresponding repair techniques.1. This instruction recommended the inclusion of certain clauses in the Cahiers des prescriptions spéciales (Special Conditions) [CPS]) relating to the composition of concrete (minimum cement batching of 400 kg/m3) and the quality of prestressing reinforcements. in order to reduce the risks of corrosion (the use of PCS [Portland Slag Cement] cement had to be approved by the LCPC) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 195 septembre 2007 . there were no French regulations concerning prestressed concrete. it recommended the use of fully compressed concrete (with minimum compression on one axis equal to at least 8% of the maximum compression). Transport and Tourism] .44 of August 12 1965. Circular no. but it hinted at the use of partially prestressed structures.a Provisional Instruction concerning the use of prestressed concrete). It also made the use of strong sealed metal ducts compulsory for prestressing by post-tensioning.1. but there was no lower compression limit (σmin ≥ 0).2 - 1953-1964: the first regulations for prestressed concrete The first French regulations applicable to prestressed concrete appeared on October 1 1953. It incorporated the advances made since 1953.1 . 8. 8.

engineering. In 1973. to type III: limitation of the opening of cracks) Characteristic values of actions due to prestressing (P1 and P2) Specific rules relating to end or support areas and to concentrated forces during post and pre-tensioning Rules to account for delayed deformations in concrete due to shrinkage. design and construction of these structures. • • • 1971 saw the introduction of the Directives Communes relatives au Calcul des Constructions (DC71) [Common Guidelines relating to Structural Design]. This document covered the history. • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 196 septembre 2007 . This consisted of a design rule based on “limit states” methods. the manufacturing conditions for grouts. In the same year. reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. the characteristics of study and suitability tests. Sétra published the first version of its Technical Bulletin on bridges built by the cantilever method. The IP2 introduced the use of: • • The characteristic strength of concrete instead of the nominal strength Types or classes of prestressing (from type I: no decompression of concrete. This highly informative document covered the requirements for grouts (traditional and special). These guidelines were intended to be used as the basis for the creation of new design rules for metal. Appendix II included a collection of 55 monographs on structures built between 1960 and 1972 in France and abroad. creep. etc. 2 (called “IP2”) relating to the use of prestressed concrete. the bottom flange of the girder was crushed during prestressing Precautions for the storage of prestressing reinforcements on site. called “BT7”. etc. This directive led to real improvements in the quality of the protection applied to prestress tendons. the 1960 load regulation was replaced by Titre II of fascicule 61 of the Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (CPC) [Common Conditions]. accidents. as a result. the execution and inspection of injected materials. This regulation significantly reduced the intensity of the distributed loads A (l) for bridges of moderate length (between 15 and 80 m) and introduced degressivity factors according to the number of loaded lanes and the category of structure. which was the first document to cover the concept of limit states. The Provisional Directive for the injection of ducts on prestressed concrete structures appeared on March 28 1973. in order to reduce the risks of stress corrosion Inspections during stressing operations in order to reduce prestress losses The care to be taken over the injection of ducts and the need to allow a maximum period of 8 days between the stressing and injection operations. 73-153 of August 13 1973 introduced Provisional Instruction no.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The almost total prohibition of admixtures after the collapse of a beam on the Guerville viaduct. Circular no. again with a view to reducing the risks of stress corrosion (only APC 325 cement was allowed for the injection grout and sealing mortar). This accident was caused when an incorrect dose of an admixture prevented the concrete from hardening properly. Appendix I of this document featured a design example incorporating changes due to creep and thermal gradients. In December 1972.

the IPl. This document was designed to supplement the IPl with regard to the following points: • • Redistribution of forces due to delayed deformation Distribution of prestressing loads (concentrated forces) and the accumulation of shearing stresses with or without transverse or vertical prestressing (stressed stirrups) Traction forces exerted by tendons anchored in the slab of a box girder Thermal gradients (5°C under rare combinations and 10°C under practically permanent combinations in the sense of the BPEL 91.). suitability and inspection tests which were not included in fascicule 65 of August 13 1969. after analyzing and determining the causes of cracking observed on a number of bridges built by the cantilever method.000 hours Article 12 reduced the initial tension of the tendons The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ specified in the IP1 were used in the certificates of approval. or in a usable form within Appendix B of the IP2) Page 197 septembre 2007 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra . • • The Direction des Routes et de la Circulation Routière (Department of Roads and Traffic) published a circular on April 2 1975. difficulty of applying the range of characteristic values of the prestressing when there was a redistribution of efforts due to delayed obstructed deformations. Circular no. while taking account of the instantaneous deformation modulus of the concrete) radial tendon forces in curved slabs The continuity of reinforcements close to joints. except for structures with numerous joints for which they were determined by the CPS (Special Conditions). • • • • By introducing rules to allow for creep and the thermal gradient.1. and described in Circular no. relating to the calculation of relaxation losses in the prestressing reinforcements. 69-92. on the one hand. continued to be used except for the pretensioning. this circular brought an end to the era of second-generation bridges (see Chapter 1) and paved the way for a new generation of much better dimensioned bridges. which included the instruction of January 15 1979 relating to the inspection of concrete quality (conditions for the execution and interpretation of study. which remained valid. and March 26 1973: • Article 10. 74-60 of April 23 1974 made changes to the following articles of the IP1 in accordance with the new Titre II in fascicule 4 of the CPC of March 5 1971. 8. Therefore.4 - 1975-1982 This period saw the publication of new regulations which. 79-23 of March 9 1979. 1979 saw the publication of four important circulars: • Circular no. established relaxation at 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide During this period. private and public engineering firms were not ready to face up to the practical difficulties relating to the application of this new regulation (complete overhaul of design programs. abandoned the "allowable stresses" calculation in favor of "limit-states" calculations. etc. etc. incorporated the concept of quality and on the other. the distribution of concentrated forces and for the precise calculation of delayed deformation effects.

All of these notions concerning quality were applied to each of the texts relating to the construction of structures.7 Frg for reinforcements with a small radius of curvature (stressed stirrups) The strength of the concrete close to the anchorages and the minimum distances to the facings of the anchor plates The conditions of execution for the tensioning The need and the implementation conditions for temporary protection and sealing • Circular no.000 MPa) and strands (190. which incorporated the modifications made by Circulars 74-60 of April 23 1974 and 77-67 of April 25 1977 Circular no. The introduction of Quality Assurance and the development of French and European standardization led to significant changes in the rules relating to the construction of structures. 79-121 of December 14 1979 concerning the reprint of the IPl. • A supplement to Technical Bulletin No. but construction techniques remained very similar. in addition to the diameters. the organization of quality. etc. segregation of concrete. These guidelines served as the basis for the creation of BAEL and BPEL rules and the design rules for foundations. This involved the notions of quality of use. The development of “external prestressing” had a major impact on the development of prestressing procedures.7 also appeared in April 1979. technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures according to the limit states method.C. In 1983.000 MPa) The measuring conditions for the transmission factors The choice of ducts (ducts and tubes). the stability of cantilevers under construction. It should also be noted that the effects of Circular 82-50 of May 24 1982 began to felt. protection of anchorages. Significant changes were made to the design of large prestressed concrete structures. called the “BPEL The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 198 septembre 2007 .5 - 1983 to the present day This period was marked by the generalization of "limit states" design rules. 79-78 of August 16 1979 relating to the implementation of prestressing units.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Circular no. 8. form travelers. which established: – – – – – – – – The values of the coefficients of friction f and φ (according to the radius of curvature.C.79) [Common Guidelines for Structural Design]. the number of joints crossed and the type of tendons: smooth wires or strands) The moduli of elasticity of the wires (200. the regulations relating to the design of prestressed concrete bridges were revolutionized by the appearance of fascicule 62 Titre l Section 11 of the french CCTG (General Technical Clauses.C. and much less of an influence on the development of prestressing reinforcements. stressed stirrups. design examples. 79-25 of March 13 1979 relating to the new Directives Communes pour le Calcul des Constructions (D. etc. introducing the requirements of the Circular of April 2 1975 and its implications concerning the quantities of materials.). radii of curvature and the continuity of the ducts The limit of the initial stress to be 0. new design programs. construction advice (prefabricated segments.1. internal and external inspections and independent inspections. measurement of transmission factors. workability.

The BPEL 83 rules were replaced by the BPEL 91 rules at the start of 1992. Class II. Class III. is used for major bridges and large standard bridges or those situated in harsh environments. covering “partial prestressing”. instead of range calculations using P1 and P2 (characteristic values). was applied to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. with a particular emphasis on external prestressing technology. the IPl and the IP2 were all applicable until December 31 1985 according to certain procedures established by decree. the precautions to be taken with keyed anchoring and problems relating to the use of “super” strands. • • • In 1984. published a guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing). as a function of the duration of applied of loads Reduction of the 1983 shear limit stress which was considered to be too forgiving Reduction of the working stress ratio for stressed stirrups For coastal structures: increasing the depth of coating on non-prestressed reinforcements without individual protection from 4 to 5 cm • • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 199 septembre 2007 . Sétra published two information notes: • The first covered the anchoring strength of external prestress tendons in the event of overtension in order to prevent the blockage of wedges by the cement grout The second dealt with the use of single and multi-strand couplers. It should be noted that the BPEL 83.Center for Engineering Structure Techniques). a division of Sétra. certain types of standard bridges in reasonably benign environments (2nd and 3rd category road bridges) and for bridge slabs with transverse prestressing A characteristic thermal gradient value of 12° C for verifications at service limit state Characteristic strength as the specified strength for concrete The possibility of performing verifications with the probable prestressing Pm. The major modifications introduced by this new version included: • • • Extending the rules to concrete with characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa Improving SLS verifications for the different classes I. It gave additional information on subjects covered by the BPEL 83. in which the tensile stresses are limited. • In February 1990. The BPEL 83 rules introduced: • • External prestressing The notion of verification categories for structures (Class I authorizes no traction and is mainly used for prefabricated bridges.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 83”). the CTOA (Centre des techniques d’ouvrages d’art . II and III Introducing a "θ" coefficient into the formula giving the value of the compression limit stress of concrete at ULS.

becoming the BPEL 91. However.2. use.4). the reader is invited to refer to Sub-Section 32. When analyzing the problems on a structure.4. It should be noted that the BAEL 83 rules were simultaneously replaced by the BAEL 91 rules.2 of the second part of the Instruction technique pour la surveillance et l’entretien des ouvrages d’art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures). revised in 1999. Not all of the cracks found on prestressed concrete structures are signs of defective behavior. The end of the 1990s was also marked by the appearance of two circulars relating to prestressing using posttensioning techniques: • The first. An additional appendix (Appendix 14) was included in this new version. prohibited the washing of sheathed tendons with water. • 8. this information is insufficient in itself to evaluate the condition of the structure.1.) are not exclusive to the cantilever construction method. established a number of new requirements for HDPE tubes and promoted the injection of external tendons with wax The second was published on February 28 2001 and imposed new requirements concerning the injection of external prestress tendons (see paragraph 7. For more detailed information about problems affecting prestressed concrete structures. 8. In the interests of relevance. relating to concrete with a characteristic strength of between 40 and 60 MPa. which assigned numerical values to the coefficients of friction f and φ for tendons inside the concrete.7. we shall only cover problems with structural origins. it is important to consider all of the characteristics of the cracks observed. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 200 septembre 2007 . the BPEL 83 was modified again. sheathed and protected strands and tendons outside the concrete.Pathologies specific to the cantilever construction technique As for most other types of bridges. as problems caused by other factors (materials.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • Appendix 3. etc. maintenance. published in 1979 and modified in 1995.1 - Reminder concerning cracking on prestressed structures The appearance of significant deformations and/or cracks on prestressed concrete structures may be evidence of structural disorders. At the end of the 1990s. 8.1 – Opening and widening of cracks over time The opening and widening of cracks if they are active are obviously the first elements to consider. specific types of problems have affected the first prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method. The purpose of this section is to briefly outline the principal specific disorders that have been identified for these structures and to describe the lessons that have been learnt with regard to the design of modern structures built by the cantilever method.2 .2. dated August 20 1999.

) is obviously a sign of abnormal behavior. fine longitudinal cracks may develop and in most cases. in accordance with the regulations. With this in mind.1).1. as. These structures were built more recently and benefit from the lessons learnt on older structures. Excessive cracking (open cracks when the structure is not loaded.3 mm in localized cases for the width of an individual crack. etc. when the first cantilever tipped over. evenly-distributed cracks).2 – Design assumptions and the influence of regulations Structures built according to the Instruction Provisoire n° 1 (Provisional Instruction no.2 mm for the average width of an individual crack – 0. in theory. it shall be considered that the opening of the cracks on elements behaving like reinforced concrete must not exceed: – 0. which are closed when the structure is not loaded. 8. Efforts are made to keep the opening and widening of any cracks to acceptable levels in order to: – Prevent the risk of fatigue in the tendons crossing areas likely to be tensioned – Limit the penetration of corrosive agents through the gaps caused by excessively wide cracks.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Prestressed concrete structures built by the cantilever method are often only prestressed longitudinally.2.2.1 – Problems observed and their causes Problems arose during the construction the cantilevers on some of the first structures built using the cantilever method and a spectacular accident occurred on the site of the Viosne viaduct on November 13 1970. these values could therefore be increased.2. minimal longitudinal reinforcement is used and this would be incapable of compensating for any unforeseen tensile forces. These openings are values under dead loads and were established in the framework of studies relating to the penetration of corrosive agents into the concrete. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 201 septembre 2007 . As a result. tensile forces are allowed at the design level for structures dimensioned according to Classes II or III of the BPEL. For structures or parts of structures situated in relatively noncorrosive environments. On this type of structure. transverse cracks are usually evidence of abnormal longitudinal flexion behavior. 1) or the BPEL in Class I were designed to be totally prestressed. cracks crossed by prestress tendons are problematic because of the risk of fatigue in the prestressing reinforcements.2 - Stability of cantilevers 8. It also applies to the fine cracks found in the deviators on structures with external prestressing. On the other hand. 8.1 mm in the case of systematic cracking (multiple.2. They therefore behave like reinforced concrete in the transverse direction. As a result. This applies to the fine cracks that can be observed in the upper slabs. for the average width of all of these cracks – 0. fortunately without any serious consequences (Fig. are usually evidence of normal behaviour in prestressed concrete. no traction is allowed with regard to flexion when the bridge is in service. these are evidence of normal transverse flexion behavior in reinforced concrete. 8. In particular. Fine transverse cracks. As a guide. stresses or stress variations within the concrete and reinforcements are minimized and nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement bars are added to control the cracking.

on the bridges of Calix.2 – Impact on design Design rules governing the stability of cantilevers under construction were established and published in the supplement to Technical Bulletin (BT) no.2. 7. 8.2. No cantilevers have collapsed since their publication. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 202 septembre 2007 . published by Sétra in 1979. have now been successfully used for over twenty years.2).2.2. Fig. 8. which are included in this guide along with several additions.2 – Flexion cracks These cracks are evidence of insufficient resistance to longitudinal flexion. despite the collapse of several form travelers. 8.3 - Cracks due to insufficient longitudinal strength 8. thus exposing these reinforcements to the risk of fatigue. 8. This type of cracking is particularly serious given that the cracks or open joints are often crossed by continuity tendons inside the concrete. 8.g.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. e. These rules.1 – Problems observed and their causes The majority of structures built using the cantilever method prior to 1975 have suffered from transverse cracking or the opening of joints in the lower slab.1 – Tipping of the first cantilever of the viaduct over the Viosne Accidents have also been caused by the collapse of prefabricated segments and form travelers. towards the middle of the central spans or in so-called “low bending moment” zones (Fig. in 1975 and Bellegarde in 1982.

For structures dimensioned according to the IPl.1 – Problems observed and their causes Two types of disorders may point to the existence of excessive radial tendon forces: longitudinal cracking in the lower slab in the crown area and localized cracking.4). these forces are often put down to "redistribution by creep" (in general.).4. 8. empty ducts allow for additional prestressing to be used if the actual friction is greater than the friction values allowed for in the design. delamination or spalling of the concrete. incorrectly controlled weight of the form traveler etc. due to over-optimistic coefficients of friction or underestimations of relaxation losses Parasitic forces locked into the structure when the closing segment is assembled due to adjustments made on site (realignment of cantilevers.2.2. deviator tubes. i. Finally. For simplicity’s sake.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 203 septembre 2007 . as happens on bridges built by the cantilever method. from l/50th to 1/40th.4 - Cracks and problems due to excessive radial tendon forces 8. this error leads to the normal stress in the lower axis at the crown being overestimated by 2 to 3 MPa) The failure to account for the thermal gradient in the calculations (in general. The BPEL paid particular attention to the case of tendons crossing numerous joints.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide These cracks have several causes which are often cumulative and include: • The failure to account for the redistribution of forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials in the calculations. the bridge deck became considerable thicker in this area. 8. the values adopted by the BPEL were more conservative than those in the previous regulations.2 – Impacts on design The Circular of April 2 1975 and the supplement to the BT7 of April 1979 defined the design rules to be adopted in response to redistributed forces due to the delayed obstructed deformation of materials and in response to the thermal gradient. With regard to the coefficients of losses by friction. • • • 8. In addition. the design allows for the use of additional prestressing (anchorages. Longitudinal cracking in the lower slab is caused by downward thrusts in continuity tendons inside the concrete in structures of variable depth and most commonly affects the central span (Fig. this omission also leads to an overestimation of the normal stress in the lower horizontal plane at the crown of approximately 2 MPa for a thermal gradient of 6° C) The overestimation of the prestress effect. correction of reverse deflections.e.3 and 8.) in order to facilitate any future structural repairs or reinforcements (see the recommendations in Chapter 3 of this guide). etc. this resulted in a significant reduction in the recommended slenderness ratio at the crown.2. unforeseen site loads.

2 – Impacts on the design Gussets are now systematically used at the junction of the webs and the lower slab of box girders. delamination and the spalling of concrete are caused by the errors in the positioning of the ducts such as the festooning of ducts between two joints. many of these early structures were built without gussets at the junction between the web and lower slab. These problems create radial tendon forces. Furthermore. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 204 septembre 2007 . Localized cracks. Also.4 – Cracks caused by downward thrust These problems affected first-generation structures because a large number of low-strength continuity tendons were spread across the entire width of the lower slab. 8. To combat problems caused by incorrectly positioned ducts. which is made easier by the fact that fewer internal continuity tendons are needed for mixed prestressing.2. Tendons are now usually placed in the gussets or very close to them. 8.4. mainly in the central span. badly-positioned tendons. especially for bridge decks of variable depth.3 – Cracking due to downward thrust at the web-slab junction Fig. 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. the Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et l’Entretien des Ouvrages d’Art (Technical Instruction for the Monitoring and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures) recommends using a reinforcement plan that is designed to take up any parasitic radial tendon forces due to angular fractures in proximity to the joints. sudden changes in angle close to the joints etc. the practice of spreading the tendons across the full width of the lower slab has now been abandoned.

