This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ARS Main Examination (Descriptive Type Questions)
Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi – 110 012 February – 2010
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Plant Genetics Plant Breeding Economic Botany Seed Science and Technology Plant Pathology Plant Nematology Agricultural Entomology Agricultural Chemicals/Organic Chemistry Biochemistry (Plant Science) Plant Physiology Agricultural Biotechnology Agricultural Microbiology Fruit Science Vegetable Science Floriculture Animal Physiology Biochemistry (Animal Science) Animal Biotechnology Veterinary Anatomy Veterinary Pathology Veterinary Parasitology Veterinary Public Health Veterinary Pharmacology Veterinary Microbiology Animal Reproduction and Gynaecology ARS Disciplines Page No. 01 02-03 04-05 06-07 08-09 10-11 12-15 16-17 18-20 21-24 25-26 27-28 29-30 31-32 33-34 35-37 38-39 40-41 42 43-45 46-47 48-50 51-53 54-55 56-58
26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.
Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Surgery Animal Nutrition Animal Genetics and Breeding Livestock Products Technology Livestock Production Management Poultry Science Aquaculture Fisheries Resource Management Fish Processing Technology Forestry Environmental Science Agronomy Agricultural Meteorology Agricultural Physics Soil Science - Pedology Soil Science - Soil Chemistry / Fertility / Microbiology Soil Science - Soil Physics/Soil and Water Conservation Agricultural Chemistry Home/ Family Resource Management Agricultural Economics Agricultural Extension Home Science Extension Veterinary Extension Agricultural Statistics Farm Machinery and Power Agricultural Structures and Process Engineering Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Food Science and Technology
59-61 62-63 64-65 66-68 69-70 71-73 74-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-85 86-88 89-91 92-93 94-96 97-98 99-100 101-103 104-106 107-109 110-112 113-114 115-116 117-119 120-122 123-124 125-126 127-128 129-131
60.55. 58. 63. 62. 56. 57. Dairy Chemistry Dairy Microbiology Dairy Technology Dairy Engineering Mechanical Engineering Electrical Engineering Electronics and Instrumentation Textile Chemistry Textile Manufacture 132-134 135-137 138-139 140-141 142-143 144-145 146-147 148-149 150-151 . 61. 59.
its detection and estimation. maize. potato and sugarcane. Chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. DNA libraries. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. NC-1. Brassica. Molecular marker aided selection. RAPD and PCR approaches. Comparative mapping and genome analysis. maize. Genotype X environment interaction and stability analysis. Cytogenetic techniques for gene mapping. approaches to estimate and exploit component of self and cross pollinated crops. Extra chromosomal inheritance. PLANT GENETICS Unit 1: General Genetics Mendelian inheritance.01. Epistasis. function and replication. 1 . rice. Brassicas. Cytogenetic techniques for gene location and gene transfer. inversions. sugarcane and potato etc. genetic advance and types of selection and correlated response. Pre-and post-fertilization barriers in distant hybridization. Linkage. Unit 3: Genome Analysis and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants Principles and procedures of genome analysis.structure. Genetic control of polygenic characters. Gene concept. RPLP. line X tester. genetic divergence and discriminate function. Vigna. haploids. Heritability. Gene-enzyme relationship. Recombination and crossing over. Genetic transformation and transgenics. Unit 4: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Somatic hybridization. Mobile genetic elements. Chromosome walking. aneuploids and their utility. polymorphism. Polyploids. Recombinant DNA technology. Hardy Weiuber Law. replication and repair. Karyotype analysis. Antisense RNA and ribosomes. allelism and fine structure of gene. Chromosomal interchanges.wheat. Genome organization and cytogenetics of important crop species . somachonal variation and in vitro mutagenesis. Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms. Special types of chromosomes. DNA sequencing. function. cotton tobacco. Genome organization and repetitive DNA. Artificial synthesis of gene. duplications and deletions. Translation. Transcription and RNA processing. Mating system and mating design – diallel. Unit 5: Quantitative and Biometrical Genetics Quantitative characters. Path coefficient. Banding techniques. Genetic code. Vectors. Multiple factors inheritance. DNA . NC-II and NC-III designs. Wide hybridization and chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer. Chromosomal damage-detection and consequences. Construction and use of molecular marker based chromosome maps. Vigna sps. Cell structure and division. Nuclei acid hybridization and immunochemical detection. Cytogenetics of wheat. rice. cotton. gene and genotypic frequencies. DNA fingerprinting. In situ hybridization. micropropagation. Unit 2: Genome organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants Chromosome structure.
pulses (pigeonpea. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic stress tolerance. Plant tissue culture and its application in crop improvement. fibres and sugar crops. French and butter beans. Heterosis and its biometrical basis. Genetic load. sunflower. cowpea. flood. winged bean. Niger. minor millets). Multiple factor inheritance. Development of synthetics and composites. sorghum. lentil. Recurrent selection: intra. Breeding value. Lima bean). oil palm. Components of variation and their partitioning. Recombinant DNA technology. medicinal and aromatic plants. black gram. lathyrus. coconut.02. Breeding for vertical and horizontal resistance to diseases. castor. Mass selection and pure line selection. heritability. Estimation of gene effects and combining ability. classification. DNA sequencing. cross-pollinated and clonally propagated crops. Genomic and cDNA libraries. maize. Important quality parameters in various crops. Unit 4: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality Genetic basis and breeding for resistance to diseases and insect-pests. green gram. linseed). fodder and green manures. Estimates of variance components and covariance among relatives. Objectives and accomplishments in Plant breeding and the role of National and International institutes. distribution. Emergence of scientific plant breeding. Breeding for resistance to heat. horse gram. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic parameters. correlated response. Marker based 2 . sesamum. Genetic transformation and transgenics. Description and Economic Uses of Field Crops Origin. Role of plant introductions in crop improvement. rice bean. Gene cloning strategies. Types of molecular markers. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Multilines. Ideotype breeding. polygenic variation. Polymorphism. Vavilovian laws and Centres of diversity. Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Component and transgressive breeding. Unit 6: Biotechnological Tools for Crop Improvement Recombinant DNA technology. Response to selection. rapeseed mustard. oilseeds (groundnut. Quantitative characters. Mutation breeding. Maternal effects. pearl millet. Apomixes. PLANT BREEDING Unit 1: Reproductive Systems and Plant Breeding Crop domestication. description and utilization of economic plants: cereals (wheat. pea. incompatibility and Male sterility systems and their use in plant breeding. drought and soil stresses. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation to plant breeding methodology. Single seed descent.and inter population improvement. Unit 3: Plant Breeding Methods Breeding methods for self-pollinated. frost. Unit 2: Botanical Classification. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. rice. Genotype-environment interactions and stability of performance. Unit 5: Biometrical and Population Genetics for Crop Improvement Hardy Weinberg law. their genetic basis and breeding for these traits. Linkage disequilibrium. soybean. chickpea. Backcrossing. Early developments in plant breeding. lab-lab.
Design of experiments . Unit 8: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques Frequency distribution. unreplicated evaluation. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Varietal Release and Seed Production Plant exploration. randomized block design and split plot design. Augmented design. QTL mapping and marker aided selection. Data collection and interpretation. Seed production and certification.basic principles. Probability distribution and tests of significance. completely randomized design. Grid and honeycomb design. Unit 7: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System. Intellectual Property Rights. linear.genetic diversity analysis. evaluation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Genetic divergence. exchange. Hill plots. probability theory and its applications in genetics. 3 . Measures of central tendency. Multivariate analysis. conservation. germplasm introduction. Biodiversity Act. System of variety release and notification. Genome projects and utilization of sequence formation. Plant Variety Protection and Farmers’ Rights Act. Correlation. Complete and incomplete block designs. partial and multiple regression. Types of seeds and seed chain. Gene tagging.
maize. betelvine. floras. sunnhemp. poplar. production and utilization of Fruits: mango. gourds etc. oil palm. soyabean. Concepts of biosystematics. gloriosa. cole crops. guayule. evolution and differentiation of species. herbaria. Sugars: sugarcane. cultivation. areacanut. cultivation. evolution and biosystematics of selected crops (rice. domestication. evaluation. farmers rights. sword bean. neem etc. pea. French bean. cowpea. distribution. Oilseeds: Groundnut. tea. classification. principles and systems of classification. cashewnut and walnut. winged bean. pearl millet and minor millets. agave. PBRs. catalogues and dictionaries. sui-generis system etc. Dye-. botany. National and International organizations associated with PGR. apple. safflower. monographs. 4 . sesbania. jatropha. vinca. subabool. plum. Plant of agro-forestory importance: multipurpose trees/shrubs. cocoa.. plant species richness and endemism. Unit 3 : Economically important plants –II Origin. sunflower. mentha and glycirrhiza. plantago etc. black gram. sugarpalm and sweet sorghum.. sugarbeet. wheat. coconut and linseed. root and tuber crops-: potato. Acacia nilotica. citrus. distribution. banana. chickpea. Vegetables: tomato. domestication. Biosystematic and taxonomic tools. Unit 4 : Economically important plants –III Origin. Fumigatories and masticatories: tobacco. brinjal. grapes and other indigenous fruits. Unit 2 : Economically important plants –I Origin. silk cotton.03. sesame. tapioca. purpose. rape seed. horsegram. rice. peach. production and use of: Cereals: Wheat. cotton). Narcotics: cannabis. Taxonomy of higher plants. IPR. recent issues related to access and ownership of PGR. ECONOMIC BOTANY Unit 1 : Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics Nomenclature. Centres of origin and diversity of crop plants. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Unit 5 : Biodiversity and Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) Biosphere and biodiversity. concept and importance of plant genetic resources and its increasing erosion. mustard.. tannin-. pyrethrum and opium. gum. nux-vomica. guava. medicinal and aromatic plants: sarpagandha. Origin. niger. lab-lab bean. pear. aroids etc. production and utilization of economic plants of following groups such as Fibres: cotton.and resin. genetic resource activities. bioprospecting. belladonna. Fodders and green manure crops: Plantation crops: coconut. cucumber. rape seed & mustard. castor. green gram. ricebean. sorghum. flax and mesta (kenoff). index. cinchona. lentil. datura.. Pulses: Pigeon pea. sweet potato. history. jute. manuals. non-traditional economic plants: jojoba. carcus etc.yielding plants. lima bean. okra.
in situ and ex situ methods. ecogeographical distribution of diversity. AOSA. Gene bank management. Concept. pathogens and weeds. economic significance of seed borne pests. Unit 10 : Germplasm characterization. biochemical and molecular approaches to assessing plant diversity. seed storage behaviour (orthodox. seed physiology and seed technology in conservation. use of flora and herbaria. post-harvest handling of germplasm. transgenics – exchange and biosafety issues. recalcitrant). evaluation. ISTA. concept of core collection.Unit 6 : Germplasm Augmentation History and importance of germplasm collection. Unit 8 : Biotechnology in PGR Plant conservation biotechnology. maintenance of working and active collections of self-cross-pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops. random and selective sampling. field genebanks. gene bank standard for various crops. PGR data base management. biotechnology in plant germplasm acquisition. salvaging of infested/infected germplasm. approaches in germplasm characterization and diversity analysis. detection and post entry quarantine operations. Gene banks: short-medium. cryopreservation. concept of genetic integrity. principles and practices of regeneration in relation to mode of reproduction. maintenance and regeneration Principles and strategies of PGR evaluation. clonal respositories. descriptors and descriptor states for data scoring. genetic shift. Regulations and plant quarantine set up in Indai. importance and ecogeographical considerations of introduction and exchange of plant germplasm. logistics of exploration and collection. perennials and wild relatives. genetic drift and optimum environment. 5 . on – farm conservation. objectives and relevance of plant quarantine. Unit 9 : Plant Quarantine Principles. in vitro conservation and exchange. prerequisites conventions and achievements of PGR exchange. Unit 7 : Germplasm Conservation Principles and methods of conservation. IPGRI guidelines. genepool sampling in self and cross pollinated species. domestic quarantine. plant tissue culture in disease elimination. documentation of information in gene bank.and long-term conservation strategies.
Seed Certification Schemes. Seed drying principles and methods. plum. Micro propagation. humidity. betel vine. banana. physiological and biochemical changes. gladiolus. pigeon pea.Seeds Act 1966. Apomixis. polyembryony and somatic embryoids and synthetic seeds. important forage legumes and grasses and seed crop management. indented cylinder. and supplementary pollination. colocasia. specific gravity separator. sporogenesis. its role in seed quality 6 . soybean and cowpea. Seed maturation and longevity in orthodox and recalcitrant seed. Seed Rules 1969 and New Seed Bill 2004. sorghum. time of harvesting and threshing/extraction methods. Compact area approach in seed production. okra. weighing and bagging machines. Identification of seed production areas and factors affecting it. Seed quality maintenance during processing. Clonal standards and degenerations. seed treater. rubber. guava. Precleaning.types. Seed production technology of plantation crops like coffee. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. fibre crops like cotton and jute. Unit 3 : Seed Processing Principles of seed processing. pelleting and packaging. Genetic purity concept and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. dahlia. Variety testing. sunflower and castor. Unit 2 : Seed Production Introduction to crop breeding methods. important cole and cucurbitaceous crops. grape. pollination. cocoa. grading. Field inspection principles and methods. self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. release and notification. Inspection at harvesting. fruit crops like mango. Seed certification – history. and role of hormones. citrus. Chemical composition of seed. insect pollinators. chilli. temperature. pulses like chickpea. sapota. Seed invigoration and enhancement treatment and their applications. equipment. Seed processing machines like cleaner cum grader. input and manpower requirement. apple. organization. Seed Testing concepts and objectives. pineapple. cardamom and pepper. Maintenance breeding. General system of seed multiplication. peach. brinjal. imbibition pattern. chrysanthemum. paddy. factors affecting. methods to overcome dormancy and its significance in agriculture. sugarcane sweet potato. green gram. embryogenesis. flox and petunia. Pre-and post quality testing or genetic purity. Seed production planning. wind velocity. causes and mechanisms of induction and release. Seed germination . Factors affecting pollination and seed set viz. fruit and seed development. Seed production agencies. Seed dormancy . brassica. parthenocarpy. sesame. tea. Unit 4: Seed Quality Control Seed legislation .04. marigold.. oilseeds like groundnut. Disease free clonal propagation of crops like potato. mode of reproduction. concepts and procedures. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals like wheat. threshing and processing. pear. pearl millet and maize. black gram. fertilization. treatment. Male sterility. concept. tapioca. phases and minimum certification standards. vegetables crops like tomato. apricot and seed production and clonal propagation of annual and perennial flowers like rose. SEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Unit 1 : Seed Biology Floral biology.requirements. their operation and maintenance. Seed Law Enforcement.
Seed drying and Packaging needs. seedling and plant characters. Design features of short. Biodiversity Act. Carry over infestation. rules and seed quality assurance for international seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers in Seed Act. DUS testing principles and application. monitoring and detection. Quick viability tests. Seed sampling. botanicals. Buyer behavior and role of Government. Unit 7: Seed Industry Development and Marketing Trends in National and International seed industry development. germination testing. Storage structures. Operation and management of seed stores. vegetables and their control measures. natural enemies and management. pricing policies. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture. semi Government. bacteria and viruses. nature and extent of damage. tolerance tests and equipment. methods of detection of seed borne diseases. Methods of stacking and their impact. Seed deterioration causes and methods of control. ET value. Important storage pests. Unit 6 : Seed Health Significance of seed health. Physiological. Criteria for protection of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDVs) and Genetically modified (GM) varieties. Externally and internally seed borne pathogens. development and spread. its significance and testing methods. Unit 8 : Protection of Plant Varieties Plant Variety Protection (PVP) and its significance. International Seed Trade Federation (ISF) and Indian seed associations. Testing for genuineness of varieties – principles and methods based on seed. Viability nomographs. Controlled storage. marketing channels. mycotoxins for seed treatments. Short and medium term storage. its role in development of seed testing procedures. temperature. biochemical techniques namely electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA fingerprinting. principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and its role in development of Plant breeders Rights and Seed Industry Development.control.fungi. Cryo preservation. oilseeds. Unit 5 : Seed Storage Requirements and types of seed storage. Mode and mechanism of transmission of microorganisms . medium and long-term seed storage buildings. mode of infection. pulses. Germplasm storage. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right Act. RH and moisture equilibrium. Economics of seed production. Seed vigour. Procedures for seed health test and rules. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 2001. their identification. its essential features. Important seed-borne diseases of cereals. Quarantine and International procedures of phytosanitary certificates. biochemical and molecular changes in seed ageing. Market survey. fibre crops. 7 . Impact of PVP on seed supply system. Use of pesticides. seed moisture testing. Seed testing procedures for principal agri horticultural crops. co-operative and private sectors in seed trade. purity analysis. planning and sales promotion. demand forecasting. Seed import and export.
Economic uses of prokaryotes. Unit 4: Mycology Classification of fungi. laminar flow. hypovirulence cross protection/useful genes and promoter technology biosafety and bioethics. incubator. vie and pat genes. Mycorrhizal associations. Economic mycology. Bacteriophages: lytic and lysogenic cycles. Unit 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular detection of pathogens in seeds and other planting materials: Nucleic acid probes. Southern. ultracentrifuge. elementary bacterial genetics and variability: transformation. PLANT PATHOLOGY Unit 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology Milestones in phytopathology with particular reference to India. Historical developments of chemicals. their morphology. coat protein. Antiviral proteins. survival and dispersal of plant pathogens. cultural and biological protection measures including classification of plant diseases. Growth curve. colonization and development of symptoms. Physiologic specialization. HR and active oxygen radicals. Cell organelles. Koch’s postulates.RNA. Laboratory equipment and their use: autoclave. spectrophotometer. legislative. Management of pathogens through satellite. Biology of extra chromosomal elements: plasmid borne genes and their expression: avr. Measurement of plant disease. Preservation of microorganisms in pure culture. Mechanisms of resistance. Enzymes and toxins in relation to plant disease. transduction. reproduction. Tissue culture. Northern and Western hybridization. Methods of inoculation. Resting cells in prokaryotic. functions and chemical composition. penetration. Elementary genetic engineering.05. invasion. Unit 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques Preparation and sterilization of common media. Methods of isolation of pathogens and their identification. 8 . antisense . Factors influencing infection. biochemical characteristics. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis: recognition phenomenon. ELISA. PR proteins. electrophoresis. morphology. Unit 5: Plant Bacteriology Identification and classification of bacteria. Phytoalexins. edible fungi and entomogenous fungi. Somoclonal variation and somatic hybridization. Morphology. her. Ribozymes. hot air oven. ultrastructure and chemical composition of prokaryotic cell in relation to function. conjugation. ISEM and PCR. reproduction and life cycle of phytoplasma and other fastidious prokaryotes. Major epidemics and their social impacts. Growth. nutrition and auxotrophic mutants. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. primary disease determinant. SAR. ELISA Reader. light and electron microscopy.
Unit 7: Plant Disease Epidemiology Concepts in epidemiology. Nutritional deficiencies. Transmission of viruses: virus . Genetic basis of disease resistance and pathogenicity: gene for gene hyphothesis. physical. spices and ornamental crops with special reference to etiology. Survey. pulses. Variability in viruses. oilseeds. Epidemiology and management. aflatoxins and their integrated management. Monocyclic and polycyclic pathogens. drought and flooding stress etc. breeding for disease resistance. solarization. soil fungistasis. Post harvest diseases in transit and storage. Epidemic analysis and prediction models.vector relationships. viroids. Primary /secondary air pollutants and acid rain. Seed certification. chemical. integrated disease management. TRIPS and PRA. Chemical nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassy and compatibility with other agricultural chemicals. inclusion bodies. fiber. and prediction and forecasting of diseases. plantation. Mode of transmission and pathogen vector relationships. composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Sanitary and phytosanitary issues under WTO. Diseases due to unfavourable soil environment. Important cultural practices and their role in disease management. oilseeds. perpatuation. Assay of plant viruses including biological.Unit 6: Plant Virology Nature. Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. millets. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced into India. Unit 9: Fungal Diseases of Crop Plants Fungal diseases of cereals. vegetables. fruits. Unit 10: Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Crop Plants Crop diseases of cereals. their care and maintenances. Microorganisms antagonistic to plant pathogens in soil. Unit 11: Management of Plant diseases General principles of plant quarantine. Behaviour of viruses in plants including infection. Crop loss assessment: critical and multiple point models. Conventional and biotechnological techniques used in detection and diagnosis. pulses. Development of disease in plant population. phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. rhizosphere and phyllosphere and their use in the control of plant diseases. epidemiology and management. parasite mediated frequency -dependent selection concept of QTL mapping. disease cycle. Properties of viruses. fruits. Role of environment and meteorological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics. Spraying and dusting equipments. 9 . Nomenclature and classification of viruses. viruses. replication and movement. resistance to fungicides/ antibiotics. serological and molecular methods. plantation and fiber crops caused by bacteria. effect on environment. Unit 8: Phanerogamic parasites and Non-parasitic Diseases Diseases caused by Phanerogamic parasites and their management. Satellite viruses and satellite RNA. Production of disease free seeds and planting materials. surveillance (including through remote sensing). Histopathological changes induced by viruses in plants. vegetables.
reproductive etc. preserving. biology. Detailed classification of plant . distribution and management of plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance (Pratylenchus. General morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Community analysis. excretion. etc. nervous and sensory responses. Nematode phylogeny and systematics. Various systems: digestive. Anguina.. staining. screening and evaluation for nematode resistance in crops.principles and types including electron microscopes. Unit 2 : Nematode Taxonomy and Morphology Principles and concepts of taxonomy. Rotylenchulus. Unit 3 : Nematological Techniques Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. nervous. Globodera. biochemical and molecular changes in plants due to nematode infections. Physiology of muscular. hatching and nematode survival. mounting and measuring of nematodes. Microscopy . Pathotypes in nematodes. Classification of soil and plant -parasitic nematodes and their relationships with other related phyla. activity and reproduction.parasitic nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on genera of economic importance. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity.Caenorhabditis elegans. 10 . Nematode -induced plant damage and modeling. Ditylenchus. organelles. Mechanism of nematode resistance and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Paratylenchus. entomophilic and saprophytic including axenic methods. giant cell formation and their modification etc. Techniques for histopathology and culturing of nematodes . Mode of nematode dispersal. Hirschmanniella. PLANT NEMATOLOGY Unit 1: History and Economic Importance History and economic importance of nematology..plant parasitic. Chemoreception in nematodes. digestion. Nematode as biological models . excretory. developmental biology of nematodes. Cytological changes in plants due to infection including syncytia. estimation of crop losses. Hoplolaimus.). Tylenchorhynchus. Molecular technique for nematode diagnostics. Techniques for mass culturing of nematode antagonistic bioagents. Physiology of moulting. Helicotylenchus. growth and development. Unit 6 : Nematode Physiology and Cytology Chemical composition of nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of plant parasitic nematodes and mechanisms involved. Physiology of respiration. Aphelenchoides. Soil as environment for nematodes. reproduction. Heterodera. Unit 5 : Plant Nematode Relationships Types of parasitism in nematodes. Diseases caused by plant-parasitic nematodessymptomatology.06. Radopholus. Tylenchulus. Unit 4 : Nematode Ecology Ecological classification and distribution of nematodes. Principles of nematode physiology. Adaptations to parasite mode of life. Methods of killing. Scutellonema. Nematode population dynamics. Meloidogyne. Physiological functions of cell. Physiological. Entomopathogenic nematodes. fixing. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on nematode survival. nematicide screening. Rules of nomenclature.
median. mycorhizae and other nematodes. Integrated nematode management. Unit 9 : Statistics Frequency distribution. binomial and poisson. 11 . Tests of significance: t. classification. application and mode of action. Correlations: partial and multiple. chemical and legislative.history. formulations. Host resistance for nematode management. mode.physical. F and Chi square and randomized block. standard deviation etc. Role of biotechnology in nematode management. Nematicides (including those of biological origin) . fungi. Unit 8 : Interactions of Nematodes with Soil Organisms Importance of interactions (interrelationships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of nematodes with bacteria. Population distributions : normal. their analysis and interpretation.Unit 7 : Nematode Management Principles and methods of nematode management . Nematodes as vectors of viruses and other microorganisms. Latin square and split plot designs. Measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean. viruses. cultural biological.
endoskeleton. superparasitism and their applied importance. Sense Organs. symptoms of infection. AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Unit 1: Systematics History and development of Entomology. distribution and dispersal. types of mouth parts. Head and head appendages. Thorax structure. structure. Ecological. Arthropod population monitoring. Crustacea. Ecosystems. Modes of transmission. their structure and types. rickettsiae. artificial diets. proteins and amino acids. outgrowths. Mass multiplication techniques and economics. population models. Successful cases of biological control of pests. segmentation. general structure and modification in important insect orders. habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important Families. carbohydrates. pest forecasting. Respiratory. Internal Anatomy and Physiology Embryonic and post embryonic development. ecological niche. structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. its structure. function and physiology of Digestive. Important entomophagous insect Orders and Families. legal and economic aspects of biological control. their characteristics and functioning. agroecosystems analysis. Body regions. their modification and venation. Abdomen. Diapause and causes of pest out breaks. lipids. General features and types of larvae and pupae. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. abdominal appendages both in Pterygota and Apterygota. Biotic potential and environmental resistance. taxonomic. Unit 2: Morphology Body wall. Insect food and nutrition. Protozoan and nematodes. types of metamorphosis. structural features of important arthropod groups such as Trilobita. predators and insect pathogens. thoracic appendages and their modification. vitamins and their role in growth and development. viruses. Arachnida. Chilopoda. Principles and procedures of using exotic biocontrol agents. hyperparasitism. habits. Utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation. Diplopoda and Hexapoda. antennae. minerals. Food chain and food web. physiology of ecdysis. Structure. population dynamics. Evolution of insects. Reproductive. Unit 5: Biological Control Importance and scope of biological control. characteristics of phylum Arthropoda.07. structure and types. competition. Unit 3: Embryology. Intra and inter specific relationship. Biocontrol organizations in world and India. fungi. methods of uses. Entomophilic pathogens: bacterial. Wings. habitat management and augmentation. Environment and its components-biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth. Life table studies. development. sclerites and sutures. Chelicerata and Mandibulata. Microbial insecticides and their 12 . External genitalia. phenomena of multiple parasitism. Effective evaluation techniques. Classification of insects up to order level. Unit 4: Ecology Concept of ecology. biological. predator-prey and host-parasite interactions. history of biological control: Biocontrol agentsparasites. Circulatory. Nervous and Excretory systems. position of insects in the animal world.
13 . chemosterilants. attractants. biocontrol agents utilization. neem products. Host plant selection by phytophagous insects. avermectins. Secondary plant substances and their defenses against phytophagous insect. chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons. its advantages and limitations. carbamates. repellents. Insecticides Act 1968. Unit 6: Chemical Control and Toxicology History. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management. method of applications. RL 50 etc. Hormonal control: types and function of insect hormones. Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management History. Pharmacology of insect poisons. their types. oligogenic resistance. Physical. genetics and management of insecticide resistance. registration and quality control of insecticides. insect hormone mimics.formulation. organophosphates. Potentialities of IPM. insecticide resistance. Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution. chitin synthesis inhibitors. scope and principles of chemical control. respiratory poisons. Safe use of pesticides. chemical methods. nitroguandines. methods of toxicity testing. detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. IPM case histories. Genetics of Resistance: vertical resistance. mechanical and physical methods. Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation. determination of LD 50. Antobiosis. phenylpyrrozzoles. case histories. advantages and limitations. horizontal resistance.Economic threshold levels (ETL). Components of IPM: Host plant resistance. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. IPM. concept and principles of IPM. synthetic pyrethroids. Combination insecticides. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. chitin synthesis inhibitors. induced resistance. precautions and first aid treatments. polygenic resistance. pongamia spp. Role of biocontrol agents and microbial insecticides in Integrated Pest Management. Genetic control: concepts and methods. advantages and limitations. Metabolism of insecticides. Case histories. etc). Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance Chemical ecology: mechano and chemo receptors. Concept of damage levels. genetic and behavioral control strategy etc. System approach. mechanism. Evaluation of toxicity. Merits and demerits of microbial control. agronomic manipulations. Economic injury levels (EIL) and their determination. Basis of resistance (Antixenosis. LT 50. rotenone. Selectivity of insecticidal actions. methods of residue. nicotine. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides. Tritrophic interactions. Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest Control Behavioral control: pheromones-types and uses. advantages and limitations. chlordimeform. botanicals (natural pyrethroids. Tolerance). antifeedants. Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements. Formulations of insecticides. activative and degradative metabolism. Biotechnological approaches and development of transgenic insect resistant plants. Biotypes development and its remedial measures. advantages and limitations. Insecticides and their classification. Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons.
leaf hoppers. cut worms and white grubs. dusters. principles of voltism and nioultism. Unit 14: Arthrpod Vectors of Plant Diseases Common arthropod vectors viz. Integrated management of storage pests. sugarcane and tobacco. Oilseed. fog generators. Enemies and diseases of silkworms and their management. Mechanism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission. plant hoppers. Rearing techniques of mulberrymuga-eri and tassar silkworms. psylids. bacteria. insect and non-insect pests. Grain drying methods and aeration. Storage losses. silkworm breeds. seasonal management. Types of nozzles and their uses. their relative efficacy and demerits. their behaviour. Aerial application of pesticides. fruits and plantation crops.Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments Types of appliances: sprayers. 14 . Maintenance of appliances. mites and phytotoxemia. Toxicogenic insects. bulk storage and bag storage. aphids. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases. Power operated sprayers and dusters. their nature of damage and control. flame throwers. hairy catepillars. their systematic position and salient features. etc. biology and bionomics. sources of infestation/infection. Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture Silkworm species. hives and equipments. Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management Distribution. principles of aerial application. bees and mites and their relationship with the plant pathogenic fungi. biological transmission. Sericulture: rearing house and appliances. Storage structures. seed treating drums. biology and bionomics. host range. termites. factors affecting the effectiveness of aerial application. smoke generators. Bee enemies including diseases and their control. whiteflies. seed production and its economics. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial application. Some important arthropod vector transmitted diseases and their epidemiology in India. Equipments for aerial applications. soil injecting guns. Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. Non-insect pests (rodents.. nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of vegetables. beetles. Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping Honey bees and their economic importance. factors influencing losses. host range. pulses and fibre crops. thrips. nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of cereals. habit and habitats. spices. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage. viruses. mites) of stored products and their control. Sericulture organization in India. Polyphagous pests: locusts. weevils. birds. flies. Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management Distribution. condiments and ornamentals. Microflora in storage environment and their control. Bee species. mycoplasma.
insects as food. Use of insects and insect products in medicines. mean. scavengers. soil fertility improving agents. 15 . Unit 18: Other Useful Insects Pollinators. biocontrol agents of weeds. Split-plot designs. its biology. Sampling methods and standard errors. for the above tests and designs of experiments for analysis. inoculation. Standard. Usefulness of insects in scientific investigations.Unit 17: Lac Insect Lac insect. Host Trees: pruning. F. and harvesting. bionomial and Poisson’s distribution. Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application Frequency distribution. etc. SAS. Enemies of lac insect and their control. mode and median. lac cropping techniques. Completely r andomized block design. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomized block design.square. chi. t. Correlation and regression: Partial and multiple. tests of significance. Probit analysis. Latin square design. Duncan’s multiple range tests. normal. Use of soft ware packages like SPSS. habit and habitats.
Chemistry of alkaloids. acaricides and basic concepts in pesticide formulation. surface phenomenon (including colloids). Perkin Kolbes.). Michael. types and applications of chromatography. reaction involving free radicals. rodenticides (coumarins etc). tautomerism. thin layer. rearrangement). basic principles and application of spectrophotometry. niconoids. Fries and Wagner Meerwein rearrangements. glycosides.). benezene and carbene intermediates. mechanisms of chemical reactions (displacement. Sources. Polymers and polymerization reactions.). phenolics. addition. saponins and sapogenins. Benzilic acid and Benzidin rearrangements.08. Friedal Crafts. Humus. its formation. IR. Unit 5 : Chemistry of Synthetic Pesticides Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organo-chlorine. organo-phosphorus. isoprenoids and plant pigments. 16 . organic functional groups. Emission and absorption spectroscopy. organocarbamatcs. Unit 3 : Analytical Chemistry Volumetric and gravimetric analysis. laws of thermodynamics. limonoids and microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins). properties and mode of action of important groups of naturally occurring insecticides: pyrothroids. juvenile hormones. theory of indicators. proteins. Claisen. nucleic acids. quinines. Dickmann. fungicides (dithiocarbamates. ion exchange. amino sugars. phenols. insect growth regulators. Principles and practices in radiotracer analysis. phytoallaxins. lipids. Principles. Unit 2 : Organic Reaction Mechanisms Beckmann. insect hormones. Aldol condensation. osmosis and osmotic pressure. NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. plant hormones. Curlius. cellulose and starch. Hoffman. Carbamates. Allelochemicals. isolation. elemental analysis for molecular structure determination. triazines. stereochemistry and chirality. dieds Alder. elimination. synthetic pyrethroids etc. Grignard reagents. vitamins. column. Reagents in organic synthesis in relation to stability of final product and steric approach control. nature and type of chemical bonding. semio chemicals. paper. essential oils and polymers. azoles etc. characterization. amino acids. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS/ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Unit 1 : General Chemistry Atomic structure and electronic configuration. herbicides (phenoxyacids. amides. retonoids. radioactivity. penylureas. dinitroanilines. bipyridiliums etc. Claissen condensation. enzymes. Unit 4: Chemistry of Natural Products Carbohydrates. gas liquid and high performance liquid. composition and properties. carboxamides. Arndt-Eistert and Witting reactions.
Soil conditioners and amendments. Key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968). secondary and micro). Heavy metal pollution. 17 . Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981) and the Environmental Protection Act (1986). Agrochemical disposal / destruction: approaches and implications.). production and manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous. Industrial effluents (nature. green manure. sewage sludge. potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures. liquid fertilizers. Unit 7 : Environmental Implications of Agrochemicals Chemodynamics of agrochemicals (pesticides. The Fertilizer Control Order (1985). compost. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act ( 1974). integrated plant nutrient systems. organic manures (farm yard. Nutrient use efficiency (principles and approaches). Effects on non-target organisms. biofertilizers. toxicological aspects. fertilizers etc. Other related chemical xenohiotics. biogas slurries. etc. biotic and abiotic transformations. phosphatic.) in agroecosystems.Unit 6 : Chemistry of Plant Production Chemicals Essential plant nutrients (major. disposal). treatment. principles of monitoring and analysis.
