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9812834982|Views: 217|Likes: 12

Published by Anupam

control volume FEM methods for solids and fluids.

IISC report

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control volume FEM methods for solids and fluids.

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/46784845/9812834982

02/24/2015

text

original

As noted previously, the building block of the discretization is the

triangular element, Fig. 3.2. For linear triangular elements the node

Basic Control Volume Finite Element Methods for Fluids and Solids

26

points are placed at the vertices. In Fig. 3.2 the nodes, moving in a

counter-clockwise direction, are labeled 1, 2 and 3. Values of the

dependent variable φ are calculated and stored at these node points. In

this way, values at an arbitrary point

)

y

,

x

(

within the element can be

approximated with linear interpolation

c

by

ax +

+

≈

φ

(3.1)

where the constant coefficients a, b and c satisfy the nodal relationships

3

2

1,

,

i

,

c

by

ax

i

i

i

=

+

+

=

φ

(3.2)

Equation (3.1) can be more conveniently written in terms of the shape

function

,

N

,

N

2

1

and

3

N, where

=

i

node

opposite

side

on

points

all

at

0,

i

node

at

1,

)

y

,

x

(

N

i

(3.3)

element

in the

point

every

at

1

3

1

,

)

y

,

x

(

N

i

i

=

∑

=

(3.4)

such that, over the element, the continuous unknown field can be

expressed as the linear combination of the values at nodes

3

2

1,

,

i =

∑

=

φ

≈

φ

3

1

i

i

i

)

y

,

x

(

N

)

y

,

x

(

(3.5)

With linear triangular elements a straightforward geometric

derivation for the shape functions can be obtained. With reference to

Fig. 3.2, observe that the area of the element is given by

)]

x

x

(

y

)

y

y

(

x

)

y

x

y

x

[(

y

x

y

x

y

x

A

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

3

2

3

3

2

2

1

1

123

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

−

+

−

−

−

=

=

(3.6)

and the area of the sub-elements with vertices at points

)

,

,

p

(

3

2

,

)

,

,

p

(

1

3, and

)

,

,

p

(

2

1, where p is an arbitrary and variable point in the

element, are given by

The Essential Ingredients in a Numerical Solution

27

)]

x

x

(

y

)

y

y

(

x

)

y

x

y

x

[(

A

p

p

p

2

3

2

3

2

3

3

2

23

2

1

−

+

−

−

−

=

(3.7a)

)]

x

x

(

y

)

y

y

(

x

)

y

x

y

x

[(

A

p

p

p

3

1

3

1

3

1

1

3

31

2

1

−

+

−

−

−

=

(3.7b)

)]

x

x

(

y

)

y

y

(

x

)

y

x

y

x

[(

A

p

p

p

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

1

12

2

1

−

+

−

−

−

=

(3.7c)

With these definitions it follows that the shape functions are given by

123

12

3

123

31

2

123

23

1

A

/

A

N

,

A

/

A

N

,

A

/

A

N

p

p

p

=

=

=

(3.8)

Note that, when point pcoincides with node i (=1, 2 or 3) the shape

function

1

=

i

N

, and when point p is anywhere on the element side

opposite node i, the associated sub-element area is zero, and through

(3.8), the shape function

0

=

i

N

. Hence the shape functions defined by

(3.8) satisfy the required condition in (3.3). Further, note that at any

pointp, the sum of the areas

123

12

31

23

A

A

A

A

p

p

p

=

+

+

such that the shape functions at

)

y

,

x

(

p

p

will sum to unity. Hence the

shape functions defined by (3.8) also satisfies the condition (3.4).

For future reference it is worthwhile to note that the derivatives of the

shape functions in (3.8) over the element are the following constants

123

1

2

3

3

123

2

1

3

3

123

3

1

2

2

123

1

3

2

2

123

2

3

1

1

123

3

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

A

)

x

x

(

y

N

N

,

A

)

y

y

(

x

N

N

A

)

x

x

(

y

N

N

,

A

)

y

y

(

x

N

N

A

)

x

x

(

y

N

N

,

A

)

y

y

(

x

N

N

y

x

y

x

y

x

−

=

∂

∂

=

−

=

∂

∂

=

−

=

∂

∂

=

−

=

∂

∂

=

−

=

∂

∂

=

−

=

∂

∂

=

(3.9)

Basic Control Volume Finite Element Methods for Fluids and Solids

28

Fig. 3.2 An element indicating the areas used in shape function definitions

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