5 – Suggested reinforcement plan designed to compensate for accidental radial tendon forces close to joints 8. This problem has affected tendons whose ducts were injected with a cement grout which had failed to set properly in certain areas due to the phenomenon of settling (fresh grout). Longitudinal prestressing The tendon layout may be rectilinear or polygonal. 8. Bridges built by the cantilever method are. of course.3.proved to be particularly damaging in terms of the corrosion of tendons and was quickly abandoned. It should be noted that the positioning of cantilever tendons inside poorly protected channels on the extrados .a technique specific to bridges built by the cantilever method .6). especially for tendons situated inside the concrete. Since then. major structural repairs have been carried out on around sixty structures using a variety of techniques described below. 8. injection defects. 8. etc. To round off this section. we shall also mention two other important pathologies found on prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method: • • Badly fitting joints in the case of prefabricated segments Deflections of cantilever arms close to joints.).1 - Addition or replacement of prestressing The most commonly used repair technique consists of adding extra prestressing or replacing the original prestressing. In the latter case. it should be mentioned that external prestress tendons have failed on several occasions in recent years. corrosion of tendons.2.5 - Other pathologies For information. the first significant repairs to prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method were carried out at the beginning of the 1970s (Bussang bridge etc.Main repair techniques In France.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3 . In the latter case. the original prestressing must be dismantled. not immune to the more general problems affecting prestressed concrete structures (distribution of concentrated prestressing forces. which is a difficult process. it is angled by deviators added to the initial structure (Fig. 8. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 205 septembre 2007 .). It should be noted that these techniques are also used for reinforcing operations.

[PER 94]. or both (Fig.8). these include adjusting the height of the supports and adding extra material.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. in Essonne. 8. 8. However. TRL. glued steel plate sheet or FRP (cf.3.Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie Spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle (Standard NFP 95-104 – Repair and Reinforcement of Concrete and Masonry Structures – Specifications Relating to the Additional Prestressing Technique) Ponts en béton précontraint par post-tension (Post-tensioned Prestressed Concrete Bridges) [HA.6 – Additional longitudinal prestressing Fig.3 - Repair design There is little information concerning repair design for prestressed concrete civil engineering structures. • • The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 206 septembre 2007 . [BAR 94]. as on the Corbeil bridge. Further information on this subject is given by the following articles [RIC 93]. article [POI 92]). [BOUT 1] and [GIA 01] listed in the bibliography in the appendix to this guide. [TAV 00]. 8. [BAR 98]. or more conventionally. 8. 501 of February 1992: Information Days for the Repair and Reinforcement of Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures). the following documents provide useful information for anyone interested in the repair of prestressed concrete bridges: • • Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge Maintenance and Repair) [Presses de l’ENPC – 1997] French standard NF P 95-104 . 8.7 – Anchor block for additional longitudinal prestressing The additional anchor blocks may be situated beyond the abutment.9). [DEL 94]. [DEL 98].7 above).3. 8. LCPC] Annales de l’ITBTP n° 501 de février 1992 : Journées réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art (Annals of the ITBTP no. Transverse prestressing Transverse prestressing may be carried out on the lower slab (Fig. [JEH 94]. Sétra. the webs. [POI 99].2 - Other techniques Other techniques are also used. 8. inside the box girder (Fig. For information.

8. 8.9 – Additional vertical prestressing of a web and transverse prestressing of the lower slab The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 207 septembre 2007 .8 – Additional transverse prestressing of the lower slab Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

notwithstanding any contrary provisions in the STC. these access arrangements must not make the structure vulnerable to acts of vandalism. This includes leaving room to pass formwork tubes housing an extra pair of tendons through cross beams and deviators.2 .1 – Replaceability of external prestressing Mixed prestressing has been used on the vast majority of large bridges built in recent years. by incremental launching and by temporary cable-staying). including the interior of hollow sections. The requirements concerning the tendons and their layout are set out in the Sétra guide entitled "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing).Bridge deck 9.2. It should be remembered that this circular only authorizes the use of non-adhesive products (factory-applied grease and wax).1. For a box-girder structure. This means that a certain number of tendons are situated outside the concrete. it must be possible to perform bridge management and maintenance operations in accordance with labour legislation and particularly with regard to french Law no. They The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 208 septembre 2007 . These provisions are intended for prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. and placing extra trumplates in the cross beams. To benefit fully from this technique. published in 1979. 9. it must be possible to replace these tendons without having to demolish any part of the structure. Finally. 9. it may be decided to strengthen the prestressing. 9. The original type of tendons is used for the extra tendons and they are aligned according to the same rules. these provisions are compulsory. It is also necessary to allow the forces added by this extra pair of tendons when dimensioning the reinforcements for the deviators and cross beams.1 Prestressing 9. it is important to allow this possibility by building in the means to add additional external tendons if they are required. With these provisions in place. The provisions concerning the injection of these tendons are defined by the french circular of February 2001 relating to the injection of prestress tendons situated outside the concrete.1. It should be noted that a large number of the provisions specified in this guide are included in Chapter 7 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG and that.General principles In general.2.1 . which introduced the Dossier d’Intervention Ultérieur sur Ouvrage (DIUO) [Post-Construction Works File]. without requiring heavy equipment.Provisions to facilitate maintenance This chapter describes the provisions to be made at the design stage with a view to facilitating the maintenance of bridges incorporating box-girder bridge decks.2. unless special equipment capable of absorbing the energy of the tendon during its removal is used. but they are also applicable to concrete structures with box-girder bridge decks built by other methods (on falsework.2 – Provisions for the implementation of additional prestressing At a given moment in the life of a bridge. This may be due to a pathology affecting the structure or to a change in its functional design. 93-14-18 of December 31 1993. the bridge’s design and construction should incorporate measures to facilitate the inspection and maintenance of all parts of the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9 .

It is important to note that these depths are given for bridge decks without transverse ribs. For bridge decks with transverse ribs. there is sufficient room – at least 0. 9. Fig.2 – Passageway clearances The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 209 septembre 2007 . it is important to design bridge decks of sufficient depth. This passageway may be cramped in the middle of the spans due to tendons rising up close to the piers.2.75 m – between the external tendons nearest to the middle of the box girder to walk comfortably on the concrete surface of the lower slab. Fig.1 – Minimal depth of bridge deck To allow for easy movement inside the box girder (Fig.20 m.B. either because the lower slab is very narrow or because there are too many external tendons. For bridge decks of a constant depth.2. therefore. (Further information on this point can be found in Article 64 of the supplement to fascicule 65A of the CCTG and its comments). 9. If the box girder is too narrow for normal maintenance.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide are then stressed according to the same procedures used for replacement external tendons.75 m to 1 meter) to the minimum depth. (N. which is not as bulky as mixed prestressing).1 – Example of a very small box girder 9.2.2 - Access inside the box girder 9. For bridge decks of variable depth. the access problems are occasional and only concern areas in the middle of the spans or close to the abutments. it is possible to use completely internal prestressing. it is possible to install a gridded steel walkway over the tendons.2 – Normal movement In the majority of structures. When this is not the case. so a minimum depth of 2 m can be accepted. it is necessary to add the internal height of the ribs (usually 0.2. 91). it is recommended to fix the minimum total external depth at 2. 9. the problems caused by an insufficient depth could affect the entire structure.2.

it is important to ensure that the height clearances in the shafts correspond to the values shown in Figure 9.2. power drills. it is recommended to organize the lighting system into sections of 300 to 400 m. For safety reasons.50 m. For this purpose. Furthermore.3). it should be circular in shape and 80 cm to 1 m in diameter. neon tubes or fluorescent strip lights are used. these elements must be equipped with guard rails.4 – Access to pier head units An access shaft must be made in line with each pier in order to allow access from the bridge deck to the piers and vice-versa. in addition to the two switches on the abutments. 9.2. bracket lights with spherical light bulbs or. In the interests of economy. These lights are positioned centrally underneath the upper slab with a longitudinal centerto-center spacing of no more than fifteen meters and the high-risk areas around the cross beams and deviators must be adequately lit. it is essential to keep this shaft closed under normal conditions. 9. maintenance staff.4). etc.2. 9. when the bridge is in service. this shaft must be positioned in line with the inspection pits in the pier head units (see 9. For obvious reasons.2. more commonly.3 – Crossing of cross beams and deviators Cross beams on modern box girder bridges always have access shafts to allow access for construction workers and.2. In this case. If the total length of the structure does not exceed 400 to 500 m.2. 9. Fig.2. using a metal grid which cannot be removed and closes automatically. For easy and.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9. two-way switches must also be fitted at the ends of each section N. all of the bracket lights can be operated simultaneously using 2 two-way switches situated at both ends of the bridge deck. it is also possible The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 210 septembre 2007 .5 – Electrical system All large prestressed concrete bridges must have an electrical system that is used to light the inside of the bridge deck and to supply power for any tools required during maintenance operations (flood lights. in order to control the lighting for sections N and N+1.2.3 – Ramp for crossing the lower beam of a deviator 9. above all.3. In order to prevent this shaft from adversely affecting the mechanical behavior of the slab or lower part of the cross beam. An effective system consists of placing a square metal grid inside a square rebate built into the top of round access hole.1 below). The lighting in the box girder must be powerful enough to allow staff to move around in complete safety (Fig. For bridges of over 500 m in length. Important: if the vertical height exceeds 1. if these deviators and crossbeams have low beams which hinder the movement of staff and equipment – a common situation – it is advisable to install metal or concrete stairways or concrete ramps on either side of these elements (Fig.). risk-free movement through this passageway.

9. so that a problem with a tool does not suddenly extinguish the internal lighting. If it turns out to be impossible to route the tendons via the abutments. another solution would involve making a 1 m x 0.3.5 and 9-6). 9.80 m hole in the lower slab. The electrical system must comply with the general standards in force for low-voltage electrical systems (i. the power socket circuit in the box girder must be totally independent from the lighting circuit. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 211 septembre 2007 . Fig. In all cases. In certain systems. of course.volt system with a frequency of 50 Hertz must be installed. Fig. After installation. These hatches may also be used to supply any other equipment.2. which are usually positioned one meter above the lower slab. Under normal conditions. these sockets are accompanied by safety sockets supplying 24-volt current. directly below the light fittings. the reader is recommended to refer to section 5. There must be no risk of damaging the non-prestressed reinforcements or the prestress tendons during the installation of the system.5 – Access hatch for cabling 9. a 220. 9. To allow for the use of power tools inside the box girder. and for transporting the equipment needed for their installation. the NF C 15-100 standard on the publication date of this guide).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide to fit a timer to the lighting system. this hole would be closed using a galvanized steel hatch (Fig. it is necessary to examine different ways of routing extra or replacement tendons through the bridge deck. For further information about this point.2.45 in the guide mentioned above.e. but this must be set to stay on for a long time (at least 10 hours) in order to avoid plunging workers into darkness when they are still inside the box girder.3 - Miscellaneous 9.4 – Internal lighting in a box girder Electricity is supplied by power sockets. it must be approved by an accredited organization.1 – Access hatches for equipment As explained in the Sétra “Précontrainte Extérieure” (External Prestressing) guide. directly in line with a road lane if possible.

6 – Piercing of a lower slab required by the lack of an access hatch 9.3. can be attached.Piers The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 212 septembre 2007 . orientation.4 – Identification and orientation It is advisable to number the segments using indelible paint and a stencil according to the construction plans. which form a barrier preventing the drainage of water.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In the past. As these hatches cause maintenance and durability problems. 9.2 . it is common practice to install anchor rails or couplings on the underside of the upper slab. It is also important to consider the position of the cross beams and deviators. equipped with a beveled tube extending through the intrados to form a drip groove.2. Fittings situated close to the tendon anchorages on piers may also be used for jack hoists. this technique must be completely prohibited. Fig. certain box-girder structures featured access hatches in the central part of the upper slab. Usually made from galvanized or stainless steel. which is very different to the longitudinal profile of the road for a bridge deck of variable depth.2. it might also be useful to label cross beams on piers with the number of their corresponding pier as this could facilitate the identification of certain works. 9. This guarantees their suitability for their future tasks. these fittings form the upper anchorages for the bars to which pipework. On certain very large structures. In order to allow this water to drain away quickly.3 – Fixing rails for future networks In order to facilitate the installation of networks inside the box-girder at some future date. cross section.3. The longitudinal positioning of theses holes must take account of the longitudinal profile of the top of the lower slab. 9. or a metal frame supporting the networks. Care must betaken to ensure that this configuration does cause water to run down the facing of the piers.) must be determined according to a precise set of specifications for the networks they are designed to support. This type of identification prevents the use of different numbering systems in inspection reports carried out over the years. nominal load.2. it is essential to leave holes of 10 to 15 cm in diameter in the lower slab. it is also important to account for the transverse slope of the top of the lower slab and of the tendons which might be installed there. Transversally.Drainage of the lower slab Water frequently penetrates into the box girder due to leaks in the structure or during maintenance operations. etc. The principal characteristics of these rails and bushes (position.3. length. 9.3 . subject to their nominal load being greater than 20 kN.

10) for use during internal monitoring and inspection operations. 9. their length depends on the center distance between the bearings.3. 9.3. 9. This system is allows for the regular examination of the inside of piers with a level of accuracy that satisfies the requirements of scheduled inspections. These points will also be be situated as close to the webs as possible. A ∅ 100 mm drain hole is built into the pit for the drainage of any water that might enter. it is possible to use binoculars or additional ladders if stairs are fitted.2 - Design of the pier head units 9. etc. it is possible to allow two points between both bearings.2. the next stage is to design and install the reinforcements or prestressing required to take up the forces generated in the piers and bridge deck under these support conditions.1 – Access and inspection pits If the height of the piers exceeds 8 to 10 m. allows work to be carried out "comfortably" in the pier head area. Support blocks (Fig. reset the slide plates or make adjustments due to the subsidence of a pier or a geometrical defect.2. This pit. 9. it is recommended to leave a minimum space of 0. It is also important to position the jacking point as close to the axis of the nearest web as possible. one point per bearing.3 - Inspection of hollow piers 9.50 m between the top of the piers and the underside of the bridge deck. i.) may be used if the geometry of the structure prevents the use of blocks.3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 213 septembre 2007 . it is necessary to determine the position of the jacking points at the design stage. especially during construction. These pits are usually 0.3. The size and location of these jacking points depends on the amount of space available on the pier head unit.3. two jacking points are provided for each bearing. In general. To prevent problems or damage to the structure during jacking.1 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of piers In order to facilitate monitoring and maintenance operations.80 to 1 m deep and one meter wide.3.1 . if the pier head unit is too short to accommodate two jacking points per bearing. However.e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9.7 and 9.3. It is also necessary to mark the jacking points on the plans and identify their positions on the top of the pier. resembling a bathtub in shape.Inspection Hollow piers are usually equipped with a system of safety ladders and landings throughout their full height (Fig. although durable markers (studs.8). it is recommended to build a pit into the pier head units.2 – Position of the jacking points for the bridge deck A bridge deck often has to be jacked up after commissioning in order to change the bearings. Once these jacking points have been determined. 9.9) are usually used for this operation. For more detailed inspections. in spite of the limited space between the top of the pier and the underside of the bridge deck (Fig. 9.

9 – Block marking the location of a jacking point The dimensions of the system (height and depth of steps. 9.8 – Inspection pit on pier head unit Fig. frequency of landings) are determined according to the standards in force relating to stairs in buildings. of course.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. Stairs or ladders must be made from hot galvanized steel thick enough to ensure that minor corrosion does not affect the strength of these elements. This creates a working platform from which inspectors equipped with climbing gear can operate.12). In recent years. precautions must be taken to guarantee its longevity. This system reduces the initial investment costs and guarantees that inspections will be carried using the latest totally compliant equipment. which also increases the cost of the operation. NF E 85-010 "Échelles métalliques fixes avec ou sans crinolines" (Fixed Metal Stairs With or Without Safety Bows) was the applicable standard on the publication date of this guide. Considering the financial investment required for this type of equipment. However. an inspection of the piers under these conditions requires more equipment and more time. 9. 9. some Owners have decided to restrict the fittings inside hollow piers on large bridges to a single metal gridded platform situated just underneath the crosshead and couplings to which harnesses can be attached (Fig.7 – Access to bridge deck from piers and vice-versa Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 214 septembre 2007 . 9. Landings can be made from galvanized steel or the same concrete that was used to construct the pier shafts.

It is also possible to situate these doors three or four meters above ground level. it is necessary to allow access to hollow piers from the bridge deck. they will not fall further than the bottom of this pit.Access Whatever the context. to make sure that if someone falls from the bridge deck.11). 9. insufficient strength. any victims will also have to be evacuated via this single passageway. 9.Lighting Hollow piers must be equipped with a lighting system similar in design to the system used for the bridge deck. risk of vandalism too great. These doors are rarely aesthetically pleasing and it is important to make sure that the architecture of the pier is as complimentary as possible. If it is impossible to provide doors at the base of the piers (e.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.3. 9. it is necessary to create a reasonably large shaft leading from piers to the bridge deck.2 and Fig. a shaft is usually created at the bottom of the inspection pit described in Paragraph 9. it is necessary to use the same type of doors as those recommended for the abutments (see 9.3 . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 215 septembre 2007 . requiring a ladder for access.11 – Access door to a pier or an abutment with five-point safety lock Fig. In the majority of cases.2 . It must also be offet in relation to the shaft built into the cross beam on pier. a second access point is also provided via a metal door at the base of the pier.12 – Minimal fittings inside a pier 9. In the event of an accident during a maintenance operation. As before. Indeed.4.2. 9. Considering the risks of vandalism.). this passageway must be big enough to be used for transporting and removing maintenance equipment. piers on the sea bed.1.3.3.10 – Safety ladders and landings inside a pier Fig.3.g.3. For this. etc. this hole must normally be closed using a metal grid or plate. 9.

In general. This solution is also aesthetically pleasing. 9.4. external continuity prestressing and the guttering under the joints.4. 9. the distance between the internal face of the abutment wall and the end of the bridge deck. given that these walls hide the inside of the abutments which are never very attractive. guard rails if necessary.1 Access to abutments Access points to the abutments must be designed and built with care. via the return walls of the abutments. In this phase.4. 9. the design of an abutment must incorporate a cable pulling chamber if the external tendons are attached to stressed anchorages on the cross beam directly above the abutment. as it denies access to unauthorized persons and therefore prevents malicious damage to the bridge bearings.11 on previous page). In addition to this important provision. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 216 septembre 2007 . This system is highly recommended. it is also possible to enter abutments from another road below the structure if parking spaces are provided. including between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the central part of the concealing wall. 9. as little room as possible should be left between the concealing wall and the outer edges of the box girder. it is necessary to consider the phase of the replacement process which requires the most room. In order to determine the effective length L of this chamber. the front face of an abutment is usually closed off by a concealing wall.4 - Depth of abutments Typical example of abutments with cable pulling chamber One of the essential requirements for changing the external prestressing is the ability to gain access to the anchorages to stress the new tendons. etc.). i. the space required corresponds to the length of the jack Lv plus the length of the strands connected to the jack prior to stressing Lt.Plenary Assembly of Damage Insurance Companies) are particularly suitable for this task (see Fig. which is entered through a metal door.42 of the "Précontrainte extérieure" (External Prestressing) guide published by Sétra. It is important to fit a light switch next to the door mentioned in 9.3 - Electrical system Although covering a much smaller area than a bridge deck. 9. concrete or wooden stairs.Abutments 9.4.4.13). not including the corbel.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 9.e. an abutment must have the same type of electrical system (lighting and power sockets). access is gained from the supported road. However. However. It is also important to fit high-quality locks on the doors.2 - Restricting access in the abutments On large bridges built in recent years. As mentioned in section 5. For external tendons injected with a flexible product (wax or grease). this key phase in the design of this chamber is when the new tendons are in their ducts and the tensioning jack is positioned at the end of the strands prior to “swallowing” them up (Fig. they must also be as unobtrusive as possible in order to avoid attracting unwanted attention. These access points must be created with care (concrete surfacing.2 above.4 . Fivepoint safety locks bearing the "A2P trois étoiles" label awarded by the french APSAD (Assemblée Plénière des Sociétés d’Assurances Dommage . No more than 15 cm should be allowed for this gap.

