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What do we want to achieve in our mathematics le ssons?
In solving this questions we will on one hand solve the questions of aims & objectives and also answer or enlighten ourselves on the importance of mathematics in our day to day life. These were the questions which I asked myself in joining the career of a mathematics teacher. In fact they are good ques tions which all teachers should ask themselves from time to time in their daily practice. Different teachers may have different answers to these questions. Some possible answers to first question are: Mathematics is important and useful in our daily life , Mathematics is the basics for other subjects such as science and engineering , Mathematics help us develop logical thinking and Mathematics help us find the right way to solve problems . Some even says, I like mathematics, so I would like to help my st udents appreciate the subject. Each of these answers suggests a reason for the importance of mathematics or school mathematics in the teachers mind. Neve rtheless, each answer is only a partial answer to the question. To look for a comprehensive answer, we inevitably need to addre ss the question why mathematics is essential in our world. There is little argument on the position of Mathematics as a part of the school curriculum. Understanding mathematics is an important part of understanding our world. The subject and its applications in science, commerce and technology are important if students are to understand and appreciate the relationships and patterns of both number and space in their daily life and be able to express them clearly and concisely. It will also help students to develop their capacity of reasoning so that they will think more logically and independently in making ration al decisions. It is recommended therefore that all students should take Mathematics. In less than 100 words, the writer of the document explains the power of mathematics in terms of many facets: understanding the world around us, a service subject to other disciplines and developing students capacity of reasoning, thus providing a guarantee for the essential position of mathematics in the school curriculum. Subsumed in these lines are the promises stated in the aims of the mathematics curriculum which answer the
addition. There are no ways to arouse their interest in the subject. how to help students appreciate the power and existence of mathematics around us is indeed important. the ability to manipulate numbers.second question what we want to achieve in our mathematics lessons. Any person ignorant of it is easily cheated counting. However. It has become the basis of world s entire business and commercial system. workplaces or daily life in a technological and information-rich society. If there are neither mathematics lessons nor homework. My pupils are Band five. measuring. division. weighing. a positive attitude towards mathematics and the capability in appreciating the aesthetic nature and cultural aspect of mathematics. notation. His own conviction enables him to convince the students. To enable students to cope confidently with the mathematics needed in their future studies. In a practical society such as Hong Kong. Very few people would query these tautology statements till one teacher commented honestly. Reasoning in mathematics possesses certain characteristics which are suitable for the training of learner s mind. the curriculum aims at developing students : y The ability to conceptualize. They never use mathematics in their daily life. symbols and other mathematical objects. selling. inquire. It develops reasoning and thinking powers more and demands less from memory. Every teacher of mathematics needs to be informed and convinced about the educational values of his subject. it is not difficult to conv ince that they usually use very little mathematics. multiplication. loving are fundamental processors of mathematics having immense practical value. It is exact time and point knowledge and therefore creates discipline in the mind. they will probably not be aware of the existence of mathematics at all. parents and the society. spatial sense and a sense of measurement as well as the capability in appreciating structures and patterns. Such an outcry speaks the frustration in many teachers mind. b) Disciplinary value It trains and disciplines the mind. reason and communicate mathematically. These are: - . it unnecessarily misleads people to follow the argument that the power of mathematics can be explained by its daily life usage only. and to use mathematics to formulate and solve problems in daily life as well as in mathematical contexts. subtraction. the number sense. symbol sense. If we examine the daily routine of students. These are as under:a) Practical value He cannot do without learning how to count and calculate.
