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Title: To what extent does colour influence the purchase of clothing? The case of Zara
Supervisor: Dr. Ghalib Fahad
A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Masters in Business Administration (Marketing) of University of Wales Cardiff (UWIC)
By Alice Kichiku Jorry
Date: 31st July, 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS: PAGE Title............................................................................................................................................1 Abstract......................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgement......................................................................................................................3
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research content..................................................................................................................4 1.2 Nature of the problem..........................................................................................................5 1.3 Aims and objective of the study..........................................................................................6 1.4 Significance of the research study.......................................................................................7 1.5 Organization of the study....................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................9 2.2 School of thought on colour...............................................................................................9 2.3 Meaning of colour to consumers.......................................................................................10 2.4 Consumer preference in colour..........................................................................................11 2.5 Consumer choice of products............................................................................................12 2.6 Consumer perception of colours........................................................................................12 2.7 Understanding different attributes of colour.....................................................................13 2.7.1 2.7.2
Cultural differences..............................................................................13 Gender differences...............................................................................14
2.8 Psychology of colour.........................................................................................................14
CHAPTER 3: OVERVIEW OF ZARA
3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................16 3.2 History of the Company................................................................................................... 16 3.3 Competitive advantage of the Company...........................................................................21 3.4 Market share and the growth of the Company..................................................................23
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................27 4.2 Research Methodology......................................................................................................27 4.3 Research approach.............................................................................................................28 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3
Positivism.........................................................................................................28 Phenomenology................................................................................................29 Realism.............................................................................................................29
4.4 Categories of Research......................................................................................................30 4.4.1 Exploratory Research.......................................................................................30 4.4.2 Descriptive Research........................................................................................31 4.5 Primary Data......................................................................................................................33 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4
Observation..........................................................................................34 Interview...............................................................................................34 Questionnaire.......................................................................................35 Sampling...............................................................................................35
4.6 Secondary Data..................................................................................................................37
4.7 In-depth Interview.............................................................................................................39 4.8 Case Studies.......................................................................................................................39 4.9 Focus group discussion......................................................................................................39 4.10 Reliability and Validity................................................................................................41 4.11 Limitation of the study.................................................................................................42
CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
5.1 Introduction....................................................................................................44 5.2 Data Analysis.................................................................................................44 5.3 Findings.........................................................................................................45 5.4 Discussion of the findings.............................................................................50
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
.......................................3 Suggestions for future study Research.............................Hennes and Mauritz GAP..........Strength..2 Recommendations....................................................................United States of America UAE.......55 6....6....................................... Weaknesses...Genuine American Product C& A-Camden and Amboy Railroad SWOT.............56 REFERENCES.................................. Opportunity and Threats Q-Question UK-United Kingdom USA.......57 Abbreviations H& M.The United Arab Emirates 4 ...................
Title To what extent does colour influence the purchase of clothing? The case of Zara Store 5 .
The study revealed that colour stimulates interest and subsequently increase the buying power of products.Abstract This Research study analyse the influence of colour on clothes purchase especially to female consumers. The study was conducted in UK mainly in London. Since addition of colour can stimulate consumers choice. Further more from the consumers’ point of view. The collection of data was done by including both examination of secondary and primary data. It was found that colours draw attention to consumers as a result of the linkage in both physical properties of the product and behavioural qualities. it was found that colours of the apparel product not only take into consideration the physical 6 . whereby the sample of 21 female consumers were involved in focus group discussions to reveal the colour influence on clothes purchase.
appearance of the product and the functional behavioural qualities but more importantly the behavioural qualities. therefore it should be an integral part of the retailer to formulate various strategies. and Mrs. since colour is in the eye of the consumer. Mr. I am sincerely thankful to my parents. 7 . Therefore formal qualities such as colour. lines and others of inside and outside of the store as well as the layout and visual merchandizing should be able to spell out consumers sensory and emotional of the aesthetic experience for the colour that the female consumer is looking for. Ghalib Fahad for the intellectual guidance and comments that made this work possible. It was not the work of an individual person rather a group of people. On top of that sensory. Siriaki Jorry for granting me full sponsorship. First and foremost the researcher wishes to thank God for the good health and sound mind during the period of the study in UK. I appreciate full support of my supervisor Dr. Acknowledgements: This dissertation is a combination of many things. textures. emotional and cognitive dimensions of the aesthetic experience play a major role when female consumers’ asses colour of the apparel product. It was suggested that. consumers should be able to see the colour even before they entered the store. The researcher would like to thank the following for their support and wonderful contribution.
I would like to thank my lecturers. love.080 stores in 33 countries from Japan to Venezuela and it has strong domination in Europe and the USA in less than 30 years. I would like to thank my family in Tanzania especially my Father Mr. Zara has become an international fashion business with 1. Siriaki Jorry. From the mid 1990s those stores that usually dominated the market started to be beaten by the chains which offer special and latest designs at reasonable prices. Special thanks go to my boyfriend Gratis Gatema Dyegula.1 Research Context Fashion in the last thirty years has changed to be a mass market product from being of the few selected super-rich. my only brother Evarist and sisters Esther.In particular. Winnie. colleagues and my friends for the endless support and advice whenever I needed it. which is a subsidiary of the Spanish Inditex Group. One of these successful stores is Zara. Finally. care and encouragement. Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1. 8 . without forgetting my nephew Honest Evarist. my mother Mrs. for his immense support during my studies here in London. Honorina Mumba Jorry. Vicky and Brenda for their prayers.
demographic family. emotional and cognitive reactions towards apparel products. 1992) Dickerson 2003. opinion reader. system thinking and culture. consumers are definite connected to different lifestyle and colour which in return makes them to have a choice on the purchase of certain products or services instead of the other products or services offered. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Most factors include personal factors. During 1980’s and 1990’s consumers would buy fashionable clothing with substantial amount of money for a specific brand name. which has a major effect on consumer behaviour and purchasing decision. an individual needs and motivation tends to be different when an individual moves up the hierarchy. According to Fiore and Kimle 1997. it sells 90 million garments and its turnover in 2001 was over $ 4 billion. interests. Consumers tend to be drowned out by sensory. Place and Promotion (the marketing mix). psychological factors. the results of these reactions originate from the formal qualities such as colour. social class. the 4Ps still have impact on consumer’s behaviour on the final outcome of the buyer and seller attraction. Frequently. points out that clothing industry find difficult more and more to satisfy the consumer. their decision making is influenced much by their personal experience and the external environment. reference groups. As it appears that consumer’s priorities have changed in the last decade. 9 . marketers can create some manner as the result of the buying process by using different marketing tools. This is beyond the marketer influence and control. but now consumers expect more for what they are prepared to pay. advertisements.In a year. Zara’s success is much based on market orientation. moral imagination. It is a concern of the consumer not to be evoked by functional quality of the fashioned item but to the whole of the sensory. Price. In general. the most common one being the 4Ps which are Product. Although the value of marketing mix as a toolkit is much challenged by marketing practitioners. lines and proportions of the certain items. Despite the marketers not being capable of influencing consumers on the above factors. It is necessary for the marketers to take into account the notion of colour so as to attract different market segments and target on the profit market. texture. emotional and cognitive satisfaction that will provide a complete aesthetic know how of the quality of the item (Fiore and Damhorst.
p. since they create socialization of the individual. Colour is a fundamental element of corporate and marketing communications.2 Nature of the Problem When looking at consumer’s choice on products. it is a complicated thing which varies all the time. The aim of this research will be to investigate how Zara stores offer different coloured and fashioned clothes and how consumers appeal to those coloured and fashioned clothes. no enough research has been done on how colours can influence clothes purchased by female consumers. packages and other marketing stimuli all have an affective response to the customers (Karders. develop self concepts and obtain fulfilment with the norms (Blackwell et al. Consumers are highly influenced by the reference groups as well. The marketers should make efforts in order to understand consumer’s choice so as to be successful. Colour tends to have an effective response which influences consumers. Many people see their family as “building road of their lives” and important to build relationship (Tan 1999.Individuals with high purchasing power are influenced much by the advertisements and models than low purchasing power consumers. Belk and Dholakia (1996) argued that it is important to understand the nature and origin of patterns of consumption at this emerging time. unfortunately. 243). consumers are increasingly getting into understanding of differences in colour when purchasing clothes. Consumers collect information about clothing and fashion and image they have about different colours. Colours used in advertisements. Families are seen to have major influence on the consumption-related behaviour such as clothing. more women now buy clothes not only on stores but also on the internet (Park and Stoel.398). It induces emotions and moods. 1. As clothing has become internationalised. Towards increasing of global 10 . influences consumer’s perceptions and behaviour and it helps companies position or differentiate from competition. With regard to this. 2002). 2002) Most consumers who are responsible for purchasing clothes for themselves and for their families seem to be women. p. Social class is influenced by the family in which they are raised.. The question still is: To what extent does colour influence the purchase of clothing as far as female clothing is concerned? Knowledge of the consumers about colour preferences and the factors that may influence the purchase of certain fashioned clothes could be used by retailers and marketers in the selection of products that they plan to offer and in promoting their sales.
3. So as to compete.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study After carefully identifying the problem in explanation given above. This research will enable other researchers to study more on the related topic or similar topic. from this aim there arises the following objectives: 1. on colour influences on clothes purchase 11 . 2. specifically to women who are highly connected to colour preferences and styles. many retailers and manufacturers adopt product strategies so as to capture customers.4 Significance of the Research Study At the end of this Research study there will be several significances obtained such as: The research will provide information to marketers and retailers on understanding the choice of consumers on clothes depending on different preferred colours. To recommend to the company on how to improve their business 1. This is why many researchers have been attracted towards looking at the current understanding of colour significance and characteristics without forgetting its effects on consumer choices. The influence of colour on consumer choice has attracted many marketers to look at it as an important marketing tool. To find out how Zara offer different patterns of coloured clothes. the marketers have failed to recognise the predictive power of colour on consumers decision (Garber et al. To date. Colour has been seen as one of the popular strategies which influence customers’ choice. They will get to know why and what colours are preferred most. To understand how consumers appeal to the colours when purchasing clothes. each market tends to satisfy its customers in a better way. To review on literatures on how colour influences clothes purchase. 4. 1. specifically colour attractiveness and colour preferences on UK female consumers’ clothes choices. 2000).changes which in turn contribute to an increase of competitive market. This study as a result seeks to understand the influence of colour. the main aim of this study will be to find out to what extent colour influence the purchase of clothes.