25 1.28 1.14 to 9. it is recommended to fit a water tap on the abutment.07 1.58 2.08 1. Supported by galvanized steel brackets.38 Lv + Lt 2.40 m for 19T15S cabling and 2.14 Lt 1.29 1.34 37T15S Lv + Lt 2.33 2. these joints are never totally watertight. this gutter must be positioned centrally under the expansion joint.12 1. In this case.13 – Key design phase for determining the minimum length of the cable pulling chamber The following table gives the lengths Lv.40 1.5 - Collection of water under the expansion joint Expansiont joints are fitted at the ends of almost all large modern bridges. 9. Lt and (Lv+Lt) for the 19T15S.20 Lv 1.60 m for 27T15S or 37T15S cabling.39 2.20 1.41 Lv 1. 27T15S and 37T15S types of tendons used in certain French prestressing systems.25 1.80 m to 1 m is essential for inspecting and correctly maintaining these parts of the structure. A minimum distance of 0. consisting of a metal gutter positioned under the joint. the additional length described above is no longer required. it is necessary to collect any water that percolates through them in order to protect the abutment crossheads.11 1. Despite the care and attention devoted to their design and fitting. Specific examples of abutments without cable pulling chambers In certain very specific cases. Unit Supplier Freyssinet SEEE Spie Précontrainte 19T15S System C with jack Cl 000F FUT SB 27T15S Lv + Lt 2. the distance between the end of the bridge deck and the abutment wall must not be reduced too much. The best systems are shown in Figures 9. it can therefore be considered that the effective length L of the chambers must be at least 2.33 2. In order to prevent splashes. However.56 At the design stage. These splash guards. bridge bearings and the external prestressing anchorages situated at the ends of the structure. 9.40 1. To facilitate the cleaning of the gutter. which requires a corbel of 30 to 40 cm on the side of the bridge deck.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. cable pulling chambers may not be built into abutments. Therefore. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 217 septembre 2007 . The pipes must then be protected from freezing.25 Lv 1.18 1.41 2.4. must be weighted for maximum resistance to the draft of air created by passing trucks.16 Lt 1. it is necessary to channel the water using vertical neoprene splash guards enclosing the space between the joint and the gutter.60 2. and are therefore situated directly above the abutments.l6. provided that the structure can be connected to the drinking water network at reasonable cost. which are usually different to those supplied with the joint.18 Lt 1.

9.7 - Bridge deck jacking points Like piers. These are determined according to the procedures described in paragraph 9.14 – Collection of water under pavement joints Fig.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.2. 9. 9.4. it is advisable to leave a minimum gap of 0.6 - Space between the underside of the bridge deck and the top of the crossheads As for the piers.3.16 – Gutter attachment 9.15 – Gutter under joint (the distance to the slab allows for easy cleaning) Fig. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 218 septembre 2007 . abutments must have jacking points for the bridge deck. 9.50 m between the top of the abutment crossheads and the underside of the bridge deck in order to facilitate maintenance operations.2 above.4.

may sometimes be broken down into tranches in order to stagger the financing of the works. the Special Technical Clauses (STC). 10. the contract is not divided into tranches or packages.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10 . with a preliminary shortlisting of applicants. including: • • • • • • • • • Site plan Plan view Longitudinal cross-section Transverse cross-sections of bridge deck Detailed plan of cross beams and deviators Detailed plan of bridge deck superstructures Pier formwork plans Abutment formwork plans Contractual part of the geotechnical survey. 10. and occasionally. the vast majority of bridges built by the cantilever method are constructed in the framework of a restricted invitation to tender. these recommendations focus above all on items which are strongly influenced by this particular construction method and on the associated bridge deck structures. although this system is not be recommended because the tranches can rarely be considered in isolation.e. In most cases. cost estimate. i. draft the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives et Particulières [CCAP]). i. Very large projects.Recommendations for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document This section contains a number of recommendations and instructions for the creation of a Contractor Tender Document for a prestressed concrete bridge built by the cantilever method. Sub-group I contains the documents that make up the contract. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 219 septembre 2007 . usually consisting of the borehole logs. price breakdowns and breakdown frameworks.e. Contractor Tender Documents consist of three sub-groups or schedules.1 . It also includes a series of documents appended to the STC.Creation of a Contractor Tender Document Apart from in very specific situations.2 . Sub-group 0 is reserved for the tender regulations (règlement de la consultation [RC]). It contains the frameworks for the tender document. however.Nature of the tender enquiry In France. Given that it is impossible cover all of these aspects. and particularly with regard to the drafting of the written documents required. the price schedule.

etc. With regard to the bridge deck of a structure built using the cantilever method. sub-group I must also contain a document listing the road. the following points must be covered in these proposals: • • Origin of the components. sub-group II of certain Contractor Tender Documents has also included reports concerning the formulation of concrete. In recent years. alkali reactivity. along with design calculations or miscellaneous studies containing information for contractors. In other cases. aggregates. Article 2. sub-group I also contains specific studies which have a direct influence on the design of the structure: hydraulic studies. if the structure has to be built over or close to a traffic-bearing road.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In certain cases.).) 10. frost and salt-resistant formulas. this sub-group usually includes the following items: • • • • • • • • • • Plan of the areas capable of accommodating the site installations Plan of possible access routes to the site Longitudinal cabling plan Transverse cabling plan (for structures featuring transverse prestressing) Plan of the bridge deck showing a breakdown of segments Scheme of construction operations Plan of the cantilever stabilization system Preliminary quantity survey Architectural study The non-contractual part of the geotechnical survey: usually the pre-design for the foundations produced by the laboratory in charge of this survey.3 . etc. etc.3 b of the Tender regulations specifies the structural elements for which technical proposals must be submitted. For structures built by the cantilever method. certain architectural studies may also be included in sub-group I in order to make the information relating exclusively to these studies contractually binding (reference to a matrix for the bottom shuttering matrix. wind-effect study. In addition. sub-group II sometimes contains initial plans for the bridge deck reinforcements. Sub-group II is made up of documents intended for information purposes only.Tender regulations 10.3. railway or waterway. Finally. including the results of specific studies carried out upstream by the Construction Manager (HPC. rail or water-related constraints facing the contractor during the works. the composition and the application of the concrete Bridge bearings The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 220 septembre 2007 .1 Supplements to the Special Technical Clauses / Technical proposals Technical proposals are detailed precisions that contractors are obliged to include in their bid in addition to their proposed basic solution.

The period required varies The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 221 septembre 2007 . These may include: • • The replacement of concrete webs with lightweight metal webs (for long span bridges) Substitution of the cantilever construction technique by the incremental launching method. may require alterations to be made to the price schedule.4 .4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • • Prestressing processes Procedure for the waterproofing layer Expansion joints. cost estimate and of course the Special Technical Clauses and the attached plans.2 – Technical variants The Owner may authorize contractors to offer variants with a view to encouraging competition. The most common variations include: • • • • • The breakdown into segments Types of prestressing units used Internal form of bridge deck gussets Scheme of construction operations Cantilever stabilization system. work on site may sometimes advance at a faster rate than the construction surveys can be carried out. • 10.4. with or without pilings depending on the situation (for moderately long bridges of a constant depth) A change of construction technique for the foundations of one or more supports.3 of the Tender Regulations. Sufficient time must also be allowed for Construction Managers to evaluate these surveys. 10.1 Period of validity for bids The evaluation phase for the bids for a structure to be built by the cantilever method is often longer than for a basic structure.3. construction surveys for structures built by the cantilever method are long and complex. or even longer if contractors are likely to propose major variants. Therefore.Tender document 10. For certain structures. the first article of the tender document should specify a reasonably long period of validity for the bids (a minimum of 180 days). if they are accepted. In order to prevent the interruption of work due to delays in the availability of construction plans that have been approved by the Contruction Manager. these variants. Contrary to the technical proposals. The permissible technical variants are listed in Article 2. 10.2 - Preparation period As we have already mentioned. More flexible variants are sometimes permitted. it is essential to allow a sufficiently long preparation period in which the engineering firms can reach a stage that is well ahead of the work carried out on site.

published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide from structure to structure. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels. 10. In earthquake zones. it is also necessary to mention: • French Circular no.1 General contract documents For a structure built by the cantilever method. it is also necessary to add the following specific documents: • The AFPS 92 guide for the seismic protection of bridges. the list of general documents to be included in the contract includes at least the following documents: • Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french Cahier des Prescriptions Communes (Common Conditions) [CPC]) : "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Program of Loads and Tests for Road Bridges) Fascicule 61 Titre IV Section II of the french General Technical Clauses (GTC): “Actions de la neige sur les constructions” (Effects of Snow on Structures) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) Fascicule 62 Titre I . but the amount of time required is inversely proportional to the time allowed for the construction of the piers. published by the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 222 septembre 2007 .5 .5. for structures supporting these types of vehicles. edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (AFPS) [French Seismic Engineering Association].Section II of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BPEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 65-A of the french GTC and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Civil Engineering Structures) in their updates published in August 2000 Fascicule 62 Titre V of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Civil Engineering Structures) Fascicule 68 of the french GTC: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil” (Construction of the Foundations for Civil Engineering Structures).Section I of the french GTC: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical Rules for the Engineering and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to the Limit State Method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999] Fascicule 62 Titre I . • • • • • • For structures supporting oversize loads. définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Exceptionally Large Trucks: Definition of Standard Loads and Rules for the Verification of Civil Engineering Structures).Special Administrative Clauses 10.

in the framework of the first and subsequent evaluations of the documents. either by describing the constraints directly in these articles. formwork plans.1 of the Special Administrative Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Administratives particulières [SAC]) specifies the length of the preparation period and indicates whether or not this is included in the contract period. the following text could serve as an example for this text: Delays for the examination and approval of construction documents The contractor must submit the construction surveys for each part of the structure to the Construction Manager for approval in the form of homogeneous groups of documents (e. more commonly known as the "Règles de construction parasismique .4 and 8. reinforcement plans and design calculations for the section concerned).4.4 - Operating constraints in the public domain Many bridges are built immediately next to or even above other traffic-bearing routes.3 - Examination period for construction surveys As conflicts between the Contractor and Construction Manager often arise over compliance with acceptance deadlines.2 of this chapter.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • The officially approved standard NF P 06-013.2 - Preparation period Article 8. As traffic can normally only be interrupted at certain times of the day. The Construction Manager shall notify the contractor of his findings in writing and within a maximum period of forty-five (45) working days for the first examination of the "longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck" and “transverse flexion of the bridge deck" groups and twenty-five (25) working days for the first inspection of the other groups of documents. with regard to the foundations Order no.5. 10. it is recommended that Article 8. It is important to mention these constraints clearly in articles 8. or by referring the reader to another of the documents included in the Contractor Tender Document. These deadlines are reduced to fifteen (15) and five (5) working days for the subsequent examinations of these groups of documents. It should be noted that in the event of the staggered arrival of documents within the same group.g. these periods start on the arrival date of the last document. Further details concerning this point are given in article 10. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 223 septembre 2007 . 10.5.règles applicables aux bâtiments . 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of seismic risks and to the Decree of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category. work on site may be disrupted. Although it could probably be improved. Under these conditions and for safety reasons.2 of the Special Administrative Clauses should contain a text which clearly mentions: • • The documents considered by the Construction Manager to form an indivisible whole The deadlines that the Construction Manager agrees to observe. • 10. it is necessary to wait until the traffic on these arteries has been interrupted before carrying out certain operations.PS92" (Antiseismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92).5 of the SAC.5. accompanied by the corresponding construction procedures.

authorization to apply surfacing materials Acceptance of a quality control element for the prefabricated concrete cornice Acceptance of the adjustment of cornices before sealing Acceptance of pavement joints before fixing or sealing Acceptance of retaining systems before sealing Testing Authorization to perform loading tests Time required 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 10.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10. 10. The second category concerns the options proposed by these texts. it is advisable to include an article entitled “Programme des études d’exécution” (Construction Survey Program) in the Special Technical Clauses.As these points concern conventional types of box girders built by the cantilever method.6.5. With this in mind. These points may be broken down into two categories.5 - Duration of hold points Article 91 of the SAC outlines the main hold points on the site as well as the time necessary for the Construction Manager to cancel these hold points. because they are already binding for the contractor.1 Preamble There now follows a list of points that must be clearly specified in the Special Technical Clauses (STC) for the Contractor Tender Document. additional information may be required for more sophisticated box girder designs. In line with the standard STC included in the CAPT-DCE-OA software published by Sétra.Special Technical Clauses 10.6 .2 - Construction survey program for the structure As we have already mentioned. or because none of them cover the field in question. This can be worded in the following manner: Construction Survey Program The Contractor must submit a construction survey program which includes a list and a provisional schedule of the documents to be drawn up. The first concerns elements of additional information to that provided in the GTC and by the applicable standards. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 224 septembre 2007 .6. The following table gives a non-exhaustive list of the hold points likely to apply to the bridge deck of a structure built by the cantilever method in addition to the average delay before they can be lifted. none of these points repeats the requirements laid down in the GTC and the applicable standards. either because these documents are incomplete. great care should be taken with regard to the quality and execution of the surveys. Hold points Casting and formwork removal Acceptance of the quality control element Authorization for the casting of a part of the structure Authorization to move form travelers forward Authorization to remove falsework from a section of bridge deck Prestressing Authorization for tensioning of prestressing Acceptance of tensioning before reinforcements are cut Authorization for the injection of prestressing ducts Bridge bearings Acceptance of bearing blocks Acceptance at moment of delivery Acceptance of the fitting of bridge bearings (adjustment and positioning) Fittings Acceptance of waterproofing substrate Acceptance of waterproofing.

collapse of one of the form travelers. etc. Many of these actions are defined in fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC and in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.g.2 of the SAC. launch beam. 10.6.3 - Construction surveys for the structure 10. It shall be drawn up in accordance with the framework of surveys specified in the contract. it may also be necessary to mention certain additional actions such as: • • • Impacts on cetain supports Thrust due to water or ice Wind and/or ice to be considered for certain very exposed sites The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 225 septembre 2007 .). It presented in the form of a bar chart clearly showing the critical tasks and the time allowed. which are normally listed and described in the STC are: • • • • • • • • Selfweight of the bridge deck (specify the unit mass of the concrete) Weight of the fittings added to the bridge deck Prestress forces Concrete shrinkage and creep (specify the area in which the structure is situated) General thermal effects (gradient and uniform variation) Thermal effects (uniform variation) to be considered for the expansion joints Predicted overloads from road vehicles and pedestrians on the structure. also described in Chapter 5 of this guide. forces transmitted by launch beam supports.3-1 -Actions The STC must state all of the actions to be considered in the verifying calculations for the structure.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The list enumerates the documents that must be submitted for the construction of both temporary and permanent structures. These actions must be accompanied by certain actions which are specific to box girder bridge decks and the method of construction. an unbalanced segment.) Site overloads defined in Chapters 3 and 5 of this guide. if used Impacts on restraint systems. • Depending on the situation. only to be used for calculations in the construction phase before the closure of a cantilever Specific site actions (e. The provisional schedule includes the deadlines for the submission of documents and the fixed or tentative deadlines for approval by the Construction Manager. in accordance with the minimum deadlines established by Article 8. These must be specified in the STC and relate toconcern: • • Selfweight of temporary structures (form travelers. etc.6. These actions. including fatigue trucks.

5. it is essential to include a rule of this type in the STC (see Chapter 4 of this guide). It should be noted that they differ from those mentioned in the Directives Communes (Common Guidelines) of 1979.1. the following requirements may also be specified in the STC: • Allow for the curvature of the structure on the horizontal plane in the calculations of longitudinal flexion The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 226 septembre 2007 .3). deviators.) The thermal gradient and the thermal expansions to be adopted in the construction phase (see Paragraph 3.2. the STC must specify whether Article 6.6.2. Paragraph 3. cross beams. as described in Article A 4.1. 10. a broken strand that was not replaced). 10.3 in construction situations).3 of this guide recommends the application of the comment in Article 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Seismic effects Etc.3. The combinations to be used for the in-service verification of the structure are specified in the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. it is important to note that an as-built calculation must be performed after the completion of the construction work. This calculation takes account of the actual phasing of the work carried out on a bridge built by the cantilever method.3.2. and the tangent general flexion and distribution forces on the other. The STC must also state whether it is compulsory to perform a range calculation for prestress effects.5. depending on the structure in question. or whether different permissible stresses must be adopted.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 is applicable in the strict sense.10 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999.5). These values are directly related to the requirements formulated by the Construction Manager with regard to empty ducts and the measurement of transmission factors (see our recommendations in 3. If not.2. (For example. As the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 does not include any rules for the accumulation of non-prestressed reinforcement bars designed to compensate for transverse flexion on the one hand. for the verification of reinforced concrete parts (transverse flexion. It would also be advisable to add a rule governing how to allow for different construction phases in the calculation of stresses at the ULS (see our proposals in paragraph 3.3. In accordance with Paragraph 3.3 of the BPEL 91 revised in 1999. as described in Article 1. Combinations to be used for verifying the structure with regard to the risks of cantilever instability are given in Chapter 5 of this guide.3 of the BAEL 91 revised in 1999. the STC must specify the values of k and k’ to be adopted for the application of Article 4.6.3 –Verification of the bridge deck The STC must specify: • The verification categories.2) The cracking categories.3.3. used to verify the longitudinal flexion of the bridge deck and the transverse flexion of the upper slab on structures with transverse prestressing (see Paragraph 3.3.3. It may also consider the estimated coefficients of friction given by measurements taken on site. etc.2).g.2 – Combined actions The STC usually mentions the different combined actions that have to be considered. • • As differences of opinion exist between Construction Managers. with the actual dates of casting and any incidents that occurred on site (e. Finally.

of course.4. Furthermore.Continuity tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the continuity tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. This must not be less than 15 MPa.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide • • Perform a finite elements calculation for a section of the bridge deck Perform a finite elements calculation for a specific part of the structure (segment on pier. The Owner’s requirements for the permanent protection to be used on the anchorages (e. core sampling in the sheath areas. 10.6. the type of injection product to be used.6. along with their strength and relaxation categories. This category must conform to the definitions provided in Article 52 of Fascicule 65A of the french CCTG.2 .4.) Perform a second-order calculation for one or more piers if they are very slender (in this case.6.6. 10.1 – Cantilever tendons The STC must precisely state the number and type of strands to be used for the cantilever tendons.1 .5. Whether continuity cable anchor blocks must be fitted. In all cases. the STC must clearly mention: • • • The dimensions of these elements The ducts and non-prestressed reinforcement bars that they must contain.6.2 – Small control slabs or test segment The STC must specify whether the contractor must manufacture a test segment for the suitability tests or whether small control slabs or elements will suffice. • • Chapter 3 of this guide gives a lot of valuable advice on choosing the coefficients and rules mentioned in this paragraph. 10. etc. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 227 septembre 2007 . the STC must clearly define the acceptance conditions for these tests: inspection of facings. It must also mention the type of duct and. 10. segment on abutment.4 - Bridge deck formwork 10. measurement of flatness of facings.6. 10.4.g.3 – Removal of formwork It is advisable to establish a minimum strength requirement for the concrete at the moment the formwork is removed. ribs.5.5 - Prestressing 10. etc. the STC must specify the design assumptions for the horizontal forces in the pier heads) Etc.Formwork The STC must specify the category of facing to be used for the inner and outer surfaces of the box girder.6.