Mechanisms of enzyme action. catabolism and their regulation. adrenal. Mutagens. Disorders of lipid. Replication of viruses. oncogenes and carcinogenesis. Deficiency diseases associated with vitamins. transamination and deamination. thyroid. biotransfermation and over expression. DNA and protein sequence analysis. Amino acid metabolism – catabolism of amino acids. ketogenesis and causes of ketosis. kinetic experiments to determine the mechanism of multi substrate reactions. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Integration of carbohydrate. cytokinins. Unit 2: Intermediary Metabolism Anabolism. amino acid metabolism. TCA cycle. Signal transduction mechanisms. industry. Redox reactions. Unit 3: Enzymes. Role of high energy phosphates. Enzyme units. Chloroplant and Mitochondrial genomes. general properties. Methods of gene transfer-plasmid and viruses as vectors. degradation and biosynthesis of fatty acids. Unit 4: Molecular Biology Structure of DNA and RNA Replication. lipid and amino acid metabolism. biosyntheisis of amino acids.operon model. control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eykaryotes. Secondary metabolites. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Gene expression . Post-transcriptional and translational modifications. carbohydrate. Isoenzymes and immobilized enzymes. pyrimidines and nucleotides. Enzyme engineering. glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis.concept of entropy. Peptide and steroid hormones. viz. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Vitamins and Hormones Major classes of enzymes. urea cycle. properties and function of carbohydrates. Metabolism of carbohydrates – glycolitic pathway. restriction enzymes. kinetics. Role of G-proteins. chemistry. Role of enzymes in agriculture.09. Inborn errors of metabolism. activation energy and transition state. pituitary. Brassino of . Metabolism of nucleic acids-degradation and biosynthesis of purines. Phyto hormones – auxins. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics. mode of action and metabolic functions of vitamins. ethylene. transcription and translation. Chemical bonding in biological systems. proteins. pH and buffers. lipids and nucleic acids. pancreas and gonads. Structure. Multi substrate reactions. Classification structure. nucleic acid. Biological oxidationelectron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation. General principles of recombinant DNA technology. viruses and bacteriophages. abscisic acid and new plant bio-regulators like SA. Lipid metabolism. and medicine. cyclic nucleotides and calcium in transduction. and free energy changes in biological reactions. Transcriptional and translation control of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Coenzymes and cofactors. induction and repression. General description of nature hormones and disorders associated with endocrine glands. inhibition and activation. Regulation of enzyme activity. active site and its mapping. allosteric regulation. cell organelles function and their fractionation. Components of immune system. 18 . Isolation. Prostaglandins. gibberellins. HMP pathway. Conversion of amino acids into bioactive compounds. BIO-CHEMISTRY (PLANT SCIENCE) Unit 1: Basic Biochemistry and Biomolecules Scope and importance of biochemistry and molecular biology in plants. Biomembranes. purification and measurement of enzyme activity.
differential centrifugation. Antioxidants. transposon tagging. AFLP. Computer application in molecular biology. spectrophotometry. Chromatographic techniques paper. Preliminary methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation. Seed reserve biosynthesis. Biochemical composition and food value of various food grains (including cereals. Chloroplasm morphology. Unit 5: Techniques in Biochemistry Principles of optical. Growth regulation in plants. Chemisomotic coupling. biochips. correlation and regression. Nutritional quality of protein and its evaluation. Regulation of Rubisco. Role of oligosaccharides and 19 . vegetables and fruits. fluorimetry. Centrifugation . chromosome walking. Basics of genome organization and mapping. Cryopreservation. dark reactions: C3. gel electrophoresis. GC and HPLC. phase contrast. Photophosphorylation. sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis. functional genomics. fluorescence and electron microscopy. nitrate and nitrite reduction. nutraceticals. ANOVA. Carbon cycle and its regulation. UV and VIS. storage and preservation. Unit 8: Plant Metabolic Processes Uptake and metabolism of mineral nutrients in plants. Dietary fibre. Signal transduction and phytohormones. storage proteins. Biochemistry of fruit ripening. site-directed mutagenesis. Food toxins and anti-metabolites. Ion fluxes and conformational changes during photosynthesis. Nature and exchange of metabolites through translocators. density gradient centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. oil seeds). food additives. concept of balanced diet. Benefits of gene manipulation in agriculture. column chromatography. symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. isoelectric focusing. fruits and vegetables. pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Northern and Western blotting.oligonucleotide synthesis. photorespiration and crop productivity. turbidometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Biochemical basis of quality improvement of food grains. Molecular mechanisms of plant growth. Methods for the development of transgenic organisms. microsatellite and mitochondrial and ribotyping techniques. Microarray and DNA chips. ELISA. PCR and application of RFLP. Fruits and Vegetables Fundamentals of nutrition. primer designing.general principles and application. Relationship between photosynthesis. denitrification. standard error. structure and biochemical anatomy. C4 and CAM pathways. Chemoautrotrophy in rhizobia and nitrifying bacteria. RAPD. hormone action. Gene silencing.biochemical functions and deficiency diseases. Sulphur metabolism. Cytosolic and organelle interactions. Biochemical and physiological role of hydrogenase. genomic and cDNA library construction. photosystems. Flectrophoresis .principles of sedimentation in various rotors. thin layer. immunoelectrophoresis. Unit 6: Biochemistry of Food-grains. Unit 7: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis – photosynthetic pigments. light reactions. Nitrogen cycle. Radioisotopic techniques – scintillation counters and autoradiography and their application in biological sciences. Cell cycle. Southern. Photorespiration. Cell tissue and organ culture. pulses. Fats and lipids-types of fatty acids and their significance in health. Vitamins. nanobiotechnology. biochemical aspects of post harvest technology.
in cellular metabolism. Molecular markers in plants and their uses. organization and regulation of nuclear genes. Unit 10: Plant Biotechnology / Genetic Engineering Totipotency. Regulation of chloroplast gene expression. Different methods of gene transfer –direct and vectormediated. Protoplasm fusion. fungal and bacterial diseases). Molecular analysis of transformants. Signal transduction and its molecular basis: molecular mechanism of plant hormone action. mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Isolation and characterization of plant genes and promoters. Abiotic stress tolerance. cryopreservation. application of tissue culture for plant improvement. Gene silencing. storage protein quality improvement. Tissue specific expression of genes.polysaccharides glucosinolates. Structure.life. General principles of gene cloning. Metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides and Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology General organization of nuclear. increasing shelf. Genes involved in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. viral. 20 . Genomics and functional genomics. Biosafety and IPR issues. salinity and temperature. Mitochondrial control of fertility. oil quality. Molecular biology of various stresses – drought. herbicide resistance. Potential applications of plant genetic engineering for crop improvement – insect-pest resistance (insect. Site directed mutagenesis.
growth retardant. temperature and VPD. phytochrome. movement of water in plants. starch. phenology-crop productivity. N03. Secondary metabolites and their significance in plant defence mechanism. nucleic acids. Photosynthesis. Indices for assessment of drought resistance. senescence. organ.indices for improving crop productivity. crop growth and productivity. Concept of source and sink. Environmental factors determining crop growth.Light extinction coefficient relative growth rate. Unit 2: Metabolic Processes and growth Regulation Energy and work. Nitrogen metabolism. cyctokinins. Biomass and yield relations. Photosynthesis and bioproductivity.). Mechanism of water uptake by roots transport in roots. apical dominance. CO2 fixation as a diffusive process. CAM plants and their significance. free energy and chemical potential. water potential of plant cells. Unit 3: Crop Productivity and Modeling Role of crop physiology in agriculture.concept of growth rates. Synthesis of sucrose. translocation and respiration as key processes regulating carbon metabolism and plant growth. growth and maintenance respiration. energy balance. Net assimilation rate. Cell membrane structure and functions. Rubisco structure and regulations. Lipid metabolismstorage. factors affecting enzyme action. Assimilate partitioning. effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates. Evapotranspiration. solar energy. synthetic growth regulators.Chloroplast. effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on duration of growth stages. ABA. abscission.10. water loss from plants. photo-morphogenesis. input energy dissipation at crop canopy level. Gene expression and protein turnover. growth factors related to biomass . antitranspirants. water relations. protective and structural lipids. crop growth models describing yield (Duncan/Passioura). its structure. plant factors influencing transpiration rate. Sulphate uptake and reduction. physiology of flowering. factors influencing source and sink size and productivity. photo-receptors. Physiology of water high temperature and salinity stress in plants. Influence of water stresses at cell. Light. Stomata. Photorespiration and its significance. cell inclusions. Ideotype concept-selection. protein synthesis. Growth and differentiation. Enzyme classification and mechanism of action. Mitochondrial respiration. Inorganic nitrogen species (N2. plant growth hormones (auxins. yield and yield structure analysis. gibberellins. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Unit 1: Cell Organelles and Water Relations Cell organelles and their physiological functions Structure and physiological functions of cell wall. plant and canopy levels. 21 . NH3) and their reduction. Water and its role in plants. structure function Mechanism of stomatal movement. ethylene etc. hormonal concept of growth and differentiation. Light interception as a major function of leaf area-index. redox reactions and electrochemical potential. biosynthesis of growth hormones and their metabolism. cyanide resistant respiration and its significance. LAD canopy architecture. fruit growth. properties and functions of water in the cell. photoperiodism and vernalisation.canopy photosynthesis (leaf area and net assimilation rates as determining factors). oligo and polysaccharides. Photochemical process. Translocations of photosynthates and its importance in sink growth.
Endogenous growth regulating substances other than hormones. Rhizosphere and root biology. Molecular responses to water deficit stress perception. abscission. metal binding proteins). expression of regulatory and function genes and significance of gene products. Unit 5: Plant Growth Regulators and Plant Development Plant growth regulators – Hormones. Concept of hormone action hormone receptors and signal transduction Hormone mutants. gibberellins – stem elongation. Basic principles of a crop improvement programme under stress. Development of water deficits. apical dominance. Salinity effects at cellular and whole plant level. Drought characteristic features. Induction and breaking dormancy in seeds and buds. germination of dormant seeds. General mechanisms . endogenous growth substances and synthetic chemicals. Classification. retardation of senescence. site of synthesis. Interaction of hormones in regulation of plant growth and development processes.physiological and molecular aspects of control of reproductive growth. stress proteins.flowering. Drought resistance mechanisms: Escape. classification and their mode of action. Salinity: species variation in salt tolerance. Fruit growth and development. influence of micro- 22 . xylem unloading in leaf cells. root growth. biosynthetic pathways and metabolism and influence on plant growth and development by auxins. Dual mechanism and other concepts of ion uptake. interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses.role of membrane lipids in high temperance tolerance. Short distance transport-pathway from external solution (Apoplasm) to sieve across the root cortical cells-factors contributing to xylem loading. physiological and molecular aspects of ripening processes and improving post harvest life of fruits. Water use efficiency as a drought resistance trait. Herbicides. retardation of abscission of plant parts. fruit growth. High temperature stress: tolerance mechanisms. abscisic acid and ethylene. Long distance transport in xylem and phloem. Action of hormones on cellular functions: Auxins. Apical dominance.cell division.stomatal closure and induction of drought resistance. jasmonates. Oxidative stress: reactive oxygen species (ROS) – role of scavenging systems (SOD. senescence. Synthetic growth regulators. cytokinins. Brassinosteriods. senescence and abscission. phenols polyamines.concept of apparent free space and nature of bio-membranes. Synthetic growth regulators. effects on physiological processes. Role of phytochelatins (heavy. Crucial role of membrane lipids.Unit 4: Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants Abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity. cytokinins. and characteristics of resurrection plants. Osmotic adjustment Osmoprotectants. Breeding for salt resistance. dehydration postponement (Drought avoidance). Rooting of cuttings. growth retardants. concept of death hormone. seed dormancy. acceleration of senescence of leaves.fruit ripening. ethylene. Stress and hormones-ABA as a signaling molecule – Cytokinin as negative signal. Hormonal regulation of gene expressions at various developmental stages of plant-flowering. hormonal concept of growth and differentiations. gibberellins. Functions of HSPs chilling stress.cell elongation. transpiration and it’s regulation – stomatal functions/VPD.). energy balance concept. Physiological process affected by drought. Growth and differentiation. Classification and essentiality criteria. Heavy metal stress: aluminum and cadmium toxicity in acid soils. Unit 6: Mineral Nutrition Importance of mineral nutrition in plant growth. water potential in the soil-plant-air continuum. Abscisic acid. seed maturity. Practical utility in agriculture and horticulture. Dehydration tolerance. Uptake and release of mineral nutrients by foliage. triacontanol. tolerance mechanisms. catalase etc.
Physiological processes. Photoperiodic responses and the mechanisms in short and long day plants. release and uptake by plant roots.uptake and transport. CO2 as an important greenhouses gas. Likely changes in climate in future and its impact on crop and ecosystems. Optimization in flowering response-to environmental features (light. photoperiodism and vernalization. Control of flowering. Theories related to flowering.drought. etc. Seed development patterns and source of assimilates for seed development. cryptochrome. peroxy acetyl nitrate and their effect on ecosystem. effect of plant age. phytochrome. Unit 9: Physiology of Flowering and Reproduction Evolutionary history of flowering plants (angiosperms). methane. role of LEA proteins. temperature. Air pollution.ozone hole and alteration in UV-B radiation. acidity etc. monocarpic and perennial life etc. physiology of flowering. Gibberellin and α-amylase and other hydrolytic activity. Seed maturation phase and desiccation damage. Approaches to contain atmospheric CO2 level.organism in nutrient acquisition. Thermoperiodism . Unit 8: Seed Physiology Structure of seeds and their storage. ionising radiation UV-B chlorofluro carbon (CFC)– their impact on ozone layer. Molecular biology of seed 23 . NO. Photomorphogenesis. Seed respiration. Carotenoids and their role in membrane stabilization. Pathway of movement of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots.photo and thermo-period interactions. Interaction of phytohormones and nutrients. Role of embryonic axes. Seed dormancy. genetics of nutrient uptake. salinity. Prediction on global warming. proteins and fats in seeds. Flowering phenomenon. Effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and development. stable 18O discrimination for hydrological changes.Analytical methods to determine long term changes in environment.transition to flowering. repair and acclimation to UV-B damage. plant reproductive physiology. Hydration of seeds.Tree ring. Storage of carbohydrates. Gene expression in flowering. SO2. proteins and fats. Endogenous substances and flowering. effects on climate and biota. plant growth and development. cellulose. Flowering nature and classification of plants. Utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axis. Methane as a greenhouse gas. Chemistry of oxidation of starch. Semelparous and iteroparous reproduction. stress) etc. Effects of UV-B radiation on plant ecosystem. GCA models. High temperature and CO2 interaction on plant growth and productivity. Chemical composition of seeds.Vernalization-mechanism. Yield and mineral nutritionconcept of nutrient use efficiency. self-incompatibility responses. seed and fruit abortion and means to overcome it. Seed viability. Molecular aspects. Control processes in mobilization of stored reserves. ozone. on aquatic ecosystem. molecular techniques to understand mating patterns. The greenhouse gases and global warning.their effect. Mineral nutrition under adverse soil situations. stable carbon isotope discrimination. Industrial and domestic effluent. Mating strategy in plants. role of transporter genes. mitochondrial activity Mobilization of stored resource in seeds. physiological processes mediating fertilization (pollen-stigma interactions). juvenility. Means to overcome seed dormancy. global carbon deposits. identification and transfer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies. Unit 7: Climate and Climate Change Climate. fluxes in the sinks and sources. Heavy metal toxicity and concept of phytoremediation. photoreceptors. seed and fruit development.
Transgenic technology for improvement of shelf-life. physiological effects and gene regulation. Growth measurements. Agrobacterium mediated transformation. leaf senescence. genetic analysis. Physiological aspects of plantation crops: tea. polarity in tip growing cells and diffusive growing cells. Unit 10: Physiology of Horticultural and Plantation Crop species Growth and development of horticultural and plantation crop species. Physiology of heterosis. banana.loss of viability. papaya and pineapple etc. Juvenility. Rootstock and scion interactions. Unit 11: Post-Harvest Physiology Senescence and ageing in plants. physiological basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. shoot growth. Physiological aspects of fruit crops: mango. different forms. binary vectors. Concepts of transpiration rate and water use efficiency. Electroporation. grapes. Water relations of tree species.development. Gene expression during senescence. in organ cell. the cellular basis of growth and morphogenesis. Sexual and asexual propagation. Senescence and post harvest life of cut flowers. biolistics. forestry and industry: plant transformation. Physiological aspects of pruning and dwarfing. PCR. tissue and cultures. Physiology of flowering in perennial species. Biochemistry and molecular biology of flower senescence. Ethylene – the senescence hormone. coconut. Tissue Culture and Plant Transformation Morphogenesis. Control of cell division and differentiation.post harvest changes in biochemical constituents in field crops . concept of selectable and scorable markers. cambial growth and its regulation. application of tissue culture in agriculture. and cellular totipotency. micropropagation strategies. phyto-chromes. vegetables and cut flowers and its significance during storage and transport. cardamom. Concept of physiological maturity of seeds . photoperiodism and thermoperiodism. selection of putative transgenic plants. Southern analysis evaluation of transgenic plants. Monocarpic plant senescence. citrus. physiological and chemical control of post . physiology and biochemistry of differentiation. and blackpepper. environmental factors influencing post-harvest deterioration of seeds. Water uptake and transport. horticulture. Molecular approach in regulation of fruit ripening. transformation vectors. Edible vaccine Unit 12: Morphogenesis. Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening and storage.harvest deterioration of fruits. types of shoots. loss of nutritive value. patterns of shoot growth. 24 . Physical. coffee.
Transcription – mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Construction and screening of genomic and C-DNA libraries. transformation. AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture. chromatography. exon. recombination in bacteria. Unit 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism Structure and function of carbohydrates. active site. antioxidants. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes. plasma membrane. lipids. northern and western blotting hybridization. plastids. Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation. enhancer promoter sequences and other regulatory elements. Gel electrophoretic techniques. regulation of cell cycle. Unit 3: Enzymology Enzymes. anti-viral compounds. overlapping genes and pseudo genes. induced and site-directed. ER. Cell division. DNAprotein interaction. operon concept. isolation. nutrient precursor. Nucleic acids hybridization: Southern. HMP. Citric acid cycle and metabolic regulation. immobilized enzymes and protein engineering. Protein secretion and targeting. Unit 4: Molecular Genetics Concept of gene. regulation of enzyme activity. Unit 5: Gene Expression Expression of genetic information. immobilized enzymes and their application. HSPs. catariysis specificity. plant and animal hormones. classification. rtPCR ultracentrifugation. 25 .11. Unit 6: Molecular Biology Techniques Isolation and purification of nucleic acids. assay. Mechanism of translation and its control. FISH. co-activators. Prokaryotes as genetic system. Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and genomes including operan. Cell wall. mechanism of action. repressors. purification and characterization. Structure and function of cell organelles: vacuoles. inducible genes and promoters. DNA sequencing. Polymerase chain reactor spectroscopy. Functional molecules. glyoxisomes. regulatory sequences and enhancers. intron. growth and differentiation. Co-repressors in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. conjugation. Immune response monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and ELISA. peroxisomes. Genetic code. Split genes. transduction. Vitamins. proteins and nucleic acids. mitochondria. post translational modifications. glycolysis. fungi and viruses. Cell division. transposable elements and transposition. multienzyme complexes. activators. Synthesis of carbohydrate. RIA etc. Transcription factors post transcriptional modification and protein transport. Mutation – spontaneous. methods of gene isolation and identification. structure conformation. transcription unit. golgi apparatus.
Basis of animal cloning. randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD). salt. Bioprospecting. Application of tissue culture in crop improvement. Salient features and uses of most commonly used vectors i. RNA processing and Post transcriptional modifications. somaclonal and gametoclonal variations. Molecular analysis of transformants. gene pryrimiding and gene fusion. Biology. Unit 10: Tissue Culture Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Different methods of gene transfer to plants. BACs. nbozyme technology. Regulation of cell cycle and cell division. Anther culture. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). insect-pest resistance (insect. direct and vector-mediated. binary vectors. somatic hybridization and cybridization.Unit 7: Gene Cloning Restriction enzymes and their uses. Unit 8: Molecular Biology Ribosome structure and function. genome mapping. Simple sequence repeats (SSR). structure. Gene cloning and sub-cloning strategies. herbicide resistance. Concept of cellular totipotency. abiotic stresses like drought. Clonal propagation. plasmids. Unit 12: Molecular Markers and Genomics DNA molecular markers: Principles. expression vectors. amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Potential applications of plant genetic engineering for crop improvement. Risk assessment and IPR. Protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and ekaryotes. In vitro. Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression. genetic transformation. cryopreservation and plant tissue culture repository. type and applications. gene mapping. gene tagging and comparative genomics and application of genomics. chromosome walking. Hybrid embryo culture and embryo rescue. Gene constructs for tissue-specific expression. 26 . bacteriophages. Unit 11: Plant Genetic Engineering Isolation of genes of economic importance. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation. molecular mechanism of plant hormone action mitochondrial control of fertility. viz. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).e. phagmids. i. viz. Structural and functional genomics.e. biofortification. Signal transduction and its molecular basis. oil quality. fungal and bacterial disease resistance). fungal and viral diseases. Current status of transgenics. organization and regulation of nuclear gene concerning storage proteins and starch synthesis. Molecular biology of various stresses. storage protein quality. cosmids. Gene regulation.. mutagenesis. viral. and biotic stresses like bacterial. abiotic stress resistance. increasing shelf-life. heavy metals and temperature. Posttranslational modification. PACs and YACs. Secondary metabolite production. biosafty norms and controlled field trials and release of transgenics (GMOs).
Root exudates and rhizosphere effects. Biological nitrogen fixation–symbiotic and asymbiotic. evolution of microbial life. AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY Unit 1: History of Microbial World History. amensalism. microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe disposal. Microbial transformations of phosphorus. Nitrogen cycle: ammonification. development and scope of microbiology. rhizosphere. decomposition of organic matter. Unit 3: Soil Microbiology Soil microorganisms: major groups. Manipulation of rhizosphere microflora in plant productivity. Formation and composition of soil organic matter: fulvic acid and humic acid. Theory of spontaneous generiation. sewage treatment. dark field and electron. mycoplasma. Microbial growth curve. enzymes and antibiotics. archaebacteria and eukaryotes. phyllosphere. Heterotrophic bacteria nitrobacteria. water . water and air. Role of bio-fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. viruses. halophiles. sources of pollution and their impact on environment. Biochemistry and genetics of nitrogen fixation.fresh and marine. Microbiology of ecosystems .symbiosis. chemoautotrophic bacteria. Methods of sterilization and disinfection. spore forming bacteria. lactic acid bacteria. Biosynthesis of cell wall. parasitism. Role of microorganisms in pollution. Microbial biomass. Unit 4: Environmental Microbiology and Basic Microbiological Techniques Isolation and preservation of different types of microorganisms. soil health. lytic and lysogenic cycles. plant viruses. Unit 2: Microbial Ecology and Physiology Principles of microbial ecology. Important groups of prokaryotes – photosynthetic bacteria. fluorescent. microbial photosynthesis. Microscopy: Optical. Prokaryotes. protein breakdown by microbes. Structure and classification of viruses. biogas. Microbial interactions . and air. viroids. composting. growth of viruses. blue green algae. oxidative and substrate level photo-phosphorylation. 27 . water-borne diseases and effluent management. water purification. Bioremediation of problem soils. Microbial nutrition. thermophiles acidophiles and methanogens.12. electron transport chain. synergism. management of solid and liquid organic wastes. Techniques used in identification and classification of bacteria. sulphur and minor nutrients. adoption of micro-organisms to various ecosystems. Microbial assay of vitamins. commenalism. Pollution of soil. bacteriophages and actinomycetes. nitrification and denitrification. Bacterial metabolism . Diauxic and synchronous growth.soil. Mathematical expression of growth -continuous and batch cultures. antagonism and predation. nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanabacteria. phase contrast. plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their mode of action.aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
wine saucrkraut. microflora of meat. fish. vegetables. biopesticides. canned foods. feed batch and continuous. 28 . Phyto-remediation. cheese. flour. Fermentor designs and types. alcohols. single cell protein for use as food and feed. juices.organic acids. hormones. fruits. Fermented food – vinegar.batch. antibiotics. biofertilizers. pickles. Control of fermentation process .Unit 5: Microbial Biotechnology Industrial production of metabolites . egg. bioactive food / probiotics. yogurt. Food as substrate for microorganism. food-borne illness and intoxication. Downstream processing in fermentation industry. contamination and spoilage. biodegrading microbes. Production of single cell proteins and probiotics. Food preservation. Microbiology of raw and processed foods.
pear. seedling growth. Physiological disorders in fruit and plantation crops. containers. hybridization. multistory cropping. Planning. and interstocks. planting. 29 . problems and advances achieved in important fruit crops like mango. development fruit drop and its control. etc. clonal fidelity of TC plants. mango malformation. layout and management of progeny orchards. mulching. Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. rootstocks. Collection of mother plants.13. Stock and scion relationship. use of plastics. Role of growth regulators and chemicals. Bearing habits. coffee. apomixis. Biochemical changes associated with fruit ripening. arecanut. coconut. polyembryony. rubber. shoot tip grafting. Micropropagationtechnique and stages. sapota. intercropping. Crop improvement objectives. production and distribution of fruit and plantation crops. banana. Unit 3 Growth and Development Dormancy. denuded forests. training and pruning. soil sterilization. Propagation methods. care. FRUIT SCIENCE Unit 1: Orchard Establishment and Propagation and Nursery Management Importance. chilling requirements and heat units. parthenocarpy and seedlessness. diseases including IPM and other orchard management practices of important fruit and plantation crops. other minor fruits and plantation crops. Fruit set. climate. Unfruitfulness. inter-relationship of elements. cocoa. aonla. Method and time of propagation of different fruit and plantation crops in different agroecological regions. Breeding of new scion varieties and rootstocks. hill slopes. Unit 2: Rootstock and Nursery Management Dormancy. Methods of improvement e.g. tea. Inheritance of characters. citrus. cropping in watersheds and precision farming. Organic farming and GAPs. planting. Factors related to nutrient availability.g. Unit 4 : Fruit Breeding Principles. propagation and hardening of different fruit and plantation crops and its commercial importance. area. Unit 6: Production System and Management Integrated nutrient and water management. ideal propagation media. root induction. Rejuvenation of old and unproductive orchards. guava wilt. rest period. Concept of high density planting. weed. Unit 5: Fruits and Plantation Crops Production Technology Improved production technology for fruit and plantation crops covering soil. peach. grape. introduction clonal selection. cashew. Raising of seedlings. mutation breeding. problems and prospects of fruit breeding. Fruit bud differentiation in Physiology of flowering and chemical induction of flowering. oil palm. citrus decline. plant density. coconut-wilt. papaya. drip irrigation. olive. Packing and transport of’ nursery plants. pomegranate. Maturity and ripening. alternate bearing. seed germination. fertigation cropping in hostile situations e. incompatibility. dry and wet lands. varieties. nurseries. apple. polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Role of bioregulators in fruits production.
30 . QM. pollinizors. Unit 8 : Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Plantation Crops Harvesting technique. skin coatings. Methods of preparation of different processed products. spoilage of products. Factors affecting the processability of horticultural produce. chemicals. enzymes and water activity in preservation. Unit 9 : Processing of Horticultural Produce Product development. pre-cooling. Unit 11: Post Harvest Technology and Processing for Value Addition of Fruits Importance of post harvest handling in fruit and plantation crops: maturity indices for harvesting and ripening.Unit 7 : Pollinization Role of pollination. basics of maintaining bee colonies during flowering and off-seasons: multiplication of bee colonies. hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCPs). Processing for value addition. fruit juices. Current status of primary and secondary processing of horticultural produce in India and abroad. value addition and value chain management. Role of micro-organisms. Codex standards. processing and storage of honey. maturity standards. market assessment. jelly and marmalades. product diversification in fruit and plantation crops. value addition. investment analysis. grading. freezing and fermentation. Various methods for enhancing shelf life of perishable horticultural produce. packing and transportation. Importance of grading and packing for effective marketing and reduced losses. Pre-harvest factors influencing the post harvest-life and processing quality. Reefer containers and cold chain. factor affecting the spoilage. drying. radiation. food laws and its regulations. various types of storage and storage temperature. Unit 10 :Value Addition in Horticultural Crops Importance of post harvest handling and processing for enhancing shelf life. beverages and concentrates. primary processing. Handling of fruits and plantation crops. Different methods of storage including controlled atmosphere storage. growth regulators and irradiation for control of spoilage during storage and transit. Grading storage and transport. Storage structures for different crops. GMP. labeling of products. various products of fruits and plantation crops. Food laws. storage disorders and use of chemicals. quality management. asceptic packing of products. fruit jams. storage conditions for processed products and enhancement of shelf-life. Quality assurance system. honey extraction. role of insects. plants and rains. Canning. honey-bees in pollination of fruit and plantation crops. freeze drying and development of new products. principles and methods of preservation by heat.
fennel. multiple disease resistance. cucurbitaceous crops. biotechnological approaches for improvement in vegetable crops. amorphophallus and amaranthus and production of tuber crops such as potato. leafy vegetables and spices (Black pepper. distribution. Unit 3 : Biodiversity and Conservation of Vegetable Crops Biodiversity and its role in conservation of in vegetables and spices . irrigation. diascorea. viz. tapioca.Genetic erosion and its consequences . cardamom. gene mining. Male sterility and imcompatibilities. F1 hybrids. okra. chemical and bio-fertilizer and their response. breeding objectives and breeding methods used for improvement of self. Characterization of landraces.e. cucurbits. garcinia. irrigation and water requirements. breeding systems. taxonomy. garden peas. genetics. cytogenetics. Superior selection and OP varieties. early cauliflower. cumin. light relative humidity on production. vanilla.14. VEGETABLE SCIENCE Unit 1 : Principles of Vegetable Production Introduction. Production and productivity in India. sweet potato. cole crops. root crops. nutmeg. photoperiod. lablab bean. high value vegetables. weed control. Nutrients essential for plant growth. Genetic architecture. lettuce. broad bean. bulb crops. Crop rotation. mulching plant protection and other cultural practices of warm and cool season crops i. kharif onion. cole crops. tamarind. Unit 5 : Breeding of Self and Cross Pollination Crops Origin. exotic vegetables. Effect of temperatures. capsicum. Mechanisms of resistance. origin. nutritional requirements. cluster bean. commercial varieties and hybrids. Unit 4 : Principles of Breeding of Vegetable and Spice Crops Principles of vegetable and spice crop breeding and importance. solanaceous fruit vegetables. Indian bean. clusterbean. wild species and other genotypes of vegetables and spices. pea. inter and mixed cropping. tomato. cowpea. history. plant growth substances.and cross-pollinated vegetable crops. broadbean. breeding methods. different insects.Centres of diversity. okra. Climatic and soil requirements. weed control. area. role of plant growth substances. Ideotypes in different vegetables. germplasm maintenance. economic and nutritive value of vegetables and spices. exploitation and collection. cinnamon. crop succession. brinjal. colocasia. leafy vegetables. productivity. allspice. interculture. clove. CBD and germplasm exchange aggrements. quarantine. nematodes and diseases and their management. sweet potato. distribution. French bean. Unit 2 : Production of Vegetables and Spices Importance. bulb crops. cowpea. root crops. cryobanks. coriander and fenugreek). 31 . yams. Classification of vegetables and spices. Organic farming.
foundation and certified seed. Regulatory structures/systems used in greenhouse and glasshouses. RAPD. Seed certification and seed laws.respiration. Pre-storage treatments for quality retention and regulation of ripening using chemicals. Agronomical and genetical principles of seed production. growth regulators. Processing of vegetables. polyhouses. GAPs and minimal residue levels in fresh produce. Unit 9 : Post -Harvest Management of Vegetables Structure and composition of vegetables. Economics of seed production. importance and scope of protected cultivation of vegetable crops. in vitro selection and mutagenesis. harvesting and primary processing and packaging of produce. sterilization techniques. embryo culture and distant hybridization. genetically modified varieties and safety norms. Regulation of flowering and fruiting. Modified Atmosphere (MA) and Hypoboric storage. marketing and export requirements. application of molecular markers such as RFLP. pollination management in greenhouse production. AFLP in vegetable improvement an dprecision breeding. glasshouses. Unit 8 : Protected Cultivation of Vegetables Objectives. harvesting. fungicides. IPR and WTO. Principles. Protectyed production of high-value vegetables under protected structures. low tunnels. enhanced nutrient factors. role of PPVFRA. Different media for growing nursery under cover. medicinal and speciality mushrooms. transpiration and ethylene biosynthesis and their influence on storage quality and senescence. importance and present status of vegetable seed industries in India and world. Post harvest management of mushrooms. seed storage and standards. Precooling. hot-beds. sweet pepper. Insect. Packages and packing house operations. On-farm storage: Storage requirements of vegetables and mushroom. Importance and types of mushroom cultivation. Specific technology for raising tomato. microirrigation and fertigation. Maturity indices. drying of vegetables. Controlled Atmosphere (CA). canning of vegetables. protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization. Storage disorders. etc. Physico-chemical changes during ripening and storage. Definition of seed and its quality.Unit 6 : Biotechnology in Vegetable Crops Improvement of vegetable crops and spices through biotechnological tools. Types of greenhouses. viz. Pollination systems in vegetable crops. Low temperature. Production and maintenance of nucleus. virus and disease. Unit 7 : Principles and Techniques of Seed Production History. Storage systems. other vegetable products. Naturally ventilated and automated structures. cold-frames. Spoilage and their control. 32 . Transportation. water quality and conservation techniques. cucumber and other high-value vegetables in greenhouse. shade nets. Physiological processes . Irradiation. development of vegetables with long shelf life. nematode. Exploitation of genetic engineering for vegetable crop improvement and solving the problem of interspecific intergenetic barriers. grading methods.
water. grooming. FLORICULTURE Unit 1 : Principles of Floriculture and Landscaping Importance and scope of floriculture. principles and types.15. air. anthurium. foliage and pot plants. Preparation of bonsai. Flower arrangements. gajra. Factors affecting growth and flowering of house plants. wreaths etc. Containers and potting media. Specific problems concerning production of roses. social functions. jasmine. Nursery management techniques.history. marigold and other minor cut flower crops. nematodes. bulbous. marriages. chrysanthemum. cultural practices . corsages. mixing of lawns with other components. environmental consideration. rose. shrubs. Vases and materials used in flower arrangements for different occasions like festivals. medicinal and aromatic plants in India and its potential in the global market. Special gardens like dish. Factors affecting growth and development of ornamental horticulture. nutrition. Major insects. Description and cultivation of various house plants. Plant care including propagation. nutraceuticals etc. Especiallity flower and foliage crops carnation. palms and foliage plants. arrangements and packing. Unit 4 : Flower Arrangement and Value Addition Importance and scope of flower arrangements. Processing and extraction of active ingredients in important medicinal plants. Harvesting and Pacakging protocols for different flower crops. structures used in floriculture. Flower shows. plant stand and vertical gardens. Light. rangoli. Production of essential oil yielding flowers. History. types and development of gardens. Unit 3 : Indoor Plants and Interior Scaping Importance and scope of house plants and interior scaping. ferns. value and prospects of turf grass industry. Pests and diseases – turf management. Garden features and adornments. Cacti and succulents. BOP. production of esssntial oils perfumes. climbers. ground covers. Breeding strategies for development of new cultivars of ornamental flowers. cut and loose flowers production of important flower crops including cost of production. carnation. Principles of interior scaping. diseases. export potential and commerce. training. Commercial production of field flowers. veni. irrigation. Turf grass environment. and soil for turf grass. Economic considerations for flower arrangements and processing for exports. Care and maintenance of indoor plants. Temperature.combinations – planting techniques. Ornamental crops for value addition. Principles and elements of landscaping.species . Processing technologies and product diversification. Types of grasses . physiological disorders and their management. miniature gardens. bedding and bulbous plants.mowing – rolling-fertilization. window boxes. Unit 5 : Production Technology of Ornamental Crops Present status of floriculture. Use of plant growth regulators in floriculture. rare ornamental and speciality plants. Unit 2: Turf Grass Management Introduction . Cultivation of ornamental trees. culture. orchid. making of bouquets. Introduction to commercial floriculturetraditional flowers. Dry flower and foliage production. 33 . hanging baskets. terrarium. button holes.
farm complexes. pulsing and holding solution. market intelligence and e-auctioning. national and International cut flowrer trade and standards. propagation and maintenance of genetic purity. Natural and man-made forms and features. Foliage and Pot plants Importance of handling. Selection of sites and their landscaping for various categories of tourist complexes. Organization of spaces. Organic and greenhouse cultivation. Nursery management and seed production. Garden structures. Special problem of landscaping of terrace. methods and economy vase-lfe physiology of cut flowers. Classifications of medicinal and aromatic plants. primary processing in medicinal and aromatic plants. industrial sites. containers. Governement supported schemes and promotional activities. varieties. roof gardens and multistory buildings. pre-cooling. Commercial production technology and processing of importrant aromatic and medicinal plants. Analysis of problems and application of landscaping principles for various types of cities. educational institutions. Coputer-aided designing and achitectechtural planning.Unit 6 : Landscape Horticulture Principles of art and their application in landscape compositions and interior decoration. Organizational support for the promotion of medicinal and aromatic plants. Improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants through breeding methods. Unit 8 : Post Harvest Managements of Cut-flowers. hotels and other buildings. vista and axis. nutrient and water management. Visual aspects of plan arrangement-view. Factors affecting outdoor recreation. Unit 7 : Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Importance of medicinal and aromatic plants in India and abroad. Man as the human habitat. embassies. types of storages. grades and pacakaging of cut and losse flowers. Standards and export norms. extraction procedures of essential oils in aromatic plants. Important foliage and pot plants for domestic and export markets. transport. houses. Principles of circulation. religious places. primary and secondary processing. picnic spots and camping grounds. maturity. Analysis of various types of sites and their landscape treatments. 34 . refer chain and cool chain mamagemenet. export. insect pests and diseases. country side.
Hemoglobin and its polymorphism. Cardiac Output and vascular reflexes. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Unit 1:Cellular Basis of Animal Physiology Animal cell ultra-structure. Respiration in birds. Post-ruminal digestion. Excitation contraction coupling. Gastric hormones and reflexes in the control of digestive functions. Unit 5: Digestion Control of motility and secretion of alimentary canal. pulmonary. Manipulation of rumen microflora to enhance fibre digestion and microbial protein synthesis. Capillary fluid exchange and lymphatic circulation. Transport of through biological menbrance. Molecular basis of muscle contraction. blood brain barrier. Rigor mortis. Secretion and absorption in renal tubules. Electrophysiology of muscles. Physiology of hypo-barrism and high altitude. Nitrogen recycling and rumen bypass mechanisms. Absorption from rumen and the digestive tract. Unit 6: Muscle Physiology Muscle types and their intra-cellular contractile mechanisms. Hemodynamics and concerned biophysical principals. Control of rumen motility. Hypoxia. 35 . lungs and kidneys. Control of renal circulation. Physio-chemical laws and membrance phenomena. Autoregulation mechanism in the heart Regional circulation – coronary. Physiology of rumen disorders. Electro-cardiography – Principles and interpretation. Digestion in ruminant and monogastric animals. Renal functions in birds. Electrophysiology of heart. Hormonal and renal regulation of body fluids and electrolyte balance. Neuromuscular junction. Uremia and other renal disorders. structure & functioning of its constitutes. Circulatiory shock and hypertension and cardiac failure. Body defense mechanism and immunogenesis. Neural and chemical control of respiration. composition and functions. Regulation of acid-base balance by blood buffers. Anaemias. Unit 4: Excretion Modern concepts of urine formation. Sreticule-endothelial System. Unit 3: Respiration Mechanics of respiration. kidney and skin. muscle. Blood coagulation and anti coagulants. its biochemical and ionic mechanisms. Unit 2:Blood and Circulation Composition of blood. cerebral. Physiology of micturition. Neural and humoral control of heart and blood vessels. Work and exercise physiology. Gaseous transport and exchange. Body fluid and its dynamics. Avian digestion (different features).16.