This chapter also measures the validity and reliability of the data collected and the shortcomings which were faced by the researcher during the research. Chapter 2: This chapter basically tries to look at different meanings of colour according to different schools of thoughts. Looking at the statement of the problem and the objectives of research which have been identified. On top of that. This basically aims at analysing the findings collected so as to know the extent to 12 . Chapter1: This chapter includes the introduction on the development of fashion industry in the UK which looks at the development of colours in clothes as well as how consumers tend to be attracted by different apparel products. This chapter also explains how Zara store has been running out its business in terms of the coverage of the stores it has and its turnover in the previous years of its business. the type of research adopted by the researcher and the tools used in the data collection. there consists of six main chapters. mainly the findings and analysis of the data collected are discussed. there is coverage of explanations and opinions to enable understanding of the subject matter. the competitors and the market share of the Industry at large. On the other side. there is fast development of fashion clothes in the UK with different colour patterns. encouraged the researcher to write this dissertation. In every chapter. 1. in the whole business arena that includes its history. that is Zara. Chapter 4: Consists of the methodology which explains the approach used by the researcher. designs and competitive prices. family influence. the chapter also looks at the discussion on how consumers appeal to different colours and how consumers are associated with different colours and meanings. psychological influence.In general.5 Organization of the Study In this study. As a result it is the aim of the research to look at the literature and to know whether it is culture influence. Chapter 3: This chapter represents general overview of the company. the research will help in providing out colours that will attract consumers and thereby increasing profit in the business and win out competitive market at large. Chapter 5: In this chapter. interests or advertisement that plays part on influencing consumers purchasing certain colours of clothes. This study aims at looking at the influence of colour on clothes purchase to female consumers.
Chapter 6: Consists of the conclusion and recommendations. the researcher wants to find out whether the findings answered the research objectives.1 Introduction This chapter will provide an overview of the general meaning of colour according to different schools and how consumers appeal to different colour of clothes according to different choice of products. The same applies to the research of the same topic or any related field in the near future. In addition. This will focus mainly on the factors that influence consumers to prefer certain type of clothes with certain colours and how consumers are associated with different colour perception and meaning.which they relate to the literature review. recommendations were made to companies that are engaged in the retail sector based on clothes Industry. Mainly. Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 13 .
1997). At the end. blue with tender-soothing. purple with dignified-stately. this would help us explain the different attributes that address colour in a wider perspective. Looking at two major schools of thoughts related to colour and human behaviour which will help the understanding and analysis of the psychological and socio-cultural associations and meanings of colour towards consumers purchase behaviour. literature and myths 2. understanding of clothing purchase behaviour will be analysed depending on this. red is often associated with exciting. In the first school which argues that. it is colour which signals the brain so that it triggers an effective reaction directly.3 Meanings of colour Colour tends to influence human behaviour and human physiology. 2. orange with distressed-disturbed-upset. Since colours are known to posses emotional and psychological properties hence meanings associated with different colours are important to marketers because they can be used by 14 . One school of thought relates colour and human behaviour. Ward.. the walls can be painted with different colours in the right place so as to make an exciting difference. 1976) or of learned or associative origin (Hupka et al.2 Schools of thought on colour As clothing purchase behaviour is much connected with the individual clothing interests.Lastly.stimulating. Colour reaction could be innate or instinctual origin (Humphrey. to some extent. 1995 suggested that if you want to lower stress at workplace. the chapter will look at responses which are much associated with conditioned and unconditioned stimulus and as the result would bring out conditioned response. while the other school argues that colour preferences are learned overtime as shared affective meanings or as a result of past experiences or as a conscious association in language. yellow with cheerful-joyful and black with powerful-strong-masterful. It has been noted that.
Peaceful. To a certain extent preferences in colour do not exist in vacuum. products like cars are preferred in blue. being the most worn colour worn for dressy occasions. calming. red. red and black. due to associations of people who learn the same culture. 15 . 1997). A number of studies imply that consumers can prefer certain colour over others depending on various product categories (Grossman and Wisenblit. vibrant. ferocious. 1999). A study conducted by Pantone (1992) found that the most well-liked colours for clothing were blue. On the other hand. In automobiles the most preferred colours are blue. gray. white and beige is preferred for carpeting upholstered furniture and paint (Mundell. violent Active.4 Consumers Preference on Colours Studies suggest that consumers may prefer certain colours over others depending on various product categories. still Meanings Red Colours Gold Black Blue passive Green White Orange Brown Yellow Purple 2. red and black with black being the most worn colour for classy occasions. preferences for colours may be determined based on cultural view.marketers to communicate the colour that best fits the image of the consumers (Schmitt and Simonson. A study done by Pantone (1992) found most popular colours for clothing include blue. gentle. Different cultures have associated different colours to different meanings Spectrum of colour meaning: A Hot. It has been seen that preference of colours on people differs depending on product and their favourite colour was self determining of these colours in particular contexts. 1999). colour preferences for certain objects or settings are dependent upon the situation and the necessary association people may have developed over time (Grossman and Wisenblit. cold. exciting. gray. 1993). Black.
and post-purchase behaviour. purchase. 2. assortments. upholstered furniture and paint (Mundell. 48) which are most likely influenced by cultural conventions and stereotypes. even when taste cannot be distinguished (Scanlon. 1993). The consumer can rely on the retailer for supports such as information. the person then gathers information and advice before entering a store and views the retailer more simply as a place of purchase. while light brown is preferred for carpeting. If the decisions are made independently. Demographics are easily identifiable and measurable population statistics. 1985). and green french fries”. knowledgeable sales personnel and market research over the entire decisions process. evaluation of alternatives. Factors that affect the process are consumer's demographics and lifestyles. The decision process has six steps: stimulus. In addition 16 . An experiment which was described by Clydesdale (1993) showed some participants who felt ill when a change in lighting conditions revealed to them that they were eating “blue steak. Children were shown to favour certain colours when choosing candies (Walsh et al. Some of the evidence which stress on those preferences among simple coloured stimuli does generalize (Crozier. They found that people's colour preferences differ depending on the product and their choice of colour was independent of these preferences. 1990) and adults of certain cultures prefered particular colours on cheese. 1999). what to buy in relation to where to buy.5 Consumer choice of products The consumer decision process consists of two parts: the process itself and the factors affecting the process. Holmes and Buchanan (1984) asked subjects to report their overall desired colour and they profiled colours for products such as automobiles. white and black. The retailer must really grasp the consumer's decision process from two different perspectives: a) what good or service the consumer is thinking about buying and b) where the consumer is going to make the purchase of that item. information search. red peas. problem awareness. The consumer can make these two decisions separately or jointly. Studying demographic and life-styles factors can identify consumer characteristics and needs. Life-styles are the ways in which consumers live and spend time and money. clothing and furniture.red. Taft (1997). showed that preferences among simple chips did match up well to actual object and are guided by what he called “generalized conceptions of colour-object appropriateness” (p.
trustworthy and dependable in China and good taste and adventure in the USA (Jacobs et al.. royal and trustworthy in China (Schmitt. progressive.. Japan and the USA (Jacobs et al. It is associated with envy and jealousy in Germany and Russia (Hupka et al. 2002). it stands for warmth. Japanese connect 17 . South Korea and Japan (Jacobs et al. 1991).. In Netherlands. It is a bride’s colour in China. the same blue colour is perceived as cold and evil in East Asia (Schmitt. what. trustworthy and dependable in the USA. 2002). but is related to anger and envy in Mexico and to sin and fear in Japan (Hupka et al. Black is associated with dullness and stupidity in India (Grossman and Wisenblit. sincere.. 1997).. 1991). where. which involves the process by which people determine whether. Nigeria and Germany. Korea.. good taste and adventure in Japan. It shows ambition and desire in India (Grossman and Wisenblit. Green represents danger or disease in Malaysia (Ricks.. South Korea and the USA (Jacobs et al. 2002). USA and New Zealand it symbolises happiness and purity (Neal et al. 1997).to identifying the characteristics of its target market. happy.. When considering cross-cultural meanings and relation that colours have to an individual denotes that white symbolises mourning or death in East Asia (Ricks. but a masculine colour in the UK and France (Neal et al. 1995). Korea and China. good taste. but is also a ceremonial dress for priests and justices and a dress of subservience for waiters and servants. the retailer should have an understanding of how customers make decisions. happiness.. Japan. whereas it means pleasant. It represents grief and sorrow in Western cultures. 1997). Blue means high quality. In The Netherlands.. 1991). Yellow represents warmth in the USA. 1983) and envy in Belgium and the USA (Hupka et al. but lucky in China. Blue. 2002). 1991). 1999). which is known to be American Corporate Colour. 2. Denmark and Argentina (Schmitt. authority. Purple is a colour of love in China. 1983) but in Australia. Purple is considered as expensive in China. Green denotes love.. 1995. 1999) and love in China. in Sweden it stands for coldness. The impact of colour on brand choice has been recognised by a number of scholars... but unfaithfulness in France (Neal et al. In Iran. it stands for death and in India it stands for purity (Schiffman et al. Chapman (1998). 1994). when. it denotes femininity and in Sweden and the USA it denotes masculinity (Neal et al. Neal et al. Red means unlucky in Chad. 2002). reports that colour are an underleveraged motivator of brand choice. This requires knowledge of consumer behaviour or choice.6 Consumers perception of colours. how and from whom and how often to purchase goods and services. 2001).