6. which are identical to those for the continuity tendons.6. must also be specified.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide conventional sealing. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 228 septembre 2007 . etc.6.4 – External tendons The characteristics mentioned in the STC for the external tendons must be the same as those specified for the cantilever tendons. 10. the STC must clearly describe the maintenance fittings that the Owner has requested for the structure. which may be used for the immediate or subsequent installation of networks in the box girder Handling rails fitted in the upper slab. • • • • Chapter 9 of this guide contains numerous guidelines for the drafting of the corresponding clauses. Finally. must also be specified.) must also be specified. The type of deviator tubes and corrosion inhibitors to be used in the structural deviators. STC) must clearly specify these inspections. the inspection of work carried out on a structure built by the cantilever method is an important and complex task which the Construction Manager must start to organize quite a long time in advance. in addition to the types of anti-vibration systems to be adopted. These fittings include: • • • The electrical system for the box girder. the STC must clearly state the applicable requirements. plates. manholes in the lower slab. The Contractor Tender Document (SAC. grids. guaranteeing a consistent alignment without any concentration of radial tendon forces.3 – Transverse tendons If the project calls for the installation of transverse tendons in the upper slab or ribs.) for the access points to the bridge deck (manholes in cross beams on abutments.6.7 - Inspection of work As mentioned in Chapter 7. the Owner’s requirements with regard to additional prestressing.5. in line with any hatches that may be built into the lower slab Rails used in the deployment of tensioning jacks for the external prestress tendons Inspection equipment for hollow piers. on piers or close to abutments) Anchor rails fixed to the upper slab or webs. 10.6 - Special fittings in the box girder As these fittings are not always clearly marked on the plans included in the Contractor Tender Document. etc. 10. including the internal lighting Stairways or ramps for passing the cross beams and deviators Closing devices (doors. 10. Certain Construction Managers demand rigid ducts for the ducts at the level of the anchor blocks. to the capacity of this prestressing. and more specifically. metal caps.5. which usually correspond to hold points for contractors. if any.

The price for the centuring of end sections includes the design.7 . covering the supply. adjustments. In addition to the prices normally shown in this appendix.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide In addition.Price schedule A standard price schedule which is perfectly suited to the construction of all standard structures is appended to fascicule 65A of the french CCTG. the price schedule for a prestressed concrete structure built by the cantilever method using cast-in-situ segments must also include prices for the following elements: • • • • Cantilever stabilization systems Form travelers Formwork tool for segments on piers Centering for end sections. transportation. The price for the form travelers usually includes the design. The price also covers any jacking operations required during construction. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of form travelers used on site. adjustments. successive movements during construction and the final dismantling of structures used for centering and encasing the segments on piers. it may not be possible for the Contract Manager and his or her laboratory to carry out certain inspections. 10. The price for the cantilever stabilization system is normally given as a “fixed price” or a “fixed price per pier”. and eventual removal of the temporary stability blocks. assembly and removal of the centuring used for the sections of bridge deck not built by form travelers. especially during the transfer onto permanent bearings. the temporary prestressing and. construction. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 229 septembre 2007 . it will be necessary to use the services of an external inspection company. in addition to the cost of external inspections. Payment is often on a fixed-price or fixed price per abutment basis. installation. for very large structures. This is either a fixed price or. In view of the large sums of money involved. If this is the case. in addition to cost of external inspections. if necessary. a “per pair” price. The price of the formwork tool for the segment on pier is given as a fixed or “fixed per pier” price. although a price per square meter may also be charged according to the area of bridge deck to be shored up. This normally includes the design. These inspections must be clearly defined and paid for separately. this price is normally paid in instalments as the work advances on site. plus the costs of external inspections. transportation. the temporary pilings or cable-stays. construction.

this method is not designed to determine the definitive formwork and cabling.0 – Purpose of this appendix Based on a concrete example. A1. formwork.Notation Figure A1-1 describes the notation used. Instead. Like the rest of this guide.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1 Determination example Example of the determination of a bridge deck built by the cantilever method This appendix presents an example of the calculation of the bridge deck for a structure built by the cantilever method. cantilever tendons) required for the preparation of a more sophisticated computerized design model. breakdown into segments.1 . this appendix has been drawn up in accordance with the BPEL 91 revised in 1999 and fascicule 61 Titre II of french CPC. this appendix describes a simplified method for roughly calculating the formwork and prestressing for a bridge deck of a cast in-situ structure built by the cantilever method. A1.1 .1. It also provides information about specific aspects of the design. it is used to provide the minimum amount of information (e.Reminders A1.g. We take: G to be the centre of gravity of the cross-section v to be the distance from G to the upper axis v’ to be the distance from G to the lower axis h = v + v’ to be the total height of the section eo to be the off-setting (off-centring?) of the mean tendon d to be the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons d’ to be the minimal distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis in order to guarantee the adequate coating of the tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 230 septembre 2007 . Considering the complexity of the calculations to be performed.

1. the limit stresses are: .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. we use the same indices for shear forces (T) as for the moments.M2 F to be the prestress force (effective traction). we take: B to be the area of the section I to be its moment of inertia in relation to a horizontal axis passing through G ρ= I to be the geometric output of the cross-section Bvv ' c = ρv to be the ordinate (in relation to G) of the highest point of the central core c’= ρv’ to be the ordinate of the lowest point of the central core Mg to be the moments due to the selfweight Mq `to be the moments due to the fittings Ms1 and Ms2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively (counted algebraically) due to the imposed loads Ml and M2 to be the maximum and minimum extreme moments respectively applied to a cross section M = M 1 . Finally. A1.6 f cj − k f c with k = 0.1 – Limit stresses In Class II of the BPEL.2.1.02 for such a structure The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 231 septembre 2007 .in compression: σ c = 0.1 – Notations Furthermore. – A1.2 – Reminders about prestressing A1.

P can therefore be chosen so that: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − = c− 1+ P v P ¨P v ' P so P= ΔM − Bσ t c + c' and e0 = c − M1 I σ t M I σt + = − c' − 2 − with − (v '−d ') ≤ e0 ≤ v − d P v' P P v P In so far as we can choose the thicknesses of the two members. under extreme loading cases. but if an excessively thick member is dictated (e. Thus.2.in traction: − σ t = − f tj − k f c ( ) Given that the hyperstatic forces due to prestressing are ignored.A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .1.2b). an upper member for which obtain three limit stresses (Fig.2 – Sub-critical sections These are sections in which we are not restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons.σt 0 I ΔM normally applies) we will only be able to > v Δσ ²σ b σb - σt - 0 ≤ σb σt 0 σt 0 σb The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 232 septembre 2007 . A1. . we can choose them in such a way that I I ΔM (with Δσ being the range of stress variation = = v v' Δσ σ c + σ t ).2a). we may obtain the four limit stresses (Fig.g. in each section we should have: below Mmini = M2 σ sup = P P e0 + M 2 + v ≥ σ t (1) B I σ inf = P P e0 + M 2 − v ' ≤ σ c (2) B I P P e0 + M 1 + v ≤ σ c (3) B I below Mmaxi = M1 σ sup = σ inf = P P e0 + M 1 − v' ≥ σ t (4) B I This can be expressed as: − c' − M2 I σ t M I σt − ≤ e0 ≤ c − 1 + P v P ¨P v ' P A1.

2. If we are able to modify the thickness of the upper structural member. A1. A1. it will be possible to obtain three limit stresses (Fig. the number of limit stresses that can be obtained depends whether or not it is possible to modify the thickness of the members.g. we will only be able to obtain two limit stresses (Fig. the size of the upper member is imposed (excessively thick). with: P=− M2 I c' + v − d + σ t v' and I ΔM = v Δσ (compliance with the change of stress σb. If.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.2 – Limit stress diagrams for a sub-critical section A1. a section on an intermediate support). A 1.3a). A1.3b) with: P=− M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' 0 -σt sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 ≤ σb sous M1 sous M2 -σt σb 0 0 σb (a) Fig.1.3 – Over-critical sections These are sections in which we are restricted by the coating requirements for the tendons. this gives: P≥ ΔM ΔM − Bσ t = − Bσ t c+c ' ρh P must therefore be at least equal to the higher of the two values below (according to the structurally significant moment): M1 I c + v ' −d ' + σ t v and − M2 c' + v − d + I σt v' As in the previous situation. in the upper axis).3 – Limit stress diagrams for an over-critical section ≥ (b) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 233 septembre 2007 . therefore M2 (the minimum algebraic value) is structurally significant. as is usually the case. Based on compliance with the minimum stress. Let us consider the example of a section that is mainly subjected to negative moments (e.

Force: MegaNewton (MN) .bi ϕi bn = ci + ai+1 . Courbon. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 234 septembre 2007 . ω 'i + ω "i ϕ 'i bi ( 1 Mi-1 = ϕ iϕ 'i − 1) ω 'i + Mi = bi ( ω "i ϕi − 1) 1 ϕ iϕ 'i The moments on the other supports are determined by the following focal point ratios: Mi-2 = -ϕi-1 Mi-1 Mi+1 = -ϕ‘i+1 Mi Mi-3 = -ϕi-2 Mi-2 Mi+2 = -ϕ‘i+2 Mi+1 etc.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 10. (φ’i).Stress: MegaPascal (MPa). A1. we can calculate the bending moments on the supports Ai-1 and Ai when span Ai-1 Ai is loaded.b2 ϕ‘2 ϕ '1 Having ascertained the the focal point ratios and the rotations ω’i and ω"i for the end of span i. which is considered to be independent and subjected to the loading case in question.bi+1 ϕ‘i+1 ϕn = an + cn-1 .1 - Focal point method for the design of a continuous beam Using the notation adopted by M. In addition.81 m/s2 for gravity acceleration. etc.4 – Units of measurement The following units of measurement are systematically used in this example (unless otherwise specified) : .bn ϕ‘n ϕ ' n −1 bi ϕ 'i ϕ2 ϕ i +1 bi +1 = ai+1 + ci . we shall adopt a value of g = 9. Both groups of equations are given below: ϕ1 ψ1 = 0 b2 ϕ‘n = 0 = a2 + c1 . the focal point method consists of using the mechanical constants ai.Mass: tonne (t) .7.b1 ϕ1 bn −1 = cn-1 + an .1. (φi) and right. bi and ci for each span to calculate the focal point ratios for the left.Length: meter (m) .bn-1 ϕn-1 b1 = c1 + a2 . which is also equal to 1 N/mm² or 103 kN/m².

(2 x 0.4). Given the need to comply with clearance dimensions. the height of the box girder varies parabolically between: . only one side of the traffic lanes is shown.2.4 – Longitudinal section of the structure The example involves the determination of a structure with three asymmetrical spans totaling 214.15 m first category bridge Loadable width = 10. as the complete structure consists of two bridges fastened together. A1. .00 m long and the closing segment for the central span is 2.375 m and 63. Fig.375 m and one central span of 97.15 m Number of loadable lanes = entire section (9. However. There are two end spans of 53. The bridge deck is cast in-situ due to its moderate length (Fig.5 – Cross-section of the structure According to fascicule 61 Titre II of french CCTG.00 m long. A1.2 – Functional cross section The supported platform is illustrated in Figure A1.2 – Source data A1.At the crown The segments on piers are 8. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/18 ho = 2.On pier: h1 = 5. the distributed overload A is given as: Usable width = 10.30 m. A1.50) = 9.15/3) = 3 lanes The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 235 septembre 2007 . (*) This is quite a low slenderness ratio but it is imposed due to the fact that this structure is designed to double the capacity of an existing bridge.5.50 m between the centers of the end supports.75 m.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.30 m .2.1 – Length and depth of bridge deck Fig. giving a slenderness ratio of approximately 1/43 (*).A1.15 .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide a1 = 0.2. A1.15 x 0.05 m a2 = 3. the overall diameter of the ducts is 80 mm -For the external tendons.2.15 / 3 = 3. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 1.5 – Cross sections of the bridge deck The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 236 septembre 2007 .15 A2( ) = 9. we use 19T15S prestress units. l + 12 with A( ) = 230 + A1.For the cantilever and continuity tendons.45 A( ) 36000 (A(l) in kg/m² and l in m . the overall diameter of the ducts is 100 mm.95 MN. giving an effective mean in-service force estimated at 3.90 x 1.1 MN.05 = 1.4 kN/m. for a permissible in-service compression stress = 0.21.For the concrete: compressive strength fc28 = 35 MPa. A1.4 – Characteristics of materials The characteristics of the materials used are as follows: .3 – Weight of fittings The probable linear weight of the fittings is taken to be q = 47.9 as the bridge features three lanes Width of lane = 9.15 A( ) = 9.units used in fascicule 61 Titre II).5/3. we use 12T15S prestress units.2. the linear loads according to the length of loaded section is given by: ≤ 200 m s = 9.6 x 35 = 21 MPa .15 Considering the third comment in Article 4.

The mean thickness of the upper slab is therefore 27 cm. whereas the thickness of the webs (36 cm) is determined by the casting conditions. Vertical webs were chosen for aesthetic reasons. Although we do not yet know the precise dimensions of the formwork for these elements. it is logical to design a box girder with two webs positioned according to the findings of a summary analysis of the transverse behavior. A1. The thickness of the cantilevers varies between 25 cm on the BN4 side and 30 cm on the web side. including the longitudinal anchoring girders for the safety barriers. we shall use the dimensions given in Figure A1. Finally.7. allowing for the diameter of the ducts. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 237 septembre 2007 .6 – Cross sections of the bridge deck As the total width of the slab is equal to 10. This analysis was also used to establish the thickness of the upper slab between the webs at 25 cm.95 m. Figure Al. we know that there must be room to accommodate gussets in the slabs. we must allow for them in our calculations.6 shows the cross-sections used as the basis for the first approximate calculations. As an initial estimate.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.

7 – Detail of the gussets in the box girder The transverse surface area represented by the gussets is: ⎡1.4905 m ² S=2 x ⎢ 4 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ In the central spans.8 below: ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 Fig.40 2 0.08 0. the total height varies parabolically at first (section closest to pier).4 x 0.40 x 0. and then it becomes constant and equal to h0. A1. close to CO and C3.8 – Variation in height of bridge deck in central span In the end spans (Fig.9). the total height of the box girder varies parabolically according to following the law: h(x) = h0 + (h1 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.h0) ⎜ using the notation shown in Figure A1.20 ⎤ + + + + 0. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 238 septembre 2007 .60 2 0.08⎥ = 0.40 x 0.20 2 − π x 0. A1. A1.

in fact. we shall use a parabolic variation law similar to the one used for h(x).620 m4 0. stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl and transition to permanent bearings for P1 Construction of cantilever on P2 Construction of cast-on-falsework section near to C3 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 239 septembre 2007 . A1.7 – Sequence of construction operations In the following calculations.640 A1. we shall use ε0 = 24 cm: a value which is imposed by the casting conditions. Section at the crown h(x) ε(x) B v v’ I ρ 2.612 Section on pier 5.6 – Characteristics of the sections A computerized calculation gives us the mechanical characteristics of the sections on pier and at the crown.2.420 m 2.300 m 0. Fig.2.3129 m2 2. with ε0 and ε1 the thicknesses at the crown and on the pier: ε(x) = ε0 + (ε1 .ε0) ⎜ ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ 2 As an initial estimate.9 – Variation in height of bridge deck We can schematize the sections according to Figure A1.860 m 1.10 – Calculation of the mechanical characteristics of the bridge deck We then have to establish the thickness ε (x) of the lower slab. and ε1 = 45 cm: a value chosen in view of the span lengths and the slenderness ratios.880 m 41.300 m 0.10. A1. we shall use the sequence of construction operations shown below: 1 2 3 4 5 Construction of cantilever on P1 Construction of the cast-on-falsework section near to C0 Closure of C0-Pl.0965 m2 0.532 m4 0.440 m 4. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. for this.240 m 6.450 m 9.

In order to simplify the calculations. it is necessary to add the moment due to the known site loads (Qc1) in addition to the moment due to random site loads (Qc2 and Qc3).75. for x = 48. we consider that the bridge deck is supported on the centerline of the pier. with a unit mass of 2.5 t/m3. A1. Qc1 Moment due to the weight of the form traveler.27 + 0. The moment resulting from this assumption is slightly higher than if the calculation were to be performed in line with the temporary stabilizing blocks.8): 2 2 ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ B( x) = 10.e.024525 MN/m3: g (x) = 0.24 + 0.72 ⎢2.875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 48.e. this gives Mg = .00 m / 2 + 1 m = 2.11 below.34 MNm.00 m (½ closing segment).5 m from the crown: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 240 septembre 2007 .149990 + 33. At this moment Mg.3.02.40 MN.03 ⎢0.Moment on pier during the casting of the final segments The complete cantilever is shown in Figure A1.10-6 x4 For the section on pier.Mg(x) = ∫ − T (ξ )dξ 0 = 0. 0.23 x 0. i.186. and exerted at 3.00⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 5.875 – 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide 6 7 8 9 Closure of P2-C3.3 – Cantilever prestressing design A1.024525 B (x) = 0.01. i. stressing of tendons for P2-C3 and transition to permanent bearings for P2 Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for Pl-P2 Stressing of external tendons Installation of fittings and commissioning A1. assumed to be equal to approximately 40 t.074995 x2 + 2.149990 x + 11.21⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 0. therefore a unit weight of 0.11 – Determination of the support moment during the casting of the final segments The calculation of Mg is shown hereafter (with x defined in Figure A1.30 + 3.4905 ⎝ 48.Tg(x) = ∫ g (ξ )dξ 0 x g x = 0. Fig.10-6 x3 .10-6 x2 .875 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence.1 .