Ultrastructure of lactating mammary gland. Excitability and transmission of impulse in neuron and muscle. Initiation of impulses from sense organ / receptors. 36 . parathyroid. transport and transfer of embryos. Hypothalamic – hypophyseal axis. preservastion. Embryo transfer – collection. Milk composition in different animals. Hypothalamus and its autonomic functions in endocrine and visceral regulation. Unit 10: Physiology of Growth Concept and definition. Lactation-Hormonal control of lactation and milk let-down. body confirmation and evaluation of carcess quality. Unit 9: Reproduction Gonadal hormones and their functions in male and female. Ovulation. Neurone structure and fuction. vision. Physiology of parturition and its hormonal control. egg formation. Maintenance and cessation of lactation. Mechanism of hormone action at cellular and sub – cellular levels. Limbic system and cerebral cortex. superovulation. Special senses (hearing. Reproductive cycles in animals. Sperm and ovum transport in female genital tract. Junctional transmission. Oestrous synchronization. Sexual behaviour erection. Reflex action. Physiology of placenta.Unit 7: Nervous System General organization of nervous system. Spermatogenesis and semen composition. Releasing and inhibiting factors. Accessory sex glands. Freezing of semen. Oocytculture. Semen evaluation. Hormones of hypophysio and all other endocrine glands. Artificial insemination – collection. Milk precursors and synthesis of milk constituents. Pineal gland and its hormones. brain stem and cerebellum. Neuro-endocrine-gonadal axis and feedback regulation. during pregnancy and after parturition and its hormonal control. Unit 8: Endocrinology Hormones. Functions of spinal cord. its role in motor and sensory functions. Mechanisms of different hormone actions. Growth regulation and factors affection prenatal and post-natal growth. Corpus lutetium. Male spermatogenesis. Physiology of pain. Ascending and descending tracts. Growth curve and growth measurement. oviposition and their hormonal control. preservation and transport and semen diluents. Hormone receptors. In vitro fertilization. Factors affecting reproduction. Feedback control of hormone secretion. Cerebral cortex. Sperm capacitation and acrosomal reaction. Role of growth in production. Endocrine disorders. Neuro-transmitters. Mammary gland involution. Fertilization. adrenal and gonals. Mammary gland growth before puberty. Avian reproduction-ovulation. Maternal recognition of pregnancy. Follicular development. Methods of studying mammary uptake of nutrients. ejaculation etc. Oogenesis. It should include (i) Hypothalamic – hypophyseal axiz controlling secretions from thyroid. Implantation. Female reproductive hormones. Physiology of learning and memory.). Factors affecting reproductive cycles. Maintenance of pregnancy and its hormonal control. taste. (ii) Endocrine control of general metalbolism. smell etc.
Unit 11: Climate Physiology Physiology of climate stress. Neural and hormonal regulation of body temperature in homeotherms. Photoperiodicity and biological rhythms. Unit 12: Behavioral Physiology Different types of behaviour in animals like feeding. Design of shelters / animal houses for different class of livestock for different climate conditions. Machanism of adaptation. Effects of stress on production and reproduction. grazing. neuro-endocrine control of behaviour in livestock. 37 . drinking and thermoregulatory behaviour.
Disorders of lipid. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. myoglobin and hemoglobin. Structure and functions of biomembranes with special reference to active transport of ions and metabolites. blood group substances. Unit 5: Bioenergetics. Biosynthesis of nutritionally non-essential amino acids. Activation energy and transition state. urea cycle. sterols. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Basic principles of isolation. lipid and amino acid metabolism. Structure and functions of immunoglobulins. general proerties. Acid base properties. viruses and bacteriphages. Glycoproteins. fibrous and globular proteins. Citric acid cycle and ATP generation. respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Physical and chemical properties of proteins. Computer applications in molecular biology. Intergration of carbohydrate. Isoenzymes and enzymes of clinical significance.17. Structure of different types of nucleic acids. primer designing. mucopolysaccharides. Coenzymes and cofactors. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. kinetics and mechanism of their action. Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. base sequencing and restriction analysis of DNA. Conversion of amino acids into other bioactive compounds. pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. hybridoma and animal cloning techniques. tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Volatile fatty acids as source of energy in ruminants. glycerophospholipids. Unit 2: Structure and properties of biologically important carbohydrates including storage and structural polysaccharides. Structure and properties of fatty acids. acyl glycerol. Extra and intracellular communication. carbohydrate. Regulation of enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition. Ketogenesis and cause of ketosis in ruminants. sulfolipids. Primary. peptidoglycans and bacterial polysaccharides. structure and properties. Catabolism of amino acids. Compartmentalization of metabolic processes within the cell and fractionation of subcellular components. biological oxidation. estimation and analysis of carbohydrates and lipids. Unit 4: Major classes of enzymes. 38 . secondary. sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis. Inborn errors of metabolism and scope of gene therapy in combating genetic disorders. Glycolysis. Unit 3: Aminoacids. bile acids and prostaglandins. transmination and determination. nucleoproteins. lipoproteins. glycolipids. BIOCHEMISTRY (ANIMAL SCIENCES) Unit 1: Scope of Biochemistry and molecular biology in animal sciences. nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. sphingolipids. sedimentation behaviour. Applications and scope of enzymes in bioprocess technology and genetic engineering. aminolipids. hyperchromic effect. General description of cell culture.
Basic principles of RIA. eletrophoretic and redioisotopic methods of biochemical analysis. Oncogenes and mechanism of immuno suppression in cancer therapy and organ transplantation. Haemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. DNA replication and control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. iodine calcium and phosphorus metabolism in domestic animals and poultry. degeneracy and regulation of translation. RNA synthesis and factors regulating transcription. RFLP and DNA fingerprinting NA probes. Unit 9: Basic principles and use of latest photometric. DNA and RNA. host defence mechanisms including antigenic and non-antigenic interactions. cartilage. carcinogenesis and role of liver and kidneys in detoxification. Biochemical tests for hepatic and renal functions. pancreas and gonads. safety. tissue. Mehods of isolation. post-translational modification.Unit 6: Mechanism of storage. chromatographic. Unit 10: Environmental pollution in relation to animal health and production. ethical issues and IPRs in molecular biology. PCR. neutraceuticels & probiotics. hormones. Composition and metabolism of muscle. Role of kidneys in acid base balance. applications of nanotechnology. thyroid. Basic principles of recombinant DNA technology and its scope in animal health and production. Wobble hypothesis. receptors and mechanisms of their action. tissue. imaging. microarray. nervous. Metabolic function of different hormones and associated disorders due to hypo or hyper secretions of major endocrine glands viz. Determination of enzymes. Unit 7: Structure and metabolic functions of water soluble and lipid soluble vitamins. proteomics. ELISA. Clinical significance of iron. adrenal. Unit 8: Blood composition and biochemical constituents of erythrocytes. Deficiencies and nutritional significance of vitamins and trace elements in domestic animals and poultry. vectors. transmissions and expression of genetic information. Trace elements and their role in biological processes. bone. Recombinant proteins and vaccines. Biotechnology in pollution control. adipose tissue and mammary tissue. Free radicals. leucocytes and platelets. 39 . connective. General description of nature of hormones. pituitary. Biosynthesis of proteins. Biochemical basis of pollutant tolerance. vitamins and other biochemical constituents with special reference to disease diagnosis in domestic animals. purification and characterization of proteins. Urine composition and analysis. Important plasma proteins and their functions.
Molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations. Protein secretion and targeting. transcription unit. Oxidative phosphorylation. RNA polymerases. viruses (vaccinia. nucleolus and subnuclear structures. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair. Apoptosis. Oligonucleotide synthesis. ribosomes. Recombination in bacteria. Unit 4: Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology Isolation and purification of DNA / RNA from prokaryotes / eukaryotes. sequences. transcription factors. Cloning and expression vectors. Repeated and non-repeated DNA Expression of genetic information. Molecular mechanism of genetic recombination. Cloning and expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. endoplasmic reticulum. Minisatellites and macrosatellites. transformation and conjugation. Golgi complex. transformation of bacterial and animal cells. Genetic manipulation of rumen microbes. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unit 3: Gene Structure and Expression Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Genetic code. Cell division. Structure and functions of DNA polymerases. Genetically modified foods / products. In situ mutagenesis. Cell trafficking and signaling. Cell growth and differentiation. fungi and viruses. Control of proliferation and self regulation. post-translational modifications. herpes. Intracellular digestion. retrovirus and adenovirus). Production of diagnostics and vaccines using r-DNA technology. cell organelles. Restriction endonucleases. shuttle vectors. Iysosomes. Synthesis and processing of different types of RNA. transduction. DNA libraries. Mechanism of translation and its control. Transposons and intervening sequences. DNA amplification. screening and characterization of DNA clones. ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Unit 1:Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture. Genetics of mitochondria and plasmids. Unit 2: Molecular Biology DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. regulatory sequences and enhncers. Protein biosynthesis. Molecular organization and functions of cell membrance. phages. transcription – mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. posttranscriptional modifications. plasmids. cosmids. DNA-protein interactions. 40 . Organisation and functions of the cytoplasm. mitochondria. Reverse transcription. The structure and chemical nature of the gene.18. Cell motility. Generation of DNA fragments. Site directed mutagenesis.
Gel electrophoretic techniques. Established cell lines. Unit 5: Animal Tissue culture and Hybridoma Technology Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nuclear transplantation. Nucleic acid hybridization. Cell cloning. In vitro fertilization. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). DNA fingerprinting. Application of cell and organ cultures. Production of transgenic animals and gene farming. Nucleic acid sequencing methods. Computer applications in molecular biology. Primary cultures. Patenting and Intellectual Property Rights. Stationary. Embryo sexing. Nutrient requirements of mammalian cells. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes. Autoradiography. cryopreservation and revival. Embryo cloning. Production of radioisotopic and non-rodioisotopic probes. In situ hybridization radioisotypic methods of biochemical analysis. Roller and Suspension culture techniques. Animal cloning and transgenic technology. Blotting techniques. Micromanipulation of cells. Isolation of plasmids. 41 . Unit 6: Embryo Transfer and Related Techniques Induction of superovulation. Large-scale production of cells using bioreactors. Unit 7: Molecular Biology Techniques Quantitation of nucleic acids. Cell fusion and Somatic cell hybrids. microcarriers and perfusion techniques. Embryo collection and evaluation. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies and their application in animal health and production. Protein purification methods. Identification and transfer of gene influencing production and disease resistance. Characterisation and maintenance of cells. Principles and methods of hybridoma technology. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP).Safety aspects of genetic engineering. Methods of peptide synthesis. Detection of contaminants in cell cultures. Growth supplements. Embryo splitting. Embryo transfer. Ethical issues related to use of biotechnology products. karyotyping. Advantages of embryo transfer in farm animals. Media for culturing cells.
Morphogenesis and histogenesis of digestive. neck. Accessory sexglands in maleprostate. tooth. their classification and important joints in ox. Arota and its important branches in thoracic and abdominal regions. thorax and abdomen and portal circulation in ox. Development of eye. Micro-anatomy of important organs of digestive system viz. Organs of snese-eye. liver and pancreas. ribs and sternum in domestic animals.testis. thorax and abdomen. General principles of biomechanics during locomotion and weight bearing. pineal. urogenital (in male and female) and nervous systems. oviduct. trachea and lungs. Genital organs of male. Organs of digestive. Basic tissues of the body-epithelium. uterus. thyroid and parathyroid glands of ox. ductus deferens. seminal vesicles and bulbo. Gametogenesis. Unit 4: Developmental anatomy Embryology and its scope in veterinary practice. Venous drainage of fore and hind limbs. adrenal. Bones of fore and hind limbs. urinary and genital organs. thymus and bursa (of Fabricious).19. repiratory. tongue. Blood supply of fore and hind limbs. Endocrine glands-pituitary. Unit 2 Study of various bones and organs of digestive. nasal cavity. Thymus and spleen in general. hearing and touch. stomach. Respiratory organs viz. integuments and hoof. fertilization. Endocrine glands. Superficial lymph nodes of ox in relation to antemortem and postmortem examinations.kidney. Urinary organs. head. neck. Unit 3: Micro-anatomy Definition of histology and preparation of histological slides.urethral gland and penis. epididymis. Microscope and microscopy. connective tissue.pituitary. VETERINARY ANATOMY Unit 1:Gross Anatomy Ox as a “Type” animal and structures of other domestic animals in comparison. oesphagus. systemic and pulmonary circulation. Lymph nodes. skull. Heart. axial system viz. muscles of appendicular and axial system in ox. Intra and extra embryonic membranes of chick and mammals. internal ear. urinary bladder and urethra. Topographic location of organs in domestic animals in relation to their surgical sites and clinical examination. 42 . intestine. muscular and nervous tissues in general. Placentation in mammals. vertebrae. Sensory organs of smell. blood vascular and nervous sytems in mammals and chicks. ear and endocrine glands. vision. cleavage. Light and ultrastructural picture of animal cell. vulva and mammary glands. taste. Cisterna chili and major lymphatic ducts of head. repiratory. vagina. parathyroid and adrenal glands. spleen. gastrulation and establishment of three germinal layers. thyroid. Genital system in female-ovary. Myology in general. Joints. ureter. repiratory and urogenital system in fowl.
Unit 4:Immunopathology Immunopathology – anibody and cells. Physical agents. thrombosis. etiology. VETERINARY PATHOLOGY Unit 1:Introduction. dysplasia. pathological features of various neoplasms.20. Predisposing factors. oedema and shock. endogenous chemicals (metabolites. Arthus reaction. Ultrastructural changes in cell organelles in haemodynamic derangements and cell metabolic disturbances. Unit 6: Disturbances in Cell Growth and Oncology Disturbance in cell growth – aplasia. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. etiology of inflammation. chemical agents-exogenous chemicals (toxin. morphology. myofibroblasts. drugs and food substances). microwaves. immune complex disease. gangrene. Heat. endothelial cells). hyperplasia. atrophy. aberrations of chromosomes. free radicles. chimerism. mosaicisi. Various classifications of inflammation. ischaemia. Unit 3:Inflammation and Healing Inflammation – definitions associated with inflammatory phenomenon. structure and functions of cells associated with inflammation. oxidants) Unit 2: Haemodynamics Derangements. cyototoxic antibody reaction. history and scope of pathology. Pathological states determined by one or more genes. cold and decreased atmospheric pressure. cardinal signs. Cellular reponse in inflammation. intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for the disease. Apoptosis. poisons. defective immuno-competence. Healing. Role of cells (macrophages. spread of humors. pigment metabolism. Role of humoral and cell mediated defenses. History and Etiology Introduction. Neoplasms-growth. pathogenesis of inflammation. hypoplasia. chemical mediators released from injured tissues and inflammatory cells. tissue response to tumors. mechanical injuries. Degeneration and Necrosis: Disturbances of circulation / haemodynamic derangements hyperaemia. delayed hypersensitivity to chemicals. infarction. structure and biology of the tumor cell. immunodeficiency diseases. hypersensitivity reactions. haemorrhage. anomalies in sex chromosomes and it autosomal chromosomes.anaphylaxis. metaplasia. sludged blood. necrosis. and behaviour of the neoplasms. 43 . fibroblasts. tumor immunology. Immune mediated tissue injury. Etiology of the disease. autoimmune diseases. Disturbances of cell metabolism – protein. Unit 5: Genetically Determined Diseases Genetic abnormalities. cytolytic or inhibitory immune complexes. lethal genes. classification. cellular regeneration capability of different body cells. Definitions. extracellular matrix components and growth factors in healing. electricity. light (photosensitization) UV light. pathological calcification / ossification. embolism. immuno-competence of foetus and new-born.
viral. examination of effusions (chemistry and exfoliative cytology). skin. inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome. collection. Vaccinations against various diseases. preservation and dispatch of materials for diagnosis. appendages. nutritional haemoglobinuria. magnesium tetany. rumen indigestion. their failures and remedies. Histochemistry and histoenzymology as diagnostic tools. Unit 11: Avian Pathology Farm placements and building in relation to disease.e. Principles of electron microscopy. Electrolyte and acid base analysis. pasteurellosis. cestodes and protozoa. nepherosis / nephritis syndrome. Unit 10: Pathology of Infectious Diseases Pathology of bacterial. infectious bursal disease. parasitic diseases – nematodes. spirochaetosis. CSF and milk for pathological constituents and interpretation of results. management and nutrition in relation to disease. processiong of tissue for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. digestive. Handling of necropsy in vetero-legal cases. fluid accumulation disorders. Unit 12: Nutritional and Production Pathology Pathology of nutritional deficiency disease – protein. rickettsial. Biosecurity in the control of diseases. eye. chalamydiosis. preparation of necropsy reports. Stress and its effects. genital. bone marrow examination. organ of special senses i. Different staining techniques. infectious laryngio-tracheitis. Fixation and processing of tissues for histopathology and histochemistry. nervous and musculoskeletal systems. haemopoietic. endocrine glands. infectious stunting syndrome. Unit 8: Clinical Pathology Clinical laboratory examination of various biomaterials from different livestock species. Newcastle disease. Complete examination of urine. mycoplasmal. chlamydial and parastic diseases. Omphalitis and yolk sac infection. thrush. lesions in various organs in different diseases. mycotoxicosis. aspergillosis. urinary. serum enzymology. salmonellosis. Unit 9:Systemic Pathology Pathology of cardiovascular. identification and interpretation of lesions. infectious bronchitis. ketosis. respiratory. carbohydrate. viral arthritis. multi-etiology syndromes. swollen head syndrome. complete blood counts. 44 . colibacillosis. Postmortem techniques for different species including poultry. leucocytes and platelet disorders and their interpretations. altered electrolyte concentrations and their interpretations. mycoplasmosis.Unit 7:Postmortem Diagnosis and Histopathological Techniques Posmortem examination as a diagnostic tool. ear. postmortem changes. Diseases caused by prions. erythrocytes. Marek’s disease. Immunosuppression and conditions / diseases associated with it. avian leucosis / sarcoma complex. mineral and vitamins. egg drop syndrome. skin scrapings stools. Concept of production diseases – pathology of milk fever. mycotic.
pesticides. 45 . chemicals and drugs.Unit 13:Pathology of Toxicosis Clinicopathological features of toxicosis due to heavy meals. toxic plants. insecticides. mycotoxins. Unit 14: Pathology of Diseases of Laboratory and Wild Animals Etiopathology of common diseases of laboratory and wild animals.
Strategic and tactical control strategies involved in chemical control of helminth. geoveterinary and epidemiological aspects including factors influencing prevalence. pathogenesis. chemotherapy. eyes. life-cycle. stock rates. antiprotozoal drugs. morphology. Unit 1: Veterinary Helminthology Introduction to veterinary helminthology. Role of reservoir hosts. blood protozoans and apicomplexan group of parasites. cardio-vascular and haematopoietic systems. Unit 2: Veterinary Entomology: Introduction to veterinary entomology. protozoan and arthropod infestations. clean grazing. Nemanthelminthes). Clinical Parasitology. genital. host environment. development and survival of infective stages. diagnosis. treatment. alimentary. concurrent infections. Newer drug delivery systems- 46 . pathogenesis. Unit 4: Clinical Parasitology: Clinical and parasitological signs of parasitic infections in domestic animals. natural habitat. Immunoparasitology. gravid proglottids of major tape worms. microhabitat. Parasitic diseases of skin. Parasite worm burden (EPG). Current advances in immunological interventions/ Control of arthropods. seasonal patterns and economic significance of insects and acarines belonging to the various families. classification. Veterinary Protozoology (Parasitic Protozoa). control and prophylaxis of zoonotic parasitic infections. Influence of genetic factors. distributions. diagnosis. lifecycle patterns. Parasitic Zoonoses. rotational grazing. Keys to indentification and different diagnosis of helminthic eggs. nematode larvae. Broad and narrow-spectrum anthelminitics. epizootiology. classification.21. treatment and control of parasites belonging to the various families. Diagnostic Parasitology. wildlife and their public health significance. Unit 3: Veterinary Protozoology: Introduction to veterinary protozoology. Antiparasite drug testing guidelines. morphology. life-cycle. general approaches to control of parasitic diseases – stock management practises. classification of parasitic zoonoses. Unit 6: Management of Livestock Parasitism Factors affecting epidemiology. respiratory. diagnosis. insecticides and acaricides. Management of Livestock Parasitism. general account of morphology. control and integrated arthropod pest management. prophylaxis and control of parasites belonging to the various families. nervous. distribution and transmission of diseases. Treatment. clinical features. symptoms. seasonal development (hypobiosis/diapause). urinary. Unit 5: Parasitic Zoonoses Introduction and importance of parasitic zoonoses. classification. clinical symptoms. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY Veterinary Helminthology (Platyhelminthes. Veterinary Entomology (Insecta and Acarina). pathology. dietary and host factors altering susceptibility.
VLM. self-cure.I. coprodetection techniques. breeding for host resistance against parasites. parasitic granuloma. immunomodulators and their use in immunopotentiation. floatation/concentration. protozoa. IFAT. Estimation of economical losses due to parasitic diseases. spring-rise. their identification and purification-general protocols. and molecular techniques used in parasite epidemiology and diagnosis. Unit 8: Diagnostic Parasitology Laboratory diagnostic procedures for parasite identification and detection. Anthelmintic failure – drug resistance monitoring and management. Unit 7: Immuno Parasitology General principles of parasitic immunity and immune responses to helminths. CLM. Control of vectors and intermediate hosts and sustainable management. premunition.slow and pulse release methods. arthropods – The adaptive immune responses. Dot-ELISA. direct microscopy. evasion of immunity. Prospects of alternative methods of control. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays. killed and new generation vaccines. methods. methods for parasite isolation. classical antiparasite responses – concomitant immunity. Parasitic antigens relevant to immunity and diagnosis.E. General immunodiagnostic assays (ELISA. identification of metacestodes and animal infestation. Development of live. parastic staining and special techniques used in parasite identification. attenuated. 47 . nodule formation. cercaria. Diagnostic procedures for manage and bot infestations. EITB). Demonstration and characterisation. Culture and identification of nematode larvae. and OIE recommendations for diagnosis and knowledge of referral laboratory of O.
Ecological aspects of Zoonoses. serological and biochemical tests for quality control. Epidemiological investigation of food-borne infections and intoxications. -associated Zoonoses. Veterinary Public Health Unit – its dimensions and functions. Classifications of Food borne diseases. meat-. Fast/Street/Convenience foods. Wild animals-. Standards. milk processing and manufacturing plants. Sources of pathogens and factors favouring for poisoning.22. fish and meat from game animals. Unit 3: Meat Hygiene Definitions. Health Delivery System. Spoilage of meat and meat products. Infections and intoxications traced to consumption of fish/eggs.domestic animals -. Meat industry and meat hygiene in India and other countries. their trade and transport. bleeding. and aquatic life. Vectors-. substitution and adulteration. National and International standards. xenozoonoses. Meat-borne diseases. veterinarians participation in public health and justifications. Occupational zoonoses. Inspection of poultry meat. Human health goals. egg-. Bacteriophage. Milk-borne diseases. milk-. Hygienic aspects of slaughter. Microbiology. Concept and classification of Zoonoses. cold blooded animals . Dairy Industry and milk hygiene in India and other countries. Prevention of contamination by sanitation at dairy farm. Detection of foodborne pathogens and their toxins. Odd ratio. Nationally and internationally emerging and re-emerging 48 . Indices of sanitary quality. Hygienic aspects of production of milk and processing and manufacture of milk products. Clean milk production. Ante mortem and post mortem examination. Role of Public Health Veterinarians in Public Health. concept of Public Health. eggs. Veterinary Medicine. antibiotics and drugs. Public health aspects of residues: agricultural chemicals. protozoan. Microbiology of meat and their products. Management of food poisoning.and water. helminthic. of milk and milk products. Unit 5: Zoonoses Definitions. Section 4: Food-borne Infections and Intoxications: Definitions. National and International organizations related with Public and Veterinary Public Health. Preservation of meat. Quality control tests applied to milk and milk products. fish. Abattoir/ Meat plant Sanitation.spread Zoonoses. Meat food safety. microbial spoilage of milk and its products. Nosocomial zoonoses. Milk hygiene. Milk borne diseases. collection centers. bacterial. Judgment. Bacteriological. Sources of contamination. plant toxins. toxic metals. Raising meat food animals and birds. Food specific attack rate. mycotoxins and adulterants. dressing and processing and manufacture of carcass meat and meat products. Sterilization. Rural health. Emergency and causality slaughter. Veterinary Public Health. Intersectoral approach to Human Health. mycotic and chemical food poisoning. Unit 2:Milk Hygiene Definitions. viral. Contamination of milk and its products. Epidemiological characteristics of food-borne infections and intoxications. Rigor mortis. Disposal and reclamation of slaughterhouse wastes and byproducts and associated public health problems. Pasteurization. VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH Unit 1:Veterinary Public Health Definitions.
Agricultural chemicals. Disease transmission. Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). standards / guidelines of products and product ingriedients. National and International Standards related to milk. monitoring of diseases. Sero-epidemiology. Unit 10: Standard Guidelines and Legislation Definitions. laboratory animals rearing. Methods of air purification. parasitic and mycotic Zoonoses. Codese Alimentarius. Sanitory and Phyto-sanitory (SPS) measures. surveillance. Potable water. Bureau of Indian Standards. Purification and sanitization of water. Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). viral. Use of information technology and computer applications in disease monitoring. experiemental epidemiology. provisions of Animal welfare and Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act. Epidemiology of bacterial. Meat Food Products Order (MFPO). Methods of disposal of dead animals. Epidemiological survey. water hygiene. Total Quality Management (TQM). butchers. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). plankton. Waterborne diseases. meat. Casual association. Ecological basis of diseases. Breeding. specific pathogen free. Predictive epidemiology. Theory of natural nidality. Waste-recycling. Rodents and Vector control measures. processing of animal produce about occupational hazards and hazards to consumers. 49 . Epidemiological investigation and evaluation of intervention measures. Ventilation. Types of epidemiological studies. Epidemiological hypothesis. Distribution of diseases in space and time. Milk and Milk Product Order (MMPO). care and management of experimental animals. Air-borne pathogens and diseases. Impurities in water. epidemiological measurements. Unit 7: Epidemiology Definitions. Unit 6: Environmental Hygiene Natural sources of water.Zoonoses. Epidemic process. domestic and farm effluents polluting environment – and associated hazards and preventive measures. transgenic. germfree. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Antibiotic and pesticide residues and their effect on health. Epizootiology. Microbiological examination of water. Air Pollutants. microbial contamination and chemical pollution of water. laboratory staff and those engaged in zoological gardens. World Trade Order. industrial wastes. The atmosphere. Principles of Zoonoses management: methods of prevention. Unit 9: Health Education Health education. rickettsial. communication techniques. concept of infection. Standards for drinking water. Production of gnotobiotic. Unit 8: Experimental Animal Medicine Occupational health and safety in the care and use of research animals. Quality assurance and food safety management systems. Epidemiology. Epidemiological models. fish and their products and hygienic standards to ensure safety to domestic and foreign consumers of products of animal origin. syngenic animals and tailor-made animals in relation to public health. International Organization for Standards. control and eradication of Zoonoses. Pure and wholesome water. Participatory programmes for awareness creation among agricultural workers.
toxic metabolites and other molecules associated with pathogenic mechanisms. Food processing and preservation methods. Pathogen.virulence factors. Issues on bioterrorism. Antigens eliciting protective and diagnostic antibodies. Characters of food bacteria. Microbiological. Classifications of food microbes according to their requirements for growth – temperature. Serological. yeast and virus.Unit 11: Microbiology in Public Health Food microbiology. acidity. oxygen and salt concentration. microbial enzymes. moisture. 50 . resistance to microenvironment. Resistance mechanism of survival in environment in and outside the host. moulds. Biological and Nucleotide based diagnostic methods.
Heamatinics. Drugs affecting behaviour. ED50. General anaesthetics. Emetics and antemetics. Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs. Unit 3: Drugs Acting on Humoral and Autonomic Nervous Systems Neurohumoral transmission. therapeutic indices. Anetidiarrhoeal agents. antiussives. Role of secondary messengers. Haemorrhagic shock and its treatment. Carminatives and antizymotics. Muscle relaxants. Drugs acting on heapatobiliary system. Antihypotensive and anti-arrhythnic agents. Unit 5: Drugs Acting on Digestive System Stomachics. Adrenergic and antiadranergic drugs including adrenergic neuron blockers. Purinergic and Adenosine receptors. Kinetic constants. Drug receptor interaction. Drug Schedules. Pharamacokinetics : Principles. Mucolytic agents.23. antagonists. Different models. Hypnotics. Narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics and antipyretics. Multidimentional screening methods. Unit 4: Drugs Acting on Cardio-vascular and Respiratory Systems Drugs acting on heart and blood vessles. Sources and nature of drugs. Blood coagulants and anti-coagulants. VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY Unit 1: General Pharmacology: Development and Scope. Terminology. Drug metabolism and biotransformation. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs. Bronchodilators. polymorphism and its use in drug development. Tranquilizers. Sedatives. Drug modulation via different types of channels. determination of kinetic parameters and application in rational dosage regimen. Dopaminergic and antidopaminergic agents. Definition of pharmaco-genomics. Factors modifying drug kinetics. Antacids. Cathartics. Pharmacodynamics: Drug structure activity relationship. Factor modifying drug activity. Analeptics. Characterisation of agonist. Anticonvulsants. Pharmacometrics: Organisation and screening programmes and drug development. Nitric oxide mediators. Expectorants. Pre-and post-anesthetics. Types of dose response relationship. Molecular mechanism of action of inhalent and and parenteral anesthetics. branches of pharmacology. Antispasmodics. Drug dependence and addiction and abuses. Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Cough sedatives. CNS stimulants. Determination of median doses – LD50. Unit 2: Drug Acting on Central Nervous System Role of neurotransmitters in CNS. Neuromuscular and ganglion stimulants and ganglion blockers. 51 . Local anaesthetics. bioassays. Hypotheses and clinical stages of anaesthesia.
Unit 6: Drug action on Uro-genital System Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics. General principles of elecrolyte and therapy. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocis and tocolytics). Therapy of infertility and improving conception and synchronization of oestrus Unit 7: Endocrine Pharmacology Mode of action and synthesis of pituitary hormones. Therapeutics of non-pituitary gonadotropin, adrenocorticoids, sex hormones, insulin, thyroid hormones, antithyroid agents, calcitonin, parathormone. Unit 8: Autacoids Pharmacological effects and therapeutics of histamine, antihistaminic agents, 5-HT its antagonists, prostaglandins and leukotrences, peptides and kinins, rennin and angiotensins. Platelet activators. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Unit 9: Chemotherapy General principles. Drug allergy, hypersensitivity, mechanism of resistance. Antiseptics and Disinfectants. Chemistry, mechanism of action, therapeutics of sulphonamides (gut active, systemic), thrimethoprim and congener. Antibiotics: Penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolide, surface active, tetracyclines, polypeptide. Antifungal and other emerging antibiotics. Quinolones, nitrofurans, Antitubercular, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs. Anthelminitic: Antinematodal, anticestodal, antitrematodal drugs. Antiprotonzoons, Anticoccdials. Drugs used for ectoparasite control. Concept of Gene based therapy, prospects of disease target therapy, overview of indigenous medicinal drugs, its components for therapeutic use. Unit 10: Toxicology: Terminology. Classification of poisons. Toxicity rating. Principles of selective toxicity. Toxicodynamics. Toxicokinetics. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning (anti-dotal and non anti-dotal). Mechanism of detoxification. Poisons causing respiratory insufficiency. Toxicology of common inorganic compounds. Toxicity of metals, non-metals and metalloids. Poisonous plant-cyanogenic, nitrate and oxalate producers. Mycotoxins : aflatoxin, rubratoxin, ergot. Toxic ferns. Venoms from snakes, scorpions, toads, etc. and treatment. Unit 11: Ecotoxicology Types and identification of industrial contamination and pollution residual toxicity. Impact of pesticides, fungicides, weedicides, fertilizers on biosphere. Chemical warfare agents and radiation hazards. Toxicity from food additives, preservatives. Statutory regulation on agrochemical formulation and their uses. Newer parameters, immunotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, embroyotoxicity for toxicological evaluation.
Unit 12: Miscellaneous Topics: Drugs promoting growth and production. Agents used for doping and restraining of wild animals. Euthanising agents. Drug control and regulation.
24. VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY
Unit 1:General Bacteriology Miestones in the development of microbiology, Classification and nomenclature of bacteria. Structure, function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus. Cytoplasm, Intracellular granules, Cell wal,. Cytoplasmic membrane, Mesosomes, Capsule, Flagella, Fimbrae, Endospore, Protoplasts, Spheroplasts, L-forms, Involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy. Growth and nutritional requirements of bacteria. Bacterial enzymes. Respiration in bacteria. Carbohydrate protein, fat and nucleic acid metabolism in bacteria. Reproduction and growth phase of bacteria. Effects of chemical and physical agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations including transduction, transformation and conjugation. Bacterial vaccines and toxins. The role of microbial toxins in the pathogenesis of diseases; Biochemical and biological characteristics of toxins produced by various bacteria. Toxin producing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Properties and clinical conditions produced by different bacterial toxins. Unit 2: Systematic Bacteriology Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Bordetella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rickettsia, Chalmydia, Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Anaeroplasma and Thermoplasma, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Neisseria. Unit 3: General Virology Historical development of virology. Evolution, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of viruses. Cultivation of viruses and their growth pattern in cell culture, embryonated eggs and experimental animals. Purification and concentration of viruses. Qualitative and quantitative assay of viruses. Viral replication. Virushost cell relationships. Replication strategies of animal viruses and molecular pathogenesis for selected viral system. Latent, persistent and chronic virual infections. Study of genetic variability of animal viruses through use of monoclonal antibodies, autoimmunity, immunosuppression and viral mutation in persistence infections. General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. Epidemiology and pathology of viral ifections. Immune mechanism in viral diseases. Interference and interferon. Viral vaccines, point of action of antiviral molecules during the replication cycle of a virus and search for new antiviral compounds, viruses and gene therapy. Chemotherapy of viral infections. Unit 4:Systematic Virology Systematic study of RNA and DNA viruses in livestock and poultry with reference to antigenicity, cultivation, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and immunity, RNA viruses: Retroviruses and lymphotropic viruses, Visna and Maedi, Arboviruses, Rotaviruses. Birnaviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Cornoaviruses. Togaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Arenaviruses.
FAT. Classification and study of pathogenic fungi-Epidermophyton. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Aspergillus. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their probable use in animal diseases. Papovaviruses. Cellular interactions Cell-mediated immune responses. Cryptococcus. Adjuvants. Dendritic reticular cells. Classical and alternate pa. Serological reactions: agglutination. Paravoviruses. cells involved in the immune response – B lymphocytes. RIA. Heterophile antigens. Lymphoid organs: primary. Microsporum. neutralization. Idiotypes. Trichophyton. RNA electropherotyping. Modern trends in vaccines. Calciviruses. Mucor and Penicillium. Purification of antibodies. Western blotting. Genes coding for Igs. Iridoviruses. Monoclonal antibodies. ELISA. Histoplasma. Contaminating fungi. Blastomyces. Mechanism of interaction of antigen and antibody. The complement system.thways. DNA viruses: Poxviruses. Mechanisms of action. blotting techniques like Northern. Circoviruses. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Rhizopus. Nature of antigens and MHC restriction. Unit 6: Immunology Historical Perspectives. classification and their uses. T lymphocytes. Application on monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal diseases. Haptens and carriers. Hypersensitivity – immediate and delayed types. secondary and circulation of lymphocytes. autoimmunity and immunological tolerance. etc. CFT. GMP and GLP. Biosecurity. Candida. Allotypes. Rhinosporidum. 55 . Immunological methods as an aid to diagnosis. Host-parasite relationships. Probes preparation of cDNA. Monoclonal antibodies. Adenoviruses. Factor determining antigenicity. Antigens. subsets and nature of receptors. Hepadnaviruses. Properties and specificity of antigens. Generation of diversity. Slow viruses Scrapie. Unit 7: Molecular Cell Biology (Vaccine & Diagnostic Technology) Role of biotechnology in diagnostics and vaccines. abortion and mycotoxicosis. Unclassified viruses. Theories of antibody formation. Immunoglobulins – their classes and sub-classes. Histocompatibility complex: organization. structure and function. Hepadanaviruses. precipitation. Nucleic acid hybridization. Filovirsuses. Major. Types of antigens. Bioinformatic tools in microbial research. Langerhan’s cells. Macrophages. Mechanism of immunity. Unit 5: Mycology General characterstics of fungi.Arterioviruses. Coccidioides. and mechanism of hypersensitivity. Biosafety. DIE. Fungi causing mastitis.
viral. maturation and storage in male genital tract. Presentation. fertilization. Follicular dynamics and ovulation. Post parturient metabolic disorders. mycotic. metritis. Causes and forms of dystocia and its treatment. Prostaglandins. sperm transport. Spermatogenesis including cycle of somniferous epithelium and spermatogenic wave. Post-partum complications in domestic animals. endometritis. puberty and sexual maturity. Development of foetus and foetal membranes. Semen and its composition. septic metritis. classification. 56 . growth factors and hormone antagonists and their significance in animal reproduction. Transport and survival of gametes. initiation and stages of parturition. mummification. Thermoregulation of testis and blood testis barrier. Unit 2 : Reproductive Endocrinology Reproductive hormones. retention of placenta. Growth. physical. cleavage. Functional anatomy of female reproductive system of farm animals. toxic and miscellaneous causes. thyroid. Clinical uses of hormones. Growth. Parturition – Signs approaching parturition. Secretions of male reproductive tract including accessory glands and their role in reproduction. sperm separation and spermatozoa karyotyping. Unit 4 : Veterinary Obstetrics Pelvis and pelvimetry. Development of female genitalia. Maceration. Pseudocyesis. placental and pineal gland hormones. Uterine torsion and displacement of uterus. Superfecundation and superfetation. Ectopic pregnancy. Reproductive cycles (oestrous cycle) in female farm animals. pituitary. Pyometra. implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy. Abortion – bacterial. Antepartum vagino-cervical prolapse. Gestation and pregnancy diagnosis in farm animals. gonadotropic. chemical composition and mechanism of action. biochemistry of semen and sperm metabolism. puberty and sexual maturity. diagnosis and prevention. Epidural anaestheia. Unit 5 : Andrology Comparative anatomy of male reproductive system. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis. uterine proplapse. gonadal. Hormonal assays. Dropsy of foetal membrane and foetus. induction of parturition and postpartum period. Unit 3 : Accidents during Gestation Pregnancy. synthesis. Abnormalities of fertilization and foetal development. Obstetrical maneuvers including fetotomy and Caesarean section. Hypothalamus.25. position and posture. Sperm morphology and ultra-structure of spermatozoa. pheromones. ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND GYNAECOLOGY l Unit 1: Veterinary Gynaecology Biology of sex. Hormonal regulation of male and female reproduction. Placentaclassification and functions. Sexual / mating behaviour. sperm abnormalities and its classification. protozoal.
