Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
r
X
i
v
:
0
7
1
1
.
2
2
9
7
v
1
[
g
r

q
c
]
1
4
N
o
v
2
0
0
7
Traversable wormholes in a string cloud
Mart´ın G. Richarte and Claudio Simeone
∗
Departamento de F´ısica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA
Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina
November 11, 2010
Abstract
We study spherically symmetric thinshell wormholes in a string cloud back
ground in (3+1)dimensional spacetime. The amount of exotic matter required
for the construction, the traversability and the stability under radial pertur
bations, are analyzed as functions of the parameters of the model. Besides, in
the Appendices a non perturbative approach to the dynamics and a possible
extension of the analysis to a related model are brieﬂy discussed.
1 Introduction
After the well known leading paper by Morris and Thorne [1], considerable attention
has been devoted to the study of traversable Lorentzian wormholes [2]. Such kind
of geometries would connect two regions of the same universe, or of two universes,
by a traversable throat. If they actually exist, they would present some features
of particular interest as, for example, the possibility of using them for time travel
[3, 4]. However, the ﬂareout condition [5] to be satisﬁed at the throat requires the
presence of exotic matter, that is, matter which violates the null energy condition
(NEC) [1, 2, 5, 6]. However, it was shown in Ref. [7] that the amount of exotic
matter necessary for the existence of a wormhole can be made inﬁnitesimally small
by suitably choosing the geometry. After this, special attention has been devoted
to quantifying the amount of exotic matter [8, 9]; in particular, this amount has
been pointed as an indicator of the physical viability of a traversable wormhole [10].
Besides, for a wormhole to be considered traversable, the geometry must be such that
the magnitude of tidal forces are admissible for an hypothetic traveller; this has also
been analyzed for most physically meaningful conﬁgurations studied in the literature.
∗
Email: csimeone@df.uba.ar.
1
Of course, no unstable solution of the equations of gravitation could be of interest
as a candidate for a traversable wormhole. Thus, besides the characterization of static
solutions, their stability under perturbations must always be explored. In particular,
this has been thoroughly studied for the case of small perturbations preserving the
symmetry of the original conﬁguration. A class of wormholes for which Poisson and
Visser [11] developed a straightforward approach for analyzing this aspect are thin
shell ones, that is, wormholes which are mathematically constructed by cutting and
pasting two manifolds to obtain a geodesically complete new manifold [12]. In these
wormhole conﬁgurations the exotic matter lies in a shell placed at the joining surface;
so the theoretical framework for dealing with them is the Darmois–Israel formalism,
which leads to the Lanczos equations, that is, the Einstein’s equations projected on
the joining surface [13, 14]. Once an equation of state for the exotic matter in the shell
is provided, the solution of the Lanczos equations gives the dynamical evolution of
the wormhole. Such a procedure has been subsequently followed to study the stability
of more general spherically symmetric conﬁgurations (see, for example, Refs. [15]).
According to present day theoretical developments, a scenario in which the funda
mental building blocks of nature are extended objects instead of point objects should
be considered quite seriously. In particular, 1–dimensional objects (strings) are the
most popular candidate for such fundamental objects. The study of the gravitational
eﬀects of matter in the form of clouds of both cosmic and fundamental strings has
then deserved considerable attention; see for example Refs. [16]. We are interested
in the viability of wormholes; so within this framework any reasonable conﬁguration
including more parameters and thus allowing for improving its features as: amount
of exotic matter, pressure, traversability and stability, deserves to be analyzed. In
the present work we start from the metric proposed in the leading paper by Lete
lier [17] to address the study of thinshell wormholes associated to a string cloud
(and also a global monopole; see below). We study in detail the amount of exotic
matter required for the construction, the traversability and also the stability of the
conﬁguration under perturbations preserving the original symmetry. As we shall see,
comparing with the Schwarzschild case, the string cloud allows for more freedom in
the choice of the conﬁgurations to be stable, and also allows to reduce the amount of
exotic matter without increasing the pressure. Because recently certain attention was
devoted to exotic matter fulﬁlling the Chaplygin gas equation of state, in Appendix
A we explicitly impose it on the shell matter to obtain its time evolution beyond a
perturbative approach. In Appendix B we discuss a possible extension of the analysis
to a related geometry. Throughout the paper we set units so that c = G = 1.
2
2 Wormholes in a string cloud with spherical sym
metry
2.1 The string cloud
The action of a string evolving in spacetime is given by
S =
Ldλ
0
dλ
1
, L = m
√
−γ, (1)
where m is a constant characterizing each string, λ
0
, λ
1
are a timelike and a spacelike
parameter, and γ is the determinant of the induced metric on the string world sheet:
γ = det γ
AB
, γ
AB
= g
µν
(x)
∂x
µ
∂λ
A
∂x
ν
∂λ
B
. (2)
Introducing the bivector
Σ
µν
= ǫ
AB
∂x
µ
∂λ
A
∂x
ν
∂λ
B
(3)
with ǫ
AB
the twodimensional Levi–Civita symbol, the Lagrangian density L can be
put as
L = m
−
1
2
Σ
αβ
Σ
αβ
1/2
. (4)
With this notation, a cloud of strings is described by the energymomentum tensor
T
µν
= ρ
0
Σ
µβ
Σ
ν
β
(−γ)
−1/2
, (5)
where ρ
0
is the proper density of the cloud. The quantity ρ
0
(−γ)
1/2
is gauge invariant,
and is called the gauge invariant density of the cloud [17]. In the case of a static
spherically symmetric cloud, we have
ρ
0
(−γ)
1/2
=
a
r
2
(6)
with a a positive constant.
The general solution to Einstein’s equations for a string cloud with spherical sym
metry in (3+1)dimensional spacetime, that is with density given by (6), takes the
form [17]
ds
2
= −f(r) dt
2
+
1
f(r)
dr
2
+ r
2
(dθ
2
+ sin
2
θdϕ
2
) (7)
where
f(r) = 1 −a −
2M
r
. (8)
This metric represents the spacetime associated with a spherical mass M centered at
the origin of the system of coordinates, surrounded by a spherical cloud of strings.
3
Besides, it can also be understood as the metric associated to a global monopole,
which increases the interest of starting from it to construct a wormhole (for the
details see Refs. [18, 19], and for a related work involving a traversable wormhole see
Ref. [20]). The event horizon of this metric is placed at
r
hor
=
2M
1 −a
(9)
where a = 1. If a is less than unity we have that the cloud of strings enlarges the
Schwarzschild radius of the mass by the factor 1/(1 − a). When a > 1 the metric
represents a homogenous spacetime. The cloud of strings alone (M = 0) does not
have horizon; it only presents a naked singularity at r = 0. In Fig. 1 we show where
the event horizon is located and how this changes with the parameter a. When a = 0
we recover the Schwarzschild radius and for a close to unity the event horizon radius
tends to inﬁnity.
10 20 30 40 50
rM
5
4
3
2
1
fr
a0.6
10 20 30 40 50
rM
5
4
3
2
1
fr
a0.8
10 20 30 40 50
rM
5
4
3
2
1
1
fr
a0
10 20 30 40 50
rM
5
4
3
2
1
fr
a0.2
Figure 1: The function f(r) is shown. We can see how the position of the event
horizon changes when the parameter a varies within the range [0, 1)
4
2.2 Wormhole construction
Now we build a spherically symmetric thinshell wormhole starting from the generic
geometry (7) (see Fig. 2). We take two copies of the string cloud spacetime and
remove from each manifold the fourdimensional regions described by
M
1,2
= {r
1,2
≤ bb > r
hor
} . (10)
The resulting manifolds have boundaries given by the timelike hypersurfaces
Σ ≡ Σ
1,2
= {r
1,2
= bb > r
hor
} . (11)
Then we paste or identify these two timelike hypersurfaces to obtain a geodesically
complete new manifold Mwith a matter shell at the surface r = b, where the throat
of the wormhole is located. This manifold is constituted by two asymptotically locally
ﬂat
1
regions connected by a traversable Lorentzian wormhole.
Figure 2: We show two copies of the geometry represented by Eq. (1), with θ = π/2
and t = const., for r > r
hor
when a = 0. After the boundaries are identiﬁed we get a
geodesically complete new manifold with a matter shell at r = b.
To study this class of wormhole we use the standard Darmois–Israel formalism
[13, 14]. The wormhole throat is placed at the surface Σ. This is a synchronous
1
The spacetime presents a deﬁcit solid angle; see Ref. [19].
