VI RUSES, VI ROI DS AND

PRI ONS
Chapter 13
Multiplication of Animal Viruses
‡ Attachment: Viruses attach to cell membrane
‡ Penet ration by endocytosis or fusion
‡ Uncoating by viral or host enzymes
‡ Biosynthesis: Production of nucleic acid and
proteins
‡ Maturation: Nucleic acid and capsid proteins
assemble
‡ Release by budding (enveloped viruses) or
rupture
llaure 13.14b
Attachment, Penetration, Uncoating
‡ By fusion
llaure 13.20
Budding of an Enveloped Virus
Growing Bacteriophages in the
Laboratory
‡ Plaque method is used to measure viral
number.
‡ Mix bacteriophages with host bacteria and
nutrient agar.
‡ After several viral multiplication cycles, the
bacteria in the area surrounding the original
virus are destroyed; the area of lysis is
called a plaque.
Plaque Method
‡ Each plaque originates
with a single viral
particle.
‡ The concentration of
viruses is given as
plaque forming units
or PFU.
Figure 13.7
Growing Animal Viruses in the
Laboratory
‡ Animal viruses
may be grown
in living
animals or in
embryonated
eggs
Figure 13.8
Growing Animal Viruses in the
Laboratory
‡ Animal and plant viruses may be grown in
cell culture
± Continuous cell lines may be maintained
indefinitely
Growing Animal Viruses in the
Laboratory
‡ Primary cell lines can be used; however,
these cell lines remain viable for only short
periods of time.
‡ Continuous cell lines may be maintained
indefinitely.
‡ Continuous cell lines are transformed
(cancerous) such as HeLa (Henrietta
Lacks) cells are a commonly used cell
line.
Virus Identification
1. Cytopathic effects
2. Serological tests
± Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient
± Use antibodies to identify viruses in
neutralization tests, viral hemagglutination, and
Western blot
3. Nucleic acids
± RFLPs (Restriction f ragment length
polymorphism)
± PCR
Viruses and Cancer
‡ Activated oncogenes transform normal cells
into cancerous cells
‡ The genetic material of oncogenic viruses
becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA
Oncogenic Viruses
‡ Oncogenic DNA
vi ruses
‡ Adenoviridae
‡ Herpesviridae
‡ Poxviridae
‡ Papovaviridae
‡ Hepadnaviridae
‡ Oncogenic RNA
vi ruses
‡ Retroviridae
‡ Viral RNA is
transcribed to DNA,
which can integrate
into host DNA
‡ HTLV-1
‡ HTLV-2
llaure 13.21
Latent and Persistent Viral Infections
‡ Virus remains in
asymptomatic
host cell for
long periods
‡ Herpes virus
Cold sores
‡ VaricellaZoster
chicken pox and
shingles
Latent Viral Infections
llaure 13.21
‡ Disease
process occurs
over a long
period;
± Table 13.5
Persistent Viral Infections
llaure 13.21
Table 13.5
Prions
‡ Proteinaceous Infectious particle
‡ Inherited and transmissible by ingestion,
transplant, and surgical instruments
± Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie,
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial
insomnia, kuru, mad cow disease
Prions
‡ PrP
C
: Normal cellular prion protein, on cell
surface
‡ PrP
Sc
: Scrapie protein; accumulates in brain
cells, forming plaques
llaure 13.23
Plant Viruses and Viroids
‡ Vi roids:
Infectious
RNA; e.g.,
potato spindle
tuber disease
Avian Influenza
Cllnlcal locus, p. 371

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