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Srivastava’s Study Package

HEAT & HEAT TRANSFER

HEAT

Thermometry
1. Relation between different scales of temperature
C F  32 K  273 R
  
5 9 5 4
Temperature measurement
x  x0
   '  0 
 x'  x 0 
Temperature coefficient
 x  x1 
  2 
2 x1  1x 2 

Calorimetery
Specific heat
dQ
s
m d
Thermal capacity
dQ
C
d
Water equivalent
w  ms  C
Latent heat
dQ
l
dm

Thermal expansion
Coefficient of thermal expansion
dl
  l  l 0 1   
ld
dS
  S  S0 1   
Sd
dV
   V  V0 1   
Vd
0
 
1   
 :  :   1: 2 : 3
Thermal Stress
F   Y 
A
Change in time period of simple pendulum
 
t  t
2
Radius of curvature of bimetallic strip
MARATHON-10
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Heat & Thermodynamics

R
(1   2 )

HEAT TRANSFER :

Conduction
Rate of flow of heat through a conductor
dQ KA( )
  h (also called thermal current)
dt l
Thermal resistance
 l
RT  
h KA
Temperature of interface
K 11 K 22

l l2
= 1
K1 K 2

l1 l2
Rate of flow of heat through cylindrical shell
dQ 2 K ( )
h 
dt r
ln  2 
 r1 
Rate of flow of heat through spherical shell
dQ 4 K r1r2 ( )
h 
dt (r2  r1 )
Convection
dQ dQ
 A and   , then
dt dt
dQ
 h A 
dt
Where h is known as convection coefficient.

Radiation
Absorbitivity of a surface
amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength absorbed by the surface
a
amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface
Reflectivity of a surface
amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength reflected by the surface
r =
amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface
r  1  a 
reflectivity of the perfect black body is
R 0
Stefan's law of radiation (emissive power of perfect black body)
E   T 4 where  = 5.67  108 J s1 m2 K4
Kirchhoff's law
e 
   E (constant)
a 
Emissivity of a surface

Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.


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Heat & Thermodynamics
emissive power of the surface
  Emissivity of the surface =
emissive power of black body at same temperature.
Newton’s law of cooling
dQ
 4 ATo3 T
dt
4 ATo3
 t
 T = Ti e mc

Ti

T0

Spectral Distribution of Black - Body Radiation

T3 > T2 > T1

E
T3
T2

T1
 m3 m1 
m2
m T = constant.

GAS LAWS AND KINETIC THEORY OF GASES :

Gas Laws
Boyle’s law (Isothermal law)
V  1  P1V1 = P2V2
P
Charle’s Law (Isobaric law)
V
V  T  V1 = 2
T1 T2
Pressure Law (Isochoric law)
P
P  T  P1 = 2
T1 T2
Ideal Gas Equation
PM
PV = nRT   =
RT
Avogadro’s hypothesis
N = 6.02  1023 particles per gram-mole
Dalton’s law of partial pressure
n RT
P   pi where pi  i
V

Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.


Ph : 0172-6543210
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Heat & Thermodynamics
Grahm’s law of diffusion
r 1

Degree of freedom of gas molecules


for monatomic gas
f 3
for diatomic or linear poly atomic gas
f 5
for non-linear poly atomic gas
f 6
relation between  and f
2
 1 2 f  f =
  1
Law of equipartition of energy
U k   1 kT
2
nRT
 U  f nRT 
2   1
Pressure formula for Ideal Gas
pressure of gas
P = 1  c2
3
Root mean square velocity of gas molecules
3RT
c rms 
M
mean velocity of gas molecules
8RT
c , and
M
most probable velocity of gas molecules
2RT
c mp 
M
Barometric Formula
Mgh

P  Po e RT
Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas
f nRT
U  nRT 
2   1
THERMODYNAMICS :

Energies involved in the thermodynamic system


change in internal energy is always
U  f
2  
nR  T 
Work done by thermodynamic system
V2

w  PdV
V1

Heat exchange with the thermodynamic system


Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.
Ph : 0172-6543210
MARATHON-09
64
Heat & Thermodynamics
Q  U  W (First law of thermodynamics)
V
f 2

 Q  nR  T    PdV
2 V1

Thermodynamic Processes
Isochoric Process
f
U  V  P 
2
w=0
f f
Q  V  P   nR  T 
2 2

Isobaric Process
f
U  P  V 
2
w  P  V 
f  f 
Q    1 P  V     1 nR  T 
2  2 
Isothermal Process
U  0
V P
w  nRT ln  2   nRT ln  1 
 V1   P2 
V P
Q  nRT ln  2   nRT ln  1 
 V1   P2 
Adiabatic Process
PV  = constant
 TV  1 = constant
T
 = constant
P  1
 P V  PV 1 1
U  2 2
 1
 P V  PV1 1 
w 2 2 
 1  
Q= 0
Polytropic process
 P V  PV
1 1
U  2 2
 1
P V  P1V1
w 2 2
1
 1 1 
Q  nR  T    
  1  1

Specific Heat Of An Ideal Gas


Relation between Mass & molar specific heat
C  mc

Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.


Ph : 0172-6543210
MARATHON-10
65
Heat & Thermodynamics
dU dw
C process  
ndT ndT process

PdV
C process  CV 
ndT process

C P  CV  R called Mayor’s result, and


CP

CV

Mixture of gases
Average molecular weight

M 
 ni M i
 ni
Molar specific heat

CP 
 ni CP i and C   n C 
i V i

 ni n
V
i

Adiabatic constant

 eq  1  n i

n C i P
n
  i 1 n C i V

Volume elasticity of gases


 P  V P
E  
 V  V
 V
Isothermal elasticity
Eisothermal = Pf
Adiabatic elasticity
Eadiabatic = Pf

Cyclic process
Efficiency of a heat engine operating in a cyclic process
Q
  1  sink
Qsource
Carnot cycle
T
  1  sink
Tsource

Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.


Ph : 0172-6543210