5
timelike hypersurface. We can introduce coordinates ξ
i
= (τ, θ, ϕ) in Σ, with τ the
proper time on the throat. In order to be able to perform a quite general analysis
(for example, to study the mechanical stability of the conﬁguration; see below), we
allow the radius of the throat be a function of the proper time, b = b(τ). This is
strictly right because the existence of a generalized Birkhoﬀ theorem for the string
cloud [17] ensures that the metric of the embedding remains the same independently
of the motion of the throat, as long as the spherical symmetry is preserved. So, the
boundary hypersurface reads:
Σ : F(r, τ) = r −b(τ) = 0. (12)
The second fundamental form (extrinsic curvature) at the two sides of the throat is
given by
K
±
il
= −n
±
γ
∂
2
X
γ
∂ξ
i
∂ξ
l
+ Γ
γ
αβ
∂X
α
∂ξ
i
∂X
β
∂ξ
l
(13)
where n
±
γ
are the unit normals (n
γ
n
γ
= 1) to the surface Σ in M. Deﬁning the jump
in the extrinsic curvature as [K
il
] = K
+
il
− K
−
il
and its trace as K = Tr([K
il
]) we
obtain the socalled Lanczos equations:
−[K
il
] + Kg
il
= 8πS
il
(14)
where S
il
is the surface stressenergy tensor of the shell placed at the throat. The
non vanishing components of the extrinsic curvature are:
K
±
ττ
= ±
¨
b + f
′
(b)/2
f(b) +
˙
b
2
, (15)
K
±
θθ
= K
±
ϕϕ
= ±
2
b
f(b) +
˙
b
2
, (16)
where the dot means derivation with respect to the proper time τ, and a prime stands
for a derivative with respect to r. Then, from Eqs. (8), (9) and (10) we get a formal
expression for the pressure p = S
θ
θ
= S
ϕ
ϕ
and the energy density σ = −S
τ
τ
in terms
of b(τ), ﬁrst and second derivatives of b(τ), and the function f which depends on the
parameters of the system (a, M):
σ = −
1
2πb
f(b) +
˙
b
2
, (17)
p = −
1
2
σ +
1
8π
¨
b + f
′
(b)/2
f(b) +
˙
b
2
, (18)
6
where the prime means derivation with respect to r. As it was to be expected, the
energy density is negative, indicating the existence of exotic matter at the shell. We
shall focus on this aspect of the wormhole in the next Section. It is easy to see from
Eqs. (11) and (12) that the energy conservation equation is fulﬁlled:
d(Aσ)
dτ
+ p
dA
dτ
= 0, (19)
where A is the area of the wormhole throat. The ﬁrst term in Eq. (13) represents the
internal energy change of the shell and the second the work by internal forces of the
shell. The dynamical evolution of the wormhole throat is governed by the Lanczos
equations and to close the system we must supply an equation of state p = p(σ) that
relates p and σ. In Section 4 we shall develop this point in a perturbative approach,
while in the Appendix we shall obtain the dynamical evolution of the throat for a
particular equation of state.
3 Characterization of the construction
3.1 Amount of exotic matter
Many authors (see for instance Refs. [9, 10, 21, 22]) have proposed to quantify the
amount of exotic matter as a way to characterize the viability of a traversable worm
hole. Here we shall analyze the energy conditions and evaluate the total amount of
exotic matter for the wormholes built in Section 2, in the case of static conﬁgurations,
i.e., b = b
0
. In this case, the energy density and pressure are
σ
0
= −
1
2πb
0
1 −a −
2M
b
0
, (20)
p
0
=
1
4πb
0
1 −a −
2M
b
0
+
M
8πb
2
0
1
1 −a −
2M
b
0
. (21)
The weak energy condition (WEC) states that for any timelike vector U
µ
it must be
T
µν
U
µ
U
ν
≥ 0; the WEC also implies, by continuity, the null energy condition (NEC),
which means that for any null vector k
µ
it mus be T
µν
k
µ
k
ν
≥ 0 [2]. In an orthonormal
basis the WEC reads ρ ≥ 0, ρ+p
l
≥ 0 ∀ l, while the NEC takes the form ρ+p
l
≥ 0 ∀ l.
In the case of the wormhole constructed in Section 2 we have that the radial pressure
is zero, p
r
= 0, and the energy density veriﬁes σ < 0, so that both energy conditions
are violated. The transverse pressure is p
t
= p and the sign of σ + p
t
is not ﬁxed by
this conditions, but it depends on the values of the parameters of the system.
7
There have been several proposals for quantifying the amount of exotic matter in
wormholes. In order to allow for an immediate comparison with the results of other
works, we shall adopt the most usual choice, which is the integral over space including
the pressure associated to the violation of the energy conditions:
Ω =
(ρ + p
r
)
√
−g d
3
x, (22)
where g is the determinant of the metric tensor. The advantages of this quantiﬁer,
compared with others including other measures as
(ρ+p
r
) d
3
x or
(ρ+p
r
)
−
3
g d
3
x,
have been carefully discussed in [9]. Besides, this choice is consistent with previous
proposals for covariant conservation laws in General Relativity (see [23]).
We introduce a new radial coordinate R = ±(r − b
0
) with ± corresponding to
each side of the shell. In our construction the shell does not exert radial pressure,
and the energy density is located on the surface so the energy density can then be
written as ρ = δ(R) σ
0
. This yields the following formula for the amount of exotic
matter:
Ω =
2π
0
π
0
+∞
−∞
δ(R) σ
0
√
−g dRdθ dϕ = 4πσ
0
b
2
0
. (23)
Replacing the explicit form of σ
0
we obtain the exotic matter amount as a function
of the parameters (a, M, b
0
) that characterize the conﬁgurations:
Ω = −2b
0
1 −a −
2M
b
0
. (24)
The amount of exotic matter is thus always smaller than in the Schwarzschild case
a = 0. In Fig. 3 we show Ω/M as a fuction of b
0
/M for diﬀerent values of a. Note
that for b
0
≫M the amount Ω becomes linear in b
0
: Ω ≃ −2b
0
√
1 −a.
A natural question is which conditions allow to reduce Ω. Since Ω ∝ σ
0
and
σ
0
→0 as b
0
→r
hor
, we shall investige this limit more carefully. For b
0
near the event
horizon r
hor
, the transverse pressure and the surface density energy behave as
σ
0
= −
1
2πr
hor
f
′
(r
hor
)
b
0
−r
hor
+O[(b
0
−r
hor
)
3/2
], (25)
p
0
=
1
8π
f
′
(r
hor
)
√
b
0
−r
hor
+O[(b
0
−r
hor
)
1/2
], (26)
where f
′
(r
hor
) = 0. Then, when we take the limit b
0
→r
hor
the surface energy density
goes to zero but the transerve pressure tends to inﬁnity (see Ref. [22] for a similar
behaviour).
8
6 7 8 9 10
b
0
M
8
6
4
2
0
M a0.6
12 14 16 18 20
b
0
M
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
M a0.8
4 6 8 10
b
0
M
17.5
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
0
M a0
5 6 7 8 9 10
b
0
M
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
M a0.4
Figure 3: The exotic matter amount is shown as a function of b
0
, for given values of
the parameter a.
We can also consider the case when the wormhole radius b
0
is ﬁxed and fulﬁls
b
0
≫ r
hor
, and the exotic matter amount is taken as a function of the parameter
a ∈ [0, 1). In this case Ω can be reduced by increasing the value of the parameter
a (see Fig. 4), while the energy density and the pressure remain under control (see
Figs. 5 and 6): in this limit we have
p
0
≃
1
4πb
0
√
1 −a +
M
2b
0
√
1 −a
, (27)
where the second term is kept ﬁnite even if a →1 precisely because the condition b
0
≫
r
hor
implies M/(2b
0
√
1 −a) <
√
1 −a/4. In fact, under these conditions the amount
of exotic matter can be reduced without increasing the pressure, which constitutes a
remarkable feature for a wormhole construction (in the pure Schwarzschild case and
in the same limit b
0
≫r
hor
, the amount Ω can only be reduced by reducing b
0
, which
leads to an increase of the pressure). This is shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
3.2 Traversability
A possible way to deﬁne the traversability of a Lorentzian wormhole is to compare the
relative aceleration (proportional to the tidal force) between to parts of a traveller,
9
with the magnitude of the Earth surface gravity. We start from the expression of the
fourvelocity of a traveller falling towards the throat straight in the radial direction
(that is with zero angular momentum)
U
µ
=
E
f(r)
, −
E
2
−f(r), 0, 0
, (28)
where E is its energy at inﬁnity (basically its rest mass). Then from the deﬁnition
of the geodesic deviation we calculate the covariant relative acceleration between two
parts of the traveller separated by a distance X
r
in the radial direction:
DX
r
Ds
= R
r
trt
X
r
U
t
U
t
=
−2MEX
r
r
3
(1 −a −2M/r)
, (29)
where s is the proper time of the traveller. From this expression it can easily be
shown that a choice of the parameters making the wormhole stable (see the next
Section) and also reducing the amount of exotic matter, can render it traversable.