34 – 18.6 + 0.7 x (0.2.4.70 MNm We can therefore consider that: Mg = .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide MQc1 = Mform traveler = .02 x fcj = 0. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the casting of final pair of segments is taken to be fcj = 35 MPa.875 – 3. The shape of the moment curve in cantilever Mg is shown in Figure A1.12 below.40 x 46.00) = .0.55 – 2.3.7 x (0.95 x 47.19 MPa The force N developed by the cantilever tendons in the section on pier must satisfy the following condition: The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 241 septembre 2007 .55 MNm Qc2 Moment due to a distributed load of 200 N/m² over a half-cantilever Qc3 Moment due to a concentrated load of (50 + 5b) kN.875 / 2) = .70 = .6 + 0.51 MNm MQc3 = .875) x 0. with b being the width of the upper slab of the box girder: MQc2 = .k fcj with k = 0.186.001 x (47.06 x fcj) – 0.[(50 + (5 x 10.18.95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 We consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.(200 x 10.7 ftj .10 MNm.12 – Bending moment in the cantilever under selfweight + form traveler A1. measurement of transmission factors). A1.02 x 35 = 1.000001 x (47.212.02 σt = 0.51 – 4.95) 1 x 0. The allowable stress in the upper axis is therefore: σt = 0. Fig.375 = .2 – Calculation of cantilever cabling Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.06 x 35) – 0.

13 below).13 – Breakdown of cantilevers into segments The shape of the moment curve in the cantilever under selfweight and prestressing is given in Figure A1. These The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 242 septembre 2007 . allowing us to divide the cantilever into 2 x 13 standard segments of 3.Verification during the casting of the P1-P2 closing segment At this stage in the design. I = 41.258 m position of the mean tendon supposing its distribution over two beds e0 = v .532 = 46.95 to which we add two tendons in order to prestress the final pair of segments.3129 m2. To this end.19 + 212. A1.532 m4 .258 x 2.10 MNm e0 = 2. it is advisable to make sure that the cantilever tendons are strong enough to take up the weight of the bridge deck and form traveler during the construction of the central closing segment.3129 41.42 41.14 – Bending moment in the cantilevers A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide N e0 v M v N + + ≥ σb B I I with B = 9.74 MN 1 2.14 below.15).3.74 ≈ 24 tendons 1.375 m in length (see Figure A1.v = 2.532 n tendons ≥ 46.2 φg with φg = 0.10 x 2. A1.42 + 9.420 m and M = -212.3 . We therefore have 13 pairs of 12T15S tendons. two vertical forces are applied in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1.081 m N ≥ −σb − Mv I 1 e0 v + B I = − 1. Fig. Fig.

Fig.34 .4.m σs = N M .7 that the closing segments were constructed in the following order: .(18.48) x 2.15 – Effects of the weight of the form traveler and of the closing segment In this new phase.55/2) – 16.186. A1.7 x 2. the two halves of the bridge have not yet been connected.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide forces represent the effect of the weight of the form traveler and the concrete for the closing segment when still wet.2. at this stage.0 .3129 41.7 (−212.Preamble We have seen in A1. These forces are exerted on two independent and isostatic structures because.Closure of C0-Pl and stressing of continuity tendons for C0-Pl .84 = . A1.19 MPa ==> The dimensioning is therefore correct.258 = 114.4 – Prestressing design for the closing segment A1.212. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 243 septembre 2007 .7 MN Misocantilever = 50.m Ncantilever = 2 x 13 x 1.45 + 114.v 50.26 MPa ≥ σ b = − 1.48 MN.95 = 50.42 + = + B I 9. the forces and stress in the upper horizontal plane along the centerline of the piers can be expressed as follows: M = .45 MN.Closure of P2-C3 and stressing of continuity tendons for P2-C3 .Closure of P1-P2 and stressing of continuity tendons for P1-P2.532 σ i = − 0.

the first stage of the closure can be simulated by applying two vertical forces in a downward direction at each end of the cantilevers (figure A1. the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons stressed during the previous closing operations is not an unknown. By starting at the final closing segment. Al. these forces will be replaced with a uniformly distributed load directed in a downward direction and representing the set concrete (Figure A1.1 .15).Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The continuity tendons must be determined in reverse order.18). Figure Al. they develop both isostatic and hyperstatic moments. In contrast to the other continuity tendons.17 – Diagram of moments due to the removal of the form traveler The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 244 septembre 2007 . the structure is hyperstatic.4. the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the effects of the thermal gradient. this phase has no bearing on the calculation of the continuity tendons. Therefore. In this phase.1 – Closing segment between PI and P2 The continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 must take up the selfweight of the closing segment. 16 below represents the structure at the moment of the P1-P2 closure.4. A1. A1. A1. In the second part. we shall study each phase of the closure and determine its effect on the structure. In the first part.Effect of the selfweight of the closing segment and the form traveler As mentioned previously. Fig. the bridge deck still consists of two independent isostatic structures. A1. In this phase. two vertical forces are applied in an upward direction at each end of the cantilevers (Figure A1.4. These forces represent the effect of the removal of the form traveler and the concrete used for the closing segment (fresh concrete). Fig.16 – Detail of central closing segment In order to determine the number of tendons necessary for the closing segment in the central span.2 – Effect of the removal of the form traveler This phase can be broken down into two parts.1.17).1.

18 – Diagram of moments due to weight of closing segment At the end of these two stages.19 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12°C The value of the moment at the crown used for the calculation of the continuity tendons for P1-P2 is therefore: Mtherm = 12.65 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.m A1.4 – Isostatic moment of continuity tendons for P1-P2 The isostatic moment is an unknown and is proportional to the prestressing that is used (Figure A1. A1. A1.20).1. e0 with N = normal force due to the tendons in the section and e0 = offsetting of the mean tendon In our example: N = 1.1.95 x ntendons and e0 at the crown = 1.4.4. Fig. the moment to be considered for the calculation of the continuity tendons for the span P1-P2 is: MG = -7.3 – Effect of the thermal gradient Figure A1.m A1.75 + 3.35 MN.318 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 245 septembre 2007 . The isostatic moment is calculated in the following way: Miso = N .40 = .19 below represents the bending moment due to a thermal gradient of 12° C.4.

1.21 below. a hyperstatic moment is set up in the central span which is of the opposite sign to the isostatic moment developed by the tendons.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.22). This hyperstatic moment is an unknown and depends on the intensity and the distribution of the prestressing in the span (alignment and length of tendons) and on the characteristics of the structure in question (whether or not there is variation of inertia).21 – Diagram of the moments due exclusively to the hyperstatic effect of the P1-P2 continuity tendons At the pre-design stage. A1. the hyperstatic moment can be evaluated in the following way: M hyper = − area of isostatic moment diagram length of span The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 246 septembre 2007 . The diagram for this is shown in Figure Al. A1.4.20 – Diagram of isostatic moments for continuity tendons A1.5 – Hyperstatic moment for P1-P2 continuity tendons As the structure is hyperstatic when the continuity tendons are stressed. Fig. it is possible to use a simplification which consists of considering the span to be embedded on its supports (Figure Al. In this case.

95 MN Sheath diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.02 x fcj = 0. The allowable stress in the bottom axis is therefore: σ b = 0.m e0 = -1. an iterative calculation is performed.02 σ b = 0.6 – Calculation of P1-P2 continuity tendons Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.440 m M = 13.0965 m2 I = 4.318 m position of mean tendon e0 = .77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: M Hyper v ' M v' N e0 v ' MTherm v ' N − G − − − ≥ −σ b B I I I I with B = 6.06 x fcj) – 0.1.6 + 0.(v – 1.620 m4 v’= 1.4.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.081 m As we do not know the number of tendons required.02 x 16 = 0.7 x (0.375 m and the closing segment of 2 m.22 – Diagram of moments exclusively due to the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons according to a simplified calculation A1. The strength of the concrete in the segments on piers at the moment of the removal of the form traveler used for the closing segment is taken to be fcj = 16 MPa. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 247 septembre 2007 . Therefore. spanning six segments of 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.25 m long.7 x (0. starting with a single pair of tendons 22.5 φg) with φg = 0. we also do not know their position in the box girder or their isostatic moment diagram. A1.6 + 0. we consider the bridge deck to be cast in-situ with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts.57 MN.06 x 16) – 0. measurement of transmission factors).

2 – Closing segment between C0 and P1 The continuity tendons for the span C0-Pl must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.95 MN Fp = 3.1 – Calculation of support reactions.02453 = 0.0965 x 0.30 m).14955 MN/m. it would be necessary to repeat the calculation with two pairs of tendons and recalculate the hyperstatic moment with the newly tendons arrangement.4.318 m at the crown L = 97. A1.90 MN e0 = -1.71 MPa ⇒ σ b ≥ −σ b We will therefore choose one pair of 12T15S tendons.(lc x Miso) / L = 1.A1.23 – Detail of the structure during placement of the closing segment on the C0 side A1. The hyperstatic moment is therefore: ntendons = 2 fu = 1.2.4.0965 m² close to the abutments (h = 2.75 m lc = 22.17 MN.m at the crown Mhyper = . shear force and bending moment As the cross-section of the bridge deck is 6. we can easily calculate the support reactions and the longitudinal bending moment using static equations (Fig. As the structure in question is isostatic.m hence σ b = − 0.24): The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 248 septembre 2007 . A1. the load due to the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section is equal to Q = 6. Figure Al.14 MN. Fig.25 m Miso = Fp x e0 = -5.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The distribution of the prestressing produces an isostatic moment which is distributed almost uniformly if a single pair of tendons is used (subject to the variation in e0 and the variation of inertia of the section).23 below shows the structure at the moment the span is closed. In the event of one pair of tendons being insufficient.

x − Q .2 – Calculation of continuity tendons between C0 and P1 Background: Cantilever tendons: 12T15S Effective force: 1.217 m ⇒ M = 2.04238 MN and RC0 = 0.78015 MN Shear force diagram: Fig.24 – Determination of the forces on the C0 side due to the closure of the span Support reactions: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP1 = 0.2. x2 2 so for x = 5.03 MN.95 MN The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 249 septembre 2007 . A1.m Fig. the bending moment is equal to: M(x) = R C0 .50 m long section between C0 and the closing segment.4.26 – Bending moment on C0 side due to the closure of the span A1.25 – Diagram of shear forces due to closure on C0 side Bending moment diagram: For the 5. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. A1.

02 = 0.318 x 1.7 x (0.02 x 16 = 0.9 x -1.).318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .375 = 0.0965 4.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Duct diameter: 81 mm Concrete: B35 As before.7 x (0.620 = − 0. etc.50 / 53.17 MN.50 / 53.03 MN. M = 2. I = 4.m MΔt = 0.375 = 0.620 m4. However. The allowable stress in the lower axis is thus: σ b = 0.06 x fcj) – 0. v’ = 1.m x 5. somewhat higher forces develop in this area after the closure of P1-P2.74 + In principle. to which is added the hyperstatic effect of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.6 + 0. the forces and stress in the lower axis are: Mg = 2.06 x 16) – 0.081 m N ≥ − σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 2.6 + 0.440 + 6.620 − 0.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.03 x 1. A1.440 4.l4 MN.m e0 = -1.4.(v – 1.65 MN.m x 5.95 = 3. no tendons are necessary.77 Mpa The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.5 x 12.3 .65 MN.03 MN NcontinuityC0P1 = 2 x 1.0965 m2. Indeed.7 ftj – k fcj with k = 0.19 MN 1 1. the bridge deck becomes sensitive to the effects of thermal gradients. In this new phase.318 = -5.2.440 m.Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 The calculation that we have just performed is intended to determine the amount of continuity cabling needed to consolidate the structure after the removal of falsework from the cast-on falsework section.121 MN.02 x fcj = 0. as the structure is now hyperstatic. in order to prevent any cracking due to parasitic phenomena (obstructed shrinkage. we shall specify one pair of 12T15S tendons. the bridge deck is considered to be cast in place with certain precautions taken (presence of empty ducts and measurement of transmission factor) and the strength of the concrete is taken to be the value obtained when the falsework is removed fcj = 16 MPa. However.9 MN McontinuityC0P1 = 3.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 250 septembre 2007 .5 φg) with φg = 0.

44 ⎞ 3.m A1.1 – Calculation of support reactions and bending moments A calculation similar to the one performed for the C0-Pl closing segment gives the support reactions and the bending moment: ⎡∑ F = 0 ⎢ M =0 ⎣∑ ⇒ RP2 = 0.5 φg) with φg = 0.4.03456 MN M = 13.(v – 1.09 MPa ≥ σ b = − 2.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide σs = 1.3.57 x 1. M = 13.14 + 0. Fig.28374 MN et RC3 = 2.9 ⎛ N M .07 MN 1 1.318 m position of the mean tendon e0 = .3-2 – Calculation of the continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span The force N developed by the continuity tendons in line with the closing segment must satisfy the following condition: N e0 v ' N M v' − − ≥ −σ b B I I with B = 6.27 – Determination of forces on C3 side due to the closure of the span A1. A1.440 m.62 ⎠ B I σ i = − 0. I = 4. Figure A1. A1.620 − 0.m e0 = -1.620 = 6.440 4.57 MN. v’ = 1.0965 4.74 + The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 251 septembre 2007 .4.12 + 0.097 ⎝ 4.081 m N ≥ −σb + M v' I 1 e0 v' − B I = 13.620 m4.5.65) x ⎟ 6.318 x 1.27 below represents the structure at the step when the span is closed.4.3 – Closing segment between P2 and C3 The continuity tendons for the P2-C3 span must take up the selfweight of the cast-on-falsework section.03 .57 MN.440 + 6.⎜ (2. v' − = .0 MPa (with j = 28 days) The continuity cabling is therefore adequate.0965 m2.

57 MN NcontinuityP2C3 = 4 x 1.m x 15.5.Computerized calculation of the envelope of longitudinal moments due to A(l) .07 ≈ 3 1.Choice of critical sections to be dimensioned or verified .4. 6. In this new phase.1.375 = 1.Calculation of creep effects .5 – External prestressing design A1.Determination of prestressing.m McontinuityP1P2 = 1.m MΔt = 0.m The continuity cabling is therefore sufficient.95 A1. it is important to verify the suitability of the cabling after the closure of the span P1-P2 and the stressing of the continuity tendons for P1-P2.286 MN. prior to the stressing of the external tendons. traffic loads A(l).8 MN McontinuityP2C3 = 7.3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide n tendons ≥ Therefore.Preamble concerning the geometry of the external tendons between CO and C3 For an initial estimation. we shall proceed in stages: . A1. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 252 septembre 2007 .5.50 / 63.5 x 12. thermal gradient and creep.3 – Verification of stresses after closure of P1-P2 As before.17 MN.50 / 63. In order to calculate the number of tendons required.0 .318 = . we can use certain rules to define the mean alignment of the external prestress tendons. the forces and stressing in the lower horizontal plane are: Mg= 3.28 MN.8 x – 1.Presentation of the design method The external prestress tendons must take up the forces due to the fittings.Determination of geometry of tendons .Computerized calculation of effects of thermal gradient .m x 15.5.58 MN.10.1 .1 – Determination of forces A1.95 = 7. we will opt for two pairs of 12T15S tendons.94 MN.375 = 0. A1.

The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 253 septembre 2007 .A1.29). Fig.29 – Transverse geometry of external tendons A1.15 m. This value allows a gap of 0. A1.583 m from the centerline of the piers (Fig. A1. For the section at the crown.25 m. the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the lower axis shall be equal to the thickness of the lower slab plus 0.583 m from the centerline of the piers. also at 32. Remember that the deviators on piers position the external prestress tendons as close as possible to the upper axis of the bridge deck (negative longitudinal bending moment.e. We shall also place a deviator on the end spans. Al.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Longitudinally. whereas the intermediate deviators position these same tendons close to the lower axis (positive longitudinal bending moment).28).Overload A(l) A computerized calculation gives us the envelope of the longitudinal moments due to the imposed loads A(1) (Fig.2 . Fig.28 – Longitudinal geometry of alignment for external tendons at end of segments Transversally on the section on pier.A1.1. at 32. i.30). we shall place the intermediate deviators for the central span one third of the way along the span. i.e. we shall make the minimum distance from the mean tendon to the upper axis equal to the thickness of the upper slab. 0.10 m to be left between the sheath of the prestressing tendon and the top of the lower slab (Fig.5.

4.62 MN.41 MN.19.9.m 19.m .31 – Position of the sections used to analyze the external prestressing The following table summarizes the forces due to A(l) and the type of calculation to be performed in each section.15.m 19.30 – Diagram of moments due to the imposed load A(1) The characteristic values of the enveloped curve below are used to determine the dimensioning sections and the verification sections for the external prestressing (Fig.36 MN.m .m 23.m 6. (Remember that the linear weight of the fittings is equal to q = 47.50 MN.A1.75 MN.59 MN.63 MN.50 MN.3 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.71 MN. Fig.45.m .m Type of calculation Max 8.39 MN.m . A1.m dimensioning verification verification dimensioning verification verification dimensioning A1.4 kN/lm). A1. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments Min .87 MN. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 254 septembre 2007 .m .6.43.m 21.40 MN.42 MN.31).23 MN.5.m 11.m .Fittings A computerized calculation is used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the fittings.1.

m 12.m A1.94 MN.16 MN.27 MN.32 – Diagram of the moments due to the weight of the fittings The table on the left summarizes the forces due to the fittings in each section.94 MN. A1.5. Fig.98 MN. A1.33 – Diagram of the moments due to a thermal gradient of 12° C The table below summarizes the forces due to the thermal gradient in each section. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.4 – Thermal gradient A computerized calculation is again used to obtain the curve of the bending moment due to the thermal gradient of 12° C.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 255 septembre 2007 .m 12. Sections Σ1 Σ2 Σ3 Σ4 Σ5 Σ6 Σ7 Closing segment C0-P1 Pier P1 Closing segment P1-P2 Pier P2 Closing segment P2-C3 Moments 1.m -41.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.44 MN.37 MN.1.m -45.m 3.m -0.16 MN.m 5.36 MN.m 5.m 12.m 6.m 12.97 MN.65 MN.23 MN.m 4.18 MN.25 MN.

m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MG equip) + MQ min = -4.m and M MA(1) max = 21.5.97 MN.m MQ =1.36 MN.m MA(1) min = -6.65 MN.1 – Calculation in section Σ4 (closing segment between P1 and P2) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction.42 MN.27 MN. the moment corresponding to this compression reserve will be determined by a linear interpolation between M = 0 MN.5 MΔt MQ min = -7.97 – 7.99 MN.5 .63 MN.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MG equip + MG creep) + MQ max = -4.2 MA(1) + 0. A1. we reserve a margin of 2 MPa for the stress in the lower axis.5.1.63 = 0.35 MN.m on the pier.44 m I = 4.35 + 12.62 MN. for the section Σ4: v’ = 1.42 + 32.m 1.42 MN.17 and A1. see Figures Al. A1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A1.m Mcreep = 6.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = . we shall only dimension the external tendons close to the closing segment sections.m MΔt = 12.44 In the end spans.62 = 6.62 m4 M creep = 2 x 4.2 – Dimensioning of external prestressing As the calculations are similar and repetitive. This reserve is used to calculate a creep moment in the central span: σb = − I M v' ⇒ M = − σb I v' Thus.4.27 = 47.35 + 12.42 MN.m MG fittings = 12.5.Creep As an initial estimate.97 + 6.31 MN.2.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 256 septembre 2007 .m on the abutment and M = 6.m or MQ = MΔt with the values above gives: MQ max = 32.