Cold shock and ultra-low temperature shock. maturation. cervix and vulva. orchitis. Unit 7 : Frozen Semen Technology and Artificial Insemination History and development of artificial insemination. reproductive health status. Vices in the males. Handling of frozen semen. methods of semen collection in different domestic animals. Advantages and disadvantages of AI and frozen semen. Extenders for frozen semen.Unit 6 : Male Infertility Fertility. collection. Evaluation of male for breeding soundness. Establishment of laboratory for ETT. Preservation of semen at various temperatures. Ideal extenders. History of in vitro maturation and fertilization. testicular degeneration. semen evaluation including latest techniques for evaluation of motility and fertilization. principles and techniques of semen freezing. oviduct. vas deference. Unit 8 : Reproductive Technology Synchronization of oestrous cycle in domestic animals. Use of Ultrasonography. extenders for liquid semen. preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos. penis. nutritional infertility. laparoscopy and ovum-pick technology in farm animals. evaluation. Evaluation of frozen semen. infertility and sterility in male domestic animals. anestrus. tumors of the male reproductive tract. repeat breeding. Planning and organization of semen bank. IVM. Pathological conditions of ovary. Evaluation of herd fertility. evaluation. advantages and disadvantages. Transport and storage semen. Semen additives. Recovery of oocytes in vitro and in vivo. IVF and IVC. affections of epididymis. Micromanipulation of embryos. culture. Liquid nitrogen and its containers. Testicular hypoplasia. uterus. Embryo transfer technology – History. cryptorchid. sexual health control and reproductive health programmes. Unit 9 : Infertility in Cows and Buffaloes Fertility. 57 . fertilization. Management causes of infertility. Processing and preservation of liquid semen. Stem cells and production of transgenic animals. preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos. cystic ovarian degeneration. selection of bulls for AI purpose. Insemination techniques. Management of breeding bulls. Sex determination and gene insertion. prepuce and accessory glands & their management. Cryoprotectants. forms of infertility. control of ovulation. infectious diseases. Breeding soundness examination of cows and buffaloes. Causes and forms of male infertility. Hormonal causes of infertility. Incidence and economic role of infertility. Effect of parental drugs and vaccines on semen quality. superovulation. infertility and sterility. congenital and hereditary defects. Embryo splitting and cloning.
Semen collection. Equine infertility. tumors of reproductive tract. Embryo transfer. Infertility in bitches. Application of modern reproductive techniques in equine reproduction. affections of prostate. contraception. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis. infertility in male including testicular tumors – cryptorchid. Various forms of infertility in swine and their management. Various obstetrical problems and their management. synchronication of oestrous cycle. Hormonal control of reproduction. sexual maturity. 58 . Semen collection. examination and artificial insemination. peri-parturient and obstetrical complications. Exfoliative vaginal cytology. psedopregnancy. breeding season. Unit 12 : Equine Reproduction Physiology and pathology of equine reproduction.Unit 10 : Reproduction and Infertility in Ovine / Caprine Puberty. evaluation. Equine andrology. oestrous cycle and endocrinology of oestrous cycle and detection of optimum breeding time. Synchronization of oestrous cycle. disorders of oestrous cycle. Difficult whelping – types and methods of handling dystocia. Research techniques and methodology for the study of equine reproduction. Unit 11 : Reproduction and Infertility in Swine Estrous cycle. Caesarean section. Reproductive behaviour and management of stallion. Breeding and conception. techniques of artificial insemination. oestrous cycle. gestation. Medical termination of pregnancy. Pregnant mare behaviour . Peri-partutrient complications. Causes of infertility and their management. cystic endoretrial hyperplasia. Ovarian hysterectomy. pyometra. parturition. Unit 13 : Canine and Feline Reproduction Functional anatomy of dog and cat reproductive system.
Water-borne toxicities. etc. traumatic reticulitis / peritonitis. mortality rate. General systemic states like – bacteremia. morbidity rate. Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems Nephrosis. choke. Urolithiasis. Paralysis. Plant poisonings. tympany. stress. etc. ascites. jaundice. etc. etc. ophthamosocopy. Otitis. osteodystropinafibrosa. Definitions of diseases known as – infectious. Meaning and purpose of segregation. Downer’s cow syndrome. Nephritis. hypoglycemia. pyemia. panzootic. Corneal ulcerns. Photosensitisation. abomasal displacement. Pyelonephritis. Conjunctivitis. mode of transmission. milk fever. vectors. Kerato-conjunctivitis. Unit 7 : Common toxicities Sources. gastritis. Acute heart failure. Unit 5: Diseases of Urinary. Eczema.26. Encephalomyelitis. Trace mineral and vitamin deficiency. biopsies. rickets. exotic. Dermatitis. quarantine. Unit 6 : Production and Deficiency Diseases Metabolic profile test. prevalence. enteritis. General clinical examination. 59 . diabetic ketoacidosis. dehydration. rumen fluid examination. post-parturient haemoglbinuria. shock. sudden death. enzootic. blood biochemistry. Urticaria. GI ulcers. ketosis. Emphysema. sporadic. osteomalacia. Cerebral anoxia. Environmental pollution hazards. in terms of epidemiology of diseases. diagnosis and treatment of conditions occurring in the following classes of poisonings: Metal Corrosives / irritants. haematology. spread. isolation. hepatitis. incidence. Unit 2: Diagnosis of Animal Diseases History taking. pica. contagious. Alopecia. anaphylaxis. Perpheral circulatory failure. Snake bite. post-mortem findings. anasarca. hypomagnesaemia. otoscopy. VETERINARY MEDICINE Unit 1: General Medicine Epidemiology and its ingredients. allergy. Pulmonary congestion and oedema. Pesticide poisonings. urinalysis.. Uremia. Radiation hazards and injuries. Cystitis. toxemia. hyperthermia. anaemia. colic. etc. case fatality rate. clinical manifestations. Insect bites and stings. URI Aspiration pneumonia. impaction. azoturia. Encephalitis. Special clinical examination – electrocardiography. Congestive heart failure. Pleurisy. economics. endoscopy. hypomagnesaemia. septicemia. Seborrhoea. ultrasounography. zoontic. Epistaxis. Impetigo. pathogenesis. paracentesis. Meningitis. Mycocardial and valuvalar diseases. Unit 3: Gastroenterology Specific conditions of organs of gastrointestinal system with special emphasis to – simple / acid / alkaline indigestion. etc. Encephalomalacia. Unit 4: Diseases of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary System Principles of circulatory failure. epizootic. role of occurrence. Nervous. Pneumonia. Fat cow synodrome.
pathogenesis. postmortem findings. Pulmonary adenomatosis. ILT. Rabies. Ring worm. salmonellosis. pathogenesis. Wild life (protection) Act. Collection and dispatch of materials for forensic science examiniation. clinical manifestations. Maedi. malabsorption. Vetro-legal aspects of wounds. Listeriosis. necrotic enteritis. Feline panleucopenia. etc. cases. Unit 11: Poultry Diseases Etiology. Theileriosis.. Unit 10: Parasitic Diseases Etiology. African swine fever. Leptospirosis. hydropericardium syndrome. Glanders and Farcy Act. Leucosis FMD. avian encephalomyelitis. Pox. Parvo virus enteritis. Heart water diseases. Mareck’ disease. clinical manifestations. due to diseases. Infectious canine hepatitis. Determination of time since death. Bursattee. Duties of veterinarian particularly as an expert evidence. Livestock Importation Act. Veterinary ethics: Code of conduct. treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock: Hog cholera. lightening. PPR. treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock: Major conditions produced by nematode. mycotoxicosis. Dangerous Drug Act and Prisoning Act. BMC BSE. Ulcerative lymphangitis in horses & cattle. Toxoplasmosis. epidemiology. Distemper. Caprine arthritis. Encephalomyelitis. Papillomatosis. IBD. Examination of blood and semen stains. Unit 9 : Infectious Diseases (Virtal. Laws: Role of veterinarian. Blood grouping in animals and its vetero-legal significance. Contagious ecthyma. Visna. etc. Erysipelas. clinical manifestations. Brucellosis. treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock : Mastitis. Pseudorabies. Actinobacillosis. trichomonosis. Aspergillosis. RP. TB. pathogenesis. electrocution. 60 . clinical manifestations. Bluetongue. diagnosis. Strangles. postmortem findings. Pasteruellosis. Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats. diagnosis. Babesiosis. treatment and control of the following diseases of poultry: Newcastle disease. postmortem findings. cestode and trematode infestations. Major conditions produced by arthropod parasites. epidemiology. Vetero-legal aspect of death in general. Lymphangitis. epidemiology. JD.spirochaetosis. Louping ill. Common offense against animals. Trypanosomosis. Glanders.. parasitic diseases of poultry. Legal enactment in IPC related to animals and veterinarians. Animal Insurance. mycoplasmosis. diagnosis. Anaplasmosis. epidemiology. Collibacillosis. coccidiosis. Post-mortem examination of a vetro-legal. histomonosis. encephalitis. Bovine viral diarrhoera. Identification of animal species for vetero-legal purposes. avian influenza. Coccidiosis. Legal provisions related to animals. drowning. near drowing. Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act. Common frauds in dealing with livestock and livestock products. Clostridial diseases. pathogenesis. animal diseases and drugs. Muscoal diseases. professional ethics and etiquette for veterinarian. Unit 12: Veterinary Jurisprudence and Ethics Judicial procedure. postmortem findings. TB.Unit 8 : Infectious Diseases (Bacterial and Mycoplasmal) Etiology. and Mycoplasmal diseases. Actinomycosis. leucosis. Rickettsial and Fungal) Etiology. Contagious opthalmia. Influenza. diagnosis. psittiacosis-ornithosis. Indian Veterinary Council Act. Chamydial. Scrapie. Salmonellosis.
Clinical assessment of their requirement and doses. HS. diagnosis and treatment of diseases of wildlife and zoo animals: Shock. area and herd based control programmes of diseases like TB. Internationally recongnised control methods of designated diseases. rabies. electrolyte. Blood transfusion with blood groups in animals-their therapeutic significance. strepto and staphylococcosis. corynibacteriosis. helminthic infection. dermatitis. rabies. etc. diagnosis and treatment of diseases of laboratory animals: Tyzzer’s diseases. helminthiasis. metabolic and nutritional diseases. BQ. herpesvirus infection. hamster and rabbit. surra. giardiasis. capture myopathy. brucellosis. coccidiosis. paratuberculosis.Unit 13: Special therapeutic Approaches Veterinary fluid therapy with fluid. Kyasanur forest diseases (KFD). RP. pasteurellosis. metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. Laboratory Animals and Wildlife Clinical signs. rat. Clinical symptoms. anthrax. Prevention and control methods for national. Oxygen therapy. salmonellosis. Unit 14: Prevention and Control of Diseases General principles of control of diseases. tuberculosis. Role of OIE in disease control. plasma expanders. anthrax. Management related diseases of mice. 61 . Blood matching methods. mycoplasmosis (MRM). pox diseases. Unit 15: Common Diseases of Zoo. scabies. packed cell transfusions. toxicosis by chemicals and plants. etc. psedudomoniasis. mastitis. bluetongue. guinen pig. JD. stress. FMD. dermatophytosis. toxoplasmosis. diseases of cardiovascular system. pasteurellosis. FMD.
Interaction of particulate and non-particulate radiations with matter. Unit 4 : Orthopaedics and Lameness Physiological and biochemical considerations of bone. VETERINARY SURGERY Unit 1 : General Surgery Cureent concepts of inflammation and its management. paralysis and its treatment. Cosmetic surgery. sinus. Anaesthetic emergencies and their management. Acid – base and electrolytes imbalance. Rehydration and fluid therapy. Anaethesia and methods of capture of zoo animals. Biomechanics of fractures. Bone research techniques. Effect of various internal fixation methods on physiology and blood circulation of bone. Muscle relaxants. Tissue repair including its biochemical aspects. Metallic and non-metallic materials in 62 . Therapeutic usage of local anaesthetic agents and techniques. magnetic resonance imaging. computed tomography. Peri and post-operative considerations. Invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities viz. haematoma. Anaesthesia for special surgical procedures and special disease conditions. Hypothermia. factors affecting fracture healing. Care of critically ill patients. Local anaesthetic agents. Radiographic features of diseases of musculo-skeletal. Inhalant and non-inhalant anaesthetic agents including dissociative. Neurological examination. Methods of internal and external fixations of fracture and factors governing selection of fixation methods. Physiopathology of burns. Radiological contrast agents and common contrast radiographic procedures. Surgical bacteriology. abscess. Radiation hazards. Haemorrhage. General surgical affections viz. Selection of various anaesthetic and pre-anaesthetic agents and their effects on different body organs. Electronarcosis. respiratory and lymphatic system of small and large animals. Local and regional anaesthetic procedures. Complications of fractures and their management. haemostasis and administration of whole blood. Principles of tissue and organ transplantation. blood extracts and plasma substitute. Methods of artificial ventilation. Monitoring of patient during anaesthesia. Acupuncture analgesia. Unit 2 : Anaesthesia History and instrumentation. Basics of radiation physics. gangrene.27. Pre-anaesthetic considerations of patient. echocardiography. cardiovascular. neurolept and balanced anaesthesia and their administration in small and large animals. Circulation of long bones. Surgical instrumentations. exposure factors and formulation of technique chart. Sutures and suture materials.. cyst. Skin grafting techniques in animals. fistula and hernia. Osteogenesis and mineralization of bone. Operation theatre management. Asepsis and antisepsis in surgery. Pre-. Radiographic quality and factors affecting it. scintigraphy. Radiation protection. surgical stress and shock. Disinfection and sterilization. Unit 3 : Radiology Production and quality of X-rays. Etiology. digestive. tumour. Tissue transplantation immunity. ultrasonography and substraction angiography. classification and healing of fracture. Bone grafts. urogenital. tauma. Radiation biology including its mechanism of action and effects on various organ systems. Radiographic artifacts and their prevention. Principles of radiotherapy and physiotherapy.
cornea. Affections of tendons. mediastinum. sclera. ligaments and their management. abdomasal displacement. Surgical diseases of the vascular and lymphatic systems. Unit 7 : Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery Different surgical approaches for abdomen. nasal and buccal cavity. Etiology.etiology. Various acquired and congenital surgical affections of abdominal organs viz. diagnosis and surgical management of the affections of udder. Colic in horse:. Surgical affections and management of ear and guttural pouch. pharynx. trachea and oesophagus. optic nerve. lacrimal apparatus. salivary glands. rectal and anal prolapse. diagnosis and treatment of affections of bones and joints. 63 . chloroids. teeth. pathophysiology. Unit 6 : Thoracic Surgery Various approaches for thoracic surgery in large and small animals. pyloricstenosis. uraemia and their management. retina. Hemia: etiology. Lameness and allied surgical conditions of fore and hind limbs. Technique of arthroscopy. tongue. foot and its axis to soundness. iris. nictitating membrane. pathophysiology and treatment. intestinal obstruction. Soundness and examination of horse for soundness. conjunctiva. Etiology. Different congenital and acquired surgical affections of thoracic wall and thoracic organs viz. Relationship between conformation of the limbs. Unit 5 : Surgery of Head and Neck Region Etiology. and peritonitis. aqueous and vitreous humours and other parts of eye and their management.bone surgery and their biological behaviour. diagnosis and surgical management of the affections of sinuses. gastric torsion. oesophagus. diagnosis and treatment. lens. kidney and urinary bladder their complications and surgical management. Heart lung machine and its use in thoracic surgery. Affection of liver. caecal dilation. teat and tail. Urolithiasis. spleen. larynx. Physiological alterations following thoracotomy. Various foot diseases. Traumatic reticulitis. lung. Surgical affection of vertebral column. Surgery of male and female gential organs. Surgical affections of eye lids. impaction of omasum. heart and diaphragm in large and small animals. horn.
Role of phyto-chemicals as growth promoters.Defaunation and transfaunation. Microbial protein synthesis.28. Kearl and Indian. Methanogenesis and methane inhibitors. Partitioning of dietary energy. Significance of rumen fungi. inter-conversion and utilization. Energy retention. Colostrum feeding of calf. ANIMAL NUTRITION Unit 1: Energy and Proteins: Nutritional significance of carbohydrates. phytochemicals other metabolic modifiers.Different sources and bioavailability . Cell-wall fractionation.Ration formulation . lipids and proteins. Prebiotics . Feeding standards . NPN compounds and their utilization.Role of slow release urea compounds. Essential and critical amino acids.digestion. Dietary lipids their digestion. Ammonia toxicity . Energetic of protein utilization for maintenance and different productive functions. Vitamins and Feed Additives Minerals: Classification of minerals.Role of chelated minerals. Digestion kinetics in reticulorumen. horses and companion animals. absorption and metabolism. Vitamins: Physiological functions and co-enzyme role Deficiency symptoms. DM: water intake ratio. Physiological functions. Role of feed additives . Factors affecting energy utilization. Development of functional rumen. Unit 3: Rumen eco-system and functions Rumen and its environment. Metabolizable protein concept. Requirements. ARC. VFA production. Dry matter intake in relation to productivity.Probiotics. Inter relationship in nutrient sparing activity. Comparative efficiency of amino acids as energy source. Feeding strategies during stress and natural calamities . Protein energy inter-relationship. Protein evaluation. Special nutritional needs of rabbits.NRC. Palatability. mineral and vitamin requirements.least cost rations. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Unit 4: Non-ruminant Nutrition Comparative gastrointestinal physiology of monogastrics – digestion and metabolism of organic nutrients in poultry and swine. Proteins . Available energy from organic nutrients. Deficiency symptoms and toxicity .Inter-relationships . Unit 2: Minerals. Basal metabolic rate. 64 . Unit 5: Nutrient Requirements Energy protein requirements for maintenance and productivity in ruminants and non-ruminants. hyper-vitaminosis. absorption and utilization. Nutrient requirements under temperate and tropical environment.Synergism and antagonism . Microbial fermentation in rumen. Dietary protein breakdown. Feeding systems.Requirements . Role of rumen microbes. Nutritional intake and energy density.Factors affecting nutritional quality and performance. Sources and vitamin analogues Antivitamins – Feed Additives: Nutritional role. Biohydrogenation and utilization of dietary lipids. Significance of minerals and vitamins in mono-gastrics. Essential fatty acids. Manipulation of rumen fermentation. Effect of dietary fat on milk and body composition.
Forage quality evaluation in range animals -Role of indicator methods-Advances in silage and haymaking. Role of nutrition in immunity. Role of nutrition in management of GI parasites.Experimental designs in nutritional research. bloat).Factors affecting quality of conserved forages. nutrients as antioxidants. Handling and storage of raw and finished feeds. Unit 7: Feed Processing and Technology Methods of feed processing . Pelleted and extruded feeds. 65 . Nutritive value Index.Quality criteria and grading of silage and hay under tropics-artificial drying of forages. Unit 9: Elements of Research Methodology Principles of animal experimentation . chemical and biological effect of processing on nutritional quality and utilization. Modern methods of feed evaluation – In vitro. Unit 10: Clinical Nutrition Role of nutrition to control digestive and metabolic disorders (milk fever. By-products of newly introduced commercial crops including residues of genetically modified feeds.Role of NIR Spectroscopy . Health hazards due to residual pesticides in feeds and forages . Unit 8: Anti-metabolites and Toxic Principles Naturally occurring anti-nutritional factors and common toxins in feeds and forages. Methods of detoxification.physical. gas production and nylon bag techniques.Rusitec Tracer techniques in nutrition research .Unit 6: Forage Conservation and Evaluation Natural and cultivated forges-Their composition and nutritive values. Current approaches in enriching tropical feed resources . Methods to improve shelf life of fat rich feeds.concept of total mixed ration and advances in complete diet formulation. metabolic profile tests. nutrition and reproduction.Feed microscopy in quality evaluation of feedstuffs. Alternative feed resources. ketosis. Rumen simulation techniques . ruminal acidosis-laminitis. Quality control of raw feedstuffs and finished feeds: Significance of BIS (standards).Environmental pollutants.
Methods of estimation.29. Application of immunogenetics. Important breeds of livestock & poultry with special reference to economic characters. Biodiversity. metabolism and metabolic diseases. Development of clones in relation to animal productivity and maintaining biodiversity. Protein synthesis. Non-chromosomal genes and their inheritance. Indirect selection and correleated response. Inheritance and continuity of population. Isolating mechanisms and origin of species / sub-species. Selection for threshold characters. Metric characters under natural selection. possible biases and precision of estimates. & phenotypic. Concept of heritability. Description of animal population. repeatability. Marker-assisted selection. Status of Animal Genetic Resources in India. Genetic and phenotypic consequences and applications of inbreeding and out-breeding. 66 . Gene banks. uses. Gene mixing for useful functions. Classic researches and pioneer scientists in genetics. ANIMAL GENETICS AND BREEDING Unit 1 : Overview of Genetics History and development of genetics. Chromosomes and heredity. Genotype – environment interaction. Prediction of selection response by different methods. Quantititive trait loci and their applications. Combining ability. Central dogma. Gene and mechanism of gene action. Sex in relation to chromosomes and genes. Mating systems for different livestock and poultry. Average effect of gene and gene substitution. Hardy Weinberg Law and consequences of it. DNA replication. Artificial transmutation of genes. Genetic basis of heterosis and its use. Penetrance and expressivity. Mosaicism and chimerism. Use of biotechnological tools in improving animal productivity. Theoretical basis of change of population mean and variance on inbreeding and cross breeding. Unit 4 : Genetic Properties of Population Population Vs individual. Unit 2 : Advanced Genetics Fine structure of chromosomes and chromosomal banding. Unit 3 : Overview of Breeding Brief history of domestication of livestock. Biochemical polymorphism. Mendalism and its deviations. Split gene. genetic and environmental correlations. Multiple factor inheritance. Diallele and polyallele crossing. Unit 5 : Population Genetics Gene and genotypic frequencies and factors affecting them. Recombinant DNA technology. their adaptation. PCR. Gene modifiers. Genetic code and DNA cloning. Genetic control of hormone coordination. Linkage and crossing over. Resemblances between relatives. Chromosomal studies in livestock improvement programmes. Evolution of genetic systems. Chromosomal aberrations. Reciprocal and reciprocal-recurrent-selection. Developments in population and production of livestock and poultry in India. Value and means. Components of total phenotypic variance of a population. Effective population size. Production of transgenic animals.
region-wise for different species of livestock and poultry. Long-term and short-term objectives of selections. Evaluation and characterization of various indigenous breeds of livestock and poultry. PCR-RFLP assay. Analysis and transfer of DNA from agarose electrophoresis. Data bank concept. Selection experiments in livestock and poultry. Restricted enzyme digestion of genome DNA. Estimation of genetic divergence and its implications in livestock improvement programmes. Estimation and interpretation of genetic and phenotypic parameters. Role of control population in selection experiments. Construction of selection indices. Prediction of response. Biochemical polymorphism analyses – blood groups. Development of statistical models for analyses of breed data and to quantify environmental variance. Improvement of response. Unit 9 : Research Techniques for Quantitative Animal Genetics Use of computers in handling animal breeding data. Study of Drosophila with markers. Nucleic acid hybridization. breed-wise. Different methods of sire evaluation. Realised heritability. Fromulation of breeding programmes : Purpose-wise. Collection and storage of samples for DNA fingerprinting. Unit 8 : Genetic Laboratory Techniques Culturing Drosophila stock. Concept of recombinant DNA techniques cloning and gene mapping. Development of efficient methods and traits for genetic evaluation of males under indigenous conditions. Estimation of genetic gains. Designing and evaluation of breeding strategies like reciprocal recurrent selection. Genetic-slippage. Designing field based progeny testing programmes. Gene sequencing. transferrins. Cryogenic preservation of animal germplasm.Unit 6 : Genetic Stretegies Purpose-wise breeding strategies for livestock and poultry under different agro-climatic zones of India. Nuclic acid hybridization. Estimation of variances and covariances. Selection for disease resistance and development of general and specific disease resistant strains / breeds. Development of breed descriptors at molecular level for different livestock and poultry breeds. Karyotyping and chromosomal mapping. Effect of selection on variance. Open nucleus breeding system in livestock improvement in India. Estimation of inbreeding rate in a closed herd / flock. 67 . Selection differential and intensity of selection. Programmes for genetic improvement of non-descript livestock population of different species. Bottlenecks in implementation of livestock breeding programmes in India. sheep and goat in India. Unit 7 : Selection & Selection Experiments Basis and methods of selection. Bio-technology and its role in improving animals and poultry production. isolation and quantification of DNA from blood and semen. Selection for better feed conversion efficiency in meat animals and poultry. Development of efficient selection programmes and procedures. Ex-situ and In-situ conservation of animal and poultry genetic resources. Analysis of DNA fingerprinting. Blood group typing. Estimation of inbreeding and relationship. Purpose based selection and breeding of domestic animals and poultry. Evaluation of past genetic improvement programmes for livestock and poultry in India. milk proteins. Evaluation and current recommendations of cross breeding programmes of cattle. diallele and polyallele crossing. Development of new breeds / strains for better productivity in animals. Role of artificial insemination / frozen semen / embryo transfer / ONBS / MOET technology in animal breeding.
maintenance protocol – pedigree recording. Knockout mice. Specific utility of different laboratory species for different requirements. polygamous and others. inbred lines (SPF line. etc. guinea pig. dog and monkey – Their chromosome numbers – genome size – major genes.) – Animal model for human disease. nutritional.Unit 10 : Laboratory Animal Breeding Laboratory animal species viz mice. planned mating. 68 . Nomenclature for different strains.monogamous. rat. Genetic control and monitoring-Record keeping-Ethics and legislation for management and use of laboratory animals. Physiological. Selection and Mating methods /systems. reproduction parameters. rabbit.
30. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Basic and General Aspects of Livestock Products Composition and physico-chemical properties of cow and buffalo milk. Milk proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other minor constituents of milk. Nutritive value of milk. Reception of milk - platform tests, filtration and clarification, chilling, separation, standardization, pasteurization and homogenization. Cleaning and sanitation of dairy equipments. Present status and future prospects of meat and poultry industry. Structure, composition, physical biochemical and nutritive aspects, and functional properties of different kinds of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Sensory evaluation and organoleptic properties of livestock products. Postmortem aspects of muscle as meat. Ageing of meat and chemical changes. Meat in human health. Bacteria, yeasts,l molds, parasites important in food microbiology. General principles of spoilage. Chemical and deteriorative changes caused by micro-organisms. Contamination and spoilage of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Food poisoning and foo-borne infections. Assessment of microbial condition and wholesomeness of different livestock products. National and International microbial standards. Unit 2: Abattoir and Poultry Processing Plants Origin and source of animal foods. Lay out, construction, design, organization, operation and maintenance of abattoirs and poultry processing plants. Pre-slaughter care and slaughtering techniques for different animals and birds. Antemortem and postmortem inspection. Judging and grading of animals and birds on foot and on rail. Condemnation and disposal of unfit material. Disposal of slaughterhouse effluents. Sanitation, plant operation and maintenance. Sanitary standards for meat packing plants. Meat cutting and deboning. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat. State, municipal and other regulations pertaining to meat trade. Meat food products order. Processing and utilization of various animal and poultry by-products, slaughterhouse and poultry plant offals. Methods of utilization of blood, fat, hides and skin, horns, hooves, wool, hair, feather, glands and other by-products. Importance and utilization of by-products in industry, Application of computer science in abattoir operation. Robot technology and its application in meat and poultry industry. Unit 3: Processing and preservation Principles of processing of dairy products. Special milk: sterilized milk, flavoured milk, homogenized milk, soft curd milk, Vitaminized/irradiated milk, fermented milk, standardized milk, reconstituted/rehydrated milk, recombined milk, toned, double toned milk, skimmed milk, Humanizd milk. Processing of dairy products: - butter, butter oil, icecream, cheese, cream, condensed milk, dried milk, dried milk products etc. Indigenous dairy products: ghee, khoa, dahi, makkhan, chhana, paneer, Khurchan, Lassi, Organic milk. Principles of preservation of livestock products. Equipment and technology of processing and preservation. Industrial food preservation, chilling, freezing, freeze drying, dehydration, canning irradiation, pasteurization, curing, smoking, use of chemical additives and antibiotics. Cooking methods including micro-wave cooking. Tenderisation and use of enzymes for processed foods. Production of value added products, process methods, process optimization and quality control.
Development and preservation self stable (camed and dehydrated) intermediate moisture, textured, cured, fermented fabricated meat and poultry products. Sanitation, regulation and inspection of processed meat foods. Effect of processing on nutritional, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of livestock products. Economics of precosting and product development. Application of biotechnology in processing and preservation of meat, poultry and fish products. Bioactive products and biogenic amines. Unit 4: Wool, Mohair and Fur Basic aspects of wool science. Shearing, physical and chemical characteristics, processing, grading, standardization, storage and marketing of wool, mohair and fur (National and International). Unit 5: Packaging Principles of packaging. Types of packaging materials. Characterisation, methods and systems of packaging. Gas packing, Vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, shrink and stretch packing, industrial packaging. Aseptic and retort pouches. Standardisation and quality control of packaging material. Product attributes and packaging requirements for different livestock products. Latest trends in packaging of meat, poultry, eggs, wool and fish products. Unit 6: Quality Control Grades and grading of livestock products. Stress factors effecting meat quality – PSE, DFD, Hot boning, Cold shortening and electrical stimulation. Regulatory and inspection methods – Municipal and State laws. Bureau of Indian Standards and International Standards of fresh meat and poultry including their products and by-products. Detection of antibiotics, chemical residues, heavy metals and toxins in meat. Techniques for detection of adulteration of meat. HACCP concept of quality control of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Unit 7: Marketing Livestock production and supply characteristics. Meat consumption and related demands. Types of market and trends in marketing livestock products and by-products, wholesale, retail and future trends. Consumer aptitude, education and awareness, and popularization of new products. Corporate bodies in regulation of markets, marketing boards, Co-operative agencies, internal trade and development of international market for livestock products. Organization, operation and sanitation of meat, poultry, fish and egg retailing units. Fast food chains and super markets. Situation and outlook and methods for promotion and marketing of livestock products.
31. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
Unit 1: General Present status and future prospects of livestock and poultry development in India. Animal production systems in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Sustainability issue in relation to environment. Effect of industrialization and mechanization of agriculture on livestock sector. Breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, equine, camels, rabbits and poultry. Various livestock and poultry development programmes operative in the country. Animal behaviour visà-vis adaptation and production. Principles of domestication and behavioral factors favouring domestication. Mating bahviour in various species of livestock and poultry. Agnostic behaviour – causes and control. Social order in farm animals. Adaptation of livestock and poultry in tropics, deserts cold and high altitudes. Mixed farming, arable farming, integrated and specialized farming systems. Biotechnology in animal improvement. Unit 2: Breeding Management Basic principles of inheritance. Concept of heritability, repeatability and selection. Important methods of selection and systems of breeding in farm animals and birds. Importance of maintaining breeding records and their scientific interpretation. Unit 3: Feeding Management Nutrients and their functions. Nutritional requirements and feeding managements of different categories of livestock and poultry. Feed additives including antibiotic and probiotic feeding in farm animals and birds. Formulation and compounding of rations for various categories of livestock and poultry. Least cost ration formulation. Systems of feeding livestock and birds. Feeding standards for livestock and poultry. Feed conversion efficiency of various categories of livestock and poultry. Processing and storage of conventional and non-conventional feed ingredients. Agro-industrial by-products in animal feeds. Unit 4: Reproduction Management Reproductive systems of farm animals and birds. Climate and nutrition affecting reproductive performance in farm animals. Importance of early pregnancy diagnosis. Methods of heat detection. Artificial insemination. Oestrous prediction and synchronization. Causes of disturbed fertility and its prevention in farm animals. Management factors affecting reproductive efficiency. Summer and winter management problems and their solutions. Unit 5: Shelter Management Housing systems, Selection of site and lay out of animal and poultry houses. Space requirement for livestock and poultry, Housing designs in different agro-climatic regions. Macro and microclimatic changes affecting designs of animal and poultry houses. BIS (standards) for livestock and poultry housing. Construction of cheap animal and poultry housing utilizing local resources. Automation in livestock farming. Disposal of animal wastes under urban and rural conditions. Disposal of carcasses.
Economics of draft animals vis-à-vis machine power. Unit 8: Production and Management of other Animals Draft animals: Population dynamics of various categories of draft and work animals in India. Accidental health disorders and their control. feeding and watering. Feed conversion efficiency for growth and milk production. Reproduction problems in pigs and remedial measures. shelter management. management. Quarantine Act. Segregation and quarantine management for large animals and birds. care and management of draft animals. Management of growing. Management to improve reproductive efficiency in cattle and buffalo. Feeding strategies for pigs. Water requirement of dairy animals. Sheep and goat reproduction. Prevention of diseases. watering. Unit 7: Production and Management of Cattle and Buffalo Cattle and buffalo production trends and factors affecting them. Training of work animals. Low cost shelter management. Sheep and goat: Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving wool. Light management. Prevention and disease control. Prenatal and postnatal care and management of cattle and buffalo. meat and milk. Swine: Importance of pig as a meat animal. Care and Management of pregnant sows and unweaned pigtlets. feeding and breeding systems. breeding. Health management. Hatchery business management. Zoonotic diseases. Characteristics of draft animals. and calving intervals. Herd registration. Hygiene and sanitation on animal farm. Handling care of table eggs and processing of birds for meat. Chick sexing. Housing. Shelter management. Maintenance of farm records. important infectious diseases of livestock and poultry and their control. Concept of first aid at farms. Important fur and meat type breeds. Internal and external parasites and their control. Vaccination schedules in animals and poultry. age at first calving. laying and breeding flocks. Poultry shows. labour health programme. Scope of intensive milk and meat production from goat. sanitation and health care of rabbits. Management of camel with special reference to rearing. Cage layer management and well being of birds. Common disinfectants used on animal farms. mohair. Health and sanitation problems. shoeing. Estimating draft capacity of different species. Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving pig production. Feeding practices for economic rearing.Unit 6: Health Management General approach to livestock health programmes. Behavioural studies of various draft animals. Biosecurity and environmental considerations. Management strategies for reducing mortality in caalves. preparation and management of race horses. Poultry: Brooding of chicks. handling. feeding. Feeding. Symptoms of ill health. 72 . Rabbit: Economic importance. Management during stress. Mutton and wool production from sheep. Harness for various types of draft animals. Care of neonates and young calves. Equine: Care and management of horses.
Annual and perennial fodder crops. 73 . Breeding and feeding of wildlife in captivity. Market news and information. Different approaches to marketing of livestock and its products. Insurance and financing of livestock enterprises. Feed and fodder resources used for feeding of livestock and poultry. Conservation and preservation of feeds and fodders. Biological and ecological basis of management of wildlife. Production functions. Effect criteria in use of resources in livestock production. Maintenance of evaluation of different production records. Health management. Cost concepts. Farm size. Unit 10: Forage Production and Conservation Classification of feeds and forages. Enrichment of poor quality roughages. Determination of prices of livestock products. Nutritive value of feeds and fodders. Pasture development and management. resources and product combinations. Strategies for round the year fodder production. Project formulation for setting up livestock farms. Unit 11: Economics and Marketing of Livestock and Poultry and their Products Economic principles as applied to livestock production. Vertical integration in livestock products industries. Present status of cattle fairs and methods of selling livestock.Unit 9: Wildlife Management Status of wildlife in India and its conservation.