For example, this happens for a = 0.6 and b
0
= 10
4
M
⊙
, which for a length of order
one meter give a tidal acceleration which is about Earth surface gravity.
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
800
600
400
200
0
M
b
0
M
400
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
M
b
0
M
10000
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
a
5
4
3
2
1
0
M
b
0
M
4
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
a
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
M
b
0
M
20
Figure 4: The exotic matter amount is shown as a function of a, with a ∈ [0, 0.9998),
for given values of b
0
.
10
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
a
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
ΠΣ0M
b
0
M
20
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
a
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.011
0.012
Πp
0
M
b
0
M
20
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
a
0.09
0.08
0.07
ΠΣ0M
b
0
M
5
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
a
0.0475
0.0525
0.055
0.0575
0.06
0.0625
Πp
0
M
b
0
M
5
Figure 5: For given values of the wormhole radius, the energy density and the pressure
are plotted as functions of the parameter a.
4 Stability analysis
A physically interesting wormhole geometry should last enough so that its traversabil
ity makes sense. Thus the stability of a given wormhole conﬁguration becomes a cen
tral aspect of its study. Here we shall analyze the stability under small perturbations
preserving the spherical symmetry of the conﬁguration; for this we shall proceed as
Poisson and Visser in Ref. [11]. As we said, the dynamical evolution is determined
by Eqs. (11) and (12), or by any of them and Eq. (13), and to complete the system
we must add an equation of state that relates p with σ, i.e, p = p(σ). By introducing
the explicit form of the metric in Eq. (11) we have
˙
b
2
−
2M
b
−[2πbσ(b)]
2
= a −1. (30)
To obtain σ = σ(b) we ﬁrst note that the energy conservation equation can be written
as
˙ σ = −2(σ + p)
˙
b
b
(31)
which can be integrated to give
ln
b
b(τ
0
)
= −
1
2
σ
σ(τ
0
)
dσ
σ + p(σ)
. (32)
From Eq. (26), if the equation of state p = p(σ) is given, one can obtain σ = σ(b).
11
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
0.00005
0.00004
0.00003
0.00002
0.00001
ΠΣ0M
b
0
M
10000
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
5·10
6
0.00001
0.000015
0.00002
0.000025
Πp
0
M
b
0
M
10000
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
0.0012
0.001
0.0008
0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
ΠΣ0M
b
0
M
400
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
0.0004
0.0005
0.0006
Πp
0
M
b
0
M
400
Figure 6: For given values of the wormhole radius, the density energy and the pressure
are plotted as functions of the parameter a ∈ [0, 0.9998).
Following the procedure introduced by Poisson and Visser, the analysis of the
stability of the conﬁguration can be reduced to the analogous problem of the stability
of a particle in a one dimensional potential V (b). This is easy to see if we write Eq.
(24) as
˙
b
2
= −V (b) (33)
with
V (b) = −
2M
b
−[2πbσ(b)]
2
+ 1 −a. (34)
(We can verify the procedure by setting a = 0 and see that we recover the results
of Ref. [11]). So, to study the stability we expand up to second order the potential
V (b) around the static solution b
0
(for which
˙
b = 0,
¨
b = 0). As we expect, for a stable
conﬁguration it is V (b
0
) = 0 and V
′
(b
0
) = 0, where the prime means a derivative
with respect to b. Then, Eq. (27) takes the following form:
˙
b
2
= −V
′′
(b
0
)(b −b
0
)
2
+O[(b −b
0
)
3
]. (35)
To compute the derivates it is convenient to deﬁne the parameter
η(σ) ≡
∂p
∂σ
, (36)
which for ordinary matter would represent the squared speed of sound: v
2
s
= η. For
now, however, we simply considerer η as a useful parameter related with the equation
12
of state (see below). Then, we obtain the second derivative of the potencial for the
metric (1):
V
′′
(b
0
) = −
2
b
2
0
f(b
0
)
(2M/b
0
)f(b
0
) + M
2
/b
2
0
+ (1 + 2η
0
)f(b
0
)(1 −a −3M/b
0
)
, (37)
where η
0
= η(σ
0
). The wormhole is stable if and only if V
′′
(b
0
) > 0 while for
V
′′
(b
0
) < 0 a radial perturbation grows (at least until nonlinear regime is reached)
and the wormhole is unstable. Because the function f(b
0
) is always positive for
b
0
> r
hor
, we only have to analyze the sign of the bracket in Eq. (31) for determining
which are the values of the parameters M, a, b
0
that make the wormhole stable. Then,
after some simple manipulations, the stability conditions can be written as follows:
b
0
> 3M/(1 −a) if η
0
< −[(1 −a)
2
−3M(1 −a)/b
0
+ 3M
2
/b
2
0
], (38)
b
0
< 3M/(1 −a) if η
0
> −[(1 −a)
2
−3M(1 −a)/b
0
+ 3M
2
/b
2
0
]. (39)
To get a good insight of the stability regions, we draw the curve V
′′
(b
0
) = 0 in the
plane (η
0
, b
0
/M) for diﬀerent values of the parameter a (see Fig. 7). We can identify
the regions of stability as follows: In the case of a = 0, for b
0
/M > 3 the region of
stability lies under the curve, but for b
0
/M < 3 the stability region is placed above
the curve showed in Fig. 7 (we can also see that when a = 0 we recover the results
by Poisson and Visser). Then, for values of a ∈ [0, 1) the shape of the regions of
stability remains the same of the case a = 0, but their locations are shifted as the
event horizon changes with the parameter a. We ﬁnd that when a is increased, the
regions of stability, though shifted away, become considerably enlarged.
We observe from these plots that the stability of the wormhole conﬁguration de
mands that the parameter η
0
of the exotic matter at the shell is, when positive,
greater than unity (see, however, the same analysis for a related model in Appendix
B). It is clearly not easy to interprete
√
η
0
as a kind of velocity of propagating waves
at the shell. Furthermore, from the regions of stability obtained, we conclude that
traversable wormholes with radii b
0
> 3M/(1 − a) could be stable, under pertur
bations that preserve the spherical symmetry, only if the parameter η
0
is negative.
However, it was pointed out by Visser and Poisson that the interpretation of
√
η
0
as the speed of sound would require an understanding of the microphysics of exotic
matter, which is not available by now.
13
10 20 30 40
b
0
M
20
10
10
20
Η
0
a0.8
50 100 150 200 250 300
b
0
M
6
4
2
2
4
6
Η
0
a0.98
2 4 6 8 10
b
0
M
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
Η
0
a0
2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20
b
0
M
6
4
2
2
4
6
Η
0
a0.6
Figure 7: The dependence of the stability regions with the parameter a is shown.
5 Summary
We have built traversable thinshell wormholes applying the cut and paste procedure
to the geometry corresponding to a spherical cloud of strings. We have found that
the amount of exotic matter –which is restricted to the throat– can be reduced by a
suitable choice of the parameters. Moreover, we have shown that for a ﬁxed wormhole
radius b
0
≫ r
hor
, there exists a range of values of the parameter a such that, while
the amount of exotic matter can be reduced, the transverse pressure and the surface
energy density can be kept under control. We have also studied the stability of the
conﬁguration under perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry, and we have
found that the stability regions –though shifted away– become enlarged when the
parameter a is increased. Within the characterization of static conﬁgurations, we
have considered the traversability of large wormholes by evaluating the tidal force;
we have found that it turns to be acceptable in the case of values of a and b
0
such that
the wormhole is stable. Besides, in the Appendix A (see below) we brieﬂy study the
dynamics of the shell beyond the perturbative approach by considering the particular
14
case of the Chaplygin equation of state for the shell matter. Also, the features of a
related wormhole conﬁguration are discussed in the Appendix B.
Acknowledgments
The authors want to thank
´
Alvaro Corval´an for useful comments on diﬀerential equa
tions, and Ernesto Eiroa for helpful discussions. This work was supported by Univer
sidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET.