but also to know how to learn facts. When the child has a new or a different mathematical problem. engineering. Mathematics is the mirror of civilization . surveying. It helped man to overcome difficulties in the way of his progress. This practice in originality enables the child to face new and challenging problems with confidence. navigation. medicine. They acquire the power to think effectively. 2) Characteristic of Accuracy Accurate reasoning thinking and judgment are essential for its study. discovery and judgment of the child. Ability to apply knowledge to new situations is inculcated in students. The student can verify his result by reverse process. He develops faith in self-effort which is the secret of success in life. reasoning. Accuracy. one must have a firm grip over the situation. 6) Characteristic of verification of results Results can be easily verified. 8) Application of knowledge Knowledge becomes real and useful only when the mind is able to apply it to the new situations. C) Cultural Value It is said. while undertaking a task. reproduction and cramming of ideas of others is not very much appreciated. and contribution of mathematics in their advancement cannot be undermined. It is possible for the child to remove his difficulty by self-effort and to be sure of the removal. . The discovery or establishment (derivation) of a formula or conversion of formula in one form to another is also his original work. exactness and precision compose the beauty of mathematics 3) Characteristic of certainty of results The answer is either right or wrong. road-rail building etc. confidence and pleasure. The main thing is not the acquisition of knowledge but the acquirement of the power of acquiring knowledge. This gives a sense of achievement. 7) Power not knowledge In this ever advancing society the important thing is not only to learn facts. Before starting with the solution of the problem. the student has to grasp the whole meaning. The modern civilization owes its advancements to the progress of various occupations such as agriculture. Similarly in daily life. It inculcates the habit of self-criticism and self evaluation. It generates the otherwise latent powers of thinking. 5) Characteristic of similarity to the reasoning of life Clear and exact thinking is as important in daily life as in mathematics. industry. Subjectivity or difference of opinion between the teacher and the taught is missing. it is only his originality which keeps him going. The prosperity of man and his cultural advancement have depended considerably upon the advancement of mathematics.1) Characteristic of simplicity it teaches that definite facts are always expressed in simple language which are alway s easily understand. 4) Characteristic of originality Most work in mathematics demands original thinking.
3. Utilitarian aim. 5. 8. Aesthetic aim. Self-reliance. Vocational Value. Mathematics is also a pivot for cultural arts. 7. 12. 4. Adjustment aim. 2. poetry and paining. Inter-disciplinary aim. Attitude of Discovery. These are: 1. Vocational aim. 6. 2.Therefore mathematics shapes culture as a play back pioneer. Apart from these three major values. Moral aim. Social aim. Cultural aim. Quality of hard work. such as music. 4. sculpture. Understanding of popular literature. Some of the important aspects of cultural heritage have been preserved in the form of mathematical knowledge only and learning of mathematics is the only medium to pass on this heritage to the coming generations. which is of equal importance. Moral Value. 9. 6. International Value. Development of concentration. Disciplinary aim. . there are few other values. 5. 7. 3. Social value. In addition to these major and fundamental values. Art of economical living. Power of expression. II Aims & Objectives of Teaching Mathematics: a) Aims of Teaching Mathematics: 1. Intellectual Value. 10. International aim. Self-education aim. 1. Aesthetic Value. Educational preparation aim. 2. 3. 4. 6. 5. it has other fundamental values like : 1.
Development of powers aim. 1. e) He understands and expresses the formula in the form of a diagram and through various other substitutions. Application objectives. c) He understands and describes the relation ship between the two sides of the above equation. b) He recognizes the meanings of the formula in hand. c) d) e) He can verify its accuracy by various substitutions. 14. b) He can prove its substituted versions. 4.13. 1. He can establish relationship between the two formulae: (a+b)2= a2+b2+2ab and . 3. To illustrate these objectives let us take one particular learning unit (a-b)2 = a2+b2-2ab. 2. d) He understands the relationship between this formula and formulae learnt earlier. b) Objectives of Teaching Mathematics: 1. He can draw a diagram to represent the formula. Skill objectives. Harmonious development aim. Skill objectives: a) He can prove the formula by multiplication. Knowledge and understanding objectives. Knowledge and understanding objectives : a) The student recalls the knowledge of algebraic multiplication and squaring. 5. Appreciation and interest objectives. Attitude Objectives.
c) d) He can locate the life situations where the formula may be applicable. d) e) He appreciates the recreational value of the formula. f) He develops interest for learning more and more about the formula and its applications. III) Methods of Teaching Mathematics: The methods of teaching mathematics are: a) Lecture Method. b) Dogmatic Method.(a-b)2 = a2+b2-2ab 1. 1. b) He appreciates the application of the formula in promptly solving the relevant problems. c) He appreciates the use of this formula in learn other topics and branches of mathematics. Attitude objectives: a) He proves the formula through systematic steps and objective reasoning. 1. Appreciation and interest objectives: a) He appreciates the nature of the formula. He can construct his own problems based on the formula. b) He solves relevant problems with confidence. c) d) He develops curiosity for the use and application of the formula. b) He can work out the geometrical proof of the formula. He demonstrates originality and creativity. Application Objectives: a) He can solve new problems independently by applying the formula. . He appreciates various diagrammatic and other versions of the formula.