Individual selection and family selection. Feed formulation for different species and groups. Factors influencing the feed intake. class. egg quality and other economic traits. antioxidants. Essential fatty acids. Naturally occurring toxiciants. Mass selection. and methods to overcome them.E. Scope of intergrating quantitative and molecular approaches for genetic selection in poultry.M. Inheritance of comb. Different mating systems-Diallel mating. and T. hatchability. Economically important traits and their modes of inheritance. Exploitation of additive and non-additive gene effects. Male separate feeding. Genetic correlations. growth rate. Practical breeding programmes for developing broilers and layers. Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection. dilution.E. their adverse effects on poultry and methods to overcome them. Development of transgenic chicken. pair mating. Estimation of M. directional. Quantitative traits. 74 . Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as per Bureau of Indian Standards and National Research Council of the USA. Sexlinked and sex influenced traits. egg weight. Selection for specific characters. Selection for disease resistance. Genotype and environment interaction. performance-promoters. Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization for economic feed formulation. Recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection. crumble and pellet feeding. their inheritance and usefulness. Inheritance of qualitative traits in poultry and their usefulness. Least cost feed formulation and linear programming. Quuality control and BIS specifications for feed ingredients. Major genes and their usefulness in poultry breeding in tropics. plumage and other qualitative traits. toxicity. Non – nutrient feed additives. Inheritance of egg number. Selection methods for genetic improvement-natural. Inbreeding and out-breeding. their computation and application. Dwarf gene and its usefulness in broiler breeding. dry mash. flavouring agents. Mendelian traits in poultry. Evaluation of protein quality. Biochemical polymorphism and usefulness in poultry breeding. Lethal and semi-lethal traits in poultry and their mode of inheritance. livability. variety and strains of chickens. probiotics – direct feed microbials. fertility. POULTRY SCIENCE Unit 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding Phylogeny of poultry species. Unit 2: Poultry Nutrition Various nutrients and their role in poultry. geese. ducks. Nutrients deficiency. combined selection and indirect selection. Antibiotics. Part record versus complete record selection. synergism and antagonism. Heritability and their estimates. disruptive and stabilizing. Essential and critical amino acids and their interrelationships. breed. turkeys and other species of poultry. Construction of selection indices. Blood group systems. colouring agents and other non-nutrient feed additives. anticoccidials. Cross-breeding. Essential vitamins and minerals and their functions. pen mating and block mating. Pure-line breeding. Hybridization and hybrid vigour in improving economic traits. Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding. Fungal exotoxins of feed origin. Different molecular techniques for estimation of genetic diversity and similarity among breeds and lines of poultry.32. Different systems of feeding wet mash. diluents and cryopreservation of semen. Partition of energy. Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients. Restricted and phase feeding programme. antimicrobials. 3-way and 4-way crossing and development of hybrids. artificial. Gene action influencing the traits. Immunogenetics. Artifical insemination – collection and insemination techniques. their adverse effects on poultry.
Design of poultry houses like brooder. atresia. ducklings and turkey poults. ovulation. spermatogenesis. dubbing and other farm routines. Photo acceleration and embryonic growth. Sexing. Selection. Broodiness and forced moulting in layers. poultry processing unit. physiology of avain testes. tract in relation to digestion and absorption efficiency. Thermoregulatory and stress mechanisms. Embryonic communication. Preparation of brooder house to receive young chicks. ducks. hysical. Major constraints facing the poultry industry. clutch size and secretion of egg components. Factors influencing egg quality traits. Prevention of hatchery borne diseases. care and storage of hatching eggs. Mechanism of deterioration of egg quality. Fumigation procedure. Unit 4: Poultry Products technology Structure. High altitudes and hatchability of eggs. Overcrowding. broiler. Unit 5: Poultry Management Poultry industry in India – past. Hatchery hygiene. Egg processing and storage. Statistics of egg and meat production in India. Hatchery business. Respiratory system – mechanisms of gaseous exchange. grower. quails and Guinea fowl. Farm location and site selection. Shell. Management of replacement pullets for egg production and breeding stocks. Processinng and utilization of egg and poultry processing waste. Factors influencing reproductive functioning. chemical composition and nutritive value of egg. Management of turkey. absorption and metabolism of nutrients. Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste. Light management. Space required for brooding. Photoperiodism and its role in optimization of reproductive functions. Concept of modern hatcheries. Littre management. present and future prospects. Factors influencing hatchability and production of quality chicks. Types of construction 75 . Management of layers and breeders. feeding and watering. preservation and grading of poultry meat. Testing of eggs. rearing. Lay out of a modern hatchery. feed mill. handling. packing. Forced feeding of turkey poults. Processing. albumen and yolk quality assessment. Different methods of preservation of table eggs and their relative merits and demerits. Factors essential for incubation of eggs. Agmark and USDA standards. Analyzing hatchability problems. Environmentally controlled and open poultry houses. Further processing and fast food preparation.I. microbial and organoleptic evaluation of meat quality. Various measusres of egg quality.Unit 3: Avian Physiology Homeostasis and its regulation. Managements during growing period. Fate of sperm in oviduct and fertilization. semen ejaculation and its characteristics. Physio-biochemical stress responses and remedial approaches. Functional regulation of digestion. layer and cage house. Ideal layout of poultry houses for different systems of rearing. oviposition. Mechanisms that determines the sex and allows the development of left ovary and oviduct only. Debeaking. Summer and winter management. chemicals. Regulation of feed and waer intake. Physiological control of age at sexual maturity. Principles and methods of incubation. Weight and quality grades of egg as per BIS. Preparation of various egg products and their uses. ovarian follicular hierarchy. Prerequisite of good hatchery. Feed Passage rate in G. Brooding of quails. Single and multi-stage incubators. Characteristics features of endocrine glands. Equipments required in a modern hatchery. Principles and methods of brooding. Endocrine control and variable factors influencing growth process. pause. etc. culling. packaging and transportation of chicks.
Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Horizontal and vertical integration in poultry industry and their importance. Project formulation for setting up of poultry farms and hatcheries. Medication procedures. ectoparasites and flies. etc. Price spread in marketing of poultry and poultry products. General farm sanitation and hygiene. Stress control. efficiency criteria in use of resources in poultry production. Heat stroke.materials used. Unit 7: Poultry Health Management Common diseases of poultry – bacterial. their prevention. Vaccination programmes. Ammonia control in poultry houses. Role of cooperatives in poultry farming. Production functions. fungal. protozoan. Marketing approaches. viral. cages. Various marketing channels. Control of coccidiosis. Automation in poultry production. Transportation of eggs and chicken. Effect of pollution on production performance of birds. parasitic and other emerging diseases of poultry. Cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses. Cross-ventilation and ridge ventilation. Deworming programmes. Cold shock. Metabolic and nutrient deficiency diseases and disorders. 76 . Cost concept. Insurance and financing of poultry enterprises. Type of brooders. feeders. control and treatment. Vices of poultry and their control. laying nests. Bio-secutity measures in poultry farms. waters. Unit 6: Economics and Marketing Economic principles as applied to poultry production. Drinking water sanitation. Production and requirement of poultry products in India and for exports. Farm sizeresources and product combinations. worms. Safe disposal of dead birds and farm waste.
clams. protein evaluation. Digestion. nucleic acids. Selective breeding and hybridization. moulting and reproduction. lipids. digestibility studies. Inbreeding of stocks. mullets. Broodstock management and hatchery technology for different fish species. recirculatory system. Health management. nutritional energetics. Use of molecular genetics markers in management of fish stock. Stability and storage properties of formulated feed. catfish. trouts). semisulcatus). milkfish. endocrine control of growth. P. breams). Consequences and management of inbreeding. Genetic conservations of fish stock. growth stimulants. Inheritance of qualitative and quantitative traits in fish. Resources identifications. vitamins and minerals. Cryopreservation of gametes. Packing and transportation methods. snakeheads. Packing and transport of live fish. Aquaculture practices for freshwater fish (carps. mussels. Organic aquaculture. feed quality. running water aquaculture. Molecular aspect of health management. Chromosomes set manipulation and sex determination. Quality seed 77 . site selection. Methods of feeding. Stress physiology. GMOs. Water and soil quality management. Preparation and stocking of nursery and grow-out ponds. types of feed and their evaluation. juvenile and adult stages. indicus and P. Extensive. design and construction of fish farms & hatcheries. brackish water and marine fin fishes (sea bass. brood stock and larval nutrition. Fish genomics and proteomics. scallops. Unit 3: Genetics and Biotechnology Principles of fish genetics. Nutritional pathology. Biochemical and molecular genetic markers. Good management practices (GMPs) for sustainable and responsible aquaculture. Life history and cultivation of commercially important seaweeds. Exotic fish introduction and its impact. proteins. probiotics). Feed formulations & pelletization. Molecular diagnostics techniques and vaccines. M. rabbit fish. toxins in feed. carbohydrates. acid-base regulation. understanding breeding and stock structure. absorption & metabolism of nutrients. International trade of ornamental fish. Emerging trends in sea farming. AQUACULTURE Unit 1: Hatchery and Grow Out Practices of Commercially Important Species Aquaculture practices in different parts of the world. cage culture and pen culture. malcomsonii). rosenbergii. osmoregulation. estimating the size of resources. oysters. Natural and supplementary feeds. Exotic introduction and crossborder transportation of stock. Integration of aquaculture with agriculture and animal husbandry.33. mahseer. cobia. Role of amino acids. Reproductive physiology. feed additives (attractants. criteria for selection of organisms for aquaculture. Unit 2: Physiology and Nutrition of Fin and Shell Fishes Nutritional requirements of cultivable fish and shell fish at larval. semi-intensive and intensive aquaculture practices. sea cucumbers. Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. shrimps (Penaeus monodon. binders & nutraceuticals and their role in nutrition. pearl oysters. physiological regulation of dietary intake. fresh water prawns (M. identification of key habitats of the resources. Genetic engineering and production of transgenic fish. Breeding and rearing of freshwater and marine ornamental fish.
Domestic and export fish marketing – trends.vaccines. Enrichment of live feed organisms. Primary production. Rural development programmes. germplasm exchange. Quantitative trait loci and markerassisted selection. Disease surveillance and reporting. Gender participation in aquaculture. Public health microbiology. phyto-bacterio and zoo-planktons and their role in aquaculture systems. Role of government and non government organizations in aquaculture development. margins & regulations. accreditation of the hatcheries. Antibody and cell-mediated immunity in fish and shellfish. Nutritional pathology. degradation. Preparation of bankable projects. environmental quality and effects on fish health. Unit 6: Economics of Aquaculture Management Practices & Extension Project formulation concepts. Unit 5: Aquatic Microbiology and Fish Food Organisms Bacteria. Microbiological. immunostimulants. Methods for disease control : prophylaxis . Farm management analysis. Fish quarantine systems . their role in carbon. Algal blooms and shellfish toxicities. Epidemiology of diseases. probiotics. Role of microorganisms in fish production and fish health.seed certification. Inflammation and response to diseases. antibiotics and chemicals in health management. viral and fungal pathogens of fish and shellfish. Fish food organisms – bacterio. artemia and other fish food organisms. Culture of microalgae. histopathological and molecular techniques in disease diagnosis. Mass culture of fish food organisms and their applications in hatcheries. virus. water pollution and purification. phosphorus. Aquaculture extension system in India and other developing countries. unicellular algae and protozoa in aquatic environment. sulphur cycling and their impact on aquatic habitats and fish species. bacterial. Economics of different aquaculture practices.parasitic.production and certification. Unit 4: Fish Health Management Common diseases in aquaculture . Technology transfer programmes in aquaculture. rotifers. 78 . soil. Pathological changes in diseases.innate and acquired immunity. Water. Physiology and biochemistry of aquatic microorganisms. nitrogen. Defense systems in fish . channels. fungi. Environment management. Chemotherapeutic agents.
by-catch and discards. Food and feeding habits. methods of capture and yields. Impact of fishing. other anthropogenic activities on the environment and fish stock. Straddling/shared stocks and non-conventional resources. Input control 79 . territorial waters. Gonado-Somatic Index. Distribution. distribution and abundance.methods for determination of age. Disaster management in fisheries. storage. Ecosystem-based fisheries management tools. status. Methods for increasing productivity of water bodies (Use of thermal energy and deep sea water through artificial upwelling. retrieval and processing for national estimates. growth and mortality of fish in natural water bodies.weight relationships. trophic relationships. Unit 2: Fishery Biology Life history of economically important fish species. Management of marine fisheries. estuaries.Open access. Influence of environmental parameters on fish abundance. lagoons. Guidelines and policies for exotics. control and surveillance (MCS) systems for major fisheries. Artificial reefs. Application of remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in resource mapping and forecasting. direct and indirect methods. their advantages and disadvantages. Modes of fisheries management . Age and growth studies . Unit 4: Fisheries Management Concepts and principles of fisheries management. Potential fishing zones. FISHERIES RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Unit 1: Fisheries Resources Major fisheries resources of the world. treaties and instruments. maturity stages. Monitoring. Length. methods and status of fish yield data acquisition. Concept of Maximum Sustainable Yield and Maximum Economic Yield. Reproductive biology. advisory. Different analytical and Holistic models for fish stock assessment. Use of Virtual Population Analysis and Predictive models. Pollution of water bodies and its impact. Unit 3: Aquatic Environment Various aquatic habitats and fish faunal compositions. fecundity. lakes.34. Juvenile fishing. participatory. Recruitment. Bioindicators and Bioremediation. bionomics. destructive gears. Mechanisms. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. coastal and open ocean fisheries management. Condition Factor. oceanic waters. Sports. Habitat degradation and its impact on fisheries. accidental introductions. rivers. Use of ranching. study of growth rates. Issues related to capture fisheries. Limnological parameters. distribution. deep sea oceanic islands. reservoir and lacustrine fisheries. aquaculture. resource resilience. Major commercially exploited stocks. Taxonomy of major fish groups. biosphere reserves and Ramsar sites). Fisheries Acts and Legislations. regulated. user rights. instruments and mechanisms for inland. global trends in production. Endangered and threatened species. revisions and amendments. ova diameter studies and breeding cycles. Fisheries policies. marine parks. methods of studying food and feeding habits. FADs and their uses). Fisheries oceanography and marine fisheries. Status and impact of exotic species. their potentials. trends and dynamics of major exploited fishery resources in hill streams. Fisheries and Biodiversity Acts. Target and non-target fisheries resources of the Indian subcontinent and the EEZ. International fishery regulations. Catch per unit effort. reservoirs. Protected areas (sanctuaries. composition. game and ornamental fisheries. Management of riverine. Computer softwares in stock assessment.
Output control measures such as Total Allowable Catch. Use of modern techniques and equipment for fish finding and capturing. trends. closed seasons. Vulnerability of fishers to natural disasters and coping mechanisms in disaster management. value addition. exploitation and utilization patterns. regulations. Fisheries co-operatives. protected/closed area. Technical control measures such as size limitations. their operation and their maintenance. closed fishing areas. Biodiversity Bill. Impact of dams. concerns and strategies. duration of fishing. role. Selectivity of fishing gears. 80 . size. by-catch reduction devices in trawls. trade and non-trade barriers. Role of extension in fisheries. limited entry. future. employment. fishing bans. impact. alternative livelihood options. modern marketing methods and channels. river linking. India’s commitment to international treaties and resolutions. markets and trade. Management of conflicts within sub-sectors in fisheries. type. mangroves. FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.measures such as access control. status. Licensing. demand and price dynamics in the fisheries sector. Unit 5: Fishing Technology Different types of craft and gear. WTO and Indian fisheries scenario. CRZ. Catch Quotas. number and power of boats. Marginalization of fishermen. small scale processors and traders due to changing scenarios of product diversification. mechanisms. Unit 7: Fisheries Livelihood Relevance of capture fisheries in food. protected areas. nutrition. Emerging consumer preferences and trade practices. Unit 6: Economics and Marketing Supply. size of nets and mesh size regulations. Market trends and diversification. turtle excluder devices. Impediments to fisheries governance. closed seasons. channels. Vulnerability of fishers to changes in resource availability. Quality concerns. Institutional support for fisheries development. International regulations and practices affecting Indian fisheries trade. Land and water body use issues in fisheries. Issues in branding and labelling. domestic and international market demands. mechanisms and modes of extension and their impact on capture fisheries and fisher's livelihood. domestic and export marketing of fish and fish products. Women in fisheries. income and livelihood securities of fishers. UNCLOS. sanctuaries and parks on the fisher communities. cold chains. Growth of domestic and exports markets. storage.
FAO classification of fishing vessels. Transmission systems . Basic principles of fishing vessel design. autolysis. variation in design. Life saving devices . Toxins and toxic substances in fish. manufacture. identification and comparative properties. grading of fish. their distribution and function. Engine installation. antioxidant mechanisms. water activity (aw) and storage stability. marine plywood.life jacket. ferro-cement. Powering of fishing boats. Unit 4: Fish Processing Technology Factors affecting spoilage of fish. steel. Different types of fishing vessels in India. designation of netting yarns and twine twistcoeffeient. Biochemical and microbial spoilage of fish. Enzymes in fish -their classification and mechanism of action. their bioaccumulation and biomagnification. origin. SART. two stroke cycle. navigation and fishing lights. FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Unit 1: Craft Technology Fishing crafts of the world. Stability of fishing vessels . Electrical fishing. hooks. Classification of fishing gear. gillnets and trammel nets. Winches. Craft materials . Deck machinery for trawlers. Construction of netting twines. Glycogen in fish and its functions.net haulers. Water content. Use of functional properties of proteins for developing fish products. Minerals and trace elements in fish. Model testing of fishing gear . salting and smoking). Modern navigation equipment. design variation and operation of purse seines.flume tank. lines and traps.wood. Fish behaviour in relation to fishing techniques. gill netters and liner. By catch reduction devices (BRDs). Otter boards .factors affecting stability. classification and constitution of proteins. EPIRB. direction. fibreglass.35. the application 81 . Structure. methods of chilling. Structure and operation of trawls. auto-oxidation and their significance. Fishing gear selectivity Selectivity of trawls.moisture. Vitamins in fish . Fishing accessories. Unit 2: Gear Technology Gear Materials . Harvesting machines. Selection of engine for fishing vessels. Fishing gears used in India.Reduction/reverse gear boxes. transportation and marketing of chilled fish. special purpose winches. Essential amino acids and limiting amino acids and their requirements. ground gear sheer devices. Synthetic fibres.principles of chilling and freezing. yarn numbering system. vitamins and minerals. General arrangements of fishing vessels.vitamin deficiency diseases. Structure. seiners. lipids. Onboard handling of fish. connectors and swivels. Bio-deterioration and preventive measures.Classification. Post-mortem changes -rigor mortis. buoys and sinkers. Selective fishing gear and practices: By catch and discards. proteins.principles of operation. Specification and characteristics of netting. four stroke cycle. Principles of fish preservation. life raft. crystallisation. Biogenic amines. power blocks. carbohydrates. line haulers. Lipids in fish -their structure and classification. reinforced plastic. Chilling and freezing of fish . gill nets and lines. life buoy.Floats. Factors affecting fishing gear design. Principles of design and construction. Corrosion protection. crystal growth.Netting yarns. Turtle excluder devices (TEDs). sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements for maintenance of quality. Unit 3: Process Biochemistry Major and minor constituents of fish. properties & preservation. natural fibres and their classification.types of engines for fishing vessels. aluminium. nucleation. Preservation of fish by curing (drying. Fish aggregating devices.
the surimi process.Debonner. modern marketing methods and channels – supply chain management. IrradiationRadiation sources. Unit 5: Microbiology. Additives. Accelerated freeze drying (AFD). units. fat and vitamin. Modification of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for fish preservation. frozen fish. Quality Management and Certification Roles of bacteria and moulds in fish preservation. virus. dose levels.principles of canning. Ideal requirements for construction of cold storage. freshness analysers. can materials. Codex alimentarius.fundamental principles of refrigeration. Traceability issues in international trade. Safety and quality and spoilage of fish during transportation. canned fish. Spoilage of fresh fish. Human pathogenic bacteria. Changes in quality of chilled and frozen products during storage. Packaging. freeze-dried fish. Refrigeration engineering.aim. Canning of fish and fish products. Refrigerants definition.Canning plant. practical aspects of planning and implementing HACCP systems.of freezing systems in fish processing. Value-addition. radarpertization. type of refrigerant and their properties. radicidation. Role of BIS and EIA. Institutional support for fish harvest and postharvest practices. Unit 6: Fishery Engineering Selection of site for fish processing plant. ISO 22000. process value calculation and spoilage of canned food. preservatives. Surimi and fish-mince products. chilled fish and processed fish products. Packaging and transportation of fish and fishery products .classes of additives. transportation containers. Machinery for handling and processing fish. Risk assessment. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fish and fish products. Unit 7: Economics and Marketing Fisheries enterprise management. can shapes. purpose and objectives. Effects of irradiation on protein. molds and parasites in fish and fishery products. freezing plant. Trends of domestic and export marketing of fish and fishery products. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. National and international standards . Micro-organisms in frozen. antimicrobial additives.Concepts of Total quality management. by-products and value-added products. Fish muscle proteins. Food Safety and Standards Act of India 2006. type of boilers. types of condensers. Fish quality evaluation and different indices of quality. cured fish. radurization. Different types of cold storage. Hazards in sea foods. Quality management in seafood processing. cold chain facilities and infrastructure. canned and dried products. Fishery products and by-products exported from India. type of evaporators.temperature modeling and relationships in fish transportation. filleting machine. Seafood waste management. 82 . HACCP. packaging and transportation of fresh fish. refrigeration cycle. and their control. layout and design. fish meal plant. Sources of contamination and control measures. surimi plant.ISO 9000 series. ICMSF.
characteristics and reclamation. Succession. land degradation. community forestry and farm forestry. Concept of allelopathy and its impact on agroforestry. medicinal plants. girth. Forest Conservation Act. Historical development of agroforestry and overview of global agroforestry systems. Organic farming. Unit 3 Plant management practices in agroforestry. 1980 and Wildlife Protection Act. small timber. 1927. Measurement of crops. environment and rural economy. raw material for plant-based cottage industries. nonwood forest products such as gums. Phytogeographical regions and vegetation of India. Wood quality and wood preservation. crown width and crown length. Biomass production for fuel wood. resins & tannins.concept and scope. Forest types of India: distribution and types. Productivity. sustainability and adoptability. Concept of complementarity. bark thickness. spices. Classification of agroforestry systems: structural. socioeconomic and ecological. Criteria of an ideal agroforestry design. Unit 5 Forest mensuration . sample plots and photo interpretation. economic and ecological development. stem form. 83 . Measurement and computation of volume of logs and felled/standing trees. 1972. water and nutrient competition in agroforestry.36. edible fruits. productivity. Forest inventory: kinds of enumeration. Energy plantations . climax and retrogression.ecological zones of India. Multipurpose tree species and their characteristics suitable for agroforestry. energy flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem. Tree-crop interactions: ecological and economic. Land capability classification and land use. Growth and increment. Agroforestry practices and systems in different agro . Geographical distribution and salient features of major world forest types. 1952 and 1988. Watershed management and its role in social. Unit 4 Extent and causes of land denudation. supplementarity and competition. Biomass measurement. Measurement methods and their principles. Geographic information systems and remote sensing .definition. Plywood and pulp industries. Lopping of top-feed species such as frequency and intensity of lopping. FORESTRY Unit 1 National Forest Policy 1894. Wastelands: their extent. Concepts of biomass. Diagnosis and design of agroforestry system. functional. basis for classification and distribution in India. Measurement of diameter. Unit 2 Concept and definition of agroforestry. Financial analysis and economic evaluation of agroforestry systems: cost benefit analysis and land equivalent ratio. essential oils. Indian Forest Act. productivity.choice of species and management. bamboo and canes. sampling methods. tribal and rural livelihoods. Benefits and constraints of agroforestry. protective and ameliorative. nutrient cycling and light. height. object and scope. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion. Forests-extent. Migration and dispersal mechanism. Role of forests in national economy productive. social forestry. Construction and application of volume tables.
Growing media and sowing methods. Anogeissus. Basics of forest genetics . Forest fires: causes. Concept of seed source/ provenance. edaphic. present net worth and cost benefit analysis. thinning . Management of nurseryshading. evaluation and maintenance of germplasm. pruning and girdling.Populus. Conservation and management of natural resources including wildlife. Seed certification and ISTA Rules. genetic drift. Casurina. ordinary. Major forest pests and weeds. crown and selection thinning. Forest regeneration: natural and artificial. processing. Planting techniques: site selection. mode of pollination and floral structure. Working plan. lateritic soils. Azadirachta. evaluation and protection. Internal rate of return. layout and design of nursery beds. Pinus. physiographic. Root trainers. Concept of sustained yield and normal forest. climber cutting. Forest nursery . Planting patterns. dry and rocky areas. Acacia. Unit 8 Forest management: definition and scope. volume.inheritance. object and scope of silviculture. Gmelina.need. Provenance testing. selection and preparation of site. Collection. land races. Santalum.weeding. fertilizer application. establishment. Regulation of yield in regular and irregular forests by area. manure and fertilizer application. Silviculture of important tree species . improvement felling. Silvicultural systems . weed control. cleaning. Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions. density and site quality. Site factors . Unit 7 Seed collection. Rotation. Diospyros. Tending operations .climatic. Prosopis. Quercus and Albizia. Types of containers. impacts and control measures. planning and management.mechanical. Hardyweinburg Law. Natural selection. Joint forest management. Afforestation on difficult sites: saline-alkaline soils. Role of growth substances in vegetative propagation. viability and pre-treatment. progeny test and designs. Pterocarpus. cold desert. Forest evaluation. types. Tree breeding: general principles. Unit 9 Tree improvement: nature and extent of variations in natural population. watering. Shorea. Tectona. manuring. ravines and sand dunes. Seed dormancy and methods for breaking dormancy. Techniques of vegetative propagation. Choice of species. Management of even aged and uneven aged forest. storage. 84 .high forest and coppice systems. wetlands. biotic and their influence on forest vegetation. Genetic gains.merits and demerits. insect pest and diseases control. exotic trees. Clonal forestry . coastal sands. irrigation/moisture conservation techniques. Estimation of growing stock. Seed production areas. Seed orchard: types. Selection of superior trees. Aims and methods of tree breeding. Eucalyptus.Unit 6 Definition. Plant spacing. Seed testing and germination tests. tissue culture. increment and number of trees. Dalbergia. mist chamber.
medicinal plants. introduction to correlation and regression. Resource use-efficiency in agroforestry. water resources. form and crown characteristics. Agroforestry and carbon sequestration. Biomass production for fuel’ wood. tannins. randomized block. Role of green revolution in forest conservation in India. Ozone layer depletion. non wood forest products such as gums. height. 85 . Measurement methods and their principles. present net worth. sample plots. cost benefit analysis and land equivalent ratio. Concept and application of GIS and remote sensing. Frequency distribution. earthquakes.Unit 10 Forestry in bio-economic productivity of different agro-eco-systems and environmental management. Latin square and split plot designs. sources and sinks of green house gases. girth. Global warming: effect of enhanced CO2 on productivity. forestry. bamboos and canes. Disaster management. Mean. object and scope. Livestock. Unit 11 Measurement of trees and stand – diameter. Volume/biomass estimation. volume tables. International conventions on climate change. raw material for plants-based cottage industries. Unit 13 Statistics: definition. median. completely randomized. sea level. floods. major greenhouses gases. edible fruits. Agroforestry and environmental conservation. Tree-crop interaction in agroforestry. Tsunami. resins. Introduction to internal rate of return. Impact of climate change on agriculture. surveys and photo interpretation. Experimental designs: basic principles. fishery and coastal ecosystems. essential oils. small timber. Measurement of rangeland productivity. Global overview and classification of agroforestry systems. droughts. cyclones and landslides. mode and standard deviation. Unit 12 Climate change: greenhouse effect. Global climate change – its history and future predictions. Forest enumeration: sampling methods. Principle and criteria of plant selection in agroforestry.
Weather and climate. niches. grassland. Ecosystem concept. desert. toxicity symptoms on vegetation. National and international laws and policies on air pollution. Unit 3 Biodiversity concepts. commercial and industrial areas. population dynamics. Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food websecological pyramids. Aquatic and agro-ecosystem. Biodiversity in relation to global environmental changes.characteristics and measurement. History and evolution of human settlement. animals and human health. Crop domestication. role of national parks. systems ecology. Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components. Components of environment . Biogeochemical cycles. centres of origin of crops. physiological and biochemical effects of SO2. HF. photochemical smog and SPM. wildlife sanctuaries. Types characteristic features. exploration and collection. plantation. smog. plant introductions. Air pollution: sources and classification of major air pollutants. IUCN clauses and concept of threatened and endangered species. vegetation. Unit 2 Basic ecological concepts . Indian Biodiversity Act 2002. changes in tune and space. Unit 4 Composition of air. Lithosphere and biosphere. Plant genetic resources. structure and function of forest. levels and types. Ecological succession . sensitive and tolerant plant species to air pollutants. Acid rain. National and global conservation measures. Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India. Principles of conservation of biological diversity in-situ and ex-situ. Biogeography. nutrient cycles and recycle pathways. PAN and O3 on vegetation.habitats. evolution. biosphere reserves. 86 . species concept. Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Unit 1 Definition and scope of environment science and its interrelationship with other sciences and agriculture. Recent trends in ecology. Effect of various developmental activities on environment. Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere. Biodiversity and life security. abiotic and social. defence mechanism against air pollutants in plants.habitat ecology. synecology. Migration and utilization.types and causes. autecology. Methods of conservation. Causes of loss of biodiversity: introduction of exotics and invasive plants.37. Methods of air pollution monitoring. Population . Factors affecting plant response to air pollution. Communities . Smoke. Biodiversity hot spots in India and world. Significance of biodiversity. species and individual in the ecosystem.biotic. Energy in ecosystems and environment. mitigation measures for combating air pollution. Effects of air pollutants on crops. institutions and conventions. Noise pollution-concept and effects.
water resources. Global climate change . their life time and disposal. Concepts of producer gas. Radioactive pollutants. Physical. characterization of materials for producer gas. microorganism and human health. ponds. major types of water pollutants. product recovery. recycling and value addition to wastes. Microbial. Use of sludge. atalytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere. design of solar thermal system and their applications in heating. types of wind mills. Impact of climate change on agriculture. dehydration etc. their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems. animal feed.Unit 5 Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants. Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal. 87 . sugar. Wind energy for mechanical and electrical power generation. fisheries. landfills. Potential of renewable energy sources in India. Biomagnification and its impact on loss of biodiversity. Geothermal and tidal energy.. Effects of pollutants on soil health and productivity. paper and pulp. Integrated rural energy programme. animals. cooking lighting and power generation. Pollution in fresh water bodies. Vermicomposting. major GHGs. Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate change. Solar energy: concepts of heat and mass transfer. energy plantation crops. mushroom cultivation etc. coastal ecosystem and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall ecological processes. International conventions on climate change. sources and sinks of green house gases. types of biogas plants. composting. power generation for rural electrification-water pumping. utilization of biogas for heating. chemical and biological properties of wastes. Causes of failure of biogas plants in rural India. lakes. source and sinks of heavy metals. Types of renewable sources of energy. Energy from biogas.its history and future predictions. drying. Stratospheric ozone layer depletion-effect of UV radiation on plants and human health. Carbon sequestration and clean development mechanism. Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization. Effluent treatment processes for major industries viz. Resource. forestry. Liquid fuels from petrocrops. chemical and phytoremediation processes. Biogas from animal and agricultural wastes. Point and nonpoint sources of water pollution. sea level rise. design of solar photovoltaic systems. Heavy metal contamination of environments. cooling. types of gasifiers. global dimming agrobiological effects of CO2 fertilization on crops. solar ponds. effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture. National and International laws and maximum permissible limits of soil and water pollutants. flyash. biogas. distillation. Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector. sewage and other agro-industrial wastes. Climate change and food security. Effects of soil and water pollutants on crop plants. Adaptation and mitigation strategies of climate change. distilleries. livestock. Unit 7 Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India.. Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastes. Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel. rivers and wells. Unit 6 Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect.
alginic acid. randomized block. Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions. mean.partial and multiple. Sea weeds and their utilization in agar. Role of information technology in environmental and human health. earthquakes. Industrial pollutants. Human rights. Public environmental awareness. Human population and environment: population growth. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion. Correlations . median. Desertification and biological invasion. Environment and rural economy. cyclones and landslides. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Impact of green revolution on the environments. Latin square and split plot designs. World food problems. characteristics and reclamation.Unit 8 Natural resources of India: land. variation among nations. Environmental policies and laws in India. Major global environmental issues.Family welfare programme. Environmental impact assessment for physical. environmental impacts assessment and environmental auditing. mode and standard deviation. Land degradation. Wasteland: their extent. Tsunami. completely randomized.basic principles. Disaster management: floods. soil. Unit 9 Frequency distribution. Population explosion . water and forest and their conservation and management including wildlife. World food resources. Rain water harvesting. Normal. Nuclear hazards. biological and socio-economic factors. Soil and water conservation. Environment and human health. rain water harvesting and watershed management. Legislative implications of EIA. carrageenan. environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. 88 . Mineral resources: use and exploitation. binomial and poisson distribution. droughts. agarose and agaropectin production. Tests of significance F and Chi-square (X2) tests. Experimental designs . chemical.
AGRONOMY Unit 1 : Crop Ecology and Geography Principles of crop ecology. Timelines and precision key factors 89 . parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in cropped and non cropped lands. Remote sensing: Spectral indices and their application in agriculture. Unit 4 : Dryland Agronomy Concept of dryland farming. light intensity.38. Greenhouse effect. development. Weeds’ classification. nitrification inhibitors and their use for crop production. bio-herbicides: Integrated weed management. Contamination of heavy metals in peri-urban soils and their remediation. drought management. Physiological stress in crops. water and CO2 in relation to photosynthetic rates and efficiency. Ecosystem concept and determinants of productivity of ecosystem. History. runoff and to increase infiltration. Types of drought. Biological weed control. Agro-ecological and agro climatic regions of lndia. Water solubility of phosphate fertilizers. mode of action. nutrient interactions. Site-specific nutrient management. Photosynthesis. Special weeds. weed threshold. effect on plant growth. availability and reaction products in soils. Climate shift and its ecological implication. crop water stress indices and crop stress detection. Techniques of moisture conservation in-situ to reduce evapotranspiration. residual and cumulative effects. dryland farming vs rainfed farming. Role of GM crops in weed management. Climatic classification and delineation of dryland tracts. weed control schedules in field crops. net assimilation. formulations. significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India. Application methods and equipment. Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of applied plant nutrients. Crop weed competition. Slow release fertilizers. vegetables. Principles and methods of fertilizer application. Integrated nutrient management and bio-fertilizers. Fertilizer related environmental problems including ground water pollution. condiments and spices. Geographical distribution of cereals. Soil fertility and productivity and their indicators. conservation cropping and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions. Criteria for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems direct. solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content. medicinal and aromatic plants. Herbicides classification. drought avoidance. crop diversification. cropping systems. respiration. Rain water harvesting and recycling concept. Fertilizer materials including liquid fertilizers. diagnostic techniques with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients. ecology and allelopathy. Unit 2 : Weed Management Scope and principles of weed management. selectivity and resistance. Crop adaptation. varieties. oilseeds. Characterization of agro-climatic environments of drylands. Rainfall analysis and length of growing season. drought resistance. Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients. fodders and forages. vegetables and plantation crops. mineralization. drought syndrome. commercial crops. biology. their composition. legumes. Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity. techniques and practices. their critical concentrations in plants. Unit 3 : Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use History of soil fertility and fertilizer use. Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants. Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to ecological optima. Crop Planning including contingency.
Hydrological cycle. field capacity. Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. Agricultural and agro-industrial residues and its recycling. Soil and water conservation. factorial and simple confounding designs. salinity. weed control. Data transformation and missing plot techniques. means to enhance infilterability of soil. soil. history. weed control. plant available water and extractable water. Effects of water table fluctuation on crop growth. Degraded lands and their rehabilitation. acid. F and chi-square (X2).crops. Occurrence of groundwater.for timely sowing. Analysis of hydrologic data and their use. water requirement. climate. Efficiency of designs. correlation and regression analyses. fertilizer requirements. Fertilizer placement. completely randomized. modern varieties. role of amendments and drainage. Determination of soil water content. runoff and infiltration reciprocity. sugarcane. top dressing and foliar application. sodicity. Concept and importance of watershed management in dryland areas. Unit 5 : Crop Production in Problem Soils Problem soils and their distribution in India. Water harvesting for crop life saving irrigations. Conservation agriculture. Types. coefficient of variation. classifications. strip-plot. distribution. excess water and nutrient imbalances. Soil-plant water relationship. quality components. varieties. Response of crop to acidity. Shifting cultivation. Pooled analysis. economics and post harvest technology. industrial use. extent and causes of wasteland. oilseeds. legumes. groundwater aquifers. waterlogged and mined . Cropping patterns. split plot. Methods of statistical analysis for cropping systems including intercropping. permanent wilting point. randomized block. computation of soil water depletion. Unit 9 : Basics of Soil and Water Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Crop production techniques in problem soils . water retention by soil. Design of experiments and their basic principles. millets.soils. safe disposal. aqua-fertigation. Unit 10 : Soil Water Relationship Soil water relations. Agro forestry systems. tobacco. Unit 8 : Sustainable Land Use Systems Concept of sustainability. factors affecting infiltration. intercultural operations. alternate land use and crop diversification in rainfed areas. Soil irrigability. Unit 7 : Agricultural Statistics Frequency distribution. Allelopathy and biomass production. hydraulic head. watershed management. cropping system and agronomic practices. factors affecting profile water storage. Unit 6 : Crop Production Crop production techniques for cereals. soil water potential and its components. precision in seeding. adaptation. Fate of rain water received at the soil surface. Alternate land use systems. 90 . Sustainability parameters and indicators. saline. standard error and deviation. mechanical and biological means to reduce runoff and soil loss. season. Tests of significance-t. Reclamation of problem soils. exploration of groundwater. fodder and pasture crops including origin. soil moisture characteristics. fiber crops.