1 .318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .1 .00] 97. e2 = n . (-1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.34 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in the central span e01 = .n MN.14 MN.(1.m Me2 = n .1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon n= number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n .25 = 2. 3.10 / 2)) = -1.97 MN.95 x 2 x -1.420-0.m Mpeci =Miso +Mhyper =-5. 3.17) = 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper = 1. e0 = fu .440 – 0. fu . A1.17 MN.95 MN =-1.24 – 0.m = 5.17 =-3.n MN.10 .(0.26. fu .14 x [(6 x 3.17 m fu = 3. (+2.5.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 257 septembre 2007 .14 + 1. n .375) + 2.318 = .05 m e02 = 2.05) = -3. e0 = 1.73. el = n .75 = 1.

26 . n )] x 1.584 .94 MN.44 − 4. n 6.see figures A 1.375 = 0.0 MPa We will therefore opt for 4 pairs of 19T15S tendons.66 MN.50 / 53.33.072 .n M hyper = − 7.061 .44 σi = (1.35 – Diagram of isostatic moment of external tendons in central span x = 6. n Calculation of stress: σi = M Pecl + M Pext . n = − 0.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 258 septembre 2007 .5.14 + 1.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.2 – Calculation in the Σ1 section (closing segment between CO and P1) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .73 .33 . 10.26 .584 = . 21.067 .26 .2. A1.75 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .07 = -3.34.v ' N M .1.60 MPa < − σ b = − 2.73 x 32.42 x 5.v ' P + Pext M .583 = 21. n 97.0965 − 47.58 MN. n S3 = 3.87 4.620 for n = 6 σ i = − 3. n . A1.17 ) + (− 3. n 7.712 .73 + 3.31 x 1. n – 0.0 MPa for n = 8 σ i = − 0.17.26 Hyperstatic moment 2 x S1 = 6.958 = 147.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. 32. n .067. n .50 MPa > − σ b = − 2.18) Fittings Creep MG1 = 0.m Mcreep = 6.106.958 m 6.95) + 3.620 [(− 5.m MGfittings = 1.3.625 = .546 . n 2 x S2 = 3.n) – 12.

375 53.70 MN. e0 = fu .m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 1.5.14 MN.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.70 =-3.94 – 5.70 MN.318 = .m MQ =1.18 MN.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Overload A(1) 8.m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 53.88 MN.06 MN.95 x 2 x -1.50 5.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax and MQ min = -5.95 MN =-1.17 5.14 + 0.318 m =2 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons = N .m =0 for the end span tendons = 1. e0 = 1.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MA(1) min = -4. which gives the following with the values above: MQ max = 10.94+0.66 + 10.50 − 0.576 = 0.75 MN.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-5.27 MN.70 = 13.58 + 1.08 MN.06 MN. n .39 MN.58 + 1.m M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1+ MGfittings) + MQ min = 0.5 MΔt or MQ = MΔt.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 259 septembre 2007 .2 MA(1) + 0.m M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1+ MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 0.m =-5.

755 . fu .36 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span CO-P1 e1 = .73 .m Me2 = n .1 .n MN.37 – Isostatic moment diagram for external tendons in span C0-P1 x = 3. A1.26. 21.081 .n MN. n .73. A1.10 / 2)) = -1.1 .625 m 3.24 – 0.1 MN effective force of one 19T15S tendon n = number of 19T15S external tendons Me1 = n .15.17 m fu = 3.958)/2 = 73.05) =-3.3.583 = 10.625)/2 = .8.951 .73 Hyperstatic moment on pier S1 = (6. n 53.n S3 = (3. n S4 = (3.10. n S2 = (3.440 – 0.(0.(1.26 x 32.26 . 3. 5.26 + 6.17.26.n M hyper = 2.375 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 260 septembre 2007 .n.17) = 6.49.05 m e2 = 2.n .420-0.m Fig. n .25 = 2.(-1.292 . e2 = n . n .26.10 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig. (+2.fu . 2 = 0.163 .500) / 2 = .e1 = n .292) = .856 .

v ' N M .n M hyper (Σ1 ) = 0. n = 0.5 MΔt or MQ max = 25.17 and A1.44 − 4.v ' P + Pext M .620 [(− 5.44 4.3 – Calculation in section Σ7 (closing segment between P2 and C3) Value of longitudinal moments Moment MG1 (state after construction .m MQ = MΔt and which.16 MN.see Figures A1.30 = -3.42 x 15.37 – 11.2 MA(1) + 0.57 MN.18) Fittings Creep Overload A(1) 19.m MGfittings = 6.5. n )] x 1.37 MN.n)-5.008 .11 MN.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = -3.00 MPa We will therefore opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.1.m MA(1) min = -9.0965 − 13. A1.008 .59 MN.m Calculation of Mmin and Mmax M min = MG min + MQ min = (MG1 + MGfittings) + MQ min = 1.25 .26 for n = 2 for n = 4 σi =-2.m Mcreep = 6. n 53.m MQ=1.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (2 x 1.2.30 MN.620 σi = (l.00 MPa σi = 0.42 MN.081× 5.50 / 63.14 + 0.20 MPa <-σt =-2.m Thermal gradient Calculation of MQ MG1 = 1.88 x 1.524. n Calculation of stress in Σ1 σi = M Pecl + M Pext .m et M MA(1) max = MΔt = 3. n = -3.84 MPa >-σt =-2.255 .09) + (− 3.09 MN.15 + 6.375 = 1.50 .25.78 MN.163 .95) + 3. n + 0.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide -2. n 6. gives: MQ min =-11.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 261 septembre 2007 . using the values above.

3.1 .28 + 0.10.37 + 1.145 MN.73.1 MN effective force for a 19T15S tendon = number of 19T15S external tendons = n .57 + 25.(0.375 Mpeci = Miso +Mhyper =-10.09 = 34.26.m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 262 septembre 2007 .18 MN.17) = 6.15 + 6.10 / 2)) = -1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide M max = MG max + MQ max = (MG1 + MGfittings + Mcreep) + MQ max = 1.13 MN. fu.38 – Longitudinal geometry of external tendons in span P2-C3 e01 e02 fu n Me1 Me2 = . A1.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of continuity tendons fu e0 n Miso Mhyper Mhyper P1-P2 = 1.m =0 effective force for one 12T15S tendon for the continuity tendons number of 12T15S continuity tendons for the end span tendons = 1.50 − 0.n MN.05) = -3.28 MN.318 = .95 x 4 x -1.576 = 0.95 MN = -1. e1 = n . (+2.m Calculation of isostatic and hyperstatic moments of external tendons Fig.(1.420-0.318 m =4 = N e0 = 1.e2 = n .m = -10.375 63.m = n .17 15.10 . (-1.m for the continuity and exterior tendons of the span 63.1 .05 m = 2.n MN. fu.17 m = 3.25 = 2.15 MN.440 – 0.50 15. 3.24 – 0.

375 M hyper (Σ 7 ) = 0.39 – Isostatic moment diagram of the external tendons in span P2-C3 x = 3.18 x 1.3.958) / 2 = 73.50 .17.755 . n . A1.25.47 MPa >-σt = -2.620 σi = (l.480.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide Fig.142 . n = .26 + 6. n -18.0965 − 34.26 .500) / 2 = . The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 263 septembre 2007 .583 = 10.n S3 = (3.292) = .44 4. n .n.28) + (− 3.113 .417 .581.10. n M hyper = 18.26 .226 .625) / 2 = . 21.n)-8.375 MPext = Miso + Mhyper = .26 x 32.142 .404 for n = 4 for n = 6 σi =-2.3.26.44 − 4.73 . n 6.v ' P + Pext M . n + 0.856 .49 MPa <-σt = -2.625 m 3. n Calculation of stress σi = M Pecl + M Pext .n . n .00 MPa We shall thus opt for two pairs of 19T15S tendons.95) + 3.581 .113. 2 = 0.49.1.26.v ' N M . n S4 = (3. 15. n )] x 1. n S2 = (3.292 .620 [(− 10.00 MPa σi = 0. 15.73 Hyperstatic moment on support: S1 = (6.417 . n 63. n 63.v ' − = ecl − max − B I B I I ( ) σi = (4 x 1.15. n = 0.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide A2 Monographs of cast-in-situ bridges The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 264 septembre 2007 .

PI.40 m piles anchored in the limestone bedrock.GTM-BTP Dec. 1990 Champ du Comte viaduct (1. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Beaumont sur Revue Travaux Oise bridge Contractor: Dragages et Travaux Publics Feb.040 m) Supports and foundations: double portal frame configuration “Puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) 4 to 5.13m x l4m x 3 m). 1986 .Dec. 1986 . Contractors.10 m diameter piles. 1989 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Feb. Due to the presence of a thick layer of peat. 1989 A3 Revue Travaux Apr.SOGEA . 1987 A1 Oct. P3. Construction dates REF.CITRA et des May 1984 . P3 : Four 5 m x 3 m H-shaped rectangular foundation piles Champ du Comte viaduct (RN 90) Consortium: . the left bank abutment is built on four Ø 1.5m diameter box girder built from diaphragm wall elements. Aérodromes 1986 Oct. or on deep foundations: P2: 12. P5.60 m in diameter and 6. 1988 Consortium: Revue DTP (Dragages Générale et Travaux des Routes Publics) .00 to 22. The right bank abutment is built directly on the ground.00 m in depth The “Les outils" Collection – Sétra page 265 septembre 2007 . 1988 The piers are supported by six Ø1. 1989 A2 June 1986 Poncin viaduct (A40) The supports are all built on the bedrock.Jan. either directly on superficial footings (CO. Revue Travaux Oct.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.Sept. C6 . P4.

Length of standard segments 3.36 m on the first 3 segments then 0.Longitudinal prestress bars: 516.At the crown: h = 3.000 kg Internal prestressing: -cantilever tendons: 2 x 13 12T15 2 x 1 19T15 tendons . Internal prestressing: .At crown of main span: h = 4.793 m3 including 585 m3 of lightweight concrete . 0.850m² . Length of standard segments: 3.00 m s = 1/40 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.Transverse prestress bars: 77.500 m3 .Thickness of webs in central span: 0.000 kg . 0.90 m s = 1/34.Concrete: 1.8 kg/ m3) .70 m and finally 1.B45 concrete: 17.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.860 kg (126 kg/m3) .53 m: End spans built on falsework HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .5 . For the bridge deck: .00m long rectangular section at the end.950 m² .5 Main quantities: .90 m respectively Viaduct with 2 separate bridge decks Cast-in-situ segments On support: h = 5.450 kg COMMENTS .Prestressing bars: 72.On support: h = 6.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 225.Surface area of bridge deck :1.50 m.000 m3 .20 – 1.Formwork: 27.80 m s = 1/17 At crown of main span: h = 2.270m3 .Bridge deck prestressing: half using 9T15 tendons and 12T15 internal tendons & the other half using replaceable 19T15 tendons – End span fixed to a weighted abutment acting as a counterweight with a solid 9.36 m – Thickness of webs in end span: 0.900 kg (112 kg/ m3) .cantilever: 2 x 27 19T15 tendons .continuity: 2x7 12T15 tendons –External prestressing: 2 x 10 19T15 tendons Cast-in-situ segments of variable depth.00 m s= 1/15.Longitudinal prestress bars: 850.650 kg (41 kg/m3) (37 kg/m2) .B30 concrete: 8.Concrete: 11.400 kg (45.continuity tendons: 2 x 5 12T15 External prestress tendons: 2 x 3 19T15 2 x 1 12T15 tendons Cross-section of 1 box girder The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 266 septembre 2007 .800.60 m s (slenderness) = 1/18 .10 – 0.266.00 m s = 1/39 ON SUPPORTS P1 and P2 CONSTANT DEPTH AT PI-P2 CROWN Thickness of webs near P3.30 m (weight: 120 to 220 tonnes) Incremental launching of end sections (constant depth) .92 m over entire structure.00 m before reaching the solid section. Solid rectangular section inside the counterweighted abutment . P4 and P5: 1.On support PI or P2: h = 10.Mean thickness of bridge deck: 0.77 m in the central span.

Campenon Bernard June 1983 Nov. P5 et P6: superficial footings of approx.75 m Length of central span for both decks: 58 m The majority of the foundations consist of footings built on sound bedrock.20 m “puits marocains” (deep pile foundation shafts) P8: one Ø 6 m deep pile foundation shaft PI.50 m) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 267 septembre 2007 .: * North deck: 130 m.20 m to Ø 1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. P2 and P3: Ø 10 m diaphragm walls P4. Construction dates Nantua viaduct (A40) Consortium: -GTM .5 m The structure consists of two bridge decks of different lengths with a height difference of 5 to 7 m. 198 The variabile quality of the terrain required a wide range of foundations: P7 and P9: Four Ø2.75 m * South deck: 11. 1986 The structure consists of two independent bridge decks with a height difference of approximately 6 m. 1989 Revue Travaux Jan.40 m shafts) or cast-in-situ piles (P2. 1986 REF. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Jan. Deep pile foundation shafts (P5: four Ø 2. 1986 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Oct. 3 spans * South deck: 194 m. Contractors. 1989 June 1986 A4 Lalleyriat viaduct (A40) Revue Générale des Routes et des A5 Aérodromes Nov. P3. 4 spans and different widths: * North deck: 8. 10 m x 10 m x 2. Tacon viaduct Contractor: CITRA France A6 Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes Nov. P4 & P6: four piles of Ø 1.

At the crown and for segments of constant depth: h = 3m s = 1/30 For the bridge deck: .50 m (60 to 85 t).50 to 3.Concrete: 4. each with a capacity of 1.000 kg (38 kg/m3) On support (for the spans of variable depth): .Fixed support of ½ cantilever: h = 8. a counterweighted span of approx. To build & balance this span.At the crown h = 3m s = 1/38 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .Prestress bars: 430 000 kg (44 kg/m3) COMMENTS The viaduct ends in a 124 m span supported in the tunnel.Concrete: 9.65 m s = 1/17 .44 m .800m3 .On support: h = 6.250.Nonprestressed reinforcement bars: 1. Internal prestressing (12T15 tendons) with possibility of adding extra external and internal prestressing. . Length of segments: 2.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 554.820 m3 . At the crown Cast-in-situ segments.Prestress bars: 185.55 m The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 268 septembre 2007 .. This consists of two mobile sliding counterweights.500 t.80 m dictated by site s = 1/21 access problems). 3. Internal prestressing with possibility of adding extra external prestressing.50 m long.000 t was built on centuring. Cast-in-situ Constant depth of segments (method 2.Thickness of bridge deck = 0.height of bridge deck = 6 m . Each segment measures 3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.On support: h=6m s = 1/15 .000 kg (115 kg/m3) . Internal prestressing using 12T15 tendons HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .000 kg (126kg/m3) .

1985 The viaduct consists of two independent structures: . 1990 REF. 1984 Revue A9 Travaux Jan. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux Apr. 1987 – Oct. 12 June 1986 Sept. Construction dates Cheviré bridge over the River Loire Consortium: Concrete package: Quillery et Vezin Metal package: Baudin Châteauneuf et ACP Dec.The SNCF (French state rail network) railroad crossing. P7 : Four Ø 1. The abutments are built on four Ø 0.80 m piles. P5. P6: Six Ø 1.30 m piles P4.The main crossing of the River Moselle and its lateral canal.80 m piles Consortium: Pertuy-Bouygues 1982 A8 Chinon bridge AFPC in Indre-et(French Loire Construction Association) Study Day. Cast-in-situ pile foundations: P2. .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 269 septembre 2007 . 1986 Entreprise: GTM The piers are built on footings within a cofferdam.30 m piles P1 : Six Ø 0. P3. 1989 A7 Presence of joints between N5 and N6 & between S5 and S6 Pont à Mousson viaduct over the Moselle Revue Travaux Jan. Contractors.

ext. . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . The central metal span was hoisted onto its permanent bearings in one operation. A summary analysis of mixed cabling was included but the dimensions of the structure were not modified due to a lack of time ½ -section at crown ½. .20m QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the concrete bridge deck: . For the bridge deck: Mixed .: 63. tendons: 1.At the crown: h = 2.00 m at level of NI and SI .000 kg (140 kg/ m3) -Prestress reinforcements (longitudinal and transverse): 1.section on pier Cast-in-situ segments.Prestress x7 12T15 reinforcements: internal: 28.: 27T15 ½ section on span Segments of the 3 large cantilevers are cast in-situ.000 kg (in total: 39 kg/m3) Comment: The structure supports oversize Class E loads.5 .: 71.int.B35 concrete: 27.000 kg (150 2 x 4 12T15 kg/m3) . Length of standard segments: 2.Beyond the length of the parabolically variable section (18 m) either side of these supports: h = 2.B35 concrete: 3.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.70 m (111 t) Length of segments on piers: 8. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 270 septembre 2007 .The first 6 meters of the end spans were cast on falsework.500 kg Comment: external: 21.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.On support: h = 4.Prestressing: int: (cantilever & continuity) 19T15 ext.Standard spans (constant depth): h = 4.600 kg ext.Prestress reinforcements: int. Segments on piers are cast horizontally then tilted to the required angle before the construction of the cantilever begins.500 kg external tendons (in total: 50 t or 36 are somewhat kg/m3) limited in power Equivalent thickness: 75 cm For the entire bridge deck (including the caston-falsework sections): . this bridge was designed to support thirty-meter long EDF (Electricité de France –French electricity supply utility) convoys weighing 650 tonnes Large spans: cantilever: 24 x 12T15 continuity: 6 x 12T15 external: 8 x 19T15 Given the complex 2dimensional alignment of the tendons and the thinness of the deviators. 5 & 6: h = 4.75 m s = 1/27.216. The rest of the structure is cast on falsework.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 466.80 m s = 1/25 With its oversized dimensions.50 m s= 1/15.70 m.000 kg (136 kg/m3) . . tendons: 2 .437 m3 .B35 concrete: prestressing: .Non-prestressed 2 x 9 12T15 reinforcements: continuity: 205.385 m3 cantilever: .On support: h = 9.000 kg (44 kg/ m3) COMMENTS . strong radial tendon forces of the deviators close to piers have resulted in the latter being reinforced.5 The initial pre-design did not feature any external prestressing.50 m s = 1/17 .On supports 4.55 m s = 1/14 .At end of cantilever above the River Loire: H = 5.850. The end of the end spans is cast on falsework.

The ground had to be injected under P1.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Congress. 1991 July 1992 La Bridge over Technique the SaintDenis river on Française du Béton Reunion Précontraint. is supported by two Ø2 m deep pile foundation shafts.1989 .E. Al0 Hamburg 1990 Revue Travaux June 1991 La Technique Française du Béton Précontraint. A11 Washington 1994 Revue Travaux Oct. Nov. 1991 Washington A12 1994 Revue Travaux July 1992 Bourran viaduct at Rodez Engineering geology: risk of landslides Deep pile foundation shafts: one Ø3 m or Ø4 m shaft for each pier sunk to depths of 11 to 15 m. 1989 .Campenon 11th FIP Bernard (International .T.June Prestressing 1991 Federation) Congress. 1986 – Mar. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 271 septembre 2007 . . Contractor: 12th FIP DODIN Sud (International Aug.O. The three piers are built on superficial footings. Construction dates Bridge over the Loch d’Auray REF. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint. Prestressing Federation) 1989 Congress. Abutment C0.P. one of which is extended by micropiles. Contractors. Island 12th FIP (International Contractor: Prestressing SBTPC Federation) Aug. situated directly above a rocky spur embedded in the sand.Aug.

