ZEUS

A STUDY IN ANCIENT RELIGION

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS C. F. CLAY, MANAGER
FETTER LANE, E.G. 100, PRINCES STREET

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. ILetpjtg: F. A. BROCKHAUS $efo gorfe: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS iSombag anft Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. Toronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, LTD. £0fcgo: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA

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Zeus from a Pompeian wall-painting.
See page 34 ff.

ZEUS

BY

ARTHUR BERNARD COOK //
FELLOW AND LECTURER OF QUEENS* COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE READER IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

VOLUME I ZEUS GOD OF THE BRIGHT SKY
Zeu? a\~\.OKa juev TreXet aWpios, a\\oica 8' vet, THEOKRITOS 4. 43

Cambridge:
at the University Press

1914

703091
(Eamirttrge:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Zeyc, O'CTIC TTOT' 4pT|'N,^-el TOA' AYTO (j)lAON KGKAHWeNCp,

TOYTO NIN rrpoceNNenoo — npoceiKACAi

HN Aide, ei TO MATAN And cJjpONTiAoc A'XOOC
XpH BAAe?N feTHTYMCOC.

AlSCHYLOS Agamemnon i6off.

TO

MY WIFE

PREFACE
ORE than eighty years have elapsed since the last comprehensive monograph on Zeus was written, a couple of octavo volumes by T. B. Emeric-David issued at Paris in 1833. In the interval much water has gone under the classical mill. Indeed the stream flows from remoter ranges and some of its springs rise from greater depths than our grandfathers guessed. Nowadays we dare not claim to understand the religions of Greece and Rome without an adequate knowledge of contiguous countries and at least an inkling of prehistoric antecedents. In both directions pioneer work of inestimable value has been accomplished. The discoveries of Rawlinson and Layard in Babylonia, of Lepsius and Mariette in Egypt, of Humann and Winckler in Asia Minor—to mention but a few of many honoured names—have enormously increased our area of interest. Again, Schliemann and Dr Dorpfeld, Prof. Halbherr and Sir Arthur Evans, Piette and the Abbe Breuil, have opened to us vista beyond vista into the long-forgotten past. We realise now that Mycenaean and 'Minoan' and even Magdalenian culture has many a lesson for the student of historical times. But above all a new spirit has little by little taken possession of archaeological research. Under the universal sway of modern science accuracy of observation and strictness of method are expected not only of the philological scholar but of any and every investigator in the classical field. Changed conditions have brought with them a great influx of material, much of which bears directly on the main topic of this book. Important sites where Zeus was worshipped have been identified and examined. His caves on Mount Dikte and Mount Ide, his precinct on the summit of Mount Lykaion, his magnificent altar on the Pergamene Akropolis, his temples at Olympia and Athens and many another cult-centre, have been planned and published with the minutest care. Inscriptions too are discovered almost daily, and not a few of them commemorate local varieties of

M

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this ubiquitous deity—now thirty or forty questions scratched on slips of lead and addressed to his oracle at Dodona, now a contract for the building of his temple at Lebadeia, now again a list of his priests at Korykos, odd details of his rites at lasos, a hymn sung in his service at Palaikastro, and votive offerings to him from half the towns of Greece. Such information, fresh and relevant, accumulates apace. Moreover, those who can neither dig nor travel carry on the quest at home. Year in, year out, the universities of Europe and America pour forth a never-ending flood of dissertations and programmes, pamphlets and articles, devoted to the solution of particular problems in ancient religion; and a large proportion of these is more or less intimately concerned with Zeus. To cope with an output so vast and so varied would be beyond the strength of any man, were it not for the fact that intensive study follows hard upon the heels of discovery. On many aspects of what K. Schenkl called die Zeusreligion standard books have long since been penned by well-qualified hands. And more than one admirable summary of results is already before the public. Greek and Latin literature has been ransacked by writers galore, who have sketched the conceptions of Zeus to be found more especially in the poets and the philosophers: it would be tedious to enumerate names. Others again have dealt with the worship of Zeus as it affected a particular area : recent examples are Maybaum Der Zeuskult in Boeotien (Doberan 1901) and E. Neustadt De Jove Cretico (Berlin 1906). Yet others have written on some specialised form of Zeus: C. J. Schmitthenner De Jove Hammone (Weilburg 1840), H. D. Miiller Ueber den Zeus Lykaios (Gottingen 1851), and A. H. Kan De lovis Dolicheni cultu (Groningen 1901) will serve as specimens of the class. Notable attempts have been made to cover parts of the subject on more general lines. Inscriptions about Zeus are grouped together by W. Dittenberger Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum (ed. 2 Leipzig 1898, 1900, 1901), C. Michel Recueil d inscriptions grecques(Paris 1900, 1912),and H.Dessau Inscriptiones Latinae selectae (Berlin 1892, 1902, 1906, 1914). Descriptions of Zeus in Greek and Latin poetry are analysed by C. F. H. Bruchmann Epitheta deorum quae apudpoetas Graecos leguntur (Leipzig 1893) and J. B. Carter Epitheta deorum quae apud poetas Latinos leguntur (Leipzig 1902). The festivals of Zeus in Athens and elsewhere are discussed by A. Mommsen Feste der Stadt Athen (Leipzig 1898) and, with greater circumspection, by M. P. Nilsson Griechische Feste von religib'ser Bedeutung mit Ausschluss der attischen (Leipzig 1906).

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The monuments too 'have received their fair share of attention. Statues and statuettes, reliefs, vase-paintings, coins, and gems are collected and considered in primis by J. Overbeck Griechische Kunstmythologie (Besonderer Theil i. I Zeus Leipzig 1871 with Atlas 1872, 1873)—a book that is a model of archaeological erudition. Further, every worker on this or kindred themes must be indebted to the Repertoires of S. Reinach, whose labours have now reduced chaos to cosmos, not merely in the reproduction of previously known sculptures and vases, but also in the publication of much unpublished material. For surveys of the whole subject we turn to the handbooks. And here again good work has been done. C. Robert's revision of L. Preller Griechische Mythologie (Theogonie und Goetter Berlin 1894) deals with Zeus in a clear conspectus of 45 pages. O. Gruppe, the greatest mythologist of modern times, compresses the Father of gods and men into 22 of his well-packed pages (Griechische Mythologie undReligionsgeschichte Munchen 1897, 1906). Probably English readers will derive most benefit from the lucid chapters of Dr L. R. Farnell, who in his Cults of the Greek States (Oxford 1896, 1896, 1907, 1907, 1909) spends 144 pages in discussing 'Zeus,' 'The Cult-monuments of Zeus,' and ' The Ideal Type of Zeus ' with a wealth of learning and aesthetic appreciation that leaves little to seek. Other treatments of the topic are no doubt already being designed for twTo at least of the three huge dictionaries now approaching completion. The Dictionnaire des Antiquites grecques et romaines edited by C. Daremberg and E. Saglio (Paris 1877) has given some account of Zeus in its article' on 'Jupiter' (vol. iii pp. 691—708 by E. P[ottier], pp. 708—713 by P. Perdrizet). But W. H. Roscher's Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie (Leipzig 1884- ), though it includes an excellent article on 'luppiter' by Aust (vol. ii pp. 618—762), is not likely to reach 'Zeus' for some years to come. And the great syndicate of scholars who are re-writing Pauly's Real-Encyclopddie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart 1894) have not yet got as far as ' luppiter,' let alone ' Zeus.' The present volume is the first of two in which I have endeavoured to trace the development and influence of Zeus. It would seem that the Greeks, starting from a sense of frank childish wonder, not unmixed with fear, at the sight of the animate sky, mounted by slow degrees of enlightenment to a recognition of the physical, intellectual, and moral supremacy of the sky-god. Dion

xii

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Chrysostomos in a memorable sentence declared Zeus to be ' the giver of all good things, the Father, the Saviour, the Keeper of mankind.' On the lower levels and slopes of this splendid spiritual ascent the Greeks found themselves at one with the beliefs of many surrounding peoples, so that a fusion of the Hellenic Zeus with this or that barbaric counterpart often came about. On the higher ground of philosophy and poetry they joined hands with a later age and pressed on towards our own conceptions of Deity. I have therefore felt bound to take into account not only the numerous adaptations of Levantine syncretism but also sundry points of contact between Hellenism and Christianity. It is obvious that the limits of such an enquiry are to a certain extent arbitrary. I shall expect to be told by some that I have gone too far afield, by others that I have failed to note many side-lights from adjacent regions. Very possibly both criticisms are true. Indeed, given the subject, it is not altogether easy to determine the best method of handling it. As a matter of fact I have tried more ways than one. In the Classical Review for 1903 and 1904 I published a series of six papers on ' Zeus, Jupiter and the Oak,' which aimed at summarising the Greek and Roman evidence that might be adduced in support of Sir James G. Frazer's Arician hypothesis. Satisfied that the evidence was much stronger than I had at first supposed, I next attempted, rashly enough, to pursue the same theme into the Celtic, the Germanic, and the LettoSlavonic areas. With that intent I wrote another series of eight articles on ' The European Sky-God,' which appeared in Folk-Lore between the years 1904 and 1907. Of these articles the first three restated, with some modifications, the results obtained on GraecoItalic ground ; and the remaining five were devoted to a survey of analogous phenomena among the Insular Celts. I had meant to go further along the same road. But at this point Dr Farnell in the friendliest fashion put a spoke in my wheel by convincing me that the unity of an ancient god consisted less in his nature than in his name. Thereupon I decided to abandon my search for 'The European Sky-God'; and I did so the more readily because I had felt with increasing pressure the difficulty of discussing customs and myths without a real knowledge of the languages in which they were recorded. After some hesitation I resolved to start afresh on narrower lines, restricting enquiry to the single case of Zeus and marking out my province as explained in the previous paragraph. Even so the subject has proved to be almost too wide.

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I incline to think that a full treatment of any of the greater Greek divinities, such a treatment as must ultimately be accorded to them all, properly demands the co-ordinated efforts of several workers. Be that as it may, in this instalment of my book I have traced the evolution of Zeus from Sky to Sky-god and have sought to determine the relations in which he stood to the solar, lunar, and stellar cults of the Mediterranean basin. I need not here anticipate my conclusions, since the volume opens with a Table of Contents and closes with a summary of results. But I would warn my readers that the story runs on from Volume I to Volume II, and that the second half of it is, for the history of religion in general, the more important. Zeus god of the Bright Sky is also Zeus god of the Dark Sky; and it is in this capacity, as lord of the drenching rain-storm, that he fertilises his consort the earth-goddess and becomes the Father of a divine Son, whose worship with its rites of regeneration and its promise of immortality taught that men might in mystic union be identified with their god, and thus in thousands of wistful hearts, throughout the Hellenic world awakened longings that could be satisfied only by the coming of the very Christ. To some it may be a surprise that I have not made more use of ethnology as a master-key wherewith to unlock the complex chambers of Greek religion. I am far from underestimating the value of that great science, and I can well imagine that the mythology of the future may be based on ethnological data. But, if so, it will be based on the data of future ethnology. For at present ethnologists are still at sixes and sevens with regard to the racial stratification of ancient Greece. Such a survey as K. Penka's Die vorhellenische Bevolkerung Griechenlands (Hildburghausen 1911) shows that progress is being made; but it also shows the danger of premature constructions. Hypotheses that stand to-day may be upset to-morrow ; and to build an edifice on foundations so insecure would be seriously to imperil its stability. I shall therefore be content if certain ethnological conclusions can be drawn, as I believe they can, from the materials here collected, materials that have been arranged on other principles. Again, I may be taxed with an undue neglect of anthropological parallels. In defence I might plead both lack of knowledge and lack of space. But, to be honest, I am not always satisfied that similarity of performance implies similarity of purpose, and I hold that analogies taken from a contiguous area are much more likely to be helpful than analogies

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gathered, sometimes on doubtful authority, from the ends of the habitable earth. Mention must here be made of sundry minor points in method and arrangement. I have as far as possible refrained from mottling my text with Greek and Latin words, and have relegated the necessary quotations to foot-notes, which can be ' skipped' by the expeditious. The perennial problem of orthography I have solved along arbitrary, but I trust consistent, lines. My plan is to transliterate all Greek names (Aischylos, Phoinike, etc.) except those that have been so far Englished as to possess forms differing not only from the Greek but also from the Latin (Homer and Aristotle, the Achaeans and Thessaly). Greek words and phrases cited in the text are further italicised and accentuated. References in the foot-notes have the author's name transliterated, but the title of his work given in Latin to suit prevailing custom, unless that title includes the name of a Greek deity (e.g. Aisch. P.v., Flout, v. Aem. Paul., but Kallim. h. Zeus, Orph. h. Dem. Eletts^). To facilitate occasional usage I have provided two Indexes at the end of Volume I, the first dealing in detail with Persons, Places, and Festivals, the second more summarily with Subjects and Authorities. On the other hand, considerations of space have led me to reserve the Appendixes to the end of Volume II. I may add that the manuscript of that volume is already far advanced : its publication will not, I hope, be unduly delayed. There remains the pleasant task of thanking those that have in a variety of ways helped towards the making of this book. It was Sir James G. Frazer who first advised me to put together in permanent form the materials that I had collected: he has seen about a third of the present volume, and, though well aware that I differ from him on certain vital issues, he has with characteristic generosity more than once encouraged me to persist in my undertaking. I am conscious that I owe much also, both directly and indirectly, to Dr O. Gruppe, who in his Handbuch and elsewhere has set up a standard of thoroughness that must for many a long day be kept in view by all writers on the subject of classical religion. Prof. G. Murray, with proofs of his own on hand, has yet given time to reading mine and has sent me ,a flight of pencilled marginalia, which I have been glad here and there to incorporate. Most of this book has been perused, either in manuscript or in slip, by Miss J. E. Harrison, to whose wide range and quick synthetic powers I am indebted for several valuable suggestions: I am the

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more anxious to acknowledge this debt because on matters of the deepest import we do not see eye to eye. Other helpful criticisms have reached me from my friend Dr J. Rendel Harris, whose studies of ' Dioscurism ' have obvious bearings on certain aspects of Zeus, and from Mr F. M. Cornford, especially in connexion with Dionysiac drama, a subject which he has made peculiarly his own. Life in Cambridge has indeed afforded me, not merely ready access to a great Library, but—what is better still—ready access to many personal friends both able and willing to enlighten ignorance. *On questions of etymology I have time after time trespassed on the scanty leisure of Dr P. Giles, Master of Emmanuel College, or all too rarely had the benefit of a flying visit from the Rev. Dr J. H. Moulton, Greenwood Professor of Hellenistic Greek and Indo-European Philology in the Manchester University. Prof. E. J. Rapson has answered various queries with regard to Sanskrit myths and has furnished me with a detailed note on the Vedic Dyaus. One who deals-with the syncretistic worships of the nearer East must perforce make excursions into the religions of Egypt, Babylonia, Syria and Asia Minor. In things Egyptian I have consulted Mr F. W. Green, Mr H. R. Hall, and Mrs C. H. W.Johns. For Mesopotamian cult and custom I have gone to my friend and former colleague Dr C. H. W. Johns, Master of St Catharine's College. Semitic puzzles have been made plain to me, partly in long-suffering talks and partly on learned post-cards (that boon of modern University life), by the Rev. Prof. R. H. Kennett of Queens' College, by Profs. A. A. Bevan and F. C. Burkitt of.Trinity College, by Mr N. McLean of Christ's College, and by Mr S. A. Cook of Gonville and Caius College: to each and all of them I tender my cordial thanks. In a book of this character, with its constant appeal to the monuments, textual illustration is not a luxury but a necessity. And here again many friends have laid me under lasting obligations. Photographs of unpublished scenes or objects have been sent to me by Mr K. Kourouniotes, Dr C. G. Seligmann, Mr E. M. W. Tillyard, Mr P. N. Ure, Mr A. J. B. Wace, and by my brother Dr A. R. Cook. Mr A. H. Smith, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum, has allowed me to have photographs and drawings made of numerous art-treasures in gold and silver, bronze, marble, and terra cotta: not a few of them are figured here for the first time. I am specially indebted to Mr H. B. Walters, Assistant-Keeper of the same collection, who

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has compared the drawings of vases with the vases themselves, and to Miss P. B. Mudie Cooke, who has verified illustrations and references for me in the Reading Room. In the Department of Coins and Medals Mr G. F. Hill and the late Mr W. Wroth likewise gave me valuable help, partly by discussing various numismatic problems, and partly by supplying me with scores of casts taken from the coins under their charge. Mr F. H. Marshall, formerly of the British Museum, has'sent me impressions of gems in the Gold Room, and Monsieur E. Babelon has furnished me with the cast of an unpublished coin in the Paris cabinet. Permission to have* drawings made from objects in their possession was granted to me by Mr R. M. Dawkins, Mr F. W. Green, and Dr W. H. D. Rouse; permission to reproduce blocks, by Messrs F. Bruckmann and Co., Monsieur 1'Abbe H. Breuil, and Sir William M. Ramsay. Mr J. R. McClean, who was always eager to put his magnificent collection of Greek coins at the service of classical scholarship, generously allowed me to anticipate his Catalogue by figuring several of his most interesting specimens, and but a few weeks before his death contributed a large sum towards the better illustration of this work. Another liberal donation to the same object, enhanced by a letter of rare kindness, has reached me from my friend and fellow-lecturer the Rev. Dr A. Wright, Vice-President of Queens' College. Of the subjects represented in my first volume thirteen coins and one relief were drawn for me by the late Mr F. Anderson, official draughtsman to the British Museum. But the main bulk of the drawings has been made by an equally gifted artist, Miss E. N. Talbot of Saint Rhadegund's House, Cambridge. To her scrupulous exactitude and unremitting industry I am indebted for no fewer than three hundred and twenty-five of my cuts, including the two coloured designs and the restorations attempted in plates vi, xv, xxiii, and xl. Nor must I omit to thank another craftsman of first rate ability, Mr W. H. Hayles of the Cavendish Laboratory, who visited more than one museum on my behalf and, though working against time and not always in ideal conditions, produced a series of exceptionally good photographs. The Syndics of the University Press by undertaking financial responsibility for the whole work have shouldered a heavy burden with little or no hope of ultimate remuneration. Apart from their timely assistance this book would have remained a pile of musty manuscript. Moreover, at every stage of its production I have

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met with unwearied -courtesy and consideration from the Manager and Staff of the Pitt Press. In particular I wish to express my obligation to Mr N. Mason, whose resourceful skill has frequently surmounted obstacles in the way of satisfactory illustration, and to Mr W. H. Swift, whose vigilance and accuracy in proof-reading have been to me a perpetual marvel. Finally, my wife has devoted many hours to the monotonous work of Index-making. I am glad to think that in consequence of her labours this volume will be decidedly more useful than it could otherwise have been.

ARTHUR BERNARD COOK.
19 CRANMER ROAD, CAMBRIDGE. 22 July 1914.

c.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME I

ZEUS AS GOD OF THE BRIGHT SKY
PAGES

§ 1. Zeus and the Daylight
(a) (b} (c) (d)

.

.

.

.

.
. . . .

.
. . . .

.
. . . .

. 1—25
. . . . i 9 14 18

Zeus the Sky . . . The Transition from Sky to Zeus Amdrios , . . Zeus Pandmaros, Panemefos,

. . . Sky-god . . . . Panemerios

..§ 2. Zeus and the Burning Sky

.

.

.

.

.

.

25—62
25 26 27 33 34 41 56

(a) Aither as the abode of Zeus . . ..-•'. (b} Zeus Aitherios, Zeus Aithrios . - . . . (c). Zeus identified with Aither (sometimes with Aer) in and Poetry . . . . . . . (d} Zeus as god of the Blue Sky in Hellenistic Art i. The Blue Nimbus . . . . . i i . T h e Blue Globe . . . . . iii. The Blue Mantle . . . . . § 3. Zeus Lykaios. . . . (a) Wolf-god or Light-god? (&) Peloponnesian coin-types of Zeus Lykaios . (c) Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios (d} The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios (e) The Cult of Zeus Lykaios at Kyrene ( / ) Zeus Lykaios o n a Spartan ('Cyrenaic') kylix (g) Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb

. . . . . . Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

63—99 63 . 68 70 81 89 . 92 96

§ 4. Zeus and Olympos
(a) (b) (c) (a) (b} (c] (d) (e} (/)

100—117
100 104 113

The Cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos . . . . . Dionysiac traits in the Cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos . Development in the meaning of Olympos. Zeus Olympics .

§ 5. The Mountain-cults of Zeus

.

.

.

.

.

.

117—186

Chronological Development of the Mountain-cults The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus . . . The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus . . The Mountain as the Marriage-place of Zeus . T h e Mountain a s t h e Burial-place o f Zeus . • • Zeus as a Mountain-god superseded by Saint Elias

. . 117 . 124 . . 148 . . 154 • • • . 157 . . 163
b2

. 253 (£) Isis. . . . . ix. Zeus in relation to the Sun (a) (b) (c) (d) Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun . . . 288 Zeus and the Solar Disk 291 The Lycian Symbol 299 v. . . . . . . 186 195 196 The Sun as a Wheel . . (e) Zeus Ammon and the Snake (f) Zeus of the Oasis a Graeco-Libyan god . The Ram and the Sun in Egypt. (a) Khnemu and Amen 0) Amen and Zeus Thebaieus . • • • 33& The Sun as the Bird of Zeus The Sun and the Ram i. . 265 Zeus and the Solar Wheel . . 244 (e) lynx . . • • • 323 x. 330 xii. . Nemesis. 1 9 7 i. Prometheus' Theft of Fire . • . Fortuna . . The Blinding of the Kyklops' Eye . The Golden or Purple Ram of the Etruscans and Italians iv. 186—730 . The Golden or Purple Ram of Phrixos . The Solar Chariot 333 xiii. The Significance of the Ram in the Cults of Zeus . Zeus Ammon . The Golden or Purple Lamb of Atreus . . Zeus Meilichios. The Kyklops and Zeus • 317 viii. T h e Solar Wreath . The Fire-drill in relation to Prometheus. Zeus Sabdzios . . The Solar Wheel in Greece 197 (a) Ixion . . . v. • • • (y) Amen and Zeus Ammon (8) Ba'al-hamman and Zeus Ammon . Zeus Aktatos or Akraios and his Fleeces . . 321 ix. iii. . viii. . the Kyklops. 198 03) Triptolemos 211 (y) Kirke . T h e Lycian Symbol a n d t h e Kyklops . . The Cattle of the Sun vi. . . . 238 (8) Medeia . (e) (/) 341 346 346 346 347 348 353 358 361 371 376 390 403 405 409 412 414 420 422 428 . ' . . The Solar Wheel combined with Animals . . vii. 302 vi. . . The Kyklops of the East and the Kyklops of the West 309 vii. (77) The youthful Ammon (ff) The Oasis of Siwah ii. The Golden Lamb in a folk-tale from Epeiros . . . The Ram and the Sun in Phrygia. • • . . . . Cult-epithets of Zeus that may be solar The Sun as the Eye of Zeus . . . . Tyche. Zeus Ktesios. . and the Fleece of Zeus x. and Zeus 325 xi.xx Contents PAGES § 6. .

. xxi. The Significance of the Bull in the Cults of Zeus (a) T h e Bull a s a Fertilising Power . . . . . . . . . v. . . x. v. . ( y ) Adad o r Ramman a n d t h e Bull . . . . xx. xiv. . . . xxi 430 430 437 441 444 447 450 451 453 457 464 467 469 471 472 490 497 506 521 543 549 549 567 576 582 • 590 591 593 604 633 633 635 639 644 651 659 665 680 695 706 716 719 719 721 723 724 728 (K) . . Hera and lo Zeus a n d Argos . . . . • The Bull and the Sun in Egypt . Zeus. . . (y) Spread of the Hittite Bull-cult (8) The Cretan Zeus and Zagreus . . Talos in Sardinia Talos and the Bronze-founder's Art Talos at Athens Talos identified with Zeus . T h e Minotaur . . . . T h e C o w a n d t h e Moon i n Crete . . xvii. . The Myth of Pasiphae The Bull and the . lo. . . Dionysos. . . xiii. ' Minoan' Bull-fights . . . . xi. xvi. . . Ritual Horns . . . . Sun as a Bronze Man Talos i n Crete . . (f) The Cretan Zeus and Human Omophagy . . . . . . etc. (8) Zeus (Adad) and Hera (Atargatis) at Hierapolis (e) Zeus (Adad) at Dion. xv. iv. . . . . .Sun in Crete . Animals sacrificed to Zeus The i. ii. (&} Zeus Dolichaios and lupiter Dolichenus . xix. . . . . . . . vii. (77) The Origin of Tragedy (8) T h e Attic Festivals o f Dionysos . xii. iii. . . (»?) Ba'al-tars and Zeus Tersios . . . . (|8) The Influence of Apis . . The Sacred Cattle of Gortyna The Labyrinth a t Knossos . . . Rhosos. Trophonios and Agamedes The Proitides . . iii. The Marriage of the Sun and the Moon in Crete Zeus and the Bovine Figures of Cretan Mythology The Bull and the Sun in Syria (a) Zeus A dados and lupiter Heliopolitanus . . iv. . and Epaphos Priests and Priestesses with Animal Names . Sun -and -the Bull • . . . . . . . . Hera and the Cow Kleobis a n d Biton . . . 0 ) lupiter Heliopolitanus a n d t h e Bull . . and the Goat xxii. . . . (£) Characteristics of the Syrian Zeus (Adad) . . . . ix. .Contents (g) The i. vi. . (i) The Satyric Drama (K) Zeus. (£) The Cretan Zeus and Bovine Omophagy . xviii. . . . . • . . . . . viii. . • • • . . . ii.

(a) Direct identifications of Zeus with the Moon (b) Zeus paired with Selene (Pandta ?) (c) Zeus paired with lo. . . . Pasiphae. . 771 °vii. . 'The'Dioskouroi identified with various Stars by modern writers . 730 732 733 734 . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 § 9. . . • . . . . . . . . . 740 (&) Zeus as god of the Starry Sky . . . . 772 viii. Zeus Seiren. . . . . 730—740 . . . . 764 The Dioskouroi identified with the Heavenly Twins in Hellenistic Literature . . . FESTIVALS) INDEX I I (SUBJECTS. .. Hellenistic Literature . . . . 781—786 787—859 860—885 INDEX I (PERSON'S. 763 'The Dioskouroi with Stars in Hellenistic Art . . . Zeus Oromdsdes . 760 i. Europe (d) Zeus paired with Antiope (e) Zeus and his Lunar Consorts . . . . . PLACES. . • . . . . 771 vi. The Stars of the Dioskouroi arid of Helene as a good or b a d omen . . . ' « ' . . 754 (d) -Zeus transformed into a Star . . . . 739 § 8. Zeus in relation to the Moon . . . . . . . " Saint Elmo's Fire . . . . 740—775 (a) Zeus Aste'rios. . . . . . . . . 751 (c) Zeus i n Astronomy a n d Astrology . The dedication of Stars after the battles of Salamis and Aigos Potamos . . The Dioskouroi identified with Saint Elmo's Fire in . . . 760 (e) The Dioskouroi as Stars .xxii Contents PAGES § 7. AUTHORITIES) . . . Zeus in relation to the Stars . 770 v. . . . . 761 The Dioskouroi as Stars in Hellenic Literature . . . . . . . . . General Conclusions with regard to Zeus as god of the Bright Sky . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . • • 776—780 ADDENDA . . . .

. showing bases of eagle-columns . . . i Restoration of the cult-statue of Nemesis at Rhamnous ia. . XXI Coin of Gaza Minoa (?): the Hebrew Godhead as a solar Zeus . IX. i & Front and side of extant fragment of the head 2a. . . . XX Krater from Cumae: Triptolemos . X Restored view of Pergamon. . . . . VI Wall-painting from Pompeii: Zeus enthroned with globe beside him VII Relief on the so-called ara Capitolina : Zeus enthroned with globe beside him VIII View of the summit of Mount Lykaion. . 336 . . . IV i. i View of Mount Olympos as seen from the port of Litokhoro 2 Diagram of the same view. rev. . . . I 34 34 36 f39 39 42 42 83 100 119 125 129 129 172 203 204 219 223 223 232 252 274 f. . . XXII Krater from Canosa : the vengeance of Medeia XXIII. Zeus enthroned . . . . . . 2* Coin of Kypros : obv. . . showing the great altar of Zeus XI Hydria from Ruvo : Zeus and the judgment of Paris XII Pelike from Ruvo: Zeus and the defeat of Marsyas XIII Relief signed by Archelaos of Priene : Zeus and the apotheosis of Homer XIV View of Mount Taygeton as seen from Sparta . V Krater from Lecce : pillar-cult o f Zeus . XV Upper half of colossal figure from Eleusis : kistophoros known as Saint Demetra XVI Amphora from Cumae : Ixion on his wheel XVII Etruscan mirror : Ixion on his wheel XVIII Krater from Agrigentum : Triptolemos . . . 2 Krater from Apulia : pillar-cults of Zeus . . i Silver-gilt plaque from Elis : Helios rising 2 Bronze crescent from Elis : lily-work etc. . . showing Mount Olympos as it rises through aer into aither . . . . . . . . XIX Amphora from Ruvo : Triptolemos .LIST OF PLATES IN VOLUME I FRONTISPIECE arid PLATE Wall-painting from Pompeii : Zeus enthroned with pillar behind him II Well-mouth at Naples : Zeus enthroned with pillar beside him Ill Amphora from Ruvo : pillar-cult o f Zeus . . . . Nemesis standing XXIV. .

(b) a Satyric chorus 700 f. etc.XXIV PLATE . 338 Terra-cotta statuette from Kypros : Ba'al-hamman enthroned Leaden plate from Caesarea lol : heads of Ba'al-hamman Silver diadem from Batna : Ba'al-hamman. (4) the enthronement of Dionysos [A restoration of these reliefs is printed on a transparent overleaf]. . Marble stele from Marseille: lupiter Heliopolitanus 57o Bronze plate from Heddernheim : lupiter Dolichenus . 654 f. 502 White-ground kylix from Aigina : Zeus and Europe 526 f. 392 Corn-maiden from Lesbos 396 Mosaic in the orchestra of the theatre at Athens : swastikapattern 480 Hydria from the Canino collection : a Minotaur-dance (?) 497 ~Bz\\-krate'r in the Hope collection : Herakles in Olympos taking fruit from the cornu copiae of Zeus . . 7 2 0 f. 620 Bronze tympanon from the Idaean Cave in Crete : Zeus and the Kouretes 644 Hydria from Kameiros : Zagreus devoured by the Titans . in pocket at end of Volume I Krater from Ruvo : the death of Talos . i 2 XL. 702 Reliefs decorating the stage of Phaidros in the theatre at Athens : (i) the infancy of Dionysos . Bell-/£rtf//r in the Hope collection preparations for a Satyr-play Bell-/£r<2//r in the Hope collection preparations for a Satyr-play . List of Plates to face page XXV XXVI. . . i—4 XLI XLII May-garland of flowers and corn from Eleusis . . . Terra-cotta mask from Anthedon : a Satyric choreutes . . 696 Krater from Altemura : (a) the decking of Pandora . (3) the marriage of Dionysos . i 2 3 XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX XXXI XXXII XXXIII XXXIV XXXV XXXVI XXXVII XXXVIII XXXIX. 354 fBronze relief at Copenhagen : Zeus Sabdzios . Tanit. Kylix at Taranto: Zeus Lykaios 782 . (2) the advent of Dionysos .

the titles of Books and Periodicals have been cut down. but not—it is hoped—beyond the limits of recognizability.-hist. du Bosph. d. = Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology Liverpool 1908— Ann. =L. C\3i^t = Abhandlimgen der kb'niglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gbttingen Historisch-philologische Klasse Gottingen 1838— . Classe = Abhandlungen der philosopkisch-philologischen Klasse der koniglich bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mtinchen 1835— Abh. 1908. Ant.-ep. 'A/>x-'E0. Cimm. Seejahrb. Inst. Amelung Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums i ii Berlin 1903. Arch. Ath. Philos. Mitth. Sch. Brit. 'ApxArchivf. d. Anz. Denkm. Ant. Arch. Miinz. Phil. xiv) are not here included. = American Journal of Archaeology Baltimore 1885— . = Antiqiiites du Bosphore Cimmerien conservees au Musee Imperial de VErmitage i ii St. Anson Num. On the other hand. sacks. Mitth. fourn. Wiss.-Petersbourg 1854 with Atlas of pis. Classe = Abhandlungen der koniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historische Classe Berlin 1804— Abh. Wiss. save by the omission of their initials. Berlin —Konigliche Mnseen zu Berlin: Beschreibung der antiken Miinzen i—iii Berlin 1888—1894. d. Vatic.—Archaeologisch-epigraphische Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich-Ungarn Wien 1877—1897 Register Wien 1902. Anthr. Cla. =W. = Annali delf Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica Roma 1829—1885. Rel.$se = Abkandlungen der philologischhistorischen Klasse der koniglich sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Leipzig 1850— Amelung Sculpt. Skulpt. Text i—v London 1911—1914Ant. Gesellsch. = Archivfiir Religionswissenschaft Leipzig 1898— Ath. Arch. = The Annual of the British School at Athens London 1894-5— Ann. On the one hand. = Archdologische Zeitung herausgegeben vom Archaologischen Institut des Deutschen Reichs Berlin 1843—1885. Gesellsch. the names of Authors have not been shortened. deutsch. Am. Inst. kais.ABBREVIATIONS This List of Abbreviations has been drawn up in accordance with two principles. berl. = Antike Denkmaeler herausgegeben vom Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Institut Berlin 1886— Ant. Berlin = Konigliche Museen zu Berlin: Beschreibung der antiken Skulpturen mit Ausschluss der pergamenischen Fundstiicke Berlin 1891. Mass. Phil. Phil. d. d. bayer. Arch. Second Series Norwood. « Abh.-hist. d. Arch. 1897— Ann. gb'tt. arch. d.-philol. Abh. GV. = Mittheilungen des kaiserlich deutschen archaeologischen Instituts: athenische Abtheilung Athen 1876— . The customary abbreviations of classical writers and their works (for which see supra p. d. See'E<£.-hist. Akad. Akad. Anson Numismata Graeca Plates and Index London 1910. Zeit.

V. Etc. Gardner. rom. F. Ionia 1892 by B. Palestine 1914 by G. Classe — Berichte ilber die Verhandlungen der kbniglich sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig Pbilologischhistorische Classe Leipzig 1848— Berl. Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India 1886 by P. Kunst und Sitte i—iii Mlinchen und Leipzig 1885—1888. II Description historique i ii Paris 1907. Walters Catalogue of the Bronzes. — ~]. Crete and the Aegean Islands 1886 by W. Head. Hill. Poole. Babelon—Blanche! Cat. The Tauric Chersonese. Colonies of Corinth. Cat. &c. Lydia 1901 by B. Hill. Head. Brit. Rhodes. and the Kingdom of Bosporus 1889 by W. . Babelon Traite des monnaies grecques et romaines I Theorie et doctrine i Paris 1901. Poole. F. JVaf. Aeolis. Cat. Head. Cappadocia. Galatia. V. Bronzes de la Bibl. V. Mus. Gardner. Sarmatia. Pontus. Mus. V. Cos. rep. V. Moesia. Head. Head . Mus. Petri Bellorii illustrata. de la Langue Gr. Mus. V. Kings of Egypt 1883 by R. S. Etc. P. 1877 ^7 B. The Ptolemies. Patnphylia. Baumeister Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums zur Erlduterung des Lebens der Griechen und Rb'mer in Religion. Head. V. Greek. 1889 by B. Roman.) London 1888. = E. Head . and Cilicia 1900 by G.xxvi Abbreviations Babelon Cat. Blanchet Catalogue des bronzes antiques"de la Bibliotheque Nationale Paris 1895. Head.. a Petro Sancti Bartolo delineata incisa. Hill. S. Coins = W. Nat. Romae 1693. Gesellsch. Dacia. British Museum London 1899. Head. Macedonia. Bithynia. Poole. Gardner. Notis Jo. Babelon Description historique et chronologique des monnaies de la republique romaine vulgairement appelees monnaies consulates i ii Paris 1885. Camees de la Bibl.='E. Wroih. Paphlagonia. Sicily 1876 by B. Bekker anecd. Rom. H. — E. Parthia 1903 by W. = Berlin er philologische Wochenschrift Berlin 1885— Boetticher Baumkultus = C. philol. Phil.-hist. V. ant. Gems—K. Gardner. sacks. P. = A. Brit. Mysia 1892 by W. R. F. and Syria 1899 by W. Wroth . and Lesbos 1894 by W. and Pisidia 1897 by G. Alexandria and the Names 1892 by R. =E. d. 1910 with Atlas of pis. V. Troas. Bronzes = YL. Wroth. Peloponnesus 1887 by P. Baumeister Denkm. drc. V. Boisacq Diet. Wroth. Phoenicia 1910 by G.='E. Wroth Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum i ii London 1908. 1897 by B. Thessaly to Aetolia 1883 by P. A. 1879 by B. in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. S. — \. Bartoli—Bellori Admir. Boetticher Der Baumkultus der Hellenen nach den gottesdienstlichen Gebrditchen und den ilberlieferten Bildiverken dargestellt Berlin 1856. Woch. Cat. Caria. Poole. Wiss. F. = Admiranda Romanarum antiquitatum ac veteris sculpturae vestigia. etym. Thrace. Coins — A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum London 1873— Italy 1873 by R. Head. S. Babelon Catalogue des Camees antiques et modernes de la Bibliotheque Nationale Paris 1897. Gardner. Bekker Anecdota Graeca i—iii Berolini 1814—1821. Lycaonia^ Isauria. Central Greece 1884 by B. rom. Cat. Smith A Catalogue of Engraved Gems in the British Miiseum {Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. F. Seleucid Kings of Syria 1878 by P. Banner Jahrbucher= Banner Jahrbiicher (Continuation otthejahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfretmden im Rheinlande] Bonn 1895-— Brit. Wroth. Lycia. Gardner. B. Boisacq Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque etudiee dans ses rapports avec les autres langues indo-europeennes Heidelberg et Paris 1907— Boissonade anecd. gr. Phrygia 1906 by B. Boissonade Anecdota Graeca i—v Parisiis 1829—1833. Wroth . Babelon Monn. Babelon Monn. Attica—Megaris—Aegina 1888 by B. Babelon et J. Ber. Hill. F. Brit. and Etruscan. Cyprus 1904 by G. Byz. Corinth. Hill.

B. Mus. Serie (Tafeln i—500) Mlinchen 1888—1900. Bruchmann Epitheta deorum quae apud poetas Graecos . Collignon Hist. H. and Etruscan Pottery 1912 by H. deor. Vases d'Athenes=^i. Sculpt. ii Blackfigured Vases 1893 by H. Class. Grueber Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum i—iii London 1910. Mus. Greek. Arch. Philol. Walters. iv Vases of the Latest Period 1896 by H. It. Dial. Terracottas='R. de Sculpt. = Francisci Carellii Numorurn Italiae veteris tabulas CCII. griechischer und romischer Sculptur fortgefiihrt und mit erlauternden Texten versehen von P. Cat. Brunn—Bruckmann Denkm.-Inschr. Sculpture = A. Nuova Serie i—viii Napoli 1853—1863. Smith A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. iii (Tafeln 601—650) Miinchen 1912. • Bull. H. Marshall Catalogue of the Jewellery. Mus. Table de Concordance 1904. Rom. Hell. Italian. F. Lipsiae 1850. Rev. 1897. Collignon Histoire de la sculpture grecque i ii Paris 1892. A Guide to the Exhibition illustrating Greek and Roman Life. — Musee de Sculpture antique et moderne par le Cte F. Quart. —Denkmdler griechischer und romischer Sculptur unter Leitung von H. Etruscan. A. Mus. Planches 1904. Walters. Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Brit. B. Brunn herausgegeben von F. vet. Avellinii in earn adnotationes. Life = British Museum. B. Cohen Monn. Carter Epith. — Classical Philology Chicago 1906— . = The Classical Quarterly London 1907— Class. Bruchmann Epith. iv (Tafeln 651— ) Miinchen—. Mus. Brit. Cat. Class. Medallions =H. Couve Catalogiie des vases peints du Musee National d''Athenes Paris 1902. iii Vases of the Finest Period 1896 by C. = Bulletin de correspondance hellenique Paris 1877— Bull. Corr.leguntur Lipsiae 1893. d. Walters Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Index 1903. Marbles = A Description of the Collection of Ancient Marbles in the British Museum . Grueber Roman Medallions in the British Museum ' London 1874. dear. M. B. Comun. de la Sctilpt. Nap. edidit Coelestinus Cavedonius. Brit. and Roman. British Museum London 1911. = M. Vases ~ Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscin Vases in the British Museum London 1893— i. ii (Tafeln 551—600) Mlinchen 1906. Clarac Mus. Cat.=C. Collitz—Bechtel Gr. Collignon et L. British Museum London 1903. Carter Epitheta deorum quae apud poetas Latinos legunttir Lipsiae 1902. Cat. emp. Cat. Smith. = Bullettino del? Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica Roma 1829— 1885. Inst. Jewellery—Y. Carelli Num. Guide Gk. = Bullettino archeologico Napoletano i—vi Napoli 1843—1848. di Roma = Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Municipale Roma 1872—1876 continued as Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma Roma 1877— .Abbreviations xxvii Brit. gr. A. Brit. Brit. Bull. Brunn—Bruckmann's Denkmdler . Bull. Mus.— The Classical Review London 1887— . London 1908. with engravings Parts i—xi London 1812 —1861. H. Rom. de Clarac Texte i—vi Paris 1841—1853 Planches i—vi Paris 1826—1853. Comm. Accesserunt Francisci Carellii numorum quos ipse collegit descriptio F. Brit. B. und rom. Cohen Description historiqtte des monnaies frapples sous Pempire remain communement appelees medailles imperiales Deuxieme edition i—viii Paris 1880—1892. Cat. der gr. Arch. Bruckmann i. i Cypriote. British Museum i—iii London 1892—1904. Arndt i (Tafeln 501—550) Miinchen 1902. Mus. Mus. H.—}. = Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften von . Collignon—Couve Cat. Coins =\\. Walters.'2 — ^i. in the Departments of Antiquities. Brit. rom.

ed. Bormann Berolini 1888. 1904. Mommsen. Lucaniae. C. 1894. E. Ritschelius Berolini 1862. Corp.= Corpus inscriptionum Atticaruin i Inscriptiones Atticae. Att. 1909. Koehler [Inscriptiones Graecae ii] i—3 Berolini 1877. F. Mommsen Berolini 1883. i—5 Inscriptiones urbis Romae Latinae. Hinrichs. i—5 Berolini 1889. Piceni Latinae. Sardiniae Latinae. 1893. W. Dittenberger [Inscriptiones Graecae vii] Berolini 1892. Supplementum Berolini 1892. Corp.=A. Gr. 1886. v. coll. sept. Corp. iii Inscriptiones Asiae. 1877. Petersbourg 1859—1881. Roehl Berolini 1877. 1887. ed. ed. ed. ed. Th. Th. . Collitz. inscr. Indices conf. x Inscriptiones Bruttiorum. G. Aetoliae. Wuensch [Inscriptiones Graecae iii.xxviii Abbreviations F. Mommsen Berolini 1872. 1888 4 Indices comp. i—2. Etruriae. C. U. Aem. Appendix continens defixionum tabellas in Attica regione repertas. coll. Fick. A. insularum maris lonii ed. iv. Compte-rendu St. H. H. Illyrici Latinae. Mommsen Berolini 1863. W. Apuliae. 1883. I. G. Wilmanns Berolini 1881. Th. de Rossi Berolini 1876. W. xi. i—3 Supplementa voluminis primi comp. 1882. inscr. Bezzenberger. 1856. Henzen. Kirchhoff [Inscriptiones Graecae i] Berolini 1873. 1902. i] Berolini 1897. Kirchhoff [Inscriptiones Graecae i Supplementa] Berolini 1877. iii Inscriptiones Atticae aetatis Romanae ed. Aem. ii Inscriptiones Atticae aetatis quae est inter Euclidis annum et August! tempora ed. Acarnaniae. i Inscriptiones Aemiliae. Huebner Berolini 1873. frag. Huebner Berolini 1869.Narbonensis Latinae. — Compte-rendii de la commission imperiale archeologique ayec un Atlas St. R. 1843. Comptes Rendus des Stances de I'Annee Paris 1859— Corp. Comptes rendus de PAcad. Tabulae lithographae. Blass. Umbriae Latinae. i. ed. Bormann. Th. et belles-lettres = Academie des Inscriptions &• BellesLettres. 1885. Meister. = Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae septentrionalis i Inscriptiones Megaridis et Boeotiae ed. Indices comp. Zangemeister Berolini 1871. i Inscriptiones Phocidis. Pet. Gottingen 1884— 'Com. ed. iv Inscriptiones parietariae Pompeiariae Herculanenses Stabianae. Bechtel. ed. W. Dittenberger [Inscriptiones Graecae ix. Th. Koehler. ix Inscriptiones Calabriae. 1882. ed. Mommsen Berolini 1883. inscr. 1902. 2 Supplementa voluminis alterius comp. i—2 Inscriptiones Galliae Cisalpinae Latinae. 3] Berolini 1897. Rom. Henzen. 5] Berolini 1895. = Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum i Inscriptiones Latinae antiquissimae ad C. Kirchner [Inscriptiones Graecae ii. Caesaris mortem. O. Kirchner Berolini 1893. Supplementi pars i—2 Berolini 1898. Sabinorum. ed. A. Deecke.Euclidis anno vetustiores ed. W. J. inscr. Hirschfeld Berolini 1888. Campaniae. Dittenberger [Inscriptiones Graecae iii] i—2 Berolini 1878. provinciarum Europae Graecarum. viii Inscriptiones Africae Latinae. G. E. Herausgegeben von H. Voluminis primi editio secunda: pars i cura Th. Mommsen Berolini 1873. Samnii. Siciliae. A. 1901. F. C. U. Huelsen. Locridis. 1891. A. = Cotnicorum Komanorum praeter Plautum et Syri quae feruntur sententias P^ragmenla tertiis curis recognovit Otto Ribbeck Lipsiae 1898. Huelsen Berolini 1893. Lat. vi. R. xii Inscriptiones Galliae . 1853. Boeckh Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum i—iv Berolini 1828. B. iv. des inscr. Gr. Collitz. ed. Supplementi fasc. J. 1894. ii Inscriptiones Hispaniae Latinae. vii Inscriptiones Britanniae. ed. 1891. iii. Supplementi pars i—3 Berolini 1891.

de Visser De Graecorum diis non referentibus speciem humanam Lugduni-Batavorum 1900.ae 1903. E. Pettier.. Durm. i—2. Guilelmus Dittenberger i—iii Lipsiae 1898. Supplementum Sylloges inscriptionum Graecarum. Von J. Philosophisch-historische Classe. Darmstadt 1892. i. iii. De Visser De Gr.. Dritte Auflage. spec. Pal. Etrusk? = Handbtich der Architektur. H. Saglio i— Paris 1877— AeXr.^^Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum. Mommsen. W. 1904. Dittenberger Orient. 'A|<>x. 3. Durm. — C. i Inscriptiones urbis Romae Latinae. et inf. 1902. Gxon. Catalogue public par les soins de 1'Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres et sous la direction de Mm. Durm. Akad. 1899. Cramer Anecdota Graeca e codd. Hirschfeld. Ant. i—2 Inscriptiones trium Galliarum et Germaniarum Latinae. inscr. Zweiter Teil: Die Baustile. 1901. i—2. Bohn. Leipzig 1910. — Dictionnaire des Antiquites grecques et romaines d'apres les textes et les monuments. ii. 1901. diis non ref. = J. Babelon. Zweiter Theil: Die Baustile. Ch. Gr. Lat. H. 1907. novo ordine digestum amplissime auctum atque emendatum cura et studio Doct. Cramer anecd. = Corpus inscriptionum Semiticarum ab Academia Inscriptionum et Litterarum Humaniorum conditum atque digestum. Die Baukunst der Romer. inscr. H. Von J. E. Zweite Auflage. Cougny Epigramtnatum Anthologia Palatina cum Planudeis et Appendice Nova iii Appendix Nova Parisiis 1890. de Vogue. Append. 1905. Unter Mitwirkung von Fachgenossen herausgegeben von J. Pars I— Tom. 1914. Esperandieu Berolini 1899. Tome iii Les Bronzes par A. Dessau Inscr. Paris. A. Ende. Gr.= Ae\Tioj' 'ApxaioXoyiKov €Kdi56/JLevov virb rov yeviKou e<popou II. = Catalogue des Vases Feints de la Bibliotheque Nationale par A. Ka/3/3a5t'a ev 'A0iji/ais 1885— Denkschr. du Fresne Du Cange Glossarium medics et infinite Latinitatis. . sel. 2. Dessau Berolini 1887. Wien 1850— De Ridder Cat. med. Domaszewski. 2. iterum ed. — E. Nat. Lat. Schmitt und H. i Berolini 1892. Zweite Auflage. Vases de la Bibl. 1902. i..Abbreviations xxix xiii. Sem. = Orientis Graeci inscriptions selectae. O. seL = H. de Ridder Paris 1905. Zangemeister. De Vit Lat. xiv Inscriptiones Latii veteris Latinae. Lex.=M. De Vit Onomasticon = Totius Latinitatis Onomasticon opera et studio Doct. ii. 1905. Cramer Anecdota Graeca e codd. Dessau Inscriptiones Latinae selectae i. I Band: Die Baukunst der Griechen. Ende herausgegeben von E. Daremberg et Edm. Durm Baukunst d.. hum. manuscriptis Bibliothecarum Oxoniensium i—iv Oxonii 1835—1837. ed. E. Instrumentum domesticum.. Editio nova a Leopold Favre i-—x Niort 1883—1887. d'archeologues et de professeurs sous la direction de Mm. ed. Unter Mitwirkung von J. Dressel Berolini 1891. Ducange Gloss. xv. Th. Bronzes de la coll. 2 Band: Die Baukunst der Etrusker. Corp. d. A. ed. i—vi Prati 1858—1879. = Totius Latinitatis Lexicon opera et studio Aegidii Forcellini lucubratum et in hac editione post tertiam auctam et emendatam a Josepho Furlanetto. O. de Ridder i ii Paris 1901. Cramer anecd. Aem. Dittenberger Syll. de Clercq — Collection de Clercq. Durm und -H. Durm Baukunst d.—J.. 1900. ed. Stuttgart 1905. 1906.. 1906. Wien = Denkschriften der kaiser lichen Akademie der IVissenschaften. Wilhelmus Dittenberger i ii Lipsi. Vincentii de-Vit. inscr. De Ridder Cat. i— Parisiis 1881— Cougny Anth. i—2.ouvrage redige par une societe d'ecrivains speciaux. Wagner. A. Daremberg-i-Saglio Diet. manuscriptis Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis i—iv Oxonii 1839—1841. Schmitt. Gr. Vincentii de-Vit lucubratum i—iv Prati 1859—1887.2> '^ — Handbuch der Architektur. C.

Fasc. 1862. ii—viii Editio secunda Vindobonae 1839. Rdm? — Handbuch der Architektur. Taboo and the Perils of the Soul London 1911. Texte par M. Corporis inscriptionum Latinarum supplementum. Fasc. Third edition. Collegit et disposuit Augustus Meineke i-—iv Berolini 1839—1841. revised and enlarged i ii London 1914). Zweite Auflage. Gr. — Ephemeris epigraphica. J 828. i—3 Paris 1905. Einzelaufnahmen = Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Sculpturen Serien zur Vorbereitung eines Corpus Statuarum Unter Mitwirkung von Fachgenossen herausgegeben von Paul Arndt und Walther Amelung Mtinchen 1893— Register zu Serie i—5 Bearbeitet von Georg Lippold Mtinchen 1911. Frazer Golden Bough3=]. 2 Band: Die Baukunst der Etrusker. Farnell The Cults of the Greek States i—v Oxford 1896—1909. Zweiter Teil: Die Baustile. Eckhel Doctr. = Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. 1905. Fasc. Colin Paris 1909. Frazer Golden Bough^^]. Part I. 1878. iii. Part II. i Paris 1909. = 'E^rj^e/Hs 'ApxaioXoyiKT) tKdido/J. = Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum. Epigraphie. edita jussu Instituti archaeologici Romani Romae 1872— Epic. Ende herausgegeben von E.xxx Abbreviations Durm Baukunst d. Durm und H. i. R. Second edition. 1908. i par M. Fouilles de Delphes (1892—1903) Executees par ordre du Gouvernement fran9ais et publiees sous la direction de M. P. 1913.] London 1890— Forrer Reattex. Releves et Restaurations par M. Frazer The Golden Bough A Study in Magic and Religion. [Incorporating The Arch&ological Review and The Folk-Lore Journal. G. Antiquites Diverses. Paris 1902.. Folk-Lore — Folk-Lore. vet?=Doctrina numorum veterum conscripta a losepho Eckhel i Vindobonae 1792. 2 Paris 1905. 1852—1860. Fasc. 2 par M. 1911. Von J. notis et prolegomenis illustravit. The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings i if London 1911. G. 1911. Stuttgart 1905. hist. Planches Fasc. Terres Cuites. 3 par M. com. revised and enlarged i—iii London 1900. Farnell Cults of Gk. 1912. i-—3 Paris 1906. Th. 1883—1909 continued as 'Apx<uo\6yiKri 'Ei^ue/MS eKdiSofj-tv-rj virb rfjs 'Apxo-ioXoyiKijs 'JZraipelas 'AGfyrjcri 1910— Ephem.Frag. Addenda ad Eckhelii Doctrinam numorum veterum ex eiusdem autographo postumo Vindobonae 1826. epigr. 1883. Adonis Attis Osiris Studies in the History of Oriental Religion.tvri virb rrjs ev 'Adrjvais ' Apx<uo\oyiK7Js 'Eratpetas 4v ' AG^vais 1837—1843. . ii. 1906. Texte. v Index. Die Baukunst der Rorner. Part III. Monuments Figures—Petits Bronzes. 'E<£. klassischen ztnd fruhchristlichen Altertiimer von Dr. 1909. Perdrizet Fasc. disposuit. G. num. . Colin Paris 1911. Emile Bourguet Paris 1910. Theophile Homolle. Transactions of the Folk-Lore Society. Unter Mitwirkung von J. Fouilles de Delphes = Ecole fran$aise d'Athenes. Part IV. Composuit Henricus lacobi Berolini 1857Frag. Collegit disposuit commentarium criticum adiecit Godofredus Kinkel i Lipsiae 1877. Institution. Texte par M. revised and enlarged London 1907 (Third edition. = Reallexikon derprdhistorischen. A quarterly review of Myth. Monuments Figures—Sculpture.—Fragmenta comicorum Graecorum. indicibus instruxit Carolus Mtillerus i—v Parisiis 1885. Tradition. 1885. frag. Durm. G. Gr. 1883. States =~L. Schmitt. and Custom. Homolle Fasc. The Dying God London 1911. v. Frazer The Golden Bough A Study in Magic and Religion. Gr. 1908. Albert Tournaire. Planches Fasc. Topographic & Architecture. Second edition. > iv. Collegit. Robert Forrer Berlin & Stuttgart (1907). 'A/3%.

Furtwangler—Reichhold (—Hauser) Gr. Furtwangler Statuencopien= Ueber Statuenkopieen im Alterthum von Adolf Furtwangler. Frazer Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship London 1905. Part VII. Frazer i—vi London 1898. Furtwangler Samml. Bd. Serie II nach Furtwangler's Tode fortgefuhrt von Friedrich Hauser Text und Tafeln Miinchen 1905—1909. Friederichs—Wolters Gipsabgusse —Konigliche Museen zu Berlin. Furtwangler Vasensamml.. Die Gipsabgusse antiker Bildwerke in historischer Folge erklart. Roma 1885. zu Miinchen von A. besorgt von P.=Le monete dell' Italia antica Raccolta generale del P. Akademie der Wiss. in. P. Furtwangler Masterpieces of Gk. Paris 1875—1889. Part VI. A. Beschreibung der Vasensammlung im Antiquarium von Adolf Furtwangler i ii Berlin 1885.. rom. Froehner Paris 1878. Coins — The Types of Greek Coins An archaeological essay by Percy Gardner Cambridge 1883. Furtwangler Geschnitt. Gardner Cat. Arch.Abbreviations Part V. Bausteine zur Geschichte der griechisch-romischen Plastik von Carl Friederichs neu bearbeitet von Paul Wolters Berlin 1885. xxxi Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild \ ii London 1912. Serie ill Text und Tafeln Miinchen 1910— E. Vases Oxford — Museum Oxoniense. Les midaillons de P empire remain depuis le regne d'Auguste jusqu'a Priscus Attale par W. P. G. emp. Gaz. Gemmen = Die antiken Gemmen Geschichte der Steinschneidekunst im klassischen Altertum von Adolf Furtwangler i Tafeln ii Beschreibung und Erklarung der Tafeln iii Geschichte der Steinschneidekunst im klassischen Altertum Leipzig Berlin 1900. Sculpt. Vases Cambridge = A Catalogue of the Greek Vases in the Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge by Ernest Arthur Gardner Cambridge 1897. Erster Theil (Aus den Abhandlungen der k. Notice de la sculpture antique du Mnsee national du Louvre par W. ant. Hist. = Numismatique Antique. Frohner Sculpt. bayer. Cl. Wolters Miinchen 1910). de Witte.im . Reichhold Serie I Text und Tafeln Miinchen 1900—1904. Steine Berlin = Konigliche Museen zu Berlin.. The Scapegoat London 1913. Vasenmalerei = Griechische Vasenmalerei Auswahl hervorragender Vasenbilder mit Unterstiitzung aus dem Thereianos-Fonds der kgl. xx. — Gazette Archeologique Recueil de monuments pour servir a la connaissance et a 1'histoire de 1'art antique public par les soins de J. Beschreibung der geschnittenen Steine im Antiquarium von Adolf Furtwangler Berlin 1896.). Catalogue of the Greek Vases in the Ashmolean Museum By Percy Gardner Oxford 1893. = Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture A Series of Essays on the History of Art by Adolf Furtwangler edited by Eugenie Sellers London 1895. It. I.. Gardner Types of Gk. Berlin —Konigliche Museen zu Berlin. Furtwangler und K. Abth. Frazer Pausanias• = Pausanias's Description of Greece translated with a commentary by J. Frohner Med. Kingship = J. Furtwangler Miinchen 1900 (Zweite Auflage. bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften herausgegeben von A. Miinchen 1896. Furtwangler Glyptothek zu Miinchen = Beschreibung der Glyptothek Konig Ludwig's I. Gardner Cat. Furtwangler Ant. Raffaele Garrucci Parte prima: monete fuse.) Frazer Lect.et Francois Lenormant. du Louvre = Mtisees Nationaux.a. Sabouroff= La Collection Sabouroff Monuments de 1'art grec publics par Adolphe Furtwsengler i ii Berlin 1883—1887. G. Parte seconda: monete coniate. Balder the Beautiful The Fire-festivals of Europe and the Doctrine of the External Soul i ii London 1913(General Index London 1914. General-Karte von Griechenland= General-Karte des Kb'nigreiches Griechenland. Frohner i Paris s. Garrucci Man.

annotatione. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben vom K. Gruppe i ii Miinchen 1906. Herausgegeben von Eduard Gerhard i—iv Berlin 1840—1858. Kiepert. gel. Stuttgart und Tubingen 1828—1844. Gilbert Gr.=Antike Bildwerke zum ersten male bekannt gemacht von Eduard Gerhard Miinchen Stuttgard & Tubingen (1827—1844). Myth. H. Bassi. 2. Oberstlieutenants J. Harrison London 1890. In drei Lieferungen. A. Gr. Gerhard Gr. Text zu Eduard Gerhard's Antiken Bildwerken. Von O. orient. Patroni. tabulis seri incisis illustravit Carolus Mullerus. orb. — A Greek-English Lexikon of the Nezv Testament being Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testament! translated revised and enlarged by Joseph Henry Thayer Edinburgh 1888. = Die griechischen Culte und Mythen in ihren Beziehungen zu den orientalischen Religionen von Otto Gruppe i Einleitung Leipzig 1887. Medaglioni del senate Milano 1912. 1907). G. ant. Gerhard Auserl. K. Kltigmann und G. im Auftrage des kaiserlich deutschen Archaologischen Instituts bearbeitet von A. Anz.xxxii Abbreviations Masse i : 300 ooo der Natur. Anc. Depart- . — Geographi Greed minores.= Griechische Mythologie von Eduard Gerhard i ii Berlin 1854. = Francesco Gnecchi / medaglioni Romani i Oro ed argento. G. Man. Gerhard Etr. Mariani. Gruppe Gr. Rom. Myth.'2'• = Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison Second edition Cambridge 1908. of the New Test. tot. Gruppe Myth. griech. Gotterl. Harrison Themis = Themis A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison with an Excursus on the Ritual Forms preserved in Greek Tragedy by Professor Gilbert Murray and a Chapter on the Origin of the Olympic Games by Mr F. Ath. Sogliano per cura di A. de Petra.—Auserlesenegriechische Vasenbilder. Gerhard Ant. 1855. Lit. Harrison Myth. Rel. Gott. O. Gruppe Cult. Vasenb. Kokides und revidirt von Dr. Harrison Proleg. Geogr. Gruter Inscr. Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen unter Mitwirkung von Paul Hartwig Paul Wolters Robert Zahn veroffentlicht von Botho Graef Text und Tafeln i ii Berlin 1909. ii Bronzo gran modulo. Ruesch Napoli 1908. 1911. Grimm—-Thayer Gk-Eng. Abteilung) von Dr. Nach Berichtignngs-Daten des k. E. prolegomenis. = Die mythologischeLiteraturaus denJahren 1898—1905 (Jahresbericht fur Altertumswissenschaft. Gruppe Leipzig 1908. Marucchi. hauptsachlich etruskischen Fundorts. E codicibus recognovit. Gk. = Mythology & Monuments of Ancient Athens being a translation of a portion of the 'Attica' of Pausanias by Margaret de G. Band. Suppl. Rom. Rel. —Inscriptions antiquae totius orbis Romani in absolutissimum corpus redactae olim auspiciis losephi Scaligeri et Marci Velseri industria autem et diligentia lani Gruteri: nunc curis secundis ejusdem Gruteri et notis Marquardi Gudii emendatae et tabulis aeneis a Boissardo confectis illustratae. Miinchen. = Griechische Gotterlehre in ihren Grundzugen dargestellt von Otto Gilbert Leipzig 1898. Iwan von Miiller v. L. Guida del Mus. Gabrici. Verrall with Introductory Essay and Archaeological Commentary by Jane E. Militar-Geographischen Institute in Wien. indicibus instruxit. — Griechische Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte {Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-iioissenschaft herausgegeben von Dr. Lex. Gnecchi Medagl. i ii Parisiis 1882. Vasen Athen = Kaiser lich deutsches Archdologisches Institut. Rel. Head Coins of the Ancients —Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. Korte v Berlin 1884—1897. Myth. Cornford Cambridge 1912. Spiegel' = Etruskische Spiegel herausgegeben von Eduard Gerhard Text und Tafeln i—iv Berlin 1839—1867. O. Napoli= Guida ittustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli approvata dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione compilata da D. 13 Sheets with Index Wien 1885. M. min. iii Bronzo moduli minori. Bildw. = Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen Gottingen 1753— Graef Ant. denuo cura viri summi loannis Georgii Graevii recensitae i—iv Amstelaedami 1707.

Immerwahr Kult. Head assisted by G. Southern Greece. Reprinted from the Journal of Hellenic Studies 1885. Imhoof-Blumer and Percy Gardner. 1887. Paris-Leipzig 1883. C.l'^=Choix de Monnaies grecques du cabinet d'e F. Science.= Wandgemdlde der -vom Vesuv -verschiitteten Stddte Campaniens beschrieben von Wolfgang Helbig. Miinzen — Griechische Miinzen. 700 to A. and Thessaly. = Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. 1. gr. B. bayer. Imhoof-Blumer Public par 1'Academie Royale Neerlandaise des Sciences. gr. Sicily. Veertiende Deel.C. A Guide to the principal gold and silver Coins of the Ancients. num^ — Historia numorum A Manual of Greek Numismatics by Barclay V. Nebst einer Abhandlung liber die antiken Wandmalereien in technischer Beziehung von Otto Donner. Gardner Num.es de la collection de F. Akademie der Wiss. Bd. Hist.Abbreviations xxxiii ment of Coins and Medals. W. Arc. from circ. Mess. ii Inscriptiones Arcadiae \Inscriptiones Graecae V. Macedon. 1901. 1896. Inscr. Choix de Monnaies grecqu. Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. frag. in. Hiller de Gaertringen Berolini 1913. C . Imhoof-Blumer Choix de monn. Rome = Guide to the Public Collections of Classical Antiquities in Rome by Wolfgang Helbig translated from the German by James F. Myth. ImhoofBlumer i ii Wien 1901. Leipzig 1868. Gr. and W. Francesco Inghirami per servire di studio alia mitologia ed alia storia degli antichi popoli i—iv Poligrafia Fiesolana dai torchi dell' autore 1835—1837. and Findlay Muirhead i ii Leipsic 1895. George Macdonald. = Inscriptiones Laconiae Messeniae Arcadiae i Inscriptiones Laconiae et Messeniae ^Inscriptiones Graecae v. = A Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias by F. Head Hist. Imhoof-Blumer Monn. Heydemann Berlin 1872. 1902. Kolbe Berolini 1913. Lac. Ant. Western Europe. Helbig Guide Class. Northern Africa.=Die Kulte und Mythen Arkadiens dargestellt von Walter Immerwahr I. Band in. Neue Beitrage und Untersuchungen von F. Imhoof-Blumer and P. a Series of Papers on Literature. Head Second edition London 1881. I. d. Dublin-London 1874— Hermes —Hermes Zeitschrift fur classische Philologie Berlin 1866— Herrmann Denkm. Imhoof-Blumer Winterthur 1871. Coins = Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection University of Glasgow by George Macdonald i—iii Glasgow 1899. by Members of Trinity College. Inghirami Vas. Monnaies grecques par F. Rom. Afdeeling Letterkunde. Imhoof-Blumer (Aus den Abhandlungen der k. . Cl. = Historicorum Romanorum fragmenta collegit disposuit recensuit Hermannus Peter Lipsiae 1883. Camp.) Miinchen 1890. Hill. Paus. New and enlarged edition by Barclay V. Wroth Oxford 1911. Central Greece. Head Oxford 1887. xviir. Amsterdam 1883. Hoops Reallex. Thrace. 2] ed. Band Die arkadischen Kulte Leipzig 1891. Kleinasiatische Miinzen von F. 1886. Imhoof-Blumer Gr. and Asia Minor. Arkad. and Philosophy. F. i Italy.D. Neapel= Die Vasensammlungen des Museo Nazionale zu Neapel beschrieben von H.fitt. j] ed. Abth. Helbig Wandgem. Miinzen = Sonderschriften des osterreichischen Archaologischen Institutes in Wien Band I. = Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgelehrten herausgegeben von Johannes Hoops i— Strassburg 1911— famter Cat. 1905. — Pitture di Vasi fittili esibite dal Cav. Dublin. Malerei=Denkmdler der Malerei des Altertums herausgegeben von Paul Herrmann Miinchen 1906— Heydemann Vasensamml. F. Imhoof-Blumer Deuxieme edition. Comm. by Barclay V. iii Further Asia. ii North Western Greece. Hermathena — Hermathena.

Kern. d. leges. Miinchen = Beschreibung der Vasensammlung Konig Ludwigs in der Pinakothek zu Miinchen von Otto Jahn Mtinchen 1854. 8] ed. Stud. u. Gr. class. =Jahrbiicher fur classische Phtlologie (Continued as the Neue Jahrbucher fur das klassische Altertum Geschichte und deutsche Litteratur und fiir PadagogiK) Leipzig 1855—1897. Dittenberger Berolini 1897. Hiller de Gaertringen Berolini 1895. i] ed. Berolini 1904. Fredrich Berolini 1909. Philol. W. Num. arch. Inst. Galliae inscriptiones ed. Indices composuit F. F. 3] ed. — Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae sep'tentrionalis i Inscriptiones Megariclis et Boeotiae [Inscriptiones Graecae vii] ed. dedicationes. Berolini 1890. Jahrb. Gr. arch. Hiller de Gaertringen Pars prior: Inscriptiones Cycladum praeter Tenum Berolini 1903. Hiller de Gaertringen Berolini 1908. =Jahreshefte des osterreichischen archdologischen Institutes in Wien Wien 1898— . Pddag. Deli=Inscriptiones Deli editae consilio et auctoritate Academiae inscriptionutn et humaniorum litterarum Franco-Gallicae. d.= The Journal of Roman Studies London 1911 — . Hiller de Gaertringen . iii. = Inscriptiones Graecae insularum marts Aegaei i Inscriptiones Rhodi Chalces Carpathi cum Saro Casi [Inscriptiones Graecae xii. d. ii Inscriptiones Deli liberae. = The Journal of Hellenic Studies London 1881-*Journ. 3] ed. =Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande (Continued as the Bonner Jahrbucher) Bonn 1842— 1894. tabulae hieropoeorum ann. Lebegue. iii Inscriptiones Symes Teutlussae Teli Nisyri Astypalaeae Anaphes Therae et Therasiae Pholegandri Meli Cimoli [Inscriptiones Graecae xii. G. Jahresh. It. W. N. Acarnaniae. pactiones [Inscriptiones Graecae xi.xxxiv Abbreviations Inscr. foedera. Hiller de Gaertringen Berolini 1898. O. ' Decreta. catalogi. Diirrbach. im Rheinl. New Series London 1899— Journ. F. Delamarre. Diirrbach Berolini 1912. d'Arch. Dittenberger Berolini 1892. Hiller de Gaertringen. Gr. Sic. P. ins. 5] ed. v Inscriptiones Cycladum [Inscriptiones Graecae xii. Inst.=Neue lahrbiicher fur Philologie und Paedagogik. Allerthumsfreund. Rom. Stud. ^fahrbuch des kaiserlich deutschcn Archdologischen Instituts mit dem Beiblatt Archaologischer Anzeiger Berlin 1886— Jahrb. Journ. Zweite Abtheilung Leipzig 1855—1897. Supplementa ed. Hell. Philol. i] ed. 314—250 [Inscriptiones Graecae xi. viii Inscriptiones insularum maris Thracici [Inscriptiones Graecae xii. 2] ed.r]s 'E^/aepts TT)S No/ucryUcmKTjs 'Apxaio\oyias Journal International d1 Archeologie Numismatique dirige par J. Inscr. f. Jahn Vasensamml. Roussel Berolini 1914. 2] ed. Indices composuit F. J. 4] ed. iii. varia {Inscriptiones Graecae xi. Svoronos Athenes 1898— Journ. Kaibel. Inst. Paton Berolini 1899. Pars altera: Inscriptiones Teni insulae et totius fasciculi indices Berolini 1909. F. insularum maris lonii [Inscriptiones Graecae ix. Tabulae archontum. iii Inscriptiones Deli liberae. Tabulae hieropoeorum ann. Jahrb. sept. W. C. 2 Inscriptiones Thessaliae [Inscriptiones Graecae ix. Locridis. F. = Aie6v. kais. Gr. = Inscriptiones Italiae et Siciliae [Inscriptiones Graecae xiv] ed. = The Journal of the (Royal) Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland London 1872— . ii Inscriptiones Lesbi Nesi Tenedi {Inscriptiones Graecae xii. F. A. Inscr. i Inscriptiones Phocidis. 7] ed. Berolini 1908. deutsch. F. Inscr. Intern. vii Inscriptiones Amorgi et insularum vicinarum [Inscriptiones Graecae xii. oest. 2] ed. Vereins v. 250—166. Jahrb. f. Aetoliae. Anthrop. iv Inscriptiones Deli liberae.

K. le comte de Lamberg i ii Paris 1813—1824. Vasen u.. L Anthropologie Paris 1890— Lebas—Foucart Peloponnese=T?h. cer. 2 Megaride et Peloponnese. Leroux Bordeaux 1912. Gr. Waddington Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure pendant 1843 et 1844 n. de sculpture et d'architecture Gravees d'apres les dessins de E. Milet— Konigliche Museen zu Berlin. Etym. Michel Recueil d'Inscr. Le Bas et W. Paris 1840. Augustus Lobeck idemque poetarum Orphicorum dispersas reliquias collegit. H. 4. Medallions Wien = Ausgewdhlte romische Medallions der kaiserlichen Munzensammlung in Wien aus dem Illustrationsmaterial der Bande i—xi des Jahrbuches der Kunstsammlungen des a. (Transcription and Commentary by P. Egiz. 5 Asie Mineure. e num. Partie : Inscriptions grecques et latines. Kubitschek Rom. Lenormant—de Witte J5L man. Oesterreich. ant. gr. nach des Verfassers Tode weitergefuhrt und herausgegeben von F. siciliens et grecs. i ii Regimontii Prussorum 1829. e mat.=Recueil d'Inscriptions grecques par Charles Michel Paris 1900. Vases de Madrid= Vases grecs et italo-grecs du Musle Archeologique de Madrid (Bibliotheque des Universites du Midi Fascicule xvi) par G. Meyer Handb. Landron publiees et commentees par Salomon Reinach. K.. Beotie. L''Antkropologie=M&tmz. Supplement—Fascicule i Paris 1912. Foucart) Paris 1847—1876... lies..a. L. Bildw. i—xxxi Paris s. Laborde Vases Lamberg = A. italiotes. Paris 1888.\!Ly..Abbreviations xxxv Kaibel Epigr. Lenormant et J. Waddington Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure pendant 1843 et 1844 n. di Mitol. Philippe Le Bas. Oesterreich. Milet Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899 herausgegeben von Theodor Wiegand. Lanzone Dizionario di Mitologia Egiziana i Testo ii Tavole Torino 1881.. de Luynes. Luynes Descr. = Bibliotheque des Monuments Figures grecs et remains. Partie : Inscriptions grecques et latines. de vases feints = Description de quelques vases peints.. Die Sammlung antiker Vasen und Terracotten im K. 6.(1842—1844). 3. von Duhn i—iii Leipzig 1881—1882. La Grande Encyclopedie = La Grande Encyclopedic Inventaire raisonne des sciences. Leroux Cat. de La Borde Collection des vases grecs de M. Museum filr Kunst und Industrie. Terracotten Wien = K. Thrace. i Karte der milesischen Halbinsel (i : 50 ooo) mit erlauterndem Text von Paul Wilski Berlin 1906. Lobeck Aglaophamus = Aglaophamus sive de theologiae mysticae Graecorum causis libri tres. Colonies du Pont-Euxine. Syrie proprement dite. des lettres et des arts par une societe de savants et de gens de lettres. Kaiserhauses neu herausgegeben von Wilhelm Kubitschek Wien 1909. Macedoine. Acarnanie. H. par H. 1824—1828. Waddington) Paris 1847—1876. h. H. d. Lebas—Reinach Voyage Arch. Lanzone Dizion. Matz—Duhn Ant. Masner Samml. Pliocide. . de Witte. Katalog undhistorische Einleitung von Karl Masner. 1905. Lebas—Waddington Asie Mineure = ~P\\. Thessalie. = Handbtich der griechischen Etymologie von Leo Meyer i—iv Leipzig 1901—1902.—Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta edidit Georgius Kaibel Berolini 1878.. e~trusques. ii. Museum. = Studi e materiali di archeologia e numismatica pubblicati per cura di Luigi Adriano Milani i—iii Firenze 1899—1901. = R. 1902. Etolie. iii. (Transcription and Commentary by W.. pour 1'histoire de 1'homme—Revue d'anthropologie—Revue d'ethnographic reunis. in Rom — Antike Bildwerke in Rom mit Ausschluss der grbsseren Sammlungen beschrieben von Fricdrich Matz. D. Texte et Planches i—iv Paris 1844—1861. Scripsit Chr. Epire. Le Bas et W. Voyage Archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure sous la direction de M. = Elite des monuments ceramographiques Materiaux pour 1'histoire des religions et des moeurs de 1'antiquite rassembles et commentes par Ch. Milani Stud. di arch. Wien 1892. Planches de topographic. gr.

=Monumenti inediti pubblicati dalf Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica Rome et Paris 1829-1833—1839-1843. Theodor Wiegand. & juxta ordinem Fulvii Ursini & Caroli Patini disposita. & Goltziani dubiae fidei omnes. e Bull. Etr. par T. ed Ann. Kunst. Man. Friedrich Krischen. Karl Lyncker. Leipzig 1898. 1900. Miiller. Miiller—Wieseler Denkm. Sigeb. Stadt Athen = Feste der Stadt Athen im Altertum. = Monumenti andchi pubblicati per cura della Reale Accademia dei Lincei Milano 1889— Man. Urbis Romae. Supplement i—ix Paris 1819—1839. Miiller und F. Theodor Wiegand. alt. Inst. Mionnet Descr. Man. Zweite Bearbeitung durch Friedrich Wieseler. & ad ipsos Nummos accuratissime delineata. = Antike Denkmdler zur griechischen Gb'tterlehre. Erich Ziebarth Berlin 1914. iii Das Delphinion in Milet von Georg Kawerau und Albert Rehm unter Mitwirkung von Friedrich Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen. sive Familiarum Romanarum numismata omnia. Zusammengestellt von C. Num. Fam. Vierte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Ausgabe von Konrad Wernicke. O.. Rome. & aerea. a Celeberrimo Antiquario Andrea Morellio. von August Mommsen. See Stuart Jones Cat. Num. •= Museum Etmscum Gregorianum Musei Etrusci quod Gregorius XVI pon. geordnet nach attischem Kalender. tertius). Sculpt. Line. Capit. Mnemosyne = Mnemosyne Tijdschrift voor classieke Litteratuur Leyden 1852— Mommsen Feste d. Rom. in aedibus Vaticanis constituit monimenta linearis picturae exemplis expressa et in utilitatem studiosorum antiquitatum et bonarum artium publici iuris facta. Denkm. =Denkmdler der alien Kiinst nach der Auswahl und Anordnung von C. Mark Lidzbarski. Rom. Inst. 18571863—1884-1885. CuJLiscunque Moduli.xxxvi Abbreviations ii Das Rathaus von Milet von Hubert Knackfuss mit Beitragen von Carl Fredrich.. Sciilpt. i Der Latmos von Theodor Wiegand unter Mitwirkung von Konrad Boese. Mus. d. Miiller—Wieseler—Wernicke Ant. Mils. Diligentissime undique conquisita. Piot — Fondation Eugene Piot. Mus. = Description de mMailles antiqties. Ouvrage servant de catalogue a plus de vingt mille empreintes en soufre prises sur les pieces originales. & Antonii Francisci Gorii Commentaria In XII. a Celeberrimo Antiquario Andrea Morellio. Inst. Haverkampi. nel 1855 Gotha-Lipsia. = Thesaurus Morellianus. d. Sive Christ. argentea.-= Monumenti Annali e Bullettini pubblicati dalV Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica nel 1854 Roma. Capit. = Thesauri Morelliani torn us primus (secundus. Man. Wieseler. Nunc primum edidit et Commentario perpetuo illustravit Sigebertus Havercampus i ii Amstelaedami 1734Morell. E. Hispanici. diligentissime conquisita. Cat. 1903. Schlegelii. O. Hermann Winneleld Berlin 1908. O. = Monumenti ed Annalipubblicati daW Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica nel 1856 Lipsia. Ann. de med. Priorum Imperatorum Romanorum numismata aurea. Monuments et memoires publies par I'Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Paris 1894— Morell. Denkmaler der alten Kunst von C. Supplemento Berlin 1891. Mionnet i—vi Paris 1806—1813 vii Recueil des planches Paris 1808. iii.Cum Praefatione Petri Wesselingii i—iii Amstelaedami 1752. Musee Belge = Le Musee Beige Revue de philologie classique Louvain 1897— . Teil ii. Imp. Hippolyte Delehaye. Miiller und F. Vierte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Ausgabe. Oskar Wulff Berlin 1913. avec leur degre de rarete etf leiir estimation. grecques et romaines. Accedunt numrni miscellanei. Seconde edition Paris 1837. ad ipsorum nummorum fidem accuratissime delineata. Thes. Thes. i ii ex aedibus Vaticanis 1842. Walther von Marees. Roma 1844-1848—1849-1853. ant. Umarbeitung der 1864 erschienenen Heortologie. Hubert Knackfuss. Man. Lieferung i—iii Text und Tafeln Leipzig 1899. d. Gregor. d. max. i ii Gottingen 1854—1856. Wieseler. d.

Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg-Aitgusts-Universitcit Gottingen 1864— . Oriental Civilization. Olympia bearbeitet von Friedrich Adler. i Topographie und Geschichte von Olympia von Friedrich Adler. = The Numismatic Chronicle London 1839—' > The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society London 1843— . Gesellsch. d. Hagenbuchii suisque adnotationibus edidit lo. Accademia del Lincei per ordine di S. 1839 with Atlas of pis. d. Istruzione Roma 1876 — Nomj. Paul Graef. E. Casp.avec une Preface de Maxime Collignon. Turici 1856. Friedrich Graeber. Gottingen Phil. Wiss. kon. Ernst Curtius. Nachrichien von der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Classe = Nachrichten von der Georg-Augusts-Universitat und der Konigl. Orellius. Textband Tafelband Berlin 1890. Scavi = Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita. (facsimile-reproduction 1905). Lat. Paris 1911 with an Atlas of pis. Orelli—Henzen Inscr. sel. Lat. Maffeii. Philologisch-historische Klasse Berlin 1906— Neue Jahrb. Textband zur Mappe nlit den Karten und Planen Berlin 1897. Casp. Vases d'' Athenes Suppl. Or. Third Series London 1881— . Steinbruechelii epistolae aliquot epigraphicae nunc primum editae. Rudolf Weil. v Die Inschriften von Olympia bearbeitet von Wilhelm Dittenberger und Karl Purgold. sel. Mass. Joseph Partsch. 1869— Ohnefalsch-Richter Kypros = Kypros The Bible and Homer. — Nouvelles Annales publiees par la section francaise de r Institut archeologique i ii Paris 1836.. Lit. Wilhelm Dorpfeld.. Altei'turn = Neue Jahrbiicher filr das klassische Alttrtum Geschichte und deutsche Litteratur und fiir Plidagogik (Continuation of the Jahrbiicher filr classische Philologie] Leipzig 1898— Nicole Cat. Textband Tafelband i ii Berlin 1892—1896. Zeitschr. Num. Volumen tertium collectionis Orellianae supplementa emendationesque exhibens edidit Guilielmus Henzen. Textband Tafelband Berlin 1894—1897. — NumismatischeZeitschriffWi&a. Seguierii. Wilhelm Dorpfeld.. Feste = Griechische Feste von religioser Bedeutung mil Ausschluss der attischen untersucht von Martin P. Accedunt praeter Fogginii kalendaria antiqua. Elucidated by the Author's own Researches and Excavations during twelve years' work in Cyprus. Accedunt Indices rerum ac notarum quae in tribus voluminibus inveniuntur. ii Die Baudenkmaler von. Olympia = Olympia Die Ergebnisse der von clem deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung im Auftrage des koniglich preussischen Ministers der geistlichen Unterrichtsund Medicinal-angelegenheiten herausgegeben von Ei'nst Curtius und Friedrich Adler. Siipplement par Georges Nicole. New Series London 1861— . iii Die Bildwerke in Stein und Thon bearbeitet von Georg Treu. By Max Ohnefalsch-Richter. Nachrichten von der K. comunicate alia R.. Richard Borrmann. Reiskii. Art and Religion in Ancient Times. i ii Turici 1828. i Text ii Plates London 1893. Chron. Nilsson Leipzig 1906. Not.-hist. iv Die Bronzen und die iibrigen kleineren Funde von Olympia bearbeitet von Adolf Furtwangler. Insunt lapides Helvetiae omnes. Nilsson Gr. Fourth Series London 1901 — Num. Ann. = Catalogue des vases peinls du Musee National cf Athenes. = Inscriptionum Latinarum selectarum amplissima collectio ad illustrandam Romanae antiquitatis disciplinam accommodata ac magnarum collectionum supplementa comphira emendationesque exhibens.Abbreviations xxxvii Nachr. Cum ineditis lo. f. il Ministro della pubb. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften z^^ Gottingen Gottingen 1856— . = Orientalistische Litterattir-Zeitung Berlin 1898— Orelli Inscr. Hagenbuchii. = Inscriptionum Latinarum selectarum amplissima collectio ad illustrandam Romanae antiquitatis disciplinam accommodata. Ernestii. Berlin 1896. '3 . Paul Graef.

i—2. Paul Schazmann. ix La Grece archaique: la glyptique—la numismatique—la peinture—la ceramique 1911. Adam Zippelius. gr. Perrot—Chipiez Hist. PlastiJ^—Geschichte der griechischen Plastik von J. 1894. = Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Alterthuviswissenschaft in alphabetischer Ordnung. her.. 1906. Demeter und Kora Leipzig 1873—1878. Overbeck. Giuseppe Pellegrini. Catalogo dei vasi antichi dipinti delle collezioni Palagi ed Universitaria descritti dal Dott. vas. Bologna 1900. Bologna — Museo Civico di Bologna. Pauly Real-Enc.xxxviii Abbreviations Overbeck Gall. viii. Text i—3 with Atlas of pis. Von Jakob Schrammen.. v Perse—Phrygie—Lydie et Carie—Lycie 1890. iv Jude'e —Sardaigne—Syrie—Cappadoce 1887. dipint. .. Altertiimer von Pergamon herausgegeben im Auftrage des koniglich preuszischen Ministers der geistlichen und Unterrichtsangelegenheiten Berlin 1885 — i Stadt und Landschaft von Alexander Conze. Dritter Band. 1866 ii—vi Stuttgart 1842—1852. Der obere Markt. Braunschweig 1853 with an Atlas of pis. Pellegrini Cat. 1908. Atlas der griechischen Kunstmythologie herausgegeben von Johannes Overbeck Lieferung i—v: Tafel i—26 Leipzig 1872—1888. 1912—1913. Erster Band. Text with Atlas of pis.. Bologna 1912. vii La Grece de 1'epopee— La Grece archaique: le temple 1898. Pergamon —Kb'nigliche Museen zzi Berlin. Erstes Buch : Zeus Leipzig 1871. bearbeitet von Dr. Schuchhardt herausgegeben von Max Frankel.. ant. i ii Leipzig 1893. 2 Das Traianeum von Hermann Stiller mit einem Beitrage von Otto Raschdorff. iii. Zweiter Band. 1885. Poseidon. 1890. i— Paris 1881— i L'Egypte 1881. August Senz. Catalogo dei vasi greci dipinti delle necropoli Felsinee descritti da Giuseppe Pellegrini. Fiinftes Buch : Apollon Leipzig 1889. Text with Atlas of pis. Otto Beiiet. 1910. i Der grosze Altar. — Griechische Kunstmythologie von J. vii Die Skulpturen mit Ausnahme der Altarreliefs von Franz Winter mit einem Beitrage von Jakob Schrammen. Von. di-pint. Bildvu.. Overbeck. et Charles Chipiez. vi La Grece primitive: Fart Myce'nien 1894. = Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Neue Bearbeitung unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgenossen herausgegeben von Georg Wissowa i— Stuttgart 1894— .und dem Herausgeber August Pauly.^>^ Georges Perrot. Overbeck Gr.Edito per cura del Comune di Bologna. Kurt Regling. Die Bildwerke zum thebischen und troischen Heldenkreis.. Supplement i— Stuttgart 1903— Pellegrini Cat. Bologna = Mnseo Civico di Bologna. ii Das Heiligtum der Athena Polias Nikephoros von Richard Bohn mit einem Beitrage von Hans Droysen. Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. Zweiter Band (Besonderer Theil). Johannes Overbeck. Vierte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. Text with Atlas of pis. viii La Grece archai'que: la sculpture 1903. Kunstmyth. drittes und viertes Buch: Hera. iii Phenicie—Cypre 1885. iv Die Theater-Terrasse von Richard Bohn. iii.. de FArt— Histoire de F Art dans fAntiquite. i Die Inschriften von Pergamon unter Mitwirkung von Ernst Fabricius und Carl . x La Grece archaique: la ceramique d'Athenes 1914. 2 Die Friese des groszen Altars von Hermann Winnefeld. Erster Band. Friedrich Graber mit Beitragen von Johannes Mordtmann. v. Overbeck Gr. Overbeck. 1895. Leipzig 1868. vas.. Edito per cura del Comune di Bologna. 1895. i (Zweite vollig umgearbeitete Auflage) Stuttgart 1864. Gesammelt von J.. ii Chaldee et Assyria 1884. Overbeck Schriftquellen = Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Kiimte bei den Griechen. Text with Atlas of pis. Text with Atlas of pis. — Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke der alien Kunst. Text i—2 with Atlas of pis. Carl Schuchhardt. Zweites. 1896. Alfred Philippson.

R. Jordan i ii Berlin 1881. Gerhard (Auserl. le Bullettino Italiano. Stolberg 1846. Millin. Etudes sur 1'histoire de la peinture et du dessin dans 1'antiquite.. 2) Lipsiae 1802—1805.2. Luynes. 1907. Catalogue des vases antiques de terre cuite par E. Pierres gravees des collections Marlborough et d'Orleans. 1910. des notices et un index. Prellwitz Etym.. Schulz (Amazonenvase).er. lyr. Neue Folge Gottingen 1889— . ii Sept mille statues antiques. Num. ii Afrique—lies Britanniques. — Salomon Reinach Repertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine i Clarac de poche. Preiler. Reinach Rep. iii L'ecole attique Paris 1896. 1910. Recensuit Theodoras Bergk. iii Deux mille six cent quarante statues antiques. Mariette. Description raisonnee du Musee de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Reliefs = Salomon Reinach Repertoire de Reliefs Grecs et Romains i Les ensembles. i Les origines. Poet. 1912. Vases = Salomon Reinach Repertoire des vases feints grecs et etrusques i Peintures de vases gravees dans 1. H. Preller Berlin 1858. Preller. Vasenbilder). Reinach Rep. = Poetae lyrici Graeci. 1904. le Museo Italiano. Dritte Auflage von H. = HpaKTiKa rfjs ev 'Adr/vais dpxaioAoyi/ojs ercupias Athens 1872— Preller Rom. Zahn. Zweite Auflage von R. Roulez. Myth. Art. Wilberg. Berlin 1894. Dr. Stosch reunies et reeditees avec un texte nouveau par Salomon Reinach. Levesque de Gravelle.pa. Preller—Robert Gr.KT. = Griechische Mythologie von L. W.'Atlas et le Compte-rendu de St. Supplementorum i—iii (Tomi vi. Paris 1897. Gori. 1899. Vases du Louvre = Musee National du Louvre. min. Tischbein (Tomes I—v) avec des . ii Peintures de vases gravees dans les recueils de Millingen (Coghill). les Monumenti. Bronzes figures de la Gaule romaine par Salomon Reinach . = Lexicon universae rei numariae veterum et praecipue Graecorum ac Romanorum cum observationibus antiquariis geographicis chronologicis historicis criticis et passim cum explicatione monogrammatum edidit lo. Qiiat. Alyth? = Rb'mische Mythologie von L. Priene Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1895—1898.Abbreviations xxxix Philologus = Philologus. Worterb. avec des notices explicatives et bibliographiques.. reunies pour la premiere fois. Spr? = Etymologisches Worterbuch der Griechischen Sprache von Prof. Gottingen 1905. von Theodor Wiegand und Hans Schrader unter Mitwirkung von G. i) Lipsiae 1785—1795. Priene = Konigliche Museen zu Berlin. Reinach Rep. verbesserte Auflage. Rasche Lex.Paris 1895. Kummer. ii L'ecole ionienne. ^ Reinach Rep. V Ephemeris (1883—1894). iv Quatre mille statues antiques avec des notices et les index des quatre tomes. Tl. Walther Prellwitz. Editionis quartae i—iii Lipsiae 1878 —1882. Lat. Vierte Auflage bearbeitet von Carl Robert. d. i—xi (Tomi I—vi. = Salomon Reinach Repertoire de Fart quaternaire Paris 1913.Figure's = Antiquites Nationales. avec des notices et des index. Annali et Memorie de 1'Institut de Rome. Pettier Cat. Gr. 2— vii. des recueils d'Eckhel.. Berlin 1904.-Petersbourg. Winnefeld. reunies pour la premiere fois.2 = Rb'mische Mythologie von L. contenant les bas-reliefs de 1'ancien fonds du Louvre et les Statues antiques du Miesee de sculpture de Clarac. 1912. Kohler Berlin 1865.Paris (1895). Laborde. iii Italic—Suisse Paris 1909. Reinach Rep. avec des notices et les index des trois tomes. dpx. Peintures = Salomon Reinach Repertoire de peintures du may en age et de la renaissance (1280—1580) i—iii Paris 1905. 1897— 1898. Recensuit et emendavit Aemilius Baehrens i—vi Lipsiae 1879—1886. YArc/iaeologische Zeitung. Christophorus Rasche. Myth.. Theogonie und Goetter. Reinach Pierres Gravees = Bibliotheque des monuments figures grecs et romains. Pettier. Gr. Erster Band. Zeitschrift fur das klassische Alterthum.. = Poetae Latini minores. Gottingen 1847— . Leipzig 1897— Poet. 1883. Stat. Reinach Bronzes. le Bullettino Napolitano. Preller—Jordan Rom. avec une introduction.1. 1906.

i Anecdota varia Graeca musica metrica grammatica. storiche e filologiche. Zweite Abtheilung: Hippolytos—Meleagros Berlin 1904. Rendiconti d.Cambridge 1887. B. Gardner. Neue Folge Frankfurt am Main 1842— Robert Sark. Roux—Barre Here. It. II Museo Borbonico et tous les ouvrages analogues augmente de sujets inedits graves au trait sur cuivre par H. Scholl—Studemund anecd. de litttrature et d'histoire anciennes Paris 1845—1847. Dritte Auflage. Beige de Num. — Revue . = Her'culanum et Pompei Recueil general des peintures. Epigr. Von Erwin Rohde. Roehl Inscr. Edited for the Syndics of the University Press by E. Dritter Band: Einzelmythen. Nouvelle serie Paris 1877— Rhein. decouverts jusqu'a ce jour. Mitth. Part II The Inscriptions of Attica.herausgegeben von W. = Bibliotheque des monuments figures grecs et remains. —Revue des etudes grecques Paris 1888— Rev..A. . H. Myth. Lincei = Rendiconti della reale accademia dei Lincei Classe di scienze morali. Gr. = Revue mimismatique (Continuation of the Revue de la mimismatique francoise Blois 1836—1837) Blois 1838— . Roberts.beige de mimismatique (Continuation of the Revue de la mimismatique beige Bruxelles 1841 —1874) Bruxelles 1875— Rev. Epigr... et Pomp. A. Robinson Cat. Keinach Vases Ant. Vases J3oston = ~E.-Relfs = Die antiken Sarkophag-Reliefs im Auftrage des kaiserlich deutschen archaeologischen Instituts rait Benutzung der Vorarbeiten von Friedrich Matz herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Carl Robert. = Inscriptions Graecae antiquissimae praeter Atticas in Attica repertas.. Roberts Gk. = An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Roberts—Gardner Gk. 1893. i ii Tiibingen und Leipzig 1903. Roma 1892 — Rev. = Aiisfiihrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie im Verein mit. Sambon Monn. Philol.and E. etc. Schoell et Guil. L. Studemund. et un index des tomes i et ii. Gr. = Rheinisches Ahiseum jilr Philologie. publics et commentes par J.S.. et reproduits d'apres Le antichita di Ercolano. Paft I The Archaic Inscriptions and the Greek Alphabet. Mus. Num... ant. Arch.= Mittheilungen des kaiserlicJi deutscken archaeologischen Instituts: roemische Abtheilung Rom 1886— Roscher Lex." Les monnaies antiques de I'Italic par Arthur Sambon i Etrurie—Ombrie—Picenum—Samnium—Campanie Fascicule i—5 Paris 1903—1904. Troisieme serie Paris 1883— . Robinson Catalogue of Greek. = Biblioth'eque du "Musee. = An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy.. Etruscan and Roman Vases Cambridge. Roux aine Et accompagne d'un Texte explicatif par M. i ii Tubingen und Leipzig 1897. bronzes. Barre i—viii Paris 1870—1872. Freiburg i.xl Abbreviations notices explicatives et bibliographiques. Roscher i— Leipzig 1884-1890— Roulez Vases de Leide= Choix de vases feints du Musle d"1 Antiquites de Leide. Rohde Psyche"1 —Psyche Seelencult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der Griechen. Edited by E. Nouvelle serie Paris 1856— . und Leipzig 1894. S. = Anecdota varia Graeca et Latina.Paris 1891. Paris 1899.. Quatrieme serie Paris 1897— Rev. Rheinisches Museum filr Philologie Bonn 1832— . 1900. Roulez. Roberts. Et..Cambridge 1905.. ant. S. Rom. Peintures de vases antiques recueillies par Millin (1808) et Millingen (1813) publiees et commentees par Salomon Reinach. = Revue dephilologie. Nouvelle serie Paris 1860— . Geschichte und griechische Philosophie Bonn 1827— . une bibliographic de la ceramique grecque et etrusque. U. Troisieme serie Paris 1883— . Consilio et auctoritate Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae edidit Hermannus Roehl Berolini 1882. mosai'ques. Ediderunt Rud. Quatrieme serie Paris 1903 — Rev. Erste Abtheilung: Actaeon— Hercules Berlin 1897. Zweite Auflage..Gand 1854. Serie Quinta. = Revue archtologique Paris 1844— . Zweiter Band: Mythologische Cyklen Berlin 1890.

Smith—Wace Diet.. Akad.. and Henry Wace. Berlin — Sitzungsberichte der koniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (zu Berlin] (Continuation of the Monatsberichte der Koniglichen Preuss. Thesaurus Graecae linguae. Wiss. St.with Atlas of pis. Coins = A Dictionary of Roman Coins... i Die alteren nichtattischen Vasen. Post editionem Anglicam novis additamentis auctum.und Volkergeschichte Alteuropas von O. Wiss. Supplemento all' opera dell' Helbig " Wandgemalde der vom Vesuv verschiitteten Staclte Campaniens. i ii London 1908.—Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde. Schrader Reallex. Marindin. Strassburg 1901. Smith Diet. I854.. Mus. Miinchen = Die kb'nigliche Vasensamm.. Gr. Miinchen 1912. i er volume Athenes 1910. Schrader. d. E.. —A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities comprising the history.' Edited by William Smith. mur.=A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.. from the time of the Apostles to the age of Charlemagne. = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Ant. Smith—Marindin Class. Roach Smith. bayr.. Grundziige einer Kultur. d. Classe — Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-historischen Classe(Klasse] der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien 1848— Sitzungsber.. Camp. Edited by William Smith. Classe = Sitzungsberichte der konigl. Petersburg—Die Vasen-Sammhmg der kaiserlichen Ermitage i ii St. Madden. Akad. bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Miinchen 1861— . Chr. edited by Sir William Smith. d.. London 1889.-hist. d.. Petersburg 1869. Biogr.. Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-philologischen und (der) historischen Classe (Klasse] der k. Marbres et Bronzes du Musee National par V. i ii London 1854.. Stai's... William Wayte. in Wien Phil. = Das athener National m^lse^^m phototypische Wiedergabe . i ii London 1890. Literature. Sculpt. E...& Samuel Cheetham. being a continuation of ' The Dictionary of the Bible. Lmg. 1856. 1880. Third edition. Edited by William Smith. d... Svoronos Ath.Fifth impression. By various writers. Geogr. Stevenson—Smith—Madden Diet. d. i—viii Parisiis (1831— 1865). Diet. Oxford 1912. and antiquities of the Christian Church.. Revised throughout and in part rewritten by G.. Mythology.. = A Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography. = Q'r)ffavpbs rrjs 'EXA^i/i/c^s y\uo-ffris. National»ius. = A Dictionary of Christian Biography. The Sculptures of the Museo Capitolino. b.. Stai's Marbres et Bronzes: Athenes'^^ Guide ilhistre 2de edition corrigee et augmentee. kais. ' Sogliano Pitt.. Phil. i—iv London 1877. Myth.-hist. Stuart-Jones Cat. edited by H. Biogr.lung zu Miinchen herausgegeben von Johannes Sieveking und Rudolf Hackl. by C.. institutions. Rom. i—iii London 1853.. Ant. revised and enlarged. Stuart Jones. Akad.Abbreviations xli Edidit Guilelmus Studemund. Text von R. ^857.. = Le pitture murali campane scoverte negli anni 1867-79 descritte da Antonio Sogliano. kais." Napoli 1879. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchen Miinchen 1878— Smith Diet. ii Procli commentariorum in Rempublicam Platonis partes ineditae. G. Marindin. By members of the British School at Rome. Smith—Cheetham Diet. Wiss. Hackl. republican and imperial: commenced by the late Seth William Stevenson.and completed by Frederic W. Sitzungsber.. Sieveking—Hackl Vasensamml.. in part. Sects and Doctrines.. ab Henrico Stephano constructus. Berolini 1886. Capit. 1882.revised. Rome = A Catalogue of the Ancient Sculptures preserved in the Municipal Collections of Rome. Smith—Wayte—Marindin Diet... Chr. = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ordineque alphabetico digestum Fertio ediderunt Carolus Benedictus Hase. Edidit Rudolfus Schoell. 1887. London 1899. Stephanus Thes. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin Berlin 1854— ) Berlin 1882— Sitzungsber. 1891... Stephani Vasensamml. Edited by William Smith. Leipzig 1868.. Guilielmus Dindorfius et Ludovicus Dindorfius. and Geography based on the larger dictionaries by the late Sir William Smith..

G. decrits et expliques par Philippe Aurele Visconti et Joseph Guattani.. i Architektonische romische Tonreliefs der Kaiserzeit bearbeitet von Hermann von Rohden unter Mitwirkung von Hermann Winnefeld. k. Babelon. traduit de 1'italien par A. 1891. & e Veneta S. Conze Wien 1869—1876. = QLuvres de Ennius Quirinus Visconti. Troisieme fascicule : Nicee et Nicomedie. Bronzen Wien = ~&. Pte-Ctem. Gotterl. iii Griechische Vasengemalde. von Walter Miiller und Franz Oelmann. 1860. Oktober 1889. Paris 1910. Wide Lakon. Sergent-Mar^eau Milan 1822. = Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lcttres (Fondation Piof].xlii Abbreviations seiner Schatze mit erlauterndem Text von J. Waddington. Reinach. Walde Lat. Kulte = Lakonische Ktdte dargestellt von Sam Wide Leipzig 1893.. Serie 1888. ii Basreliefe und geschnittne Steine. Basreliefe und Vasengemalde. in Gorlitz — Verhandlungen der vierzigsten Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmanner in Gorlitz vom 2. d'As. von Dr W. Recueil general des monnaies grecques d'Asie Mineure commence par feu W. 1890.. i Die Giebelgruppen und andre Griechische Gruppen und Statuen. Philologenversamml.. Tiryns. Serie A—E herausgegeben von O. = Thesaurus linguae Latinae editus auctoritate et consilio Academiarum quinque Germanicarum Berolinensis Gottingensis Lipsiensis Monacensis Vindobonensis i— .continue et complete par E. 40. Index librorum scriptorum inscriptionum ex quibus exempla adferuntur. etym. Visconti Mus. Wien.. Monumens du Musde Chiaramonti. Lat. Berlin und Stuttgart 1911. Lipsiae 1904.. Von Sacken Ant. Die Hera von Tiryns. Min. Mit einer Abhandlung liber Wandmalerei und Tafelmalerei. Premier fascicule: Pont et Paphlagonie. . von August Frickenhaus. Alois Walde. Thes. Benndorf Wien 1889. Vorlegebl. — Vorlegeblatter fur archaeologische Ubungen Serie i—viii herausgegeben von A. v Statuen. Worterb. i i. Ling. 1890/91 herausgegeben von O. Benndorf Wien 1879—1886. gr. Stud. Th. Lipsiae 1909— The Year's Work in Class. Earth Heft i—xxiv Athen 1903—1912.. Terrakotten = Die antiken Terrakotten im Auftrag des archaologischen Instituts des deutschen Reichs herausgegeben von Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz.. Die ' geometrische' Nekropole. Musee Pie-Clementin i—vii Milan 1818—1822. = Anecdota Graca E Regia Parisiensi. Heidelberg 1906. N. Band iv. Denkm. iv Wandgemalde. ii Die Fresken des Palastes von Gerhart Rodenwaldt mit Beitragen von Rudolf Hacklt und Noel Heaton. Paris 1908. Villoison anecd. Athen 1912. = The Year's Work in Classical Studies 1906— London 1907— Tiryns = Kaiserlich deutsches archaeologisches Institut in Athen. = Griechische Gb'tterlehre von F. von Sacken Die antiken Bronzen des k. Marci Bibliothecis deprompta Edidit Johannes Baptista Caspar d'Ansse de Villoison.. F. Welcker Alt. 1863. Gottingen 1851. Milnzund Antiken-Cabinetes in Wien Wien 1871. Paris 1904.. Tome premier. Welcker Gr. 2. Servant de suite et de complement au Musee Pie-Clementin.. Gottingen 1849. H. = Alte Denkmaler erklart von F. Die Ergebnisse der Ausgraburigen des Instltuts. bis 5. Welcker. d. 1889. i ii Venetiis 1781. Verh. Athen 1912. = Lateinisches etymologisches Worterbuch von Dr. Gottingen 1861. Text und Tafeln.Deutsche Ausgabe besorgt. Deuxieme fascicule: Bithynie (jusqu'a Juliopolis). Gottingen 1850. Supplementum: nomina propria Latina. Leipzig 1890. Von Rohden—Winnefeld Ant.. G. Gottingen 1864. Lipsiae 1900— . Waddington—Babelon—Reinach Monn. Svoronos. Welcker i—iii Gottingen 1857. Vasos griegos Madrid— Francisco Alvarez-Ossorio Vasos griegos etruscos e italo-griegos que se conservan en el Museo Arqueologico Nadonal Madrid 1910.

Winckelmannsfest-Progr.. Vereinigte Samtnlungen zu Karlsruhe. Num. Zeitschr. Lat. Halle a/S. Kult..MQfi Heinrich Heydemann. Beschreibung der Vasensammlung von Hermann Winnefeld Karlsruhe 1887. Band iii. 4. von Carl Robert.Mlinchen 1902. Vierzehntes (—Postumes vierundzwanzigstes) hallisches Winckelmannsprogramm. Halle 1890—1903. Iwan von Miiller v. Zweites— Programm zum berlimr Winckelmannsfest Berlin 1842— . Georg Wissowa. i ii Berlin und Stuttgart 1903. Karlsruhe — Grossh. Wissowa Rel. Berlin = Festgedanken an Winckelmann von Ectuard Gerhard Berlin 1841. Abteilung) von Dr. 1876—1888. Halle^Erstes (—Dreizehntes] hallesches (hallisches) Winckelniannsprogramm. = Zeitschriftfur Numismatik Berlin 1874— . Zweite Auflage Miinchen 1912.. Rom.\KgQgQ\>Qn von Dr. Terrakotten = Die antiken Terrakotten im Auftrag des archaologischen Instituts des deutschen Reichs herausgegeben von Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz.. Band...Abbreviations xliii Wilmanns Ex.f. = Exempla inscriptionum Latinariim in usum praecipue Academicum composuit Gustavus Wilmanns. Winnefeld Vasensamml.era. i Die Typen der figiirlichen Terrakotten bearbeitet von Franz Winter. Winter Ant. Antikenkranz zum neunten— berliner Winckelmannsfest Berlin 1849— » Zwolftes Programm der archdologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin zum Geddchtnisstag Winckelmanns Berlin 1852. i ii Berolini 1873. —Religion und Kultus der Rbmer (Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-wissenschaft\\. inscr. Vierzehntes—• Programm zum Winckelmannsfest der archdologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin Berlin 1854— Winckelmannsfest-Progr.

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ii. C. 456 f.vv. s. ( i ) E. Welsh diw dyw dydd 'day. von Bradke Dyaus Asura Halle 1885 p. Gothic sin-teins 'daily'. god of the tree whose wood was used in fire-making. Wbrterb.' Slavonic dint ' day'. Schrader Reallex. suggested that Zeus was named ' Bright' as being the oak-god. element in their composite nature (ib. ' day. that the oak was originally the tree of the earth-mother rather than the tree of the sky-father. But the frequent use of the word dyaus in the Rig-veda for 'sky' or 'day' (A. includes the following forms: Greek gvdios 'at mid-day.' though he still regards the oak-tree as the primary. ib? iii.. 1906 ii. since a whole series of related words in the various languages of the Indo-Europaean family is used to denote ' d a y ' or 'sky 2 . jRel. THE supreme deity of the ancient Greeks.' dies ' d a y ' . etym. 133 f. 1100 n. § i. sky. Against this view I protested in the Class. Grassmann Worterbuch zum Rig-veda Leipzig 1873—1875 p. 21. Indeed a presumption K. ii. I now hold.' it can be safely inferred that Zeus was called ' the Bright One' as being the god of the bright or day-light sky3. during their historical period at least. 670. H. Old Indian diva 'on the day. Hirt Die Indogermanen Strassburg 1907 ii. A. dies. And Frazer op. Rev. (a) Zeus the Sky. 312. 276 f.. 527. 'to shine. 358 n. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 p.' 2 This series as collected by Walde Lat. 220 holds that Zeus denotes properly the 'hurler' or 'discharger' of rays (cp.e. 373 ff. not a secondary.' Cornish det 'day. 797. 1902 xvi. and shall hope in vol. 204.' Breton dez 'day. Lithuanian diend. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 pp. p. His name.-cit? ii. 600 s.' And. ' day. 182.' Irish indiu 'to-day'.) and infers that he must have been the lightning-god. 2. (a) Frazer Golden Bough1 ii. Albanian dit3 ' day'. not as is commonly supposed the god of bright day-light. was Zeus. Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indoger-inanischen Sprachen Strassburg 1904 p. Brugmann Grtmdriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Spracheri* Strassburg 1897 i. 369.' divdm. and Hirt op. ii of the present work to show.' may be rendered ' the Bright One1. i. Latin sub divo 'under the open sky. 210. P. Myth. I 1 .' eudia 'clear sky'. div.CHAPTER I ZEUS AS GOD OF THE 'BRIGHT SKY. cit..' 3 Two misleading explanations may here be noted. v. id. The Greek ZetJs and the Old Indian Dyaus represent an Indo-Europaean ^dieu-s from the root di: die: deia. 506. H. -263. Armenian tiv ' day'. no) and the existence of the forms recorded in the foregoing note are conclusive in favour of the common view. 734 f. 307. H. as did Gruppe Gr. i admits that he ' was disposed to set aside much too summarily what may be called the meteorological side of Zeus and Jupiter. 372. i. and that the latter acquired it in the first instance through association with the former. Zeus and the Daylight. p. deus.). referable to a root that means ' to shine.

Cat. or. were cut off and stolen from Pisa by burglars (Loukian. 97 ff. 35 f. which had irpbffuirov e\e<pa. D 392. s. and beard (T. A terra-cotta head of Zeus found at Olympia and dating from the first quarter of the fifth century B. bears traces of a blackish brown varnish on the hair. 25). Polyb. on the forehead. 28. Rome ii.vTos'Kal xpv<rov (Paus. Terracottas c 445. Not till Roman times do we get a demonstrably light-haired Zeus. in II. Wiegand Die archaische Poros-Architektur der Akropolis zu Athen Cassel and Leipzig 1904 p. Treu in Olympia iii. but simply as the bright sky itself. Ath.C. 4 and fig. 46. xii. 354.) his hair varies from dark to light. 1901—1902 viii. Eustath. 19 ff. Mus. the description of whose nod is said to have inspired Pheidias' masterpiece at Olympia 1 : So spake the son of Kronos and thereto Nodded with darkling brow 2 : the lordly locks. 10 ff. pi.). helped by Pheidias. but here we have to reckon with the conventional colouring of architecture (A. 309 fig. 5. The Minoans of Knossos made ivory statuettes of athletes with hair of gilded bronze (Ann. Deonna Les statues de terre cuite dans f antiquite: Sidle etc. Sogliano Pitt. 1. 25 f. but occasionally give him a grey beard or white hair (Overbeck Gr. 3. cp. Sat. 37). now in the Akropolis Museum at Athens.). 8. 4). Arch. p. Flout. Kvdveos and its compounds)—a confusion characteristic of early thought and as such well known to anthropologists. Brit. came probably from a pediment of the third century B. pi. 2. and Pausanias states that Theokosmos of Megara. On wall-paintings from the Villa Farnesina (Gaz. lup. P. 138): it shows traces of red in the hair and beard.). 4. Inst. pi. A wall-painting of the Hadrianic age from Eleusis shows him enthroned with a Nike in his right hand. 188. has undeniably black hair. pis. 7. for Lucian makes Zeus complain that a couple of his curls.. 30 ff. Ling. 304 ff. A seated figure of Zeus from a sixth-century pdros pediment. d. Greek vase-painters. 12 p.. But it would be rash to infer from this that the god was essentially fair-haired. eyebrows. etc. Paris 1908 p. Inst. Malerei pis. W. not in anthropomorphic fashion as the bright sky-god. i. ext. 2 Kvaveriffiv eir' 6<j)pv<rt. p.32O> Man. and round the eyes : this was either a protective coating (G. 5. 246 no. Helbig Guide Class. Max. a sceptre in his left: his head is unfortunately mutilated. ruler of the gods. 29). 10. 90. Kunstmyth. 6. S. Aem. Zeus in the Iliad is already the potent.883 viu. Were they blondes? Herodes Attikos erected a chryselephantine statue of Poseidon in the Isthmian temple (Paus. Macrob. 2. the Greeks at the time when their literature begins had advanced far beyond this primitive view. d. 72 f. or more probably a lustre intended to imitate the effect of bronze (A. Furtwangler Aegina Miinchen 1906 i. 23. 383 Reiske. Deonna op. Zeus p.) may denote a similar attempt to copy gilt bronze. 223 f. Reinach Esquisses archgologiques Paris 1888 p. if not omnipotent.C. i—2). 7. 7. 1083) and from Pompeii (listed in Helbig Wandgem.99 ^ P^ Z 5 Zeus with the attributes of Dionysos. Herrmann Denkm. weighing six minas apiece. 30. Furtwangler Die Bronzefunde aus Olympia Berlin 1879 p. made for the Megarian Olympieion a statue of Zeus. found by Lord Savile at Lanuvium and now in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. 40. 13. cp. Gr. 1 Strab. p. Camp. (W. 145. v. Ant. It is probable that Pheidias' chryselephantine Zeus and its copies had hair and beard of gold. But Poseidon was not xanthotrichous. mur. but . Camp. i. 7 f.is raised that Zeus was at first conceived. Dion Chrys. 1884 Ivi. trag. cit. d.vv.. Val. The terra-cottas from Smyrna that show Zeus or Zeus Sarapis with gilded head and hair (Brit. Ann. Paul. 2 f.). bound by their artistic traditions. True. p. ' Blue' here implies ' black ' (see Stephanus Thes. A terra-cotta head of Zeus. Girard La Peinture Antique Paris 1891 p. Sch. commonly of course represent Zeus with black hair. n.