2. food/gendered product preference. gift shopping/ gift choices and gift exchange. 1993). 2. Gender identity was found to play a major significant role in areas such as.black with fear and it represents fear. 1991). Black is seen as powerful and expensive in the USA.1 Cultural differences Cultural differences are very important in understanding of consumer behaviour towards colours in clothing. Within these studies however there are conflicting results with respect to the relative importance of masculinity and femininity in explaining the findings. For instance. there is evidence to suggest the differences in the decisionmaking process between individuals. Women can spend a certain amounts of money and energy on clothing. 1997). anger and jealousy in Germany.. Japan and South Korea and also as dependable. patronage of the arts etc (Gainer. Mexico and the USA (Hupka et al. occasion and preference. Poland. Fischer and Arnold (1994) found femininity to be more important than masculinity in relationship to Christmas gift shopping.8 Psychology of Colour 18 . China. there is research evidence supporting decision-processing differences between men and women in financial decision making (Powell and Ansic. 1997). 2. It is important to document gender differences in colour impact on choice as there is currently no such empirical evidence (Worth et al 1992).7 Understanding the different attributes of colour 2. There are certain special criteria in selecting clothing.7. This tends to be particularly to women who have an interest in fashion and how to wear clothing. trustworthy and of high quality in China (Jacobs et al.7. including the relationship between gender identity and consumers’ perceptions of masculinity in products (Jaffee. Russia.2 Gender differences With regard to gender differences. In relation to consumer behaviour several issues have been examined.. Clothing is generally used to express oneself. as clothing can easily be altered by different fashion. 1991).
the desired insight could be within the reach. Thus the effect of colour should be considered as generalizations which require expert interpretations (Simons. shape and context use to identify things and any analysis will depend on a combination of all 3 factors. Loyalty and many forms of communication and symbolism should be used for the case of the vehicle purchase. media. this is the powerful resource that should be embraced by all in retail sector. mood and lastly satisfying consumer’s needs and desires. The main important issue is to create the environment whereby the shopper can recognize a one-to-one relationship with the store. Colour. in order to pinpoint what they really want by using combination of brain imaging and eye scanning technologies to delve into the mind of the shopper.It is very important for the stores to consider the psychology of colour to consumers so as to succeed. D.2002) Table 1: Different colours and its Effects to Consumers 19 . peer pressure. family. Research shows that it is colour which affects our moods and tends to manifest itself in the choices we make. gender roles. identity. it also includes impact of emotions. etc. symbols. The shopper psychology means interaction with the environment and brand in-store and consumer psychology includes environmental influences such as culture.
COLOUR RED EFFECTS Attention grabber denotes action. Has been known to raise the blood pressure in some cases. encourages reflection and logical thought. full of energy and vitality. intellectual. dignity (dark blue). sexy Fiery passion & physical enjoyment. Soothing (reddish pink). reassuring.1 Introduction 20 . 26 May 2001 Chapter Three OVERVIEW OF ZARA 3. physical comfort Sophistication Innocence. Earthly Contemplation Feminine. bees Relaxing and quiet (dark green). and passionate. the first colour the human eye notices. and it is for Health. Generally. has the tendency to make people spend less. perfect balance (no usual adjustment is needed to see it). cheerful. vibrant. optimism. can escalate the body’s metabolism. Homely. used for mental stimulation. strong masculine appeal and can be used to play down femininity. Relaxation (lighter shades) dark shades can be overpowering. increase self esteem but beware of overuse as this can howler the effect. Red has a tendency to make people spend more. Calming.has been known to lower blood pressure (light blue). combination of yellow background with black text has high memory retention and legibility (research by Pantone) Ego. the favourite colour of most adults and interestingly. stimulating & uplifting (bright green). powerful. Peace can be cold and sterile but adding units of silver and blue can bring warmth. sensual. it is the centre of colour spectrum. YELLOW BLUE GREEN BROWN VIOLET PINK ORANGE BLACK WHITE Source: ‘Psychology of colour’ Daily Mail. exciting.
Greece 1993 and Belgium and Sweden 1994. purchasing. This chapter is going to explain the history of Zara Store. as it has been the aim of many stores so as to attract the customers. Bershka. Inditex was established as the head of corporate group in 1985. They enjoy autonomy in the management of the business as the teams are free to make marketing decisions and they can act independently. All the companies share the same philosophy of marketing and management. In total of 34 countries. The Chief executive officer of the company (Inditex group) is Jose Maria Casslollano Rios who joined the company from IBM in 1984 (Inditex. textile manufacturing. it is often seen that consumers are attracted to certain display of colour patterns as well. Inditex continued to open other new international markets in the mid 1990’s: Mexico in 1992. 3. Pull and Bear.000 from abroad. Over the following decade Amancio Ortega Gaona expanded by opening various new stores.2 The History of the Company Zara is one of the European fashions Brand in the market. Zara which is part of apparel industria de Diseno textile. its competitors and its market share. 2003). 21 . Massimo Dutti. This group is best known for its Zara Brand but has got rather seven chains: Kiddy’s class.000 come from Spain and 15. S. Inditex was founded in 1963 by Amancio Ortega Gaona. This will help to understand how Zara store win its customers in the market. more than 34. This group has it’s headquarter located at Arteixo in Northwest of Spain. Expansion outside Spain took place in 1988 whereby a new store was opened in Portugal and later in New York 1989 and Paris 1990.After having a look at how consumers prefer certain colours in clothes and how they associate different meanings of colours according to different cultural background. The first shop was opened by the group in 1975 in La Coruna. Stradwarius. at present it is in more than 30 countries with about 600 corporate stores in most privileged sites in cities.A (Lereinafter Index) in a group that is made up of fashion retail chains. fabric treating and logistic and construction companies (Bresnick 2003). Spain. Oysho and Zara home.000 employees work for the group whereby 19.
Inditex was awarded a Global Retailer of the year during the first edition of the World Retail Congress which was attended by 1. In October 2007. In the same year. In Poland. Spain. Japan. In 2006. the group entered St. In January 2005. Qatar and Andora. Chile and Uruguay. Inditex marked its presence in several markets for the first time. In February 2007. the first stores were opened in Morocco and Hong Kong also in Tallin and Estonia. In 2002. During 2004. Poland. China. www. the group opened its first Zara store in Beijing. first store was opened in Malta and the following year it was opened in Cyprus. Jordan. In 1990 the group target the younger female market and new stores were opened in Argentina.Further growth was attained in 1995 as Inditex acquired the remaining shares of Massimo Dutti. UK. Other new stores were opened in four new countries in 2000 which included Austria. the second largest city in Russia by opening five stores. The group acquired Stradivarius in 1999 and opened new stores in countries including Netherlands. Kuwait and Turkey. Venezuela. Brazil. later on Norway and Israel joined. These include Serbia. Czech Republic and Italy. Mainland China and Tunisia. La Coruna. the group would control 17 stores of the chain directly. and Massimo Dutti Mexico entering the group. Spain started whereby a chain of stores operated by the group reached 72 stores in 2002. Petersburg. In January 2007. In the same year in March. Canada. the group acquire 98% of the Massimo Dutti Mexico into the agreement they entered. Saudi Arabia. the group began its activity in Puerto Rico. the construction work on the Zara logistic centre in Zaragoza. an agreement was reached to acquire the 51% stake in Zara franchisee. Ireland.com which would enable Zara customers to purchase Zara home products 22 .zarahome. UAE. Iceland. Denmark. Luxembourg.000 of the most relevant leaders within the retail industry. Zara Home. Germany. but before and after franchisee. The headquarters to the new building was installed which was located in Arteixo. The same year. The group was publicized in 2001 and listed itself in the Spanish Stock Market. Lebanon. commenced online trading through its website. Bahrain. Zara store was launched for the first time in Shanghai and Norway.
increase in labour costs in European region. UK. Portugal. Monaco. Denmark. In July 2008.000th store which is the Zara store located in Ginza. Ireland. The products offered online included an extensive catalogue of around 2.000 items from all the present lines in the Zara Home & Zara Home kids’ collections. Luxembourg. Madrid and Barcelona. La Coruna. Italy. Pull and Bear opened its first store in Liverpool. would adversely impact the group’s margin. Spain & Sweden. the group which is well established and has diverse offerings in its portfolio for retail spenders which help the group to carve a niche for itself in the global retail market. On top of that Inditex has been facing some challenges as well as having certain opportunities which can be summarized in SWOT analysis figure below. Belgium. However. Japan Inditex specialised in fashion retailing. UK.from fourteen European countries. Inditex opened its 4. Germany. Greece. . Netherlands. Uterque. In May 2008. In September 2007. Table 2: SWOT analysis for Zara Store: STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES 23 . the new format of the Inditex group specializing in fashion accessories launched its first stores simultaneously in three Spanish cities. France.
Strong product diversity Strong revenue growth Strong distribution network OPPORTUNITIES Expansion plans Growing apparel retail market in China Growing online sales in the UK Source: www.marketlineinfo.com
THREATS New avenue being utilized by
competitors Counterfeit goods Rising labour cost in European Region
By Zara belonging to the Group, which has expanded to over 30 countries, has given them high level of synergy in terms of organization and knowledge management thus each management can focus on its own development in the business. Inditex, is just incharge of the central corporate services such as international growth, administration, the use of logistics technology, the general human resource policy, legal aspects and financial capacity. Inditex group has unique management methods which are innovations and flexibility, which has turned Inditex into one of the world’s largest fashion groups. By Zara being an integrated retailer, this has been due to its culture which is more of a customer-oriented, has enabled Zara to have control over the entire production process, from design to sale. Development of a product from initial design stage to sale is set out and shows precisely how the Zara model is organised. In other Inditex store chains, the group’s presence in the production process is weighted differently, as Table 3 below shows.
