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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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HEAT

Thermometry

1. Relation between different scales of temperature

C F 32 K 273 R

5 9 5 4

Temperature measurement

x x0

' 0

x' x 0

Temperature coefficient

x x1

2

2 x1 1x 2

Calorimetery

Specific heat

dQ

s

m d

Thermal capacity

dQ

C

d

Water equivalent

w ms C

Latent heat

dQ

l

dm

Thermal expansion

Coefficient of thermal expansion

dl

l l 0 1

ld

dS

S S0 1

Sd

dV

V V0 1

Vd

0

1

: : 1: 2 : 3

Thermal Stress

F Y

A

Change in time period of simple pendulum

t t

2

Radius of curvature of bimetallic strip

MARATHON-10

61

Heat & Thermodynamics

R

(1 2 )

HEAT TRANSFER :

Conduction

Rate of flow of heat through a conductor

dQ KA( )

h (also called thermal current)

dt l

Thermal resistance

l

RT

h KA

Temperature of interface

K 11 K 22

l l2

= 1

K1 K 2

l1 l2

Rate of flow of heat through cylindrical shell

dQ 2 K ( )

h

dt r

ln 2

r1

Rate of flow of heat through spherical shell

dQ 4 K r1r2 ( )

h

dt (r2 r1 )

Convection

dQ dQ

A and , then

dt dt

dQ

h A

dt

Where h is known as convection coefficient.

Radiation

Absorbitivity of a surface

amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength absorbed by the surface

a

amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface

Reflectivity of a surface

amount of radiation energy of that particular wavelength reflected by the surface

r =

amount of radiation energy of a particular wavelength incident on the same surface

r 1 a

reflectivity of the perfect black body is

R 0

Stefan's law of radiation (emissive power of perfect black body)

E T 4 where = 5.67 108 J s1 m2 K4

Kirchhoff's law

e

E (constant)

a

Emissivity of a surface

Ph : 0172-6543210

MARATHON-09

62

Heat & Thermodynamics

emissive power of the surface

Emissivity of the surface =

emissive power of black body at same temperature.

Newton’s law of cooling

dQ

4 ATo3 T

dt

4 ATo3

t

T = Ti e mc

Ti

T0

T3 > T2 > T1

E

T3

T2

T1

m3 m1

m2

m T = constant.

Gas Laws

Boyle’s law (Isothermal law)

V 1 P1V1 = P2V2

P

Charle’s Law (Isobaric law)

V

V T V1 = 2

T1 T2

Pressure Law (Isochoric law)

P

P T P1 = 2

T1 T2

Ideal Gas Equation

PM

PV = nRT =

RT

Avogadro’s hypothesis

N = 6.02 1023 particles per gram-mole

Dalton’s law of partial pressure

n RT

P pi where pi i

V

Ph : 0172-6543210

MARATHON-10

63

Heat & Thermodynamics

Grahm’s law of diffusion

r 1

for monatomic gas

f 3

for diatomic or linear poly atomic gas

f 5

for non-linear poly atomic gas

f 6

relation between and f

2

1 2 f f =

1

Law of equipartition of energy

U k 1 kT

2

nRT

U f nRT

2 1

Pressure formula for Ideal Gas

pressure of gas

P = 1 c2

3

Root mean square velocity of gas molecules

3RT

c rms

M

mean velocity of gas molecules

8RT

c , and

M

most probable velocity of gas molecules

2RT

c mp

M

Barometric Formula

Mgh

P Po e RT

Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas

f nRT

U nRT

2 1

THERMODYNAMICS :

change in internal energy is always

U f

2

nR T

Work done by thermodynamic system

V2

w PdV

V1

Srivastava’s SCO 18, 2nd Floor, Sec. 20 D, CHANDIGARH.

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MARATHON-09

64

Heat & Thermodynamics

Q U W (First law of thermodynamics)

V

f 2

Q nR T PdV

2 V1

Thermodynamic Processes

Isochoric Process

f

U V P

2

w=0

f f

Q V P nR T

2 2

Isobaric Process

f

U P V

2

w P V

f f

Q 1 P V 1 nR T

2 2

Isothermal Process

U 0

V P

w nRT ln 2 nRT ln 1

V1 P2

V P

Q nRT ln 2 nRT ln 1

V1 P2

Adiabatic Process

PV = constant

TV 1 = constant

T

= constant

P 1

P V PV 1 1

U 2 2

1

P V PV1 1

w 2 2

1

Q= 0

Polytropic process

P V PV

1 1

U 2 2

1

P V P1V1

w 2 2

1

1 1

Q nR T

1 1

Relation between Mass & molar specific heat

C mc

Ph : 0172-6543210

MARATHON-10

65

Heat & Thermodynamics

dU dw

C process

ndT ndT process

PdV

C process CV

ndT process

CP

CV

Mixture of gases

Average molecular weight

M

ni M i

ni

Molar specific heat

CP

ni CP i and C n C

i V i

ni n

V

i

Adiabatic constant

eq 1 n i

n C i P

n

i 1 n C i V

P V P

E

V V

V

Isothermal elasticity

Eisothermal = Pf

Adiabatic elasticity

Eadiabatic = Pf

Cyclic process

Efficiency of a heat engine operating in a cyclic process

Q

1 sink

Qsource

Carnot cycle

T

1 sink

Tsource

Ph : 0172-6543210

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