662. 70 aWepos eK di7)s. and in //. i diov yevos is Dionysos son of Zeus. when as yet he was the Zeus. de xe'lP> Eur. ' of the bright sky/ to take on the more personal meaning. p. ' of the enough remains to prove that the beard. i Abel alOfyi 5iy. Aisch. rivers and mountain-peaks. gottlich. 'H0cu'<rrci. like the body. 360 ('gottlich'). 9. 2 Diels aWepa b?ov. Boisacq Diet. ib. 1 //. 189 f. 6 //. Prellwitz Etym. v. P. Kurze vergl. 'Zeus.a p.6fj^a At'ou 7rcu56s. 175 f. 3 Brugmann Grundriss etc. Dios in fact meant at first 'of or 'belonging to the bright sky'.g. p. 167. Etym. 9. Aisch. and a vestige of its primary meaning is to be found in the frequent Homeric phrases 'the bright upper air 6 ' and 'the bright dawn7. 2 Wissowa Rel. iii. 5). 18. ii. on his immortal head Shook—at their shaking all Olympos quaked1. 255.frag. 141).' 4 E.' The transition from brightness in this sense to glory or splendour in general is not hard to follow. W. id. 306. men and women. 528 ff. . 342 9?w Slav. 17. d. Dem. 240. n. v. when Zeus came to be regarded as an individual sky-god. de la Langue Gr. i. n. 368. Meyer Handb. ('divin'). 365.frag. was red-brown in colour shaded with black ('E<£. 436. Od. divine horses. Spr. certain traces of the earlier conception persisted even into post-Homeric times2. 151. the radiant sky credited with an impersonal life of its own. 7. L.' dann allgemeiner 'himmlisch. 77 ff. 16. 199 (of Hera). § 5. But the contrast was neither originally nor finally valid : at the first both Zeus and lupiter were the sky. 19. 19. etc. cp. 109. Nevertheless. 12. etym. 128. Warde Fowler The Religious Experience of the Roman People London 1911 pp. nymphs. pp. Gr. ('von Zeus hermhrend. 417 i?ws ore dia <f>av^ri. land and sea. 1888 p. the way was open for dios. 540 es aldepa Slav. P. I 2 . cp.Zeus the Sky Ambrosial. Rom. 619 po6\evfj. Worterb. 187 (' himmlisch'). 100 contrasts Zeus the personal sky-god with lupiter the actual sky (cp. Further. But how comes it that in the much earlier Homeric poems it has the force of 'bright' or ' glorious' without any such restriction to the property of a personal Zeus 5 ? Probably because the word was formed before Zeus became a personality. I shall begin by passing it in review.ev TO ATo?.. h. 'ApX. 723. Homer has 5?os in the sense 'bright' or 'glorious' of goddesses (but not gods. 375. 53.z p. pi. which denotes properly 'of or 'belonging to Zeus3. Emped. 117 ('gottlich').' This meaning it actually bears in Attic drama 4 . i euWjoa dlov. gr. 99 ('himmlisch'). 8. 582 Zenodotos wrote dlos"Api)s). h. 5 According to H. Dion. Orph. Ebeling Lexicon Homericum Lipsiae 1885 i. at the last both were the sky-god. For a similar explanation of earthquakes in modern Greece see infra ch. The evidence is linguistic rather than literary. i. herrlich' oder ahnlich). 7 //. 50. Gram. treat Stos as *dtfios from At/"-. Zeus angehorend. 88 cS 5tos ald-fjo.va. Od. 310 f. 16. 24.2 ii. d. peoples and places. Ion 1144 a. Closely akin to the substantive Zetis is the adjective dios. Kult. though in frag. although Zeus as conceived by the Homeric minstrel is fully anthropomorphic.

vv. 726 with Eustath. im-dius tertius. gvdios. ii.e. explanation would be to say that Aios meant originally ' of Zeus. there comes Shoreward the unerring Ancient of the Sea5. to account for Ai6cr0uos. ii. lex. Hesych.B. And fifty lines further on her word is made good : At mid-day (endios) came the Ancient from the sea6. Orion p.3 That different dialects should be at different stages in the evolution of the meaning of a given word. 60.u/3/>ii>6s. in II. publishes (after G. Anz.Zeus the Sky god Zeus. and very possibly attests the survival among the Thraco-Phrygian folk of an early. adloc. 70 f. '275. 4 77. not to say primitive. et. and that its meaning had been widened and weakened by epic usage till dios came to signify merely 'divine.E. 39. M. Horn. 450 with scholl. •200. servitor of Zeus Aios. Another adjective" endios occurs in epic verse with the meaning 'in broad day-light' or 'at mid-day3. Cramer anecd. 7f.' while yet Attic poetry retained the primary force of the word Aios. ' of Zeus. a double appellation which recalls the Dea Dia of the Romans. Gud. mag. 186. p. on the assumption that Zeus began life as the Zeus. 43. Nestor in the Iliad describes an expedition in which he had once taken part : At mid-day (endiof) came we to the sacred stream Alpheios4.e<ri]^piav : schol. a plough of a kind still much used in Anatolia.' For example. 881. s. fr'Seios. on the base. 3 So Souid. V. On the upper part of the altar are two bunches of grapes . 425 — 594) a limestone altar at Eskischehir in the Kutschiik-Han inscribed 'Aya0TJ TI^/XTI SoXwv iepbs Ka\ra firiTayT]v A[i]|i Aiw evxifjv. tvdiois. Gel. discharged a vow to his god and by the same act of devotion made a tomb for himself. p. 4. V. el. We note in passing that in north-eastern Phrygia Zeus was worshipped as Zeus Dios^. but — as it seems to me — less probable. says 5 6 Od. 2 A. But the hypothesis set forth in the text involves fewer assumptions. 16. 409 f. Ramsay Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire Aberdeen 1906 p. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896 pp. Zeus. tvdia. 339. is certainly thinkable. Dius fidius. of the personal Zeus.' Thus. is highly precarious.v.v. p. and suggests that we have here perhaps 'den uralten Himmelsgott Aios' (an ancient nominative assumed by H. Korte observes that the quantity of i in Aios is doubtful. 1897 clix. r. s. Apollon. 4. £VSios' yue(n?. Korte in the Gb'tt. Oxon. 1 Another possible. both Homeric and Attic usages are satisfactorily explained1. AiuXXos). 5 Kara fj. Radet 'En Phrygie' in the Nouvelles Archives des Missions Scientifiques Paris 1895 vi. s. tvdios. . Eidothea too in the Odyssey tells Menelaos the habits of her father Proteus : What time the Sun bestrides mid heaven. Ai'os K6piv6os. <¥ | «e eairrw fwc. This. and even that the early poetry of one dialect should give only the later meaning while the later poetry of another dialect gave only the early meaning. 400 f. who notes that Solon.' i. however. I prefer to write Aios with Sir W.

| e#5ie. 498 irevre fj. s.. 954 f. 784 e#5i6s K el'?/ of the moon. 823 ei)5tou. d. 3 travaiyhrievTa Kal etidiov of a space cleared for a sun-dial. It.' But the adjective itself must have meant originally ' in the Zeus ' or ' in the bright sky5. Etym. frag. v. 449 atiToSiov. TO 5e Z v d i a Tjfjiepivd. 250. there is the adjective eudios 'with a clear sky. 3. 162. which E. phaen.ap). 23. 5.g. TO de {/'Saros dvSioio ijyovv /jLeffyfjippLvov /cat otipaviov. phaen. 8. Tratrt^a^s of the sun. 37 f.g. frag. ' im Zeus. 10 Agathias. cit. 6 i]/J. on the analogy of avT7J/j.w(ri.' thence passing into the sense ' in broad daylight. v.' and the verbs eudidn. e'ndios10. id. Arat. caus. Spr? p. 293. 3. Axiock. h. 39 TTOTI ruvdiov with schol. 38. yaiys with schol. Anth. ' 6 Cp. i. Meyer Handb. cit. 10 Prellwitz op. clear sky. vet. Pal. eudidzesthai 'to be serene9. 16. ttym.at ffe (sc. 1310 f. iv. Cp. Isthm. 24 Schneider. i. 370 D /3tos.ppLav and gloss M. im lichten Tage. p. Kal TO. 8 E. SeiXwot/s (imitated by Antiphilos in Anth.€v frdia ffTpetperai K«0' vwtprepa. 124 Schneider tdeos evdtoio. Traph TOV Zvdiov Kaipbv TOV /j.' the substantive eudta ' a. Kaibel in the Inscr. 10 Paulus Silentiarius. Boisacq op. 66. Hesych. p. 5. Rom. raOrct de irdvTa (sc. 5. Gr.'SeL says of the full moon 6 d/crj^es 5' evSidovTcu. Arat. 2 dXA' •>} vb% ?) gvdios fj &rer' faa-p. p. d. Theokr. and alike bear witness to the fact that 1 Souid. col. TO. dddvaTe Zev.' lit. tranquil7. 269. Aith. Pal. Plat. e. Anth. phaen. Theophr.v. Dem. symp.epas evSiov. Prellwitz Etym. pexP1./xecnjjU/Jpi'as. E. 8. d. gvSiov y/j. 174 renders 'arbores quae in aerem succreverunt. 7 E.' Lastly. Aither) KfKpa/j. 'on the self-same day' (so Prellwitz Etym. 899 TravTrj Atos etidiowt/Tos with schol. id. Boisacq op. 4. 2. 9 E. ib.ea-r]fj:j3piv6v. Kallim.. Sikes ad loc. 'straightway.evov eiiSiov elveu. Hekale frag. h. Hel. 16. 18. pi. h. both being derived from ev At//.Zeus the Sky 5 Similarly Souidas cites the following couplet.g. Pal. 6 \iTO/j. id. perhaps by Kallimachos : So. dcraXeijTy ^<ru%tc[ euStafo/tej'os. Heracl. Worterb. 2 'Ei'Sicifetj' : Plout. would render : ' are as bright as day. cit. 4. 4. Spr? p. 9.' ' at mid-day6. 122 Christodoros. Pal. I2of. 291. W. while mid-day (endios) endured and earth grew hot. Pind. irepi TO /jLea"ij/jLJ3pii>6v. pap. Od. The verb came to mean simply 'to dwell': Anth. which G. The (Alexandrine?) author of the Homeric h. More brilliant than crystal shone the sky1. Prellwitz Eine griechische und eine lateinische Etymologic Bartenstein 1895 p. Sic.' 'to grow up into the air4. v6Tia ect<r%t.g. 3 'Ei'Siaj' : Theokr. 6. . ^5tos = Kallim. jrepl 5' o^vTaTai 6epov avyal \ ijeXt'ou At/Stfip/. 6 Agathias. Worterb. 8 notes that ZvSlos is for frSifios and gvoios for Zvdifos. id. an. ib. Gr. euSias oiJffi]^. 22. p.' These all spring from the same root as dios. Gr. Orph. 5 ^av yap evdiat. phaen. Kara rty [teo'Ti/J. 13 f. Ap. 16. calm weather8. /cai /36es ijST) TOI Trapos vdaTos evdioio ovpavbv eicravidovTes air1 aiOepos <j}ff<f>p^a'avTO with schol. 603 £s ZvSwv with schol. ib. 8. Boisacq Diet. 9. p. 44. i.' 5 "Ep§{os is related to ev Au as is evvti%ios to £v vvicrl or ^dXtos to £v a\l: see L. Rhod. 103. 7 (6). From this adjective are derived verbs meaning ' to take a mid-day siesta2. Arat. 806. 4. Lucull.ap fyv. v^Xa v-rrep yijv. de la Langue Gr. 5. evolav oiraao-ev | SK x«/"w"os. devdpa) Tre<pvTevfj. Arat. 423. Hellenistic poets affected the word.eva Trape%6vTi Kal evde \ diuKOTa.' 'to live in the open air3. Geopon.' 4 'Evdiovv: Tab. 71). 142. 95 iroiufras evdiovs with schol. gr.^aros.

ci eaTiv aepa. 375 /cat Zevs atVros -qp^irjaev eiiSios o~vv aldepi.. It is interesting to observe that the tenth-century scholar. Had he not got the best of it? I'll explain. 409. for in discussing the words etidios and eudia he suggests as a possible derivation—'or because Zeus denotes "the sky" also1.' It certainly appears to be used in that sense by Euripides : he has in his Kyklops the following conversation between Polyphemos. mag. • 3 For a Latin parallel see Ap. Plutarch.that 'towards Zeus' was a popular expression for ' sky-wards3. Thus Aristophanes in his comedy Friends of the Fryingpan makes one of the characters exclaim : And how should Plouton bear the name he does bear.ivei /cat TOV oupavov. seems to have had an inkling of the truth. TOV TaXdvTov TO peirov \ KO. 389.atv€i) TOV debv rj TOV ovpavov. who has returned home unexpectedly.Zeus once signified the animate sky. p. clause is STO. i. 6 (Zet>s <njfj. cp. So Lyd. in II. who compiled the great Greek lexikon known as the Etytnologicum Magnum. 211 ff. therefore. 9 ff. 4 Eur. ware 5too"?7/ueta TO TOV a4pos o"r)[j. 9 &5ioi.TU /3oc5£fei. 183. 21 (cod. 176 p. 2 Aristoph. The things of earth surpass the things of Zeus. fous 5e Kal irapa TOV vypbv Ata. Tzetz. Cycl. met. . 30.V yap terras. there are occasional passages of a more or less colloquial sort. and the Chorus of Satyrs. irpbs avTov TOV Ai' dvaKeK>j<f>afj. /cdrw.' Still. uicnrep etidiov TO irpaov KCU ya.. 881. Stob. /SAeTrer' acw /cat /«. The remark gains in point. 18 (ed. the natural tendency would be to forget the former in the latter. We can hardly expect. 121.\v)vbv TOV aepos /caXeiTcu ffx'fj/J-o-. 24) denies ad lovem elevans (of an ass looking up). alleg. | /cat TaVrpa /cat TOV 'tipiwva depKOfJUU. KT. Wiinsch Zei)s yap 6 or?/). to find in extant Greek literature the name Zeus used as a simple equivalent of ' the sky. not down. ISov. in which the ancient usage may be detected. i—5 Meineke ap. There ! We are staring up towards Zeus himself: I see the stars . On the equation of Zevs with dijp see further infra p. 54. Look up. i.tiov. ib. TO 5e Kevbv 7r/)6s rbv Ata. de mem. Gaisford iii. quotes a witty epigram on Lysippos' statue of Alexander the Great with its characteristic upturned gaze: The man of bronze who looks to Zeus Says (so I should opine)— 1 Et. who are caught idling and so face their ferocious master with hanging heads: Kyklops. flor. Laur. if we may suppose. When you are weighing.ev. I see Orion too4. Eustath. 10. Tagenistae frag. 417): the last.' When the pre-anthropomorphic conception of Zeus had developed into the anthropomorphic. Chorus. II. p. 'tis the laden pan Seeks earth. the empty one goes up towards Zeus2. 4. p. 35 ?} on 6 Zei)s <n)fjuj. | XO. again.

2 ( = Cougny Anth. So schol. OVTO. cp.' (MSS. Atos ev fidei. Schol. Xt^r/p padfc. Kal 0a>rtfe<r0cu TOV KOG^OV. Sic.'. Aids yap avyas Xe^et TOV ovpavdv. in II.(poTtp<av i/cer' aldepa Kal Atos avyds. 355 Zeus 6 ^apatos. 837 TOT. mag. | XayUTrao'oCxos a/Jtepa \ At6s re (jteyyos. <&avebv) eireidi] (paiveTai veos. The same title was borne by Apollon in Chios (Hesych. 3. Hekabe in the tragedy that Euripides named after her speaks of her dead son Polydoros as— No longer in the light of Zeus3. ib. 940 \ev a. Cornut. 3 f. Perhaps we should rather render ' He that Appeareth'. Byz. The port and promontory are referred to by other writers (Aristoph. farewell4. Anthropomorphism is.A. has ('ATroXXciwa) Qavalov OTTO roO dtjXovffdai Si' avTov TO. where Euripides writes not only 'the light of the god 5 ' but also 'Zeus god of Light6.We]pi Kal Atos avyais). 645 in describing Chios mentions Qdvai. Another life. It. 9. however.\. 5 Id. 3 Eur. 64 f. 3?dvai says aKpuT^piov TTJS Xfou. Gr. ot olicr/Topes $ava?oi K. p. Schol.Zeus the Sky 'This earth 'I keep for my own use . p. as applied to the Chian Apollon. the epithet was at first a mere tOvutov. 4 Id. quia sol cotidie renovat sese. T.T. Zeus. TOP ovpav6v Si' a-Wepos ovpavbv r)Kei> (II. 53) avdaffovvri d' eoiKev 6 xaX/ceos els At'a Xetkrcrciw • | 'yav vir' ejUoi ride/tai. 2. 9 which quotes the line as proof that Zevs sometimes means 'the sun. K. o effTiv i]\iov /card TOVS TraXatotfs and et. av. In the same poet's Iphigeneia at Aulis the heroine.' Hesych.ir6\\ui>os Kal a\<ros <f>oiviK(av. Another lot Henceforth be mine. Cp. 1 Plout. ZeO. or not. adding ol de " At6s" TOV 17X1011. Append. 1694 with schol.' The Iliad thus describes the crash of a battle between Argives and Trojans: The din of both Rose to the upper sky and the rays of Zeus2. is for thine1. de Alex.T. 409. Atos avyds' TTJS ijnepas TO <pu>s. . 370 (pdvrjdi. 13. d?r6 TOV eneWev ava<f>av7jvai rjj ATjTot TTJC A^Xo^. magn. no. The sky. Loved light. for Strab. ' the god of Phanai'. But. I. Hec.' 2 //. /w t'c6.' With these passages of comedy and quasi-comedy should be compared certain others of more serious tone. ib. i. Pal. 458). when she departs to her death. and is thus explained by Macrob. s.\. In such passages it is difficult to determine whether Zeus is conceived as anthropomorphic. 34: •Jpcwato. theol. 1505 ff. 3>avaios). IIXaTWj'tKws. 2. i. crv 8' "OXvpirov l^e. B. V.' 6 Id. 962. though Steph. Eustath. 5' d/j. Rhes. Sat. 331 TOVTTIOV ae\as 6eov = ' to-morrow.. 67. The phrase recurs in a Greek metrical inscription found at Ostia (Inscr. TOV aldepa. 32 p. apparent in the Rhesos.v. Lang. and presumably also to Zeus.. 17. s. 707 oik£r' OVTO. bids adieu to the day-light: O lamp of day And light of Zeus. Atos avyds.v. Kai pews 'A. in which the poet says ' the rays of Zeus' or ' the light of Zeus' where we should say ' the light of day.

i f. i. s. praep. 97. 171 f. 8. Eratosth. Pal. Alleyne London 1881 i. rwv jUeyurTWP Ovpaviuv | Zefiaffreluv Nepovavidei uv. frag. 12. no. rerum mathemat. i. 8 ff. Clermont-Ganneau Recueil d'' Archeologie Orientale Paris 1903 v.' a title which in letter. | (fifpovtriv.s ve(f>e\as <rTV(pe\ifav | J3p6vra %w6/x. alleg.e\aivav). inscr. 45. i no. The Zeus of Hesiodic mythology is described as grandson of an older god Ouranos. Gruppe in Roscher Lex. In the Hellenistic age the latter title was much used by the poets3: it afforded a point of contact between the Greek Zeus and the Semitic Ba'al-samin. 1421. 123 Abel Zeus Trpwros yevero K. 9.' In Hellenic times the two Spartan kings were respectively priests of Zeus Lakedainion and Zeus Ourdnios ('of the Sky 2 '). 2260). 198 errel Kal Zei)s 6 ovpavbs Kal Zeds avros Tvy%dvei. eel. i § 6 (a). 4. 48 Abel ILpuroyovov dvvfjivel Kal Aia KaXei Travruv diardKropa. 9. 348. 106 n. Gr. fig. 323. 1719. 4. recalled the primary idea of the animate Sky. 6). arith.). Yet the older view was never very far below the surface. expos. Zeus 55. 399 ff.v. fjt. Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt Munchen 1910 ii. Lebas-Foucart Peloponnhe no. but usually as a description of the Sun (Macrob.evos?] | Atos Qtiplaviov]. TOV otipavov vvv \eyei. Iambi. iepetis | Qvpaviuv. 3. though not in spirit. Gr. 21. Verg.T. 4 (Leonidas Alex.. 39 Z^oy fTrovpavioio)—collected by Bruchmann Epith. 136. as we shall see. 44. it cropped up in a variety of ways. 60: see E. 36. Ofufipos) defa 8e. 76. 'Lord of Heaven4. 352. 9 f. veiK-ififfavra rpayudov? Ovpav\idda y ( = Corp. 81 At6s 6/J. in fact till the decay of paganism. 1276. 9. Zeus the ' sky5. I. = Stob. the starry midnight ' Sky1. Kiitie p. theol. Liv. 19. 1473. ev. Corp. : see O. 28.\. 43. 4 p. the original Zeus was simply the radiant day-light Sky. iii. 24. 66 ff. 4 Infra ch. Orphic writers occasionally gave the name Zeus to their first-born deity $di'7?s (Damaskios quaest. F. 52. So Aristot. 2 p. 694 f. Plan. georg. With the rise of anthropomorphism this belief was obscured and overlaid. Souid. 208 ZTJVOS <f>pa. 5 Tzetz. 9. 3 f. On a relief at Modena representing Phanes with a thunderbolt in his right hand see R. Thus. epist. inscr. 27. whose own name was explained sometimes as referring to Light (lo. 6 ovpavbs fvGdde. Zeller A History of Greek Philosophy trans. 21. 23 = Orph. 1 The relation of Ouranos to Gaia. dear. 174 f. iO5 = Orph.. Myth. Byzantine learning spoke of Zeus ouranos.). 18. ry ovpavitp fi^et. Nonn. 279. 78 Act xetpas dvecrxo^fv. ai Se HXetdSes cr<f>wv Trarpl AJ/. n f. nos. 98 with Serv. 179 a. 25 f. Dion. 56. 3 Kallim. Ptolem. Gr. cp. i no. Diod. ad lac. 618. 2 Hdt. [t]|epei)s y€\ybjj. and of both to Zeus. 1429. 1424. Gr. ad legendum Platonem utilium p. S. 47. Gruppe in Roscher Z<?#. 102 Zei>s avefaov £u7jv. h. 1258. 46. Horn. 25. 13. ry ovpavf 5e.). Euseb. Anth. de mundo 7. Zei)s de r6r' oiipavos dpyv<pea. iii. p.ecos. 47. 24. (cp. 43. no.oaiJV'ri<nv ev ovpavov a<Trep6evTos. 6 ff. p. Thouk. Anth. ad Ptolem. antehom. See also C. 3 Wilamowitz. 10. . and from time to time. 15 Hiller. ep. 74 Dindorf. frag. 401 a 25. de primis prindpiis p. 6. 'O/s^etfs 7 <£ws) or to Day (Theon Smyrn. 171 Abel Qavrj re fieyav Kal VVKTO. 6. n..^povs (leg. 4f. Od. 38o=Orph. [dyo}]vo6eTi>)s | [r&v\ neya. 1420. inscr. Even in the extreme decadence of Greek letters there was a scholastic resuscitation of it. 293.Zeus the Sky For fifteen hundred years and more. cp.\>jiv Ov[pa\vL<a]v.5/j. O. Kaibel Epigr. i no. the anthropomorphic conception of Zeus held the field.' Finally. i. will be considered later. 5. 2. i. Sat./r0o-. Myth. chron. 31. no. 2255 f. Wide Lakon. i ff. Malal. 1241. 3 cites Corp. 3.

the Ruler and Father of all. ' that the Persians practise the following customs. a fact which modified the whole course of Greek religion. ' I am aware/ he says3. a luminous Something fraught with incalculable possibilities of weal or woe. they found themselves over-arched by the blue and brilliant sky. or set all knees a-tremble with reverberating thunder. p. They 1 The only writer. When those who first used the word Zetis went out into the world and looked abroad. die wir in Gedanken zwar leicht iiberspringen konnen. as elsewhere. to surmise that in Greece. 732. aber nicht liberspringen diirfen'). if they help us to retrace in imagination the initial stages of the journey. Myth. which may enable us to divine as through gaps in a mist the track once travelled by early thought1. In such circumstances to attempt anything like a detailed survey or reconstruction of the route would be manifestly impossible. 131. 1102 'Zwischen dem Urzeus und dem historischen Zeus liegen tiefe Kllifte. . therefore. In view of this great issue we may well strain our backward gaze beyond the point of clear vision and even acquiesce in sundry tentative hypotheses. I shall make bold.' p. perhaps instinctively. Nevertheless the shift from Sky to Sky-god was a momentous fact. religion effected its upward progress along the following lines. I. It mystified them with its birds winging their way in ominous silence or talking secrets in an unknown tongue. 171 ff. 2. they would regard it with awe—that primitive blend of religious feelings2—and would go on to conciliate it by any means in their power. Wundt Volkerpsychologie Leipzig 1906 ii. It cheered them with its steady sunshine. R. 'Die praanimistische Hypothese. W. so far as I know. who has recognised and done justice to this blank stretch in our knowledge of Zeus is Gruppe in his masterly handbook (Gr. 2 R. and underwent for all to see the daily miracle of darkness and dawn. Inevitably. 753 'die Entstehung der Vorstellung von den einzehien Gottern das dunkelste Gebiet der gesamten griechischen Religionsgeschichte 1st. It scared them with its nickering fires. Rel. 9 The precise steps by which men advanced from a belief in Zeus the Sky to a belief in Zeus the Sky-god are hidden from us in the penumbra of a prehistoric past.' 3 Hdt. It paraded before men's eyes a splendid succession of celestial phenomena. The utmost that we can hope is to detect here and there survivals in language or custom or myth.The Transition from Sky to Sky-god (b) The Transition from Sky to Sky-god. The passage is paraphrased also in Strab. and its ultimate consequence was nothing less than the rise of faith in a personal God. 13 ( = 'Pre-Animistic Religion' in Folk-Lore 1900 xi: 168). This is the stage of mental and moral development attributed by Herodotos to the ancient Persians. It fanned their cheeks with cool breezes. Marett The Threshold of Religion London 1909 p.

dXXa BijXo^ (lev rbv Aia rvxjbv SapS^ re rbv 'Hpa/cX^a /cat 'Aramcia TTJJ' 'A. /c. They sacrifice also to the sun and moon. like the Greeks. My friend the Rev. 12. in a very striking paper ' Syncretism in Religion as illustrated in the History of Parsism' (Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions Oxford 1908 ii. ii. fire and water. oi Heptrat) 0eo£/s. Cic. that he really believed they used the familiar name. pseudo-Kallisthen. 41 f. (The suggestion occurred to me [J. Moulton. 3. Their practice is to climb the highest mountains and sacrifice to Zeus. But it is at least possible that he heard in Persia a name for the sky-god which sounded so much like 'Zeus. . Cp. s.io The Transition from Sky to Sky-god are not in the habit of erecting images. they charge those who do so with folly. In Yt. These. cp. 57..e. 2. i. are the original objects of their worship. 190. c. by which name they call the whole circle of the sky1. 21. 'A\e£avdpos) or Zei)s /cat 'tipopaffOT]? (Aristot. 20.r. versus rot ftacnXetov Trpd-y/xara ev dvdp&irois. the earth. no.v. as usual: his general picture of Persian religion agrees most subtly with what we should reconstruct on other evidence as the religion of the people before Zarathushtra's reform began to affect them.T. procem. Herodotos] calls the supreme deity 'Zeus' merely from his Greek instinct. 2. H. de nat. 8 Rose ap. gr. 3 £iri ro'icrSe dvarelvcu Aapeiov es TOV otipavbv rds %etpas nal etffacrflat w5e' AXX' w Zeu jSacrtXeu. Eran. 4 and 65 aspice hoc sublime candens. Diog.) This incidentally explains why the name 'ftpopdffdris (Auramazda) does not appear in Greek writers until another century has passed. 24 TO [lev 7dp ira\aibi> A£a re Kal Kp6voi> /cat TOUTOIIS Si] aTravras roiis Trap' "EXX^trt flpvXXou/teVovy erifj-wv (sc..Anro Mainyus. but it was anticipated by Spiegel.] independently. Tr\-f)v ye 6'rt 67] avTciis i] irpoirriyopla ou% 6/ioiws e<rc6feTo. Laert. J. Cyr. 5. s. no.. rbv KtinXov Trdvra.M. presumably ancient) we find patat. anab. 89ff. I. on the one side and the Babylonian contamination that produced Mithraism on the other. or altars. There can be little doubt that in this expressive sentence the poet has caught and fixed for us the religious thought of the 1 Hdt.' Auramazda appears in later Greek authors as Zei)s ^yicrros (Xen.ev eiri rd vTJ/rjXorara rCov ovpeaiv dvapaivovres Bvcrias epfteiv. sel.260 ff. hold the gods to be of human shape. Since Dyaus survives in the Veda as a divine name as well as a common noun—just as dies and Diespiter in Latin— it is antecedently probable that the Iranians still worshipped the ancestral deity by his old name. i. Cyr.v. whom the world invokes as Jove3. temples. 29. Agathias hist. 3. 40) or Zeus pacriXevs (Xen.) observes a propos of this passage: "It is generally assumed that he [i. inscr. 131 01 de vofjdfovfft Ad fj. Prof. and the winds. 13 (a metrical passage. 7." Prof. 2 I have collected the evidence in Folk-Lore 1905 xvi. 'Angra felljrom heaven'': see Bartholomae. prior alike to the reform of Z. 3 Ennius ap. 54 Ai6s re 'QpofAdffSov K. 383. because—I suppose—they do not. To quote but a single example. frag.' being in fact the same word. 6. dyaos. 1911) that Herodotos 'is entirely right. Moulton further writes to me (June 23.' The same stage of belief has left many traces of itself in the Latin language and literature2. 3. dear.X. 735 = Dittenberger Orient. ory eirLrerpairrai.<ppo5ir7jv /cat aXXwy robs £\\ovs e/cdXow. and these alone.X. = Souid. iii. rod ovpavov Ata KaXtovras. Alt. Gr. i. a popular line of Ennius ran: Look at yonder Brilliance o'er us.H. our greatest authority on early Persian beliefs. It is pure Aryan nature-worship—and probably pure Indogermanic ditto—. dyav.). 4. 22. 5. indeed. 8) or Zei)s 'fipo^dcrS^s (Michel Recueil d'Inscr. Trpos ovpaviovs At6s \ 'tipo/utdcrdov 0p6vovs. quern invocant omnes lovem. Arrian.

Like to mortals neither in form nor yet in thought4. 2 H. Rel. still to determine the circumstances that occasioned the rise of the anthropomorphic view. p. that is upon the condition of the Sky5. 2 p. 23 Diels ap. 408. we must answer the question : How came the Greeks in general to think of Zeus. it would seem. 3. greatest among gods and men. (2) Zeus as the world-soul (Cornut. starts with a revival of half-forgotten beliefs. Diels Die Fragments der Vorsokratiker'2' Berlin 1906 i. theol. 14 ff.. 41. frag. de mimd. he 'looked upon the whole sky and declared that the One exists. to wit God1.The Transition from Sky to Sky-god 11 Italians in its transitional phase. i6f. As Aristotle puts it. Hence unsophisticated man seeks to 1 Aristot.Sext.. frag. . 5 The Greeks persistently attempted to connect Zetfs. -with reference to the whole universe.. I believe. 408. 144 oSXos op$. Xenophanes. Vegetable life. Zijva. Lang. poijtras (o.vq^ Se. Diog. Now an animate Sky. Myth. frag. 6 TravTaxbdev ofji-oiov. Clem. Diels. as a whole he thinks. (3) Zeus as the cause of life to all that live (Aristot. i. 4 Xenophan.*]. 52 f. and as a whole he hears3. Chrysippos infra p. 9. . with tfjv. ascribed various personal powers: As a whole he sees. mag.C. plainly depends upon the weather. 4. in front the Sky-god lupiter. de mund. et. and that the most important of all for practical folk. p. math. Cornut. 3. 986 b 21 ff. J. 24 Diels ap.. 10 ff.' To this cosmic Unity 'equal on all sides2' Xenophanes. 401 a 13 ff. TOV 6e6v. In plain words. 3 ff.said. theol. oSXos 5e r' aicoijei. cp. We have therefore. Gud. justly remarks that their attempts. oSXos S£ voet. even if credited with certain personal qualities. Diog. Behind him is the divine Sky.). 230. Gruppe Gr. 2 p. 5. strom. again in all probability following the lead of early religious thought. met. etc. and therefore human life. But the poet explicitly repudiates anthropomorphism: One God there is. 5. One point about it. and therefore animal life. adv.. the Homeric evptioira. that the One was God. misses the point. 55 f. 6 Lang.). 19. 9. does not necessarily become an anthropomorphic Skygod. Cp. = Apul. 37. Laert. d. have a certain value as throwing light on their conception of the god.els rbv 8\ov ovpavbv airol3\t\//as TO dv elvai (ftfiffi. 3 Xenophan. 267). cp.' But this. though etymologically mistaken. appears to have based his reformed theology directly on the ancient Greek conception of Zeus. 29 n. not as the blue sky.b$ Kal iravra. but as a sceptred king dwelling in it ? To solve this problem we turn our attention once more to the primitive idea of a living Sky. It may even develop in the opposite direction. He distinguishes: (i) Zeus as the only living son of Kronos (et. p. not n. mag. ^evo(j)a. like Pythagoras and many another reformer. Zefc and the Hesiodic irAvra IS&v AIDS 6<f>6a\/j. 14 p. Burnet Early Greek Philosophy London and Edinburgh 1892 prefers to translate: 'Xenophanes. 399. we have thus far omitted to mention. p. Al. Xenophanes of Kolophon in the sixth century B. Stahlin. et.

and so forth. while the most powerful member of the order wins for himself a position as chief and gradually develops into a sacred king. the makers of rain. 54. Gud.. 147. pp. As time goes on. 289 A. I find myself rising on tip-toe to make a ball. Athen. 9 Dindorf). it becomes highly probable.' he urges.' c For sorcerers. nay practically certain. mag. . p. cp. when he caused a storm.j. Frazer's services to anthropology has been his detailed proof ' that in many parts of the world the king is the lineal successor of the old magician or medicine-man2. //.' ultimately depends upon a primitive conception of extended personality— u failure to distinguish aright the / from the not-I.e. the order of medicine-men is itself subdivided into such classes as the healers of disease. its winds. p. What is this but rudimentary magic? In Folk-Lore 1903 xiv. 1 On 'will-power' as a rough equivalent of the mana of the Pacific and the orenda of the Iroquois see R. mag. Art i. 436. When I hit a ball too far at lawn-tennis. and especially 332 ff. 420 f. ftv + aw (et. and the process of differentiation continues. 278f. I attempted to show that magic. Modern investigators have shown how great was the role of the magician. i8f. whether 'mimetic' or ' sympathetic. rattling chariot. et. and so coaxed it into coming Laert. and that Zeus was represented with thunderbolt and sceptre just because these were the customary attributes of the magician and monarch.. Even sophisticated man has his moments of hyperboulia. 7. 6 (i. 115—141. 408. 215. ib.. Marett The Threshold of Religion London 1909 p. R. copied Salmoneus. et.' But if so. above all its fructifying showers by a sheer assertion of his own will-power expressed in the naive arts of magic1. schol. 57 f. in a sense. And not the least of Dr J. especially of the public magician. (4) Zeus as lifegiving breath. So Zeus. 245. in proportion as magic is slowly ousted by religion3. 15. clear the net. in II. 371.12 The Transition from Sky to Sky-god control its sunshine. i. With the age-long growth of intelligence it gradually dawned upon men that the magician. in early society. nff. i. I incline to the following explanation as possible and even probable. and among the lowest savages. G.. 3 Id. etc. i. 230. But it remains to ask what led the community side by side with their Salmoneus to postulate a Salmoneus-like Zeus. already in mid air.). cp. that the real prototype of the heavenly weather-king was the earthly weather-king. did not actually make it himself by virtue of his own will-power but rather imitated it by his torches. his old magical functions falling more and more into the background and being exchanged for priestly or even divine duties. I ejaculate 'Don't go out!' and while speaking feel as if my voice actually controlled the ball's flight. 2 Frazer Golden Boughz: The Magic. p.. cp. Aristeid. i. ' are found in every savage tribe known to us. Or again. 99. Eustath. or.they are the only professional class that exists. 408. 188 f. p.

' and early thought could hardly be drawn nearer to the idea of the Infinite than by contemplating the endless blue of Heaven. much later. 220—243) argues that. unless the sky was already regarded as a divine Potency? And. But observe: if this was indeed the sequence of thought. 1 . if this was the case. ' God is not a man. only on a grander. perhaps the first result. more sonorous scale. No doubt. much turns upon our exact definition of religion. i. the shrewder intelligences casting about for an explanation of its failures would ascribe them to the more powerful magic of great invisible beings—the gods—and thus would escape from the 'troubled sea of doubt and uncertainty' into the 'quiet haven' of religion.The Transition from Sky to Sky-god 13 about If. then the change from Sky to Sky-god was occasioned not by any despair of magic1—for people might well come to believe that Zeus the Sky-god made thunderstorms and yet not cease believing that the magician-king could produce the like—but rather by the discovery that magic. because more true. it would not be absurd to maintain that this pre-anthropomorphic conception was in some respects higher. how did Zeus make it ? The spirit of enquiry was awake (with the Greeks it awoke early). First in order of development came emotion— the awe felt by early man as he regarded the live azure above him. when the community was parched with drought and the magician by his own passionate self-projection made the rushing rain-storm to satisfy the thirst of man and beast. But personally I should not refuse the term 'religious' to the attitude of reverential fear with which I suppose early man to have approached the animate Sky. cit. he conjectures. said nascent reflexion. Magic. when little by little the essential futility of magic was discovered. of conscious reflexion upon the modus operandi of primitive magic. The baffled magician would most plausibly account for his failure by attributing it to the counter-charms of some rival practitioner on earth. and the obvious answer was that Zeus must be a Master-mage. was a matter of imitation. in which the feelings. beyond the clouds. the transition from Sky to Sky-god was a result. distinguishing the imitation from the thing imitated and expressing heaven in terms of earth. Doubtless. Why should he—how could he—assume a sky-god. than later anthropomorphism. a King supreme. Dr Frazer in a memorable chapter (pp. whether effective or not. then religion was not subsequent to magic. i. the magician or king imitated a storm made by Zeus. But for all that I believe him to be wrong. but either prior to it or coeval with it. religion second. Later. or else to the machinations of a ghost. the latter being directly due to the unmasking of the former. After all. say a dead ancestor of his own. intellect was brought to bear upon the process. as Dr Frazer himself remarks (ib. the will. then. everywhere came first. Zeus makes his thunder in heaven much as our magician-king makes it upon earth. potent to bliss or blight. and the intellect played successively the principal part. Indeed. 223). ' ' The eloquence with which Dr Frazer has stated his case is only less admirable than his learning. In short. Feeling in turn called forth will. On this showing the cult of an anthropomorphic Zeus was the outcome of a long evolution comprising three well-marked stages. say a neighbouring chief.

fraS" 35> 2 Flach). s. Further. d. cp.1715 to newly-wedded wives (Souid. if my view were true. though in such a matter logic was at best implicit.. 1 . 227 of magic herbs prepared by the daughter of Zeus. 550. This analysis. Athen.' The word /wjnoets is used thrice. 'day. 5 of Zeus (so Hes. The transition from the day-light Sky to the day-light Sky-god is perhaps best exemplified by the Latin terms dies. 24. 236) gains fresh meaning. ventured to analyse the divinity of Zeus.' He is himself /j-yrieTa. 545. 8. the primeval sanctity of the sky gave the content. It was presumably as a magical means of securing fertility that at Athens the priestess brought the sacred 0. when shaken. It may be argued that. 4. viz. 4. Hes. Mestra. 12. Zeus causes an earthquake by nodding his head and shaking his hair (supra p. aiyis). Arcades ipsum | credunt se vidisse lovem. 719 ff. Hest.). theog. Ap. Aphr. Perimede.—on the one hand the vast mysterious impersonal life of the blue sky. o. 51. Zeus is often Kpbvov TTCUS cfy/cuXo^rew. 344 and h. 2 F. 352 ff. both of a primitive sort. G. and (2) that such expurgation has in point of fact failed precisely where failure might have been expected. has detected two distinct elements. Again. i.14 The Transition from Sky to Sky-god Thus a movement.). on the other the clear-cut form and fashion of the weather-ruling king. deserving of a moment's emphasis. It. whereas notoriously magic is scarce in Homer and never associated with the Homeric Zeus. the names of the sorceresses Medeia. (c) Zeus Amarios. 'son of the wizard Kronos. he is described as vetyeKyyeptra. the Homeric Zeus ought to be recognisable as a magician. 561. the frequent mention of the /JovX?? or fiovXal of Zeus (from //. i. To speak with logical precision. To this I should reply (i) that the Homeric poems as we have them bear ample traces of earlier expurgation affecting many savage practices (see the convincing chapter of Prof.' and Diespiter. Sil. Thirty-six times in the //. which began on the plane of feeling. We have. 4918). tentative (be it remembered) and provisional in character.v. theog. Murray The Rise of the Greek Epic'2 Oxford 1911 pp. 43. Ebeling Lexicon Homericum Lipsiae 1885 i. the more familiar lupiter*. Zeus alone is afydira ^8ea ei'Sws (//.)—a procedure that savours strongly of the magician's art. and Virgil at least seems to have regarded it as part of the rain-maker's paraphernalia (Aen. These are simply redolent of the magician. 166 ff. the equipment of the magician-turned-king gave the form. Moiro ap. 305. 141—166). 2 f. 593 ff. in h. Stolz Historische Granimatik der lateinischen Sprache Leipzig 1894 i. 88. 5 Atoy 5' ereXe/ero 180^X77 onwards: see H. An objection must here be met.' The vocative case of Diespiter came to be used as a new nominative. Agamede. a transparent synonym of 'rain-maker. in eliminating the pre-Homeric 'fixed epithets' of Zeus. h. produced a thunderstorm (//. cp. if I may use the phrase.' And what of his constant appellation alyloxos? The aiyls. and Od. Lastly. in Od. cp. a 'mage' rather than a 'sage. passed upwards through that of volition. of the resultant sky-god ZeusJ. Incidentally we have arrived at another conclusion. and ended by evoking all the powers of the human soul. 17. ' Day-father. if seen to imply the will-power characteristic of the magician-king. cum saepe nigrantem | aegida concuteret dextra nimbosque cieret. 457.

D. ib. Lindsay The Latin Language Oxford 1894 p. is a precarious undertaking. Two copies of the hymn are engraved on the back and face of the same stone. and on reading it I conjectured (see Trinity College Lecture Room paper of Nov. but by no means incredible. Enn.Zeus Amdrios 15 But.' He now (Aug. 3 Ann. TLpovie. Murray printed TrayKparts ydvovs in his restored text and translated it 'Lord of all that is wet and gleaming. For Kovpos = nats see Stephanus Thes. \ /3^3<XKes \ daifj-bvuv aytafJievos' \ AiKrav es tviavrov ep. af.Kp6i'ie cp. ira. Almighty Brilliance. That island was a meetingplace of the nations. quem invocant omnes lovem (Folk-Lore 1905 xvi. 261). Macrobius states that ' the Cretans call the day Zeusv—a startling. . 1895 A. iv. Nevertheless the dialect of Crete as a whole throughout the classical period was undoubtedly Doric. 2 Od. confining our attention to the Greek area.313Macrob. 4 G. G. r P. W. M. greatest Lad of Kronos' line5. . Sat. Prof.Cydonians. which contains a text full of blunders. Gr.Brit. Ling. xv. This suggests an attempt to make sense of an old defective copy.Eteo-Cretans. The back. xoupe /uoi. | /j.Tts ydvos.' He adds that in a letter to himself Prof. Cic. 15. C. Murray. and in line 20 HANKpATGC fANOyc. 1911) writes to me a propos of ydvos: ' I think it a very probable suggestion but do not on the whole think there is sufficient reason for altering the text. 5 With KoCpe. Find. 1910) that the original phrase was ira. Walde Lat. The face has in line 2 TTATlKpATGC r A N O C altered into TTANKpATGC fANOyc. and its refrain preserves what I venture to regard as a survival of the original conception of Zeus:— Hail. 22 w Kpocie Trctt'Pecis. Sch. 2. 01. i. we may further illustrate the same change. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff had independently made the same correction. This contention gains in probability from Prof. 19. and perhaps others. 3645. nowhere preserves the termination of the word ydvos. 2.we Kal ytyadi /uoATrct. 4.. Unfortunately he does not go on to tell us whether this usage was restricted to any particular tribe or town in Crete. 389. 339 ff. 15. i j s f f . cp.tyio~Te Kovpe. 6 it&. Aisch. and we are therefore free to contend that in some variety of Cretan Doric the word Zetis had retained its primitive meaning.Tes ydvos. 577 f. de nat.yKpa. etym. U. but its wording is perhaps five centuries older4. who art here Leading thy followers divine: To Dikte come for the new year And dance with joy this dance of mine6. Bosanquet's discovery at Palaikastro in eastern Crete of a late Doric hymn to Zeus Diktaios^. v. <3 Kp6iue | ircu. The hymn appears to have been written down about the year 200 A. assertion. 4 aspice hoc sublime candens. dear.. and to choose between these. Already in Homeric times its population included Achaeans.Dorians and Pelasgians2. 14 Cretenses Ata rrjv r^tpav vacant. 1908—1909 xv. R. P.. Worterb.yKpa. Ath.

' taking vf-cus — eirl dei (cus accus. that eviavros is strictly the day on which the year starts again ' in the same' (evl avrqi) position as before. 6 (praef. the terms of the settlement were engraved 1 W. cp. like the lonians before them. C. Gruppe Gr. Prellwitz Eine griechische und eine lateinische Etymologie Bartenstein 1895 p. 33). D 16. 7 Dittenberger Syll. as Hoffmann himself (ib. ib. following Collitz and Schulze Quaestiones epicae p. Some such primitive usage.'—in fact is akin to the name Zetis2. Buck Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects Boston etc. the town of Orchomenos in Arkadia joined the Achaean League. ib. 42. no. 2.C. Gr.riTi6€VTos. dies.dpios. = Dittenberger Syll. i f f . 387. 6 Strab. now commonly accepted. 93 pt/Kres re /cat r)/j. Kramer on Strab. cp. and cjj. 7 if. 60. a Cypriote inscription. 2. o. Cp. MSS. 765 ijfJMTa d' e/c Ai66ev. p. Rel. Id. which thrice uses the word zan in the sense of ' time1. 'Afjidpa—7]jui^pa is found in Locrian inscriptions (Collitz-Bechtel op.dpios = 'Q/ji.' Far more advanced was the cult of Zeus Amdrios. 10. we may suppose. Aratos the Achaean general had settled certain serious disputes at Megalopolis. This last line supports the contention of W.epa.dpios='0/*dpios. takes 'A. . 2. 134 eVi/ea 5?7 /3e/3dacrt Atos fteyaXov eviavroi.S. 183). Hultsch on Polyb. 'A^ud/uos = r/^/otos may well have been in use on the other side of the Corinthian Gulf also. 438. the Achaeans of the northern Peloponnese. //. -27 ff. whose name appears to denote Zeus ' of the Day-light' (amdray.' and to the Latin dies. 1478. i. Myth. no. rejects Meister's view that foV = epic dfy and translates 'fur alle Zeit. 229 = Michel Recueil d?Inscr. and that it was originally an appellation of Zevs = dies (ib. live.Inschr.' 3 Od. Foucart 'Fragment inedit d'un decret de la ligue acheenne' in the Rev. says: 'fa? is possibly connected with f^w and fc6w. G. a^aprri = o/^apryj. 5 Strab. 1910 p. 100).16 Zeus Amdrios A possible but by no means certain parallel to this survival occurs in the Tabula Edaliensis. Dial. and TrevTa/j. ' day. p. 96—103 first propounded the explanation. inscr. p. Aphrodite and all the gods7. 10. 23. when in 217 B. Indian dyus 'life-time') and fo> as akin to djdus. Arch. But all this is very doubtful. 14.C. as before. i. 23. 1116 n. inscr. gr. were wont to assemble for deliberation and the transaction of common business at a place called the Amdrionf°: this was a grove sacred to Zeus in the territory of Aigion6. 1479. ' day. 385. Gr? no. on the basis of a third by-form fa-. D. d. Hence. 199. 2561. 5. cit. xxxii. 68 ff. According to Strabon. 8). MSS. 1876 N. nos. it was agreed that the Achaean magistrates at Aigion and the Orchomenian magistrates at Orchomenos should swear to the terms of a treaty by Zeus Amdrios. for *alfs cp. 500 n. Kramer Foucart 'Apdpiov. Koraes cj.' Dr Hoffmann suggests that this word is related to the Sanskrit dyaus. 4 P. diu. And. of 'Ayuaptos as 'le dieu de 1'atmosphere lumineuse' (ib. 2 O. 28 tf/tus £av.was 'A/j. Hes. 39. 769 aide yap f^pai etVt Ai6s Trdpa /j. p. Deecke 'Die griechisch-kyprischen Inschriften' in Collitz-Bechtel Gr.i £K Atos et<rw. underlies and explains the Homeric and Hesiodic belief that 'days are from Zeus3. Athena Amaria. 28 tf/cuj ffii>. 182 n./j. p. when about the year 230 B. i. 389 and F. 'Oyud/woi/. no. 3.apiretJiav in a Delphian inscription {ib. Alvdpiov or 'Apvdpiov. no. Hoffmann Die griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1891 i. 228) admits. 1478. 135. Iv) hold that the name.2 no.

i § 3 (b)). 6 with v. see infra ch. 416 ('the reverse type of Zeus seems to have been suggested by the seated Zeus on the early Arcadian coins.apes' 6/j.apiov sic A dfj. 39. O. This is in all probability the spot described by Pausanias in the following extract: ' Near the sea at Aigion is a sanctuary of Aphrodite. '0/mpty."' Zeus Amdrios was on this showing one with Zeus Homagyrios . exhibit on the obverse side a standing figure of Zeus: he is naked and supports on his right hand a winged Nike.aptov. and in the fourth place one to Zeus Homagyrios. it is clear that from Aigion the cult made its way to Magna Graecia. iii § \ (a) ix (a). MSS. Sybaris and Kaulonia. Fourth Series 1902 ii. Here there are statues of Zeus.ll. popularly changed into Homdrios.' Cp. pi. 4. in avowed imitation of the Achaeans. one of Kore Demeter's daughter. which might be understood as ' the Joinertogether3. but Frazer Pausanias iv. Hill Historical Greek Coins London 1906 p. 73 ff. 2. C. Chron. L. 38. owing to the influence of the latter.. ofiopiov C. 2 Paus. 5 W. J. 93. 3 Dittenberger Syll. while he leans Polyb. Byz. F. num. 2 f. i) 5 . Head Hist.. pi. 6/j. "the Assembler. 2. and it is possible that the former title was. The coin is now in the British Museum. Gr. 'Oyiiapefo. probably struck at Aigion about 367—362 B. 4 Polyb.2 p. 162 identifies them. '0/j. 24. as reconstituted in 281 B. has for its reverse type an enthroned Zeus. Those that take it to be the original form will quote Steph.Zeus Amdrios 17 on a tablet and set 'up beside an altar of Hestia in the Amdrion1.fji. Foucart restored 'A. How this Zeus 'of the Day-light' was conceived by his worshippers. but this is not necessary. A unique silver stater of Aeginetic standard.<pj}vus. 'O/idptos (Polyb. 6. inscr. The MSS. G. Foucart restored 'A/j. who holds an eagle in his right hand and rests on a sceptre with his left (fig. 324 ff. Aphrodite and Athena. Jessen in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. after that one of Poseidon. 10. 1741 would distinguish between the'A. 93.' However that may be. 16. Bronze coins of the League. 0e67ro/x7ros QiXiinriKGiv et/coory devrepq?.fJ. 7. i.apiov and the precinct of Zeus 'OfAaytipios. Zeus was surnamed Homagyrios.ov. StrachanDavidson Selections from Polybius Oxford 1888 p. can be inferred from representations of him on coins of the Achaean League. kv TO^TVJ Tiwarcu Zeus /ecu 'Adyva. 10) suggests comparison with Hesych. Wroth in the Num. 5. who offers him a wreath. infra ch. erected a common temple to Zeus Amdrios*. On the connexion of Hestia with Zeus. cp. vary: o/^aptou sic A.apiy. where Kroton. 5. 39. 370 thinks that 'Qftayvpios is a corruption of 'A/xdpios. 5.opiov C.C. ffv/j." because on this spot Agamemnon gathered together the chief men of Hellas to consult how they should make war on the kingdom of Priam Adjoining the sanctuary to Zeus Homagyrios is one of Demeter Panachaid.C. 2 1 .apiov 7r6\ts eerraXtas. "goddess of all the Achaeans2.2 p. 145. o/j. TO tdviKov '0/xaptot.

2. 5. 12 ff. Nilsson op. 1491—1497.. pi. iff. 7 Zeus Havdfjiapos.. n. Deschamps and G.. iii. 2. i. 1891 xv. Miinztaf. 88 no. n. 238 ff. 373 ff. Panemeros. 4 nam/uapos without Zetfs occurs in Bull. Mus.'2' p. Wroth in the Num. 219.vdfji. Miinztaf. 6 Strab. Hell. Uafdyuopos (sic) was one of the Carian Kouretes along with A. 162. Fig. Near the Carian town of Stratonikeia was a village called Panamara. show a laureate head of Zeus as their obverse (fig. Brit.. 15—20. 14. Cousin discovered the precinct of the Carian god Zeus Panamaros and over four hundred inscriptions relating to his cult3. is the common form of his name in the inscriptions (Hofer . 1888 xii. 417 f. 1887 xi. sometimes Zei)s 6 Ha. 1888 xii. See further the article by O.apos or 6 Zei/s 6 Havd/jLapos. If so.p. 2)1. pi. Such representations drop no hint of Zeus as a day-light deity. I figure pi. i. 3. Denkm. was originally a local epithet denoting the deity who dwelt at Panamara5. which appears more than once without that of Zeus4. 55 ff. 5 So Hofer loc.loc. Kunstmyth. Zeus 1 Overbeck Gr.-v. i. pi. num.. Corr. 286 f. pi.. G. 27—31. 29. i6. 2.3- (d) Zeus Panamaros. Brit. \. W. 1492. Chron. 2 Overbeck Gr. 7. pi. cit. The physical aspect of the god had long been forgotten. 86 no. i—14. On A. 169 ff. The later silver coins. cp. 10. ib. Feste pp. Fig. 3 Bull.dj3pavdos and IIdXa£os or S7r<iXa£os (et. p. num? p. Muller-Wieseler-Wernicke Ant. B Egypt. Corr. Steph.C. 3. 97 f. 20 ff. 85 no. Myth. was a Macedonian colony6—the local divinity by an instructive series of changes became Zeus Panamaros1. 1904 xxviii. from some date earlier than 330 B. Here in 1886 MM. 3). Coins Peloponnesus p. ^rparoviKeia. Fig. p. But when the district was subjected to Hellenic influence—Stratonikeia. 249 ff. Byz. r. 417.). 31 n. 479 ff. 82 ff. a wreath of bay as their reverse design2. 94 pi. Head Hist. 660. Zeus pp.). cit.. we know. Zeus pp. 9. Hell. or at most survived in a cult-title of dubious significance. i ff. cit.18 Zeus Panamaros^ Panemeros^ Panemerios with his left hand on a long sceptre (fig. p. Kunstmyth. Coins Peloponnesus p. 2. Mus. 9. Nilsson Gr. Hofer in Roscher Lex. mag. Third Series 1900 xx. i—14. Cat. r r 3 . 1492 f. Panemerios. situated on the mountain now known as Baiaca. 105. Head Hist. Dieterich's conjectural *Amaros ~ Amara see Append. 17 and 17 a. it is useless to speculate on the real meaning of the word.. Cat. 1—23. s. 6. It is probable that the name Pandmaros. 389. 18. 15. .

epos' di oX^s ^uepas. Zeus Panemerios*. Mus. 6 Ib. p. lex. ib. rot no. more rarely H. no. 16.epos is found in Bull. 65. Kaibel Epigr. 1493. pp. Trava^epov dC o'X^s rrjs 7]/j. Phot. Mr G. I figure a specimen in my collection. n (Severus Alexander).Zeus Pandmaros. Brit. Hell. pp. 153 pi.' whether he was regarded as a sun-god or not. The precinct found by MM. but Zeus Pandmaros conceived as a solar deity6. Hill kindly informs me (Aug. On one specimen in the British Museum (fig. 66. 63. 1910) that he too takes the rider to be Zeus. Ixxii. 2715% Bull.avr]fj. 1888 xii. 98 no. Cat. p. Gr.epios Zeds. cit. 316 no.vr)/J. Pandmaros to Greek ears would mean the god 'of the live-long Day' (pandmeros. 159 pi. "jo. 12. Ixxi f. 6)7. 488 nos. P. Not the god 'of the Day-light' (E. Foucart). 5 Ib. 1890 xiv. 472 ol 6e Traz^eptot /xoXTrrJ debv i\a<ri<ovTO. p. 24. Head Fig. who carries a long sceptre over his left shoulder and apparently a phidle in his right hand 4 .panemerios)*. 97 no. 41. Coins Caria etc. 153 pi. Corr. p. 489 no.2 . 834. occurs in Corp. 4 Brit. F. iravd/j. Meyer). 376.v. 72. It contained 1 Zeus Ha. R. Panemeros. 2 -. ib.epas. p. r. 158 pi. inscr. Miinzen p. this equestrian figure is radiate. 69. 487 nos. p. //. 75. ib. 488 nos. Dr B. V. Hell. 5)5. Ixxii. And the radiate crown would be appropriate to Zeus 'of the live-long Day. pp.gr. nor merely 'a divinity of the light' (L. 154 pi. p. p. 518. Aisch. 4- Fig. 371.v-riiJ.epios or Zeus 6 IlaJ'ij/ueptos or 6 Zeus 6 Havri/Aepios. 24. Corr. 200 no. nor the god 'of the luminous atmosphere' (P. 24. 105. Cp. p. 490 nos. p. Gr. 21. ib. 87a (Hadrian). 7 Imhoof-Blumer Monn. Mus. 24. Deschamps and Cousin occupied the summit of a steep hill furrowed by ravines. ii no. 151 pi. 68. 24. ib. Coins Caria etc. both in silver and in bronze (fig. 1887 xi. The unintelligible Carian name was thus Hellenised into a cult-title that suited the Greek conception of Zeus. 1024 a/cXr/Tos epirwv SairaXeus Trai'ij/xepos. alib. ib. 29 no.pan£meros. Gr. i Ziyi/t 3 Hesych. 4. i. 5. 625 (Hadrian). Cat. probably struck in Hadrian's time. 101. 2 Zeus Ha. Farnell) : see Hofer loc. p. i r . exhibit a bearded horseman. 10. 4. ib. 109. Panemerios 19 Pantmeros1. a phidle in the other (fig. 156. 5- conjectures that it is not the emperor. 4). Lebas-Waddington Asie Mineure no. 78 ff. The identification of the rider as Zeus might be supported by the fact that some imperial bronze coins of Stratonikeia have as their reverse type Zeus enthroned with a sceptre in one hand. id. 24. p. 1888 xii. Imperial coins of Stratonikeia.

Corr. Travrl rw xp6j><a r^s ^TrtS^/itas | roG deou.. 140. 1887 xi. 62). i. /cat] ij£f§ij|[(r]aj' TT/SWTOI rds \rd\v [Hav]afj1a[pi<t)']v rrjs e\[o]prrjs ij/Atpas K. 376 no. Al.upios at Bargylia in Karia (Bull.L |"Hpa TeXet'a. 9. And. 24 ff. 198 no. 6euv Hava/adpov. 'Aprefjudos. It began with a procession from the precinct at Panamara to the council-chamber at Stratonikeia5. 1891 xv. Myth. 380 no. 1891 xv. Panemeros^ Panemerios three temples. Hell. Bull. 8 O. 'AcncXijTrtoD. 204 no. Corr.j[<r]cH' irp&roi ras [rui]v [Na>>]a(j. 2. 10 f.. 2. 8ff. 140. Corresponding with the two temples of Zeus and the one of Hera were three public festivals. Ati UavafMpu KO. 256 no. 42. Zeus Kv/j. 12 ff. 5. that of Hera Teleia>. Corr. 1887 xi. 12 f. 6 Bull. 1891 xv. 1 .T. 1887 xi..a.va]<ridpXT)<rav /cat | ev rij TOV LTTTTOV dff6[d]w TO [^'. Nilsson Gr. 7 rijs eindrj^as oi/V^s. dyoi(\)/JMTa.. Myth. 12 f. 198 no.2 ff. 144. Gr. . besides perfume. 198 no. ad loc. an annual affair. 1889 xiii. the Panamareia. Citizens and strangers alike received at the hands of the priests largesse of oil for gymnastic contests and baths.150. 192 no. the name of which recalls the title of Zeus Komyros at Halikarnassos2. 4). 1888 xii. 3 Butt. 17. i6f. 7 Bull. 389 no.vpta always have the o short. Corr. 8 "Upas Te|Xias (sic). meat. iii. 28 n. ii no. inscr. 85 no. Corr. 22. At Panamara Kofitipiov. so that Dr Hofer is doubtless right in regarding the rider on the coins of Stratonikeia as Zeus entering the town on horseback8. 'Tyelas. 2 Lyk. 188 no.. 144.apos and other deities had statues (Bull. 13 ff. 459 (Aias) KaraiOuv dtiaQXa Ku/jujpy with schol. Cp. 3. 385 no. This visit appears to be identical with the ' Entry of the horse ' mentioned in a local inscription7. 36. 12 ff. Kw/jujptj} ry Ad ' K<b/jLvpos yap 6 Zei)s ev 'A. Hell. T&S TTJS iepo/j.2O Zeus Pandmaros. 10* n.\.. 131. rots rijs eoprTjs TUV IIavafjiapeiwi> [^|/te/>]as 56ca. 3. 1891 xv. 2. Corr. The merry-making was kept up day and night during the ' Sojourn ' of the god9.. 5 Here Zeus H. 14949 Bull. 12 ff. 6f. Kofj. 385 no. 135. 1891 xv. 1494 f. since the ten days of the festival were known as the ' Sojourn' (epidemid) of the god6. iii. corn.avdfj. Feste p. 204 no. 25 ff.. 'B/ca[T]^s. 1891 xv.). 1904 xxviii. 14 f. Hell. 1891 xv.Kadidpvrai 5£ tv rw <re/3aoTtD fiovXevTriptu T&V wpofipri^vwlv Bfuv]). His entry was the signal for a great outburst of rejoicing. Corr. 136. Corr. if. 426 no. Corp. and the Heraia. that of Zeus Pandmaros.apos and Hekate (O. 39 no. and money. Hell. 250 n. which at first lasted for ten days3 and later for a whole month4.\iKapi>aff<p TI/XCITCU.->jveias ro[0] | deov Tifjitpas irdaas. Stratonikeia was under the special protection of Zeus Havd/j. (supra p. 238 no. 15 ff. 102 no. Hell. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Hell. 191 no. and a building called the Komyrion. i cp. The principal festival of the place was the Panamareia. 1888 xii. 5 f . [Atl] Ilaz'a/xapw [K]GU "Hpa TeXt'a (sic). 140. Hell. 186 no. Hell.. 1888 xii. the Komyria. it has been concluded that the image of Zeus paid an actual visit to the neighbouring town. •>j$£?. 16 ff. [Atos roO HJa^/iefptou KCti 'E/c]ar^s. 380 no. dirb 4 Bull. i f.[ptw> rijs e|[o]pr?7s ri^pas [5&a £'ws] r[p]iaKovTa (?). eyv[/j. Hofer in Roscher Lex. 1300:.

28 ff. 145. Hell. In short. ev Tij avbSw TTJ iv rw tepw. 203 no. Wine was served out in abundance— no distinction being made between citizens. Hell. 8 Butt. 385 no. 6 [ ]ou "i/LvwvlSov jU. 131.r. Deschamps and Cousin infer that the Komyria was essentially the return-journey of Zeus from Stratonikeia to Panamara 4 . 1887 xi. 2. Corr. 188 no. 130 A. P. Hofer in Roscher Lex. 1891 xv. Money-gifts and portions of sacrificial meat were likewise distributed with a lavish hand. Sirup and wine were even provided by the road-side for old and young7. the fjivcrraywyds mentioned in 1891 xv. 5 \tv rr\ av~\63u TIJ ev TU> iep&. 1891 xv.. 173 = 204 no. the whole account. 29. p. Corr.r. 178. Corr.ve6t]Ka. The Heraia was another important festival involving a long programme of games9... 3. /c.j3a. Corr... Probably we should do well to combine these views and hold that the ' Ascent' of the god from Stratonikeia to Panamara culminated in the sanctuary on the mountain-top. 28 from the fact that the inscriptions employ two distinct formulae. 24 no. 141. 384. so far as it can be reconstructed from the inscriptions. foreigners. Nilsson. lepetis (ieparet/o-as. 186 no. n a. 131.ap]\X'f)o-a. and conjectures that Zeus then paid a visit to his wife5. On this occasion the men were entertained by the priest in the Komyrion and the women separately in the sanctuary6. 12 ff. 4 Bull. 130 A. 186 no. presumably in the procession. And the horse that had served the god. 247 no. Bull. i6f. 6 ff. Hell. 6 Bull. 241 no. 17 ff. 15 f.v de /ecu TOV 'iirirov TU> 6e& TOV U7r^per[iK6j']. 2.) tv 'Hpcuots and iepevs /c.. 186 no. 2. 13. 57. 1891 xv. Hell. Hell. The rendez-vous was the temple of Hera. Hell. ev dfJt. Hell. 48. Since the inscriptions speak of the ' Ascent' (dnodos or anabasis) of the god in this connexion3. and slaves. y[vfjLvao-i. The Bull.X. 1891 xv. 19 f.. 1887 xi. 1904 xxviii. 174 iv rots fj-vcrryplois de Kal eoprrj T&V 'Hptwv. P. 174 = 200 no. 247 no. Corr. 10 Bull. 380 no.Zeus Pandmaros^ Panemeros. Hell. Feste p. nff. in.vTes K(CU) KJ3' eK VVKTOS is 'I"L>KT[O. 3. 11 Bull.. Corr. 385 no. 385 no. 1891 xv. Hell.X. points out that the ' Ascent' is said to take place in the sanctuary.vaalois /c(a!) tv TW tepw TreptiroXtw. 7 Bull. 6ff. 24 no. a. 1887 xi.<poT^\p]ois TOIS yvfj.crei r[oO 0]eoD. 1891 xv. 1887 xi. 3.uimryaryofvi'Tos]. 1891 xv. Corr. 10 [ev] TTJ dva. Romans. So O. 144. 380 no. 34 f. Nilsson op. cit. ^ f . Corr. 6eu[pi]as 5e Trot^iras rdras | Kal /caXXio-ras. 3 Bull. where Zeus was annually married to his bride. 57. 380 no. 30ff. 188 no. reads like that of a joyous wedding cortege.. cp. MM. cp. 1887 xi. 10 ri) av6d<a TOV 0eoO. 12 This is deduced by M. 26 f. was duly dedicated to him8. 9 Bull. 1495. 1308. however. 8ff. 1904 xxviii. Hell.) £v 'Hpcuois Kara 2 1 . 8ff. 5 Nilsson Gr. 174^—1904 xxviii. Booths were erected for the accommodation of the celebrants. not to it. religious shows10. viz. 2. 3. Panemerios 21 The Komyria lasted for two days only1 and involved certain mysteries2. Corr. Mr M. Myth. It seems to have been celebrated yearly and on a grander scale once every four years12. 1894 xxviii. Corr. and mystic rites11. 385 no.

5. in particular the distribution of oil for the gymnasia and the baths5. 13 Brit. Hell. 12 Suet. 9 irapa\a/j. 376 no. d. n. 1986 (a priest of Bellona). 1887 xi. Corr. Stud. 1899 ii. 15 f. 13. 7 f. 1887 xi. but does not prove. 200 no. Hill ' Priester-Diademe' in the Jahresh. It is called the 'reception of the crown 6 ' or 'reception of the god 7 '. 15 Daremberg-Saglio Diet. 51.j3dv<iw TOV Oebv : Bull. Corr. Crowns of the sort are mentioned in literature12 and figured both on coins of Tarsos13 and on portraitheads from Ephesos14 and elsewhere15. 173. 198 no. iii).. Athen. 13. and the officials themselves are described as 'receiving the crown of the god8' or 'receiving the god9/ The termination of their office. G. r. 173. 1523 and 1525 fig. 5 Bull. 1891 xv. Their inauguration was a function lasting four days and involving gymnasiarchal duties. 4. 1891 xv. 102 no. 9 ff. 10 Bull. 1904 xxviii. that the Heraia at Panamara was a marriage-feast. 22.. 211 B. 380 no. 140. Ant. i if... 37. 40 no. fig.' Not improbably these persons wore a golden crown decorated with a small image of their deity. 1898 xviii. Cat. 1891 xv. Infra ch. mil. 135.22 Zeus Pandmaros. Mus. 182 no. 6 f. . F. 123. 130 A. 3.. is correspondingly called the ' putting off of the crowns11. 186 no.pi. Corr. 8.paired with Hera. 7f. if—as. decor. 141. 8f. it is likely enough that he had his own marriage-feast to attend and she hers4. 1891 xv. Domit. and it obviously made a powerful appeal to the appetites of the mob. Hell. It is at first sight puzzling to find this apparent duplication of the Komyria. 1887 xi. 37 no. oest. 377. 1894 xxviii. 21. cbr60e<ns T&V aT£<pdvwv: Bull. Panemerios priest and priestess invited all the women. 7 f. 208 pi. 1891 xv. Hell. 243 no. The priest and priestess who presided over these wholesale entertainments were acting not merely as public host and hostess but as the visible representatives of the god and goddess. 18 f. 245 ff. Inst. 198. iii. the tenure of which was annual10. 14 G. Such was in all probability the character of the Heraia at Argos (infra ch. p. Hill ib. the two celebrations were on the foregoing hypothesis kept up side by side. 135. 32 ff. 8. 169. F. pp. pi. we shall later see reason to suppose3—Zeus was not originally the consort of Hera. 198 no. 1887 xi. 180 f. 375 no.. At Panamara. 140. 4 The evidence of the published inscriptions suggests. i. whether bond or free. 5 ff. 204 no. 1904 xxviii. Corr. But. Corr. 174 e<TTia<ravTes iv TO?S 'Hpaiois irdvTas fiovXevras KCU 3 TroXiras. 23 B. Coins Lycaonia etc.. 2 Bull.. 11 T. This bizarre arrangement had its practical advantages.. Hell. 1888 xii. 36. 7 (rj) irapd\7jif/Ls TOV 6eov: Bull. 191 no. 145. Hell. 192 no.. Hell. 21. 247 f. v. 2.. Imhoof-Blumer in the Journ. Hell. n. ii. Corr. 6 i) wapd\7]\l/i. Tertull. Hell. 384 no. even when Zeus was. F. 136. Corr.s TOV (TTefiavov: Bull. Hell.. Hell. arch. 173.rbv ffrecpavov TOV Otov: Bull. Panemeros. 3ff. Corr. 24ff. 8 irapa\an^avovTe3. 220 pi. p. 1891 xv. They also furnished a repast for the men2. Corr. 1 Bull. and gave them a banquet with plenty of wine and a present of money for each guest1. iff.

J. 1905 xxv. Rel. and inscribe their names beside it. Ib. pi. Wace in the Journ. Dr Frazer suggests that the gift of hair was tantamount to a gift of virility or fertility. 15if. or even in the corner of another man's slab. i6f. specified as the Komyria and the place once at least as the Komyrion—the Heraia and the Heraion are not mentioned at all. 275 pi. See too G. Daremberg-Saglio Diet. 3 The conjecture of Frazer Pausanias iii. a small stele of stone containing the tress or tresses in a cavity sometimes closed by a thin marble lid (fig-. 221 = A. 60—120. i. Many of the inscriptions found at Baiaca record the dedication of human hair1. 534f. Rouse Greek Votive Offerings Cambridge 1902 pp. the rite was probably connected Helbig Guide Class. D. no. 279ff. 7f. p. 480. 486. p. Deschamps and Cousin point out that the dedicants were invariably men—not a single woman's name occurs3. nos. 913 f. Frazer Pausanias ii. A. Corr. The fullest collection of evidence from the Greek area is that of W. 7)2. 1888 xii. 475 ff. Hell. 4 5 Bull. 309 f. 1887 iv. is. 225 ff. 1888 xii. iv. no. i. 28ff. ('a priest of the cult of one of the later Diadochi') = Amelung Sculpt. iii. Corr. that the dedication was always made to Zeus. the hair being deemed the seat of the soul.. MM. 1358. 353 ff. 487. ii. either inside the temple of Zeus or outside it in the sacred precinct. The custom was for the dedicator to erect. If we may judge from analogous customs existing here and there throughout the Greek world6. that slaves were allowed to participate in this act of devotion. B.' Dr Gruppe concludes that the rite was originally ' vorzugsweise eine Initiationszeremonie. Dr Wilken explained the rite as a substitute for human sacrifice. 63. 425 (an archigallus). Stud. Helbig op. 7. 240—245. Gruppe Gr. Panemerios 23 One odd rite deserves to be noticed. Those that could not afford such a stele would make a hole in the stone wall. Dr Rouse regards hair-offering as a ' practice connected with puberty. 481—484. 2 Ib. cit. Ant. never to Hera. 1 Bull. Panemeros. Hell. 1362. These scholars suggest that the votive hair may have been offered by those who were initiated into the mysteries of the Komyria5. Myth. 6 Ib. D. Simonsen Skulpturer og Indskrifterfra Palmyra i Ny. Wilken ' Ueber das Haaropfer und einige andere Trauergebrauche bei den Volkern Indonesien's ' in the Revue Coloniale Internationale 1886 iii. 487 ff.. that the occasion is sometimes Fig. Vatic.. 128.Zeus Pandmaros. Rome i.Carlsberg Glyptothek KJ£fbenhavn 1889 p. Ant. Golden Bough?: The Magic Art i. Hell. 94 f.. p.' I incline to think that we have in this custom the relics of a puberty-rite once . pp. 280 f. therefore. and that the act itself might be repeatedly performed by the same person4. H. in part mistaken. no.

\eyovcra. Furtwangler in the Arch. Favorin. Yet there is a certain amount of monumental evidence available.T. Solmsen in the Zeitschrift fur vergleickende Sprachforschttng 1888 xxix. Doric /cwpos. Eudok. Eustath. Zeit.. who conjectures that Kopd (/cetpw) became Kovpd by analogy with Kovpetis<Kopcre6s. A^-yerat de /cat 6 £vpu>v avTov TO yfreiov (sc. TO Kovpetiw. As such it widespread throughout Greece. Koup^Tas at/roi/s ovo/j-dfeffBai.\. Kovpi^ov x°LPt-v TPiX°s. Ath.Cp. etc. Ann.7) Trapci TO /cetpw. The head of a Lapith from the west pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia has a smooth surface reserved in the hair above the middle of the forehead (Olympia iii. Panemeros. 534. Man. p. ya^Xia in that of the girls (Poll. oiVKmjpia.-Inschr. lex.v. p.v. s. 338. Eustath. but with bushy hair behind tied in a bunch on the neck (F. 341. s. mag. yf. d. 1900—1901 vii. 107).v. cp. and that the words in question should be grouped as follows : /copos. Diimmler in the Jahrb. This may be a speculation based on the"A|8ai'Tes. 542). pp. 20 f. 465 states that the Kouretes of Chalkis oTriaQev KOftuvras yevfaBat. 2. Koi/p^res-.v.eipeadai = et. Brit.24 Zeus Pandmaros.. arch.idav Trpo€\66vTuv) was termed Kotpeiov in the case of the boys.). 8 (Frag. Line. lex. s. TO. 143 no.. 15 ff. That this whole series of words was interrelated had already been guessed by the ancients: see et. io6ff. 1908—1909 xv. 313 Nauck 2 %Xt5cDc re 7rX6/ca/xos w<rre Trapdevois ajBpdls1 | odev /caXetV \a. /c. Poll. Panemerios with marriage or with arrival at a marriageable age. 52. Brit.as eneipd/jieffBa yudpri/pas j) wov irodewov %/o^a Tratfoi^ffij <ppevi. ai^TOil's r] tcrTopta. p. 529. 373 rdi K6p/at) and Kovpevs 'barber' </cop<r-ei5s (Hesych. Kovpd 'haircutting ' ' tress' < *Kop<r-d. pi. Thes... K6pij for ' young man. Sch. deutsch. i. 3. At Athens the third day of the Apatouria was called /coupecoTis—say the lexicographers —not merely because the /coOpot and /coOpat were then enrolled on their phratry-lists (Souid. Archemachos of Euboia frag. s. Miss Harrison notes that the Athenian e^/Soi presented Herakles with a big cup of wine (otVicrr^pta) and then clipped their hair (Athen.v. 315 f. which represent Theseus slaying the Minotaur and Ariadne standing at his back. ib. </cop-/o-s. Kovpos). Inst. | €Trwvv/j. /covpewns) or the /coCpot had their hair cut and were enrolled in their phratries (Souid. p. 165. s. 20f. 533.. 8ff. i28f.5ta TO /COU/JIKWS TO. 534. often have a single curl hanging over the forehead (e. d. E. 1908 xix. who connects the rite with the Apatouria). in II.. 1884 p. 518 et 6V Tives T&i>'EX\rjvuv OVK r\(rav KapijKo/^6<avTes..irpoffdev /ce/pe<r#at. My friend Dr Giles kindly informs me that this derivation is quite possible.TJ K. Kotipy . But it was certainly believed in the fifth century B. p. Gud. Sch. 8. 6. §16 /cat Kou/>?$Tas airb TTJS /coupas K\v)(>rjvai.T. Ionic Kotip-q.S /c6juas. 469. d' 2/u. 19. assumes an . p. both male and female.. Treu ib. Dial. 4ff... s. 8. Gr. 36 f. 'A-n-aTovpia).ov yovv evOtis ^(rxo/^ev /cXe'os. Further./a (Collitz-Bechtel Gr. The sacrifice offered for those of full age (et's 7)\t. 494 F.o'7rt0ei' /co^owpres (//. pi. v. in II. hist. that the KovpyjTes got their name from their peculiar coiffure : Aisch. Hesych. The foregoing derivation strongly supports Miss J. and that further proof of the practice may be found in the terms Kopos. 8f. both figures being bald on top. iv.. fig.X. 40 ff. Doric Ktbpa. He refers me to F. i f. In Minoan art youthful figures. 3 Nauck 2 Kofj.). = Eustath. and also on certain oblong plates of gold found at Corinth. but long-haired behind (A.' i ff. The exact character of such tonsures can seldom be determined. 56 f. Hesych. Miiller) ap. pi. Gud. young woman.OTTO TOV /cet'pw KeKap/Acu Kopa /cat Kovpd. 2—7): this was known as the Qi](rir)ls Kovpd. p. 165. | elvai.g. 5. 2. s. Kopt]. 342. viol. Agathon Thyestes frag. . Strab. 907.. etc. Trapd TO //.) : was this the x\i5Qi]' TrXo/ca/tos of the Kouretes ? The o-rnQev /co^owi/Tes appear on an archaic sherd from Aigina. Kovpe&ris). 83 fig.rj dirb Trjs KOpas. 22. </c6p-. 17. frag. 3). kais.v. tcovpd. p.bv TJveaav. K6prj /cat Kotipy K. et. 57 f. which shows a man's head beardless and bald on top. Harrison's contention that the ~Kovp7JT€s were the young initiates of the tribe (see her cogent article in the Ann.' literally 'shaveling' (/cetpw. 1887 ii. ' I shave'). p. et. These terms point to an original puberty-rite of hair-clipping. Ionic Kovpos. mag. in II.v.C. Koup-ijres. otVt[a](7T?7pta. but also because on that day children's hair was cut and dedicated to Artemis (Hesych. 14 ff. since Theseus at Delphoi shaved the front of his head only (Plout. 308—338). 136): G.. Ath. So ib. Phot.

4. for the published dedications. Gr. d. I3OA. Corr. just as Zeus thundered. 4 //. It is thus comparable with the name of Zeus Pandmaros himself 2 . 786. in II. Hell. Pal. Deschamps and Cousin take 'Apytipov to be an indeclinable divine title. ii. 3. 523. Gr. But this strange couplet has been variously interpreted. de la Sculpt. 1 In Anth.). On the shaved moustache of the Spartans as a tribal mark see infra ch. gr. Wdrterb. 5 //. isf. de la Langue Gr. to. 412. This appears to be another case of an obvious Greek meaning thrust upon an unobvious Carian term. Theogn. . inscr. The relation of Kcup6s to this group of words is dealt with in Append. so Agamemnon groaned. 1891 xv.' Homer and Theognis speak of him as ' dwelling in aither^! And a notable line in the Iliad says : Zeus' portion was Broad heaven in the aither and the clouds5. Corr. i § 3 (f). shed tears. 15. and snowed. Zeus and the Burning Sky. Od. (a) Aither as the abode of Zeus. 487 no. gr. regularly describe the votive hair as kome or komai. 241 says: ' Agamemnon in perplexity tore out handfuls of hair as an offering to Zeus' (//. ttym. A puzzling epithet.' and silver was the metal specially assigned to Zeus by the Byzantines (infra ch. iv no. 60 (Panamara) 'E7ra0/>a \_K]OIM] 'Ap[y]vpov. Hence. See infra ch. 8753 (Pergamon) 'Ap[y]vpov. Meyer Handb.und Mittelitalien Halle 1879 pi. 166. As a bright sky-god Zeus lived in the aither or ' burning sky3. i. ii § 6. 6. presses the preceding metaphor to mean that. § 2. and scattered his hairs broadcast! Probably the whole passage is due to -some bombastic rhapsode. 2. a stele in the Naples collection figured by Collignon Hist. Leaf ad loc. Eustath.I vefaXyaiv. 5 f. TroXXots e/c Ke<pa\TJs TrpodeXijfjii'ovs eX/cero %a/ras | vtf/66' iovn Ad). i § 6 (g) on lupiter Dolichenus). d. Corp. perhaps another example of the same interlinguistic phenomenon.). 46 ff. Boisacq Diet. 18. i. It is probable that the crowds which in Roman times thronged the precinct looked upon the Komyria as the ' Hair '-festival. is that given in the Bull. Corr.192 Zei)s 5' £Xa%' ovpavbv evpbv iv cuWpi KO. Hell. Dr Rouse op. i [Att TL]eu>r)fji:£pu 'Apyupov Kal"H[pa]. Bull. 757 cuWpi valwv. rained. etc. 3 L. MM. 186 no.Aither as the abode of Zeus 25 tends to confirm 'our conjecture that the Komyria was the marriage-feast of Zeus1. 15. A. when he punished Hera. 23. he hung her up ' in the aither and upright tongue attached to a fillet (cp. the Lapiths on a vase published by H. 1888 xii. p. Hell. 91. 15. 12 no. Heydemann Mittheilungen aus den Antikensammlungen in Ober. 256. p. But to Greek ears 'Apytipov spelled ' Silver. but admits that there is no trace of the fillet. p. cit. 2 Supra p. Spr? p. 6. 242 Krinagoras records the dedication of his brother's first beard reXa'y | Zrjvl Kal wdlvuv jiietXi'xy ' AprtfuSi. 1887 xi. Etym. which has given rise to such personal names as Bull. (Lagina) lepeia TJ ywi] a[y}rov \ 'Apr^uets 'Apytipov K(upa)£(ls). sixty or so in number. who was trying to outdo the more commonplace phrase AtJ %etpos dpa<rx«j> (W. Prellwitz Etym.

5. 184). sifa. ii. among them the priesthood of Zeus Aitherios™. 3 (not. . de mund. thesm. 5. on the site of the ancient town Hiera.frag.26 Zeus Aitherios^ Zeus Aithrios the clouds1. Eur. 34). i. 27 n. O. Ambr. Flacc. 453. 263. v. Theb. Prodr. Writers of both nationalities call Zeus (lupiter) aitherios (aetherius). which reduces the sublime to the ridiculous. ii. 5 I .. 'god of the burning sky 10 '—an epithet which gains importance from the fact that it was a cult-title possibly in Arkadia11 and certainly in Lesbos. 168. 401 a 17 Kal aiffpios /cat alOfpios. 487 Nauck2 ftnvvfu 6' iepbv aWtp . 6Vra A/os | Ai'0ep/w. Chrys. 2. 3.. Pal. Aristophanes after the manner of a caricaturist slightly distorts the phrase and ridicu-les the poet for saying 'aither. Aen.. Ach. 265). It. 177 f. Theb. 985 Nauck 2 . 269). 272 quotes the line correctly. Stat. A decree found at Chalakais. i. Euripides in his Melanippe the Wise made one of the characters cry: I swear by holy aither.' Again in his Chrysippos Euripides wrote an invocation of earth and sky beginning— Mightiest Earth and aither of Zeus 7 — and in another fragment described Perseus as— The Gorgon-slayer that winged his way to the holy aither of Zeus8. 15. Loukian. 9 cited infra p. 2 p. 10 Anth. 258. 2. viii. 3. 9 f. 140 f. i. no. i. Sil. Gr.. Anon. 108 Boissonade Zeu. 363 f. quoted infra ch. Val. II Ampel. i Meleagros. Dion. Ibis 476.fast. 126 (Bahrens op. 100 and 311 substitutes aldepa. room of Zeus6. Stat. 610. philopatr..' On one occasion he sent a portent to the Achaeans ' out of dither1*} on another he helped Hektor ' from aither* j on another he came near to flinging Hypnos 'from aither' into the sea4. 18. 6 Aristoph. Melanippe frag. 131. 12. 267 (ib. et extr. 484. 15. Schol. 8 Em. Qv. 4. Aristotle in his treatise On the Universe links with Aitherios the epithet Aithrios.al6ep6KpaTop. 2. Lucan. cit.(? e!pea). 2. Cp. Zeus Aithrios. 12 Inscr. Priscian. Verg. 19 (Scholl-Studemund anecd. 54. Niket. Ilias Latina 536 (Bahrens Poetae Latini minores iii. 7.' This too 3 4 //. 'god of the Bright Sky13. 108. //. 312 -fjepios). frag. records the sacred offices held by a certain Bresos.. ins. The Latin poets followed suit and used the borrowed word aether to denote the habitual abode of lupiter9. otKf\<nv Ai6s. 7. //. ii no. § 9 (e) ii. 2 //. 119 f. 15. 610 interpol. 96. //. Theod. (b) Zeus Aitherios. 7 Eur. 18 ff.. ep. frag. but ran.Eug. 9 E. 839 Nauck 2 . 15. 9. B. Aids Sw/xdrto?'. 207. Nonn. Mousaios 8. 117 ff. home of Zeus5. ii. Ov. 5. Hoffmann Die Griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1893 ii. For the combination cy. 14. 53. 13 Aristot. 1023 Nauck 2 AWepa Kal Tcuav iravruv yevereipav detSw. L. 704.g.

124 (Cornut. Aether is father of an Arcadian lupiter. and this belief can be traced here and there throughout the whole range of Greek literature. Aetheris filius. including inanimates. 'eva jj. irpuTOV Atos TOV MOtpos. In Cic. Gr. praef. Of these I shall have more to say : for the moment we are concerned with the tradition that by Zeus Pherekydes understood aither. 121.fi> AlOepos. Zoi'sm4 dies hard . Stuart-Glennie means by ' zoonism ' and Mr R. de nat.. or of Oinei's by Aither (schol. 3 As Zeus 'A/ud/Hos presupposed dfj-dpa — Ze^s. In particular. 10. or Zds as he terms him. 2 ap. 36 = Frag. dear. 4. as does Hyg. 3. 2. 5 Hermias irrisio gentilium philosophorum 12 = H. in Syringem p. 67 p. hist. 22 ff. 184. Gr. Holobol. dear.Zeus identified with Aither 27 was a cult-title at 'Priene in Karia. 319 Miiller: cp.' itself is Zeus3. and size is adorned with a bay-wreath. 3 and Eudok. schol. cp.' He may doubtless have given some such F. 'the Burning Sky. 17 p. Tpeis Atas elvai fiotiKovTcu. ' the burning sky. so Zeus Aldepios presupposes aidrip = Ze^s. 5 ap. 4. 121) or by Zeus (Aristippos/ra. i i 2 b 15 f. R. Ttf = Frag. theog. Hiller von Gaertringen Inschriften von Priene Berlin 1906 no. TOV Se erepov ev 'ApKadiq. schol. 327 Mtiller). 53 f. Hes. Theokr. 9 loves fuere tres. 6f. p. p. theol. Gruppe Gr. ib. iv. ap. period. Lang) makes Aither the brother of Hemera.' or ignis. Atlas pi. 71 p. Pergamon iii. viol. iv. Marett by ' animatism ' — the primitive view that things in general. Diibner^ Araithos/nzf. Rel. Cic. Ampel. primus in Arcadia. de mens. Diels Doxographi Graeci Berolini 2 1 . hist. 185. (c) Zeus identified with Aither (sometimes with Aer} in Philosophy and Poetry.o.fad. possess a mysterious life of their own. Wiinsch en-rot 'H/ra^Aels yeveaOai.hie primum Solem procreavit. cp. no. Theokr. 6. Pan was the son of Oinoe by Aither (Pind. ' fire5. it has left its impress on philosophy and poetry. Lying at the back of such usages is the half-forgotten belief that Aither. beneath which is the inscription: Mfvdvdpov Themistokles son of Menandros Au Aldpiui fvxrfv to Zeus Aithrios (in fulfilment of) a vow2. 31 ff. 1390 n. has preserved for us some exceedingly primitive notions with regard to Zeus. 4 By zo'ism I mean what Mr J. Aither and Hemera appear fighting side by side on the frieze of the great Pergamene altar to Zeus: see Die Skulpturen des Pergamon. cui etiam Aetherius cognomen fuit : . i. Id. A small marble altar found there and dating from the first century of our era or later is inscribed : Aldpiov Of Zeus Atthrios1. 2 Schmidt (Dies and Aether). 9. ib. 5). S. 25 f. 3. Pherekydes of Syros. de nat. 44. i. Rhes.Museums in Photographien Berlin 1903 pi. 122. Eur. one of the earliest writers of Greek prose. Lyd. Myth. 28. Maxim. Another altar of similar provenance.

ignem ac terrain <ac> tempus significans. ev. 64 Diels. Kpovov de TOV xp°"ov' ° ^v o-Wyp TO iroiovv. irepl evffefitias 6a p. Al. 6 Stahlin TOia^Trjv Tiva Traifeiv TratSiav TOV tavrov Ai'a 'Hpa/cXetTos \tyei. Laert. 27.. 6. ap. 10 irdvTO. 5). i.irep Kal 'UpaKXeiTov \eyeiv. 8998. and over against the Bear is the boundary of Aithrios Zeus4. eel.Obv<a> Kal Kpovov. 3 Diog. It is therefore of interest to find that Herakleitos. Ka. Kleanth.Keraunos. i. 654. 5.6ovir]v d£ TTJV yffv. 6 5<: xPotr°s iv <f ra yivofieva. i. Mus. Burnet Early Greek Philosophy London and Edinburgh 1892 p. i. QepeKijdijs fJLev dpxas elvcu. ref. Philodem. and so mixed up with Stoic phraseology that it would be unsafe to build upon it1.j>6s '6vofJia. 208 ff. haer. in order to suggest a connexion with ffiv. But the tradition that he actually did so is late. 46 n. Kal ~X.' In a fragment preserved by Strabon he writes: The limits of Morning and Evening are the Bear. 2. cod. 32 Diels. de anima i. X. S.. i. i Stahlin (Euseb. 7 Infra ch. Strab. 8 Herakl. 42) £v TOffo<t>bv/JLOVVOV \tyeadai ofiK 46^\€i Kal e^Xet Z?.=frag. Ae't. That Herakleitos called his first principle Zeus. qua regatur tempus. cp. de anima i. F.u/3/>ta. 355 Lion Pherecydes. 136 n. 81 Gomperz TOV Jlo\e/j. ap. ofivona Bywater with Euseb. 'to live' (supra p. 3 avriov TTJS apKrov odpos aiOpiov At6s =frag. Xryow Zijva. Schuster punctuates after povvov (Rhein. Zeller op. Hippolyt. legg. u. 5 p. 65 Bywater. strom. ofo^cm Mullach. TJ 5e yfj rb irdffxov. 31 p. 1 This was seen by E. 2 Aristot. 6 Herakl. appears also from Chrysipp. . D. in quo universa pars moderetur. Zrjva.'2 8 Zeus identified with Aither interpretation of his own cosmological myth.). Aristot. ii § 3 (a) i. 5. to judge from the load-stone and amber. h. 23. olaidfci Kepuvv!)s=frag. 13. ap. put for yue<ri/. 404. paed. 30 Diels. 4 Herakl. who says: ' It seems to me to be simply the clear noon-day sky.' and J. for Ai6s.^^ ^)8i>o/ta vulg. 1889 i. 345). Whatever Thales of Miletos meant by his statements that ' all things are full of gods 2 ' and that even inanimates. Mus. ii n. Probus in Verg. Bernays transposes ede\ei Kal OVK e^Xet (Rhein. have life3. but he actually applies to it the name Zen or Zeus8. 20 Bywater. et esse aethera.' 5 HO/) aeifaov Herakl. 'the Thunderbolt6. qui regat terrain. 70 Gomperz nepawbs ir<avT' ot'cuotfet. 1854 ix. Kal Xdovtyv Kal Kpovov ' Zrjva fji. 7 ff. 103. it is at least clear that his teaching was in a sense zoi'stic. Nay more. 91 n. Clem.da. The author of the pseudo-Hippocratean work On Diet borrows both 1879 p. 7. Philodem. On the interpretation of these words consult E. Zeller A History of Greek Philosophy trans. may we not venture to assert that Herakleitos' cardinal doctrine of the universe as an Ever-living Fire5 is but a refinement upon the primitive conception of Zeus the Burning Sky ? For not only does the philosopher speak of his elemental Fire as . inquit. i. ap. 405 a 20 f.F. Alleyne London 1881 ii.ev TOV alOtpa. Clem. 30 By water.' a word peculiarly appropriate to Zeus7. the greatest of his followers. Laert. Cron after 4d£\ei (Philologus N. Zeus 10 irvpdevr' deifuovra Kepavv6v. Plat. Probably Zyvos. 3. r 20 Diels. 13. dt. 24. uses the expression ' Aithrios Zeus' as a direct equivalent o f ' t h e Bright Sky. 4 i i a 8. praep. Diog. Trepl ewre/3etos 14 p. 9. who renders 'the sphere of bright Zeus. Al. 28 Bywater. frag. 1854 ix.ov /cat TOV A/a TOV avTOv elvai. 14 p.

i..ev ofiv 0atVerat w^o/xaa^at aTro TOV iracri deduKevai. de victu i. 476 Littre = i... i. s. 7. ignem esse Vulcanum et ceteros similiter deos elementa esse monstrando = Zenon frag. it ff.. 39 deum dicit esse. de nat.X.. i. Laert.. i. Stob. Diels Doxographi Graeci Berolini 1879 P. adv.. 2 IIOp rexviKov Stob. de nat. ib. /ecu "HcpaiffTov (caret rV et's r6 rexviKW irvp. Stob. 19. div. dear. Ata de avTov \eyovaiv.. held that Aratos of Soloi. Tert.artificiose ambulantis. 26.. Eyssenhardt.. p. etc. 19. de nat. Chrysippos ap. 3. iff. Tert. Lact. Aither*. 71 Pearson.. r. i.35> 9 Wachsmuth) or as Fire (August. TO ffiv. i. 36 Zeno. 15 ff. Laert. and Zeus4. 14. de nat. OIO. . 633 Kiihn) TroWa rairra /cal ov rot atJra0aos Tt-qvi. in deorum habet numero (sc.modo aethera. 5 (vi. 29b p. Fel. I.. inst. strom. in Pearson. 14. Caes. dear. Stahlin. i. Scip. 7. Zenon spoke of God as the Fiery Mind of the Universe (Stob.aethera deum dicit. VKOTOS Tt-qvi. 6'rt irdvTuv eaTiv ai/rtos xal 5t' O. 38) = Zenon frag. ib. neque quemquam. Krates. deurn disseruit. 213. 39 ignem.Zeus identified with Aither 29 the style and the tenets of the enigmatic Herakleitos. 126 Zenoni et reliquis fere Stoicis aether videtur summus deus. 57 ignem. Kpdri?s ii. Minuc. Sat. igb P. i. 37.. Wachsmuth. K. i. i1 p. Minuc. It can act as well as be acted upon. qui aether nominatur. This tension is described by a variety of names. Clem. irepi eu<re/3etas I2 = H. Cic. 37 naturae. i. ad •nat. . i. Diog. 42 Pearson. 46 Pearson. 5 p. darkness as Aides. dear. 6 Krates ap. 10 Zenon.. 3.vult omnium esse principium... Neptunum mare. Chrysippos ap. T-TJV els aldepa.. lovem caelum. certissimum deum iudicat. neque Vestam. 5 Cleanthes et Anaximenes aethera dicunt esse summum deum = Kleanthes frag. Acad. Chrysippos ap. Acad. 15. eel. Again. i. who began his astronomical poem the Phaenomena with a famous invocation of Zeus. quern homines lovem appellarent. Aratea p. in somn. ib. 395 a 14 ff. 41 Pearson. i. Martian. Cic.aethera interim. 26 p.54^h 24 f. Cic. Cp. schol. 5 Souid. 2 cuius (ignis) instar vult esse naturam Zeno = Zenon frag. Bernhardy. 37 Cleanthes. n ff. 4 Cic. The Stoics.VTOV TroWa. tr/coros 'Aid-g. 12 f. Zenon. 156. 31. cp. Wachsmuth Zei)y /j. light is the same as Aides.aethera.TO. dear. 15 Pearson. 2. <f>dos'Aidrj.. The same interpretation is put upon the phrase by Macrob. de nat.GIV.. 29b p. neque lunonem.ardorem. whose physical theories were profoundly influenced by those of Herakleitos. 10 Cleanthes."Hpac Se KCIT& Trjv et's depot. dear.r. 2 f. But matter is not inert and dead. dear. i.. sed rebus inanimis atque mutis per quandam significationem haec docet tributa nomina — Zenon frag. held that matter alone has real existence. 18. i. eel. 5.interpretando lunonem aera. Zijva de /caXoucrt Trap' offov TOV ffiv aiVi6s effriv •$ dta TOV £TJV Kex^pffKev. 38. 13 deos pronuntiaverunt.. Cic. 17. Germ. Wachsmuth.v.ut Zeno aerem et aetherem = Zenon frag. Acad. de nat. irdfra. 17. no Pearson. 2. eel. i. Al. 20 ff. 40 aethera esse eum. Fel. when he declares: All things are the same and not the same : light is the same as Zen. i. 219. Chrysippos ap. Diog.. among them those of Constructive Fire2. Ata 5e TOV aWepa. thanks to a certain tension or elasticity (tonos\ which is found to a greater or less degree in all matter. i. 393. 36 neque enim lovem. 25. was in reality invoking the sky6: he 1 Hippokr.. a distinguished Greek grammarian who was also a Stoic philosopher5. artificiosum. Wachsmuth dvwrdrw de irdvTuv vovv evaidepiov etvai debv. 379. adv. 3 Cic. I. Zeno). eel. 'Adrivav de /card. Wachsmuth = Zenon/r«^. 147 Atct f£v ydp (jxiffi 5t' dv TO. qui ita appellatur. darkness as Zen1... Philodem.

at Patras. 38. Horn. indeed In each man Jack of you. 33. p.. 37. 80. in Verg. 546 b 36 ff. Air. de mens. schol. Germ. 27. 23. 12 ff. I'm everywhere at once. Bonn. et. L.20 p. . Arat. Herakleitos. 4. Lyd. incert. then pressed into the service of various Stoic speculations. Diels Doxogr. 3'!?. 29f. and finally treated as a commonplace by allegorists and eclectics. 7ff. 62.d. 188 B. 438.X. 223 f. Air's everywhere And. 2. 4. 4 Philemon frag. and yet no man. the first representative of the New Attic Comedy. Clem. 15..v. 380. 19 ff. 21 A.T. With this identification of Zeus and 'A^/a cp. Lyd. where JlXdrow is a mistake for 3>i\-ri(juji>v — Philemon frag. as had Aratos elsewhere2. is known to have penned a play called The Philosophers in which he made mock of Zenon the Stoic6. mag. in Sicily. i. a late Stoic. 389.. Stahlin.. Wachsmuth.g. for allegory is ever popular with those who have outgrown their creeds. i Meineke. Laert. (Frag. philosophical system by Herakleitos. cp.. we may fairly suspect a travesty of Stoic teaching. 22 p. 357. if you please. 39. like a god. incert. being everywhere. Philol. 32 p. or ever will do. Al. 80. Krates supra p. i p. i. am I. 57.. 64. 49. p. gff. i. theol.figurans lovein in substantiam fervidam et lunonem eius in aeriam. A last echo of Herakleitos the Ionian is audible in Lyd. 60. The comedians of course lost no opportunity of deriding such vagaries. eel. de mens. 267.. Other rationalists propounded similar explanations5. 91. 3 Hes. Vita Arati ii. 6 Diog.9a.. i6ff. 4 rbv 5e Ata TO vvp. Marcion. ib. Philemon. de mens. in his quaest. Arat. iv.phaen.D. 38 ff. etc. o. does. Tert.. Aratea p. Soc. Souid. 35. When. i8ff. 8ff. I'm here in Athens. 13 vulgaris superstitio. i iff. Wunsch. Gr. i ff.. Chrysippos ap. Eyssenhardt. rbv 5e axorfivbv "AiSijv.. i. s. 2. 10. 21 p. eel.. 15 ff. //. Meineke). adv. The personage in question announces himself as follows: One who knows everybody and everything That every one did. Philodem. 179. And yet no god. 7 Stob. avrap 6"Itnros ev Aids etXetrat. 34 p. therefore. 19 p.pbv irvp Zetis tffri K. 275 tfTOi yap /cat Z-rjvl Traparpexet atoXos "O/wts with schol. Cornut. 19. we find that the prologue to one of his other comedies was spoken by a personage named Aer and identified with Zeus. 14 ff. 30. Zfyuv i. schol. since in them were the stars: Homer—he said—had called the sky Zeus1. Ata pev elvcu rbv irepl TTJV yrjv atpa. also equates Zeus with aiOrjp. 4 Meineke: infra p. Caes. 726a 10 Bernhardy= Philemon Philosophifrag. 52. knows everything 7 ! 1 2 //. Serv. Lang 6 /*«• yap al6ijp Kal rb diavyes Kal Ka. or Zeus if you prefer it! For. Thus what had once been a piece of genuine folk-belief was first taken up into a. 29. 4. 5 E. 27. com.. strom. In every state and every house.. pp. Trept ewe/3etas 13 = H. i ff. schol. phaen. 24 Bekker. if. rbv Se 5ta TTJS yfjs Kal 0a\drrris IIo<Tet5w.30 Zeus identified with Aither added that it was reasonable to invoke the aer and aither. 7. Hesiod3 and Philemon 4 had used the same word of the aer.

387. 12 p. 3. likewise equated Zeus with 'Aifjp: Philodem. who availed himself of the belief that the fiery sky is Zeus. This remarkable thinker recognised four elements or ' roots' of things. Horn. adv. The passage is cited from Plutarch by Euseb. 9 Wiinsch Zei)s yap 6 dr/p /caret TOIIS (pvaiKotis Xeyercu K. Clem. Earth. Myth.X. Here.Kepa. Aioyevqs ewaivel TOV 0/j. i. p.' i. phil. 131. 409. in Verg. whose tears flow as a fount for men1. Bonn. 391. eel. Diels Poetarum philosvphorum fragmenta Berolini 1901 p. 249. 351. 178..e.ara irpwrov &KOW \ Zeus dpyrjs Hpj. life-bringing Here. praep. ut Heraclitus vult. 30 n. in Verg. Diogenes of Apollonia. quod Latine calor sive vita interpretatur. unde et Zei>s (quod est vita sive calor) dicitur. omnia sint animata. once of the shining 4... et. 5. 6. cp. inst. 6. Od. 24 (ii.. Diels Doxogr. 121. 2 See e. And Nestis. a belated follower of Anaximenes. interp. 7.i.. supplicatio pro Christianis 6 p. But there is no doubt that dpy-iys is the true reading: see H.X. 6 Diels reVcrapa 7a/> TrdvTwv pifafj. 76 Zei>s Se drip TIS /c. Fire. ra devdpa yap 6 ZeiVs rjyovv drip eVrpe'0et. 6. 230. and Water. Gud. 132 iravra. mag. 19. 20 Zeus al&rjp MSS. i. 31 p.vve of Zeus in //. 1 Empedokl. W. 4 //. viz.ev yap \fyei TTJV $£<riv Kal TOV cuWpct cp. div. 173 Migne). 12. nat. Arnob. 8. 14. Prob. p. p. 22. TOV depot yap avTov Ata vouifav <pt]aiv. ii a fervore caelestis ignis. Rom.. 14. Thus he writes: For first hear thou the four roots of all things: Bright Zeus. 133. 30. Athenag. 4f. 183. 108.. and of the moving forces as Aphrodite (Kypris) and Ares (Eris). where the MSS. 176 p. 3. See also supra p. 3 Plout. Lact. 4.g. i.r. i. In the extant fragments of his poem On Evolution he clothes his ideas in mythological language. Vat. Od. Air.ripov. i Iovem. Trept evcrefieias 6b = H. the erroneous derivation of Zetfs from few in et. quotes the second line as commencing with the words 'Zeus Aither' instead of 'Zeus arges. et quod igni vitali. a work wrongly ascribed to Plutarch 2 . \. Aen. 26 Schwartz. ev. horn. . 6. 16. 128. ib. 3. Cp. 47. The word arges means 'bright' or 'brilliant' and is used by Homer five times of the thunderbolt hurled by Zeus4.) says Zijva ^ev el-ire TOV alQepa. 7 Schwartz and 22 p. particles of which were combined and separated by the moving forces of Friendship and Enmity.Zeus identified with Aither 31 Another philosopher. dpyi. 201 Migne).id est ignem. « The same equation is found many centuries later in Tzetz. deplac. and Nestis respectively. Christ Geschichte dergriechischen Litteratur1 Miinchen 1911 ii. 38. ws 01) [jLvdiKuis dXX' 0X1)6<Ss inrep TOV 6eiov diei\eyf^4vov.r. 8. Soc. Ai'doneus. p. 30 flagrantem vi flammea atque ardoris inextinguibili vastitate. 536 b 2 ff. re (pep4crj3ios 7)5' 'Aidoivetis \ N^trrts Q\ r/ daKptiois Teyyei Kpovvw^a J3p6reiov. Ai'doneus. quod videlicet hoc elementum caleat. ib. was Empedokles of Agrigentum. 3. 7 (ii. alleg. 5. 105 Iovem. Philol. eiretdr) wav eldevai TOV Ala \eyei.. i ff. Serv. Herakleitos the Stoic in his exposition of the line (quaest. 6. have &pr/s.id est ignem. 20. 25 AIDS iJToc depos. ' Zeus the Burning Sky' instead of ' Zeus the Brilliant' But that is perhaps an emendation on the part of a copyist familiar with Stoic phraseology and ignorant of the poet's vocabulary3. speaking of the elements as Zeus.yhz^. The author of the compilation On the Dogmas of the Philosophers. With the pseudo-Plutarch's comment A£o /m.Graece luppiter Zeus dicitur.

If this be so. In what relation did Zeus stand to the various mythical persons named Argos*? This complicated problem. ii. 798. and twice in a slightly different form of white glistening fat2.4T 9 //. 127. Anz. Prellwitz Etym. Wernicke6 and Dr O. 6. They arrive at substantially identical results.32 Zeus identified with Aither raiment worn by Helen1. 4 Prob. from the Abh. Or again : Thou seest yon boundless aither overhead " Clasping the earth in close and soft embrace ? That deem thou Zen. (i) that the numerous personages named Argos &re. etym. in Verg. for the purposes of serious investigation. Euripides' prayer to a in Aristoph. 2. shimmering 3 . Jessen7. for example: But Aither is thy father. p. //• 3. cp. d. 24 f. that reckon thou thy god12. Akad. iii. Myth. From the same root springs the word argos. Worterb.' ein Gott Argos Panoptes (Maass. r6v8' iryov Beov. frag. Whose name on earth is Zeus11. Gel. and in Folk-Lore 1904 xv. and (3) that the ultimate Argos was a sky-god. viz. Walde Lat. maid. 351 Lion already connects Zeus apyfy with'A/ryos. Zeus 'the Brilliant. ' eine Art von Zeus. 11 Eur. Helios Panoptes. d. it is permissible to regard Argos 'the Glittering' as another name of Zeds 'the Bright One10. 941 Nauck 2 bpas TOV ui^oO rovS' a-ireipov alfftpa. cit. \ Zetis 6s 2 3 12 ~Eur. Classe pp. 49 f. 7 In Roscher Lex. when he spoke of Fire as Zeus arge's. 5 T.' 9 Jessen loc. 808). 82 n. 31 p. incert..-hist. 'bright. 1889. 790 —-798 (1896). 877 Nauck 2 dXX' alByp riKrei <re. 43 f. reducible to two — the eponymous hero of the town Argos and the sleepless watcher of lo . Panofka Argos Panoptes Berlin 1838 pp. p.' and we obtain confirmation of our view that Empedokles. 'essentially similar to Zeus' as Dr Jessen puts it9. 75. 6 In Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. 892. glittering. 4^ff.' — a fact which raises the question. | TOVTOV v6fju£e ZTJVO. i § 6 (g) ix. dem Wesen nach nicht verschieden von Zeus Panoptes bezw.frag. ib. has been recently attacked with the utmost care by Dr K. cit. He says. Kopa. Cp. 'a sort of Zeus' says Dr Wernicke8. Spr? p. Worterb. which in one shape or another has exercised the minds of mythologists for the last seventy years5.. Rev. 1904 xviii. 3. 1549. 1 . 1540—1550 (1902).' 10 I called attention to this equation in the Class. 11. \ KCU yijv ir by pals fv dyKdAcus. Gr. p. 81 — 125) was the first to deal in detail with the subject. 21. 8 Wernicke loc. Coding. eel. 1837 Phil. i —47 (extr. ran. incert. 265. berl. See further infra ch. (2) that these two were originally one and the same. 818. p. Euripides sometimes identifies Zeus with the burning sky.' was utilising a popular and originally zoi'stic conception of the bright sky-god.

234. Abel irvp /cat tidup /cat yaia /cat alB^p. a late and untrustworthy author7. E. E.. yet inasmuch as the philosopher nowhere calls his aither by the name of Zeus. 3 Orph. 1889 ii. Tidvra yap ei> Zrjvbs ycteydXy rd5e crci/uart /cetrat. Heliades frag. 19 ff./ra^-. See P. 5. S. Zeus p. 161 f. %WTt rwi>5' vireprepov. Alleyne London 1881 ii. . Aith. frag.33 It is usual to suppose that in such passages Euripides was writing as a disciple of Anaxagoras. and Zeus the sky. 354 ff. and though Anaxagoras in his cosmogony derived the world from the reciprocal action of a . 272. 8 Supra p. 234 ff. Nor yet can these Euripidean passages be ascribed to Orphic teaching. but a direct identification of Zeus with aither is attributed to Orpheus only by Joannes Diakonos. Abel. 123. 190. For the influence of Herakleitos on Euripides see A. but possibly also the old zoi'stic conception that lay at the base of all these philosophical superstructures. 28.. Zeus the whole world and aught there is above it4. or he is wrapped about with a blue mantle. Decharme 'Euripide et Anaxagore' in the Rev. 7 lo. Zeus de yij. theog. What then was the source of Euripides' teaching in the matter? Possibly Herakleitos' use of 'Aithrios Zeus' for 'the Bright Sky8'. 3 . Thus Aischylos in his Heliades writes probably under Orphic influence: Zeus is the aitker. or he has a blue globe at his feet. 6 Orph. 950 = Orph. Pompeian wall-paintings have preserved to us certain Hellenistic9 types of Zeus conceived as god of the blue sky. or as 'holding the ever tireless might of Zeus' high palace6'. Abel. 4 Aisch.rare warm bright dry principle termed aither and a dense cold dark moist principle termed aerz. h. Gr. \ Zeus rot TO. Either he wears a blue nimbus round his head. For the Orphic Zeus was pantheistic and only identified with aither in the same sense as he is identified with all the other elements of Nature3. frag. 70 Nauck2 Zeus etrriv aid-qp. his influence on the poet is not here to be traced. Zet)s S' ovpavos. Kunstmyth. 2 1 c. re /cat y/uap. Zeus the earth.. loff. though Euripides was certainly influenced by Anaxagoras1. But. Orphic poems describe aither as the 'unerring kingly ear' of Zeus3. in Hes. F. i Abel. Rt. He is characterised as such by the simplest of means. \ . 123. vvj. Diak. Haigh The Tragic Drama of the Greeks Oxford 1896 pp. 9 Overbeck Gr. Zeller A History of Greek Philosophy trans. 5 Orph. iravTO. (d) Zeus as god of the Blue Sky in Hellenistic Art.

alib. 112 f. The throne has for arm-rests two small eagles. 361 ff. Uncoloured drawings in the Real Museo Borbonico Napoli 1830 vi pi. 47 no. vi Serie. 3.). MiillerWieseler Denkm. 3 Overbeck Gr. cit. Wernicke op. raised to his head. 333— 402. no. i. i. gestures of the sort see C. 289. Zahn Die schonsten Ornamente und merkwiirdigsten Gemdlde aus Pompeji. 5 2 > W. the rude aniconic pillar of immemorial sanctity and the fully anthropomorphic figure of the Olympian ruler deep in the meditations of Providence3. beside which is perched his eagle. 4. now unfortunately much faded. 47 f. objects that in the Pompeian painting the arm of Zeus is not supported on the back of the throne. In a painting from the Casa delnaviglio (pi. 362: list in Rasche Lex.)4. but raised to his head in a Roman gesture of ' meditative care' (sinnende Fiirsorge) like that of Securitas on imperial coins (e.). cit. E. Herkulanum und Stabiae Berlin 1844 ii pi. For more pronounced. 43. 190 compares the thoughtful attitude of Zeus on the Naples well-mouth (infra n. Kunst i. 392.and yellowish grey in colour. Atlas pi. 50 no. d. 726—728) or that of Minerva in the pediment of the Capitoline temple (Wernicke op. Atlas pi. 5. 16. 39. Camp.g. 4 Guida del Mus. His sandalled feet are placed on a footstool. no. Wrapped about his knees is a mantle. 3. pi. cit. Overbeck op. 175. There is again a pillar 1 Helbig Wandgem. and is covered with green drapery. the sacred stone of Zeus. ix. The Blue Nimbus i. Coins pp. his right hand supporting his head. i). partly on the full notes as to colouring given by Zahn. ii (with the fullest bibliography). but less dignified.34. Num. i. 101. The god's right hand. Etrusk. Durm Baukunst d. p. Overbeck op.T 3f' (extr. Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. 80 pi. d. Denkm. Braun Vorschule der Kimstmythologie Gotha 1854 pi. ii is a drawing from the cast at Cambridge. i is a reproduction of Zahn's drawing on a smaller scale. The Blue Nimbus. 2 L. His left hand holds a long sceptre. histoire. Kunstmyth. The same striking combination occurs on a well-mouth of Luna marble in the Naples Museum (pi. Mtiller-WieselerWernicke Ant. from the Memoires de I'Academie des Sciences de St. Immediately behind it rises a pillar rectangular in section . Atlas pi. p. 94 f. Malerei col. i. We have thus in juxtaposition the earliest and the latest embodiment of the sky-god. ii. 52 pi. i. 4) and on a medallion of Lucius Verus (infra ch. pi. which varies in hue from light blue to light violet. cp. Overbeck op. 48 f. needfully turning its head towards its master. Stephani Nimbus und Strahlenkranz St Petersburg 1859 P. Rom. ii. p. betokens thoughtful care. his left placed as though it held a sceptre. Sittl Die Gebdrden der Griechen und Romer Leipzig 1890 p. 162). Sciences politiques. 88. 49. i § 5 (b)). 48f. especially of the wonderful enthroned Dionysos (Herrmann Denkm. Napoli p. My Frontispiece is a restoration of the painting based. figured in the Real Museo Borbonico Napoli 1824 i pi. a fine triangular composition of Zeus enthroned is seen against a red background. alt. 67. His flowing locks are circled by a blue nimbus". . 30 f. Camp. and Frontispiece)1. My pi. philologie. My pi. cit. 102 f. 20. figs. cit. p.^ p. viii. Here too we see Zeus seated in a pensive attitude. partly on a study of the much better preserved paintings from the same atrium (Helbig Wandgem. i. 98 no. Zeus p. -Petersbourg.

Plate I Zeus in a wall-painting from the Casa del Naviglio. . See page 34 ff.

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. 34 ff.Plate II Zeus on a well-mouth at Naples.

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122 no. Lindsay Lysippi luppiter ista | transibit quadraginta cubita altu' Tarento. At this point Pliny may be brought forward as a witness. one such cult. -278 ?xet ^ (Sf. There was. Lysippos' Infra ch. mobilis ea ratio libramenti est. the naturalistic gesture of his right hand. €v f Kal 6 TOV Aids idpvrai tcoXoffffos %«^foi)s.' Lucilius3 and Strabon4 mention that the statue in question represented Zeus and was set in a large open market-place. 58 pi. its great height and carefully calculated balance suggest a standing figure (cp. n.vdffi. ' cubitus ' p. On the other hand. id quidem providisse et artifex dicitur modico intervallo. yet it is not overthrown by any gale. The Italian provenance of the wall-painting and the well-mouth suggest that this Lysippean masterpiece was executed for some city in Italy. If it could be shown that Lysippos made an image of the Tarentine pillar-Zeus. 24) shows Zeus leaning his left arm on a pillar and holding zphidle in his right hand. 8)6. frag. ii § 3 (a) ii (6). '2 Plin. ayop&v ev/jieytOr}. Non. XL cubitorum. 14 ff. 296. forty cubits in height. who—to judge from the abundant but not as yet exaggerated locks of the god. his earnest deep-set eyes. made by Lysippos. Whether it was seated we are not definitely told and cannot certainly infer5. Steine Berlin p. Our only further clue is the presence of the pillar as an essential feature of the composition. 380 Baehrens ap. 5 Overbeck Gr.Tarentum) yvjj. 5. however. s. i. 57. Both designs are clearly variations (the one chromatic. 4 Strab. Now pillar-cults of Zeus lasting on into the classical period are of extreme rarity. a brown paste of late Roman work at Berlin (Furtwangler Geschnitt. fig. Zeus p. at Tarentum in south Italy. Denkm. and the multifacial character of the whole work—may well have been Lysippos. 40 tails et Tarenti factus a Lysippo. 6 Muller-Wieseler-Wernicke Ant.The Blue Nimbus 35 beside him: on it rests his eagle. mirum in eo quod manu. the lightning-bearer.Marc. fJLeyiaros yttera TOV 'PoStW. ut ferunt. his broad athletic shoulders. of which I shall have more to say1.-v. unde maxima flatutn opus erat frangi. the other plastic) of a common original by some sculptor of repute. Kunstmyth. opposita columna. hist. turning towards him and spreading its wings for instant flight. 34. It is noteworthy because the weight is so nicely balanced that. ut nullis convellatur procellis.. 2642 pi. though it can be moved by the hand—so they state—. The artist himself is said to have provided against this by placing a pillar a little way off on the side where it was most necessary to break the violence of the wind2.6v re KaXkurrov KOA. it would be reasonable to regard that image as the prototype of our later figures. On the one hand. Upon 1 3—2 . A propos of colossal statues he says: ' Yet another is that at Tarentum. nat. 3 Lucil.

34.pi. 486. The A is certainly genuine. Dalton Byzantine Art and Archaeology Oxford 1911 pp. The god is flanked by two smaller figures of the Dioskouroi. ix—x): see A. but the other letters look suspicious. no. Arch. 3 Niketas Choniates de signis Constantinopolitanis 5 p. Moreover. if not manufactured. This design probably represents a definite cultgroup e. 2 7 i f . 6 Arch. 1903 xvii. Furtwangler called them on the ground that they were much used. Furtwangler-Reichhold Gr. d. Ann. hist. bayer. 1911 writes—'The following parts of the principal subject are restored: Oinomaos from waist to knees and left side of chlamys.— more than once represent an ancient cult of Zeus by means of a simple pillar closely resembling that of the Pompeian painting or that of the Neapolitan relief.36 The Blue Nimbus intention may well have been to eclipse the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias by a seated colossus of yet vaster bulk. 47. has the same scene with the pillar is perched his eagle. 164 f. each with lance in hand and star on head. and his idea that the pillar set up beside the statue was intended to break the force of the wind is due to an obvious misunderstanding of the sacred stone. g)6 depicts Hippodameia offering &phidle to her father Oinomaos. Myrtilos all except head and shoulders. as Prof. what he says about the stag of Kanachos' Apollon in nat. All the rest is quite trustworthy. My friend Mr H. Zeit. not a seated. The type is reproduced on an ivory casket (s. 35) was a standing.54. the evidence that our painting and bas-relief presuppose Lysippos' famous work. Mus. figure. 278. Vases iv. 5 Furtwangler Masterpieces of Gk. Zeit. p. 107 (giving both appellations). d. hist. Inst. There are also bits of restored paint along the lines of fracture. is fairly strong.squared pillar before starting on the fateful race with Pelops. O.' .g. B. An amphora from Ruvo. who is about to pour a libation over a primitive . 1853 xi. pis. ii. .. In this connexion it should be observed that Apulian vases— Tarentine vases.Plin. the Berlin paste perhaps gives us some idea of it. Pliny's curious remark about the weight being moveable by hand might refer to some accessory such as the eagle of Zeus 4 . 139 (reverting to the older nomenclature). Class. In the field to right and left of his head are a star (sun ?) and a crescent moon. These illustrations being inexact. 435—442. 171 ff. now in the British Museum (pi. 40. Furtwangler in the Sitzungsber. Walters History of Ancient Pottery London 1905 i. both Strabon1 and Pliny 2 speak in the next breath of another colossal bronze made by Lysippos for the Tarentines: this represented Herakles without weapons. I have had a fresh drawing made. 34. F 331.P^ 54> 27 Brit. especially the S. Bekker. fig. Akad. right hand and part of left arm. 1853 x^ 44 f. iii. N. 859 f. 109 f. 75. 1840 xii. Walters in a letter dated May 15. Thus a vase in the Louvre (fig. B.-hist. except that I am a little bit doubtful about the AIOS inscription. seated and resting his head on his left hand 3 —a fitting pendant to a Zeus in the Pompeian pose. nat. i. 216. Classe 1902 pp. O.)7. at Tarentum5. Aphrodite lower part of right leg and knee with drapery. at Tarentum. Phil. Vasenmalerei i. where the worship of the pillar-Zeus may have been combined with that of the Dioskouroi. konigl. r. M. Sculpt. 1 Strab. 122. 4 Cp. Cat. If Lysippos' colossal Zeus (supra p. Wiss. See further H.42ff. d. In short. Rev. though not conclusive.

.

Plate III Pillar-cult of Zeus on an amphora from Ruvo. . See page 36 ff.

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\\. Cat. Cat. 801—824). Thes. is in act to pour his libation. Harrison). and probably out of. or with an eagle attacking a snake.' Overbeck Gr. 50. Copper coins of Nikaia in Bithynia. 483 f. faced by Pelops. three. 327). Imp.a or g5os). the claimant. E. ii. 1 . B. 148 pi. Num. Mus. 5. 10 is a specimen inscribed AIOS (Brit. In the centre a four-sided pillar with splayed foot and moulded top bears the inscription Dios. If. show a flaming rectangular altar inscribed A IOC | A F O l PA I OY (Morell. over which Oinomaos. 88). Michon in DarembergSaglio Diet. 10. by Hippodameia. and are regularly inscribed AIOS. fig. 7. i objects that in this case the word would have been written on the blank side of the altar. 49 no. AIOS KAA(6Voi>? cp. followed by E.). '(the pillar) of Zeus1. 8 ff. struck under Domitian. 3008. Fig. Kunstmyth. If these weights really represent an altar and not merely—as is possible—a pile of smaller weights. his faithless charioteer.The Blue Nimbus 37 further details and names. 552 n. presumably the great altar of Zeus. Fig. 51". however. Bronzes p. Bronzes p. an altar. AIOS KAA(\«»tK:oi>? Miss J. Ant. They are shaped like an altar of one. or with the addition of a cult-title AIOP OATMIIK2. Some of them are further decorated with a thunderbolt. The king is flanked by Myrtilos. that altar was. two. whom an older woman—possibly AIOS here is commonly supposed to mean ' (the altar) of Zeus. iv. and prefers to supply AIOS (aya\/j. sometimes AIOS IEPON. Walters in Brit. which is known to have been a stepped structure formed from the ashes of the thighs of the victims sacrificed to Zeus (Paus. An interesting parallel is furnished by a series of bronze weights found at Olympia— the very spot represented on the vase (Olympia v. AIOP OATNIIK2. 13. cit. 9. 5. 361 no. Rom. the distinction ceases to be important. Mus. H. the pillar actually rises out of the altar (as does the female herm on the Dareios-vase: Furtwangler-Reichhold op. suggests KXaplov). the altar is virtually the base of the pillar. Zeus p. or four steps.' It rises above. Paus.

Walters in the Brit. i and 2. i.The Blue Nimbus her mother1—leads forward by the wrist. 16). 21. Here too the central figures are flanked by Myrtilos and Hippodameia 4 . 1903 xvii. pi. 1 Not Peitho. struck under Trajan. iii. 495). Arch. and to either side of it two human heads—one that of a young man named Peldg(on)z wearing a Phrygian cap with lappets. 4 Not Aphrodite. Aphrodite and Eros appropriately complete the group. n. pis. the former bears armour. i. 1903 xvii. F 278. 247). Vases i. Myth. 'Reinach supposes (Rep. as I suggested in Class. 3 Brit. 21. i)3. 2. Vases iv. 272 (following P. 165 rightly says Sterope. Coins ii. have a large altar ready laid with wood: there is a door in the front of the altar and beneath it the word A IOC (Hunter Cat. A krater with medallion handles from Apulia. Weizsacker in Roscher Lex. ii. iv. 2 Paus. gr. 68. Cat. 407 pi. again illustrates the compact of Oinomaos with Pelops before the altar of Zeus. iv. are from a fresh drawing of the vase. Rev. My pi. 1858 vi. Others. Bull. Vases iv. Mus. 502 iii. under Antoninus Pius. Nap. no. show a more developed form of the pillar-Zeus. Mus. the latter a bridal torch. Waddington-Babelon-Reinach Monn. have a flaming altar inscribed A I | O C with A I T A I O Y in the exergue (Waddington-Babelon-Reinach op. 6. likewise in the British Museum (pi. . at. 26. Early altars were often inscribed with the name of the deity in the genitive case (E. which repeat the scene with variations. 1681). Rev. 21. cp. iii. 3). i. the other that of a youth called Periphas: these are the heads of former suitors vanquished and slain by Oinomaos. 67. pi. 26. for she is white-haired. Others again. 145 ff. Cat. Min. 406 pi. 132 ff. 776).'Class. as S. 272 fig. d'As. Other vases. B. Reisch in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. H. On the wall in the background hangs a white pilos with a sword. 8—io.

.

.

.