Concepts of irrigation scheduling. plant water potential and its components. canopy temperature. Irrigation water distribution. characteristics of irrigation and family systems affecting irrigation management. Socio-economic aspects of on-farm water management. management and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of limited water supplies. water gains and water losses from soil. potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements. application and distribution efficiencies. water production functions. Interaction between irrigation and fertilizers. Salt-affected. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. design of irrigation structures. Water movement through soil . Water resources development. crop adaptation to water deficit. irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability. design and evaluation of irrigation methods. crop coefficients. Field water budget. Management strategies for flood prone areas crop and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Different approaches of irrigation scheduling. Soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters. 91 . Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. merits and demerits of various methods. drought indices. Management of water resources (rain. water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Amelioration of salt affected soils. conjunctive use of water. Types of droughts.plant atmosphere systems. uptake and transport of water by roots. capillary rise. Soil physical properties in relation to plant growth and development. water logged soils. Erodability of soils and their prevention. Significance of osmotic adjustment. deep percolation beyond root zone. Major irrigation projects in India. Crop modeling. Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies. History of irrigation in India. Drought tolerance. acidic. surface methods. optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Unit 13 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water Problem soils and their distribution in India. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Design of irrigation canals. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water for agricultural and fish production. Drainage for improving water logged soils for crop production. overhead methods. Development of crop water deficit. Agronomic considerations in tile-design and operation of irrigation projects. Water quality. Ground water resources. Measurement of irrigation water. Crop water requirements. mechanisms of drought tolerance. canal and ground water) for agricultural production. measures for reducing direct evaporation from soil and crop canopies. drip irrigation and air conditioning irrigation. scope for economizing water. Unit 11 : Plant Water Relationship Plant water relations: Concept of plant water potential. canopy temperature depression (CTD). Unit 12 : Irrigation Water Management Management of irrigation water. leaf diffusive resistance. cell water relations.Movement of soil water saturated and unsaturated water flow. morpho physiological effect of water deficit. Methods of irrigation viz. Evapotranspiration (ET). Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. lrrigation legislation. Irrigation efficiencies. Effect of excess water on plant growth and production.
vapor pressure. Atmospheric and astronomical factors affecting depiction of solar radiation. Cyclones and anticyclonic motions: trough. radiation light intensity and water vapour. thermal time and thermal use-efficiency and their applications. First and second laws of thermodynamics. Dew. warm and cold season indices for comfort zones. length of day. temperature. Seasonal distribution of radiation. Contour charts. Unit 3 : Agricultural Climatology Meaning and scope. Beer's law and Lambert's. haze thunderstorm and hail. power. Bergeron-Findeison theory. potato blight. Cosine law. Effect of climate on humans and animals. Climatic variability. Air masses and fronts. Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crops. temperature sunshine. Clouds their description and classification. pressure. Heat unit concept. surface tension. Mountain and valley winds. Direct and diffuse radiation. atmospheric and agricultural droughts intensity. Weather variables and their measurements. North western disturbances and monsoon breaks. mixing ratio. Pressure systems. recent trends. El-Niño. Units for measurements of momentum. Atmospheric motion balanced forces. rainfall and its variability. Drought climatology. entropy. Thermal wind. Condensation process-artificial rain making. geotropic. Length of growing period determination. Psychometric equation. Moisture availability indices. Vont Hoff’s law.39. rainfall. gradient and cyclostrophic winds. isobars. force work. Extra tropical cyclones. specific humidity. Gas laws. role of weather in animal disease and protection against weather hazards. groundnut red hairy caterpillar. Unit 2 : General Climatology Elements of weather and climate. Heat and cold waves. Wein's displacement law. Concepts of specific heat at constant volume and pressure. apple scan. fog. Climatology principles of weather phenomena occurring in four main seasons of India. La Nino and their impact on Indian rainfall systems. Contingents. Tropical cyclones and their structures. factor affecting rainfall distribution. frost. Concepts of latent and sensible heat.. convection. maritime and monsoon climates. phenology of crops. Meteorological factors associated with incidence and development of crop pests and disease. Stephan-Boatman law. cyclones and cyclonic tracks over the Indian region. ridge and col.conductivity and diffusivity. Thermoperiodism. Kirchoff’s law. Heat transfer. Mechanism of Indian monsoons. Moist and dry adiabatic processes. pressure gradient. T-phi gram. Radiant flux and flux density. relative humidity. Climatic classification . virtual temperature and potential temperature. Carioles force. mist. Thermal . Land and sea breeze. absolute humidity and dew point temperature. beginning and end of drought and wet spells. resistance. Solar constant. duration.Koppen and Thornthwaite. AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY Unit 1 : General Meteorology Laws of radiation: Planck's law. Vapour pressure deficit. 92 . photoperiodism. contingency planning far different weather aberrations. Cardinal temperatures. wind pressure over India. Ozone hole. conduction and radiation. hydraulic equation and its application. locust etc. Vertical stability of atmosphere.
different methods on modification of field microclimate. Early warning systems for agriculture operation forecasts. Shearing stress. statistical models. energy balance and Bowen's ratio methods. Microclimate of field crops. forest and orchards etc. Weather forecasting and agro-advisories. Advantages and limitations of modeling. aerodynamic. Use of satellite cloud imageries in weather forecasting. CO2 increase. Use of SPA and CERES models. consumptive use. meso and macro meteorology. Frost protection.Unit 4 : Micrometeorology Concept of micro. Micrometeorology of crops. long range and vegetative indices based agro meteorology forecasts for monitoring crop prospects and crop yield forecasts. medium and long range weather forecasting. concepts of evaporation. evapotranspiration. greenhouse effect. field lysimetric approaches and canopy temperature based methods. concepts for crop growth and yield. Forecast of Indian monsoon rainfall. General features of dynamical and statistical modeling techniques. potential and actual evapotranspiration. Day and night radiation. frictional velocity. eddy correlation and combination approaches. CO2 and heat. Water use and water use-efficiency. Crop weather analysis models. global warming and their impact on agriculture. Light interception by crop canopies as influenced by leaf area index. Advantages and limitations of different methods. Reynolds analogy. Crop weather models and their use in crop yield assessments. Micrometeorological processes near bare ground and crop surfaces. Unit 6 : Crop Weather Modeling Concepts of mechanistic and deterministic models. water balance single and multilayered soil methods. Unit 7 : Weather Forecasting for Agriculture Crop weather calendars: Short. Meteorological satellites for weather forecasts. rice and wheat. climatic change. dry matter production and crop yield functions. temperature. Physiological variation in relation to crop growth and development. Richardson number. molecular and eddy diffusion. Boundary layer. Monsoon onset and rainfall forecasts. fluxes of momentum. roughness length and zero plane displacement. spectral properties of vegetation. forced and tree convection. different approaches of ET determination empirical methods. exchange coefficients. Irrigation scheduling based on ET. wind and CO2 profiles in crop canopies. Synoptic charts and synoptic approach to weather forecasting. Windbreaks and shelterbelts. Advective energy determination and its effect on water use by crops. humidity. water vapors. extinction coefficient and radiation use–efficiency. leaf arrangement and leaf transmissibility. 93 . and crop growth simulation models for yield assessment. use of medium. Inversion and its effect on smoke plume distribution. Unit 5 : Evapotranspiration Hydrological cycle and concept of water balance. empirical.
dew point. frost. hardening and cracking. Soil water content measurement techniques . spectral vegetation indices and their applications. infrared thermometer. minimum and conventional tillage. mountains and valley winds. swelling. zero. Kirchoff’s law. Soil consistency.components and applications. Unit 2 Planck’s law of radiation. X-ray diffraction. lysimeters. Solute transport in soil and nutrient availability to crops. diagnostic horizons. radio-tracers for use in agricultural research. Estimation of evapotranspiration. Principal of geographic information system and global positioning system. Electron and polarizing microscopes. Soil hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity. geosgrotopic and cyclostropic winds. Nuclear magnetic resonance. haze. humidity mixing ratio. direct and diffuse solar radiation. vapour pressure deficit. Gibb’s free energy and thermodynamics concept of soil water potential. Geoinformatics . Soil texture analysis. extra-tropical cyclones. Unit 3 Major soil groups of India . relative and specific humidity. use of remote sensing for resource management. infiltration rate and soil infiltrability. Spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation. Solar constant. Soil colloids. hydration. Darcy’s law. fog. air masses and fronts. Electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. desurfaced and compacted soils. Soil moisture characteristics and hysteresis. Soil crust and seedling emergence. Unit 4 State of soil water. psychrometric equation. ozone hole. Management of highly permeable. visible and IR spectrophotometer. spectroradiometer. AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS Unit 1 Definition and scope of Agricultural Physics. thermal wind. drought monitoring and soil moisture availability. moist and dry adiabatic processes. Soil tilth and tillage. land and sea breeze. Beer’s law. Soil as a three phase disperse system. major components of Agricultural Physics (Soil Physics.classification and structural indices and evaluation in relation to crop growth. Physical and chemical composition of soil. dew. thunderstorm and hail. crop growth monitoring. day length. Carioles force. Radioactivity. bulk density. theory of saturated and unsaturated flow. pressure systems. Bergeron-Findeison theory. Optical and microwave remote sensing. virtual and potential temperatures. gamma attenuation. artificial rain making. Soil profile. Quality of irrigation water. Hyperspectral remote sensing. gypsum block and thermocouple psychrometer. tropical cyclones. Irrigation water management under variable water supply. timedomain refectometry. Role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil fertility. Remote Sensing. Convection and conduction. Biophysics. Agricultural Meteorology. Gas laws. Resource conserving technologies. clouds classification. contour chart. Stefan-Boltzman’s law. mist. tensiometer.their characteristics and distribution. and Lambert’s law. cyclonic and anti-cyclonic motion. Nano-technology. AAS. UV. sodic and industrial effluents on soil properties and crop 94 . Vertical stability of atmosphere. Stokes’ law. pressure plate and membrane apparatus. land cover mapping and land use planning. Mass-volume relationships. Dynamics of soil physical environment under different cropping systems.40. Wien’s displacement law.neutron scattering. Effect of saline. crop water use. porosity and pore size distribution. shrinkage. Geographic Information System and Simulation). Soil structure . slowly permeable.
Agroadvisories. root and shoot growth. Transport phenomena in biological systems. components of soil heat balance. shelter belts and windbreaks. membranes and their modifications. lipids. Protein structure . universal soil loss equation. 95 . biomolecules. Effect of soil temperature on plant growth including germination. Unit 7 Interactions in biological systems. Global climate change and its impact on agriculture. tillage and afforestation for soil and water conservation. Land capability classification. Movement of soil air. weather phenomenon in Indian agriculture. Hydrologic cycle. Early warning systems for agricultural operations forecast. Adaptation and mitigation strategies to sustain agricultural production under climate change. Fick’s law of diffusion.growth.unicellular and multicellular. Soil temperature measurement . rainfall-runoff relationships. Wind erosion . thermal conductivity and diffusivity. Rainwater harvesting and recycling. Life forms . monitoring and management of waste lands. Meteorological satellites for weather forecast. control of water erosion including gullies and ravines.factors and control options. Water use-yield relationships. thermistors.amino acids.thermocouples. Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality. Laws of thermodynamics. Factors affecting soil temperature. water production functions. Thermal properties of soil and heat capacity. Unit 5 Soil air composition. use of mulches. metereology and crop growth and topics of Agrometeorology Unit 9 Crop-weather interaction models and their use in crop yield assessment. structure and functions in living organisms. sand dunes formation and stabilization. simulation of soil water balance. Concept of watershed .its characterization and management. Soil erodibility. Management of soil thermal environment. heat flux plate. Bioenergetics. Effect of soil temperature on microbial activities in nutrient transformation. Dryland farming. plant growth in relation to soil aeration. sediment yield. Identification. Unit 8 Weather and climate. Short. medium and long range weather forecasting. Causes of land degradation and management for prevention/restoration. Oxygen diffusion rate. Water erosion. Structure of plant and animal cells. Bioelectricity of cell membrane and measurement. Unit 6 Principles of soil and water conservation. different types of soil erosion and extent of problem in India. Crop weather calendars. Sources of soil heat.
Unit 10 Measures of central tendency and dispersion; Binomial distribution, chi-square (X2) test, correlation and regression, t and F tests; Experimental designs - randomized, Latin square, splitplot and factorial; Spatial statistic variogram and kriging techniques; Principles of computer software; Methods of information storage, retrieval and transfer; Crop simulation model, Markov-chain probability and its application; Normal, binomial and gamma distribution.
41. SOIL SCIENCE - PEDOLOGY
Unit 1: Soil Genesis Pedology in relation to other disciplines; Rocks, minerals and other soil forming materials; Geomorphic processes in land evolution; Geomorphology in soil mapping; Soil-landscape relationships; Concepts of soil genesis; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Factors of soil formation; Pedogenic processes and their relationships with soil properties; Soil development; Pedon, polypedon, soil profile, horizons and their nomenclature. Unit 2: Soil Mineralogy Structure, characteristics and identification of soil minerals; Genesis and transformation of clay minerals; Clay-organic complexes; Non-crystalline components of soils; Mineralogy of major soil groups of India. Unit 3: Soil Survey, Mapping and Cartography Soil survey techniques; Types of soil surveys, base maps and mapping units; Remote-sensing techniques for soil resource inventorization; Cartography – techniques for preparation of base maps, soil and other interpretive maps, processing of field sheet, compilation and abstraction of maps in different scales; Geographic Information System - concepts, components and application in natural resource mapping. Unit 4: Soil Classification Concepts, history and utility of soil classification; FAO/UNESCO world soil reference system; USDA Soil Taxonomy - epipedons, diagnostic subsurface horizons and other diagnostic characteristics, soil moisture and temperature regimes, categories of the system and their criteria; Orders, sub-orders, great groups and other categories of Taxonomy classification; Soil micromorphology – importance, thin section studies for identification of diagnostic horizons and other pedological features, and their interpretation for soil genesis and classification; Soil groups of India - distribution, problems, potentials and placement in Soil Taxonomy. Unit 5: Soil Correlation and Land Use Planning Soil correlation - concepts and correlation at various levels; Interpretation of soil resource information for agricultural and non-agricultural uses; Land capability and land irrigability classification; Land evaluation and land use planning; Soil degradation; Concept of benchmark soils for agrotechnology transfer; Agro-ecological regions of India.
Unit 6: Soil Physics and Conservation Soil texture and soil structure indices and evaluation; Mass-volume relationships in soil; Soil moisture retention characteristics, energetics of soil water in relation to its availability to plants, water movement in soil, soil water balance; Soil temperature, heat content and heat flow in soil; Soil air and aeration status; Universal soil loss equation; Principles of soil and water conservation; Different types of soil erosion and its control; Integrated watershed management.
Unit 7: Soil Chemistry Chemical composition of soil; Soil reaction; Soil colloids; Ion exchange, adsorption and desorption, ion activity and ionic equlibria in soils; Quantity-intensity relationships of nutrients; Fixation and release of nutrients; Development, characteristics and management of acidic, saline, sodic and waterlogged soils. Unit 8: Soil Fertility, Fertilizers and Manures Essential elements in plant nutrition; Soil fertility evaluation - soil, plant tissue and biological tests; Soil organic matter decomposition, humus formation and role in soil fertility; Soil organisms, biological N-fixation and nutrient transformations; Mycorrhiza and plant nutrition; Manures, fertilizers, biofertilizers and their use; Integrated nutrient management; Quality control of fertilizers; Fertility status of major soil groups of India. Unit 9: Methods of Soil Analysis Methods of soil analysis - particle size distribution, bulk and particle density, moisture constants, soil reaction, organic carbon, alkaline earth carbonates, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, available nutrients; Instrumental methods - flame photometry, absorption spectrophotometry, potentiometry, conductimetry, X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis and polarising microscopy. Unit 10: Statistics Measures of central tendency and dispersion; Correlation and regression; Tests of significance t and F tests; Principles of computer use.
composition.their influence on plant growth. Mycorrhiza and plant nutrition. constitution of clay minerals. Double layer theory. Unit 5 Soil organisms . Nutrient cycles in soil. K. Soil organisms and pedogenesis. Biofertilizers. pH-charge relations. Chemistry of waterlogged soils. Biochemistry of humus formation. Buffer capacity of soils. Soil organic matter .its nature. Soil temperature. oxide and hydroxide minerals. Ionic activity in soil and its measurement. Biology of root-soil interface. Fe and Zn) in soil. soil fertility and plant growth. electrophoresis. Unit 4 Ion exchange and sorption phenomena. constitution and role in soil formation. Energetics of soil water in relation to its availability to plants. SOIL SCIENCE – SOIL CHEMISTRY/ FERTILITY/MICROBIOLOGY Unit 1 Soil as a natural body. Soil strength and soil crusting. Unit 3 Chemical composition of soil. Manures and fertilizers. Unit 6 Essential elements in plant nutrition. Quality control of fertilizers. Rocks and minerals . Soil enzymes. 99 . amorphous clays and other non-crystalline silicate minerals.42. Water and solute movement in soil. Chemistry of production of different fertilizers. Chemical equilibria in soils. S. Transformation and transport of nutrients (N.structure. redox potential and nutrient availability. Cation exchange equations and ratio law. Soil colloids . Major soil groups of India . Soil aeration. Soil formation. soil survey and classification as per Soil Taxonomy. Fertilizers mixtures. Biological nitrogen fixation. Donnan distribution of ions and its thermodynamic treatment.their characteristics and distribution.electro-osmosis. oxidation-reduction equilibria. Solubility equilibria for carbonates.their role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient transformations. alumino-silicates. etc. acid base equilibria. Biological equilibrium in soil. Electro-kinetic phenomena . Adsorption isotherms. Weathering of rocks and transformation of minerals. phosphates and iron. Mechanisms of ion absorption by plants. composition and characteristics.their classification. P. Soil moisture retention characteristics. Boltzman distribution. zeta potential and streaming potential. Slow release fertilizers and nitrification retarders. Unit 2 Soil physical properties . Land-use classification. Charge development on clays and organic matter.
soil testing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation and regression. SAR. Types of soil erosion. ultra-violet and infrared. diagnosis and mapping of land degradation. Radio-active contamination of soil. plant and tissue tests and biological methods. Soil factors in emission of greenhouse gases. Spectrophotometry . Bio-remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils. Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendation.visible. sewage. Statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion. Heavy metal toxicity and soil pollution. Experimental designs for pot culture and field experiments. Use of remote sensing in soil and water conservation. residual and cumulative effects of fertilizers. properties and development of acid. Types. Soil pollution through industrial effluents. Potentiometry and conductimetry. Unit 10 Interaction of soils and pesticides. Tests of significance t and F tests. Mass spectrometry. Irrigation water quality . X-ray diffractometry. Unit 8 Soil fertility evaluation . saline and sodic soils and their management. acid sulphate. Organic farming.Unit 7 Modern methods of soil. Unit 9 Nature. RSC and specifications. Soil test-crop response correlations. pesticides and fertilizers. Principles of soil and water conservation. 100 . Geographic Information System in monitoring. plant and fertilizer analysis.EC. Flame photometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Use of isotopic tracers in soil research. Computer use in soil research. factors and processes of land degradation and remediation. Carbon sequestration in mitigating greenhouse effect. Integrated nutrient management. factors affecting soil erosion. Direct. and control measures. Lime and gypsum requirements of soils. Sustaining soil fertility. Mechanisms of nutrient losses from soil and control measures.
indices and evaluation. SOIL SCIENCE – SOIL PHYSICS / SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION Unit 1 Soil as a natural body. Soil water diffusivity. Methods of soil physical analysis . Soil physical properties under different cropping systems.bulk density porosity. shrinkage. Soils structure and plant growth. soil tilth evaluation. transformation and release of nutrient ions in soil. swelling. gamma attenuation and time domain reflectometry.pressure plate and membrance apparatus. hardening and cracking. Clay minerals . Soil temperature measurement . Role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil fertility. Soil tilth and tillage. Soil crust and seedling emergence. Clay-organic matter and clay-humus complexes.thermocouples. Unit 3 Soil as a three phase disperse system. thermisters.their role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient transformation. Essential elements in plant nutrition.43. Saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Root growth in relation to soil physical properties. Oxygen diffusion rate. Major soil groups of India their characteristics and distribution. pore-size distribution. tensiometers. thermocouple psychrometer. Fixation. slowly permeable. diffusion and interception processes. Soil colloids. Soil texture in relation to plant growth. Soil water content measurement by neutron scattering. desurfaced and compacted soils. Creation of soil data-base and its various applications. characteristics and identification. microwave remote sensing technique. Denitrification. Stokes’ law. Unit 4 Soil texture mechanical analysis. Soil profile. gypsum block. Unit 2 Physical and chemical composition of soil. Soil classification. Soil organisms .genesis. hydration. Soil reaction. structure.wet and dry sieving devices. Fertilizers and manures in relation to plant nutrition. 101 . Biological nitrogen fixation. heat flux plate. Dynamic properties of soils consistency. Management of highly permeable. Isotopes and radiations in soil physical investigations. Soil structure classification. Soil water potential measurement . Nutrient movement in soil . Biofertilizers and their use. diagnostic horizons. Rocks and minerals in relation to soil development.mass flow. Mass volume relationships. Mechanisms of ion absorption by plants. Soil aggregate analysis . Weathering and soil formation. genesis and theory of aggregate formation.
Water flow . Soil-plant-water atmosphere relationships.Darcy’s law. hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity. Soil aeration in relation to plant growth. Water-use efficiency. Land use-land cover mapping and land use planning using conventional and remote sensing techniques. Solute transport in soil. Management of soil physical properties for prevention/restoration of land degradation. characterisation of soil aeration satus. Wind erosion equation and evaluation of parameters. processes and control. Soil physical properties in relation to water erosion and soil erodibility. Factors affecting soil temperature environmental factors. Identification. Hydrologic cycle. redistribution and evaporation of soil water. Land capability classification. Sources of soil heat and heat balance. Principles of optical and microwave remote sensing. Soil water potential . Unit 6 Soil air composition. and factors affecting it. Soil water availability in relation to plant growth. Principles of geographic information system and global positioning system. nature and extent of the problem in India. and factors affecting it. monitoring and management of waste lands. Productivity rating. Unit 7 Principles of soil and water conservation.mass flow and Fick’s law of diffusion. Different types of soil erosion. Effect of soil temperature on plant growth including germination. Causes of land degradation. Rainfall runoff relationships. Infiltration. Soil moisture characteristics and hysteresis. Spectral vegetation indices and their applications. Soil conservation survey. Irrigation water management under adequate and limited water supply. thermal conductivity and diffusivity. factors affecting. Soil water balance and measurement of its components. Shelter belts and wind breaks. Irrigation scheduling. Quality of irrigation water. Effect of saline. estimation of runoff and sedimentation yield. Movement of soil air . Estimation of evapotranspiration. Control of water erosion including gullies and ravines. Rain water harvesting and recycling. Concept of watershed . Use of mulches.Gibbs free energy and thermodynamic concept of soilwater potential. root and shoot growth. Effect of soil temperature on microbial activity and nutrient transformation. energy balance in soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum.its characterization and management. Heat flow in soil. Spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation and factors affecting these. 102 . Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality indicators. thermal properties of soil and heat capacity. Unit 8 Characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. Water use-yield relationships. Soil moisture conservation and dryland farming. sodic and industrial effluents on soil properties and crop growth. grasses. Water erosion. Unit 9 Soil and water as nutural resources. tillage and afforestation for soil and water conservation. Sand-dune formation and stabilization. theories of saturated and unsaturated flow.Unit 5 State of soil water. Universal soil loss equation and evaluation of its parameters. Management of soil thermal environment.
Spatial statistic variogram and kriging techniques. Principles of computer use. Windows-based use of computer software and modern methods of information storage. Bionomial distribution. t and F tests. retrieval and transfer. Chi-square (X2) test. Correlation and regression.Unit 10 Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Experimental designs – randomized. split-plot and factorial designs. Latin square. 103 .
Mechanisms. electronic configuration of atom (LS coupling) and the periodic properties of elements. Familiar name reactions Aldol. f block elements. Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules. VSEPR theory. Conformational analysis of simple cyclic (chair and boat cyclohexanes) and acyclic systems. Formation and stability of carbonium ions. structure of simple ionic and covalent solids. nitrenes. Coordination chemistry .order reactions). Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second .structural aspects.Tiemann.field splitting of d orbitals. addition and elimination reactions. Concept of chirality recognition of symmetry elements and chiral structures.reactive intermediates. diastereoisomerism in acyclic and cyclic systems. Isotopes and their applications. ionic radii. Redox reactions. Newman and Sawhorse projections. carbanions. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Unit 4 General characteristics s. Hofmann. AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY Unit 1 General chemistry: Structure and bonding: Atomic orbitals. radical substitution. metal carbonyls and metal clusters. Stobbe. electron transfer reactions. Friedel-Craft reactions. Unit 5 IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Perkin. Sandwich compounds. Radioactivity and transmutation of elements. Clasien rearrangements. Bond lengths. Arrhenius equation and concept of transition state. 104 . Types of chemical bonds (weak and strong) intermolecular forces. Wittig reactions.Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases. Shapes of polyatomic molecules. p. ionisation potential.44. Schmidt. lattice energy. free radicals and arynes. Beckmann and Fries rearrangements. Acid-base indicators. Reimer . Unit 3 Energetics and dynamics of chemical reactions entropy. electronegativity. E-Z isomerisms. nonstoichiometric oxides. isomerism. electrophilic. Buffer solution. concept of hybridization. redox indicators. Diels . free-energy. including SNI and SN2 reactions. electron affinity. pH and pKa. octahedral and tetrahedral crystal . relationship between free energy change and equilibrium. d. Unit 2 Acids and bases . redox potential. bond order and bond energies. Colligative properties of solutions. Nucleophilic. R-S nomenclature. Reformatsky and Grignard reactions. Dieckmarn condensations.Alder reactions. acid-base concept in nonaqueous media. magnetism and colour of transition metal ions. oxidation numbers. Lossen. Unit 6 Common organic reactions and mechanisms . bond angles. carbenes. HSAB concept. Interconversion of Fischer. catalysis. Curtius.
Safety aspects. Solid and liquid formulations. preparation. distillation.linearity. Classification.Robinson annulation. ELISA and radiotracer techniques/methods in pesticide residue analysis. binders. mode of action and uses of major conventional synthetic and natural agrochemicals including plant production chemicals. LOD and LOQ. stirrers. Oppenauer oxidations. Formulants . Acts and regulations promoting social security and welfare of workers. modeling of pesticide fate in the environment. rotary evaporators. 105 . FAO. good laboratory practices (GLP). sublimation.concepts and toxicological significance. Method validation .devices and quality of deposits. separation methods. consumption and trade statistics of pesticides and fertilizers. heating and cooling baths. Unit 12 Pestiside residue chemistry. formulation codes .classification. Hydroboration. Pesticide residues . CODEX and national/international guidelines. pesticide poisoning and antidotes. encapsulants. Regulatory aspects as per Insecticide Act. Multi-residue methods.Kisluler. Unit 7 Elementary principles and applications of electronic. synergists. Confirmatory techniques. Solvent purification and drying. anti-oxidants. IUPAC nomenclature. Sanitary and Phytosanitary standards. principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates. specifications and uses.carriers/ diluents. extraction.regulation. General aspects of pest and pesticide management. MeerweinPonndorf-Verley and Birch reductions. Laws. Unit 10 Agrochemicals . abiotic and biotic transformations. Functions of common equipments. surfactants. Experimental design. properties. microbial and photochemical degradation. Quality Control. Unit 8 Chemical laboratory techniques: Precautions in handling toxic chemicals and hazardous reactions. WHO. safeners. properties. quality control and management. Application . Clemmensen. Bound and conjugated residues. water and oil pumps. Unit 9 Introduction to agrochemicals. Production. leaching in soil. acts and rules governing registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use. structure. adsorption/desorption. Unit 11 Agrochemical formulation . chromatographic. Routine functional group transformations and interconversions of simple functionalities. NMR. Application of spectrophotometric. sampling. and mass spectral techniques to simple structural problems. vibrational. EPA. crystallization. stabilizers. Wolff.
etc. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. accuracy and precision. Unit 15 Data analysis: Types of errors. potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures. Hest. Unit 14 Application of chemical principles and knowledge in the field of Nanoscience and Technology. Organic manures (farmyard manure. 106 . Chemoinformatics. sludge. Soil conditioners and amendments. green manure. Production. least-squares analysis.Unit 13 Chemistry of plant nutrients . Integrated plant nutrient management.essential plant nutrients (major. compost. correlation.). F test. sewage. analysis of variance. biogas slurries. chi-square (X2). liquid fertilizers. biofertilizers. Combinatorial Chemistry and Pesticide discovery. secondary and micro). Nutrient use efficiency (principles and approaches). phosphatic. manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous.
textile policy under five year plan. concept and principles of retailing and merchandising. methods of printing (block. decorative/fancy weaves (jacquard. basic weaves. Retailing and Merchandising Anthropometric measurements (importance and techniques). clothing construction (basic principles of drafting. clothing requirements for infants. retailers. methods of fabric construction (weaving. socio-economic factors. fibre dyeing. children with special needs. traditional textiles and costumes of different states of India. flat pattern and draping methods). principles of weaving. Unit 3 : Textile Designing. toddler. principles of pattern making. Unit 2 : Garment Manufacturing. fashion cycle and terminology. factors affecting diversity of textiles and costumes of India (geographical factors. design repeats. terminology. classification and knitting machines). pile weave). decorative designs (naturalistic. customs. lace making. leno. classification. social. flat pattern making. export and import procedure and policies. fabric testing. Price determination (different methods of pricing). sale promotion techniques. dyeing techniques (solution dyeing. traditions and religious factors). blends and mixtures (principles. technological advances in dyeing and printing. classification of dye. origin of costumes. knitting. marriage and family dynamics. double cloth. forecasting and significance in product planning). Assessment of colourfastness of dyed textiles. status of textile and apparel industries in the global scenario. knitting (principles. screen. preschool. finishes. HOME/ FAMILY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Fundamentals and theories of human development. marketing of textiles and clothing (channels of distributionmanufacturer. wholesalers. warp and weft figuring. elements of design and application of various design principles in textile designing. Traditional Textiles and Costumes Woven designs (simple and compound structures of fabric). basic weaves (plain. yarn dyeing. Fashion. type and technology). Quality Analysis. resist dyeing. abstract and geometric designs). role and importance of textile and garment industry in Indian economy. adolescents. conventional. grading and alteration of basic block. draping. factors determining fashion trends. methods and techniques of assessment in human development. guidance and counseling. Stain removal. yarn testing. trends and issues in early childhood care and education. piece and garment dyeing). historical background of Indian costumes. population dynamics and family welfare. their uses and care). use of CAD in textile industry. economic and psychological factors affecting clothing choices. Unit 1 : Textile Science and Care Processing/manufacturing. dobby. textile performance standards and various organizations associated with textile testing and quality control. structure and uses of yarns. felts and nonwoven). transfer printing and batik). importance of textile and apparel testing. 107 . adults and senior citizens. their functions and methods of selling). importance and functions of clothes. dyes and pigments. roller. loom and its parts. fibre testing. elementary school children. sewing machine (parts. characteristics. qualitative and quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures in textiles. care and storage of clothes. Principles and methods of washing and finishing. standards.45. properties of natural and man-made fibers. stencil. twill and satin). techniques of retailing and merchandising of textiles and apparel industry. marketing trends (assessment of market trends. middleman.
infancy. their functions. speech defects.demands. national commission for women. Unit 5 : Population. Readiness for marriage-physiological. middle childhood. language and personality development. Consumer goods. its causes and implications for energy management in homes.types. Banking. consumer surplus. Consumer retail services. Parent and community education. divorce. Application of management process to time and energy for work simplification. Status of women in India. causes. socio-cultural aspects of population growth in India. 108 . visual. and factors affecting use. Trends and issues in early childhood care and education. Techniques of time and motion studies and application of Mundel’s classes of change in household work. cerebral palsy. inheritance. Methods and techniques of assessment in human development. types. contribution and methods of handling family income). UNESCO. women and children in India. national policy for children. e-banking and insurance. Concept of family. buying motives. deflation. family income (types. USAID. Physical. Theories and concept in family resource management. Consumer Protection Act and other laws. standards. Types of market. Goal types and goal setting. UNICEF. Developmental tasks at different stages. Grading. Causes and effects of family disharmony. Fatigue. Premarital association. price index. value types. Marriage .Unit 4 : Fundamentals and Theories of Human Development Stages of human development (prenatal development stage. National and international organizations/programmes like ICDS. Equipment. emotional. psychological and educational. social. adolescence. Consumer rights. Resources. moral. adoption. UNFPA. sources. Role of family. old age and maturity). Principles of human growth and development. Household energy forms. IMF and ILO. Taes. and learning disabilities). Approaches to study family-developmental social. Family planning. Types of money and function. FPAI. IFAD. income distribution. rights of women and children. Energy crisis.meaning. Unit 6 : Family Resource Management and Consumer Science Interdisciplinary nature of management and systems approach to family resource management. Public distribution system. Theories of child/human development with special reference to cognitive development theories. growth of population in world and India. Family Dynamics and Family Welfare Demographic profile of child in India. Government development programmes for population. family composition and structure. Decision making process. Channels of distribution. Special education for children with developmental challenge. mental retardation. supply. Children with special needs (types of impairments: physical. characteristics. Legal aspects: laws regarding marriage. factors affecting standard of living. sources of learning values and their importance to family. WHO. Credit. Theories of population education. early childhood. premarital guidance and councelling. school and peer interaction in the development of the child. Basic Economic laws. intellectual. standard of living.concept and meaning. UNDP. social changes affecting the family. Cost of living. standardization and packaging.types and relationship with values and goals. early and middle adulthood. inflation. Needs and wants. CARE. population policies in India.Guidelines for budgeting. tools and accessories for rural and urban houses. Sales management and product promotion. agricultural and allied tasks. Process of management. social.types. auditory. psychological and others. effects and remedies.
micro and macro environment. arrangement. natural and artificial light. Floor and floor coverings. Art principles. colour theories. International trade. Basic concepts and characteristics of an entrepreneur. Design and its type. Ergonomic designing of furniture and equipment. Colour-its importance in interior decoration. Environmental education in India. economic house construction. Role of government and private organization in financing. World Trade Organization. impact of environment on family life. selection. Determining physiological cost of work. Drawing house plans for different income groups and activities. Importance and scope of entrepreneurship. Furniture. Women entrepreneurship development. voluntary organizations. Rain water harvesting. state and central level agencies. Price determination. Flower arrangement. care and maintenance. Government/semi-government housing schemes/programmes. Housing finance-source and cost. window types and window treatments. 109 . cognitive. Concepts of sustainable development and household and farm waste and waste utilization techniques. Introduction to ecology and environment. Lighting-functions. House ownership. DIC.types. Selection of site-orientation and zoning. environment and health hazards due to pollution. Human costs of work in relation to affective. Housing and Space Designing Elements and principles of art and their application in interior decoration.7. Work. care and maintenance. DRDA. Different types of houses. family as an ecosystem. Unit. Factors to be considered in house planning. colour schemes and their application in interior decoration. Right to information.Advertising. Role and functions of small-scale industries. worker and work place relationship. Man. Planning interiors for people with special needs. Identifying family housing needs and future projections. Building materials. Household furnishing-types. KVIC. Functional design and arrangement of work places for different occupational activities. temporal and physical components. Wall treatments. tools and accessories used. environment and resources. selection.
resource-enterprise organization. planning models. characterizing agricultural growth. optimization of resource allocation. farm planning and budgeting. transfer of technology . five-year plans and agriculture. Agricultural policy analysis and reforms . role of economic. labour. fertilizer. features of planning in capitalist. cost and profit functions. square root. rural infrastructure.micro level.energy. product-product relationships. book keeping and accountancy. neo-classical.) under various market structures: management strategies for major natural resources. social welfare function. planning. seed. diversification and insurance in agriculture and allied sectors. role of nongovernment orgnisations (NGOs) and self help groups (SHGs) in agricultural development. Agricultural growth analysis . technology. neo-socialist and mixed economies. farm financial analysis. fisheries.determinants of agricultural growth and their measurements. analysis of instability. land. semi-log. capital formation. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Unit 1 : Agricultural Development and Policies Role of agriculture in economic development.marginal returns. pricing. socialist. constant elasticity of substitution (CES).46. marketing. political and environmental factors.Harrod-Domar. agro-eco regional development. growth and development. yield gap analysis and research planning. Von Neumann. quadratic. management and policy formulation. agricultural information system. sectoral. Forms and applications of production functions . horticulture. cost concepts and analysis. sustainability issues in natural resources. social. theories of development. crop livestock insurance. cubic. etc. water. regional. etc.). interdependence between agricultural and industrial development. Concepts of food security. opportunity cost. etc. food price policies. variable elasticity of substitution (VES). changes in cropping pattern. measurement and management of risk and uncertainty in agriculture (including livestock. food safety net and food quality. process of decision making under different knowledge situations. spillman. water. growth models . equimarginal returns. development strategies in India. production oriented policies. poverty alleviation programmes. farm efficiency measures. role of economics in natural resource accounting. land. technological. time comparison and comparative advantage. Cobb-Douglas. decomposition analysis and sources of output growth. cultural. cost substitution. allocation of renewable and non-renewable resources ( forests. Government programmes for conservation and development of natural resources. Measurement of poverty. food subsidies.linear. types of planning . Unit 2 : Natural Resource Management Characteristics and classification of natural resources. dualities between production. enterprises combination.constraints to technology adoption. trade etc. characteristics of developing and developed economies. infrastructure. forestry. Unit 3 : Farm Business Management and Production Economics Basic principles of farm management . resource-use 110 . derivation of supply and factor demand functions from production and profit functions.
demand and supply models. decision making models. buffer stock operations. appraisal criteria.) revolution. concepts of components of working capital. wagc and salary administration. supply. group dynamics.public and private sector banks. objectives and functions of financial management. employee welfare and safety. Internal Rate of Return (IRR). government interventions including regulated markets. recruitment. participative management. absenteeism and turnover. sources of long term finance and cost of capital. selection. transfer. cooperatives. styles. agricultural project analysis. total factor productivity. management development. marketed surplus models: marketing of agricultural inputs. decision making. promotion. role of institutions in agri-finance . procurement. frontier production function. induction and placement. managing change. regional and global financial institutions.formulation. cost of credit/capital. marketable and marketed surplus. market integration. planning. rural credit structure-demand. organizational culture. conduct and performance analysis.balance sheet. level of managers. and commodity. Unit 5 : Agricultural Marketing and Price Analysis Marketing in a developing economy. motivation.3 Rs and 3 Cs of credit. management of organizational conflicts. rainbow (green. 111 . estimation and projections. international financial institutions. micro-finance institutions (MFIs). micro-credit. leadership styles. labour management relations. capital structure theories. (B) AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Unit 6: Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management The agribusiness system. kisan credit cards. agribusiness financing system in India-money and capital markets. organizational context of decisions. management processes. credit appraisal. morale. sources and forms. transportation. price spread and efficiency. principles of agricultural financial management. managing working capital . innovations in agricultural financing . capital budgeting. structure.microfinance. performance appraisal and job evaluation. futures market. separation. white.efficiency and returns to scale. blue. conflict management.cash management. job analysis and design. boards.. managerial skills. reforms in agricultural credit policy. successes and failures of co-operative sector in India. etc. Unit 4 : Agricultural Finance Importance of agricultural finance. dividend decision. SHGs. risk management. cash flow statement. price stabilization measures and policies. organizing. estimation of credit requirement. storage and warehousing. problems in marketing agricultural produce. management by objectives. channels in marketing. Human resource planning. Benefit Cost (B-C) ratio analysis. analysis of financial statements. processing. Role of co-operatives under emerging economic scenario. marketing functions. personnel supervision. national. co-operative marketing etc. human resource training and development. negotiation and negotiating skills. Unit 7 : Financial Management Fundamentals of accounting and book-keeping. motivating and leading. income statement. yellow. forward trading. rural insurance. controlling.
the buying process. agricultural marketing system. productivity of operations. strategic analysis. strategy implementation. rural retailing. wholesaling and retailing. strategy formulation. the customer resource. entrepreneurship. government policies for promotion of small and tiny enterprises. process of business opportunity identification. scanning the external and internal environment. planning marketing mix. consumer behaviour. land targeting: marketing organization. strategy and technology. total quality management. concept and scope. framework for strategic management.Unit 8 : Marketing Management Indian marketing environement. SWOT analysis. evaluation of strategy. rehabilitation of sick enterprises. marketing extension. work force productivity. detailed business plan preparation. Unit 10 : Strategic Management Strategic management – meaning. facilities management. planning for growth. market research. Unit 11 : Entrepreneurial Skills and New Venture Planning Entrepreneurship and small business concepts. sickness in small enterprises. international marketing and finance. Unit 9: Production and Operations Management Operations management of an agro-industrial unit including operations system and processes. 112 . operations planning and control. marketing mix. industrial (external) and organizational (internal) environmental factors influencing strategy. creating competitive advantage strategy. strategy and structure. material and supply chain management. strategy and leadership. market segmentation. managing small enterprises. quality management. rural marketing. marketing information system. project feasibility study. development of strategy. marketing strategy.