15
Appendix A: Dynamics of the shell
As noted above, it can be proved that there exists a generalized Birkhoﬀ theorem for
the string cloud, so the geometry exhibited in Section 2 is the general solution for the
case of spherical symmetry; in particular, no gravitational waves are emitted. Thus
the time evolution can be obtained from Eqs. (11) and (12) plus an equation of state
relating the energy density and pressure of the exotic matter. Here, we consider the
special case of the Chaplygin gas [25], i.e. a perfect ﬂuid fulﬁlling
p = −
λ
σ
(40)
where λ is a positive constant. A remarkable feature of the Chaplygin gas model is
that it has positive and bounded squared sound velocity: v
2
s
= ∂p/∂σ = λ/σ
2
, which
is not trivial for an exotic matter ﬂuid. This model has been applied in cosmological
models because it describes a smooth transition from a deccelerated expansion of the
Universe to the present epoch of cosmic acceleration and because it gives a uniﬁed
macroscopic description of dark matter and dark energy [26]. It has been recently
proposed for supporting a class of thinshell wormholes in Ref. [27]. If we take the
2·10
16
4·10
16
6·10
16
8·10
16
1·10
15
t
200
400
600
800
Rt
5 10 15 20
t
1·10
17
2·10
17
3·10
17
4·10
17
Rt
Figure 8: For a given initial velocity (
˙
R
0
= 0) and initial radius (R
0
= 3) we show
the relation between the (scaled) proper time T and the wormhole radius in the case
of the Chaplygin equation of state. For large R there is no sensible dependence with
the parameter a while in the case of small R, the evolution exhibits some dependence
with a; here we plot R(T) for a = 0.2. Note the diﬀerence between the two plots in
the scales of both axes.
Eqs. (11) and (12) and replace them in Eq. (34), the equation for the wormhole
16
radius b can be written as:
d
dT
R
dR
dT
= a −1 +
1
R
+
8π
2
l
2
λ
R
2
, (41)
where we have deﬁned dimensionless variables R = r/M, T = τ/M and
√
λM =
(l
λ
)
−1
. In order to solve Eq. (35), we deﬁne the variable R =
√
y and multiply
this equation by ˙ y(T). So then, after integrating, we obtain a ﬁrst order diﬀerential
equation for the squared velocity:
˙ y
2
(T) = ˙ y
2
0
+ 4(a −1)(y −y
0
) + 8(
√
y −
√
y
0
) + 32π
2
l
−2
λ
(y
2
−y
2
0
). (42)
Now, if we return to the variable R, Eq. (36) can be put in the following integral
form:
T
T
0
dt = ±
R
R
0
RdR
(R
0
˙
R
0
)
2
+ (a −1)(R
2
−R
2
0
) + 2(R −R
0
) + 8π
2
l
−2
λ
(R
4
−R
4
0
)
.
(43)
The solution of this integral has a closed expression in terms of elliptic functions of
ﬁrst and third kind. The general solution is parametrized by a, so for simplicity we
just exhibit a plot of the solution for large R and for small R (see Fig. 8). Of course,
initial conditions are taken such that R
0
corresponds to an initial radius greater than
the horizon radius of the original manifold. In the case of large R, this approximation
leads to study the dynamical equation of an antioscillator and the solution does not
exhibit a dependence with the parameter a. In the case of small R, the solution has a
smooth dependence with a, and here we have solved the diﬀerential equation by Taylor
expanding up to fourth order about the initial radius R
0
= 3. As can be seen from
Fig. 8, a monotonic evolution is obtained. Thus, diﬀering from the results obtained
with a linear equation of state (Section 4), within this model no stable conﬁgurations
would exist. This seems to be consistent with the results of [27], where it was shown
that in the case of the Chaplygin equation of state, stable conﬁgurations required a
non vanishing charge or a cosmological constant, which, compared with the string
cloud, represents a more considerable departure from the pure Schwarzschild metric.
17
Appendix B: A related model
An immediate extension of our analysis of Sections 3 and 4 can be performed in the
case of a perfect string ﬂuid (see [24] and the ﬁrst paper in Ref. [16]). Such a model
includes a non vanishing angular pressure such that the energymomentum tensor of
the ﬂuid has the form T
t
t
= T
r
r
= −αT
θ
θ
= −αT
ϕ
ϕ
. As a result of this, for α = 2 the
function f in the metric (1) takes the form
2
f(r) = 1 −
2M
r
−
ǫαL
2/α
(α −2) r
2/α
(44)
where L is a positive constant of dimension length, and ǫ = ±1 denotes the sign of the
energy density of the string ﬂuid. Because the calculations are analogous to those
2 4 6 8 10
b0
M
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
Η
0
Α200 Ε1
LP
M
10
38
20 40 60 80 100
b0
M
3
2
1
1
2
3
Η
0
Α1000 Ε1
LP
M
10
38
2 4 6 8 10
b0
M
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
Η
0
Α1 Ε1
LP
M
10
38
2 4 6 8 10
b0
M
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
Η
0
Α100 Ε1
LP
M
10
38
Figure 9: The stability regions (black line) and the horizon (dashed line) are shown for
ǫ = 1, L = 10
−38
M in the case of a perfect string ﬂuid. Four values of the parameter
α are considered. The stability regions are compared with those corresponding to the
cloud of strings with a = 0.6 (gray line).
above, we omit the details and give the results for ǫ = +1 (we want to restric exotic
2
We choose α = 2 because it allows to reproduce the results of the Schwarzchild–de Sitter and
the Reissner–Nordstr¨ om thinshell wormholes in the cases α = −1 and α = 1 respectively (see the
papers by Lobo and Crawford and by Eiroa and Romero, Ref. [15])
18
2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20
b
0
M
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
M Α1000,1
2.5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20
b
0
M
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
M Α100,1
Figure 10: The amount of exotic matter is shown for α > 0, L = 10
−38
M. We also
show the exotic matter amount for the string cloud (dashed line) with a = 0.6.
matter to the shell) and for L of order 10
−38
M. We compare the stability regions and
the amount of exotic matter with the case of the string cloud with a = 0.6. As can
be seen from Figs. 9 and 10, while certain values of α allow to reduce the amount
Ω/M with respect to the string cloud case, the regions of stability for low values of
α are shifted towards the horizon and become smaller. However, lower values of the
would be squared speed of sound become compatible with stability; in particular, for
large α a numerical calculation shows that positive values of η
0
slightly smaller than
unity are now possible.
19
References
[1] M. S. Morris and K. S. Thorne, Am. J. Phys. 56, 395 (1988).
[2] M. Visser, Lorentzian Wormholes (AIP Press, New York, 1996).
[3] M. S. Morris, K. S. Thorne and U. Yurtsever, Phys. Rev. Lett 61, 1446 (1989).
[4] V. P. Frolov and I. D. Novikov, Phys. Rev. D 42, 1057 (1990).
[5] D. Hochberg and M. Visser, Phys. Rev. D 56, 4745 (1997).
[6] D. Hochberg and M. Visser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 746 (1998); D. Hochberg and
M. Visser, Phys. Rev. D 58, 044021 (1998).
[7] M. Visser, S. Kar and N. Dadhich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 201102 (2003).
[8] C. Barcel´o and M. Visser, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 11, 1553 (2002); T. A. Roman,
Some Thoughts on Energy Conditions and Wormholes, grqc/0409090.
[9] K. K. Nandi, Y.Z. Zhang, and K. B. Vijaya Kumar, Phys. Rev. D 70, 127503
(2004).
[10] K. K. Nandi, Y.Z. Zhang and N. G. Migranov, J. Nonlinear Phenomena in
Complex Systems 9, 61 (2006) (arXiv:grqc/0409053).
[11] E. Poisson and M. Visser, Phys. Rev. D 52, 7318 (1995).
[12] M. Visser, Phys. Rev. D 39, 3182 (1989); M. Visser, Nucl. Phys. B328, 203
(1989).
[13] N. Sen, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 73, 365 (1924); K. Lanczos, ibid. 74, 518 (1924); G.
Darmois, M´emorial des Sciences Math´ematiques, Fascicule XXV ch V (Gauthier
Villars, Paris, 1927) ; W. Israel, Nuovo Cimento 44B, 1 (1966); 48B, 463(E)
(1967).
[14] P. Musgrave and K. Lake, Class. Quantum Grav. 13, 1885 (1996).
[15] E. F. Eiroa and G. E. Romero, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 36, 651 (2004); F. S. N.
Lobo and P. Crawford, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, 391 (2004); M. Thibeault, C.
Simeone and E. F. Eiroa, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 38, 1593 (2006); F. Rahaman,
M. Kalam and S. Chakraborty, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 38, 1687 (2006).
20
[16] H. H. Soleng, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 27, 367 (1995); P. S. Letelier and V. T.
Zanchin, Phys. Lett A198, 79 (1995); M. NouriZonoz, N. Dadhich and D.
LyndenBell, Class. Quantum Grav. 16, 1021 (1999); I. Yilmaz, I. Yavuz, H.
Baysal, I. Tarhan and U. Camci, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D8, 659 (1999); H. Baysal
and I. Yilmaz, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 6435 (2002).
[17] P. Letelier, Phys. Rev. D 20, 1294 (1979).