Table 3: Fundamental presence of Inditex Stores:
Stores Spain 220
in Total stores 449
Source: Key Note (2007) In search of generating value for the customer, the company has managed to develop its own business concept, which is known as Zara Concept. The Zara Concept implies a change in how the business and the product are considered. Fashion products such as clothing, accessories and footwear have traditionally been considered a durable consumption article. Fashion has been considered to be a non- durable product by Inditex-Zara, with a sell-by period between three and four weeks. This principle permeates the whole organisation and is constantly pointed out as a key factor for success. What is important in the Zara organization is time, which is an essential factor in Zara’s processes. Everything is done to reduce the time between product design and availability for sale. As a result, Zara prolongs the time taken in the production cycle for each season. When the company has proved acceptance by the market an average of 85 per cent of goods are manufactured during the season when they are to be sold. Since this policy can also affects purchasing, production and logistics policies, and the behaviour of the entire organisation. As a result, market point of reference drives creation of particular sets of behaviour which, in turn, create value for the organisation. The fashion retail market is divided into a number of segments – luxury, high street, and supermarket/out-of-town discounter. Gannaway (1999) suggests that, “supermarkets are racing to make apparel an even smarter cash generator”. The entrance of supermarkets into the clothing market has increased competition and redefined how customers shop for clothing, with time-starved customers able to purchase cheap fashionable clothing as part of the weekly shop, rather than visiting the high street. Definitely, fast fashion is a growing phenomenon in the UK. Zara is a specialist fashion chain and an important example of a fast fashion retailer, with rapid stock turnaround and vertical integration. Indeed, Zara is credited with being a leader in fast fashion (Foroohar and Stabe 2005). However, contributing to Zara's success is its focus on a limited range and basic shapes, so that it deals with a rather narrow product range. However, fast fashion does not apply to the whole range in stores, and as much as 80% of goods may be core and basic lines, with fast fashion accounting for up to 20% (Mintel 2002)
3.3 Competitive advantage of the Company In today market, clothing industry is very competitive. One-brand stores chain like H&M and Zara in particular have a tendency to compete for the same customer profile. But at the same time companies must compete with local, national and international department stores, individual shops or boutiques, markets and companies operating sales by catalogue or on the internet (Mazaira 2003). Looking at Zara competitors which are the companies which distribute fashion and other products like El corte Ingl’es and Carrefour and on the other fashion companies like Gap, C& A, H& M, Benetton, Corlefiel, Mango & Adolfo Dominguez ( Inditex, 2003). This is shown in the table below. Table 4: Zara Competitors: Company Gap C& A H& M Source 2 2 2 Year 2000 1999 2000 Sales millions Number of Number pesetas 2,152,475 831,930 663,706 Stores 3676 444 682 Countries 5 10 14 of
Source: Key Note (2008) Zara’s sustainable competitive advantage, which materialises in the company’s ability for nonstop adaptation of its offering to consumer tastes, with short-term adaptation to changing trends.
This competitive advantage implies:
Its stores are stocked with different new articles several times a week. Customers recognise this and visit Zara stores continuously during the season. New market trends are brought into the stores in an agile, constant manner. The organisation is there full packed, and ability to respond to the market immediately.
It has been very hard for its competitive advantage to be copied by competitors. 2000): It is clear to customers who enter a Zara store and see something they like. customers know they have to buy it straight away. It originates in the company’s strong recognition with the values of market orientation and the Zara business concept. When seems to be unsuccessful products. The risk of accumulating of the failed products is done in the in-house. design and production functions. • Successful products are permanently stocked in the stores even during the sales period. since suppliers are concerned in selling off materials before the season ends up. even the interpretation of the coloured and fashioned tendencies is easily pointed out. An average of 10.000 products is being brought by Zara in the market each year. according to the words of the company executive. They are quick enough in search a way that it takes two weeks from product design to sale and only two weeks pass by for repeat orders or slight changes and it takes five weeks for new products. and store is now capable of only placing small orders to avoid building up stocks. • • Further. Zara studies the existing market price of a particular product and establishes a price point below the lowest for like competitor price. They design their own offering and they produce to meet this price point. because its success is not simply a technical issue. Traditional pricing uses a “cost plus margin” calculation. The information is immediately fed to purchasing. It is the work of the design team throughout the season to study everything from which clothes are worn in and hit TV series to how clubbers dress.This is a very crucial factor in a changing sector. Market information also drives Zara’s pricing. continuous change in the stores’ products achieves a scarcity-opportunity feeling (Herreros. they are straight away taken off the market. Information gathering drives this extraordinary offering. “Product-shop teams” check product sales and store trends every day and this information is crosschecked against stores’ twice-weekly orders. because it probably won’t be there next week. Purchasing late in the season has positive effects on costs. 27 .
which includes testing the water over a sustained period before committing itself to a market will help see it through even the toughest of times for fashion retailers and help ensure stable growth across its global store portfolio. France. Inditex has been accelerating its store growth. This shows that it is well positioned to tackle the tougher markets in 2009. This is mainly due to its strategy which under pins success growing organically by creating new fascias that broaden its reach and help spread risk Since the millennium. This is a crucial issue in the group’s strategy and the main feature of its differentiation from its competitors (see Table 4). compared to 0. Zara has established control over the total length of the production process.4 Market share of the company Zara home store from the Inditex’s core Zara chain represents another milestone for the retailer that achieved £ 6.000 outlets. With its market strategy of expanding more.74 billion in sales during its latest financial year January 2006. Inditex. In Europe countries like Italy. with its multi-brand model which helps spread risk. The company home market is based in Europe.5% for key rivals H&M. from inception of a product design to sale. May 2004 expanded to 2000 and in October it operated from 3000 stores across the globe. 3. In October 2000 it reached 1. Europe’s largest clothing retailer has managed to avoid the worst current economic crisis. through its registered strong sales growth in 2008 as a sustained rapid international expansion. and one that the key rival H&M is only recently introducing. It is believed that. this is by tripling its outlet number over the past six years and by extending its international presence. With the fact that during the Inditex’s first half of its financial year some of the other stores sales increased by 5%. Inditex is believed to continue to take market share from rivals from many of its market.Inditex/Zara’s concern with continuous analysis of its value chain has led the organisation to focus on control over the greatest possible number of links. UK and Germany have the most potential and they continue to expand aggressively. There are other vast plans for further international expansion of its eight fascia which accounts for a goal of 15% to 20% during the year of January 2007. 28 . that is what the company has been working for and now it accounts for over 80% of the sales.
000 square metres of selling space to its store estate. Inditex so far has proved to be resilient to the downturn. 2004). but still Europe remains the company’s stronghold which accounts for 79% of total sales in 2008. Inditex group manufactures high quality clothing and footwear and sells worldwide at midmarket prices through its own branded retail stores. South Korea. Indetex achieved growth in all geographical areas from Asia to the Americas. The company has the plan of continuing to expand more in 2009. Due to its retailer’s flexibility.3% for the past 5years. Shown in Table 5 below Clothing Industry at Zara is represented by apparel retail. However. Zara offers clothing for women (about 58% of sales) men (about 22%) and children (about 20%). Plans to open up new 456 stores which is adding to 230. In the women’s wear it generates revenue of equivalent to 54. The company’s real growth potential lies abroad as Inditex continued to expand abroad in 2008 despite the worst trading conditions. the 2009 will be more challenging year due to the nature of the global recession in the world. The company entered five new markets. Due to its intention of growing more international operations. with clothing sales holding up in 2008. while at the same time in the final quarter of 2008 the markdowns and mere used promotional activity did not hurt the company profits because its gross profit rose to 11% to £5. This combination of men’s wear.4 billion. Honduras and Egypt.5% of the Industry overall value. 95% of which will be outside Spain. Group sales rose by 12% to £10. Ukraine. Inditex describes Zara in this way (Inditex.9 billion and net profit increasing by 3. Indetex hopes to gain market share in highly fragmented markets abroad. attractive pricing and high fashion principles will contribute win market share abroad. women’s wear and infant wear in the retail market has the 25 largest economies and generates revenue of approximately $ 850 billion with average annual growth of 2. Despite of internationalization. in 2008. Montenegro.Despite the global market challenges. Chart 1: Representing Stores sales by Geographic area: 29 . Now Indetex is present in 73 countries and international sales accounts 66% of group turnover in 2008.0% to £ 1.25 billion.
Source: Key note (2004) Table 5: Target audience positioning and weight of Inditex Stores 30 .
2% Price: medium.low Children (20%) Several Age 0-45/50 Source: Key Note (2008) lines product Chapter Four RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31 .Company Zara Target audience Women (58%) Men (22%) Positioning Quality: high medium- %Sales 78.
In general. It is the aim of the researcher to gather the following information at the end of this chapter 1. methodology has been defined by Collins and Hussey (2003) as the overall approach to the research process. 2. To recommend on the company on how to improve their business.2 Research Methodology Understanding of the term methodology is important for any research. the researcher tried to explain on various meanings that the consumers have on different colours and how consumers associate those meanings in the choice for the clothing. in the course of implementing the conceptual framework of the research problem. To understand how consumers appeal to the colours when purchasing clothes. Before going any further. This section aim to identify the definite ways and activities performed during the researcher’s study. 4. the researcher will begin the next chapter by discussing various approaches and methodologies that are used in research and pick the one that will fit in this research.4. from the theoretical underpinning to the collection and analysis of data. 32 . To find out how Zara offer different patterns of coloured clothes. at the end of this chapter the researcher aims at getting various information about primary data so as to examine how Zara store display and arrange various clothes according to different colour patterns and how they influence consumers to appeal on clothing so as to capture the market. 3.1 Introduction In the previous chapter. It therefore explains in detailed manner how the research approach used during data gathering. To review on literatures on how colour influence clothes purchase. 4. The aim of this chapter is to explain the research style used and the data collecting techniques that have been used by the researcher depending on the nature of the problem in mind.
2 Phenomenology 33 . which includes Positivism.According to Anderson and Poole (1998). analysing and summarizing data according to the nature of the subject or topic in study. the method is nonflexible and nonnatural and not useful in understanding processes or the implication those attached to actions. It is most likely not helpful in generating theories and policy makers may find it hard to deduce from it what should happen in the future. the whole study may be criticised of the ground of inappropriate design or even worse as being unscientific or illogical. there are three major approaches when carrying out a research process. The Researcher needs to be vastly structured when using the positivist approach so as to ease the quantifiable observations.1 Positivism Positivism research process is defined as the approach used by the researcher with apparent social certainty as agreed by Malhotra (2004). 4.3 Research Approach According to Saunders (2003). which include. On top of that. It is crucial step in a thesis because if a wrong decision is made. 4. it can be a reasonably fast and cost-effective way of collecting data and also can be of considerable importance to policy decisions. there are weaknesses which enclose this process. There are different types of research using different types of techniques in collecting. which leads the researcher to a statistical analysis of their findings. Phenomenology and Realism.3.3. Positivism tends to go towards an objective viewpoint and the quantification of data at the same time assumes that the researcher is outside the subject matter. 4. Positivism avoids the hidden and also the idea that theory comprises general observations. There are benefits of using a positivist approach which includes giving a broad coverage of the variety of situations. choosing a design essentially involves selecting the most appropriate method or technique to solve the particular problem under investigation. The end product of the research can take the shape of a natural law or a generalization theory.