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268 n. i. Similarly on a Campanian amphora from Capua. A. But. p. 165*. H. 90. 1858 vi. 2826°. The altar is horned. 5 G. Classe pis.) that these doves should be identified with those of the Dodonaean Zeus. Stephani in the Compte-rendu St Pet. Myth. Inst. found in 1790 near Lecce and known as the ' Cawdor. 1890 v Arch. Panofka in the Abh. Pelops and Hippodameia have started. London 1827 p. 481. Conze in the Arch. 148 f. who stands clad in chiton and himdtion. E. 172 with schol. 1 In Class. Sculpture. . 1864 xxii Anz. O. 11)5. Britten The Union of Architecture. On the right of this group sits a retainer with armour.. while a youth (Myrtilos ?) brings up a ram for the sacrifice. 969. 2 no. 1868 p. Zeus pp. Hofer in Roscher Lex. i § 6 (d) i (e). My illustration of the top register (7! inches high) was drawn over photographic blueprints taken by Mr W. L. ear-ring. adloc. 1903 xvii.-hist. which depicts the capture of Troy. p. on which is placed a small undraped image of Zeus advancing with uplifted bolt. i. 6 The scene as conceived by the vase-painter differs from the literary tradition (cp. London 1814 pi.. 2 The opposite side of the same vase. Rev. Between Zeus and Oinomaos a small prophylactic wheel is seen suspended4. It exhibits a somewhat later moment— the sacrifice by Oinomaos (pi.. Orestes stabs Aigisthos in the presence of Elektra (fig. Akad. A general description of Sir John Soane's Museum London 1876 p. d. 3 J. deutsch. A second krater of the same sort. while the two doves hovering above them are probably the equivalent of Aphrodite and Eros in the last design1. B. A.. i. shows inter alia Neoptolemos stabbing Priamos as he clings to a very similar pillar-altar of Zeus (pi. now at Dresden.. iii. and three epichyseis. But the king still stands at the altar.The Blue Nimbus 39 Herakles is present as founder of the Olympic games. 602. who spoke his oracles Sicrawv e/c ireXetdSw?' (Soph. and Painting. his left hand leaning on a sceptre. and necklace (Sterope ?) approaches with a basket. 5 fig. Anz. Treu in the Jahrb. kais. a fillet. Nap. 6. berl. a spear in his left. vase' because purchased for a thousand guineas by Lord Cawdor. Kunstmyth. Gray of Bayswater.. 5. Aigisthos has apparently fled for refuge to an altar-base of Zeus6. 6. J. and above it rises a pillar with moulded top. v)s.. The Altis or ' Grove' is indicated by a couple of tree-stumps to right and left. Arch. Moses A Collection of Vases. 6. iv. 272 I accepted Minervini's contention (Bull. 1853 Phil. d. Overbeck Gr. Michaelis Ancient Marbles in Great Britain Cambridge 1882 p. on the left a female figure wearing diadem. 51 Title-page fig. 4 On these prophylactic wheels see infra ch. 1863 P. 169. It will be noticed that the four-sided pillar with its altar-base is now topped by a statue of Zeus. his right raised as if to hurl a bolt2. though Aphrodite's doves are ultimately comparable with those of Zeus. a wreath and a flower in his right hand. is now in the Soane Museum at 13 Lincoln's Inn Fields. 23.). Passeri Picturae Etruscorum in Vasculis Rome 1775 iii pi. we must not suppose any such recondite significance here. Track. T. 2): infra n. Zeit. arch. holding a phidle. 208 f.

The Blue Nimbus
whose archaic statue holding thunderbolt and eagle surmounts a pillar on the right1. Before it upon the wall hangs a shield. These vases prove that the pillarcult of Zeus as conceived in south Italy passed from the aniconic to the iconic stage without discarding the primitive pillar. They thus afford a fair parallel to the painting from Pompeii, though there we have Zeus by the pillar and here Zeus on the pillar. It remains to speak of the blue nimbus. Despite the express denial of L. Stephani2, there is something to be urged for the view put forward by E. G. Schulz, that painters varied the colour of the nimbus in accordance with the character of the god they portrayed, and that a blue nimbus in particular suited Zeus as representative of the ait her3. It is—I would rather say—a naive device for depicting Zeus as a dweller in the blue sky, and is therefore no less suitable to other denizens of Olympos4. Christian art retained the symbol with a like significance. A fourth century painting from the top of an Fig. ii. arcosolium in the Roman Catacombs shows Elias ascending to heaven in his chariot of fire. The saint
however Eur. El. 839 ff.): it was perhaps inspired by the death of Priamos at the altar of Zeus Herkeios (supra p. 39 n. 2). 1 A milder type of pillar-Zeus, \v\\hphidle in right hand and sceptre in left, occurs on a krattr from Gnathia, now at Bonn (infra ch. i § 6 (d) i (f)). 2 L. Stephani Nimbus und Strahlenkranz St Petersburg 1859 p. 96 (extr. from the Mtlmoires de TAcademie des Sciences de St.-Petersbourg. vi Serie. Sciences politiques, histoire, philologie. ix. 456). 3 Bull. d. Inst. 1841 p. 103 ' Tra le altre divinita e specialmente il Giove quasi sempre fregiato di quest' ornamento, al quale come ad una divinita universale e rappresentante 1' etere viene per lo piu attribuito il nimbo azzurro. Cosi lo vediamo tra altri esempj in un dipinto del Museo borbonico ed in un altro esistente nel cavedio della casa delle Baccanti,' with n. 'Mus. borb. VI, t. 52.' On the meaning of gold, silver, red, green, and black nimbi in later art see Mrs H. Jenner Christian Symbolism London 1910 p. 91 f. 4 Blue nimbi are attached to the following deities : Aphrodite (Helbig Wandgem. Camp. nos. 118?, 291, 317), Apollon (Helbig nos. 189?, -23-2, 4, Sogliano Pitt. mur.

The Blue Globe

41

has a blue nimbus about his beardless head and obviously perpetuates the type of Helios1. An interesting miniature on linen of about the same date comes from a priestly mitre found at Panopolis (Achmim). On it we see Christ as a youthful brownhaired figure, standing in a blue robe trimmed with carmine and holding a cross in his right hand: he too has a blue nimbus round his head2. A clavus of polychrome wool-work, found on the same site but in a Byzantine grave of the sixth century or thereabout, represents a white-robed saint between two trees: his left hand holds a staff, and his head is circled by a blue nimbus*. The magnificent mosaic on the triumphal arch of S. Paolo fuori le mura at Rome, which was designed in the middle of the fifth century but has undergone substantial restorations, culminates in the bust of Our Lord wearing a golden radiate nimbus, rimmed with dark blue4. ii. The Blue Globe.

The blue nimbus marked Zeus as a dweller in the blue sky. More intimate is the connexion denoted by another symbol in the repertory of the Pompeian artist, the blue orbis5 or globe.
Camp. no. 164?), Demeter (Helbig no. 176 'blaulich'), Dionysos (Helbig no. 388), Helios (Sogliano no. 164?), Hypnos (Helbig no. 974 'blaulich, zackig'), Kirke (Helbig no. t329), Leda (Helbig no. 143), Selene (Sogliano no. 457 ' azzurognolo'), young god with white or golden star above him (Helbig nos. 964, 971), young radiate god (Helbig no. 969, Sogliano no. 458, cp. Helbig no. 965 youth with blue radiate crown and white star above), mountain-nymphs (Helbig no. 971), wood-nymph (Sogliano no. 119), radiate female figure with bat's wings (Sogliano no. 499) or bird's wings (Sogliano no. 500). See also Stephani op. cit. pp. 19, 22, 23, 47, 49, 65. 1 J. Wilpert Die Malereien der Kalakomben Roms Freiburg 1903 pi. 160, 2, infra ch. i § 5 (f )• 2 Forrer Reattex. p. 485 fig. 401. 3 Id. ib. p. 939 pi. 292, r. 4 G. B. de Rossi Musaici cristiani e saggi dei pavimenti delle chiese di Roma anteriori al secolo xv Roma 1899 pi. 13, L. von Sybel Christliche Antike Marburg 1909 ii. 328 pi. 3 (after de Rossi), W. Lowrie Christian Art and Archeology New York 1901 p. 311. On the blue nimbus in Christian art see further O. M. Dalton Byzantine Art and Archaeology Oxford 1911 p. 682., 5 The word is found in the description of a silver statue of lupiter Victor, which stood on the Capitol of Cirta : Corp. inscr. Lat. viii no. 6981 = Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 4921" (Wilmanns Ex. inscr. Lat. no. 2736) SYNOPSIS j lovis • VICTOR • ARGENTEVS |
IN KAPITOLIO • HABENS • IN • CAPITE • CO j RONAM • ARGENTEAM • QVERQVEAM | FOLIOR • XXV $ IN QVA • GLANDES • N • XV • FE|RENS • IN MANV • DEXTRA • ORBEM • ARGENJTEVM • EX VICTORIA • PALMAM --FERENTEM | \Spinarl~\ • XX • ET CORONAM tf

FOLIOR • xxxx • j [in mamt] SINISTRA • HASTAM • ARG • TENENS.... Cp., however, Amm. Marc. 21. 14. i sphaeram quam ipse {sc. Constantius ii) dextera manu gestabat, 25. 10. 2 Maximiani statua Caesaris...amisit repente sphaeram aeream formatam in speciem poli quam gestabat. Souid. s.v. 'lovtrTiviavos also uses the term ff(f>alpa (infra p. 52 n. 4).

42

The Blue Globe

This occurs in a painting from the Casa del Dioscuri (pi. vi)1. Against a red ground we see Zeus seated on a throne, which is draped in shimmering blue. Its arm-rests, of which one is visible, are supported by carved eagles. A violet-blue mantle with goldembroidered border covers the lower part of his figure. The right hand resting on his knee holds a thunderbolt; the left is raised and leans on a sceptre banded with gold. Before him is his eagle looking up to him in an attitude of attention. Behind hovers Nike in a light violet chiton, with a green veil over her left arm, placing a golden bay-wreath on the head of the god. Beside him is a blue globe on a square base. An engraved chalcedony of imperial d'ate, now in the Berlin collection (fig. 12)2, repeats the motif with slight variations. The right foot, not the left, is advanced, and the globe is omitted, perhaps to leave room for the inscription. With regard to this interesting composition two questions may be mooted. What were its antecedents? And what were its consequents? The facing type is certainly suggestive of a Fig. 12. cult-statue; and we observe, to begin with, that our figure bears a more than superficial resemblance to the lupiter Capitolinus of Apollonios, a chryselephantine copy of Pheidias' Zeus made for the temple dedicated by Q. Lutatius Catulus in 69 B.C.3 The main features of Apollonios' lupiter were recovered by A. Michaelis from a torso at Naples and from sundry early drawings by Heemskerck, Giuliano da Sangallo, and dal Pozzo4. The right hand probably held a sceptre, but not high enough for the upper arm to assume a horizontal position. The left hand was lowered and probably grasped a thunderbolt. The right foot was thrust forward till it projected horizontally beyond the footstool of the
J r

&t>

1 Helbig Wandgem. Camp. p. 31 no. 102, Guida del Mus. Napoli p. 346 no. 1461, W. Zahn Die schbnsten Ornamente etc. iii pi. 14 (coloured, but including Zahn's restoration of the head and wings of Nike), V. Duruy History of Rome English ed. London 1884 ii pi. 10 (coloured). Uncoloured drawings in the Real Museo Borbonico Napoli 1835 xi pi. 39, E. Braun Vorschule der Kunstmythologie Gotha 1854 pi. 14, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus Atlas pi. i, 40 (after Braun). My pi. vi is a reduced copy of Zahn's colour-plate with a fresh restoration of Nike's head and wings. 2 Furtwangler Geschnitt. Steine Berlin p. 108 f. no. 2306 pi. 21, M tiller-WieselerWernicke Ant. Denkm. i. 49 pi. 4, 12. 3 H. Jordan Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alterthum Berlin 1885 i. 2. 25 n. 24, O. Richter Topographie der Stadt Rom* Munchen 1901 p. 125, Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 1534, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 61 f., id. Gr. Plastik^vi. 431. 4 A. Michaelis in iM&Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1898 xiii. 192 ff.

Plate VI

Zeus in a wall-painting from the Casa dei Dioscuri.
See page 42 ff.

Plate VII

Zeus enthroned on the ara Capitolina.
See page 43.

The Blue Globe

43

throne. The left foot was drawn back till it rested only on its toes. The himdtion covered the top half of the god's left arm, and the end of it hung down between his knees. Now all, or almost all, these traits are to be found in an extant relief, the consideration of which would have materially strengthened Michaelis' case—I mean the principal face of the so-called ara Capitolina. This beautiful monument represents on its four sides scenes from the life of Zeus, and has by way of climax Zeus enthroned among the other denizens of Olympos (pi. vii)1. The form of the god is precisely that described by Michaelis, except for the unimportant circumstance that the sculptor has here chosen to bring forward the left rather than the right foot. The comparatively low position of the arm holding the sceptre, the somewhat unusual arrangement of a thunderbolt grasped by the left hand, the feet thrust forward and drawn back respectively, the himdtion swathing the whole of the upper arm—all these characteristics are present, together with a head of would-be fifth-century type admirably suited to a copy of the Olympian Zeus2. I take it, therefore, that the seated Zeus of the ara Capitolina is on the whole our best evidence for the aspect of Apollonios' lupiter Capitolinus*. If this be so, it becomes probable that the latter, like the former, had a large globe placed on the left hand side of his throne. Next we have to compare the type of Zeus attested by the Pompeian wall-painting and the intaglio at Berlin with that of lupiter Capitolinus thus determined. The two types have undoubtedly much in common. Both show a seated Zeus half-draped in a himdtion, holding a sceptre in his raised, a thunderbolt in his lowered hand. The pose of the feet and legs is similar, not to say identical ; and the Pompeian Zeus at least agrees with the
Helbig Guide Class. Ant. Rome i. 379 f. no. 515, Friederichs-Wolters Gipsabgusse p. 815 f. no. 214-2, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus pp. 170, 175 ff., Hera pp. 129, 137 ff., Atlas pi. i, 49 (Zeus only), E. Braun Vorschule der Kunstmythologie Gotha 1854 pi. 5, Baumeister Denkm. iii. 2139 fig. 2397. 2 The substitution of a fillet for a wreath is noteworthy, since Petillius Capitolinus was accused of carrying off the wreath of lupiter Capitolinus (Acron and Porphyrion ad Hor. sat. i. 4. 94). This accusation was a time-honoured joke (Plaut. Men. 941, Trin. 83 ff.). 3 The colossal statue of Nerva seated as lupiter in the Rotunda of the Vatican (Helbig Guide Class. Ant. Rome i. 217 no. 303) looks like an adaptation of the same type, as Miss M. M. Hardie of Newnham College pointed out to me. But both arms with the mantle covering the left shoulder are restorations by Cavaceppi, and the lower half belongs to another seated male figure. A similar adaptation of the type may be seen in the Berlin ' Trajan' (Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 144 no. 354), a seated emperor of the first century A.D. (head not belonging; arms, feet, etc. much restored). Cp. also the Augustus of Ankyra (Gaz. Arch. 1881—1882 vii. 73 ff. pi. 13).
1

44

The Blue Globe

lupiter Capitolinus in the fall of its drapery between the knees as also in the presence of the big globe to the left of the throne. Nevertheless close inspection reveals important points of difference. The wall-painting and the intaglio give Zeus a fourth-century, not a fifth-century, head. They place the thunderbolt in his right hand, the sceptre in his left, not vice versa. They raise the hand leaning on the sceptre till the upper arm is horizontal. Consequently they dispense, either wholly or in part, with the covering of the arm. Lastly, they introduce an entirely new feature, Nike appearing behind the throne and wreathing the head of the god. These similarities and differences can be readily explained, if we suppose that the wall-painting and the intaglio have preserved to us a later modification of the type of lupiter Capitolinus. We know that Catulus' temple was burnt by the Vitelliani or their opponents in the eventful year 69 A.D.1 And we know that Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. It is reasonable to conjecture that the new statue of lupiter Capitolinus necessitated by the disaster of 69 would be during the first decade of its existence a favourite theme with the painters of the day. On this showing we may well believe that the Pompeian painting represents the cult-statue of Jupiter Capitolinus in the temple which Vespasian began to build in 70 A.D.2 Confirmation of the surmise is not far to seek. The reverse of a copper coin struck by Vespasian shows the facade of the new building (fig. 13)3. Between its central columns is seen a statue of lupiter seated in exactly the same pose and holding exactly the same attributes as in the Pompeian painting. The globe at the side and the Victory behind are omitted on account of the small scale of the design. But that they were present in the temple Fig- T3itself can hardly be doubted4.
1 Tac. hist. 3. 71 f., Plout. v. Public. 15, Suet. Vitell. 15, Euseb. chron. ann. Abr. 2086, Aur. Viet, de Caes. 8. 5, 9. 7, Kedren. hist. comp. 217 A (i. 380 Bekker). 2 Tac. hist. 4. 53, Plout. v. Public. 15, Suet. Vesp. 8, Dion Cass. 66. 10, Euseb. chron. ann. Abr. 2087, Aur. Viet, de Caes. 9. 7, Kedren. hist, comp. 217 A (i. 380 Bekker). Suetonius' expression nolle deos mutari veterem formam is satisfied by the general resemblance of the Vespasianic lupiter to his predecessor. 3 Drawn from a specimen in my possession. See further T. L. Donaldson Architecture! Numismatica London 1859 p. 6 if. no. 3 (pi.), Moreli. Thes, Num. Imp. Rom. ii. 314 pi. 13, 23, 375 f. pi. 10, 9, Cohen Monn. emp. rom? i. 4051". 4 The Victory may have stood on a column behind the throne of lupiter. Cp. e.g. copper coins of Ptolemais in Phoinike struck by Septimius Severus etc., which show Nike

The Blue Globe

45

Vespasian's building did not last for long. Another great conflagration occurred in 80 A.D. and burnt it to the ground1. It was rebuilt by Titus and Domitian 2 , and, thus restored, had a longer lease of life. Despite some damage done by lightning and fire in the reign of Commodus3, it remained substantially the same building till the fall of the western empire4. To determine the type of Domitian's lupiter is not easy, since the silver coin that expressly commemorates the rebuilding is undecisive5, while the ordinary issues of this emperor in silver 6 and copper7 may have been influenced by Vespasian's coin. However, it is probable that succeeding centuries saw sundry minor changes introduced. Thus there is reason to think that the globe, originally at the left side of the throne, came to be held in the god's right hand. A coin of Neapolis in Samaria, struck by Caracalla, shows lupiter Capitolinus on a throne facing us.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

He holds a globe in his right hand, a long sceptre in his left, and is flanked by luno and Minerva (fig. I4)8. Similarly coins of Capttolias, a town near Gadara founded in the reign of Nerva or Trajan9, have the same deity enthroned in an octostyle temple,
on a column behind Tyche, crowning her with a wreath in a tetrastyle temple (Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Phoenicia p. 133 pi. 16, 15, p. 135 ff. pi. 17, 4, 9). 1 Dion Cass. 66. 24 KartKavirev. 2 Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 2059, ri ff. ( = acta Fratrum Arvalium for Dec. 7, 80 A.D.), Plout. v. Public. 15, Suet. Domit. 5, Eutrop. 7. 23. 5, Aur. Viet, de Caes. u. 4, Chronogr. ann. 354 p. 646 Mommsen (Chron. min. i. 117 Frick). 3 Euseb. chron. ann. Abr. 2201. 4 Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 15335 Eckhel Doctr. num. vet? vi. 377 f., Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 6 fig17° Morell. Thes. Num. Imp. Rom. ii. 432 pi. 9, i. 7 Morell. Thes. Num. Imp. Rom. ii. 455 pi. 14, 14 first brass; id. ib. ii. 467 pi. 17, 25 second brass. 8 F. De Saulcy Numismatique de la terre sainte Paris 1874 p. 257 pi. 13, 5. 9 Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 1529.

The Blue Globe
the gable of which supports a solar chariot. lupiter again holds a sceptre in his left hand, a globe in his right (fig. I5) 1 .- It seems likely that in the Capitoline temple at Rome Victory still held her wreath over the head of the god; for not only do coins of Antoninus Pius and others show the emperor seated on a curule chair with a globe in one hand and a sceptre in the other2, but such coins sometimes add a Victory hovering behind him with a wreath in her outstretched hand (fig. i6)3. Gold coins of the later Roman emperors frequently exhibit a design of kindred origin. For example, Valentinianus i and his son sit side by side holding a starry globe between them, while Victory with spread wings is seen in the background behind their throne (fig. i/) 4 .

Fig. 17.
These representations imply on the one hand that the emperor has stepped into the shoes of lupiter, on the other hand that his duties descend in unbroken succession from occupant to occupant of the imperial seat. Both conceptions could be further illustrated from Roman coinage. Frequently from the time of Commodus to that of Diocletian we find lupiter delegating the globe to his human representative (fig. i8)5. Sometimes, as in the case of
1 H. Norisius Chronologica (Opera omnia: tomus secundus] Veronae 1729^. 338 fig., Eckhel Doctr. num. vet? iii. 329, Rasche Lex. Num. ii. 341, Suppl. i. 1626. The specimen here figured after Norisius is a copper coin of Alexander Severus inscribed KAniTCo(Xtewj') iep(as) AC(tfXou) /^(rovd^ov) Hp (=the date, reckoned from 97/98 A.D.). The British Museum possesses a very similar specimen, but in poor preservation. 3 K. Sittl Der Adler und die Weltkugel ah Attribute des Zeus (Besonderer Abdruck aus dem vierzehnten Supplementbande der Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie) Leipzig 1884 p. 49. 3 Rasche Lex. Num. x. 1300. The illustration is from a first brass of Antoninus Pius in my collection. TR POT xv cos mi and s c. * From a specimen in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. See Cohen Monn. emp. rom? viii. 93 no. 43, Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 867. VICTORIA AVGG and TR • OB • 5 Rasche Lex. Num. iii. 1464, Sittl op. cit. p. 49. The illustration is from a coin of Probus in my collection. iovi CONSERVAT(WZ) and VXXT.

The Blue Globe

47

Trajan and Hadrian, it is the emperor who passes on the symbol to his successor (fig. ig)1.

Fig. 18.

Yet another modification of the same cult-statue produced the type of lupiter enthroned with his left foot planted on the globe. This may be seen from sundry late sarcophagus-reliefs supposed to portray the birth of Apollon 2 . The best-preserved of them is that of a sarcophagus-lid in the Villa Borghese. The central scene (fig. 20)3, with which alone we are here concerned, shows lupiter enthroned in heaven. Once more he sits facing us, with a sceptre in his raised left and a thunderbolt in his lowered right hand4. But this time the globe is transferred from his left side to a new position beneath his left foot. On either side of him are a boy and a girl interpreted as the youthful Apollon and Artemis5. They in turn are flanked by luno with her sceptre and Minerva with her helmet and spear. In short, we have before us the heavenly region represented by the three Capitoline deities and their new proteges. That the lupiter of this relief is in truth only a variation of the Vespasianic type, appears from a curious circumstance noted by
Rasche Lex. Num.. iii. 15, 1464, Sittl op. cit. p. 49. The illustration is from a coin of Hadrian in my collection. DAC • PARTHIC[O p • M • TR • p] • cos P P and s • c. 2 Raoul Rochette Monumens inedits d" antiquitffigurte Paris 1833 p. 401 ff. pi. 74, i and 2 (birth and death of an Eleusinian mystic), H. Heydemann in the Arch. Zeit. 1869 xxvii. 2 i f . pi. 16, i—4 (the story of Eros and Psyche), C. Robert in Hermes 1887 xxii. 460—464, id. in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1890 v. 220 n. 6, id. Sark.-Relfs. iii. i. 39 ff. pi. 6—7, 33, 33'^ (scenes relating to the birth of Apollon). Robert's view is accepted by Helbig Guide Class. Ant. Rome ii. 145 f. no. 921 and, in part at least, by Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Apollon pp. 368—370 Atlas pi. 3, 18, K. Wernicke in PaulyWissowa Real-Enc. ii. 108, B. Sauer in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1975 f., H. Steuding 16. ii. 2091, 2118. 3 Redrawn from Arch. Zeit. 1869 xxvii pi. 16, 3 with the help of Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Atlas pi. 3, 18. The lines of restoration are taken from Eichler's drawing in C. Robert Sark.-Relfs. iii. i. 40 fig. 33. 4 The thunderbolt is due to the restorer (Robert op. cit. iii. i. 41), but is probably correct. 5 Large parts of the Artemis are modern, viz. the head, the left fore-arm with its pyxis, the right fore-arm, the left leg, and the right foot.
1

The Blue Globe
Zoega. He states that on the background (between the head of the supposed Artemis and that of lupiter) were still to be seen the

Fig. 20.

shoulder and bare right arm of some formerly existing figure1. These were subsequently chipped away by the zealous restorer. But KIWimNllllllllfflillilMllMJHiiHiilll^^

Fig. 21.

very fortunately the missing figure can be determined by means of a replica in the Capitoline Museum (fig. 2i) 2 , which exhibits Victory
Robert op. cit. iii. i. 42. Raoul Rochette op. cit. p. 401 ff. pi. 74, 2, Overbeck op. cit. Zeus p. 172, Hera p. 131 Atlas pi. 10, 23. A drawing by Eichler is given in Robert op. cit. iii. i. 42.
2 1

The Blue Globe

49

holding a shield above lupiter and the globe—later transformed into a vase—resting on a high base to the left of luno1. It would thus seem that the lupiter Capitolinus of the Borghese relief presupposes a statue with Victory behind and a pedestalled globe at its side. That Vorbild can hardly have been other than the cultimage of Vespasian's temple. The god enthroned with the globe as his footstool was a type readily adopted by Christian art. A gilded glass of the fourth century, found in one of the Roman catacombs (fig. 22)2, shows a beardless figure of Our Lord (CRISTVS) seated with his foot on a

Fig. 22.

Robert in Hermes 1887 xxii. 463^ and in his Sark.-Relfs. iii. r. 42 f. condemns the whole work as a forgery, arguing that it was made about 1615 A.D. in free imitation of the Borghese relief. But in view of what is said by Raoul Rochette op. cit. p. 401 f. further investigation seems desirable. In any case the Capitoline replica may fairly be used (Robert uses it so himself) as evidence of the original aspect of the Borghese composition.
2 F. Buonarruoti Osservazioni sopra alcuni frammenti dl vasi antichi di vetro Firenze J / l 6 p. Iioff. pi. 17, I. DIGNITAS AMICORVM VIVAS CVM TVIS FELICITER.

starry globe. He takes a scroll from its case at his side and instructs S. Stephen (ISTEFANVS). The Godhead with a nimbus in the background, who raises his hands to bless both Master and disciple, recalls the Victory appearing behind Valentinianus i and his son. * 1

c.

4

The Blue Globe
A somewhat similar type, that of the Father or the Son seated on a large globe, occurs in church-mosaics of the fourth, fifth

Fig. 23.

and sixth centuries1. For example, the right lateral apse in the Mausoleo di S. Costanza near the Via Nomentana at Rome—a work

Fig. 241 J. Ciampinus Vet era Monivienta Ronue i747 i- 171 ft. pi. 77 (S. Agatha in Subura = S- Agata dei Goti at'Rome, 460—468 A.D.)> "• / 2 f . pi. 19 (S. Vitalises. Vitale at

The Blue Globe
dated by de Rossi shortly after 360 A.D.—shows God the Father, not only with a blue nimbus and a blue robe, but also seated on a blue globe, as he presents the scroll of the law to Moses (fig. 23)1. Similarly the apse of the church of S. Teodoro at the foot of the Palatine—circ. 600 A.D.—has God the Son seated on a blue globe spangled with gold stars between St Peter, who presents S. Teodoro, and St Paul presenting another saint hard to identify (fig. 24)1 This type too in all probability derives from a pagan prototype3. Silver and copper coins of Ouranopolis, a town founded by Alexarchos, brother of Fig. 25. Kassandros, on the peninsula of Akte, represent Aphrodite Ourania seated on a globe (fig. 25)*. On autonomous copper coins of Klazomenai the philosopher Anaxagoras is seen sitting on a globe (fig. 26) 5 : on an imperial copper of the same town he holds a small globe in his extended right hand, while he sets his left foot on a tippus*. A silver coin of Domitia Longina, wife of the emperor Domitian, shows a child seated on a globe and surrounded by seven stars (fig. 2/)7. The child has been Fig. 26. identified as the empress' son, who was born in 8 73 A.D. and died young . He is here represented as the infant Zeus of Crete. A Cretan copper, struck under Trajan, has the
Ravenna, 547 A.D.), ii. 101 ff. pi. 28 (S. Laurentius in Agro Verano = *5'. Lorenzo fuori le mttra, 578—590 A.D.). On the relation of the globe to the rainbow in early mediaeval art see O. M. Dalton Byzantine Art and Archaeology Oxford 1911 p. 672. 1 G. B. de Rossi Musaici cristiani e saggi dei pavimenti delle chiese di Roma anteriori al secolo xv Roma 1899 pi. 3. 2 Id. ib. pi. 17. 3 Demetrios Poliorketes was represented on the prosktnion of the theatre at Athens eTrt rrjs oi'/cou/t&ijs 6xov/j.evos (Douris frag. ^i—Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 477 Miiller ap. Athen. 536 A, Eustath. in II. p. 570, gf.). This, however, does not imply that Demetrios was seated on a globe (Sittl op. cit. ^. 44), but that he was upborne by an anthropomorphic figure of Oikoumtne: cp. the relief by Archelaos (infra ch. i § 5 (b)), the gemma Augustea at Vienna (Furtwangler Ant. Gemmen i pi. 56, ii. 257), and above all the great Paris cameo (Id. ib. i pi. 60, ii. 269). 4 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Macedon etc. p. i33f-, Head Hist, num? p. 206. I figure a specimen in my possession. 5 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Ionia p. 28 pi. 7, 4, J. J. Bernoulli Griechische Ikonographie Miinchen 1901 i. 118 Miinztaf. 2, 2. 6 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Ionia p. 33 pi. 7, 9, Bernoulli op. dt. i. 118 Miinztaf. 2, 3. 7 Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 341. My illustration is from a cast of the specimen in the British Museum. 8 Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 1513^
4—2

The Blue Globe
same motif (fig. 28) 1 : Zeus as a child sits on the globe with a goat at his side and seven stars above his head. The idea was popularised by coins of Antoninus Pius (fig. 29)2 and Commodus, on which occurs the fine figure of Italia enthroned on a starry globe as mistress of the world. The symbol of the globe was still further Christianised, when Valentinianus I added a cross on the top of it3. In this form it occurs on the coins of many of the later Roman emperors4. An obvious exception is afforded by Julian the Apostate, who sub-

Fig. 27.

Fig. 28.

Fig. 29.

stituted a small figure of Victory for the cross5. The globus 'cruciger, or globe and cross, is again a constant emblem of Christian sovereignty on Byzantine coins6. As the 'orb' of mediaeval and modern regalia it has survived to our own times7. We have now passed in review the different conditions under which the globe is associated with Zeus. It remains to ask what was the origin of the symbol, and what was its significance. Its origin appears to have been twofold. On the one hand, the
1 Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 330 Mlinztaf. 5, 2, J. N. Svoronos Numismatique de la Crete ancienne Macon 1890 i. 348 pi. 35, i. 2 Rasche Lex. Num. iv. 1002 f., Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 488 fig. The illustration is from a first brass of Antoninus Pius in my collection. 3 Sittl op. cit. p. 49 f. states that Constantine had already placed the Christian monogram upon the globe (but Cohen Monti, emt>. rom."* vii. 231 no. 14 was struck after his death). On coins of Nepotianus (350 A.D.) etc. we see Roma enthroned holding a globe surmounted by the monogram (Cohen op. cit? viii. 2 no. 2 fig., W. Lowrie Christian Art and Archaeology New York 1901 p. 241 fig. 82, a, Roscher Lex. Myth. iv. 153). 4 A list is given by Rasche Lex. Num. iii. 1464. Cp. Souid. s.v. ''loverriviav6s• ...«ai £<rrrjae TTJI> eavrov eli<6va eirl KIOVOS efinnrov Kal rrj [tev apurrepa %etpi <f>epei afiaipav, efATreTr-qyoTos (rravpov ev avrrj, viroffT]/j.aivovTOS (is 5ta TIJS «'s TOP aravpov Tricrrews rrjs yi)S eyi<paTi]s yeyove. ff<j>cupa fj.ev yap r\ yrj Sia TO ff<paipoeides TOV CIVTTJS crxTj/uaros, Triaris 5e 6 aravpbs 5ia TOV ev avTip o~a.pid Trpoffr)\u0€VTa. deov. 5 Rasche loc. cit. 6 Brit. Mus. Cat. Byz. Coins ii. 654 s.v. ' Globus.' 7 Ducange Gloss, med. et inf. Lat. ed. 1886 vi. in s.v. 'palla' cites from Gotefridus Viterbiensis the couplet—Aureus ille Globus Pomum vel Palla vocatur, | Quando coronatur, Palla ferenda datuf.

The Blue Globe

53

type of the infant Zeus seated on a globe surrounded by stars is of Greek extraction. On the other hand, most of the representations considered above can be legitimately derived from the cultstatue of lupiter Capitolinus, which had at its left side a ball resting on a pedestal or pillar. This was a definitely Roman adjunct: it had no counterpart in the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Enquiry might be pushed further. The temple of lupiter Capitolinus was, as is well known, essentially an Etruscan building. Now a ball resting on a pedestal or pillar occurs in Etruscan art sometimes as a grave-j///^, sometimes as a sacred land-mark or boundary-stone2. Such monuments varied much in shape and size. A fine example from Orvieto, now in the Museum at Florence, consists of a rectangular moulded base topped by a spheroidal black stone (fig. 3o)3. Another, in the Orvieto Museum, is a cone of tufa hollow inside, and bears an inscription (Tinia Tinscvil} which connects it with Tinia, the Etruscan lupiter (fig. 3i) 4 . Are we then to infer that in the cella of lupiter Capitolinus, side by side with the most august statue in Rome, there was a grave-j1^//^ or a boundary stone ? The fact is luckily beyond question5. When the foundations of the temple were first laid by Tarquinius Priscus, the god Terminus —otherwise known as lupiter Terminus—was already in possession of the site and resisted the process of exauguration. Hence the ancient boundary-stone that passed as his image was allowed to remain in close proximity 6 to the statue of lupiter Capitolinus. Moreover, a small opening was contrived in the roof above it, since sacrifices to Terminus had to take place in the open air. Lactantius asserts that the rude stone worshipped as Terminus
1 Durm Baiikunst d. Etrusk? p. 128 fig. 141, Raoul Rochette op. cit. pp. 141 n. 5, 402, 405. These balls on pillars were originally Grabphalli (Forrer Reallex. p. 297): see A. Koerte in the Ath. Mitth. 1899 xxiv. 6 ff. pi. i, i, A. Dieterich Mutter Erde Leipzig and Berlin 1905 p. 104 f. 2 Raoul Rochette op. cit. p. 4041". pi. 75 (a funeral urn in the museum at Volterra): G. Korte / Rilievi delle Urne Etrusche Berlino 1890 ii. i. 97 pi. 38, 3 describes and figures the object on the pillar as 'un vaso tondo.' Cp. the stone balls on our lodge gates (see, however, S. Baring-Gould Strange Survivals* London 1905 p. 53). 3 L. A. Milani in the Rendiconti della Reale Accademia del Lincei. Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche. Serie Quinta. Roma 1900 ix. 295 fig. 4, Studi e materiali di archeologia e numismatica Firenze 1902 i. 60 f. fig. 226. A similar Grabaufsatz from Orvieto, now at Berlin, is an elliptical block of polished serpentine resting on a moulded base of trachyte (Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 481 no. 1244 fig.). 4 Milani face. citt. ix. 293 fig. 3 cp. ib. p. 294 'un cono tufaceo vuoto internamente,' i. 60 f. fig. 227. Cp. J. Six ' Der Agyieus des Mys' in the Ath. Mitth. 1894 xix. 340 ff. 5 The evidence is collected by Preller-Jordan Rom. Myth? i. 255 f., Wissowa Rel. Kult. Rom. p. 124 f., C. Hiilsen in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 1532. 6 Dion. -Hal. 3. 69 TrXtjcriov TOV e'Sous.

54
was that which Saturn was said to have swallowed in place of Jupiter1. This confusion suggests that Terminus' stone had a round top to it 2 —as was in fact the case, if I am right in my conjecture with regard to the globe of lupiter Capitolinus.

Fig- 3°But, it will be asked, if this globe was originally the stone of Terminus, how came it to be regarded as a symbol of the sky ? Partly, I suppose, because it was a round object standing under the clear sky; but partly also because a globe on a pillar was used by Greek astronomers as a model of the sky3. Thus imperial
Lact. div, inst. i. 20. In Roman art the stone of Kronos is figured as a half-egg on the top of a short pillar (infra ch. ii § 10 (d)). 11 See F. Hultsch in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. ii.
2 1

55
copper coins of Samos figure Pythagoras seated or standing before a globe, which rests on a pillar, and pointing to it with a rod1.

Fig- 31Enthroned as master in the realm of knowledge with a long sceptre in his left hand and a himdtion loosely wrapped about him
1 L. Burchner in the Zeitschr. f. Num. 1882 ix. 121 ff., Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Ionia pp. 373, 376, 381, 390, 392, pi. 37, 14, J. J. Bernoulli Griechische Ikonographie Miinchen 1901 i. 75 Miinztaf. i, a r and 23.

or quartered into templa and spangled Fig. Lastly—to pass from the origin to the significance of the symbol—we observe that the globe is coloured blue in the Pompeian painting4. 186. Zeus with the blue globe wore a violet-blue cloak with a blue gold-embroidered border and sat on a throne mantled in greenish blue9. Camp. sceptre. p. 22. with pi. 11. 25. Bernoulli op. 4 Supra p. Coins p. . 106. one from Pompeii now at Naples. 33. rom? vii. 329 (S. 125. with stars (figs. L. Ciampinus Vetera Monimenta Romse 1747 ii. p. Rom. p. 7 From a third brass of Constantine the Great (Cohen Monn.167 pi. 108—112. The globe. cit. ' Supra p. mask of Zeus): see Helbig Wandgem. and another from Sarsina now in the Villa Albani (Bernoulli op. 101 ff. 32)1. emp. cit. 27). 5 Supra^. 138 f. nos. Sogliano Pitt.g. Several other paintings of the same provenance represent a globe among the attributes of Zeus (eagle. 42.The Blue Globe he is. ii. 29. a conclusion confirmed by the fact that it came to be banded with the astronomical zones (figs. 105. 19 no. with three stars above it. The Bhie Mantle. Agata dei Goti). 3 f. mur. pi. thunderbolt. A third method of characterising Zeus as god of the blue sky may perhaps be detected in the practice of giving him a blue or bluish mantle. 51.) in my collection. See further Stevenson-Smith-Madden Diet. 2 1 . 42. 33. i. figs. Lorenzo fuori le mura}.). wreath. Obviously therefore it signifies the sky rather than the earth. 9. blue 5 or blue-green6 in the Roman mosaics. The legend is BEAT A TRANQVILLITAS. a decidedly . 33'). Similar in pose and pretension is the figure of Hipparchos on imperial coppers of Nikaia in Bithynia2. In the exergue STR (signata Treveris) is the mint-mark of money struck at Treves. Zeus with the blue nimbus had his knees enveloped in a himdtion of gleaming violet lined with blue8. 231 f. 72. 28 (S. A decorative panel Bernoulli op. as J. i Miinztaf. One at Brading in the Isle of Wight is pub'lished in the Transactions of the Royal Institute of British Architects 1880—81 p. 8 9 Supra p. 15. Camp. Cat. 34. And analogous scenes could be cited from Roman mosaics3. Mils. i. Brit.Zeus-like personage (fig. 31 f. cit. iii. Bernoulli points out. 24. 6 J. ii 34 ff. Coins Pontus etc. i. von Sybel Christliche Antike Marburg 1909 ii. rests on an altar inscribed VOTIS xx (votis vicennalibus). J. 75 'in zeusartiger Haltung' Miinztaf. 3 E.

Tref) 6 0e6s. Guida del Mus. p. 537 E"E$i7T7ros 5^ <t>-r)<nv ws 'AX^avSpos /ecu TCIS tepas ecr^ras £<f>6pei ec rots Selirvois. Inst. Zeit. H. 19 f. 5 Sogliano op.1888 pi. 184 f. he is once more seen on a throne. a picture of Zeus drawing lots has him enthroned with a peacock-blue himdtion about his knees3. 58 n. Barre Herculanum et Pompti Paris 1870 ii. no. 23 had stated that the robe was red with a blue border ('in veste rossa con margine turchino'). iii § i (a) iii. And 1 So Zahn Die schonsten Ornamente etc. found at Eleusis. 2 Helbig op.The Blue Mantle 57 with black ground from the Casa del bronzi shows him clad in a sky-blue wrap and sitting on a seat which is draped in reddish brown1. that Hellenistic art normally depicted Zeus as wearing a mantle of violet-blue. According to Helbig Wandgemalde etc. 4 So A. then. p.Oa. See further J. 74. arch. 1896 xi. infra p. his legs swathed in a violet-blue himdtion edged with green8. 1868 xxvi. 1259. pi.r. 4. cit. Mau in the Rom. Finally. no. Athen. 2. de la Sculpt. back. 'A/>x. A. 54 (coloured). his legs wrapped in a red mantle with a blue 5 or green6 border. 1898 viii. ib. detttsch. 75. Again. cit. when he masqueraded as Zeus Ammon9. 32 f. 289 no. 73. no. 35 pi. The splendid wall-painting of a youthful fair-haired Zeus found in the Casa del Vettii similarly shows the god with a peacock-blue himdtion round his legs4. p. 114. An important painting of the hierbs gdmos from the Casa del poeta tragico represents Zeus seated on a rock *-with a light violet robe hanging like a veil over his hair and thrown loosely round his shoulders. 7 Helbig . Roux-M. kais. Six in fazjakrb. 648.. photographic reproduction is given by Herrmann Denkm. 31 no. A painting from Herculaneum gives him a whitish nimbus and drapes him from the waist downwards in a reddish himdtion. Antonius the triumvir. 6 Id. 113. It would seem. Collignon Hist. 46. was clad in purple by his fellow-countrymen as priest of Zeus Sostpolis™. 33 f. d. but it is to be observed that here Zeus is represented as reclining among the clouds with a rainbow arched above him and a background of blue sky7. supra p. 54. 3 Sogliano op. Napoli^. d. 10 Strab. Mitth. 8 'E0. Other Pompeian examples portray him seated. though uncoloured. Alexander the Great is known to have worn a purple cloak.op. 2 n. A fine. fig. ii pi. infra ch. 21 no. ore 5e /c. 5. Line. 528 says: s le bas du corps couvert d'un himation bleu. i. Malerei pi. 6. Arch. 6r£ fj-ev TT]V roO "A/u/tawos irop<j>vpida KO. cit. 103. p. p. . and legs2. d. gr. 263!'.X. 155. And this in all probability corresponded with cult-practice. cit. 2. L. in a fresco of the Hadrianic age.L 7re/3«rxi5ets /cat Kepara Ko. p. Sogliano in the Man. a famous musician of Magnesia on the Maiandros in the days of M. Anaxenor. 1910 xxv. his garment is reddish and his seat covered with a blue robe. n ('le gambe coperte di mantello paonazzo').' 9 Ephippos ap. 20 no.

535 F5 Plout. 1906 ix. 424 = Dessau Inscr. the purple or blue robe of Zeus and of his earthly representative being interpreted as a symbol of the sky3. and. Gr? no. 1906 xxvi. Gr. Lat. 10. 2 ff. inscr. Demetr. 208 n. Al. Myth? i. when he triumphed in 201 B. See FolkLore 1904 xv. Scipio. But. It is highly probable that these two divinities were alike related to the Cretan Zeus7. Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt Mlinchen 1910. xlivf. i ff. 1898 xviii p. p. In its origin perhaps the usage was prophylactic. 9 Douris/rag".C. whatever the ultimate significance. sel. 4 Paus. to whose diligent collection of materials I am much indebted.€.. 1526 n. though I cannot always agree with his conclusions. 6 Anaxenor the /£zV^ar#-player of Magnesia as a token of high honour was painted in the purple robe of Zeus Swo^TroAis (Strab. blood-colour)2 passing into purple. vi no. mediaeval. Lat. num? p. von Duhn ' Rot und Tot' in the Archiv f. ii. 41. i): it should be further assumed that the god was clad in purple. 6. cp. red (i. Rel. Stahlin. 48. 142. . Hence in both cases it came to be spangled with golden stars. 6. Myth. v.purple into blue. no. as such. 54. The first and most obvious explanation of this conventional colouring is the fact that Zeus was king of all and. 20. If we pursue the enquiry and ask why royal robes were blue or purple. it is probable that by Hellenistic times. protr. At Elis the god Sosipolis was painted as a boy clad in a starry chlamys*. Stud. F. Athen. 31 (Frag. 42. p. 302 f. a fresh meaning had been read into the ancient custom. Demetrios Poliorketes. 51 f. 553. v. 577 See Gruppe Gr. 268 ff. would of course wear the purple or blue of royalty. 42.58 a Roman dedication to lupiter Purpurio may be taken to imply that the god wore a purple garb1. we enter the region of conjecture. 648).. 4. was 'dressed according to ancestral custom 1 Corp. had a dark-tinted chlamys inwoven with stars of gold and with the twelve signs of the zodiac9. supra p. W. 3 This conception is illustrated with a wealth of examples from ancient. 24 ff. hist.. and modern life by Dr R. 892. who is known to have had a sacred purple robe6. 4. Rel. 3040 (found at Rome near the Monte Testaccio): LICINIA LICINIA OCTAVIA QVINTA PVRPVRIS SATVRNIN (A thunderbolt) (Three female figures standing) IOVI • OPTIMO • MAXIMO PVRPVRIONI (A patera} It is commonly assumed that lupiter Purpurio took his name from one of the three dedicants. 5 Dittenberger Syll. 8 Plout. if not earlier. Licinia Purpuris (Preller-Jordan Rom. Demetr. Headlam ib. 2 See my note in the fourn. Again. 6. 6 p. Clem. Hell. 25. 477) ap.. who posed as Zeus8. His'name recalls the Zeus Sosipolis of Magnesia on the Maiandros5. inscr. Head Hist.

d. 9 f. sacks. from the Abh. Q. eel. the Latin rendering of the Greek Ouranos. 3 Suet. Pun. d. iv. Cumont in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. oriental. aped the style and claimed the honours of the sky-god. Serv. 10. reproduces with fidelity a cameo of the Hellenistic age. iii. Indeed.The Blue Mantle 59 in a purple garment with golden stars woven into it 1 '. 6 H. Dion Cass. then.D.-ep. Ner. as Eisler op. E. Akad. which—as J. Cae/us. shone with quick quivering fires4.' i. 94. Nay more.' In this connexion we may notice a representation of the sky.. Nero after his Greek agonistic successes entered Rome in the triumphal car of Augustus. See further Frazer Lect. von Duhn observes. especially Syrian10. 2. 25. E. 65 points out. 34 of the triumphal robe. the Roman writers from Ennius downwards make Caelus first the grandfather and then the father of lupiter9. Jahn Archaologische Beitrdge Berlin 1847 p. Dressel Fiinj Goldmedaittom aus dem Funde von Abukir Berlin 1906 pp. wearing a purple robe and a chlamys sprinkled with golden stars3. Bildw. 4 f. 1906) makes it highly probable that the superb portrait of Alexander the Great on the obverse of a gold medallion found in Egypt (ib. 10. Alexander Severus 40. 85 n. cit. 10. dotted here and there with starry eyes. though never accompanied by an inscription. 38 points out—is the phrase used by Flout. 4. Lat. Cap. 20 calls it a\ovpyida xpv<r6Tra(rTov. 'over a garment of glittering white drew a glassy vesture. berl. 4 Mart. 3341. Hist. TJ. The half-length figure of a bearded man is seen holding a mantle arched above his head. as Prof. worshippers identified him with lupiter himself11. B. 1849 p. Wissowa in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. as victorious kings or kingly victors. 63 ff. when assuming his robes of state. 4! no. von Schneider in the Arch. Hence his type affected that Appian. 81 = Dessau Inscr. 2711.. Liv. Lat. Gordiani tres 4. 11 Corp. Paul. cit. which. 63. 5. C). Suet. Aem. TO. Lamprid. lul. Capitol. and. as triumphing general. 7 Visconti Mus. Aug. 66 dehinc vesti admodum candidae obducit amictus hyalines. Wiss. 7. inscr. quos stellantibus oculis interstinctos crebri vibratus ignium luminabant. 25—31 (extr. 696 f. iii. 10. 66. Ael. a Zeus-like figure8. i. sel. for the mantle-bearer. Mayor on luv. Mitth. 8. 3315 f. 7. 185 f. Martianus Capella in his high-flown way tells how lupiter himself. 3949 OPTVMVS • MAXIMVS • j 2 1 . Visconti7 proposed to name him 'le Ciel. Kingship p. in Verg. no. Vopisc. pi. 27. 10 F. luv. which appears repeatedly in Roman art5. no. Gesellsch. 185 no. clearly symbolises the sky. 38 f. Probus 7. 429 f. 28 and in the Ber. p. the sky-god in the centre of Alexander's shield is our earliest monumental evidence of the type. R. Pie-Clem. and this proposal has been universally adopted. 5 O. 1895 xviii. but has been traced back to a Hellenistic source6.. 197 S. 445 ff. no.e. in Rom ii. 9 G.. These are but a few out of many who in their day. i. 159^ 8 Matz-Duhn op. 1276f. He is. iii. though executed in the third century A. If so. vi no. Matz-Duhn Ant. he would be clad in the tunica palmata and the toga picta of lupiter2.. 3449.

See further Cumont Textes et mons. 1 C.. 2 'The third day' and pi. 85 n. pi. i 'God appearing to Isaac ' in the Loggia of the Vatican. Wiss. 11 and 11'. This conception too was taken over by Christian art6. n6f. 13 ff. 371 pi. Wien.) 5 O. 34)1—a design destined to influence both Raphael 2 and Michelangelo3. By a curious duplication. ii. i r. 1849 Phil--hist. Vorlegebl. 28 and F. 3 G.. iii. not to say triplication. Davies Michelangelo London 1909 pi. 35)" and on another in the Villa Medici at Rome5. S. Jahn Archdologische Beitrage Berlin 1847 p. and thinks that optumus maximus was a later addition intended to be taken with luppiter. who on the column of Trajan appears as a half-length figure with arched mantle launching a thunderbolt against the Dacians (fig. adjoining which is the figure of Mother Earth. however. shows the same Fig. 182. Gerhard Antike Bildwerke Miinchen Stuttgard & Tubingen 1828—1844 p. sacks. Another fourth-century sarcophagus in the CAELVS • AETERNVS • IVP[/z'][TER • IVNONI • REGINAE • | MINERVAE • IVSSVS • LIBEN[>] | DEDIT • PRO • SALVTEM • SVAM | M • MODIVS « AGATHO • ET • PR[>] | FAVSTI • PATRONI • HOMINIS • [>]JET • HELPIDIS • SVAES • CVM • s[«w]. 10 and 10 a. 5. 2 A. pi.6o The Blue Mantle of lupiter. 36)7. de Mithra ii. 36 ' The separation of land and sea' and pi. Myth. but Christ with a roll enthroned between Saint Peter and Saint Paul (fig.-Relfs. Caelus with his mantle spread above him is seen immediately beneath the throne of lupiter on a sarcophagus at Amalfi (fig. 7 The sarcophagus' stands now in the crypt of the Vatican and in such a position that . 44 ff. 4 M.D. 233 ff. htpp[i~\\ter. Jahn in the Ber. 37 ' The creation of Adam ' in the Sistine Chapel at Rome. The famous sarcophagus of lunius Bassus. 118 (Caelus with a rayed crown rises from the sea. 19. 3 (poor). Dessau. 6 See O. Piper Mythologie der christlichen famst Weimar 1851 ii. 4. 104. reads optumus maximus . He interprets \s\ as s[ancti?]. A pi. 1625 f. d.34personification of the sky supporting. figs. Classe pi. not lupiter with a thunderbolt enthroned between luno and Minerva or between Sol and Luna. Oppe Raphael London 1909 pi. Robert Sark. P. Gesellsch. pi. \ Caelus aeternus. 40 ft. Cichorius Die Reliefs der Traianssaule Berlin 1896 ii. E. a prefect of Rome who died in 359 A. 174. Camera Istoria della citta e costiera di Amalfi Napoli 1836 p. 3. Roscher Lex.

Woermann Geschichte der Kunst Leipzig and Vienna 1905 ii. by A. E. too. 36. G. Lowrie Christian Art and Archaology New York 1901 p. Pistolesi // Vaticano descritto ed illustrate Roma 1829—1838 ii pi. 45 (good). Guhl und J. 56 f. 15 (fair). 35 ff. 36. JO. Bosio Roma Sotterranect Roma 1632 p.g. K. it cannot be well photographed. Illustrations of the whole front side are given e. 19. 8. Bottari Scidture epitture sagre Roma 1737 i. E. W.35- Fig.The Blue Mantle 61 Fig. Stuttgart 1851 ii. Caspar Denkmdler der Kunst etc. pi. and of the . pi. 58 pi. 262 fig.

3 Cohen Monn. . Didron Iconographie chretienne Paris 1843 p. 102. i. That such drapery really represents the sky may be proved by the fact that on a coin commemorating the consecratio or apotheosis of the elder Faustina (fig. enthroned in heaven. carried up to heaven by the eagle of Jupiter. 4 Ant. Fig. Lowrie op. God the Father. central group in the upper register by F. 266 f. 606.62 Lateran Museum repeats the type1. A last trace of it may be detected in a painting at Lucca by Fra Bartolommeo. 427 no. The subject is uncertain: two female figures approach lupiter. My illustration is from a cast of a specimen in the British Museum. p. 85. the god is seated on the top of a square pillar. 256. rom. 37)3 the empress. 38. Berlin p. the drapery held by Caelus in a relief at Berlin (fig.'2 ii. 900. but almost a complete circle enclosing other concentric circles—an obvious symbol of the sky. 37Fig. 1 W. a fragmentary relief of white Italian marble. 364 f. fig. Again. cit. 38)* is not merely an arc. which was probably a stockpattern. and one of them clasps his knees (in supplication ?). Skulpt. has the same wind-blown mantle spangled with stars. no. Reinach Repertoire de peintures dtt moyen Age et de la renaissance Paris 1905 i. N. Caelus appearing below his footstool. 185 fig. 2 S. Miinter Sinnbilder und Kunstvorstellungen der Alten Christen Altona 1825 ii. uplifts his right hand in blessing and holds in his left an open book inscribed A 00. Beneath his feet is a small cherub overarched by drapery2. emp. A.

' the wolf (\I/KOS connected with \v<r<ra) denoting fierceness. Rel. W. Wiss.. Creuzer Symbolik und Mythologie* Leipzig and Darmstadt 1841 iii. regards Zeus Awccuos as the god .v. starting from the undeniable fact that the wolf (ly~kos) plays a part in the local myths5. 805 likewise takes Zeus AI'KCUOS to be Zeus god of 'wolves' i. nat. 19 ff. Some. D.f.). D. 1892 xxxviii.' the wolf being a symbol of his chthonian character (ib. Cp..' Lectures on the Religion of the Semites'1' London 1907 p. ' Wolf-god. 5. i. 78 ff. adding Slavonic and Germanic parallels (ib. Myth. Tradition said that Lykdon. 13 ff. Robertson Smith in The Encyclopedia Britannica9 Edinburgh i886xxi. 21 ff.' J. Thus Fick maintains that they represent a Hittite tribe to be identified with the Lycaonians and Lycians of Asia Minor3. 205. 423 drew a parallel between Zeus Au'/ouos of Mt. hold that Zeus Lykaios was in some sense a 'Wolf-god6. 2. 0. ii. 92. The word Lykaios cannot 1 Paus. 1847 Phil. Aristeid. Philol. 705 follow O. 323. schol. 'Protector against the Wolf. the Hirpi Sorani). are content to seek an explanation in the language of Greece. ep. class.e. Lupercus. A. Mannhardt Wald. 2 P. 77 ff. Berard De Vorigine des cultes arcadiens (Bibliotheque des ecolesjrancaises d'Athenes et de Rome Paris 1894 Ixvii) pp. A. 6. On the significance of this group of names scholars are by no means agreed. also J. p.T —3 2 reaches the same conclusions as H. Myth. Dindorf. marm. H. Byz. (a) Wolf-god or Light-god ? 63 On the summit of Mount Lykaion in Arkadia was a far-famed cult of Zeus Lykaios. 4 V. W. sacks. 7. Au/ccfyeta). 346. Roscher in \hefahrb. noting the essentially Greek aspect of the names in question. Jahn. 336 ff.und Feldkulte^ ii. son of Pelasgos. Par.). AVKOIOS. is open to a grave objection. 366 n. H. Classe p. Hartung op. Miiller Ueber den Zeus Lykaios Gottingen 1851 p. Aristot. V. Myth. 1647. 1. exiles (ib. Arkad. Atfratos = AvK6epyos. Fick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 pp. Parnassos (Steph. 5 Infra pp. ' Wolf-god. explains the AUKCUCI as a solsticefestival involving a procession of ' Harvest-wolves' (cp. d. Miiller. had founded the town of Lykosoura high up on the slopes of the mountain. schol. Mannhardt Wald. however.-hist. Some take them to be pre-Greek or non-Greek2. W. Zeus Lykaios. Gruppe Gr.' This view. while Berard argues for a Phoenician cult comparable with that of Baal4. But even here opinions are divided. Most critics. 132. 6. s. Hartung Die Religion und Mythologie der Griechen Leipzig 1865—1866 iii. frag. and in his Mythologie der griechischen Stdmme Gottingen 1857—1861 ii. Jahn 'tiber Lykoreus' in the Ber. p. Lykaion and Zeus Awc(i/>eios of Mt. iii. Plin. p. and had instituted the festival called Lykaia'1. 76 f. 8 Jacoby. Others with more circumspection abandon the slippery path of symbolism. 6 F. 45 Awctuos. W. 'Sacrifice. 8. had given to Zeus the surname of Lykaios. Jurgiewicz De Jove Lycceo Odessee 1859 PP. cit. Immerwahr Kult. 2173. 70 ff. 136 s. 594 Rose ap. Or. p. 342. and W. 918 n. O. 93 f. 3 A. 7). 17 p. 27 n. 12 f. Eur. p.Wolf-god or Light-god ? § 3. Gesellsch.und Feldkulte2' Berlin 1904—1905 ii. Weizsacker in Roscher Lex.v. 26 ff. 48—93. hist. pointing out that in the myths of both localities the ' wolf symbolises the exiled founder of the cult.

The only exceptions are words like oSaios. O. 326 ff. G. 41 is disposed to accept his theory. 7. o ecrri ffKoriav (ffKlav V. and Eustath. Dial. States i. See W. " 'A she-wolf is regularly \<!/Kaiva (cp. 'sind Ableitungen von dem verschollenen nomen Xwca (XvKr?) "Licht (Tag?). \l)Kf]v appellaverunt airb TOV \evKov. 15. i73f. dXXa Xtf/cot yeyovatriv ol Av/cdoi'os ircuSej /caret TOVTOV.in the Rh&tn. 4. wapa TTJV \6ytjv. en d' a^iXtf/CTj vu% with schol. 589.. 58 ff. Macrob. 37 ft". 38.' They belong to a well-known family of words with of a totemic Wolf-clan. 1 Adjectives in -cuos naturally derive from a. 4 Macrob. 22 (' luce enim clarius est lovem 'A^d/noy eundem esse ac Diespitrem et AVKOIOV eundem ac Lucetium' cp. Preller-Robert Gr. in II. 689. Preller in Pauly Real-Enc.64 Wolf-god or Light-god ? be derived from lykos: it must be an adjective formed from a substantive lyke*-. D. iii. Frazer on Paus. Lewis Oxford 1830 i. vrjaauos. it would mean ' a she-wolf2.-F. and so go back to locatives in -at (K. Kairpaiva).6p<puv yap a^etXec el%&iv ov yap \tiKaivai.' but that the names A^KCUOS. i.). 290 f.' The word lyke is quoted by Macrobius as an old Greek word for 'day-break4. 177 •—216. 541 f.. A. p. 6 eo-Tt crKidv /cat Xu/co^ws TO ^erafi) o-/c6Tous /cat <p<aTos. Etc. .. p.pbv 0ws dXX' %TI o~KOTU>5es.' and its compound amphi-lyke is used in the Iliad of ' twi-light5. 3 C. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896 pp. 210. K-rjircuos.evov Xu/c60ws. C. iv. Lyk.'9» id. 14). Meyer Forschungen zur alien Geschichte Halle 1892 i. Al. Bechtel in Collitz-Bechtel Gr. 36. even if we write it as AVKCUOS. H.nichts zu thun. Albers De diis in locis editis cultis apud Graecos Zutphaniae 1901 p. Prolegomena zu einer ivissenschaftlichen Mythologie Gottingen 1825 p. olovel Xi^K6^>ws TL ov. 127. id temporis hodieque XVKO^WJ cognominant.' wolf .. Sat. TO /u/ij Ka. Lauer System der griechischen Mythologie Berlin 1853 p. irapa ri]v XI^/CTJC (\fryr)v D. But there is in Greek no such word as *lyke. Myth. TO irpbs opQpov. to which human victims were offered. iSoff.' C. 5—36 holds that the ritual of Zeus Atf/ccuos and the myth of AvicAwv presuppose the Arcadian cult of a sacred wolf. Myth. 1.. never *\IJK-T]. who holds that Aikos was an ancient god of light replaced by Zeus AU/CCUOS and Apollon Atfmos or Atf/aos. L. Hoffmann Die Makedonen Gottingen 1906 p. K. TO KaXoy/j.6p<f>wv Ny/crfytov Kpeavbpuv is criticized as ?." und haben mit Xu/co-s. can hardly be thus explained as a locatival formation. Far more probable is the theory of those who understand Lykaios as ' god of Light3.433 wos 8' our' ap irw ^c6s. etc. V. Sat.) argues that ' ein in Wolfsgestalt verehrter Gott zum Lichtgott Zeus geworden ist.' The latest and most efficient champion of the ' light'-theory is H. 1843 P. Welzel De love et Pane dis Arcadicis Vratislaviae 1879 pp. quae praecedit solis exoitus. 2. L. A. 507 no. gross blunder by Tzetzes ad loc.-Inschr. T. J. E. Au/caaw. 386) says: ' The connexion of Lycaean Zeus with wolves is too firmly established to allow us seriously to doubt that he is the wolfgod. Brugmann Griechische GrammatiJ? Mtinchen 1900 p. adding derivations from \vyrj 'darkness ' and Xwco? 'a wolf-skin' as also ib. L. 1839 vi. Pape Etymologisehes Wbrterbuch der griechischen Sprache. J. if there were.' whereas the myths of Mount Lykaion mention none but he-wolves. Schwenck Die Mythologie der Griechen Frankfurt a/M. 40 ff. 5295 and 0.. But Ai^cuos. and. P. prisci Graecorum primam lucem. Welcker Gr. 181: see also F. schol. which have been formed on the analogy of ayopcuos etc. 481 \vKaivo/j. R. 8. V. 809. 7 (iv. Maury Histoire des Religions de la Grece antique Paris 1857—1859 i. TO irap' ijfuv ISiuriKUTepov \eybfjievov Xu/c60ws. i.da. zur Ubersicht der Wortbildung nach den Endsylben Berlin 1836 p. TOVT^TIV 6 J3a6bs opdpos.). i. p. Miiller The History and Antiquities of the Doric Race trans. o Tpdyos (sic) /ca/cws ?07j • \VKO/j. 5 //. 33 f. F. Mus.).stems. Tufnell and G. Farnell Cults oj Gk. Gerhard Gr. 17. 61 (followed by C. W. Vollgraff De Ovidi mythopoeia Berolini 1901 pp.. i6if. 15 ff. id. Gotterl..

13 Barker vouches for the accent affrepoiros: the analogy of xapcnros. Kritias Sisyphus frag. y Paus. The myths are collected and analysed in Roscher Lex. 3.. regards Nykteus and Lykos as personifications of the Eveningand the Morning-star: he is followed by Worner in the Lex. 3. 27 n. a younger contemporary of Sophokles. Indeed. Gr. 240 cp. 963. Etym. Fortunately in the present case that support is forthcoming. de plac. iv. d. class.. 5 . 8 H. i. luceo. 'bright-eyed. so the Arcadian myth makes Lykaon succeeded by his son Nyktimos. etym. luna.Jahrb. cp. 7 Infra ch. Achaios the tragedian. If Zeus Lykaios was thus a god of daylight. math. \vKaj3as 'year' (lit.' suggests dtrrepoirds. Roscher Selene und Verwandtes Leipzig 1890 p. s.' 1 Prellwitz Etym. d. 349 f.' and Walde Lat. 266. Hesych. just as a Boeotian myth makes Lykos succeed his brother Nykteus on the throne7. ct/3cr rpoxos). i § 7 (d). H.). Lykosoura founded by Lykaon was 'the first city that ever the sun beheld9. Philol. 6 Cic. Flout. 383 rrjs dffrepoirov (MSS. supra p. 8. Zeus Lykaios was sometimes at least conceived as a sky-god. Indeed. This suggests that Zeus Lykaios was a god of the aither.f. iii. Meyer Handb. do-repoTroO) Ziyi/os dvfflas. Usener further observes that. Myth. iii. Eur. 6 and Sext. 2183 ff.. Welcker Die Griechischen Tragodien Bonn 1841 iii. Gel. ericas Sext. schol. 76. 199. 3 Achaios Azanes frag. dcrrepWTros. for his priest acted as rain-maker to the district2. 519ff. 4 Eur. 2 Nauck 2 ap. cp. adv. 1892 xxxviii. Creuzer long since pointed out that Zeus Lykaios is none other than the Arcadian Zeus5. Wdrterb. who connects XtfySos 'white marble' with the same group of words. Creuzer Symbolik und Mythologie* Leipzig and Darmstadt 1841 iii. W. Ampel. 705 supposes that d<rre/>07ros denotes ' the god of lightning ' (affTpairri. An epithet of similar formation and of the same meaning (asterdpos) is used by Euripides of the aither or ' burning sky' in connexion with Zeus4. Arcad. 496 f. gr. F. luceo p.' Xi>/c60ws 'twi-light. Again. i. dear. Myth.vos 'lamp. Jon 1078 f.. \vKavyrjS 'twi-light. 54 TO T' dffrepwirbv ovpavou creXas (so Plout. 53. 492 ff. 2169 ff.Wolf-god or Light-god ? 65 numerous relatives in both Greek and Latin1. 1894 clvi. H. de nat. 5 F. appears to have spoken of Zeus Lykaios as ' starry-eyed' (asteropos}*. G. Spr? pp. our word ' light' is of kindred origin. tL Roscher in \he. 67. who adds Xu/coi/'ta 'twi-light.' \tix. ii. for the weaker the Greek dju^tXtfm?.. certain statements made by Pausanias a propos of his cult gain a fresh significance. 140 ff.' etc.. whom Cicero and Ampelius describe as the son of Aether*. dffTepowri). See further L. can afford no certain clue to the nature of an ancient deity. p. Cp. 9. Atos dffrepuTrbs \ ave-xppevffev alffrip. cp. 'light-circuit': Pick in the Gott. c. Anz. 498 f. "2 Infra p.v. 33 Nauck 2 ap. W. Usener Gotternamen p. 9. i. But etymology. 38. unless supported by ritual and myth. Or. the inference being that both pairs of names denote the alternation of'daylight' (lyk-) and 'darkness' (nykt-)*. Wdrterb. 74 f. philos. 275 cites for the stronger form of the root the Latin lux.

when a beast takes refuge in the precinct. O. and ad Nem. Zeus 13 irav fwoj/ el<nbv eKei (sc. 1193. 2 Paus. 87. following K. On shadowless ghosts see J. and W. but waits outside and looking at the beast sees no shadow cast by it. 12. but in the precinct on Mount Lykaion there is the same lack of shadows at all times and seasons2. commenting on the passage quoted above from Pausanias. 7. quaestt. But K. inferred that Zeus AII/CGUOS was a solar god. though sceptics were not wanting 4 . 16. the hunter will not break in along with it. A. von Negelein in the Archiv f. Dr Frazer. 4. ad loc. 12. Should any one disregard the rule and enter. This belief is still current in Greece. Maury Religions de la Grfce i. Schwenck in the Rhein. with schol. h. both beasts and men. 59. 8. or the foundation stone is laid upon a man's shadow. alike cast no shadow. 152 ff.' This marvel. Now at Syene on the frontier of Aithiopia. Find. to the birth-place of Zeus on the mountain in Parrhasia) /jLe^oXvy^vov dyovov eyiyvero Kcti ffKiav TO ffd^a afirov OVK£TI eiroiei.' The shadowless creature would on this showing be the man or beast already devoted to death. L. 1839 vi. Polyb. 541 f. 6. 38. probably hangs together with the Pythagorean belief that ' the souls of the dead cast no shadow and do not wink5. cp. 33. Mus. It is thought that to give stability to a new building the life of an animal or a man is necessary. . It was said too that within the precinct all things. 5 Plout. Baumlein in the Zeitschrift fur die Alterthumsivissenschaft 1839 vi.-F. Miiller Prolegomena zu einer -vuissenschaftlichen Mythologie Gottingen 1825 p. 83 f. ib. 4 Polyb. which is attested by other grave and respectable authors3. 7. 01. Gr. schol. 10. 1902 v.66 Wolf-god or Light-god ? On the very top of Mount Lykaion was a mound of earth.' Finally. Polyb. There is a precinct of Zeus Lykaios on the mountain. writes: ' Untutored people often regard the shadow as a vital part of a man and its loss as fatal. Rel. so long as the sun is in the sign of Cancer. 38. Hence an animal is killed and its blood allowed to flow on the foundation stone. he cannot possibly live longer than a year. 39. 13. 16. known as the altar of Zeus Lykaios. Consequently. Plout. and no man is allowed to enter it. 2S and infra p. 8. already urged that he was a light-god rather than a sun-god. Kallim. from which the greater part of the Peloponnese was visible: before the altar stood two columns bearing gilded eagles and ' facing the sun-rise1. 7 quoted below. 3 Theopompos ap. or the builder secretly measures a man's shadow and buries the measure under the foundation stone. It is supposed that the man will die within a year— obviously because his shadow is believed to be buried under the 1 Paus. Pausanias says : ' Of the wonderful things to be seen on Mount Lykaion the most wonderful is this. shadows are cast neither by trees nor by animals. i8ff. 290 f.

philol. Jan. Plutarch states that such persons were called 'deer' (elaphoif. Polybios the historian. phaen. Mount Lykaion^ in fact. Tylor Primitive Culture* London 1891 i. 430 f. 196 f. Germ. to assert that some bodies when placed in light cast no shadow argues a state of extreme obtuseness. 1903 p. Gr. 137 ff. i § 6 (g) vi. 1894 xiv. TT. for he declares that those who enter the holy precinct of Zeus in Arkadia cast no shadow..poet. 12. Kenyon in H. Theokr. slain and eaten. 6ff. E. 2. cit. 119. catast.. Ludwich in the Berl.. 27 ff. i.' This can only mean that a divine light encircled the mountain-top and made all shadows impossible. Miiller Mythologie der griechischen Stamme Gottingen 1869 ii. F. which is on a par with the statements that I mentioned just now5. The way for this explanation was prepared by Plout. Arat. G. in an epic fragment dealing with Dionysos (F. 91. astr. That is what in point of fact they did. 3 They may have been dressed as deer before being chased or killed. 4o ff. D. Rochholz Deutscher Glaube und Branch im Spiegel der heidnischen Vorzeit Berlin 1867 i. 7 ev (purl TiQe^eva. 161. rrjs evpeffews rCsv /3ovico\iKU>v p. and A. See also infra ch. B. quaestt. 38. 8 Id. 133 ff. then. 381.). G. 7 ff. cp. Ahrens) and the man disguised as a stag. Yet Theopompos has done this. resembled 1 J. 12. 16. 4. Welcker Kleine Schriften Bonn 1850 iii. Hell. 2. 85 f. explained the miracle of Mount Lykaion by saying that beasts and men on the summit cast no shadow because they were there ' placed in light6. writes as follows anent certain Carian superstitions : ' It appears to me that such tales are only fit to amuse children. 16 ff. Stud. They may well have forgotten the real meaning of a belief to which they still clung and have attributed it to some irrelevant cause. who as a native of Megalopolis would take a personal interest in matters Arcadian. Hyg. it by no means follows that this was the explanation given by Greeks of the classical period. Aratea p. On the identification of soul with shadow see further E. Caes. Frazer on Paus. L. but were actually put to death2. when they transgress not merely the limits of probability but those of possibility as well. W. 96 f. that if they had entered the precinct voluntarily they were stoned to death. To the examples of human £\a</»ot that I collected in the Journ. Wundt Volkerpsychologie Leipzig 1906 ii. citing B.Wolf-god or Light-god ? 67 building1. Eyssenhardt.' Theopompos. 5. should be added the stag-mummers of Syracuse (schol. 6 (iv. if the ultimate explanation of the shadowless precinct on Mount Lykaion lies in the connexion once thought to exist between shadow and soul. 5 Polyb. 16. For instance. 5—2 . 84 ff. the historian of Chios.' Trespassers on the precinct of Zeus Lykaios not only lost their shadows. 4 Plout. 39. But. and that if they had entered it through ignorance they were sent away to Eleutherai4. 384). 2. 3.. 2 Pseudo-Eratosth. 8. H. Woch. van Herwerden's Album Gratulatorium Trajecti ad Rhenum 1902 p. i. schol. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. schol. loc. G.

2. Philol. Babel on Monti. 63 alyXtfevTO.68 Wolf-god or Light-god ? Olympos as described in the Odyssey*. Pausanias says: ' They speak of it also as Olympos. 9 Babelon Monn.f. but rarely. ttyg. i — 3. 4o)6.evov opos"0\vfj. iii. 845 ff. Cat. Mtinztaf. 447 f. I take the object in his right hand to be a thunderbolt. Overbeck Gr. 8 TO \ey6/j. pi. 352. I figure two specimens from my collection. 1892 xxxviii. class. gr. 8.) understand Apollod. Cat. 39. 43)8. Kunstmyth. P. 1892 xxxviii. Aen. 31. Imhoof-Blumer Choix de monn. 43. i32f. 38. and was itself called Olympos. Cp. more or less abbreviated. cp. 12.4 These coins bear on their reverse side the legend Arkadikon. Eustath. 7. and over the other flies an eagle (figs. 38. P. while others of the Arcadians name it the Sacred Peak2. 3. Zeus Munztaf. (1871) pi. pi. 2 a. gr. 42)7. H. 2. rom. Gardner Types of Gr. 23 (fig. 171 f. pi. It is almost certainly Zeus Lykaios whose figure appears on the federal silver coinage of Arkadia throughout the greater part of the fifth century B. 43). gr. Schmidt. Roscher (Jahrb. would be in thorough keeping with the character of Zeus Lykaios as a god of light. ii — 15. Philol. pi. 8 Brit. 21. (b) Peloponnesian coin-types of Zeus Lykaios. Brit. 598. 31. cp.. 8. Coins pi. Mus. as Theopompos presumably held and as Roscher3 certainly holds. fig. Early specimens show Zeus seated on a throne with a himdtion wrapped about his waist : he holds a sceptre in one hand. Overbeck Gr. 196. ii. in Od. i. 90. 38. f. p. 290 pi. 76. An Arcadian Olympos is mentioned by schol. Cat. i. Gardner Types of Gk. Mus. Serv. 38. 44)9. 7 Fig. rom. pi. gr. 843 ff. 31. 42 from another in my collection. rom. pi. 26 f. 32.I 2 Paus. 24 f. 9.C.irov of Mount Lykaion. 15. Rhod. 1876 iii. 169 f. 5 This was first shown by Imhoof-Blumer Monn. Coins Peloponnesus p. Num. in Verg. Kunstmyih. ii. 13 describes a specimen in the Luynes collection on which Zeus holds corn-ears (fig. ii. i — 9. 291 pi. 1876 iii. Ap. 8. 8436°. 43. On later specimens the back of the throne terminates in a swan's neck (figs. in the Zeitschr. Coins Peloponnesus p.'1 p. p. and appear to have been struck by the Heraeans as presidents of the national Arcadian games held on Mount Lykaion*. 2. Num. pi. 32.' This Olympic glory. Pedias. 41 is from a specimen in the British Museum. 706) and Mackrodt (Roscher Lex. Coins pi. as did F. 2. Sometimes. infra p. 169 ff.. he is repre1 Od. though not. 701 — 709. 3. 848. Mus. y&p TOO &cet KCM y«e<rra al'tfp^s KO. 5. Roscher ' Die Schattenlosigkeit des Zeus-abatons auf dem Lykaion ' in the Jahrb. Sometimes a thunderbolt is held on the lap of the god (figs. 1550. gr. i. 225 p. 2. the true explanation of the shadowless precinct. 44). 7. f.fab. Zeus pp. 41. num. 6. 16. . 3 and 4.f. 4 Head Hist. i. and the eagle occasionally flies towards Zeus (fig. 6 Babelon Monn. 2. id. 3. Coins Peloponnesus p. u — 24. 43. 3 W. 155. class. Brit. 8 — 18. 41 ff. Imhoof-Blumer in the Zeitschr. Myth. pi.

444 f-. 6. 46—-47 and fig. Figs. After the victory of Epameinondas at Leuktra in 371 B. 10. Overbeck Gr. spread his cloak . Fig. 288 f. 44.. ii. 7 (at Klagenfurt. Num. cp. 1884 xvi.(XAPI) 4 . and in the Num.f. Zeitschr.C. 1875 ii. 264 pi. Gardner Types of Gk. 7. G. 8. 32. Myth. P. 47- Fig.. 2. the Arcadian League was reconstituted and issued coins'with the types of Zeus Fig. 2 On Pan Atkcuos see Roscher Lex.gr. 37. i39ff. 32 and 37. Mus. over which he has Fig.Peloponnesian coin-types of Zeus Lykaios 69 sented as standing with himdtion. 79 and in the Zeitschr.. 292 pi. Kunstmyth. i (in the Hague collection). ib. 31. 46. 10 (fig. 5. 18. 45 V. 93. 849 f.45- Lykaios and Pan Lykaios^. 2168. Fig.(OAY) or Olym(OAYM)3. rom. 246 ff. Zeus pp. Coins Peloponnesus pp. pi. 4 F. f. ii. Cat. 20 ff. 72 f. Babelon Monn. 128 n. 48. 1876 iii.. pi. and in one die (fig. 5. The obverse design of the silver stater (fig. 1350 f. lix. pi. Imhoof-Blumer publishes a similar specimen in his Choix demonn. 169 pi. 48 are drawn from two specimens in the British Museum. Coins Peloponnesus p.? pp. sceptre and eagle (fig. Mus. Cat. 173. I figure the latter specimen. 1876 iii. 38. i.. num. The rock is inscribed Oly. 1874!. Imhoof-Blumer in the Zeitschr. ib. Num. 7. F. 48) is Pan seated on a rock. he is human except for his horns and holds in his right hand a throwing-stick (lagobolon}. There can be no doubt that the laureate head is that of Zeus Lykaios. gr. from the same die). . iii. 49) Chari. 1871 pi. It used to 1 Brit. while a pipe (syrinx) lies at his feet. 3. 3 Head Hist. 46) is a magnificent head of Zeus wearing a bay-wreath: the reverse (figs. Coins pi. Hill Historical Greek Coins London 1906 p. 45). F. 450. 105 f. pi. 47. Fig. Brit. 49. 7.

i § 5 (b). ap. 'which was cut up and mixed with the entrails of other victims. was believed to become a wolf 3 . and suggests the iO4th Olympiad celebrated by the Arcadians in 364 B. 7. Sokrates in the Republic remarks that at the sanctuary of Zeus Lykaios he who tasted the one human entrail. Brunn alone maintained that the inscription was the signature of the dieengraver1. It should also be noticed that the reverse-type of a unique tetradrachm of Messana. and by him is the inscription P A N (G. rep. O A V N P I K O N on coins of Elis. ev. But see infra p. 445 cp. If P A N describes Pan. the old view is not definitely disproved. E. 4 Cp. 27 and Euseb. 373.1 p.70 Peloponnesian coin-types of Zeus Ljrkaios be commonly supposed that the rock inscribed Oly. Recently. Dr Head has suggested that Olym. cp. 76 n. 3150.e. i. Across the brightness of Mount Lykaion we have already seen one cloudlet pass. 3. 8. shows a similar figure of Pan. 2 1 . 8. It remains possible that the name of the mountain. (i Plat. de abst. Since the publication of the specimens reading ChariBrunn's view has met with almost universal acceptance2. Prof. Isid. 130 f. 9. 16. citt. 8. |~| 61 fl N on a coin of Ephesos figured infra ch. pi. 565 D. Still. 13. 10. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily London 1903 p. was afterwards replaced by the name of a selfsatisfied engraver. 7. placed on the coin for purposes of identification 4 .. num. (c) Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios. 5 Plat. Porphyr. 4. There is indeed a persistent rumour of human sacrifice in connexion with the cult. festivals of the Charites. But those who knew more intimately the ritual of the mountain-top were aware that a gloom far deeper than this habitually hung about it. Mount Lykaion. 3 Head Hist. and notes that Charisios was the founder of Charisiai in Arkadia (Paus.2 p.C. Brunn Geschichte der griechischen Kiinstler Stuttgart 1859 ii. 4). num. 5.or Olym. Head Hist. origg. with his lagobolon and a hare (symbol of the city): the god is seated on a rock. He interprets X A P I of the Charisia or Charitesia. i. Polyb. F.may be abbreviated names of festivals for which the coins were issued3. 7 Theophr. 15). praep. 437. over which he has thrown his fawn-skin. 3. however. presumably OAYAA may describe Olympos. Min. Theophrastos—as quoted by Porphyries and Eusebios— states that it was offered at the festival of the Lykaia7. Such was its awful sanctity that the wilful intruder upon the holy ground was doomed to die. Pausanias H. Imhoof-Blumer locc. For the said ghastly tradition Platon is at once our earliest and our most explicit authority.g.and Chart.was the Arcadian Olympos. The author of the Platonic Minos implies that human sacrifice occurred on Mount Lykaion 6 . while even the unintentional trespasser must needs be banished. now at Berlin. F.

but it hardly enables us to determine how long this hideous custom survived. in the reign of the refined and philosophical Marcus Aurelius. 81—82. ' To prove this. From Plin. says—'up to the present time'. 53 n. nat. who succeeded Aristoteles as head of the Peripatetic school in 322 E. Theophrastos. reports the following tradition as derived from Arcadian writings. Be it as it is and has been from the beginning1. 82 Scopas qui Olympionicas scripsit narrat Demaenetum Parrhasium in sacrificio.Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios 71 veils the ugly fact by a decent circumlocution : ' On this altar they offer secret sacrifices to Lycaean Zeus. Pans. 8. superseded. and goes off into desert places. the same gruesome rite was still kept up seems to me at least very questionable2. It would of course be talked about for many generations after it had been as an actual practice mitigated. had been already abandoned when the Olympionicae was written. Frazer. went across a particular pool. if they did not feed on human flesh. 8. 8. 3) E. But. i infers that the human sacrifice. 72 n. A man belonging to a clan descended from a certain Anthos is chosen by lot and led to a particular pool in that locality. hist. still kept up in the days of Demainetos. But whether we can infer from the guarded language of Pausanias that five centuries later. Varro narrates other equally incredible tales—that of the notorious magician Kirke. who were taken by lot. Here he hangs his clothes on an oak-tree.. 7 trans. who likewise changed the comrades of Odysseus into animals. (infra p. They unfold a most remarkable sequel: PLINY nat. ' Euanthes.' The concurrent testimony of these writers may be held to prove that Zeus Lykaios was indeed served with human flesh. immolati pueri exta degustasse etc. where he is transformed into a wolf and for nine years associates with 1 2 SAINT AUGUSTINE de civ. who holds a high place among the authors of Greece. and that of the Arcadians. J. . then PAUSANIAS 6. 8. Meyer Forschungen zur alien Geschichte Halle 1892 i. 17.G. and he is in general a trustworthy witness. 2. Dei 18. And here fortunately further evidence is forthcoming. G. and there turning into wolves lived with beasts like themselves in the desert places of that locality. which deserve to be studied side by side. or simply discontinued. hist. We should like to know more of the cannibal who was turned into a wolf. 38. We have in fact three parallel accounts. but I did not care to pry into the details of the sacrifice. quod Arcades lovi Lycaeo humana etiamlum hostia faciebant. swims across.

Peter). In conclusion he has actually mentioned by name a certain Demainetos. Miiller Frag. 407 suggests that Pausanias derived the story of 2 1 . Dei 18. iii. was thereupon changed . Skopas3 was probably wrong about the victor's name. 17. gets back his shape looking nine years older than before. and won a victory in the boxing . hist. The story adds that he resumes the same clothing. a Parrhasian of Arkadia by race. other wolves of the same sort. Euanthes was an author of repute. Dial. having swum across it. 233 f. and won in a match at Olympia.72 Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios SAINT AUGUSTINE de civ. hist. For they say that he changed from a man into a wolf at the sacrifice of Zeus Lykaios. iv. n no. whereas Pliny cites Varro's sources without Varro's name. he returns to the same pool and. 8. But see Jacoby in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Saint Augustine cites Varro's name without Varro's sources. which the Arcadians were wont to make to their god Lykaios. Skopas. 1247 B 3 cp. 17 (Hist. which the Arcadians were even in his day making to Zeus Lykaios. PAUSANIAS PLINY nat. Rom. Again. however outrageous. writer of a work on Olympic Victors. and that in the tenth year afterwards he became a man again. Gr. hist.' 6.match at Olympia. 20. The lengths to which Greek credulity will run are really amazing. 2. Any falsehood. i. came back. relates that Demainetos the Parrhasian at a human sacrifice. 3 C. asserting that he. If during this time he has abstained from attacking men. vi.' ' As to a certain boxer named Damarchos. tasted the entrails of the boy that had been immolated and thereupon turned into a wolf. Varro de gentepopuli Romanifrag.' Pliny and Saint Augustine are obviously drawing from the same well. Collitz-Bechtel Gr. after nine years had gone by they swam once more across the same pool and were transformed into men again. I was not prepared to believe—with the exception of his victory at Olympia—the story told by sundry braggarts.-Inschr. frag.into a wolf. 357 no. Varro1. and moreover bore a name which is known to have occurred in Arkadia 2 : he professedly follows Arcadian writers. 81—82. has its due attestation. p. but that in the tenth year he was restored to athletics. having tasted the sacrifice of an immolated boy. Only. C. Mtiller Frag. 8. and that in the tenth year he was restored to his own form. viz. Gr. practised boxing. 846. 33 would read Neanthes for Euanthes. The sources in question are both satisfactory for our purpose—the ascertaining of popular belief.

whereas Euanthes speaks of him as having been chosen by lot. C 42) and Ad/xctpx°s ($• i. nat. hist. Comparing the two. is twofold. Anthas.-Myth.34' n°. But again see Jacoby in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Both Aa/j. and as such still retains his hostility to horses (Ant. i. presumably. if we assumed that the method of selection indicated by Platon in a passage already quoted—' he who tasted the one human entrail. Be that as it may. Skopas describes him as having tasted the entrails of an immolated boy. Immerwahr Kult. He tells us that those who thus cast lots among themselves (and therefore. 4 Thus Anthos. index to 8 Euanthe apoca or apocha (so MSS. Varro's statement. .aiveros (Collitz-Bechtel op. Anthas or Damarchos from Euanoridas of Elis. as evidenced by the foregoing extracts. W. 369 f. 7 : see also D'Arcy W.: Scopa Jan.' etc. 2 H. i. 82 we should read itaque Euanoridas qui Olympionicas scripsit (MSS. Anthes. Stoll2 and J. Schwartz in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. which he had driven from their scanty pasture: he was transformed by Zeus and Apollon into the bird avBos. But whether the name was Demainetos or Damarchos makes no difference to us: the story told of him is identical. 38. But. Agriopa Gelenius. Plin. Now H. cit. i). i. Gelenius Agriopas}. But it is better to suppose that the casting of lots was a later and more civilised substitute for the arbitrament of the cannibal feast. whom he calls ' Euanoridas-Euagriopas-Euanthes Agrippa' ! 1 Paus 6. i. 2358. pushes M tiller's speculation one stage further and proposes to identify Euanthes with Euanoridas. Myth. 352 no. vi. Arkad. This discrepancy would indeed vanish altogether. 2. 845.) qui '0\vfjLTTiovlKas. Miiller further conjectures that in Plin. 8. whose 'OXi/jUTriopt/ccu he had just mentioned (Paus. hist. i3f. was attacked and eaten by his father's horses. 1231 B 26. 1246 D 4) are Arcadian names. those who at an earlier date gathered about the banquet of human flesh) belonged to a clan descended from a certain Anthos. W.1189 A minor 15. 8. 6. Stoll in Roscher Lex.—might be viewed as a kind of cleromancy or sortition. One of these ' Flower '-heroes. on the other Skopas' particular exemplification of it. p. nat. 358 no. Euanthes has preserved various details of primitive import. after which he returned to human shape. whence Jan cj. Agrippa vulg. Topffer in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Topffer 3 have pointed out that the names Antkos. Scopas. item or ita or itaque copas. 8 J. Antheus were given in sundry parts of the Greek world to mythical figures of a common type—the handsome youth who comes early to a cruel death just because he personifies the short-lived vegetation of the year4. Lib. and cp. we at once detect a discrepancy. son of Hippodameia and Autonoos the ruler of a neglected and therefore barren land.Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios 73 for Pausanias read and copied the actual inscription on the man's statue-base1. Both agree that a man became a wolf for a period of nine years. 896 Harpocras. 8. It contains on the one hand Euanthes' general account of the Arcadian custom.

Michel Recueil tf Inscr. 132). 833. Topffer in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. 'Avddva: but see C. narr. 5 See J. Sap. The inscription from Halikarnassos records the priests rou IIo[<rei5w] j vos TOV KaTLdpvOfrros virb r&v rty a. 656. asked him to recover a tame partridge or a golden trinket for her from a deep well. Corr. Phaistos ap. 106 ff. ruler of Miletos : Kleoboia or Philaichme. Muller's note in Frag. 16. s.Roman date found at Athens7. That the ' Flower '-hero might be associated with Zeus no less than with Poseidon we see from an inscription of . 6 On Zeus Atf/ccuos with corn-ears see supra p. Byz. eponym of Anthedon or Anthedonia the old name of Kalaureia. Gr. but accidentally struck and slain by the latter (Tzetz. son of Poseidon and eponym of Anthana. 28 Zeus AfJ. His descendants the Antheadai 2 formed a priestly clan which.v. unable to compass her desires. 2. the Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 30). Anthos. Poseidon was worshipped at the mother-city Troizen as Poseidon Phytdlmios^. Antheus. 1893 xvii. was driven out of Troizen and founded Halikarnassos1.' K. and while he was doing it dropped a heavy stone on the top of him (Parthen. Antheias. Sch.' Mr J. iii. 374. s. 1 Strab. was lost as a child but found again by his brother Hyperes acting as cup-bearer to Akastos or Adrastos at Pherai (Mnasigeiton ap. Flout. cp. 4 Paus.74 Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios Anthes. am. Ath. a prince of Halikarnassos. i § 6 (d) i(/3)). Bull. It is a list of persons combining to build a gymnasium 'for Zeus Keraios and Anthas. 8 Paus.\. no. Byz. I conclude that in Arkadia likewise the descendants of Anthos were a priestly clan charged with the upkeep of vegetation in connexion with the cult of Zeus Lykaios*. Hofer in Roscher Lex. iii. was killed by falling from the car of Triptolemos (infra ch. Arguing from analogy. Steph. was slain by Kleomenes. 3 Corp. 33). in Lyk. Antheus. Gr? no. 608. 1896—1897 iii..wv Kf . Anderson. 68 n. 835.v.iroiKl[av e«] | T/)ot(j")^«'os ayayovrdov ILoffeiS&vi Kcti 'Air6XX(w)[W]. quaestt. Al. 9. Kaibel Epigr. i "Ayu/xwyos Kepaioio (Alexandreia). 2655. so that the functions of the Antheadai were almost certainly concerned with the propagation of vegetable life5. who published this inscription with a careful commentary. 32. G. wife of Phobios. inscr. Dittenberger Syll. 'Adijvai. He therefore proposed to identify Zeus Keraios with Zeus Amman of Thebes8 and to regard Anthas either as a separate personage. i ZW^TCU ot KaraffKevdcravres TO yv\/jwdo-iov Att Kepaif Kal"Avdq. no. 4.T. i. brother of Leonidas. 2358 ff.fJi. Myth. Brit. Hell. Steph. who flayed him and wrote on his skin TOI>S xPWf^ovy Trjpelffdai (Philostephanos frag. s. the son of Poseidon. was a beautiful youth loved by Deiphobos and Alexandras. 98 no. 9. 7 Ann. no. 8. Pyth.v. ii no. 14). loved him and. Gr. managed the cult of Poseidon in that city for over five hundred years. Anthes. inscr. gr. 19). as we happen to know from an inscription found at Halikarnassos3. served as a hostage under Phobios. 'AXucapvacrffos. son of Eumelos. i. Gr. 5 "AyU/xwpos Kepaov (Beirut). Byz. Gr. hist. 2 Steph. 18: see further O. Pind. remarked that many of the contributing members bore Boeotian names. 2490. son of Antenor. C. schol. 877. no.

The cult would thus be one of a Zeus presiding over animal and vegetable fertility. Cultes.). . His ' horns ' may be those of a bull. 2. Anthios (schol. Au 'Av6a\ei ols Ahh. Byz. 5 O. 4 Ov. 3. ii § 9 (h) ii (f). 6 Supra p.' Conjecture apart. Anthedon (Steph. 10. for the charred bones found nowadays on the summit of this mountain 8 are said by the peasants to be ' the bones of men whom the ancients caused to be here trampled to death by horses.. J. 6. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. Myth. 1895 x. in II. who in order that his land might not remain barren was taken by his subjects to Mount Pangaion and there destroyed by horses7. 2491. 2 Am. Mr Anderson's conclusion is sound. citt. 73 n. offended at their savagery. s. Rev. and Anthes (Herakleid. 1904 xviii. ap. 5. Jotirn. Byz. a god presumably worshipped by a guild of farmers. deprived his father's horses of their pasture and was therefore devoured by them 6 — a fate recalling that of Lykourgos. de Prott Leges Graecorum sacrae Lipsiae 1896 Fasti sacri p. 10. or more probably as a cult-title of Zeus comparable with that of Zeus Anthaletis. 9. Other examples of men done to death by horses with a like intent are cited in the Class. Frazer on Paus.. Eustath. 312 f. 382). a god of fertility who in northern Greece had bovine horns3. Pont. or Zeus Xenios (?) of Kypros. 271. G. In that case he resembled Zeus Olbios. there is good reason to think that in time of 1 He is called Anthas (Paus. 38. 210. son of Autonoos and Hippodameia. and Eustath. 8 Infra p. Again. 54— 67. 47 . Rel. de musica 3) . 388 n. 1907 x.. 2 (iv. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. to whom the horned Kerdstai were wont to sacrifice strangers till Aphrodite. Now Anthos. Anthos occupied a like position on Mount Lykaion. for all these local heroes are obviously one and the same.. 47 — 6o = id. 7 Apollod. though his premises are shaky. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Plout. i. 22. O. if Anthas had been merely a cult-epithet. //. 92. 13 ff. 22off. Hofer objects that. changed them all into bullocks4. met. 3 Infra ch. That a similar end overtook Anthos on Mount Lykaion is at least a permissible conjecture . 'Avdndtiv). iii. y icpibs AH-. who is mentioned in a sacrificial calendar from the Epakria district 2 . 9 J. no. See further S. Mythes et Religions Paris 1908 iii.. iepdxrvva H-. not a ram.v. we should have expected a repetition of the name Zeus before it5. king of the Thracian Edonoi. Arch. 46 ff. 26. But this objection only brings into clearer light the indisputable fact that in Attike the hero Anthas stood in intimate relation to Zeus. 8. I doubt whether Zeus Keraios is a mere synonym of Zeus Amman. 5. Lact. 508. Reinach ' Hippolyte' in the Archiv f. 4. narr.}. 82. as corn is trodden by horses on a threshing-floor9.fab. Steph.Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios 75 eponym of Anthedon in Boiotia1.. locc. 82. cit. Plac. infra loc.

1503^ holds that the words /card irepiodov are corrupt and have expelled the name of some locality. See also Immerwahr Kult. If so. P. 23 n. 20 f. The excerpt in Euseb. 4. d\\d /cat irepa T&V KaAAtVrwj' Trpo<reTri\auj3dvovTes TOV ytvovs. 7.ov <r<f>&v avT&v aTrrip^avTo rots 6eois irp&rov. He hurig his clothes upon a certain oak. praep. ii. ii § 9 (a) iiu 2 1 . i. What happened to him there nobody knew. de abst. I think. It was whispered that he became a were-wolf. and water occurs again in Pausanias' account of rain-magic on Mount Lykaion.vKaltp Ad.<p' ov jU^Xpt roO vvv of/K tv 'Apuadlq. we have every right to say that Supra p. rare //era TroAAujp \iruv iKereiJovTes TO 5ai(Ji6vi. Welzel De love et Pane dis Arcadicis Vratislaviae 1879 p. and so caused the long-desired shower to fall 4 . at least as exemplified by the cults of the Arcadian Zeus and the Carthaginian Kronos. 27 dir' dpxijs /Mev yap al T&V KapirGiv eylvovro rots deois dvffiat' XP^V °~£ TW oo-torijros T)[j. Arkad.a. Myth. practised only when crops failed and famine was imminent 3 . But the context of that very passage implies that human sacrifice. Mayer in Roscher Lex. 10 agrees with this verbatim. 4 Infra ch.rd de a0Aa rjaav <?T\eyyi3es xpvffa^' edet^pei de rbv dyuva KalKvpos. 3 Theophrast. strictly taken. who expiated his crime by disappearing from the neighbourhood.{pas rpets.A. ewel Kal rCiv Kapir&v effTrdvicrav Kal Sid T7]i> r?)s vofjLifjLov Tpcxpijs ev5ei. due to haste and inattention on the part of Porphyries.bvov OTI Kd\\iffTov kvrjv avTois Kal TOVTO rots ^eots KaOotriowTes. 10 evTavd' (at Peltai) fyeivev ri/j. oak-tree. Even then the responsible clan devolved its blood-guiltiness upon a single man. ov p.76 Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios drought Zeus Lykaios was placated with the sacrifice of a boy. when the ground was parched and the trees blasted by the heat. and was lost to sight in the wilderness beyond. It appears that. The words rots Av/ca(ots are.Hd-qKe.r. Kaitrep TIJS Trap' auro?s betas ^eipyotiirtis T&V lep&v rots TrepippavT-qpiois </cat> Kypvy/AaTi. 70 n. either a loose expression for 'in the rites of Zeus Lykaios'' or—less probably—a blunder for r<£ A. uovov rots Au/catots ovd' ev Kapxr/S6i't ry Kpbvy KOIVTJ vavres dvdpdJwodvTovffi-v. but is shorter. Porph. who did not realise that r$ Awcat'y Ait is needed to balance r<£ K.v els TO aaptcofiaye'iv d\\ri\0}v up/ji. stirred with it the water of the spring Hagno. the priest of Zeus Lykaios took the branch of an oak-tree. ap. 5 on the strength of Xen.&v e^aueXrjcrdvTuv. dXAa /card irepiodov. 16. p. ?. ev. 2.7]o~av.ev aTs ^evias 6 'Ap/cds rd Atf/cata ZOvare /cat dy&va. et rts at'/taros dvBpuirelov uera'iTios. On the other hand M. denotes the regular festival celebrated probably at the beginning of May 2 . It can hardly be doubted that the oak-tree and the pool of the one case are the oak-tree and the spring of the other. including only d^>' ou /w^xpt roO vvv TTOOS roi!is PUUOIJS. swam across an adjoining pool. Myth. Theophrastos indeed is reported to have said that this took place 'at the Lykaia' 1 —an expression which. The same combination of drought.a.p6v<{> and that both together are contrasted as extraordinary sacrifices with the ordinary ritual described in the words /card irepioSov /c. Trjs TOV vo^lfiov xaPLV MI/')?A'''7S) f/J-<f>ti\iov aty«a palvovcri irpbs TOVS fiwfioijs. was not a rite recurring at stated intervals but the last resort of a starving populace.

38 (vi. Apoll. Norm. ' In my opinion. spoke the following verses:— There are many acorn-eating men in Arcadia Who will prevent you. 34. irpuroi yap avdp&irw yeyov&ai doKov<riv e/c 7775. 6 trans. Plout. Paus. 91 Bergk4 "Aptcades IVGO. hist. Flout. oneirocr. 39. 2. Ail. A rite so unusual and impressive as the human sacrifice on Mount Lykaion had of course its explanatory myth. 8. 778 Kiihn). 3. has fKyoviav dpvos) and the myth of Arkas and the oak-nymph Chrysopeleia (Class. 19 22. Coriol. 7 p.' he continues. 8. The primitive cults of Greece. The simple folk of Arkadia were acorn-eaters1. Mus. 24—28). noting merely that the existence of a clan whose business it was to promote vegetation at an ancient centre of oak-worship. Paus. 8. i. 92 r) TraXcubv CLTT 'A. ' Lycaon was contemporary with Cecrops. For Cecrops was the first who gave to Zeus the surname of Supreme. is a phenomenon curiously suggestive of totemism. ols effri rts avyyeveia trpbs rj\v dpvv. introducer of the acorn-diet. But the relation of the oak to Zeus on the one hand and to his devotees on the other is a subject to which we shall have to return. qtiaestt. Rom. 42.—says Pausanias 2 —' introduced as food the fruit of oaktrees. 621 Kiihn). v. their first king. J. king of Athens. That this ' kinship ' with the oak was no mere metaphor appears from Lykophron's mention of the Arcadians as eyyoviav dpvos (Al. See further P. Dion. Artemid. 1903 xvii. de probis pravisque alimentorum suds 4 (vi. just as it was the first of trees3. v. 6. Frazer. var. G. though I do not grudge it you. cp. Cat.pKa5uv TO edos. de alimentorum facultatibus i. ad loc. Acorns figure frequently on coins of Mantineia (Brit. as of other lands. Since his time some of the people have adhered so closely to this diet that even the Pythian priestess. 3. ucrirep f) Spvs ru>v <f>vr&v. and he refused to sacrifice anything that had life. 66.Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios 77 an oak-tree sacred to Zeus Lykaios grew beside the spring Hagno. but only the acorns of the phegos oak. constantly associated a holy tree with a holy well. he slips on to Pelasgos' son Lykaon. Pelasgos. 6. not of all oaks.V j3a\avr)tpdyoi). 34 ff.' Plutarch goes further and declares that there was ' a certain kinship' between the Arcadians and the oak-tree: they believed that they were the first of men to spring from the ground. but he burned on the altar the 1 Hdt. 184 f. i. but the two were not equally sage in the matter of religion. 8. 185). in forbidding the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians. For the present I pass on. Philostr. 25 (citing Alkaios/r/^. 320 Kayser. 287. Rev. From Pelasgos. who gave to Zeus the surname Lykaios and founded the Lycaean games. I quote again the garrulous but profoundly interesting Pausanias. 480: Tzetz. Coins Peloponnesus p. i. Galen. 3 2 . if viewed in connexion with this alleged ' kinship' between the worshippers and the tree. Wagler Die Eiche in alter und neuer Zeit Wurzen 1891 i. 3. pi.

8. Gr. For the men of that time. Lyk. and poured out the blood on the altar.phaen. Gruppe 2 . i8f. locc. 2—6. 731. for if. The victim is described occasionally as a guest of Lykaon5. and probability is in its favour. schol. i. 481. citt. but if he has tasted human flesh he remains a beast for ever1. Whereas Lycaon brought a human babe to the altar of Lycaean Zeus. and spreading over every land and every city. In the long course of the ages. from which it appears that the sacrifice was offered either by Lykaon himself (this was the common tale)3 or by his sons4 (a variant meant to save the face of Lykaon). Com. by reason of their righteousness and piety. 31 Miiller) a'p. iii. 378 Miiller). the gods openly visited the good with honour. and sacrificed it. pseudo-Hekat. 226f.' The myth of Lykaon has come down to us through various channels with a corresponding variety of detail. and Souid. and sat with them at table. 8. ties. Myth. A useful conspectus is drawn up by O. p. and the bad with their displeasure. i.av(>p6Trov. 9. 4 Apollod. 3. when wickedness is growing to such a height.v. in Verg.78 Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios national cakes which the Athenians to this day call pelanoi. and the wrath of the gods at the wicked is reserved for a distant future when they shall have gone hence. For example. or a Molossian hostage6. 7 Paus.. A I. 8. 375 (Frag.. were guests of the gods. Arat. Gr. save in the hollow rhetoric which flattery addresses to power. 0tf(rai/res r«a TrcuSa. 302. men are changed into gods no more.But in the present age. 27. 2. 43 (Frag. 920 n. 4. Nikol. in the ninth year afterwards he changes back into a man. 3 It went back to Hesiod (pseudo-Eratosth. Nikolaos Damask. 5 Serv. For my own part I believe the tale : it has been handed down among the Arcadians from antiquity. Rel. hist. and they say that immediately after the sacrifice he was turned into a wolf. he abstains from human flesh. frag. Indeed men were raised to the rank of gods in those days. and are worshipped down to the present time. 60. Aen. Dam. 2 1 . 8. frag: 136 Flach). Eustath.. schol. 9. KVKO. 6 Ov. 176. i. s. i. Natal. more often as a child 7 of the Paus. 3 /3pe<f>os. fab. Gruppe Gr. catast. p. 2. many events in the past and not a few in the present have been brought into general discredit by persons who build a superstructure of falsehood on a foundation of truth. but that the transformation is not for life. hist. Myth..UV. Souid.yra^-. Vat. while he is a wolf. they say that from the time of Lycaon downwards a man has always been turned into a wolf at the sacrifice of Lycaean Zeus.. Cp. Hyg. in II. 2. met.

schol. 15411". passing on his divine rights and duties to a less impotent successor. 2. Some said that his sons suffered with him. in Lyk. Tzetz. loc. in accordance with primitive custom15. eva. 3 The Dying God p. 8. i. more often still as Lykaon's son 2 Nyktimos 3 or grandson Arkas4.. 4 Pseudo-Eratosth. schol. 60. Nevertheless it seems certain that many. 3The Magic Art i. Al. in Verg. 481 eir^dspiov TralSa. 6 Zeus had come in the guise of a working-man (Apollod. Stahlin. or had his house struck by lightning while he himself became a wolf 9 . 176.. Caes. met. 3. 481. 12 Nikol. 15 Id. 81. Vat. Punishment for this impious act fell on Lykaon. some even said that the sons were punished as guilty and not the father12. 6. in Stat. but according to the usual version dished up for his consumption at table6. or that they were killed by lightning and he changed into a wolf11 . Lyk. in Verg. and that he turned some of them into wolves (cp. 5 p. Nyktimos. in Verg. The king might 1 Apollod. Al. 41. 10 Apollod. Hyg. Tzetz. 396 ff. if not most. Serv. 11 Hyg. schol. i. 481. astr. If the land were distressed with drought. i. eel. 2. 3. 128. and assuaged his anger. -24. eel. eel. 3.. adv. 19 ff. must be put to death. 8. Dion. 14 Frazer Golden Bough* i. Dam. Myth. was as such held responsible for the weather and the crops14. the king. 7 Paus. king of the country and representative of Zeus Lykaios. 6. r 'eva TU>I> £iri%wpiuv iraida. Tzetz. Aratea 89. in Lyk./a£. locc. protr. Probably we shall not be far wrong. ib? i. or struck by lightning 8 . 352 ff. citt. 2. 8. 3. i. 3. 2. 8. Myth. and Souid. for Ge held up her hands. 481. Aratea 89. Germ. 8. A second version given by schol. The youngest. Lyk. Lact. locc.).Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios 79 neighbourhood1. Aen. cit. 481. In course of time this stern rule was modified16. rCiv ^y^fcpluv ir<uSapl<av. Lyk. all alike being killed by lightning10. in Verg. Theb. 731. 18.. Dam. nat. catast. 8 Pseudo-Eratosth. 3 Clem. 55 f. \. Plac. 4. Caes. 36. 3. Vat. 160 ff. Al. Hyg.). ib? ii. Al. 4. pseudo-Hekat. ib. 41. . Serv. who was transformed into a wolf 7 . Lykaon. in Lyk. of them derive from distant sources of genuine folk-lore. in Lyk. 392 ff. 2. citt. 20 ff. catast. The child was according to one account sacrificed on the altar of Zeus5. Many added that the flood followed in consequence of the crime13. Serv. 230 ff. loc. cit.. 6. and Souid. cit. 158 f. 481. 5 Paus. escaped. Nonn. 8. 3 The Magic Art i. 13 Apollod. Al. 8. poet. Germ. if — anticipating the results of a later section — we attempt to rewrite the story thus. Tzetz. See also Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 27. n.} or stranger (Nikol. astr.. 4. 189. Al. pseudo-Hekat. 8 Interp. 2 Interp. Al. Ov. Serv. Arnob. states that Zeus destroyed the sons of Lykaon with lightning till Ge stretched forth her hand and interceded for them. These rillets of tradition cross and recross one another with such complexity that it is difficult to map them or to make out which after all is the main stream. interp. poet. 17. clasped the right hand of Zeus. 2. schol. loc. 41. 2. 16 Id. pseudo-Hekat.

E. Others state that they became werewolves—again an appropriate fate for exiles and vagabonds3. that the myth of Lykaon has in effect preserved the first stages of a custom whose final form is given in the statements of Skopas and Euanthes. {'The Liability for Bloodshed'). Some of our authorities declare that Zeus struck them with lightning—an appropriate end for worshippers of a sky-god2. 57 n. by a further relaxation. 7. was almost as great as the sanctity of the kinsman's life. 73 with note d). They on certain rare and exceptional occasions incurred bloodguiltiness in his service and had to disappear. that is. sought to escape by the expedient of the common feast. They might be killed. or the son of one of his subjects. Not often does an aetiological myth supply so satisfactory an aition. For by slaying his son or grandson or subject he would render himself liable to the early law of bloodshed1. Campbell Thompson Semitic Magic London 1908 p. he had. and to slay him was a religious sin. 4 Recent monographs on the subject are S. which enabled him to share his guilt with others.Wolves 1 . 9(8 n. who as early as Homer and probably much earlier was placed under the protection of Zeus. a stranger from afar in lieu of his own life. 19 f. 41 ff. The king. he must either be slain himself in return or else pay a sufficient blood-price. which has from time immemorial prevailed throughout Europe 4 and is even now to be traced in H. Note also that. 88. Seebohm On the Structure of Greek Tribal Society London 1895 p. But if he slew a member of his own tribe or city. 1905 xvi. 385^. therefore. Moreover. (quoted by W. but only to incur another of equal magnitude. or they might be exiled. Viewing the story as a whole. or grandson. Robertson Smith Lectures on the Religion oj the Semites'2' London 1907 p. Rel. or even. taken in this dilemma. i). Myth. 'the sanctity of the stranger-guest. He as god of the light sky normally bestowed the sunshine and ripened the crops. for which. Heracles was sold into slavery to Omphale' (Farnell Cults of Gk. And he had forthwith to pay the penalty otherwise incumbent on the king.£>£ valle Hadhramaut Bonn 1866 p. 324^ 3 See the facts collected by Gruppe Gr. If a man slew a member of an alien tribe or city. Baring-Gould The Book of Were. we cannot but feel that the connexion of Zeus Lykaios with the light sky is a more fundamental feature of it than the transformation of his worshippers into wolves. 2 Folk-Lore 1904 xv. R. according to one legend. It would seem. He thus discharged his original debt. This belief in were-wolves. States i. the Sei'ar in Hadramaut can change to were-wolves in time of drought. either to die the death or to flee the country.8o Human sacrifice to Zeus Lykatos sacrifice his son. p. then. or—it was the only possible alternative—flee into perpetual exile. The feasters in turn transferred it to a single member of the ' Flower'-clan. no blood-price was allowed: he must be put to death. according to Macrizl.

on Mt Lykaion (Hpa/cr. 5o)5 has three crests—Stephdni. and Hapadbffeis Athens 1904 ii. Classe 1897 xvii. 39 (quoted by Gruppe Gr. sometimes three). in Geschichte und Sage (Aberglaube aller Zeiten iii) Stuttgart 1906. on which is a ruined tower. 240. d. cit. somewhat lower (about 4550 ft).1904 pp. Vampir u. His original character was that of a ' Light '-god controlling the sunshine. 185—200 with figs. 59 ('Ossyrian' sic : seven years). 280 f. P. (d) The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios. Wiss. And lycanthropy often involved metamorphosis for a given term of years. 3. Polites Trept AvKOKavQdpuv in the journal Havdcbpa 1866 xvi. I conclude. where a full bibliography is given. Gesellsch. 55 (Normaiady: seven years. 417). 453 f. sacks. I will here summarise the results of the excavation4. cit.g. 6 . Kourouniotes has further excavated the hippodrome etc. See also" R. Kourouniotes trenched the altar and laid bare the precinct of Zeus Lykaios. Rev. d. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1906 iii. Baring-Gould op. Fischer Damonische Wesen. Am. Rel. probably Turkish in origin. viii) and the illustrations in the 'E0. so far as I am aware. after which the were-wolf returned to human shape3. cit. p. whose little chapel stands on the south-east edge of a small level space adjoining the crest on its south side. G. This summit takes its name from Saint Elias6.. 1240ff. the highest point (about 4615 ft above sea-level). 5 From a photograph kindly sent to me by Mr Kourouniotes. 'Apx. through whose generosity I am enabled also to make use of the unpublished photograph (pi. did this superstition stand in any special relation to the cult of Zeus.. H. the rain. W. pp. The level is known locally as Taberna from a shop. Ae Lids. London 1865.?>. H. cp. 'A-px. Welcker ' Lykanthropie ein Aberglaube und eine Krankheit' in his Kleitte Schriften Bonn 1850 iii. But nowhere else. c. Leubuscher Dissertatio de Lycanthropia Media aevo Berlin 1850. It is with Ae Lids that we are concerned.loc. i—92.The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios 81 Arkadia1. C. G. 920 n. 1905 xix. On the were-wolf in modern Greece generally consult N. naturally attached itself to the rite of eating human flesh2. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. eirl rov piov T&V Newr^pwj' 'EXX^wi/ Athens 1871 i. that Zeus Lykaios was not essentially. a ' Wolf-god. 6 "Aij Aicis ="A-ytos 'HXt'as. fourn. Kourouniotes in the 'E0. 58 (Ireland: seven years). MeX^r?. F. W. 67 ff. 1 J. and Diaphorti.153—214..1909 pp. 4 K. W. which was once established here to supply necessaries for the saint's festival. Hertz Der Werwolf Stuttgart 1862. therefore. 3 E. In 1903 Mr K. and the crops. 1911 xv.. 157—184. Roscher 'Das von der "Kynanthropie" handelnde Fragment des Marcellus von Side' in the Abh. 2 Hertz op. p. but only as it were by accident. Marshall in the Class. Phil.er. The top of Mount Lykaion (fig. Arch. See also F. dpx. Werwolf.-hist. Myth. 3) adduces Indian and German examples of men transformed into beasts after tasting human flesh.

chen 1907 i.82 The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios The altar of Zeus forms the apex of Ae Lids.C. These pits were circular in plan and U-shaped in vertical section. It is composed mainly of the remains of sacrifices. All the bones had been burnt. 240 in Laciniae lunonis ara sub diu sita cinerem inmobilem esse perflantibus undique procellis (quoted by Kourouniotes) and the evidence collected infra p. They were for the most part filled with ashes. nat. These served to prevent the ashes from being blown away from the exposed and wind-swept height1. i — 4. with regard to the summits of Olympos. measuring 97 ft 6 ins. 50. i. Proof of the sanctity attaching to ashes has come to light at Orchomenos in Boiotia. In this layer are numerous bones. were found in the sacrificial stratum. Bulle Orchomenos Miir. and Athos. but also of oxen and pigs: no human bones were recognised. 103 nn. 25 ff. Small fragments of phidlai and skyphoi dating from the fifth and fourth centuries B.). Inside the houses of the second pre-Mycenaean stratum H. Among the debris are large charred stones at Fig. carefully lined with yellow clay. hist. Bulle found numerous /360poi. mostly those of small animals. . It is circular in shape and flat like a threshing-floor. across. the rock being covered to a depth of 5 ft with a layer of ashes etc. also two small kotyliskoi. irregular intervals. chips of roof-tiles — one inscribed A P ( in lettering of the Q^ 1 Cp. lying singly or gathered together in small heaps. which appear to have been kept for religious reasons (H. Plin. Kyllene. sundry portions of lamps.

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and two bronze statuettes. 'Addva. 2 7re/jt/3o\os 5e £VTIV fi> ratTy X'i6ui> /cat lepbv Au/catou At6s. the other a later figure. He obtained other blocks belonging to the bases. cp. fig. 7 Trpo de rov /3w/w>0 Kioves dtio ws eVt dvicrxovra «rr?j/cacrti' rj\iov. fig. with chlamys and petasos*. 5 'E</>. jSw^aot re etcrt rdv Oeov /cat rpdwefai 5tfo /cat de-rot TCUS rpairtfais i'crot. a large key. 500 B. 'A/5%. and he suggests that these 'E0. and two eagles7. a bronze statuettebase. The columns themselves were still standing in Pausanias' day.C. 8. 30. 7. It is marked out by a line of unworked stones. 173 f. The precinct. and was rewarded for his pains. i. part of an iron chain. 66 n. undoubtedly those of the two eagle-bearing columns mentioned by Pausanias4. i.C. a greave decorated with swans and serpents in relief and inscribed fchAASANfc A I A & A N A I 2 . 490—470 B. but the gilded eagles had gone6. but has no bones in it. Kourouniotes believes that the discoloration is due to the blood of animals slain as it were on the prothysis before they were burnt on the altar.). One of these was a beardless Hermes (c. which were thus proved to have resembled the three-stepped statue-bases of the fifth and fourth centuries B.r]eXt'5as dvt[6i]Ke T<£ Awcat'y Ait /cat T~\q. 'Apx. 'A/)%. He points out that in the market-place at Megalopolis Pausanias saw an enclosure of stones and a sanctuary of Zeus Lykaios containing altars. 1904 p. 1904 p. The metal finds included a silver coin of Aigina (c. Kourouniotes restores [Ei. %<rodos 8e es avrb OVK &m. 2 1 6—2 . two small tripods of beaten bronze. which occupies the level called Taberna.1904 pis. derot §e eV' aurots ^Trixpvffoi. pilos. 6 Pans. a boundary that men or beasts could easily cross1. i.The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios 83 fourth century—and an almost shapeless terra cotta bird. In a gully north-east of the summit he had found also one marble drum from a Doric column of twenty flutes. Perhaps a geologist or an analytical chemist could supply a less gruesome explanation. 8.rd yap evros ecm STJ (njvoTrra. 3 'E<£. and had erected it on the southern base (pi.C. two tables. Kourouniotes accounts for their disappearance as follows. chlamys. Kourouniotes continued the search. 38. is approximately iSoft broad by 400 ft long. and an iron knife—altogether a meagre and disappointing collection. * Supra p. rd ye ert TraXaiorepa eweiroLi/iVTO. 7 Paus. probably of the same god. A little lower down than the eastern limit of the precinct Kontopoulos had discovered in 1897 two large bases about 23 ft apart. 159 f. 9—10. viii)5. The earth here is blackish. 8.) in chitonfskos. In the soil of the precinct were found fragments of roof-tiles. and winged boots. pi.

showing traces of Polykleitos' style ('E0. 206 fig. which 1 In addition to the bronzes here described there were found two figures of Hermes. which he refers to the seventh century B. another in the attitude of a runner (ib. . ii. 28). The fact that at least three.84 The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios eagles had been carried off from the precinct on Mount Lykaion. the rest of iron.. D. Rel. Rouse Greek Votive Offerings Cambridge 1902 p. 200 ff. one of bronze. But. The god stands erect. ix.1904 p.5i- The second statuette shows Zeus striding forward with uplifted right hand and extended left. 52)3. statuettes of Hermes were found in or near the precinct requires explanation. 321 ff.Similar statuettes. 391 ff. However that may be. p. 20—22). 212 fig. p. The remaining finds included ten engraved rings. His raised right hand grasps a thunderbolt. in the latter perhaps an eagle (fig. Fig.C. 25 ff. 5i) 2 .'Ap%. as Miss Harrison has pointed out to me. 27). a coiled snake with two heads (ib. p. 24). s 2 'E<£. 211 fig. figs. p. H. 185 fig. his outstretched left has an eagle perched upon it (fig. 'Apx. T. Kourouniotes came upon an interesting series of bronze statuettes illustrative of the cult1. 181 f. Zielinski in the Archiv f. probably four. The earliest of them.. In the former there was once a bolt. 1904 p. and a votive d<r/c6s (ib. shows that the Hermes of the Hermetic cosmogony came to Kyrene from Arkadia. Ib. 8—10. digging close to the northern base on the mountain-side. Was there a cult of Hermes on the spot? For the dedication of one deity in the temple of another see the careful collection of facts in W. figs. 1906 viii. is a clumsy figure of Zeus with short legs and long body.

.