Innovation attributes and consequences of Innovations. Conceptual and philosophical similarities and differences among extension education. NIRD. Monitoring. e-mail. Monitoring and evaluation. scientific management movement. selection and use. concept and models of communication. Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques. Principles of administration and management. Extension teaching methods and audio-visual aids.Decision Process. Management Information System in agricultural extension. controlling. Farming System Research and Extension (FSR&E) and participatory development approaches. touch screens. fidelity. 113 . concept and theories of rural leadership. Decision-making in organization. classification. Information Communication Technologies . NGOs. Types and methods of administrative communication. micro-computers and web technologies. Organizational effectiveness.National Institute of Agricultural Extension and Management (MANAGE). credibility. State Agricultural Universities. reporting and budgeting. Agricultural Technology Information Centers (ATIC). classical and modern theories of management. National Agricultural Extension System and networking of state development departments. booklets. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Unit 1 : Fundamentals of Agricultural Extension and Communication Concepts of agricultural extension and communication. group dynamics. culture and norms. Concept and elements of diffusion and adoption. coordinating. Basics of agricultural journalism. adult education and continuing/distance education. Scope and role of agricultural extension / home science extension / veterinary and animal husbandry extension / dairy extension and fisheries extension in rural development. EEl and NAARM. Concepts of teaching and learning process . Human behavioral dimensions related to agricultural extension. popular and scientific articles. use of multimedia. Personal management. Information Kiosks. Management of Agricultural Knowledge System (MAKS) and use of Expert System in agricultural extension. organizational development. directing and leading. social structure. Unit 3: Agricultural Extension Management Concept of administration and management. Understanding of basic rural institutions. organizing. Coordination at different levels of extension management. evaluation nnd impact analysis of extension programmes.47. Unit 2: Information Communication Technologies in Agricultural Extension Concept of Information Communication Technology and its role in agricultural development. leaflets. adopter categories.print and electronic media. Technology Parks. schools of management thought. Functions of management – planning. folders. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Social and technological change processes. methods of coordination. computer-assisted instructions.principles of learning as applied to agricultural extension. Concept and stages of Innovation . scope of Agri Business Management and Institutions . types of publications – bulletins. video and teleconferencing. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). cooperatives and private organizations. newsletters. organizational behaviour. staffing. Internet. Management by Objective (MBO). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM). Networking system of information. Historical and emerging perspectives of agricultural extension in India and other countries. organizational climate. Interpersonal and mass communication methods. problems and prospects of Information Communication Technologies. empathy and feedback in communication.
Motivation. Sericulture. Horticulture Mission. field studies. scaling techniques. PLA and PTD. T-group. Poultry. Writing of scientific reports. levels of measurement. Concepts of human resource and human resource management. Dairy and Women Developmental Programmes implemented by Govt. Issues related to globalization and IPR. variables . of India. programmed instruction. ANOVA. Rabbit farming. cottage industries. correlation and regression. Goat and Sheep farming.women in Agriculture and their empowerment. dependent and intervening variables.interview method and mailed questionnaires. PRA. Participatory approaches. RRA. during training and post training. Developing training modules. Processing of data. ex-post facto and experimental design.pre training. Floriculture. Capacity Building in relation to Dairying. Agricultural. types and testing of hypothesis. characteristics. Methods of sampling and statistical tests. Unit 6 : Developmental Strategies and Issues in Agricultural Extension Issues related to extension policies and developmental strategies. SREP. Research-Extension-Farmer-Interface. Common wealth. Action Research and participatory research. transactional analysis and fish bowl exercise. FAO. group brain storming. Front Line Extension Programmes of ICAR/TAR-IVLP. Technology Mission. Characteristics of scientific method. Measurement – meaning. Reliability and validity of tests.types and techniques of training evaluation. characterization. Rural.tabulation.SAIC.Unit 4: Research Methodology in Extension Education Social research and types of research.meaning and types. 114 . FLD and OFT in relation to TOT programmes. syndicate method. micro-finance and functioning of SHG for empowerment and sustainability. Agricultural Extension in the context of enhancing productivity. Income and Employment. Lecture cum demonstration method. case studies and survey method. Gender Issues . Identification. DFID and CGIAR system. business games. Training process (capacity building). coding . ITD. in basket exercise. International cooperation in agriculture . tests of significance. Training and development of human resources. Concepts of yield gaps. production to consumption and end to end innovative approaches. and Biopesticides. Nutrition. normal distribution. Phases of training . Biofertilizer. methods of data collection. simulation exercises. Selection and identification of research problems. Quality. Performance appraisal concept and types. Research design . Theory and Fact. Piggery. citing references.concept and types of research design. mobilization. Self Help Groups – concepts. stress management and organizational behaviour as facilitators of human resource development. documentation and validation of ITKs. independent. Science and scientific approach.agriclinics and agribusiness centers. training methods. NAIP. experiential learning techniques such as sensitivity training. Unit 5 : Agricultural Human Resource Development Human resources and their importance in agricultural development. analysis and interpretation. Apiculture. Entrepreneurship development . USAID. Profitability. ATMA. NATP. Developmental strategies such as Watershed Development Programmes. training requirements. organisation. market led extension. case method. Animal Husbandry. Hypothesis – concept. Evaluation of training . Privatization of extension. IRDP.
Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs). functioning and scope. ‘POSCORD’ – planning. Unit 3 : Programme Planning and Evaluation Concept. types. Unit 2 : Rural Institutions and Organisations Structure. Individual.concept. Identifying training needs and assessment of training impact. Characteristics of adult learning. Modularized communication. principles and theories of programme planning. use and production of audio-visual aids. Human Resource Development. Growth of extension as a discipline and profession. SWOT analysis of development programmes.concept. steps. nature. Theoretical models of programme planning. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION Unit 1 : Fundamentals of Extension Education Home Science extension education: concept. Application of programme planning for Home Science Extension through PERT and CPM. and factors influencing their involvement in rural development. Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels. methods and tools for monitoring and evaluation. approach. Teaching-learning process in extension.concept. principles. Evaluation – concept. Community Development and Integrated Rural Development. training and mobilizing local leaders for community participation. need . importance. Leadership-concept. functions and scope of administration. organization. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). Programmes and agencies promoting women as entrepreneurs. Unit 5 : Entrepreneurial Development Concept. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Self Help Groups. Five Year Plans – critical analysis with special reference to programmes for women. need and strategies. concept. Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). Panchayati Raj-philosophy. Unit 4 : Extension Management Meaning.48. organizing. Role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in extension. Development programmes. Genesis of rural development programmes in India. Unit 6 : Extension Methods and Communication Techniques Extension methods and audio-visual aids.concept. process of designing instruction for transfer of communication. significance and scope. methods and factors affecting extension training. 115 . Traditional media for communication in development programmes. principles. supervision and management. selection. Gender sensitivity in extension education programmes. group and mass approaches in extension. directing coordinating. identification. principles and objectives. objectives and approaches. audio-visual aidsclassification. Relationship between family and community development. types and functions of rural institutions. Training – principles. reporting and budgeting. children and youth. viz. significance. process of activising them. staffing. process. mobilization and functioning of SHGs for sustainability. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA). Types and techniques of training for developing entrepreneurial activities in Home Science areas. philosophy. Problems of women leaders.
designing and developing participatory massage. Diffusion and adoption for social change. Process and designs of scientific research.Unit 7 : Communication for Development Concept. Participatory communication – theories and models. Revolution in communication strategies. Participatory research methods. Unit 8 : Research Methods in Home Science Extension Need for social science research. key elements. functions. Measurement. Concept. need and constraint of community based learning. Unit 9 : Social Statistics Sampling techniques. Concept and models of development. Normal distribution. Correlation and regression – simple. theories and models of communication. Methods of observation and data collection. levels of measurement and corresponding statistical techniques. 116 . Advanced techniques in mass communication and soft-ware production. Path analysis. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. process. Factor analysis. partial and multiple. Validity and reliability of measuring devices. techniques and tools. Report writing. models and theories. Barriers to communication. ANOVA.concept. Techniques of tabulation and analysis of data.
Importance of feedback in veterinary extension. adopter categories and their characteristics. Interpersonal.e. Rapport building with clientele. nature and scope of communication for animal husbandry and dairy development. Sampling errors. multi-stage. Organizational communication. Nature and types of variables. Acquiring communication skills for development of local leaders and key communicators for livestock development. Role of village community in veterinary extension services. objectives and philosophy of veterinary extension. Drawing of scientific inferences. purposive. definition. Specific aims. Agricultural extension vs. principles and scope of extension education in livestock development. Operation Flood in its historical perspective.. Source credibility. Utilization of Internet for promoting advanced veterinary and animal husbandry practices. and T&V system. Unit 2 : Communication. models of diffusion and adoption. NDRI and other institutions and organizations. Participatory Extension. group. research process. History taking and follow-up appraisal on prognosis and treatment of sick animals.49. models and elements of communication. communication fidelity and empathy. semi-urban and urban livestock owners. Role of veterinarian as a social scientist. Relationship of extension education with other social sciences. ICDP. and cluster sampling. types of communication media and their utilization for specific jobs related to veterinary extension activites. and mass communication. Sampling versus complete enumeration. Farming Systems Research. Extension service and Extension Education. VETERINARY EXTENSION Unit 1 : Fundamental of Extension Education Development of extension education in India and abroad as a discipline and a profession. Technology development in veterinary science – technology assessment and refinement possibilities. Similarities and differences between formal and informal education. Methods of data 117 . Gaushala Development Scheme. Gaps and constraints in adoption. systematic. History of veterinary extension programmes developed and implemented by IVRI. Diffusion of veterinary and animal science innovations. Special animal husbandry promotion programmes i. challenges and problems in promotion of veterniary extension in rural areas. estimation of sample size. attributes of innovations. its forms and importance. Diffusion process. Unit 3 : Research Methodology Scope and nature of social science research. Importance of study of veterinary extension by veterinarians. simple random. animal husbandry and dairying students. communication with rural. Concept. TOT projects of ICAR. Hypotheses. diffusion and adoption. distortion and noise in communication. Important researches in veterinary extension with reference to communication. adoption process. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations Definition. State Depts with special reference to animal husbandry and veterinary services. Key Village Scheme. Sampling from a finite population. veterinary extension. Problems and barriers in communication. philosophy. concept. Role of subject matter specialists in extension service. Extension systems in State Agricultural Universities. Factors influencing adoption. stratified random. Role of extension education in development and socio-economic upliftment of vulnerable sections of the society. two stage. formulation of null hypotheses and its testing. Biases in research. Approaches and models of extension education. Development of efficient linkages between research and extension.
production and use of audio/video cassettes. Nature and types of leadership. field days. job satisfaction and morale. Selection. concept and principles of programme planning. Tabulation of data. Unit 7 : Programme Planning for Livestock Development Singificance. Management of common property resources. evaluation of veterinary extension programmes. kinship. Public speaking. primary. Evaluation of animal husbandry development programmes and schemes.collection. rural educational institution. work motivation. scope and its relation with other social sciences. farmers fairs. secondary and reference groups. Pilot studies. need-based programmes. theories of management. Cone of experience. exhibition. Introduction to scaling techniques. Social structure. Performance appraisal. etc. Importance of indigenous knowledge in animal husbandry and veterinary science. observations. Rural social systems as differentiated from urban social systems. ability. Personnel management in animal husbandry organization. Reliability and validity. capacity. Improving supervison. group and mass approach. Social change and animal husbandry development. co-operatives etc. Unit 5 : Veterinary Extension Management Definition of management. Programme planning from top to down and bottom to up. social-economic surveys. Unit 6 : Rural Sociology Definiton. Critical review of five year plans with respect to veterinary science and animal husbandry. Felt needs. Selection of effective extension teaching methods individually and in combination. mass vaccination programmes and variety of extension activities. 118 . questionnaire. Planning. Unit 4 : Extension Methods and A-V. indicators and types of social change. Social action. Extension teaching methods: Individual. Handling and operation of different audio-visual aids and equipments. panchayat. tours. models of management. Steps involved in the conducting of surveys. Socialization and social control. Learning experience. Concept of social systems and their major elemental and master social processes. marriage. Preparation and presentation of different projected and non-projected audio-visual aids. Preparation of radio/video script. compilation and report writing. Organizational development. Groups. Principles of photography and its use in veterinary extension. and case studies. Aids Understanding teaching-learning process. Social science research designs: ex-post-factoand experimental studies. Techniques for preparation of interview schedule. planning and use of different extension teaching methods like demonstration. Attributes of adult learners. basic rural social institutions – family. Individual and group behaviour. Role of women in animal husbandry development. need hierarchy. organizing campaigns. conflicts in organizations. Social stratification. Participatory Learning and Action and PRA techniques as used in veterinary extension. Factors affecting social change in rural areas. analysis of qualitative data. Steps in programme planning for livestock development. Organizational climate and organizational renewal. and their role in animal husbandry development. extension literature. Surveys in the field of animal husbandry and dairaying. Concept of culture. concept. Time use management. Decision making. organizational communication.
Historical background and present status of training programme in various institutions and organizations in India. particularly for farmers. Concept and working of T&V system. 119 . Types of training and factors affecting training. farm women and rural youth.Concept of training and education and their inter-relationship. Scope and importance of training.
Unit 2: Statistical Methods II Correlation. Response due to selection. average effect of gene and epistatic interactions Unit 4: Statistical Genetics II Genetic variance and its partitioning. stability parameters. t. and F. Rao-Blackwell theorem and LehmanScheffe theorem. Wishart distribution. Polygenic systems for quantitative characters. Confidence interval estimation. Concepts of breeding value. rectangular. Construction of selection index. Uniformly most powerful tests and their construction. family and combined selections. multivariate analysis of variance. Testing of hypotheses − two types of errors. partial and multiple correlation. level of significance and power of a test. Methods of point estimation like Maximum likelihood. rank correlation. Multivariate normal distribution − estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Hotelling T2. Estimation of heritability. Completeness. Central limit theorem. Bayes’ theorem. Point estimation − unbiasedness. Minimum chi-square. mutation and migration. Cauchy. Contingency tables. consistency. Neyman-Pearson Lemma. Kruskal-Wallis. 120 . Selecting best regression. Random variable −discrete and continuous. conditional probability. Random mating and equilibrium in large populations. detection and estimation of linkage. Poisson. Order statistics. efficiency. Likelihood ratio test. exponential. Diallel crosses and line × tester analysis. intra-class correlation. Sampling distributions − chi-square. Unit 3: Statistical Genetics I Statistical analysis of segregation. Path coefficient analysis. gamma and beta. Genotype and environment interaction. Regular system of inbreeding. Disequilibrium due to linkages for two pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Cochran and Friedman’s tests. correlation ratio. negative binomial and hypergeometric. Cramer-Rao Inequality. Heterosis. Mann-Whitney. rank. Examination of residuals. Minimum variance unbiased estimator. Laws of large numbers. Elements of probability theory. Correlation between relatives. Sequential analysis − sequential probability ratio test. concepts of general and specific combining abilities. Discrete probability distributions − binomial. Unbiased test. chisquare and F distributions. Polymorphism. AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS Unit 1: Statistical Methods I Descriptive statistics. Non-parametric tests − run. Model-adequacy. principal component analysis. dominance. Mathematical expectation. discriminant analysis. Selection. Moment generating and characteristic functions. t. repeatability and genetic correlation. sufficiency. sign. Continuous probability distributions − normal. cluster analysis. Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection. Log linear models. Prediction of response to individual. Bivariate normal distribution −conditional and marginal. Equilibrium between forces in large population. Simple and multiple regression analysis.50. Tests of significance based on Z. Wilcoxon. Elements of stochastic processes. factor analysis. Moments. effects of inbreeding. Gene and genotypic frequencies.
Unit 5: Design of Experiments I Linear models − Random, fixed and mixed effects. Nested and crossed classifications. GaussMarkoff theorem. Analysis of variance. Principles of design of experiments. Uniformity trials. Completely randomized design. Randomized complete block design. Latin square design. Factorial experiments − 2nand 3n series and asymmetrical factorial experiments, confounding in 2n and 3n experiments, split and strip-plot designs, change over designs. Missing plot techniques. Analysis of covariance. Variance stabilizing transformations. Unit 6: Design of Experiments II Balanced incomplete block designs and their analysis with and without recovery of inter block information. Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes, lattice designs. Youden square design. Multiple comparison procedures. Fractional replication of symmetrical factorials, confounding in asymmetrical factorial experiments. Response surface designs, second order rotatable designs. Combined analysis of groups of experiments. Sampling in field experiments. Experiments on cultivators’ fields. Unit 7: Sample Surveys I Sampling versus complete enumeration. Concept of probability sampling. Simple random sampling. Stratified sampling, allocation in stratified sampling, choice of strata, construction of strata boundaries and collapsing of strata. Use of auxiliary information in sample surveys, ratio and regression methods of estimation. Systematic sampling. Cluster and multi-stage sampling with equal probability. Unit 8: Sample Surveys II Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement, sampling schemes with inclusion probabilities proportional to size. Unbiased ratio type of estimators, Double sampling, sampling on successive occasions, inverse sampling. Non-sampling errors −sources and classification. Non-response in surveys − interpenetrating sub-samples, randomized response techniques, imputation methods. Design and organization of pilot and large scale surveys. National sample surveys. Agricultural statistics system in the country − land use statistics, crop estimation surveys, livestock and fishery statistics.
Unit 9: Computer Applications Computer Organization and Architecture- number system, input/output unit, memory, arithmetic logic unit and control unit. Computer algorithms. Programming in C-Building blocks, control structures, arrays, pointers, dynamic memory allocation, file management. Data Structures − linked list, stack, queue, tree, graph, sorting and searching algorithms. Data Base Management System − definition and features, data models, relational database. Object oriented programming − encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism with C++/JAVA. Networking − need, basic concepts, types of networks. Connecting computers − local area networks, wide area networks. Value added network services −E-mail, on-line services, Internet, etc. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Building static and dynamic web pages. Numerical analysis − interpolation, numerical integration, solution of ordinary differential equations, solution of linear and non-linear system of equations. Modeling and simulation − random number generation and testing, discrete simulation models, simulation of stochastic events and processes, design of simulation experiments, analysis of data generated by simulation experiments, validation of simulation models. Linear Programming − formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation and assignment problems. .
51. FARM MACHINERY AND POWER
Unit 1: Farm Mechanization and Equipment Status of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on farm. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm operations and materials for construction. Functional requirement, principle of working, constructional features and operation of animal and power operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, plant protection, harvesting, threshing, mowing, chaff cutting and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, potato and plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, cashew nut etc. Unit 2: Farm Machinery Design Selection of machinery elements viz. gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts, bearings, couplings and springs. Force analysis on agricultural tools and implements, pull, draft, unit draft and power calculation of animal and power operated implements. Design of soil working tools for sowing and planting. Design of fertilizer applicators, intercultivation equipment, harvesting and threshing machineries, forage harvesters and chaff cutters. Unit 3: Farm Machinery Testing, Evaluation and Management Calibration of seed drills, planters, plant protection equipments. Method of testing and performance evaluation of tillage equipments, seed drills and planters, fertilizer applicators, sprayers and dusters, harvesting and threshing equipments, grain and straw combines, and special equipment such as sugarcane, cotton, rice and potato planter. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rates of seed, fertilizer and chemical applicators. Calculation of capacity, efficiency and losses in threshers, harvesters and chaff cutters. Farm machinery selection and management for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis of animal and tractor operated implements and tractors. Unit 4: Engines and Tractor Systems Engineering thermodynamics, power cycles, fuels. Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble shooting for working of different systems. Calculations of power, torque, speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heat load and power transmission from piston to the flywheel. Tractor power transmission, differential, final drives. Power outlets such as P.T.O. and drawbar. Recent trends in tractor design. Mechanical and power steering. Tractor chassis mechanics. Hitching systems, hydraulic controls for tractors, automatic position control and draft control. Tractor performance tests. Operation and maintenance of power tillers. Unit 5: Ergonomics and Safety Anthropometry in equipment design, physiological cost and effect of work on physiological responses and comfort. Ergonomics in design of farm tools. Safety aspects of agricultural machinery. Effect of noise and vibration on work performance. Chemical hazards and control measures. Operator’s protective gadgets. Design of tractor controls viz., hand and foot controls, visual range and limitations, seat design etc.
Unit 8: Energy in Agriculture Energy sources in agriculture viz. concept and thermodynamics of energy conservation. effect on soil and crop responses. distribution and utilization. Design parameters and performance of tillage tools. pyrolysis and gasification. Energy conservation techniques for thermal. tyre function and size. Energy audit. Biogas plants and design types. Energy Conservation and its status and significances. Types of wind mills. Introduction to traction devices. Soil compaction viz. Bioconversion of biomass viz. Carbonization. solvents of amino acids. accounting and analysis. Sterling engine. slippage and sinkage of wheels. raw material. conventional and renewable energy equivalents. briquetting. chemistry. Wind measuring instruments and controls. Theories of soil failure. palletization and densification of biomass. properties and their uses. Biogas technology. hydrolysis and hydro-generation. mechanics of traction devices. type of storage. Stress-strain relationships. selection of materials for different parts. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass. Conversion into alcohols. organic acids. Solar energy collection and applications. mechanical and electrical energy. Force analysis on wind blades. Energy ratio and specific energy value. Energy requirements in agriculture production system. causes and methods of alleviation. systems of wind mills.Unit 6 : Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements. 124 . chemical conversion process. physical condition. Solar photovoltaic conversion and SPV powered systems. their selection. evaluation and prediction of traction performance. Unit 7: Renewable Energy Sources Solar radiation and its measurement. material for storage and storage efficiencies. sensible heat and latent heat storage. Characteristics of solar spectrum. Direct combustion. traction theories. Solar energy storage viz. Wind power equipments Storage of wind energy. Inflow and outflow of energy in unit agriculture operation. mechanics of tillage tools.
extraction. Optical properties and transmittance and reflectance. fruits. extrusion cookers. Unit 4 : Design of Agricultural Structures and Processing Machinery Functional and structural design of livestock structure. EMC. size reduction machines. cleaning. graders. Thermal properties such as specific heat. centrifuges. carbohydrates. cooking and baking qualities. flow rate.Rheological properties and stress-strain-time relationship. leaching. shape. bio. Unit 5: Material Handling. rail wagons and containers. mixing. oil content. expelling. Estimation of energy requirement. 125 . size. Maintenance Engineering. visco-elasticity. washing. angle of repose. oil seeds. clarification. energy absorption. friction. Organoleptic and sensory evaluation of product quality. Pressure drop through packed beds. fermenters. filters. coagulation. condiments. animal products. plantation crops. cyclones. decortication. Process technology and machinery for cereals. bucket elevators and drag/chain conveyors. rheological models. and horticultural produce. Unit 3: Process Technology and Machinery Premilling/conditioning treatments. screw/auger conveyors. parboiling plants. green houses and growth chambers. dehusking. filtration. pulses. trucks. Seed processing and technology. mean diameter. Hertz’s theory of contact stresses. Design of grain cleaners. size reduction. thermal conductivity. milling. Transportation of food by bullocks. pearling. granulation. vegetables. different methods and equipments. Packaging and Transport Bulk conveying equipments viz. heating. thermal diffusivity. water activity and psychrometry. drying. flowers. density. milling quality analysis. Dielectric properties viz.52. Determination of protein. Properties of bulk particulate solids viz. Aerodynamics drag coefficient and terminal velocity. hardness. trailers. evaporators. bioreactors. Waste disposal of food processing plants. Operation and maintenance of conveying equipments. mechanical separation. colour. belt conveyors. Safety standards in handling. surface areas. Packaging techniques and equipment for liquid. Unit 2 : Post Harvest Unit Operations Grading. Industrial fermentation and processing. Cold chain design and operation. shelling. polishing. AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES AND PROCESS ENGINEERING Unit 1: Engineering Properties and Quality of Biomaterials Uniqueness of bio-materials and physical characteristics viz. animal feeds. pressing. palleting and extrusion. specific surface area. Food Quality and BIS specifications for quality of food materials. porosity. heat-exchanger. fiber crops. evaporation. texture.availability and microbial loads. sea foods. dryers. Packaging material characteristics and selection. Agricultural byproducts/residue utilization. dielectric and microwave radiation. nutritive value. dielectric constant. volume. spices. packaging and transport of agricultural produce. Refrigerated containers and trucks for perishable foods. damage to products during mechanical handling. rolling resistance. distillation. crystallization. sorting. powder and granular materials. sedimentation.
partial differential equation. Storage of perishables in ventilated. their design and management. Unit 8 : Allied Engineering Subjects Basic laws of thermodynamics. controlled and modified atmosphere storage systems and their design. testing performance. moisture and gas transfer in bulk storage structures. operation Iog book. CPM. technology option. BIS standards on practices. market positioning. hygienic design aspects and worker’s safety and effluent treatment. linear and dynamic programming. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) and ISO certification for food processing plants. equipments and design of storage structures and systems for food grains and other commodities. Material balance and efficiency analysis. Vectors and matrices. refrigerated. Bag storage structures. Design of bulk storage and aeration system. Product and process design. heat pump and refrigerator and steam table. quality deterioration mechanisms and their control. Unit 9 : Agri-project Planning and Management Project development. equipment selection. Selection of equipments. Mass transfer and mass-heat-momentum transfer analogies. product and process design. Quality analysis of stored produce. Infinite series. Marketing of agricultural products. heat. heat exchanger. Plant utilities. functional design of plant building.Unit 6 : Storage Engineering Storage environment and its interaction with stored product. Dimensional analysis and simulation of processing operations. Plant operation and management. energy equations. transport model. heat engine. Modeling of metabolic activities and predication of storage life. plant location. Unit 7 : Process Plant Design Plant design concepts and general design considerations. climatograph and deterioration index. techno . market survey and time motion analysis. Fluid statics. Finite element analysis. Simulation models and mathematical modeling. performance indices. continuity equation and Bernoulli’s theorem. Plant sanitation. Modes of heat transfer. work. process flow charts. plant layout. Factors/parameters influencing the shelf life of the stored product. Green’s theorem. Analysis of heat.economic feasibility. simplex. energy requirement and consumption. fluid dynamics. Storage practices (including fumigation) and structures (traditional and modern) for food grains. its properties and processes. 126 . PERT.
interaction between surface and groundwater. field capacity. Energy requirement in groundwater pumping. Aquifer types and parameters. scope of groundwater development. Soil loss measurement and 127 . pumps and prime movers. Irrigation potential and contribution of groundwater. hydrographs. performance evaluation and selection of pumps. Hydraulics of fully and partially penetrating wells. Management strategies to improve crop productivity under limited water supplies. Hydraulic jump and its classification. permanent wilting point. energy and momentum principles. construction and development of irrigation wells. Conveyance losses and lining of irrigation channels. Irrigation water measurement: using velocity area method. Evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation requirement. S-hydrograph.53. natural and artificial groundwater recharge. partial source area concept of surface runoff generation. Cropping patterns. alternate land use and crop diversification in rain fed regions. Groundwater pollution. weirs. significance of osmotic adjustment. Water conveyance and control. computation of soil water depletion. well and pumps characteristics. notches. Unit 2: Open Channel Hydraulics Hydraulics of open channel flow. Water lifts. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. concept of plant water potential. potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements. plant available water and extractable water. Principles of groundwater flow. Flood routing methods and calculations. Development of crop water deficit. Plant water relations. mechanisms of drought tolerance. Unit 4: Hydrology and Soil and Water Conservation Hydrologic cycle. Soil erosion and types of erosion. Field water budget water gains and water losses from soil. Plant. utilisable groundwater resources and level of groundwater development in the country. Water movement through soil plant atmosphere system. Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. factors affecting profile water storage. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ENGINEERING Unit 1: Groundwater Development. precipitation. Rainfall and run off relationships. Application of groundwater models for groundwater development and management. infiltration and surface runoff. water meters. soil moisture characteristics. capillary rise. Distributions and application. Design. Wells and Pumps Water resources of India. unit hydrograph theory and its application. Determination of soil water content. Water retention by soil. morpho physiological effect of water deficit. Probability concepts. flumes. Uptake and transport of water by roots. Salt water intrusion in inland and coastal aquifers. deep percolation beyond root zone. canopy temperature depression (CTD). Design of centrifugal pumps. leaf diffusive resistance. IUH. Drought tolerance. Irrigation scheduling. Soil irrigability classifications. specific energy. crop adaptation to water deficit. soil water potential and its components. Water and Atmosphere Relationship Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Irrigation water delivery and distribution. Unit 3: Soil. Intensity duration frequency analysis. Hortonian and saturation overland flow theories. orifices etc. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data. Design of different types of irrigation channels. hydraulic head. canopy temperature. critical stages of crop growth in relation to irrigation. Application of statistics in hydrology. Different methods of surface runoff estimation. stream gauging and runoff measurement.
On farm water management. Water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Principles of watershed management. Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. soil and water conservation structures and their design. Drainage in relation to salinity and water table control. Crop modelling. Development of watershed management plans. Universal soil loss equation and subsequent its modifications. Drain pipe and accessories. Waterlogged and Other Problematic Soils and Water Problem soils and their distribution in India. Merits and demerits of various methods. Salt-affected soils and their reclamation. its feasibility and economic evaluation. waterlogged. Flow net theory and its application. Agronomic considerations in the design and operation of irrigation projects. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and fish production. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Application of GIS in soil and water conservation. characteristics of irrigation and farming systems affecting irrigation management. Design and construction of farm pond and reservoir. Reclamation of ravine. machineries and equipments for land levelling. Irrigation water users association concept and responsibilities. Crop water requirements. water production function. Environmental considerations in land and water resources management. plant indices and climatic parameters. Hydraulics and design of pressurized irrigation systems. Unit 6: Irrigation Water Management History of irrigation in India. Gully control structures and their design. Pumped drainage. Drainage coefficient. Management of irrigation water. Hydraulics of furrow.estimation. Unit 7: Management of Degraded. swampy areas and polders. socio-economic aspects of on farm water management. River valley projects. Land levelling and grading. Drainage investigations. Land capability and irritability classification and soil maps. Irrigation efficiency and economics of different irrigation systems. Scope for economizing the use of water. Irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability. Drainage requirements of crops. Unit 5: Watershed Management Watershed concept. Application and distribution efficiencies. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Major irrigation projects in India. Identification and character ization of watersheds. Design and installation of surface and subsurface drainage system. Water rights and legal aspects. Soil water depletion. interstate disputes. Pressurized irrigation system such as drip and sprinkler irrigation. Quality of irrigation water and irrigation with poor quality water. optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. surface methods. overhead methods. Command area development organizational structures and activities. check basin and border irrigation. Mathematical models and simulation of hydrologic processes. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. stability analysis of slopes. Seepage theory. 128 . Methods of irrigation. Drainage characteristics of various type of soils. Management strategies for flood prone areas and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Agricultural field drainage and theory of flow in saturated soil. Hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. Irrigation legislation. Design of earthen dams and retaining walls. Water table contour maps and isobaths maps.
pickles. infrared and induction heating) and biological technologies (antibacterial enzymes. methods for canning of different fruits. Spoilage of processed products and their detection. cannin. Dehydration and associated quality changes during drying and storage of dehydrated products. food borne illnesses.Structure of different grains like wheat. ultra high voltage electric fields. sauce and ketchup. Processed products from rice. dielectric heating. FPO and related formalities to obtain it. proteins and peptides) in food processing. paste.54. packaging. oatmeal etc. Methods of food preservation. Minimally processed products. Thermal processing and process time evaluation for canned products. IQF products. Solar drying. texture. role in gel formation and products like jellies and marmalades.. biscuits. Unit 2 : Technology of Foods of Plant Origin (a) Fruits and Vegetable Processing Post harvest handling and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. irradiation. extruded. flavour. Methods of food preservation and heat processing. hydrostatic pressure technology. Nature and control of spoilage in these products. Chemistry and manufacture of pectin. malting. dehydration. irradiation and chemical additives. Istant ready mixtures. bactofugation. hurdle technology. alternate-thermal technologies (ohmic heating. Processing methods of frozen fruits and vegetables. water activity and its relation to spoilage of foods. Food attributes viz. nutritive value and consumer preferences. Membrane technology. and vegetables. breakfast and snack foods. buns. maize and millets etc. Foodgrain Processing . aseptic canning. Pearling. oat. Use of non-thermal technologies (microfilteration. Milling of grains. Food processing industries/institutions/food scientists of importance in India. Tomato products such as juice. Other convenience foods from fruits and vegetables. Composition and related quality factors for processing. pasteurization. cakes. soup. sources of microbial contamination of foods. Causes of food spoilage. brewing and preparation of malted milk feeds from barley. rice. Aseptic preservation. puree. barley. Composition and related quality factors for processing. Wet and dry milling of corn. Preparation and utilization of fruits and vegetables juices in non-fermented/ fermented/ aerated beverages. corn steep liquor and germ oil. fermentation. porridge. pasta goods. Intermediate moisture in foods. colour. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Unit 1 : Introductory Food Technology Introduction to food technology. freezing. chutney’s and sauces. Preparation of fruits and vegetables for processing. by-products of rice milling and their utilization. doughnuts. storage and thawing. corn starch. (b) 129 . thermosonication). process optimization. manufacture of corn flakes. Technology of preservatives. Milling of oats and its processing into flakes. microwave processing etc. Preparation of vital wheat gluten and its utilization. Wheat flour/semolina and its use in traditional/non-traditional foods like breads. corn syrup. Principles and methods of food preservation. Milling and parboiling of rice. By products utilization of fruits and vegetable processing industry. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere storage.
Factors affecting meat quality. fish and poultry processing industry in India. canning and dehydration of meat. thermostabilization and antibiotics. separation. clarification. Use in traditional products. Handling. Processing and preservation of fish and its products. (b) Technology of Meat / Fish / Poultry Products Scope of meat. Structure and composition of egg and factors effecting quality. Specifications and standards in milk processing industry. whole and skimmed milk powder. Importance of milk processing plants in the country. cooking. Antemortem inspection. flakes and calcium tablets. protein concentrates and isolates. Production. storage. protein concentrates. Technology of fermented milks. Cheese spreads by spray and roller drying techniques. In plant cleaning system. pasteurization. Curing. Judging and grading of milk products. selection and use of dairy cleaner and sanitizer. roasting. ice-cream. storage and transportation of eggs. refrigeration. transport and distribution of milk. butter. isolates and their use in high protein foods. Rigor mortis. receiving. Oil extraction and its processing. standardization. Utilization of byproducts. Handling and maintenance of dairy plant equipment. Packing. channa. Chemistry and microscopic structure of meat tissue. International market and consumer preferences for quality in cakes for use in textured vegetable proteins. khoa. humanized. Postmortem examination. Zoovosic diseases. canning and fermentation. smoking and freezing of fresh water fish and its products. Quality measurement. fortified. packaging and storage of vanaspati. Technology of egg products viz. homogenization. poultry and their products. Industrial and food user physiological conditions and quality of fish products. Retails and wholesale cuts. condensed milk. cheese. canning. peanut butter. egg powder. 130 .Structure and composition of pulses and their importance in Indian diet. Preservation of eggs using oil coating. ghee. Dairy plant sanitation and waste disposal. Scope and functioning of milk supply schemes and various national and international organizations. Slaughter and dressing of various animals and poultry birds. germination. Dairy plant operations viz. Milk products processing viz. composition and importance in India. albumen. UHT. butter oil. Export of oilseed cakes. smoking. evaporated milk. Unit 3 : Technology of Foods of Animal Origin (a) Technology of Milk and Milk Products Milk and Milk production in India. Microbial factors influencing keeping quality of meat. Insanitization viz. Problems of milk supply in India. Sausage making. toned. cream. paneer and similar products. Oilseed processing. frying. sterilization. reconstituted and flavored milks. freezing. Milling and processing of pulses viz. Oilseeds: edible oilseeds.