Analytic Synthetic Method. 2. The teacher can teach the topic at his own speed. He should mostly face the black board. When to apply:- a) When the number of students in a class is very large. Problem Method. b) When heavy syllabus is to be covered in a short time. The steps of the solution of a problem are brought home to the students who then follow them in minutest details. The model or pattern as presented and advocated by the teacher or the book is to be strictly adopted and imitated by the learner. Procedure The teacher prepares his talk at home and pours it out in the class. what to observe how to attempt and what to conclude. Lecture Method:1. This is defective. Heuristic Method. Conclusion The Method neither suits the subject nor the learner. b) Dogmatic Method It is based on some dogmas:I) Procedure: The rules and formulae are given to the class to cram. He works out the model sums on the black board and the pupils have merely to follow the patterns. Laboratory Method. There is no student participation in learning process. Topical Method. The teacher tells the pupils what to do. Most of the time his face is towards the class and the back is towards the blackboard.c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) a) Inductive Deductive Method. . It goes against the independent and original thinking of the learner. He may not even write anything on the black board simultaneously or may not even argue a point with the listeners by cross questioning. listen attentively and try to catch the point. All the students are provided with an equal opportunity to listen and learn. The teacher s voice is heard clearly even in farthest corner of the class room. Concentric Method. The students sit silently. Project Method. He need not adjust his speed to the learning speed of the students.
The happy combination of the tw o is most appropriate and desirable. if popularized. There are two major parts of the process of learning of a topic viz. . b) At the revision stage. The min d of the student is stuffed with information and the understanding of the subject finds no place there. Probability in induction is raised to certainty in deduction. Let them construct and measure the alternate and corresponding angles in each case. Conclusion Inductive method is a predecessor of deductive method. the alternate angles are equal . It promotes skill efficiency and speed in the solution of problems. Conclusion This method suits neither the child nor the subject. c) Inductive. Deduction is a process particularly suitable for a final statement. he solves a number of problems on the black board. Thus they can conclude that the sum of the angles of a triangle=180. They solve them on the same lines as have been explained by the teacher. Procedure: Immediately after announcing the topic for the day. Then a few problems are given to the students. the learner proceeds from general to particular. Here. and induction is most suitable for the exploration of new fields. which means proving a universal truth by showing that if it is true for a particular case and is further true for a reasonably adequate number of cases. Procedure It may be illustrated by some examples: Ask students to draw a few sets of parallel lines. II) Deductive Method It is opposite of inductive method. To explain further the application of the formula to problems. how the formula could be used or applied. with two lines in each set. This conclusion in a good no. the teacher gives relevant formula. They will find them equal in all cases. Ask students to construct a few triangles let them measure and sum up the angles in each case.II) When to apply:- a) It can be adopted with advantage at a stage when pupils are adequately advanced in mental development. The students comes to understand.Deductive Method: I) Inductive Method It is based on induction. abstract to concrete. energy and a good deal of loose or useless thinking. The sum will be same in all cases. this method will cause stagnation in teaching. it is true for all such cases. emphasis on rigour is most desirable and appropriate as it saves time. Therefore. formula to examples. of cases will enable them to generalize that the corresponding angles are equal. Any loss of time due to the slow speed of induction can be made up through the quick and time saving process of deduction.
Procedure Here the student is induced into discovering the solution of a problem all by himself. It involves finding out by the student by complete self-activity. In practice the success of this method depends on good questioning. d) Heuristic Method Here the child is put in the place of discoverer. Questioning has to replace telling in the class room. Then thinking further steps and possibilities which may connect the unknown with the known and find out the desired result. He should let the child be his own teacher. he guides. Conclusion:--At school. The teacher is only a passive observer. Start with what is to be found out.establishment of formula. The teacher s presence in the classroom should mean something. prove that (ac-2b2 )/b= (c2-2bd)/d The unknown part is (ac-2b2 )/b= (c2-2bd)/d is true. . I) Analytic Method It proceeds from unknown to known Analysis means breaking up of the problem in hand so tha t it ultimately gets connected with something obvious or already know. the teacher may guide the students to discover by framing them carefully and well-graded manner which will ultimatel y lead them to the discovery. if a c d 2 b2 d = b c2 if a c d = b c2 is true. It is in reality a scientific and psychological method of learning. When to apply May be applied when the number of students are less as it requires individual attention to each child. e) Analytic-Synthetic Method:. if a d = b c is true 2 b2 d is true. The learner no longer listens. and also se e that his difficulties are removed in time. The teacher no longer teaches. Thus teaching should begin with induction and end in deduction . He is not to behave as indifferent on-lookers. The former is the work of induction and the latter is the work of deduction. and application of that formula. Procedure: Example: If a/b=c/d. use of extreme form of this method is out of question. he finds. In its normal form. but his presence is to inspire and stimulate the learners.These two methods are applicable in combination. Understand it in ductively and apply it deductively.
