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HEAT
Thermometry
1. Relation between different scales of temperature
32 273
5 9 5 4
C F K R ÷ ÷
= = =
Temperature measurement
 )
 )
0
0
0
x x
x x
u
u u u
÷
= × ÷
÷
'
'
Temperature coefficient
2 1
2 1 1 2
x x
x x
o
u u
¦ ¹ ÷
=
´ `
÷
¹ )
Calorimetery
Specific heat
dQ
s
mdu
=
Thermal capacity
dQ
C
du
=
Water equivalent
w ms C = =
Latent heat
dQ
l
dm
=
Thermal expansion
Coefficient of thermal expansion
dl
ld
o
u
= ¬  )
0
1 l l
u
ou = +
dS
Sd

u
= ¬  )
0
1 S S
u
u = +
dV
Vd
¸
u
= ¬  )
0
1 V V
u
¸u = +
 )
0
1
u
p
p
¸u
=
+
: : 1: 2: 3 o  ¸ =
Thermal Stress
F
Y
A
o u = ÷ A
Change in time period of simple pendulum
2
t t
o u A
A =
Radius of curvature of bimetallic strip
St udy Pac k age
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
61
MARATHON10
Heat & Thermodynamics
SCO 18, 2
nd
Fl oor , Sec . 20 D, CHANDI GARH.
Ph : 01726543210
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
1 2
( )
R
o
o o u
=
÷ A
HEAT TRANSFER :
Conduction
Rate of flow of heat through a conductor
( ) dQ KA
h
dt l
u A
= = (also called thermal current)
Thermal resistance
T
l
R
h KA
u A
= =
Temperature of interface
2 2 1 1
1 2
2 1
1 2
=
K K
l l
K K
l l
u u
u
+
+
Rate of flow of heat through cylindrical shell
2
1
2 ( )
ln
dQ K
h
r dt
r
t u A
= =
 }
]
\ ¹
Rate of flow of heat through spherical shell
1 2
2 1
4 ( )
( )
K r r dQ
h
dt r r
t u A
= =
÷
Convection
and
dQ dQ
A
dt dt
u · · A , then
dQ
h A
dt
u = A
Where h is known as convection coefficient.
Radiation
Absorbitivity of a surface
a
i
=
amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength absorbed by the surface
amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface
Reflectivity of a surface
r
i
=
amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength reflected by the surface
amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface
1 r a
i i
= ÷
reflectivity of the perfect black body is
0 R =
Stefan's law of radiation (emissive power of perfect black body)
4
E T o = where o = 5.67 × 10
÷
8
J s
÷
1
m
÷
2
K
÷
4
Kirchhoff's law
e
E
a
 }
=
]
\ ¹
(constant)
Emissivity of a surface
62
MARATHON09
Heat & Thermodynamics
SCO 18, 2
nd
Fl oor , Sec . 20 D, CHANDI GARH.
Ph : 01726543210
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
emissive power of the surface
=
emissive power of black body at same temperature.
c = Emissivity of the surface
Newton’s law of cooling
3
o
4
dQ
AT T
dt
o = A
¬
3
o
4
=
AT
t
mc
i
T Te
o
÷
A A
T0
Ti
Spectral Distribution of Black  Body Radiation
1
m
i
2
m
i
3
m
i
T1
T2
T3
i
E
T3 > T2 > T1
m T = constant.
GAS LAWS AND KINETIC THEORY OF GASES :
Gas Laws
Boyle’s law (Isothermal law)
V
1
P
¬ P1V1 = P2V2
Charle’s Law (Isobaric law)
V T ¬
1
1
V
T
=
2
2
V
T
Pressure Law (Isochoric law)
P T ¬
1
1
P
T
=
2
2
P
T
Ideal Gas Equation
= PV nRT ¬ =
PM
RT
p
Avogadro’s hypothesis
N = 6.02 × 10
23
particles per grammole
Dalton’s law of partial pressure
i
P p =
¯
where
i
i
n RT
p
V
=
63
MARATHON10
Heat & Thermodynamics
SCO 18, 2
nd
Fl oor , Sec . 20 D, CHANDI GARH.