Environment and waster management. Shelf life studies. safety. Sensory evaluation. importance and functions of quality control. Unit 6 : Food Biotechnology Role of biotechnology in productivity of plants. machineries for various unit operations. psychological and economical consideration for food appearance. fruits) etc. critical control points. The principles and practices of food plant sanitation. Food and hygiene regulations.g. developing ideas into products. Diet therapy. Use of biotechnology in production of food additives. vacuum and gas packaging etc. Quality systems and tools used for quality assurance including control charts. honey. Lipid derived flavors. Sensory and instrumental analysis quality control. selection methods. energy balance in food processing. reliability. Role of food in human nutrition. livestock and microbes of improved nutrition and quality. Consumer concerns about risks and values. Principles of package design. panel screening. Unit 5 : Food Engineering/Packaging and Labeling Unit operations of food processing. fermented dairy products. Nutritional disorders associated with foods. test marketing and commercialization. Synthesis of flavour by microorganisms and plant cells. evaluation of ideas. Total quality management. acceptance and auditing inspections. Unit 7: Flavor Chemistry Technology: Flavor composition of foods/beverages (identification and quantitative analysis of the flavor precursors and their products. Recent trends in packaging aseptic. Nutritional labeling requirements of foods. packaging of fresh and processed foods. Product development viz. food safety. modified atmosphere. US-FDA/ISO-9000 etc. to conceive ideas. International and National food laws. beer.Unit 4 : Food Quality Management Objectives. domestic and export marketing. biomass production using industrial wastes. Packaging materials viz. Biotechnology and food safety. good management practices. Flavor composition of foods/beverages in relation with maturation and microbial activity/or the processing conditions (e. characterization of the staling reaction using stable isotopes). Quality control of food at all stages and for packaging materials. HACCP and codex in food. Use of biotechnologically improved enzymes in food processing industry. Natural antioxidant constraints in spices. Investigation of equilibrium of key flavour compounds that govern the flavor stability of beverages. Unit 8: Consumer Sciences / Food Product Development / Health Foods Sociocultural. Requirements and functions of containers. 131 . Consumer trends and their impact on new product development. Therapeutic / Engineered / Fabricated and Organic foods. Future of biotechnology in India. wine. recall and liability. Analysis of odour-active compounds of food/beverages (Charm analysis).properties and testing procedures. Food adulteration.
feed. Water soluble vitamins – molecular structure and their levels in milk and milk products. isomers. DAIRY CHEMISTRY Unit 1 Milk constituents. Casein micelles – structure. physical. lactoferrins. Colloids. function and physico-chemical properties of α-lactalbumin and ßlactoglobulin. Colostrum and abnormal milks. Unit 2 Levels. Estimation and biosynthesis. their stability and importance in dairy processing. biological significance. chemical and biochemical properties. milk buffer capacity. co-precipitates. cream. Unit 3 Milk lipids – classification. Specific compositional differences among milk from various species. bioactive peptides. composition. stability and physico-chemical properties. Fatty acids – profile. denaturation of milk proteins as influenced by temperature. forms. Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk. properties and affecting factors. Browning mechanisms. their normal contents and physical and chemical nature. lipoproteins and fat-globule membrane proteins and their importance. Casein hydrolysate. Acid base equilibria. pH and additives. Chemistry of phospholipids and their role in milk and milk products. interfacial tension. Unsaponifiable matter. viscosity. prevention and measurement. Kinetics of chemical reactions and enzyme kinetics. isolation and genetic polymorphism of different milk proteins. size distribution. Auto-oxidation – definition. Biosynthesis. stage of lactation and mastitis. Lipolysis. structure and general physical and chemical properties. Variations in milk composition due to breed. oxidation-reduction potential. Chemistry of milk enzymes and their significance with reference to milk processing and milk products. refractive index. foams and gels formation. immunoglobulins. physical equilibria among milk salts. 132 . Biosynthesis of milk fat. Emulsions. season. physical properties of milk. Casein models. thermal conductivity. theories. lysozyme. importance and level in milk. physiological functions. Water activity. Antioxidants – mechanism of reaction and estimation. factors affecting. butter and ghee. Lactose – structure. Amino acid composition and physico-chemical properties of different fractions of caseins. and factors affecting their levels. Whey process. structure. Significance of carbohydrates in milk and milk products. Distribution of trace elements in milk and their technological and nutritional importance. density. Lactose intolerance. levels in milk. properties and colloidal stability of milk. Fat – soluble vitamins – chemistry. Effect of various treatments on salt equilibria.55. and whey protein concentrates. CLA biosynthesis and its nutritional and health benefits. Cholesterol – structure. and its effect on shelf life. freezing point. Milk protein allergenicity. distribution. electrical conductivity. Role in immune response.
Changes during manufacture and ripening. Compositional differences between condensed and evaporated milk. microstructure. citric acid in milk and milk products. Infant food. pesticides. Chemistry of neutralization and ripening. standards and defects. properties. Ghee grading. Structure and physico-chemical properties. Hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of ghee. Differences in cow and buffalo ghee. 133 . creaming phenomenon. yoghurt and Acidophilus Milk : Composition and specific differences. protein. Influence of acidity. Role and mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers. Composition of Lassi and buttermilk. Kulfi: composition and differences with ice-cream. fat. Unit 7 Cheese : Composition and varietal differences. Butter. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milk products. Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers. Physico-chemical characteristics of buttermilk and ghee residue. Dahi. lactose. lactate. phosphorous. Desi and creamery butter composition. total solid. flavour development. Unit 6 Heat stability of milk as affected by various milk constituents and additives. renneting and heat on the process of cheese manufacture. Antioxidants: natural and synthetic. Milk clotting enzymes from different sources – microbial. their causes and prevention. Adulteration of ghee and methods of detection. freezing. Role of proteinprotein interaction and age gelation of UHT milk.Unit 4 Milk adulteration and detection methods. Estimation methods for antibiotics. Theories and metabolic pathways of fermentation. animal and plant. rheological properties and defects of cheese. Dried milk. Unit 8 Ice-cream : Composition and physical structure. Estimation of starch in food. Spoilage of milk powder and its control. composition and properties of cream and dry cream. Unit 5 Cream – Size distribution of fat globules. hardening and defects. Chemistry of rennin action. vitamin C. heavy metals. calcium. Mechanism of churning during butter preparation. changes during ageing. Ghee – Compositional differences in ghee prepared by different methods and variations in ghee and butter oil. Physical and chemical changes during preparation of concentrated milk and subsequent storage. Analytical constants and factors affecting them. salt. iron. Physical properties of instat powder. Estimation of vitamin A. Composition and changes during preparation of chhana and paneer. Khoa : composition and changes during manufacture. chemical changes during fermentation. total phospholipids and free fatty acids in ghee. Measurement of BOD and COD in dairy waste. grading.
PFA act. sensory evaluation of milk and milk products. Standards. thermometer) used in Quality control laboratory. affinity chromatography. HPLC. BIS. buffers). IR. Total quality management. Calibration of glasswares (lactometer. labelling. isopycnic ultracentrifugation. Separation techniques : TLC. sedimentation equilibrium. sampling. butyrometer. quality control and assurance. statutory and voluntary organization. GLC. Radio-tracers technique. Flame photometry and potentiometry (principle. size exclusion. various electrodes. SDS-PAGE. nutrition labelling. Ultrafiltration. Ion exchange. ISO9000 standards for milk products. Electrophoresis – PAGE. analytical sedimentation. legal requirements of packaging material and product information. 134 . milk pipette.Unit 9 Definition of quality. Precipitation by salting out agents. PFA and AGMARK. Unit 10 Spectroscopy – UV – Vis spectrophotometry. electrometric measurements of pH.
etc. Heat induced damage and repair in bacterial cells. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production. mode of action on microbes and biological consequences – as well as their detection by newer approaches like Charm test. collection. Bacteriological grading of raw and heat-treated milk. Codex Alimentarius Standards). Role of psychrotrophic. HPLC. Enumeration of heat resistant microbes. toxi-infections and other milk borne diseases. thermisation. pasteurization. Role of resuscitation in recovery of heat injured microbial cells. food infections. Emerging food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products. Preservation of milk and milk products by physical (irradiation) and chemical agents. Germination and sporulation of bacterial spores. thermophilic bacteria and their metabolites in milk spoilage. boiling. types of microbes in normal and mastitic milk and importance of somatic cell counts. biofilms. processing. Residues of antibiotics. Nisin and other antimicrobials produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Factors influencing the microbiological quality of above products during their production. pesticides and aflatoxins in milk. ICMSF. Food grade Biopreservatives (GRAS). Unit 4 Microbiological quality of fat rich products (cream and butter). Immunoglobulins. thermoduric. detergents. 135 . Lysozyme. Unit 2 Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation. Types of spoilages in heat-treated milks. D. transportation and storage. Microbial defects associated with these products and their control. pulsed field treatment and membrane filtration of milk. Microbiological safety in relation to potential pathogens and their public health significance. physiological. Newer approaches for classification of microorganisms. spoilage and pathogenic characteristics of commonly occurring microbes in milk and milk products. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. UHT. DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY Unit 1 Microflora associated with milk and milk products and their importance. sterilization. National and International microbiological standards for dairy products (BIS. DGGE. Application of bacteriocins as food grade biopreservatives in enhancing shelf life of foods. Epidemiological studies using DNA fingerprinting techniques like RAPD. Morphological. F and Z values for various microbes. Prevention of post-processing contamination in heated milk.56. Identification of sources of contamination in heat treated milks. storage and distribution. etc. Rep-PCR. Unit 3 Naturally occurring preservative systems in milk like LP system. Microbiological spoilage aspects of thermally processed milks. RFLP. TGGE. Concentrated dairy products (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk) and Dried milks (roller and spray dried milks and infant foods). Food poisoning. Microbial and chemical changes in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration. handling. ELISA and biosensor based techniques. natural. Enhancing antimicrobial potentials of LAB by recombinant DNA technology and Genetic engineering. Frozen dairy products (icecream). sanitizers. Lactoferrin.
Production of taste and aroma compounds by starters in fermented milks and milk products. Identification of LAB based on conventional and molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbiological safety and their prevention and control. ghee. Genetics and molecular biology of acid. lassi. Role of plasmids in their metabolism. koumiss. PCR and DNA fingerprinting. paneer. Homology and Phylogenetic tree / dendrograms. kefir. Unit 8 Microbiological quality of indigenous dairy products. rasogulla. Microbiology of hard. and custom cultures. peda. Bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry. safety and their prevention and control. and whey based beverages and other fermented products. Ribotyping. Blast. Single and multiple strain cultures. Unit 7 Role of starters in the preparation of yoghurt. Associative growth of starter cultures. Antibacterial and therapeutic properties of probiotic cultures. flavour and therapeutic properties of LAB. Concept of TQM and HACCP implementation in improvement of quality 136 . Bioactive peptides and their role as nutraceuticals in dairy foods. etc. Survival and stability of probiotics in health foods. kulfi. Prevention and control: Role of personnel and environmental hygiene at the level of production and processing. Recombinant chymosin and its application. dahi. Starter defects. cultured buttermilk. Role of starter culture and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) during preparation and ripening of cheese. Genetic manipulation of LAB for ameliorated performance. Concept of probiotics and synbiotics. colonization and functional properties. Sources of microbial contamination. Prevention and control of starter failures. Modem trends in propagation.Unit 5 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as starters : Types of starter cultures and their classification. Clustal W and Clustal X. DVS starters: Judging of starter quality and activity. viz. gulabjamun. Concepts of starter growth and metabolism of lactose and citrate. Microbial defects in these products. Selection criteria. Cloning and sequencing of probiotic genes. Defects in cheese. LAB as nutraceutical ingredients – a source of vitamin synthesis and exopolvsaccharide production. production and preservation of starter cultures. Accelerated ripening of cheese. Starter failure. gut and their tracking. LAB genome projects. Genetic markers of probiotic functions and their application for mass screening. Need for microbiological standards for assessing the quality and safety of indigenous products. Pair-wise and multiple alignment. shrikhand. Microbiology of starter cultures. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with starter failure. Production of starter concentrates.. kheer. Genomics of probiotic Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Sequence analysis. Unit 6 Dairy products as functional / health foods : LAB as probiotics in development of health foods. Changes caused by starters in milk during growth. LAB as hosts for expression for heterologous proteins and development of food grade oral vaccines. Therapeutic properties of fermented foods. their role in spoilage of these products and their microbiological safety. semi-hard and soft varieties of cheese. Food grade cloning and expression vectors. khoa and chhana based sweets: Burfi. Production and use of microbial rennet substitutes.
Safety concerns of bio-film formation on equipment surfaces and their control measures. Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) / foods. DNA probes. Unit 10 Microbiological aspects of quality control and quality assurance in production of milk and milk products. Importance of Total Quality Management (TQM) in dairy industry. Microbiological quality of air and water used in Dairy Plants. PCR. Current role of modified packaging for extending the shelf stability of indigenous dairy products. Built detergents. for detection of food pathogens. Antimicrobial packaging. Application of HACCP programme in dairy industry. machineries and other contact surfaces used in production and processing of milk and milk products.and safety of indigenous products. controlled and modified atmosphere (CAP / MAP) based technologies. BOD and COD analysis in dairy effluents. Disposal of dairy effluents after microbial treatment. commercial detergents and combined detergent-sanitizers. etc. Biological consequences of dairy waste disposal. Factors affecting activity of detergents and sanitizers. 137 . Microarrays (Biochips) and Biosensors. etc. in detection of food pathogens. Real time PCR. Application of immunological. Efficacy of sanitizers including gaseous disinfectants and evaluation of sanitizing disinfectant properties. pyruvate. ATP luminescence. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the relevance and Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). Cleaning and sanitization of equipments. Types of detergents and their mechanisms of soil removal from the surfaces. Risk assessment approaches and role of productive microbiology in dairy foods. Conventional and current methods like imepdence. Unit 9 Preparation of byproducts from dairy effluents by microbial fermentation.
Milk in relation to cheese making. Technological aspects of manufacture of plain. DAIRY TECHNOLOGY Unit 1 : Market Milk Status of dairy industry in India. processing steps. Manufacture of processed cheese. clarification and bactofugation and factors affecting their efficiency. payment. soft-serve. Mozzarella and Swiss cheeses. Role of milk constituents and other ingredients. Unit 3 : Frozen Milk Products Trends in the frozen milk products industry in India. Principles and methods of manufacture. efficiency of homogenization and factors affecting it. Unit 4 : Cheese and Fermented Milk Products Status and scope of cheese industry. Production and storage of dahi. recombined. their importance in milk processing. Methods of raw milk preservation. Centrifugal separation. buffalo and other species of milch animals. Cholesterol reduced and cholesterol-free dairy products. Mechanization of cheese-making process. Methods of milk procurement. Fermented milk products – their nutritional and therapeutic value. Special milks. Physical and chemical changes during cheese ripening. Definition. lassi and misti dohi. Whole milk powder. Instantization of milk powder. Recent policy changes related to dairy sector (MMPO & WTO). Unit 5 : Concentrated and Dried Milk Products Milk in relation to processing and manufacture of concentrated and dry milks. Principles and practices for production of high quality milk. Unit 2 : Fat Rich Dairy Products Basic principles and recent concepts in production and processing of different types of cream. malted milk and malted milk foods. and ice-cream powder. Gouda. Skim milk powder. double toned. storage and defects in sweetened condensed milk. Newer technologies and formulations for infant foods and weaning foods. Physical properties and chemical composition of milk of cow. their production techniques and quality. UHT processing and aseptic packaging. cheese spread and cheese foods. Newer ingredients for use in the ice-cream industry. handling and transportation of milk. Types of rennet for cheese manufacture. butter. butter oil and ghee. Modern concepts in accelerated cheese ripening. Indigenous frozen desserts.57. Thermal processing of milk. flavoured and filled milks. yoghurt. Storage and defects. kulfi. Probiotic dairy products. high-fat powders. Evaporated milk.. UHT sterilized concentrated milk. low fat and dietic ice-creams and novelties. shrikhand. Role of starter cultures in cheese quality. fat spreads. Fractionation of fat and its application. Definition and classification of cheese and fermented milks. Distribution of frozen desserts. 138 . Homogenization process and its implications in dairy processing. Health aspects of milk fat. packaging and storage methods on quality of ice-cream. reconstituted. Principles of production. Manufacture of Cheddar. detection of adulterants. classification and composition of ice-cream and other frozen desserts. fruit. processing and marketing of toned. Principles and methods of pasteurization and sterilization. malai-ka-baraf etc. quality assessment. margarine.
whey beverages. etc. shrink and aseptic packaging. hydrolysates. Quality systems such as HACCP. ISO certification. 139 . paneer.Unit 6 : Indigenous Milk Products Status and role of traditional dairy products in Indian dairy industry and economy. Unit 7 : Utilization of Milk Byproducts Status. Immobilization of enzymes and their use in dairy and food industry. concentrated. Unit 8 : Packaging of Milk and Milk Products Present status and scope. Unit 10 : Advances in Dairy Technology Radiation preservation of milk and milk products. preservation and packaging. availability and utilization of dairy byproducts. Electrodialysis and ion exchange in dairy applications. Theory and application of microwave heating. sodium and calcium-caseinates. Application of biotechnology in dairy industry. antibiotics. physico-chemical changes during manufacture. Fouling. Methods of production. Characteristics of various traditional products. Basic principles in formulating the cleaning and sanitizing procedures for dairy equipments. Evaluation of packaging materials and package performance. cleaning and sanitization of membranes. Quality of water in detergency. whey protein concentrates. Emulsions. Role of packaging and package design considerations. khoa and chhana-based sweets. Unit 9 : Cleaning and Sanitation Properties of important dairy detergents and sanitizers. reverse osmosis. chhana. Use of buttermilk. pesticides. kheer. Packaging materials and systems for liquid. Automation in cleaning and sanitization processes including CIP. Theory of ultrafiltration. Selection and types of membranes. rabri. whey syrups and lactose. frozen and fat-rich dairy products. edible casein. Manufacture of casein. Process innovations relating to khoa. Processing of cereals and legumes for incorporation in milk and milk products. foams and gels. Development / formulation of new products based on dairy byproducts. dried. Application of membrane technology in dairy and food industry. shelf-life. ohmic heating and high pressure processing. nanofiltration and microfiltration techniques. quality attributes. coprecipitates. Package standards. regulations and quality control. Choice of detergents and sanitizers guiding principles and limiting factors. Associated economic and pollution problems. Use of milk solids in bakery and confectionery products. Modified atmosphere packaging. PFA. weedicides and heavy metals. Special packaging methods such as vacuum. Unit 11 : Legal and Quality Aspects for Milk and Milk Products Safety aspects of milk with reference to mycotoxins. BIS and Agmark standards for milk and milk products. their prospects and constraints.
Fick’s law. agitation and mixing. Consideration and boiling heat transfer. Proportional. Unit 4 : Mechanical and Thermal Operations in Dairy Processing Centrifugal separation of solid. elastic. Steady state heat conduction through slab. plastic and viscous behaviour. Mass balance in equilibrium stage operators. Pasteurization. DAIRY ENGINEERING Unit 1 : Heat Transfer Fourier’s law. retrieval and processing 140 . liquid and gas mixtures. Viscoelastic models. Momentum transfer. electrical. cream separator and clarifiers. dairy plant and process plant piping systems. Characteristics of Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids. Common heat exchangers used in dairy plants and their effectiveness. Pipe flow. water sorption isotherm and water activity measurement methods.58. liquids and gases. Size reduction of particulate solids. integral and derivative controllers. Water activity of foods. Design of thermo-compression system. sedimentation and settling. Application of aerodynamic properties for pneumatic handling and conveyance of food products. Momentum. Instruments for measurement of pressure. Freezing of food. Design of spray dryer and its components. Design of single and multiple-effect evaporators. ideal. Stress strain behaviour. Homogenization. fluid flow and liquid level. Equation of continuity. Flow through porous media. radiation. Cyclone. Process time calculations based on heat resistance of microorganisms and quality attributes of milk. Equation of motion. Unit 2 : Transport Phenomenon Mass transfer and molecular diffusion in solids. Design of drum dryer. Principles of automatic process control and control elements. Unsteady state heat conduction in simple geometry. Construction and operation of butter and cheese making equipments. pipe wall and fin. Estimation of mass transfer coefficient. Emperical relations for convective heat transfer for flow through pipe and parallel plates. Dehumidification operations. Flexible packaging and aseptic packaging. optical and other types of transducers. temperature. Data acquisition. Unit 5 : Evaporation and Drying of Foods Material and energy balance. Filtration. Permeability and shelf-life prediction of dairy products. Unit 3 : Engineering Properties of Food Materials Concept of Rheology. humidity. heat and mass transfer analogies. vacuum. Shape factor and radiation heat transfer. freeze concentration and freeze drying. magnetic. Sterilization and UHT processing of milk. creep and stress relaxation. Crystallization. ice-cream freezers. Unit 6 : Instrumentation and Control Engineering Mechanical. Friction factor and flow rate relationship. Analytical and numerical solutions to transient state heat transfer. Drag on spherical particles.
Boiler and their accessories. First and Second law of thermodynamics. Vapour compression refrigeration system. Hygiene and sanitization. 141 . Unit 8 : Design of Process Equipments Design of pressure vessels under varying pressure and temperature. construction codes and general design considerations. Steam load diagram. Design of reactor vessel. defrosting. Waste water treatment and pollution control laws. Ion exchangers in water softening and demineralization operations in dairy plants. Cold storage designs and cooling load calculations. Design of heat exchangers. Corrosion mechanism and control. shell and tube heat exchangers.Unit 7 : Plant Utilities and Sanitation Steam generation and their properties. Design of cylindrical and spherical shells. condensers. elements and controls. Dairy plant layout and design. Fabrication requirements. CIP cleaning.
Duel. Impact of jets. Governing. Selection of site for steam. Reciprocating. impulse and reaction turbines and their governing. Boundry layer. transmission and electrical systems. braking system and wheel alignment. Hydraulic ram. Supercharging and scavenging methods. cams. Free and forced convection. Continuity equation. Fluid systems. Nusselt’s correlations. Steady and unsteady heat conduction through cylindrical and plane surfaces. Heating and cooling load calculation.59. Sterling and Bryton cycles and their efficiencies. hydro and nuclear power plants. Modern fuel injection system. Parallel and counter flow heat exchangers. Condenser. rotary and centrifugal pumps. jet pump and hydraulic accumulator. pitot tubes and manometers. Preignition and detonation. Diesel. Availability and irreversibility. impulse and reaction types. orifices. gear trains. Air-conditioning and psychometric properties. Steering mechanism.C. Fire and water tube boilers. Coefficient of performance. Economics of power generation. Belts. Engine exhust and pollution control. Engines and Automobile and Engineering Types of I. Gear tooth profiles and kinematics of gears. LPG and CNG. T-S and H-S diagrams for gases and vapours. Vorticity. Heat balance. Velocity and stream function. Economisers. Steam turbines. Duel fuel engines including use of biogas. cooling. Entropy.. Otto. Source and sink. lubrication. evaporator and expansion devices. Refrigerated vans and design of cold storage. Chassis. venturimenter. Engines. Calorific values of fuels. Unit 5 : Heat Transfer Conduction convection and radiation. Unit 3 : I. Condensers. High pressure and high duty boilers. Comfort criteria. Lower and higher pairs. ropes and chains. Draft and dust removal equipments. Unit 2 : Power Plant Engineering Prosperties of steam. Steam nozzles. injection and carburetion methods. Effect of design and operating parameters on performance. 142 . Multiple evaporators and multistage compressor system. Themodynamics of non-reacting mixtures. critical pressures and nozzle efficiency. Rotary units. Ranking cycle. Design and performance of heat exchanger. Heat transfer from fins. Octane and cetane ratings. Fluid drive. Governors and flywheels. Concept of black and grey surfaces. Unit 4 : Refrigeration and Airconditioning Vapoar compression and absorption system of refrigeration. Condensation and boiling heat transfer. Unit 7 : Theory of Machines and Vibration Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Navier Strokes equation of motion.C. Unit 6 : Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machinery Bernoulli’s theorem for flow through pipes. Single stage and multistage air compressors with intercooling. various losses. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Unit 1 : Thermodynamics Laws of thermodynamics. Refrigerants and their selection. Ignition.
Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Job standards. Critical speed and whirling of shafts.Balancing of rotating and reciprocating masses. assembly line balancing. chains and gears. NC. Simple bending of beams. graphical and Simplex methods. Shear force and bending moment. Unit 8 : Mechanics of Solids Simple stresses and strains. profile. couplings. moving average. Belts. Heat treatment. Unit 11 : Manufacturing Management Production planning and control. shaper. CNC. position. Close and open coiled helical springs. milling machines. Antifriction bearings. Thermal stresses. EDM and ultrasonics. Thick and thin pressure vessels. Screw and screw jack. Capacity planning. Slope and deflection of beams. PERT and CPM. Curved beams. Taylor’s tool life equation. Hydrodynamic lubrication and journal bearings. shafts and keys. Basic concepts of CAD/CAM. drill. Forming processes. Value engineering. Mohr’s construction. FRP and its uses. Unit 10 : Manufacturing Engineering Working of lathe. Operations research. IC engine parts. Knuckle and cotter joints. EOQ model. surface finish. Brakes. Unit 9 : Machine Design Design of riveted and welded joints. Jigs and fixtures. Operations scheduling. Work measurement. presses and welding sets. Torsion of shafts. Inventory control. Project management. linear programming. Leaf and helical springs. Principal stresses and strains. Forecasting. FMS. 143 . Elastic constants. Shrink fit. clutches. Total quality management. Machinability and machining economics. Moulding of ferrous and nonferrous materials. Simple quing models. Uniaxial loading. Forecasting techniques. Merchant’s force analysis. tools and gauges. ABC analysis. Rotating discs. Shear stresses in beams. Quality control. ropes. Transportation and assignement model. screw threads and alignments. ECM. Free and forced vibration of single and two degree of freedom systems with or without damping. Break even analysis. Struts and columns. Product development. Inspections of length.
Multi-vibrators. transients in RL. Operational amplifier RC oscillators. Time domain and frequency domain analysis of first and second order control systems. Unit 6 : Power Generation. Power factor and power calculations. Derivative and integral control.quantities. Measurement errors. pressure. Routh-Hurwitz crieterion. Digital instruments.R. Mesh and nodal analysis. Starting of DC motors and their speed control including solid state devices. phasor representation of sinusoids. Network theorems: superposition. Combination of circuit elements (R. Voltmeter. Rectifiers and filter circuits. velocity. Short circuit and no-load tests. lightning arrestors and circuit breakers. D. Faurier series. Three phase circuits. Unit 7 : Basic Electronics Semi-conductors: p-n junctions. Protection switchgear: fuses. Electronic speed control of motors. 144 .C. Laplace transform and its use in circuit analysis. Mathematical models of physical systems. Transmission & Distribution Different types of power generation. Unit 3 : Transformers Theory. Low frequency voltage and power amplifiers. SCR’s and photo diodes. ammeter.O. AC circuits definitions pertaining to a. Diodes and transistors. Voltage regulation. relays. Maximum power transfer. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Unit 1 : Basic Circuit Analysis Kirchoff’s laws. Parallel operations of transformers.L>M>andC. Three phase AC machines. Integrated circuits. strain. C. Unit 8 : Measuring Instruments Transducers: displacement. basic D’Arsonval’s movement. operation and performance of single phase and three phase transformers. Induction generator. DC and AC bridges.60. generators and motors. Auto transformer. Unit 2 : Control Systems Concept of feedback control systems. Distibution lines and calculation of power losses. Resonance.c. wattmeter and energy meters. temperature.C. Machines Types of generators and motors and their performance characteristics.). RC and RLC circuits. Thevenin and Norton. Transformer connections. Magnetic circuits. Unit 5 : A. Unit 4 : D. analysis of RLC circuits. Machines Single-phase motors. Star-delta transformation.C. Star-delta and DOL starters. Transmission lines. Stability. acceleration. Computer applications.
Electric field intensity. conductors and insulators. addressing modes. memory and I/Q interfacing techniques. Elements of digital computer. current and current density. Binary arithmetic. microprocessor as the CPU. Asynchronous circuits. Logic gates and flip-flops. Unit 10 : Electromagenatics Coulomb’s law. 145 . instruction set and programming techniques. Simplification of Boolean functions. capacitance and dielectric materials. programming of micro-processors – register set. timing details. Half and full adders and counters.Unit 9 : Digital Electronics Digital circuits. Boolean algebra. Gauss’s Law. Electric potential. Unit 11 : Microprocessors Organisation of microcomputer. peripheral interfacing devices.
Classification of amplifers. Operating point and its stability. Karnaugh map Flip flops. wave shaping and clamping.61. Introduction to tuned amplifier. Logic gates. Feed back (series and shunt). push-pull amplifiers. Unit 5 : Radio Electronics Modulation and demodulation circuits for AM. Introduction to satellite and optical communication. Oscillators. PIN diode. ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION Unit 1 : Semiconductor Devices PN diode. Unit 4 : Digital Electronics Transistor as switch. 2’S. cascading and cascading. Unit 3 : Amplifiers and Oscillators Small signal analysis of BJT. JFET amplifiers. 9’S Complement generator. Arithmatic binary adders and subtractors. DIFF-AMP using three op-amps frequency response and compensation. PM Transmission and reception of radio signal. Enoder and Decoder. register and counter. 1’S. A/D and D/A converter Introduction to Microprocessor. Zener. Frequency response of RC coupled amplifiers. BJI. Controlled inverter. LED. power amplifers. Varactor. THYRISTOR. MOSFET. Operational amplifier and its application in analog computation. 146 . UJT Operation characteristics and equivalent circuit. shotkey and Tunnel diode. JFET. Voltage and current feedback. Zener diode as voltage regulator Introduction to regulated power supply. Unit 2 : Diode Applications Reatifier and filters. FM. Elementary antenna and propagation. Biasing of BJT and JFET.
torque. velocity temperature. Unit 8 : Automatic Controls Feedback principles in control systems Servo systems Self balancing potentiometers Various controller and their characteristics PLC in process control. XY recorder. AC and DC potentiometers. instrumentation amplifier.Unit 6 : Basic Measurements and Laboratory Instruments Basic electrical standars. strain. errors in measurements. resistance and frequency. Data acquisition and introduction to telemetry. pressure. 147 . Fiber optic sensors single mode and multimode type. measurement of displacement. time. Measurement of humidity absorption. Bridges. Signal conditioning. voltage. Digital instruments for measuring current. force. Unit 7 : Measurement of Non-electrical Quantity Transducers. voltage and power. Measurements of current. CRO. Electronic voltmeter and multimeter Thermoelectronic voltmeter for true RMS measurement.
Machines used for different mechanical finishes. Finishes for improving resistance of textile 148 . Fibre forming characteristics of polymer. scouring and breaching of cotton. Preparatory processes for textile materials. Use of enzymes in preparatory processes. Effulent treatment and pollution control. Physical and chemical aspects of mercerization of cotton and its blends. Combines preparatory processes and energy conservation. Swelling and solubilisation of fibres. Manufacture. Heat setting of synthetic textiles. was and wear. Designing. properties and uses of speciality fibres like glass. Machines used for mercerization. Determination of molecular weight of fibres. manufacturing processes. Unit 2 : Basics of Polymer Science Raw materials. Fine structure of fibres. cuprammonium rayon and cellulose acetate. Relation between fibre structure and physical properties. physical and chemical properties and uses of regenerated cellulosic fibres like viscose rayon. Soil release finishes. tencel and other modified viscose rayon fibres. Finishing agents. Unit 6 : Textile Finishing Technology Classification of textile finishes. Unit 5 : Natural and Synthetic Fibres Sizing of textile yarns. Acrylic. Unit 4 : Polymer and Fibre Usage Raw materials. Formaldehyde-free finishes. Removal of natural and added impurities from vegetable and animal fibres. physical and chemical properties and uses of cellulosic fibres like cotton and jute and protein fibres like wool and silk.62.. Machines used for scouring and bleaching of cotton. polypropylene and polyurethane. carbon and aramid fibres. morphology. Fibre structure in relation to spinning and drawing of manmade fibres. constitution. Determination of mercerization efficiency and factors affecting it. bleaching and optical whitening of manmade and blended textiles. Chemistry of addition and condensation polymerization. Methods to investigate fibre structure. Scouring. Occurrence. Crystallinity and orientation of fibres and their determination. Fibre modification. Recent advances in preparatory processes. Drying of textiles. nylon 66. Finishes for improving wrinkle resistance. manufacturing processes. physical and chemical properties and uses of important synthetic fibres like polyester. Anti-shrink finishes. Fibre waste and its utilization. Impurities in wool and silk and processes for their removal. TEXTILE CHEMISTRY Unit 1 : Basic of Textile Science Classification of textile fibres according to their source and chemical composition. Unit 3 : Polymer Chemistry Fundamentals of polymer chemistry. Surface activity and detergency. Manufacture. physical and chemical properties and uses of polynosic. and durable press properties of fabrics. Other finishes based on swelling of cotton.
Finishing of knitted garments. Roller. synthetic and blended fibre fabrics. Unit 8 : Printing of Textiles Print paste formulation. Natural and synthetic thickeners. Recent developments in printing technology such as computer aided print designs. Recent advances in finishing processes. Anti-felting and other finishes for wool. Energy requirement and conservation in finishing. heat of dyeing. Affenity of dyes. Machinery and processes used for dyeing.fabrics to fire. Styles of printing. and nature of absorption isotherms. Transfer printing of polyester fabrics. Colour theory and Computerized colour matching applications. Classification of synthetic dyes according to their chemical constitution and application. Novelty printing effects. Economics of dyeing processes. Recent advances in dyeing processes. Fastness properties of dyed materials. 149 . Unit 7 : Dyeing Science Natural dyes. ink jet printing etc. micro-organisms and weathering. flat bed and rotary screen printing machines.. Mass colouration of man-made fibres Garments dyeing. Water-proofing and water-repellent finishes. Effluent treatment and pollution control. Different methods and machinery for printing natural. Factors affecting equilibrium absorption and kinetics of dyeing. Physical chemistry of dyeing important textiles fibres. General considerations of the application of different classes of dyes to textile fibres and their blends. entropy changes during and nature of dye-fibre bonds. Economics of printing process. Finishes for synthetic and blended fibre fabrics.
63. detergents.. crease recovery. Textile testing standards and methods. Classifications. crimp. drapability. count. pilling. thickness. drafting. Blending and its principles. Natural dyes-sources and applications on dyeing of textiles. silk. Study of traditional textiles and costumes of India and their influence on contemporary trends in fashion. twist. Methods of basic construction-woven and non-woven. abrasion resistance. types and technology. Unit 3 : Dyes and Pigments Study of dyes and pigments. brocades etc. mineral fibre. Quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures in textiles. Classifications. Textiles finishes-mechanical. Tearing. damasks. balance. Unit 5 : Textile Designs Analysis of traditional and contemporary textile designs of India and other countries like China. elongation. optical brightners-types and their effect on fabric performance. Grading of patterns. Unit 2 : Processing of Textiles and Yarns Precessing / manufacturing of different textile fibres like cotton. wool. weight. microscopy. Colourfastness tests. characteristics and use of different yarns. Application of art principles in textile designs such as constructed and surface / applied. Sewing techniques and their applications in manufacturing of apparels/garments. air permeability.. Textiles design centres and their functions. Advantages and disadvantages. TEXTILE MANUFACTURE Unit 1 : Introduction to Textile Manufacture Sciences Different methods and principles of developing basic patterns viz. Structural and applied designs in apparels.. Japan etc. Water. flat pattern method and draping. stiffness. Natural (ecofriendly dyes) and synthetic (chemical) dyes. strength. bursting). chemical and biological properties. Fibre testing: Length. Unit 4 : Textile Standards and Quality Testing Importance of textile testing – standardization and quality control. Yarn testing: Strength and elongation. compositions. specification and costing. Figure irregularities and special problems with reference to apparel designing. fineness etc. rayon and synthetics – their physical. strength (breaking. additive. Advanced dyeing and printing and printing methods. water permeability etc. Apparel designing apparels. evenness etc. Standard conditions for textile. propertieas and applications of synthetic dyes. Apparel standards. chemical and special finishes. Fabric testing: Fabric count. Study of special fabrics like double cloth. 150 .
wool. silk. Garments and hosiery industries and their present status. hosiery etc. Associations and research organizations related to textiles.Unit 6 : Textile Industry in India Textiles industry in India and its past and present status with reference to cotton. rayon and synthetics. Need for consumer education in textiles and clothing. Textiles consumers’ protection regulations. jute. Domestic and international consumption. and consumers. 151 . garments. Export and import policies of textiles and apparels. Sales promotion techniques for textiles and garments/apparels.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.