[18] M. Barriola and A. Vilenkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 341 (1989).
[19] O. Dando and R. Gregory, Class. Quantum Grav. 15, 985 (1998).
[20] F. Rahaman, S. Mal and P. Ghosh, Mod. Phys. Lett. A19, 2785 (2004).
[21] F. S. N. Lobo, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 37, 2023 (2005).
[22] E. F. Eiroa and C. Simeone, Phys. Rev. D 71, 127501 (2005); M. Richarte and
C. Simeone, Phys. Rev. D 76, 087502 (2007).
[23] R. C. Tolman, Phys. Rev 35, 875 (1930); A. Komar, Phys. Rev. 113, 934 (1959).
[24] P. Letelier, Nuovo Cim. B63, 519 (1981).
[25] S. Chaplygin, Sci. Mem. Moscow Univ. Math. Phys. 21, 1 (1904); H.STien, J.
Aeron. Sci. 6, 399 (1939); T. Von Karman, J. Aeron. Sci. 8, 337 (1941).
[26] V. Gorini, A. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella and V. Pasquier, grqc/0403062.
[27] E. F. Eiroa and C. Simeone, Phys. Rev. D 76, 024021 (2007).
21
Of course, no unstable solution of the equations of gravitation could be of interest as a candidate for a traversable wormhole. Thus, besides the characterization of static solutions, their stability under perturbations must always be explored. In particular, this has been thoroughly studied for the case of small perturbations preserving the symmetry of the original conﬁguration. A class of wormholes for which Poisson and Visser [11] developed a straightforward approach for analyzing this aspect are thinshell ones, that is, wormholes which are mathematically constructed by cutting and pasting two manifolds to obtain a geodesically complete new manifold [12]. In these wormhole conﬁgurations the exotic matter lies in a shell placed at the joining surface; so the theoretical framework for dealing with them is the Darmois–Israel formalism, which leads to the Lanczos equations, that is, the Einstein’s equations projected on the joining surface [13, 14]. Once an equation of state for the exotic matter in the shell is provided, the solution of the Lanczos equations gives the dynamical evolution of the wormhole. Such a procedure has been subsequently followed to study the stability of more general spherically symmetric conﬁgurations (see, for example, Refs. [15]). According to present day theoretical developments, a scenario in which the fundamental building blocks of nature are extended objects instead of point objects should be considered quite seriously. In particular, 1–dimensional objects (strings) are the most popular candidate for such fundamental objects. The study of the gravitational eﬀects of matter in the form of clouds of both cosmic and fundamental strings has then deserved considerable attention; see for example Refs. [16]. We are interested in the viability of wormholes; so within this framework any reasonable conﬁguration including more parameters and thus allowing for improving its features as: amount of exotic matter, pressure, traversability and stability, deserves to be analyzed. In the present work we start from the metric proposed in the leading paper by Letelier [17] to address the study of thinshell wormholes associated to a string cloud (and also a global monopole; see below). We study in detail the amount of exotic matter required for the construction, the traversability and also the stability of the conﬁguration under perturbations preserving the original symmetry. As we shall see, comparing with the Schwarzschild case, the string cloud allows for more freedom in the choice of the conﬁgurations to be stable, and also allows to reduce the amount of exotic matter without increasing the pressure. Because recently certain attention was devoted to exotic matter fulﬁlling the Chaplygin gas equation of state, in Appendix A we explicitly impose it on the shell matter to obtain its time evolution beyond a perturbative approach. In Appendix B we discuss a possible extension of the analysis to a related geometry. Throughout the paper we set units so that c = G = 1. 2
3 . ∂λA ∂λB (2) with ǫAB put as ∂xµ ∂xν (3) ∂λA ∂λB the twodimensional Levi–Civita symbol. The general solution to Einstein’s equations for a string cloud with spherical symmetry in (3+1)dimensional spacetime. In the case of a static spherically symmetric cloud. that is with density given by (6). and γ is the determinant of the induced metric on the string world sheet: γ = det γAB .1 Wormholes in a string cloud with spherical symmetry The string cloud √ L = m −γ. and is called the gauge invariant density of the cloud [17]. The quantity ρ0 (−γ)1/2 is gauge invariant. the Lagrangian density L can be Σµν = ǫAB 1 L = m − Σαβ Σαβ 2 1/2 . (4) With this notation. (8) r This metric represents the spacetime associated with a spherical mass M centered at f (r) = 1 − a − the origin of the system of coordinates. a cloud of strings is described by the energymomentum tensor T µν = ρ0 Σµβ Σν (−γ)−1/2 . λ1 are a timelike and a spacelike parameter. takes the form [17] ds2 = −f (r) dt2 + where 1 dr 2 + r 2 (dθ2 + sin2 θdϕ2 ) f (r) (7) a r2 (6) 2M . Introducing the bivector γAB = gµν (x) ∂xµ ∂xν . we have ρ0 (−γ)1/2 = with a a positive constant. The action of a string evolving in spacetime is given by S= L dλ0 dλ1 . λ0 . β (5) where ρ0 is the proper density of the cloud.2 2. (1) where m is a constant characterizing each string. surrounded by a spherical cloud of strings.
6 20 30 40 50 r M f r 10 1 2 3 4 5 a 0. it can also be understood as the metric associated to a global monopole. We can see how the position of the event horizon changes when the parameter a varies within the range [0. f r 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 20 a 0 30 40 50 r M 1 2 3 4 5 f r 10 a 0. which increases the interest of starting from it to construct a wormhole (for the details see Refs. In Fig.8 20 30 40 50 r M Figure 1: The function f (r) is shown. [20]). and for a related work involving a traversable wormhole see Ref. The cloud of strings alone (M = 0) does not have horizon. When a > 1 the metric f r 10 1 2 3 4 5 a 0. The event horizon of this metric is placed at rhor = 2M 1−a (9) where a = 1. it only presents a naked singularity at r = 0.2 20 30 40 50 r M Schwarzschild radius of the mass by the factor 1/(1 − a). 1 we show where the event horizon is located and how this changes with the parameter a. [18. 1) 4 . 19]. If a is less than unity we have that the cloud of strings enlarges the represents a homogenous spacetime. When a = 0 we recover the Schwarzschild radius and for a close to unity the event horizon radius tends to inﬁnity.Besides.
14]. (1).. 2).2 = bb > rhor } . To study this class of wormhole we use the standard Darmois–Israel formalism [13. with θ = π/2 and t = const. see Ref. This manifold is constituted by two asymptotically locally Figure 2: We show two copies of the geometry represented by Eq.2 ≤ bb > rhor } .2 Wormhole construction Now we build a spherically symmetric thinshell wormhole starting from the generic geometry (7) (see Fig. (11) (10) Then we paste or identify these two timelike hypersurfaces to obtain a geodesically complete new manifold M with a matter shell at the surface r = b. for r > rhor when a = 0.2 = {r1.2. We take two copies of the string cloud spacetime and remove from each manifold the fourdimensional regions described by M1. [19]. where the throat ﬂat1 regions connected by a traversable Lorentzian wormhole. The resulting manifolds have boundaries given by the timelike hypersurfaces Σ ≡ Σ1. After the boundaries are identiﬁed we get a geodesically complete new manifold with a matter shell at r = b. 5 . The wormhole throat is placed at the surface Σ.2 = {r1. of the wormhole is located. This is a synchronous 1 The spacetime presents a deﬁcit solid angle.
given by ± Kil = −n± γ (12) The second fundamental form (extrinsic curvature) at the two sides of the throat is ∂2X γ ∂X α ∂X β + Γγ αβ ∂ξ i ∂ξ l ∂ξ i ∂ξ l (13) where n± are the unit normals (nγ nγ = 1) to the surface Σ in M. ϕ) in Σ. from Eqs. ′ θ ϕ τ expression for the pressure p = Sθ = Sϕ and the energy density σ = −Sτ in terms (17) (18) 1 1 ¨ + f (b)/2 b p=− σ+ . (9) and (10) we get a formal of b(τ ). M): σ=− 1 2πb ˙ f (b) + b2 . and a prime stands ± ± Kθθ = Kϕϕ = ± for a derivative with respect to r. (15) 2 ˙ f (b) + b2 . 2 8π ˙ f (b) + b2 6 .timelike hypersurface. as long as the spherical symmetry is preserved. ﬁrst and second derivatives of b(τ ). the boundary hypersurface reads: Σ : F (r. (8). see below). In order to be able to perform a quite general analysis (for example. So. with τ the proper time on the throat. Then. and the function f which depends on the parameters of the system (a. Deﬁning the jump γ + − in the extrinsic curvature as [Kil ] = Kil − Kil and its trace as K = T r([Kil ]) we obtain the socalled Lanczos equations: − [Kil ] + Kgil = 8πSil non vanishing components of the extrinsic curvature are: ± Kτ τ (14) where Sil is the surface stressenergy tensor of the shell placed at the throat. τ ) = r − b(τ ) = 0. b = b(τ ). We can introduce coordinates ξ i = (τ. θ. to study the mechanical stability of the conﬁguration. This is strictly right because the existence of a generalized Birkhoﬀ theorem for the string cloud [17] ensures that the metric of the embedding remains the same independently of the motion of the throat. The ¨ + f ′ (b)/2 b ˙ f (b) + b2 =± . we allow the radius of the throat be a function of the proper time. (16) b where the dot means derivation with respect to the proper time τ .