On support: h = 4.At the crown: h = 2.Prestressing: cantilever : 2 x 14 12T15 continuity : 2 x 2 12T15 external tendons : 2 x 6 19T15 .provisional bracing of curved pier shells to take up forces due to cyclonic winds .5 . segments on piers: 9 m.00 m in span T5).50 m s = 1/33. To avoid any difference in the height of the webs.100 kg (141 kg/m3) .000 kg (6.000 kg (122 kg/m3) . .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments The large span has 2 cantilevers (3 m segments) built using form travelers. . rectilinear external prestressing.Mean thickness of concrete: 0.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 437.Cantilever 2 X 16 12T15 .Given the flexibility of the piers in rotation (2 bent pier shafts for P2 & P3). but in the end.Concrete: 3. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework (17.Longitudinal prestress bars: 119. extending from the abutment to portal leg. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers.At the crown: h = 2.5 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the cantilever sections: Mixed prestressing: . COMMENTS In addition to the usual tendons In the end spans. Two temporary pilings supported the portal legs before placement of the final segment. Both ends of the bridge deck were built on falsework.On support: h = 6.Continuity 2x3 12T15 .Possibility of adding extra tendons.70m in span S1 and 6.Internal tendons Cantilever: 12T15 Continuity: 2 x 6 12T15 .71 m .Concrete: 3.5 kg/m3) .100 m3 . HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios .50 m s = 1/17 .69 %).50 m s = 1/31 For the bridge deck: . Length of standard segments: 3.190 kg (40 kg/m³) Large cantilevers: . Slightly asymmetrical box girder: the transverse slopes begin at the centerline of the pavement which is not aligned with the centerline of the box girder. weight: 120 t). Length of standard segments: 3. .20 m s = 1/16 .80 m. segments on piers: 7.45 m (max.External tendons (from portal leg to portal leg) 2 x 2 12T15 The ribs are transversally prestressed.70 m.00 m s = 1/33 For the bridge deck: .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 365. has been added in order to restore a normal force virtually equal to that created by the thrust of the portal legs in the large span.On support: h = 5.00 m s= 1/16. the winds effects were calculated very accurately. The rest of the structure was built on falsework.Vertical prestressing of segment on P1 .At the crown: h = 3. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 272 septembre 2007 . Directly above portal legs Thickness of webs in segments on P1 and P4: 60 cm. Construction using “from below” type of form travelers. no bracing was provided.Highly problematical construction of foundations.External tendons 2x4 19T15 .000 m² .Longitudinal prestress bars: 59 t 12T15 62 t 19T15 (in total 39 kg/m3) Prestressing of upper slab via sheathed & greased single strands: 20. the entire box girder has been tilted transversally (gradient of 0.

80 m piles for C1 La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint.Four Ø 1.Six Ø 1.Eight Ø 0.Four Ø 1. . 6 % slope A14 Foundations via cast-in-situ piles: . .Chantiers (International Modernes Prestressing . P6.SPIE T. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION La Technique Française du Béton Consortium: Précontraint.DODIN Sud (International . 63 m). Federation) 1997 Congress.Holzmann 1992 Revue Travaux Apr. via 7 m shafts for P3 and P4 Limay viaduct in Yvelines Consortium: . 1995 .Quillery 12th FIP . 72. Their footings were temporarily anchored to the rock via 10 stressed 12T15 ties designed to take up the wind effects during construction. .R 13th FIP . P2 and P5 (with stitched reinforcement of the footings of the very 1994 tall pier P2).P1 and P2 are erected on superficial foundations.20 m piles for C8 . Contractors.P3 and P4 are supported on footings anchored to the rock by four 3 m shafts excavated using explosives . 1993 Rioulong viaduct: 5 spans (45.40 m piles for P4 and P5 .40 m piles for P2. P7 . P3.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.81. Amsterdam A15 1998 Viaur valley viaduct (RN 88) . A13 Washington Foundations: via footings for PI. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 273 septembre 2007 . Construction dates Piou and Rioulong viaducts REF.Dec.SOGEA Prestressing Feb.Nord France TP . 81.Borie SAE Federation) Congress.The bridge deck is embedded on P3 and P4.

4 fixing sockets were sealed in the bottom flange of the web.: 27K15 super transversal: 92.000 kg (35 kg/m3) int.76 m.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 769.Mixed prestressing: Int. Construction using form travelers. Mixed prestressing: .000 m3 .Longitudinal prestress bars 228.When casting segment n.73 m For the bridge deck: .The real strut was attached to segment n + 1 by bolting on the lower part and casting on the upper part.60 m Length of standard segments: 3. Incoprporation of bracing: .000 kg (164 kg/m3) -Internal longitudinal prestress bars: 119.70 m s = 1/33 Construction using form travelers.tendons 19T15 Ext.000 kg (126kg/m3) .50 m s = 1/42 Main quantities: . Length of segments on piers: 9. using a false strut to give the required accuracy.Concrete: 6.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED Piou viaduct: .On support: h = 5. . tendons 27T15 .30 m s = 1/17 .Movements of major spans due to wind effects during construction limited by the use of vertical prestress tendons. with a stagger in the construction of the cantilevers to allow the incorporation of metal struts.Cantilever tendons: 20 (piers on the island) to 30 (piers in the river) 12T15S.Concrete: 4.500 m3 -Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 819.Prestressing: 650 t The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 274 septembre 2007 .000 kg (14 kg/m3) 3C15 . Continuity: 14 (in the 90 m spans) to 2 (for spans on the island) 12T15S.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 3.Concrete: 21. Length of standard segments: 2.90 m. .At the crown and in spans of constant depth: h = 2.equivalent thickness: 0.680 m² . .8 m on pier).Transverse prestressing via single strands .On support: h= 12m s = 1/16 . .At the crown and in the spans of constant depth.000 kg (in total: 47 kg/m3) COMMENTS Half-section of a standard section Half-section of sections close to piers Construction using Constant depth h=5m “from below” type of form travelers. tendons: 12 (at mid-span) to 8 (on pier) 19T15S .000 kg External: 103. (cantilevers and crowns) super 19K15 ext. Length s = 1/18 of segments: 3 m (6.Ext. h = 4. The extremities of the end spans are built on falsework.900 t .

Length: 308 m (3 spans: 82 m + 144 m + 82 m). 1993 Structure with two separate bridge decks. 1991 – Nov./Aug. Length: 163 m (3 spans: 51 m + 67 m + 45 m). Auxonne and Revue Travaux Maillys Jul. Contractors.GTM-BTP .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. Construction dates Doubling of the Général Audibert bridge over the Loire.Mar. A18 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 275 septembre 2007 .40 m. 1989 REF.Dodin Sud : . Width:21 m. made from prestressed concrete box girders of variable depth. Bridge over the Truyère at Garabit Consortium: .Dumez July 1990 .Feb.1994 viaducts in the Côte d’Or Consortium of contractors: . 1993 A17 Portal bridge with a prestressed concrete box girder. 8 spans: 52 m + 77 m + 136 m + 77 m + 3 x 55 m + 45 m. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux April 1989 A16 Revue Ouvrages d’art n° 16 Nov 1993 Two independent but connected bridge decks. Bridge deck embedded on the portal legs and on simple supports on the abutments.Dodin Ouest Sept. Width: 17.SOGEA : . 1987 . in Nantes Contractor: ETPO Jan. Usable width of each of the two decks: 11m.

prestressing: 260 tonnes. Length of segments on piers: 9 m.50 m.Prestressing: 85.Int. .20 m s= 1/17 For the bridge deck: . .80 m s = 1/37 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: . . prestress tendons: FUC 19620.000 m3 . .60 m.At the crown: 3 m.Ext.Prestressing: 362 t.700 m3 .a 20.Cantilever tendons: 12 T 15.80 m s = 1/18 .two webs angled at 30%. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 276 septembre 2007 . .Concrete: 16.190 Kg .Concrete: 2.On support: h = 3. Large span and 2 adjacent ½ spans: successive cast-insitu cantilever segments built using 2 x 2 form travelers.Int. .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 1. .a lower slab whose thickness varies between 1. prestress tendons: cantilever (2 X 35 per cantilever) and continuity (2 X 7 on end span and 2 X 2 on central span): FUC 19-620 .Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 338.20 m towards the portal legs). HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . .25 m at the crown.20 m s = 1/42 For the sections built on falsework: h = constant = 3. . Weight of standard segments: 45 tonnes. Length of standard segments: 3.Non-prestressed reinforcement bars: 13.Continuity tendons outside concrete: 19T 15. -At the level of the portal legs: 8 m.50 m upper slab which is transversally prestressed by 4T15 tendons at intervals of 0.At the crown: h = 1.50 m s = 1/21 .840 m3 COMMENTS SEGMENTS ON PIERS SEGMENTS AT CROWN UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Prestress tendons inside concrete: 12T 13 20.Continuity tendons: 12T15.Transverse prestressing of upper slab: FUC 4-620 .On the abutment supports: 10 m.300 m³ .60 m (1.Ext. SECTION THROUGH P3-P4 CANTILEVER On support In span .50 Cast-in-situ segments. prestressing: 325 tonnes.150 m3 .20 m directly above the portal legs to 0. with vertical thickness of 0.B40 concrete: 10.520 tonnes.At the crown: h = 3. remobvable on end spans . The box girder features: .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments. Closing segments: 2m.On support: h = 6. Cast-on-falsework end spans For the segments built by the cantilever method .000 Kg Usable area of the structure: 2.

50 m + 42. 1995 Revue Travaux Jul.50 m and 1001. Revue Ouvrages d’art Dec.Royans Travaux July 1995 . Length: 247 m ( 64 m + 113 m + 70 m). 1998 VIVARIO VENACO Vecchio bridge in Corsica Contractor: Razel A21 3-span prestressed concrete structure (42./Aug.10 m. 10 m wide. 1995 A19 Rivoire viaduct in Isère Consortium: .1997 A20 Two independent structures. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 277 septembre 2007 .Razel . Nov.25 m).Campenon Bernard Régions .Nov. Contractors. Construction dates REF.25 m + 137. 1994 Revue Générale des Routes et Length: 496 m (48 m + 5 x 80 m + 48 m). Two concentric bridge decks with radii at the left edge of 984.Roux SA Feb.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation.FougerolleBallot . 1993 . des Aérodromes Width: 14.50 m.Apr. 1996 d’art Nov.15 m: center distance of 24. SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Corniche bridge in Dole Ouvrages Consortium: .

B35 concrete: 4. Length of segments on piers: 6. These are of variable depth and angle. due to the variation in width of the lower slab.On support: h= 11 m s= 1/12 .100 m3 . .60 m long cantilever segments using form travelers into which the prefabricated webs were placed.At the crown: h = 3.20 m on end span.prestressing bar in web panels.B35 concrete: 4. Standard segments built using “from below” type of form travelers. Length of standard segments: 16 x 3.Prestressing: 174 t .cantilever tendons in the upper slab. The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 278 septembre 2007 .40 m.internal continuity tendons in central span.000 m² . Length of segments on piers: 8.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments Cast-in-situ segments.At the crown: h = 2.On support: h =5.Prestressing: 190 tonnes. HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios . Length of standard segments: 3.50 m s = 1/32 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED For the bridge deck: .20 m on central span and 17 x 3. . Construction of central span in halfcantilevers using successive 3. . COMMENTS First bridge with corrugated webs to be built by the cantilever method in France.200m² -Reinforcements: 690t .50 m.50 m s = 1/39 Prestressing: .20m. For the bridge deck: .Formwork: 15.continuity tendons outside the concrete stretching from abutment to abutment.50 m e = 1/14 .

A23 The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 279 septembre 2007 . Contractors. Construction dates Bridge over the Rhine in Strasbourg Consortium: .GTM .06 m.Berger and Max Früh 2001 .SPIE Batignolles .Fougerolles 1990 . Width: 14.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide NAME OF STRUCTURE Situation. 2002 Length: 457 m (121 m + 205 m + 131 m). SCHEMATIC LONGITUDINAL SECTION Revue Travaux n° 783 FebThe piers.1992 Length: 568 m (110 m + 169 m + 96 m + 169 m + 114 m).Bilfinger . Width: 18.75 m.2002 REF. A22 Bridge over the Seine at Gennevilliers Consortium: .

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRIDGE DECK

CONSTRUCTION METHOD and weight of segments
Cast-in-situ segments. Standard segments vary in length from 3.50 to 5.00 m. Length of segments on piers: 9.50 m.

HEIGHTS OF BRIDGE DECK Slenderness ratios
- On pier: h = 9.00 m s = 1/23 - At the crown: h = 4.50 m s = 1/45 - On abutment: h = 3.20 m Variation according to a parabolic curve for the central span and a cubic curve for the end spans. - On pier: h = 9.00 m - At the crown: h = 3.50 m

QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS USED
For the bridge deck: - B65 concrete: 7,750 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 913,000 kg (118 kg/m3) - Prestressing: 598,000 kg (77 kg/m3)

COMMENTS

SECTION ON PIER PILE

SECTION AT CROWN

Cast-in-situ segments. Length of standard segments: 3.30m for the 96 m span and 3.60 m for the other spans.

For the bridge deck: - Concrete: 13,900 m3 - Non-stressed reinforcement bars: 1,711,000 kg (124 kg/m3) - Prestressing: External 241 t Internal 728 t Temporary 22 t

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Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide

A3 Bibliography
This appendix firstly mentions all of the official french texts relating to the engineering and design of bridges built by the cantilever method. It then goes on to list a large number of documents and articles dedicated to this technique.

A3-1 – Official texts
French texts related to all structures
- Fascicule 61 Titre II of the french CPC: "Programme de charges et épreuves des ponts-routes" (Loading and testing program for road bridges). - Circular no. R/EG3 of July 20 1983 entitled "Transports exceptionnels, définition des convois types et règles pour la vérification des ouvrages d’art" (Oversize loads, definition of standard convoys and rules for the verification of civil engineering structures) published by the Direction des Routes (Highways Department), for structures supporting these types of vehicles - Fascicule 6l Titre IV Section II of the french CCTG: "Actions de la neige sur les constructions" (Effects of snow on constructions) (DTU P 06-006 of September 1996) - Fascicule 62 Titre I - Section I of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton armé suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for reinforced concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) [BAEL 91 revised in 1999)] - Fascicule62 Titre I - Section II of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en béton précontraint suivant la méthode des états limites" (Technical engineering and design rules for prestressed concrete structures and constructions according to the limit states method) (BPEL 91 revised in 1999) - Fascicule 65-A of the french CCTG and its supplement: "Exécution des ouvrages de génie civil en béton armé ou précontraint" (Construction of reinforced or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) - Fascicule62 Titre V of the french CCTG: "Règles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de génie civil" (Technical engineering and design rules for the foundations of civil engineering structures) - Fascicule 68 of the french CCTG: "Exécution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de génie civil" (Construction of the foundations for civil engineering structures) - Standard NFP 95-104: "Réparation et renforcement des ouvrages en béton et en maçonnerie; spécifications relatives à la technique de précontrainte additionnelle" (Repair and reinforcement of concrete and masonry structures; specifications relating to the additional prestressing technique)

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Texts exclusively related to structures situated in earthquake zones

- Decree no. 91-461 of May 14 1991 relating to the prevention of earthquake risks and the Order of September 15 1995 relating to the classification and rules for antiseismic constructions applicable to bridges in the “normal risk” category - Guide AFPS 92 for the seismic protection of bridges, edited by the Association Française du Génie Parasismique (French Seismic Engineering Association), published on the presses of the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Civil Engineering) - The french standard NE P 06-013, more commonly called the "Règles de construction parasismique – règles applicables aux bâtiments - PS92" (Seismic Construction Rules – Rules Applicable to Buildings – PS92), with regard to foundations.

A3-2 – Sétra, Sétra-LCPC, Sétra-SNCF Guides
- Sétra Technical Bulletin no.7 "Ponts construits par encorbellements successifs" - This Design Guide - Sétra Technical Guide "Précontrainte Extérieure" (External Prestressing) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui en caoutchouc fretté" (Laminated rubber pot bearings) - Sétra Technical Guide "Appareils d’appui à pot de caoutchouc" (Rubber pot bearings) - The guide to the ordering and management of studies for civil engineering bridges - Fascicule 32.2 of the technical instruction for the monitoring and maintenance of civil engineering structures, published in 1979 and modified in 1995 - The document entitled "l’Image de la Qualité des Ouvrages d’Art (Iqoa); catalogue des principaux défauts, aide à leur classification - ponts à poutre caisson en béton précontraint" (Image of the quality of civil engineering structures [IQOA]; catalog of the major defects and support for their classification – prestressed concrete box girder bridges) published by Sétra in 1997.