as it is an experience of or about some object.3 Realism It is the belief of Realism that reality exists independent of human thoughts and beliefs. 34 . 4. improvement and endpoints are difficult to control and policy makers give the study a low credibility rating. When Realism applied to the study of human subjects it recognizes the importance of understanding people’s socially constructed interpretations and meanings within the context of seeking to understand broader social forces or processes that influence the nature of people’s views. Therefore issues such as dependence versus involvement and field work or experimental approach have been included when considering the philosophical approach of research strategy. Such an understanding is important to the researcher as he may be including or excluding data that creates bias in the sample and thereby invalidates the research findings. Within phenomenological inquiry there are contradictory definitions of its nature and tasks. Explanation of the idea of phenomenology is the same like exposition of the idea of scientific philosophy. Saunders (2003). structure of consciousness that is being directed toward something. it is cluttered because of the pace.3. Phenomenology is basically such and such. it would remain doubtful whether the concept of phenomenology consequently attained. even if these differences in defining the nature of phenomenology could be brought to an agreement. The weaknesses of this approach include. Its main structure of an experience based on intentions. a kind of average concept that could direct towards the most concrete problems to be chosen. It is experience which is believed to direct an object by virtue of its content or meaning together with appropriate enabling conditions. it is difficult in analyzing and interpreting the results. This means that it is a must for the researcher to interact with people being researched and findings are the result of the interactive process focusing on meanings and understanding of the situation or phenomenon under study. it consumes much of the time from gathering the resources and implementing them. But. It may be thought that the easiest and surest way would be to draw the solid individual phenomenological problems from the concept of phenomenology.Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the firstperson point of view as agreed by Malhotra (2004). hence it encompasses such and such problems.
the researcher will be able to get the data correctly as well to test the hypothesis prior since the research aims at obtaining data from the real world whereby the consumers who are the main group concerned of the study will be included in this study to obtain information on the extent to which colour influence clothes purchase to women consumers (Thornhill. focus groups. iv. eliminating impractical ideas. 101 4. p. look forward to interview those who are knowledgeable and who might be able to provide insight concerning the relationship among variables. Usually small sample sizes involved. Less structured/More flexible. To help questionnaire development and in pre-testing questionnaires. In performing Exploratory research a literature search can be used. When surveying people. gaining insight. The advantages of the exploratory research include: i.Realism believes that there are large social forces that have an effect on people behaviours.1 Exploratory research This category of research has the objective of formulating problems. may or may not be representative of the population. exploratory research studies would not try to get a representative sample. To develop hypotheses to be tested in subsequent research. 35 . ii. certain peoples’ experiences can be surveyed. and forming hypotheses. iii. more precisely. but rather. 4. To increase familiarity. Exploratory research has the following characteristics.4. ii. i. illustrate concepts. 2000). and case studies. gathering explanations.4 Categories of Research A research can be classified into two categories. Applying to this study in a real world. To gain ideas and insights about the research problem. according to Zikmund 1996.
119. As opposed to exploratory research. • 36 .4. descriptive research should define questions. 1996. Longitudinal studies are analysis that base on time series and that make repeated measurements of the same individuals. Also Descriptive Research has the following characteristics: • Less flexible than exploratory research. In other words. why. Requires careful planning of all steps including a data analysis strategy. where. There are two basic types of descriptive research: ‘longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies’ according to Zikmund. the who. and how aspects of the research should be defined. what. • To estimate proportion of people in a population who behave in a similar way. and the method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. when.4. Cross-sectional studies this tends to sample the population so as to make measurements at a specific point in time. Such preparation allows one the opportunity to make any required changes before the costly process of data collection has begun. determine the proportion of the population that uses a product or predict future demand for a product. p. hence allowing one to monitor behaviour such as brand-switching. On the other hand. The Importance of Descriptive Research is as follows: • Used at the time when research objectives and research questions are clearly formulated and when descriptive and summary measures are needed to address the research questions.2 Descriptive research Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to describe users of a product. people surveyed. longitudinal studies are not necessarily representative since many people may refuse to participate because of the commitment required.
It is the research which is highly regarded more subjective than objective. is the research type on which theories and hypothesis are tested through empirical observation. Deductive. This is more objective research than qualitative one as the data are systematically collected. Applied research. Particular information is deduced from general inferences. Quantitative research provides results in numerical values and uses mathematic statistics to evaluate results. Theory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation Source: Diagram made by the researcher 37 . Deductive and Inductive research.Other types of research such as Quantitative and qualitative research depend on the choice of researcher in carrying out the adopted or a given research. only aims at increasing the insight or understanding of a given matter. Applied and Basic research. Basic research. it is the research where problems are not given priority. Type of the research which base on the logic of the research. It basically involves examining the perceptions in order to gain an understanding of a certain social and human actions. it is the research type which is used to solve practical problems of the modern world. rather than to acquire knowledge for the knowledge’s sake. Its findings are used in solving given problems. This is sometimes called a ‘top-down’ approach whereby you start with. these are the types of the research according to the outcome of the research. Qualitative research is a descriptive and non-numerical way to collect data and interpret information. This is a set of technique for applying theories in the real world (Saunders et al 2003).
This is called ‘bottom up’ approach. Intentions . Attitudes and opinions. Psychological and lifestyle characteristics. qualitative research will be used as the researcher aims to carry out the study so as to get some basic information on the influence of colour in the purchase of clothes to women consumers. detect some regularity. intentions are not a reliable indication of actual future behaviour.for example. Primary data • • can be obtained by: • • • Observation Interviews And Questionnaires. it is the opposite of the deductive whereby it is the study which is developed from the observations of empirical reality.a person's motives are more stable than his/her behaviour. the purpose of the researcher to bring all above types of research on board is to bring the general understanding and insight of the research types. Often. Awareness and knowledge . purchase intentions. formulate some hypothesis and develop some general conclusions or theories.Inductive. 4. brand awareness.5 Primary Data Primary data is defined as data obtained for the first time and used specifically for the particular problem or issue under study. secondary data must be supplemented by primary data originated specifically for the study at hand.for example. how the consumers see colour and the influence of colour to their purchase of clothes. In inductive reasoning. Motivation . 38 . so Motive is a better predictor of future behaviour than is past behaviour. Observation Pattern Tentative Hypothesis Theory Source: Diagram made by the researcher However. Some of the discussions based on gathering information first and the meaning of colour to the consumer. as agreed by Malhotra (2004). we begin with specific observations and measures. While useful. Some common types of primary data are: • • • • Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. but for the purpose of this research study.
2000:218) 4. There are many types of the interviews such as structured. According to White (2000).1 Observation Observation involves the recording of actions and is performed by either a person or some mechanical or electronic device. It also gives the researcher the opportunities to access some more confidential issues that not thought before. all misunderstanding can be cleared up immediately and open ended questions.5.4. Additionally. analysis and interpretation of people’s behaviour (Saunders et al.5. is the reduction of bias because the identity of and purpose of researcher is not revealed to other group members. description. It involves several methods such as systematic observation. 2000:243). semi-structured. Observation might take longer since observers may have to wait for appropriate events to occur. standardized. 1957). unstructured. Collecting primary data through observation is constructive when a researcher requires data particularly concerning what people do. However. it can be time consuming since the researcher may require more information after the interview session. recording. though observation using scanner data might be quicker and more cost effective. in order for the researcher to obtain best quality responses. According to White (2000). provided. the researcher can take the short notes of what the interviewee is trying to explain so as to remember the main points.2 Interview Data collection through interview can be reliable in that it enables gathering of relevant data from purposeful discussions with two or more people (Khan and Cannell. there are issues of whether people or organizations are willing to co-operate fully with the researcher. 39 . the advantage of this method of observation where researcher becomes a complete participant. During the interview. non-standardized. the interview method allows the flow of conversation. respondent and informant (Saunders et al. This method gives the researcher freedom to ask any question which is within the topic researched. not flexible but also the chance for very detailed responses to be given.
4. additionally it can be very time-consuming. who are to provide the data necessary to draw conclusions from. Sample. It can either be both structured interviews and telephone questionnaires or that of which the questions are answered without the presence of the interviewer. • • • Bias Time consuming. According to Jankowicz (1991). it is necessary and important to make sure that each of the candidates is included in the study. 4. In sampling there are two main categories which are probability Sampling and nonprobability Sampling.3 Questionnaire Data collection from questionnaire is carried out when each person in a sample responds to the same set of questions in a predetermined order (DeVaus. the sample.5. there is a problem of bias. In Probability sampling. Probability Sampling attempts to produce a representative stratified random sample of the population in an attempt to remove bias as much as possible. In order to avoid bias.5. sampling can be defined as the deliberate choice of a number of people. 1996). the population whom these people represent. Basically. The sample should represent the population and have sufficient size for a fair statistical analysis.According to White (2000) there are several limitations of interview. 40 . Interpretations of the information may prove difficult to the open-ended nature of the question. One of the main disadvantages of the questionnaire is that the response rate is low. Therefore planning and designing of questions is essential to decrease the necessity to revisit the same people or organization. we can look at the meaning of sample before going further. which are. is a small subset of the population that has been chosen to be studied. about a larger group. this can be guaranteed if randomization is employed. as agreed by Malhotra (2004:89).4 Sampling First and foremost. this may be due to researcher’s preference. Sampling is also a process of defining a representative subpopulation to study. As a result.
and questions to be answered. As a result it is not necessary that the sample should fully represent the target. 41 . In designing the research study. In both cases there is a chance of sampling error and the researcher needs to acknowledge this in the work if the study is to have wider acceptance (Saunders et al 2007). it is unlikely that the population selected will have the correct proportions since all the members of the population do not have equal chance of being selected. Quota sampling and Snowball sampling. it meets the requirements for statistical validity (Saunders et al 2007) When randomly selecting subjects. In reality. these include. Cluster sampling and Disproportional sampling. true random sampling is very difficult to achieve due to time. Convenience sampling. first. Sampling errors are those due to the fact that there is a non-zero confidence interval of the results because of the sample size being less than the population being studied. Therefore. cost and ethical considerations which often prohibits the researchers from making the necessary clearance. one should consider the potential errors. it is necessary to use other sampling techniques whereby the techniques produce non probability samples. it is important when using non probability sampling that random techniques be employed to the maximum. it provides a sample which is not biased and second. Consecutive sampling. Systematic random sampling. . Judgemental sampling. There are five non probability sampling techniques which can be used. Two sources of errors are random sampling error and non-sampling error as pointed by Malhotra (2004:89). since the validity of the statistical testing methods is based on random selection of subjects. Stratified sampling. several methods can be applied which are Simple random sampling. and any statement generalizing the results beyond the actual sample tested must be tested with qualification.Randomization is important mainly for two reasons. Most importantly. cost. Non-probability sampling accepts an element of bias by factoring in criteria set by the researcher to take account of environmental factors such as time. With Non-probability sampling. in that the sampling technique is not random.