Ph : 01726543210
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
Grahm’s law of diffusion
1
r
p
·
Degree of freedom of gas molecules
for monatomic gas
3 f =
for diatomic or linear poly atomic gas
5 f =
for nonlinear poly atomic gas
6 f =
relation between ¸ and f
2
1
f
¸ = + ¬
 )
2
=
1
f
¸ ÷
Law of equipartition of energy
1
2
k
U kT ( ) =
¬
 )
2
1
nRT
f
U nRT
¸
= =
÷
Pressure formula for Ideal Gas
pressure of gas
P =
1
3
2
c
Root mean square velocity of gas molecules
3
rms
RT
c
M
=
mean velocity of gas molecules
8RT
c
M t
= , and
most probable velocity of gas molecules
2
mp
RT
c
M
=
Barometric Formula
o
Mgh
RT
P P e
÷
=
Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas
 ) 2 1
f nRT
U nRT
¸
= =
÷
THERMODYNAMICS :
Energies involved in the thermodynamic system
change in internal energy is always
 )
 )
2
f
U nR T A = A
Work done by thermodynamic system
2
1
V
V
w PdV =
í
Heat exchange with the thermodynamic system
64
MARATHON09
Heat & Thermodynamics
SCO 18, 2
nd
Fl oor , Sec . 20 D, CHANDI GARH.
Ph : 01726543210
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
Q U W = A + (First law of thermodynamics)
¬  )
2
1
2
V
V
f
Q nR T PdV = A +
í
Thermodynamic Processes
Isochoric Process
 )
2
f
U V P A = A
w = 0
 )  )
2 2
f f
Q V P nR T = A = A
Isobaric Process
 )
2
f
U P V A = A
 ) w P V = A
 )  ) 1 1
2 2
f f
Q P V nR T
 }  }
= + A = + A
] ]
\ ¹ \ ¹
Isothermal Process
0 U A =
2 1
1 2
ln ln
V P
w nRT nRT
V P
 }  }
= =
] ]
\ ¹ \ ¹
2 1
1 2
ln ln
V P
Q nRT nRT
V P
 }  }
= =
] ]
\ ¹ \ ¹
Adiabatic Process
PV
¸
= constant
¬
 ) 1
TV
¸ ÷
= constant
¬
 ) 1
T
P
¸
¸ ÷
= constant
 )
2 2 1 1
1
P V PV
U
¸
÷
A =
÷
2 2 1 1
1
P V PV
w
¸
÷  }
=
]
÷
\ ¹
Q = 0
Polytropic process
 )
2 2 1 1
1
P V PV
U
¸
÷
A =
÷
2 2 1 1
1
P V PV
w
n
÷
=
÷
 )
1 1
1 1
Q nR T
¸ n
 }
= A ÷
]
÷ ÷
\ ¹
Specific Heat Of An Ideal Gas
Relation between Mass & molar specific heat
C mc =
65
MARATHON10
Heat & Thermodynamics
SCO 18, 2
nd
Fl oor , Sec . 20 D, CHANDI GARH.
Ph : 01726543210
Srivastava’s Srivastava’s
process
process
dU dw
C
ndT ndT
= +
process
process
V
PdV
C C
ndT
= +
P V
C C R ÷ = called Mayor’s result, and
P
V
C
C
¸ =
Mixture of gases
Average molecular weight
i
i
i
n M
M
n
=
¯
¯
Molar specific heat
 )
i P
i
P
i
n C
C
n
=
¯
¯
and
 )
i V
i
V
i
n C
C
n
=
¯
¯
Adiabatic constant
 )
1
1
i i P
eq
i
i V
i
n n C
n
n C
¸
¸
= + =
÷
¯ ¯
¯
¯
Volume elasticity of gases
P V P
E
V
V
V
 }
A A
]
= =
A
] A
\ ¹
Isothermal elasticity
Eisothermal = Pf
Adiabatic elasticity
Eadiabatic = Pf
Cyclic process
Efficiency of a heat engine operating in a cyclic process
sink
source
1
Q
Q
n = ÷
Carnot cycle
sink
source
1
T
T
n = ÷