12. Ath. 1911 xxvi. 55)* we have Zeus seated squarely on a throne. H. 12—14. Inst. 4. A. 31. T.55- half of a thunderbolt. ii § 3 (c) iv (a). Et. See infra ch. figs. Kekule von Stradonitz and H. Ant. Winnefeld Bronzen aus Dodona in den koniglichen Museen zu Berlin 1909 pi. He wears a chiton with short sleeves. Carapanos Dodone et ses ruines Paris 1878 pi. and both hands hold attributes. Brit. 44. 'A/>x. deutsch. nos. Stai's Marbres et Bronzes: Athenesz p. A. 45. 43. which is now lost. 1 . the direct ancestor of the pastoral staff still borne by our ecclesiastical hierarchy3. 2 Olympia iv. and a himdtion draped under his right arm and over his left shoulder. Both arms are bent at the elbow. 1906 xix. 53) 2 and at Dodona (fig. His feet. i. Thirdly (fig. a sceptre—but a short rod with a knob at the bottom and a crook at the top closely resembling the Roman lituos. 187 f. which are bare. as we should have expected. i7of.1. 3 C.86 The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios exemplify a type current about 480 B. 18 f. 8. 1896—1897 iii. 30. de Ridder in the Rev. arch. His hair is long and falls over his back. pi. Sch. Armfield in Smith-Cheethani Diet. d. Chr. Gr. i. A. rest on a footstool. 5 On the derivation of the pastoral staff from the lituos see the Rev. 43—45 pi. 7. In the left is the lower Fig. and his lips are drawn up in the usual archaic expression. See the discussion by Miss C. in the right—not. 10. Frickenhaus in the Jahrb. have been found at Olympia (fig. The finest specimen of this type is at Berlin: R. kais. 149—152 pi. 1904 p. his beard is pointed. 54)3. 362 no. ii. Hutton in the Ami. 4 'E</>. 1565 ff.C.

289 f. 187 lituum. But what exactly was the lituosl In shape it differs but little from that of the ordinary crooked stick carried by old-fashioned Greeks2.The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios 87 Kourouniotes reminds us that.C. 'limb. when he acted as rainmaker on Mount Lykaion7. after a review of the evidence.). Monsieur H.) can hardly be dissociated from the fifth-century coinage of Arkadia. where the priestly king carries a large reversed lituos*. Aen. in quo potestas esset dirimendarum litium. Etr. 6 Walde Lat. 1277 f. Gregor. 'branch.' from a root *lei-t-. But. Siret in L?Arithropologie 1910 xxi. For this statuette (c. Worterb. Thedenat in Daremberg-Saglio Diet. 'limb. etym. 7. 'limb. 345 derives lituus. Euandros. Gothic Ifyus. 303 would connect it with neolithic axe-handles: he sees in its form and theirs the arm of a cuttle-fish ! 3 J. This tradition points to an early connexion between Arkadia and Italy. which ends below in a stud or knob. 9 The lituos is not elsewhere known as an attribute of Zeus. 550—500 B. I would venture one step further and suggest that the lituos is ultimately the conventionalised branch of a sacred tree6. 40. Garstang The Land of the Hittites London 1910 pp. Thedenat. ii pi. son of Hermes. vi. 370 ff. A bronze statuette found at Olympia shows him holding in his left hand a broken object. 2 1 . where he built a town Pallantion on the Palatine. 839 ff. 6163). 7. so to speak. p.C. which—we have said8—shows Zeus Lykaios seated on a throne with a sceptre in his hand. 68. 639 ff. 'to crook or bend. infra ch. it certainly serves as a quasi-sceptre. ii § 9 (a) iii. according to tradition1. This Furtwangler Olympia iv. Specimens were found by Kourouniotes on Mt Lykaion. whether the lituos represents an original branch or not. branch. Ant. later known as the Lupercalia.' and the Anglo-Saxon Urn.' Km. concludes— on the strength of a note by Servius3—that the augur's lituos may have been a royal sceptre4. 17 pi. 229 pis. Old High German lid. 65. His priest— we have seen—took an oak-branch in hand.' On the royal sceptre as a conventionalised tree see Folk-Lore 1904 xv. was an oak-branch. L. 48. This conclusion is borne out by the Hittite rock-carvings of Boghaz-Keui (c. 8 Supra p. Ant. 217. 71.' which with another determinative gives the Old Icelandic limr. and it is open to us to believe that the use of the lituos came to the latter from the former. 1271 B. s Serv. i. 7 Supra p. 68. in Verg. id est regium baculum. i b). In all probability both the statuette and the coins represent the cult image of the god9. led a colony from Pallantion in Arkadia into Italy. If Zeus Lykaios bears a lituos. Saglio in Daremberg-Saglio Diet. no. E. and introduced the cult of Pan Lykaios and the festival of the Lykaia. Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. it is because his sceptre. 40 a took to be the handle of a sword: Kourouniotes would restore it as a lituos (so also Sta'is Marbres et Bronzes : Athenes'2' p. iii. 2. 4 H. A black-figured amphora shows Zeus enthroned with a crooked stick as sceptre (Mtis.

and an eagle with spread wings (fig. Mus. Ib.88 The Precinct of Zeus Lykaios A fourth figure. 15. He is clothed in a long himation. said to have been found in Sicily. of Zeus. and may be assigned to the early fifth century5. In his clenched right hand he holds the remains of a thunderbolt. no. no. in his clenched left. . 195 f. 4 Ib. 1904 p. Ib. 56)1. 16. Rom. 193 fig.'Life 1908 p. 597). p. A few other fragments—a right hand grasping part of a bolt2. and was doubtless dedicated to Zeus Lykaios by one Trygon {Brit. 523 is baseless. ant. 'Ap%. 194 fig. Gr. 70. Fig. gives us Zeus standing on a square base. Gr. 57 #. Guide Gk. 56. 18—19. The romance imagined by Roehl Inscr. It. figs. TRVFON on the other. more clumsy in style. no attribute at all (fig. 1 2 5 3 'E<£. or statues. which is inscribed A l O ^ A V K A on one side. by—possibly belong to a larger statue. 194 fig. 17. Inscr. no. p. p. the fore-part of a right foot3. 37 f. Sic. It may here be mentioned that the British Museum possesses a silver ingot.

(e) The Cult of Zeus Lykaios at Kyrene. 2 f. shortly after 550 B.). \ (Ekdemos and Demophanes.). See also Archivf. v.C. Philopoim. of Megalopolis. in the third century B. for more than once Arcadians were called in to settle with authority political disputes that had arisen at Kyrene1. Rel. 57 b. and Plout. 1 Hdt. . •The cult of Zeus Lykaios spread from Arkadia to Kyrene. 22. 161 (Demonax of Mantineia. Polyb. or Megalophanes. to have been some ancestral link between these two places. 10. i. 42 n.The Cult of Zeus Lykaios at Kyrene 89 Fig. There appears. 1906 ix. 4.C. indeed.

i. Ludvig Miiller pointed out that the figure of Zeus Lykaios on the early silver coins of Arkadia (fig. 7 L. ib. 49 no. Miiller op.C. 801 pi. In the Montagu Sale Catalogue 1896 i. as did the Arcadian coins. 717. 104 no. 568 (cp. 4. i. the position of the eagle. 60)6. 799 pi. Sunbury Sale Catalogue 1896 ii. Hunter Cat. 49 no. 188. 184 fig. Coins iii. 786 (?). pi. 92. i. 43)2 is reproduced on a gold stater of Kyrene (fig. so far as I know. encamped upon the 'hill of Zeus Lykaios' near Kyrene1. which sometimes flies before Zeus with a snake in its talons4.. 58)3. 2). supra p. 2 1 . 10. 104 no. Supplement p.90 The Cult of Zeus Lykaios at Kyrene Herodotos relates that the Persian army. Hdt. 49 nos. \. sometimes rests on the Fig. cit. Cp. 190. Fig.). 79 no. 184. 4 Id. 68 f. 185—187 fig. Miiller op. 189. 6 L. Moreover. Here too we see the god enthroned towards the left with a sceptre in his right hand. right hand of the god5. and sometimes is absent altogether7. ib. 9 pi. This certainly implies a Cyrenaic cult of that deity. i. Other specimens of the Cyrenaic stater vary. Miiller op. only with more freedom. while an eagle flies directly towards him. 189 fig. 59. 185 (my fig. on its return from the capture of Barke (512 B. cit. cit. 59). p. be precisely paralleled. Miiller Numismatique de VAncienne Afrique Copenhague 1860 i. 48 no. 67. 95 no. 3 L. 10 the eagle appears to be seated on a rock. 62. sometimes perches behind him on a stem or branch curved like a lituos (figs. 190. The remarkable adjunct of the eagle on a lituosshaped branch cannot. 6 L. Montagu Sale Catalogue 1896 i. 49 no. O'Hagan Sale Catalogue 1908 p. 203. 60 is from a specimen in the British Museum. Cp. ib.

7 '( = my fig. 23. gr. 372 fig. 63)3. n pi. His free arm is consistently shown resting on the low back of his seat in an attitude of easy indolence. 3. Miri. or by the eagle on a crooked bough. 3 Brit. 5 Head Hist. Mus. 306 f. In view of the fact that the eagle and the lituos were both attributes of Zeus at the precinct on Mount Lykaion 4 the combination of the two furnishes an additional reason for believing that the throned Zeus of Kyrene was indeed Zeus Lykaios*. 15 . 6I)1. Coins Pontus etc. On the oaks of Zeus 2r/>arios see Class. 8 pi. Cat. Now this is a trait which is not seen in any other representation of Zeus on Greek coins. d'As. i. B Sicily. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. the only close parallel to it 6 in the whole range of ancient Zeus-types is the careless and yet majestic P.1 p. Rev. which appears on a unique tetradrachm of Aitne (fig. 40 pi. 5. n . 296. 6. 4 Supra p. But a better analogy is afforded by the eagle on a pine-tree before the seated figure of Zeus Aitnaios. 2 1 . 63) Waddington —Babelon—Reinach Monn. 6 Overbeck Gr. 1904 xviii. 2. i. Paruta Sicilia Numismatica Lugduni Batavorum 1723 pi. In one detail the Zeus of these Cyrenaic coins differs from the Zeus of the Arcadian coins. 35 pi. probably representing the oaks of Zeus Strdtios. 5. num. Kunstmyth. 729. 79 f-. 161. 62)2. 869 says ' Zeus Ammon'—a curious blunder. which is found on imperial bronze coins of Amaseia (fig.The Cult of Zeus Lykaios at Kyrene 91 An eagle above and in contact with a transverse lituos is said to occur on a late bronze coin of Panormos (fig. ib? p. Infra Append. 83 ff. Zeus p. In fact. 5.

27. 98 ff. 2. 3 Hesych. Humphreys London 1721 i.. ant. i. It would not therefore be surprising to find that a ware originating in Sparta was made at Kyrene also. if I am not mistaken. pi. 67 f. Stud. tpyov Qsidlov. The subject cannot here be discussed in detail. But the epithet is obviously a participle. regards the AV^^-shaped branch of the Cyrenaic coins as a vine-shoot. Zeus 'Taking his Siesta*' (f) Zeus Lykaios on a Spartan (' Cyrenaic') Kylix. of which we are told that it ' seemed to be seated on a sofa2.ire\ov). highly probable that the cult-statue of Zeus Lykaios existing at Kyrene in the period to which the gold coins belong was the work. 1909 p. mag. H. 10 no. and in The Year's Work in Class. And this seems on the whole to be the simplest assumption in the case of the Arkesilas-/^///^ (De Ridder Cat. 44 ff.ei'os' Zei)s £v Kvprivy. 34. Smith The Sculptures of the Parthenon London 1910 pi. This. 6 after Bartoli-Bellori Admir. 48 f.rbv K\ddov rijs a/j. 567 Bekker) avrov d£ irpos jrjv r\v j3peras Atos £K \EVKOV \l6ov. B. 30. 6 Pettier Cat. 237 ff. Collignon Le Parthenon Paris 1909 pi. 64)*. 322 f. Droop's discovery that the original home of ' Cyrenaic' ware was not Kyrene but Sparta7. F. Nat. 529. D.. 323 c (i. earned for him the curious sobriquet Qi'Elinymenos*. M. therefore. 1907—1908 xiv. And such he may well be. Au>6s . Ath. Wace ib. 468 n. if not of Pheidias himself. See J. p. P. tKwuuv dvaTravo/Aevos. If further evidence be required. 189). Vases antiques du Louvre 2me Serie Paris 1901 p. A. Vases de la Bibl. R. It is. L. 77 had previously conjectured that the 'Cyrenaic' vases were made in Lakonike. i. one may point to the fact that in a temple of Helios and Selene at Byzantion there was preserved as late as the eleventh century a white marble statue of Zeus ascribed to Pheidias. E 668. Miiller op. But we must bear in mind that Sparta. 1908 p. 2 Kedren. 1909 p. 3. Wheeler A Handbook of Greek Archaeology New York etc.. 12. 17. Hell.evos meant not only Me dieu qui repose' but also the god 'of the Vine-shoot' (et. Brit. 5 F. was the grandmother of Kyrene. For the force of Studniczka's comparison is in no way weakened by Mr J. at least of some sculptor much under his influence. comp. 1881 p. 7 Ann. Cp. 14 f. 4 Hesych. .' Whether the product of Pheidiac art or not. Zeus at Kyrene reclined on his throne in an attitude of unusual repose. Klein Euphronios'2 Wien 1886 p. i. M. Arch. hist. 63 no. and conjectures that Zeus 'E\iv^/j. W. Stud. no. Dawkins in the Journ. Sch. as the mother of Thera.'EXu'tfyu. Vases du Louvre ii. Zeit. 65)6 bore a striking resemblance to the seated Zeus of the Arcadian coins. 127. ifdvov r<£ doKeiv ^TTI K\lj>T)s. Studniczka Kyrene Leipzig 1890 p.92 Zeus Lykaios on a Spartan Kylix pose of Zeus in the Parthenon frieze (fig. 39 f. Rom. cit. J. Studniczka 5 in dealing with the cults of Kyrene observed that a seated Zeus on a 'Cyrenaic' kylix in the Louvre (fig. pi. and proposed to identify the former with the latter as Zeus Lykaios. 29 pi. 330. 1908 xxviii. Montfaucon Antiquity Explained trans. See also R. From Mount Lykaion to the Eurotas valley was no far 1 A.

66)4. arch. 1898 xiii Arch.T. is seated on his altar—a large stepped structure of stone blocks2—. now in the Royal Museum at Cassel. deutsch.Zeus Lykaios on a Spartan Kylix 93 cry. if Alkman the great lyric poet of Sparta composed a hymn to Zeus Lykaios^. The Louvre kylix is on this showing the artistic counterpart of Alkman's poem. 65. in whose precinct sundry statuettes of Hermes were 1 Alkman _/5'fl^. Reichel Uber vorhellenische Gotterculle^N\v& 1897 p. Fig. wearing a chiton and tightly swathed in an ornamental himdtion. K. Himer. Another 'Cyrenaic' kylix. The god's long hair hangs over his back. p. . 3 W. It is at first sight tempting to regard this too as a representation of Zeus Lykaios. 5. d. .3054 fahrb. 3 (Alkman) ertiyxave fjxv dia TTJS «'s Atos AvKaiou KOfiifav ofcrjuara. Anz. Zeus. 2 — 3.\. Inst. shows a male figure enthroned in conversation with Hermes (fig. Ridgeway in Anthropological Essays presented to Edward Burnett Tylor Oxford t9°7 P. i ff. Bergk4. 189^ figs. and. 40 f. while his eagle wings its way directly towards him. the Spartan potters very possibly represented the same deity on their cups. or. 2 See W. kais. and his upper lip is shaved in genuine Spartan style3.

67. .94 Zeus Lykaios on a Spartan Kylix Fig.

Walters History of Ancient Pottery London 1905 i. J. a fragmentary kylix in the British Museum. The second vase. 67)3. for its resemblance to the contemporary funereal reliefs of Lakonike 5 is quite unmistakeable. 229 f. 737. F. etc. 3. But on 'Cyrenaic' ware religious or mythological types predominate (H. Jahn loc. Jahrb. Arch. Vases i. 341). The animal supporting the throne has been variously interpreted as a hare (O. Myth. cit. The supports of the larger throne are in the shapes of a tree and an animal—species difficult to determine (fig. ii. Dumont—E. 83. who raises her left hand with a gesture of reverence and in her right hand presents a pomegranate (fig. no. His interlocutor is a female figure. cit. 2 1 . 102 ff. Boehlau remarked2.Zeus Lykaios on a Spartan Kylix 95 found1. Studniczka op. B. Munchen p. Fl 68< therefore. Cat. 51 no. Studniczka op. 23 suggests Apollon with the Hesperid Kyrene. further inspection reveals numerous points of contact between all three vases and the reliefs in question. as J. p. again depicts a male. 23 fig. 1881 xxxix pi. Reinach Rep. 3 Jahn Vasensamml. 5. Indeed. B 6 (Apollon? and Kyrene). Tod and A. I conclude. Pettier Les ceramiqites de la Grece propre Paris 1884 i. 5 The best collection of facts concerning these reliefs is that given by M. that what the reliefs were £in sculpture the vases were in ceramic art—a memorial of the divinised dead. 13. cit. This last vase fortunately enables us to fix the character of the other two. This satisfactorily accounts for the enthronement Supra p. conceived on a smaller scale and enthroned over against him. a kylix in the Munich collection. once more shows a man on a lion-footed throne. loc. Moreover the vase is not to be dissociated from two others of the same sort. But the bird behind the throne is. B. Studniczka op. p. cit. One of these. This vase is commonly thought to represent a genre scene—a man talking with a woman. Vases ii. 68)4. 434). figure on a lion-legged throne. conversing with similar gestures. Wace A Catalogue of the Sparta Museum Oxford 1906 p.) or a dog (A. p. 4 Brit. merely put in to fill up the blank space and cannot pass muster as the eagle of Zeus. 8 fig. Mits. cit. 18 (Apollon or Aristaios? or Battos ? ? and Kyrene) and in Roscher Lex. 302. N. and we may fairly suspect a deeper meaning. 1729 (Battos and Kyrene). Before him stands a woman. Zeit.

just as the funereal Fig. Stud. Overbeck to represent Zeus Lykaios. and back in a wolf-skin. A small bronze statuette. He is clad over head. figs. N. Welcker for the Museum of National Antiquities at Bonn. Finally. The god stands erect holding a deep bowl or pot in his outstretched right hand and leaning with his raised left hand on some object now lost. i b—4. 176 ff. 1908 xxviii. and for her gift of a pomegranate. G. Tod and A. reliefs tended towards simplification of type1. Hell. for the presence of Hermes the 'Conductor of Souls. 107 f. and 1 2 M. found in the Rhine-district and procured by F. J. 69. cit. p. Droop in ft\&Joum. shoulders. the fore-paws of which have been cut off. Wace op.' for the reverential attitude of the worshipper. . 69)2. B. (g) Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb.96 Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb of the man and the woman. was believed by J. so a 'Cyrenaic' kylix in the National Museum at Athens reduces the whole scene of the enthroned dead to a mere head and shoulders (fig. sewn on inside. P. J.

70. . 7 r .Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb 97 Fig. Fig.

98 Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb Fig. 72. Fig.73- .

Mitth. arguing that in Greece as elsewhere ' die Todtengeister Wolfsgestalt annehmen. Such figures regularly hold a bowl in one hand and rest the other on a long-handled mallet. Rep. though the nature of the skin is seldom so clearly marked as in this example. 73)" Hades likewise is coifed in a wolfskin 9 . who was ' horribly black' and wore a wolf-skin (Paus. 5. Mus.C. 8. Katalog der konigl. It will not be denied that this interesting bronze shows a Zeus-like god wearing a wolfskin. 15 and 15 a. d'As. 141 n. 218 pi. 9 W. 26). 12). who carries off a girl on an Attic statuette-vase belonging to the end of the fifth century B. but this. Bronzes p.gr. 20). Coins Pontus etc. ix pis. ap. 142 no. pi. 3. Myth. 4 Caes. 27. to judge from a copper coin of Amisos (Brit. cit. sacks. Zeus p. 1116 n. even if that had been the case. i. 49 pi. 5. Cat. 46 pi. Many of them also wear a wolf-skin hood (fig. alib. 7i) B . 21 no. Dressel in the Zeitschr. 137—185. d. n. Gr. s. 6. A beardless head wearing a wolf-skin occurs on a copper coin of Sinope (H. 181. 167 no. C. For there is neither literary nor epigraphic evidence to prove that the Arcadian Zeus travelled as far north as he did south. 2 3 Reinach Bronzes Figure's pp. Stat. xvi. Cat. p. Overbeck in the fahrb. 7 G. Sculpt.^p. 6. Phil. cp. p. Reinach himself suggests that the Gaulish mallet-god may have got his wolf-skin from some Greek identification of him with the Arcadian Zeus Lykaios*. Inst. Inst. ImhoofBlumer Gr. rhein. from Kypros shows a male figure with the head and tail of a wolf thrusting a sword through a panther or lion (Brit. 196 pi. Num. 80 n.-hist. 1599 fig. Munzen p. Gesellsch. Mus. interprets 7—2 . Alterthumsfreund. Furtwangler Masterpieces of Gk. 2. cit. 6. 1870 xlii. p. p. 26. i. im Rheinl. vaterlcind. Another fine specimen from Vienne (Isere) is in the British Museum (Brit. 266 f. Head Hist. 3. Miis. ii.. the ancestor—Caesar tells us4—of all the Gauls. 5 Drawn from a cast of the bronze found at Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux (Drome) and now in the Museum at Avignon (Reinach op. 6. 44 f. f. Harpokr. Overbeck is followed by Gruppe Gr. /o)1. 3. id. Myth. \ 1 J. who ranges the Bonn statuette3 along with a whole series of bronzes representing the Gallo-Roman Dis pater. Furtwangler loc. Helbig in the Ann. d. p. Roscher Lex. 1882 vii. 146. d. num. (Ath. But we shall not venture to describe him as Zeus Lykaios. 4. 178 pi. 1851 xvii. 98 no. 15). Mus. 1805. 1807 f. Rel.' A gold pendant seal of the sixth century B. Seitafav. i recognises as Thanatos a winged youth with a wolf-skin or dog-skin cap. Min. Vereins v. 18.C. Scherer in Roscher Lex. Gall. 8 Man. 72)7 and Corneto (fig. And. Cat. 1898 xxi. Kunstmyth. Roscher in the Abh. Golini Firenze 1865 pi. Rather we shall agree with S. Gaz. id.Zeus-like deities in wolf-skin garb 99 knotted round the wearer's neck (fig. de bell. his cult-type was widely different from this. Conestabile Pitture murali e suppellettili etrusche scoperte presso Orvieto nel 1863 da Domen. 141 no. p. H. Classe 1897 xvii. 788. Reinach2. W. d. jewellery p. 60 f. Alterthiimer Bonn 1851 p. is probably female. Waddington-Babelon-Reinach Monn. d. i. 381 ff. n) and Lykos the hero of Athens. compares Lykas the hero of Temesa. 1887 xii.v. 497 (Amazon Lykastia?). Id. 8. ib. Arch. 6 Reinach op. 162 n. 8). Wiss. 2. 69—74 pi. and from the Etruscan Hades to the Gallo-Roman Dis pater there is but a short step. Myth. cit. 26). preuss. But it must not be forgotten that in Etruscan tomb-paintings at Orvieto (fig.). who had the form of a wolf (Eratosth. 20 pi.

20 f.. Terracotta Room. schol. Of the Arcadian Olympos I have already spoken. 9 Polyb. 5 K. J. 127. M. i. 38. 21. 38 F. 598. yet another in Kilikia12. . 2 ext. 409. hist. 2.) and Tarentum (British Museum. 3 Strab. und rom. 27. p. Rhod. case 43—uncatalogued) showing the Gorgon's head in a skin cap. nat. the fabulous island of Euhemeros. 92. 4 ext. i. Marc. 27. i. 5. It was sometimes confused with Mount Ide: indeed four peaks of Mount Ide opposite to the town of Antandros bore the name Olympos8. 356. p. 44. Ann. 77. 8f. 671. A mountain near Laurion in Attike is still called Olympos4. Inst. Ruf. 160 fig. Baedeker op. 470. 12 Strab. 226) and on two Roman monuments found near Treves (F. 5. homonyms of the greater Ossa and Olympos in Thessaly and Makedonia. Dawkins in the Ann. schol. b. Val. and a third in Skyros6. and Kypros had two heights that bore that name14. 27 d. i88ff. Sex. Oros. Diod. Brit. Id. pi. Finally Panchaia. had an Olympos of its own15. 7. Pick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 pp. 21. Inst. Flor. i. unless we should identify it with the Mysian range. n. M. Plin. 14 15 Strab. in Dionys. Ap. 8 and 10. 1 A. Brunn-Bruckmann Denkm. 9. 702. 5. also the antefixes from Ruvo (Man... 3. Max. 55). Hettner Die romischen Steindenkmdler des Provinzialmuseums zu Trier Trier 1893 p. 8 Strab. Val. d. bibl. Eustath. 202. 225 ff. nat. 9. 40 f. See further De Vit Onomasticon iv. 666. 37. A mountain-village in Karpathos bears the same name7. 4. iii pi. 781. Lakonike had its Olympos near the town of Sellasia2. Eustath. and similarly explains the wolf-skin or dog-skin cap of Athena in the Villa Albani (Helbig Guide Class. in II. Ap. 24. another in Lydia10. Hattiden und Danubier in Griechenland Gottingen 1909 prefers to regard it as ' Pelasgian. 26. 9. hist. 1902—1903 ix. xii?) relief of a man with a wolf's or dog's head see O. 734. hist. 131. perhaps a pre-Greek1. 118. 11 Strab. another in Lykia11. 5. Pisa in Elis was situated between two mountains named Ossa and Olympos3. 164 suggests that it may have been a Phrygian name. 598. 6 General-Karte von Griechenland Wien 1885 ?!• 57 R. 13 Plin. Amm. Eustath. in II. p. 4 K. Murray Greece London 1900 pp. 66. Bekker. name for a whole series of mountains in Greece and Asia Minor. Sch. 140. (a) The cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos. Ant. Rhod. The Mysian Olympos is a mountain-chain forming the boundary between Bithynia and Mysia. no. Cp. Max. Baedeker Greece Leipsic 1889 p. 31. For a late (s.. Rome ii. der gr. 8. Dalton Byzantine Art and Archaeology Oxford 1911 p. 6. 682 f. nat. Plin. i. 65. 2. 69. There was another Olympos in Galatia9.ioo The cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos § 4. d. no. 10 Athen.' 2 Polyb. 40 f. 27. Liv. the head on the Amisos coin as that of Perseus wearing the cap of Hades. 18 ff. Phot./<?r. 25. p. 5. as is another and loftier height near Eretria in Euboia5. 796 f. 20. 44 f. Zeus and Olympos. Olympos was an ancient. Lesbos too had its Mount Olympos13. p. Ath. Sculpt. 1839 xi. 298 b 23 f. 46 no. cit.

when there was still a little snow on the summit. Diagram showing Mount Olympos rising through the aer into the aither.Mount Olympos (the Homeric paKpos "OXvprros} from the port of Litokhoro. J. See page 101 ff.] See page roi. [This photograph was taken by Mr A. .30 o'clock on an August morning. B. Wace about 7.

.

A. 262. 3. dispersed yet more on this side. imperf. 342. T. Fig. 100 nn. from a religious and mythological point of view. 14. //. Philop. 3 . 2 L. Vib. 135.' The ancients were much impressed by the fact that Olympos rears its crest above the rain-clouds5. p. Aug. 2 . south-west to the range of Pindos. Heuzey Le Mont Olympe et rAcarnanie Paris 1860 p. Dr Holland. i. i p. Dodwell A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece London 1819 ii. citt. . seeming almost to overhang the place. 206 ff. 6 Apul. Theod. 149. . They fancied that birds could not fly over it6. writes : ' We had not before been aware of the extreme vicinity of the town to the base of Olympus . ix i. 2. Etc.754 feet above sea-level. 5). de civ.and accidentally looking back. we saw the sunbeams resting on the snowy summits of Olympus 4 . de Genesi locc. 4. 271. Lucan. de cons. met. however. cp. Lact. who saw it from Litokkoro. east to Mount Athos and the sea beyond2. through which. M. 5 Flout. 8 The schol. Heuzey devotes a large illustrated volume to the mountain. in Stat. 74. Soaring to a height of 9.. 138 Oudendorp. but when leaving it. The views given in most books of travel and topography are very inadequate. Fick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen p. 407. Leake Travels in Northern Greece London 1835 iii. and so aerial in their aspect. 82. 105 has a coloured plate of fjymbo as seen from the south between Larissa and Baba.. Cap. 77The same form of the name £lymbo or Elymbos is given by the modern Greeks to the mountains in Attike and Euboia (supra p. we saw through an opening in the fog. A. Aug. in Aristot. is the great Macedonian ridge that culminates in a peak still known as Elymbo^-. frag. Dodwell Views in Greece London 1821 ii. Holland Travels in the Ionian Isles. 349. 7 Aug. Theb. Olympos penetrated the aer or ' moist sky' and reached the aither or ' burning sky' (pi. as through arches. it affords a wide panorama : the eye travels south to Mount Parnassos. In short. 13 gives the diagram here reproduced (fig. 74).The cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos 101 Of all these mountains the most important. Seq. W. Dei 15. It was in the Greek sense of the term an 'aetherial' 1 E. a faint outline of vast precipices. Mall. far above the belt of clouds and mist that hung upon the sides of the mountain. 3. de deo Socr. 31 Oberlin. 3 E. p. 302. de Genesi ad litt. de Genesi ad litt. Equally striking is the view of the mountain from below3. Mart. The fog.' Dr Holland adds that these summits ' rose into a dark blue sky. but provides no picture of it at all! 4 H. and that at such an altitude the air was too thin to support human life7. 96 Diibner ap. Plac. and partial openings were made . that for a few minutes we doubted whether it might not be a delusion to the eye. Claud. London 1815 p. de Genesi ad litt. 8. 27. 106.. 2. 2)s. north to the confines of Makedonia.

Mus. 10. Suppl. 62. with a snake erect before him (fig. 18. defals. Maximus Tyrius informs us that ' in primitive times men dedicated to Zeus likewise. cit. States i. Suppl. G. On the summit of the mountain there was an altar to Zeus. 51. 349 f. L. 75 shows Mt Sipylos on a copper coin of Magnesia ad Sipylum in my collection (cp. 73 Reiske). iii. Diod. 84) or on either side of him (Rasche op. nat. 15. ii. 7). de fals. 3. 2 f. 16.). 17. ii. 606). 621. Max. W. 4. Loukian. 5 Max. p. 2 p. or. ib. or. iii. cp. est enim mirae altitudinis. ol irpuroi. 4. Later a Roman colony was founded at Dium (Ptolem. Rasche Lex.. p. 268 identify the site of the temple of Zeus at Dion with that of the church of Haghia-Paraskevi. ii. and eagle (Brit. dvdpu-iroi Kopvtpas opGiv. de sacr. Gerber Die Berge in der Poesie und Kimst der Alien Miinchen 1882. Brit. diss. Suppl. 6 Myth. 3. Daumet Mission Archeologique de Macedoine Paris 1876 Texte p. i Diibner t-ireffiiuo-av de /cat Att dyaXftaTO. s. u. leg.io2 The cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos height1. 859 f. sceptre. ii. Suppl. The snakes occur also with the figure of Athena (Brit. 35). Tyr.). in place of statues. 605 f. Mus. n. xxxviiiff. Mus. i. iii. Arrian. 192. and by Alexandros iii (Diod. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Mart. Plin. ep. Cat. Dion Chrys. Myth. 192 lovis Olympici. Cat. Steph. Ulp. qui dictus Olympicus ab Olympo monte. diss. Mus. i. cp. p. cit. 4 At Atop Archelaos king of Makedonia established a festival of Zeus'OXifyiTrtos (Diod. 12 p. Rasche op. 13. i. Gruppe Gr. Coins Macedonia etc. Tyr. the Romans under the consul Philippus treated the temple with greater respect (Liv. Olympos and Ide and any other mountain that nears the sky5. In 169 B. 71. Dion Chrys. 26. 605 ff. 216). leg. 608). The existing temple was pillaged by a band of Aetolians under Skopas in the reign of Philippos v (Polyb.. standing in a distyle temple (id. And sundry details concerning it are mentioned by Solinus. 5. 8 Diibner opos Ka7T7ra56/cats /cat deos /cat op/cos Kal aya\/j. iii. 867.C. Fig.75Lydia p. 3 Farnell Cults of Gk. Suppl. hist. On the later personification of mountains in general see A. . 606). p. 8. We must distinguish from this dedication of a mountain to a definite deity the old and originally zoi'stic belief that the mountain had a divine life of its own : Dion Chrys. cp. 73 Reiske). et poetae pro caelo ponere solent. n. Vat. 9.. Cat. 8. 9). Atop. aetherius used of Olympus by Verg. 350. Coins Macedonia etc. 8. 71. 3.' An anonymous Latin mythographer records an actual cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos6. cp. id est caelestis.a. with thunderbolt and sceptre (id. ubi colebatur. and it was believed that offerings left upon it would not be affected by 1 Cp. Aen.v.): the type is probably derived from that of Zeus (see ib. 351. 139 f. Arrian. or. 405 f. Plutarch and Augustine. Reiske TroXXot r&v papfidpuv ireviq re /cat airopia r^x^s opi? Beotis eirovot. cp. But that is a mistake. 1676°. Coins Fig. Heuzey— H. 607). i). Num. who intended to rebuild the temple there (Diod. i. p. 16. 16. Myth. 4).. 44. 1059 n< 2 > an(^ on ^a^of the Mysian Olympos in particular. and therefore formed a fitting abode for Zeus the 'aetherial' god2. Coins Galatia etc. 242. p. Macdonald Coin Types Glasgow 1905 pp. It is sometimes stated 3 that the only evidence of a Zeuscult on Mount Olympos is the name of the town Dion*' at its foot. Rel. and coins struck there in imperial times show Zeus standing with phidle. 350. 319. in Dem. 16. which was celebrated also by Philippos ii (Dem. 2 p. 349 f. 17. Byz. the of Mount Argaios on coins of Kaisareia in Kappadokia (Brit. 141 f. pi. "0\vfjarov /cat "Idrjv /cat et n aXXo opos irAT/fftdfet T£ otipavtj). ib. Cat. iii. TO. the tops of mountains. 2 Supra p. 55. ii.

but at least it agrees with the authorities cited infra n.. P. two good manuscripts. qui spatia huius humidi aeris excedere dicitur. After consecratum codd. Philop. 5 H. 44 f. 2 Plout.u. 303. To it once a year go the monks from the monastery of Saint Dionysios in the ravine of Litokhoro.dra}v 5ieffKeda<r/Ji. The Zeus-cult of Mount Olympos has even survived. elem. de Genesi ad litt. Te<t>pa.). But his eagle still haunts the height. \.) alterant anni cerimoniam permanent.33 (Mount Athos is believed to be too high for rain to fall on its summit. fi-fjre VTTO irvev/j. i. On the highest peak of the mountain is a small chapel of Saint Elias. 14 (the thigh-pieces and ashes of the yearly sacrifice to Hermes on the top of Mount Kyllene are found undisturbed by those who take part in the next year's procession. 240). p. loc.frijv evpov afiriiv otirws ws t-Oeaav. The same beliefs attached to Mount Kyllene in Arkadia 3 and to Mount Athos in Chalkidike 4 .. and they say a mass in the chapel on the summit 5 . fiera Tr\ei<rTovs eviavrofis Trepiepyaffd/ULevoi. Th. 444if.-F. insert litterae in cinere scriptae usque ad (ad usque P. to the present day. Their procession starts at night by torch-light. Probably omens were drawn not only from the flame and the smoke of the sacrifice (L.Tro\e\onr6Tes. Every year victims were led in procession up the mountain-side. Heuzey Le Mont Olympe el ''Acarnaniepp. A folk-song heard by Mr J. Plin. 138. 4 Solin. as elsewhere6.7ry ry Ma/ceSoi't/cy. but also from the accidental arrangement of the ashes on the altar.v yap ev run TOIJTWV dirodf/jievoi rives r) Kal e'/c QVGI&V T&V ev ^Keivois yevofj-evwv a. on reaching the top. i.. S. . nee difflantur ventosis spiritibus nee pluviis diluuntur. in Aristot. 82 TO.fJLara fielvaL els erepav ruiv iepetwv avdpaviv eK TTJS irporepas ev ry 'OX^. built of rude stones collected on the spot. and those who led them. in a modified form. StuartGlennie. 8. makes Olympos exclaim : 1 Solin. sat. Jn^ra ch. 6. found intact certain letters formed in the ashes on the occasion of their last visit2. Aug. A. Etc. Here. because the altars there have none of their ashes washed away and lose nothing of their bulk). ia-ropei de n\oi5rapxos Kal ypd/j.a. 3 Plout. Gemin. imperf. quaedam literae in pulvere solere fieri perhibeantur et post annum integrae atque illaesae inveniri ab iis qui solemniter memoratum montem ascendebant. It was customary to leave these undisturbed from one sacrifice to the next (Pers. because the summit is cloudless and windless)./hz^. when ascending from the pass of Petra. 82 n. sed volvente anno cuiusmodi relicta fuerint eiusmodi reperiuntur : et omnibus tempestatibus a corruptelis aurarum vindicatur quidquid ibi semel est deo consecratum. i § 5 (f). cit. hist. 96 Diibner ap. yap v\lsri\oT. A. i. cuius altaribus si qua de extis inferuntur. i. i p. Zeus himself has been replaced by Saint Elias. met. 11.ev7]v. Maury Religions de la Grcce Paris 1857 ii. at least in the popular imagination.The cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos 103 wind or weather. but would be found again after a year's interval precisely as they had been left1. L. Kal ev Ki/XXijcij dt <f>affiv ('ApKadlas 5' opos) j3\r]6ei<rav. 14 in illo autem neque nubes concrescere asseruntur neque aliquid procellosum existere.a. See further supra p. Kei/j. ut in vertice Olympi montis. 135. nat. 6 ara est in cacumine lovi dicata. Holland Travels in the Ionian Isles.Ta T&V opGiv virepve(pij re Am Kal vwep^i'efj. astr. quippe ubi ventus adeo nullus est. Mommsen does not admit this addition into his text (Berolini 1864).

Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 16 Kinkel M-vrj/jLOffforis Kal Zyvos 'OXvpirtov 4vv4a Kovpai ap. S..'mountain. Cornut. also Hes. J. 14 p. Stuart-Glennie Greek Folk Poesy London 1896 i. de plac.c mountain2. ev. phil. 2. theog. Gruppe Gr. and on his beauty gazes!1 (b) Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus on Mount Olympos. Kovpai Atos. and it is permissible to suppose that in the far past Zeus had as his consort the Motisa or ' Mountain '-mother. Ai6s Bvydrrip fteydXoio (h. 8. theol. Zeus. 9.' 7 It was as a shepherd that Zeus wooed Mnemosyne (Ov. de plac. the Zeus of Olympos4. Kovpcu KpoviSew At6s (h. 915 ff. 491 and Zenodot. 12. n. etym.r. 429 f. g d Wachsmuth and in Flout. i68ff. Walde Lat. onwards). 2. i—4). To every bush an Armatole. 488). p. A mirror. 25. 8). 17. 508. with schol. O. theog. 2. horn. 2. 1077 n. 2. 491 f. Delphoi. p. Rel. At6s cttyioxoto | Gvyarepes (//. M. Eumelos frag. 471. Plout. strom. took the form of a shepherd when he met Mnemosyne—a tale which recalls that of Attis and Kybele. 484). by Mnemosyne 5 . 1075 n. Wackernagel has shown—is most simply derived from mont. 8. Stahlin. Empedokles_/rag. 20 ea-oTrrpoeiSes. 620 a i ff. 1 . Nonn. de Pyth. and doubtless to others also) is supported by the fact that all the most important cult-centres of the Muses were on mountains or hills. he holds on high exalted. J. i. 51 f. dy\aa reKva (Horn. Rom. 114. Cp. an. says Ovid 7 . whose name—as Prof. Worterb. shows that their worship originated on Olympos and spread thence to Helikon (Strab. or. 56 f. etc. Clem. 14 p. met. i. ii.). and two-and-sixty fountains. and certain philosophers. from Aristot. theog. 4 'OXu/xTTuiSes (//. in //. 184 Migne)). 6 See Gruppe Gr. Herm. This derivation (which occurred independently to Dr Giles./ra^. 5 First in 'Res. Paus. 10). Atds Trdis (Od. Dion. cp. alib. Myth. 484.. 14 (ii. SeL 2). 2 p. in his talon grasped. 'OAifytTrta Sci/xar' £'%owreu (//. 9. with whom he passed nine nights (Hes. 54 MvrjfjLOff^vr] yowoiffiv 'E\ev07Jpos fjxdiovtra with schol. 6. 31. 16 Lang iv Se rots 6/>e<rt (pacri xopet/eu/. 3239 ff. 112). Clem. the Muses were daughters of Zeus3. Plout. 14. Euseb. 5. 44 Diels ap. met. 29. 2. 6 collects the evidence. The eagle's test of its genuine offspring was that it should look straight at the sun (D'Arcy W. 571—574. theol. though not accepting the derivation from *(AOVT. Al. ep. 20 and ap. indeed hundreds of terra-cottas representing Attis as a shepherd L. Garnett—J. 4. 393.' According to the orthodox tradition. to every branch a Klephte. th. phil. Lang. hist. Athens. : The Zeus of Olympos was associated with other mountain powers. eel. And perched upon my highest peak there sits a mighty eagle. Wackernagel in the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung 1895 xxxiii.A. 34. h. 218. Myth. Such were the Muses. The mirror probably stands for the sun.). 9 f.. 2). phys. 16.' cites in its support Cornut. Bie in Roscher Lex.IO4 Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus I seventy mountain-summits have. i. 6. 2. 430. very possibly following popular belief. whose pipes and timbrels were borne by a band of inspired female followers.. p. 20 ff. conceived the sun to be a sort of mirror (so Philolaos the Pythagorean in Stob. to myself. K. 2 J. Rel. And in it he his charms admires. 3 Already in the Homeric poems they are /cou/oat Atos 01716x010 (//. Myth. 17. but variants are not wanting 6 . 598).

we may detect a trace of the ancient goddess. not only in the Muse-mother Mnemosyne. 106. cp. I. Corr. Again.iraffeuv. 1895 xix. 79 Kalliope is irpo(t>epeaT<iTr). Kalliope was said by some to have borne children to Zeus4.Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus 105 were found by Monsieur P. Hell. and that on the Frai^ois-vase (600—550 B.) she is distinguished from the other Muses by her full-face position and her syrinx (Furtwangler—Reichhold Gr. Roscher Lex. Myth. in II. Bull. 3243 notes that in lies. but also in the prominence originally accorded to one of the Muses. //. 2 1 . Perdrizet at Amphipolis1. 534. \ f.a. O.. Hel. Vasenmalerei i.C. 2906 f. i—2 K A U I O P E ) . and 161. Myth.. theog. And as to Thaleia we have evidence both monumental and literary. pp. 5 pi. 9 f. 76. whose glory had paled before the rising light of Zeus. infra p. 604 OTTI Ka\rj. 32 ff. 105 f. Kalliope 2 or Thaleia3. ii. 4 Strab. ii. 472. 10. though Eustath. 3 Infra p. is late). She is not named by Homer (h. A red-figured vase-painting from Nola Fig. Bie in Roscher Lex.

Strab. Miiller-WieselerWernicke Ant. In all probability Thaleia the mountain-nymph is only the romanticised Sicilian form of Thaleia the mountain-muse . schol. The maiden has been playing at ball and picking flowers on a mountain-side. &. 90 ff. ex qua nascuntur apud Siciliam Palisci.evos •yity'. her story hints at a relationship between Zeus and the Muses other than that of the Homeric and Hesiodic tradition.). iii. 4. Aen. Korybas was the son of Kore without a father (interp. Vat. Atlas pi.\. Zeus pp. Others again—for the theme had many variations 8 —spoke of the 1 Tischbein Hamilton Vases i. timens lunonem. 3. The myth. 16. s. too near to which she had ventured. was a son of lasion by Kybele7. 127).v. 418 f. 45. 3 Rufin. in Stat.v. Myth. Serv. 5. 6 f. Al.ctr. 24. in Lyk. 5. On the frequent confusion of eagles and vultures see D'Arcy W. et illic enixa est. horn. 22 Thaliam Aetnam nympham mutatus in vulturem. sons of Apollon and Rhytia (Pherekyd. TrdXcu <ro<f>oi. 184 Migne) 'Eptratou i>u/u07?. Cp.106 Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus formerly in the Hamilton collection (fig. yev6fji. 3. 78. 584 Aetnam nympham [vel ut quidam volunt Thaliam] luppiter cum vitiasset et fecisset gravidam. Serv. in Verg. Interp. Bloch in Roscher Lex. 472). and Servius4. Overbeck Gr. 7 Diod. 472.6. mon. Another account made their parents Zeus and Kalliope. Dion. Plac. 19. Rom. 8 The Korybantes were sons of Kronos and Rhea (Strab. recognit. alii dicunt lovem hunc Palicum propter lunonis iracundiatn in aquilam commutasse. Others declared that Korybas. rjs ol ev St/ceX/a TrdXcu <ro<j)oi. To the right are the ball and the basket of Thaleia. s. The best account of the Palikoi is that by L. pi. 558 ^ffav §t TTJS 'P^as ircu5es = Souid. in Verg. iv. and. pi. Lys. Myth. the flowers and the altar of Zeus. 31 ff. He subsequently entrusted her to the earth-goddess. 3 f. 401 f. Serv. 3. 5. eponym of the Korybantes. sons of Sokos and Kombe (Nonn. HaXt/cvj. Kunstmyth. in whose domain she brought forth the twin Palikoi. nr). 2 Clem. Rufinus 3 . Aetnaeae frag. Aen. sons of Helios and Athena (a Rhodian version ap. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. ib. The mountain is indicated by the little Satyr on high ground. as preserved for us by Clement of Rome2. Thaleia the muse became by Apollon mother of the Korybantes5. and explained that the Korybantes were one with the mystic Kabeiroi6. Myth. 472 : see Roscher Lex. Nauck 2 ap. 3. . i35ff. 17. and for Zeus ~ Aitne. the Asiatic mountain-goddess. 156. 10. 190. 16. interp. i. and Steph. Tzetz. whom Zeus in the form of a vulture (or eagle ?) wooed and won. 12. /6)1 shows Zeus as a mighty eagle in a blaze of celestial splendour carrying Thaleia from earth to heaven. 5 6 Apollod. Denkm. KoptfjSacres). Sat. i. Terrae commendavit. Lenormant—de Witte El. in. Strab. 2. 6. Aristoph. to the left. Etc. 'E/xralou has been amended into Airvaia (Valckenaer) or MTV-T) (Migne) or 'H^at'crrou (Bloch) or 'E/wa£a (Levy). 64 f.. 13 (ii. 13. For Zeus ~ Thaleia see further Aisch. 49. makes this Thaleia a nymph of Mount Aitne in Sicily. into HaXiKol. Macrob. Strab. 472 %TI Se Kpovov rives <Kal 'Peas> : the last two words have been expelled by TOUS KoptfjSai/ras repeated from the line below. if so. 9. secundum alios ipsam puellam. Aen. cp. Lact. ap. i. in Verg. Theb. Byz. 4 Serv. pi. 1281—1295. 6.

On tha'Avaxes. Myth. Trjyevees KopujSavres o/x-^XvSes.: see Stephanus Thes. i—4 p. Koryb. two of whom slew the third. Ling. 899 n. Stahlin. . Orph. adesp. 241 ff. h.fj. 547. ai/jLaxOevra KacriyviiTuv inrb biaauv. 9 See further Roscher Lex.' and means the ' Peak'-men 2 . 1911): Kopuj3ai>Tes 'might as you say be Macedonian. ap. 'crown of the head. 7 p. 7 Orph. 718 F. Lyk.i—not Kopv<pa. 'a./j. It looks like a participle from Kop>j<pa. dva/croTeX^arat) • ot T&S TeXeurots (leg. According to Clement of Alexandreia3. 472. 2137 A—c). F. Further. p. The Korybantes were akin to the great mountain-goddess or earth-mother. they were three brothers. i pacriXTja. 39. i. adv. Ktf/)/3as. 35. Strab. 19. 3 Clem. 8 The wreath of aEKwov worn by the Nemean and Isthmian victors perhaps originally marked them out as re-incarnations of the dead—a point to which I must return. p.) with Kvp/Sacrla (used of a cock's crest. n. trees1. Pott in the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung 1858 vii. 1607. h. bearing it on a bronze shield to the foot of Olympos. the conical cap of the Salii. the abbreviated accounts in Arnob. Rel. 13. T&V Ka/Setpwt' or T&V lepwv <a. as Hoffmann argues.ti>ov oivoiTi TT^TrXy (Nonn. Koryb. 15.' A. Kijp0eis). Hippol. 25 f. 257 n. 6 f.' and rendered the word: 'im wirbel sich drehend.ffT6i>Ta. mountain-peak.s.Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus 107 Korybantes as the first men. Firm. He is followed by O. 5 avaKTa. Mat. et. 2.protr. Bloodshed and burial were the essential features of their mysteries5. 6 Hesych.v. who were known as Anaktotelestai6 or 'initiates of the Kings7.u—if. Their name. 4 So the Korybantes found the infant Bacchos.' 'in orbem saltantes' (cp. 'Ai/a/cot/'Ai/a/cres see O. 139). Gruppe Gr. p. believing it to be sprung from the blood of the slain Korybas8. p. 6 tpoiviov.KTtav>). Cp. derived Kopijfiavres from Kopv<t>T]. Dion. In Roman times. Immisch in Roscher Lex. Dion. 14. Norm. Nonn. iff. 97 Miller ^ $ptiyioi Kopi>j3avres. whom they served with wild enthusiastic rites.v. iropQvpttp K€Ka\vfj. Koryb. He compares the alternative form Ktfp/Sas (Soph.' forbade wild celery (selinori) with its roots to be placed on the table. wi> irore 'Pet?? | eK -%9ovbs atrroreXeoros av€j3\d<rT7]cre yeve6\r]. ii. Ktipflas.va. 2033 f. writes (July 15. who had sprung from the ground in the shape of. /jLeyurrov.. whom I consulted on the matter. 39. 778 Nauck2. avaKToreXevrai (leg. 19. 39 ff. 39. nat. Macedonian was a kind of Aeolic. s. Myth. 2. left as a horned child among the rocks. Myth. if not earlier. but appears to>interpret the name of a 'peaked' head-dress. Al. ii. i) favours the connexion of Kopvj3as with Kopv<j>ri. Jessen in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Rel. Myth. reXerds) eTTiTeXowTes TUV lep&v (? leg. decked it with a wreath and buried it. and the story told of them was that the two fratricides took up the basket containing the member of Dionysos and brought it to Etruria 9 . h. \ oOs "AAtos -rrpwrovs eireidev 5evdpo<f>veis avaj3\a. 78.' 'taumelnd. Cp. Dion. where they lived in exile teaching tiie Etruscans to worship the 1 Frag. 84 Bergk4 (33 Killer). s. 12. Hesych. frag. the Korybantes were connected with Mount Olympos. mag. these Korybantes—says Clement—were called Kabeiroi. The priests of the mystics. 5. Al. the upright tiara of the Persian king. ref. if I am not mistaken. wrapped his head in a crimson cloak4. Gruppe too (Gr. iv. Ki/p/Saires. 5. 1621 f. etc. Gr. 14. Kallim. Souid. 2 Dr Giles. Zeus 46. h. It all comes to the same thing. haeres. is derived from *korybei]\Q Macedonian form of koryphe. The formation is odd. 5 Orph.

152 Maximinus fig. 3 Brit. 113 fig. 3685. Berlin Paeonia etc. 374 Maximus. but also by Hades. Mus. Hunter Cat. 6 Brit. Indeed. Miiller). Ant. Berlin Paeonia etc. ii. 911 (Nero as Kabeiros). i.. Maximinus. Coins Macedonia etc. MUnz. like the horn of Amaltheia 5 . p. 2. 373 Elagabalus. pi. 4 T. €K Qpvyias. Hunter Cat. i.79large ring or rings round his throat. I figure an uncatalogued specimen (lulia Mamaea) in the British Museum.. 2534 fig. p.jSeipw*' ev /darei K€Ka.. 5 On the horn of plenty held. Cat. 1 . 1721 ff. Sosipolis. see K. Daremberg-Saglio Diet. pp. Myth. lepa. 8i)8. Hunter Cat. 78)3 as a young man with a Fig. 79)6> others with a horn erect on a base to the right and a flaming altar to the left (fig. a horn or horns must have been part of the ritual furniture of the cult. d(pi. Cp. not only by Amaltheia. 8 Brit. p. 25.' This Kabeiros is known to us from coins (figs. 121 Caracalla. 373 ff. river-gods. i pi. Coins Macedonia etc. 125 Gordianus iii. Hunter Cat. Panofka Die griechischen Trinkhb'rner itnd ihre Verzierungen Berlin 1851 p. Cat. Coins Macedonia etc. Cat..io8 Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus basket and its contents1. the Hesperides. 2 Firm. ii. 154 Gordianus iii. etc. hist. u. 114 no. Mat. The double-axe. 114.fJi€va.Ki>ovi>Tai veaviffKoi. taught the people their rites and helped them to rout the besiegers : see Nikol. Coins Macedonia etc. others again with a pair of horns set in bases on either hand (fig. who holds a species of doubleaxe and a rhyton or drinking-horn. Mus. 8o)7. Ge. Miinz. Firmicus Maternus adds that the slain brother ' consecrated beneath the roots of Mount Olympos' was ' the Kabeiros to whom the inhabitants of Thessalonike used to make supplication with blood-stained mouth and blood-stained hands2. 121 ff.375 Gordianus iii. Roscher Lex. Coins i. the Agathos Daimon. the Naiades. 5.. frag. Ant. Eniautos. 77. 123 Maximinus. ii.. p. 54. 7 Brit. ^xovTes Ka. Note that the dead Kabeiros is here termed Dionysos and that a portion of him is kept in a basket to serve as a nucleus of fresh life. Coins i. p. the chthonian Hermes. Torres /cat "Ovvqs. 54 (Frag. 770 fig.\v/j. p. The rhyton ends in the forepart of a goat4—a fact which leads us to conjecture that it was a cornu copiae. the When the usurper Amphitres was besieging the sons of Leodamas at Assesos. Damask. Gr. Wernicke in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. 129 Salonina. Cat. 388 f. i. Tyche. the Horai. Mus. Ant. Mus. Coins i. for some coins show the Kabeiros with a horn apparently planted in the ground beside him (fig. 152 f. Coins i. iii. i.

Roma 1909 xii. sel. A relief of imperial date from Hierapolis in Phrygia. ii § 3 (c) i (o). orig. Serie Quinta. One of Strabon's sources. 917 cod. 32. 2 So at least I have argued in the Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions Oxford 1908 ii. 81. Elsewhere too the Kabeiroi were marked by the same characteristics. Wiinsch in the Archiv f. 80. Mommsen in the Mittheihingen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zurich 1854 x. 386 f. 7 Ant. 5. 83if. in scattered letters. Isid. Myth. An amulet found at Vindonissa ( Windisck} represents the head of a doubleaxe or hammer inscribed with these three names reduced in each case to the significant abbreviation AXI (fig. now at Berlin (fig. Ap. Fig. and adds that their doings were of a mystical nature1. Besides the threefold AXI ( = Axierus. i. The initiates wore purple waist-bands4 and rings of iron and gold5. Accadetnia dei Lincei. infra ch. Rhod. i. Plin. all suggest a religious context resembling that of the Cretan Kouretes. 953. Yf~ i e | A ('Tyieia). a thick ring round the neck. Paris. no. 33. (2. the goat. i. 1911 xiv. i57f. and a heavy doubleFig. Ant. Skulpt. 6. hist. 759 fig. See further R. Rel. The names borne by the Samothracian Kabeiroi—Axieros. states that the latter departed to Samothrace. 23. 742. 900. 1044. children of Zeus by Kalliope. 194. Axiokersa. 440. part of a fourth youth is visible beside them. Axiokersos— are probably to be connected with a word for ' axe '2. 83)7. Pettazzoni 'Le origini dei Kabiri nelle isole del mar tracio' in the Memorie della R. Kern Strab. 1 . shows three youths advancing side by side : they have bushy hair. the feast of raw flesh. nat. axe or hammer resting on the right shoulder. 82)3. Statius definitely compares the sacred dances of the Samothracians to those of the Kouretes6. Axiocersus) the amulet is inscribed CASM (= Casmilus) and. summarised by R. previously called Melite.). Berlin p. no.Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus 109 horns. Lat. with the Kabeiroi. 0 Lucr. 472. 635 ff. a loincloth about the waist. Fig. 19. Axiocersa. Storiche e Filologiche.' 4 Schol. Ach. T. 575 f. O. 82. Daremberg-Saglio Diet. Classe di Scienze Morali. 6 Stat. after identifying the Korybantes. 3 Orelli Inscr. inscribed s <i?iXoifyiei>os and d-n-iras. Roscher Lex. i. 30 says: ' vide ne lusus magis quam fraus subsit huic Cabirorutn enumeration!.T I 5 no.

evuiv. 5 Corp. Kern in the Strena Helbigiana Lipsiae 1900 p. 2. Overbeck Gr. At Pergamon. Plastik^ ii. 17 ff. bishop of Antioch.6vov /jiera 5>jo~ii> ij\iov. and the frieze of the Pergamene altar. d. a bronze at Rumeli-Hissar. as 6 apxiav rod atcDfos rotirov evavrioijfj. beyond dispute. 277. avyxebvTbJv. B Mysia. Kern further adduced another relief. crw/xcirwj').rjv /cat ev ry 'OXu/tTrty opei. 4 Pergamon iii. Septembris vii. Kal yuepGjv dia<pop6rr)Ta viro TIVUV evepyeiuv ZVOMT'MV ffvviffTa. Cyprian. eldov e/cet upwv diadoxds. infra Append.evos Trpos rrfv rod 6eov . each carrying a hammer on the right shoulder and moving to the left. 7. KCU eKdffTov 6eo\J /cat 6eas ^6eaadfjLr]v ^/cet rty <j)a\ayya. 20 f. Bolland. 3538. Conze in the Sitzungsber. 1889 p. as Puchstein observes. He cp. 275. and we are free to contend that in the district of Olympos the Korybantes and Kabeiroi were essentially Curetic. the Kabeiroi were said to have witnessed the birth of Zeus5. 6 Acta Sanctorum edd.vi}6fjv r/xous OytuXtwj' (leg.'tiv rrji> tKdcrrov avr&v evepyeiav virb TUV eiTTa lepo^avrCiv • \iav yap ol efiol yovets £ffTrev86v /j. 148 f. in fact. inscr. /cat €fj.. Conze 2 and O.S> ev Trairiv avrris evepyeias.oirodev ws €K jSacrtXetwj/ aTroffTeXXovrai TO. Their general resemblance to the Cretan Kouretes is. 330 f. wvev/ndruiv vira\\a<r<r6vTUv. He had a vision of tree-trunks and herbs of divine potency. i. dXXd /cat <TO. Akad. a village near Magnesia on the Maiandros : this represented four nude males. awar&VTUv. In this home of the gods he was taught the meaning of musical notes and sounds./j. Kal ecrtro^/uijc aKpoSpva fj.. 222 ('Confessio S. 3 O. Cypriani' i—2) eyev6fj. Tn/eifyiara. Gr. 3. depos /cat c^aXdtrcrT/s. A. /neivas avr66i ii/jiepas reffffapdKovra. Berlin 1881 p. /cat ST? wv £TI eruiv irevreKaideKa efj. was as a youth of fifteen initiated for forty days on Mount Olympos by seven hierophants into certain obscure mysteries6. eldov e/cet %o/)oi)s Sa. 158 f. draped and hammerless1. Their cult was flourishing in the third Christian century.bv(i3v vfjLvovvruv Kal aAAwp irdKe^ovvTUV KCU er^puv eveBpevovTuv. elSov ^/ce? (f>avTa£ovTa Trpeuva /cat Troas evepyelv SoKotJcras dt&v eTriffKoircus. fig.votijj. He witnessed the 1 O. which he had seen in 1893 at Uziimlii.e ^iriyvSivai ra yijs. the coins of Thessalonike. Wiss. 2 A. d. Puchstein 3 have made it probable that yet another Kabeiros swinging a double-axe or hammer is to be seen in the nude bearded god attacking a bovine giant on the southern frieze of the great Pergamene altar4. Die Skulpturen des Pergamon-Museums in Photographien Berlin 1903 pi. 6fAi\lav) Kal ij/ofpuv 5f/jyricnv. ii no. led by a fifth. evepyeiv ^Katrrov aiirlav ev T 17 7?7 Ka' & i"acrt rots 'eOvevi.no Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus in 1900 recognised these youths as the Kabeiroi wearing their Samothracian rings: their loin-cloths too are clearly the Samothracian bands. ov fuxvov ra Kara (fxjffiv <f>6opas Kal yevecretas iro&v /cat Trp^vuv Kal croyuarwc (leg.Lfj. r&v deCiv ws \eyovffiv ot/c^TT/jOt'y. Puchstein ib. pi.

wie ihre Gleichsetzung mit den Dodonides. that most of the women of Skotoussa followed along with it. 7. 560 ff. 486. he was initiated into the decay and birth of herbs. vti/jupai rives ovaai Kal avrai. 84 Muller) ap. himself the son of one of the Muses.Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus in succession of seasons and the difference of days. i. 2): see further O. Gr. 18. i. He saw too the phalanx of each several god and goddess. 4: ' Die Hyaden sind Erzieherinnen des Bakchos. 3. 7. Corybantic or Cabiric in character1. Heuzey—H. 5 Yet Dionysos was often associated with the Muses: see Gruppe Gr. der Hyade Dione nahelegen. Hoffmann Die Makedonen Gottingen 1906 p. cp. 261 and probably Soph. 2 Hesych. i. ii. And. like the Maenads.' Strab. lying in ambush. 1427 n.i d£. 213 f. 743 n.iovti<rov rpo(poL. See Gruppe Gr.fab.. and it is highly probable that throughout the worship of Zeus was affected by them. trees.at -jrepl TOV Aiovvcrof /Sdfcxai. that from first to last certain orgiastic quasi-Dionysiac elements appear in the cults of Olympos. iii. 3. //. OefapiSes. 0ofy)t5es' vu/uuf>ai. but we can hardly be wrong in supposing that these were puberty-rites. Eustathios' assertion that the Muses. 97 n. frag: 698 Nauck 2 ap. were by some apparently regarded as the nurses of Zeus (Hyg. eSprfrai. Daumet Mission Archeologique de Macedoine Paris 1876 Texte p. Orpheus. 3 (Frag. Preller in Philologus 1846 i. 9. 2. Gr. and there according to many met his death (Hyg. Myth. Myth. schol. 349 ff. 3 O. Ambrosie. novffai. Gruppe in Roscher Lex.. cbs Kal irapa AvKotppovt. 76 n. Bromie. After sundown he fed on fruits (not meat). 182). were nurses to Dionysos4 may be a Byzantine blunder 5 . Damagetos. hist. Eriphia. L. 463 Miiller)) that the cult of the Dodonaean Zeus came originally from the Pelasgian district about Skotoussa. cp. the changing spirits that caused the former and the opposing influences that determined the latter. 1816. 7) and was buried (Anth. warring. astr. argues that the reference is to Orphic rites in the neighbourhood of Olympos. 6 Six nymphs of Dodona.p. 1 L. deceiving and confounding each other. there taught Midas (Konon narr. frag. Bromie. This explains Hesychios' statement that the Macedonians called the Muses thotirides'2'—a name elsewhere given to the Maenads3. Polyhymno. in verschollenen dodonaiischen Legenden vielleicht auch des Zeus. 132 argues that ffovpides is a Thessalian or Macedonian form of Beupldes (Hesych. * Eustath. 4 ff. or Arsinoe. 1435 n. 6. but the very possibility of such blundering proves the similarity of Muse and Maenad. 245 n. In early days the Muses were to Zeus what the mountain-roaming Maenads were to Dionysos. 829 n. Orphic admixture is indeed likely enough. 9. p. and that the priestesses of Dodona were descended from them. 270 f. Rel. /cat MoOcrat A. Pal. He beheld choruses of daitnones chanting. Bacch. Nonn. Ma/ceS&ces. 329 relates on the authority of Souidas the historian (= Kineas_/}'«o-.und der N.).. 120. generally speaking. 3. 1082 f. Athen. pp... Erato. At Dodona6. It would seem. Rel.. It is altogether a singular recital. though others explained that Zeus had given them Dionysos to tend (Pherekyd. identified with the Hyades and named Kisseis.poet. Vat. 9. i f. identify Orpheus' tomb with a tumulus near the village of Karitza. Myth. Nysa. hist. then. 592 B). and bodies. Dion. alib}. in Od. <pa<ri. played for them on Olympos (Eur. 825 n. Kisseis. 46 (Frag. Myth. Koronis. Apollod. . \eyovTa. i). i.

5 Schol. mag. 'ASpdaTeia and "Idri connects Melissos. A^TOJ. 227. made by Melampous. inst. pseudo-Eratosth. ii. Myth. Ide. who reared the new-born Zeus on the milk of a goat accustomed to bearing twins (Parmeniskos ap. 3. hist. roi)s Ka/3e('pous.i KaKovvrai ev Toprijvri rrjs Kp^rijy. p. i. on Mount Arkton near Kyzikos5. 221 in this connexion remarks that both Adrasteia (Ap. i. pis. 181 f. Arat. i. 2. 9 ff. ib. Q. 4 Charax frag.). flanked by two groups— Glauke. Krjfaa-y. 7. de nat.. Arat.eTttjSX^^'ijj/at. Anchiroe and Myrtoessa with hydriai from which water was flowing. de mens. king of Crete. 272. and certain shrewd persons recorded their conviction that the original Kabeiroi had been two in number—Zeus the elder and Dionysos the younger 6 . Rhod. i (Frag. Orph. s. 'A/3%. 13. Rhes. Hyg.) "ApKrov (leg. 1 The altar of Athena 'AX^a at Tegea.OTI -rl^ibv ecm dia TO ^/cet TOV Aia fftrapyaj'ud'rjvai. a king of Asia. 31. 637 Miiller) ap. by Polykleitos of Argos. Paris. inscr. i. Aratea p. F. 1706). 1985. was decorated with figures of Rhea and the nymph Oinoe holding the infant Zeus. i. Ap. the notion that Dionysos. 46. A/a re vpeffp^repov /cdi A. was the son of Kabeiros (Cic. and Serpens (schol. Byz. Gr.H2 Dionysiac traits in the cult of Zeus at Tegea1. An inscription found at Phaleron records a dedication ''Effria. 9f. p. deor. 941 cod. at Thebes is well attested (Roscher Lex. 2 f. and Hyg. iv. Caes. Staes in the 'E0. or Amaltheia and Melissa (Didymos ap. Alkinoe. Lact. 3. 3. 2. Rcl. poet. 1116 ireSLov N^Tr^ioi' 'Adprj/rTei-ris) and Kynosoura (Corp. TepaiffTiov• yuipiov rfjs 'ApKadtas. p. and Aglaosthenes Naxiaca frag. or Adrasteia and Kynosoura (schol. 8.</>ai s yeveO\i\ais. 17. 148. Why not on the slopes of Mount Olympos? In late times the Dionysiac connexion was intensified. p. Phrixa on the other. schol. Lyd. phaen. 289. a fkj'rsos with an eagle perched upon it in the other (Paus. Hasluck Cyzicus Cambridge 1910 p. 51 p. Myth. Diod. 936 (cp. Myth. Od. Ap.. 133 ff. at Megalopolis2. 47. i. but also Neda holding the infant Zeus. and held a cup in one hand. 2. hist. 244(7". Hagno with hydrta and fhidle. 22). i. fig. Rhod. Tepaurriddes• ourw vtiii<f>a. Steph. Korybantes and Kabeiroi came to the fore . 3). Herm. 293 Miiller) ap. Ampel. 3 Et. i. when pursued by Kronos. 44f. . changed them into bears and himself into a snake. Plout. Melisseus or Melissos. Zenob. was father of the nymphs Adrasteia and Ide (Apollod. and Apollon. 3. fab.frao: 109 Abel ap. 4. 26 ff. 9. tin rbv Aia Tptyovcrai eyepaipov. Zeus had his troop of nursing nymphs. 13). irapa TO yepas. phaen. 2.vv.Tpij3ov(ras els apKrovs /u. | 'ApT^tuSt Aox\ia. on Mount Ide near Gortyna3. Paris. 31 ff. dtio wp6repov elvai. two Cretan nymphs. and see further Roscher Lex. mag. 'AxjeXyy. Eur. 2536 ff. Anthrakia another Arcadian nymph with a torch. nursed the infant Zeus. 382. cp. 5.). astr. ii. Nationalmus. Within the same precinct was a temple of Zeus Philios.i6vvffov ve&repov. Eyssenhardt connect both Helike and Kynosoura with the Cretan Ide. Adrasteia and Ide with the Phrygian Mt Ide: cp. Svoronos Ath. Ursa Minor. iii. 2 In the precinct of the Great Goddesses at Megalopolis on a table set before Herakles the Idaean Daktylos were represented not only two Horai. 182 Idothea Amalthea Adrastea). catast. Rhod. 1909 p. 9. ii. Plout. 4). 2. See also Gruppe Gr. The statue. poet. Wiinsch). Germ. p. 58. 917 cod. 48.. 482. i. (Frag. 'Air6\\wvi \ Hvdiy. on Mount Ide in Phrygia4. 39 f. Theisoa. Phaedr. W. He. in Plat. Hyg. 25 ff.^7r«§^ <f>affi ras Tpo<povs TOV Aids e/cet dia. 942 n. "Apuruv 6'pos). 8. alib.g. Hence the constellations Ursa Maior. 'Pa^oi (B. de fluv. Gud. 342). p. So also et.. represented Zeus in the guise of Dionysos : he was shod with buskins. Near it were statues of the Muses and Mnemosyne (Paus. 107. Cp.: see Roscher Lex. 3679. 493 ff. Rhod. Gr. 'l\eiQvia. schol. 104. div.. Gr. 5 a society of Bd/cxot Kwoffovpelrai at Kyzikos) appear to have been local goddesses. 227. repcu<TT|cus N6/j. oi 5£ (jtacri. p. Cp. symp. 8. 6. 2. The Dionysiac character of the Kabeiros e. Myth. Helike and Kynosoura. 6 Schol. et. ii. Anthrakia on the one side. Pan. Ap. Hagno. ii no. KaXX|ip6i7. Neda. astr.

ATJOVS 8s yvw/j. lg 4 from which starts the modern counterpart of the ' ' 7 ancient procession to the altar of Zeus . 41—46) does the later conception of "0\vfjnros as ' heaven' or ' sky' occur. M. but in a later chapter. iv. iv. 350 and Suppl. It may even be suggested that the monastery of Saint Dionysios. C. 8 . the Hesiodic. Whatever 5 4 c. Rasche Lex. a propos of Olympos. akin to the Phrygian Zeus Sabdzios*. when we shall be taking a more comprehensive survey of the relation of Zeus to Dionysos. Twelve miles south of Dion was a town.ei>os fj-op<f>i)i> Svotpepoio dpaKovros. He holds that only in two Homeric passages (//. In II. The poet of the Odyssey describes Olympos in a passage of surpassing beauty: Roscher Lex. land and sea and all. we can understand why he has the snake as his attribute (fig. 8. 7b. Heuzey Le Mont Olympe et I''Acarnanie Paris 1860 p. not at the present stage of our argument. they could not pull him down from heaven to the plain. 8. even in these passages the mountain is meant. which the Tabula Peutingeriana calls Sabatium5. \ OTipbrvirov 6e/J. a cult-centre of Sabdzios6. 8 The evidence is collected and considered by Mackrodt in Roscher Lex. and the Orphic poems Olympos. and snakes were allimportant in the mysteries of Sabdzios*. Whether these Dionysiac traits in the worship of Zeus were original and essential. 2 3 Orph. Koryb. F. h. Sabdzion.as ayvov. 607 records a small copper of Gallienus with Zeus standing between two snakes. or whether they are to be explained as merely the result of contamination with an alien cult. 6 7 L. is a large problem that still awaits solution.Development in the meaning of Olympos 113 If the Zeus worshipped at Dion was thus Dionysiac in character. i. de Scheyb Tabula Itineraria Peutingeriana Lipsiae 1824 segm. But. Zeus Olympics. Myth. 232 ff. Miller Weltkarte des Castorius genannt die Peutinger'sche Tafel Ravensburg 1888 segm. but he could pull them up. and the same identification holds good for the Alexandrine epic of Apollonios Rhodios8. 46 Gallienus). 18—27 and Od. has in the name of its patron saint preserved a last echo of the Dionysiac cult. 8. The specimen figured is in the Leake collection (W. Ntim. i.ri<w> ^^XAafas de/j. It will be convenient to deal with it. Zeus boasts that if he let down a golden rope from heaven and all the other gods and goddesses hung on to it. is to be identified with the Macedonian mountain . Supra p. K. 2526°. to my thinking. 7 f. 103. 849 ff. 100. ii.e. iii. In the Homeric. 84)2: the slain Korybas became a snake3. (c) Development in the meaning of Olympos. Leake Numismata Hellenica London 1856 European Greece p. bind the rope about a peak of Olympos and let them dangle there. 6. iii. Myth. the seat of the gods. 18 ff. Myth. 1 Roscher Lex.

. | Kal i] ioiKi] /JLOV Mo/pa | as aKovo-ri /ecu as ZXdy ! B. Cloudless the brilliance that is there outspread And white the glitter that is over all. J. rpia aKpa TOV Ovpavov.' as built by Hephaistos upon Olympos3. which Mackrodt takes to be an epithet of the earthly mountain in //. i. N. Throughout the rest of Greece a magic potency attaches to the following words: From Olympos. indeed ctfyX?? recalls afyXijeis. 114. the absence of wind. nor snow come nigh the same. This is the literary echo of the folk-belief that attributed a windless. snow. My friend Mr A.. T' ovpavov for TOV . Heuzey.. 425 f. agrees well with Greek beliefs about the mountaintop (supra p. n. And here too we may detect the creed of the country-side.. 505. and limbs grow lithe for fresh fighting. | TO. The Klephts too have always attributed marvellous virtues to the fresh air of Olympos. It figures in their songs as a paradise. was told by a man from the neighbourhood of Olympos that somewhere on the mountain there are said to be the remains of a temple with columns. 4ff. Heuzey Le Mont Olympe et FAcarnanie Paris 1860 p. what did you find there ?" Some of them described me a mysterious palace adorned with columns of white marble. whither they go to recover from the contests of the plain below: here the body gets stronger. there described as characteristic of Olympos. 103. cloudless aither to the mountain-top2. Nor rain can wet. From the three peaks of Heaven. and cloud. writing in 1860 of the villagers from the neighbourhood of Olympos. 138f. | owov ai Moipai TUV Moipwv. May my own Fate Hearken and come! 5 ' may be the precise picture here intended. 41 ff..). 566ff. Hes. 471. i would read HTOI> for 'A?r6 TOV. Polites Tiapadofffis Athens 1904 i. For L. 532. cited on p. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. 102 f.. wounds heal themselves. Homeric and Hesiodic poetry spoke of ' the palace of Zeus. they always ask—•" Well. 219 n. G. says 4 : ' If you tell them that you have ascended the highest peaks. 6. sc. Wace.' sometimes ' the palace of Zeus with its floor of bronze. its snows. 4 r ff. Therein blest gods have joyance all their days1.. 5 'ATTO TOV "OXf/ttTrov TOV Kopv/jtfiov. adding that these had been seen long ago by a shepherd. 3 //. ii. the phrases ireSlovde and Trepi piov OvXti/jLiroio surely prove that the poet is contrasting the gods on the plain with Zeus on the mountain. the summit. 75 ff. 97 no. rain. when at Salonika. 531 ff. 101 ff. 4 L. 20. B. Where are the Fates of Fates. Od. while the presence o f ' bright sky' and' white glitter' is no less suitable . 777. As to Od. i. Her. 6. and its icy mountainsprings. Supra p. but that they would not be seen now-a-days. 1 2 Od. Others spoke to me of a huge circus in which the ancients held their games. 438.H4 Development in the meaning of Olympos So spake bright-eyed Athena and withdrew To Olympos. 243. where men say the gods' sure seat Stands firm for ever: neither wind can shake. 20. 21. 173. 13.

Phoen. D. 1389. 25 f.irov) and ov (for which he proposes Kopvfiov). i. 2 p. 400 a 6ff. opusc. 114 Nauck 2 . 107). i. Wachsmuth. 155 and Psell. Mot/ra for Moipa. loff.. p. Gr. pp. p. but the 'sky' above it. 18. Serv. eel.' The same usage is found in prose. en-t TOV jSiov T&V Neurfywv ' Athens 1874 ii. Aen. in Verg. v. ap. anecd. 8—2 . Rhizotomi frag.. 38. whichever you choose to call it4/ while the author of the Aristotelian treatise On the Universe declares that God ' being pure has his station above in a pure place.. 81. century before our era the word Olympos had acquired a further significance. 8 f. et. 198. even that which we truly name ouranos. et. 758. G. 977 B. 6 Supra p. citing variants with ov (a dialect form. nub. 228 gives K r\ for Kal i]. Diak. schol. in II. or else a corruption due to assonance with "0\vfj. 426. from oXo-Aa/UTros by Eustath. II. 1902 c). when at Thebes. Aen. 10. 268. Serv. 171 (both cited by Boissonade in Stephanus Thes. Eustath. C. de mundo 6. 1389. mag. cp. 34 ff. The word Kopvf^j3os is akin to Kopv<piri. swear 'by yon Olympos1.Development in the meaning of Olympos 115 By the fourth. Andromeda frag. p. Both poets contrast Olympos in the sense of 'sky' with 'earth3. 51 f. Ling. 38. 1 2 Soph. in II. Gud. II. in Bandin. 4 Plat. and even by the fifth. O. p. exeg. It was revived by G. Aristoph. p. in Verg. in II.. p. 4. 507. N. And for the prevalence of this belief there is abundant evidence". 5 Aristot.otp&i'. It is even probable that in ancient days the inhabitants of the district actually spoke of the Otipavov. It meant no longer the mere mountain. in Od. Stob. which was used of Olympos (e.' The change in meaning from Olympos the ' mountain ' to Olympos the ' sky ' would readily follow from the belief that the mountain rose into the aither. part. 128 prints the third line as OTTOV 17 Moi'pais TUW 'M. Tzetz. The author of the Platonic Epinomis speaks of the visible heaven as ' the kosmos or Olympos or sky. C. He justly draws attention to the ancient word Kbpv^ov. 27. Io. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. Eur. 694. n f. Eur. 57 f.. 623. This impossible derivation of "OXtytTros from b\o-\a/j. p. p. Thus Sophokles in his Antigone makes Kreon. 3 Soph.' and Euripides in his Andromeda makes the heroine apostrophise Night as follows : O holy Night. Keil . . Hermann. 499. Priscian.irtfs is given also by Plout. Ant. Curtius Grundziige der griechischen Etyniologie* Leipzig 1875 p. 266. 22. J. 16536°. Charioting the starry ridges Of holy aither Through dread Olympos2. How long the course thou drivest. Polites MeA^n. 270) and gave rise to its Kopij/Savres (supra p. 268. 101 f. 1184. Ai. from 6Xos Xa/X7rpos by interp. 4. since it is the " boundary" (Jioros) of things " above " (dno\ and Olympos as "wholly-shining" (holo-lampes'} and separate from all such darkness and disorderly movement as arises among us by means of storm and stress of winds5. i. 26 f. epinom.g. 492 Nauck 2 . i.

114. Theb. Gr. Plac. quia apex eius omnibus invisibilis est. quod caelum dixere ideo. ol 5e TraAcuoi (f>a<ri KCU eirovpAviov Ka\ei<rdai TTJV TOV Ma/ceSoz't/coO '0\tfj. 8. Zeus was worshipped under the title Olympics not only at the foot of the Macedonian Mount Olympos6. Mogk 'Bergkult' in Hoops Reallex. 4 5 Supra p. 2 Supra p. 394. 5. at Pisa near the Elean Olympos7. 20. Aischylos in his Niobe mentions Tantalos and his family as— near akin to gods And nigh to Zen.X 16 Development in the meaning of Olympos summit of Mount Olympos as 'heaven1. 102 n. 7 As lord of Olympia and patron of the famous Olympian games (Roscher Lex. 86. 30 (Frag. 255 f. 3 The latest (1912) article on the subject is E. struck in the reign of Commodus. 3. has for its reverse type a bearded god reclining on the Mysian Olympos (fig. 100 n. Eustath. A copper coin of Prousa ad Olympum (at Berlin). //. 51 f. 85). . 8. was likewise supposed to rise into the aither. Myth. iii. schol. 6 Siipra p. iii. Lact. men who on Ide's height Have built an altar of Ancestral Zeus In aither and still vaunt the blood divine5. and on the slopes of the Mysian Olympos8. 154 Muller) ap. 234. Trees and a gorge with a . in Stat. He has a mantle wrapped about his legs. hist. 8 Mnaseas/ra^-. Niobe frag. 844). p.' Modern peasants call it 'the three peaks of Heaven2. 5 primum excellent! vertice tantus attollitur. in Od. 8. 128.irov Kopvifrriv. Mount Ide in the Troad. 4. 19. Aisch. 262 Olympi ardua. X* Fig. which also bore the name of Olympos4. 497. 364. ut summa eius caelum accolae vocent. p. and his left arm rests on the rock. The combination of ovpavos and'OXi/^UTros occurs in //. i. but also far 1 Solin. 750. 1550.' And a primitive notion that has left traces of itself in almost every country of Europe regards a mountain as the natural abode of souls3. 16. 162 Nauck2.

16. 124. num? p. put in to shore at a place which in memory of his former home he named Kretenia: on climbing'Mount Atabyrion he got a distant view of Crete and. round which the Muses were believed to dance7. 5.C. | derw vif/urerT) Atos ayyeXov 'AprefAidupos dtvaofj. for instance. Troas. Zeus Helikonios had an altar. no. 7 9 Ib. Boiotia.4vaoi re \ /Sw/xot. 2 See the list given in Roscher Lex. and there dedicated altars and a leafy precinct to Zeus Patroios*. The mountain-cults of Zeus may be grouped roughly in chronological order according as they centred round (i) a simple altar. a. 89 pi. Deukalion. Another coin of the same town has a seated Zeus inscribed |~| PO YCAGIC A I A 0 AYMFIIO N. 80). Zeus pp. (3) an altar with a statue enclosed in a temple3. Examples of the earliest type occur in several Greek myths. . ins. Myth. Ib. States i.Sequence of the Mountain-cults 117 and wide throughout the Greek area (fig. Chronological Development of the Mountain-cults.) Act 'OXv/xTrty. 8 Ib. Ib.I ddavdroicri 6eo?<ri. 86)1. 4 5 6 Ib.<p6iToi. B. 6. Kunstmyth. w6\ei elffe KO. after sacking Oichalia and carrying off lole the daughter of king Eurytos. 155 f. cp. thinking still of Cretan cults. i. iii. Althaimenes. Phliasia. Gr. i. where the arrangement of it is topographical. (Head Hist. 840—847. Hiller von Gaertringen Die Insel Thera Berlin 1904 iii. . there set up an altar to Zeus Atabyrios*. 3 The evidence is collected in Append. 161. 444). Class. § 5. But ImhoofBlumer Gr. Argolis. where Hektor was wont to sacrifice8. Mtinztaf. in the precinct of Artemidoros at Thera : see F. 1 Inscr. 9. (2) an altar with a statue of the god. near the spring Hippokrene. Ib. was borne safely over the waters of the flood to a mountain-height above Argos and in gratitude for his escape built upon it an altar to Zeus Aphesios1'. The singular ritual of Mount river flowing to the right show the nature of the mountain-side. Milnzen p. even where there was no mountain with which his cult could be associated2. dOdvaroi /cat dyr/paoi. MiillerWieseler-Wernicke Ant. Denkm. went to Mount Kenaion the north-western promontory of Euboia. (a) The Mountain-cults of Zeus. On Mount Helikon. 1345 (a rock-cut inscription of the third century B. 144 pi. no. Mount Arachnaion in Argolis had altars of Zeus and Hera9. Euboia. This god has been taken to be Zeus (Overbeck Gr. 82 f. 16 regards him as the mountain-god Olympos. Infra p. Farnell Cults of Gr. 155. Herakles. oVois iepevs rfyevos Krivev 'Apre/jLidupos. Rhodes. iii Suppl. who fled from Crete to Rhodes lest he should unwittingly become the slayer of his father Katreus. according to one version of his legend. | a. On the peak of Mount Ide called Gargaros there was an altar and a precinct of Zeus Idaios. Rev. 1904 xviii. 89 ff.

82 points out that the name of the deity to whom 2 1 . ii. B Boiotia. surrounded on three sides by airy colonnades. and Trajan had his. then. Collignon Pergame. Humann on behalf of the Prussian government in 1878. x)4 shows the sky-line cut by two magnificent temples. Further north. a building of greyish trachyte. 126. The Akropolis of that marvellous city crowns a hill that rises a thousand feet above sealevel and commands a view of unequalled beauty over the valleys of Teuthrania. nat. Pontremoli and M. according to local circumstances. 1227—1287 (art by A. Kips and M. i—250 (Die Friese des groszen Altars Berlin 1910) with an Atlas of 36 plates. viz. High up on the Cretan Mount Ide was a permanent rock-cut altar of Zeus Idatos**. a sumptuous Corinthian pile of white marble. i—128 (Der grosze Altar. 3 Plin. 2. Athena. citied to the top. Bohn in Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen zu Pergamon Berlin 1888 iii pi. Koch (Baumeister Denkm. and architecture by E.' The silhouette of the city seen from below against the sunrise (pi. 5. A case in point is furnished by Pergamon. Fabricius). Thus with some variety of detail. stands out the huge temple of the deified Trajan.' Immediately behind the northern stod are the halls in which the Pergamene Library was lodged. flanked on its northern and eastern sides by a two-storeyed stod or ' colonnade. which will claim our attention later. Trendelenburg).C. i. 2. See also E. Pergamon iii. by H. 1206—1227 (history. Conze and K. Crete.118 Sequence of the Mountain-cults Kithairon. 5 J. a fairly accurate picture may be drawn of Pergamon in its glory. Schrammen in Pergamon iii. here cited as Pergamon) is slowly approaching completion: two volumes have already been devoted to the altar built by Eumenes ii (197—159 B. the primitive cult of Zeus required an altar on the summit or as near it as might be. Even where that cult was celebrated On a tall mountain. restauration et description des monuments de Vacropole Paris 1900. Thanks to the excavations begun by A. had her temple. 4 Based on the Berlin panorama by A. Pergamon iii. and therefore in our illustration more to the left. involved the erection on the mountain-top of temporary wooden altars destined for the bonfires of Zeus Kithairdnios1. ib. But the great Berlin publication (Altertiimer von Pergamon. Schrammen. i. But Zeus5 was content with the altar that smokes Append. ii pi. which in turn utilised the drawing by R. Crowded with culture ! hieratic conservatism was apt to maintain the open-air altar. Der obere Markt. In the centre rises the Doric fane of Athena Polids or Nikephoros. The most convenient summary of what is known about Pergamon is still that contained in Baumeister Denkm.). as it was when Pliny called it ' by far the most famous town in the province of Asia3. hist. Ib. Berlin 1906) with an Atlas of 34 plates. topography. 36). Winnefeld. by J.

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X o N H-. ^ r^> o <0 Pi .

arch. it was an altar on a colossal scale (fig. Pergamon iii. Mus. The substructure was topped by an Ionic colonnade. 69 supposes that the altar was that of Zeus and Athena Nikephoros. That this coin shows the great altar was first recognised by A. and the fli ht of steps was the great altar was dedicated is not attested by the extant blocks of the votive inscription. 12 fig. was protected by a soaring baldaFig. p. fig. But it is commonly regarded as the altar of Zeus alone. Am. 65 f. 823 ff. 88)2. pi. to judge from our only representation of it. a Pergamene coin struck by Septimius Severus (fig. Ground-plan ib. . arch. Bruckner in \h& Jahrb. 234 ff. Above all rose the actual altar of burnt offering. deutsch. d. Coins Mysia p. See ?\<->oJahrb.Sequence of the Mountain-cults 119 on the terrace adjoining the Akropolis. Inst. i. A substructure. Elevation of west side ib. i pi. 30. 19. Head Hist. figs. Sy)1. Heron de Villefosse in the Comptes rendus de I'''Acad. 536. 152 pi. et belles-lettres 1901 p. 1904 xix Arch. Inst. deutsch.. 1902 xvii Arch. 461. 218 ff. which represented in high relief the battle of the Gods and the Giants. num? p. measuring about 100 feet square by about 18 feet in height. d. M. 1 Pergamon iii. des inscr. 18. 4 f. 1902 p. chin . p. 15. fottrn. 1902 vi. and in the Rev. pi. kais. Cat. Num. Anz... the back wall of which was decorated with a smaller frieze depicting scenes from the mythical history of the town. the adjoining colonnades were surmounted by statues of deities. that it was dedicated to all the gods. was mounted by means of a broad staircase and adorned all round with a frieze. 2 Brit. kais. Frankel in Pergamon viii no. 88. True. Arch. Anz. 7.. A. which.

figs.2 pp. Durm Baiikunst d. i. ib. who appear on another coin of Pergamon4 and are said to have witnessed the birth of Zeus on this very hill5. Head Hist. 3 A. Benndorf Neue archaeologiscJie Untersuchungen auf Samothrake Wien 1880 p. It bears so close a resemblance to the apsidal Kabeirion of Samothrace3 that I would venture to see in it a shrine of the Kabeiroi. Conze—A. The whole complex of marble was reckoned one of the wonders of the world1. 4 Zeitschr. Gr. Atlas pi.. 89. 45 ff. J. i. 3 Supra p. 14. figs. 695. 1901 xxiv. 2—16. Hauser— O. 5. Schrammen observes that the extreme point still shows traces of a square structure (fig.I2O Sequence of the Mountain-cults flanked by two figures of humped bulls on large pedestals. no n. 195. 536. Num. 2. 2 1 . 83 ff. num? p. Hauser—G. Built into and concealed by its foundations was a previously existing building with an apse at one end2. 231. 424. 6 Pergamon iii. 15—29 pis. 89)". Conze—A. n—52. 19 ff.f. Just where we should have expected it to be—higher up. But. Niemann Archaeologische Untersuchungen auf Samothrake Wien 1875 p. where was the former altar of Zeus? Fig. 8. 120 f. 4—8 pis.z p. 74f. if the site of the great altar was once occupied by a Kabeirion. Pergamon iii. on the actual summit. A. fig. and acutely Ampel.. figs.

? Ib.). 1668 f. 6 8 Ib. Boiotia. but not as yet anthropomorphic 3 . who had there one or more altars and a (bronze?) statue7. Phrixos and Helle. The summit of Mount Athos was sacred to Zeus Athoios. an altar and a statue of the god standing beside it. i. . Frazer on Paus. Doubtless too the statue of Zeus Aitnaios on Mount Aitne 8 . Makedonia. that of the Chaeronean Zeus on the crag called Petrachos9. Ib. for example. 13. it was impressive from its sheer simplicity. 556 f. was a bronze statue of Zeus Parnetkios5. Rather it must be traced back to the primitive conception of Zeus as the Bright Sky. ib. was worshipped on the top of Mount Ithome 1 2 Id. G. A third and final stage in the evolution of the cult was reached. With the change to anthropomorphism came the introduction of statues into the mountain-cults of Zeus. had a precinct arid a stone statue of Zeus Laphystios: tradition told how king Athamas was here on the point of sacrificing his own son and daughter. alive and potent. consisting entirely of the calcined thighs of victims sacrificed to Zeus2. Attike.. Mount Laphystion. On altars made of ashes see E. Like the altar of Zeus Olympics in the Altis at Olympia. Zeus Ithomdtas. 9 10 Ib. as Semaleos on another. and. near Orchomenos in Boiotia. when in the nick of time Zeus sent the ram with the golden fleece to aid their escape6. If so. Append. if the cult moved with the times. when the figure of the god came to be suitably housed in a temple. i if. But this was an innovation not brought about all at once. B Mysia. 8 (iii. Append. there was now. But it must not be supposed that the absence of a visible representation of Zeus was due merely to the backward state of sculptural art at the time when the cult in question was founded. Ib. and therefore not as yet represented by a statue. it was a mere heap of ashes. 5. 3 4 5 Supra p. Reisch in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. B Attike. Sicily. On Mount Parnes Zeus was worshipped under several names: as Ombrios and Apemios he received sacrifices on one altar. Boiotia. Where there had been an altar and nothing more. and that of Zeus Anchesmios on Mount Anchesmos near Athens10 had altars of their own. apparently beside this latter.Sequence of the Mountain-cults 121 conjectures that the altar of Zeus mentioned by Pausanias was not the gorgeous monument of Eumenes ii but this more homely place of sacrifice1. Thus on the top of Mount Hymettos there was an altar and statue of Zeus Hymettios*. J. Ib. The dedication of an altar with neither temple nor statue of the god is characteristic of the early so-called aniconic stage of Greek religion.

and ought to be. So Phalaris tendered an offer that. Wilkins The Antiquities of Magna Graecia Cambridge 1807 Agrigentum pi. But though these have preserved the form. entrusted him with the task. 5. The citizens of that town desired to make a temple of Zeus Polieus at a cost of 200 talents on their Akropolis: the site was rocky. Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. The site of the temple is shown in W. showing its shapes as they were. and provide satisfactory sureties for the funds. The people. Pausanias. however. and moreover it would be the right thing to establish the god on the highest available point. While the foundations were being dug. slew most of the citizens. and thus became tyrant of Akragas. i. Nor is there to be seen any really accurate model or even complete picture." The city granted him permission to fence it in and to raise a circuit-wall. made. Among the least imperfect are the ' Theseum' at Athens. axes. i. say of the Parthenon.122 Sequence of the Mountain-cults in Messene . B Sicily. Polyainos3 tells the following tale with regard to its foundation: ' Phalaris was a contractor of Akragas. And splendid indeed must have been the effect of a Greek temple with its ivory-white columns and its richly-coloured entablature seen against the dazzling blue of a southern sky. and its colouring as it probably was. and brought up to the Akropolis plenty of materials—stones. he sent down a crier with this proclamation: "Whosoever will denounce those persons that have stolen stone and iron from the Akropolis shall receive such and such a reward. Time has broken and defaced all existing Greek temples. they have lost the colour. considering that his life as a contractor had given him experience in such matters. 1189^ plan. a temple of unknown dedication at Segesta. and double-axes. B Messene. " suffer me to fence in the Akropolis. At last Zeus was installed in a house of his own.' Again. furnish materials without extravagance. He made his attack during the festival of the Thesmophoria. The first temple built upon a height for Zeus of which we have any record is the temple of Zeus Polietis constructed by Phalaris in the first half of the sixth century on the Akropolis of Akragas some 1200 feet above sea-level. a rocky cone rising abruptly from the plain to a height of 950 feet. and iron. but the facts are so far certain that an attempt at adequate representation might be. he hired many strangers." The people were angered at the theft of the materials. but the statue of the god. he would use the best craftsmen. optical corrections and all. timber. Hardly less beautiful would it appear when its marbles glimmering in the moonlight contrasted with the mysterious shadows of its colonnade 2 . Hereupon he freed the prisoners and armed them with his stones. Doubtless some details would be conjectural. i. i view. " Well then. On receipt of the public moneys. of a Doric structure. purchased many prisoners." said Phalaris. the foundation very solid. the temple of ' Concordia ' at Girgenti. who visited the spot Append. was kept in the house of a priest annually appointed for the purpose1. there was a cult of Zeus Larisaios. 3 Polyain. if he were appointed as overseer of the work. See further Append. secured the women and children. 2 1 . made by the famous Argive sculptor Hageladas.'on the summit of the Larisa or Akropolis of Argos.

but again we cannot tell the date of its foundation. 3 1 . and Cithaeron2. The precinct of Zeus Kynthios and Athena Kynthia on the top of Mount Kynthos in Delos included a small temple. reports (Oct. Frazer on Paus. The same is true of the temple of Zeus Akraios on the Pindos range between Thessalia and Epeiros4. Helicon. Probably they were all comparatively recent. Ib. and of the temple dedicated to Zeus Kdsios at Kasiope in Korkyra6. but when it was first founded is not known. J. Ib. 19. the Euboean sea. 3 (v. rocky eminence above Glisas in Boiotia. Lebegue to be of late date10. These remains he took to be those of a temple and altar of Zeus built in historic times on 10 the site consecrated by Herakles. 6 7 8 Ib. who most courteously travelled from Chalkis to the Kenaion promontory on my behalf. This implies that the temple was then a ruin . 786 f. Pisidia. Here. was no longer standing on its base1. Papabasileiou. Thessalia.). A. the dark blue water of the deep lake of Hylica environed by barren and rugged mountains. 'the view is extensive and fine. the position of which can still be traced.' says Dr Frazer. Korkyra. Ib. 1911) that at Dion in a spot named after a church of Saint Konstantinos he could trace the foundations of a temple and fair-sized precinct with a circular base of three steps at the east end. Append. B Argolis. The temple of Zeus Solymetis on Mount Solymos in Pisidia does not appear to have been a very ancient structure17. ' From the summit. Mount Sagmatas. 2 Append. Torr notes that the temple-walls and precinct-wall of Zeus are still to be seen on the mountain 4070 feet above the sea8. we saw. of the temple of Zeus Kdsios built by the descendants of the Dioskouroi on Mount Kasion in Egypt5. embracing the great expanse of the Copaic plain (a lake no longer). Boiotia. 4 5 Append. Mr G. G. but this is expressly said by M. Sen. set up a simple altar to Zeus Atabyrios on the Rhodian Mount Atabyrion: but Mr C. Althaimenes. 9. made of wood. And in several cases it is clear that the primitive altar of Zeus received the additional glory of a temple at a much later date. Herakles. 17. and on the horizon the peaks of Parnassus. Rhodes. hie rupe celsa nulla quam nubes ferit [ annosa fulgent templa Cenaei lovis. Aigyptos. the ancient Mount Hypatos. 9 Ib. 61 f. Oct. says that the temple of Zeus Larisaios had no roof and that his statue. B Delos. B Boiotia. attaining a height of 2434 feet. is a bold. dedicated altars and a leafy precinct to Zeus Patroios on the headland of Mount Kenaion : but Seneca in his tragedy Herakles on Oite writes— Here on a soaring rock no cloud may strike Shines the old temple of Kenaian Zeus9. we said. Ib.Sequence of the Mountain-cults 123 in the second century of our era.' Upon the flat top of this mountain Pausanias found a cult-statue and temple of Zeus Hypatos*.

We have already noted an imperial coin of Prousa in Bithynia. Coins Thessaly etc. num? p. 93)6. Coins \. 8. 4 Rasche Lex. Cat. seated on a rock 4 : Ankyra too was situated in a mountainous district. 91. Mus. 2. go)1: in place of the rock. Hunter Cat. Coins Galatia etc. iii.? p. have the head of Zeus as their obverse and the throne of Zeus as their reverse type (fig. num. coins of Kyrrhos in Syria struck by Trajan and Fig. . 8. 3) pi. Mtts. This perhaps implies that a neighbouring height was regarded as 1 Brit. 3. The mountain sacred to Zeus was sometimes regarded as his seat or throne.C. Append. 2 Brit. struck in the first century B. 116 n.124 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus (b) The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus.. which must represent Mount Pindos. ii § 3 (a) ii. 264 pi. 663. 782. B Thessalia.93I add a few other numismatic examples. Fig. Suppl. 5 Supra p. p. 19 pi.C. Mus. p. 3. 4. Coins of Gomphoi or Philippopolis from about 350 B. later specimens substitute a throne (figs. Head Hist. Copper coins of Larisa on the Orontes. Head Hist. i. 450. 91. and eagle3: the rock is presumably some neighbouring height. with a sceptre in his right hand and a Victory in his left. Head loc. which shows Zeus or a Zeus-like mountaingod reclining on the summit of the Mysian Olympds (fig. the interpretation of which is more doubtful. cit. 6 Brit. Cat. Num. 3 Infra ch. onwards show Zeus Akraios seated on a rock and holding a sceptre in his right hand (fig. 31. 92 is an unpublished variety (with the Thessalian form rOM<t>ITOYN) in my collection. Similarly a coin of Ankyra in Galatia struck by Antoninus Pius represents Zeus. other emperors have Zeus Kataibdtes sitting on a rock with thunderbolt. sceptre. 295. 19 (I figure no. p. 85)5. Fig. 252. 92)1 Again. Coins Thessaly etc. Cat.

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X CD .

17 fig. Anson Num. num. 124 pi. Gr. Overbeck Gall. pi. on which Zeus Olbios had his kieron9. 214 ff. In the midst sits Paris himself. (fig. 119 pi. Roscher Lex. 141 ff. F. 5. ii § 9 (h) ii (f)). Robert op. 29. 94)1 and the beginning of the first century A. cit. of the potter Meidias5 and now preserved at Karlsruhe 6 . her. He turns to speak with Hermes.-Relfs. 259. d. Wilhelm ' Reisen in Kilikien' (cited infra ch. 4. 7 6 . iii pi. Coins Lycaonia etc. 18 pi. (fig. T. 7. ii. Head Hist. though here an allusion to an actual throne occupied by the priestly king 4 is equally possible. 7. Stud. Aphrodite. Furtwangler-Reichhold Gr. pi. 26. Inst. sometimes represent Zeus seated or reclining on a mountain in the upper register of their design. xi)17.5. Similarly the throne and thunderbolt of Zeus on coppers of Olba in Kilikia. Vasenmalerei i. was conceived as his sacred seat. i. Num. Bildw. G. who has brought the three goddesses to Mount Ide. Overbeck Gall. 10" (Villa Pamfili) = Man.95- above sea-level). d. 1624 fig. d. 1885 xii. 5 G. Inst. Mus. Coins Lycaonia etc. representing the judgment of Paris this seated Zeus is sometimes transformed into a seated mountain-god: see Robert Sark. 22. 3 J. pi. Chron. pp. Nicole Meidias et le style fleuri dans la ceramique attique Geneva 1908 pp. Cat. p. n ff. Third Series 1899 xix. 220 ff. 726. H. 2. introduces the god as part of a Polygnotan background to a familiar scene— the judgment of Paris (pi. 63 ff. 4 Infra ib. Cat. 369 (from the same die). 137 f. Ann. no. 2. but as a shepherd he carries a short thick staff and is accompanied by his dog.A A A A I Z E H N ^1 Algous m'). 3. The legend of the specimen here figured is AYNAITO[Y] OABE[HN] THS I EPA! K A I K E N NAT ] K A I . 10. dt. In sarcophagus-reliefs etc. Bent in ihefourn. 1839 xi. 3 ft has throne turned to left).? p. pi. Ann. Myth. 12 (Palestrina). 189 f. p. may mean that Uzundja-Burdj. Bildw. 30. 10'. Fig. painted in the style.. d. Hell.D. pi. Inst. R. Thus a fine hydria from Ruvo. 2386°.. The laurels and the rocky ground mark the mountain-side. 65— 69 pi.. Mus. pi. no. n. 1 Brit. As a Phrygian he wears a rich Oriental costume. ii. 3 y (no. 95)2. nos.C. struck probably at the end of the first century B. iii pi. Head Hist. Hi f.f. Heberdey and A. 94. 240 f. (Villa Ludovisi)=J/ow. Vase-painters of the fourth century B. 21. Inst. her. num? p. Karlsruhe p. 1891 xii. Zeitschr. Fig. cp. ii. Robert op. 1354 f. Winnefeld Vasensamml. iii. 9. 11.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 125 the god's seat. 'Tall Castle' (3800 ft. p. 12. here as often named Alexandros.C. 846°. 727. 9a. Hill in the Num. 1841 xiii. 2 Brit.

i § 6 (d) i (/3). pi.. almost certainly Demeter. . Demeter—Kora p. " She rests one hand on a sceptre. Wien. which was found near Bari and is now in the Vatican collection4. Ov. dial. the goddess of good luck. The goddesses cannot be identified with 1 Cp. He wears a laurel-wreath in his hair and a himdtion wrapped about his knees. His right hand holds a sceptre. 1807) figured in the Compte-rendu St. Vorlegebl. 96) shows Triptolemos on his winged car drawn by two serpents.fitt. who holds a wheel-torch under her left arm and is offering more corn to Triptolemos. 552 ff. 7. 177 ff. In front of Paris. 11 f. Atlas pi. 30 and 33. Above her we see Eutychia. who first brought about the strife and now would watch its denotement. rapt. 71. t. Above and beyond these figures rises a mountain. stands Athena— a majestic figure closely resembling the Parthenos of Pheidias. pi. 33 ff. 31 f. Hardly less majestic. cer.. recalling an analogous figure in the eastern pediment of the Parthenon. met. chrestom.. is seated quietly behind Hermes. On the right Helios drives up his four-horse chariot from behind the mountain. 11. A pi. 31 f. 63. and not a whit more successful in attracting the notice of Paris. Pet. L. Prokl. Petersburg ii. and holds in his left hand a sceptre and a bunch of corn. 1861 p. Overbeck Gr. 15. Apul. 20. but wholly disregarded by him. her. He is wreathed with myrtle. 339 ff. possibly one of the Horai. 10. 22 ff. no. B Troas. indicated by broken dotted lines. Its obverse (fig. infra ch. Kolouth. the other on a little Eros.. Hel. upon which we see two goddesses and higher up two gods. 17 Kinkel). On the left sits Zeus. 3 Kypria ap. 16. i (p. Helios and Zeus give the setting of the scene in time and place1. In the background appears Eris. and an attendant maiden preparing wreaths for the coming victory. Atlas pi. 16. = Reinach Vases Ant. 69 ff. it was in obedience to the bidding of Zeus that Hermes brought the goddesses before Paris3. probably Hekate. i. mon. Kunstmyth. For Ide is the home of Zeus Idaios^. who draws near on the left supported by her maid Klymene. bearing a lighted torch. leaning on the rocky slope. 4 A. 2 Append. whose brother she has already sent forward to whisper seductive words in the ear of the judge.126 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus confident of success. is Hera. iii. St. the vase at St Petersburg (Stephani Vasensamml. a winged thunderbolt. 8. dear. Equally essential is the relation of Zeus to the main design in the case of the Poniatowski vase—a great Apulian krater with medallion handles. Millin Peintures de vases antique* Paris 1810 ii pi. Moreover. 31".pi. 60 ff. One of his serpents is feeding from a phidle held by a seated goddess. his left. Behind her at a lower level stands another goddess. Loukian. i. Inghirami Vas. The other turns towards a standing goddess. Lenormant—de Witte El. p.

but are in all probability meant for Aphrodite and Peitho1. cit. crowned with laurel. with one foot raised on the rocky ground. I have relied on another Apulian vase. shoes on his feet. reclines on the mountain-top. the other seated). Demeter—her wrath thereby appeased—is instructing Triptolemos in the art of agriculture and sending him forth on his mission of 1 The identification of the goddesses on this vase has been much canvassed : see Overbeck op. 2 H. (see R. alib. standing beside Aphrodite with knee raised on rock). . (further to the right. 29—98 ' Der Mythus in der Dichtkunst'). Zeus has Fig. 334 ff. which represents the same scene in a very similar fashion and fortunately supplies us with the inscribed names T P I PTOAEM01E (m serpent-car).The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 127 certainty. balances the similarly posed figure of Peitho. A ^ P O A I T H (on the right at a higher level. N E I A O S (river at foot of main design). seated). a bracelet on his left arm. one standing. sent Hermes to bring back Persephone from the Underworld 2 . Foerster Der Raub und die Ruckkehr der Persephone Stuttgart 1874 pp. Dem. H E I G H . Hermes has his usual attributes. pp. 552—562. now at St Petersburg (infra ch.. and an eagle-sceptre in his left hand. and. He has a himdtion folded about his legs. 96. i § 6 (d) i (/?)). The moment depicted seems to be this. The gods are Hermes and Zeus. A H M H T H P (on the left filling a pkidle for him). Zeus. h f l P A l (further to the left.

439 ff. man. Apollon pp. 2442. another is seated harp in hand chanting the victor's praises to the delight of a pet-dog from Malta. p. An Apulian pelike from Ruvo..2 » 3> and more accurately in the Arch. Arch. the Arch. Overbeck op. 331. Myth. Confining our attention to Zeus.Jessen ib. Still less does the she-goat cropping its food in the corner take thought for Marsyas' fate. and Overbeck Gr. while the third has risen from her judgment-seat and is reading out of a roll the fearful penalty prescribed for the vanquished. Overbeck Gr. 7 A. '2 Heydemann Vasensamml. Marsyas himself will be the victim. xii) 3 . 12 Atlas pi. Neapel p. Below him on a spotted skin sits the defeated Silenos. Zeit. 1884 xlii pi. 64. cit. He is already victorious. but his fingers still play with the four chords of his lyre. p. Atlas pi. no. Dem. ii. ii pi. but not one of them is likely to help. 25. has on one side a design (pi. 1869 xxvii. 431. who are present as judges of his skill5. who scoffed at the effects of flute-play ing6. Kunstmyth. in whose cult the flute was used. she is strangely apathetic : cp./«£. 25. 5 O. Zeus naturally sympathises with his son. 2441 ff. Aphrodite. 442 argue that Aphrodite. cit. is unconcernedly holding &phidle to serve as a divining-glass for Eros7. 449. 433 no. ii. 3 A. 165. though she has flutes herself. p. wreathed with laurel and wearing a himdtion drawn up over the back of his head. 3231. the background of which somewhat closely resembles that of the vase just described. For of the three Muses. 13 f. 3. Zeit. Apollon p. Jessen in Roscher Lex. we note that his connexion with the tragedy is but slight. Michaelis Die Verurtheilung des Marsyas etc. now at Naples2. 8 Overbeck op. 1869 xxvii pi. 4. 341. 529 ff. 5. 484.128 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus civilisation. one. On the mountain-top are three seated deities . is present on the side of Marsyas. He is here mainly 8 as the divine dweller on the 1 H. other vase-paintings of the same scene in Lenormant—de Witte £l. And no wonder. In the centre of the composition sits Apollon. On this showing the mountain upon which Zeus reclines is the Macedonian Olympos1. His skin flute-case lies behind on the ground. as though for a sacrifice. 4 O. . Kunstmyth. 6 Hyg. Michaelis Die Verurtheilung des Marsyas auf einer Vase ans Ruvo Greifswald 1864 pl. He holds the flutes in his left hand and leans his head on his right in deep dejection. Behind her a girl is already bringing up a basket with flowers and a fillet. stands spell-bound listening to Apollon's strains. cer. The scene is laid on a mountain near the Phrygian Kelainai. 17. Zeit. where Marsyas the fluteplaying Silenos was defeated and flayed by Apollon 4 . 441 holds that Zeus is present as witness of things in general and of his son's victory in particular. and a winged Nike is presenting him with the victor's fillet. If so. 46. Artemis with her brother.

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I rt vl 5T oo !H rt f H <a .£5 N .

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. '' fc~^»v-J \ Relief signed by Archelaos of Priene.^-^'*u"f*iii&$f.J T _ . .. &? page 129 ff.

17. But I gather. 112 fig. r 7 f f . Before us rises a steep mountain-side. Baumeister Denkm. following and improving upon the identifications proposed by S. Hauser in the fahresh. Myth. C. Cat. ii. 'Time..coin-portraits of the Syrian king Alexandros i Balas and his wife Kleopatra. whom I consulted by letter. That well-known work of art. 30. ii. H.C. Sculpture iii. de la Sculpt.' Inscr. O . Komodia. it has been conjectured that we have here the king and queen of Alexandreia portrayed as allegorical personages3. 3266 ff. 13. a smaller figure named Physis. Newton remarked a family likeness between the head of Xpofos and those of the later Ptolemies. Brit. 2191 fig. ' Virtue. the latter holds up the stern-ornament of a ship. Gr. named Chronos. In front of Homer's footstool lies another roll with a mouse at one end of it. ' Wisdom. H. T. Cat. 226. This type of Zeus reclining occurs again on a relief signed by Archelaos son of Apollonios. p. 244 ff. Watzinger op.' and a group of Arete. Fourth Series 1904 iv 307 ff. fig. Sharpe. H. The alleged likeness is to me. Afus. 1295. arch. Both E. gr. Smith. Chron. Behind the poet stands a woman named Oikoumene. 1911) : ' I think Hauser has a better case than Watzinger. a sceptre in his left. Cuper Apotheosis Homeri Amsterdam 1683. Braun Apotheose des Homer Leipsic 1848. while Tragodia.' who is holding a wreath above his head. Watzinger Das Relief des Archelaos von Priene (VVinckelmannsfest-Progr. fig. however. His throne is supported by two kneeling female figures inscribed Ilids and Odysseia: the former carries a sheathed sword. n) proposes a fresh identification based on the . ' Faith. that the other version of the coin rather shook his own faith. figs. He holds a roll in his right hand. and the other authorities cited by A. The sacrificial attendant with jug and bowl is Mythos. hardly convincing. ' Nature. cit. to indicate the Battle of the Frogs and Mice. 253 f.' who is uplifting a roll in either hand. Schott Explication nouvelle de VApotheose d1 Homer e etc. Inst. It. 463 ff. E. was found near Bovillae about 1650 A. a frog (?) at the other. and he adopts the attitude now familiar to us as that of the mountain-god.' and Sophia. pi. i. Overbeck Gr. xiii)2. 97) resemble Ptolemy iv Philopator and his wife Arsinoe. a native of Priene1. 15. Its subject is usually described as the apotheosis of Homer. fig. ' Memory. 1905 viii. Since in features and hair these two figures (fig. Kortegarn De tabula Archelai Bonn 1862. 3 C. d. kindly writes (Oct. Smith in the Brit. gr.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 129 heights above Kelainai. Before the poet is a lighted altar inscribed A<\ behind which stands a humped bull. His coin is surprisingly like. Sculpture iii. Amsterdam 1714. Poiesis holds up two flaming torches. Plastik^ ii. no.D. referable to the end of the third century B. no. Num. pi. Braun and Sir C. 8—9. Mus. from what Hauser says. A. F. Roscher Lex. Mr A. oest.' Pistis. I confess. and is now in the British Museum (pi. 354. 85 f. viz.' 2 1 C. cp. at the foot of which Homeros is seen enthroned. Berlin Ixiii) Berlin [903. 118. and a man. Historia strews incense on the altar. For further details and divergent theories see the monographs of G.' Mneme. Sic. ' The World. Ptolemy vi Philometor and his mother Kleopatra. 28 (=:Imhoof-Blumer Monn. 674 ff. Collignon Hist.

cit. Reinach. 1 .). To the right of the cave and immediately in front of a large tripod with domed cover is the statue of a man holding a roll. This figure has often been called the Pythian priestess. had a famous poet of ancient date been meant. 6. Paus. 3 C. 2 Others have interpreted the figure as Homer. Above it stands Apollon in a cave with a kithdra in his hand and an omphalos at his feet: against the omphalos lean the bow and quiver of the god. now in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. a tripod in some poetical contest3 and has celebrated the event by dedicating this votive relief. Bruckner ib. ii no. To the left of the cave and above it. TOV Kpdrwi'os. The whole scene takes place in front of a curtained colonnade. cites a yet closer parallel. viz.\. Gr. Watzinger op. Orpheus.130 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus draw near with gestures of acclamation. 3068. But. which concludes a decree in honour of the flute-player Kraton thus: TrapaTideirdai 5e /cat ev TOLLS deaLs /cat ev TOLLS irofj. cit. 3.Sd re /cat Qv/jLiaTripLov K. Hesiod. TOV ev T£ fledrpy Tpiwo. Her true character was determined by S. an inscribed slab from Teos (middle of 2nd cent. no. 21 cp. = Michel Recueil d*Inscr. Watzinger op.C. 1016.irius Tralpa TOV avdpLavTO. The existing head is a restoration. 97.T. winding up the mountain-height. 31. 9. B. are the eight remaining Muses. {Corp. 22 ff. and one of the Muses1 raising a roll stands before him. 11 ff. p.). his name—as in the case of OMHPOS—would ha-ve been inscribed below him. gr. which statue—as Goethe was the first to suggest—probably represents a poet 2 who has won Fig. inscr. p. and replicas were cited by W. Amelung: see C.

Enthroned as a divine king on earth he is a human counterpart of the divine king enthroned in heaven2. Nor was this a mere fancy-flight of Hellenistic imagination. The significance of the whole design is tolerably clear. Watzinger. heaven being located on the summit of Fig. Watzinger op. 9—2 . ultimately derives his message from their omnipotent sire. p. 13. 14 ff. is their mother Mnemosyne1. C. and further attempts to explain the reclining Zeus as a Rhodian development of an originally Dionysiac motif4'.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 131 arranged in typical attitudes and furnished with conventional attributes. 17 justly says: ' In zeusahnlicher Haltung sitzt Homer. suggests the following possibilities. is now commonly accepted. It was. All these lead upwards to Zeus himself (fig. or some other epic poet This identification. the mountain. 98. hist. The ideal poet. 98). cit. 4 Id. who follows W. 11} and existing also at Smyrna (Strab. Higher still. 20 calls attention to the actual cult of Homer established at Alexandreia by Ptolemy iv Philopator (Ail. C. a religious conviction inseparably bound up with immemorial Hellenic customs. p. Amelung in ascribing the types of Apollon and the Muses to Philiskos of Rhodes3. inspired by Apollon and the Muses. cit. Nay more. Cuper in 1683. Watzinger op. var. 4 ff. as we shall see in due course. and an eagle at his feet. 3 C.' and ib. Apollonios Rhodios. ib. p. first proposed by G. he delivers to mankind the oracles of Zeus. But the relief before us has a special as well as a general significance. and on a larger scale than the Muses. in a sense he is Zeus. 646). who is seated or reclining on the mountain-top with a himdtion wrapped about his legs. p. a sceptre in his right hand.

for the divine honours paid to Homer 2 . In short. For example. paid the customary compliment to the king and queen of his patron's town. Smith in the Brit. He commemorated his victory by dedicating in a temple at Rhodes a votive relief made for him by Archelaos of Priene. Mount Helikon is merged in another height of the same range and reveals Apollon. 8 A. a sculptor belonging to the Rhodian school of art. as was Apollon. hist. And other hypotheses are equally possible. i. B Rhodes. held at Alexandreia on behalf of Apollon and the Muses1. the whole explanation is hypothetical. and— possibly prompted by the epithet Helikonios—represented Mount Helikon with Zeus Helikonios'1 on its summit and the Muses descending its side. The former is at most a probable guess. 2 Vitr. Cat. or that the contest took place at Alexandreia. and. The sculptor of course introduced Homer as the prototype of all epic poets. He naturally got a local sculptor to carve his votive tablet. But it is beset by uncertainties. nat. 4 Append. i. the latter is at most an improbable guess. 6 Nilsson Gr. 131 n. himself of a Rhodian type. 74 ff. in whose sanctuary Philiskos' group presumably stood. or that it had anything to do with the cult of Apollon and the Muses. 34 f. standing in his Delphic cave8. while the nationality of the poet and the artistic traditions of the sculptor explain the adoption of Philiskos' types. or that the motif of a reclining Zeus originated in Rhodes. 7 praef. and for the emphasis laid on Apollon and the Muses. The locality of the contest thus accounts for the portraits of Ptolemy iv and Arsinoe. Zeus. or that the supposed poet belonged to the Rhodian school of poetry. was successful in a poetical contest. Mus. Plin. Feste p. we do not know that Archelaos the sculptor belonged to the Rhodian school of sculpture. Watzinger's reconstruction of the circumstances is attractive and hangs well together. Again. the great festival of Poseidon Helikonios held in the territory of Priene6. 4. at the expense of topographical accuracy. Supra p. omphalos and all.132 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus of the Rhodian school. B Boiotia. 248 : ' It has been generally supposed that the rocky terraces on which the Muses appear in this relief represent 3 1 . 7 Append. Sculpture iii. it might be maintained that an epic poet of the Alexandrine school won a prize-tripod5 at the Panionia. 144). 36. H. 5 Bronze tripods were given as prizes at the games of Apollon T/JIOTTIOS (Hdt. He was worshipped also on the akropolis of Rhodes. We do not know that these types of Apollon and the Muses were those devised by Philiskos*. is Zeus Atabyrios reclining on the highest peak of the island3. The Muses suggested Apollon.