10. the WEC also implies. so that both energy conditions are violated. the energy density and pressure are σ0 = − p0 = 1 4πb0 1 2πb0 1−a− 2M .e. the null energy condition (NEC).where the prime means derivation with respect to r. while in the Appendix we shall obtain the dynamical evolution of the throat for a particular equation of state. The ﬁrst term in Eq. The transverse pressure is pt = p and the sign of σ + pt is not ﬁxed by this conditions. the energy density is negative.. 22]) have proposed to quantify the amount of exotic matter as a way to characterize the viability of a traversable wormhole. is zero. Here we shall analyze the energy conditions and evaluate the total amount of exotic matter for the wormholes built in Section 2. We shall focus on this aspect of the wormhole in the next Section. dτ dτ (19) where A is the area of the wormhole throat. [9. As it was to be expected. 3 3. 21. In Section 4 we shall develop this point in a perturbative approach. b = b0 . and the energy density veriﬁes σ < 0. pr = 0. in the case of static conﬁgurations. ρ+pl ≥ 0 ∀ l. which means that for any null vector k µ it mus be Tµν k µ k ν ≥ 0 [2]. The dynamical evolution of the wormhole throat is governed by the Lanczos equations and to close the system we must supply an equation of state p = p(σ) that relates p and σ.1 Characterization of the construction Amount of exotic matter Many authors (see for instance Refs. It is easy to see from Eqs. (21) The weak energy condition (WEC) states that for any timelike vector U µ it must be Tµν U µ U ν ≥ 0. 7 . In an orthonormal In the case of the wormhole constructed in Section 2 we have that the radial pressure basis the WEC reads ρ ≥ 0. but it depends on the values of the parameters of the system. by continuity. (13) represents the internal energy change of the shell and the second the work by internal forces of the shell. (11) and (12) that the energy conservation equation is fulﬁlled: dA d(Aσ) +p = 0. b0 1 1−a− 2M b0 (20) 1−a− M 2M + b0 8πb2 0 . i. indicating the existence of exotic matter at the shell. while the NEC takes the form ρ+pl ≥ 0 ∀ l. In this case.
In Fig. 3 we show Ω/M as a fuction of b0 /M for diﬀerent values of a. We introduce a new radial coordinate R = ±(r − b0 ) with ± corresponding to have been carefully discussed in [9]. Since Ω ∝ σ0 and (25) where f (rhor ) = 0. each side of the shell. In order to allow for an immediate comparison with the results of other works. Then. we shall investige this limit more carefully. For b0 near the event horizon rhor . [22] for a similar . b0 (24) The amount of exotic matter is thus always smaller than in the Schwarzschild case a = 0. which is the integral over space including the pressure associated to the violation of the energy conditions: Ω= √ (ρ + pr ) −g d3 x. b0 ) that characterize the conﬁgurations: Ω = −2b0 1−a− 2M . Note √ that for b0 ≫ M the amount Ω becomes linear in b0 : Ω ≃ −2b0 1 − a. p0 = 8π b0 − rhor (26) goes to zero but the transerve pressure tends to inﬁnity (see Ref. The advantages of this quantiﬁer. we shall adopt the most usual choice. 8 ′ f ′ (rhor ) 1 √ + O[(b0 − rhor )1/2 ]. (22) where g is the determinant of the metric tensor. the transverse pressure and the surface density energy behave as σ0 = − 1 2πrhor f ′ (rhor ) b0 − rhor + O[(b0 − rhor )3/2 ]. Besides. compared with others including other measures as (ρ+pr ) d3x or (ρ+pr ) proposals for covariant conservation laws in General Relativity (see [23]).There have been several proposals for quantifying the amount of exotic matter in wormholes. This yields the following formula for the amount of exotic matter: Ω= 0 0 −∞ 2π π +∞ √ δ(R) σ0 −g dR dθ dϕ = 4πσ0 b2 . when we take the limit b0 → rhor the surface energy density behaviour). A natural question is which conditions allow to reduce Ω. In our construction the shell does not exert radial pressure. M. σ0 → 0 as b0 → rhor . this choice is consistent with previous − 3g d3 x. 0 (23) Replacing the explicit form of σ0 we obtain the exotic matter amount as a function of the parameters (a. and the energy density is located on the surface so the energy density can then be written as ρ = δ(R) σ0 .
4 7 8 9 10 b0 M 10 8 12. which constitutes a in the same limit b0 ≫ rhor . which remarkable feature for a wormhole construction (in the pure Schwarzschild case and leads to an increase of the pressure). In fact. We can also consider the case when the wormhole radius b0 is ﬁxed and fulﬁls b0 ≫ rhor . the amount Ω can only be reduced by reducing b0 .5 15 17.5 5 7. 5 and 6. In this case Ω can be reduced by increasing the value of the parameter Figs. 5 and 6): in this limit we have p0 ≃ 1 4πb0 √ 1−a+ M √ 2b0 1 − a . under these conditions the amount of exotic matter can be reduced without increasing the pressure. (27) a (see Fig. 1).5 a 0 6 8 10 b0 M M 5 2 4 6 6 a 0. This is shown in Figs.0 0 M 4 2.5 10 12 0 0 M 6 2 7 a 0.2 Traversability A possible way to deﬁne the traversability of a Lorentzian wormhole is to compare the relative aceleration (proportional to the tidal force) between to parts of a traveller. for given values of the parameter a. while the energy density and the pressure remain under control (see where the second term is kept ﬁnite even if a → 1 precisely because the condition b0 ≫ √ √ rhor implies M/(2b0 1 − a) < 1 − a/4. and the exotic matter amount is taken as a function of the parameter a ∈ [0.8 14 16 18 20 b0 M 4 6 8 10 6 8 12 Figure 3: The exotic matter amount is shown as a function of b0 . 3. 4).6 8 9 10 b0 M M 12 2 4 a 0. 9 .
6 and b0 = 104 M⊙ . this happens for a = 0. 10 . for given values of b0 . which for a length of order one meter give a tidal acceleration which is about Earth surface gravity.with the magnitude of the Earth surface gravity.2 5000 b0 10000 M 0.6 0.8 1 a 0 M 0.4 0. 0 . We start from the expression of the fourvelocity of a traveller falling towards the throat straight in the radial direction (that is with zero angular momentum) Uµ = E .8 1 a 400 10000 600 15000 800 20000 Figure 4: The exotic matter amount is shown as a function of a.4 0.3 0.9998).6 0.2 200 b0 400 M 0.4 0. Ds r (1 − a − 2M/r) (29) where s is the proper time of the traveller. For example.8 a 0 M 0. f (r) (28) where E is its energy at inﬁnity (basically its rest mass). 0.2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 b0 20 M 0. 0 M 0. − E 2 − f (r).2 0. Then from the deﬁnition of the geodesic deviation we calculate the covariant relative acceleration between two parts of the traveller separated by a distance X r in the radial direction: DX r −2MEX r r = Rtrt X r U t U t = 3 .6 0.5 a M 0. can render it traversable. with a ∈ [0. From this expression it can easily be shown that a choice of the parameters making the wormhole stable (see the next Section) and also reducing the amount of exotic matter. 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 b0 4 M 0.4 0.