A random sample may not be representative of a population based on chance factors alone (it is possible to draw a sample that over-represents some portion of the population by chance). 42 . even if there is a sufficient number of an interviewer for follow-ups. dependent on the scope of the research strategy as well as the number of times the data-collection will be repeated. but the method is feasible particularly for the students and others with limited time and resources and can legitimately be used as long as its limitations are clearly understood and stated. according to Babbie and Mouton (2001). a larger number of interviewers may result in a less uniform interview process. untruthful responses. Convenience sampling was thus selected for the study.Random sampling errors are those are considered unbiased. It is recommended to have a smaller sampling framework in order to conduct an in-depth inquiry. There are two reasons for this effect. First. in that. After a certain point the smaller sampling error cannot be justified by the additional cost. Non-sampling errors are those caused by faulty coding. fast and usually the least expensive and least troublesome. and respondent fatigue. The larger the sample size. no part of the population has an advantage in being over-represented in the sample. The number of participants in qualitative research. a larger sample size may reduce the ability to follow up on non-responses. The technique itself is easy. Second. From above review of sampling and different sampling technique. the smaller the sampling error but the higher the cost. There is a trade-off between sample size and cost. While a larger sample size may reduce sampling error. it actually may increase the total error. that according to Babbie and Mouton (2001) not only is convenient and easy. the researcher decided to use Convenience sampling as it is easy to select different subjects because of easy accessibility and easy to obtain for the study.
4. guidebooks and other publications containing information. encyclopaedia articles). The literature review chapter was completed using researching the literature present. as defined by Zikmund (1996. and by looking through various books. and sometimes it may even conclude inexistence of the problem. Database Marketing) b) External Data: • • • • Case Studies Published Sources Syndicated Sources Database Sources Secondary data may be internal to the firm.g. summaries and reviews of research (for example. In carrying out the research.. Types of Secondary data: a) Internal Data (e. newsletters. the Researcher decided to use Exploratory research as it helps to determine the best research design. Also there should be a consideration of what the source is and whether the results may be biased. Some secondary data is republished by organizations other than the original source. statutory documents.6 Secondary Data Secondary data ‘refers to information that has previously been gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some other purpose than the research project at hand’. p. abstracts. such as sales invoices and warranty cards. it is important to obtain secondary data directly from its source. According to Anderson and Poole (1998). commentaries and so on. These include translations. the secondary sources of information are summaries of information gathered from primary sources. 68). Because errors can occur and important explanations may be missing in republished data. or may be external to the firm such as published data or commercially available data. and the internet. 43 . The disadvantages are that the data may not fit the problem perfectly and that the accuracy may be more difficult to verify. The Secondary data has the advantage of saving time and reducing data gathering costs. journals. data collection method and selection of subjects.
The main aim of the interview is to explain the reasons underlying the problem in a target group. allows topics to be explained in depth. permits face to face interactions with respondents. and gather information. This type of a qualitative research can provide rich explorations of a project. information collected is too large. usually of a small number of sites (small towns. These are normally large descriptive examinations. The investigator holds formal or informal conversations with informants observe the ongoing activities. it develops in a real world something. it therefore allows the interviewer to encourage the correspondent to talk at a length about the topic of interest (Lofland & Lofland.8 Case Studies This depends much on the participant observer method. schools) whereby the principal investigator immersed himself in the life of the community. The technique can be used to gather ideas. • • 4.7 In-depth Interviews This is a qualitative research technique which allows person to person discussion. 1995). it needs well qualified and high trained interviewers. However. rather data collection and reporting should be taken into account (Patton. the technique has got various disadvantages such as expensive and time consuming.The most common qualitative research techniques according to Malhotra (2004) include: • • In-depth interviews Focus groups Case studies and Pilot studies. 4. details and new insights. develop an analysis of both individual and the findings. This type of qualitative research has the following advantages such as it allows to yield richest data. Due to its unstructured style. 1990) 44 . This type of a qualitative research can lead us into further understanding of the people’s thoughts. allows the interviewer to explain and help clarify the questions . feelings and behaviours in important issues. Sometime the case tends to be complex as they need time since there should be no brief site visits only. hospital. hence may be difficult to transcribe and reduce the data and flexibility sometimes can result into inconsistencies across interviews. In-depth interviewer uses a flexible interview approach.
Requires staff time to identify and schedule participants for focus group. Focus group discussion provides information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues. Requires strong facilitator to guide discussion and ensure participation by all Usually requires special equipment to record and transcribe focus group discussion. 2001) Furthermore. • • other data collection methods. 1995) Participants in this type of the research are selected on the criteria that they would have something to say on the topic or are within the age-range.4. have similar socio-characteristics and would be comfortable talking to the interviewer and each other. Can be effectively used to focus on details regarding issues found through surveys or at a time. but this group is being focused on a given topic. Focus group discussion has got the following strengths and weaknesses.. (Thomas et al. members. as well as illuminating the differences in perspective between groups of individuals. A focus group discussion is a technique involving the use of indepth group interviews in which participants are selected because they are a purposive. Focus Group Strengths: • Excellent approach to gather in-depth attitudes and beliefs from several stakeholders Group dynamics might generate more ideas than individual interviews. • 45 . sampling of a specific population.9 Focus group discussion According to Lederman. although not necessarily representative. (Richardson & Rabiee. Focus Group Weaknesses: • • • Requires staff time to set up and facilitate focus group.
a consumer with confidence. with a strong interest in her personal appearance. observer error and observer bias (Saunders et al 2007. In the focus group discussions which were conducted by the researcher. subject or participant error. observations or conclusion by other researcher (Saunders et al. There are several types of the threats to reliability. primary data were highly used in conducting the research hence there was high possibility of subjectivism. Given the degree to which many markets are segmented by gender.From the above review. Bell (2005) defines the term reliability as “the extent to which a test or procedure produces similar results under constant conditions on all occasions”. 2004). there were consistent answers produced by some of the participants.149). subject or participant bias. therefore the participant or the subject error to the great extent controlled. Reliability is fundamentally the situation where by data collection methods produce the same findings. 4.. it was decided to include only females in this research. In this research. In each groups there contained seven (7) members in a group which consisted of different age. These consumers were the ones who shop at different stores including Zara store for the aim of capturing their interest to store which was the main aim of the researcher. 2007). researcher was therefore trying to minimize the threats to reliability of the data collection methods. who is loyal towards certain brands and who enjoys shopping for clothes. whereby the discussion was divided into three groups. the researcher decided to use Focus groups discussions as they have got one distinctive features of its group dynamics. The total number of 21 members was involved in the discussion. as the type and the range of data generated during the social interaction of the group are often deeper and richer compared to the one collected on the one-to-one interviews. p. but for purpose of this research only few will be considered. Researcher decided to measure the reliability and validity of the methods of collecting data. it is female consumers who are attracted most to colours and styles (Bakewell & Mitchell.10 Reliability and Validity. this could be because most of the participants shop in retail 46 . It was decided to focus on female consumers who meet the criteria for a strong symbolicinstrumental consumer. The studies done earlier suggest that there are differences between male and female consumers decision making in the choices of styles and colours in clothes. (Green et al 2003).
clothes stores which have got almost similar display and selling of the apparel product within the same industry. Researcher therefore minimized the subject bias to the great extent. this problem has been controlled since researcher was trying to use the most recent findings. whereby it might give variations of the findings from year to year. validity and accuracy that is why most of the findings accumulated are consistent with other work of other authors in the literature review. researcher mostly used the key notes which are very reliable source of data which are audited mostly by Isla Gower. On other side of observer error and observer bias. Also secondary data were used to back up the primary data. This problem has been controlled since researcher was using very valid source Key Note which is very reliable market reports.. However. researcher tried at maximum care to ensure that the data which were collected are reliable. it can be concluded that. researcher has been trying to maintain high level of the reliability. The problem of the participants information given could not tell whether they speak of reality which is another threat of the validity since the data might not be reflecting the reality of the data given for analysis. 2004 points out different types of threats of validity but mostly threats like history. Therefore gives this research 47 . researcher admits that there were some slight subject errors given that the answers were differing in some aspects when researcher was doing test re-test. data. In the process of analyzing the consistency hence it can be argued that it was very reliable. Generally. hence the subject bias is likely since some of the journals are subjective and can be manipulated for market purpose. researcher was analyzing data objectively with no subjectivism. Saunders et al. According to Neuman (2003) defines validity as to “how well an idea about reality fits with actual reality”. Validity is basically the central idea in the measurement. this might be attributed by different arrangements and display of different stores and different choices of the customers that attracts them to a certain store. On the other hand.
social and demographic changes are putting pressures on traditional gender roles and males are now more involved in shopping compared with previous generations. sometimes participants were expressing an opinion which is probably with their own personal life. the time frame given was not enough. Time limitation was another setback faced researcher. including topic selection. On top of that some of the participants dominated the group. gathering information. and not what they actually do or think. Researcher did face some difficulties while doing the research. there were other limitations. age groups and cultural groups. However. there were lots of things to do within relative short period of time. Future studies could therefore concentrate on male consumers and also include other geographic areas. mainly being that. This made the researcher to do many things in last minute. therefore the researcher had to make sure they are within the main topic of discussion. thereby could have created inaccurate view of what users’ overall opinion was. they do or think. writing down over 15. one being analysis of the data collected because of the method itself which was unstructured. This study only concentrated on female consumers. Moreover. in focus groups you learn what people say. 48 . Handling of the group discussion itself was not easy as sometimes the participants were going out of the matter being discussed. The researcher chose a qualitative research design and therefore a small sample size.11 Limitation of study. In focus group.4. as they are still the principle-buying agents for the household.000 words for this reason.