Fig. who like their humbler brethren of the potter's trade were still at work under the far-reaching influence of Polygnotos1. a third standing with a roll in her hand.C. so far as I am aware. and a Pompeian fresco of the first century A.D. 1245 ff. I would infer that Archelaos was indebted for his design. 214 ff. how the vase-paintings bridge the interval between a Selinuntine metope of the fifth century B. has not said the last word on the subject). 1904 xxiv. In both we see a mountain-side with Apollon half way up it playing the kithdra or lyre.avreiov at Delphoi. and the relief of Archelaos in the third. while his right arm leaning on the mountain-top supports his head. P. in both the mountain is topped by a strikingly similar figure of Zeus. Hell. or at least for essential elements of his design. In both the artist has portrayed success in a contest of poetry or music. Phoin. In both there are the Muses arranged at different levels on the slope—one holding two flutes. . There are extant two other representations of Zeus on the mountain to which allusion must here be made.—but to contemporary fresco-painters. Stud.C. has escaped the observation of Watzinger and his predecessors—the extraordinary similarity of the Archelaos relief to the Marsyas vase from Ruvo. Lastly. I. iii § i (a) iii) we shall see. Later (ch.C. 232 cp. holding a thunderbolt peacefully on his knee with his left hand. and in this case the cave within which Apollo is standing would be the Corycian cave on that mountain. Eur. 419. It will be more profitable to notice a point which.' Not necessarily: it might be the actual //.: A. another seated to play the kithdra or harp.T. The emperor in military costume and himself crowned by Parnassus. 1 Thus in the case of the art-type of Zeus reclining on a mountain-top the vasepaintings appear to form a link between some lost fresco of Polygnotos in the fifth century B. A bronze medallion of Lucius Verus shows Zeus seated on a mountain. in the case of the art-type of Zeus seated on a rock with Hera standing before him. 99. which is described as avrpov (Strab. Oppe in ttiejourn.—not indeed to vase-painters of the fourth century B.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 133 But guess-work is fatally facile.

emp. made by Polykleitos of ivory and gold. 2 1 Obv. a height which dominates the whole valley of Ephesos and looks down on its neighbour Mount Peion. and in the distance. and was as follows. rom. In one hand she carried a pomegranate. enip. 32. 291).. 2. When Zeus was in love with the maiden Hera. appear two similar buildings and a clump of cypress-trees between them (fig. rom. p. Those who in ancient days visited Argos to see the famous statue of Hera. stipra p. ioo)4. Kimstmyth. 3 a tooled specimen in the Hunter collection. 90 fig. Chron. The foregoing examples of a mountain conceived as the throne of Zeus must not be attributed to any original effort of imagination on the part of the Hellenistic artist. 3. he transformed himself into a cuckoo.D. Over his head descends a shower from the raised right hand of Zeus.134 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus an armed figure of Roma is offering to the god a small wreathbearing Nike (fig. Lastly. 190 Miinztaf. . The story about the pomegranate was mystic in character and too sacred to be rashly bruited abroad. 4 Ib. at the back of the same mountain. There can be no doubt that Zeus is here represented as enthroned on Mount Koressos. 34 n. 3 Append. Beneath this mountain lies another mountain-god holding a horn of plenty and inscribed Peion. Zeus pp. in the other a sceptre. while the left hand of that deity supports a thunderbolt. Lydia. which is set upon the flat summit of a mountain. a bronze coin of Ephesos. represents Zeus seated on a throne. was caught and petted Overbeck Gr. B Syria. Cp.z iii. and about both of them stories were told. Not improbably the artist hinted at the name of the actual victor by depicting the emperor making his presentation to the mountain-god Zeus Kdsios*. a threestoreyed building. 99)\ The inscriptions on this medallion 2 prove that it was struck in the year 167 A. Fourth Series 1906 vi. struck under Antoninus Pius. found the goddess in her temple seated on her throne. ioo. 197 no. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX. and commemorates the victories won for Verus in the east by his stern lieutenant Avidius Cassius. 156. perched upon rocks. Rev. At the foot of the mountain on which Zeus sits enthroned is a temple. Frcehner Mtd. 161. TR • P • VII IMP IIII COS III (Cohen Monn. Num. Behind the die-sinker and the sculptor lay popular belief and longFig. standing ritual practice. That about the sceptre aimed at explaining the odd fact that a cuckoo was perched on the tip of it. 101 no.

101. to be wondered at. .' It seems. Mysia. near Hermione. it is possible that an actual throne. whose altar to Zeus we have already considered. while on the top of the neighbouring Mount Pron was a corresponding sanctuary of Hera. or the ' Cuckoo' Mount. When Pythagoras made a pilgrimage to Crete. is described in The Revelation of S. among other ritual acts. highly probable that this mountain was regarded by the Greeks as the throne of Zeus. therefore. which means the ' Throne1. B Argolis. Indeed. Crete. inspected the throne which was strewn for Zeus once a year2. the islands of the Archipelago. too. was visible on the mountain. reputed to be that of Zeus. on the top of which there was a sanctuary of Zeus. he entered the cave near the top of Mount Ide wearing black wool. then.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 135 by her.' It is not. and so gained his desires. if the Greeks brought into connexion with their Zeus a remarkable series of cult-monuments scattered up and down the mainland of Asia Minor. The scene of this idyll was Mount Kokkygion. 2 Ib. to custom thrice nine days and. that Pergamon. It is noticeable. Now the older name of Mount Kokkygion was Thornax or Thrdnax. 3 Ib. and even Greece itself. stayed there according Fig. Throughout these districts the tops of mountains and hills have been by some unknown people 1 Append. John the divine as the place ' where Satan's throne is3.

some 150 feet above the level of the plain. 3 W. Bell found 'a pinnacle of rock forty feet high. and found on the summit a rockcut seat or throne with traces of steps leading up to it2.7.' The priestly king thus postulated was doubtless the dynast of Barata at the mountain-foot 6 . 5 J. 2 pi. 1896 xix. with an eagle beside him (ib.136 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus at some unknown date—possibly by the Hittites in the fourteenth and following centuries B. H. sitting. Ramsay Luke the Physician London 1908 p. M. which rises sharply from the piain to a height of about 360 feet.. 1 . 3).-hist. 25 the following statement about the Greek anchorite Epiphanies: ' Und er sass auf dem grossen Berge an der Statte der Gotzen. ioi). Another noteworthy coin-type of the same town is a standing Zeus. Garstang The Land of the Hittites London 1910 p.. 31. Rock-cut thrones have been repeatedly seen in Phrygia by A. A. branch (?) and cornu copiae seated on a rock.—adorned with thrones. Ramsay and Miss G. 713. 115. Garstang accepts this reading as against Prof. a river-god at her feet (Brit. 1768. Classe 1896 xlviii. d. sacks. M. Here in 1907 Prof. H. Phil. Is Tyche enthroned on a rock the successor of a pre-Greek mountain-mother? 7 W. Sarre climbed an isolated rocky mound named Tuzuk-Dagh. Sayce in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology 1909 xxxi. p. who rests on a sceptre and holds a phidle or globe. IO2)4. Head Hist. 16. Cat. Gesellsch. Mus. cut out in the living rock. Reichel Uber yorhellenische Gb'tterculte Wien 1897 p. xix). H.' Prof. Korte7. but adds: Fig. Sir W.C.-ep. Ramsay's Tarkuattes. num. Coins Lycaonia etc. On the Kara-Dagh or ' Black Mountain. welche sie Thron der Nahat nennen. ' it is conceivable that we have here a representation of the deity called by a name which was that used also by the priest3. Dr J. 34. Near Ikonion in Lykaonia F.. p. roughly carved into the shape of a seat or throne with high back'(fig. Gelzer records a ' throne of Nahat' on a mountain in Armenia1. 160 pi.'On the throne is incised a figure of the god. Wiss."1 p. 4 A.' 2 Arch. The rock-cut Ber. holding a sceptre in the left hand and a cup in the right3. i. 102. Sayce regards the seated figure as that of a king and interprets the Hittite inscription that accompanies it as the royal name Tarkyanas (fig. 6 A copper of Barata struck by Otacilia Severa shows Tyche with kdlathos. Mitth. large or small. i. Gelzer cites from the Armenian version of Faustus of Byzantion 5. 83 ff. is an isolated hill ^e Kizil-Dagh.' an outlying ridge of Tauros. pi.

half-way up the mountain-wall of Sipylus. which pierces deep into the bowels of the mountain. B Lydia. however. a native of the locality. 13. M. However. but it would naturally be regarded by the ancients as the result of a great earthquake. Sir W. Ramsay on the plateau of Doghanlu. Its sides are very precipitous. Hell. Mount Sipylus (Manissa-dagk] towers up abruptly. one on Mount Sipylos in Lydia. In this way you at last reach the foot of the cliff.). which stands out by itself from the mountain-side. It is plain that the ravine has been scooped out in the course of ages by the stream wearing away the limestone rock . lies immediately at its foot. 4. about 500 feet high. the modern Manissa. has mostly disappeared . It is called by the Turks the Yarik Kaya or " rifted rock. right down to the level of the Hermus valley. stout limbs and a steady head are needful. as they would call it in Switzerland. for the ancient mule-path. the Phrygian town of Midas. On one side it is possible from its summit to drop a stone 900 feet sheer into the canon . like an immense wall of rock. of the crag. figs. on all other sides it rises with a perpendicular face 100 feet from the mountain. such as are common in this district. otherwise quite unapproachable. 1882 iii. the sheer face of which seems to bar all further advance. 4f. 21 B. On the western edge of the canon." The first few steps of it may be seen under the bushes with which the rocky fissure is overgrown. 102—104. by a narrow ravine or canon. In antiquity there seems to have been a staircase in the " chimney. 1523 n. Pausanias. its sides are sheer walls of rock. 42 fig. 148 ff. indeed almost perpendicular." The canon is only about 100 feet wide . partly hewn out of the rock. there is a magnificent echo in it. on the western side of the crag there is a cleft or "chimney" (cheminee). Myth. . The city of Magnesia. calls it the ' throne of Pelops2. 7 (iii. 552 f. G. The most striking example of these rock-cut thrones is. reached 1 Perrot-Chipiez Hist. it is probably the Achelous of Homer (Iliad. de I'Artv. M. About four miles east of Magnesia the mountain wall of rock is cleft.. W. J. i3f. Stud. On the thrones of Kybele and the Korybantes see further Gruppe Gr. 2 3 Append. resemble thrones at least as much as altars1. 616). p. 9. Even to reach the foot of this crag from the plain. A small stream flows through the bottom. Ramsay in fourn.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 137 altars of Kybele discovered by Prof. figs. which leads up to the top.' And Dr Frazer in his commentary describes the scenery as follows 3 : ' On the south side of the fertile valley of the Hermus. Frazer on Paus. there shoots up a remarkable crag. 5. pi. xxiv. The upper surface of the crag. and there is nothing for it but to cling as best you can to the bushes and the projections of the rock. Rel. partly supported on walls on the edge of precipices.

Across the ravine soars the arid rocky wall of Sipylus. There are. 117. v. city had disappeared into a chasm produced by an earthquake. Pliny. They affirmed. that the Fig. and 3 feet high at the back. resembling the seat of a large armchair. but probably the immense ravine beneath suggested the idea of the earthquake. and popular mythology completed the legend by asserting that the old city had been hurled down into its depths. Also there are seven or eight bell-shaped cisterns. it slopes like the roof of a house and is indeed so steep that to climb up it is difficult. It is about 5 feet wide. The ancient settlement on the summit of this remarkable crag would seem to be that to which classical writers gave the name of Tantalis or the city of Tantalus. Nat. xv. ed. 24. p. twenty or thirty foundations of houses cut in the rock and rising one above the other like the steps of an immense staircase. 13 .. i. with back and sides complete. On the other side the eye . ii. however. Orat. which falls straight down into the ravine. a sheer drop of 900 feet. Strabo. On the very topmost pinnacle of the crag there is a square cutting in the rock. Hist. on the contrary. The back of the seat (as it may be called) is simply the top of the precipice. See Pausanias. 205. Dindorf. 371 sq. i. 103. Aristides. cp. p. 3 feet from front to back. indeed. vii. vol.138 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus through this cleft. 58. is nowhere level.

who discovered this throne in the year 1880. 13. stretched like a map at one's feet. 1882 iii. Professor W.' This does not of course preclude the possibility that the original possessor of the throne was neither Pelops. 553 f. 33 if. For the throne of Danaos in the temple of Apollon Lykios at Argos (Paus. as given by him. Reichel holds that in all these cases the empty throne was by rights the throne of a god. which came to be regarded wrongly as the throne of a by-gone king. with map and pi. Ramsay thinks it was probably an altar on which offerings were laid.. Ramsay in the Journ.. Thus a rocky seat connected by the Greek inhabitants of Magnesia with Zeus. perched on the pinnacle of the dizzy crag. M. length i-55 m . i. Reichel Uber vorhellenische Gotterculte p. . 1888 xiii. C. Harrison's latest book Themis (ch. 398 ff. Stud. Hell. M. Append. is a different question. 5. would readily come to be called the ' throne of Pelops. M. M. 1903 xvii.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 139 ranges over the valley of the Hermus. or that of Midas to the throne at Delphoi2. height 1. 32 f. t. vii). 4 W.' C. 1888 xiii. G. IO3)1. 14) ib. What the original intention of the cutting may have been. 5) see ib. p. 5 W. See further an important chapter on the origin of the Olympic games by Mr F.). Hell. 271 if.3om. 17. 19. if we may suppose that the king was viewed as the god incarnate. E. J. Its transference from a god to a king is—I would point out—much facilitated. Humann in the Ath. Reichel adds the suggestion that the houses built on the upper part of the peak belonged in reality to a colony of priests.20™. Rev. Miith. the chief Magnesian god4. p. Stud. 1882 iii. whose duty it was to serve the god represented by the throne above them. 7 (iii. and for that of Midas at Delphoi (Hdt. 2 W. and I am indebted to his article for the accompanying sketch (fig. nor Zeus. Humann. Mitth. 56 : 'on the autonomous coins of Magnesia Zeus is the most characteristic type. 2. whose primitive rock-cut image is still to be seen in its niche on the mountain-side 300 feet above the plain 5 . if not Hypsistos himself. Mother of the Gods. He also conjectures that this god was Apollon or some other form of the sun-god. and that the name of Pelops became attached to the throne as did that of Danaos to the throne of Apollon Lykios at Argos. 1 C.' Cp. depth i. And in the case before us there are good reasons for suspecting that Pelops was regarded as in some sense a human Zeus3. 18. Humann 'Die Tantalosburg im Sipylos' in the Ath. The measurements of the throne. There seems to be little doubt that this remarkable rock-cut seat. but some other pre-Greek occupant such as Plastene. 22—41. Frazer on Paus. 26 ff. W. B Lydia. 2. Cornford in Miss J. is no other than the "throne of Pelops" mentioned by Pausanias in the present passage. Ramsay in thejourn. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. gives a most graphic account of his experiences in reaching it. 3 Class. are: height above sea-level 35om or 1120 feet.

104—IO5)1. 104. presumably a receptacle for offerings. There is no traditional name attached to this throne. step is contrived. High up on the south-eastern slope of Mount Koressos at Ephesos is another example of them. Benndorf Forschtingen in Ephesos Wien 1906 p. In the angle made by this seat and its back another Fig. excavated behind the back in a second and higher horizontal surface. figs. 20.140 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus However that may be. Fig. which give access to a large oblong seat with end-pieces or arms and a high vertical back. nor is there 1 From O. At the top of a precipitous cliff two steps are hewn out. . 19. standing on which a man can easily reach a hole. the Greeks do seem to have associated these rock-cut thrones with Zeus. The whole arrangement is clearly seen in a sketch and section by Niemann (figs. 105. 56 f.

uoC TTJS HpUToBpoviiris /caAouju. an open question. Whether the throne itself was the work of a Hellenic or of a pre-Hellenic population remains. io6)2.55™).&rjs' Apre/j. 6 inrep TOV /3w.55m. it will hardly be denied that the Ephesians must have deemed this rock-cut seat the throne of Zeus. who continued to be worshipped at Ephesos as Artemis Protothronie. as before.idos. and on their front surface in late and rude characters is an inscription recording the names of Zeus arid 1 Paus.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 141 any inscription showing to what deity it was dedicated. ' She of the First Throne1.4Om + seat 0. Off the west coast of Rhodes lies the little island Chalke. Artem. 2 Arch. The dimensions are: width about 1. 100) actually represents Zeus enthroned upon Mount Koressos.-ep. Among these traces F. where on a hilltop are to be seen numerous traces of an ancient Greek Akropolis. . k.14"'. 1895 xviii.30% height o-95m ( = back o. A single step leads up to two seats with a common arm between them. height of step 0. Hiller von Gaertringen noted a double rock-cut throne (fig.' Sometimes the name of the god to whom the Greeks referred the throne is happily settled by means of an inscription. fig. The seats exhibit a circular smoothing or polish. Mitth. 2. in view of the fact that the coin of Antoninus Pius cited above (fig. depth of seat o. Nevertheless. Possibly it had once belonged to the Amazonian mother-goddess. 228 irpUToOpove. 10. cp. Kallim. 3 f. 38.

I prefer to supply Zefo. On the significance of this name see infra p. 4718.near the figure of a small ladder and 9o/>es by the rock-cutting = Collitz-Bechtel ib. Wilamowitz cj. Below the floor of this building. 350 — 363. ins. 102 n. 4720.. Gr. 4715. d. 361 AOKCUCI Aa/j. i no. no. Gr. 4 Id. Three of them give the name Zetis6. 9. no. ins. probably belongs to a different inscription). 471714 Inscr. Gr. nos. 958 Ai6s. Gr. ins. ins. Gr. iii no.ue. 356 'A^Xwi' = Collitz-Bechtel ib. iii no. eighteen feet or so above the ground. ib. 47 J 6. 17 Inscr. iii no.. no. Pelorios16 and Polietis1'1 i. with figs. 16 Inscr. 354 9opes. ins. 4714 (sc. i no. ins. ave/jLos) — Collitz-Bechtel ib. 4713. no.142 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus Hekate1. OutInscr. 4407 —4720. 4707 b. Gr. there is a rockcut throne some nine or ten feet above the road-way : over against this throne. the rest Apollon9. 4719. 6 Inscr.e(p)[dtov'] or the like. That doubt hardly arises in connexion with a remarkable series of rock-cuttings accompanied by inscriptions found at Thera in i8963. Akad.e. Gr. Gr. 350 Zefo ros . Zeus (?) Peldrios and Zeus Polieiis. and fully 1000 feet above sea-level. Hdidas or Potidds™. Collitz-Bechtel Gr. 3 F. 2 1 . not far from Lartos. is a group of inscriptions graved on the underlying rock5. . Gr. ins. nos. ins. 12 Inscr. two Koures*1. 357 Bo/seouos (sc. 5 Inscr. Dioskouroi™. iii no. Detiteros11. ins.283 ff. 182). i.ia = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 362 . p. 62 ff. At the south-eastern end of the ridge on which the town of Thera stood. no. 4708 — 4710. 167 ff. nos. 359 At6cr9opoi = Collitz-Bechtel ib. the inscription is a votive couplet dedicating a tablet (now lost) to Hekate2. 363 and Suppl. iii nos. on the opposite side of the road. Khtron13. Gr. ins. 352 ZeO[s]. 284. iii nos. Boreawsw i. Gr. no. Gr. no. Hiller von Gaertringen Die Insel Thera Berlin 1899 — X9°4 i. Lokhaia Damtau. iii no. iii nos. 914 Ef)£cl/xei'os lep$ SwTe/pci rovde av\edif)Ka\ \ TO/J. iii. 15 Inscr. (Sw^os). since Zeus Bopetos occurs in Kilikia (Denkschr. iii Suppl. iii. nos. ins. 1307 — 1:309. no. Gr. iii no. ins. 355 9opes = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 'Evv6dios. ins. ins. no. IIo\i(e)i>s (the first three letters alone certain) = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 4724. iii no. iii no. &u<T(f>6p<}> 'Ewo5[tp].-Inschr. 366 and Suppl. nos.C. 11 Inscr. 353 Zetf[s] = Collitz-Bechtel ib. are the ruins of a very ancient building in polygonal masonry. Dial. Gr. Wien 1896 vi Abh. irivaKO. possibly a heroion of the eponym Theras4. in letters not later than the third century B. iii no. ' Inscr. 7 Inscr. Gr. 351 Zei/s. 8 Inscr.-das (perhaps [Hdi]5ay or [Ilort]5as) = Collitz-Bechtel ib. Ae^repos (by mistake for Aei/re/aos) = CollitzBechtel ib. and pis. 358 and Suppl. one both Zetis and Koures*. 360 Khipiai' — Collitz-Bechtel ib. 9 Inscr. In Rhodes itself. 4707 a (where it is suggested that rocr/ae. 1309 (II)e(X)t6(/>)tos = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 4711 f. is an inscription carved on the face of a steep rock. 10 Inscr. Zeus Boreaios. ib. and therefore older yet. no. Again it must be considered doubtful whether Zeus and Hekate were the original occupants of these thrones. ins. Possibly we should read Zei)s TOV 2/j. 2.e. 13 Inscr. no. 144 n.

ii. 3. 4. nos. 4728. F. fig. iii no. 15 Inscr. iii no. 8. Cramer anecd. iv. 790. ins. of 6?7pt&. iii Suppl. ins. 4731—4733. ins. ins. 2 Inscr. 19. 4738. 375 Z7jj/6[s] | II[oXieos] or TL^arpwiov] (the initial II alone was engraved and possibly represents the name of a dedicant) = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 9. 63 f. 4740 b. Hiller von Gaertringen ad loc. diro TWOS. 1 Inscr.e. no. Gr. Hennas'1. In this miscellaneous company Zeus or some epithet of Zeus is of frequent occurrence. no. iii no. no. an eponymous nymph (cp. iii no. 365 B?p[i]s-. no. Bekker anecd. 7 Inscr. 4725. Hiller von Gaertringen Die Insel Thera iii. 372 'A7r6|XX|wj'o s MaXe|dra XcupiTr| Tndav = Collitz-Bechtel ib. iii nos. 4726.as and Qepos (so Wilamowitz) = Collitz-Bechtel ib. e^ds TOW a. 19. gen. Biris^. 13 Inscr. ins. 1317 Ze(i))s | T[W]J/ 7rep[i AJd/aop. roiyapouv 2iKvd>viOi Kara <f>v\as eavroi)s rd^a^Tes Kai dpt^^cravTes./zcm/c6s. ins. Zeus Stoichaios in the fifth century15. 3 Inscr.6s. 1318 Zei)s | TOW Trepi 'OX[f/i] |iri65(apov = Collitz-Bechtel ib. Gr. 4739. But F. 403 Hi*c^[<noj].The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 143 side the ancient building. u Ai6s Sroixet'ou. 14 Inscr. 371 and Suppl. SrotxeZoj' ei'p^rcu. iii no. ins. Gr. Malten Kyrene Berlin 1911 p. 142 n. 4734. 376 ST<H%CUOI> = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 107. This suggests that Qepos may be Qypovs. nos. Zeus again from the beginning of the fifth century onwards13. no. iii no.— Collitz-Bechtel ib. iii. 9?/p6s. 6 Inscr. ii. ins. ins. no. ins. We find Zeus in letters of the seventh century together with lines of uncertain meaning (fig. Gr. 3 and see Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Inscr. 10 Inscr. 373 'Aprd^t TOS = CollitzFig. 320. iii no.e*' rEwSapos 6 7pa/x. no. 26 ff. 402 [HJt/cecrtos. 11 Inscr. 400 Suppl. 149) = Collitz-Bechtel ib. Cp. ins. notes that in the reign of Pheretime a tribe of Or/pawi was established at Kyrene (Hdt.. Bechtel ib. Erinyes5. 1311 96pas or 9 otfpas=: Collitz-Bechtel ib. iii no. 1312 Kdpires = Collitz-Bechtel ib. Gr. iii nos. no. nos. 367 'Epi[i/i5]es (so Kern. Hike'sios i. 374 Fas | lapov = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 370 Hepyuas = Collitz-Bechtel ib.e. iii no. 1315 'ExeK/>cMe)v[s] I Ze[tf]s. 4728. Gr. 5 f. but close to it. 490. ~SiTe<pdvov. For Biris cp. cp. 13). 4721. 369 $eperi/j. iii no. ins. ins. ins. ins. 9 Inscr. no. 4. Gr. 5 Inscr. . Gr.vTo-)(Q6v<i3v 'Adrjvaiw ws 5£ ectot. iii no. 76). 40. Koiira8. iii Suppl. 45. 187. 4737. Artamis*. 1313. Zeus Hikesios in sixth-century script12. Gr. are other similar inscriptions naming a variety of gods—Apollon^-.oi)? at' crro?%os 'yap Trapot TOIS TraXatois 6 api6/J. Paus. Gr. 4740 a. Gr. 4753. 4 Inscr. no. 401 [Z]eus TI/XWPOS and later 399 Zeus | ['A]7a<rt/cXeOs. no. Khdrites9. Gr. Paus. Atos 2rot%ews iepoy Idpticravro. ins. Oxon. diro -roC 5t' ai)rcD»' TOIIS apttf/x. 28 reads Atos 2rot%a5^ws and Villoison anecd. GaG. ic/)11. gen. 364 'A0afcu'as = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 4722. iii no. Gr. Gr. of 617/3. would refer to the ' Beast' Chiron (supra p. no. Athanaiaz. Hdt. 4730. no. perhaps Zeus Polieus or Zeiis Patroios^ and certainly Stoichaios i. Gr. no. 3. Cp. and perhaps Th/ro™. Gr. 404 Ht/c&r[ios] = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 161). 47278 Inscr. no. and see L. 425 Zey6[s] = Coliitz-Bechtel ib. clis yU. 12 Inscr. no.

Wolters. gr. Moreover. Hiller von Gaertringen Die Insel Thera i. we may legitimately suspect that it once contained a throne of Zeus. round.. inscr. 406 evara. 33 f. no. Gr. ins.)dv(w)v \ [Ni)/t]^at j K6( y u)(a)i. 149 ff. Usener in F. however. Hiller von Gaertringen Die Insel Thera i. no. Reichel Uber vorhettenische Gotterculte^N\e& 1897 p. 4752. ™ Append. Maass in Hermes 1890 xxv. 11 Id. 4741. Not improbably— as E. 2 Inscr. 377 [A](v)(/j. I incline. Beside most of these inscriptions. or irregularly shaped. These look as though they had been intended to receive altars or dedications of some sort. 350—363. 10 Inscr. however. 168). 63 f. 255. i. no. no. certain small sinkings. If it was to the Kouretes of Thera what the Dictaean and Idaean caves were to the Kouretes of Crete12. 1899 xxiv. 289 ff. 17 ff. iO4ff. iii nos. and Die Insel Thera i.. and hardly more than a foot in length and breadth. ins. ins. iii. Hell. 445 'ATToXAwws | Kovpeov \ Ho\\iduv j /cat [^awaSwc. 7 E. Ziehen in the Ath.. as F. describes them as ' seat-shaped cuttings' (sitzartigen EinarbeitungenY. Maass has argued 7 —Koures was a cult-epithet of Zeus himself8. Gr. Hiller von Gaertringen on Inscr. 1880 iv.. Gr. and W. B Crete. 4 P. to think that Aeirrejoos means ' re-born * (devrepoTroryuos) and is an epithet of Kovpfy. M77\i%t[os]=Collitz-Bechtel ib. 1316 Zeus M??Xi|%tos r&v | irepi TLo\ti £evo\v. 284. Gr. Gr. 8 Cp. The principal deities worshipped at an early date in this 'agora of the gods 6 ' were clearly Zeus and Koures. 149 n. SOT = Bull. square. cp. 6 On the deities named in the rock-inscriptions of Thera see F. 1896 xxi. . 406 n. On evarbv see L.2 no. In this connexion a dedication of hair to the Dymanian nymphs is noteworthy10. the youthful Zeus. Michel Recueil d''Inscr. Wolters in the Ath. Hiller von Gaertringen suggests. ib. It is likely too that the cult stood in some relation to the adjoining grotto. 5 W. Hiller von Gaertringen Die archaische Kultur der Insel Thera Berlin 1897 p. are made in the rock.144 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus lastly Melichios in the fourth 1 and Zeus Melichios in the fourth or third century2. Mitth. See F. ins. where warm currents of moist air issue from two holes in the rock-wall and an intermittent roar—perhaps that of the sea far below—can be faintly heard. 1 Inscr../3' = Collitz-Bechtel ib. 31.. Corr. 267 ff. the Curetic cult of Thera was analogous to the Curetic cult of Crete9. 115 ff. it can hardly be accidental that the same site was later occupied by the Gymnasium of the epheboi*1. or perhaps. supra pp. P. 3 F. 34 compared the /coupes of Thera with the TrpwroKcufynjs of Ephesos and most ingeniously suggested that the enigmatic personage Aeirrepos may have been the 'second' in command of a band of human Kovpfjres. taking KOU/JTJS to be for Kovporp6<j>os (which is improbable) and comparing Apollon Kovptas of Teos (Dittenberger Syll. to serve instead of altars themselves3. iii no. iii. iii no. iii Suppl. 9 H. both within and without the old building. If so. 35. Mitth. The explorers' workmen would not risk sleeping in the cave. Reichel goes so far as to call them ' rock-thrones' (Felstkrone)5.

} with silver feet. Gillieron from a photograph). Milchhofer first noted1—is thought by the peasants of Megara to have been the spot whence Xerxes on his throne watched the battle of Salamis. Them. 6. Since the site agrees with Akestodoros' description2. The highest of its four peaks (1527 ft)—as Prof. and section. Curtius and J. 19 f. z>. 108. 10 . in Timocr. 63—65 with fig. At the south-east corner of the little plateau that crowns the topmost peak he found an isolated rock partially hewn into the shape of a seat with rounded back and projecting footstool (fig. 3 E. Gr. 464 Miiller) ap. plan. C. io8)3. s. Flout. A. Kaupert Atlas von Athen Berlin 1878 p. 13 £v /xeflopty TTJS ^/ieyapiSos virep T&V KaXov/tevuv Keparwi/. (sketched by E. 3 W. ii. they give the impression of being a row of seats 1 See W. 21. Carefully cut in the rock along one side of a platform or terrace. Reichel twice visited it in order to verify Milchhofer's report. A. In an angle of the Mouseion Hill at Athens there are no less than seven such seats (figs. 109-1 io)5. mountain-throne. W. cit. preserved on the Akropolis at Athens (Dem. 4 The actual throne was a golden chair (Akestodoros loc. The seat commands a wide view.v. 4 view. to which in popular belief the story of Xerxes has become attached*. 129 with schol. but is so placed that one sitting on it would face north and look directly away from Salamis! Reichel concludes that it is a very ancient Fig. apyvpoTrovs 5i(ppos).The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 145 Between Megara and Eleusis lies the mountain-range of Kerata. hist. '2 Akestodoros (Frag. with a single step in front of them. Reichel Uber vorhellenische Gotterculte^N'\&Vi 1897 p. pi.) in the Parthenon (Harpokr. description. Reichel ' Ein angeblicher Thron des Xerxes' in the Festschriftfilr Otto Benndorf Wien 1898 pp.

v***.'* - .<. .146 The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus J ^-4s»*r.

' the place at Athens where. They are about two hundred yards from the rock-cut niche in the Pnyx where Zeus Hypsistos was worshipped1. Souid. The best-preserved of them was described by R. Aids i/^</>os. Archilochifrag. com. A. Savignoni and G. Meineke). forerunners perhaps of the Council on the Areiopagos. s. In fact. in. promising on her part to sacrifice the first victim on the altar of Zeus Polietisz. Pashley Travels in Crete Cambridge and London 1837 ii. Spratt Travels and Researches in Crete London 1865 ii. was first observed and drawn by L. Infra Append. B. according to old tradition. 4 (Frag. B. therefore. i l l .' But the most interesting feature of this throne. the pillar carved on the inner surface of its back. Athena when she contended with Poseidon for possession of the Akropolis. ('the monolith bema of Phalasarna' !). It seems possible.7 for judges or the like. de Sanctis in 1901 (figs. Aids QO. Hesych. Gr. i8f.v. T. Cp.The Mountain as the Throne of Zeus 14. At Phalasarna in western Crete three sandstone thrones are hewn in the lower slopes of a coast-hill near the necropolis. 3 R.KOI /cat Tretnrot. s. I incline to identify the seven seats with the so-called 'Seats of Zeus. that we have here an open-air tribunal at which decisions were delivered under the inspiration of Zeus. 2 1 . begged Zeus to give his vote for her. Fig. Pashley in 1837 as ' a great chair—cut out of the solid rock : the height of the arms above the seat is two feet eleven inches.v. 64 fig. 234^ fig. and its other dimensions are in proportion3. Kratin. ii.

Cp. Hesych. Fick in the Zeitschriftfur vergldchende Sprachforschung 1911 xliv. fig. the divine occupant of the throne was either Rhea2 or Zeus3. de Sanctis in the Man. p. plan ib. Recently A. pp. 366 f. 60—61 . his marriage-unions. 363 ff. Evans loc. 1901 xxi. 4. ii § 3 (a) ii (5) and. (c) The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus. as sella for *sedla) is 'ein uraltes Wort. 3 A. 34 f. Inst. and suggests that Dodona was called"EXXa as being the ' Seat' or ' Throne' of Zeus. L. 1 L. 20. In support of this view he . deutsch. Stud. 85 fig. 7 (on the way up the Akrokorinthos) M^rpos QeSiv vaos etrrt /cat OT^XT. and his death. cit. his sons. Line. d. 47. 341 ff. i7off. for the association of a pillar with the throne of Zeus. d. has drawn attention to Hesych. The Zeus-legends that clung about the mountain-tops related to the birth or infancy of the god. figs. J. kais. Studniczka in the fahrb. p. cit. 1901 xi. If we may press the analogy of other Cretan pillar-cults.. Savignoni and G. KO! Atos lepbv ei> AwScipT?. 2 A.' which survived in Laconian till late times.Kadedpa. Ad/cowes. 'EXXd. de Sanctis loc. 1911 xxvi. J. F.KadeSpa. infra ch. Cp. He points out that eXXa (for *ed\a.148 The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus H2)1. arch. 349 f. Hell. 1656°. 163 ff. cp. stipra p. Savignoni and G. Evans in the Journ. cite Paus. 2. /cat dpovos' \i8uv /cat a^TTj /cat 6 Qpbvos. /ca0-e(XX)a.

Bolland. i.a.220). 3 Append. 1874 Phil. Akad. 114. et Apollinis. and temple of Marnas (infra ch. chlamys round left arm. See further O. 1889 xiv. ev6ev Kal TO TOV Kpyraiov Atos Trap' a'urois elvai. 327 Awd&vrjv (ptiyov re. Mitth. 8. 479. The context enables us to form some idea of the character. Fdfa-. gr. i. Aisch. Skymn.r 2 Corp.(f>l AuS&VTjv. B Crete. 10 tepees Atos }Z. yevovs. hist. ap. Gr. Lebas-Waddington Asie Mineure no.6' 7]/j.n)vevofievov HpfiTayevfj. Zrjvbs e?5os Kpovidao fj. Head Hist. ib. 45 pi. 655 Erant autem in ciuitate simulacrorum publica templa octo : nempe Solis. per. Februarius iii. 26. thunderbolt in raised right hand. . Dial. 2554. 830 f. 3. 5075. Gr. IIeXa<77cDz/ edpavov. and legend TAN K[PHTArE]NHS HOATP (fig. 10 a copper of Crete in genere struck by Titus (Paris and Vienna) with a nude Zeus erect. 469. W. Byz. AwScii/i? •.) rj(rav de ev rr TroXet vaol eid&\ui> d-r/^aLoi OKT&. cp. p. ib. 1893 p. 395 .v. et quod dicebatur Hierion seu sacerdotum. et Proserpinae.HeXatryiKov. Judeich in the Ath. num. Kal TO Mapveiov. 176 ff. i. = Collitz-Bechtel Gr. ii. 73. inscr.The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus 149 Zeus Kretagenes^. S £\eyoi> eicat TOV /cptra. Haupt) Ti^^s TTJS 7r6Xewj. Steph. 52 pi. 2379. Strab.eK\TJ8-ri d£ Kal T&lvipa. 33. Myth. 247 f. 2 a copper of Hierapytna struck by Augustus (Gotha) with head of Zeus to right wearing fillet and legend TAN KPHTArENHjS IEPA (fig. Svoronos in the 'E<£. 115).-Inschr. 1422. Overbeck Gr. Zeus pp. Marcus Diaconus v. 199. iva \ ^avrela. (KpTjTayevovs M. quod vocabant Tycheon. n 4 ). P. Muller) ap.. 115.. Strab. 394 (cp. Chi. Hofer in Roscher Lex. ep/j. cp.T. 'Apx.-hist. pi. quae sunt vbique. 475.di<aip inreSe^aro Aw5c6. 115) or Kretogenes* was 'Born in Crete/ his birth being located first in a cave of Mount Dikte 3 (on Fig. ii no.. quod dicebant esse Critse generis (Cretagenis Henschen) louis: quod existimabant esse gloriosius omnibus templis. TT^V alTrvvuTov T' d/j. 194 no. 30 a copper of Polyrhenion struck by Augustus (Paris) with laureate head of Zeus to right. et Hecates. 472. 333 ff. i. Svoronos Numismatiqiie de la Crete ancienne Macon 1890 i. surrounded by seven stars and legend ZETC KPH|TArENHC (fig. 203 f. yev. no. N..2 pp. iii. Porphyrii episcopi Gazensis 64 (Abh. miapvdv (/Jiapvdvs cj. Haupt). TOV re 'HXtou Kal TTJS 'A</>podiTT)s Kal TOV 'ATr6\\ii}vos Kal TTJS K6pr?s /cat TTJS 'E/cdr^s Kal TO \ey6fievov iepuiov Kal TTJS ('Hpyov Kal TO TTJS M. 216 Miinztaf. Rel. cp. s. 107. 2.v. Schmidt in the Zeitschrift filr ver^gleichende Sprachforschung 1863 x". daubs T effTl Qefftrpurov At6s. Drexler ib. Hes. But?? 1 J. thunderbolt below. et Marnion. M. ii § 9 (g)). 327 HeXaffywv Wpv/j. might have cited Sim'mias Rhod. 192 Flach ap.priTay[£]vovs Kal Kovp^T^v. Gruppe Gr. d. 8 £KO\OVI> Tv~)(eov (Tv^aiov M. i. (oath between Latos and Olous) 6av[v]w Tav 'EoTtai' /cat TOV Zfjva TOV KpyToyevLa /cat Tav "Hpac /c. 8 evd/ju^ov elvai evdo^oTepov TrdvTuv TU>V lepuiv T&V airavTa-)(ov with a Latin version by Gentianus Hervetus in the Acta Sanctortim edd. ritual.. frag. Ephoros frag. 18. 1673 n. 113).as ^/cciAow Mapvav. 22 ff.dv&v'i iwv £% avrov ratirr\v €KO\€ffev. no. Classe p. 38. berl. 406) Mylasa= Michel Recueil d'lnscr. 113. Byz. Haupt) Ai6s.(figs. rds Trapdevovs yap oiiru Kp^res Trpocrayopevovert. 450 lopvp! . 45 pi. 342 no.X. 19. et Fortunae ciuitatis. s. no. ii. OTI Mtyws arvv rots d5eX00is AlaKqj Kal 'Pa8a/u.. Myth. et Veneris. Kunstmyth. 6v Kal KO. Steph. W. 54 (Frag.v. 284 no.

or bees. the best 1 . Inst. cp.. Ath.. distinguish two types of terra-cotta reliefs: (i) the Caeretan type shows the infant Zeus in the arms of a female seated on a throne with two Kouretes to right and left. not BtSdras (R. i. Further. Anz.C. probably the opening of the eighth century B. in a cave high up on the side of Mount Ide3. and of A.). d. 8 f. 116.. 5024. 5' avr6v (paffi irp&Tov Tr6\iv Krlaai trepl TTJV At/crap. 380f. i6()ff. Sch. Sir Arthur Evans identifies this city with the extensive prehistoric ruins at Goulas (see his 'Goulas: The City of Zeus' in the Ann. i no. deutsch. 11/)4. Brit..e. Brit. inscr. i.<f>(>eicrr]S Iv rois ijurepov xpbvois dia^veiv ZTI /cat vvv fpnara r&v OepeXiuv. the best example is in the Ny Carlsberg collection (Ant. 1895—1896 ii. 1903 xxvii. the Dictaean antiquities do not come down lower "than the Geometric period. J. 4 Von Rohden-Winnefeld Ant. 206 ff. 3 Append. p.150 The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus which he is said to have built a city1) and. however. the more thorough investigations of J. Sch. no. 5. 2.vdo\oyovaLv • yjs fK\ei. no. 5 = Collitz-Bechtel Gr. 1901 xxv. 2. ' With very rare and sporadic exceptions. Sch. 222. 17. 2 There is evidence that the cult of the Dictaean cave was in time superseded by that of the Idaean cave. Inst. shows the infant Zeus seated on a rock and introduces a third Koures. 5) makes the Lyttians swear by TUjva 'Biddrai'. 1908—1909 xv. 301 ff. Demargne in the Bull. Inst. K). Brit. iii. referable to the Augustan age. ii. pi. 404 f. 115). d. But Lydia Diod. a goat or a pig. 70 dvdpudevTa. 1899—1900 vi. 22 f. following E. Terrakotten iv. 1840 xii.-Inschr. while Kouretes and Korybantes clashed their weapons to drown his infant cries (figs. 10). iii pi. ' Zeus of Ide. 349). 116. a treaty between Lyttos and Olous (Corp. Att. 141 ff. OTTOV /cat T-T\V ytveffiv avrov yeveadai /j.. Ath. 549 3. G. Ath. iii. Both districts had strange stories to tell of the way in which the divine child had been nurtured by doves Fig. Zeus would presumably have been invoked as At/cratos. had the Dictaean cult still been flourishing. Terrakotten pi. later2.' (D. B Crete.) mentions a temple of Zeus TU> BtSardw on the frontier of Priansos: Lyttos and Priansos are so near to Mt Dikte that. d. (2) The Roman type. 5147 6. Reinach in the Jahrb. C. Dial. kais. Bosanquet in the Ann. Corr. Braun (Man. Hell. 1900 xxiv.. 1910 xxv Arch.' while another inscription (id. Ann. arch. Hogarth in the Ann. 2821!.

Mus. 4. 12 ff. 4 (fig. 38 f. 117 the corresponding part of the above-mentioned relief from Cervetri (?) acquired by the British Museum in 1891 (Brit. Kunstmyth. 1891 ix. Terracottas p. Apameia (fig. E. Lenormant Monnaies et medailles Paris 1883 p. i6f. I figure two specimens of the second type: (a) fig. 135 a variant of the second century in the Louvre). alt. 5 Brit.)6. Laodikeia on the example is in the British Museum (Ant. the design of which differs in some respects from that of the reliefs enumerated by Overbeck Gr. D 501 pi. 715): I am indebted to M. 336 f."* p. Cat. 120. num. 118. Wiinsch. xl. It is probable that the legends of Zeus' birth and infancy were localised on the mountains of Phrygia also. d. 151 f. fig. 123. Fig. Brit.T PA A A I A N fl N and A I O C TO N A I . 4. Coins Phrygia p. 4. iv. 119. and Ide. 663 (fig. 121. I23)5. The coin of Tralleis here figured for the first time (fig. 122). ant. 123) a bronze medallion of Gordianus iii showing Rhea with her foot raised on a rock. and Mount Messogis (figs. vii. 39. cp. Miiller-Wieseler Denkm. 119) is at Paris (Mionnet Descr. 238 no. . Walters The Art of the Romans London 1911 p. Kun$t\\. . B. Mus. Inst. ant. arch. Mount Tmolos (fig. 12/j.12i) 4 were in that respect rivals of Dikte Fig. 119. 268 and 239 no. B Lydia. 3 /^ 4 Ib. 136 pi. de mens. .. de med. 379 no. d. Cat. 181 fig. 4. 71 p. for coins of Akmoneia (figs.—(b) Fig. Suppl. Terrakotten pi. Babelon in the Rev. Head Hist. Coins Phrygia pp. de mdd. Cat. 116 (after O. 471 no. ii8) 3 . H. Head Hist.. Num. Fig. 270. pi. 20 pi. 38) a fragment of terra-cotta. oest. 122.GYC and is seated on a rock with a wingless thunderbolt behind him. 58): the inscription is here Z6Y[C]. num. Fig. Mus. Fig.The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus 151 was prepared to dispute with Crete the honour of having been his birth-place 1 : Mount Sipylos2. Zeus p. 2 Append. F. Atlas pi. 1902 v. Benndorf in the Jahresh. 122. pi. 4 a copper struck by Trebonianus Callus A KM 0 N E f l N . 667. 4: the infant is named Z. xxiv. 25. Babelon for the cast from which my illustration was made. 6 Mionnet Descr.? p. 1 Lyd.

3. Ramsay The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia Oxford 1897 ii. alib. 6. 5. 5 coppers struck by Traianus Decius and Valerianus (Paris). 1625 fig. 9. 5. 336. tale was told of some mountain in the volcanic region known as Katakekaumene. 494 Maximus pi. Inst. Fig. 33> Overbeck Gr. and Synnada (fig. 125. Hunter Cat. deutsch. 138 ff. 1 Mionnet Descr. 1888 iii.. 25 drawn from a cast: C V N N A AGniM. Zeus p. M. Geffcken). 57.152 The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus Lykos (fig. W. M. Ktmstmyth. i. Wieseler's drawing of the latter. Kunstmyth. num. represent Zeus as a babe nursed by Rhea with the goat beside him and the Kouretes grouped around3.3. 3 : a copper struck by Caracalla (Venice. In F. 2 with Ann. Zeus p. 127. Fig. 432 pi. 337 Miinztaf. 8 a copper struck by Caracalla (in the Fontana cabinet at Triest): GTTI H P A K A G I A O Y B • XEYSAPXATOTA CTC4> M A I O N H N — fTrl'HpaK\eidov ft'. 396 no. 126. 782. Zeus p. the head and shield of the third Koures are barely distinguishable above the child's nurse: TTAPA • AVP • EPMOV T T A N H r V P I A P X O V and A n A M E H N . 6. Miinztaf. according to the author of the Sibylline books. ii. Zeuf. And an almost identical type occurring at pi. ant. . 49 A. Maiovuv. Overbeck Gr. Head Hist. num? p. Roscher Lex. ib. a' Toy'a ore0. 143.) showing a similar group with three Kouretes. Coins Phrygia pp.** iii. d. 686. kais. 781. 123. 4 Man. an eagle above. arch. I20)2. Inst. Imhoof-Blumer in the Jahrb. i. F. Fig. Cat. 330 nos. 1833 v. d. i pi. iv. Sib. Ramsay op. here reproduced from Roscher loc. the genius of the town with a steering-paddle. 125 ff. W. and two river-gods. 6. 125)*. Overbeck Gr. 2 Brit. vet. the Kapros and the Lykos. 160 notes that. Kunstmyth. 19. 'To judge from a coin of Maionia (fig.. 335 f. 1840 xii. I29)1. Fig. de med. Myth. cit. 114. cit. ap-%. 124. pi. Mus. c. the new-born Zeus was entrusted to three Cretans to be reared in Phrygia (orac. 290 pi. Coins ii. 432 f. a similar Fig. ii. Inst. 3 Eckhel Doctr. d.

317. ii. 1908—1909 xv. 8.104. 2. i). 24 pi. I261. Overbeck Gr. 2. Myth. for a coin of the Ionian Magnesia (fig. G. no. ant. t8 and in the Brit. 4467 pi. 3). 315 pi. 120 ff. 56. 121 no. 31. 134 pi. 90 f. Hill in the Journ. But we have not yet exhausted the list of mountains where Zeus was said to 1 caracaiiaceAevKeiniM||TnN I npoi[c] KAJAVK-. 18. 38. 32. 16. pp. 5. de mt!d. 21 a copper struck by Mionnet Descr. Gerhard Antike Bildwerke Miinchen Stuttgard & Tubingen 1828— 1844 P. 316 pi. Ann. 18. 318 pi. pi. 23 pi. 33 a copper struck by Caracalla (Paris) with legend 6TTI l~ • M • AVP • VA]AOV • eTTIKPATOYO and MATNHTnN. at least in the ordinary acceptation of that name. A. 129. Matz in the Ann. von Rauch in the Berliner Blatter fiir Miinz-Siegel und Wappenkunde 1870 v. 8. 3 Gruppe Gr. Hell. Stud. and for a copper of similar design struck by Severus Alexander. no. Kunstmyth. 1897 xvii. 31.The Mountain as the Birth-place of Zeus 153 Seleukeia on the Kalykadnos (figs. 24. 1846 iv. 2 pi. I27 2 ) may have reference to the Corycian Cave in Mount Korykos3. Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. Rel. p. Sch. 128. Cat. Zeit. p. no. 320 fig. For other specimens see W. while Kouretes clash their weapons about him: to the right a snake crawls out of a half-open basket on the lid of which a goat-footed Pan is stamping . 22 . ii. 100 n. 318 a. Brit. It is not. 8. . no.. Coins Lycaonia etc. represents him seated on a shield. Wroth in the Num. An ivory relief in the Milan Museum (Arch. Fig. Another relief (E. 314 pi. 484 n. beyond Pan is a shaggy Silenos. 128)" shows Fig. Miinzen ii. 5) shows the child Dionysos seated on a stool in front of a rocky cave flanked by Kouretes and Maenads. Miinzen ii. 4 Imhoof-Blumer Gr. 484 no. 1870 xlii. 8. Third Series 1895 xv. 260 no. Ath. 103 no. said to be in the Vatican (but see F. Babelon Inventaire de la collection Waddington Paris 1898 no. 1393. Zeus p. 337 a copper struck by Macrinus (von Rauch) CeA6Y[KeflN] ] TflN TTPOC • TH • [ K A A Y K A A N H ] . Imhoof-Blumer ib. however. 5 Cp. no. pi. 13 pi. 217 ff. Inst. 911. 327 f. Mus. the same childish figure seated in like manner on a princely seat with a covered basket and snake visible beneath it5. F. E. Chron. 34. d. It may be that the Greeks would rather have termed him Dionysos . Miinzen p.348 pi. 2 Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. certain that the child seated on a throne and surrounded by dancing Kouretes is Zeus. v.

8. Thus slumbered still the Sire on Gargaros' height.v. Pergamon 1 certainly. Byz. 20. The union of Zeus with Hera was likewise referred by the Greeks to a variety of mountain-tops. Append. Stahlin. iv. B Mysia.g. 8. 8. at least brought up by the nymphs upon the summit of Mount Ithome8.. 5 Ib. 2 f. Crocus and hyacinth. 3. . 3. Vanquished by sleep and love. Thereon they lay. cp. if not born. Gr. i. and swaddled at Geraistion (et. dear. 36. de nat. 3. Boiotia. i. 348. 28. and here on Mount Lykaion Zeus was born11 and reared12. 9 See e. Prop. Among the Greek islands Naxos had its own story of the birth. and clasped his bride to his breast. Al. But of all the non-Cretan districts Arkadia had established the strongest claim to be considered the cradle of Zeus 9 : here on Mount Thaumasion Kronos had swallowed the stone10. and possibly Mount Ide in the Troad2. h. protr. //. Which raised them from the ground. And o'er them spread a cloud magnificent And golden : glittering dew-drops from it fell. 53. 36. Zeus 4ff. Beneath them Earth divine made grass to grow New-nurtured. and if Propertius is not guilty of confusing Mt Ide in the Troad with Mt Ide in Crete. Cic. connected perhaps with Mount Drios4. hist. 9. Ampel. and the dewy lotus-bloom. 7 Aristodemos ap. thick and soft withal. 346 ff. 30 ff. Paus. In Messenia local piety declared that Zeus had been. 11 Kallim.). Petron. Al. 44 f. 6 Lyk. 18. mag. 12 Paus. Clem. 2 (Frag. on a rocky height called Petrachos 5 : Thebes too claimed to be the birth-place of Zeus 6 and could point to a place that took its name from the event7. The Iliad in a passage of more than usual beauty describes how the two slept together on a peak of the Trojan Ide : So Kronos' son. 28. p. i. 9. 5. sat. 2). 293 Miiller). 13. 3 Aglaosthenes Naxiaca frags. 127. 1194 with schol. i. 8 Append. 227. 2 f. 14. 10 Steph. (d) The Mountain as the Marriage-place of Zeus. i. s. Paus. B Messene. 9. 1 2 Append.154 The Mountain as Marriage-place of Zeus have been born.of Zeus3. Strab. i p. adloc. Kronos was said to have swallowed the stone that Rhea gave him instead of Zeus at Chaironeia in Boiotia. 27 Idaeum Simoenta lovis cunabula parvi—if that is the right reading of the line. 13 //. Zeus was washed at his birth in the cold waters of the river Lousios (Paus. 4 Infra p. schol. his wife in his arms13.. Qavftdaiov. 163 ff. B Naxos. 8. Paus.y cp. and Tzetz. 38. were of the number.

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a -s s S o g .

20 (Frag. In Hyg. 624: cp. Fick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 Index p. whose name repeatedly occurs as that of a Pelasgian burgh or rock-fortress3. ii. B. Geraistos6.. Pind. Rhod. i. 5. it is far from convincing. Stark Mimantis. Souid. Lakonike.0rchomeni. Unger cj. 10. 7. Gr. 729 without citing his source. 940 suggests on the strength of Pherekydes/ra^. 335. 444 ff. 10 Hdt. 184: see also Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. 23. 5. 4. unless we should read ex (E}lar\iss\e. were all regarded as his sons. Eustath. or perhaps in any other part of Europe1. 48. the son of Zeus11. from the grandeur of its outline. the name-sake of Mount Aitne. Atlantis. 11 Rufin. recognit. recognit. 2. Eur. Apostol... recognit. hist. 3. 165 s.14 pater optime Olympi. 436). 4. Kronos in schol. 2. chil. i. Olympos (?)7. 3. 155. 1. 2119. the son of Zeus by Larissa2. Euboia. MMTCK Journal of a Tour in Greece Edinburgh and London 1842 ii. 119. 221. Or.v. since Olympus may be merely a poetic term for the gods collectively (see Roscher Lex. the Palikoi. 4 Append. 145 ff. viol.v. 5 (Frag. ed. was identified with a great mountain in north-western Africa10. 13 Asklepiades of Tragilos/ra^. The father of Plouto is Tmolos in schol. schol. 12 Myth. Theb. 5 B Ib. 2 1 . schol. or Plotis (Lact. in Verg. i. Ap. i. or the abruptness of its rise from the plain. 6.jfa^. whose name was given to W.' Here surely was a mountain-bride worthy of Zeus himself. 345. p. 10. Aapi<raiai werpai. 21 and 23. 8 Append. cp. iii. 1616). the supporter of the sky. hist. Paus. If this was the epigram in Oros. 23.. Serv. 41. had been embraced by Zeus and then. Aen. Ant. Pelasgos. who as early as the middle of the fifth century B. lex. Myth. recognit./rt^. the forefather of the Pelasgians. 56 ff. 71 Mtiller) ap. 4. who makes Tityos the son of Zeus ex Larisse. Nonn. 155 Tantalus ex Plutone Himantis filia R. 2. Ib. according to one genealogy. Rufin. Thus Gargaros5. 857). was. Myth. 1581. 337. 10. B Sicily. Plac. 21). 582. Solymos8. Lib. 23). proverb. but also became the father of the latter.C. 729 ff. Gr. 3 A. Dion. 94. A daughter of Atlas12 named Plouto13 bore to the same god Tantalos. 10. 76i = Eudok. 9 Ib. Hyg. n. Tainaros9. i. in Od. Zeus not only consorted with the former. Plota (Natalis Comes mytholog. 82. Ad/wcrci. Taj/rdXou raXavra. s-. 204. Od. ra TacraXou TaXai/rtferat. Tzetz. 8 p. iii. Atlas. 22. B Pisidia. Eur. according to one account. i. Ol. Vat. 338 and Apollod. Or. Plutis (Rufin. was. in Stat. i. 10. hidden away in the Earth till she bore twin sons. Hofer in Roscher Lex. through fear of Hera. 16. 36. 7 De-Vit Onomasticon iii. Rufin. schol. Troas. Mantiss. Mountain-eponyms were either female or male.. as O. 305 Miiller) ap. iii. Her name is otherwise given as Plute (Rufin. And lastly a Sicilian myth told how Aitne. Phot. whose strange volcanic springs still interest travellers that visit the Lago dei Palici near the town of Patagonia*.156 The Mountain as Marriage-place of Zeus its real height.vv. Patav. 16. recognit. s. cp. (it) created in my mind a stronger impression of stupendous bulk and loftiness than any mountain I have seen in Greece.

Numerous writers of Hellenistic and Byzantine times mention the tomb of Zeus as an object of interest in Crete4. 2. lulian. Pal. Stahlin. v. Firm. Loukian. II^/cos. adv. Ennius 5 places it at Knossos. Rendel Harris ' The Cretans always Liars' in the Expositor 1906 pp. 88 Dindorf. 8. i. inst. Nonn. Diod. Cels. 10. 2. Graec. Mat. 180. with schol. r. adv. hist. co dva. The Cretans declared that Zeus was a prince. 21. ib. K/rijres del ^eucrrcu' /ecu yap racf>ov." The Cretans used to say of Zeus. 2.) the following note on Acts 17. k. 112. that heaven and earth once met upon the summit will be discussed in another connexion. s. Dion. 45. 8 Nonn. Another explanation of the proverb is given in Athenodoros of Eretria frag. hist. 8. 4. the lying Kretans. i. Gr. Sedulius Scotus in ep. but thou diest not. haer. and standest. s. Kedren. Enn. 3. ad Tit. 19. 3. c. 3. idle bellies. 5 Enn. 3. de idol. 4 p. 4. in Verg. de nat. Al.The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus 157 a mountain in Lesbos1 and whose town was situated on an almost inaccessible crag of Mount Sipylos2. 10. v. 10. philopatr. creZb | Kp^res ere/cr^^airo. Zeus 8f.7. Lact. Chrysost. 10.v. Paul. Solin. 1141?. van. nat. in ep. Fel. 15 D (i. i. (e) The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus. that he was a prince and was ripped up by a wild boar. 2 1 . 61. 345 Mliller) : cp. or. Lucan. 28. trag. Mela 2. 10. 3 My friend Dr J. for in thee we live and move and have our being ". 23. isjff. Paulin. c. Anth.. Pyth. n. Stat. for to eternity thou livest. cru d' ov 6di>es' ecroi yap aid. Tatian. i (Frag. 7. 6. 515 Migne). and he was buried: and lo! his grave is with us. sacr. /. 7. 7 Porph.' Dr Rendel Harris suggests that the panegyric in question may be the poem by Epimenides on Minos and Rhadamanthys (Diog. Laert. Epiphan. Serv. 275. current in the vicinity of Mount Olympos. 112) and cp.hron. Nol. v. Rufin. 6 Gaetulicus. 43. The remarkable tradition. O holy and high One. Conceivably more districts than one had a local legend of Zeus dead and buried on a mountain. soph. 305—317 cites from the Gannat Bttsame or ' Garden of Delights ' (a Nestorian commentary on Scripture full of extracts from Theodore of Mopsuestia etc. Malal. s. Kyrill. made over him a panegyric and in it he said: " A grave have fashioned for thee. Porph. div. i. 1dvra\os. 342. 342 (Ixxvi.—an assertion which is supposed to have earned for them their traditional reputation as liars3. Cypr. yff. ap. Philostr. 872. 7. who are all the time liars. Lact. 14. iv. who had been ripped up by a wild boar and buried in Crete. Aen. i. ad Tit. h.v. lulian. hist. cp. Varro 6 and Porphyries 7 on Mount Ide. oracl. ap. Oct. TloXiov. 3. i. ad Autol. Accordingly Minos.v. 29 Bekker). though they do not agree as to its exact locality. Nonnos8 on the top of Mount Dikte. Sibyll. inst. 37. Timon 6. 8. ap. 8. H4ff. 6 Varr. 10. Zeus 8 f. Clem. Varr. the son of Zeus. sacr. Theophil. Supra p. comp. Kyrill. Cic. 4 p. His tomb Steph. 28 : ' " In Him we live and move and have our being. Al. Arnob. n. n. hist. evil beasts. Theb. 53. lup. 17. adv. 278^. Solin. Byz. Kallim. Souid. 86 (Ixi.. dear. c. 27. philopseud. 3. de sacrif. 3. div. 17. Al. also lo. 1028 Migne). 3. 11. recognit. protr. 4 Kallim. Dion. ap. 74 Kayser. Orig. Paul. 25.. Pyth. Min. 4 p. i.

trag. Ab alia parte. Pashley visited Crete in 1834. Buondelmonti. h. Meursius Creta p. 3 Mel.j3dvei. 2. ws 6 TlToXe/maios dLa\a/j. ubi est barba. and relates that the Cretans show a hill or cairn above the grave of Zeus4. The passage is printed in Tzetzes' Allegoriae Iliadis etc. 148 f. In the first century of our era Pomponius Mela says that the tomb with its inscribed name affords ' hardly a clear trace of Zeus who is there buried3. 348. loc. versus orientem. 'Ej* 700^ Trj Kf(f>a\rj TOIJTOV Ta. 2 1 . 4 Psell. loc. 'Ev TaijTrj Trj vrfoui Kal opos effrt ry Ait roi/ry 6/j. latitude vero IV passuum. Enn. Kedren. virb de TOV %p6fou rjdr) €(pdapfj. Atos) TOV eirl T$ Td(f>y deiKvvovffi KoXuvbv. loc. Kallim. F. lup. and to have borne an inscription. = Christophorus Bondelmontius Trepi rSiv virjauv 11 'Awodavuv 5e (sc.uvvfJLOi>.' But a thousand years later Michael Psellos notes the legend as still living. When R. Haec autem spelunca in durissimo silice fabricata sine aliqua figura. Syva/nev elvai. Versus trionem. airrjKaLov xepcrt KareaKevacrfj^evov evpiffKfTai.<fov Atos TOV fjityaXov. prope Ideum montem.ivwos TOV Atos rd^os with the first word obliterated through age.VTO elvai ajroOeuSev.eyi<TTai KorafyaivovTai. planus est bachi fertilissimus Archanes nomine. cit. cuius longitudo XLil. super eundem tumulum. in quo plura et ampla rura manent. Polites Napadofffis Athens 1904 ii. 31 cited by N.' Id. J. Boissonade Lutetiae 1851 p. 17 p. who visited Mount Juktas in 1415. irepl 5e TOVS Trpojrodas ai/roO irpos TO dpKTiKUTepov. 778.. schol. Modern travellers have the same tale to tell. 45./J. Versus austrum. et Sancti Georgii. i.evov. = Christophorus Bondelmontius descriptio Cretae : 'Versus autem trionem per tria miliaria iuxta viam euntem ad montem Jurte (lucte Legrand) ad dexteram spileum in saxo parvo ore est. dwo TWOS eyKeKO\a/J. 6 P.158 The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus appears to have been marked by a stone1. cil. in naso tres ecclesise sunt congestse. ' I was Loukian. cit. Kal TO TrXaros Tta<rdpa>v. if). 6 Zevs) redainai TO eavTov crcD/wi €771)5 TOV <j>povpiov TOV KaXovnevov ASXa/cpa. which is variously recorded2. TeffffapaKovTa Trr/xw TO /x^/cos. 5 E. G. 112. \evKov dioXov. evravOa Zav mrcu 6> Afa KiKXya-Kowi. scilicet Salvatoris. ed. et prope ipsum est rus Sancti Blasii amplissimum. Post hsec ecce ad meridiem viam capiendo ad montem hodie Jurtam (luctam Legrand) devenitur per periculosissimam viam. in radicibus montis huius monasterium Dominarum existit. Belon in 1555 reports that the sepulchre of Jupiter as described by the ancients is yet to be seen on the mountain of the Sphagiotes6. dvayuyr) els rbv Tdz'TaAoi' cited by J. id est ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum. Belon Observations sur Plusieitrs Singularites Paris 1555 i cap. he stayed at Arkhanes on the eastern side of Mount Juktas. Porph. Zeus 8 M. et /cat ev ovpavif \eyeTCU O. Chrysost. in cuius fronte templum lovis usque ad fundamenta deletum invenitur.evov ev CLVTI^ eTriyp&[Afj. Pandon Aghion.. sub monte atro. IXTOAFOPAS TOt AH followed by an epigram beginning tSSe Oavuv /cetreu Zav ov Ma KiKkfjffKovffiv (Kyrill. Tegrinnum castrum inexpugnabile videtur. uro/ta S~)(ov o~Tevov. ZAN KPONOT. reads ILrJKOs). 'E/cros §e TOV o~Tn]\aiov olKoSofjial TOV lepov /j.aTos. Legrand Description des ties de I'Archipel par Christophe Biiondelmonti Paris 1897 i. loc. Hie mons a longe faciei effigiem habet. speaks of a cave on the right hand side of a road leading thither and states that at the upper end of the cave is the tomb of Zeus bearing an illegible inscription5. 20 f. 81 : TOV de (sc. magna circum aedificia quasi per quartum in circuitu unius miliaris hodie per totum campum frumentum et prata crescunt. in cuius capite sepulcrum lovis maximi est cum litteris deletis. evddSe Keirai Oavwv HIKOS 6 Kal Zevs (Souid. cites it with peyas for Bavuv). cit.

about a mile off. when I inquired after a cave.V7Jfjia. G.. rather meaning to tell him an old story. ib. and that it was his tomb that I wished to see2.' he says1. Id. who had become acquainted with the tomb of Zeus in tending his flock. that one Zeus.. and therefore had not understood me at first.for any cave on the mountain. a god of the Hellenes..vTJf^a. 97 no. %M^ /f////n\^\< "'/w Fig. I had PRECINCT OF ZEUS CHAPEL OF APHENDI KHRISTOS I .. 130. than supposing that I should learn any thing. A good hour was spent in reaching the summit. 2 says: ' Tou Atos TO /j.' N. as a guide up the mountain. I found.fiov. a shepherd. Pashley Travels in Crete Cambridge 1837 i. He knew of nothing of the kind . were my words. although only a few shepherds have ever seen it. When I had thus failed in obtaining any information about the cave. .vrj/j. was said to have been buried there. My host had never heard it called by any other name than the tomb of Zeus. 211 n. and all that I could learn from him was that. 211 ff.ss^ ' GROTTO OF NOSTO NERO ** | . pronounced the very name by which a place on the summit of the mountain is known to all the people in the neighbourhood. towards the northern R. Polites Hapadoaeis Athens 1904 i. 174 gives the name in actual use as 's 2 1 TOV Aid TO fJ. but it was in vain that I inquired of my host.. or TOV Aios TO /ji. ' to hear something of the sepulchre of Zeus. there is a fountain with an inscription on it. I said. i.The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus 159 of course anxious.

has yielded terra cotta figures of animals and fragments of pottery3. 24. perhaps a metre in depth.' In 1899 Mr A. R. . I3O)1. Bosanquet writes (June 9. Salvatoris insulce Cretce. and its diameter is not above eight or ten feet. It is about six metres from front to back and has two small fissures running left and right into the rock (fig. ego presbyter Christofoms de Bondelniontibus de Florentia emi hunc librum in monte lucta in monas. it is now so filled up. 132. 1899 ix. See Legrand's edition of B. The earth on the floor of the Fig. The grotto is a natural cavern facing west and known as the Nostb Nero. whatever may have been its former size.353 fig.CCCC. that a man cannot stand in it. Line. Taramelli in the Man.terio S.]. The precinct-wall forms an irregular square of ' Cyclopean' masonry (fig. 357 fig. d. Taramelli published a sketch-plan of Mount Juktas (fig. fig. 1899 ix. cit. a long narrow cleft. there seems to have been a gateway. Id. d. which may perhaps once have led into a moderate-sized cave. 1899 ix. 25. 1911): 'There is a cave on Mt Juktas. ib. 5 Id. On the north. I think)' [E. 350 fig. It is on the left of the present path from Arkhanais to the peak on which Evans has begun to explore a Minoan sanctuary. A. (preface. marking a grotto near its southern summit and the precinct-wall on its northern summit. I32) 4 . 3 My friend Prof. 353 ff.XV. cavern. 23. Taramelli in the Man.160 The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus extremity of which I observed foundations of the massive walls of a building the length of which was about eighty feet. Within this space is an aperture in the ground. 1899 ix. V mensis septembris. I33) 5 . C. I3i) 2 . 2 1 . xxv Anno Domini M. where it rises to an average height of three metres and at a few points to five metres (fig. p. ib. he obtained a manuscript from it. hyperperis xi. Legrand op. but. 27. Line. into which I have crawled and in which I have found Hellenic pottery. 4 A. There was a monastery of some importance on the peak in Buondelmonti's time.

Hell. 1899 ix. that the remains on the top of Mount Juktas are still known to the country folk as Mn$ma tou Zid. also intimately connected with the cult of the Cretan Zeus. 121 f. 1901 xxi. and including a large number of small cups of pale clay exactly resembling those which occur in votive deposits of Mycenaean date in the caves of Dikta and of Ida. Mr Taramelli. who notes ' scanty traces of a building in the middle of this precinct1/ inclines to regard it as a stronghold. who was told by Dr J. This account is confirmed by Sir Arthur Evans. twice. president of the Cretan Syllogos at Kandia and now ephor of antiquities. 355 'dalle scarse traccie di un edificio sorgente nel centre di questo recincto si puo pensar ad un temenos fortificato. Hazzidakis. n . and within this enclosure. 2 fourn. 1901 xxi. which forms the highest peak of the mountain and shows clear traces of artificial cutting. 3 c.' Sir Arthur Evans himself explored the summit Fig. which tends to show that the 1 Id. He found in it much broken pottery of various dates. 121 n. Stud.The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus 161 To the south the wall abuts on a rocky elevation.' etc. especially towards the summit. ' the Tomb of Zeus2. the ground is strewn with pottery dating from Mycenaean to Roman times. dove. ib. 3 Ib. including pieces of Minoan pithoi. 8. and says : ' All that is not precipitous of the highest point of the ridge of Juktas is enclosed by a " Cyclopean " wall of large roughly oblong blocks. 133. No remains of buildings are visible in this inner area. in caso di pericolo. fosse possibile agli abitanti del piano di rifugiarsi e difendere le provviste ed i tesori del tempio.

has reference to a former cult of Zeus. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. most claim to be connected with Zeus. A. Z^vra (in Arkadia)." et. a Zutulana in Mylopotamo. 174). ZoO (in Siteia). 27. The last of these has. A little further on the ridge is .KKOi>. cit.KKov B. by 35°. however. writing in 1829.' Mount Juktas is not the only Cretan locality that claims connexion with Zeus.162 The Mountain as the Burial-place of Zeus primitive enclosure was the temenos of a sanctuary. 778. i.' and records the local tradition that the god. the existing cult. 50' E. Soutzo adds that the inhabitants of the country still invoke Zeus by using the ejaculation ' Hear me. 513. corrompue par le temps 'H/coOr^ /JLOV Ziave 6e£ ! " Exauce-moi Jupiter !" ' cited by N. Jupiter avail coutume d'y descendre lorsqu'il venait visiter les sommets de 1'Ida: c'est pour cette raison qu'on le nomme Zoti\a. apparently connected with some Zeus cult. Soutzo2. 4 cites ' AQevrris as the name of a summit in the eparchy of Lasithi. Schmidt op. Spratt's map (Die Insel Candia oder Creta) marks Zutulako about ij miles S.the small church of Aphendi Kristos [sic]. G. These are the ' eastern and western ranges ' mentioned by Sir Arthur Evans. rather than a walled city. G. Is this a third name of the same place? The German reduction of Capt. The eastern and western ranges of Dikta. 4 With 'HfcoOre fjmv Ztave 6ee C. 5 compares ZovTovAeko (another name oi the same village in the eparchy Mylopotamo). J. 41 n. C. are known as the Aphendi Vouno." A votive deposit. are remains of a building constructed with large mortarless blocks of which the ground-plan of part of two small chambers can be roughly traced. June 20. and ib. Soutzo Histoire de la revolution grecque Paris 1829 p. however. 98 no. 158 ' D'apres une tradition orale des Cretois. and the archaeological traces point alike to the fact that there was here a " holy sepulchre" of remote antiquity. There is. god Zones*!' This is confirmed 1 Sir Arthur Evans adds in a footnote: 'See Academy. 18' N. the sites respectively of the Temple and Cave of Zeus. from AvOfrr-qs X/MOTOS. On Mt Kentro in the eparchy Amario is a field called ZoO Kdpiros (N. i. ce qui n'est pas moins curieux. Popular tradition. 3 With Zo6\a. I have failed to find either Zoti\aKKoi> or ZouTouXci/co on the Admiralty Chart of western Crete. p. a name which in Crete clings in an especial way to the ancient sanctuaries of Zeus1 and marks here in a conspicuous manner the diverted but abiding sanctity of the spot. of Axos. les indigenes du pays conservent encore 1'invocation suivante de leurs ancetres. " vallee de Jupiter. he considers. On the uppermost platform of rock. states that a village situated at the foot of Mount Ide is called Zoulakkori*. 1896. 74. ' By .W. or " Christ the Lord. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. Wachsmuth cp. i. R. the local name for a high peak in the easternmost part of Crete (eparchy Siteia). when he came to visit the summits of Ide. or the Lord Christ. the position of which is approximately 24°. Rodd The Customs and Lore of Modern Greece London 1892 p."' B. on a peak of Lasethi is also known as Aphendi Christos. B. perhaps. It is. 27 thinks it possible that '~E<j>evT7j-(iovv6. Hapa56o-eis Athens 1904 ii. Polites MeXerTj iirl roO /3t'ou TUT Neurepuv ''E\\^vuv Athens 1871 i. used to descend here. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. Polites IIajoa56(7etj Athens 1904 i. the Albanian oath irtp ren £6ve. a form of the Syrian word for "Lord. 132 n. n. worth noting in this connexion that at "Minoan" Gaza Zeus Kretagenes was known as Mamas. 27 n. ' the Valley of Zeus. 2 A.

' 2 'H/coOre ftov. Geogr. ii. Polites Hapad6ffeis Athens 1904 i. Aid would be formed. Zwj/e Oee. etc. c. G. 6 Diod.' or Trtp Tt 'v£bvt. 1896. TOV deov or yia TO dpovos TOV deov (N. This peak. (f) Zeus as a Mountain-god superseded by Saint Elias. Cels. Diana. 4 Zeus is paired with Dione at Dodona. 18 n. 1709. will sometimes throw up their hands and cry ' Hear me. ii. The expressions 6ee rrjs K/J^TTJS or c5 dee r?ys TLfyfiTTjs or 710. 1 Prof. Ata would normally become Ata or Mav. often used at Arachova on Mt Parnassos and elsewhere in the sense of ' Tell that to the marines!.). D. who in 1879 reports that at Anogeia1 in Mylopotamo there is a place named Zou to Idkko after the tomb of Zeus. 777 f. customs. quoted by N. 51. M. cit. In that case we should obtain a Greek parallel to the Latin Dianus. Kondylakes in the Athenian journal 'E<m'a June 26. G. The ace. Atds with gen. The dwellers in the district.' are explained by B. It lies very high on Ida. whence a new nom.). C. My friend Mr R. In the centre of Naxos rises a conical mountain. 406. Polites loc. Schmidt op. eirel rd<J>os KVTOV ev KpT/Ty deiicvvTai. TOO dpovla. Kondylakes in 1896 gives their exclamation in the form 'God Zdnos^V If these names are indeed to be connected with that of Zeus. v. i. and the natives. known as Drios in ancient times6. 43 KarayeXw/jLev TU>V irpoffKvvovvTiav TOV A£a. they must be regarded as masculine forms corresponding with the feminine Dione*. 37). • II—2 . v. -162 n. TO 6eb rrjs K/^TIJS. Dawkins kindly tells me that a priori he would have expected the name Zei/s to survive in modern Greek as Aids. D. 3737 feet in height. by God' (Das alte Griechenlandim neuen Bonn 1864 p. J. the surviving traces of these mountain-cults in the place-names of modern Greece are few in number. 'By the Lord. if troubled or displeased at what they hear. or 'H/coyre /JLOV yia. Meliarakes KvK\aducd Athens 1874 p. Apart from the tomb of Zeus in Crete.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 163 by A. shepherds and snow-carriers. iii. G. 51. von Hahn Albanesische Studien Jena 1854 ii. and the oath TT£/> reVe five is described as Albanian {supra p. pronounced Aid or Aidv. no. now bears the name Zia7 or Dia8—a name which connects it not only our Lord. 97 f. 5 Smith Diet. 3 I. cit. The geographical coincidence is noteworthy. are different from their neighbours in dress. • 8 Ib. 4). 7 Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. 174. 50. 298. god Zones !' or ' Hear me for the sake of God's seat!' or ' for the sake of God's throne 2 !' I. R. Bosanquet informs me that Anogeia ' is the nearest village to the Idaean Cave. See further A. 28 as a survival from the days when the Christians ridiculed the Cretan belief in a buried Zeus (Orig. 106. 5. 3. Papadakes. from the summit of which it is possible to count some twenty-two islands and to see on the horizon the mountain-chains of Asia Minor5.

164 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias with Dia or Dia. Gr. inscr. There was also a precinct Aios | '0\v/j. poet." where a priest goes once a year in the summer time and holds a liturgy for the mountain shepherds. ii no. Myth. 3 f. and is an earnest of innocence. ii no. J. 411. he offered sacrifice and received a good omen from an eagle. 6 O. admits that Ala must be related to 5?os (on which see supra p. inst.is it not highly probable that this is the cave in which Zeus was supposed to have spent his youth ? It runs a very long way into the rock. around it are a few incense pots and bits of wood which have been sacred pictures in days gone by.' Upon the northern slope of the mountain. after L. catast. iv. 2. 2 (frag. When he set out from Naxos to attack the Titans. where he was brought up 4 . 3 J. and we had it lighted up for us by brushwood. 2418. 293 Miiller) ap. beside a spring on the road towards Philoti. It is curious still to find the actual word \_Zeus\ existing in this form. i87O = Collitz-Bechtel Gr. pseudo-Eratosth. T. ii no. cit. which in ancient times may have given rise to superstition. inscr. Bent describes the mountain as follows3. 19 ff. 30. He placed the bird among the stars (Aglaosthenes Naxiaca frag. Lact. which goes deep into the heart of the mountain : at its entrance is an altar called the " church of Zia. T. save a spring of hot water. 2 Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. inscr. a conical stone at Korkyra inscribed AI02 | MHAOSIOT (Corp. with the prickly leaves of which the peasants feed their cattle. We first climbed up to a steep cave. The old myth related how the king of the gods was brought from his birthplace in Crete to Naxos. the early name of Naxos1. 16). Gr. signify 'Clad in a sheep-skin \melote) .). Bent loc.' he says. astr. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Germ. 354 f. in which case the cult probably resembled that of Zeus Aktaios on Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. i. read the last word as MIAH2IOT and translates ' the mountain of Milesian Jupiter'! Cp. It might. Bent The Cyclades London 1885 p... 'Its slopes. is a rough rock inscribed : OPOS AIOIMHAHIIOY Boundary of Zeus Melosios*>. cit. 4 Zeus in the form of an eagle came from Crete to Naxos. Mr J. Eyssenhardt. Aratea p. ii. T. On reaching manhood he became king of the gods. v. Hyg. -298. 2649. DialInschr. but it contains nothing remarkable. Ross Reisen auf den griechischen Inseln des dgdischen Meeres Stuttgart and Tubingen 1840 i. loc. div. Gr. schol. ' are rugged and covered with the holly oak (Ilex aquifolium). Gr. hist. 1 . 43. 5 Corp. 3215). which appeared bringing him thunderbolts.. but also with that of Zeus2. An oath by the altar of Zia is held very sacred by the mountaineers. n. Caes. where he was nurtured. i.Trt[ov] in Naxos (Corf.. At this altar a shepherd is accustomed to swear to his innocence if another charges him with having stolen a sheep or a goat. 100 no. however. The title Melosios is usually taken to denote ' Guardian of sheep' (me/a)6. 2417).. iii.

But the history of thes-g. I must not attempt such a task even in barest outline. the modern name of Mount Parnes. 5 TLussb. B Attike. 28. 6 Append. 59.. What—it may fairly be asked—has become of all the rest ? The Nereids and Charon are still familiar figures in the imagination of the modern Greek peasant. The first was what he terms a revolution from above—the rationalism of Greek philosophic thought. Why has Zeus vanished from the land. 2Tav5la = es rav At<w. . if not overthrown. Schmidt op. Perhaps in the service for shepherds-held onee a year in the summer we may venture to find the [continuation of a rite comparable with the procession of men claa in sheep-skins. 31. Nowadays there is a monastery on Dias. a Kritias there) and gradually working its way downwards through the masses. The recorded mountain-cults of Zeus number nearly one hundred. i § 6 (f) viii. adjoining the now ruined town of Dion*. flraep. an island off the north coast of Crete. which in classical times had more than one cult of Zeus upon it2.. and there are remains of an ancient building on the spot7. Not far to the west of this island is Cape Dta. which once a year in the summer ascended MountN^elion 1 . these are but trifling relics of a once ubiquitous worship. by the combined attack of three great movements. ev. a rock off the coast of Kephalonia is called Dias. 8 A. and their very paucity demands an explanation. More certainly connected with Zeus is Dia or Dm. 4 Ptol. Lastly.. Plin. hist. 7. the Dion dkron of Ptolemaios4. 2. B Kephallenia. but it may have replaced a pagan sanctuary. cit. Albrecht Dieterich in a brilliant essay published some years after his death8 sought to prove that the worship of the Olympians was shaken. 3. The 2 Infra ch. i. 17.-" . but content myself with indicating a few salient features of a region long since measured and charted by others.. 4. leaving scarce a trace behind him ? Fully to answer this question would be to survey afresh the whole field of Hellenic decadence. Pauly-Wissowa Real-Rnc. In view of the famous cult of Zeus on the neighbouring Mount Ainos 6 the name is significant. 449—539 ' Der Untergang der antiken Religion^' • . 8 1 ..•.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 165 Mount Pelion. Mount Zia in Naxos is sometimes called OziaX^This recalls Ozea. originating in the higher strata of society (a Thales here. 5.. v. which has preserved its name in the forms Dia and Standia*. Append. names needs further investigation.. nat. Dieterich Kleine Schriften Leipzig and Berlin 1911 pp. 7 B. 298. All told.

186 ff. Dieterich op. Supra pp. f : 4 1 . which in bewildering succession poured into the Mediterranean area till Mithraism. There is a sound of coming triumph in the words 2 3 Supra p. But Zeus. The revolution from above. and accordingly we find the nearest approaches to Christianity neither in the rationalism of Greece nor in the orientalism of Rome.'—we read—'and followed him. elaborating the presuppositions of popular belief. had alike ended in something of a compromise.' Had they but continued as they began. mysticism. was not readily submerged by the rising waters of rationalism. And that call. It was by no accident that the art of the Catacombs repeated again and again the figure of Orpheus. Thirdly there was a revolution from without—the influx of foreign faiths from Egypt Syria. ' the Unconquered Sun.' That is in a sense true. Philosophers. once heard. thanks to his own all-embracing character. found it convenient to give the name of Zeus to their ultimate principle or at least to one of their cosmic elements1. the revolution from beneath. a modus Vivendi was after all not impossible2. Nothing more. 'They forsook all. the sacramental mysteries claiming to guard men's souls through the grave itself. and orientalism. but in the heart-felt aspirations of Orphic and Dionysiac devotees. the Hellenic sky-god. who had vanquished the Titans. p. the pa'ssionate cult of Dionysos with its rites of death and rebirth. the pure precepts of Orpheus bringing hopes of a bright hereafter.Die Revolution von unten ist zugleich aber auch eine Revolution von innen.' These were indeed Titanic forces. and if Dionysos was son of Zeus. 153. . Further. Persia. points of contact between the Orpheo-Dionysiac rites and the religion of Zeus were not wanting. the Pythagorean propaganda eager to explain the true course of human life. Again. In short. Then for the first time—and here I desert the lead of Dieterich4—came a revolution from within. but also nothing less. Infra p. cit. 104 ff. somehow still held his own.166 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias second was a revolution from beneath—the spiritual unrest and upheaval of the lower orders.. alib. or that the literature of the dark ages described the tragedy of Calvary in language borrowed from the Bacchants of Euripides. Asia Minor. left no room for compromise. nothing more than the response of human hearts to the call of Jesus Christ. 480 says '. 27 ff. the importers of strange cults from the east inevitably began by identifying their unfamiliar sanctities with the familiar gods and goddesses of Greece. If Orpheus was priest of Dionysos. modified into the solar monotheism of Aurelian. the victory was already assured. It was in its essence a movement of great simplicity. and in an age of syncretism soon obtained recognition for various types of solar Zeus3. which found expression in many an upward effort. seemed like to merge all other creeds in that of Sol Invictus. the revolution from without.

Stahlin. 20—23. Indeed. But. de civ. Pagan attacks were met by Christian counter-attacks. nat. On the one hand the great majority of Christians then. altercation. Porphyrii episcopi Gazensis 75)—a course eventually disallowed (infra ch. Gratian urged on by the influence of Ambrose began to plunder heathen temples for the benefit of Christian priests. is a question hotly disputed. alas for champions who knew not of what Spirit they were. Theodosios prohibited under the severest penalties the perpetuation of pagan worship. protr. 3. 4ff. 2. 37. and in the comparative dearth of contemporary evidence2 hard to decide. matters were equalised externally and more than equalised: the persecuted became the persecutors. A priori arguments of course are not wanting. Add cod. were ' corrupted from the simplicity and the purity that is toward Christ. 19 ff. As the new religion spread. 4 p. And found they were. Aug. it is not too much to say that in the fourth century of our era a momentous transformation was already in progress. 2 See. and abuse. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p. . i—9.i avrrfv Kara. 5. 12. and the apologists with all their merits were in some cases men mainly remarkable for their erudition. Mat. Rufin. Dei 4. Leo Magnus serm. Clem. but 1 The Christian apologists largely ignored the small fry of Greek mythology and saved their finest scorn for the inconsistencies and immoralities of Zeus: see e. They concluded that definite substitutes must be found for the discredited objects of popular cult. as now. they turned aside to the old armoury of argument. epist. loul. 10.' Such persons presumably followed the dictates of worldly wisdom3. epist. Arnob. Fain to reinforce that Spirit's sword. 36. 20—23. 5—-2.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 167 of Paul: ' The weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh. 5. recogn. 3 An instructive case is the proposed rebuilding of the Marneion at Gaza as a Christian church with the old pagan ground-plan :ffvvej3ov\evoi>ovv rives KTurOrji'a. adv. Theod. i. 8. But meantime those who thus tried to secure an intellectual and temporal ascendancy were shrewd enough to perceive that the scathing periods of church-fathers1 and even imperial mandates of extermination were powerless to suppress the long-standing rites of paganism. Beda hist.' His converts should have gone on conquering and to conquer. however. 25. 10. 30. 9—cited by Miss M. by which Christian saints gradually usurped the position of pagan gods and demigods. How far this process of substitution was due to deliberate policy and official action on the part of church or state. but mighty before God to the casting down of strong holds. ii § 9 (g)). 78 Hertlein. Firm. rty 04<ru> rov eld<a\eiov (Marcus Diaconus v. alib. eccles. Justinian carried on and completed the outward victory.g. 16. Al. 27. On the other hand we have also to reckon with a cause less conspicuous than ecclesiastical interference.

A survey of articles etc. 302—320 ' Das Fortleben des Heidentums im Christentum. Soltau Das Fortleben des Heidentums in der altchristlichen Kirche Berlin 1906. Bilder aus dem religiosen und sift lichen Volksleben Siiditaliens Gotha 1909. E. 2 A general treatment of the subject will be found in F. or rather. Again. R. In these and other such ways the old order changed . the practical result was this: the old gods and goddesses. Friedlander Erinnerungen. 1908 pp. but at most submitted to a new nomenclature. F. even if raised to the rank of myths by the sanction of literature. Miss M. Delehaye Les Ltgendes Hagiographiques'*' Bruxelles 1906. C. and names. 21 a mediaeval misinterpretation of lupiter with his eagle as John the Evangelist. the old order did not change. These Christian Dioskouroi. A few typical cases will be in point. unconverted Greeks are reported to have called them Kastor and Polydeukes and to have been solemnly rebuked by them for the very pardonable misnomer. circumstances. Lit. J. their temples. T. W. 3708". Trede Das Heidentum in der romischen Kirche Gotha 1889—1891. For a second time and in a subtler sense Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit. the old heroes and heroines. At Byzantion the pagan twins Kastor and Polydeukes had been wont to cure the sick by means of incubation. A. Piper Mythologie und Symbolik der christlichen Kunst Weimar 1847—1851. The Christian twins Kosmas and Damianos followed suit. Reden und Studien Strassburg 1905 i. appeared to persons imploring their aid as Examples are collected by L. and their very statues1..168 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias even more potent—the incalculable force of old associations. who inter alia cites from E. Men would resort to the familiar cult-centre and expect the new occupant of the shrine to bestow the customary blessing. Dieterich Kleine Schriften Leipzig and Berlin 1911 pp. were re-christened and re-consecrated in the service of the new religion2. often with their precincts.' Recent French and English books bearing on the same theme are H. Schultze Geschichte des Untergangs des griechisch-romischen Heidentums Jena 1887—1892. These affected at once places. Anrich) Tubingen 1904. Especially would Christian saints whose names happened to be derived from those of heathen deities tend to acquire powers and prerogatives properly belonging to the said deities. Causation apart.' 1 . Lucius Die Anfdnge des Heiligenkults in der christlichen Kirche (a posthumous work ed. Les legendes grecques des saints militaires Paris 1909. by G. would readily attach themselves afresh to new heroes. provided that these in their doings and sufferings bore some resemblance to the old. T. like their pagan predecessors. Arneth Das dassische Heidentum und die christliche Religion Wien 1895. dealing with special points is given by Gruppe Myth. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910. folk-tales. 449—539 'Der Untergang der antiken Religion. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910. id. v. Glover The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire^ London 1910. Miintz Histoire de /'artpendant la renaissance 1889 i. V. indeed. doing the same thing at the same place.

Here they saw in a vision a man of dreadful aspect with wings as of an eagle on his shoulders. who was in fact titular saint of four churches at Byzantion (C. was also turned into a church of St Nikolaos (Codinus de aedificiis Constantinopolitanis 62 B). de aedificiis i. 67—70 p. but the continuity of the mariner's cult remains unbroken. gr. pp. Awed by the place and its fane. 1910 xiii. 223. 5 ff. arch. Malal. and even as stars1. Dindorf.. offered prayer towards the east. denoting the ' Fresh' north wind. 6 N. upon 1 L. i. 3 Gruppe Gr. F.were next attacked by Amykos. 4. Deubner De incubatione Lipsiae 1900 pp. Constantine the Great saw this sanctuary. The emperor Justinian selected a spot on the Golden Horn and there built a church to Saint Priskos and Saint Nikolaos. He was told in a vision the name of the spirit. Gr? no. = Michel Recueil d''Inscr. ' There is no vessel. 58 n. chron. as we might have expected. d. d. or the locality. 130 ed. 4 Procop. When Byzantion had become the seat of empire. inscr. no. 4 p. 6 (iii. Being now a Christian. 5 ff. because they had fled thither and been saved . . he went to sleep there after praying that he might learn what angelic spirit the statue represented.' Again. After telling how the Argonauts founded at Kyzikos a temple of Rhea Mother of the gods. great or small. Ducange Constantinopolis Christiana 4.. G. oest. Polites MeXerT? «r: TOV (Hov T&V Newr^oow 'EXXfyuv Athens 1871 i.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 169 horsemen. 5 Dittenberger Syll. Poseidon3. The house of Basilides. and fearing his might took refuge in a certain bay thickly covered with wildwood. 1680). They called the place or the sanctuary itself Sosthenes. laying the foundations of it actually in the water4. 100. Inst. which the emperor Zenon transformed into a church of Mary Mother of God. U 7 f f . Paris. one of the principal deities of Byzantion was. E. 193 Dindorf). and the place still bears the name. It may be supposed that in these and many other places the saint has succeeded to the god.. he observed the statue standing there on its pillar and remarked that from the Christian point of view it looked like an angel in the garb of a monk. 138. 53 f. by the name of the holy archangel Michael. Maass ' Boreas und Michael' in the fahresh. Rel. who calms the waves6. Similarly at the entrance to the harbour of Mykonos—another centre of Poseidon-worship5—stands a shrine of Saint Nikolaos. J. So they took heart and attacked him. and called the place of prayer. 714. argues that 2w<r06/??s was a cult-epithet of Boreas. Myth. Having conquered him they showed their gratitude by founding a sanctuary on the spot where they had beheld the vision and erecting there a statue of the spirit seen by them. 68—79. 2 lo. 1138 n. a quaestor of Justinian. in fact he left home in order to restore it. 6. a spirit who came to them from the sky and announced that they should conquer Amykos. 78 f. he continues: 'The Argonauts. 615. Other cases are recorded by loannes Malalas2. Rendel Harris The Cult of the Heavenly Twins Cambridge 1906 pp.

Captain T. A. H. says local tradition. Taras. Or again. who visited the chapel. Kallistratos of Carthage.170 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias Greek waters/—says Mr G. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. Polites HapaSocreis Athens 1904 i.. Kerler Die Patronate der Heiligen Ulm 1905 p. He is to the modern sailor all that Poseidon was to his ancestors1. or a small silver-plated picture of the saint attached to its mast. 241. Saints Martinianos of Kaisareia. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 27 f3 The evidence is collected and discussed by K. Miss M. Usener Die Sintfluthsagen Bonn 1899 pp. Klement Arion Wien 1898 pp. F. Hamilton in the Ann. ii. When he came to the top of a hill he was told it was wood. G.. G. 37. 1—64 and H.—to take an example that will appeal to students of Homer—'Saint Elias had been a sailor. See also B. B.349 and in her Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p. Hesiod. 343 ff. Phalanthos. were each rescued from a watery grave by a couple of dolphins. Abbott—'which has not the saint's icon in its stern. Ath. 798f. Polites op. N. Brit. which itself expired on reaching land (so with minor variations in the case of Palaimon or Melikertes.' As in cult. He flies through the air on a white-winged horse. and the corpse of Saint Loukianos of Antioch was brought ashore by a gigantic dolphin. no. 2 T. 1 . and marks on the rock still show where the horse alighted. F. 199. but left the sea repenting of the evil life he had led. Four or five centuries ago. Spratt. 138—180. 306. justly concludes that the saint is 'a sort of Bellerophon2. 1906—1907 xiii. he went on asking people what it was. many well-known figures in classical mythology are said to have been saved from the sea by riding on the back of a dolphin (Arion. Koiranos. mindful of Pegasos and Hippokrene. B. D. a girl was carried off from the chapel by a Barbary corsair but miraculously restored on the anniversary of her captivity by Saint Niketas. i. He saw that they G. A. Eikadios. which breathed its last on the sand3. with an ever-burning lamp in front of it. Basileios the younger of Constantinople. 57 ff. Enalos. and an anonymous boy at Naupaktos). Spratt Travels and Researches in Crete London 1865 i.' Again'. Others say he left because of the hardships he had suffered. i n f . Dionysios and Hermias of lasos. and to him candles are promised. He determined to go where it was not known what the sea or boats were. Sch.. cit. and vows registered.): others had their corpses brought ashore by a dolphin. Saint Niketas has a cavern with a painted roof by way of a chapel near Cape Sudsuro in south-eastern Crete. Theseus. etc. so in legend pagan elements are still to be traced. N. In time of storm and stress it is the name of St Nicholas that instinctively rises to the lips of the Greek mariner. Both incidents reappear in the records of the hagiographers. Shouldering an oar.

1906—1907 xiii. But. 47 ff. on he goes till he meets another man. 801 f. he travelled through Hellas on his way to Naxia. 15 f. 207. Leipzig 1911 i. he had bad weather. n.' 5 Prof. Hamilton in the Ann. II. Dionysos lives on in the person of Saint Dionysios. Dionysius the Areopagite.' He plants his oar in the ground. Struck Grieckenland^N'ien u. ' Can you tell me what this is?' asks St Elias. 43 says: 'It is perhaps noteworthy too that in Athens the road which skirts the south side of the Acropolis and the theatre of Dionysus is now called the street of S. At Athens the Tritopatreis were superseded by the Trinity3. On he goes again. ' this is the place for me.' Eh. and put an oar over his shoulder. he saw a little plant spring from the ground at his feet. which was bigger than the bird's leg. 116 no. he planted the plant just as it was. Buck in Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 1886—1890 v. A. and stuck the plant with the bird's leg and the lion's leg into the ass's leg. "The prophet Elias. and the ass's leg. sometimes it dispenses with any disguise at all. stuck the plant in it. and went on. can you tell me?' says St Elias. i66ff. since the road was long. It sprang up quickly and to his delight bore the finest of grapes. Thereupon he found a bird's leg. here I abide. As he sat there looking in front of him. Well. However. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p. which was still bigger than the lion's leg. D. ii. "was a fisherman. the lion's leg. i after N.. Brit. its church was sacred to St Dionysios. to whom his cult 4 and myth 5 1 Miss M. 'Why. 'What's this. Mr J. ' A good hour to you. presumably Dionysios the Areopagite (C.: see also Miss M. 'Why. C. at ." quoth he. C.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 171 had never seen boats or the sea. Rouse in The Cambridge Review 1905—1906 xxvii. When Chandler visited the place in 1766. in his holy hand the plant grew so fast that it soon came out at both ends of the bone. 131 f. and there he sees another man." ' 2 3 Od. he found its roots twined fast about the bird's leg.' says the man.' says St Elias. Sch. 356 n. as the holy Elias found. Again he feared it might wither. He pulled it up and went off with it. My friend Dr W. Polites TLapaSoffeis Athens 1904 i. so that he became afraid of the sea. and thought what he could do to prevent it. until he comes to the very top of the mountain. that's an oar. But the sun was so hot that he feared it might wither before he reached Naxia.' Who fails to recognize Odysseus2? Sometimes the shift from heathen deity to Christian saint is barely disguised by a slight deflection of the ancient name . terrific storms.' ' Good !' says St Elias. and that is why his chapels are all built on the hill tops. Siegel of Hamburg at Kokkino in Boiotia in 1846 heard the following folk-tale :—' When Dionysios was still a child. But now what wonders followed! When men drank of it." "What was that?" I asked." says Giorgis. But the plant soon grew out of the lion's leg also. 23. 414 tells how he heard the same tale from an old Coan skipper:—' " Ah well. 'That?' says the man. D. and took the hills. On the way. Of these he at once made wine for the first time and gave it to men to drink. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. G. 4 The ancient deme of Ikaria is habitually called by the peasants Dionyso—a clear trace of the god Dionysos. and thought it so pretty that he at once resolved to take it with him and plant it. ' What's this ?' says St Elias. Then he found an ass's leg.). ' A good hour to you. who should he see but a man. and stuck the bird's leg with the plant into the lion's leg. When he wanted to plant the plant. He found a lion's leg. ngff.' says he. "'tis a poor trade this. Ath. 'Welcome.' says the man. to be sure. 'That?' says the man. As he could not pull the roots out without hurting them. ' Why that's an oar. and he stayed on the hilltops1. and so came to Naxia. so he left his nets and his boat on the shore. he got tired and sat on a stone to rest. that's a stick. I was once corrected by a Greek of average education for speaking of the theatre of Dionysus instead of ascribing it to his saintly namesake.' says the man. ' You are welcome.

Reinach Cultes. 33 f. 308 f. who gives references to earlier writers on the subject. Hamilton in the Ann. fig.. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. 5 J. 1 Miss M. a. 13 p. Cp. Hamilton op. 0tXoyuetpa£ [leg. Kal irrorjOeh e/c TTJS Kpavyfjs b firiffKoiros Batri'Xetos dwirvLffdr] TeTapay/jifvo^. Inst. 1850. Kvpie. Polites MeXen? eTrt TOV /St'ou TUSV Newrepuv 'E\\7jvwi> Athens 1871 i. ws e/c^Xeucras. Rendel Harris The Annotators of the Codex Bezae London 1901 p.ia. first they sang like birds. The myth of Hippolytos is told afresh of his Christian name-sake4. Rev. and the church dedicated to him is some little way from the town on the hillslopes. Malal. 32 fig. 23 fig. KovpoTpo<f>os. p. (2) a Byzantine church. Bent was the first to observe—credited with the attributes of Artemis6. citing ~Zafj. 19 view) shows in direct superposition : (i) the temple of Artemis 'H/tepa. Even gender proved no bar to such reformations. 6 J. while his consort the virgin goddess has handed over her festival to the Virgin of the victorious faith5. Brit. Wachsmuth Das alte Griechenland im neuen Bonn 1864 p. 241". p. Wilhelm (Jahresh.. 32. Kal iraXw evpeOTj earws izUwpoaOev TOV Kvpiov Kal ^Kpa^ev. p. 175. Saint Artemidos in Keos is the protector of ailing children.Ka. For parallels see O. being—as Mr J. Reichel and A. also C.' 4 S. "struck by the Nereids. G. 43 f..Tre\6&v (pbvevvov loi'Xiai'oz' TOV /3a<rtAea TOV Kara T&V XpiffTiav&j'. 6 n. they resembled asses. Ath. 102. who nowadays cures ear-ache in Samos^. no. 56 f. blessed by the priest. and then if perchance the child grows strong she will thank St Artemidos for the blessing he has vouchsafed. 74 ff. 98 f. i6f.172 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias have inevitably passed. von Hahn Griechische und albanesische Mdrchen Leipzig 1864 ii. She then strips off its clothes and puts on new ones. 76.eipai-]. 350 ff. T. leaving the old ones as a perquisite to the Church. no. The ground-plan of the precinct at Lousoi in Arkadia published by W. 13 section and p. thither a mother will take a child afflicted by any mysterious wasting. 333 f. 368 f. 1901 iv. T. arch. and Miss M. 26 f. Carnoy in La Tradition 1887 i. 1902 xvi. G." as they say. chron. who concludes that the Dionysios in question was the monk of Meteora of the twelfth century because —according to N. 'lovXiavbs 6 /3acrtXeiis cr<payels dw£6avei>.. ib. MepKovpte. they became strong as lions. G. and now the-Ionian idea of the . 2 lo. and in Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. (3) a chapel of the Panagia built c. Mythes et Religions Paris 1908 iii. to whom in classical times were attached the epithets 7rat56rpo0os. Dahnhardt Natursagen Leipzig and Berlin 1907 i. d. Saint Merkourios.—the saint was journeying to Naxos from Mt Olympos. Another Latin deity first canonised in Italy and then naturalised in Greece is Venus. iraidoTp6<f)OS. When they drank deeper. When they drank deeper still. 6 5e ayios MepKovpios earws efj-wpoaQev TOV Kvpiov e<f>6pei 0w/>a/ca crtdfipovv airouTlXflovra' Kal ci/coikras TTJV Ke\evcriv d^cwTjs eyeveTo. Polites Rapadoaeis i. (a). 7786°. Bent The Cyclades London 1885 p. N. Class. who is known as Saint Venere in western Albania and as the Holy Mother Venere among the Vlachs of Pindos3. oest.' • The tale is published in translation by J. ii. 3 Miss M. 16. H. Kovp6rpo^os. 457 : ' In Keos St Artemidos is the patron of these weaklings. 1906 —1907 xiii. unconscious that by so doing she is perpetuating the archaic worship of Artemis. 89. is described by Malalas in terms of Mercurius —as a divine messenger commissioned to slay the emperor Julian 2 . Sch. cp. Dindorf ev avrrj 6e rr? VVKTI elder ev bpduaTi Kal 6 offLibraTos eTrtV/coTros Ba<ri\eios 6 Kawapeias KairwadoKias TOVS ovpavovs rjveiiiyuevovs Kal rbv (TUTrjpa Xptcrroi' enl Opovov Ka0-/j/nevoi> Kal elwovra Kpavyrj. cit. <f)i\o/j.

. See page 173 n.Plate XV Kistophoros from Eleusis. i. known as Saint Demetra.

.

butted with its horns against the marble and then ran off. Lenormant Monographic de la voie sacrte eleusinienne Paris 1864 i. On the evening preceding the removal of the statue an ox. It was found at Eleusis in 1801 by E. in Verr. 32 f. was not so favourable.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 173 Similarly Demeter changed her sex. however. etc. in the Ann. their corn. D. referable to the fourth or third cent. The inhabitants of the small village which is now situate among the ruins of Eleusis still regarded this Statue with a very high degree of superstitious veneration. In the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge is the upper half of a colossal /a<rro06pos in Pentelic marble. some disaster ensued. This roused all the terrors of the peasantry. 398 n. Cripps 'on the side of the road. Clarke Travels in various countries of Europe Asia and Africa^ London 1818 vi. T. The next year. and they were in constant expectation that Ceres would return. but retained her sanctity. who was said to be . 174. ib.yla Ai^r/Tpo—a saint unknown to the calendar.' See further J. that once being taken from her station by the French. Hamilton Incubation London 1906 p. Cic. Eileithyia in that of Saint fructifying and nourishing properties of the Ephesian Artemis has been transferred to her Christian namesake. omnes cultus fructusque Cereris in his locis interiisse arbitrantur (id. Curiously enough the Princessa. and they pointed to the ears of bearded wheat. Lenormant states that the inhabitants of Eleusis spoke of it as 'Ayla Aij/^rpa and. Fennell Cambridge 1882 p. p. and said. D. 35 ff. for Barba Manthos had a little image of the Ephesian Artemis in his collection.). and more accurately a Kwro06/>os. and Mediterranean. A. upon festival days. Chandler paid a large sum for permission to dig near it. a Kavi)<f>6pos. Yet even this degrading situation had not been assigned to it wholly independent of its antient history. and in the midst of a heap of dung. when he undertook his excavations at Eleusis. Michaelis Ancient Marbles in Great Britain trans. B. into the plain of Eleusis.' He justly cp. as will be admitted in view of the following facts. We found traces of the worship of Artemis having existed in Keos along with that of Apollo in ancient times. a KaXadyfibpos. Archipelago. a merchantman conveying it home from Smyrna. Even then the people maintained that no ship would ever get safe to port with the statue on board.] respecting it were so great that Dr. Sch.4. immediately before entering the village. M. used to present it with garlands of flowers (F. 114 Cerere violata. 242 ff. he made careful enquiries concerning this 'A. M. though the statue itself was recovered.proved very abundant. They believed that the loss of it would be followed by no less a calamity than the failure of their annual harvests. D. she returned back in the night to her former situation ' (E. which he had found in a temple at Karthaia. in order to secure good harvests. in the cult of Saint Demetrios1. 17 f. Ath.). C. An Albanian papas or priest. and it was for this reason that they heaped around it the manure intended for their fields. 392.). 2. would drop off. E. bellowing. Clarke and J. Bent in The Journal of the Anthropological Institute 1885-6 xv. Brit. (pi. buried as high as the neck. xv).—has been called successively Demeter. as a never-failing indication of the produce of the soil' (E. a little beyond the farther extremity of the pavement of the Temple. and they begin to fear she has deserted them. that as often as foreigners came to remove the statue. whose scruples were not removed till the priest of Eleusis arrayed in his vestments struck the first blow with a pickaxe. 1 At Eleusis the cult of Demeter was hard to kill. whose superstitions'3 [ b lt was their custom to burn a lamp before it. In 1860. was wrecked and lost near Beachy Head. and in Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. relate. loosed from its yoke. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion p. J. 601). ' The Eleusinians. among the sculptured ornaments upon the head of the figure. As to the notion that the absence of the statue would cause the crops to fail. 352. They believed that the arm of any person who offered to touch it with violence. Clarke Greek Marbles brought from the shores of the Euxine. D. They attributed to its presence the fertility of their land.C. 1906—1907 xiii. C. Clarke adds : ' The first year after the departure of the Goddess. Miss M. The statue—on which see also A. Cambridge 1809 p. 44.

He afterwards went down into the tower and found Dhimitra's daughter. and attacked the aga with greater fury than before. She enquired of the Sun. A Turk on a black horse has carried off your daughter towards the west. who lived at Athens. At last the Stork that nested on the roof of her house said: " We have long been living side by side. i. though he had hitherto respected her virginity." They set out together over the snowy mountains. You are as old as I am. while Dhimitra was at church. but all in vain. fell upon him. from the neighbourhood of Souli saw her and fell in love with her. He thus prevailed and overthrew his adversary. and they \vrestled together. a Turkish ago. dared not tell what they knew. the smartest pallikar in the district. lighted a torch at the fire. The horse was a marvellous creature : it was black with fiery nostrils. a flame. wife of Nicolas the khodja-bachi or headman of the village. if successful. he resolved to carry her off to his harem. indeed she would have died. 399ff. In return for the hospitality of Nicolas and Marigo. Accompanied by the faithful Stork. which was golden in colour and reached to the ground. a serpent. The aga transformed himself into a lion. he would become a monk in the monastery of Phaneromeni (in Salamis). seen her by the road-side and taken her in. The dragons. Dhimitra on her return from church was brokenhearted at the loss of her daughter. a bird of prey. St Dhimitra with her daughter quitted the place. pursued the quest. Dhimitra blessed their fields and made them fruitful. astonished at his strength.): — ' St Dhimitra was a charitable old woman. On reaching Lepsina (Eleusis) she fell. and replaced the pot. had not Marigo. I will help you look for her. seized the maiden. the ago. She questioned the Tree that grew in front of the house.' . He then forced the daughter of Dhimitra to yield to his desires. and have always been kind to me. when the flowers first appear : he then became a monk in accordance with his vow. the Moon. One day as the girl was combing her hair. She had a daughter of wondrous beauty: none so fair had been seen since mistress Aphrodite (Kvph QpodiT-rj). So one Christmas night. vowing that. climbed up withdrawing the nails after him lest the dragons should follow. But in the night the Stork flew off. whereupon he came to life again. Nicolas' son drove nails into the tower. the Stars. but the Tree could give no information. But those whom they met by the way either mocked at them or gave no answer to their questions. When she rejected his advances. dreading Turkish vengeance. he walked for many days. who. Dhimitra wept and wailed. So I will tell you what has happened. the fields of Lepsina have been fertile. The Stork pecked out the agcfs eyes and also a white hair from his black top-knot—the hair on which the magician's life depended. n. told him the tale here summarised (id. and squeezed through a narrow window at the top. and no orte knows where they have gone: but ever since. and men—since they do not care for sorrow—closed their doors against her. and despite her cries of distress rode off with her on his horse. which was boiling on a fire. and rubbed it on the lips of the dead youth. He lifted the cauldron with one hand. He was a wicked man and a magician. He then told the dragons to do the same. fetched a magic herb. Come. In a few moments it carried the ravisher and his victim into the mountains of Epeiros. thanks to her benediction. burst open the house-door.174 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 114 years old and was certainly a centenarian. He invoked the aid of the Panaghia. and in these various disguises struggled for three days. on condition that he might wed the stolen girl. Nicolas' son. till at last he slew and quartered the young pallikar. and could in a single bound spring from east to west. and one night in the heart of the mountains found forty dragons watching a great cauldron. Once you helped me to drive off a bird of prey. The pallikar brought the girl back to Lepsina just at the beginning of spring. which wanted to steal my little ones. While he was making love to her. This gave him time to kill them one by one as they entered and to throw their bodies down on the other side of the tower. the ago. ib. She asked the neighbours. overcome with fatigue . took him with them to help in getting possession of a maiden kept by a magician in a very high tower. where there was a large court-yard and a magnificent garden and castle.

a saint invoked by women in childbirth (e\ev6epiJjvei rats ywaiKes. 18.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 175 Eleutherios1. Garnett Greek Folk Poesy London 1896 ii. 'EXei'0i/ia into 'EXei50wa. 26]. 1906 xxxi. M. 9. his churches are found. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. Michel and A. 6 records G. cp. 2io2f. and his festival in October [Oct. no. the wanderings and woes of Demeter. Polites MeX^r?? e?ri roO j3iov TWV Newrepuv 'EXX^wf Athens 1871 i. 57. writes: ' St Demetrios is the popular patron of Greek husbandmen and shepherds. all survive in the long-lived memory of the people. who in certain places is the special protector of flocks. G. pp. and the protector of agriculture in general. Grundy's conjecture that the church of St Demetrios or Demetrion about a mile to the north of Kriekouki in Boiotia occupies the site of a sanctuary of Demeter mentioned by Hdt. Ixxxix. Sometimes the actual name of the deity was dropped. Indeed. consider it proved ' that St Demetrios was given to the new converts as representative of the banished Demeter. klass. 350= Greek Saints and Their Festivals^. 1906—1907 xiii. T. Att. 402 n.. J. ii. 451 ff. f. Bent is at least justified in asserting that ' the attributes of Demeter have been transferred to St Demetrios' (The Journal of the Anthropological Institute 1885—6 xv. 'EXei>#c6 etc. C. Psichari £ttides dephilologie nfo-grecque Paris 1892 p. 1 The old metropolitan church of Athens is called not only after the Panagia Gorgoepekoos (infra ch. 392). Lawson op. in the present order of things. Mitth. (supplemented by F. Hamilton in the Ann. 38 n. 171 ff. The cult of this saint originated near Jannina. 3 no. inscr. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. v. 7 and especially K. however. ii. G.. (Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. herds. at Eleusis as in every other district. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. a young man who on account of his good looks was carried off by a tthiflik-bachi named Kara-Scheitdn ('Black Devil') and done to death for refusing his infamous desires. 65 and Plout. Brit. 392). 61 ff. Miss M. Popular etymology transformed EiXeiflwa. 43 f. the same thing has happened throughout the archipelago (J. J. 2). \^i. 1586. J. G. C. Frazer Pausanias v. Paus. 33ff. It would seem. has great importance in the land of peasant-farmers. See further Miss M. the saint of the sea' (The Cyclades London 1885 p. and husbandmen. Struck in the Ath. cit. The church stands on ground once occupied by a cult of Eileithyia (Corp. i. 79 ff. supposes that a shift of sex has taken place in the legend of St Demetrios. von Hahn Griechische und albanesische Mdrchen Leipzig 1864 ii. v. Usener has made it probable that behind Saint Pelagia lurks the goddess Aphrodite Pelagia?. B.). the hospitality of Metaneira and Keleos (here Marigo and Nicolas : the latter name—as Lenormant remarks-—has in Albanian the diminutive Kolio]. but is justly vindicated by 'L. C. ii § 9 (h) ii (a)) but also after St Eleutherios. 'EXev#£a. Thus H. i. 79. N. St Demetrius. and the travels of Keleos' son Triptolemos. Lenormant op. whence the transition to 'E\ev8fyios was simple: see B. whether this is a case of ecclesiastical policy or not. iv ff. 2 H. cit. 68 and i i 2 f f . J. The same writer elsewhere observes : ' Demeter. just before sowing-time. 18 f. but the cult-title preserved and the distinctive characteristics that went with it assigned to the Christian homonym. 314^ In Crete too Eileithyia has been succeeded by St Eleutherios (E. as opposed to St Nicholas. 62. Maas 'Aphrodite und die heilige Pelagia' in the Neue Jahrb. Ath. no. 46 ff. Aristid. Sch. and in this capacity is called "of the dryland" (Sre/Hcwos). Usener Legenden der heiligen Pelagia Bonn 1879 p. that the rape of Persephone by Hades (transformed under Ottoman misrule into a Turkish ago). Burkitt in The Journal oj Theological Studies 1910 xi. 97. then. and E. All over the country. T. 339): cp.' Miss Hamilton does not. 5). cites as partial parallels J. The functions of the Earth-Mother are perpetuated in him. Bent in The Journal of the Anthropological Institute 1885-6 xv. Altertum 1910 xxv . behind Saint Tychon the god Hermes Tychon This folk-tale has been impugned by J.' But. is also represented by a man. they say). and J. Bybilakis Neugriechisches Leben Berlin 1840 p.

but.. after refusing to marry his father. 8. (2) Margarita. 37. hist. de mens. 2. Lyd. 'M. 'A<pp6diros Tux03")2 Zeus Teupy6s was worshipped at Athens on Maimakterion 20 with bake-meats and a dish of mingled grain (Corp. i. 3.\ov SudeK6t><fia\ov.. June 10. 3179) Veneri Pelagiae. On Oct.. oneir. 73. 33. St Tychon was bishop of Amathous in Kypros. The legend probably belongs to the Maronite monastery of Kanobin on Mt Lebanon. Mays. 2. These include among others of like origin (i) Pelagia nicknamed Margarito.ijv—so Meursius for MSS. iii. rv<puva. frag. 19 'ATro\\o<j>di>T]s Kp-rjffiv 'Acr/cXi/Trios KiWetos. who was betrothed to a son of Diocletian. 9. Oxon. Theognostos in Cramer anecd. they at once become dark and sweet. 3 Bergk4 irop^vperj T' 'A$po5tr>7. but became a Christian and was baptised by Klinon. i no. was done to death in the jaws of a red-hot bronze bull.r. in Verg. the prior was accused and driven out.7> or more commonly Oct. Taking one of the withered branches rejected by them. sometimes identified with Hermes (O. when she was beheaded by Decius. 4. Margarita. n). who fled from her bridal chamber in male costume to become the monk Pelagius. nat. she avowed her sex. and on his festival. ib. (5) Pelagia of Tarsos. 8. Serv.X. interp. ev</)opia. 21 Wiinsch Tre\ayla d£ ij 'A<j>po8iTT]. Aft. It sprang up to be a memorial of him.&j'os Ad Teupyu K wbiravov \oiviKiaioif bp06v<t>a. when the nuns' female porter was found to be with child. I2ff. The shift from He\ayia. Hesych. Lat. ffra<j>v\rjs TjdtiTyra Kal TTP^L/JLOV 8\dffTt)<nv. thereby proving her innocence. 17 Stahlin rov Ttfxawa 'J$pfj. who finding her house surrounded by troops dressed herself as a bride and committed suicide probably by leaping from the roof. 1 H. to He\dyios suggests the shift from 'A(/>po5iT?7 to 'A(f>p6diTos and the cult of the masculine Venus. Festival Oct. Kern Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Mdander Berlin 1900 p. Festival May 4. .et Purpurissa. 102. Rendel Harris has shown some reason for believing that Saint George himself is but Zeus Georgos in a thin disguise2. or more often Oct. Corf. T^xaw ?juot TOV "Ep^v. according to the Greek synaxdria June 9. 117. sometimes with Aphroditos (Papadopulos-Keramevs Lexicon Sabbaiticum St Petersburg 1892 p. 457 ff. Rel. 136 no. 8 the Romish church worships a St Reparata. i p.atfJUiKTripi. who being converted by Bishop Nonnos donned male attire and lived for three years on the Mount of Olives as the monk Pelagios.. 64 p. whereupon Pelagia. aXXoi de TOV Trepl rrjv 'AfipoSiT-rjv). and Dr J. when laid on the holy table and distributed to the communicants. when certain vine-dressers were pruning vines at a place called Ampelon. a dancer of Antioch. For IIeXa7/a as an epithet of Aphrodite see Artemid. Aen. Tiimpel in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. Shortly before her death. For Porphyria. iii no. 8.. Al. Festival. p.37 'Afipooirr} i] TreXayia. 3. he prayed that it might have iKfJ-dSa fw^s. though a moment before they may have been light and bitter. Plin. She now retired to a cave and led the hard life of a hermit. of whom it is said that. no. her soul flew up to heaven in the form of a white dove. inscr. a virgin of Antioch. Lat. On account of her blameless conduct she was made prior of a nunnery. 77.v Kapw&v. Usener Der heilige Tychon Leipzig and Berlin 1907. i. Anakr. inscr. He was present. dicitur. (3) Porphyria. 3066 (Dessau Inscr. who became the nun Pelagia. 10. Indeed. sel. He then planted it with his own hands and bade the vine-dressers witness the result. 31 Ti^wi'Ttfxajz'os' 6 'Ep^s. Oct. the vine of St Tychon bears clusters that are either ripe or rapidly ripening. and was thenceforth known as St Reparata. ii. Clem. on whom see K. a virgin of Kaisareia in Palestine. 116 divus lulius thoracem quern Veneri Genetrici in templo eius dicavit ex Britannicis margaritis factum voluerit intellegi (cp. cp. according to the Roman calendar June 9. (4) Pelagia. For Ma/ryaptrci). and Gruppe Gr. The news of her baptism caused the young man to kill himself. protr. a prostitute of Tyre.) argues that the cult of Aphrodite in the Levant produced a whole crop of saints. 1359 n. however. 720 Venus. 203 'Ep^s et/ui Tv^uv /c. 27941". June 16. Usener detects as the heidnische Unterlage of this saint the minor Dionysiac divinity Ttfxwj/. The central incident in his career is the following.176 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias or Aphrodites Tychon^. when grapes are not yet fit to eat. Myth.

and his festival fell in the season of sowing: see Nilsson Gr. According to the Greek menaia as reported in the Acta Sanctorum edd. and is finally ducked in person or in effigy with the express intention of securing rain and food for the cattle. cit.. and on which his likeness is impressed. he was bound while he was scourged. St George too is an agricultural power. F. C.. 4. here.' J. 79 for a Russian parallel] evidence that in Carinthia and among the gypsies of Transylvania and Roumania the chief figure on the festival of St George (April 23) is a ' Green George' clad in leaves and blossoms. during a time of persecution. in which St George carries 'wheat and barley. Dr Rendel Harris can therefore urge similarity of name and similarity of function in favour of his proposed identification.' and is asked to 'Give to the bride chestnuts and to the groom walnuts. F. The horse too fell dead on the C. or officiates beside a young willow tree set up in the ground. 51). which can be demonstrated to be sacred to Jupiter. Confining our attention to the mountain-cults of Zeus. roo does not thus blink the difficulty: 'the confirmation is lacking of a connexion between Zeus Georgos and April 23rd. 83 shows that in south Italy St George 'is the protector of cattle' with an 'agricultural and pastoral value. Bolland. a work written down by Adamnan c. who in his book The Night of the Gods London 1893 i. p. R. 209 ff. i ff. who is carried in procession along with a tree. cit.' Further evidence is. 688 A..a supreme antique origin for St George's Day in the Athenian pagan calendar which put the feast of Zeus Georgos [sic] in the month of Memakterion [sic] (Nov.). Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. available. The chief centre of the cult of St George was Lydda or Diospolis—the ' city of Zeus '—in Samaria. Yet we must not jump to hasty conclusions with Mr J. states that in a house at Diospolis there was a ' marble column of George the Confessor. Here he was born. Macpherson {Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society London 1895 iii. however. cites from Frazer Golden Bough2 i. O'Neill. after his martyrdom at Nikomedeia. \ib? The Magic Art ii. The precise extent to which this was done on Greek soil will be seen from the map accompanying Appendix B. and translated by J.' and op. and we must leave this part of the problem unsolved. when the church at Ramleh was being built. to the amazement of •Palatinus. Robinson Biblical Researches in Palestine etc. Arculfus de locis sanctis 3.' G. and here a church was subsequently erected in his honour (E.' helped her to fling it into the sea. Next day it was found lying in the mouth of the harbour.). struck with his lance at the saint's likeness. merely remarking that on the Latin side of the house the date in question is that of the Vinalia. cp. His import was obviously agricultural.' Dr Rendel Harris op.D. who appeared and. he was buried. The head of the lance penetrated the marble as if it were mere snow and could not be withdrawn. 142. to which. Rendel Harris The Annotators of the Codex Bezae London 1901 p. 12 . H. Pouqueville Voyage de la Grece* Paris 1827 vi. Inspection shows that Saint Elias has succeeded to vavKCLpiriav vrjfidXiov). Feste p. The saint stood in some relation to a sacred pillar. 115. 198 wrote : 'Of course we have. But the facts are sufficiently notorious. mounted on horseback and instigated by the Devil. Hereupon the widow besought St George. She had bought it and conveyed it as far as the coast. who acknowledged his error. after writing on the marble with his finger ' Let this column of the widow occupy the second place on the right hand side of the church.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 177 Cases of this kind could be multiplied without much difficulty.' An unbeliever. a pious widow wished to contribute a column. Aprilis iii. London 1841 iii. and grains of pearl. 44 quotes a folk-song from Sochos. the inscription being incomplete. says: 'saint Georges protege les laboureurs et les moissons. 142 f.-Dec. L. when the prefect or curator Palatinus refused her gift and would not transport it by sea with the other columns. we note that as a rule they were transferred to Saint Elias. p. its shaft was broken against the outside. having reached its destination before all the other columns. 75 f. roof.