(ac 2 b2)/b = (c2 -2 b d ) / d Conclusion They should go together. Here one proceeds from known to unknown. desirable and practical. It makes the subject interesting as it combines play and activating. construction of an angle.g. quadrilateral. This method should be a must where circumstances favour.. construction of a triangle. Analysis help in understanding and synthetic helps in retaining knowledge.that is. f) Laboratory Method It is more elaborated and practical form of the inductive method. which is known. The construction work in geometry is on the whole a laboratory work e. the drawing of a line. Some of them have been recommended for use some have been disapproved and some have been recommended for use with caution. The other methods which are not generally practical in schools are not discussed for obvious reasons. General Comments:. Conclusion It is a difficult and lengthy method. but can prove exceedingly profitable if properly employed. It starts with something already known and connects that with the unknown part of the statement. Out of all the available methods. every teacher has to . if a/b = c/d is true. The teacher should realize that he may offer help for the a nalytic form of the solution and that he synthetic work should be left to the pupils. When to apply Especially in lower classes the introduction of this work is more essential. It is a process of putting together known bits of information to reach the point where unknown information becomes obvious and true Procedure Consider the above example. parallelogram etc.A number of methods of teaching have been discussed.. II) Synthetic Method It is opposite of analytic meted. The known part is a/b=c/d Subtract 2b/c on both sides (But why and how the child should remember to subtract 2b/c and not any other quantity) a/b 2b/c = c/d 2b/c or. (ac 2 b2)/b c = (c2 -2 b d ) / c d or. all involve the use of some equipment and so their nature is that of laboratory work.
No doubt he will stick largely to his favorit e method but he should occasionally introduce a new method in his method. The inductive-deductive combination will be more suitable in case of arithmetic and algebra whereas analytic-synthetic will find greater application in plane geometry. he should bring in a different method just for the sake of change Reference: y Curriculum Development Committee. Whatever method he adopts. Preferably he will adopt heuristic approach as an overall procedure in teaching. an amalgam of all the known qualities. the heuristic approach should always be made to prevail. (1993). His method will be his own individualized and personalized method. trigonometry and solid geometry. Even the best of the methods will become monotonous with continuous use. Hong Kong. A good mathematics teacher should not depend on just one method. He will be a master of every method in the real sense. which is the result of his rich and varied experience in teaching. He will give maximum opportunity of participation to the students and will impose himself the least on the class room work. He will keep his knowledge of all the methods up to date and will exploit their qualities to the maximum while reducing their short comings to the minimum. but he should try to imbibe the good qualities of all the methods and should so improve his command over them that he can even make the best out of the worst. Hong Kong. he will evolve his own method and will formulate a teaching style of his own. . The teacher need not stick to the same method always. Syllabus for secondary schools: mathematics (secondary 1 5).make his own choice. With the passage of time. When he finds that the students are showing lack of interest towards the best method being adopted by him. Hong Kong. It will have to be made in a rational way keeping in view the facilities available and the nature of the work to be done. The teacher will keeps himself on the right side of every method. Guide to the Secondary 1 to 5 Curriculum. (1999). His method must carry in it some variety and newness in order to sustain interest. The twin combinations of analytic-synthetic and inactive-deductive methods are recommended as his day -to-day methods. His method . His method will be pupil-dominated method. Spoon-feeding has to be completely avoided. will obviously carry the stamp of his individuality. Hong Kong. y Education Department.
382 pages .html#ixzz16wfcUBge y The teaching of mathematics Kulbir Singh Sidhu .Education .y articlesbase.com/writing-articles/the-teaching-of-mathematics1058849.1984 .
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