It was decided by the researcher to hold focus group discussion so as to extract some qualitative information from the consumers who shop at Zara Store and to investigate whether participants had any influence in colour when they purchase clothes at Zara. the first part aimed at capturing the meaning of colour from the consumers and the second part aimed at getting information on the influence of colour in their choices. debriefing session and the summary comments. can be missed if notes are not taken. the researcher mainly divided the discussion into two parts.2 Data analysis A tape recorder was used during the focus group discussion to ensure that nothing was lost. everything was summarized and noted down so as to allow easy analysis of the data without skipping some of the information out while in discussion. whereby the researcher tried to explain the methodology which was adopted throughout the research and later helped out in the collection and analysis of data. The researcher decided to use a tape recorder and as soon as the discussion was finished. With regard to the focus group discussion that was carried out the following were the result 5. As it has been pointed out in the last chapter. 49 .1 Introduction From the previous chapter. It is very crucial for the researcher to note down the discussion as for some of the nonverbal behaviours which can aid in the interpretation. Different data were collected from different groups set out for discussion and more specifically consumers who shop at Zara. focused group discussion was used in collecting data. so as the notes could help by in the interpretation of the data.Chapter Five FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 5. Note-based analysis was used which relied primarily on the field notes. stimulus and cultural effect to different consumers. It was felt this was an effective way to probe colour influences as it has some emotional.
probe and encourage discussion so as to ensure all participants contributed their views. All the three sessions had the same structure with the three identical questions being put to the groups. immediately the summary of all recorded impressions of the meeting was put down in a note form. Following each focus group. For the first question. at the end any recurring themes were identified. each group had seven participants. The main aim of the researcher was to guide the discussion from topic to topic. At first. The following questions were posed in the focus groups and below are the findings that were found by the Researcher 5. Q2. in which the researcher had to facilitate. Different groups were gathered by the facilitator (Researcher) and everything was recorded as the conversation was going on which was summarized in a note book immediately. What is the meaning of colour to you? The aim of this question was the key one. 50 . A comparison note was made and the final selection of the quotations which seemed to illustrate key issues was made and this was produced in this section. so as to have different meaning that participants have on colours according to different cultural background. The researcher after recording. the participants were asked to write down on a piece of paper any reason on what colours do they like most and why.Three different groups were held. How do you see colour? This was question posed to them so as to identify whether there are some emotional and stimuli connection of colours when they buy clothes. Informal sessions were carried out at the room which was facilitated by the help of the school.3 Findings Q1. the proceedings were noted down on papers. in the start of the session all the participants were encouraged to introduce themselves to the group and explain how they see different colours that were presented to them as sample colours.
as the question itself appeared to be the main focus of the discussions and appeared to be the answer of most interest and concern to the participants. This also helped with supporting evidence for the original aims of the research in identifying any colour influence in the clothes purchase. It is important for the apparel item to do something for consumer’s feelings about herself. 51 . • • Expression of feelings Gives out reality message to other people (outward looking) Expression of Emotional Feelings in relation to colour in clothes With regard to the emotional dimensions of the aesthetic experience. On the role of the emotional pleasure and emotional arousal. However. Does colour has any influence to your purchase? This question was asked primarily so as to balance question number one. this was what was explained. Hence. it was clear that. the consumer might probably feel that she won’t even want to express herself if wearing an item that make her feel negative. confident and that she will get compliments about herself. participants reacted as follows. Of course. for example.Q3. it is important for the female consumer to experience emotional pleasure when she evaluates the quality of the clothes with colour of choice and secondly. I have been getting nice compliments when I wear it. The following were the ones which overlap most and this list below indicates the broad headings. you know it gives me confidence as the colour itself tells” the participant continue to explain herself that “Always red is known to be the colour that grabs attention of other people. I feel like I live. if the clothes arouse her emotions. feeling good. “When I wear red suit. Then I feel excited always” It was very interesting as the participant was probed. Following the first question which was asked. these two emotional dimensions of the aesthetic experience are so important and that she will probably not be so much interested in the functional qualities if she does not experience pleasure or feel aroused by the items.
give her a feeling of dominance or power.. something that has red in it tends to catch my eyes quickly” The researcher also came to find out that. the female consumer would experience a feeling of dominance when evaluating the quality of the coloured products.red colour can go with white too. As it is important for the female consumer when evaluating the quality of the cloth. it is very important that I will feel good when wearing the item that has got red in it. suitable for career wear.. “I like looking and feeling professional at work. when evaluating the colour of the apparel products whether it is formal day wear or career wear. it was clear that female consumers evaluate the colour of the apparel product based on certain cognitive dimensions on the aesthetic experience. The following statements explain the findings on the role of dominance. even if it is black. it is important for them to experience a message of reality. particularly colour gives an emotional feeling of dominance 52 . in the third place. This third conditional dimension.“When I am at the store I will tend to consider more than one item when I know that I will get compliments when wearing it.. support her be part of the social group that includes family. friends and colleagues as well as convey to them what and who she is in the social environment..As when I am in the store. I will consider the same Red colour to wear because it keeps me professional. As the discussion was going on the other participants added on this by saying that... Female consumers.. As far as it is important for a woman to make a statement at work” The Role of Colour in giving out outward looking: From the findings.. Moreover. she should feel that she would be in a position of control the whole situation when wearing the item and that it would. but it should be a little bit of black with red in it. is more specifically an important quality of a formal day wear or career wear. As you know . Female consumer would like to experience that the item being put on will help her be part of the current fashion within the cultural environment. which is the feeling of dominance. “It is important for me that this Red blouse will help me to look stylish because people have to take me seriously when I am at work” as to when she was referring to the Red blouse that she put on that day.. more specifically in a working environment..
blue. the main aim of the researcher was to see if participants associate different colours with different meanings as some participants came from different cultural backgrounds. green. “The black colour I wear it when going out at night. 53 . Most of the participant aged 30’s replied about 7 times that. “For us in our countries for the Muslims in weddings you put any colour of your choice. during the day even at work.” As the discussion was going many replies on different colours came out. anything”. yellow. “Black is associated with sadness. “White is the colour associated with purity. they said the following about white colour. it is makes you look clean as it is worn in most wedding dresses” But this was different for the two Chinese ladies. “I will choose classic lines and styles. whether it be pink.25.” In the second question that was asked. whereby two of the ladies from Nigeria and Cameroon.which is important for her career wear. “We use red dresses for wedding as it will make you be noticeable because it draws peoples’ attention”. they said. It seems that line and style as well as the interaction between various formal of the product such as colour. as it was replied 10 times. Participants reacted as follows on the role of the above experience reality. as the colour itself indicates very strong emotions” But the answer was different to young girls aged 19. black trouser. line and proportion plays an important role in creating an experience of reality during evaluation process. it is the colour that makes you looks thinner. especially the black and white lines or sometimes plain colours like red. blue. white blouse. it’s the colour often used for grieving. for girls aged 19 and 21. Therefore something formal for work because the clothes will show other people that I am serious with my work. texture. For the Africans. who said.
It was further clear that it is especially the formal qualities of colour that brings about an experience of pleasure through the dimension of sight. the researcher posed the third question. As the discussion was going on. So as to support the evidence for the original aim of the research. Purple was also seemed to attract most people. almost all of them when asked they corresponded that. It is important for the female consumer senses to be aroused when evaluating a cloth and that she is satisfied with what she sees as well as the physical aspect of an item. rich sophistication” the young generation aged 19 to 25. I always look at the colour first and if I am not satisfied I won’t even look further” 54 . but at the same time too much blue can send a cold and uncaring message”. this was liked by most of the participant as it was said that. and this was what was discussed. to the fact that she would not consider any other properties of an item if not satisfied with the colour. the women aged 35 most of them said. “ all shades of purple is my favourite colours”.For blue colour. which plays a major role when the female consumer evaluates the quality and choice of her apparel. Therefore. the participants were so much enthusiastic in the whole process of expressing their ideas on this and the following were the findings. encourages reflection and logical thought. prosperity. This was mainly regarded to the sensory dimensions of the aesthetic experience as it was clear that it was specifically the dimensions of the sensory experience that is sight. “It is the calming colour. “Colour for me is the most important thing when I evaluate an item. “It is our most royal colour that is associated with wealth. this was very crucial one to the literature. When the second question was full discussed. the question was posed to the participant to see if colour has any influence to them when purchasing clothes.
as they will probably not consider even the functional qualities they are not satisfied with what they feel when evaluating an item (Guy et al. At the same time previous experience of the same product play an important role in establishing an experience of fantasy and entertainment while evaluating the apparel items. it is important to the female consumer that her casual wear conveys a message of fantasy and entertainment. it seems cognitive dimensions are just as important when consumers evaluate the colour of the apparel products for the female consumer.4 Discussion of the findings The emotional dimensions on the colour experience play the above important role especially when consumers evaluate the quality of the coloured products. “In order to evaluate the design of the apparel items. it is something that has to do less with her public self (that is about being part of and feeling dominant and in-control in the formal or working environment) rather it is much more to be connected to her private self and that the apparel should convey something about her inner self (that is. DeLong 1998. I always consider the colour first and if it is something that I don’t like I would not even go further. what she real is) without taking into account other considerations. agrees with this viewpoint and underline the important role of colour in bringing about these emotions specifically for the clothing consumer. As when evaluating her casual wear. ‘since I am such a visual person. 2001. it is not only important that the apparel to stimulate the senses or arouse specific feelings but also about symbolic messages that she receives from the item. this is the problem to the extent that consumers will only be willing to consider any other qualities if the product makes them feel positive and confident towards themselves.One of them added that. I will always consider the colour first’’ when probed more on this that why colour should be of their main concern if the design is good? The participants continued on explaining that.3) In agreeing with the point above which is the importance of emotions as the factor during the evaluation stage of the decision-making process. p. 55 . A good item to me should have a nice colour” 5. When comparing formal daywear and career wear. which would later on be able to convey messages to others. It was obvious that these messages of fantasy and entertainment are brought about by interaction of colour which is part of the style materials of the apparel item. When referring to the case of the sensory and emotional dimensions of the aesthetic experience.