George of Cappadocia in Legend and History London 1909 is chiefly of value for its list of monuments (pp. 1 N. 19 ff. Friedhof Die sogen. 15 n. Wagner 'Neptun im Gigantenkampf auf romischen Monumenten' in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift 1882 i. and. 15—54. Wtinsch in the Archiv f. 17 ff. 28 n. Gr. A. G. Belgium and France.178 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias Zeus at many. A second time he tried. conceived as a warlike lupiter on horse-back spearing a serpent-legged giant (E.v.) and in the archipelago (Mount Kenaion. I may here note one or two recent works bearing on the subject. Mount Oche. Riese ' Uber die sogen. 324 ff.g.). and Arculfus had seen them.. 8627. G.' and especially F. He was released by prayer and penitence.D. Mount Kynados. ivno. but his finger-prints remained. S. Mr N. Mount Taleton. Again. Campbell The Celtic Dragon Myth with additions by G. of the important cult-centres both on the mainland (Mount Olympos. Haug ' Die Wochengottersteine ' ib.. F. A. ' Die Viergottersteine' ib. Trede Das Heidentum in der romischen Kirche . A. a layman on horseback. Mount Lykaion. etc. Rel. ii. Others too have held that St Elias is the successor of Helios (e. Siecke Drachenkdmpfe: Untersuchungen zur indogennanischen Sagenkunde Leipzig 1907 must be used with the greatest caution (see R. Chr. G. Forrer Reallex.. 45 ff. MeXeny eirl TOV fiiov T&V NeuTepuv 'EXXi^w Athens 1871 i. C. Prost ' Les travaux consacres an groupe de 1'Anguipede et du Cavalier jusqu'en 1891' in the Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de France 1891 pp. s. ' Jupitersaulen. 561 ff. Stokes in Smith-Wace Diet. the legend of St George and the dragon suggests comparison with that of Zeus and Typhoeus. 125 ff. Polites'0"HXtos /card TOVS dtj/j. Hulst St. Hertlein Die Juppitergigantensdulen Stuttgart 1910). Mount Arachnaion. and by no means impossible that it portrayed his triumph over the dragon . with the same result.. to pavement. At last he offered the saint the 60 solidi and the horse . probably Z?'«. 295 ff. an inscription from Ezr'a or Edhr'a in southern Syria speaks of him as TOV Ka\\ivlicov ayiov[tdprvpos Teupyiov (Corp. 1891 x. However that maybe. inscr. There is. C. Polites in a valuable monograph on the sun in modern Greek folk-tales has argued that Saint Elias represents. It seems probable that the column represented St George as a horseman armed with a lance. 7). for as early as 346 A.. but Helios as well1. p. till 60 solidi lay before the column. cp. 105—112 'The Slaughter of the Dragon' (a suggested reconciliation of the totemic with the cosmological interpretation). 1885 iv. 389 f. 135—149) and bibliography (pp. Four times he mounted and dismounted.tlideis ptiOovs Athens 1882 p. where the bloodmarks from its haunch were still to be seen. and tried to cheat the saint by depositing 20 solidi of gold as the price of his horse. 1911 xiv. Frazer Golden Bough*: The Dying God pp. it must have resembled the 'Jupiter-columns' of Germany. F. 365 ff. Henderson Edinburgh 1911 includes many Celtic folk-tales. He did return in safety. Malan A Short History of the Georgian Church London 1866 p. and furnishes a fresh point d^appui for the conjecture that St George is a modification of Zeus Georgos. 9 ff. T. vowed that. but he found that the horse remained rooted to the spot. Juppitersaulen' in the fahrbuch der Gesellschaft fur lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 1900 xii. etc. Biogr. The most important contribution of late years is that of Dr J. p. The monograph by E. If the column at Diospolis was of this type. not only the mountain-Zeus. Its rider put out his hands to the marble column and his fingers stuck fast in it. if he returned in safety. 19): see the Rev. Hettner 'Juppitersaulen' ib. one of the devices that they emblazoned on their arms was that of St George slaying the dragon (Rev. not to say most. which are commonly surmounted by a sky-god. id. S. after which he departed with joy. G. when the race of the Bagratides ascended the throne of Georgia towards the end of the sixth century.). Miiller Die Reitergruppe auf den rbmisch-germanischen GigantenSdulen Strassburg and Buhl 1894. 10. he would present St George with his horse... 150—156).' J. 36 ff.. G. before starting on an expedition. 646. depositing 30 solidi. 1890 ix. T. Gigantensdulen (Beilage zum Jahresbericht des Lyzeums Metz 1892).

. Piper Mythologie und Symbolik der chfistlichen Kunst Weimar 1847—1851 i. 'HAias.sopra alcuni sacri monumenti antichi di Milano Milano 1757 pi. 134. Bottari Scultitre epitture sagre estratte dai cimiterj di Roma Rome 1737 i pi. i.). de Sculpt.v. cit. 117. Sol est. pi. a Christian poet writing c. i68ff. Allegranza Spiegazione e refiessioni. carm. portrayed the translation of Saint Elias under the type of Helios driving his chariot up the sky (fig. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals^). the obvious fact that Elias or Helms and Helios sound much alike—a fact expressly noted by Sedulius. 315. When in the course of Gotha 1889 i. . Miss M...Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 179 begin with. 29 . On the forms 'HXtas. 430 A. (a sarcophagus in St Peter's at Rome=G. another in the Louvre at Paris = Clarac Mus. Reinach Rep. i. Christian art in the fourth century Fig. 52 (sarcophagus). Bottari op. G. 'HAaas. 'HAcas. 19 ff. 5). 1 Sedul. but without advancing any fresh arguments in support of that view.D. ii. I34) 2 . G. 2 F. 2. i. 143. F. of the Neiv Test. cp. 356 = my fig. 'HXetas see Grimm-Thayer Gk-Eng. (after describing the translation of Elijah) quam bene fulminei praelucens semita caeli | convenit Heliae. merito qui et nomine fulgens | aethere dignus erat : nam. 134. Stat. 227 fig. a third at Milan = G. 240 f. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. si sermonis Achivi j una per accentum mutetur litera.1 Again. s. Rome 1746 ii pi. 75 f. Lex. 504 f.pasch.

as soon as they see the blaze on the mountain-top. Miss M. Wilpert Die Malereien der Katakomben Roms Freiburg 1903 pi. 2). 45 f. on June 24. 181 a 2 ft". 222 f. 266 ff. The statement of E. This custom takes the place of the midsummer fires kindled elsewhere in Greece.in early Christian art. a rough elKwv in the little church of St Elias on the summit of the pass between Livadia and St Luke's monastery (Miss M. Burnouf La science des religions Paris 1872 p. Ath. was not unnatural. L. y et's 'HX. 97 (fourth century sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum at Rome). W. " The Prophet of the Sun4. in the sixth century mosaic of St Apollinaris at Ravenna. On July 20 — a day described in the Greek calendar as that of ' The fiery ascent to heaven of the holy and glorious prophet Helias the Thesbite 2 ' — pious folk toil up to the topmost peak of Mount Taygeton. AI^OTIKCI Vpayovdia. 258 fig. but must be regarded as quite chimerical. rites that are probably derived from a primitive sun-worship are still celebrated in honour of Saint Elias. The dwellers of the district." ' The foregoing arguments may be held to prove that in the fourth century and later Saint Elias was sometimes viewed as the Christian counterpart of Helios.i8o Zeus superseded by Saint Elias the same century Chrysostom declared that poets and painters had borrowed their conception of Helios' car from the scriptural account of the prophet Elias1. G. the festival of Saint John the Baptist3. is rashly accepted by Polites. Finally. 70 (wall-painting). Sch. that. 160. p. B Lakonike. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. set light to heaps of hay and straw. Cp. G. they kindle numerous bonfires and throw plenty of incense on to them as an offering to Saint Elias. 21 "O Trpo(f>7)Tt]s TOV 'HXi'ou (sic). his blunder. and they are very numerous. 21). especially those inhabiting the village of Kardamyle. u. 354 and in Greek Saints and Their Festivals p. and indeed throughout Europe. 230. Nilles Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis CEniponte 1896 i. Hamilton in the Ann. and keep the day by dancing round or leaping over them.g. citing'' AYIS Qepos. Miss M. 218 'H Trvp<p6pos avdpaais els ovpavotis TOV ayiov 4vdo^ov irpcHp-f/Tov 'HXiou TOV N. Polites. 6fu\. the only one possessing a definite tradition of Helios-cult is Mount Taleton in Lakonike. Lowrie Christian Art and Archeology New York 1901 p. (wall-paintings of the fourth century =J. 2 and pi. On the pi. Chrys. Brit. Polites '0"HXtos Kara rods drjuddeis jui/0ous Athens 1882 p. 1906 — 1907 xiii. 27 cited by N. Hamilton notes 'that the ikon of St Elias in the shrine on the top of Taygetos bears the inscription. 2 N. Here. 5 Append. For of all the heights on which Saint Elias has a chapel. where horses used to be sacrificed to the sun5. when it gets dusk. Elias and Moses flanking the cross represent the sun (r/Xtos) and the moon (Skt mas). von Sybel Christliche Antike Marburg 1906 i. But they do not suffice to prove that Saint Elias is worshipped on mountain-tops in virtue of his equation with that deity. now known as H agios Elias or Hagiolids. 1 lo. A text which appears to have escaped notice in this connexion is Fest. p. e. Miiller multis autem gentibus equum hostiarum numero haberi 4 3 .

Sch. This passage not only gives us fresh and interesting information with regard to the burnt-sacrifice of a horse on Mt Taygeton. controlled atmospheric testimonio sunt Lacedaemoni.We cannot here assume any verbal confusion. 1906—1907 'xiii. and behind the high altar in the chapel is shown the grotto in which St Elias is said to have dwelt. Mount Carmel ' became known as Mount St Elias. mentula. pro Neptuno equum oblatum devorandum tradunt. qui in monte Taygeto equum vends immolant. Of Zeus 'EAtetfs nothing is known beyond Hesych. Muller. dedicating the chapel to the saint' (Miss M. i.).. TaAXcuos (infra ch. 5 Matthew 17. Penka Die vorhellenische Bevolkerung Griechenlands Hildburghausen 1911 p. et Rhodi. 186 ff. that on the mountains Saint Elias is the. I should conjecture that their lupiter Menzana (perhaps = Montanus. The Rhodians' annual rite of flinging a solar team into the sea can be paralleled from Illyricum : nonnulli Saturno. 6. Brit. Aen. 1 Zeus was in Hellenistic times not infrequently identified with Helios. On this showing the horse burnt on Mt Taygeton was originally a sacrifice to Zeus TaXertras (Append. Verg. It appears. quod is tali curriculo fertur circumvehi mundum. 31 p. Elijah. 12). qui quod annis (quotannis Lindemann) quadrigas soli consecratas in mare iaciunt. loci eius suppositus Saturno fuerit. vel quod equuleus. p. Mark 9. Lion and Fest. p. 3 i Kings 18. more exactly. 282. 101 Muller : see G. Pilgrimages to this place have always been.. 35) or.. but also compares it with the burning of a live horse for lupiter Menzana by the Sallentini. a Cretan solar Zeus. Hamilton in the Ann. were well known as centres of Zeus-worship. whose solar character is shown by his cult-title TaAcuos.than of Helios1. Again. quod Saturnus humoris totius et frigoris deus sit (interp. a Cretan colony settled in south Italy by Idomeneus of Lyttos (Strab. Wentzel in Philologus 1891 1. we have no cause to think that Zeus Helios was worshipped on mountains.). etc. But we have yet to ask why the mountain-Zeus was replaced by this saint in particular 2 . p. 328 Muller. ex Fest. especially with the solar Sarapis and Mithras (infra p. successor of Zeus rather. 2 ff. And the final appearance of Elijah on the Mount of Transfiguration 5 would give a Christian sanction to the Jewish tradition. 389). et Sallentini. cp. ex Fest. . made.cui ob hoc in Illyrico quaternos equos iaciebant nono quoque anno in mare (Paul. 3290 32 ff. eel.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 181 other hand. Luke 9. 352 f. menlum. i § 6 (h) v). the memorable scene on Mount Carmel. Serv. 28 ff. 8—18. B Lakonike). Probably. including Mount Taleton. 3. ibidemque adolent. in Verg. Besides. in Verg. Varro ap.. i ff. . unde Illyricos quotannis ritu sacrorum equum solere aquis immergere : hoc autem ideo. and on return home pilgrims would in many cases piously erect a local Carmel. The still more majestic scene of Elijah on Mount Horeb4 doubtless deepened the same impression. like Zeus. where Elijah prevailed over the priests of Baal3. Ath.. apud quos Menzanae lovi dicatus vivos conicitur in ignem. But it is reasonable to suppose that the early Christians would have based their substitution of St Elias for Zeus on some universally recognised characteristic rather than on some exceptional aspect of the latter. ut eorum flatu cinis eius per finis quam latissime differatur. Prob. 18—40. quern pro Neptuno devoraret . a fair number of the heights in question. 4 i Kings 19. as related to mons) was a mountain-god closely akin to the Cretan Zeus. 'EAietfs' Zei)s iv Gfy/Scus. 400f. georg. in the first instance. cum suos devoraret. ut putant. impressed the popular mind with a vivid picture of the prophet as a mountain-power. Now these Sallentini were Messapians (K. Paul. therefore. 355).

25. 143). in Od. 17 f. the site of his chapels is the place where the sun shines longest from its rising to its setting. Hamilton in the Ann. 12 2 Kings 2. with scholl. The attribute of St Elias at Naples.' During the time of drought Elijah was fed by ravens7. 12. ad loc. St Elias has a raven as one of his attributes. and Eustath. 'is believed by the peasants to be lord of sunshine. 54. 'This hilltop saint. Lastly. H. Nilles Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis GEniponte 1881 ii. And such an one. Luke 9. and. 491 B. Elijah. and where rain is first seen and felt.. Luke 4. See Class. and it rained not on the earth for three years and six months. 1903 xvii. Kerler Die Patronate der Heiligen Ulm 1905 p.182 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias phenomena.' says Miss M. and is invoked against drought (D. In several ways these powers are indicated in his worship. Moiro ap. 7 i Kings 17. Rev. 45. Elias is celebrated by the James 5. 9ff. and the heaven gave rain.' On the latter.On the island of Kastellorizo14.. from the hill-top on which he dwelt. n.' Horeb.).. Brit. as Zeus was fed by doves8. ir. 35 ff.. 185 f. 11 2 Kings i..' Such an one fitly shared in the glory of the Transfiguration. i—46. i.a great rain 4 . 18.. ' He prayed fervently that it might not rain .' Twice Elijah. but the Lord was not in the fire: and after the fire a still small voice10. presumably refers to the chariot of fire. 8 Od. 12. And he . 105 'HXtas p??<rTei. and thunder.. Hamilton ib. p. 'there appeared a chariot of fire. Trede Das Heidentum in der romischen Kirche Gotha 1890 ii. called down fire from heaven and destroyed the troops of Ahaziah king of Israel11. viz. a wheel (T..the festival of St. Hamilton13.. . 1906—1907 xiii. 8 N. 2 1 . 1712. 63 cited by Miss M.' On the former occasion ' the heaven was shut up2. was associated with various manifestations of celestial brightness. 6 Mark 9. cp. 3—6. Ath.. 353 f14 'Bo-rta 1889 p. 5 i Kings 19. like Zeus.' Carmel was connected with ' clouds and wind. 10 i Kings 19. was not unsuitably substituted by the Christian church for the Greek sky-god Zeus. 13 Miss M. 38. 4 i Kings 18. and horses of fire. ' Elias by his fasting opened the heavens3. When the end came. we may add.and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven12.. i Kings 17. and the earth brought forth her fruit1.<ras otipavobs air^/cAewe. with ' a great and strong wind 5 ': even on the Mount of Transfiguration ' there came a cloud overshadowing them 6 . as a Greek liturgy has it. 7if. cp. Sch. 9 i Kings 18. 62 ff. Athen.' Horeb witnessed 'after the earthquake a fire. On Carmel 'the fire of the Lord fell9. 7. rain.prayed again .

and later on old men and young join with them.' At Constantinople and in its vicinity people think that thunder is caused by the prophet Elias speeding across the sky on his chariot—a relic of the belief. To accept such a statement on mere hearsay is utter folly. where drought causes the greatest suffering. 139. As to the fact that lightning burns a dragon. or that he turned snow into flour. A folk-tale from Bukowina in Austria makes Saint Elias steal thunder and lightning from the Devil. J. Men bereft of sense have concocted the tale out of their own imagination. G. 87. who had misused them3. and then the bells call the drenched multitudes to church. Polites A?7/ou£5ets /uerewpoXoyiKoi fj. then.. Another from the same place. A dragon is produced thus : the Devil observes etc. 7 f. which in the middle ages was common throughout Greece.2 Saint Elias has taken the place of the thunder-god not only in Greece but throughout a wide area of Europe and even of Asia. Those who resist are dealt with by strong fishermen. nor does he sit on a chariot. tells how 1 N. Far from it. 1871). TO. 23 f. current also in Hungary. Elias for a good wet season.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 183 performance of a rain-charm wrought through the imitative magic of vicarious drenching. and all the extravagant doctrines forged by heretics.. 4 ff. '<f)i8ia is collected. A. Another relic of the same belief is the frequent phrase: 'The lightning is chasing the snakes1. p. pray to St... Bent The Cyclades London 1885 p. 6.. and earlier in his MeA^r?? £TTI rov fiiov T&V NeuiT^puv'^XXrivuv Athens 1871 i. until no person clad in dry clothes can walk through the streets with impunity. (after D. did not go up to heaven (far from it!). Dahnhardt Natursagen Leipzig and Berlin 1907 i. as also the story that Christ made sparrows out of clay in the sight of the Jews. and can ask God that in time of drought he will give rain to the earth. M. . Those stories are false. Only. This compulsory bathing continues till Vespers.v6oi (extract from flapi/acratis) Athens 1880 p. In the morning all the children throw each other into the sea. Charikles in S^/wi? Aug. ib. T.. Do they speak truly who declare that the prophet Elias is in his chariot thundering and lightening among the clouds. I have no doubts. And then the dwellers on that island. and away they flew.' A manuscript at the monastery of Leimon in Lesbos records the following conversation between Epiphanies and Andreas with regard to Byzantine notions on the subject: Epiphanies. and so is this. and that he is pursuing a dragon ? Andreas. the hurler of the lightning is not Saint Elias but the angel of the Lord appointed for the purpose. threw them into the air.. 3 O. that thunder was due to God or Saint Elias pursuing a dragon in heaven. Elias. 2 Id. where further evidence bearing on the phrase TJ affTpairj) KW-riyq. * The town itself looks as if a heavy rain-storm had fallen. but he has power over the rain. The thing is true.

' Mr Ralston further shows that Elias has inherited the attributes of the old Slavonic thunder-god Perun. R. In a Rumanian tale Judas steals the sun and moon from heaven. J. J. and a torrent of rain for forty days and nights1. or to the fire issuing from the nostrils of his celestial steeds. On his day the peasants everywhere expect thunder and rain. In Servian songs Elias is expressly called gromovnik Iliya. i. S. lightning. in which the people go to church in a body on Ilya's day. Id. is armed with lightning and thunder.. According to Mr W.. while Petrus is asleep : Elias offers to vanquish him. and in some places they set out rye and oats on their gates. and" the clouds of heaven3. W. and succeeds in binding him to a column with iron fetters2. would be considered a great sin .184 Zeus superseded by Saint Elias Elias drove all evil spirits out of heaven by causing thunder. thunder. Dahnhardt Natursagen i. S. R. 339. . Its flesh is cut up into small pieces and sold. 1 2 3 4 O. There are districts. Ralston Russian Folk-tales London 1873 p. and that the crash and blaze of the storm are signs of his contest with the devil. and ask their clergy to laud the name of Ilya. In the Vladimir Government he is said "to destroy devils with stone arrows". for Ilya might smite the field with the thunder. and smites the clouds with the darts of the lightning. or not to purchase a piece of the meat. and they say that he compels the spirits of dead Gypsies to form pellets of snow — by men styled hail — with which he scourges in summer the fields of sinners4. S. the money paid for it going to the church. Wherefore the faithful ought not to cross themselves when the thunder peals. The Russians hold that 'the Prophet Ilya thunders across the sky in a flaming car. or burn up the crop with the lightning. and after the service is over they kill and roast a beast which has been purchased at the expense of the community. 173. that he may bless their cornfields with plenteousness. Ralston. lest the evil one should take refuge from the heavenly weapons behind the protecting cross. To stay away from this ceremony. the ' thunderer Elias ' : hecontrols lightning. The white clouds of summer are named by them his heavenly sheep. to mow or make hay on that day would be to incur a terrible risk. ' The Servians say that at the division of the world Ilya received the thunder and lightning as his share. Stallybrass London 1882 i. the one dedicated to "Ilya the Wet.." the other to " Ilya the Dry.". also. The Bulgarians say that forked lightning is the lance of Ilya who is chasing the Lamia fiend : summer lightning is due to the sheen of that lance. ib. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. In the old Novgorod there used to be two churches. 145.

sank dead upon the ground. invalids used to pray to the thunder-god for relief. i. Ralston Russian Folk-tales London 1873 p. 8ioff. 173 f. Perkun. J. ib. but in the act himself receives a deadly wound 2 . cp.? Religion oj the Teutons trans. As Thor overcame the Midhgardh-serpent and yet. Chantepie de la Saussaye 77?. cit. a zagovor or spell against the Siberian cattle-plague entreats the " Holy Prophet of God Ilya" to send "thirty angels in golden array. D. S. cp.. Vos Boston and London 1902 p. And so.. so in the ninth-century Bavarian poem Muspilli Eliah does indeed destroy Antichrist. 246 f. . P. but also of the Germanic thunder-god Thor or Donar. ' becomes still more suggestive by the fact that even half-christian races in the Caucasus worship Elias 1 W.' Similarly J.. Grimm argued that Saint Elias had stepped into the shoes.. 2 J. Diseases being considered to be evil spirits. 1341. with bows and with arrows" to destroy it1. Grimm op. touched by its venomous breath. R. at the present day. to the latter when injury was being done to the crops by rain.Zeus superseded by Saint Elias 185 To these a cross-bearing procession was made when a change in the weather was desired: to the former in times of drought. not only of the Slavonic Perun. where however the date of Ilya's festival should be given as July 20. his earlier work The Songs of the Russian People2' London 1872 p. 337 ff. B. ' The comparison/ says Grimm. not July 29.

name the name of Ifya3' In view of the wide popularity of Saint Elias both within and without the confines of Greece. Diog.. and sing and dance around the body. a grammarian of the Augustan age. form a ring for dancing. Erman Archiv filr wissenschaftliche Kunde von Russland Berlin 184! p. and keep the hail away from them1. didst snatch his life Hence to the very heaven : I praise thee. and stretched the skin on a pole with prayers (fig. 6 Funaioli ap. i. That Zeus as god of the bright sky was essentially connected with the sun is a priori probable enough. for Grown old on earth he saw the stars no more5. G. 5 Anth. Diogenes Laertios about the year 200 A. Adam Olearius traduits. J. § 6. if. survivors raise a cry of joy. cp.. 85. Tartarie et Perse Par le Sr. von Klaproth Reise in den Kaukasus etc. Olearius Reisebeschreibung 1647 P. which is their usual manner of sacrificing to Elias. The Ossetes think a man lucky who is struck by lightning. 1083—1084.5 22 f4 Cornific.yrflf. [Cp. that the Circassians on the Caspian sacrificed a goat on Elias's day. I35) 2 ..186 Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun as a god of thunder. But in the domain of religion a priori argumentation is apt to be misleading.D. Philosophical writers of Hellenistic and Byzantine times definitely identify Zeus with the sun. they believe Ilia has taken him to himself. Ellai. Zeus in relation to the Sun... when Homer spoke of Zeus visiting the Aithiopes. it is not surprising that the very name of Zeus has been erased from the memory of the people or at most drags on a hole-and-corner existence in out-of-the-way islands. Pal. 429. Macrob. owing to the notorious vagaries of solar mythology. A. O Zeus the Sun. Elias. (a) Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun. 606. i.faits en Muscovie. commemorates the death of Thales in the following epigram: Thales the sage once watched the racers' strife When thou.-]. and. Sat. lord of the rocky summits). Voyages. said that. Laert. 39. it must be rigorously excluded from the present section of our subject.. in praying that a thunder-storm may be averted. De Wicquefort Amsterdam 1727 i.They implore Elias to make their fields fruitful.] 3 A. Thus Cornificius Longus. Even the Muhammadans. 23. Olearius already had put it upon record. and sing: O Ellai. By the cairn over the grave they set up a long pole supporting the skin of a black he-goat.et augmentez Par le Sr. where an illustration of the 'Sacrifices des Tartares Circassiens ' (my fig. he really meant the sun 4 . H. the people flock together. 135) is given. Halle und Berlin 1814 ii. i ^eXte ZeO. 2 1 . eldaer tchoppei! (O Elias... 601.

. adv. of which the last couplet runs : dy\ae ZeO At6i'iicre. 3 f. 146% 728. 1726. nay more. i. 277 'HAios 0' 6s TTCLVT' 4(f>opq. 2.D. 6) by //. ib. wdrep a. 1350. 1713. 13 Arnob. 40. 12. els 'Ai'Sijs. voricras (infra p. 4.. 14 f. 20 f. p. 11 Lyd. infra ch. o. Hesiod9. in II. 14 ff. 10 p. i. schol. 67. i ff. 23. i. 23. i 3 5 D f . pp. 67. Cp. 18). infra p. ib. 128. ets 'At5??s. deserve no credence whatever unless they are supported by evidence of actual cult.'i'qs. 2) is similarly understood by et.D. Sat. iof. 15 and frag. ib. Arnob. devotes a whole chapter to proving that Zeus must be the sun5.. 62 cite Plat. 134 Aids fieydXov eviavroi has schol. Macrob. 4. infra ch. Sophokles12. 169 Abel ap. 10. 18. loustin. 1713. in Od. cohort. id. 9 explains Hes. Eustath. 9 Macrob. 423 ff. 2. TravraioX Cp. p. Orpheus10. Macrobius. 13. Phaedr. and Platon13. Eustath. an equally enthusiastic advocate of solar cult. 149 B and c. who lived during the latter half of the twelfth century. 2 f. does the same in his learned commentary on the Iliad and Odyssey^. pp. 3 p. 197 n. These authors and others like them attempt to justify their opinion by citing certain passages from Homer8. 7 n. 136 A. 267 irdvra ISuiv Atos 6<j>6a\/j. T. i § 6 (g) ix. 8 //. 4 Id. 45.s /cat iravr' tira. 143 D. 3 f. 16. mag. Wiinsch ry Ait—/ecu yap"HXtos avros Kara 12 Soph. 1387. He notes that the Cypriote priests had common altars and common precincts for the Sun and for Zeus 3 . archbishop of Thessalonike. 23. About 400 A. //...s : cp. 22 cites Orph. 3 Id. Sat. 6 r f. 5 Macrob. i. 7 Eustath. 5. 1017 Nauck 2 : see infra ch. 3. repeatedly takes that view6. Sat. d. Sat. 196 n. 128. 235 Abel. if. who wrote his remarkable •oration in praise of The Sovereign Sun for the Saturnalia of 361 A. Macrob. Hades. frag. i Abel ap. els Zetfs. i § 6 (g) ix. 47. And Eustathios. and 10. 409. Joannes Laurentius the Lydian in his work on the Roman calendar. de mens. efs"HXt6s <?cm 2dpa7rts. 8 and 10 f. the Orphic verse els Zetis. 1726. de mens. that Apollon himself had declared— Zeus. 9 : cp. is a case in point2. Od. 1430. 3.Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun 187 A century later Arnobius describes the identification of Zeus with the sun as a tenet of the philosophers1. 3.. //. 3 p. The emperor Julian. 26. 1440. But it is obvious that speculations of this sort. 10 Macrob. schol. Scip.ei> d-ij fjieyas i)ye/ji. Sat. 2 1 . Wlinsch. 837 iVer' alOepa /ecu Atos avyds (on which see supra p. 6 Lyd. rov 77X1011 TI rov xpbvov. p. 23. i. | HXte wayyev^rop. nat. 7. whether ancient or modern. 3. Helios Sarapis—one4. escorted by the other gods. i. 246 E 6 fj. See loul. 4. Pherekydes11. (the visit of Zeus. adv. a neo-Platonist of the Syrian school. 29.. to the Aithiopes) is interpreted in this sense by Macrob. Atos Se rov 7J\iov T) rov Siepxo^vov xpbvov. Sat. somn.ui> ev ovpavf Zetfs. e?s At6vvcros (frag. L. or. i § 6 (g) ix. in II. pp. els "HXtos. 30. B. which was written in the early part of the sixth century. irdrep TTOVTOV. frag.Koije<.bs /cat TT&VTO. 14 f. i. 61 f. 30. 23. in Od. nat.

Bronzes p. later lau or lati). a human mummy with a bull's head and the sun's disk between his horns2. 4391 Lambaisa in Numidia (lovis Plutonis Serapis sacer). 939. even if such evidence is forthcoming. Lit. *sar apis. 76. Arrian. 2t^w7rtrao Atos /ji. 369 pi. Mus. iv. *sar apls. 254 f. Myth. who deliberately identified him with Osiris-Apis. 4. Hell. Materidoviov TrroXiedpov. ad loc.. 'OcrepaTrts. de Is. D. was regarded by „. K. I3/) 5 . infra ch. cp. 611 ff.ov (Dionys.). Dieterich Kleine Schrijten Leipzig and Berlin 1911 p. 26.).. whose cult-title sar apsi. 345 f. 31). 3 Plout. et Os. Levy id. 195 ff. His worship was introduced into Egypt by Ptolemy i Soter. Lafaye in Daremberg-Saglio Diet. i59ff. For instance. 4 Brit. both as a seated and. CatCoins Alexandria p.' became by a series of normal changes sar apsi. 579 n. C. p. 28 f. Cat. So A. 4. 1908 p. Wiinsch in the Archiv f. 83 lovis Ditis. Myth. the resumes of Gruppe Myth. but also the tradition that the statue of Sarapis was brought to Alexandreia from Sinope (Plout. who arose from the fusion of Osiris with the Apis of Se-n-hapi.. (Gruppe Gr. G.. among the religious phenomena of the Hellenistic age few are more remarkable than the vogue of Sarapis or Serapis..g. Dessau InscrLat.. Stud. Rel. 'Offipairis. Cat.'w. i ff. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 ii. All round 1 In recent years there has been much discussion as to the origin of Sarapis (see e. A. per.. de l^histoire des religions 1902 xlvi. A. the ' Place of Apis. 162 ff. Scott-Moncrieff in th&J'ourn. 1910 Ixi.<£i5os' ?) airb 2. 87. 1909 Ix.T. The Greeks conceived him as a chthonian Zeus 3 (fig. Sarapis is first mentioned in connexion with Babylon (Plout. Stz'WTrir^s 5£ Zeus rj 6 Me^i'rrys' liivuiriov yap b'pos Me//.eyd\oio n4\a0pov with Eustath. Three possible views have been mooted : ( i ) that Sarapis was from the first an Egyptian deity. i).ivdnr-r)s TTJS ILovriKfjs. whatever his origin1. . Restored: left fore- . v. 2). Egyptians of the Ptolemaic period as the Apis of Osiris (Asdr-Hdpi). hist. So C. (3) That Sarapis was a barbaric Europaean deity known to the Macedonians and by them equated with the Babylonian god (evidence discussed in Roscher Lex. 2 E. 7. 285 ff. etc. and of R. whose name is the final form of the Babylonian Ea (Eau or Eau. King of the Deep Sea. Coins Lydia p. hist. set. Mus. 4 a copper of imperial date struck at Tripolis in Lydia : SEVC CAP ATT 1C wearing a modius on his head and extending his right hand over Kerberos at his feet. Tac. Tac. This deity. This arrangement of the facts explains inter alia the relation of Sarapis to lao. A similar figure and legend appear on coppers of Alexandreia struck by Vespasian. F. 1909 xxix.. His ancient cult at Sinope may go back to an early Assyrian occupation of the town. Lehmann-Haupt in Roscher Lex. iv. Bouche-Leclercq in the Revue. no. F.18 8 Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun And.). 338—364. Ant. 352 ff. 1576 n. Mus. I. de Is. Alex. (2) That Sarapis was originally the Babylonian god Ea. P.\. 28 TOV Il\ovruvos. 173 no. *sar aps. Myth.as a standing type (Brit. Myth. we must not at once conclude that Zeus was a sun-god in his own right. I36) 4 and indicated his solar powers by means of a rayed crown (fig. ' King of the Ocean. 5 Brit. iv. It may be merely a case of international worship. et Os. Height i\ inches. 1911 xiv. LehmannHaupt in Roscher Lex. since Se-n-hapi was known to the Greeks as ~2iivu>iri. This is held to explain not merely the compound names'Ocro/xxTrts. ZvBo. 73. with figs. i). 83 f. i § 6 (g) i. Rel.' near Memphis. the syncretistic identification of Zeus with a foreign solar deity. 1248 ff. 39.

42 ff. inscr. 4396 Rome (I. sel. the mighty Sarapis1. Lat. o. Soli Sarapidi). It. histoire. ii no. sel. nos. 914—916 Ostia. 2 Ad 'HXiy SapaTrtcu: Corp. (extr. So Dessau Inscr. 1030—1031 Rome. gems. Examples of Sarapis with a rayed crown. 4713^ Djebel-Fateereh. 4713 DjebelDokhan. 4395 Lutri in Crete (lovi Soli optimo maximo Sarapidi).' or simply to 'Zeus the Sun. cp. inscr. 2716 Stratonikeia ('HAty Ad SepaTret). Gr. including a marble bust. Gr.. m. Sciences politiques. iii nos. are collected by L. Stephani Nimbus und Strahlenkranz St Petersburg 1859 p. 4713 f (= Dittenberger Orient. philologie.-Petersbotirg. Inscr. 1 Ad'HXiy [teydXy SapaTrtSi Corp. 361 ff. 1023—1024 Rome. no. 4262 Sidyma in Lykia (Ad 'HXty . vi Serie. Sic. 678) Djebel-Fateereh. coins. 114 Mytilene. Inscr. We may assume that the eagle at his left side was originally balanced by a Kerberos at his right side. 4683 Alexandreia. 4042 Ankyra in Galatia (Ad 'HXiw SapaTriSi). ix.J 37arm. Sarapis2. Gr. Gr. inscr. iii nos. Gr.Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun 189 the Mediterranean are found frequent dedications to ' Zeus the Sun. lamps. ins. sceptre. and chair. etc.' Fig. 1084 Rome.). right hand. from the Memoires de F Academie des Sciences de St. ii no. nos. 1127 Praeneste.

i ff. Gehrich Leipzig 1911 p.. Berlin 1908 p. 837). His name has no very convincing cognates in Indo-European languages. Cp. p. Myth. M. Cumont in Roscher Lex. H. 4398 Apulum in Dacia (Sarapidi lovi Soli). and in his Geschichte des Altertums Stuttgart 1907 i. welche zugleich mit dem Himmel angerufen wird. d. and we are rather tempted to speculate on a prehistoric link between the Aryans and Babylon.2. Mitra. The so-called Anastasy papyrus in the British Museum. V. F. ii. 22. E. 116. Lat. Serapi lovi). sel.). See further p. as far back as c. Dr J.r. Cumont Die Mysterien des Mithraz trans.' F. the fourteenth century B. W. Wiss.D. Wessely Griechische Zaiiberpapyrus Wien 1888 p. both in nature and in mythology: an easy corollary is his function of regulating the relations of man and man. 47 below. Indra. 3 Dr J. der dort Varuna. H. etc. no. Nike asks whether it is expedient for her to buy from Tasarapion her slave Sarapion also called Gaion. 36 f. 4 F. 5 f. Sic. Meyer ' Das erste Auftreten der Arier in der Geschichte ' in the Sitzungsber.is sufficiently solar to give his name to the Sun in modern Persian (Mihr}. Mithras." comes so near to Mithra's name*. The now famous cuneiform records of Kappadokia show that Mitra. Hogg. Cp. 4399 Rome (Sol. Arnold says there is little support in the Veda for the solar connexion. an Indo-Iranian people dwelling next to the Hittites in the north of Mesopotamia. H. Cumont Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra Bruxelles . Gr. the Unconquered. He is "the Mediator" between heaven and earth. nos. the mighty Serapis. viii. Av. 250 no.7r[t]5t /c. and to the gods that share his temple. unless it be in hymns which compare Agni to Mitra. J. and Nasatya were already worshipped by the Mitani. Sarapis. no. and it is remarkable that the Assyrian metru. Akad. as also for the fact that the deity is in the Avesta patron of Truth. Prof. d.. found at Oxyrhynchos preserves the following question addressed to his oracle: To Zeus the Sun.190 Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun A papyrus of the second century A. (E. is still content to regard Mithra as an Indo-Iranian god of light (' Beide Religionen erblicken in ihm eine Lichtgottheit. 3056 ff. commencing one of its mystic sentences with the words: I invoke thee. no. eTriKaXov^ai. 249 f.] If this is his origin.T. He seems to have belonged to the upper air rather than to the sun. H. equates Zeus the Sun not only with Sarapis but also with the ancient Indo-Iranian god Mithras3. 'An extremely important Aryan god whose province came very near that of Dyaus was Mithra (Skt. Nor is the Avestan yazata decisively sun-like. " rain. 1148. 829. as the firmament was by its position. who under Chaldean influence came to be regarded as the sun4. a book of magical formidae written probably in the fourth century A. S. 14 fif. Moulton op. or some source influenced by Babylon.X. 2244 Auximum in Picenum (lovi Soli Serapi Aii'HXty So Dessau Inscr. hier Ahura heisst' etc. Hunt in The Oxyrhynchus Papyri London 1911 viii.5 Inscr. 1149 Au 'HXi'y [jieyaXtp 2epa. Varuna. Moulton Early Religious Poetry of Persia Cambridge 1911 p. 4397 Sassoferrati in Umbria (lovi Soli invicto Sarapidi). ib.D. Kenyan The Palaeography-of Greek Papyri Oxford 1899 p. 1 A. 2 F. It. 103. cit. ib. O Zeus the Sun. cp. • avucrjre K. <re feu • 77X45 • /ju6pa • ffalpoLTri.. G. we get a remarkable basis for the Avestan use of the word to denote a contract. [*I owe this to my colleague Prof.). 579.\.'' 5 C. and in the Veda of Friendship. The "firmament" of the first chapter of Genesis was very prominent in early Semitic mythology . 35 : ' Mithra. MiOra etc.C. Grant me this1. G.

256 a Mithraic relief at Dorstadt (figured ib. 140 no. 556 Rome I(ovi?) S(oli?) I(nvicto?) P(raestantissimo?) d(eo?) M(agno?) | etc. 2839f. 5 F. they stretched their hands to heaven towards the sun. 7.Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun 191 Philon of Byblos. W. ii. It is he who appears on a fine bronze disk at Brussels published by Monsieur F. orient. Fig. V . Gr. Myth. wrote what purported to be a translation of an ancient Phoenician history by a certain Sanchouniathon of Berytos1. which signifies ' Lord of Heaven' among the Phoenicians or 'Zeus' among the Greeks2.. 174 no. ib. 1896 ii. 4 C. Euseb. for he was the one god that they worshipped as lord of heaven. Cumont in the Festschrift fur Otto HenntforfWien 1898 pp. W. i. calling him Beelsdmen. Rel. 191) inscribed Io(vi) S(oli) invi(cto) | deo genitori r(upe) n(ato) etc.. 2 Philon Bybl. iii. 3 F. de Vogue Inscriptions semitiques Paris 1868 p.' who was honoured not only in Phoinike and its colonies but throughout the whole of Syria3. W. ii. 134 no. 1 Gruppe Cult. 16 a bilingual inscription in Aramaic and Greek from Palmyra.frag: i (Frag. and was sometimes at least conceived as a sun-god4. 10.. An extract from the translation preserved by Eusebios states : The descendants of these men (Aion and Protogonos) were called Genos and Genea. no.. I38)5. [}D]&* l?y]2 being rendered by [roO 'H]A£ou. Cumont (fig. When a drought befell. 'Lord of Heaven. who flourished c. 138. 26. Cumont in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc.D. 350—409. hist. 764. Baudissin Adonis und Esmun Leipzig 1911 p. Miiller) ap. 307 f. ib. ev. M.praep. 291—295. J. 19 no. ii. and dwelt in Phoinike. ii. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur'A Miinchen 1898 p. i. 319 Dalmatia? D(eo) S(oli) I(ovi?) o(ptimo?) m(aximo?) I aeterno j etc. 100 A. 565 f. Zeus is here the Greek equivalent of the Phoenician Ba'al-samin.

. o SpaKiav | ovpo^opos — 7.evoi. Lond.g. ut appareat mundum et ex se ipso ali et in se revolvi. Fig. symbolises both the universe and eternity1. 3 Sir Cecil Smith ib. Trpbs Tracrav vtxrov teal TrdOos. Coins of imperial date show a square-topped and sometimes battlemented structure with a radiate bust of the god in a pediment and a lighted altar below Fig. Kenyon Greek Papyri in the British Museum London 1893 i.. pis. Coins Phoenicia pp. qui caudae suae ultima devorat. Parthey Zwei griechische Zauberpapyri Berlin 1866 p. Mus. i. cxpiv faypatpovtriv ^xovra rrjv otiphv biro TO \onrbv ffSifio. This is perhaps a great altar of semi-oriental form. 140.dvaconem etiam flammivomum.vTbs. 4 p. no. irpbs ^avraff/jLara. The same idea recurs in the magical papyri : G. who cites also a Mithraic relief showing a bearded serpent of this sort with rays on its head and a crescent on its tail (F. 48 ff. cp. Wiinsch ei>ia. 43. 141) after Chifflet. F. I4O)2. 25 fig. i. 141. i a 7 aKpovpofioprj with R. 27. 76. pi.ypd\f/ai fiov\6[j. 102 f. 2 KOfffj. 1 Horapoll. . D. 2. 4. I Saturnum.. 28. between figures representing the sun and moon (figs. 596 f. Lyd. p. Att. and attests the character of the Syrian Zeus. Sat. 124 pap. 140). Humphreys London 1721 ii.fi>oi ypd\//ai o<j>u> faypafiovcri rijv eavrov eadlovra. KpVTTTOfjiev'r]v. inscr. p. i. hierogl. Fig. 3.. 36). 139). Hill in the Journ. Coins iii. p. G. defix. in a charm wpbs daifjiovas.. obviously a solar talisman. C. 208 no. 262 pi. Wessely Neue griechische Zauberpapyri Wien 1893 p. 14. G.. n (my fig. ib.. 39 pap. 3. Cumont Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra Bruxelles 1896 ii. 30. 230 pi. 121. cxxii n. cxxii 2146°!. Myth. which stoops its head and grips with its talons a snake coiled in a circle. xiii tab. i al£>va.. Wiinsch's n. xx b.50 no. comparable with the Persian fire-altars3. 11 hinc et Phoenices in sacris imaginem eius exprimentes draconem finxerunt in orbem redactum caudamque suam devorantem.evo^. 8 (my fig. 121. Cat.KVK\os ydp £ariv tfi eauroi' d\ovp. 145 f. 227 ff. 39. Berol. Corp. 1. Vat.oQev KO! Mytiirrioi Ka.9. 139. See.. 139. Macrob. i ff. however. in dextra tenentem inducunt— collected by Cumont. p. 586 f.6' lepbv \6yov dpaKovTa ovpjifibpov TCUS Trvpa/miaLv £yy\v<pov<nv. ib.ov /3ov\6/j. Many illustrations may be found in the Abraxas-gems published by Montfaucon Antiquity Explained trans. de mens. Hell. 2 Brit. I. 3. 17. 62 n. 12 (ray fig. ovpdv. The tail of the reptile. App. first seized by its jaws and then passed round its neck.. 28. Stud. e.92 Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun The mask of Zeus wearing an oak-wreath is seen between the spread wings of an eagle. KVK\q> 5£ avrov dpaKOvra \ ovpopopov in a charm irpbs TJXiov. Hunter Cat. 1911 xxxi. At Tripolis in Phoinike the local Ba'al was Hellenised as a celestial and probably solar Zeus Hagios.

Gr.Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun 193 Again. whose full title was 'Zeus the unconquered Sun. W. the god Aumos.ov ~M. Passing from Palestine to Asia Minor. 2 Corp. 118 pi. inscr. 3 Lebas-Reinach Voyage Arch. ii no. I42)3. inscr. 136. 1 Zei)j dviKijTos HXios debs Ad/u. ei'rtj 5e TVUTWV dTreidri<n. n ' j f . ewLfjieKfjua^evov Aiovvviov \ Aioddipov /cat 'Epfj. Fig. Lebas-Reinach it>. 142. no. a day's ride south from Lystra. ^roi/s <rv£ \ fJ. W. ii. Cp.(T)i>bs) AvffTpov. p. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Ramsay found a dedication of the first century A.oyevovs BaXeptou. 2455 Agraina. cit. A sample will serve. nos. Corp. M.s TOV Atos. A stele from Maionia (MenneJt) now at Koloe (Koula) associates the radiate bust of a Lydian sun-god.os Lebas-Waddington Asie Mineure etc.. where for Av[5l]ov we must read Atiftov (Lebas-Waddington op. 2390? Merdocha. M. At Baluklaou. 4590 Aids CLVLK^TOV 'HXfou deov Av[5f]ou. pi. 2. iii no. 2441 Aerita. we still find local sungods identified with Zeus. Gr. 2392— 2395 Deir-el-Leben. 2164). Myth. 2394.Tjvl Tia. The inscription (cp.' Thus a stone over the door of a cell in the monastery of Deir el Leben records the following act of piety: Of Zeus the unconquered Sun. The enclosure of the court was founded by Kassios Malichathos of the village of Reimea and by Paulos Maximinos of the village of Faithful Mardochoi2.epwi> 6. p.r]vl fvpdvv^> e/c^Xeucrei' rripeiffBai airb 7)/j. 12 . which associates 'Ep^v \ M^ytc-rop with Att C. a series of inscriptions from Trachonitis establishes the cult of a deity. here called Zeus Maspkalatenos. with that of the moon-god Men (fig. 136.D.fj. Calder and Sir W. 3439) runs : Kara TTJV T&V deuiv 4TrLTa\yrjv tepos dovfuos e^xV I Ad Matr^aXar^y /cat ~M. i. avayvilxreTai \ ras 8wdfju. the god Aumos1.

10). 22. Atlas pi. 67 Atlas pi. p. 98 pi. Cat. a standing Zeus radiate on silver coins of Heliokles (ib. 55 no. lupiter with sceptre and radiate head. however. Htilsen Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alterthiim Berlin 1907 i. 2). Rom.143. 1910 xiv. Zeus p. 102). Gardner locc. citt. A. p. 100 pi. Cat. Zeus Dolichaios (lupiter Dolichenus). Tallaios. above the latter a Phrygian cap (so Babelon Monn. At most they show that his attributes permitted of his being identified roughly and / / /V ^' / ^or Practical purposes with a i § / * W W' ^^ variety of barbaric sun-gods. above the former is a thunderbolt. 14) and Hermaios (ib. Corr. 16. Spalahores with Vonones (ib. 2 H. Journ. i. If the second word has been rightly deciphered by Monsieur Dubois3. we are driven to conclude that at least as early as the fifth century B. p. and E. 28. 99 pi. was essentially solar in character. 1 1 4 . The • I HI ^IL. Am. P. the inhabitants of Amorgos recognised a solar Zeus. 167).). 16 : on the temple of lupiter Libertas see H. where a very early rock-cut inscription reads (fig. Doubtful examples of a radiate lupiter in wallpaintings are Helbig Wandgem. etc. 2 Spalirises are radiate. p. i6of. as Dr Farnell saw. 3.: he admits. X only example of Zeus being worshipped as the Sun on Greek soil is to be found at Kastri. 7. Stephani Nimbus und Strahlenkranz p. not radiate. 22. and such may well be the character of them all. Roberts An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy Cambridge 1887 i. 7.Q Lucerne ed i Candelabri d'Ercolano) if. 1 Zeus Adados (lupiter Heliopolitanus].).). 1882 vi. Paul = Hermes (The Times Nov. E. A seated Zeus radiate occurs on silver coins of Antialkidas (Brit. 22. 5) and on copper coins of Manes (ib. 3. 9) and Spalirises (ib. Grueber in the Brit. after Cavedoni. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. p. Arch. 101 pi. 25 f. 5 f. i). S.fig. Zeus Askraios. rom. 70 pi. Denarii of the gens Egnatia show a •distyle temple in which are two standing deities. 143) : Zeiis Zeus *HA[io> the Sun2. 400 pi. 21. Bull. that pi. pi. 474 f. 2. 15. p. p. will be separately considered in later sections. 399 n. Spalagadames with Vonones (ib. 3. and Spalirises (ib. 191. This Isolated case must then be due. i. on the site of Arkesine. cp. Hell.1 94 Direct identifications of Zeus with the Sun Obviously these and other such identifications1 do not suffice to prove that Zeus himself. by Prof. lupiter Capitolinus has a rayed crown on a terra cotta lamp from Herculaneum now at Naples (Antichita di Ercolano Napoli 1792 viii (L. H. Kunstmyth. 23 pi. 191 3 no. 7f. 2 = Overbeck Gr. 1909. p. 21. 42. 189 fj. Mus. 12 Barnabas — Zeus. 3 . 17. to 'some peculiar and so illustrates Acts 14. in Amorgos. Gerhard Hyperboreisch-Rbmische Sludien fur Archdologie Berlin 1833 p. 8 — n). i. Zeus Talaios. io6 = L. The majority of these are described as laureate. 22 no. i. Fig. 7. Mus. . 14 no. Azes \ib. 21 pi. Jordan — C. the Greek Zeus. and Libertas . •Camp. 9. 17. Roehl Imagines inscriptionutn Gracarum antiquissimarum^ Berolini 1898 p. Zeus Amman. rr. 8 Azes and pi. 42. Coins Rep. 62 pi. 73 pi. pi. p. rep.C. p. 3. Taletitas.

This Zeus Auanter. concoquit fruges. Nonn. 62 called one of the Sun's horses AWoij/ in the lines Bct/cx^ou <t>i\av6tfi. G. 400 ff. Milth. eponym of Aithiopia4. States i./tf£. if it must be admitted that the Greeks did not directly identify Zeus their sky-god with the sun. Monsieur Delamarre. ran. a conjecture based on the fact that Eur. 'the Burning Sky6. Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. if that be so. in Od. vii no.huic rei auctor est Eumelus Corinthius. Al. Hyg. 140 f. G. Conceivably. Eustath.' But unfortunately it is far from certain that Monsieur Dubois' restoration of the second line is sound. hist. frag. 41 (see Ath. Athen. in Lyk. in letters of the fourth century B. argues from the analogy of dedications in Thera that we need rather the name of the dedicator in the genitive case2. ' He of the Burning Face3. but with more probability attaches to the sun in particular. Schmidt reads Aethops. 1385. ' I scorch ' or ' parch.' cp. And. 2264) derives Avavrrip from the same root as ataivw. cp. 896 Nauck 2 ap.' a name elsewhere given to a son of Hephaistos. 1890 xv. ins. Dion. ii.C. 194 rbv Avaivov \L6ov. 2 7 ff. M. (b) Cult-epithets of Zeus that may be solar. and to one of the horses of the Sun5. 465 B and ap. Tzetz. citing ib. But. however. Aristoph.' rather than in any solar capacity. 'the Scorcher.. 44. 6. 8 N. Gr. 29. 62. 537. at Thorikos on the south-east coast of Attike. Thus at Chios Zeus was entitied Aithiops. 'Apx. 4 5 Plin. Eustath.. the inscription is no longer in point. AeXr. 883. in II. an unworked block of stone has been found bearing the inscription7: Hdpo? lepov Atos AvavrrjBoundary of the precinct of Zeus Auante- pos r.' is explained by Mr N. J. Cp. ATANTHPOS is a blunder for ATANTHPO2. Polites ' Zei)s Avavrrip' in'E<m'ct 1890 no. Delamarre in Inscr.Cult-epithets of Zeus that may be solar 195 local syncretism or foreign influences1. Again. 1890 p. nat. 7 6 13 — 2 . Polites as the god of summer heat 8 — a conception which might refer to the glowing sky in general. p. 1 2 3 Farnell Cults of Gk. 301 atOoiros 'HeXioto Supra p. who has recently edited the inscription for the Berlin Corpus. 183 Aethiops quasi flammeus est. 187.ov \ AWoira TreTralvovr' opx&Tovs f ov j3porol KaXovffiv olvov aWoira. it can hardly be denied that indirectly Zeus was connected with solar phenomena. Zeus may have been termed Aithiops in his character of Aither. 443. iii nos. 87. Some of his cult-epithets are suggestive of such a connexion. p..

152. 102 f. 2. And Macrobius states that 'antiquity calls the sun the eye of Zeus6.K&fj. Cp.a... Soph.' and might therefore be called the eye of Zeus. H. Eur. Rel.v. E. ii § i. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 33 f. heaven-ranging5. Whether Hes. A. 'the eye of Zeus' was an expression used also of lightning. 40. i l\do~Kov Zijvbs j3ioSd>ropos dy\abv 1 . 7. i. 'All-bright. o. r65e \afj. Cap.. 228 muridi oculus. 'the Burning Sky3. Griffith London 1907 pp. 288) rj4\ie /cAi/raVciAe. 153. 704 f. lepbv. 4 Eur. 2 Xtcro-o/^py Z^ds iravSepK^os aQOirov op^a. hexaemeron 218 TO KOIVOV ofj-fjia T7]V TravotTTpiav Koprfv. ch. Polites '0 "HXtos Kara TO!>S dy/jubdeis fttGovs Athens 1882 p. d. 8 Cougny Anth. Mart.ov cj.irdSos lepbv | ofAfia. 12 solem lovis oculum appellat antiquitas. X^yet).. Gruppe Gr. fallen-from-Zeus. s. Fortunately evidence of a less equivocal nature is to hand. Euripides in his tragedy The Mysians spoke of Zeus as 'sun-eyed4. 879f. Trept etfcre/Seias 50 p. 4. Piccolos Supplement a VAnthologie Grecque Paris 1853 p. supra p. See e. 6 yap alkv op&v /ctf/cAos j XetWei viv l&opiov Atos. 298 f. J. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 i. at one time regarded the sun and moon as the eyes of the animate sky2. 13 (Abel Orphica p. ofj-fjia yap aiQepos. ib. 158.. Ov. giver of life9. 9 Id. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. 702 f. B. uo-irep ov(pda\(j. T. To judge from Hesych. p. i § 6 (d) vi. nub. 6 Macrob. C. 7 N. Sat. 1888 iv. 267 irdvra Iduv Atos o^^aX/uos Kal ir&vra. 187 n^ 9. Ai6s yai^oxov (yani}6x. Schenkl) bfj. Soph. adloc. 185 mundanusque oculus. 0. p. J. S.' A magical hymn preserved in a papyrus of the Berlin Museum addresses the sun-god thus: Sun famed-for-steeds. There is reason to think that the Greeks. Piccolos7. Myth. is doubtful: cp. o/^ua yap cuWpos a.fjLa. 21. 5 ff. 531 Nauck 2 ap.' The phrase seems to have been current in the jargon of later oracles also—witness sundry responses of Apollon first published by N. xpuo^as | d/^/ras j3\£<f>apov. mag. and Souid.. The sun especially was the eye of Aither. Ant. Append. S. Philodem. Oldenberg La religion du Veda Paris 1903 pp. (g) xx (7). 350 ff. 194f. /. The god bade one Poplas attain his ends— Praying the ageless eye of all-seeing Zeus8. on which conception see infra ch. 81. On another occasion he advised the same man to propitiate— The brilliant eye of Zeus. 183 ff.g. high-travelling. Tylor Primitive CtMtire^ London 1891 i.ofj. like various other peoples1. G.jji avyas | aXtos. Zeus' earth-embracing eye. 1500.TOi> a-eAayeirai | yiwip/mp&us h auyats with schol. vo^o-as can be referred to the sun. Pisid. Georg. E. 6. 22 Gomperz <Ei)pt7rt> dys S' ei> Mv«rots K(d>rbv Ata /cat <ovpavb>v TjKiuirbv (sc.bs Atos' ws do-Tpawri. met. 6. A.(c) The Sun as the Eye of Zeus. Pal. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. A. 285 f. frag. 380. 2 N. 3 Aristoph.

3 Orph. Dion. (d) The Sun as a Wheel. | e#5te. 187 n. von Hahn Albanesische Studien Jena 1854 ii. Folk-Lore 1906 xvii.. i. 6 J. 7 ff.frag.. 123. 6. Bertrand La religion des Gaulois Paris 1897 p. 379 irafjupaes aWepos 6'yU/ua. p. in which that divinity is saluted not only as 'Sun' and 'all-bright eye of Aitherl but also by a fusion of religious ideas as 'the Assyrian Zeus' and 'the cloudless Zeus of Egypt4. I f. 3yo'HeXte. iv. Cp. H. 1884 ii. In a somewhat similar vein Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt. 6 Abel Zeus if/Xios r}8e <re\riv7). 701 f. 4 Nonn. where Philologia addresses the sun-god in an equally syncretistic strain. Rhys Hibbert Lectures i8863 London 1898 p. Maspero The Dawn oj Civilization1^ London 1901 p. 18851. 7ra<rt</>a^s.. goes on to say more expressly: As eyes he has the sun and the shining moon2. Clear-skied. 167 ff... 136ff. 1499 f.. Ko<r/j. ib. 5 N. after identifying Zeus with various parts of the cosmic whole—the sun and moon included.. 197 And again he announced to a second worshipper. makes Dionysos address to the sun-god of Tyre a remarkable hymn.D. W.. i 6 f f .. but reverence The eye of life-giving Zeus with offerings meet1. all-radiant. G. ii. 2 1 . 10. 7 For this conception among other peoples see J. addvare ZeO.nara 5' TjeXtos /cai 7ra/u0avoucra aeMivq. 18 6/j.. 154. Mart.S..ov TO Trepldpofjiov OyUjaa. supra p. 6565. 185 ff. 58. The Solar Wheel in Greece. 179 ff. 185 ff. a poet who wrote about the year 400 A. Stallybrass ii. 364 ff.. A.. 106.The Sun as a Wheel Thou still hast long to live. Arch. 450 ff.. Count de Marcellus ad loc. G. Alytjimos cW0eXos Zefo. cp. 40. Another conception of the sun that has left its mark upon Greek mythology and religion is that of a revolving wheel7. Cap. Stratonikos by name: An Orphic hymn. 393 'Afffftpios Zetis.' and that the Albanians swear by the eye of the sun or of the star6. dXXa <7e/3afou | fwo56rou Atos 6'ju/xa 0vr)Tro\tais dyavrjcnv. Hel. Gaidoz in the Rev. J. 8. dt.' It may be added that the Greeks of the Peloponnese still speak of the sun as 'God's eye6. 399 eiVe SdpaTTts £<pvs. 33. Cougny ib. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. T. h.. Polites op. Simpson The Buddhist Praying-wheel London 1896. circling eye of the world3.. Qrph. 13 f. G.. Another Orphic hymn likewise describes the sun as at once the eye of the world and Zeus: Immortal Zeus.

who makes fun of everybody including himself. Ixion on seeing it thought it to be Hera and lay with it and begat a child of double nature. Whereupon Zeus was wrathful and. 'wheels'. that the wheel was made of fire3. and puts into the mouth of one of his characters the illusion-destroying couplet: Stage-carpenter. 1185. Ixion under the lash repeats the words: "We must honour our benefactors. however. C. eX/cew Cobet) d^e/cds. M. thou light of the sun 2 !' The conception of a solar wheel is. The ultimate source of the scholion appears to be Pherekydes/ra^. made a cloud (nephele) in the likeness of Hera. Eur. part man. when you want to send the wheel Spinning aloft. hist. Daedalus frag. not brooking his mad desires. But Zeus in anger bound Ixion to a winged wheel and sent him spinning through the air. Miiller). 96 f. wherefrom the rest of the Kentauroi are sprung. have Tpoxofc. 1 . and flung Ei'oneus into it. 234 Dindorf ap. For all that. I begin with the myths—and in primis that of Ixion. 'courses. Wherefore he incurred the wrath of heaven. The orthodox tale with regard to him is told succinctly by the scholiast on Euripides: 'Ixion was a Lapith by race. xatpe (peyyos ri\tov. Ant. For the most part it has been obscured by progressive civilisation and lies half-hidden beneath later accretions. p. X£ye. 'Hail. Phoen. A. when he came to fetch the bridal gifts.' Aristoph. and divine insignia. 1065 rp6xovs afj. part horse. it can be detected by patient search as the ultimate explanation of not a few myths. (a) Ixion. But Zeus took pity on Ixion and received him and let him be in his own holy place. wishing to learn whether the thing was true. ritual objects. told Zeus. o^ro-re ySouXei rbv rpoxov | tj£j' (eXa? cj. Gr." Some say that Zeus hurled him into Tartaros. Bergk. Erotian. 17. She. a personage of paramount importance for the proper understanding of early Greek beliefs. 3 Schol. giving him a share of immortality too. He dug a pit in his house. Aristophanes. rp6xovs. Euripides the poet-philosopher is represented by Aristophanes as declaring that A ither at the creation devised— Again. 42 Klein 6 ^xewoTrotos. He in his wantonness saw Hera and was enamoured of her. i. seldom expressed in extant Greek literature. He plotted against his father-in-law. In Soph. but Jebb rightly accepts Erfurdt's cj. in his comedy Daidalos seems to have shown the sun as a wheel spinning in the air.198 The Solar Wheel in Greece The eye to mimic the wheel of the sun1. and married Dia the daughter of Ei'oneus. say. filled it with fire. thesm.' 2 Aristoph. Others. 103 (Frag.i\\i)Trjpas ijXiov all the MSS. again.

68 no.-hist. 40. 299 ff. it has been commonly agreed that Ixion bound to his blazing wheel and sent spinning through the upper air or under the nether gloom must be the sun-god and no other2. 8. Laistner Z>a. £155.). the 'Flaming. which Miiller corrected into AWuvos. 10. berl. Its reverse design (fig. Between the spokes is the Etruscan inscription Ichsiun. the son of Aithon. b.Ixipn 199 To Ixion and his offence we must return at a later stage of our argument: it is the peculiar character of his punishment that is here in point. Anderson. ii. Akad. 62). Contemporary with it. likewise in our national collection. 442 makes him the brother of Phlegyas. screams etc. 6 Brit. now in the British Museum. But such tales are themselves meteorological in origin (E. H. This gem (fig. Cat. Moreover. Panofka ' Zufluchtsgottheiten' in the Abh. Myth. and Roman work is possibly solar. Hence his constant association with fire : he was called the son of Phlegyas. cit. loc. 1895 ix. 285 ff. 8 Infra p. d. Etruscan. 1853 Phil. ii. The culprit. I have borrowed his fig. 2 Roscher Lex. Since Theodor Panofka first discussed the matter in I853 1 . L. whose hands are bound. is a red-figured" kdntharos of fine style. 7 Brit. and it was by means of a fiery pit thinly covered with logs and dust that he entrapped and slew Ei'oneus the father of Dia5. which is more accurate than Raoul-Rochette Monumens incdits d'antiquite figuree Paris 1833 pi.' by Pherekydes 4 . if not somewhat earlier (about 450—440 B. 5 Pherekyd. Gems pp. 770. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 p. 231 n.ngler Ant. I4S) 7 depicts the preparations for the punishment of Ixion. T. I44)6 may be assigned to the second half of the fifth century. 4 Pherekyd.' by Euripides3. Mus. 3 Eur.r Ratsel der Sphinx Berlin 1889 i. ib. Mus. the 'Glowing. E. The most satisfactory interpretation of the vase as a whole is that propounded by Sir Cecil Smith in the Class. 143^ no. 424 Nauck2. held fast by Ares and Hermes. pipes. shows Ixion as a nude bearded figure. 22. Strab. Ixion's wheel as represented in Greek. which creaks. The extant representations include the following: A brown chalcedony scarab from the Castellani collection. holds that the myth of Ixion is essentially akin to German folk-tales of elves appearing in the form of a fiery wheel.C. Ixion frag. to the rim of a large wheel. being based on a tracing by Mr F. Afruvos. Rev. 334 pi. 18. stands before the throne of Hera. 2 77—280. Vases iii. i. Gemmen i pi. At least. Furtwa. 87. while Athena8 brings up a fourspoked wheel fitted with a pair of wings. 1 . Cat. Classe p. its claims to be regarded as solar are deserving of further investigation.

but fast fettered to a triple wheel. i.]. cit. Eros and Pan on the other. 479) has obverse Eros in a quadriga—presumably the sun's chariot (ib. 45. cit. from whose outer Fig. i. p. The neck (fig. Naples 3222 (Reinach op. 179 n. rim rays dart forth in all directions. On the right Hephaistos3 leans against a tree-trunk. On the left a winged Erinys4 with snakes in her hair is engaged in turning the wheel. 312). Here in'the centre we see Ixion. crossing the sea (ib. the only exception among the large-sized Under-world 2 1 . 51). either on the obverse or on the reverse side. i. ' Hades (?)' (Reinach loc.} ! 5 ' Erinys ' (Reinach ib. cit. Grouped near by are Apollon and Artemis on the one side. i. and Eros between them.). still holding the hammer with which he has riveted the fetters. 167) has reverse Helios in his quadriga. Thus Karlsruhe 388 (Reinach op. 145. St Petersburg 426 (ib. 355)! 4 ' Iris (?) ou Erinys (?)' (Reinach loc. In fact.). Apulian vases that have the Under-world on the body normally have the Upper-world on the neck. Two other figures complete the scene—Iris5 the counterpart of Hermes.6)* gives us the upper. 3).2oo The Solar Wheel in Greece A great Apulian amphora with volute handles. cit. Raoul-Rochette op. 258) has obverse Helios and Heos in quadrigae conducted across the sea by Phosphoros (FurtwanglerReichhold Gr. cit. Iris with wings and a caduceus occupies the Infra ch. ' Eaque (?)' (Reinach Rep. pi. where the bibliography of the vase is given. Selene on horseback. 258).and the Under-world. Vases i. 14. 108) has obverse Helios in his quadriga (ib. Aphrodite. 3 ' Le Charon grec' (Raoul-Rochette op. cit. world. Vasenmalerei i. But these suggestions miss the intended contrast between the Upper. found at Ruvo and now preserved in the Hermitage at St Petersburg. The body of the vase shows Hades enthroned in his palace between Persephone and Hermes. has for its obverse decoration a pair of contrasted scenes. Munich 849 (ib. i. And below are six of the Danaides with their water-pots1. not the under. ii § 9 (d) ii (7).) ! 6 'Aiacos' (Raoul-Rochette loc. cit. clothed indeed. and Zeus6 the counterpart of Hades. i.

Ixion 201 .

supreme moment. but heat inwards. Behind him stands the grim figure of Hephaistos. xvi)1. He is balanced by a second spectator. Kluegmann in the Ann. cap on head and hammer in hand. At this. now at Berlin. ii. cit. when the torture is on the point of commencing. these. The rims of his wheel. His anvil. Hermes the mandatory of vases is Naples Santangelo 709 (tb.. His bonds are so many serpents. Baumeister loc. has given us but a glimpse of the hero fastened face downwards on a mighty eightspoked wheel. 9 and G. 39 Text p. which are painted a whitish yellow.). glances upwards in the direction of Ixion. d. pi. 93—98 pi. iii. 2 Nephelai (Kluegmann after Helbig loc. twining about his legs and body. A wall-painting. 3 Herrmann Denkm. d. reverse a horse attacked by griffins. having completed his ghastly work. and so add to the anguish of the sufferer. Hermes. 2960". 821 and Roscher Lex. I47)3. Sogliano in the Man. who turns his back upon the scene but. . i. 767 fig.. and two of them. do not radiate light outwards. spread-eagle fashion. 7695. I—K (badly copied in Baumeister Denkm. ii. 771). Erinyes (P. Malerei pi. realising that the agony of Ixion must be suggested to the mind rather than presented to the eye. 182). cit. Zeus enthroned and holding his eagle-sceptre. Line. Myth. i. Patroni in Arte Italiana decorativa e industrials ix. cit. 496". no. fascinated by it in spite of himself. however.Nikai (Reinach op. 840 f. 13. Myth. 330). Furtwangler loc. Immediately beneath him a winged Erinys rises from the ground with snaky hair and uplifted torch. Weizsacker ib. who lays his left hand on the wheel and with his right is about to grasp a spoke and set it in motion.2O2 The Solar Wheel in Greece extreme right. raise their heads to bite him on the shoulders. has another striking representation of the scene as its principal design (pi. 455). The artist. send forth red tongues of flame.. i. provides us with yet another type (fig. Wagner in Roscher Lex.. For other reproductions see A. 1873 xlv. Hephaistos. Raised aloft in mid air is Ixion. to the four spokes of a double wheel. 1 Furtwangler Vasensamml. Ixion's wheel is turned by a couple of winged female figures. Inst. stands back to survey it. The figures composing it have been first drawn in accordance with the usual technique of the vase-painter and subsequently coloured in more or less natural tints—the result being a polychrome decoration suggestive of fresco-work. 3023. cit. 1898 viii. d. which has obverse a female head in a floral device. He is naked and bound. who have been interpreted as Nephelai 2 . which still adorns a dining-room in the house of the Vettii at Pompeii. the extreme left. The best reproduction is that by A. 24 pi. hammer and pincers are near him on the ground. Berlin ii. a bright and a dark red. A Campanian amphora from Cumae.

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She has been justly regarded as Nephele 3 interceding for her lover. prompted by Iris2 at her elbow./#£. ' a personification of the spirit of one who has died ' (Mau). Wagner in Roscher Lex. is already enjoying her anticipated triumph and.cit. 182 argued that she must be Nephele on account of her swathed form. 3 See Herrmann loc. Myth. 2 1 . the mother of Ixion (Sogliano). not indeed towards Hera—that would be useless. • —but towards the more sympathetic Hermes.. hardens her heart: the dread sentence will be duly carried out. Hera. The whole picture Hyg. Iris is neatly characterised by the nimbus round her head. who turns with an imploring look and gesture. who successfully disposes of the rival interpretations—Erinys or Nemesis (Herrlich).Ixion 203 Zeus1 arrests the wheel and looks round to see if there is any sign of relenting on the face of Hera. 62. In the foreground sits a swathed figure. iii. however.

1903 xxiii. Michaelis Ancient Marbles in Great Britain trans. has its right end decorated with reliefs symbolic of the Under-world (fig. though here by a fine original touch she is represented as doing her best to avert.. Ant. 256.204 The Solar Wheel in Greece is finely conceived and almost certainly repeats a Greek motif. the attitude of the head turned away from the leg that bears the weight. 240. 128 ff. to Polykleitos himself. On this showing we may conclude that the Pornpeian picture had as its direct ancestor a Greek fresco dating from the age of Alexander the Great. P. 282 ff. feet.. B. the pose of the feet. 2 P. Walters to the third or possibly to the fourth century B. Helbig Guide Class. Furtwangler Masterpieces of Gk. suffice to prove that it is archaistic. not archaic. A. 3. 5 IVien. Rodenwaldt1. a Roman sarcophagus. which here denotes rapid revolution. xvii) figures Ixion bound to a great winged wheel in the early 'running' attitude4. trunk. Gardner has urged 2 —the Herakles is essentially Lysippian in character. and even Nephele. Hephaistos with his hammer beside the wheel. 178. 249—398. Mitth. Fennell Cambridge j882 p. And the resemblance of the whole figure to the Lansdowne Herakles. would all support this contention. Stud. Graef in the Rom. 399. 1905 xxv. Rome i. p. its most prominent figure. 1 . referred it to Skopas.C. A. and legs. M. The flower twice introduced between adjacent spokes serves as a stopgap and has no special significance. Here much help is afforded by the style of Hermes. pointed out by G. Iris standing with raised right hand. the punishment of Ixion. I48)B. iSgff. 451. Finally. Gardner in the Journ. no. not to forward. we have seen the same dramatis personae in the vasepaintings already reviewed—Hera seated on her throne. n. Kalkmann Die Proportionen des Gesichts in der griechischen Kunst Berlin 1893 p. He might well be a bronze statue by Lysippos. 3 c. The proportions of head. Indeed. An Etruscan mirror recently acquired by the British Museum and hitherto unpublished 3 (pi. Rodenwaldt Die Composition der pompejanischen Wandgemalde Berlin 1909 p. . to Skopas in his first or Polyclitan period . 4 See E. etc. Vorlegebl. The ivy-wreath and the rendering of hands. Sculpt. 3 Exhibited now in Case C of the Bronze Room at the British Museum. Hermes with his caduceus glancing round. B. G. Hell. The attribution of this type to Lysippos was first suggested by A. C. The mirror is referred by Mr H. It seems possible to go one step further and to determine the date of the Greek prototype. 1889 iv. if—as Prof. 60 n. Schmidt 'Der Knielauf in the Miinchener archaologische Studien Mtinchen 1909 pp. found in a brick sepulchral monument behind the second mile-stone on the Via Appia Nuova and now in the Galleria dei Candelabri of the Vatican.He is nude except for the fillet about his hair and the bands that fasten him to the eight-spoked wheel. would go to confirm it. B pi. 296 ff.

See page 204.Plate XVII Etruscan mirror: Ixion on his wheel. .

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Reinach ' Aetos Prometheus' in the Rev. on a triumphal stele of Pepi i in WadiMaghara (Sinai) published by J. xvii). infra ch. no. a wheel flaming inwards and bound about with snakes—all these are beyond question conceivable ways Fig. Arch. 5 ff. and on its development Count Goblet d'Alviella Recherches sur Vhistoire du globe aile hors de r Egypte Bruxelles 1888 (extr. 596. It remains to enquire how far the foregoing figures bear out the suggestion that Ixion's wheel was solar. Cultes. 623 ff. Mythes et Religions Paris 1908 iii. Wiedemann Religion of the Ancient Egyptians London 1897 p. I49)1. F. The wings are probably those of the falcon (falco peregrinus). 148. 1 . Cp. A wheel. des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique iii Serie 1888 xvi. I figure a fine eighteenth-dynasty example from the door to the chapel of Thothmes i at Deir el Bahri. of depicting the sun. 75 fig. 235 fig. E. Plot 1909 xvii. 59—8i — zd. 1907 ii. This custom was explained by On the origin of the winged disk see S. £49. In Egypt the winged disk is found as early as the sixth dynasty. 14. i § 6 (d) i (e) . his attitude recalling the earlier representation of him on the Etruscan mirror (pi. For example. And between them Ixion revolves on a strong seven-spoked wheel. drawn by R. Fig. not the sparrow-hawk: see G. e. Benedite in the Mon. Tantalos lifts the water towards his mouth. a winged wheel a wheel darting rays outward.g. de Morgan Recherches sur les origines de r Egypte Paris 1896 i. 68—91. 12). from the Bulletins de rAcademie Roy ale des Sciences.Ixion 205 Sisyphos raises the stone above his head. the Egyptians used to place a winged solar disk flanked by two uraeus-snakes over the gateway of every temple-court (fig. also Stevenson 'The Feather and the Wing in Mythology' in Oriental Studies (Oriental Club of Philadelphia) Boston 1894 pp. Paget for A. 236—239.

gbtt. 8. Atlas pi. E. Heru-behutet 2 . Heru-behutet was thenceforward called ' the Darter of Rays who emergeth from the horizon'. Classe xiv. discovered by E. Miss J. An interesting example. 12—19. Erman in the Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 1882 xx. Harrison in the Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions Oxford 1908 ii. 9. 10 fig. sighted his foes. and started in pursuit. with slight modifications. Brugsch in the Abh. in Phoinike. A.-hist.206 The Solar Wheel in Greece means of the following myth1. Le Page Renouf in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology 1886 viii. where it was similarly used to consecrate the lintels of temple-buildings3. 143. . 483. A. 89. 3 Count Goblet d'Alviella op. Wiedemann ib. d. A. 68 ff. p. Akad. also E. 196 ff. Renan Mission de Phenicie Paris 1864 p. As such he flew up to the sun. cit. The winged disk is found also. the Horos of Edfu. changed himself into a winged disk of many colours. Cp. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 i. Berard De Forigine des cultes arcadiens (Bibliothtque des Scales francaises d'Athenes et de Rome Paris 1894 Ixvii) p. n. A. cit. It is translated into German by H. and into English by A. p. 1869 Phil. 2 The precise form and significance of the name borne by the solar disk is disputed : see A. V. Having gained the day. 4 E. 69 ff. when he fought the enemies of his father Ra. 173—236. 159 fig. S. 8. Renan 4 1 The text was published by E. Wiedemann op. 1895 xvii. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. Naville Textes relatifs au mythe d'Horus dans le temple cf Edfon Geneve 1870 pis. 5 ff. and Ra ordained that the winged solar disk should be set over every sacred spot for the banishing of evil. He took with him Nekhebet the goddess of the South and Uatchit the goddess of the North in the form of two snakes that they might destroy the adversaries. Griffith London 1907 p.

cit.Ixion 207 at Am el-Hay at. i cites a description of this symbol given in a text of Sennacherib (Meissner—Rost Bauinschriften SanheriUs p. While not committing himself to the view that Ashur was ever a nature-god. Infra ch. 4 Id. tail serves him for a kilt. Layard The Monuments of Nineveh First Series London 1849 pi. ib. but retained its two undulating appendages. it was actually borne as a sacred standard into battle6. and the scroll appears on either side of his head (fig. 4. 3 A. Jastrow The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria Boston etc. Dr Jastrow concludes (op. Fig. This is the well-known sign of Ashur (Zeus Assyrios}5. 197 n. Without attempting to trace in detail the further fortunes of the winged disk—a task which has been undertaken by Count Goblet d'Alviella 2 —we may glance for a moment at its oriental analogue. 195f. First Series pi. i § 6 (e). supra p. 5 Nonn. p. This arrangement suggests that the solar disk was regarded as a sort of bird1. Dion. patron god of the city Ashur and head of the Assyrian pantheon. the 'Fountain of the Serpents. mounted on a pole. cit. The first lost its scroll. 8 if. H. From Assyria both varieties of winged disk passed into Persia. I have followed this lucid and wellinformed writer in the main lines of his classification. with open wings and a fan-shaped tail: this disk is surmounted by a scroll resembling a pair of inverted volutes. from which depend two undulating streamers (fig. And. I5i) 3 . 152)*. 6 M. 94). 6. The other shows a half-length human figure emerging from its centre: the Fig. Count Goblet d'Alviella op. 393. 150). sometimes transformed into a rosette or a wheel. p. 40. 13. 151. the symbol of the winged disc lends a strong presumption in favor of supposing him to have been some phase of the 2 1 . 1898 p. 152. 194 n.' is confronted by an eagle with spread pinions (fig.) : 'if we are to assume that Ashur personified originally some natural power. One is a disk. The symbol has two main varieties in Mesopotamian art. On sculptured slabs and cylinders it is commonly seen hovering above the king or priest.

et les monuments figures de Vgnus Paris 1837 pp. Soloi p. passes into the tail-feathers3. Supra p. 728. Lajard Recherches sur le culte. 4 F. 148 pi. Tarsos p. Cat. 2. 724. 164 pi. Sepulchral reliefs from Persepolis give the symbol a lunar significance. 2 1 . 59. 156 f. Rel. 15. cp. 577. the latter being superposed on the former (fig.C. 1901 iv. 5 Brit. les symboles. other (fig. num? pp. Lajard illustrates both types at once. I54)5.) show the same deity Auramazda rising from a similar ring or wheel: he holds a wreath in one hand. He appears in the reliefs of Persepolis encircled by the same solar2 ring. Hunter Cat. the crescent moon being inscribed in the ring (see G. I have figured the coin of Tarsos. 90 pi. Maspero The Passing of the Empires London 1900 p. les attributs. Hiising ' Iranischer Mondkult' in the Archiv f. i. Mallos p. 154. Mus. a lotus-flower in the Fig. 722. I53) 4 Cilician coins struck by the Persian satrap Tiribazos (386—380 B. 26. 730. Coins ii. 537 pi. 15). 349—357)3 G. which is winged and furnished with the like appendages: his royal robe (kdndys\ as before. Head Hist. i. 68r. Issos p.The Solar Wheel in Greece The second with equally little alteration served as the emblem of Auramazda (Zeus Oromasdes)1. 29. 10 n. A specimen figured by F. Coins Lycaonia etc. cxxii (cp. 3.

The culprit was stretched upon a wheel and. See further Ann. aspires to the hand of Hera. legs. ib. He expiates his sacrilege by being bound to a solar wheel. if we may assume the successive loss of head. 26. (e) =no. 17. iv. 13. Lajard in the Man. 155 contains five of the symbols collected by F. * G. Menant 2 have argued that the winged disk of Mesopotamia had its prototype in a sacred bird. on which he is both lashed with a whip and burnt with fire. 8 from a relief at Persepolis (?) supra fig. no. (<f) = no. while it revolved. when we take into account certain other features of his myth to be discussed later and certain other myths to be Fig. Menant Lespierresgravees de la Haute-Asie Paris 1883—1886 ii.Ixion 209 Sir G. no. These suggest rather a combination of snake-forms with bird-forms. 2 from a cylinder (?). Rawlinson 1 and Monsieur J. d. that Ixion's wheel in some sense stood for the sun. i from the cylinder figured ib. 9 from a cylinder formerly owned by Lajavd. 2 J. 34. And this possibility is raised to a probability.155considered almost immediately. 14. then. G. we have yet to explain the peculiar use that is made of it in the myth. Inst.v. Inst. Rawlinson The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World London 1862—1867 ii. However that may be. 1845 xvii. was flogged. . and tail (fig. d. and on occasion beheaded. A mortal man. Assuming.' C. the various types of solar disk do make it possible to believe that Ixion's wheel stood for the sun. And it is certainly possible to arrange an evolutionary series of extant forms. cp. (a)—no. Ant. Prof. 896 s. viz. raised to the abode of Zeus and gifted with immortality. 'rota. 235. 5 from a relief at Naksch-i-Rousteiu. I55) 3 . ($)=no. (c) =no. iv pi. 13 ff. But it is doubtful whether such a series affords the best explanation of the scrolls and curvilinear appendages noticed above. as was demonstrably the case in Egyptian art. 3 Fig. burnt. This 1 Sir G. 153. Lafaye in Daremberg—Saglio Diet. Lafaye has recently argued that the punishment meted out to Ixion was but the mythological echo of a punishment actually inflicted on delinquents4.

Tusc. Bid him fetch fire. Bid him bring a sword as well. Plaut. Aristophanes. 20. 534 A. And in Cic. Tat. 21. or. 10. Here is my back. let him lay on. Pal. 10 nee rota vel eculeus more Graecorum tormentis eius apparata iam deerant sed offirmatus mira praesumptione nullis verberibus ac ne ipso quidem succumbit igni.' Etc. 4.5 The verb commonly used of this torture. 7 Ael. Anakreon frag. i. Lafaye's contention that the Antiph. ready to be burnt. 24. which can be traced back to the fifth1 and even to the sixth century B. But. in his Peace makes the chorus curse any man that seeks war for his personal profit: May he be stretched and flogged upon the wheel3. 9 nee mora cum ritu Graeciensi ignis et rota. and hoisted up by nooses. stripped of my clothing. Chariton de Chaerea et Callirrhoe 3. 3 Aristoph. 'to punish on the wheel. Here is my body. 8 Apul. 20. 5. is well known in connexion with Christian martyrdoms and mediaeval punishments. is often mentioned by Hellenic and Hellenistic writers. pax 452. ov rpo%tet TIS | TOV Acnrifliji'. cp. 6. when lo. while fully admitting Prof.2io The Solar Wheel in Greece mode of torture. trochizein. 3. the blazing wheel of Ixion. Kleinias with a groan was calling upon the gods. others fire and a wheel. wreathed with bay. for example. 5 Id. 206 ff. still brings before us. 9 Bergk 4 ap. let him cut it! Behold a novel sight— a single woman pitted against your whole array of tortures and triumphant over all 4 !' Later. Similarly in the romance of Achilleus Tatios the ill-starred Leukippe. 24 rotam is glossed by the word Graecos. 180. the priest of Artemis. Here are my hands.' is employed by the epigrammatist Asklepiades in an allusion to Ixion 6 . 5.2. Ixionios amicos). defies him in the following terms: 'Order up your tortures. brought to bay by her tyrannical master. if we have eyes to see it. is probably based on a Greek original. who bound parasites to a water-wheel. was seen approaching. Here is my throat. turn omne flagrorum genus inferuntur. Bid him bring a wheel. regarded by the Romans as a specially Greek institution8. 12. or rather by an interesting survival. Heliog. spoke of them as 'Ixions of the stream7. met. 9. 31". 7. 9. Some were fetching whips. The final relic of it—the 'Catharine wheel' of our November fireworks—by a curious reversion. as a condemned criminal. 2 1 .' Torture by the wheel. Already I was bound.. Bid him bring whips too. cist. 5 Ixiones amnicos (so Hirschfeld for MSS.C. Athen. 4 Ach. her lover Kleitophon finds himself in an equally sensational plight: 'I. and the emperor Elagabalos. let him stretch them out. 3. was to be tortured that they might discover whether Melitte had been privy to the murder. Lamprid. 6 Anth.

like so many others (impaling. i. cp. 2. Dolichos. Qv. Consequently the babe was destroyed by the fire3. I would urge that we have not thus got to the bottom of the matter. crucifixion. (/3) Triptolemos. and the goddess revealed herself. Jevons An Introduction to the History of Religion London 1896 P. 8 ff. Apollod. 4. sowed the whole world with it. and shrieked aloud. for instance ? Because—I venture to reply—this form of punishment. the elder of Metaneira's children. as one of the 'kings' or chiefs at Eleusis. Dem. Triptolemos is first mentioned in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Sikes on h. if I am not mistaken^ typifies a whole series of human Ixions.365. Polyxeinos. Wishing to make the babe immortal. His story is thus told by Apollodoros2: 'Metaneira the wife of Keleos had a child. Demophon— for that was the child's name—grew so fast by day that Metaneira kept watch. B. soaring aloft through the sky. she made a chariot-seat (diphros) of winged snakes.fast. son of Keleos and Metaneira. (cp. i—2. Eumolpos. whom Demeter instructed in mystic rites for the fertility of the soil1. 474 ff. originated in the service of religion. a poem referable to the seventh century B. The mythical Ixion..Triptolemos 211 wheel of the mythical Ixion was the torture-wheel of real life. perhaps even ordinary flogging). 5. she put it down every night in fire and so took off its covering of mortal flesh. Dem. Dem. R. The position of divine nurseling and favourite is reserved for Demophon. 250 ff. Keleos. Rev. Halliday in the Class. and he. there is nothing to distinguish him from the other chieftains of the place—Diokles or Dioklos. 3 In the h. but only robbed of immortality through his mother's interruption of the rite—a ceremony of purification (F. 2 1 14—2 . or triangles. who in bygone ages were done to death as effete embodiments of the sun-god.C. Apollod. 4 Panyasis_/r«g. And the idea in the present case was that the victim represented the sun. i. 1911 xxv. Why were men burnt upon a revolving wheel ? Why on a engine of this particular shape ? Why not tied to a stake. E. whom Demeter took and reared.' Others make Triptolemos the son of Eleusis4. But in course of time Triptolemos appears to have usurped the place of Demophon. 239) and initiation (W. hanging.. or at least in a definitely religious idea. 555 ff. 5.) the child is not destroyed by the fire. Apart from the fact that his name thrice heads the list. She gave him grain. E. or cross-bar. 153 ff. found him plunged in fire. But for Triptolemos. 24 Kinkel ap. H. Evidence in support of this view will be forthcoming in subsequent sections.).

2. Serv. 2. i. 20. But in the time of Pausanias there was only one real rival to the Athenian tradition. illustrating the myth of Triptolemos have been collected and studied by Gerhard Auserl.. But it will be observed that. 27 ff. It is. eponym of the Attic deme Ikaria11. Vasenb. 5 Mousaios p. 12 Paus. 8 Choirilos Alope frag.. 'Papos. Pherekyd. who maintained that Trochilos. 41—46. 147. and that Demeter. 2 Lact. Myth. s. L. Apollod. i. Paus. 14 Gruppe Gr. 370 ff. sculptures. Paus. Choirilos. man. Rel. pis. 15 The vases. One late writer. doubtless by a mere confusion. Others made him the son of Rar9. 13 Aristoph. Paus. 38.212 The Solar Wheel in Greece or of Eleusius by Hioma1. Stahlin.v. 222 Kinkel ap. In this tangle of names Aristophanes found ample material for a parody of the divine pedigree13. in Verg. 3. 14. 3. 2. 5. frag. entrusted them with grain to sow6.). id. 4 Interp. all roads lead to Eleusis. 1859 P. cer. and it is noteworthy that another account represented Triptolemos as the child of Okeanos and Ge5. Verses ascribed to Orpheus asserted that Eubouleus and Triptolemos were sons of Dysaules. i. as a reward for information given her about her daughter. i Nauck 2 ap. to Attic art that we naturally turn for further light on the wheeled seat of Tripto-lemos15. 14. hist. i. Al. i. 7. 1862 pp. i. 19.v. C. from Scythia to Egypt. 215 Abel ap. so far as Triptolemos is concerned. 14. 19. Ueber den Bilderkreis von Eleusis Berlin 1865 ii Beilage A (Gesammelte akademische Abhandlungen Berlin 1868 ii. Dysaules. 46—48. hi. 14. 12 (Frag. s.protr. II Interp. pi 1173 n./a£./rag-. Serv. 9 Phot. and gems. Hesych. 97 ff. 5. 382. 2 p. took Triptolemos to be the son of Raros8./r«^. 115 n. georg. georg. 217 Abel ap. in Stat. namely that of the Argives. Clem. a priest of the mysteries. i. 72 Miiller) ap. therefore.v. Pet. i. 58. 10 Souid. Lenormant—de Witte El. has him as the son of Icarus (sic). 415 ff. Gr. Theb. 'Pdp. but all such traces are compatible with the belief that Eleusis was its prime centre14. in Verg. an early tragedian of Athens. Triptolemos. coins. Strube Studien ii her den Bilderkreis von Eleusis Leipzig 3 I . i. i. 2. 32. 47 ff. s.82 ff. 'Paptds. 15. Stephani in the Compte-rendu St. 1873 p. 3. 7 Orph. and Eubouleus were reckoned by the Orphists among the'earth-born'dwellers of Eleusis7. The hero Eleusis was said by some to be the son of Hermes by Daeira. Paus. 6 Orph. lex. pis. His cult left traces of itself from Syracuse to Gordyene. . wall-paintings. 2 i 7 f f . Ach. Hyg. or of Eleusinus by Cathonea2 or Cyntania 3 —variants which attest his connexion with Eleusis. Plac. daughter of Okeanos 4 . had fled from Argos to Attike and had become by an Eleusinian wife the father of two sons—Eubouleus and Triptolemos12. or the son of Keleos son of Raros10—names which point to the Rarian Plain near Eleusis. i.

and is arranged in profile towards the right. Overbeck op. 2 A black-figured lekythos from Boiotia now at Athens (Collignon—Couve Cat.Triptolemos 213 Vase-illustrations of the sixth century differ in some respects from those of the fifth. 44. 9. once in the Fontana collection at Trieste. sometimes rises into the air (fig. cit. and above all by that master of detailed investigation Overbeck Gr. 156. This black-figured amphora. Demeter— Kora pp. Vases 1 d Athenes p. is now at Berlin. 33. iii pi. 308 no. 4. 530—589 Miinztaf. Gemmentaf. Vases ii. 1870. Supplement zu den Studien iiber den Bilderkreis von Eleusis Leipzig 1872. i pi. Hence one wheel only is visible. Reinach Rep. The seat is a more or less simple affair. 7 f. on which the columns of Athena are sometimes surmounted by a small representation of Triptolemos holding corn-ears in . Atlas pis. show Triptolemos as a bearded man holding a bunch of corn and sitting on a wheeled seat. id. Vasenb. This vase is presumably a belated example of the black-figure technique like the pseudo-archaic Panathenaic prize-jars. Kunstmyth. Atlas pi. Lenormant—de Witte op. has four spokes and sometimes rests on the ground. cit. This Fig. 1 Gerhard Auserl. 67. Sixth century vases. 15. I56)1. of which some seven are known. Wings and snakes are wholly absent2. 967) shows Triptolemos with a sceptre in a car winged and drawn by a snake. i. 14—16. and again from those of the fourth.

collection of Viscount Beugnot into the Musee Vivenel at Compiegne. 8 takes the figure with the kdntharos and vine-branches to be Ikarios. Dionysos. Fig. 277 ff. side. has Triptolemos with corn-ears and sceptre on its obverse. Triptolemos has corn-stalks. Their travelling seats are similar. Haddon The Study of Man London and New York 1898 p. nos. cit. B 607. which passed from the Fig. ('The Evolution of the Cart') and H. 157 a and b)1. Lenormant. Stud. C. C. 1903 xxiii. Another amphora. 1 Lenormant—de Witte op. 5 a and 5 b. 157 £. Vases ii. and are obviously travelling across the world to dispense their respective bounties of corn and wine (fig. i32fF. 49 A. L. but not identical. Dionysos conducted by Seilenos on the other. 157 a. represents Triptolemos conducted by Hermes on one side. Dionysos with kdntharos and vinebranches on its reverse. Atlas pi. formerly in the collection of M.214 The Solar Wheel in Greece Further. a kdntharos and a vine with grapebranches. B 604. B 608). cit. Strube Studien ilber den Bilderkreis von Eleusis Leipzig 1870 p. A small amphora. 15. Lorimer 'The Country Cart of Ancient Greece' in \hzjourn. for that of Dionysos has old-fashioned spokes2 and is fitted with wings a winged car drawn by snakes (Brit. . 2 On these see A. not Dionysos. iii pi. Overbeck op. 161 ff. Cat. there is a remarkable similarity between the equipment of Triptolemos and that of Dionysos. Mus. Both are seated in the same attitude on approximately similar thrones. Hell. The hero favoured by Dionysos would then balance the hero favoured by Demeter. B 603.

.

X bJO .

158 a.Triptolemos 215 Fig. .

158 a and by. Furtwangler loc. i pi. 4—6. 4. For Strube's view see supra p. 48 f. if. 2273. 214 n.. called the x^XWffTOS or KovKijpbs.' as Simonides termed it3. Athen. Reinach op. frag. iii pis. takes this axe-bearing figure to be Triptolemos. Only. Atlas pi. Triptolemos and Dionysos dispensing their several bounties of corn and wine from a two-wheeled throne suggest comparison with a spring custom observed at Kosti in northern Thrace. Lenormant—de Witte op. 57. 84eft. iii pi. 43). 1 Gerhard op. not Dionysos. ii. he is wreathed. a winged and wheeled seat. 41. cit. the 'ox-slaughtering servitor of king Dionysos. For further evidence connecting Dionysos with the double axe see infra ch. Berlin ii. at. 38. fitt.2i6 The Solar Wheel in Greece (fig. wears a chiton and a kimdtion. 38 ( = Inghirami op. ii. now at Berlin (fig. 43 ( = Inghirami Vas. cit. cit.e. 263) is probably Hephaistos rather than Dionysos. and carries a kdntharos. cit. cp. ii § 3 (c) i (o). 15. ' A man. i. Lenormant—de Witte 0^. 548 no. cit. Reinach op. I59) 2 . cit. i pi. 38. dressed in sheep or goat .— a most improbable view. iii pi. ii. 38. The inscription according to Furtwangler. cit. Dionysos is again seen sitting on Fig. Tischbein Hamilton Vases iv pi. 2 Furtwangler Vasensamml. Gerhard op. perhaps Ky<t>i[<r]ios /ca[X]6s. i. As on the Lenormant and Beugnot vases. Lenormant—de Witte op. 172 Bergk4 ap. A propos of this resemblance between Triptolemos and Dionysos we must here notice a red-figured kylix from Vulci. 3 Simonid. 32. reads KE0I • TO^KA • O$. not—as had been previously supposed—-H^aicr-ros KO\OS. Overbade op. The god with a double axe on a mule escorted by a Satyr and two Maenads in Laborde Vases Lamberg i pi. i pi. though accepted by Reinach op. in place of a vine he grasps a double axe. 265.. cit. cit. cit. i pi. 159. 8f.

i. furnished with snakes. Babelon Monn. In the great majority of cases the scene represented is that of Triptolemos starting on his long journey. wearing a mask and with bells round his neck. He is then thrown into the river. The king then mounts a two-wheeled cart and is drawn to the church.). Demeter for Fig. W. Fig. 450—400 B. Third Series 1887 vii. Two vases. Stud. receiving in return a gift. not a bearded man. 160). I figure a specimen in the McClean collection. His seat is always winged and sometimes. stripped of his skin clothes (okbyvfj. 161. 17). 26 pi. who gives wine to each householder. Mus. This he finally casts on the ground in front of the church. 175. we find Triptolemos invariably depicted as a beardless youth. ii. . and in his hand a broom of the kind used for sweeping out ovens. and then resumes his usual dress' (R. the most part fills him a phidle. no. i. 1906 xxvi. or at least from black-figured to red-figured vases.vos). i. which shows the hero with his corn-ears drawn by two winged snakes (Brit. Cambridge (fig. and each tries to make the king throw upon themselves the seed which he holds in his hands. Cat.C. Coins Mysie p. Hell. pi. rom. an electrum stater of Kyzikos c. With him is a boy carrying a wooden bottle and a cup. 16 pi. Greenwell in the Num. Here two bands are formed of married and unmarried men respectively. goes round collecting food and presents. especially on the later1 vases. M. 201 f. They are accompanied by boys dressed as girls. 6. A skins. 9. 53 f. out of many. Dawkins in the Journ. gr. Chron.Triptolemos 217 Passing from the sixth century to the fifth. that he may pour a libation before he goes. 1425 f. 1 Cp. will serve as illustrations.. 160. He is addressed as king and escorted with music.

Keleos is present as the father of Triptolemos and king of Eleusis. 6 This was the view of C. now at Berlin. iii. i. i pi. Furtwangler—Reichhold Gr.218 The Solar Wheel in Greece kdlpis at Munich. xviii)2. they raise Their scaly necks beneath the bended yokes. Zeit. pi. 106. is based on an actual rite. Walters History of Ancient Pottery London 1905 ii. 5 H. 16—18. Pros. 24.' 7 Claud. it seems reasonable to suppose that this very popular type. Lo. 176. . 15. as the representative of the tribe Hippothontis. HIPPOOON A*AcD3>BcD SOMB-IOTHISIT AEMETER KEUEO. to which the deme Eleusis belonged. and phidle. may stand for his palace or for the temple of Demeter. Hippothon. And smoothly gliding rear their rosy crests To the sound of hymns 7 . corn-ears. AEMETEP. 1 Jahn Vasensamml.Cp. 2 R. cit. Lenormant—de Witter/. G. 142 ff. PEPO0ATA (sic). 105 f. cit. while Nike hovering in front greets his advent (fig. but more probably represents—as Lenormant suggested4—the Telesterion at Eleusis with its forest of columns. fitt. de rapt. Vasenmalerei ii. 35. 2521. Tnghirami Fas. cit. 27 f. in which the protege of the goddess. 16. B. shows him in mid course shedding a whole shower of seeds. Atlas pi. A krater at Palermo found in a tomb at Girgenti in 1841. scattering grain broadcast wherever he went. no. Arch. Atlas pi. 30.534. Triptolemos both in ritual and in myth commenced his triumphant progress. 340 TPI PTOUEMO5. Bottiger and F. 3 See Overbeck ib. 50. Welcker : see Overbeck op. The column behind Keleos (pi. Berlin ii. Indeed. which occurs sometimes duplicated. also E. Thus uplifted into the air. 109 f. Overbeck op. on other vase-paintings of the scene3. cit. 15. seated on a wheeled and winged throne between Demeter and Persephone: the former holds an oinockoe. 702 f. has much the same scene amplified by the addition of Keleos on the right and Hippothon on the left. Overbeck op. A red-figured kylix from the Pourtales collection. the departure of Triptolemos5. ' Flugmaschine. from the Canino collection. pi. cit. P. Miinchen p. 9. shows him with sceptre. 4 Lenormant—de Witte op. iii pi. Claudian in his description of the Eleusinian rites plainly alludes to such a scene: Triptolemos' snakes are hissing. The wheeled throne is here provided with snakes as well as wings. idi) 1 . part of the sacred drama performed at Eleusis. 7 f. 12 ff. mounting his winged seat was swung aloft by means of a geranos or scenic crane6.\\\ pi. 8 Furtwarigler Vasensamml. 1865 xxiii pi. cit.-162)'. no. the latter a necklace (fig. Bethe Prolegomena zur Geschichte des Theaters im Alterthum Leipzig 1896 p. A. 61. 15. Lenormant—de Witte op. Pis. Politi' Cinque vasi di premio ' in the Sicilian journal La Concordia 1841 ii. i a. i. pi. 233 f. 204.

Plout. cit. 148.Triptolemos 219 Fourth-century vase-paintings of Triptolemos may be subdivided into an earlier and a later group. 15. . Atlas pi. Mus. 4—6. SteineBerlin p. 264 pi. 2 Schol. For similar coin-types see Overbeck ib. 120.408. cit. 9. s. The earlier group."Aypa Kal"Aypai. ib. on which Triptolemos appears in a chariot drawn by two winged snakes and surrounded by enormous grains of corn. 25). no. d.v. 131 f. nos. Overbeck ib. 163. Byz. either into the lesser mysteries at Agra1 or Melite2. 21. 260 pi. 5841". ib. but does not mention Agra. 71. 398. 49. n (Nikaia). Reinach op. and p. 4 (Sardeis). 1 Steph. Brit. 1332 (Alexandreia). Fig. ran. Aristoph. Aristoph. 540 n. 158 pi. 162. p. 2. Lydia p. Lycaonia etc. 501. Cat. 1013 states that the fMKpa /Averripia were devised by the Athenians in order to provide for the initiation of Herakles. p. i ff. 2913 pi. 32. p. represents the initiation of Herakles. The schol. Pontus etc. or Overbeck op. Coins Alexandria pp. 582. (Tarsos). 156. 27. pp. comprising two specimens referable to the first half of the century. Miinztaf. who as a stranger could not otherwise have been initiated. ib. \. 587 compares a late jasper at Berlin (Furtwangler Geschnitt. 82. or of Herakles and the Dioskouroi. 195 f.

2. 163..Atlas pi. 434.rfrpos /ecu K6p^s appyra iepa irp&rois ^evois 5«£cu 'Hjoa/cXet re 7"4> iifj-erep^ o-pX^iy^fl ^cu AiOffKOiJpoiv rolv vfierfpoiv TroXiraiv. The former has a high head-dress and a sceptre. p. 18. St. 13 f. Hell. ^d/cxo?. shows Demeter seated in the centre with Persephone standing beside her. 224. i. Stadt Athen pp. et. Favorin. 2 Stephani Vasensamml. Aristoph.v. eg. i. no. Herakles approaches. 6 A^yercu fjiev Tpi7TT6Xe//. Above all—like the Apollod. cit. 1859 P. Append. 322 ff. and a male figure holding two torches—probably Eumolpos rather than a mere daidouchos. 349. ino. mag. 215. 18. Souid.a dupriffaffdai is spoken by Kallias 6 SctSoO^os to the Spartans and probably refers to Eleusis. /cat TOV Atf/J-riTpos d£ KapTrov et'j irp<j}TT]v rrjv 'KeXoirovvtiaov aTrepfj. i63)2. inscr. s. Eros. cp. Pet. 2185 f. He carries his club in his right hand. viol. p. 4. Gr. 1792. Eudok. whom we cannot identify with any assurance. 185. Between them stands the youthful Ploutos with a horn of plenty. and Dionysos Fig. i § 6 (f) ix. 2. Pal. Hippocratis (iii. 224. Compte-rendu St.22O The Solar Wheel in Greece (more probably) into the greater mysteries at Eleusis1. 'jf.. Hesych. 5.o5 6 i)fj. The 1 . Corp. the latter leans on a column and holds a long torch. Bekker anecd. lex.v. a seated female figure. To the left we see Aphrodite. \. now at St Petersburg (fig.. and infra ch. 6. 17 ff. Myth.. to the right. Diod. 3 Schol. on the left.fTepos irpbyovos ra Ar]/j. Overbeck op. Soranos v. yf. fiaKXos. Xen. s. 25. In the background. = Cougny Anth. characterised by his ivy-wreath and his thyrsos. but as an initiate wears a myrtle-wreath and holds in his left hand a bdcchos or bundle of sacred boughs3. Petersburg p. See further A.73 ff. 408. Atlas pi. 411 f. 12. 415. 32 f. Mommsen Feste d. 3. 853 Kiihn). A pelike from Kertsch. Furtwangler in Roscher Lex.

now in the British Museum (fig. . 8. which is fitted with large wings and snakes. Herakles has his club. Cat. p. It is also carved on the frieze of the small Propylaea (Durm Baukunst d. again depicts Demeter seated and Persephone standing beside her—the one with a sceptre. 71.Triptolemos 221 sun-god in the sky—hovers Triptolemos on his winged car. cit. E. Fig. F 68. 6. 561 fig. p. cit. To this Eleusinian company two daidoiichoi (perhaps we may venture to regard them as Eubouleus and Eumolpos) are about to introduce Herakles and the Dioskouroi. Gr? p. 164. ii. Mus. faces towards and converses with Demeter. In the foreground is set a stool (?). Overbeck op. iii. 20. not the Telesterion. 73 pi. 91 pi. no. i—4). 2638). Lenormant—de Witte op. 29 pi. 63 A. Vases iv. pi. i. Atlas pi. Mus. 3. p. 81. the other with a torch. 45 f. In the background. 1 Brit. pi. as well as on that of the altar from the Eleusinion at Athens (ib. 23 pi. near which lie two uncertain objects of oblong shape. 13. 112 ff. over a hill. I64)1. etc. possibly tablets (?) required by the initiates. one of the Dioskouroi is accompanied by his star. 2633). 17). Triptolemos on his wheeled seat. Gerhard Gesammelte akademische Abhandlungen Berlin 1868 pi. 118 coloured plate) and on that of the great altar at Eleusis (Daremberg-Saglio Did. though /3d/cxos appears on silver (Brit. A be\\-&rafe'r from Santa Agata de' Goti. pp.. and on copper coins of Eleusis (ib. 18. 570 fig. 14 f. The later group of fourth-century vases is decorated with a scene probably drawn from the theatre. ii. 6) and copper coins of Athens (ib. 19. Cat. p. ant. all three wear wreaths and carry the mystic bdcchoi. 15. Coins Attica. appears a Doric building and two Doric columns: these may be taken to represent the Telesterion. i8of.

Pet. (4) Stephani Vasensamml. p. Vasenmalerei \. 162 ff. These vases. which in three out of the four cases has become a chariot facing us full-front and drawn by two monstrous snakes. (4). clumsier workmanship found in 1837 by a See Overbeck op. a gold phidle of later. and a lynx-cat with a bird in its mouth is decidedly reminiscent of Egypt6. xix)4. Ath. 126 fig. In the foreground flows a river inscribed Neilos. 8 O. 2. 849. the head of Triptolemos on an ' Underworld' vase at Munich (Jahn Vasensamml. 10. 3 Supra p. Atlas pi. Man. Matz 7 and O. Harrison Myth.' The locality is further indicated perhaps by the flora. Petersburg i. Close to Demeter and Triptolemos are two Horai appropriately holding corn-stalks. is here reproduced (pi. 13. 273 ff. 253—256. A common feature is their treatment of the hero's wheeled seat. Anc. (3) Heydemann op. 690. which is confined by a white band5. and Peitho on the right. an Apulian amphora from the Pizzati collection now at St Petersburg. One of these. 7 F. 48 pi. 9 Furtwangler Ant. certainly by the fauna. cit. though with considerable variations and innovations as to the surrounding figures. Mimchen^. of which four are known 2 . cit. landscape. i. 16. cit. etc. 96. Zeit. 14 and pi. C. 13. 103 f. Compte-rendu St. the wings diminish 3 and on two of the vases are absent altogether. 2 1 . Keller Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 1909 p. liii fig. (2) Supra p. and the Petrossa cup of the Vienna collection. Atlas pi. 5 Cp. id. Overbeck op. 16. 16. Kern 'De Triptolemo aratore' in the Genethliacon Gottingense Halis Saxonum 1888 p. a group of Aphrodite. Overbeck op. 1872 xxix. viz. Kern 8 justly compare two other monuments that exhibit Triptolemos in an Egyptian setting—the tazza Farnese of the Naples Museum. 10). no. It shows Demeter. 2 no. Atlas pi. With the St Petersburg amphora F. Gemmen i pis. 350. Neapel p. cit. 4. no. Atlas pi. 54—55. and Pan with his syrinx leaning against a tree-trunk on the left. Lotiform plants are growing on the river-bank. 71 ff. cit. regularly exhibit the departure of Triptolemos. Eros. Furtwangler—Reichhold Gr. 551 f. supra p.. St. p. 15. 4 f. A trait new to the vase-painters is that two ears of corn are visible in his hair. The background is occupied by figures frequent on Apulian vases and of no special significance here. As the snakes increase in size. i<5. p. ii. 126 n. 4 Supra n. 557 f. a magnificent sardonyx cup probably fashioned at Alexandreia in the Ptolemaic period9. 6 O. 'the Nile. 136. filling the phidle of Triptolemos.222 The Solar Wheel in Greece attempts to connect it with the Triptolemos of Sophokles have failed for lack of evidence1. 127 n. 19 ff. Strube Supplement zu den Studien uber den Bilderkreis von Eleusis Leipzig 1872 pi. no. as on the earlier red-figured vases. p. Overbeck op. (i) Heydemann Vasensamml. Matz 'Goldschale von Pietraossa' in the Arch. 3245. who richly clad in a stage costume stands erect in his chariot. 552. 1862 p. 54 ff. no.

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X X CD .

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X X - .

6747 pi. O.C. s. cit. 28 (Frag. Kern 2 argues that all the evidence. a ploughshare in the other. Steine Berlin p. pi. georg. 5381". 3 Varro fragg. iii. 5 Philostephanos irepi evp^^druvfrag. who points out that in genuinely Egyptian sources Osiris is never conceived as a ploughman. 6 O. i. de Ridder.. cit. Rubensohn 6 . Gr. 248 no. 19. 19. in fact that he first became a ploughman in the Alexandrine age owing to his identification with Osiris. 64. 15—16. who carries two torches. Vat. who still holds the plough8. 147. no. cit. id. georg. Anth. 4. in Verg. 52. i. Serv. 424. 1899 xxiv. 59. Moreover.hand. i. 32 f. (Makedonios). 61.rj A^/X^TTJP TOV airbyovov 'Pdpov Tpn 2 1 . interp. georg. Lenonnant—de Witte op. Vases de la Bibl. 17. The other vase cited by Rubensohn is a skyphos F. 4 Overbeck op. cp. georg. which may be dated about 450 B. been successfully refuted by O. ^ff. Atlas pi. 24 (Mazzara sarcophagus). But cp. 19. 518 ff. hist. On the Petrossa phidle he holds a couple of ploughs. Lenormant and de Witte. 78 Funaioli ap. Atlas pi. Pal. On it we see (pi. in Verg. He takes with him his sceptre and a bunch of corn. and her mother. p. so that in Hellenistic times he must have got the plough from Triptolemos.. cit. Matz loc. 183 f. in Verg. but a plough-pole and yoke in one . 4. He is in the act of mounting his winged seat. 588 f. p. s. It was found at Cumae and is now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. Myth. 77. interp. Rubensohn. Overbeck op. but turns for a final word of advice or farewell to Persephone. the high back of which terminates in a griffin's head. i. On the tazza Farnese Triptolemos has not only a bag of seed on his left arm. connecting Triptolemos with the plough is comparatively late. ib. 59—71. the inference being that on Egyptian soil the Greek agricultural hero was identified with Osiris. One is a \xz\\-krater of Attic make. This view has.v. Rubensohn 'Triptolemos als Pfliiger' in the Ath. Plin. nat. 8 So Gerhard. 'Paptds. 3. 13. i. what is said of Horos by Nigidius ap.. ii. . 19. cit. Rubensohn is able to adduce two vases of the pre-Hellenistic period. 112 f. Gemmentaf. pp. 199. fast. cp. 7. in Verg. 7 De Ridder Cat. 18 (Furtwangler Geschnitt. pp. 625 f. i.v. however. who has had his lesson in ploughing from Demeter and is about to start on his tour of instruction. Both these cups associate Triptolemos with Isis and the Nile-god. Kern loc. 48). 'Papids •.. 135—137 pi. xx) 7 Triptolemos. Overbeck thought that the holder of the torches was meant for Demeter. Souid. rather than Triptolemos from him. Mitth. Prob. georg. iii. p. 316 no. 315 f. 102—105. interp. on which Triptolemos is definitely associated with a plough. Serv. Serv. pp.Triptolemos 223 peasant between Jassy and Bucharest1. hist. who was regarded by the Greeks and Romans as the inventor of the plough5. Serv. whether literary 3 or monumental 4 . the holder of the plough for Persephone. 559f. Ov. i r . in Verg. O. 8630 pi. Nat. Souid. 7. Muller) ap. 15.

it is plain that Triptolemos' association with the plough is not only Hellenistic. but Hellenic . On the krater the goddess grasped the plough. as before. The skyphos thus forms a pendant to the krater. coniug. praecept. or perhaps merely by way of simplifying a somewhat ambitious design.C. 1899 xxiv. 2 The mother is clearly distinguished from the daughter by her sceptre. her richer clothing. * Cp. On the skyphos their positions are precisely reversed. 1 Ath. carries a couple of torches2. We need not. SiddffKuv TIJV TOV GITOV yeupyiav — a passage well illustrated by our vase.C. 483 rpliroKov 52 rty dpoupdv (p7]<nv e?ret TptTrroXe/xos TrpcDros i-cnreipe ffiTOv. therefore. pi. 3 Schol. 7. Triptolemos here (fig.3 Triptolemos is indeed the hero of the 'thrice-ploughed' (tripolos} field4. I65) 1 holds the plough himself. But it can hardly be doubted that both vases alike represent Triptolemos about to start on his mission. However that may be. 8v jSacrfXe'a cp-qaiv. her protege the corn. referable to the fifth century or at latest to the early decades of the fourth century B. 42 'A. while Demeter presents him with the corn-stalks and Persephone. Flout.dY]vaioi rpeis dporovs iepovs ayovcri' Trpurov CTTI . And Dr P.224 The Solar Wheel in Greece of Boeotian fabric at Berlin. than the other. Giles has argued from the form of his name rrjv TOV fflrov yewpyiav • Trape'ir^e 5e aOry /cat ap/j. //. and her more matronal form.K6vTUv.a TTTTJVUV §pa. either because this vase depicts a slightly earlier moment Fig. 18. 67 ff.too.evos 6 TjOtTrroXeyitos Trepiriei. hesitate to accept the derivation of his name put forward by Agallis of Korkyra in the third century B. ii § 9 (h) ii (§). Infra ch. her more imposing head-dress. 165. The winged car is absent from the skyphos. els 6 diroxov(j. Mitth. Trdaav rrf yrjv.

The earliest vase-paintings showed Triptolemos sitting on a one-wheeled seat. 3320. Kern in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. narr. ne cursu moraretur. 752. Myth. 2. p. K. 3. 2261 has drawn up a list of handsome young charioteers. 213. 10. Myth. 140. Eur. the charioteer of Oinomaos. Tenages. A possible survival of this conception occurs in the Astronomica of Hyginus. 14 qui primus omnium una rota dicitur usus. -roiirwv Se TT&VTUV tepc6raros effTLV 6 ya/u. the inventor— 2/a'py TOV TraXcuora'rou T&V (nrbpwv VTrbfJ-vrifta. 416 n.ri\ios cnropos /cat aporos eirl vaiduv TeKvuo-ei with the remarks of O. i. cp. He regards them all as various forms of the solar hero common to the coast-districts of the eastern Aegean. schol.v. 3318. that of the hero sitting on the single solar wheel. no. not to mention his alter ego Virbius.evov ~Bov$vyiov. 6. who came to an untimely end. 7). Giles in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 1908 p. Rev. 212. what are we to make of his wheeled seat ? I believe it to have been simply an early expression to denote the sun. i. ii. 998): on Apulian vases he often has as his attribute a wheel (Reinach Rep. i. 16. 2. who compassed his master's death by inserting a linch-pin of wax. poet. If such be the name and nature of Triptolemos. Phaethon. Myrtilos. ii. a suggestive name given by the Troezenians to Killas (Paus. too. or by not inserting a linch-pin at all. J. 167. 10). Myrtilos. To these we may add Sphairos. "Aporoi lepot.Triptolemos 225 with its -pt-. am. 524 f. 5 Supra p. 4 Hyg. Malaos. where we read that Triptolemos 'is said to have been the first of all to use a single wheel. that his worship came to Eleusis along with improved methods of cultivation from the fertile plains of northern Greece1.) from Thrace Dryas. i. 3 calls attention to a passage in the Rig-veda i. Heydemann Vasensamml. voyaged in the solar cup lent him by Okeanos or Nereus or Helios himself 2 . Supra p. 2 1 C. was originally a solar hero. travels on the solar wheel received at the hand of Demeter. Ap. Rhod. astr. This we naturally took to be a two-wheeled seat seen in profile3. when he crosses the earth. 'he of the Wheel' (trockos). not -p-. 290) or a couple of wheels (ib. Dechelette Manuel d1 archeologie Paris 1910 ii. according to one version he was the son of the Danaid Phaethousa (schol. Neapel^. so Triptolemos. 164. who lost a wheel and thereby came to grief. P.' It is noteworthy. is killed through the removal of his linen-pins (Parthen. Atymnos. and the great Troezenian hero Hippolytos himself. IS . which describes the solar chariot ' of the single wheel' drawn by ' the single horse' of seven-fold name.' detirepov ev Trj'Papia' rpirov {nrb ir6\iv rbv Ka\oA/j. 1903 xvii. Or. Tiimpel in Roscher Lex. Just as Herakles. indeed. 1215 ff. They include the following names—Apsyrtos. s. 3 Gruppe Gr. ii. 468 n. Rel. 128. Killas. But I now suggest that it arose from a yet earlier religious conception. and was subsequently thrown out of Pelops' car into the sea near Geraistos. Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. In a parallel myth (Class. that so he might avoid delay on his journey 4 . It will be observed that this explanation of the myth squares well with its progressive representation. This raises a suspicion that more than one mythical charioteer. 27of. Vases i. 3227). that in the Argive tradition 3 the father of Triptolemos was Trochilos. Konon narr. 5. when he crossed the sea. is a figure comparable with Phaethon. like Oinomaos. 6.

i. 335. ii. i § 6 (d) i (e). p. The earliest extant monuments that so represent them are of Roman date (Overbeck op. 220. 16. But the word trochilos means also 'a wren. Reinach Rep. 100 fig. 4 E. Vienna 7 . is inadequate. p. 387f. for a whole series of black-figured Attic vases at Cambridge4. 9. 265 ff.. man. de spectac. pi. 2. dr. 6 Furtwangler Vasensamml. Lenormant—de Witte El. Berlin 6 . The matter is discussed infra ch. Vases de la Bibl. Myth. Athens8. Stud. cit.' while the Argives made him the son of Trochilos. . Rel. the ' Green Woodpecker. Boston9. The reproduction in E. 9.K6vT(av). Triptolemos' seat3. i28f. In this again it followed the example of the solar vehicle . Gerhard Uber die Lichtgottheiten auf Kunstdenkmiilern Berlin 1840 pi. man. 9 Robinson Cat. Vases Cambridge p. 5. Lenormant—de Witte £l. See further Gruppe Gr. 15. 116. Berlin i. 7 Laborde Vases Lamberg ii Frontispiece. to return from fancy to fact. red-figured as distinct from black-figured vases added wings and snakes to Fig. 3 1 . 248 n. no. 2 di(f>pov. n. cer. The snakes themselves are not winged till the second century B. 5 after Stackelberg Grdber der Hellenen pi. 421 no. pi. But. 1983. I figure the central portion of the scene infra ch.' Conceivably both birds were bound to a wheel. Myth.' And it can hardly be fortuitous that the Athenians made Triptolemos the son of Keleos. 211. 1995 from the same source. 8 L.C. Supra p. and used as a solar charm 2 . Paris5. 115. A. Gardner Cat. 386 f. (Apollod. i. represents 2 Tertull. 5. 166. 1899 xix. i. 217. This vase has four unwinged in place of two winged horses. i § 6 (d) xii. ii. and in Roscher Lex. 5 De Ridder Cat. r. 12 : infra p. 7).226 The Solar Wheel in Greece some said—of the first chariot1. r. pi. 807 n. like the iynx. 52 no. 554 Atlas pi. the 'Wren. Hell. Savignoni in ihefourn. Vases ii.Trrrjv&v dpa. unpublished. Nat. Vases Boston no.

a late bas-relief in black stone brought by E. on a car drawn by) two winged horses. however. i § 6 (d) v.e. who stands in a car drawn by two snakes and scatters grain. They say that once. Lenormant 'Triptoleme en Syrie' with fig. Cat. 79 pi. iii. 567 Mtiller)). 8 Paus. shows Triptolemos. The crescent moon associated with the hero suggests rather that Triptolemos was here identified with the Phrygian god Men3. Kunst ii. the Lydian Tylos5.—as F. Thereupon Triptolemos and Eumelos founded a city in common and called it Antheia after the name of Eumelos' son8. as we shall see. a native of the soil. This. and the Cilician Bctal-tarz*. 3 Brit. Mus. within a naiskos actually decorated with the Egyptian disk (fig. d. Head Hist. thereby recalling the winged and snaky disks of Egyptian and Assyrian art1. 2. 15—2 . Mitth. 205 ff. alt. i66)2. Myth. 27. F. when Triptolemos had fallen asleep.61 n. 4. as O. the ancient Byblos. equipped with both wings and snakes.57 Infra ch. i. 222 f. 6 M. Lenormant had thought of Amynos and Magos ot /careSetfay Kw^as /cat Trofyway (Philon Bybl. Arch. p. 10. 1878 iv.7—a symbol which. cxiii. was the first to dwell in the land as king over a few people. 7. 1899 xxiv. was solar in origin and. Antheias the son of Eumelos was minded to yoke the snakes to the chariot of Triptolemos and to try his own hand at sowing. In the foregoing section we have traced the gradual development of Triptolemos' snake-drawn chariot from the simple solar wheel. in the Gaz. being taught to build a city. hist. 97— 100. 3 So O. Finally. When Triptolemos came from Attike. 585. Miiller—Wieseler Denkm. num? p. Coins Lydia p. Eumelos received cultivated crops and. 338 cited by Gruppe Gr. 4 Supra p. 18. Mayer in the Verhandlwigen der XL Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmanner Gorlitz 1889 p. Renan from Gharfin near Gabeil. the corn-ears borne along on Triptolemos' wheeled seat are comparable with the corn-ears attached to the triskeles on the coins of Panormos. the solar disk being visible over his head. moreover. Overbeck op. Gruppe 1 2 Supra p. 114. Rel. This derivation is emphatically confirmed by the myth of Antheias. u (Frag. cit.Triptolemos 227 Helios rising as a draped male figure standing between (i. Rubensohn in the Ath. The Berlin vase joins to the disk a couple of serpentiform appendages. Indeed. p. 260 pi. Lenormant was careful to point out—may be a matter of mere decoration. named it Aroe after the tilling of the ground.' Antheias falling off the car of Triptolemos is. as elsewhere with the Egyptian Osiris4. 1173 n. etc. But fate overtook him and he fell out of the chariot. Gr. frag. 2—3. 657. as told in Pausanias' account of Patrai: 'Those who relate the earliest traditions of Patrai declare that Eumelos.