1 0. By introducing the explicit form of the metric in Eq.2 0. and to complete the system we must add an equation of state that relates p with σ. one can obtain σ = σ(b).012 0.01 0.005 0. or by any of them and Eq. b as σ = −2(σ + p) ˙ which can be integrated to give ln b 1 =− b(τ0 ) 2 σ σ(τ0 ) (30) To obtain σ = σ(b) we ﬁrst note that the energy conservation equation can be written ˙ b b (31) dσ . (26).1 0. σ + p(σ) (32) From Eq.4 0.005 b0 20 M 0. 4 Stability analysis A physically interesting wormhole geometry should last enough so that its traversability makes sense.009 0. Thus the stability of a given wormhole conﬁguration becomes a central aspect of its study.0525 0.08 0. if the equation of state p = p(σ) is given. [11].6 0. (11) we have 2M ˙ b2 − − [2πbσ(b)]2 = a − 1. (13). p = p(σ). Here we shall analyze the stability under small perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry of the conﬁguration. the dynamical evolution is determined by Eqs.0575 0.008 0.011 0.07 0.007 0.3 0.02 b0 20 M 0.09 a 0.4 0. i.8 a Πp0 M 0.4 0.06 0.3 0.8 a Figure 5: For given values of the wormhole radius.5 0.6 0.0625 b0 5 M 0.e.2 0.055 0.5 a ΠΣ0 M 0.015 0. (11) and (12). the energy density and the pressure are plotted as functions of the parameter a.2 0. 11 . As we said.0475 0.2 0.006 0. for this we shall proceed as Poisson and Visser in Ref.ΠΣ0 M b0 5 M Πp0 M 0.4 0.
00003 0. ¨ = 0). we simply considerer η as a useful parameter related with the equation 12 .0001 0.8 1 a Πp0 M 0.2 b0 400 M 0.00001 0. For now.0006 0.00002 0. This is easy to see if we write Eq. Following the procedure introduced by Poisson and Visser. (34) b (We can verify the procedure by setting a = 0 and see that we recover the results of Ref. As we expect.0008 0.4 0.001 0. however.6 0.00001 5·10 6 b0 10000 M 0.00002 0. (27) takes the following form: ′′ ˙ b2 = −V (b0 )(b − b0 )2 + O[(b − b0 )3 ]. ∂σ (36) 2 which for ordinary matter would represent the squared speed of sound: vs = η.00005 b0 10000 M 0.0005 0. 0.000015 0.6 0. Then. ′ (35) To compute the derivates it is convenient to deﬁne the parameter η(σ) ≡ ∂p . to study the stability we expand up to second order the potential ˙ V (b) around the static solution b0 (for which b = 0.000025 0.0012 b0 400 M 0. Eq.ΠΣ0 M 0. where the prime means a derivative with respect to b.8 1 a Πp0 M 0.0002 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0006 0.4 0.0003 0.6 0.4 0.0004 0. for a stable b conﬁguration it is V (b0 ) = 0 and V (b0 ) = 0.00004 0. the analysis of the stability of the conﬁguration can be reduced to the analogous problem of the stability of a particle in a one dimensional potential V (b).8 1 a ΠΣ0 M 0. the density energy and the pressure are plotted as functions of the parameter a ∈ [0. [11]).9998).8 1 a Figure 6: For given values of the wormhole radius.0004 0. (24) as ˙ b2 = −V (b) with V (b) = − (33) 2M − [2πbσ(b)]2 + 1 − a.2 0.2 0.0002 0. So.
traversable wormholes with radii b0 > 3M/(1 − a) could be stable. It is clearly not easy to interprete η0 as a kind of velocity of propagating waves at the shell. (37) 0 ′′ where η0 = η(σ0 ). after some simple manipulations. (31) for determining which are the values of the parameters M. a. Then. the regions of stability. under pertur as the speed of sound would require an understanding of the microphysics of exotic 13 . which is not available by now. we draw the curve V (b0 ) = 0 in the plane (η0 . but their locations are shifted as the event horizon changes with the parameter a. when positive. we only have to analyze the sign of the bracket in Eq. b0 that make the wormhole stable. Because the function f (b0 ) is always positive for b0 > rhor . 1) the shape of the regions of stability remains the same of the case a = 0. we conclude that bations that preserve the spherical symmetry. 7 (we can also see that when a = 0 we recover the results by Poisson and Visser). it was pointed out by Visser and Poisson that the interpretation of η0 matter. but for b0 /M < 3 the stability region is placed above the curve showed in Fig. Then. though shifted away. The wormhole is stable if and only if V (b0 ) > 0 while for V (b0 ) < 0 a radial perturbation grows (at least until nonlinear regime is reached) and the wormhole is unstable. We can identify the regions of stability as follows: In the case of a = 0. for values of a ∈ [0. Furthermore.of state (see below). We ﬁnd that when a is increased. 0 To get a good insight of the stability regions. 7). from the regions of stability obtained. for b0 /M > 3 the region of stability lies under the curve. √ However. only if the parameter η0 is negative. 0 ′′ ′′ (38) (39) η0 > −[(1 − a)2 − 3M(1 − a)/b0 + 3M 2 /b2 ]. the stability conditions can be written as follows: b0 > 3M/(1 − a) b0 < 3M/(1 − a) if if η0 < −[(1 − a)2 − 3M(1 − a)/b0 + 3M 2 /b2 ]. become considerably enlarged. we obtain the second derivative of the potencial for the metric (1): V (b0 ) = − ′′ 2 b2 f (b0 ) 0 (2M/b0 )f (b0 ) + M 2 /b2 + (1 + 2η0 )f (b0 )(1 − a − 3M/b0 ) . greater than unity (see. however. b0 /M) for diﬀerent values of the parameter a (see Fig. the same analysis for a related model in Appendix √ B). We observe from these plots that the stability of the wormhole conﬁguration demands that the parameter η0 of the exotic matter at the shell is. Then.
8 Η0 6 a 0. We have found that the amount of exotic matter –which is restricted to the throat– can be reduced by a suitable choice of the parameters. and we have found that the stability regions –though shifted away– become enlarged when the parameter a is increased.6 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 3 6 4 6 8 10 2. We have also studied the stability of the conﬁguration under perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. Within the characterization of static conﬁgurations.Η0 5 4 a 0 Η0 6 a 0. Moreover. in the Appendix A (see below) we brieﬂy study the dynamics of the shell beyond the perturbative approach by considering the particular 14 . while the amount of exotic matter can be reduced. 5 Summary We have built traversable thinshell wormholes applying the cut and paste procedure to the geometry corresponding to a spherical cloud of strings. Besides.98 4 10 2 10 20 30 40 b0 M 2 50 100 150 200 250 300 b0 M 10 4 20 6 Figure 7: The dependence of the stability regions with the parameter a is shown.5 10 12.5 5 7.5 20 b0 M b0 M 2 Η0 20 a 0. we have found that it turns to be acceptable in the case of values of a and b0 such that the wormhole is stable. we have considered the traversability of large wormholes by evaluating the tidal force.5 15 17. we have shown that for a ﬁxed wormhole radius b0 ≫ rhor . there exists a range of values of the parameter a such that. the transverse pressure and the surface energy density can be kept under control.
This work was supported by Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET. and Ernesto Eiroa for helpful discussions. Also. the features of a related wormhole conﬁguration are discussed in the Appendix B. 15 .case of the Chaplygin equation of state for the shell matter. Acknowledgments ´ The authors want to thank Alvaro Corval´n for useful comments on diﬀerential equaa tions.
so the geometry exhibited in Section 2 is the general solution for the case of spherical symmetry. a perfect ﬂuid fulﬁlling p=− λ σ (40) where λ is a positive constant. the evolution exhibits some dependence with a. the equation for the wormhole 16 . in particular. A remarkable feature of the Chaplygin gas model is 2 that it has positive and bounded squared sound velocity: vs = ∂p/∂σ = λ/σ 2 . This model has been applied in cosmological models because it describes a smooth transition from a deccelerated expansion of the Universe to the present epoch of cosmic acceleration and because it gives a uniﬁed macroscopic description of dark matter and dark energy [26]. Eqs. it can be proved that there exists a generalized Birkhoﬀ theorem for the string cloud. Thus the time evolution can be obtained from Eqs.2. It has been recently proposed for supporting a class of thinshell wormholes in Ref. no gravitational waves are emitted. we consider the special case of the Chaplygin gas [25].e.Appendix A: Dynamics of the shell As noted above. Note the diﬀerence between the two plots in the scales of both axes. (34). If we take the Rt 4·10 Rt 17 800 600 3·10 17 400 2·10 17 200 1·10 17 t 2·10 16 4·10 16 6·10 16 8·10 16 1·10 15 t 5 10 15 20 ˙ Figure 8: For a given initial velocity (R0 = 0) and initial radius (R0 = 3) we show the relation between the (scaled) proper time T and the wormhole radius in the case of the Chaplygin equation of state. which is not trivial for an exotic matter ﬂuid. Here. (11) and (12) plus an equation of state relating the energy density and pressure of the exotic matter. i. [27]. here we plot R(T ) for a = 0. (11) and (12) and replace them in Eq. For large R there is no sensible dependence with the parameter a while in the case of small R.