although it would be wrong to assume that the participants would never consider other functional aspects such as durability or easyto-care qualities. It is from the formal quality of an apparel item that enables the female consumer to experience beauty only by looking at an item and this clearly plays an important role in her evaluation of the quality of the apparel product. (1997) sight is probably the most important contributor when it comes to aesthetical experience that is desired from apparel products. to the extent that it probably overshadows the importance of other functional qualities of a specific item. According to DeLong (1998) colour has the potential to accentuate the various parts of the body and therefore can be used to bring variation as to how the wearer looks from day-to-day. It has come into awareness that colour plays a very important role when female consumers evaluate the quality of apparel products. emotional and cognitive dimensions of the aesthetic experience are of major importance for the apparel female consumer as part of the quality evaluation of an apparel item. From this study it rather seems as if the sensory.Therefore apparel products can serve as means through which the consumer can experience entertainment and can engage in fantasy play. Rasband (2001) argued colour is probably the most visible element of any clothing product. such as straight hemlines or seams that do not pucker. expect some references to the role that the textiles play in establishing important functional qualities such as easy-to-care-for qualities. According to Fiore and Kimle. In addition. however. It may be that the participants were so familiar with the textiles that they automatically knew how the textile would behave when wearing the item. One would. It is questionable if these aspects are so part of the female consumer's evaluation process that she includes it automatically and unconsciously without the need to mention it or purposively uses it when evaluating the quality of apparel products. It serves as a means whereby the female consumer can experience reality in important everyday life-situations also escape reality when she feels like being herself and experience entertainment within a fantasy-world. 56 . none of the participants pointed out the importance of construction as an inherent physical quality of apparel products that has major implications for functional qualities such as durability as well as for aesthetical qualities. It was clear from this study that the aesthetic experience plays a very important role as part of the expected behavioural qualities of apparel products.
consumer satisfaction almost always includes appreciating the feeling of the fabric to the hand and on the body. 57 .In adding more about colour. Fiore and Kimle (1997) point to the importance of fabric hand to consumers to the extent that regardless of whether texture is an important design focus in apparel.
but more importantly. behavioural properties (functional and aesthetical) which specify what product can achieve (Gersak. emotional and cognitive dimensions of the aesthetic experience which play a major role when female consumers assess the colour of apparel products (Brown & Rice 1998. al.37) When speaking of colours in clothes and relate to the satisfaction of consumers’ needs as well as applying to clothing products. many previous researchers concentrated only on the intrinsic physical properties and the functional behavioural properties without regarding the aesthetical qualities as the crucial thing of the colour of the apparel products. For the female apparel consumer the colour of apparel products for that reason not only includes the functional behavioural qualities of a specific item. from a consumer’s point of view the colour of apparel products does not only concern the physical appearance of the product and the functional behavioural qualities. colour is in the “eye of the consumers”. It can be concluded that.1Conclusions From the findings above. it is the sensory. but also the aesthetical behavioural qualities.. the aesthetical behavioural qualities. Having a look at the theoretical point of view apparel products are seen as having. it is clear to draw two main conclusions. first. and secondly. If one thus adopt the view point that colour is about what the product can do for the consumer in order to satisfy her explicitly and applied needs. material. as it was explained in this research. Unfortunately. and secondly. 2002). (Karnes et. in the first place intrinsic physical properties ( such as design.Chapter Six CONCLUSION S AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6. which are. from this research that. construction and finishes) which specifying what item it is. 1995). p. these qualities have to be included in any future research that concerns the consumer’s view point. this means that both behavioural properties should be included in research that concerns the colour of apparel products from consumer’s point of view. 58 .
Fully rational decisions cannot be made unless consumers are informed and able to appraise the relative merits of competing products. (Eckman et. may in a postpurchase stage result in dissatisfaction with many of the important functional properties that may satisfy the consumer's needs. they tend to concentrate on the psychic performance aspects. 1990) As noted in discussing the results. 2003). such as straight hemlines or seams that do not pull. 59 . it would seem as if the female apparel consumer does not purposively evaluate most of the functional qualities that may become important when wearing the item. However. consumers do not necessarily evaluate the quality of apparel products in the same way at the point of purchase. Although the participants referred to the physical properties of textiles and to a lesser extent to design. Consumers also tend to emphasize characteristics that they can evaluate adequately. the main concern is probably “what the item can and will do for me” – an evaluation of the estimated capabilities of the item to satisfy the needs that the consumers are aware of at the point of sale (which not necessarily include all the important needs of the consumer) (Murali & Litell. p. At the point of purchase. Sieben (1991. although one cannot assume that the participants will never consider functional aspects such as durability or easy-to-care qualities. 71) refers to the fact that because most consumers probably do not have adequate knowledge of the physical properties of apparel products. al. and for the retailer in more returned articles due to unsatisfactory construction or even textile properties that do not live up to the needs of the female consumer. It can be concluded from this research that the aesthetical behavioural qualities of apparel products play an important role in female consumers' evaluation of colour of apparel products at the point of sale to the extent that it seems as if their needs with regard to the aesthetical qualities of a product probably overshadow most of the functional needs that they may experience when wearing the item. This apparent lack of attention to functional detail that could play an important role in quality evaluation when the item is worn. 1995).. such as the visible elements of the garment and in most cases they only anticipate the physical utility of the item. none of the participants made reference to the importance of construction as an inherent physical quality of apparel products that has major implications for functional qualities such as durability as well as for aesthetic qualities. again when wearing the item and when the item is discarded (Linquist & Sirgy.Apparel consumers can evaluate the quality of an item during the evaluation stage at the point of purchase. as they would probably do after having worn it for a while.
such as colour. Secondly.The consumer must have the ability to make clear distinctions of colour in product in order to achieve efficient decision making. In many cases they then may not consider alternatives and in many cases. When consumers are familiar (or think they are familiar) with a particular product and/or decision-making situation. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the consumer's attentions be drawn to the linkage between the physical properties of the product and the behavioural qualities. including the evaluation stage. knowledge on the importance of specific sensory. First. while knowledge on the consumer's preference for specific formal qualities in career and casual wear. they tend to spend less time on each of the decision-making stages. In addition to the above. odours and textures (all of which form part of the aesthetic experience) may conjure up past experiences and urge the consumer to buy certain clothes. or when they buy products (such as clothing) on a regular basis. because of the fact that it would seem that female apparel consumers do not consciously and purposively evaluate important functional qualities that may satisfy their later needs during the post-purchase stage. texture or line. to the extent that it may appear as if the decision-making process is almost non-existent. These linkages could be an inherent part of fixed as well as additional labels and should certainly be part of the on-line information that e-retailers provide to their customers who are not in any position to handle the product and therefore are unable to apply any previous knowledge or experience. brand recognition or store image may then ease the process. is crucial for the buyer and should also direct visual merchandizing and other forms of advertising. 304) points to the fact that responses to stimuli may be deep in the sub-conscious. p. emotional and cognitive dimensions of the aesthetic experience for female apparel consumers could direct the apparel retailer or e-retailer's fashion merchandizing strategy. 60 . especially with regard to the textiles. Poloian (2003. This is especially important with regard to limited decision-making and routine decision-making. The above conclusions have major implications for the retailer and even more so for the eretailer. retailers and e-retailers therefore should purposively draw their customers attentions to the linkage between the physical properties of the apparel product that influence important functional properties that may play a role in the satisfaction that they would experience when wearing the item. Colour.
then surely it should be an integral part of the retailer or e-retailer's fashion merchandizing strategy. p. Formal qualities (such as colour. Marketers can learn this. the lens through which the colour is evaluated (as is here suggested in the case of the female consumer). even before they have entered the store. Zara can create different sector for distribution of their goods so as to decrease logistics in order to deliver fashionable goods in a faster manner. If colour is in the eye of the consumer and aesthetics. marketers should consider their product’s colour. Consumers should be able to “see” colour from their point of view. which make them prefer certain colours for different ranges of products. should clearly spell out to the consumer the various dimensions (sensory. symbolic and emotional) of the aesthetic experience that she would experience as part of the colour of the apparel products that she is looking for. and most probably will find in the specific store. These are all within the marketer’s control. packaging colour and any colour associated with advertising. As part of the marketing strategy. as a result. With the changing of consumer behaviour as a result of globalization. 133).2 Recommendations Consumers learn colour association. This will also allow them to have additional funds to spend in other areas of business such as advertising. there are growth options available for speciality retailers like Zara. 6. in many cases falls in the domain of symbolic consumption (Lindquist & Sirgy. Symbols are the most powerful of signs because they can be used to induce certain states of mind or feelings in the consumer. It should be kept in mind that. People who come from different cultures are exposed to different associations and they develop colour preferences based on their own culture’s association. lines and others) of the outside and inside of the store as well as the store lay-out and visual merchandizing. the process through which consumers – on the basis of symbols – buy. the buying process. consume and dispose of products. in the case of apparel products. therefore they can identify the associations made by consumers for their product category and make an attempt of matching appropriate colours. The best way for Zara to maintain their sustainable growth is to seek new opportunities in the apparel market. 61 . 3003.Consumers look for their idea of colour. textures.
The company must continue to re-invent and innovate themselves in order to stay awake in the apparel industry. age groups and cultural groups.3 Suggestions for future study Research Due to a certain circumstances. As a result. However due to social and demographic changes there is involvement of males. Another recommendation to Zara is that. 6. This will make a shopper to pay a visit as they would hear about new different products from word of mouth or increased advertising and they will pay a visit. Findings can be used in future studies in quantitative style with the use of the larger sample size to ensure better representation. Future studies can thereby concentrate on male consumers and can include other geographic areas. still Zara Should make sure that all of its ever-changing fashion online should be displayed.By allowing the consumers to purchase direct on the internet. Especially. colour may have an effect on other variables that may be found in a marketing context. Colour research in the field of marketing still appears to be immature. Advancement in technology for creating colour layering over one another. the researcher chose qualitative research design and used a small sample size. This study concentrated on female consumers as they enjoy shopping in nature. 62 . colour may affect memory for objects. This will increase consumer demand and will motivate them to visit more Zara locations within their own region. and thereby creating new colour palette may have effects to consumers. to offer specialized products for different geographic locations within the same city. Differentiation of its products from location to location could increase shopper traffic. Furthermore. studies which examine variety of measurement related to colour should be considered. Specifically. more research on colour preference should be conducted so as to establish strength as a factor in purchase behaviour. which could affect advertising and display strategies. combination of colours may have effects to consumers too.
then marketers can help clarify their own colour strategies but in other cases where marketers are unable to identify the existed associations. there is opportunity of developing new colour associations for products that the marketer can control. associations in colours that consumers formulate can predict their behaviours so as to understand how associations manifest themselves in people’s product. requires the examination of a complex network of associations that individuals formulate. It appears in many cases that consumers are able to articulate associations and provide their reasoning for choosing particular colours. If this happens. Colour choices.To sum up. 63 .
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