4. 380 identify the divinised pair as Gennanicus and Agrippina. 78— 84). a roll in her right. 5. p. 'a genuine variant of the Phaethon legend/ and supports our contention that Triptolemos' car was of solar origin. Triptolemos was said to have received his car from Demeter2-— a statement which cannot be traced back beyond the second century B. i. 3 Apollod. Nat. Myth. Rel. pi. d. later literature makes Demeter travel in a snake-drawn chariot when in search of her daughter Persephone. 807 n. however. In the middle ages this cameo was thought to represent the triumph of Joseph in Egypt! ' 1 . 30. alt. d. in pi. Moreover. 167. 5. 544 n. Inst.C. the former scatters the grain from his paludamentum. 2 Gruppe Gr. Possibly Demeter Horr)pi. d. 4 Babelon Cat. p. 92 f. 2 is our earliest authority. Kunst\. •2. 1839 xi.). I6/) 4 shows Claudius and Messalina in the guise of Triptolemos and Demeter. In this way Gruppe Gr. have been commonly accepted in Roman times.3 It must. Mliller— Wieseler Denkm. no.o<f>6pos of Antheia (Athen. Inst. the latter leans forward with corn-ears and poppies in her left hand. Myth. arguing that Germanicus appears again as a Roman Triptolemos on the silver patera from Aquileia at Vienna (Mon. Ann. 276 Album pi. 144 f. Camees de la Bibl. 4600) was a figure analogous to the drink-bearing Demeter of the Triptolemos vases (supra p.228 The Solar Wheel in Greece observes1. 217 f. Fig. 69. Rel. for a cameo at Paris (fig. p.

Coins Phrygia p. Cat. cp. num? p. Phrygia p. 254). 58 pi. p. Cat. Mus. Coins Attica etc. cit. p. h. Head Hist. 4. Munzen p.3. fast. Cat. 642 ff.. Gordus-Iulia (Brit. The scene of her quest was Fig. 91 pi. p. Keller Tier.Triptolemos 229 she approached Eleusis1.. 17. p. 117). Waddington—Babelon—ReinachAfo/m. 2. 296 pi.. num. no. p. and holding in r. Cat. 20. 25 pi. cit. 89).4. Cat. ib. Ov. 14. 19). 2 Ov. 15. Lydia p.C. cit. the Ionian League (ib. 19). Claudio-Seleucia (Brit. 548). Ionia p. 6). i). Munztaf. p. Coins Lycia etc. 502 f. ii. 337 no. 54. r78. Magnesia ad Sipylum (ib. p. Coins Lydia p. Art follows suit. Nysa (ib. i68)8. Cat. 40. 137 pi. Occasionally she holds corn-ears and a sceptre6. 8. Apollonis in Lydia (Head Hist. 229 f. Coins Pontus etc. Demeter 'EXeucrtJ'ia has a snaky chariot. 4. 168. Hierapolis in Phrygia (Overbeck op. cit. The earlier bronze coins of Eleusis. 14. Korakesion (Brit. 90 pi. Cat. Coins Lydia p. Imhoof-Blumer Gr. common on sarcophagi of Roman date.C. Sardeis (Brit. 12. 661 Munztaf. 187). 10. 3 See Overbeck op. 10. 5. Kyzikos (ib. 660). Magnesia ad Maeandrum (Brit. 394 no. Imhoof-Blumer Monn. 15. cit. or a poppyhead and a sceptre7. 794 ff. 54. and not infrequently on late Greek coins5. Mus. 660). Mus. 14 f. 12). no. The goddess has one torch only on imperial coins of Kretia-Flaviopolis (Waddington— Babelon—Reinach op. 17. Cat. 96 pi. Kelenderis (Brit. two ears of corn' (ib. 125 pi. 114 pi. 660 f. p. 497 f. Mus. 9. p. 3. 660 Munztaf. cit. Munztaf. Cat. 334 no. Mus. Mus. met. p. ii. 9 So on imperial coins of Hyrkanis (Brit. more often a couple of torches (fig. Imhoof-Blumer Gr. Coins Ionia p. 20. 6). 3 Babelon Monn.und Pflanzenbilder atif Munzen und Gemmen Leipzig 1889 p. 134 pi. 47 pi. 54). 8). Maionia (ib. 30). p. 4 Id. Volteius about the year 88 B. Miinzen p. Sardeis (ib. 112 pi. gr. Eleus. 1 . 8. Pessinous (id. rom. i.Min. 17). Mysia p. 1871 pi. 15. cit. 254). 117 no. 5. 762 = id. cit. 10). Lydia p. 73 no. Mus. Mus. 19. 135). rarely corn-ears and torches too9.^r. Coins Lycaonia etc. 8). 13. Cat. Coins Lydia p. 566 no.. 12). 21). Mus. 351 no. 661). 31 pi. rep. Amorion (Brit. i. p. Stratonikeia (Overbeck op. Imhoof-Blumer Monn. gr. In Orph. Coins Lycaonia etc. 6 So on late bronze coins of Athens (Brit. Kretia-Flaviopolis (Brit. and in this way she quitted it again2. Ceres sends an Oread in her snakechariot to fetch Fames from Scythia. Hadrianopolis in Thrace (Overbeck op. Beule Les monnaies d'Athenes Paris 1858 p. p. 17—21. in winged car drawn by two serpents. then on those of C. met. gr. p. Cat. 4. Overbeck op. Attica etc. ib. 289 ff. 6q=Choix de monn. 38—40. 561 f. Coins Macedonia etc. 660). ib. 581 ff. Demeter in her snakechariot appears first on Roman denarii of the moneyer M. fast. 165 pi. Brouzos (ib. xxxv n. and O. Miinzen p. Lydia p. 7 So on an imperial coin of Nikomedeia in Bithynia (Imhoof-Blumer Gr. Lydia p. 6). 16). 13. cTAs. p. 545 f. 9. 152). which are said to represent ' Demeter or Triptolemos seated 1. 81 no. Erythrai in Ionia (id. Nikaia in Bithynia (Overbeck op. 8 pi. Mus. Ankyra in Galatia (Overbeck op. p. Mus. 14. 29. 391: yet see E. 338 no. show Triptolemos rather than Demeter (Overbeck op.1 p. Dem. pp. p. Vibius Pansa in 43 B. 273). 9. In Ov. p. 6. 9. But the mode of conveyance may be a touch due to Ovid himself. 8 So on imperial coins of Thessalonike (Brit. cit.).

EF i. 7 Ail. cit. i. Tertull. EF i—it is not clearly seen in Overbeck op. Horapoll. 7. 21. d. Inst. X. pi. 612 f. 4 Against this explanation is the apparent presence of a leonine head on the hub of Hades' chariot-wheel (Ann. 3041. cit. 3.. 176). 1 . cit. Rev. 2 Overbeck op. 12. 183.23° The Solar Wheel-in Greece and here she is seen holding a torch and drawn by two monstrous snakes usually winged near the chariot-wheels1. 624 f. 17. 255. Kortleitner Depolythdsmo universe Oeniponte 1908 pp. nearer east6. looked upon the lion as an animal full of inward fire and essentially akin to the sun7. Atlas pi. i. Sat. 5. i6g)3. Macrob. Sat. symp. F. . 1873 xlv. d. i). 7. 169. Mart. The lion on Roman military Overbeck op. adv. ib. an. if not with a solar (Class. Vat. an. 24.8. loc. cit. 21. 17. Myth. 3 = R. This detail perhaps points to the solar character of the vehicle in question4. 12. 4. 5 E. Cap. 3 Overbeck op. For Greeks and Romans alike. 268. 22. 5. See Plout. 201 f. 20. 13. ii. Myth. Jeremias ib. 17. cp. 17. Sarcophagi of the former type show the snake's tail twined about the hub of the wheel. 14. pp. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 ii. hierogl. pi. i.. 2. i. i6f.. 21. Inst. 17. A. therein agreeing with the Egyptians5 and the nations of the Fig. 359 ff. 3. 13. Cumont in Roscher Lex. Atlas pi. Atlas pi. Macrob. car. 2. i. 7. Marc. 1903 xvii. p. A. 72 ff. Yet Hades too may well have been credited with a fiery. de nat. or in more agitated guise holding two torches and drawn by snakes winged at the neck2. de nat. 16. iii. which takes the form of a lion's head (fig. Foerster in the Ann. 39. 6 F. 642 Atlas pi. 9. cit. Ail.

also the cults of Athene Ilapela on the road from Sparta to Arkadia (Paus. Muret—M. Probably the artist gave Athena a team of snakes because the snake was associated with her on the Akropolis at Athens: cp. Arat. S). 81 figs. 1145. de Ridder Collection de Clercq Paris 1905 iii (Les Bronzes) 206 f. 15 Wunsch. Head Hist. 48 publishes a bronze statuette of Athena holding lance and owl. 22 p. Coins Mysia p. The. 19.). 10 = Roscher Lex.und Gottergestalten der griechischen Kunst pi. 1138 n. 12. i. 7. 4 5 Schol. 20. cit. de la Tour op.. 32. 80 no. 7. 130. Atlas pi. 2. Chaplain—E. And even Athena is represented.specimen figured is from my collection) : cp. p. de. Ath. Dem. as drawn in a chariot by yoked snakes to the judgment of Paris8. with obv. cit. 154. i. an. 23. 1149. Myth. Iii a vase-painting already described (supra p: 199) she brings up the winged wheel of Ixion and may perhaps be regarded as Athena "Eipy&vq later replaced by Hephaistos (supra p. no. pi. u. Pettier Les ceramiques de la Grece propre Paris 1888 i. Dumont— J. 150. 2 1 . but see G. 46 ff. Gruppe Gr. Frazer ad loc. Marc. The crest of her helmet is supported by ' une rouelle. 4. What is perhaps more to the point. 4. cit. 520 pi. G. it was Helios that took pity on Demeter and told her where her daughter was to be sought5. But another line of tradition gave Helios a snake-drawn chariot: see infra ch. archaic head wearing a helmet on which is a wheel. 2. The sign Leo was called 'the house of the sun3. Macrob. 6). 170) have as their reverse type a head of Athena. Dem. according to certain ceramic artists of the sixth and fifth centuries B. A. 17. 2. Rel. Chabouillet loc. H. 12. cit. 16. i. Dionysos. a silver obol of Massalia c. phaen. A. de abst. 203. i. 21. H. fig. 500 B. and the word SpaKaiva used of Athena in Orph. i § 6 (d) i (7. 8). Plac. georg. 19. 3 Ail. Forrer Keltische Numismatik der Rhein. 88 Helios has a chariot drawn by horses.und Donaulande Strassburg 1908 p. Theb. Hera's chariot on this vase is drawn by four horses. adv. 102. and a barbarised copy of it—both found at Morella in Spain (E. Lyd. 17. 6 In h.).' and—be it noted—the sun was in Leo when Persephone was carried off4.. p. Vat. roamed the world a la Triptolemos on a wheeled and winged seat7. i. Certain small silver coins of Lampsakos (fig.Triptolemos 231 standards was interpreted as a solar emblem1. iii. h. A. 368 f. 23). Did he not also lend her his chariot for the search6 ? Other deities too on occasion appear in a like conveyance. on a red-figured pyxis of fine style at Copenhagen.C. Muret—M. Myth. 16. 62 ff.' as on Panathenaic amphoras found in Kyrena'ike (ib. 33. 296 pi. i. i suggests that Helios was often associated in cult with Demeter. 524 pi. Lact. num? p. 8. 214 ff. H. no. A. 1-2. 2. 13. i6i7f. 63. 1167 n. The Mithraic sun-god was figured with a lion's face2. von Brauchitsch Diepanathenaischen Preisamphoren Leipzig and Berlin 1910 p. Tertull. Conze Heroen. 18. 538 n. 10.). loc. whose helmet is marked with a wheel (Brit. 7). de mens. 6) and Athens (Paus. But of this I find no 7 convincing proof. 2. Chabouillet Catalogue des monnaies gauloises de la Bibliothtque Nationale Paris 1889 p. n. 720 = Myth. that of Aphrodite by two Erotes. 8 A. in Verg. de nat. Supra p. 155 pi. 21. So has the questing Demeter on many sarcophagi (Overbeck op. 3. rev. Porph.C. Serv. Athena is not normally connected with the solar wheel. i1.la Tour Atlas de monnaies gauloises Paris 1892 no. in Stat. Cat. Sat. 627 ff. 4 with J. Mus. 200 ff. pp. a four-spoked wheel (E. of Athena 'Tjeia at Acharnai (Paus. i. R. 31. 546.

Wernicke in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. i.. It is struck on the Phoenician standard3. 6. He is seated on a winged and wheeled seat: the wing is archaic in type and rises high behind his back . Babelon Monn. 4. Forrer Reallex. In the field above the seated deity are the Phoenician letters SA/^/. 53 p. It is a well-preserved specimen. Neubauer in the Remie des Etudes juives 1881 ii. The reverse has a square incuse surrounded by a spiral border. cp. 171 a. Six. which covers his right arm and extends to his feet. Chron. no. W. pi. 2. 53. the wheel has six spokes and an inner ring round its axle. that is. Babelon (with a query). 405]. Brit. 45 ff. 4. R. 8 (Obv. Cat. E. J. C. Quarterly Statement for 1881 London p. rom. forms given by J. ib. D. Six in the Num. H. i. within which we see a bearded divinity enthroned.the name Jehu in the old Hebrew characters exactly resembling the letters on the Moabite stone. Euting Tabula scripturae Hebraicae Argentorati 1882. The obverse shows a bearded head in three-quarter position (not double-struck) facing towards the right and wearing a crested Corinthian helmet with a bay-wreath upon it. Blanchet in the Rev. r pi.. fig. J. G. Weil in the Zeitschr. 123 ff. 1910 xxviii. 3 pi. He wears a long garment. 109 Mamertini no 2 A A P A N O Y [and K. As far back as 1880 he suggested to Prof. 19 ('Jehu in his carriage. The god has an eagle (or hawk?) 4 on his outstretched left hand. 1 . 29 no. Gardner and Dr B. pi. Pilcher in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology 1908 xxx. Hands in the Num. Num. xxi and fig. the comparative tables of Phoenician. 30.f. A. 2 PL xxi is an enlarged photograph of a cast of the reverse. 202. 43. ii. 5 pi. iff. P. Before him in the lower right hand corner of the square is an ugly bearded head. p. * See e. Rev. Old Hebrew. which has been for many years in the British Museum1 (pi. 1878 xviii. Babelon Les Perses Achtmenides Paris 1893 p. 28—34 (the Hellenising of Semitic cults in Syria began before the expeditions of Alexander the Great). Chron. and is therefore somewhat lighter than the average quarter-shekel. Ginsburg in the Palestine Exploration Fund. 4 The bird is described as a hawk by Taylor Combe. Fourth Series 1909 ix. Wiinsch). only in fact more perfectly written '). Stud. the Syrian god Hadran. Egyptian Aramaic. faAu = ihe Chaldaean god lao.. cp. Mus. 5. 124. Coins Sicily p.232 The Solar Wheel in Greece In this connexion we must take account of a unique silver drachme or quarter-shekel. 1909 p. in. Macdonald in The Year's Work in Class.. de mens. 655 f. iv Serie 1908 xii. 276 f. and in Taylor Combe Veterum populorum et regum numi qui in Museo Britannico adservantur London -1814 p. P. ib. A. J. Clermont-Ganneau.g. and E. i. 121 ff. i. Ixvi fig. gr. E. The credit of being the first to decipher and to interpret aright the inscription belongs to Monsieur C. Lyd. P. YHW5. A. 3 It weighs 50*7 grains (3*3 grammes). 229 no. V. de Luynes Essai sur la Numismatique des Satrapies et de la Phenicie sous les rois Achcemenides Paris 1846 p. d)2. 13. Num. 290 cp. 12. 154. etc.. 242 no. New Series 1877 xvii. 714 pi. Head that it was the triliteral form of the divine name Jehovah.

. See page 232 ff.Plate XXI Quarter-shekel of Gaza showing the Hebrew Godhead as a solar Zeus.

.

Rel. i. Myth. Abr. iv. who holdest heaven. 188 n. Deissmann Bibelstudien Marburg 1895 pp. And thou too. of course. I. Sayce and A. and then continues in a quasi-Semitic strain: Come. 4. foremost angel of great Zeus Mo. B Samaria. i—20. There can. Neubauer was prompt to point out— on the chronology.A. the coin being nearly five centuries later than Jehu's reign2. if.Triptolemos 233 1892. Hymettos ' the winged fiery wheel is a throne for the Divine feet of Almighty God. Baudissin Studien zur semitischeti Religionsgeschichte Leipzig 1876 i. in fact. Zeus is identified with Jehovah. from Olympos 7 . Ginsburg and A. 1603 n. irpurevov sic) ZT/POS yue^dAoto 'I<iw • K. And it will be remembered that in 168 B. This is not. E. and Apollon his mouthpiece with the angel of Jehovah. i). as we have seen. supra p. 179— 254. E. Neubauer locc. F. Now a bearded god enthroned with an eagle on his hand is a common art-type of Zeus. Sachau Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka aus. on pap. 1848) ii. G.Elephantine Leipzig 1911 p. 19 (i.. 5. A papyrus at Berlin. Zeus. B. lud. A. Baudissin op. which begins by summoning Apollon in company with Paian to quit Parnassos and Pytho.. And. 1 . citt. Gruppe Gr.. 6. Jenner Christian Symbolism London 1910 p. r. Euseb. 317 Dindorf). Zonar. Parthey Zwei griechische Zauberpapyri des Berliner Museums Berlin 1866 p. necessarily inconsistent with the view that lao is the final form of the Babylonian god Ea (see C. acquired by Lepsius at Thebes in Egypt and published by Parthey in 1866. This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that Ido—the form usually taken by Jehovah's name in magical texts of the Hellenistic age6—was equated sometimes with Zeus. 1850 (v. W. records an incantation. 300 ayye\e wpuTetiuv (so Kirchhoff for MS. includes among other magical formulae the following prose invocation: ' I summon thee the ruler of the gods—Zeus. 4. 37 n. 3 2 Maccab. king of Israel. Cowley Aramaic Papyri discovered at Assuan London 1906 p. 126 f. ann. 277 Index). Gabriel. D. ant. In the Judaeo-Aramaean papyri recently found at Elephantine (Assouan] the name of Jehovah is similarly triliteral (A. chron.. the winged wheel is. Antiochus iv Epiphanes transformed the temple at Jerusalem into a temple of Zeus Olympics and the temple on Mount Gerizim into a temple of Zeus Xenios* or Hellenics*'. Myth. Pap. p. H.T. the theme of the preceding lines. published by Wessely in 1888. 67 states that in the convent church of Kaisariani on Mt. 358 ff. thou the archangel. 12. sometimes with Helios. 2 C.' 6 W. It follows that the coin represents Jehovah under the guise of a solar Zeus5. cit. 7 G. solar in its origin. 5 Mrs H.C. See Append. Further. when lecturing at the College de France he treated it as such1. Schoene. 198 observes that ayye\e here refers to Apollon. 5. Lehmann-Haupt in Roscher Lex. be little doubt that we have here a gentile representation of the Hebrew Godhead. 4 loseph. 3 ff. The Anastasy papyrus of the British Museum. makes shipwreck—as A. 128. Dr Ginsburg's rival attempt to read it as the name of Jehu. Michael.

1 C. AO. Macrob. On the Phoenician coin under discussion Jehovah appears as a solar Zeus (supra p. de mens. Liber pater (Tac. Wiinsch). qui Sabazi lovis cultu Romanes inficere mores conati erant. ets"HAios. then. 53 p. . Lact. 73 f. Wiinsch 6 5£'PwjU. 115 Brit. i. G. der voile Jubelruf. in quo aliud quoque nomen soli adicitur. huius versus auctoritas fundatur oraculo Apollinis Clarii. 49 and Gruppe Gr. div. 469 ff. The Anastasy• papyrus invokes (puvipop 'law (C.Iudaeos. was once questioned concerning the nature of the dread mysterious lao3. 7 ff. de mens. Kedren.. Bekker). 296 Bekker) ort Haw irapa XaXSai'ots ep/wjj'ei/eTat <j>ws vorirov TTJ Qoivinuv yXdiffffy where for Haw Baudissin rightly read 'law). surmises that the gem should be read I A W IAH ABPA2!AH H I C O etc. lord laoouee1.). To Antiochos Epiphanes he was Zeus Olympics. Brit. 46. inst. Dionysos (Lyd. Fr. Buresch himself op. symp. in. Sat. 6. The first hint of the new comparison occurs in the age of Tiberius (Val. 78 n. Append. 169 A (i. p. Rel. p. 97! . Xenios. comp. for MiOpas (Baudissin Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte i. 53 p. repetere domes suas coegit). which he renders: 'lao. 3.cri irapa ~Ka\5aiois iv rots H-VVTIKOLS avrbv \fyecrdai 'law avrl rov <£ws VOIJTOV r-fi QOIVIKUV y\u<T<rri. 124) supports Lobeck's conjecture. Jan ad loc. 6. Kenyon Greek Papyri in the British Museum London 1893 i. 3 Hardly less remarkable was the response given by Apollon Kldrios touching his own godhead (Cougny Anth. 140. (i. Cornelius Hispalus. 3 Cn. autumn's soft lao4. Macrobius introduces the oracle as follows: ets Zetfs. 25 ff. 41 c f. i. His answer has—thanks to Macrobius-—been preserved : They that know mysteries should conceal the same. 1603 n. i. p. 135) ap. Rel. quoting Reitzenstein Zwei religionsgesch. hist. in which case Baudissin's argument collapses. 215). 46. yet more ingeniously aftpbv"Iaicx_ov. cit. (Cougny Anth. 18. The two oracles are confused in Kedren.). 4. Helios o' the summer. 5. cit. cit.. 19 ff. The connexion of Jehovah with Helios may have been facilitated by the belief that Ida meant 'Light' (Lyd. p. 52 f. Indeed. qui in isdem sacris versibus inter cetera vocatur 'law. Baudissin op. Mus. perhaps following Poseidonios. if thy sense be small and weak thy wit. Max. 1603 n. This identification of Jehovah with Dionysos is later than the identification with Zeus. Myth. 232 f. Mus.' But Buresch op. 80 no. 2). . Buresch Klaros Leipzig 1889 p. whose ancient oracle near Kolophon in Asia Minor enjoyed a new lease of life in Roman times2. Append. After this we find successive identifications with Bacchos (Plout. Hellenics (supra p.234 The Solar Wheel in Greece that thunderest on high. 4. 483 ff.cuos TSappuv irepi avrov dia\a(3(bv 0?. the Tubingen X/>?ya>toi T&V 'EXXriviKwv r6ewv in Buresch op. 38 ff. 4 defend the text aftpbv 'law. Varro. p. 5). Myth. no. pap. ^TriKoAoO/MU ere rbv §vvaffTt)v rSiv Geuiv. Pal. Pal. p. A. cp. la. Wessely op. 4. as another gem gives -MiOpal. 6. 2 K. 4 Orad. v^iftpe^lra ZeO ZeO. 7). The gem cited above has $>w£ for <£ws. pap. hist. Wessely Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London Wien 1888 p. equated him with lupiter Capitolinus (Gruppe Gr. 46. i. Clearly. Lobeck Aglaophamus p. the autumn-god of the oracle must be some form of Dionysos. lo. 4. king Adonai'.' Apollon Kldrios. Licht. 233). rtipavve 'Aduvat (so Buresch for MS. els Aiovvcros. cit. Zeus when spring begins. us <[>r]<rLv'JZpfviiios. comp. In fact it seems possible to trace the steps by which the transition was effected. on the ground that the epithet aftpbv suffices to describe the Dionysiac character of the Jewish deity. cit. Ktipie 'lawowje (jzV) = F. 215 quotes in support of Jan's emendation a gem inscribed (AGO |A H A B P A I A X H 100 4>GGE AGO. efs 'At'5?/s. 461 ingeniously conjectured aftpbv "Adwviv and L. But. adaivai sic). Baudissin now (Adonis und Esmun Leipzig 1911 p. hist. Hence for the concluding words aftpbv 'Idw C. Mark as the greatest of all gods lao— In winter Hades.

B. num. 186) described as the 'eTrfovcoTros of Light. 124. . Spon Miscellanea eruditcz antiquitatis Lugduni 1685 p. 2 Another gem given by Montfaucon op.C. Chron. beardless Zeus enthroned with sceptre.—I would suggest that the helmeted head with a bay-wreath on the obverse is that of Minos the eponymous founder. Babelon Monn. num? p. furnishes our earliest evidence of Jehovah conceived by the gentiles as Zeus. 193. These identifications might be illustrated by some of the bizarre devices to be seen on Gnostic amulets. the prayers ib.. in the Gnostic gospel Pistis Sophia 26. 'the glory of the LORD' familiar to us from the Old Testament (B.. but he is over-sceptical.. 74 no.) : see H. van Herwerden in Mnemosyne N. 297 f. 242 pi. 1888 xvi. and fabric— was struck about 350 B. regards the alleged connexion of Minos with Gaza as ' eine gelehrte Sagenbildung aus romischer Zeit' . thunderbolt. Sa/3aw0. i.) and S^CTTTOT' 'law <f>u<T<p6pe (Wessely ib. Stade Biblische Theologie des Alien Testaments Tubingen 1905 i. awi'. 1 J. gr. inscr. 1196. 449. and therefore Fig. K. i. New Series 1877 xvii.S. 3 J. 125 'dans le sud de la cinquieme satrapie. D. P. doubtless. the moon. by Head Hist. rom. 232 pi.173Stark Gaza und diephilistdische Kuste Jena 1852 p. i. 2. I72) 1 represents a youthful. 14. the constellation Cancer. 172. It shows Zeus enthroned with a sceptre (?) in his hand amid a group of signs apparently representing the heavenly bodies— a winged globe. wi'a.2p. Rasche Lex. to Gaza Minoa in southern Palestine3. 5 Eckhel Doctr. 1725 Suppl. cit.ia'i' i'a't. 375 airtpavrov Light: law ibvw law awi'. = F. 655 f. pi. 34. 'Amuleta' no. 5. vet? iii. Num. The Phoenician quarter-shekel—to judge from its weight. Unfortunately we do not know where the coin was issued. 805.g. Fig. Suppl. 805. Finally. 3oof.' 4 E.Triptolemos 235 lao is here expressly identified with both Zeus and Helios. 173 bears no inscription. 94f. I74)5. M E I NCO. 46. 50. cit. 52. 580 ff. If this attribution is sound—and it has been widely accepted4. i. 323 f. G. 451. Montfaucon Antiquity Explained trans. The eminent numismatist J. the legend on the back being lao Sabao(tk)z. ib. The grotesque face or mask on the 179 f. and eagle. Head^Tw^.<aia. 4 = fig. style. 46. Six ascribed it. 357 ajr^pavrov Light: aeijiouw. but exhibits the same latter-day syncretism. 304f.Ieoy. ii. 34. 229 f. For Babylonian and Greek ideas were freely blended in an omnicredulous age. law. 175 f. ii.. cp. Humphreys London 1721 ii. num. an onyx published by Spon (fig. and other symbols of more doubtful meaning. 70 no.' cp. For example. cit. the evening star.. = Kenyan ib. 46.). 322 we get leu (who is distinguished from three several divine powers named lad: see Baudissin op. 1878 xviii. Six in the Num. who figures as a helmeted warrior holding the branch of a sacred bay-tree on later coins of the town (fig. The ultimate source of these conceptions is. P. along with a series of somewhat similar pieces.. Kenyon op.

iii. 805. 2 Babelon Monn. per.^ p. 805. i § 6 (g) viii. another name of lo8.. iii.236 The Solar Wheel in Greece reverse is probably. Eustath. 124.'2 p. 6%'jff. Suppl. Eustath. was early represented as a golden calf4. And lao. who founded Tarsos in Kilikia9..175- Fig. 212. Rasche op.or. in Dionys. 161. Byz. Suppl. 585 ff. cit. cit. Head ib. (i. i8ff. Strab. but unconvincing.. 174. there was at Gaza an image of lo the moongoddess with a cow beside it3. Liban. gr. Head Hist. ii98ff. 3 Steph. cit. Triptolemos is said to have gone eastwards in quest of lo. lone10 or lopolis on Mount Silpion 1 E. nggf. 175) see Eckhel op. i § 6 (g) xi. 51 . 585 f. Babelon Les Perses Achlmtnides Paris 1893 p. according to Argive tradition. Stark op. 673. phaen. Head Hist. Rasche ib. that of Bes1. 6 7 Supra pp. 449 ff. borrowing the type of Triptolemos' throne. vv. 177) often show the Tyche of Gaza with a bull or cow or cow's head at her feet (Eckhel ib. by the image of lo. Stade op. 451 ff. Schol. pi. Byz. 225 f. Foerster). ii. iii. i2of. Triptolemos. as Eckhel pointed out. Pilcher's contention (supra p. ii. Fig. 1333f.. . s. wheeled and winged. 'loviov. p. J. On imperial coins of Gaza representing GIOO (fig. rom. or. ii. 67) is ingenious. 2. 450. 176. 4 5 B. ii. the 'Wheel '-man 6 . p. cit. Nor need we be surprised at their Fig. as E. Further. 8 9 Infra ch. 8f. Ixvi. Is it not permissible to think that the inhabitants of Gaza imported the cult of the Jewish deity as a pendant to that of their own lo? Certainly their Cretan ancestors had worshipped the sun and the moon as a bull and a cow respectively5. ii. 4)—a type inspired. per. 10 Liban. num. E. i) that this is the promontory near Tripolis called TO roO Qeov irpocruTrov (Strab.. Steph. 44ff. rdfa. Moreover.. 177. i. These coins (figs. the supposed sun-god. cp. 754. 750. was the son of Trocktlos. 914) or Theuprosopon (Mela i. in Dionys. Arat. pi. 176. Stark ib.. 1331 ff.. Babelon surmised.v. Fig. Infra ch. iii. 'Itiv-r). 755. num.. and Trochilos in turn was the son of Kallithea7. s. 232 n. p. taking with him a company of Argives. and the bust of Bes too is a known type on autonomous silver coins of Gaza2. 92.

2. = frag. i. we may suppose that the Argive heroine was but the Greek equivalent of a foreign deity. Byz. Pikos Zeus. iv.). by whom he became the father of Libye. 28 ff. son of Phoroneus. The narrative of loannes Malalas. Cp. Miiller). (i.evr)!' K. as in other Levantine stories of lo.Ka. Gruppe Gr. i § 6 (g) viii). arguing that lo must be buried on that very mountain. (i. Steph. Dindorf. who settled at Kaunos in Karia (Parthen. for he worshipped the moon. am. son of Triptolemos). in memory of the search-party of Argives sent out to rind lo. Malal. His wife Melia bore him two sons. 652). r. 5. and even settled in Gordyene beyond the Tigris3.ffl\evov rijs %c6pas ~Kpovov •yytiyUfl. He was the first king over the land of Argos. Strab. (infra ch. Salmasii in Cramer anecd. K€(f>a\-rj jSacrtXe/as Trapaffrj/jLov Ke<t>a\T)v ratipov • TrepivoffTovffa 5e r-rjv oiKovfj. year by year at the self-same season knock on the doors of the Hellenes. infra ch. Paschale: Kpotiovres els rots dXXTjXwv 6vpas /car' £ros e\e-yov 'Iw 'Ic6 Souid. 74 ff. frag. ch.ira5r)<f>6pe. 970 n. ii § 10 (b)). The reason why these Argives took up their abode in Syria was because Inachos had bidden them either return with his daughter to Argos. Rel. chron.Triptolemos 237 in Syria1—better known as Antiocheia on the Orontes2—. 569 Miiller) AcrrdpTri 5e r/ f^eyiffrtj Kal Zei)s Aijjua/jous Kal "ASwSos J3a<ri\evs 6eu>v efia. 8. Kasos and Belos. in Egypt. Dindorf. Apoll. Gr. they decided to stop where they were on Mt. 313 f. where he founded a town and named it lopolis.' daughter of the moon-god Sin. i. v. Antioch.v. the site of the later town of Antiocheia. into the nether world (M. when they had a vision of a heifer that spoke with human voice and said to them 'Evravda ei'/u 4yu> 17 'Ic6. They therefore founded a sanctuary for her there and a town for themselves. according to others. The sources other than Malalas give no important variants (Ifpbv Kpoviuvos for iepov Kpovov Chron. i § 6 (g) viii). 19 p. 6.frag. in Syria. And to this day the Syrians of Antiocheia. he may well have pursued her to Gaza4.ipa \a/j. who founded Kyrnos in Karia (Diod.r) 'loOs <ru£ecr8u. 2 p. 453 Foerster) states that Triptolemos founded at lone a sanctuary of Zeus N^ttetos. The dvpoKoiria of the Antiochenes probably implies a ritual search for Astarte as a goddess of fertility annually lost and found (cp. ruled over Egypt she was afraid and went on to Mt. Inachos meantime sent her brothers and kinsfolk in search of her under the guidance of Triptolemos. Gr. 387. Gr. Inachos. Exc. 'Ic6. king of the west. built a temple to the moon with a bronze stele inscribed 'Iu> jj-a. is as follows:—In the days of Pikos Zeus a certain man named Inachos. named lopolis.). sent and carried off lo. lo. Cp. 2ODff. Meyer in Roscher Lex. i fi. s. In Egypt she was identified with Isis. Jastrow The Religion of Babylonia and 2 Assyria Boston etc. Silpion. Myth. in shame and anger. 1898 p. In this. 37 f. Others told how Inachos sent out Kyrnos (not Triptolemos). fled to Egypt and stayed there.\. Kedren. Souid. knocking at the door of each house and saying ^fvx.v. hist. Myth. iii § i (a) i). s. arose in the west. The men from lopolis in Argos heard that she had died in Syria. According to Theophilos. Silpion. p. iv. 14 (Frag. Chron. 1 lo. 3 Strab. Paschale i. 19 Kayser). with Astarte. Philon ~By\A. 4 That the influence of Triptolemos was felt at Gaza might be inferred from the fact . lo. The Babylonian form of this incident was the well-known ' descent of Ishtar. son of Pikos Zeus. but on learning that Hermes. and Lyrkos.T. Topdvdia (from Gordys. Paris. 750. 563 ff. lo died in Syria. cow-goddess and moon-goddess (infra ch. ii. comp. hist. whose art-type with bovine horns and lunar disk was determined by that of Isis (E. If Triptolemos followed lo thus far afield. cp. and a fair daughter called lo after the moon. then. Bekker). They are in fact still called lonitai by the Syrians of the district. whom the inhabitants after learning agriculture called Zeus 'E7ri/ca/37rios. 22 ff. the supposed image of lo with budding horns at Nineveh (Philostr. and 16 is a mystic name by which the Argives have known the moon from that day to this (infra. or not return at all. So the lonitai aforesaid founded a sanctuary of Kronos on Mt. iv. hist. Silpion in Syria. narr. 24 (Frag. But. So they went and sojourned there awhile. 544 Mliller). 750. hist. i) 5e 'A-ffTapri) eiredyjKe TTJ idia. 747. of the tribe of Japheth. 60). our fullest source.

F. was but following the still earlier narrative of Hesiod6. i. 4 Cp. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. 195 Flach. Mazois Les mines de Pompei Paris . Kirke recognizes Medeia by her possession of a similar halo : iracra yap 'He\iov yevei) apidrjXos IdfoOcu | yen. At the same time it must be remembered that Kirke was the daughter of Helios and as such might well claim to use the solar car. is believed to have returned thither in the same equipage2. Daughter of Helios—Kirke was the name Asterope her mother and far-seen Hyperion gave her. iii. Flacc. In the Argonaittica of Valerius Flaccus she is carried off from Kolchis by a team of winged snakes1. personating Kirke. 1985 f. Val. 1329. Flacc. 1214—1221. the first mistress of magic. Arg. cp. quae te biiugis serpentibus egit | hinc fuga ? 3 Gruppe Gr. Seeliger in Roscher 'Lex. and that is certainly a possibility to be reckoned with 4 . 309 ff. vix tandem reddita Circe | dura tuis. £irel fiXetpdpuv awoTT)\6di fj. 217 ff.apfji:apvy^criv \ olov re xPvfffT' wrdnriov 'iecav aiy\-r)v. Swift to the ship she came. Another mythological personage that travelled in the sun's wheeled chariot was Kirke. Gruppe thinks that this trait was borrowed by the poet from the myth of Medeia3. from Kolchis to Etruria 5 .238 The Solar Wheel in Greece (7) Kirke. 8 Helbig Wandgem. ii. and Apollonios. ib. 7 Orph. 6 Schol. according to a Greek commentator. Myth. 1 Val. 567) Aayiiiv. In Ap. 568 Miiller) 6 Se Aaywv. 7. Cumont's note in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. For from her head floated the locks of hair Like glittering sunbeams and her fair face shone. 4. 453) of Medeia. Conformably with it the author of the Orphic Argonautikd invests her with a solar halo : Straightway a maiden met them face to face. 725 ff. iv. gleamed as with a gust of flaming fire7. And all men marvelled as they looked upon her. 5s eari Straw with F. 20 (Frag. For the supposed influence of the Medeia-myth on the Kirke-myth see further K. 544 n. Myth. frag. K. Rhod. 2 Id. Yea. i. So that. 1202. 7.. 3. frag. 1200 denies it. Rhod. 38 ff. Rhod. 311 —Hes. p. whether Valerius Flaccus was or was not the first to mention Kirke's team of snakes. ii. Gr. In a Pompeian wall-painting Kirke's head is surrounded by a circular blue nimbus*. hist. 5. 293 no. 14 (iii. and Aphrodite. Camp. eireidi] evpe fflrov Kal dporpov. p. The sister of Aietes great of soul. 120 ut aligeri Circen rapuere dracones. Apollonios of Rhodes had in fact described how Helios once took her in his own car from east to west. 1194. e/c\7j077 Zet!>s 'Ap6r/}tos. 5 Ap. Rel. O. o tandem. 3. Kirke riding in the solar chariot is a much older conception. Myth. 224 aligeris secat anguibus auras (5. But a Roman lamp and a contorniate medal that Dagon the chief god of the Philistines is described as Zeus Ardtrios in Philon Bybl. 51 ff. Ap.

Overbeck Gall. translated by E. 1865 xxiii pi. \. The Adventures of Tadg. 32. 12. Myth. For a criticism of my view see G. 3 In Folk-Lore 1906 xvii. for a Mongolian parallel. J. ii. Herkulanum und Stabiae Berlin 1859 iii pi. The Adventures of Connla. 85 pi. 173 n. F. W. On children of the Sun in Greek folk-lore see N. b. R. 22 ff. Harrison Myths of the Odyssey London 1882 p. 79 if. io6fF. no. cit. 4. The latest writer on the Celtic island-Elysium is the Rev. 3 f. 47. Oisin. Bender Die mdrchenhaften Bestandtheile der . where he mates with a divine queen and so becomes its king. Zeit. 77 f. Geldart Folk-Lore of Modern Greece London 1884 p. whose island-home is placed by Homer precisely at the sunrise2. her. Thus in the Celtic area we have many accounts of the Otherworldvisit. 194 figs. the proper attribute of a solar power. L. 4 Folk-Lore loc.6dovs Athens 1882 p. 4. but not married. A. i86ff. 9. 1566°. 2 . Engelmann Bilder-Atlas zum Homer Leipzig 1889 Od. Rohde Der griechische Roman und seine Vorlaufer Leipzig 1876 p. in which a princess living with her maidens in an island mates with a prince described as 'sprung from the sun' and subsequently tries to kill him through the machinations of an iron dervish5. pi. G. J. by the queen. Roscher Lex. That Kirke was in some sense solar is further shown by the parallels to her myth which can be adduced from various quarters. von Hahn compared the Kirke-myth with a modern Greek folk-tale from Wilza in (^agori. 44. E. in such tales as The Adventttres of Cormac. Indeed. MacCulloch The Religion of the Ancient Celts Edinburgh 1911 p. the prince marries a beautiful maiden whose sire is the Sun and whose mother is the Sea. G. 784 Atlas pi. 141—173. p. 3. I have discussed these tales elsewhere3 and here would merely point out that the goddess-queen inhabiting with her maidens the Otherworld island is regularly solar4. in the story of Laegaire mac Crimthainn she bears the appropriate name Deorgreine. These fall into two well-defined groups. in such tales as The Voyage of Bran. the entertainment.' J. and Laegaire mac Crimthainn the hero crosses the sea to an Elysian island. 1 Arch. Intermediate between the two groups is The Voyage of Mael-Duin. and The Baile an Scdil he is entertained. after which he returns home in safety. and receives at her hands a magic cup. Zahn Die schonsten Ornamente und merkwiirdigsten Gemiilde aus Pompeji. pi. and the safe return. 5 J.Kirke 239 show her wearing a rayed crown1. On the other hand. M. E. 4 and 3. Gomme Folklore as an historical science London 1908 p. 24 f. ' My lady Sea' (Thera) from the original text in the journal Hapvavapos. ' Tear of the Sun. v-fjdov T Alairjv. 385 ff. The Sick-bed of Cuchulain. 1197-—1199 figs. 2 Od. On the one hand. i^a. 43. 6 For Indian parallels see G. In another Greek folk-tale. Polites '0 "HAios /card rotis Sij/jidiSeLS /j. 35 f-. ii. where we get at once the marriage. n. Bildw. von Hahn Griechische und albanesische Mdrchen Leipzig 1864 i. G. 861 r''HoOs ripiyevelr)s | oiKia /cat \opoi elai /ecu dvro\al 'HeXioto. But the closest parallel6 to the Homeric story is cited by 1824 ii. Gerland Altgriechische Mdrchen in der Odysee Magdeburg 1869 p.

and the sheykh thus addresses her:—" May God. numerous as the grains of sand." This " saweek. 31. [He has seen a white she-bird consorting with a black bird beneath a tree full of birds. 45. Bedr Basim gives her the "saweek. For not only in Vedic mythology is Surya. and this seems the more natural if the Greek myth were of Eastern origin. Gruppe Gr. of whose ornithological interpretations ('^Eetes' = eagle. dt. 1895 pp. Seeliger2 from The Thousand and One Nights. and. E. Moulton. been anticipated by C. 22flf. wherein dwells Queen Lab. K. With each of them she abides forty days. A. that the [Old] Persian word " lab " means sun4." Later on a sheykh. Harrison op. Harrison1 and K. W. G. Cp.) the less said.. and they began to strike him and prevent him from going up from the sea to the land. with the preceding context. But as he tries to approach. We remember that Circe was daughter of Helios. p. J. He is shipwrecked. 3 Nights 751 ff. 1195 f. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 pp. like Odysseus. 385 f."and commands her to become a dappled mule. 123 f. on both. A. 'Oulixes' = owl." Queen Lab fares worse for her evil deeds than did Circe. 1 2 J. The Tale of King Bedr Basim*. ed. Myth. 2. Gedichte Darmstadt 1878 p. but after some suspicious experiences begins to fear that his appointed day is drawing nigh. viz. Bevan. He then puts a bridle in her mouth and rides her forth from the city.. de Kay Bird Gods New York 1898 p. and after that enchants them into beastshapes. 86 f. 164. 152. Hopkins The Religions of India Boston etc. I think. But this does not militate against our solar interpretation of the myth. The last-named wittily declares that lab is ' moonshine'! 5 This rather obvious derivation has. E. p." which he is to give to the queen in place of her own magic potion. 140.] His friend the sheykh gives him a magic " sa week. the sun. A curious. 708 n. F. the better. etc. A. Browne. whose name be exalted.' 4 So Burton. on which is a white city with high walls and towers]. but not too thick to drink—a curious parallel to the " mess of cheese and barley meal and yellow honey mixed with Pramnian wine. and falls in love with him. Queen Lab sees Bedr Basim. In homer. he desires to go up to it. to whom I have applied. . p. Myth. Xeocra. who is like to a she-devil. E. The name Badr Basim means ' Full moon smiling. A. Captain Sir R. tells him that this is the city of the Enchanters. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. ii. SpaKOvra. also the tales noted by the Rev. but Profs. H.240 The Solar Wheel in Greece Miss J. 7 Porph. but Mithraic worshippers spoke of Helios as a hawk 7 . He goes up to her castle. abase thee by affliction. cit. who plays the part of Hermes. Rel."' The name Kirke denotes a 'Hawk' (ktrkos)5. is seeking to return to his kingdom. all view the statement with the greatest suspicion. and J. is the meal of parched barley made into a sort of gruel—thick. 164. 16 TOV 5t "HXiov <ravpoi>. 6 A. "there came to him mules and asses and horses. 49. sometimes conceived as a bird6. 113. I find. and has learnt that this was Queen Lab with one of her many lovers. Burton. de abst. ttpaKO. an enchantress. and escapes on a plank to [a tongue of land jutting out into the deep. I quote Miss Harrison's summary of it: ' King Bedr Basim. MacCulloch op. The sheykh tells Bedr Basim that the strange mules and horses and asses are the lovers of this wicked witch. E. 4. The conceptions of magic and sun-worship seem to have been closely interwoven. significant fact is.

Myth. Given that her name betokened her nature. 200. 10. 98). not to say impertinent. These beliefs certainly found an echo in Greek literature 6 . 12. infra ch. cp. i. Conversely Leukothea. 9 e> ols TO r]\ia. And later writers agreed that the hawk was the sacred bird of Apollon12 or of Helios Apollon13. 6 iepat. iii. 13 Eustath. 9 //. et Os. p. Flout. 3. gifted with human speech. S' g07)Ke Oea \evfcw\evos "Hpy. 187. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. ii. 14. ev. 1014. 572 Miiller) a f .Kirke 241 Egypt too the hawk was sacred to the sun1. 87. 11 Ov. in Od. 10. who in various respects is the doublet of Kirke (O.X.' who himself on occasion took its form9. 10. i § 6 (e).fa&. 22. the phrase would have been superfluous. To Homer the hawk was the ' swift messenger of Apollon8. 12 Porph. 16 . 449). 7. 48 (Kneph). 150 dewr) Oebs atid-fjeffffa. d£ I^OWTCU 'HXty 'ATroXXawi K..' Had she been purely anthropomorphic. 51 (Osiris) . 15. collects the evidence. 14. 9. Ra. 24. an. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. 14 expressly equates Horos the hawk-god with Apollon. 136. but necessary. 49 ff. ii. met. 516. Griffith London 1907 pp. 334). de nat. 12. 4.' A relic of her ornithomorphic state may perhaps be traced in the curious Homeric description of her as a 'dread goddess endowed with human speech14.Kbv KaroLKeiv TreTrtcrre^/catrt (f>us. ad loc. 237 i'/s^/a eoi/cws. The same expression is used of Kalypso (Od. 12. 353. 4 Porph.. in II. E. 7. 17 irplv per £i\v /3por6s atfSijetrtra (Od. Eustath./ra<?/. Osiris. de Is. The mythographers told how Apollon had transformed Daidalion son of the Morning Star into a hawk11. 22. de abst. 2 1 c. ev. p. 4. A. 940 ff. an. 15 K. 9. 7 Ail.yra^. 12. 339 ff. 4 (Horos). 10 Aristoph. schol. 5 Ail.) and may well have borrowed an epithet belonging to her. A. 10. the explanation is not only pardonable. 5. and other solar deities 2 : it was here regarded as the only bird that could look with unflinching gaze at the sun3. de nat. and they may serve to explain the frequent association of the hawk with Apollon7. 10. de nat. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 ii. ii.u\v springing from his blood—(Alexandros of Paphos ap. 2. 337). an. Eustath. 19. praep. is possibly related to the Lithuanian deity Pikulas or Pikullos (H. dives into the sea aidviri elicvia (ib.r. Aristophanes implies that Apollon was sometimes represented with a hawk on his head or on his hand10. 3. hist. 1202.). 3 Ail. All this goes to make it probable that Kirke was originally a solar power conceived as a ' Hawk. Philon Bybl. in II. Myth. See Ail. Euseb. 5. 15. 8. de nat. de abst. an. 'ATroXX&wos ra%i>s 01776X05. Hyg. 372. Immisch in Roscher Lex. i § 6 (e). the giant who fled to Kirke's isle and was there slain by Helios—the plant fj. S. 1658. 526 KipKos. Gr. Again. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896 p. Seker. 14 Od. 10. IIiK:6Xoos. we read: //. A. Euseb. av. 8 Od. 407 atidtfevra. 9 (Frag. 22 ff. it might fairly be urged that the Italian myth of Kirke's love for Picus15 becomes more intelligible if the Porph. de abst. 10. 6 Infra ch. n. p. or to Horos. being itself filled with sunlight 4 and essentially akin to fire5. Similarly of the horse Xanthos.

and meant 'circle4. Aristoph. J. Ulysse et Circe. p. cit. ii. Hesych.'fiovs oiuvvus for ya. Etc. As mistress of the zodiac she is surrounded by the lion (summer). Ail. Still. F. Gr. 1262. 4 L.But one author is late. 7 L. 345 ff. Boisacq Diet. 3 N.fj. 50 ff. Obviously. in II. tempting to suppose with A. Circular motion would make it all the more appropriate as a symbol of the sun. 5 A. Brown The Myth of Kirkt (reviewed by H. in view of the enormous number of purely onomatopoeic bird-names. 99. After this he gives free rein to his fancies. like the latter. it is safer to assume6 that kirkos the 'hawk' was so called on account of the shrill cry kirk! kirk! with which it wheels its flight7. 2 1 . but he regarded Kirke as a moongoddess and Odysseus as a sun-god9. Contopoulos Greek-English Lexicon5 Athens 1903 p. circulus. 144 likewise derives KlpKi] from Ktp/cos = the moon's disk. that the bird was so called from its 'crooked' claws. which was akin to the Latin circus. s.' which in a Sicilian folk-tale turned men into statues1. etc. etym. however. Sfr. p. 320. as does Eustath. The exact species of the kirkos cannot be determined from the casual notices of it found in ancient authors2. the wolf (M/cos plays on Xtf*??. cp. 88 Miillerfalcones. d.77 IKTIVOV KpijTes. mib.\j/d>vvx. She is inconstant. 8 Since this paragraph was written A.. 144 n. Cerquand Etudes de Mythologie grecque. Cerquand long since surmised that Kirke's name was related to circus. Roscher Uber Selene und Verwandtes Leipzig 1890 pp. 83 f. Paul.. 458.' He adds. Walde Lat. 1734. Thompson A Glossary. Kuhn 5 that the bird kirkos derived its name from the circularity of its motion. the connexion with circus would suit a sun-goddess as well as. Worterb.fj. Les Sirenes. 15. Now there was another word kirkos in ancient Greek. Fick has discussed the word KipKos in the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung 1911 xliv. 93. the swine (winter: us suggests Cei).28ff. from the KipKos. 5. 21 if.' It is. 1262. in Od. 4.. W. p.). Paris 1873 PP. 65 f. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks'*' Giitersloh 1886 p. Hopf Thierorakel und Orakelthiere in alter und neuer Zeit Stuttgart 1888 p. Etym.2^. a similitudine falcis. any connexion with kirkos a 'circle' must be due to popular misconception8. See also Eustath. is at least worth noting. because the point at which Eos rises is always shifting. 6 So Boisacq op.. 458. 1126. F.v. tip/tal-. 409. in Od. Hopf op. F. if not Append. See also L. So too R. 46ff. 59ff. 67 ff. 4. p. Worterb. KtpKij Aiaiij is the goddess of the circular or rather semicircular path described by Eos and Helios in the course of the year.as. therefore. in II. Kal Sp^Travov. p. 122. id. . an. Bradley in The Academy 1884 xxv. the other later. He rejects the rendering 'der Kreisende' and inclines to the onomatopoeic explanation 'der Kreischer. a third possibility. a 'circle'. pp. p. however. p. cp. 337 ya.242 The Solar Wheel in Greece former was. If so. Xu/cctjSas). And the parallel of the ' Speaking Bird. 93. 40 f. de la Langue Gr. i. 1613. Meyer Handb. gr. But the same word is used by the modern Greeks3 of the gyr-falcon (falco gyrfalco Linnaeus). Prellwitz Etym. a humanised bird. D'Arcy W. de nat. 224. etym. 440 f. 58 distinguishes the /a/we?. cit. H.. of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. p. Her four maidens are the four Seasons. apiry eldos opveov. 9 J. d. p... a bird so called from its wheeling flight. ex Fest.

Daremberg—Saglio Diet. 226. i66ff. 599 s.g. holding her wand and presenting him with a cup (Helbig Wandgem. Skeat A concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language new ed.. 319 n.' and on the other stand in intimate relation to the hawk6.. p. 53. iv. 13 f. 171 f. 8 F. it is easy to imagine more ways than one in which a circle might be fittingly attributed to a solar Kirke. This sorceress has been sometimes identified with Kirke (e. an. L. She was a magician. 14 (the leg-bone of a hawk attracts gold) tvyyi airopp-firq ran. But can we also detect any trait to correspond with the ' Revolving Castle' or the 'Table Round'? In short. Supra p. 3. de nat. Camp. 4781). proves that Perceval was not the original hero of the Grail. hist. on Greek soil. 369. L. the ' Hawk of May/ whose brother. the former. pp.'. has the notion of circularity left any mark upon it? Not. frag.' The latter is better known to us as Galahad. 24. Cp. 1909 ii.In that castle was a mystic vessel. J.. 6 Peredur Paladr-hir. And it is to be noticed that the heroes best qualified to seek the Grail on the one hand are the chief representatives of the ' Table Round. 551 Miiller) Ka\v\f/<ji /cal Ktpicr] 'HXtou /cat ZeA^i^s rj<rav t^peicu is indecisive. is not so related to the hawk. 266 n. 392.' Now in the myth of Kirke it is easy to recognize the mystic vessel and the human Hawk. Brown ' Twain' in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature (Harvard University) 1903 viii. cit.. a moon-goddess1. as Gawain —a name which Sir John Rhys derives from Gwalch-gwyn. even stronger than himself. Ail. But above all she was a goddess comparable with the island-queen of Celtic myths4. 5 J. the 'Summer Hawk7. C. 3 A wall-painting from the Casa del Dioscuri at Pompeii shows a peasant consulting a sorceress. So do W. 239. Rhys op. A. Rhys Studies in the Arthurian Legend Oxford 1891 pp. but the identification is precarious. Moreover. 10 (Frag. who is seated in the middle of a circular base. 1565. Squire op. 253 ff. p. 16— 2 . Thus Arthur's favourite knight was Gwalchmei. no. In the territory of the Volsci—whose name may be akin to that of the Welsh* 1 Io. She was a ' Hawk. i. the pagan original of the Holy Grail. 302f. Gr.v. Antioch. was Gwalchaved. p. I think. 3666°. 56. cit. 392 f. 325.. Smith—Marindin Class. 1500 fig. the 'White Hawk. 116. C. and magicians have always dealt in magic circles3. Weston The Legend of Sir Perceval London 1906 i.Kirke 243 better than. Squire The Mythology of the British Islands London 1905 pp. 420 compares welsch with the Celtic tribal name Volcae. L. the' Hawk of Summer. infra p. C. and Celtic myths—especially in their Welsh form—spoke of the1 island-palace as the 'Revolving Castle5. 233). But it is to Italy rather than to Greece that we should look for correspondence with Celtic myth. Oxford 1901 p. W. 2 Supra p. 7 J. iii. 301. 305 ff. Kluge Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache6 Strassburg 1899 p. Weston The Legend of Sir Perceval London 1909 ii. Ant. 10. real or imaginary. Diet.' and the hawk may have been fastened iynx-\fa& to a solar wheel2. and the Italian Kirke seems to have dwelt on a circular island. the ' Spearman of the Long Shaft' (Sir Percivale).' or Gwakh-hevin. But then Miss J.

332 y/cee irerpaioio fia. i. As proof of her 'Walnut. She made a hollow image of Artemis. Theokr. and passed herself off as a priestess of the goddess. Dion. 13 n. 15). iii. the sister of Kirke 6 . and A.8taK. As grand-daughter of Helios she too could summon the solar chariot at need. 13. 3. ?Cp. Rhys op. 3. W. H. where her image was said to catch the first rays of the rising sun3. 164. put in to lolkos and there plotted the death of king Pelias. Hiilsen in Pauly—Wissowa RealEm. cp. This supports a lunar rather than a solar connexion. at the foot of the Cerceius or Circeius mons (Monte Circello). Nonnos makes her as the mother of the Italian Faunus inhabit— Deep-shaded'circles of a rocky home4. The Volcae were a tribe of southern Gaul (Tolosa.ia. 6 Roscher Lex. T.). p. Volci in Etruria and Volceii in Lucania. later called Circei (the modern Circelli}.' was localised2. 169. the 'Hawk. He is presumably referring to Monte Circello and. under the influence of folk-etymology. Roscher Uber Selene und Verwandtes Leipzig 1890 p. u^XoO 0a<nc OVTOS TOV Ktpxalou "HXtos £K PVKTOS ^TrtAa/ATrei TO TTJS K/p/cijs ^bavov. 4 Nonn. Rhys op. ib. on which were shown the mortars used by Medeia and Kirke for pounding their charms (schol. /ctf/cAa [J.. according to some. Myth. 4). . in order that she might establish her cult with him and bless him with renewed youth. that originally and in Greece she had nothing to do with Revolving Castles or Tables Round. Diodoros7 relates that Medeia. the niece or. she may have been brought into connexion with Celtic ideas of the solar circle. C. She declared that Artemis had come from the country of the Hyperboreoi. cit. 31 f. 1201 f. On the whole I am disposed to conclude that Kirke began life as a solar hawk. 2482. On Volsci (for * Volc-sci] corresponding with the Celtic Volcae see H. and here the myth of Kirke. etc.' J. (8) Medeia. Nemausus. p. Hirt Die Indogermanen Strassburg 1905 i. ii. 7 Uiod. in Od. 5 Near Luna in northern Etruria was an aicpov SeXTj^Tjs (Ptol. if I mistake not.244 The Solar Wheel in Greece and consequently denote a 'Hawk' tribe1—was the coast town of Cercei. 4. 1705. ii. 13. 1 See J. 3 Eustath. cit. Nutt in Folk-Lore 1910 xxi. p. 2565 ff. stuffed it with all sorts of charms. We come now to Medeia. 15 identifies this with the ZeXijpcuoj' 3pos. 233 n. 2. Myth. 127. intentionally hinting at its circularity. 51 f. 2 K. when she fled from Kolchis with the Argonauts. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. travelling through the air in a car drawn by serpents and seeking the world over for the most pious of kings.e\ddpov. This calcareous and cavernous mountain was originally an island. but that later and in Italy5.

whom Medeia cut up and boiled.aff0rji>ai. quod nisi pennatis serpentibus isset in auras | non exempla foret poenae. ausc. She then sent them up to the palace-roof with torches. bade his daughters do whatever she commanded.. and secured the palace. The maidens. Eumelos6. saying that she must offer a prayer to Selene. whither lason had sailed vid the river Istros ! (Aristot. frag. Helios had by Antiope two sons. They at once attacked it. Medeia changed her own looks from those of an old woman to those of a maid.av9p<j)irovs dvri rusv drfpidiv KO. fugit alta etc. 713.. adds that Medeia would have had to pay the penalty of her crime. The serpent-chariot. is in this story made the mother of Medeia and daughter of Helios. Rasche Lex. may have been either solar or lunar in its origin. met. 4 Ov. 105).Medeia 245 words. v.. The torches served as a fire-signal to the Argonauts. Aloeus and Aietes: Helios gave Arkadia to the former..C. whose Korinthiaka was composed about 740 B. Ovid. 7. 659. ii.. 1350. 2492 ff. 5 These are collected and discussed by K. convinced of her powers. In this romantic narrative Diodoros is following the Argonautai or Argonautika of Dionysios Skytobrachion. Medeia came by night to the palace and ordered them to boil the body of their sleeping father in a caldron. The king. which shows Artemis with a crescent moon on her head in a chariot drawn by two serpents2. as on a copper coin of Aureliopolis in Lydia. 45 "EiKaTriv. mir. overcame all resistance. and by her magic art produced out of the caldron the figure of a lamb. an Alexandrine grammarian of the second century B.L robs KaraTr\eovTas ^evovs Otiecrdai rfj deip Karadei^acrai> 4ir' ci^TTjn diovo/j. struck under Commodus. num? p. 4 Kinkel. Corinth to Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc.pTe/j. 2. she took an old ram. cut it limb from limb. and further by means of her enchantments caused the alleged serpents to appear in visible form. Medeia herself was said to have founded a sanctuary of Artemis on one of the islands in the Adriatic. 3. Head Hist. thinly disguised as Hekate3. 929 ff. Num. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. 350 f. 6 . after recounting the murder of Pelias. When they demurred. 4. Diod. Myth.TaTo!.T' 'A. \. slew their father.. boiled its body. therefore.. various tales were told5. 2 3 1 .lirei. who were lying in wait outside the city. Eumel. bred in the house.i5os lepov l8p\><TO:fji4vr}v KO. As to what happened at Corinth.<t>i\oKii>v'ri'YOv.1 The snaky chariot is here that of Artemis the moon-goddess. According to our oldest authority. not without some admixture of Triptolemos' tour. But Artemis. viii.C.e<jeii>. His version of her escape seems modelled on the common account of her disappearance from Corinth. thus persuaded. had she not forthwith mounted into the air on her winged snakes4 and made her way by a devious track to Corinth.

So Medeia too took her departure and left the kingdom to Sisyphos. lason detected her action and would not forgive it. On the death of Bounos. \. Epopeus. a son of Hermes by Alkidameia. son of Aloeus. But Aietes. In this she failed. and. dissatisfied with his portion.24-6 The Solar Wheel in Greece the latter. 1193). (Paus. Sikyon and Korinthos. leaving Bounos1. as regent on behalf of himself and his descendants. succeeded to the throne. lason was king in virtue of his wife's descent. 7). 1 The eponymous founder of the sanctuary of Hera Bowcu'o. divided the kingdom between his own two sons. thinking to make them immortal. 'of the Hill' (jSowos). 2. 4. 178. Korinthos leaving no issue. fled to Attike to escape the lawless violence of his father. to come and reign over them. Fig. went off to Kolchis. daughter of Aietes. when Epopeus died. but sailed away to lolkos. = Hera'A/cpcu'a (Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. Marathon. son of Epopeus. the Corinthians sent to lolkos for Medeia. . The children born to them Medeia hid in the sanctuary of Hera.

Medeia

247

This genealogy throws some light on early Corinthian religion; for it enables us to see that the kings of Corinth were regarded as near akin to Zeus, or perhaps even as successive incarnations of him. Korinthos, the eponym of the town,—who must be carefully distinguished from Korinthos, the personification of the town1,—is represented on a bronze mirror, found at Corinth and now in the Louvre, as a majestic Zeus-like man seated on a throne and holding a sceptre. A himdtion is wrapped about him, and Leukas the Corinthian colony is in the act of placing a wreath upon his head (fig. i/S)2. This Korinthos, according to Eumelos, was the son of Marathon. But Pausanias, who cites the Eumelian pedigree, begins by the following naive admission: ' That Korinthos was the son of Zeus has never yet, to my knowledge, been seriously asserted by anybody except by most of the Corinthians themselves*! The claim of the Corinthians was indeed so well known to the Greeks in general that it passed into the proverb 'Korinthos son of Zeus ' used in cases of wearisome iteration4. If then the Corinthian populace regarded Korinthos, son of Marathon, as the son of Zeus, it is not unlikely that Marathon was held to be an embodiment of Zeus. Indeed, a scholiast on Aristophanes—if the text of his schdlion is sound—declares: 'This "Korinthos son of Zeus" was the son of Zeus a king of Corinth9.' Again, Marathon in his turn was the son of Epopeus; and an epic poet, probably of the seventh century B.C., informs us that Epopeus had the same wife as Zeus6. It would seem then that, when Medeia came to Corinth, the kings of the town had for three successive generations (Epopeus, Marathon, Korinthos) stood in a relation of peculiar intimacy to Zeus. What
1 The former is masculine (Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1381 f.), the latter feminine (Athen. 201 D). 2 A. Dumont in the Monuments grecs publics par f Association pour f encouragement des Etudes grecques en France No. 2 1873 p. 23 ff. pi. 3, K. D. Mylonas in the 'E<£. 'Ap%. r 873 p- 440 ff. pi. 64, id. "EXXip't/ca /caTOTrrpa Athens 1876 p. 17 ff. pi. A', 3, V. Duruy History of Greece English ed. London 1892 ii. 130 n. i fig. 3 Paus. 2. i. i. 4 Find. Nem. 7. 155 with schol., Aristoph. ran. 439 with schol., eccl. 828 with schol., frag. 434 Dindorf, Plat. Euthyd. 292 E with schol., Ephor. frag. 17 (Frag. hist. Gr. \. 237 Miiller), Liban. ep. 565, Theodoros Hyrtakenos in Boissonade anecd. ii. 433, 2 f., Zenob. 3. 21, Makar. 7. 46, Apostol. 6. 17, 12. 30, Hesych. s.v. Atos Kopivdos, Phot. lex. s.w. 6 AIDS K6pw#os, HvOdde 656s, vn-epou TrepirpoTrr], Souid. s.w. Atos KopivOos, 6 Atos Kdpti^os, uTrepou TrepiTpoTrfi. On the attempts made by the later grammarians to explain this proverb see Appendix C. 5 Schol. Aristoph. ran. 439 6 5e Atos Kdptptfos TTCUS Atos /SacrtX^ws KopivGov. Unfortunately the text is not free from suspicion. Cod. V omits the word /SacriX^ws; and F. H. M. Blaydes ad loc. would read /3a<rtXei;s. Blaydes' emendation may be right, for another scholion on the same passage has 6 5e Atos Kopti^os ircus Aids /3curiXe!>s Koplvdov. 6 Infra ch. i. § 7 (d).

248

The Solar Wheel in Greece

now of Medeia herself? 'Zeus,' says the old scholiast on Pindar, 'was enamoured of her there; but Medeia would not hearken to him, as she would fain avoid the wrath of Hera1.' Curiously enough the love of Zeus for Medeia was balanced by the love of Hera for lason 2 . Analogous cases3, to be considered later, suggest that this reciprocity implies the Zeus-hood, so to speak, of lason 4 and the Hera-hood of Medeia. Thus the myth of Medeia as told by Eumelos serves to connect the earliest dynasty of Corinth with Zeus; but it does not help us to decide whether the serpent-chariot was of solar or lunar origin. On this point Euripides is the first to satisfy our curiosity. His Medeia, when about to be banished from Corinth by king Kreon, makes her escape to Athens in the car of Helios—a device somewhat unfairly criticised by Aristotle5. Ere she goes, she flings the following defiance at her husband:
Cease this essay. If thou wouldst aught of me, Say what thou wilt: thine hand shall touch me never. Such chariot hath my father's sire, the Sun, Given me, a defence from foeman's hand6.

Euripides does not, indeed, definitely state that the Sun's chariot was drawn by serpents. But later writers are unanimous. Medeia, say they, received from the Sun a chariot of winged snakes and on this fled through the air from Corinth to Athens7. That her
1 Schol. Find. Ol. 13. 1\g fKei de atiTvjs 6 Zeus ripdcrdy], OVK iireWero §k r/ M?j5eta TOV TTJS "Upas £KK\IVOVO-CL xoXo? • /c.r.X. 2 Od. 12. 72 <xXX'"Hpi7 irapeTre/jLtf/ev, eirel <pi\os yev'ITJCTWC, Ap. Rhod. 3. 66 ?rt /col wplv £jj,oi (sc. Hera) fieya <pi\aT"lr)o~uv, schol. Find. Pyth. 4. 156 b on Se evirpeirT}? yv 6 'Idcruv, dTJXov £K TOV Kal T7]v"Hpav Kara rivas afrnjJ 4TTi/j.avrjvai,—cited by K. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 68. 3 See Class. Rev. 1906 xx. 378. 4 For Ato/^iyS^s as the alleged older name of lason see K. Seeliger op. cit. ii. 64 and C. von Holzinger on Lyk. Al. 632. 5 Aristot.poet. 15. 1454 b if., with the comment of A. E. Haigh The Tragic Drama of the Greeks Oxford 1896 p. 289. See, however, E. Bethe Prolegomena zur Geschichte des Theaters im Alterthum Leipzig 1896 p. 143 ff. 6 Eur. Med. 1319 ff. trans. A. S. Way. 7 Dikaiarch. hyp. Eur. Med. eirl ap/m-ros dpaKovrwv irrepurSiv, 3 Trap' 'HXt'ov Z\aj3ev, eiroxos •yevo^evy],K.T.\., Apollod. i. 9. 28 Xa/SoCua, Trapa'HXi'ou ap/j.a, •art^vQiv dpaKdvruv fvl TOIJTOV <f>etiyovffa K.T.\., Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 175 (p. 83 Scheer) e<j>' apfiaros SpaKovruv wTepWTwv [TWV Trapd'HXtoi' \yip6evTwv ins. Miiller, om. Scheer] els 'Afl^vas dTroSrifji.fi. Cp. Ov. met. 7. 398 f. hinc Titaniacis ( = Solis) ablata draconibus intrat | Palladias arces, Val. Flacc. 5. 453 aligeris aut quae secet anguibus auras. Hor. epod. 3. 14 serpente fugit alite uses the singular, and is followed by Myth. Vat. i. 25 and 2. 138 alato serpente aufugit. The schol. Eur. Med. 1320 says vaguely oxov^evrj SpaKOvrivois apfj.affi. In Sen. Med. 1031 ff. squamosa gemini colla serpentes iugo submissa praebent. recipe iam gnatos parens. | ego inter auras aliti curru vehar we have a description of the older type of solar vehicle, in which the chariot is winged, not the snakes (supra p. 226 n. 3.)

Medeia

249

peculiar conveyance was long felt to be of a specially fiery sort, may be gathered from a high-faluting description of it by Dracontius, who wrote at the close of the fifth century A.D.:
Then came the snakes Raising their combs aloft and viperous throats Scaly; and lo, their crested crowns shot flame. The chariot was a torch, sulphur the yoke, The pole bitumen; cypress was the wheel; Yea, poison made that bridle-bit compact, And lead that axle, stolen from five tombs1.

In art, as in literature, Medeia escapes from Corinth on a serpentchariot Roman sarcophagi, which date from the second century of our era, represent her mounting a car drawn from left to right by two winged snakes of monstrous size2. In her right hand she grasps a short sword. Over her left shoulder hangs the body of one of her children. The leg or legs of the other child are seen projecting from the car. Of this type there are two varieties. In the first, of which but a single specimen is known, Medeia has a comparatively quiet attitude3. In the second, of which there are seven examples, she adopts a more tragic and pathetic Fig. 179. pose, raising her sword aloft and turning her head as if to mark lason's futile pursuit (fig. I79)4. There can be little doubt that this sarcophagus-type was based on the tradition of earlier paintings. In fact, almost identical with it is the scene as shown on an amphora from Canosa now at
Dracont. carm. prof. 10. 556 ff. {Poet. Lat. Min. v. 212 Baehrens). The sarcophagi are collected, figured, and discussed by Robert Sark.-Relfs ii. 205 ff. pis. 62—65. See also K. Seeliger in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2508—25ri. 3 Robert op. cit. ii. 205 pi. 62 no. 193, a fragment formerly at Florence in the Palazzo Martelli. Robert notes that the purse in Medeia's right hand is due to a mistake of the draughtsman or of the restorer—it should be a sword—, and that the scalloped side of the chariot probably implies a misunderstanding of the second dead child's leg. The attempt to distinguish the male snake (bearded and crested) from the female is likewise a suspicious trait. 4 Id. ib. ii. 2:3^ pi. 64 no. 200, formerly at Rome in possession of an engin'eer named Cantoni; now in the Berlin Museum. This sarcophagus was found in 1887 near the Porta S. Lorenzo. See further the monograph by L. von Urlichs Ein Medea-Sarkophag Wlirzburg 1888 pp. i—22 pi.
2 1

250

The Solar Wheel in Greece

Naples (fig. i So)1. Medeia on a car drawn by two snakes, which are not winged, holds the reins in her left hand and one end of a fluttering sail-like himdtion in her right. She turns her face towards lason, who pursues her hotly on horseback. He is accompanied by a couple of followers,. probably the Dioskouroi, for one of them wears a pilos and above them we see two stars. Of the children, one lies dead upon the ground, fallen on his face beside the fatal sword; the other, dead also, is with Medeia in the car; the back of his head and one arm being visible beside her. In front of and facing Medeia stands Erinys, a nimbus round her head ; she holds a sword in one hand, a torch in the other. Lastly, on the extreme right Selene rides her horse: she too has her head circled with a nimbus, which is painted red-brown and yellow. She is present possibly as a goddess of magic, who might naturally be associated with Medeia2, but more probably to furnish a variation on the hackneyed sun-and-moon theme, Selene on the lunar horse forming

Fig. 180.

a pendant to Medeia on the solar car. There is every reason to think with L. von Urlichs3 and C. Robert4 that the above-mentioned sarcophagi—and this amphora cannot be separated from them— present us with a scene ultimately derived from Euripides' play. Mr J. H. Huddilston 5 says with justice: 'I know of no monuments of ancient art that grasp the spirit of a Greek tragedy more effectually than the Medeia sarcophagi. The strange and secret power of the sorceress hovers over and pervades the whole. The dreadful vengeance exacted by the slighted queen is shown in the most graphic manner. Standing before the Berlin replica, which is the best preserved and most beautiful of all the sculptures, one cannot
1 Heydemann Vasensamml. Neapel p. 506 ff. no. 3221, O. Jahn in the Arch. Zeit. 1867 xxv. 62 ff. pi. 224, i, Reinach Rep. Vases i. 402, 2. 2 Supra p. 245. 3 L. von Urlichs op. cit. p. 13 ff. 4 Robert op. cit. ii. 205, cp. K. Seeliger in Reseller Lex. Myth. ii. 2511. 0 J. H. Huddilston Greek Tragedy in the light of Vase Paintings London 1898 p. 19.

Medeia

251

but feel that he is face to face with a marvellous illustration of the great tragedy. The marble all but breathes; the dragons of Medeia's chariot may be heard to hiss.' Euripides was not the last to compose a drama about Medeia; and it is in all probability a post-Euripidean play that is illustrated by another Apulian vase, the famous Medeia-^r«//r of Munich1. This magnificent example of later ceramic art has for its principal theme a representation of the vengeance taken by Medeia on lason, who in her despite contracted wedlock with king Kreon's daughter (pi. xxii)2. In the centre of the scene rises the royal palace containing a throne surmounted by two eagles and a pair of circular shields slung from the roof. The king's daughter Kreonteia3 (Kreonteta) has just received from Medeia the fatal gift of a poisoned crown4. The casket in which it came stands open on the ground before her. But the poison is potent and is already doing its deadly work. The princess falls in her agony across the throne. Her father ([Kre]on\ dazed with grief, drops his eagle-tipped sceptre, and with one hand clutches at his grey locks, while he supports her prostrate form with the other. From right and left two figures hasten to the rescue. Kreon's son (HippotesY is first to arrive and vainly attempts to pluck the crown from his sister's head. The queen too (Merdpe}^ hurriedly approaches with gestures of grief and alarm. Behind her are an old paidagogos and a young handmaid ; the former cautiously advancing, the latter disposed to pull him back. Behind Hippotes is an elderly veiled woman, evidently the princess's nurse, who hastens to escape from the horrible sight.
1 C. Robert Bild und Lied Berlin 1881 p. 37 ff. and J. H. Huddilston op. cit. p. 145 ff. hold that this vase was intended to illustrate the Medeia of Euripides, and that the points in which its design differs from the subject as conceived by Euripides are to be regarded as natural and legitimate additions or subtractions on the part of the painter. A. Furtwangler in his Gr. Vasenmalerei ii. 164 ff. refutes their view and concludes that the vase echoes the work of some unknown poet. 2 Jahn Vasensamml. Miinchen p. 260 ff. no. 810, Furtwangler—Reichhold op. cit. ii. 161—166 pi. 90 (which supersedes all previous reproductions). The vase was found in a tomb near Canosa, Sept. 16, 1813. 3 Kpeovreia. is her name, not an abbreviation of Kpeocreta (TTCUS), nor of Kpeovreta (avaKTopa), nor yet the title of a drama comparable with OldnroSeia, 'Optffreia, etc. Other sources name her TXatiiai (Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1676 no. 4) or K/oeowra (ib. ii. 1426 f. no. 3). In Euripides she is nameless. 4 Hyg. fab. 25 coronam ex venenis fecit auream eamque muneri filios suos iussit novercae dare. 5 The name Hippotes is attested by Diod. 4. 55, schol. Eur. Med. 20, tlyg.fab. 27, though none of these authors describes him as playing the part here assigned to him. 6 The painter of this vase is our sole authority for Merope as the mother of lason's bride, though elsewhere she is mentioned as the wife of Sisyphos or as the wife of Polybos (Roscher Lex Myth. ii. 2838 f.).

2 52

The Solar Wheel in Greece

Meantime still greater horrors are in progress before the palace. Medeia (Medeia), wearing a Phrygian cap and an embroidered oriental costume, has grasped by the hair one of her two boys and is about to run him through with a sword, in spite of the fact that the little fellow has taken refuge on a square altar1. He is making desperate efforts to reach his father (Idsori), who with spear and sword, followed by an armed retainer, is hurrying towards him— but just too late to prevent the murder. Another retainer behind Medeia's back safeguards the second boy, who otherwise would share his brother's fate2. Between lason and Medeia is the chariot drawn by two monstrous snakes, which will carry her beyond reach of his vengeance. In it stands her charioteer, a sinister-looking youth with snakes in his hair and torches in his hands. His name Oistros shows that the artist, doubtless copying the dramatist3, conceived him as a personification of Medeia's frenzy, past, present, and future 4 . Standing on a rocky eminence at the extreme right and pointing with a significant gesture to the over-turned bridal bath5 and the whole tragic scene before him is a kingly figure draped in a costume resembling that of Medeia. The inscription eidolon Aetou, the 'ghost of Aetes,' suggests that in the play Medeia's father, who during his lifetime had done his best to thwart her marriage, appeared after his death to point the moral. If so, he probably spoke from the tkeologeion, a raised platform here indicated by the rock. Finally, in the background by way of contrast with all the human action and passion we get the tranquil forms of the gods—Herakles and Athena on one side, the Dioskouroi on the other. Their domain is bounded by a pair of Corinthian columns supporting votive tripods, perhaps a hint that the whole painting was inspired by a successful play.
1 J. H. Huddilston op. cit. p. 149 inclines to think that Medeia has lifted the boy on to the altar in order to slay him there. That is certainly a possible interpretation. 2 Cp. Diod. 4. 54 Tr\T]i> yap evos TOV diafivyovros TOVS aXXoi/s viotis d,Trocr<pd^a.i. 3 Poll. 4. 142 includes Qlvrpos among a list of ^/ccr/ceua irpoffiawa (along with At/o;, Qdvaros, 'Epivvs, Atfcrtra, "T/3/>is etc.). See also E. Bethe Prolegomena zur Geschichte des Theaters im Alterthum Leipzig 1896 p. 147 if. 4 This figure is usually taken to represent the mad rage that drove Medeia to commit the desperate deed. Furtwangler op, cit. ii 165 f. prefers to regard it as the embodiment of Medeia's remorse, at least of the torments that await her as a murderess of her own child. He holds that, whereas Euripides had allowed his Medeia to escape, exulting and unpunished, the later dramatist thus hinted at repentance to come. Furtwangler may well be right; but it must be remembered that, from a Greek point of view, the infatuation that instigates to the deed and the punishment that avenges it are one and the same. See e.g. K. Wernicke in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 1898 s.v. Ate, 'Personification der Unheil bringenden Verblendung, ebenso aber auch eines durch diese herbeigefiihrten Frevels und des ihm als Strafe folgenden Unheils.' 5 Furtwangler op. cit. ii. 163 n. i.

Plate XX

Krater from Canosa : the vengeance of Medeia.
See page 251 f.

lynx
(e) lynx.

253

When the Argonauts first came to Kolchis, Aphrodite helped lason to win Medeia by means of an iynx or 'wry-neck' fastened to a magic wheel. Pindar describes the incident in a noteworthy passage:
Kyprogeneia, queen of the quick shaft, Down from Olympos brought The wriggling wry-neck bound beyond escape— The mad bird—to a wheel of four-spoked shape, And then first gave it unto men and taught The proper craft To the son of Aison, that he might be wise With all the wisdom of her sorceries And thereby steal Medeia's shame Of her own parents,—yea, the very name Of Hellas her desire With Peitho's whip should spin her heart on fire1.

We are nowhere told that this iynx-w}\ee\ stood for the sun. But that it did, is—I think—a possible, even a probable, inference from the following facts. To begin with, the heroes had after a long series of adventures reached their goal—Aia, the land of the sunrise2, ruled by Aietes the offspring of Helios,—and more than one event that befell them in this locality is susceptible of a solar interpretation. Again, Aphrodite is stated to have brought the tynx-wheel 'from Olympos,' an obvious source for celestial magic3. In his description of the bird on the wheel Pindar uses a peculiar, indeed barely logical, phrase, to which only one precise parallel
1 Find. Pytk. 4. 113 ff. It should be noticed that there is a certain parallelism between the beginning and the end of this extract. As lason spins the magic lynx-wheel, so Teitho with her whip spins the heart of Medeia (woOeiva 8' 'EXXas avrdv \ ev (ppaal Ko.LOfj.evav \ dovtoi /jLaariyi HeiOovs). One form of magic wheel is said to have resembled a whip-top (schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 1139 p6/j,[3os d£ ecm. rpo^icrKos &v aTp£<f>ov<n i/uaffi r^Trrovres, Kal OVTU KT$WOV airoTe\ov<nv, id. ib. 4. 144 citing Eupolis Baptae frag. 15 Meineke w pifyt/Sotcri fj-affri^as 4/J.^, Eustath. in Od. p. 1387, 42 ff. Tpo\lffKov SrfKol rov Kal popfiov Ka\ov/J.evoi>, &v T^TTTOVTSS lfJ.dffi Kal <rTpt<povTes eiroiovv dive?<r6ai Kal \l/b<pov airoTeKeiv, et. mag. p. 7°6j 29 ff. Pan Se r^o^icr/cos, 6v rtiirTovres l/jLacn Kal. ffrpe^ovres Troiovffi Trepidoveicrftai Kal \j;6<pov a.iroreXe'tv): see P. C. Levesque in Histoire et memoires de Finstitut royal de France, classe a"hist, et de litt. anc. Paris 1818 iii. $ff., who argues that the p6/j.pos 'avoit le plus souvent la forme du jouet nomme parmi nous sabot ou toupie,' and O. Jahn in the Berichte sacks. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Phil.-hist. Classe 1854 p. 257. A vase representing such a top is figured by G. Fougeres in Daremberg—Saglio Diet. Ant. ii. 1154 fig. 3087. 2 See J. Escher-Biirkli in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 919 f., 942 f. 3 Prof. J. B. Bury in the Journ. Hell. Stud. 1886 vii. 157 ff. argues that the ftry£ was originally a moon-charm or invocation of the moon-goddess 'Iw. But it is very doubtful whether lo was ab initio a moon-goddess (infra ch. i § 6 (g) viii), and quite impossible to connect her name with i'lryf (Wfw). See also the criticisms of D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 73.

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The Solar Wheel in Greece

could be quoted; and that occurs in the same poet's previous description of Ixion1. But Ixion's four-spoked wheel, as I have already pointed out2, probably represented the sun. It may, therefore, fairly be surmised that the four-spoked tyrix-wheel also was a mimic sun. We have in fact definite evidence that on the shores of the Euxine Sea the sun was conceived as a four-spoked wheel. Coins of Mesembria in Thrace c. 450-350 B.C. have the name of the town (META or MEZjJj) inscribed between the four spokes of a wheel, which is surrounded by rays diverging from its rim (fig. i8i) 8 . This, as Dr B. V. Head observes, is the radiate wheel of the midday

Fig. 181.

Fig. 182.

Fig. 183.

Fig. 184.
4

Fig. 185.

(mesembrid) sun . Again, coins of Kalchedon in Bithynia c. 480400 B.C. show a four-spoked radiate wheel (fig. :82)5, which on other specimens c. 400 loses its rays (fig. i83) 6 : this example is
Cp. Find. Pyth. 4. 214 iroiKikav 111770 -rerp^Kva^ov (462 B.C.) with Pyth. 2. 40 rbv 5e TeTpd\Kva/j.ov '4irpa.^e de<T/j,6i> (475 ? B.C.). B. L. Gildersleeve's remark—' It was poetic justice to bind Ixion to his own iynx wheel'—is ingenious, but misleading. 2 Supra p. 205 ff. 3 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Thrace etc. p. 132, Hunter Cat. Coins i. 421 pi. 28, 8. I figure a specimen in my collection. 4 Head Hist, num.'2' p. 278, following P. Gardner in the Num. Chron. New Series 1880. 5 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Pontus etc. p. 124 pi. 27, i (my fig. 182), 2, Waddington— Babelon—Reinach Monn.gr. d'As. Min. i. 290 pi- 45> 9— J 3> Babelon Monn. gr. rom. ii. 2. 14936°. pi. 181, 7—9, 10?, u, Anson Num. Gr. vi. pi. 20, ni4f., Head Hist. num.?1 p. 511. 6 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Pontus etc. p. 124 pi. 27, 3 (my fig. 183), Waddington— Babelon—Reinach Monn. gr. d'As. Min. i. 290 f. pi- 45, 14, 15 ?, Babelon Monn.gr. rom. ii. 2. 14951". pi- 181, 12, 13?, Anson Num. Gr. vi. pi. 20, 1116, Head Hist, num? p. 511.
1

lynx

255

instructive for the light that it sheds on a numerous series of wheel-types in the coinage of Greece and Italy1. The toothed or radiate wheel is found once more as a countermark on a coin of Populonia in Etruria (fig. i84)2. It is also known as a motif on

Fig. 186.

'Dipylon' pottery (fig. i85) , where again it may well have denoted the sun. The magic wheel as seen on Greek vase-paintings (fig. 186)4 has
See Appendix D. Garrucci Man. It. ant. p. 55 pi. 74, 2. 3 F. Poulsen Dipylongraber und Dipylonvasen p. 117. I figure a sherd from Delos after F. Poulsen and C. Dugas in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1911 xxxv. 371 fig. 29. 4 (a) Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iv. 1361!. no. F 2 79 an Apulian krater. (b) Ib. iv. 186 f. no. F 399 an Apulian lekythos. (c) Ib. iv. 180 no. F 373 pi. 12, i an Apulian prochoos, Tischbein Hamilton Vases iii pi. i, J. Millingen Ancient Unedited Monuments London
2 1

3

256

The Solar Wheel in Greece

likewise a jagged or more probably a pearled edge. This little object was strung on a double cord passing through its centre and was set spinning with a jerk 1 : made of glittering bronze2 and rotating rapidly on its axis, it would provide the magician with a very passable imitation of the sun (fig. 187).

Fig. 187-

On this showing the magic wheel of the Greeks was the western analogue of the eastern,'praying-wheel,' whose essential relation to sun-worship has been satisfactorily established by W. Simpson3.
1822 i pi. 16. (d) J. V. Millingen Peintures antiques et inedites de vases grecs Rome 1813 pi. 45 an Apulian krater. For other varieties see Brit, Mus. Cat. Vases iv. 164 ff. no. F ^i — Arck. Zeit. 1853 xi. 42 f. pi. 54, i an Apulian amphora, ib. iv. no no. F 223 pi. 9, i a Campanian hydria. 1 E. Saglio in Daremberg—Saglio Diet. Ant. iv. 863 f. 2 Theokr. 2. 30. 3 W. Simpson The Buddhist Praying- Wheel London 1896 passim.

lynx

257

It remains to ask why a wry-neck was attached to the solar wheel. And here we are naturally reduced to mere conjecture. Two main reasons suggest themselves. On the one hand, the bird can and does twist its head round in a most surprising fashion: hence its names wry-neck or writhe-neck in our own country, Drehhals or Wendehals in Germany, torcol, tourlicou, tourne tete, etc., in France, torcicollo in Italy, capu tortu in Sicily1. This odd faculty of rotary movement may well have been thought to quicken or intensify the rotation of the solar wheel. On the other hand, the wry-neck breeds in the hole of a tree and, if disturbed, utters a peculiar hissing noise calculated to make the observer believe that its hole is tenanted by a snake 2 : this reason, added to the mobility of its neck and tongue, has earned for it the sobriquet of snake-bird in Sussex, Hampshire, and Somerset, Natterwendel in Switzerland, Nattervogel in Germany, c6 de cmtfauvreinihe department of Meuse3. Now the solar wheel, as we have had occasion to note more than once4, tends to be represented with the wings of a bird and a couple of snakes. The wry-neck, combining as it did the qualities of both bird and snake, was a most desirable appendage. Alexandrine wits were busied over the task of providing the wry-neck with a suitable myth. According to Zenodotos, lynx was called by some Mintha, being a Naiad nymph whose mother was Peitho5. Kallimachos in his work On Birds made lynx a daughter of Echo, who by her spells attracted Zeus to lo and suffered the feathery change at the hands of Hera6. Nikandros told how Pieros, king of Pieria, had nine daughters, who vied with the nine Muses in dance and song. A contest was arranged on
C. Swainson The Folk Lore and Provincial Names of British Birds London 1886 p. 103, E. Rolland Faunepopulaire de la France Paris 1879 ji- (Les oiseaux sauvages) 66 f. 5 J. L. Bonhote Birds of Britain London 1907 p. 178 pi. 53, W. P. Pycraft A Book of Birds London 1908 p. 109 pi. 23, 6. Cp. Aristot. hist. an. 2. 12. 504 a 12 ff. (^ iVyl) ^%et...T?jJ' y\u>TTav 6/J.oLav TOIS • 6<l>Gffu>...l:Ti de Treptcrrpe^et TOV Tpd'xrjKov ets TofnrLati} roO XotTToG (rc6,uaTos 7jpe/jt.ovvTOS, Kadcnrfp ot b'ipeis, Plin. nat. hist. ir. 256 iynx...linguam serpentium similem in magnam longitudinem porrigit. 3 C. Swainson and E. Rolland 'locc. citt. 4 Supra pp. 205 ff., 227, 228 ff., 248 f. 5 Zenod. ap. Phot. lex. s.v. /j.ivda. Menthe or Minthe was beloved by Hades and, when maltreated by Persephone or Demeter, was changed by him into the herb ' mint' (Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2801, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Kel. p. 852). 6 Kallim. Trepi bpvktav frag. iooc, 8 Schneider ap. schol. Theokr. 2. 17, schol. Find. Nem. 4. 56, Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 310, Nikephoros Gregoras in Synes. irepi evvirv'uav p. 360 Petavius, Phot. lex. s.v. "Ivy%, Souid. lex. s.v. "Iv-yl~. In schol. Theokr. loc. cit. H. L. Ahrens restores <pap/j.a-Keveiv <5e rbv Ai'a <eiri 'Iot>, STTWS SLV avry /u%0]7, O. Schneider OTTWS av ad rrj <'Iot> /"'X^i?- In Phot, and Souid. locc. citt. we should probably read dirupvLddiOrj for a,ire\t,066ri (G. Bernhardy cj. airwpveibdT), cp. Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 310).
1

C.

I7

258

The Solar Wheel in Greece

Mount Helikon. The mortals, vanquished by the immortals, were transformed into birds; and the iynx was one of these1. But the earlier unsophisticated view saw in the wry-neck merely a bird appropriate to the solar wheel, and useful therefore as a fertility-charm. This explains its connexion with Dionysos, who bore the titles lyngies and lyngyi"2. Finally, the fertility-charm, as so often happens, dwindled into a love-charm, and the iynx or iynxwheel was associated with the deities of soft emotion—Aphrodite and Eros, Himeros and Peitho3. If the zj^-wneel Was indeed a representation of the sun, we might reasonably expect to find it in the entourage of Apollon. For this god, though not himself primarily or originally solar, can be shown to have absorbed into his cult certain features of early sun-magic4. In point of fact there is some ground for thinking that the iynx was admitted into the Apolline cult at Delphoi. That past master in magic Apollonios of Tyana, when wishing to prove that the Delphic god did not disdain wealth and luxury, remarked that at Pytho Apollon had required temple after temple, each greater than its predecessor, and added that 'from one of them he is said to have hung golden iynges which echoed the persuasive notes of siren voices5.' This obscure passage has been brought into connexion with another equally obscure. Pausanias, a propos of the third or bronze temple at Delphoi, states: 'I do not believe that the temple was a work of Hephaestus, nor the story about the golden songstresses which the poet Pindar mentions in speaking of this particular temple:—
And from above the gable Sang charmers all of gold.

Here, it seems to me, Pindar merely imitated the Sirens in Homer6.'
Nikandros ap. Ant. Lib. 9. Hesych. 'Ivyylys • 6 Aiovviros and 'Ivyyv'C' 6 AIOPI/CTOS. M. Schmidt suggests'IwyKTys ' quasi ejulator^ in both cases. The names KlvaiSos (schol. Theokr.2. 17), Kivaidiov (schol. Plat. Gorg. 494 E, Phot. lex. s.v."lvy%, Hesych. s.vv. tvy£, Kivaidiov, Souid. s.v. *Ivy£), andffeieoTrvyis(Souid. s.v. i'iry£, schol. Theokr. 2. 17, schol. Aristeid. iii. 307 Dindorf, Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 310, et. Gud. p. 285, 12, cp. p. 625, 53 f., Zonar. lex. s.v. lVy£) imply that the wry-neck was confused with the wag-tail, but afford no proof of ' phallic symbolism' (D'Arcy W. Thompson op. cit. p. 71). 3 E. Saglio op. cit. iv. 864, R. Engelmann in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 772 f. 4 See the excellent discussion by Farnell Cults of Gk. States iv. i36ff., especially pp. 143, 285. 5 Philostr. v. Apott. 6. i r p. 221, 32 ff. Kayser ews 5e airrwi/ Kal -xpuaas tvyyas avdij/cu Aeyerai Setpijcaw riva ^xrexouffas (leg. ^Tr/jx.ovo'as) 7rei0c&. Prof. G. Murray thinks that eVexoi;<ras might be rendered ' exerting a kind of Siren persuasion,' but himself suggests ^7R%eoi5<ras, ' shedding a kind of Siren spell.' 6 Paus. 10. 5. 12 trans. J. G. Frazer. The fragment of Pindar is here cited in the
2 1

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259

Now Monsieur S. Reinach in an ingenious and penetrating article has argued that the early Greeks, conforming to a custom widespread throughout western Europe, sought to protect their temples against lightning by means of an eagle, the lightning-bird par excellence, bound and fastened to a post'in either pediment: the pediment in fact thence derived its name aetos, aetoma1. I would suggest that on or in both pediments of the primitive temple at Delphoi was another bird bound and fastened with like intent—the iynx on its wheel (later replaced by a simple z^-^-wheel), which secured the protecting presence of the sun itself. This suggestion may be reinforced by two lines of argument. On the one hand, when we come to deal with the solar disk, we shall find that the pediment of a sacred edifice was the favourite place for that symbol2. On the other hand, Apulian vases often depict a pair of four-spoked wheels hanging from the roof of a temple3 or palace4 or chieftain's hut5. These wheels are commonly supposed to be chariot wheels6. But, although in heroic days the wheels of a chariot when not in use might doubtless be taken off and kept separately7, we should hardly imagine that they were habitually
following form: %pu<reai d' e£ vireperov (or inraperov) aet.8ov Kij\rifj.ove^. But Galen, in Hippocrat. de articulis 3. 23 (xviii. i. 519 Kiihn) has /cat 6 Hii>8ap6s fyyviv ev rat's nXetdtrw (leg. rots 7rata<rt) • xpucrea 5' 6£u7rrepa ateroO #et5ov K\T]8oves. Hence Schneidewin proposed e£ mep aierov, Bergk f^virepd' aierov, Casaubon KrjXridoves. Of recent editors C. A. M. Fennell frag. 30 prints Xpucrtat S' e£ vireptpov \ aeiSov Kt]\r)86ves, W. Christ frag. 53 Xp&recu 8' e^vTrepd' aierov | aeiSov KijX^Sii'es, O. Schroeder y~rog. 53 %pu<reat 5' e^virepd' aierov aeiSov Kf)\-rjS6ves. The fragment is referred to by Athen. 290 E rGiv irapa Hivddpqi KrjXr;obvwv, at Kara rbv avrbv rpbirov rat's Setp?7<ri rous aKpoa/Aevovs ewo'iovv giri\av0at>o(Jievovs rQv rpo<pu>v 5ta ryv riSovrjV afavaivecrQai. The passage from Athenaeus in turn is alluded to by Eustath. in Od. pp. 1689, 33 f., 1709, 58 ff. 1 S. Reinach''AetoS Prometheus' in the Rev. Arch. 1907 ii. 59ff. — Cultes, mythes et religions Paris 1908 iii. 68 ff., cp. J. E, Harrison ' Promethee et le culte du pilier' in the Rev. Arch. 1907 ii. 429 ff. and 'Bird and Pillar Worship' in the Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions Oxford 1908 ii. 159. 2 Infra p. 292 ff. 3 The temple of Apollon at Delphoi (O. Jahn Vasenbilder Hamburg 1839 p. i ff. pi. i, K. Boetticher Der Omphalos des Zeus zu Delphi (Winckelmannsfest-Progr. Berlin) Berlin 1859 pi. i ; and perhaps Reinach Rtp. Vases i. 351). The temple of Hera at Thebes (?) (Id. ib. i. 161, 4). 4 The palace of Hades (Id. ib. i. 258, 4 — infra ch. ii § 9 (d) ii (7), i. %$$ = supra p. 200, i. 455, i). The palace of Lykourgos at Nemea (Id. ib. i. 235). 5 The hut of Achilles (Am. Journ. Arch. 1908 xii. 406 ff. pi. 19). 8 Raoul-Rochette Monumens intdits d'antiquite'figuree Paris 1831 p. 210 n. 2, Prelleir— Robert Gr. Myth. i. 805 n. i. In the Class. Rev. 1903 xvii. 176 I adopted this explanation myself, but took the chariot in question to be that of the sun. I was, as I now see, half-wrong, half-right. 7 77. 5. 722 f. "H/3r; 5' d/x0' ox^ecrcrt Oo&s /3<£Xe /ca/«ruXa /a/cXa, | xaX^ea o/crd/ccrj/ua, (rtSr/p^y d^ovi d/j.(f>is. The chariot itself, as distinct from the wheels, was put on a stand and carefully covered with a cloth (//. 8.441, cp. ib. 2. 777 f.). Before the wheels were removed the chariot might be set atilt against the front wall of the building (//. 8. 435, Od.. 4. 42).
17 2

260

The Solar Wheel in Greece

hung from the ceiling of a palace, still less from that of a temple1. And why—we may pertinently ask—is the rest of the supposed chariot never shown 2 ? A wheel can perhaps serve on occasion as a tachygraphic sign for a chariot3. But the painters of these great Apulian vases would surely sometimes have represented the vehicle
LJUUUULJLJUL1JULLJUUUUUUUUUUULJU

Fig. 188.

as a whole had that been their meaning. It is therefore permissible to conclude that the wheels depending from the roof of temple and palace are rather to be interpreted as magic wheels of a
Raoul-Rochette loc. cit. adduces Paus. 2. 14. 4 TOV de'AvaKropov KoKov/uevov irpbs rf 6p6<pi{> IleXoTros appa \£yov<riv dvaKel/rdai. But J. G. Frazer translates : ' On the roof of what is called the Anactorum stands a chariot which they say is the chariot of Pelops.' And, if the 'Avd/fTopov at Keleai resembled that at Eleusis (cp. Paus. 2. 14. i), this may well be right. 2 On an Apulian amphora from Ruvo at St. Petersburg (Stephani Vasensamml. St. Petersburg^.. 215 ff. no. 422 and in the Compte-rendu St. Pet. 1863 p. 267 n. 4, Man. d. Inst. v pi. n f., Ann. d. Inst. 1849 xx ^- 2 4°ff., Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. i. 472 ff. Atlas pi. 20, 4, Reinach Rep. Vases i. 138, 3, 139), which shows the ransoming of Hektor's body (Ann. d. Inst. 1866 xxxviii. 246), a chariot is apparently suspended in the background along with a pair of greaves, a shield, and a ptlos; but, though the scene is probably laid before Achilles' hut, there is no indication of architecture. 3 E.g. the wheel of Myrtilos, on which however see supra p. 225 n. 4, or the wheel in the exergue of a Syracusan coin signed by Euainetos (Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Sicily pp. 166, 173, G. F. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily London 1903 p. 63, Head Hist, num? p. 175), or the wheel held by a reclining female figure named Via Traiana on coins of Trajan (Rasche Lex. Num. x. 1116, Stevenson—Smith—Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 858 fig.), or that held by a figure commemorating the Circus-games of 121 A.D. on a medallion and coins of Hadrian (Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. iii. 16 no. 56 pi. 144, 5, Rasche op. cit. i. 648 ff. Suppl. i. 691 f., Stevenson—Smith—Madden op. cit. p. 46 f. fig-).
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lynx

261

prophylactic sort, in a word as iynges. However that may be, the Delphic iynx is evidenced by other works of art. A series of Etruscan funerary reliefs at Florence, Volterra, etc., represents the death of Neoptolemos1. A cista in the Museum at Volterra (fig. i88)2 will serve as an example. The hero, suddenly attacked by Orestes, has fled for refuge to the altar in front of the Delphic temple3, and, in order to put himself still more effectually under the protection of the god, clasps with uplifted hand a six-spoked

Fig. 189.

wheel apparently conceived as hanging from the entablature. A priestess on the left would wrest the sacred wheel from his grasp. A priest on the right is horror-struck at the murder. And the scene is completed by the presence of a winged Fury. The wheel,
1 A list of these reliefs is drawn up by Raoul-Rochette op. cit. p. 209, Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. p. 746 f. pi, 30, 15, P. Weizsacker in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 176, and above all by Korte Rilievi delle Urne Etrusche 1890 ii. pi. 5 3 if. 2 Korte op. cit. ii pi. 54, 4. 3 Cp. the scene of the tragedy as depicted on an Apulian amphora in the Jatta collection (Ann. d. Inst. 1868 xl. 235 ff. pi. E=Baumeister Denkm. ii. 1009 fig. 1215 = Roscher Lex Myth. iii. 175—176 fig. 5).

262

The Solar Wheel in Greece

with which alone we are concerned, has been very variously interpreted1. It is-—I submit—none other than the Delphic iynx. That this symbol should be found so far west as Etruria need not surprise us. We have here again to reckon with- the possibility of Celtic influence. A silver disk forming part of a hoard unearthed in 1836 at Notre-Dame d'Alencon near Brissac (Maine-et-Loire) and later acquired by the Louvre brings the wheel—presumably the Gallic solar.wheel8—into close relation with Apollon (fig. i8g)s. Philostratos, who in his Life of Apollonios spoke of the golden iynges that hung from the Delphic temple as 'echoing the persuasive notes of siren voices4,' records an interesting parallel from the far east. In describing the palace of the king of Babylon he mentions 'a hall, whose ceiling was vaulted like a sky and roofed with sapphire, a stone of the bluest and most heavenly colour. Images of the gods whom they worship are set up above, and appear as golden figures emerging from the upper air. Here the king passes judgment; and iynges of gold are hung from the roof, four in number, assuring him of divine Necessity and bidding him not to be uplifted above mankind. These the Magians declare that they themselves attune, repairing to the palace, and they call them the voices of the gods5.' We should, I think, attempt to elucidate Philostratos' account in the light of a stone tablet found by the veteran explorer Mr Hormuzd Rassam at Abu-Kabbah, the site of the old Babylonian city Sippar (fig. igo)6. This monument, which is now in the British Museum, is officially described as follows:
1 Korte op. cit. ii. 130 argues that the figure holding the wheel must be Myrtilos, not Neoptolemos at all, because in one example (pi. 56, 8) four horses are present. But the horses may quite well be those of Neoptolemos or Orestes, or may even represent the race-course at Delphoi, where Orestes according to the feigned tale (Soph. El. 681 ff.) was killed by his own restive team. The pillar in the background of our illustration is equally indecisive : it stands, I think, for the Delphic omphatts, though it might perhaps be explained as the goal-post of Oinomaos' race. Our real and conclusive reason for regarding the scene as the death of Neoptolemos, not Myrtilos, is that the former was notoriously slain at the altar of Apollpn (Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 172), while the latter was no less notoriously flung into the sea by Pelops (ib. ii. 3315 ff.). , 2 Infra p. 288 f. / 3 F. Lajard Recherches sur le culte du cypres pyramidal Paris 1854 pp. 107, 261 ff., 362 pi. 20, 5. 4 Supra p. 258 -n. 5. 5 Philostr. v. Apoll. i. 25 p. 29, iff. Kayser...StKafci /j.ev dy 6 |3a<TiXei)s evravda, xpvffa^ "5e 'ivyyes aTTOKptfJMVTai TOV 6pb<j>ov Ttrrapes TTJV 'AdpAcrreiav avrf irapeyyvucrai /ecu TO ^ inr£p TOI>S dvOpunrovs ai'pecrflcu. rairras 01 fjt,dyoi avroL <j>a<ru> apfj-drrea-ffai tpoiruii'Tes £s TO, jSaa^Aeia, KaAoCcrt 5e auras Oewv •yXwrras. 6 T. G. Pinches in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology 1885 viii. i64ff., C. J. Ball Light from the East London 1899 pp. 155—157, L. W. King Sabylonian Religion and Mythology London 1899 p. 19, G. Maspero The Dawn of Civilization* London 1901 p. 657.

lynx

263

'Tablet sculptured with a scene representing the worship of the Sun-god in the Temple of Sippar, and inscribed with a record of the restoration of the temple by Nabu-pal-idinna, king of Babylonia, about B.C. 870. In the upper part of the tablet the Sun-god is. seen seated within a shrine upon a throne, the sides of which are sculptured with figures of mythical beings in relief; in his right hand he holds a disk and bar, which may be symbolic of the sun's orbit, or eternity. Above his head are the three symbols of the Moon and the Sun and the planet Venus. 'The roof of the shrine is supported by a column in the form of a palm-trunk. Before the shrine upon an altar or table stands the disk of the sun, which is held in position by means of ropes tightly drawn in the hands of two divine beings who form part of the celestial canopy. Approaching the disk are three human figures; the first of these is the high priest of the Sun-god, who is leading by the hand the king to do worship to the symbol of the solar

Fig. 190.

deity, and the last figure is either an attendant priest or a royal minister. The shrine of the god stands upon the Celestial Ocean, and the four small disks upon which it rests seem to indicate the four cardinal points. The text describes the restoration of the Temple of the Sun-god by two kings called SimmashShikhu (about B.C. 1050) and E-ulbar-shakin-shum (about B.C. 1020). It then goes on to say that Nabu-pal-idinna, king of Babylonia, found and restored the ancient image of the Sun-god and the sculptures of the temple, which had been overthrown by the enemies of the country....He also beautified the ancient figure of the Sun-god with gold and lapis-lazuli....This tablet was made by Nabu-pal-idinna in the ninth century before Christ, but he probably copied the sculptured scene at the top from a relief of a very much older period1.'
E. A. Wallis Budge British Museum. A Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities London 1900 p. 128 f. pi. 22 no. 91,000.
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264

The Solar Wheel in Greece

Comparing now the tablet with the words of Philostratos, we note that it exhibits a throne-room with a ceiling vaulted like the sky, from which emerge certain divine figures. It also mentions lapislazuli and gold, thereby recalling the sapphire vault and golden images of the Greek author. Above all, the solar disk suspended by cords and the emblems of sun, moon, and star seen beneath the ceiling are analogous to the four iynges said to 'have been hung from the roof. I shall venture to conclude that Philostratos was not talking at random, but was describing an actual chamber in the Babylonian palace, such as we know to have been constructed by various grandees from that day to this1. Golden disks representing the principal heavenly bodies there dangled from a mimic sky. That of the sun, upheld by two genii of gold, announced by its mobility and resonance the divine will. Indeed, all alike were known as 'the voices of the gods.' We have thus won our way to an explanation, which further clears up the only difficulty remaining with regard to the Delphic iynges. They—we argued—were wheels on or in the pediments of the early temple at Delphoi. Now if, as Philostratos says2, these golden iynges 'echoed the persuasive notes of siren voices' (literally, 'echoed a certain persuasion of Sirens'), and if, as Pindar saysa, 'from above the gable sang charmers all of gold,' we may suppose that the Delphic wheels were suspended from the hands of siren-like figures placed upon the roof much as we see the solar disk suspended on the Babylonian tablet. That the fynx as a bird was sacred among the ancient Babylonians and Persians has been inferred by Dr L. Hopf 4 and Prof. D'Arcy Thompson5. This inference, so far as it is based on the Philostratos-passage above discussed, is obviously precarious. Marines, it is true, states that Proklos was familiar with Chaldean rites 'and by moving a certain tynx in the correct manner caused a rain-fall and freed Attike from a destructive drought6.' But that this charm was strictly Chaldean, may well be doubted. And, even if it was, the wheel rather than the bird is probably meant7. The
See R. Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt Mtinchen 1910 ii. 614 n. i. 3 Supra p. 258 n. 5. Supra p. 258 n. 6. 4 L. Hopf Thierorakel und Orakelthiere in alter und neuer Zeit Stuttgart 1888 p. 144. 5 D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 72. 6 Marin. v. Prod. 28 o^povs re £idvi}<rev, tvyyd TWO, Trpoff(f>6pu>s Kivriffas, Kat ai)xMw»/ ^aiffiwv TTjv 'ArTi/a?? ijKevdepbicrev. Cp. Proklos in Plat. Crat. p. 33, 14 f. Pasquali Toiovrov Si?/ TL voeiv %/j.oiye 5o/c« /cai r6 diairopd/juov ovofj,a T&V Ivyywv, 6 irtiffas avexeiv \eyerai ras Tnjyds, and see further G. Kroll De oraculis Chaldaicis Vratislaviae 1894 pp. 39—44. 7 Yet L. Hopf loc. cit. notes that near Radolfszell on the Bodensee wry-necks are called ' Rain-birds' (Regenvogele).
2 1

Hough ton. 54 Cory 2 vooti/jievai tvy-yes Trarpddev voeovffi KO. and Clement of Alexandreia cites from it a passage in which mention is made of 'the wheel that turns in the precincts of the gods. Stahlin. an Alexandrine mathematician of the third century B. By way of explaining Numa's precept that men should turn round when they pay adoration to the gods. he remarks: 'The turning round of the worshippers is said to be an imitation of the rotatory movement of the world.\ fiov\ais d<pdeyKTOio~i Kivotifnevai ware vorjcrai. and with it his prayer.C. 6 Plout. 207 ff. Clem. At most we might maintain that the bird-like solar wheel or disk or ring of Assyrian and Persian art 3 originated in the custom of binding a bird. The zjm^-wheels suspended at Delphoi suggest comparison with other temple-wheels. by turning from the sun-god to the god of the temple again). not necessarily the wry-neck. then. 1 Pseudo-Zoroastres frag. 4 Aristot. 4 p. Clearly.e.' Still more explicit is Heron. The Rev. being derived from the Egyptians5. 356. Since temples face the east. -v.' he says. Nemesis. discusses no fewer than fifty-seven species..C. who twice describes the wheels in question. who has minutely studied the birds of the Assyrian monuments and records. 5. by means of both deities (i. W. Tyche. 45. Unless indeed the Egyptian wheels have a hidden significance and this change of position in like manner teaches us that. Dionysios the Thracian (c. 170-90 B. Aristotle in his treatise on Mechanics alludes to certain revolving wheels of bronze and iron as dedicated in sanctuaries4. But the meaning would rather seem to be as follows. He here changes his position and turns round towards the (sun-) god. g&. . 14. 'In the sanctuaries of the Egyptians.Temple Wheels 265 same consideration disposes of an allusion to the iynx in a supposititious fragment of Zoroastres1. Num. inasmuch as no mortal matter stands still. we cannot without further proof assert that the wry-neck was a sacred bird in Babylonia and Persia. 8483 24 f. upon a revolving wheel to serve as an imitative sun-charm. 5 Dion.) wrote a book on the symbolism of wheels. 3 Supra p.L avrai. 2 W. some bird. Thrax ap. the worshipper has his back to the sun-rise. completing the circle. Al. sir. (£) Isis.' Plutarch too has a reference to these Egyptian wheels. 42—142. i. Fortuna. it is right to accept with contentment whatever turns and twists God gives our life6. Houghton in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology 1885 viii. mech. but the wry-neck is not among them2.

In F p the second the wheel is thin and vertical. 2. It is a copper disk revolving on an iron pin in such a way as to project from a copper box once sunk in a wall or gate-post. 4 F. In 1900 Prof.Flinders Fig. or rather disk. and vertical. Erman 'Kupferringe an Tempelthoren' in the Zeitschriftfiir agyptische Sprache und Alterturn skunde 1900 xxxviii. W. The box bears an inscription hard to decipher. v. 1902 xxii. and with excellent result. 2 Id. 32 p. On the purificatory powers of bronze see \hefourn. W. Whether these wheels were Egyptian in origin or imported into Egypt from some foreign religious system. 3 A. which. termed a purifier. 32 p. Petrie surmised that Buddhist missionaries in the time of Asoka must have found their way to the valley of the Nile. There are sprinklers too so that those who enter may sprinkle themselves. which.' Heron proposes to make a wheel. ib. Again. another of his problems is the 'construction of a treasury provided with a revolving wheel of bronze. for the next year Prof. with fig. pneumatica i.' Heron's idea is to decorate the treasury with a bird. 1 . so that those who enter. solid. 14 ff. may turn them about. who has done so much for the n Heron Al. is afurtherquestion. 1901 xxxix.266 The Solar Wheel in Greece 'by the door-posts are bronze wheels that can be made to revolve. Hell. shall turn itself about and whistle2. Simpson.spokes. W. if turned round. and Mr W. F. 53 f. Erman drew the attention of Egyptologists to these alleged Egyptian wheels3. 298 Schmidt. Prof. which is thin. 191 )4. shall emit water for the sprinkling1. von Bissing published a wheel of the sort that he had procured at Thebes (fig. with six . 191. as often as the wheel is turned. The first of these passages is accompanied by a diagram of the wheel. A. Bissing 'Zu Ermans Aufsatz "Kupferringe an Tempelthoren"' ib. I44f. 148 Schmidt. because bronze is believed to exercise a purificatory influence.M. Stud. for this those who come into the sanctuaries are accustomed to turn round. but apparently referring to the n wheel as a 'golden ring (or disk)': oX A hence the discoverer infers that the wheel was formerly gilded.

25—40. or at least were recently. it can hardly be doubted that they were akin to the ' wheel of Fortune' —a common sight in mediaeval churches. inclines to accept that view1. But. Such wheels are still. 1 W. 4 H. to be found in some continental churches (W. Simpson ' The Buddhist Praying Wheel' in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1898 pp. . Simpson The Buddhist PrayingWheel London 1896 p. 2 Goblet d'Alviella ' Un curieux probleme de transmission symbolique. Rites.. India Chaldaea 3rd cent. 3 J. des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique iii Serie 1898 xxvi. however. it seems probable that the automatic gypsy-wheel of our railway platforms is a degenerate descendant of the same respectable stock. Indeed. thinks that the current may have set the other way. Egypt 1st cent. 439—462 and in his Croyances. whatever the precise lineage of these Graeco-Egyptian temple-wheels may have been. . i). Capart. the custom being introduced into Egypt by the Greeks3. 229 n.—Les roues liturgiques de 1'ancienne Egypte' in the Bulletins de fAcadlmie Royale des Sciences.. Decisive considerations are not as yet to hand. where it was made of wood. J. worked with a rope. Count Goblet d'Alviella suggests the following lines of transmission 2 : 10th cent. hung up to the roof. 1884 ii. 142 ff. Greece Borne Tibet Gaul Japan '. and regarded as an infallible oracle4. \ None of these authors call in question Plutarch's statement thatSthe Greeks derived their temple-wheels from Egypt.267 elucidation of ritual wheels. 873—875. Capart in the Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 1901 xxxix. Arch. Gaidoz in the Rev. Institutions Paris 1911 i. 145 f. 7th cent.