In the case of small R. Of course. within this model no stable conﬁgurations would exist. 8).radius b can be written as: d dT R dR dT =a−1+ 1 8π 2 + 2 R2 . (36) can be put in the following integral RdR dt = ± R0 . −2 2 4 ˙ (R0 R0 )2 + (a − 1)(R2 − R0 ) + 2(R − R0 ) + 8π 2 lλ (R4 − R0 ) (43) The solution of this integral has a closed expression in terms of elliptic functions of ﬁrst and third kind. This seems to be consistent with the results of [27]. R lλ (41) √ where we have deﬁned dimensionless variables R = r/M. diﬀering from the results obtained with a linear equation of state (Section 4). so for simplicity we just exhibit a plot of the solution for large R and for small R (see Fig. if we return to the variable R. So then. 8. (35). represents a more considerable departure from the pure Schwarzschild metric. compared with the string cloud. where it was shown that in the case of the Chaplygin equation of state. In the case of large R. 17 . initial conditions are taken such that R0 corresponds to an initial radius greater than the horizon radius of the original manifold. after integrating. Thus. which. we obtain a ﬁrst order diﬀerential ˙ equation for the squared velocity: √ √ −2 2 y 2 (T ) = y0 + 4(a − 1)(y − y0 ) + 8( y − y0 ) + 32π 2 lλ (y 2 − y0 ). stable conﬁgurations required a non vanishing charge or a cosmological constant. As can be seen from Fig. and here we have solved the diﬀerential equation by Taylor expanding up to fourth order about the initial radius R0 = 3. Eq. the solution has a smooth dependence with a. this approximation leads to study the dynamical equation of an antioscillator and the solution does not exhibit a dependence with the parameter a. a monotonic evolution is obtained. we deﬁne the variable R = y and multiply this equation by y(T ). ˙ ˙2 form: T T0 R (42) Now. T = τ /M and λM = √ (lλ )−1 . In order to solve Eq. The general solution is parametrized by a.
[15]) 2 18 . and ǫ = ±1 denotes the sign of the energy density of the string ﬂuid. L = 10−38 M in the case of a perfect string ﬂuid. Such a model includes a non vanishing angular pressure such that the energymomentum tensor of ϕ the ﬂuid has the form Ttt = Trr = −αTθθ = −αTϕ . Ref.6 (gray line). we omit the details and give the results for ǫ = +1 (we want to restric exotic We choose α = 2 because it allows to reproduce the results of the Schwarzchild–de Sitter and the Reissner–Nordstr¨m thinshell wormholes in the cases α = −1 and α = 1 respectively (see the o papers by Lobo and Crawford and by Eiroa and Romero. Η0 6 4 2 2 2 4 6 8 4 6 8 b0 10 M 2 4 6 8 Because the calculations are analogous to those Η0 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 b0 10 M Α 1 Ε 1 LP 10 M 38 Α 100 Ε 1 LP 10 M 38 Η0 6 4 2 Α 200 Ε 1 LP 10 M 38 Η0 3 2 1 Α 1000 Ε 1 LP 10 M 38 2 2 4 6 8 b0 10 M 20 1 40 60 80 b0 100 M 4 6 8 2 3 Figure 9: The stability regions (black line) and the horizon (dashed line) are shown for ǫ = 1. The stability regions are compared with those corresponding to the cloud of strings with a = 0. [16]). As a result of this. for α = 2 the function f in the metric (1) takes the form2 f (r) = 1 − ǫαL2/α 2M − r (α − 2) r 2/α (44) where L is a positive constant of dimension length.Appendix B: A related model An immediate extension of our analysis of Sections 3 and 4 can be performed in the case of a perfect string ﬂuid (see [24] and the ﬁrst paper in Ref. above. Four values of the parameter α are considered.
19 . while certain values of α allow to reduce the amount Ω/M with respect to the string cloud case. for large α a numerical calculation shows that positive values of η0 slightly smaller than unity are now possible.5 20 M M 2.5 15 17.5 10 12.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Α 100. 1 7. However.6. in particular. matter to the shell) and for L of order 10−38 M.5 b0 20 M Figure 10: The amount of exotic matter is shown for α > 0.5 15 17. L = 10−38 M. We compare the stability regions and the amount of exotic matter with the case of the string cloud with a = 0.0 0 M 2. 1 7. As can be seen from Figs.6. the regions of stability for low values of α are shifted towards the horizon and become smaller. We also show the exotic matter amount for the string cloud (dashed line) with a = 0. 9 and 10.5 b0 10 12. lower values of the would be squared speed of sound become compatible with stability.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 Α 1000.
D 42. G. D. J. Visser. Visser. S. Phys. Migranov. o Some Thoughts on Energy Conditions and Wormholes. Class. Rev. 201102 (2003). Thorne and U. P. Class. Y. Phys. S. Romero. Poisson and M. Gen. Phys. G. Rev. M. Y. Darmois. K. 365 (1924). 1996). M. Visser. Gen. S. Rev. Visser. Paris. C. B328. 81. (Leipzig) 73. D 56. Zhang. 3182 (1989). Phys. Hochberg and M. 38. Mod.Z. [11] E. E. Ann. 74. Morris and K. [12] M. 1 (1966). 518 (1924). D 11. [4] V. 48B. 20 . N. Lake. 1553 (2002). Eiroa. 391 (2004). D 39. Kar and N. 13. Novikov. 7318 (1995). grqc/0409090. [6] D. Rev. D. Zhang and N. S. F. Lett. 395 (1988). W. Israel. 1927) . Relativ. M´morial des Sciences Math´matiques. 1593 (2006). Chakraborty. Visser. 463(E) (1967).Z. Phys. Rev. Frolov and I. F. [10] K. ibid. B. Visser. Phys. Nuovo Cimento 44B. Phys. [13] N. Vijaya Kumar. [9] K. M. Musgrave and K. 203 (1989). Thorne. K. Nucl. Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems 9. K. Crawford. Phys. Nandi. Dadhich. Gravit. Thibeault. 1687 (2006). J. 4745 (1997). and K. Phys. Rev. [3] M. Barcel´ and M. 21. [2] M. Hochberg and M. [7] M. 90. Roman. Phys. Am. F. Visser. Rahaman. [5] D. Lanczos. 1885 (1996). 651 (2004). D 52. Simeone and E. A. 746 (1998). Sen. Gravit. Yurtsever. 36. 56. Morris. S. 044021 (1998). New York. [8] C. 1057 (1990). Lett. Phys. Phys.References [1] M. [15] E. 127503 (2004). T. Relativ. Gen. Phys. Gravit. 1446 (1989). J. Visser. Relativ. Quantum Grav. Eiroa and G. F. K. Lobo and P. 38. Rev. D 58. Rev. S. 61 (2006) (arXiv:grqc/0409053). Quantum Grav. Rev. Lett 61. Nandi. [14] P. D 70. Hochberg and M. Visser. Kalam and S. Fascicule XXV ch V (Gauthiere e Villars. Lorentzian Wormholes (AIP Press. Int.
P. Lobo. U. 087502 (2007). Tarhan and U. I. Pasquier. [20] F. C. Simeone. 399 (1939). Gorini. Rev. M. Yavuz. grqc/0403062. [27] E. 19. Kamenshchik. T. Aeron. 337 (1941). 519 (1981). 024021 (2007). Richarte and C. [19] O. Komar. 1 (1904). Int. Quantum Grav.[16] H. 367 (1995). Letelier and V. Dando and R. H. Yilmaz. Vilenkin. Mal and P. [18] M. Letelier. Ghosh. D 20. Aeron. Barriola and A. LyndenBell. M. Rev. Class. 21 . 1294 (1979). [17] P. 15. D 71. Phys. Eiroa and C. 63. Phys. D8. J. Sci. Phys. 985 (1998). Eiroa and C. A. F. 934 (1959). Yilmaz. Phys. Phys. H. S. D 76. Baysal and I. H. A. Gravit. [24] P. Gregory. Lett. Sci. Zanchin. N. J. 16. NouriZonoz. Gravit. Moschella and V. Soleng. Phys. Phys. Moscow Univ. Mod. 2023 (2005). 8. Rev. Tolman. 1021 (1999). 37.STien. [21] F. Lett A198. [23] R. [25] S. F. 21. Class. 6435 (2002). Rev. 659 (1999). Simeone. Mod. Letelier. Quantum Grav. N. D 76. 79 (1995). 6. Gen. 127501 (2005). J. Camci. Math. 27. T. Rev 35. 113. Gen. Phys. Dadhich and D. I. 875 (1930). Lett. S. S. Nuovo Cim. Relativ. Phys. Sci. Relativ. Phys. Rahaman. Mem. Quantum Grav. I. [22] E. Simeone. Rev. Von Karman. Phys. 2785 (2004). 341 (1989). Chaplygin. Rev. Baysal. H. A19. B63. Class. [26] V.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.