A3-3 – Other publications
Presse de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées

- La conception des ponts (Bridge design) [J.A. Calgaro and A. Bernard-Gely] - Analyse structurale des tabliers de ponts (Structural analysis of bridge decks) [J.A. Calgaro and M.Virlogeux] - Maintenance et réparation des ponts (Bridge maintenance and repair)
Thomas Telford, London

- Ponts en béton précontraint par post tension (Post-tensioned prestressed concrete bridges) HA - TRL - LCPC – Sétra
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La collection de l’Irex

- Projet National Qualité (National Quality Project) - Opération du Plan Génie Civil (Operation of the Civil Engineering Plan) – Documentation booklet "Parements en béton" (Concrete facings)
Éditions Eyrolles

- Procédés généraux de construction (General construction process ) – Vol.1 (J. Mathivat and C. Boiteau)

A3-4 - Articles in miscellaneous publications
There now follows a list of articles relating to construction using the cantilever method, published between 1990 and mid - 2002 in the main French civil engineering journals and in certain foreign publications. Each of these articles is followed by a code indicating the topic(s) covered. The following table shows the meanings of these codes:

Research, calculations Design & construction of a bridge with cast-in-situ segments Design and construction of a bridge with prefabricated segments Design and execution of a repair or reinforcement project Materials

AFPC/AFGC publications for FIB (Fédération de l’Industrie du BétonConcrete Industry Federation) congresses
- [VIR 90.1] M. Virlogeux: La résistance à l’effort tranchant des ouvrages constitués de voussoirs préfabriqués, La technique française du béton précontraint (The resistance to shear force of structures made from prefabricated segments, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [MOS 90] J. Mossot: Le viaduc du Champs du Comte, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Champs du Comte viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [BOU 90] J. Boudot: Le viaduc de Sylans et des Glacières - Les structures triangulées en béton précontraint, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Sylans et Glacières viaducts – Triangulated structures made from prestressed concrete, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [SER 90] C. Servant, R Gallet, Ph. Lecroq, R Barras: Le viaduc de l’Arrêt-Darré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arrêt-Darré viaduct, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990) - [VIR 90.2] M. Virlogeux, G. Lacoste, M. Legall, RY. Bot, J-R Runigo, J. Combault, M. Duviard, G. Suinot and P. Fraleu: Le pont sur le Loch d Auray, La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Hamburg (1990)

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- [VIR 94] M. Virlogeux, E. Bouchon, J.C. Martin, J. Lefevre, Y. Maury, T. Guyot, M. Pottier, A. Heusse, P. Fraleu, J. Ryckaert, J. Mathivat and B. Lenoir : Pont de Cheviré, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Cheviré bridge, The French Prestressing Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [FUZ 94] J-R Fuzier, C. Adib: Poutres de lancement: le pont de Baldwin, La technique française du béton précontraint (Launch beams: the Baldwin bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [BOU 94.1] E. Bouchon, D. Lecointre, M. Virlogeux, R. Gachiteguy, G. Viossanges, R. Gai, M. Boy, P. Ballester, M. Roudanes, P. Fraleu : Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Bourran Viaduct in Rodez, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

- [BOU 94.2] E. Bouchon, E. Conti, D. de Matteis, E Pero, M. Virlogeux, R. Damour, A. Abastado, E Edon, M. Tassone, A. Demozay, P. Jacques, F. Veyres, C. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (Océan Indien), La technique française du béton précontraint (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island [Indian Ocean], The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CHA 94] P. Chassagnette, J.J. Lagane: Doublement du pont sur la Seine à Gennevilliers, La technique française du béton précontraint (Doubling the width of the bridge over the River Seine at Gennevilliers, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CRO 94] A. Crocherie, G. Gillet, B. Canitrot, F. Edon, P. Kirschner, B. Fournier, F. Renaud, T. Thibaux, P. Doguet : Les viaducs du Piou et du Rioulong, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Piou and Rioulong viaducts, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [CAN 94] B. Canitrot, G. Gillet, B. Bouvy, A. Palacci, B. Raspaud: Le pont de l’autoroute A75 sur la Truyère à Garabit, La technique française du béton précontraint (The A75 highway bridge over the Truyère at Garabit, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [LEB 94] J-D Lebon, A. Leveille: Le pont de la Corniche à Dôle, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Corniche bridge at Dôle, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [COM 94] J. Combault, J.P Teyssandier, N.D. Haste, P Richard, M.S. Fletcher, Y. Maury, J. Mac Farlane: Le second pont sur la Severn, La technique française du béton précontraint (The second Severn Bridge, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [MUL 94] J. Muller, G. Causse: Le pont à voussoirs préfabriqués de l’autoroute H3 à Hawaï, La technique française du béton précontraint (The H3 highway bridge made from prefabricated segments in Hawaï, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994) - [GAS 94] C. Gasaignes, J. Boudot, O. Martin: Ponts à voussoirs préfabriqués en Asie - L’exemple du projet du KwunTong By-Pass, La technique française du béton précontraint (Bridges built from prefabricated segments in Asia – The example of the KwunTong By-Pass project, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique, Washington (1994) - [ABE 94] H. Abel, G. Causse, C. Outteryck, D. de Matteis, H. Capdessus, J. Bouillot, B. Grezes, G. Perez, J. Combault, A. Leveille,Y. Faup, F. Zirk: Le pont d’Arcins sur la Garonne à Bordeaux, La technique française du béton précontraint (The Arcins bridge over the Garonne in Bordeaux, The French Prestressed Concrete Technique), Washington (1994)

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Viallon: Une nouvelle génération de ponts mixtes: les viaducs du Boulonnais. Lecointre. Paulik. de Matteis. A. Jung. Demozay. J.M. Amsterdam (1998) / . Combault. P. Bouchon.[BOU 92] E. Gillet. projet et suivi des travaux. M. Amsterdam (1998) Revue travaux . R. R Fraleu: Le viaduc de Bourran à Rodez (The Bourran viaduct at Rodez) (October 1991) .[COM 98] J. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vecchio bridge. D. Chassagnette. Bousquet.C. L. Legall.[JOU 91] A. F. B. R.Tassone. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Vernegues TGV high-speed rail line viaduct. M.[VIR 96] M. C. Washington (1994) . Roudanes. E. P.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Virlogeux. La technique française du béton précontraint (Span length record in the Viaur valley.[SER 98] C. Damour. Bot . Edon. E. Gharbi. M. B.P. Virlogeux. Poineau: Réparation du pont de Blagnac .1] C. Barras. FIP Symposium. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique. J. D. J.Y.[JAC 98] P Jacquet. Bouvy. Bouchon. G. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).2] C.[BOUS 98. Servant (Serf).[BOUS 98. J. Amsterdam (1998) . Virlogeux. J. Lavigne: Le pont de la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the Saint-Denis river on Reunion Island) (July-August 1992) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 285 septembre 2007 . Amsterdam (1998) .J. Goyet: Autoroute A75 dans le Cantal: Les études du pont sur la Truyère (Studies for the bridge over the Truyère) (October 1991) . London (1996) . J. R. M. M. M. R Ballester. Duviard: Le viaduc de Rogerville. Gachiteguy. M. La technique française du béton précontraint (The TGV Méditerranée high-speed rail line – Package 2H – Viaducts over the Rhône. Lagane. Vassord: Pont du Vecchio. E Veyres. J. R. Lacombe. Abastado. La technique française du béton précontraint (Repair of the Blagnac bridge – Studies. Cussac. G.[DEWI 98] M. Boy.P Runigo. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Pham. M.2] M. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Confederation Bridge [Prince Edward Island . E. M. Amsterdam (1998) . Le Bourdonnec: Practical design of cantilever tendons in bridges built by the balanced cantilever method. Amsterdam (1998) . P. Bousquet. Bouchon (Sétra).P. Radiguet : TGV Méditerranée . Gai. M. P Fraleu. design and monitoring of works. Placidi.[BOU 91] E. G. Preyssas (Spie-BatignoUes TP): Record de portée dans la vallée du Viaur. J. Valotaire: Le viaduc TGV de Vernegues. Duviard. Combault (Dumez-GTM): Le pont de la Confédération (Ile du prince Edouard . The French Prestressed Concrete Technique). Lacoste. D. A. La technique française du béton précontraint (The Rogerville viaduct.Canada). G.[MEU 98] P. A. K. J. Meurisse.Virlogeux. Gachiteguy (Aveyron DDE [Departmental Public Works Directorate]).[VIR 91. Foucriat. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).Études. De Wissocq. Conti. Viossanges. E Vacher.Lot 2H -Viaducs sur le Rhône. The French Prestressed Concrete Technique).Canada]. Fauvelle. M. Bustamante. Suinot. La technique française du béton précontraint (A new generation of composite bridges: viaducts in the Boulogne area. J.M. X. A. Jouanno.Jacques.[BAR 94] P. Le Corre: Le pont sur le Loch d’Auray (The bridge over the Loch d’Auray) (June 1991) . The French prestressed Concrete Technique). Amsterdam (1998) . V.

[DOG 98] P. Delfosse. Durand. Vandeputte. R Ribolzi. Hooghe. C. Yvelines) (1993) . Poineau. Deleporte. X. B. Demare.[MON 99] J. G. Marneffe. Ricard. R.Tréffot: Le projet du second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg (The design of the second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg) (January 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 286 septembre 2007 .[CON 95] E. Y. Bouvy. Boisset.[BOI 96] A. G.Vesval: Le second franchissement de l’estuaire de la Severn (The second crossing of the Severn estuary) (April 1996) .[DIEU 00] R Dieuaide: Le viaduc de Digoin (The Digoin viaduct) (January 2000) .[ROI 99] D. Bernardo: Le pont du Rambler Channel à Hong Kong (The Rambler Channel bridge in Hong Kong) (April 1995) .[PAU 00] L.[BER 95] A. Conti. H.[DEL 98] G.[HUM 93] E.[COM 96] J. R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville (The Rogerville Viaduct) (April 1996) . Eaure. M. Hervet. J. Mondon: Le Hung Hom by-pass à Hong Kong (The Hung Hom by-pass in Hong Kong) (January 1999) . Humbert. Dhiver: Remise en état du pont de la RD220 sur le canal d’amenée de la chute de Bourg-lès-Valence (Renovation of the RD220 road bridge over the head race canal for the Bourg-lès-Valence waterfall) (November 1993) . B. Combault. D. Lacombe. (July-August 1997) .[DEM 00] A. Deberle: Le viaduc de la Rivoire (Isère). Une construction anticipée pour faciliter la circulation de chantier (The Rivoire viaduct [Isère] Anticipatory construction in order to facilitate the movement of site traffic). Duflot. Frantz. Paulik: Le pont du Vecchio en Corse (The Vecchio Bridge in Corsica) (January 2000) . Richard. P. Picard: Le viaduc de Limay.[MAG 97] H. B.Vincent: A39 . G. Magnon-Pujo. J. G.Le viaduc de Castres (A major structure over the Agout – the Castres viaduct) (February 1998) . Yvelines (The Limay viaduct.[QUI 98] D. Combault. Zanker: La réparation du pont de Châlons-en-Champagne (The repair of the Châlons-enChampagne bridge (April 1999) .[RIC 96] D. Oudin-Hograindleur: Passerelle tournée sur l’autoroute A4 à Noisy-le-Grand (Rotated footbridge on the A4 highway at Noisy-le-Grand) (April 1995) . B.Les viaducs sur le Doubs et la Loue (A39 Highway – viaducts over the Doubs and the Loue) (February 1998) .Y. Lefebvre. H. Doguet: Un grand ouvrage sur l’Agout .Jouves.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . Perez: Confortement par précontrainte additionnelle du pont de la Seudre en Charente-Maritime (Reinforcement of the Seudre bridge in the Charente-Maritime by additional prestressing) (February 1998) . Creppy. Quivy. L.M. Maire: Le pont de l’île du Prince-Edouard (The Prince Edward Island Bridge) (July and August 1996) / . Desgagne. Ph. Y. J. V. J.J.[RIC 93] C.

G.[VIO 93] P. Guio. Tavakoli.[POR 01] T. B.[LAC 02] J. Rosset: Le viaduc sur la Medway (The Medway viaduct) (December 2001) .[DEM 01. E. Demare. V. L. D. Combault.M.Le viaduc de la Dordogne (A10 Highway – The Dordogne viaduct) (January 2000) . de Matteis: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (January 2001) .[COM 93] J. Charlon. G.M.[CON 91] E. S. Giacomelli. Outteryck. Abel-Michel. P.[CAY 01] F. Duviard. T. J.R Viailon: Le pont sur le Bras de la Plaine (Ile de la Réunion): un ouvrage d’exception dans un site grandiose (The bridge over the Bras de la Plaine [Reunion Island]: an exceptional structure in a magnificent setting) (January 2002) . Dewilde. D.Tanis. Lacaze. Jaeger.1] A.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . M. D. Grèzes. Blanchi.R Chuniaud. Jamet. Flourens: Le pont de la corniche à Dole. Sandre: A89 . E. de nouveaux plis dans le Jura (The Corniche bridge at Dole. Portefaix. Giacomelli. Lecointre. P. E. Boutonnet: Kingston Bridge à Glasgow (The Kingston Bridge in Glasgow) (December 2001) . Primault: A10 . Lefaucheur: Ferraillage passif des bossages (Non-prestressed reinforcement of anchor blocks) (January 1992) . R Chatelard. C. G. C.[BAR 93] R Barras: La réparation du pont de Blagnac: études. Marraci: Conception de la réhabilitation du pont de Saint-André-de-Cubzac (Design of the renovation of the Saint-André-de-Cubzac bridge) (November 2001) .[ABE 91] H. F. Cote: Un nouveau viaduc ferroviaire dans les nouveaux territoires de Hong Kong (A new railroad viaduct in the New Territories of Hong Kong) (December 2001) . J.[LEC 92] D. B. Cayron.[CHU 02] J. D. Demare. Vacher: Le pont sur la rivière Saint-Denis à la Réunion (The bridge over the SaintDenis river on Reunion Island) (July 1991) . new undulations in the Jura) (March 1993) .[JAE 00] J. projet et suivi des travaux (Repair of the Blagnac bridge: studies.[DEW 01] V.J. D.[BOUT 01] L. Roude.Vion: L’exécution du pont de Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Construction of the Villeneuve-sur-Lot bridge) (July 1993) . C.Le viaduc du Pays de Tulle (A89 Highway – The Pays de Tulle viaduct) (January 2002) . Ferez: L’exécution du pont d’Arcins (The construction of the Arcins bridge) (July 1991) .[GIA 01] D. Menuel. Vesval. E.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: La grande travée au-dessus du fleuve est achevée (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: The large span above the river is finished) (February 2002) Sétra Bulletin ouvrages d’art . JJ.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au sud de Strasbourg: Les travaux sont commencés (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: Work has begun) (May 2001) . design and monitoring of work) (November 1993) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 287 septembre 2007 . Nunez. Conti. Dallot. Barlet. L.[DEM 02] A.

[DEM 01. Demare. Delfosse.[GIL 93] G.[PER 94] G. Gillet: Contournement de Marvejols: les viaducs du Piou. G.[JEH 94] J. Ferez. Lefevre: Pont de Tanus. F. Bouchon.3] E. Goyet: Le pont sur la Truyère à Garabit (The bridge over the Truyère at Garabit) (November 1993) . Godart. Gachiteguy.[DAL 00] F. G. B. G.[REl 94] J. Canitrot. J.[TAV 00] F. les effets du vent (Wind effects on the Tanus Bridge) (November 1994) . Demare.[JAC 96] R Jacquet: Le viaduc de Rogerville sur l’autoroute A29 (The Rogerville viaduct on the A29 highway) (July 1996) . Palacci. des fléaux sous haute surveillance (The Viaur viaduct: cantilevers under close surveillance) (March 1998) . Reinhard: Le Pont de la corniche à Dole (The Corniche Bridge at Dole) (November 1994) . Froissac. Dallot.Tavakoli: Passage à l’Euro(code) pour le second viaduc de Pont Salomon (Transition to the Eurocode for the second Pont Salomon viaduct) (August 2000) . D.Taimiot: Le renforcement du pont de Bergerac (The reinforcement of Bergerac bridge) (July 1994) . P.[GOD 00] B. de Matteis.Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: études de faisabilité des BHP (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: HPC feasibility studies) (March 2001) .[BAR 98] P. B.C.3] A.J.[BOU 94. L.A.[DEM 01. Dewilde.Tavakoli: Modélisation STl d’un pont construit par encorbellements successifs (STL modeling of a bridge built by the cantilever method) (November 1996) .Viossanges: Le viaduc du Viaur. Rioulong and Planchette viaducts) (July 1996) . Tavakoli: Renforcement du pont sur la Saône à Lyon (Reinforcement of the bridge over the Saône in Lyon) (December 2000) . Bouvy.L. Barras: Réparation de l’ouvrage sur le quai Deschamps à Bordeaux (Structural repair on the Quai Deschamps in Bordeaux) (August 1998) . Gillet. D. J. Gernigon. Ferez: Renforcement par précontrainte extérieure (Reinforcement via external prestressing) (November 1994) .2] A. G.[DEL 94] G.[TAV 96] F.[GAC 98] R. du Rioulong et de la Planchette (The Marvejols By-pass: the Piou.Jehan. Paulik: Le pont sur le Vecchio (The bridge over the Vecchio) (December 1998) . Bernard: La démolition du pont de Beaucaire sur le Rhône (Demolition of the Beaucaire bridge over the Rhône) (July 1994) .[PAU 98] L.M.[GIL 96] G. Tréffot: Second pont sur le Rhin au Sud de Strasbourg: des piles et des fondations profondes dans le fleuve pour résister aux séismes et aux chocs de bateaux (Second bridge over the Rhine to the south of Strasbourg: piers and deep foundations in the river to resist earthquakes and impacts from boats) (June 2001) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 288 septembre 2007 .Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide . V. Divet: Une nouvelle réaction de gonflement interne des bétons: la réaction sulfatique (A new internal swelling reaction in concrete: ettringite formation) (May 2000) . B.

Le Faucheur: Cumul des aciers de cisaillement et des aciers de flexion (Cumulation of shear and flexion reinforcements) (July 2002) Bulletin des laboratoires des ponts et chaussées . G. the example of the Ondes bridge) (January-February 1998) . Schaefer. F. application des techniques de tôles collées et de précontrainte additionnelle (Structural repair and reinforcement of buildings and civil engineering structures) (February 1992) Techniques de l’ingénieur .[REN 00] Ing. PhD: Attraversando la baia di Narragansett.[ITA 99] Ing.[SMI 97] Dennis R. 458 di Casalborgone (Torino) (July-August 2000) The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 289 septembre 2007 . Divet: État des connaissances sur les causes possibles des réactions sulfatiques internes au béton (Extent of the understanding of the possible causes of ettringite formation in concrete) (July-August 2000) Annales de l’I TBTP . Brein. Le Mestre: Risque de développement de réactions sulfatiques dans les pièces en béton de grande masse. la costruzione del ponte Jamestown .E. Virlogeux: Analyse de quelques problèmes spécifiques du calcul des ponts construits par encorbellements successifs (Analysis of certain problems specific to the design of bridges built by the cantilever method) (February 1981) . Marco Renga: Il ponte di Chivaso sulla S.[ROS 00] Marco Rosignoli: Ponti in C. F Guerrier.[GEO 96] J. J.E. le cas du pont d’Ondes (Risk of the development of ettringite formation in massive concrete parts.Mise en œuvre (Hydraulic concrete – Application) (May 1996) P CI JOURNAL .[SCH 95] J. Poineau.A. Geoffray: Le béton hydraulique . Cusin: Réparation et renforcement des structures de bâtiments et d’ouvrages d’art. Schlaich. J.[DIV 98] L. Jennewein: Temperature induced deformations in match cast segments (July-August 1995) .Smith.[ROB 97] C.Verrazzano (mars 1997) .[VIR 81] M. Kregle: Towards a consistent design for structural concrete (May-June 1997) Revue l’Industria italiana del cemento ( IIC ) . Theillout. M. Divet. Rhodes Island USA.[POI 92] D. ad anime reticolani (May 2000) . Salvatore Giuseppe Italiano: II ponte sul fiume Ticino nei pressi di Pavia (January 1999) .M.[DIV 00] L. K.[LEF 02] D.Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide .P.S.L. M. Roberts-Woolman.

Prestressed concrete bridges built using the cantilever method – Design guide The “Les outils” collection – Sétra Page 290 septembre 2007 .

Photographers: XXXXXXA compléter par l'auteur The Sétra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) © 2007 Sétra . detailed design. preparation of the invitation to tender. consulting engineers or technicians.equipement. each of the ten chapters covers one of the stages in the development of these types of structures: preliminary design. etc. works inspectors and architects) in addition to teachers specialising in civil engineering. construction managers. This technical guide is intended for engineers and architects involved in designing. calculating and verifying concrete bridges built by the cantilever method. calculations. This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Sétra website: http://www. construction. Highly informative and lavishly illustrated.fr Cover . Thanks to its comprehensive coverage of the subject.Reference: XXXX .This guide provides a highly detailed description of the design and construction of prestressed concrete bridges built by the cantilever method.ISRN: XXXX The Sétra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST) . this guide will be of interest to anyone involved in the design and construction of bridges built by the cantilever method (project managers.setra. maintenance. monitoring of works.gouv.

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