193. 61. 5 Cohen op. 98. Agam. Myth. Cruq. 15). Fortune's wheel is often mentioned in Latin literature from the time of Cicero onwards1. 1510 pi. 424 no. Amm. Thus a coin of Elagabalos shows Fortuna with a rudder in her right hand. rom. ii. W. 3. Rom. 1—3). Gnecchi Medagl. Myth. 2 Fortuna standing—a bronze statuette (K. pi. cit? v. seated on a throne beneath which is a four-spoked wheel (fig. 9). I92)4. 1978 cited in Roscher Lex. iii. seated over a wheel—a brown paste at Berlin (Furtwangler Geschnitt. 147. 71 pi. 1445 after Zoega Bassirilievi i pi. 16 . 10 ne currente retro funis eat rota. Gorlay. Modern work?). but is comparatively seldom seen on the monuments2. Fig. Marc. but see W. nos. 2 pi. 31 no. 13. 70. 18. I93)5. 27. 31. 331. 1135— 1179. On another of Gordianus Pius the Fig. Boeth. S.z iv. Fortuna standing with rudder and cornu copiae in her hands and a wheel at her feet—two gems (Montfaucon Antiquity Explained trans. 7 i f . p. a cornu copiae in her left. emp. 157 Naber.71 no. no... 8 no. 99. 2. 100). 192. Id. 26. 22. Tib. Ant. 87 no. id. J. cp. 194. 3 The coin-types of Fortuna are most fully listed by Rasche Lex. 481 pi. ii. 23. Mr F. 137). Fortuna. Fronto de orat. with rudder in right hand and cornu copiae in left. 8 pi. 107 no.268 The Solar Wheel in Greece The wheel as a cult-utensil gave rise to the wheel as a divine attribute. Gemmeni. i. Fatum personified as a female standing with left foot raised on a six-spoked wheel and body inclined in the act of writing (Fata Scribundd)—a grave-relief (Roscher Lex. de or. 92.5. On a bronze medallion of Gallienus Fortuna Redux is standing with a rudder in her right hand. and a wheel at her feet (Gnecchi Medagl. 1089—t no. Tac. Hirschfelder's note on the passage. Later references are collected by J. 1506). Suppl. 1567 f. 113. On a third of Gallienus her attributes have passed by a somewhat cynical transition to Indulgentia Augusti. 866 ff. i. le Vicomte de Ponton d'Amecourt Monnaies d'or romaines et byzantines Paris 1887 p. i. So Hor. Lincoln has a fine specimen of it. at. 16. Stallybrass ii. ii. dial. 10. 17 after A. phil. . 1 Cic. ii. Humphreys London 1721 i. who stands leaning on a short column and holding a rod in her right hand (fig. i. a cornu copiae in her left. Friederichs Berlins antike Bildwerke Dlisseldorf 1871 ii. Cp. od. 6 Cohen op. 5. iv. A similar design is found on the reverse of a bronze medallion of Albinus (W. 2 pr. A very similar reverse occurs on coppers of the same emperor (Cohen ib. Num. i. de cons. 8. throne has almost vanished and we have Fortuna Redux seated apparently upon a mere wheel (fig. according to Acron and Comm. Fig. D. Rom. i pr. in Pis. 197 pi. 89 nos. 337 no. ad loc. An example or two from imperial coin-types will serve to illustrate the conception3. 96 (the same type in gold) is well figured in the Sale Catalogue of M. Kubitschek Ausgewahlte romische Medallions der kaiserlichen Miinzensammlung in Wien Wien 1909 p. I figure three specimens from the Cambridge collection. ib. i. I94)6. Sen. 4 Cohen Mon. 338 no. 73 nos.2 v. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. SteineBerlin p. i.

iii. 375 ff. on the other hand.quam vocabulo duplici etiam Nemesin adpellamus : ius quoddam sublime numinis efficacis. ut universitatem regere per elementa discurrens omnia non ignoretur. I flit throughout the world exultingly And have all mortal tribes within my ken.. $ 1 Mesomedes h. Ne/uecrti' 5£ fuer-ffiev. 48. the coins of Alexandreia and the statuettes from Memphis (?) and Sebennytos(P) discussed by P. Perdrizet in the Bull. Amm.vTOKTj\i<rTos £ijv vrapd wofffflv avd. 25 f. Rossbach in Roscher Lex. Cp. . is common enough in art2. i ff. de hello Getico 63 r f. Wrought me in stone and duly paid his vow. \ . Artemidoros. Beside her a bearded snake raises its head. 15. Corr. Myth.. eique subdidit rotam. beneath her right is a large four-spoked wheel. | ingemuit flexitque rotam. n....s. J. Dion. Hell. Well-winged. 3 P. This sinister figure occupies the interior of a little chapel and is . 109 ff... 266—270. N. Hell. Marc.. Adrastia. Nonn. In her left hand she holds a measuring rod . 2 O. ut adesse velocitate volucri cunctis existimetur. \ Saifiuv iravda/jLareipa. proud and wise — I trow—.pinnas autem ideo illi fabulosa vetustas aptavit. 14. cum/3?. \ (ryfjiaivuv OTI Trdvras dy^vopas els ireSov e'A/cet | v\fs66ev etXu<£otocra diKTjs iroivfiTopi. 600 pi. Perdrizet in the Bull.ff<n<]S. and in greater detail H. I95) 3 . 1912 xxxvi. 1898 xxii. fiiov ffTpo<f>6u<ra iropeiirji'. \ Kal rpo^os a. 248—274 pi. sed dea. 144 f.. Corr. \ XapoTra /uepoirwv crrpe^erat ru%a. KVK\($. Posnansky Nemesis und Adrasteia (Breslauer philologische Abhandlungen v.accompanied by the following epigram: I am—you see—the Nemesis of men. 1894 xviii.. quae nimiis obstat Rhamnusia votis. Claud. humanarum mentium opinione lunari circulo superpositum. A marble relief.. immortal. N^uecri Trrepoecrcra. Delamarre in the Rev.. found in the Peiraieus and now in the Louvre (fig. 2) Breslau 1890 pp.The Wheel of Nemesis The wrheel of Nemesis. Philol. 156 ff. though rarely alluded to in literature1. et praetendere gubernaculum dedit. if. Nemes. represents the goddess as winged and standing on the back of a naked man. dwelling in the sky.viro abv Tpo-%bi> dararov.

3 Paus. Beside the goddess is her familiar animal. where there was an ancient cult of two wingless Nemeseis3. 308. 166 pi. On the reverse of a coin struck by Commodus (fig. Posnansky op. Griffin and wheel are frequently associated with Nemesis on coins and gems2. Nemesis had a bearded snake on the Peiraieus relief (supra p. Gr. the griffin. the two Nemeseis are drawn by a pair of griffins in a two-wheeled car. cit. Posnansky op. A winged Nemesis holding her robe with her right hand and an apple-branch in her left is standing in a car drawn by a large snake. The sculptor has made a clumsy attempt to combine three different modes of progression—wings spread for flight. 138 no. i ff. 2 p. according to one version. H. pi. Al. 4 H. The wheel has become a chariot. wooed her in the form of a snake (schol. p. 7. 3148. and a wheel as a vehicle. cit. 13 Stahlin cited infra p. Posnansky would here recognize ' eine Verschmelzung der Nemesis mit Hygieia. 2 1 . cit. 61—67. p. 197)* we have a corresponding duplication of attributes. The same thing has happened on a red jasper in the British Museum (fig. Rossbach in Roscher Lex.' This is hardly necessary. Posnansky op. i. pp. O. limbs in the attitude of running. 3193. 279 n. p. tit. H. 4). i. 33. The transformation of the wheel into a chariot Bull. Hell. 1898 xxii. 37. ii nos. 131 ff. Myth. protr. Gems p. H. 269). 121 f. one of its forepaws likewise resting on a wheel. 16. 9. 6. A. 5. i. 7. 198)^. 2. i.The Solar Wheel in Greece A limestone relief in the museum at Gizeh (fig. An interesting development of the type occurs at Smyrna. i. 35. 2663. 5 Brit. Clem. and Zeus. 40. 196)* shows Nemesis in the act of flitting through the world. inscr. 601 pi.. Mus. Boeckh on Corp. Corr. Cat. Posnansky op. r. 136 pi. 1141. Fig. 3163. iii.

140 f. 15036". 79. A billon statuette found in France and formerly in the Charvet collection3 shows the goddess fairly laden with attributes. Myth. the wheels of which are not visible at all1. 1887 xiv.f.. Myth. pp. L. ii. 179^. Mr Warde Fowler in his admirable book on The Roman Festivals hinted that Fortuna might be ranked among ' deities of the earth..P. Perdrizet in the Bull. 30. cit. Wissowa Rel. i. i. 8 W. Steine Berlin p. 88 no.. as before. Stat. Myth? ii. Again. It is supposed that Isis borrowed her wheel from Nemesis5. 135 ff. 7. Myth. H. Kult. 1551. Rom. 235. Num. ii. or vegetation. p.. 171 f. and such she undoubtedly became. 167. Isis Tyche or Isityche (Roscher Lex. We have also to reckon with an TI<ris Tux??. 164. p.' being ' perhaps not only a prophetess as regards the children. and a purse. Rel. 115 no. A snake in her right hand is feeding out of a phidle in her left. 52 ff. Roscher Lex. 206 ff. 546. ii. 166. or generation8. H. In her left hand she holds a twofold cornu copiae. 6 For Nejueo-is in relation to Tv^ or Fortuna see Roscher Lex. 245 n. On her wings are the busts of Sun and Moon. 263 no. on an engraved cornelian4 she is recognisable by her characteristic head-dress. O. These borrowings would be facilitated by the general resemblance subsisting between the deities in question. 7 Preller—Jordan Rom. Millin Galerie Mythologique Paris 1811 i. 1831. and at her feet is a wheel with projecting hub. 5 For'Itris N^u. 544. 350 pi. 1551. 1040 n. i53off. 57. 4 A. But that this was her original character can be maintained only by those who are prepared to leave many features of her cult unexplained. Round her right arm coils a snake.e<us see Roscher Lex. i. Posnansky op. fruit. iii. R. i. 2 Roscher Lex. Posnansky op. and at her feet.. Rossbach in Roscher Lex. Peter in Roscher Lex.The Wheel of Isis 271 even led to the total disappearance of the former. Reinach Rip.. 544 f. Warde Fowler The Roman Festivals London 1899 p. no. On a small prase at Berlin the goddess with a wreath or branch in her left hand and a measuring-rod in her right is drawn by a couple of snakes in a car. .Cp. 127 f. The bibliography of this gem is given by W. corn-ears. Myth. but also of the good luck of the mother in 1 Furtwangler Geschnitt. in her right a rudder. 38 n. Fortuna is commonly regarded as the goddess of luck or destiny7. i549ff. Myth. Myth. 6. iii. 2451 pi. Gruppe Gr. iii. 256 ff. regarded this gem as figuring Nike with wreath and staff standing behind a round altar on the forepart of a ship (?). however.. 1912 xxxvi. and •that Nemesis in turn borrowed it from Fortuna6. cp. Isis too was occasionally represented with a wheel2. Hell. i. 67. Furtwangler. 3 Catalogue de la vente Charvet Paris 1883 p. Corr. Myth. Myth. 123. ii. is the wheel. 22. "• 545 ^). pp. cit. The Religious Experience of the Roman People London 1911 pp. Drexler in the Zeitschr.

1 .. Vaglieri has recently found in the barracks of the vigiles at Ostia a well-preserved latrine with two dedications to Fortuna Sancta (T. 4. Posnansky op. 14 Clem. 60. Wb'rterb. ign p. 1520. 1503 ff.' etc. protr. Otto in Philologus 1905 Ixiv. 9 Roscher Lex. i.vv. Carter op. Myth. i p. B. Rev. 193 ff. cit. 1506. Kult. 421. and the ears of wheat17. 2 J.' we cannot decide. 'I impute18. 1519. p. cit. i. and in 1900 Prof. J. n): see Not.. 1903 xviL 420f. Virilis9. Carter considered the problem of Fortuna's origin ' unsolved as yet2. 1904 xviii. is not hard to follow.Myth. '1506.. iii. 5 Wissowa op. 66 ff. 280f. Stud. 6 Id.. Class. p. iff. Class. but rather a great goddess of fertility3. 296f. 15 Roscher Lex. 66: 'Whether the cognomen arose out of a popular epithet applied to a bearded statue of an effeminate god or hero (possibly Dionysius [sic] or Sardanapalus).' But ? ? 1 1 Roscher Lex. Muliebris*. 1518 f. i. etym. B. Carter 'The Cognomina of the Goddess "Fortuna"' in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 1900 xxxi. the moditis or grain-measure16. O. 315 f. 10 Ib. isff. J.209 ff. Scavi 1911 p. 310 n.272 The Solar Wheel in Greece childbirth1.. her cult at Praeneste as Primigenia™.' Nevertheless in 1905 I felt justified in urging that she was at the first no mere personification of luck. 4 Walde Lat. Carter op. Myth. cit. 62 n. 206 f. 297. Stahlin. 1515. cp. Nemesis is popularly conceived as an embodiment of divine indignation or vengeance. by a mistake in the gender. 39. 8 Ib. by man as Barbata11. 3 Folk-Lore 1905 xvi. Usener regarded her asW. Rom. ' to bear4. Myth. The Religious Experience of the Roman People pp. The transition of meaning from fertility to luck. Mammosaw.' H.. 167. 7 Roscher Lex. 285 n. ' 1S Roscher Lex. and from luck to destiny. Myth. D. B. Carter op. Wissowa Rel. very likely a statue of the Ephesian Diana. p. at Rome as Viscatau. her own intimate association with the Mater Matuta 8 .. 'fors. 1516 f. Folk-Lore 1905 xvi. 1903 xvii.' 'fortuna. Myth. B. 1519. p. J. 285. 362. i suggests that this epithet 'was probably merely the popular name for a statue with many breasts. p. her name being explained as the verbal substantive from nemo. Myth.' the agricultural and horticultural character of her reduplicated self Fors Fortuna5. p. her attributes the cornu copiae™. Rev. her tutelage of latrines14. was called '•Fortuna with a beard. 17 Ib.' This suggestion was published in 1899. her worship by women under the titles Virgo or Virginalis7. cit. which. 1541 ff. 18 H. 207. 239 s. based on a variety of accepted facts—the derivation of her name from the root of ferre. Ashby in The Year's Work in Class. 1519 f. Rossbach in Roscher Lex. 1178". ib. 16 Ib. 15. W. Warde Fowler The Roman Festivals p. B.' Again?? 12 Roscher Lex. p. And that is still my conviction. cit. i.. i.. i. Folk-Lore 1905 xvi. 51. cp. J. Al. 4. p.

Spr? p. so Nemesis was a goddess of the greenwood (nemo. There are. but nemeszzomai from nemesis. 'sacred place in the wood.' the Old Prankish nimid. 'I pasture. Bacmeister Keltische Briefe ed. The cult of Nemesis was comparatively early. Hence the Old Irish nemed. grave objections to any such abstract interpretation. 409 f. Myth. a Diana-like deity of the Celts (Celtic nemeton.' and other related words (Holder loc. 'sacred grove. de mundo 7. ii. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896. but a fact borne out by a comparison of cult with cult. There is more to be said for O. 1086 n.3. 2. gr. 6 On Nemetona see M.C. The word nemeton appears in place-names such as Augustonemetum. —-diaipet y&p rt> eTri{3d\\ov 2 1 Roscher Lex. cp. A. who cites also from the Cartulaire de Quimperle' a. 45 n. Walde Lat.' In short. Aristot. 171 s. etym. iii. 17 f. iv..' but 'wrath. 5 Gruppe Gr. Indeed. 'sacred wood')6. We must not derive Nemesis from nemestzomai.. Thus at Rhamnous it was flourishing in the fifth century B. the attributes of the goddess at Rhamnous and her twin statues at Smyrna do not suggest a transparent personification of the sort required by these hypotheses.. 12 iff. This is no merely speculative philological equation. d. etc. connecting the name with nemo. As such she would correspond with Nemetona. Cornut. The cult of abstractions was comparatively late. 47. M. 'glade') — a patroness of animal and vegetable life.' Idchos. N^wecrw d£ airb TTJS e/cturry Sicwe/wjcrews. Myth. 371. theol. Worterb. " 18 . 13 p. 712. Ihm in Roscher Lex. Holder Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz Leipzig 1904 ii. essentially ' wroth' (iiemesizomai} with those who annually oppressed her. Rel. I think. 124 ff. Prellwitz Etym. Myth. 40 i b I2f. Thus Nemesis will not mean 'wroth. 4 8 c. Worterb.. d. In seeking an escape from this impasse we should. sanctuary. cit.' 'Nemetiales').. 'I assign1. Etym. 309. 45 n. 'the Glade'). Diana Nemorensis as a woodland goddess had H. Gr. Nevertheless this explanation too has its weak spot. Medionemetum. She is compared with Diana by A. Keller Strassburg 1874 p. 8. Schonfeld Worterbuch der altgermanischen Personen. As Ldchesis was a goddess of the lot (lachein.' In so doing he revived an etymology already current in Graeco-Roman times2. start from the analogy of Lachesis. 1031 silva quae vocatur Nemet.und Volkernamen Heidelberg 1911 p. Ib. p. 713. L. however.7r6 rrjs i/e/u^uews wpoa"r)y6pevrai. iii. A/aiW/uerop. 'lot'). 'Nemetes. p. See Holder op. 9. 13. O. but willing at the same time to give them oracles5. 275 ff. Lang N^/xecris 6e d. and at Smyrna in the sixth4. 'to get by lot. pp. Meyer Handb.w. iii. i66f. she would be the Greek counterpart of the Italian Diana Nemorensis (Nemus. cit. we are once more involved in the difficulty of supposing that Nemesis was a personification. Moreover. Gruppe's view that Nemesis was an earth-goddess.Nemesis 273 the personification of distributive rather than retributive fate.' nemos.

nos. 614. the puppies are wreathed with their wonted adornment. 20. 483 ff. 30. A. 616—632. Gratt. iii. 101. 34 f. This raises the question whether we have here Nemesis contaminated with Diana Nemorensis. 32. 856—861 pi. 199. 22. the cakes that smoke on their green tray are brought forward. the kid with horns just budding from his gentle brow. and the apples still hanging on their boughs. towards her chin in the regular Nemesisattitude (fig. id. 1 . Then comes the cask. Note that a votive offering in the form of an apple made of terra cotta was found by Lord Savile in Diana's precinct at Nemi (G. Grattius in his poem on hunting describes as follows the huntsman's festival: 'In the glades beneath the sky we fashion cross-road altars. nos. On the other hand. id.. cit. 7. 634. Nemi. 7 Furtwangler Geschnitt. no. Furtwangler has acutely recognised the goddess on a whole series of Italian gems and pastes5. where she is lifting her hand Fig. p. 231. I99)6. 59 f. 445 f.' It is a legitimate inference from this passage that apple-branches played an important part in the ritual of Diana Nemorensis*. 4 I have discussed the matter further in Folk-Lore 1906 xvii. Steine Berlin p. she holds an applebranch in her right hand. Gemmen i. 379 pi. a bowl of apples in her left (fig. many bronze statuettes from her precinct at Nemi represent her as a huntress1. 6 Furtwangler Ant. 5 Furtwangler Ant. 18. 26. ii. H.274 The Solar Wheel in Greece both beasts and trees in her charge. Wallis op. Geschnitt. Furtwangler was at first disposed to identify the goddess on this and other examples of the type with Nemesis—an identification justified in one case at least. The specimen here figured exhibits her as a draped female standing by a wreathed altar with a stag at her side. Pausanias' G. Steine Berlin p. p. whereby our whole company purifies itself for the goddess and praises her for the year's capture3. Geschnitt. 37 no. H. 7. 59 f. On the one hand. 379 pi. cyneg. Gemmen i pi. 2 3 Id. ii. 15 no. 66 . and in the midmost part of the glade men lay their very weapons upon flowers. Italy Nottingham 1893 p. . weapons that are idle during these rites and the festal time of peace. 18. This is a green paste banded with blue and white. ii. 35 nos. 108. 858 pi. or whether Nemesis in her own right could have apple-branch and stag. z'£. 69). after the manner of the lustral rite. Steine Berlin p. The gem is a cornelian scarab of the later elongated shape. and two bronze figures of hinds were found at the entrance of her temple2. n. 22. 37 no. io8f. pis. we set up split torches at Diana's woodland rite. Wallis Illustrated Catalogue of Classical Antiquities from the site of the Temple of Diana. p. 200)7. 633.

.

Restoration of the cult-statue. See pages 275. i*. Stater of Kypros: ok Zeus enthroned. rev. i a . Nemesis standing. 2^ . 2* . Extant fragment of the head.Plate XXIII •f Nemesis ^ Rhamnous : i. 281. .

.

Cornford points out to me (May 10. 21. and presumably for the same reason. Myth. 2 TJ T' exl Zpya 6 PpoTGur 6paas. Oilpis. 26. 166 pi. Head Brit. 8 Solin. like the Italian. 'was an ancient and half-forgotten name of Artemis.cit. It. in her left hand she carries an apple-branch. p. no. V. PI. 215 f. H. 409). Gems p. no. 3. Farnell Cults of Gk. 40). Prenierstein in Philologus 1894 liii. an apple-branch2 and stags. 138 nos. Coins Ionia p. 2 Nemesis lifting her drapery in one hand and holding an apple-branch in the other occurs on Graeco-Roman gems (Brit. Cat.. on which are wrought Aithiopes (pi.resuscitated by later poetry' and interpreted by the Greeks as the ' Watcher' (ppizesthai}. animal life. 264 f. 488. i)1. sel. 'Pa/ipoimas OSwi. nos. 6. Sculpture i. 223 cp. 3 Diana was often paired with Silvanus (e. 161 f. 147—155 with fig. because the Greek.. i is a restoration of the statue based on the extant fragment of the head (i™ and i6. 33. but is called Demeter (?) . 133 pi.g. 5 Inscr.' Thus Nemesis at Rhamnous had the same insignia as Diana at Nemi. cit. Mus. 1389 ii 2 = Cougnyvi^M.. Lat. 1140—1142. iii. according to Hes. cit. who has collected most of the relevant facts. Here a dedication ' To the 1 Paus. as Dr Farnell remarks6. inlustris tamen. 3266—3268: see further A. 2. Prenierstein loc. . 200.. 281. 407 ff. Mr F.. i. Nemesis was of the same family as the apple-guarding Hesperides. cit. and in her right a bowl. Pal. p. v. 263. 46 Rhamnus parva. Posnansky op. no. 26 Ramne quoque. Rhamnusian Oupis5. quod in ea fanum est Amphiarai et Phidiaca Nemesis. 460) and on the coin described infra p. So on occasion was Nemesis (Dessau op. States ii. 24. 27. Rossbach in Roscher Lex. The cult-image at Rhamnous is described by Pomponius Mela as ' Pheidias' Nemesis'1' and by Julius Solinus as 'Pheidias' statue of Diana*'\ Adjoining the amphitheatre at Aquincum (A It-Of en) in Lower Pannonia was a chapel to Nemesis. i. Mus. 249 pi. See further O.Nemesis 275 account of Nemesis at Rhamnous enables us to decide in favour of the latter alternative: 'On the head of the goddess is a crown decorated with stags and small figures of Victory. A metrical inscription found in 1607 on the Appian Road and commemorating the munificence of Herodes Attikos invokes Nemesis in the following hexameter line: Thou too that watchest the works of men. goddess was a woodland3 power controlling both vegetable and Fig. 7. Cat.by B. After this we are not surprised to find that Nemesis was in Roman times identified with Artemis or Diana 4 . i fig. 3. 3747 a> b). Quasi-autonomous bronze coins of Smyrna show a somewhat similar figure lifting her drapery in one hand and holding a filleted branch in the other : she is recognized as Nemesis by H. xxiii. Mus. Cat. Dessau Inscr. 18—2 . 2. M. Of their identification we have both literary and monumental evidence. 4 See A. 1911) that. Gr. Posnansky op. Append. xxiii.. p. 7 Mel. i figs. Sic. d. o. 23. to wit. Brit. in qua Amphiarai fanum et Phidiacae signum Dianae. v.

201. Num. In the apse of the building. She is dressed in a short chiton. her left hand. a wheel on the other. rovi DEFENS<WZ etc. the excavation of which in modern times has led to some remarkable finds2. p. spear in left.. n. and eagle at his feet (fig. 15. 1897 xx. On her head is a crescent moon with a small disk above it On her feet are high hunting-boots.D. Her right hand holds both a rudder and a whip. 4 The nearest parallel to this statue with its complex symbolism is a relief dedicated to Nemesis Regina found at Andautonia in Upper Pannonia and now in the Agram Museum (ib.D. Lamprid.). that of Com modus. If he was king. also a sarcophagus from Teurnia in Noricum (Philologus 1894 liii. Ib. See Dion Cass. 81.-ep. 882 f. 5 Arch. 885 f. 35«). Lat. . Gnecchi Medagl.1 Similarly at Carnuntum (Petronell) in Upper Pannonia the amphitheatre had attached to it a sanctuary of Nemesis. Zingerle). 878 f. no. rovi EXSVP or EXSVPER etc. 408). 201). Close to her and sheltered by the same apse stood a second statue. cp. Commod. Cp. She has a winged griffin on one side. 237 ff. surrounded by seven stars (Rasche ib. Coins of Commodus show not only IVPPITER CONSERVATOR protecting the emperor (fig. stood the statue of Nemesis herself (fig.-ep. Mitth. and an outer garment worn like a girdle round the upper part of her figure and falling over her left arm. 19. 3). or seated with branch in right hand. 202) inscribed lovi IVVENI etc. Arch. Nemesis was queen . as Jupiter standing with thunderbolt in right hand. 243 f. for a neighbouring altar erected in 199 A. 211. (E. inscr. iv. a sheathed sword4. 18. 229 f. Rom. iii Suppl. iv. sel. 202. spear in left. Lat. ib. (C. ii. Mitth. 228 ff. 205 ff. 3 . fig. dated in the year 259 A. iv.. 43 pi.. 3742. 236 ff. was inscribed as ' Sacred to Nemesis the 6. •u. The goddess conforms to the late Roman type of Artemis or Diana. The statue seems to have represented Commodus as lupiter with an eagle at his feet5. Tragau). or again with patera in right hand and eagle at his feet (id.2j6 The Solar Wheel in Greece goddess Diana Nemesis Augusta' came to light. Fig. (J. 56 no. (Rasche Lex. but also the emperor himself 2 Fig. 1897 xx. 8).Bormann). turned with its face to the wall. 10440 = Dessau Inscr. but was subsequently. no. or advancing with thunderbolt in right hand and spear in left. on a base which was inscribed in the year 184 A. which leaves the right breast bare.D. p. owing to the official condemnation of the emperor's memory. 2O3)3. on an inscribed base. 210 fig.

203. .Nemesis 277 Fig.

Brit. at its base is a recumbent youth. Imhoof-BIumer Monn. and that therefore the combination of the former with the latter was accidental and of no special significance. i ff. one. 16. A copper coin of Akmoneia in Phrygia (fig. p. cit. Nemesi Reg(inae) et Dean(a)e sa(crum) etc. 25.-ep. 6. So the Smyrnaeans sent envoys to Clarus to inquire about the matter. Mus. similar coins. 21 pi. 29. G. 241 f.278 The Solar Wheel in Greece Queen and Diana1. Cat. naked to the waist. J.' Copper coins of Smyrna struck by Marcus Aurelius 4 and Philippus Senior (fig. 296 pi. 2 1 . no. The interpretation of this scene is difficult and in some points doubtful. It may be objected that the cult of Nemesis at Carnuntum was late. son of Philip. was at Akmoneia brought into connexion with the Nemeseis. p. G. who is probably meant for the local river-god. and when the chase was over he came to a sanctuary of the Nemeses. They say he had been hunting on Mount Pagus. Cat. regarded as Zeus. 6). G. Coins Ionia p. struck under Volusianus (Imhoof-BIumer op. 2O5)5 represent'this vision of Arch. Brit. that emperor-worship was ubiquitous. Confirmation is afforded by a somewhat analogous coin-type of Smyrna. Pausanias a propos of the Smyrnaeans writes 3 : ' The present city was founded by Alexander. Coins Phrygia p. So they willingly removed. On the mountain are two female figures in the attitude of Nemesis. 3 4 Paus. the tree overhanging the water. 14. gr. and they now believe in two Nemeses instead of. yea four times. He holds a whip in his right hand. 1897 xx. Mus. G. 5. 24 (Vienna). and before him flies an eagle apparently grasping a thunderbolt. but at least it is clear that the emperor. 279. 51 pi. they say.' It thus appears that at Carnuntum the consort of this Diana-like Nemesis was a human Jupiter—a fact' to be borne in mind when we are comparing the cult of Nemesis with that of Diana Nemorensis. and there he lighted on a spring and a plane-tree before the sanctuary. 50 pi. p. 391 f. 171 f. Cp. 4. appeared to him. in consequence of a vision which he had in a dream. 7. Frazer. 5 Ib. and the god answered them :— Thrice blest. As he slept under the plane-tree the Nemeses. 2O4)2 shows the emperor Septimius Severus galloping towards a mountain. Macdonald Coin Types Glasgow 1905 p. trans. and bade him found a city there and transfer to it the Smyrnaeans from the old town. shall they be Who shall inhabit Pagus beyond the sacred Meles. pi. Mitth. But the same combination occurs elsewhere and has antecedents that deserve investigation. 392 no. but without the eagle.

^7. Athen. Preller cp.T. 4 Cypria frag. Al.Ta6e/j. Posnansky op. 149 b 5. hist. I take it to have been originally that of a bride. The significance of this gesture has been much discussed1. 2. 10.. 17) suppose that the final scene of the Cypria was laid at Rhamnous..op<povTO. ap.&r]j> els Xd/Dca/ca <£>v\&<T<reiv. Bekker) evp6vra rtva Troi/Aeva A^5a Ko/j. an early epic of uncertain authorship. Nemesis. Clem. Instituts zu Rom Bonn 1879 p. 8). Stahlin and frag. Myth. Beyond him stand the two Nemeseis holding a bridle and a cubit-rule respectively. 206). (ptjffiv. R. 119 thinks that the end of the story as told in the Cypria is preserved for us by Apollod. Ptol. 9. iii. 30.eTa/3aXeti>. The king. TOVTO 5e ev rots a\ffe<ru> (aAcrecrtc excerpt. Sdtrecriv cj. 404 n. But. 146. told how ' Zeus king of the gods' became by her the father of the Dioskouroi and of Helene4. and greave. Eustath. Nemesis was secured in the form of a goose (Apollod. protr. if we follow the figure of Nemesis back into the past as far as we are able. 40 n. as '4\e<nv by 'EXec^. 5).u6m rrj TOV Qevriov.<poet. the myth was not yet localised: a\<re<ni' ( = vefj. For the Kypria. 1321. in Lyk. 10 Helene 59. 6. fr) /cat Ai?5a co^tcrtfetcnj. TT)V 5e Ka. Class.. 301. Al. KIJKVOS rj ^v yevbuevos K. X. 17 SLUKOfJievr). Heph. comparable with Hera's handling of her veil'2. e\ecnv cj. Phot. Moreover. shows the egg deposited on an altar in the precinct of a pillar-Zeus (supra p. Myth. nat. The goddess. spear.fjva./cat XP°VV KaOriKovri yevvrjOelffav 'BXez'Tjv (is ^ avTys Ovyartpa Tptyeiv. 8 adds that Zeus as a swan was" fleeing from Aphrodite as an eagle. 37. fled across sea and land transforming herself into a fish and other animals to escape his embraces.i<ravTa dovvat. astr.a . Cp. 0. v. Clem. p. Rev. Kekule Festschrift zur Feier des fiinfzigjahrigen Bestehens des archdolog.Nemesis 279 Alexander. Sittl Die Gebdrden der Griechen und Ronier Leipzig 1890 pp. 1903 xvii. 88) or of a woman (Isokrat. 10. horn. cp. 334 B—D. This is of course mere surmise. has Ne. now at Bonn. i. where Leda—originally . in Lyk. Rossbach in Roscher Lex. Hyg. p. 88.j' elvai /cat Atos. i).eTe/J. 92. 5. poet. Rom. Wilamowitz-Mollendorf in Hermes 1883 xviii. Roscher Lex. The love of Zeus for Nemesis is variously told. Hyg.oi. Beside him lie his shield. 5e /cat A£a KVKVif <Tvve\6eiv • r-qv 5£ ipbv e/c TTJS ffvvovtrias a. Others (U. bibl.TroreKe'iv. 5 p. since the Dioskouroi and 1 C. htyuv 5ta TOV Trotijcrai'TOS ra Kvwpia Sri AtocrKovpous Kal "Ef\tvr)v r) Ne/tecris ^re/csv. in short. Tzetz. If so. i § 8 (d) and schol. i.'= infra ch. iii. however. in II. protr. at the foot of which is a bucraniuwi. 7 Xeyowrt 5e lb>ioi Ne/i&rews 'EXecr. 6 Kinkel ap. (fig. Al. needed a partner. 5 Kinkel ap. 262 n. may have passed muster as her divine consort. 13 (ii. 270 n.op(pr)v /x. when pursued by Zeus. 22 ff. and Alexander. 2. we still find her paired with Zeus. cit. 184 Migne). H. 2. 38 f. virb Aws fJ. According to frag. and making their customary gesture. iii. 3 Plin. 205. p. Al. not to say with a human Zeus. 3. a recumbent youth naked to the waist. thunderbolt in his hand3. 120. A red-figured-krater from Gnathia. is sleeping beneath a plane-tree. TT)V /j. 2 Infra ch. ofjt. 3. 13 Stahlin says dpdnuv tirl Ntuecnv = supra p. Tzetz. Sabb. 2 p. 35.e<riv) rnay have been suggested by Neyitetrts.<ad£vTa. whom Apelles painted at Ephesos with a Fig. 22. 308. Almost all accounts agree that Zeus took the form of a swan fClem. astr. 2. TavTrjv yap TTJV Atos (ftevyova'av ffwovcriav ets 'X.

h. and it is a curious coincidence. 16 ff. pseudo-Eratosth. B). Meineke cj. 1 Roscher Lex. 25 and schol. that the same poet in the same play spoke of Perikles as a human Zeus4. v.280 The Solar Wheel in Greece Helene are elsewhere termed the children of Tyndareos1. 405. 1158 ff. H.l. Tyndareos. The fact that this myth first emerges in the Kypria recalls a famous stater of doublet of Nemesis—discovers it with a gesture of surprise. See further R. The myth was localised at Rhamnous by the comedian Kratinos in his Nemesis*. ii. schol. 4 Kratinos Nemesis frag. 10 ap. . Artem. Be that as it may. i. Aratea p. Nemesis was already associated with Zeus in epic times 2 . Sintenis cj. cp. cit. Caes.6\'. p. To the right stand the Dioskouroi. it seems reasonable to conjecture that the original consort of Nemesis was a king who bore the part of Zeus. Kdpie. Myth. brothers of the unborn Helene . 9 ff. Kekule Ueber ein griechisches Vasengemdlde im akademischen Kunstmuseum zu Bonn Bonn 1879 pp. i § 6 (g) viii) originally an analogous pair of woodland deities? 3 Kratinos ap. if no more. reputed father of all three. catast. Plout. Meineke Frag. 3 /u. Posnansky op. Kapaie. w ZeO f^te /ecu wa/tdpte (v. Eyssenhardt. Per. Gr. 81. Kallim. 232 : see A. i—16 with figs. 2 Were Zeus NeViaos and Ne/tea (infra ch. and pi. Germ. to the left. Kapcue: Append. com.

num. 1911 v. id. Mus. Six in the Num. The fibula on her right shoulder is decorated with the head of a griffin. 27. id. Hill ib. The legend on the reverse was read by J. Gardner Types of Gk. 24 pi. 3 G. 1886 xiv. Ixxv.C. 144 and Num. quando libet. in the latter. 45). Third Series 1882 ii. Ixxiv f. which has Zeus enthroned as its obverse. a sceptre in his left. Coins Cyprus pp. I pse sibi nescit diuinare. The final proof that Nemesis was near akin to Diana Nemorensis may be found in a consideration of the term Nemesiaci. Num. Mus. P. Third Series 1882 ii. fuge iam sacraria mortis. I print the poem as it stands in the latest edition. p. Third Series 1883 i. Q. E x arte qui fincte loquitur quod illi uidetur. P. describes the devotees of Diana as Nemesiaci* or ' followers of Nemesis '•—a Brit. Hill (Brit. Six 'AphroditeNemesis' in the Num. 2 G. 43 Paphos no. I ncopriat dues unus detestabilis omnes Adplicuitque sibi similis collegio facto. The god has a phidle (?) in his right hand. P. Besides the specimen in the British Museum. there is said to be one in the collection of the late W. Vertitur a se(se) rotans cum ligno bifurci. Chron. Num. P. 8. quos isti false prophetant: I psos sacerdotes colitis in uano timentes. F. Chron. 385 B.f. in the Rev. Coins Cyprus p. 144 n. 287 ff. 10. xxiii. Num. ii § 9 (h) ii (X). no. J. In the former J.' py ' fo ' <7e (cp. 6. Cat. 4 See the Class. a copy of the cult-statue at Rhamnous. 43 'a branch (of apple). Head Hist. id. F. a phidle with a thymiaterion beneath it. A c si putes ilium adflatum numine ligni. Third Series 1888 viii. 2)1. i. perituro creditis uno. Commodianus. which may no doubt be a mere wreath but is possibly2 the Rhamnusian crown of stags and small Victories. S ed si corde uiges. 89—102 pi.Nemesis 281 Kypros (pi. that of B. 43 pi. sibi uiscera pascit. (ib.) prefers Tt • /to • xa. 19 an acrostic NEMESIACIS VANIS— N on ignominium est uirum seduci prudentem E t colere tale(a)m aut Dianam dicere lignum ? M ane ebrio. 268.fj\ov ='pomegranate ' see infra ch. S euere (diuinum) dum agit. 130) jSao-iXe/bs Tijuoxd/x/os.' For /u. 7. C um quibus historiam fingit. 1887 xiv. Cat. S uccollat. 5 (enlarged photograph). deponit . p. Ixxiv f. P. Hill ib. P. Six in Num. iii Serie 1883 i. 288). 130. Coins p. Dombart (Corpus scriptorum 1 . Waddington at Paris (J. a Christian poet of the fifth4 century. 3 says : ' Sur le statere les feuilles et les fleurs font penser a ceux du grenadier. ceteris audet. The goddess is wearing a head-dress. H. crudo. et quando. /3acrtX^/bs etc. Third Series 1888 viii. in her extended right. in the Num.) and dates the coin c. eum. F. Chron. 170 pi. Chron. N on decs uos colitis. 5 Commod. 90 n. Quart.' J. ut deum adornet. her favourite animal. Chron. Six (Zeitschr. Nemesis standing as its reverse type. Six detected a modification of the masterpiece at Olympia. f. p. 13. 741. In her lowered left hand she holds the apple-branch 3 . instructiones i. in the Zeitschr.? p.

He fouls his fellow-citizens wholesale. Ludwig cj. ecclesiasticorum Latinorum xv) Vindobonae 1887 p. content to follow the MSS. 3 p. antt).. and in the second line talem C. He knows not how his own fate to foretell6. antt.. 5 The MSS. Two brilliant emendations have been proposed. B. i. instr. 2 B. nat. oodieum scriptura probatur. which has the support of C (cod. That assumption is borne out by the wording of the poem: Is it not infamous that a prudent man Should be seduced to worship a cut branch1 Or call a log2 Diana? Ye believe One drunk at dawn...'nomen proprium desiderari ex uerbis hisce ' colere talem aut Dianam dieere lignum' adparet-. 2. gorges himself (cp. sed solus deus nemoris ac uenationis Dianae similis uel eiusdem deae sacerdos. A. Stahlin and Strab. till you might think he were Inspired by the godhead of the same''. 4. 35.. i. 639) pro Diana indolatum.6. Ludwig in the Teubner text (1878) adopts his own cj. : poscit B. 18. edd. : 'periturus ideo dicitur sacerdos Dianae Aricinae. Seuere deum agit. 14. 17 f. 3 Dombart ad loc. but the text has been corrected to Icarios by the aid of Clem. antt. Arnob. in fact. ' • '. full-fed. n coluisse. 17. 17. qui locum eius petebat.. 18 gestabant enim.lignum fCariosf (so MSS. E. 3 perituro). iiirium B. stulte. The word is. Dombart cp. edd.'xi) our best-MS. tales adorare tabellas? i. adv.) which gives a possible sense—' begs entrails for himself. The chief variants are mentioned in the following notes. reads : Seuere (divinum) dum agit. 24 f. Cheltenhamensis. We are not elsewhere definitely told that the priest of Diana acted the part of a god . prints: Seuere dum agit.1 The manuscript reading in the first line is uirum C. quern esse Virbium.' But all the editors adopt the reading pascit: this probably means 'feeds his own entrails. B. whilst he plays the god4 full solemnly. (du C. 12 sed stipem ut tollant ingenia talia quaerunt. edd. and spun himself round as though inspired by the movement of . quia cogebatur cum eo certamen singulare inire. frotr. Gathers a brotherhood akin to himself And with them feigns a tale to adorn the god. Thus abominable. 1847). antiquissimum Regem Nemorensem ac sacerdotem Dianae in nemore Ariciensi cultae. neque uero deae nemoris numen quodlibet coniungi potest. Non ignominium est Virbium seduci prudentem | et colere talem aut Dianam dicere lignum? and comments (p. Oehler (ed.' 4 F. Dombart. Al. iff. He turns himself about revolving still With a two-pronged stick. d(iuin)um. Who speaks just what he thinks with feigned art And. 6 non te pudet. taleam. E. 6 Since every moment he is [liable to be attacked by his would-be successor (cp. and doomed to die3. xxxiv):° hoc 1. after Hanssen's cj. Yet dares to do the like for other folk. have posdt (so C.A. dum B. 14 ipsos sacerdotes colitis. A marg. 3 crudo). 7 The poet appears to mean that the priest of Diana held a forked stickj^like a dowser's divining-rod. B. CHRISTIANVM TALEM ESSE. A. A. 46.282 The Solar Wheel in Greece metathesis of names intelligible on the assumption that the Diana in question was Diana Nemorensis. et aruit tale sigillum. but cp.' In favour of retaining &?/<?»/ is Commod. and'very ingeniously cj. something of a mannerism in this poet. Dombart keeps uirum.— Shoulders the god at times.. Feeds his own entrails5. s. at times just drops him. 'a cut bough' or 'branch.

ille aliena petit viscera. 1902 xvi. deals with several societies and sects among which runaway slaves might be sought.). Honor. : . 734 Migne) nihil ibi liberum est a scelere. ac si forte per sacram auctoritatem cognoscitur aliqui liberatus. and others as an unpleasant sensation in the epigastric region. ne originem (quod fieri non potest) commutare ulla iussio videatur. dignum sacrificium daemonis. Dr Farnell has argued that Nemesis was from the first no his stick. Hist. nisi quod gladiatbre peior est. ut minus vulnera sua doleant. H. Myers Human Personality London 1904 i. 481). Mayor on Juv. Nay. Theod. They are mentioned again. 123. and for the last time. istum numen hortatur.. 3 Maximus Taurinensis serm. cessante beneficio ad originem revertatur.ei>oi. iste propria membra dilaniat. One such sect is that of the Nemesiaci or fanatic followers of Nemesis2. cum maturius vigilaveris et videris saucium vino rusticum. if thou art wise. . dum vini ebrietate iactantur. 101 (Ivii. cum cellam ingressus fueris. 16). 375 f. others as a shivering or trembling. see J. But I have elsewhere suggested that it was the origin of the Pythagorean y (Class. vi kalend. tails enim sacerdos parat se vino ad plagas deae suae. aut Dianaticus aut aruspex est. 7. 'Nearly all dowsers assert that when the rod moves in their hands. 14. dated 412 A. quibus etiam supplicandi inhibendam facultatem esse censuimus. F. 'Tis the priests themselves Ye worship with vain fears. who in one of his sermons gives an interesting account of their rustic cult and crazy priest (Dianaticusy. ut dum est ebrius poenam suam ipse non'sentiat. iste contra se pugnare compellitur. et si ad agrum processeris. E. ad crudelitatem ilium lanista. 2 collegiatos et vitutiarios et Nemesiacos signiferos cantabrarios et singularum urbium corporatos simili forma praecipimus revocari. Coss. et more gladiatorum paratus ad pugnam ferrum gestat in manibus. 2 Cod. quia ille adversus alterum dimicare cogitur. 299 cited by F. sed et de arte faciunt. which some describe as felt in the limbs like the tingling of an electric shock. hoc autem non solum de temperantia. Flee even now the sanctuaries of death1. Rev. reperies in ea pallentes cespites mortuosque carbones. ubi totum versatur in scelere. 4. scire debes quoniam. pallio crura semicincta. This seems to be the first explicit mention of the dowser's rod. Barrett in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research xv. after providing for the recall of runaway slaves. B. qui putat crudelitate astruere pietatem. cum mortuo numini rebus mortuis supplicatur. With all there is more or less of a convulsive spasm. cernis aras ligneas et simulacra lapidea. vanus plane vates est. bishop of Turin. 283 A decree of Honorius and Theodosius. 1 The phrase sacraria mortis would be especially appropriate to such a cult as that of Diana Nemorensis. It will be remembered that the rex Nemorensis was regularly a runaway slave (Frazer Lect. insanum enim numen amentem solet habere pontificem.. Rav.they experience a peculiar sensation. dat. si dici potest. Decembr.. whose priest was ever the murderer of his predecessor.D. congruens ministerium. nuda habens pectora. Kingship p. W. ubi diis insensibilibus aris putrescentibus ministratur. about the middle of the fifth century by Maximus.Nemesis These are no gods ye worship : false the claim Their priests put forward. quam misericors in alienos deos ille qui in suos est pontifices tarn cruentus ! nam ut paulisper describanius habitum vatis huiusce : est ei adulterinrs criniculis hirsutum caput. sometimes of a violent character' (Sir W. et. ix et Theod. v AA. sicut dicunt. For similar deo<popou/j.

the lot of life to which iMg 207. Her name—he thinks—was a title given at Rhamnous to a goddess of birth and death resembling Artemis. not early. I incline to believe that Nemesis. marked 'the goddess who feels righteous indignation at evil acts and evil words. .' if preHomeric. ' denoted distribution of any lot. but a definite figure of ancient religion. each is born .' The cult of -ations and -utions is late. and at Smyrna to two goddesses (originally to one goddess) of vegetation resembling Aphrodite.284 The Solar Wheel in Greece vague personification of a moralising sort.' I agree with this able scholar in thinking that Nemesis was a substantial deity of early date akin to Artemis. 487—498. a concrete ' goddess of the 1 1 Farnell Cults of Gk. but for that very reason I cannot be content to saddle her with a cult-title denoting either ' indignation ' or 'distribution. if not also to Aphrodite. He holds that the appellative. if Homeric or post-Homeric in date. States i.

z p. . 3 W. presumably the Greek prepei. 8f. who holds a wreath in his right hand. de la Langue Gr. Erganzungsheft vi) Berlin 1905 p. Round the rim are Roman numerals (vi vn etc. Marshall in a note dated May 4. as we have seen. Tyche. i. d. 5 H. perhaps too in the plane-tree before the sanctuary of the Nemeseis at Smyrna. on the third Sunday in June. 161. figs. a spear or sceptre in his left1. Gr. cit. we may detect a last trace of the original character of the woodland goddess. 207).—a convex plate of bronze fitted with a swing handle and engraved with concentric circles and two series of radii. became a goddess of vengeance simply through an illogical but almost inevitable confusion with the abstract substantive nemesis meaning ' righteous wrath. Moreover. 1501.' says Mr Marshall. but in point of usage they belonged to widely divergent branches of it.'—a word appropriate to the diviner's art2. It revolves upon a central pin. p. arch.' explains the second element in tteoirpoTrtov. 'those on the lead disk. 2. adopts an attitude of cautious reserve. i i s f f . d. that all such wheels of Fortune were once intended to figure forth the sun. Returning now to the main topic of the present section—the ritual wheels of Isis. Peter in Roscher Lex. Myth. Gaidoz justly emphasised this fact: see W. Inst. Wiinsch Antikes Zaubergerdt aus Pergamon (Jahrb. argues that the use of irptirei. Breal in the Rev. 339). For—apart from the fact that the sun was sometimes. pi. etym. but over the figure uppermost in my illustration can be clearly seen PREPE. so far as etymology is concerned. and Fortuna—we have yet to notice one extant specimen of a different but analogous sort. though not quite certain3. 4 R.) and groups of letters. between which are numerous Greek and Egyptian characters and cabalistic signs. It is a wheel of cast lead from the Millingen collection in the British Museum (fig. were doubtless sprung from the same parent stem. 1911 compares the magical disk published by R. Nemesis. the summer solstice5. 'il convient.The Midsummer Wheel 285 Greenwood' (nemos). which would correspond approximately with Midsummer Day. Et. Between every pair of adjacent spokes is a standing male figure. at Douai a large wheel called the roue de fortune used to be carried in procession before a wicker-work giant known 1 Mr F. Wortei'b. ' it is fitting. In the apple-bough held by Nemesis at Rhamnous. Some of these are to me illegible. p. 169 f. Boisacq Diet. Gr. Warde Fowler The Roman Festivals London 1899 pp. Warde Fowler op. H. ' oracle' (yet see Prellwitz Etym. which was in all probability used for purposes of divination. 'The figure with parted arms on the Pergamon disk recalls.' 2 M. conceived as a wheel by the Greeks—there is the noteworthy circumstance that the dedication-day of the temple of Fors Fortuna was June 24". 45 ff. It is probable. deutsch. kais. 169 f. 182. Spr. 1908 xxi.' Nemesis and nemesis. and has four spokes radiating from the angles of an inner square.

Or this may refer to the New Testament. Gall. . . 278. Those who burn the unclean things and make the smoke rise aloft derive this practice from the heathen. These animals fly in the air. 2 Frazer Golden Bough'i iii. 32 ff. and walk through the earth. a tar-barrel is kindled and swung round a pole4. 16. for it is said " Ye shall not eat the oldest of the old. collect bones and certain other unclean things. who " was a burning and a shining light. 268 f. This enables us to bring. 4 Id. 276f. A clue to the meaning of these rites is furnished by G. 6. and fresh fire is made by rotating a wheel on a wooden axle5. These wicker giants may be descended from the Druid divinities. 273. iii. Thus the waters were infected.Moreover. For dragons are actual animals. for whosoever drank of them died or suffered some grave disorder." not thracones. the custom is still kept up by some. Ye dragons. For in some districts on the eve of the feast men and boys. Arch. Dr Frazer has shown that at Midsummer a blazing wheel is trundled down hill 2 . Durandus in his account of the feast of Saint John the Baptist (Midsummer Day) 6 : 'At this festival three special rites are performed. in accordance with ancient custom.. so that a smoke rises from them into the air. even the light which lighteth every man that cometh into 1 H. swim in the waters." Brands too or blazing torches are brought and fires are made. which signify Saint John. stirred to lust at this time of year on account of the heat. . for they roll a wheel. There is a third rite too .286 The Solar Wheel in Greece as le grand Gayant and other figures termed les enfants de Gayant1. roff.. ib. Durandus Rationale dimnorum qfficiorum Lugduni 1612 lib. 1884 ii. for the boys cast away and burn what is old to signify that. . they bring brands or torches." the forerunner who came before " the true light.7 cap. for they were aware that dragons could be put to flight by a smoke of that sort. 273.. There is another reason why the bones of animals are burnt. and any unclean things likely to cause an unclean smoke be burnt there. since such things took place especially at this time of year. 170f. iii. 5 Id. ib. when the new law comes. . • . And. that is passages of the earth. . 271. They cannot abide anything unclean and flee before a stinking smoke. 272. 14 no. Gaidoz in the Rev. 3 I d . as some have asserted. remarking this. and with them go the round of the fields. used to fly through the air and often let fall their seed into wells and springs.the wheel of Fortune into connexion with a whole series of customs observed by the peasants of central Europe. to wit in memory of the fact that the bones of John the Baptist were burnt by the heathen in the city of Sebaste. and burn them together.'m. burning disks or wheels are flung into the air 3 . as it says in the psalm "Praise the Lord from the earth. and the year was then deadly by reason of the corruption of the air and the waters. Philosophers. the Old Testament must cease. This important book was first printed at Mentz in 1459. 6 G. whose colossal images of wicker-work are described by Caesar debell. ib. bade fire be made frequently and everywhere round wells and springs. like elephants before the grunting of swine. and when the new comes in ye shall cast out the old. For in ancient days dragons.

300 f. which is often observed at these times. In some places a wheel is rolled. which J. W. appears to have been the immediate source of G. by imitating the desired result you actually 1 John Beleth. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. He is a burning light. animals. concludes as follows 2 : 'The best general explanation of these European firefestivals seems to be the one given by Mannhardt. as in so many cases. after recording in detail a large number of examples. 256. and plants This view of the festivals is supported by various arguments drawn partly from the rites themselves. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks Giitersloh 1886 p. seems a very natural imitation of the sun's course in the sky. Not less graphic is the mimicry of his apparent revolution by swinging a burning tar-barrel round a pole. Very similar again is cod.J and more fully by J. so too the glory of John. The custom of throwing blazing discs. to signify that just as the sun comes to the highest parts of its circle and can get no higher but then descends in the circle. who hath prepared a way for the Lord in the wilderness. In these. Kenible The Saxons in England? London 1876 i. who wrote his Summa de divinis officiis about 1162 A. and the imitation is especially appropriate on Midsummer Day when the sun's annual declension begins. as in September. who was thought to be the Christ." As it is said in John vi. but I must decrease. for the extract. because John was conceived when the days were decreasing. agrees substantially. Durandus . Harleian.D. For example. partly from the influence which they are believed to exert upon the weather and on vegetation.The Midsummer Wheel 287 the world. in part even verbally.. But as to their decreasing before the feast of Saint John and increasing before the birthday of Our Lord. this we must understand of their nativity in the mother. . Sir H. Ellis London 1849 i. Christ when they were increasing. shaped like suns.' From this singular medley of superstition and piety. with the corresponding sections of Durandus Rationale. as in April. 2 Frazer Golden Bough'-! iii.D. which was written in 1286 A. shining before the Lord. Dr Frazer. a Parisian divine. 137 fol. Or take it of the death of each. for the body of Christ was uplifted on the cross. The Midsummer wheel represented the sun. Mannhardt Wald.. M. Brand Popular Antiquities rev. 509. 620 f. one fact stands out clearly. into the air is probably also a piece of imitative magic. descends. of the time when each was conceived. that they are sun-charms or magical ceremonies intended to ensure a proper supply of sunshine for men. 47 ff.und Feldkulte'2' Berlin 1904 i. J. namely." And some say that this was said because the days then begin to decrease and at the nativity of Christ to increase. 2345 art. Frazer Golden Bought iii. 361 f* See further E. whereas the body of John was cut short by being beheaded. that is to say. 267. 100 cited by J. the custom of rolling a burning wheel down a hillside. which agrees with the accounts given by other mediaeval Latinists and can be traced back to the twelfth century1. according to the witness that he himself bore when he said " He must increase. the magic force is supposed to take effect through mimicry or sympathy.29^ n . gives from Beleth Summa Dillingen 1572 cap. S. Stallybrass ii.

fig. that the wheel in such ceremonies stands for the sun.288 produce it. i. 57. Arch. i. clearly indicates a consciousness of the connection between the earthly and the heavenly flame. Zeus and the Solar Wheel. Heron de Villefosse in the Rev. Reinach. The base is inscribed IOM | ET N AVG I(ovi) 0(ptimo) M(aximo) \ et n(umini) Aug(usti). noting a possible trace of it on the upper surface of the base). held in his right hand some attribute now lost : this may have been a thunderbolt (so A. The name " fire of heaven." by which the midsummer fire is sometimes popularly known 1 . by counterfeiting the sun's progress through the heavens you really help the luminary to pursue his celestial journey with punctuality and despatch. He is sometimes equated with the Roman lupiter. 31 ff. F. But — it may be objected — although it is certain. A Celtic god. Gaidoz. and then holds the wheel either on a support beside him (fig. cp. Reinach Bronzes Figures p. 4. 2 H. is represented as holding a wheel on his shoulder2. It was found in 1872 at Landouzy-la-Ville (Aisne) and is now in the Musee de Saint-Germain. 7 ff. 97. Meantime it may be shown that lupiter on Celtic soil and Zeus among the Greeks were somehow associated with the wheel. The god. figs. cit. Birlinger Volksthiimliches aus Schwaben Freiburg im Breisgau 1861 ii. Gaidoz in the Rev.' ii. Heron de Villefosse. 510. 1881 i. 3 A bronze statuette (height '227 m. Mannhardt op. 1 A. 240 — cited by Dr Frazer. The left hand holds a six-spoked wheel resting on the capital of a pilaster. W. or almost certain. comparing fig. . Panzer Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie Miinchen 1855 ii. no. 1884 ii. See further A. what reason is there to suppose that the solar wheel was in any special way connected with Zeus ? That is a question to which a full and complete answer can be returned only when we shall have discussed further the relation of Ixion to Zeus. whose head and neck resemble Hercules rather than lupiter. r ff. 2o8)3 or on the ground at his feet Fig. whose solar character was determined by Monsieur H. 1—5. Arch.) originally silvered over. 208. i pi. 209) or some object with a long staff-like handle (so S.

Arch.) found in 1774 at Le Chatelet near Saint-Dizier (Haute-Marne) and now in the Musee de Saint-Germain. 368f.. lof. cit. J. On an altar from Theley in the Museum at Treves a youthful deity with cloak and crown held an object now lost in his right hand. Bertrand La Religion des Gaulois Paris 1897 p. TO . 535 ff dXX' &rrt yap rts. ' Chrodebertus') standing on a fish: he holds a six-spoked wheel in his uplifted left hand. cit. not monumental. Arch. In Greece the evidence is literary. Reinach op. are slung nine S-shaped pendants of bronze. a wheel between two thunderbolts. fig. Curie A Roman Frontier Post and its People Glasgow 1911 p. Lykophron the pedant. On a brass hoop. p. 3 after H. ii. A. 2. 1481). i. behind which a snake issues from a tree-trunk (Rev. A colossal stone statue found in 1876 at Seguret (Vaucluse) and now in the Museum at Avignon shows lupiter in Roman military costume. 12). Henninius. C. M. cit. shield. 1881 i. 1884 ii. 35. Schonfeld Worterbuch der altgennanischen Personen. 261 pi. which is apparently turned by a beardless male figure in a horned helmet (S. Arch. (2) On the marvellous silver bowl found at Gundestrup in Jutland a bearded and partly bald or tonsured god raises both hands and thereby eclipses half of a many-spoked wheel. Reinach op. An altar from Vaison shows luno with patera and peacock. Myth. 13 f. which passes over his right shoulder and through a handle affixed to his back. 334 f. 7 after F. 5. fig. a wheel in his left..49 an earthenware mould showing lupiter with helmet. included in it the following comparatively lucid lines : Howbeit one there is. a basket of fruit and flowers in his lowered right (Montfaucon Antiquity Explained trans.und Volkernamen Heidelberg 1911 p. are not uncommon in the Celtic area2 and attest the widespread worship of the same solar deity. &rrt (cat Trap' eX?rt5a | TJ/JUV apwyos irpevpev'tjs 6 | dai/jiuv C. Beside his left foot is his eagle. 1881 i. 58). 56. 1884 ii. no.. His lowered right hand grasps a ten-spoked wheel resting on a support. Hpo/ji. lupiter in military costume with a thunderbolt in his right hand. composed his outrageously obscure tragedy the Alexandra. i. 2 To the lists in the Rev. cp. i.Zeus and the Solar Wheel 289 (fig. 209. Hettner ' Juppiter mit dem Rad' in the WestdeutscheMonatsschrift 1884 iii. 27—30). 3 Lyk. formerly Saturbourgh.ai>6evs M6Lo\}> Tvpd\f/i. fig. Dechelette Manuel cf Arcfaologieprihistorique Paris 1910 ii. The god holds a thunderbolt in his raised right hand. J. Arch. 274 B. 5. &L. p. and raises a six-spoked wheel like a shield in his left hand: a smallish bird is perched at his feet (Rev. who past all hope Helpeth us friendly. ii f. ii. and an eagle at his feet (Rev. 1884 ii. 1 A bronze statuette (height '14 m. Muller ' Det store solukar fra Gundestrup i Jytland' in the Nordiske Fortidsminder 1892 pi. 209)'. Al. 5 ff. Altars dedicated to lupiter and marked with one or more wheels. ib. M. 3 ff. Heron de Villefosse loc. 336°.v. 142 s. who c.C. 35 compares two others not definitely identified with lupiter: (i) A bronze statuette found at Hartsbourg. 1884 ii. a wheel and a thunderbolt. cit. With the foregoing monuments Reinach op.os. 466 fig. fig. i). 467 f. etc. cit. Dechelette op. and eight-spoked wheel. he the Oak-tree-god Promantheus Aithiops Gyrapsios called3. Humphreys London 1721 ii. p. pi. a six-spoked wheel in his lowered left. club. Mayer in Roscher Lex. shows the Germanic god Chrodo (? cp. add now J. D. See further A. 196. Fig.

6 Folk-Lore 1904 xv. ' He of the Burning Face. 34. He of the Round Wheel' —a combination of epithets that may fairly be referred to the lg> 2IO> conception of the sun as a glowing wheel. And the title Gyrdpsios has the air of being a late and erudite compound rather than an early and popular formation. i § 6 (h)).. 7. and adds that he was named ' the Oak-tree-god' in Pamphylia. A.v. ttym. 337 n. . in Verg.' which (as I pointed out in the Class. Orion.' and a\j/is. poet. But Gyrdpsios means ' He of the Round Wheel5. Nauck2 di/'tSa aty \ Karu Secret. infra p. not improbably found the local worship influenced by that of some Asiatic sun-god.Wlo^ §e /ecu Pupa \bios Trapa Xt'ois. including TdXos (cp. 4 . 5. schol.290 Zeus and the Solar Wheel Isaac Tzetzes in his twelfth-century commentary on Lykophron's work informs us that the deity here in question was Zeus.' so that the Chian Zeus is here described as ' He of the Burning Face. r. There were also cults of Zeus MetX/xtos (Atk. not unreasonable to suppose that Aithiops Gyrdpsios denoted Zeus in his solar aspect. Gr? no. Rev. schol. v. Caes. and Zeus He\ivvcuos was worshipped on Mt. 2 f. A/>tf/mos 6 Zeus ijroi dai/j. Hes. 5 J. Nevertheless it would be unwise to infer from this passage an early cult of a solar Zeus in Chios. 536 ' qui formae est orbicularis. 15. pseudo-Eratosth. After all. 4 Supra p. "E<pnrvos) has been regarded as a god who presided over ovens (nrpis): see O. 3. p. ap. ad loc. Oinopion came from Crete to Chios with his sons. 1888 xiii. Serv. 379?. in Lyk. Paus. 1 Tzetz. 763). 'the felloe of a wheel. astr. but there are traces of solar deities in the myths of the island3. Aratea 331. ap. it is but a few miles from Chios to the coast of Asia Minor. therefore. Germ. Rel. Ion 87 f. Pelinnaion (Append. recovered his eyesight by walking eastwards through the sea in such a way as to face the rays of the rising sun (Pherekyd. where Zeuscults in general tended to take on a solar character6. Myth. TaXws infra ch. 2 Zeus'^E^iTri/os (Hesych. et circularem motum circa terram nostram quolibet die et anno peragit. 223) and Zeus Harpqios (Dittenberger Syll. 571. It is.epiav \ a-^lda) or of the curved course described by the Sun (Archestratos/hz^. 32. 1903 xvii. 3 According to Ion of Chios ap. 4. Boisacq Diet. 'round.C. catast. 326 B Srav Qaeduv wi>. Hyg. 2853. Aithwps and Gyrdpsios in Chios1. Jessen in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. p. Gruppe Gr. Phaethon frag. when blinded by Oinopion. Aen.wv otfrw Trapa Ha/J. Promanthetis at Thourioi. 3. Potter on Tzetz. Lykophron. Not much is known about the Zeus-cults of Chios 2 . Athen. Upopavdebs d£ Trapa Qovpiois. 8. and the name Aithtops or Aithops.' is applied elsewhere to one of the sun-god's horses4. s. 10. 932 n. 779. 419) is used of the wheel of the Sun's chariot (Eur. de la Langue Gr. 33 Brandt ap. Al. inscr.3 .<pv\iois. ri]v i]fj. 35). writing in the third century B. 273 f. 195 n. B Chios). i. ther.' The epithet is compounded of 711/965.&ri)v da. Sicppevy). Apollod. Nik. Mitth.

und Urgeschichte des Menschen Vienna and Leipzig 1909 ii. diss.ov. schol. H. and the Paeonian image of Helios is a small disk on the top of a long pole2. 5 Prokl. C. Schrader Reallex. p. 210) and the kopo or olivewood staff topped by a bronze ball representing the sun in the Boeotian Daphnephoria 5 . Zeus and the Solar Disk. 8. originally mounted on a Fig. 2. pi. as I shall hope to show on another occasion. 298. 8 Diibner Ilaioves <re/3ou<rt fj. 211. 37 f.' says Maximus Tyrius. I figure a fine specimen in the McClean collection at Cambridge. 29 ff. Anson Num. Tyr. the solar disk. rightly assumes the sequence O O © *•<?• the pictograph of the sun. vi pi.' With this ritual object I have elsewhere3 compared the sceptre surmounted by a circle held by Aphrodite Ourania on coins of Ouranopolis in Makedonia 4 (fig. Haddon The Study of Man London 1898 p.ij\ov. Coins Macedonia etc. Phot. 1 HCUOVIKOV Folk-Lore 1904 xv. dja\/j. was On the evolution of the wheel from the disk see A. 'The Paiones. Hirt Die Indo-germanen Strassburg 1905 i. folk-Lore 1904 xv.. num? p. M. 'worship Helios..a de'RXiov diffKos /3/3a%i)s VTrep fj. Gr. Closely akin to the wheel is its genetic precursor1 the disk. 2 Max. 475 ff. 102.aKpov <.. 3. Head Hist. 126. 206. p. But indeed the same conception could be traced much further afield: it accounts satisfactorily. Gordon Munro in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 1911 xxxviii. 352 f.ev"IL\i. 221. Mus. chrestomath. Clem. 122 f. Brit. long columnar handle. Cat.. Confining our attention to Greece. 929 ff. 168 ff.Zeus and the Solar Disk 291 iii. p.. we note that a revolving disk of bronze. p. 133 f. 410 n. bibl. Al. 409 ff. the solar wheel. Hoernes Natur. 354 f. 4 3 . 321 a 34 ff. i. 25 p. Gaisford ap. N. cp. Stahlin.. for the various forms taken by Maypoles and ' Celtic ' crosses throughout Europe. protr.

oest. 700—650 B.6. i—51.T. 187 n. 2H)1. Inst. E. 5. Benndorf has shown that the earliest Greek akroteria were developments from the ornamented end of the ridgepole and consequently were circular or nearly circular in form 7 . 253. that of the Heraion at Olympia (c. where Helios and Aphrodite held the citadel in succession3 and were worshipped in the same temple4. iv. 10 Benndorf loc. p. 1894 ix Arch. i. is a great disk of terra cotta measuring some seven and a half feet in diameter. id. Paus. 17. 53 A (antefixes from Thermos). the exact purpose to which these implements were put. Gemmen ii. Baring-Gould Strange Survivals London 1905 pp. He further observes that they were patterned in a variety of ways. no. Benndorf loc. Benndorf ' Uber den Ursprung der Giebelakroterien' in the fahresh. 1901!. d. arch. but describes it as being en-t rrj acnridi. no. 6 Northern parallels are not wanting: see S. upf. 84. 44 and pi. pi. p. iof. and indeed the precise name by which they were called.\. 2 fahrb. 1900 xv Arch. 157 no.)9. In other cases too the disk of terra cotta or marble bore an apotropaeic face10. col. p. kais. Rel. The oldest example known to us. no. 3 Paus. Its interior is strengthened with spoke-shaped ribs. 3706". deutsch. 2.). Sometimes the solar disk was affixed to buildings by way of prophylaxis6. Nor need the intrusion of a Dionysiac motif make difficulties. A well-known Orphic verse identified Dionysos with Helios5. 1255. 238 ff. is in the Louvre2.4 cites the inscription vabs /J. Ant. 8 cp. pis. Anz. 9 Olympia v. 602 f. arch. Paus. d. ii. The fact that both disks hail from Corinth. 5 Supra p. 864 fig. 4. Epigr. 13 dcrirls birep TOV deroO of the Megarian treasury at Olympia. It is decorated on both sides with a love-scene in relief (fig. escapes us. Another akroterion from the same precinct was the golden phidle with a relief of Medousa. i. 122. Myth. cp. 4. cit. See also Gruppe Gr. 93. A very similar disk. and figs. Its exterior is painted with concentric zones and has a radiate rim8. in. 115. 1899 ii.ev 0tdX<w xPvff^av ^Xet K. 36—61 'On Gables' with frontisp. 19. p. R. Am. 8 A.C. 4 Id. 1899 iii.C. which the Lacedaemonians and their allies set up over the temple of Zeus after the battle of Tanagra (457 B. pis.2 92 Zeus and the Solar Disk found at Corinth and is now in the Berlin Museum. Ant. is suggestive of solar magic. f. Arch. 7 f. arch. 5942. Inst. 132 f. kais. 1 . Anz. 5. Boetticher Olympia: das Fest ttnd seine Statte'2' Berlin 1886 p. 2—13. cit. 7 O. p. 6. Denkm. Marquand Greek Architecture New York 1909 p. Furtwangler in the fahrb. A. However. Thus an Apulian krater in the Louvre shows both gables of a richly decorated A. 201 ff.. cp. Almost the only difference between the two is that on the Paris specimen the young man and the maiden have each a thyrsos in hand. Saglio in Daremberg—Saglio Diet. fig. 4. ib. Ant. fourn. 10. deutsch. Inst. Roberts Gk. 53. 5. Borrmann in Olympia ii. d. and 129. likewise found at Corinth. O. 2.

i. 13. Mliller. supra p. 3 Prop. 19. 31. no. 157. 2 Lebas—Reinach Voyage Arch.iii. pi. Plout. 274^ 9ff. 2042 A). cer. 9. 3. T. Early Greek architects commonly filled the angles of their pediments with the tails of snaky or fishy figures. Daremberg—Saglio Diet. ii—n. man. Again. i). 392 n. no. 1927 fig. 212. Cp. no. L. Coins p. hist. pi. viii pi. Numismatica London 1859 p.. a Fig. figs. ii—5. sioff. 139 f. Finally. 212 f. 170 f. Foucher . 4 Supra p. iii. 35 ff. Lenormant—de Witte £l. Inst. 2. no. ii. v. A. when we remember the Egyptian custom of putting the solar disk with its uraeus-snakes over every sacred doorway4. p. 5. 189 f. 15. 5 Roulez Vases de Leide p. 741 f. 82. 3222. Plin. on which the pediment of Hades' palace has a Gorgoneion between two fish-tailed monsters (Heydemann Vasensamml. 30. p. Donaldson Architectures. But the snakes gradually degenerate into 1 O.g. Baumeister Denkm. ii—2. an Apulian amphora at Naples. L. 1848 xx. Durm Baukunst d. 8. Jahn in the Ann. Overbeck Gall. 79 ff. 45 fig. 205 f. 16. 6ff. Now all these forms are intelligible as variations of the solar disk. Stevenson—Smith—Madden Diet. two Doric temples of a late date near the monastery of Kourno on the Taygeton promontory have akroteria shaped like a ring with an inner wheel or rosette2. i. Ant. d. pis. 2I2) . Occasionally the quadriga of the sun-god occupies the pediment: so on a bronzerelief of Zeus Sabdzios in his shrine (infra p. 102 ff. pi. 35. and their example was followed far and wide (see e. we . 112— 115. 2I3) 5 . d. Rom. 28. p. Neapel^. 3. Cp. shall be emboldened to assign a solar origin to the phidle or circular shield so frequently found in representations of classical pediments. Bildw. her.Zeus and the Solar Disk 1 293 building surmounted by a round Gorgoneion (fig. 71. p. Poplic. 12 ff. Fest. Inst. nat. and that they really symbolised the sun may be inferred from the fact that in Roman times they were often replaced by the four-horse chariot of the sun-god himself 3 . This phidle or shield is at first flanked by a couple of snakes (fig. 4. 45 fig. Rom? p. 8. pi. Man. ii—7.

214.294 Zeus and the Solar Disk Fig. 215. . Fig.

Zeus and the Solar Disk 295 Fig. . 218. Fig. 217.

Lenormant—de Witte El. cit. Fig. 416°.'Gardner in the Ntim. This figure is best interJ 2I g.. Mus. cer. Cat. 19.296 Zeus and the Solar Disk a mere pattern (figs. 174 no. 90 the Medeia-vase at Munich. 214—2I7)1. .. V. 40 fig. 247 pi. 39). 9 (palace of Hades). xxv ff. 526f. 3231. we do not know. F 351 unpublished). 5296°. Chron. 143f. i. i pi. ii. cit. Cat. 241 ff. no. 1863 p. Cat. i. 59. 1255 ff. 106 ff. 25iff. Gr. pi. Fig. Rom. pis. 485. man. F 286 unpublished : cp. Man. Comptt-rendu St. 83 no. 10. 6 E. 5). no. Babelon Monti. n (precinct of Zeus at Mykenai). 216 is from an Apulian kdlpis at Cambridge (E. p. 58. M). Vases iv. 1 Fig. 4—13. d. num? p. ii. Inghirami Vas. I surmise that this practice originated in the representation of a solar disk with a snake on either side of it.. 5 Supra p. Its nearest 1} Art greco-bouddhique du Gandhara Paris 1905 p. Ann. 5 (temple of Apollon at Delphoi)..). ii pi. Inst. cit. cp. Schmidt ' Der Knielauf und die Darstellung des Laufens und Fliegens in der alteren griechischen Kunst' in the Miinchener archaologische Studien Miinchen 1909 pp.fitt. 20). 219)7. 8 So P. 7 Brit. 458. Stevenson—Smith—Madden Diet. pi. B. Atlas pi. pi. 217 is from another Apulian krater in the British Museum (Brit. 133). Whether the disks or shields suspended in temples3 and palaces4 were ever regarded as apotropaia. Mus. 6. 161 ff. cit. Furtwangler—Reichhold op. 7. Fig. i. pp. rom. 125). 1858 xxx. which depicts the rape of the Pallddion from the temple of Athena (Heydemann op. p. gr. Many other examples could be cited. 119—123. Vases iv.g. Inst. Cat. But at least they afford a close parallel to the wheels hung in like positions. 4 E. p. 90 (palace of Kreon at Corinth). 6. but see Hist. e. an Apulian hydria ib. 27. xix f. Artistic convenience may have dictated that the snakes should turn towards the disk. 249—397. Gardner Cat. E. New Series 1880 xx.g. pi. x pi. 215 is from an Apulian krater in the British Museum (Brit. 3 E. 127 fig. Mus. viii pi. Bullettino Italiano 1862 i pi. Babelon loc. 133 with p. describes it as ' une couronne': but this is ruled out by the central dot. In numismatic art too a similar sequence of types could be made out: a good collection of materials is in Anson Nttm. 2466°. Man. 214 is from an Apulian pelike at Naples. Pet. 1257 f. On an early silver coin of the Thraco-Macedonian region a disk is borne through the sky by a winged and long-haired figure in the attitude of Knielauf* or speedy flight (fig. gr. 2596°. 59. and end by vanishing altogether (fig.g. F 284. which we took to be iynges^. Inst. d. A silver coin at Paris nearly related to the foregoing shows a similar figure clad in a long chiton (Babelon op. Mus. iv. cit. d. -203) that the object carried by the running figure may be O> the initial of the town Therma. Coins Macedonia etc. Vases Cambridge p. that of safe-guarding the edifice. Furtwangler—Reichhold op. Coins Macedonia etc. Head's suggestion (Brit. 27. etc. 2i8)».9preted as that of the local sun-god8. 251 f. v pis. supra p. figs. no. Vasenmalerei ii. on which see supra p. The pediment of the Ionic propylon at Magnesia was ornamented with a round shield (Magnesia am Maeanderp. A. Coins pp. 128. not away from it. 142 f. But the device was from the first intended to serve a practical purpose. 136 fig. 2 Furtwangler—Reichhold Gr. iv pi. is most improbable (Imhoof-Blumer -Monn.

that the disk-bearing god on the coins of Mallos is a solar deity akin to the Cretan Talos or Minotaur. no.. 333). ii. Hell.). Arch. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Myth. 3. 30 no. 1895 xix. 16. 62.). 2). Vases ii.. 717). 2. 413. 528 no. Now Talos the sun-god appears on coins of Phaistos as a beardless youth. Nat. 25. i : (2) 'Cyrenaic' kylix—Pettier Cat. 13). 3. gr. Babelon op. the coiffure of the winged goddess on certain silver pieces originally attributed by Imhoof-Blumer to Mallos (Monn. cit. 138. 38 f. Arch.. 8—13. 13. iv. Vasenmalereii. ii. Myth. 97. (fig. 2. 2. id. Vasenmalerei i. 3 See G. cited ib. 1881 xxxix pi. Zeit. 49 no. 1753. Zeit.. figs. (Perrot—Chipiez Hist. a gold plate from Kypros (Rev. 1767.. G. Head Hist. ib. iv. i6f.Zeus and the Solar Disk 297 analogue occurs on silver coins of Mallos in Kilikia c. no. 7. 623f. Cat. 435 f. another solar personage. 1881 xxxix. 59 pi. Hall in thefourn. ngf. is similarly plumed (Pottier Cat. 1761 fig. E 665. H. Reinach Rep.. winging his way in hot haste and holding in both hands a disk. cit. Pernice in the Ath. B i. Miinzen ii. Head Hist. 38 fig. winged and hastening along with a round stone in either hand5. 356 f. mim? p. i. 21—23. 416—418. 30 f. 1897 ii. 557 f. in Roscher Lex. Arch. 12. Brit. 723. Vases du Louvre ii. i. figs. 833 f. is a very similar figure on coins of Knossos6. Weicker Der Seelenvogel Leipzig 1902 p. I should conjecture. Mitth. 2. 9).. Stud. 435. 435. draped from the waist downwards. 6 Infra ch. ii § 3 (c) i (/3). i f. 1752 fig. Miinzen ii. Arch. Coins Lycaonia etc. Mm. Corr. 145ff. id. Arch. Reinach Rep. ii. i. Myth. 76 and the reff. 97 f. Mus. R. And the Minotaur. cxx. 18. The spiral on the top of the god's head recalls the similar adornment of other winged figures2 and is suggestive of a feather head-dress3: as such it would lg 22 point us towards Crete and north Africa. i. 6. Vases antiques du Louvre 2me Serie p. id. p. 1872 xxx. E 664. Thiersch " Tyrrhenische" Amphoren Leipzig 1899 p. 107 ff. A stater at Berlin shows him with Janiform 1 Brit. 217 pi. and certain early vase-fabrics ((i) Rhodian pinakes—De Ridder Cat. 189 ff. 119—123. pi. Vases i. E. 9. Weicker Der Seelenvogel Leipzig 1902 p. that of the Sphinx on 'Minoan' ivories etc. Furtwangler in Roscher Lex. num? p..) and Griffin (A. 69f. pi. Bull. 75 fig. . Furtwangler—Reichhold Gr. On 'Cyrenaic' kylikes not only Nike (?) but also the cavalier. 467 pi. 8. 73 pi. 62 f. Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. 1911 xxxi. therefore. i. electrum coins of Chios (Babelon op. 528 f. 7 pi. Vases de la Bibl. pp. 4 and pi. Hell. on which is an eightrayed star. de VArt vi. id. though Babelon adheres to the former attribution (pp. 873 ff. 137. 6). 385. Reinach Rep. Cat. 74. 220) \ Here we see a beardless god.C. i § 6 (g) xv. to which add O. 5 Infra ch. 4 and 12 : (3) the 'Fra^ois '-vase—Furtwangler-Reichhold Gr. Vases i. Vases i. pis. n. pi. 1751.figs. cit. 425—385 B. 1895 xx. figs. i § 6 (h). Vases du Louvre ii. 4 Infra ch. whom she attends. 1881 xxxix pi. but now to Aphrodisias in Kilikia (Kleinas. i) in archaic art. Fortunately it seems possible to trace his type back to earlier forms. p. 49. 13. that of the Seiren (H. p. Two details deserve attention. i. 2 Cp. Vases antiques du Louvre 2me Serie Paris 1901 p. Zeit. 124 fig. Zeit. The ' °' god's skirt too might be compared with those of the young men on the Haghia Triada sarcophagus4. 13.

1 Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. Babelon Monn.. placing beneath him the front part of a man-headed bull (fig. whose head he identified on a later silver coin of Mallos6. pis. ii. A stater in the Hunter collection gives him four wings and a plain disk (fig. N. 350 ff. 5 Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. num. 221. 4—10.C. 59. 18. 23. have obv. Gerhard Uber die Kunst der Phonicier Berlin 1848 p. 2. Babelon op. Ant. See also E. i. 871 f. head of Zeus bearded and laureate. 19. pi. ii. 2. no. 59. gr. holding a disk which is not stellate1. 3. i. 221) 2 . Head Hist.-UTTL[OL ev M<£A]jAcu errl Mowm(w)t. ii. Svoronos ' Die Munztypen der Stadt Mallos in Kilikien' in the Zeitschr.ev ets r6 iepbv TU Zrjvbs TU MOWITIW. It may fairly be claimed that these coins Fig. 9 J.. 2403). no. ot ^v A. 13. iii. 468 f. Imhoof-Blumer in Roscher Lex. f. 3 Hunter Cat. C. 223)4. 59. Coins ii. 18 f. Numismatique de la Crete ancienne Macon 1890 i. . for Kronos appears elsewhere with that attribute7. 869 ff. pi.-Inschr. Num. where the principal cult was that of Zeus Monnitios™. If Svoronos is right. 8 M. But we need not therefore disallow the comparison with Talos and the Minotaur. Mayer in Roscher Lex. eagle. 4 Hunter Cat. Further. 37 ff. 467. ii. Perhaps we may venture to regard the older disk-bearer as a solar Kronos.. 6. 467 no. Robert Epigraphie gallo-romaine de la Moselle Paris 1873—1888 p. Miinzen ii. Coins of Malla in the third or second century B. F. And certainly this explanation suits the bull's head borne by the Janiform figure. Miinzen ii. rom. 2. Dial. 873 f. 1572 cp. cit. 1391 fig. Svoronos9 that Mallos in Kilikia was a colony of Malla in Crete. 16 f. N. cit. 241. 872. 472). 137. 10 Collitz—Bechtel Gr. ii. the younger as a solar Zeus. ii. 1888 xvi. 2. Babelon op. Myth. 2196°.p. Coins ii. Yet another from the same collection adds a bull's head facing us upon the disk (fig. pi.. Coins ii. Kronos is essentially connected with both8. Kleinas. thunderbolt (Svoronos op. 5184. 2 Hunter Cat. 2. iii. 3. 536 pi. go some way towards connecting the Cilician god with the Minotaur. 2 pi. we are justified in pressing the analogy of the Cretan solar deities. infra ch. 20 cp. i §6 (h) ii. 536 pi. cit. 413 no. 6 F. Another in the same cabinet makes him both Janiform and four-winged. rev.. Miinzen ii. 31 pi. ii. 137. id. 2. 18. 222)3. Babelon op. Myth. 2. 1505 f. 12. 1553 figs. 172 fig. Imhoof-Blumer would see in him Kronos5. 4f. it has been argued by J. 240 f. ib. 5100. id. 14 dva6rjffo/j.298 Zeus and the Solar Disk head. Daremberg—Saglio Diet. 2. 536 pi. cit. 7 On an octagonal altar found at Havange in 1825 and now in the museum at Metz (P.3.

' but also as— Driving around all heaven with fiery disk5. d. 397 O. See further L. cast up on the beach.' <rii Se Trd\ii> \eye~ ffiyri.T. Paus. 58 Hiller ap. mightiest power. frag. 40. aAAous 5e Kara/SatVoj'ras. 19. von Holzinger on Lyk. gr. Stcr/cy. 2 1 . gff. 49 f. <reipios' 6 r?Xios. it may be suspected that. Schol. 407. 8.4vas. Worterb. Zetpios is used of the sun by Archil. Al. are characterised by a symbol. Al. s. who was so called in memory of the diskos or stone swallowed in his stead by Kronos.oiuis 5£ KO. o\f/ei 701/3 titeivris TTJ? i]fj. in Lyk. atipiffov dls Kal irbirirvaov Sis Kal etidews fyei dtro TOV SiffKov dffrtpas irpoffepxofjifrovs irevTa5aKTV\iaiovs irXeiarovs Kal TriTrX&vras 6'Xof rbv d^pa. will be parched by ' the ray of Seirios' and hidden in the sea-weed by Thetis— Helper of Diskos. from which radiates a Lyk. Gotlerl.. 2f. s. Gr. Lycian coins of the fifth and fourth centuries B. 197. 400 Al&KOV fieyiffrov rdppoOos Kwcuflews. rovs TrdXeijovTas avafialvovras els ovpavw Oeofc.ore de Kal rbv r/Xiov. The scholiast states that the word Seirios. 2etpioi> KVVOS 5iKr)i>. SprJ* p. is here used improperly of the sun. and that Kynaitheus was a cult-title of Zeus in Arkadia2. symp.v. however. K. 8. d. 5 Nonn. 371 iinrevuiv e\iKr)5bv o\ov iro\ov a'iOoiri.' they were not independent of the same religious conception. 3 Tzetz. Al. i. Hesych.i7eXioy. ffiy/i' Kal TOV diffKov dvoiytvros 6ij/ei aireipov Kal dvpas irvpivas dTTOK€K\eifffJ. <j>a. 22. which might be called indifferently a wheel or a disk. 197 as an epithet of Zeus in the Dog-days. /ecu 6 rov KVVOS da-njp. 6 A. i] dpx'n rov \eirovpyovvTos avtuov' oi/'et y&p a7ro rou diaKov els av\6v Kpe^d/nevov. 2 and ap. 397 ff. ii. Arg. Dieterich Eine Mithrasliturgie^ Leipzig and Berlin 1910 p. Souid.. Kvvaidevs is understood by Welcker Gr. 3. Lyk. I2of. C.vrjcreTai' 6/j. 397. Lykophron describes how the body of Aias. <reip6s' o ?. iv. Dion. Finally.v.Xtos and "Zelpiov • rbv Kvva.I 6 KoXoti/jLevos ati\6s. Al. i describes a statue of Zeus dedicated at Olympia by the Kwcu0ae?s of Arkadia as holding a thunderbolt in either hand—which hardly supports the connexion with the Dog-star (see.v. iv. that Diskos means Zeus. i] Se Tropeia TUV opu/j-evuv 6e&v 5ia rov dlffKOV. 7rarp6s /JLOV. Kynaithetis1. cp.£pas Kal TTJS upas delay dfow. 4 Supra p. 5. Hesych. Plout. 400. 6.)..Zeus and the Solar Disk 299 Hellenistic literature once or twice connects Zeus with the solar disk. 400. 19. The scholiast's comment is repeated by Tzetzes3 and apparently postulates a solar Zeus known as Diskos. when Mithraic (?) sun-worshippers spoke of the Diskos as 'Father' and 'god6. <relp. <ret'pios. 9 ff. p. s. which properly denotes the Dog-star. Prellwitz Etym. 10. This squares with Nonnos' hymn to the sun. id. Etym..C. 8.\. It consists of a central ring or circle. Oeov. The Lycian Symbol. Paus. cp. Orph. Meyer Handb. in which the poet invokes that luminary not only as the Assyrian and Egyptian 'Zeus 4 .KTIS Zetp/a.

230). 493ff. ii. 9 pi. 303^ pi. gr. 226. num. 229). 7. Babelon Monn. pi. 5. Fig. 690 (' serpent'). Head Hist. 2. Coins Lycia etc.'2' p. i. num. 3 Brit. 26 pi.. Cat. ii. Coins Lycia etc. Head Hist. Cat. occasionally two 3 (fig. 22. pi. One branch may end in the head of a monster6 (fig. p. 22. 6. 6 ff.. Of these lines there are usually three1 (fig.. p. 224. Cat. is now and again subjected to further complications. p. 13 f. rom. 8—10. pis. 22. again.2 p. pis. 130. Cat. 10. Mus. 225). num? p. n. 229. pi. num. 8 Brit. ii. or of swans or Brit. gr. Sometimes this type appears as S with an appendage like a handle affixed to its centre (id. pi. 28 pi. 13. Mus. 690. Head Hist. 5 Babelon Monn. An example in the Paris collection5 (fig. 7.. rom. pp. 6. Mus. 9. 224). 96. 6. 2. 93. 101. 2. Coins Lycia etc. 25 pi. 509 ff.2 p. animal forms are introduced. p. Mus. num. It.. ib. Babelon Monn.. 501 ff. p. 201 f. Mus. Or. 12 ff. Cat.). Fig. 20 ff. 17. Cat. 228. 93. Fig. ii. 759) closely resembles this form of the Lycian symbol. 2ff. Babelon Monn. Coins Lycia etc. vi pi. The symbol in question Fig. 8. Coins Lycia etc. 21. 688 ff. 13. 24 pi.. ii. 3. 6. Head Hist. 14. Brit. 18. Mus. p. and in a single exceptional case but one4 (fig. Coins Italy p. i—4. p. 44. 4 Brit. 6 Brit. 233 f. Mus. 2 Brit. 497 ff. i. 13. or snake 7 (fig.300 The Lycian Symbol variable number of lines curving either to the left or to the right. 227). p. p. rom. r. 226). 231). 4ff. 6. 3. p. 25 pi. ant. The supposed hook (apirt]) on a silver coin of Arpi in Apulia (Garrucci Man. Cat. xxviif.. rom. 18 pi.gr. Cat. Gr. 3. Coins Lycia etc. 23 pi. Babelon Monn. 230.? p. 225f. or all the branches may be furnished with the heads of cocks8 (fig. iff. i8ff. Head Hist. r. 1 . sometimes four 2 (fig. gr. 12 pi. 112 pi. p. 16. but never straight. ii. 5. 7 Brit. gr. Fig. pi. 8. Coins Lycia etc. Anson Num. Mus. rom. 95. 228) has the ring with three radiating lines mounted on a round shield or disk from behind which appear four similar lines curving alternately to left and right. pi.

rom. 1880 xx. 19. 8 Arch. 2 Brit. Gardner 'Ares as a Sun-god' ib. n. gr. 2. 44. 233). 233. 7 Babelon Monn. 482. num. Babelon Monn. 23 pi. gr. ii. ii. id. Mus. Miiller La croix gammie Copenhagen 1877. when we seek to define the deity to whom the Lycian wheel originally belonged. 1880 xx. 532. ii. Thomas ib. 18—48. The significance of this symbol has been frequently debated. 235 ff.. Both regard the Lycian sign and its parallels as representations of the sun. pis. ii. Head Hist. 9 Ib. concludes in favour of the solar explanation advanced by L. 96. 95. 2. we are deserted by the evidence. and four branches. pi. after passing in Fig. 1 Brit. von Paucker 8 and E. 690 ('cygnets').' This verdict. Cat. 510f. two.* p. On occasion an owl occupies the central ring2 (fig. pi. 510. Coins Lycia etc. review the various hypotheses that have been put forward. But on the Lycian series the radiating lines are never modified into human legs. doing the same for India and the east?. 232). 476. 49—61. p. 24 ff. Chron. which was intuitively associated with the rolling or wheel-like projection of the sun through the upper or visible arc of the heavens. L. 5. But. Miiller. See also P. xc f. rom. 227 f. Babelon Monn. i. pi. 5. Head Hist. 231. 9. Mr Thomas sums up in the following sentence: ' As far as I have been able to trace or connect the various manifestations of this emblem. pi. Fig. Monsieur Babelon. 12. Babelon Les Perses Achtmtnides Paris 1893 nos. New Series 1880 xx. . Mus. is disposed of by the examples with one. E. 4 L. 1851 ix. Monn. Zeit.The Lycian Symbol 301 ducks1 (fig. ii. 275 ff. Fig. The conjecture of C. 44. Miiller and Mr E. 99. Thomas ' The Indian Swastika and its western Counterparts ' in the Num. 15. Babelon Les Perses Acheme'nides p. pi. that it marked the worship of a three-fold Zeus. 232. 6. rom. for Lykia at least. 380. Thomas3. 5 E. is confirmed by the fact that on Lycian coinage after the time of Alexander the Great the radiate head of Helios is a constant type7. arrived independently at substantially similar results. ii. i. 1855 xiii. i. rom. 6. gr. as understood and accepted in the crude astronomy of the ancients6. and Mr Thomas. 6 E. Cat.gr. comparing analogous symbols throughout the west of Europe 4 . they one and all resolve themselves into the primitive conception of solar motion. 5. Curtius 9 . 16. Coins Lycia etc. 3 E. 691. mtm? p.

This.302 The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops There is more to be said for Monsieur Babelon's view that it was the symbol of a national god of light.yrag-. i. thinks that the scholiast drew his information from Hellanikos. ov irepl r&v Trap' ' Schol. Kal ol irepl rbv Ilo\v(f>7)fjiov. /cat TOVS Ka\ov/m.' It follows that his readers in the fifth1 century B. however. But it is far from clear that this last sentence was taken from Hellanikos : C. cit. to do with a sun-god ? How are we to bridge the distance from Magna Graecia in the west to Lykia in the east ? And by what process did a solar wheel develop into a ferocious giant? These are questions that must be answered. 3.evovs Ovpavlovs. if my hypothesis is to be regarded as tenable at all. 3 immediately continues Ku/cXwTrwi' yap yev-rj rpia' Ku/cXwTres ol TJ]V M. 1 10 f. as emblem of the solar god Sandas. hist. perhaps came from the east1. 1904 xviii. 408. M. 4 Hellanik. Rev. the Cheirogastores . 69 Miiller) ap. Hes. /cat TOUS Xeipoydaropas. i.' 1 N. How is the plural Kyklopes to be reduced to a singular Kyklops ? What had the Kyklopes who kept sheep on the mountains of Sicily. rei^to-aires. who are Sicilian . or became. To begin with. 69 does not include it in the excerpt. /cat avrol ol 6eoi. inasmuch as they were named after a single Kyklops. Miiller Frag. Aristeid. theog. or for that matter the Kyklopes who worked at the underground smithy of Hephaistos. 2 Babelon op. Dindorf rpia jap ytvrj Qacrlv etva.7r6 Ktf/cXwTros vlov Qtipavov. 509. travelled across Asia from the west to the farthest east. who perhaps originated in Crete. Gordon Munro in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 1911 xxxviii. Hes.L KvK\<airuv. Sandon. p.' This sky-connexion is elsewhere insisted on. 26 ff. Hellanikos asserts that 'the Kyklopes derived their name from one Kyklops. The scholiast on Aristeides the rhetorician writes : ' They say that there are three kinds of Kyklopes. son of Ouranos4. knew of certain Kyklopes. 139 'EXXaPIKOS d£ TOUS Ktf/cXwTTcis opojudfecrtfat d. ii. 326 f. different from the Kyklopes of the Homeric tradition. schol. Gr. the monstrous form known to the Greeks as the Kyklops3. v. 3 Class. i.C. supposes that this symbol. 176 (Frag. Objections will at once occur to readers familiar with the Odyssey and its myth of Polyphemos. being famed throughout the classical world as Apollon Lykios'2. those in the Odyssey. Mayer Die Giganten und Titanen Berlin 1887 p. Si/ceXous oVras. then. 482.VKrjvi)i>. but in any case at a later date entered the Greek pantheon and was assimilated to Apollon. 139 after the passage quoted in n. theog. because the schol. is to leave unsolved the problem — who or what was the national light-god before the advent of the Greek Apollon ? I am disposed to think that he was. Gr. Sandes. who passed as being the son of ' the Sky. But he adduces no valid evidence of its connexion with Sandas. roi)s /card rbv 'OSvffffta. 5 . The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops. and the so-called Sky-dwellers5. 52 ff. hist.

2 1 . Find. 22. 5 Find. for Hesiod1. p. 6 Aristot. ad loc. STepoTrijs. Hes.6v re /cat vvvo-xyv Kal peTpov (fiijcreus. On the one hand. frag. Cp. 106. Strab. Some such belief may underlie the reputation. (Babelon Monn. eel.' and Zenon the Stoic c.1 ol TlvdayopfLoi 5e Zavbs irtipyov rj Zavbs <j)v\aK7]v direKa\ovv TO fj.' ' the house of Zeus6.0a70ptKo« Iffr6pr]ffei>.). who built the great walls of Tiryns for king Proitos. rom. Simplic. 139 iraldas de tpyffiv afrrovs rov Ovpavov eireiSi] irdvTa. Note Sen. The central circle had dwindled to a dot. 4 Plin. from which Hes. it had become reduced to a simpler combination of lines9. ' sons of the Sky. 7. theog. gr. TrdOfj Trepl rbv ovpavdv etai. 8 Roscher Lex. iis avrbs ev rots IIi. Stob. 16870°. 13. whereas Theophrastos declared that towers were invented by the Tirynthians. 195. ol 8£ Aids (frvXaicrjv. 106. Thy. and also the names applied by the Pythagoreans to the central fire of the universe. i. 94.. TO. 'the tower of Zan. 199 Rose ol pev Zavbs (Z-qvbs Diels) irtipyov avrb KaXovcriv. p.£crov. of being master-builders. 211 f. 104. The reference is to the names JSpbvrijs. Philolaos ap. /3u/j. nat. 116 Pearson ap. 293 b 3 f. = A. TO Taj>r-r\v Hxov T^lv Xcfy)c"/ Trvp. schol. Again. 372 (cited also by Eustath. 502 Otipavidas. ws ev TO&TOIS.C. 8 Aids <f>v\aKijv ovofAdfovcri. ws aXXoi (paaiv. de caelo 2. 2. Aristotle referred their invention to the Kyklopes4. were brought over for the purpose from Lykia3. 2. 300 E. 16-22. The Lycian symbol appears to have developed in two very different directions. 12). Cyclopum sacras | turres. 2. vet. Eur. viz.VTCL TO. which Zenon may have found in Hes. "A/ryijs.G. Diehl (cp. oirep effTiav TOV TraPrbs KaXe? /cat Atos OIKOV KO! nrjTepa 6euv. hist. Wachsmuth $t\6\aos irvp ev [levy Trepl TO KevTpov. 407 f. i. i d p. 21 ff. 140.' 'the watch-tower of Zan. 2 ff. 243. there is reason to connect the Kyklopes with Lykia.The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops 303 Nor can we dismiss this as the figment of a late grammarian . theog. was a Celtic conception of the Otherworld. ii.' A revolving tower.v Atos odbv irapa Kpovov rtipcriv. ii. but we must bear in mind Pindar's mysterious statement that the souls of the righteous— travel the road of Zeus to Kronos' tower5. Tim. Zen.ristot. 9 The change is already noticeable on a coin of the Lycian dynast Thibd. 53 f. 123). pi. by the beginning of the fourth century B. i. Ol. theog. 286. gave a physical explanation of the name2. i8ff. Next we have to consider the possibility of deriving the oneeyed giant of Sicily from the solar wheel of Lycia in point of actual shape. Myth. 2. had spoken of the Kyklopes as Ourantdai. 196. 70 £rei\a. frag. 3 Apollod. Towers to the modern ear are not suggestive of a sky-god . in Plat. 199. 965. OL i. Prokl. in Od. perhaps a thousand years earlier. Thus. ii. The seven Kyklopes.) Ka. The context is Pythagorean (schol. Or. ol de Aios Bpbvov. which the Kyklopes enjoyed in ancient times8. in //. schol. 3of. as we have seen7. 7 Supra p.. We still speak of ' Cyclopean' masonry.

pp. Cat. liii notes ' that the triskeles occurs as a rock-cut symbol at various places in this district. This form occurs at Olba in Kilikia 1 (fig.C. Chron. c. Cat. pi. 3 Brit. Head Hist. Coins Macedonia etc. 2 Brit. 527 f. Coins Attica p. gr. 235). Cat. cit. num? p. num? p. Head Hist. r. Babelon Monn. 9 f. and at Megara8. Coins Troas etc. 542. at Abydos3. mim? p.C. : the three curves radiating from a common centre are inscribed in a circle. 124 pi. 12. Head Hist. ii. already observed.D. 393. i.304 The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops radiated three curved lines or crescents. Coins Troas etc.' See further infra ch. 119 pi. 20f. 699. rom. Head Hist. p. 300 B. Coins ii. 10— 14 A. in Makedonia 6 ... 6. p. 12 Brit. 7. 529^ no. on silver coins c. num. on a unique silver coin c. Head Hist. Cat. and Rhoiteion 5 in the Troad.. 140 on a silver coin of the fourth century B. Cat. 524ff. 538 ('three crescents united') on a bronze coin of the fourth century B. Mus. p. i. 23. pi.C. 234). xlv. 8 on a silver coin c. Cat. Coins Lycia etc. turned either to the right or to the left. ii § 9 (h) ii (f). Mus. Cat. Mus. F.. 93 ff. pi. 548. onwards are characterised by three human legs. 13 Hunter Cat. Mus. 11 Babelon Monn. gr. Occasionally it is superposed on a lion12 (fig. num. Head Hist. Cat. Cat. ii.C. 236) or an eagle13 (fig. theriomorphism and anthropoF morphism was also at work. i. 507 pi. ii. Mus. xxxi f. 5 Brit.. Cat. Ixxiif. 525 ff. : five or three crescents radiating from a central dot and enclosed by a circle. Mus. Coins Lycia etc. Coins Mysia p. rom. pp. Head Hist.C. Hill in Brit. Gardner ' Ares as a Sun-god ' in the Num. Coins Troas etc. Mus. 19 ff. pi.2' p. and Brit. 300 f.C. c. 8f. 41 pi. at Argos7.. 411—387 B. But usually it consists of three human legs 1 Brit. On the three-legged crow of Chinese legend and the eight-handed (= many-handed) crow of . 2 pi. p. Thus the silver coins of Aspendos in Pamphylia from about 500 B. 5. on bronze coins of M. 350—300 B. rom. Mus. 23. Head loc. Mus. 2 f. the tendency towards ig 2. Antonius Polemo. which were carried further in neighbouring lands. G. gr. 529 ff.2 p. Mus. on a bronze'coin c. high-priest of Zeus"0\/3ios. at Thebe in Mysia 2 . num? p. 17—36 A. 6 Brit. high-priest. i. 19. 16. 185—168 B. rom.: in the centre of a round Macedonian shield is a wheel-like ornament of six or four crescents radiating from a central dot and enclosed by a circle. 8. pi. 23. Babelon Monn. New Series 1880 xx. 727.D. Birytos4. 94 pi. 7 Brit.. 21. 868. 10 Brit. of animal heads to the component members of the symbol9 was but the commencement of changes. Mus. 118 pi. 21. Cat. 9 Supra p. on bronze coins of Aias.. 4 Brit.: the three curves are enclosed by a circle. 699 f. ii—21. 179. i.. num? p. 23. but radiating from a common centre and so constituting a genuine triskeles™. Coins Lycaonia etc. Coins ib. Coins Peloponnesus p. Babelon Monn. p. son of Teukros. Sometimes this triskeles is centred about a small four-spoked wheel11 (fig. num. See P. 234 (' crescentrayed star'). ii. pp.'2' p. 8 Brit. gr.C. 58. on silver coins of the fourth century B. 22. p. 49 ff. Cat. liii. Mus. Head Hist. Coins ib. On the other hand. The addition. 237).C.

5 Infra n. 15 Brit. on lead tokens and small bronze counters. 224 f. Gordon Munro in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 1911 xxxviii. 8. 17. pi. 393. toff. 9 • Fig. onwards. 13 Brit.. fig. A. (symbol). Babelon Monn. It. pomegranate. 5—9. holding the triskeles in his hand: see Hillo/. 30. It.The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops 305 and nothing more. 7 8 Fig. num? p. 15. 238). 157'pi. vet. 3 Brit.. 499. 175). rev. 14 From the specimen in the McClean collection at Cambridge: obv. 6 Babelon Monn. Carelli Num. Head Hist. 397. 33. 13. 8i3ff. p. 4 J. ib. 25. a recently discovered silver coin of Melos14 c. suggests that the trisketts. 8. or certain Kojiki and Nihongi tradition see N.. pi. was originally his private signet. 237.C. i. i. Num. num? p. Head Hist. at Suessa Aurunca12 in Latium . i. perhaps by the Romans. It. Cp. p. pi. u and pi. in. 351 f. Coins Italy p. i. 20 . as the emblem of all Sicily. Cat. Garrucci Man. Cat. ii. Mus. 408. The same design recurs at Selge1. 10—13. 414. 17 pi. 718. num? p. 152 ff. for instance.1. in Melos5. C. pp. 2 Brit. vet. i8of. son of Neptunus. rom. iv Serie 1909 xii. 401 ff. 191 ff. 35 f. 51 fig. 236. num? p. 705.. at Syracuse . Coins Attica etc. 5. rom. Head Hist. 336. ant. 10 Brit. Allienus. 12 Brit. 20.C. 6. 24. ii. Hill ib. Mus.C. at Athens6. p. Head Hist. cit. 408. at Phlious . num? p. 25.. pi. Mus. ii. 99 pi. rom. which appears first on the coins of Agathokles. 468. Fig. Six in the Num. 7 (no. Corinth etc. 235. Mus. adopted at a later date. 539. 11 Brit. 500—450 B. ii. F. Cat. Head Hist. Head Hist. Cat.. 239). num? p. 15. Babelon Monn. 137 f. 44 pi. Head Hist. Head Hist. 14. i. and Adada 3 in Pisidia . Garrucci Man. Cat. p. Coins Sicily p. 5. 1 Brit. 6. cxix. 4. 33. 39. N. 427. p. Some of these examples exhibit a well-marked central disk . Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily London 1903 p.. notes other examples of the triskele~s occurring at Athens. Coins Italy p. 8 Babelon Monn. (fig. Mus. It. p. 7 (symbol). 123. 152 f. Mus. rom. 277 f.gr. P. struck a denarius. Coins Lycia etc. at Hierapytna 4 in Crete . Cat. cxvf. p. 97 regard the coin as proof of an alliance between Aigina and Phlious. p. 179. p. rom. re~p. 9 and 14. 192 ff. Mus. a unicum of Aigina c. 136 pi. 71. 892.C. 7 Infra n. 657 ff. 57 aes grave of uncertain provenience. Coins Italy p. triskelgs with central disk in dotted circle AA/AAI [••]• See R. Cat. Babelon Monn. ii. 708. Coins Lycia etc. 258 f. 717 f. Carelli Num. and probably elsewhere too13 (fig. pi. which shows Trinacrus. Cat. at Kaulonia and Terina11 in Bruttium . ant. 66. Svoronos Numismatique de la Crete andenne Macon 1890 i. Jameson in the Rev. pi. 98 f. 188 pi. 63. 811 ff. 9 Brit. Mus. 23 pi. cxvii pi. pi. num? p. 45. 480 B. Third Series 1888 viii. 2f. 12. gr. 40.. proconsul in Sicily in 48 B. Cat. 30.18. Mus. Coins Italy p. ii. num? pp. 10 in Aigina . On the preSolonian silver coinage it is inscribed in a circle. Coins Lycia etc. 64. Etenna2. Chron. gr. G. rip. 30. 191. Babelon and Head following J. from 317 B. p.

7 G.'1 p. Coins Macedonia etc. num. Mus. Cat. 244. have for their reverse type a triskeles with wings attached to the feet and a Gorgon's head in the middle 7 Supra p. 274 suggests that it ' may be meant for the rising and the setting sun-god' and compares ' the rayless Helios on the early coins of Rhodes. i. Mus. 314 f. 6 At Istros in Lower Moesia occurs the strange type of two young male heads in juxtaposition. rom. 40. Coins Thrace etc. 4 Fig. ii. •-.. F. Fig. Coins Sicily p.. 44. Cat. which was very prevalent on the coasts of the Euxine. 241. 42 (symbol). Cat.1 p. Cat. Coins Italy p. Fig. D). Fig. 192 a bronze coin of M.1* p. 240). 242). 238. re~p. Head Hist.. pp.. issued Fig. 1039 ff. Carelli Num.' but ib. 25 f. 243. Silver and copper coins of Agathokles. Fig. Coins Lycia etc. Mus. 239.' Since other coins of Istros show a four-spoked wheel (Append. 242. Head Hist.2 p. Elsewhere the humanising tendency transformed the central disk into a face5. Brit. num.C. The Pisidians of Selge3 (fig. 155 pi. p. Head ib. . 263 pi. the central dot of which is marked like a face: the coin is of Sicilian mintage. 235 held that this design 'probably refers to the cult of the Dioskuri. Mus. Cat. Ixxiii. That was the case in Sicily6. i. 305 n. one of the two being upside down (Brit. 10 (my fig. 202. Velia fitted the ankles with wings. Babelon Monn. rom. Brit. vet. 4 Brit. pi. 12. Mus. 274). 240. It.306 The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops scarce specimens of pre-Solonian coinage at Athens1. 139. I would rather conjecture that the two heads in question are a naive attempt to represent the face of the sun-god in actual rotation. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily p. 6—9. 193. Antonius showing as symbol a triskeles. 241) and the Lucanians of Fig. p. 6. between 317 and 310 B. n. 3 Brit. 6 Babelon Monn. 74 pi. The ThracoMacedonian tribe of Derrones added palmettes between the legs2 (fig.gr. . 2 1 . 150. I figure the specimen in the McClean collection at Cambridge. p..

5. 224 pi. but Dioskourides. F.7 Anth. F. Mus. 245).. 425.or borrowed from elsewhere.C. El. saying to all they meet^' Look not thou down on me. rip. pi. 6 P. Coins Sicily p. [K. Hyllos. that look of thine will freeze' Or 'Flee the man who runs apace with these his threefold feet7. they complicated it still further by the introduction of three ears of barley between the revolving legs2 (fig. 14.Claudius Marcellus. From a numismatic point of view. Goettling Commentatio de crure albo in clipeis vasorum Graecorum]enz. rom. 207 ff. Aquillius Florus in 20 B. 85. i. Hea. who fled from Rome at the approach of Caesar4 (fig. 243). where it is painted black.C. 14. 1891 xii. as here). 218. which was found in 1823 near Babelon Monn. . Mus. 341 n. but that of the sun-god pure and simple—witness a Punic stele. 71. not only was the simple triskeles a frequent emblem on shields6. Coins i. Hell. B. The Gorgon that turns men to stone and eke the triple knees He bade them paint: you'll find them there. my foe.' But it g< 245would be interesting to know whether the combined device was invented by Agathokles himself. Hill op.d Hist. it is practically certain that the central face was originally not that of the winged and snakyrtressed Gorgon. ii. On an aureus struck by the Roman moneyer L. 214. 6. . the consuls of 49 B. Stud. cit. but the winged Gorgoneion is larger1 (fig. Walters History of Ancient Pottery . rom. 17. i. Cat. 227. saw it first on the shields of some of his numerous foreign mercenaries. Mus. For. Pal.. Mr G. 4. Hill is justified in describing this 'contamination' of the triskeles with the Gorgoneion as 'of Agathoclean origin5.' . : ' . methinks. F. who bears his buckler as a mighty man from Crete. Hartwig in the Journ. num? p. F. more rarely on red-figured (cf. cit. Hill op. Aquillius eighty years earlier there is a similar device. Coins Sicily pp. therefore. 128. Brit. an Alexandrine epigrammatist of the third century B.& 1855]). 191 pi. onwards adopted the same combination of triskeles and aigis: moreover.Cornelius Lentulus Crus and C. Cat. 148. and on the denarii struck in Sicily by L. ' 2 1 . Head Hist. p. 9. p. Hill op.C.22.125. the blazon that Polyllos' son doth please. Ctram. The design recurs on late copper coins of laita 3 .' See further H. 1.London 1905 ii. Babelon Monn. cit. Cp. dating from about the time of luba. p. Brit. W. It may be surmised that Agathokles. rfy. 244). Cat. Hunter Cat.C. to commemorate the Sicilian exploits of M'. . 5 G. 4 G. who was a soldier rather than an artist. represents a Cretan warrior as dedicating a shield that was adorned with precisely this combination of triskeles and Gorgoneion : Not vain.The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops 307 (fig. 3 Brit. G.' However that may be. Supra p. Bronze coins of Panormos from 254 B. i writes: 'The triskeles is very often used as the device on shields on black-figured vases (cf. 15. 163. Coins Sicily p. 350. . num? p. 126. 242). 198!". 208.. . i.

i. therefore. E. pl.' appears to have been a sky-god or sun-god of some sort2. 3 W. Maspero The Struggle of the Nations London 1896 p. and cited in support of the contention that the triskeles had a solar significance. 2046°.' id. i. The intervening symbol. the sky-god or sun-god. governor of a Numidian province. ib. Myth. 246) with a cow standing beneath it. Gesenius Scripturae linguaeque Phoeniciae monumenta Lipsiae 1837 p. >. But it may fairly be regarded as a sign and token of Baal himself. G.308 The Lycian Symbol and the Kyklops Vacca (Bedja) or Sicca Venerea (Kef) in Tunis and is now in the museum at Lyon. W. which for us has the main interest. Gesenius does not attempt to elucidate. 2 1 . 291 ' einer Form des Sonnenba'als. i § 6 (f) i (7). though the word hammdn probably does not mean ' Fiery1. who hath heard the words of Hicmatho and of thy servant Hicembal the governor. This stone was erected as a votive offering to Ba'al-kammdn. king eternal. Meyer in Roscher Lex. by way of a thank-offering caused a representation of himself to be carved (fig.. Cp. who.23. Baal had blessed the cattle of this Hiempsal (so his name should be written). 2869 ff. the principal Punic deity of north Africa. ' . 155. Hiempsal. The same explanation probably applies to a very similar triskeles Infra ch. Gesenius3 translated the accompanying inscription as follows : To Lord Baal the Sun-god.

989 mentions certain Thessalian ey%eipo7acrTo/9as (vulg. Rhod. 10 with a Latin legend read by Heiss (EB)ORENTi(N)0mw. The Kyklops of the East and the Kyklops of the West. loc. 76. was over-run by Carthaginians. 17 f. 3. hist. monstrous forms with six arms. 4 Strab. 1622. 'Arm-bellies' or 'Belly-arms. i. ' He of the Round Aspect. Let us distinguish the Kyklopes of the eastern Mediterranean (including the Aegaean) from those of the western Mediterranean (especially Sicily). 12. A comparison of schol. 4) shows that the Kyklopes who built Mykenai were sometimes at least known as Cheirogdstores. 53 f. de Lorichs Recherches numismatiques concernant principalement les mtdailles celtiberiennes Paris 1852 pi. who would presumably bring the cult of their Punic Baal with them. 10. schol. that 1 A. with schol. 8. 30 f. Muller) ap. p.. 5. 302 n. (supra p. 247. Plin. is the central disk representing the actual orb of the sun : hence the appropriate name for both was Kyklops. Heiss Description ginlrale des monnaies antiques de FEspagne Paris 1870 p. 2 Ap. See also G. ' the Round One. according to M.). 4. Agrippa and M. 3 with a Celtiberian legend to be transliterated IBOVRI-R (genitive of Ebora) and no. Gr. 372 and ap. Paris. 5 (Frag. for the district. What is common to the two groups. in Od. that is. 5 Deiochos frag. 248. Fig.. 2 Fig. p. 47 Turduli 3. what in fact enables them to be considered species of a single genus. ii. Ap. Aristeid.found on copper coins of Ebora Cerialis. Rhod.s (cod. .) or ^77a<TTp6%eipa. Hes.' in connexion with Lykia and Tiryns . The scholiast identifies them with the Tyyevtes of Ap. Varro . 322 ff. tit. D. pi. one of the chief towns of the Turduli in Hispania Baetica1 (figs. I reproduce no.' The eastern Kyklopes were called also Cheirogdstores* or Gasterocheires*-. apparently quoting Strabon either from memory or in a text different from ours. 247—248). vi. hist. 286. in II. Eustath. I shall venture to propound a fresh classification of the Kyklopes in Greek mythology. Taking into account these zoomorphic transformations of the solar wheel. Encheirogdstores or Engastrocheires5. nat.' or more exactly. 3 Eustath.

riv at Kyzikos with rocks and so secure the Argonauts.-/iKi]s) spinal marrow in its vertebral column. of. where there was a tribe of Kyklopes with an eponymous king Kyklops. which were eight in number. The male was originally the offspring of the sun . Or. the moon. where Aristophanes. Kyzikos. from Kouretis (= Euboia) and ultimately from Thrace. every man had the shape of two men joined back to back. but otherwise. essayed to block the Xuros \ifj. makes a speech in praise of Love and in the course of it describes humanity as it was in the remote past : ' Our nature long ago was not what it is now. When he started to run fast.310 The Kyklops of the East and West is. See further G. V&TOV Kal TrXeupots /okXy &xov. but that tradition made them the offspring of the Nemean lion. a mountainous island in the Propontis. 'Bellies-in-arms ' or 'Arms-in-bellies. and as many legs as arms. which looked opposite ways. the common sex. That is. male and female. so that his body was cylindrical. . He had four arms. and my comment in The Metaphysical Basis of Plato's Ethics Cambridge 1895 p. resembling each other in every respect. his back and sides being in the form of a circle2. for the. They and their mode of progression were alike circular because they resembled their parents. Lit. 965 the walls of Mykenai were built by Kyklopes called eyxeLP°~Y'avropes. Moreover. So it came to pass that in point of power and strength two attached to their shoulders and four to their ribs (ib. who dwelt about the "ApKTUv opos. Gruppe Myth. he had a single head with four ears. he looked like tumblers who bring their legs round so as to point upwards and tumble along in a circle: just in the same way did the men of those days move rapidly along in a circle. and. 138 f.' in connexion with Thessaly. which was a compound of them both. 441 f. The reason why the sexes numbered three may be put thus. 44 D—E. The words can hardly be taken to mean that his body was a sphere or disk. Then again. Thrace. A distant echo of this mythopoeic stage may be heard in Platen's Symposium1. and Mykenai. who represented in anthropomorphic guise the solar symbol with its central ring and radiating members. Cp. 73 c—D. 292 ff. Eur. he had two sets of generative organs. It comprised not only the present two. The scholiast adds that Polygnostos (vulg. 189 E S\ov yv eicdffTov TOV avOpdiirov TO eldos (rrpoyyjXov.) or Polygnotos (cod.. 1908 p. coming from their mountain. On his two faces. resting their weight on their limbs. In those early times the androgynous was at once a name and a species. though it has" itself become extinct. moon too shares the nature of both. who came to aid Proitos. now-a-days it is merely a name given by way of reproach. as he does still. who were said to have made the thunderbolt for Zeus. mankind was divided into three sexes.). and two faces on a round neck. In the first place. Knaack ' Encheirogastores ' in Hermes 1902 xxxvii. every man's shape was rounded throughout. ib. in whichever of the two directions he pleased. He walked upright. Such names would be not unsuitably given to giants. Euboia. 944 ff. 2 Id. symp. whereas. where he contrasts the globular (irepi(f>ep'f]s) brain in its spherical (o-^cujooetSTjs) cranium with the cylindrical (ffrpoyytiXos Kal irpofj. being circular in horizontal section. as usual half in jest and half in earnest. and everything else to match. The name of this third sex still survives. 1 Plat.) in his work On Kyzikos rationalised them into pirates. but a third as well. being a blend of male and female in one common nature. Paris. the female. Tim. Other scholia on the same verse derive the Kyklopes. of the earth . 189 D—190 c. According to the latter part of schol.

• 7 n. the earth. symp. Herm. Damask. he recalls the same philosopher-poet's expression 'the swift limbs of the Sun2. frag. Phaedr. certainly four-eyed6. 135 rerpd<nv o^daK/jLoicriv bpwuevos evOa Kal £vda. frag. 4 Diels o6\o(f>vels. inst. 1116). in Plat. a snake.frag.' But he is also throughout thinking of Pherekydes' twin Moliones3 and of the Orphic Phanes. Gruppe in Roscher Lex. 11 Supra pp. Is it accidental that <3?dy?7j and'A/yytfy are names of similar meaning? See further infra ch. 299ff.' Aristophanes goes on to tell how Zeus frustrated their efforts and punished their pride by cutting them in halves like so many eggs. p.. that is to say. he has in mind the ' whole-natured types' of Empedokles1. 63 Abel. i. 8. 28 ff. 6. perhaps two-bodied5. is evidently based on the serious beliefs of the past. the Orphic texts cited by Lobeck Aglaopharmis i. 10..TijTroi. Lobeck op. 491 remarks that the same verse was used to describe Argos by the author of the Aigimios (schol. i Diels 'HeA£oio./ra^. The Emped. 62. de primis principiis p. 65 Abel. i § 6 (g) ix. ib. This composite conception suggests comparison with the various theriomorphic and anthropomorphic modifications of the Lycian solar wheel11. 10 Orph. golden wings on his shoulders. 62 Abel ap. but both. and in their pride they attacked the gods. if Zeus hears much more of his insolence. types neither male nor female. Phoen./nzg-. When Platon speaks of a third sex compounded of the other two. bulls. in Plat. 191 B cp.. And. 7 Supra p.w/cea yvia.) and Lact. Ever since that fell catastrophe man has gone about the world in search of his other half. Id. iii. and commonly identified with the sun7. 2251 f. i. 387 0eos dc-c&yuaros was corrected to Oebs diffdi/j-aros by Lobeck Aglaophamus i. frag. Diehl (cp. frag. div. We hear of no Cheirogdstores with multiple limbs. cit. he will cut him in halves again. According to one account. and a lion8. a strange bi-sexual being4. 3040". 4. so that in future he will go hopping on a single leg ! This interesting recital. frag. 36 Abel ap. 491 f. when Platon relates his human Catherinewheels to the sun. 22 ff. And. 3 Append. despite the humorous turn given to its denouement. Prokl. and the moon. what Homer says of Ephialtes and Otos refers in reality to these . together with golden wings 9 : according to another. Eur. 429. first-born of the gods. 450. 2 1 . that they attempted to scale the sky. Myth. In the western Mediterranean anthropomorphism went a step further. With Plat. 4 Orph. and on his head a monstrous snake resembling all manner of wild beasts10. Phanes had the heads of rams. 36 Abel. : see further 0. intending to make an assault upon the gods. 486 n. I mean. quaest. 9 Orph. recognit. 30. F (i). 6 Orph. 27. heads of bulls attached to his sides... Rufm. 64 Abel ap. Tim. 5 In Orph.The Kyklops of the East and West 311 they were terrible . Indeed. i. 8 Orph.

74 a wall-painting in an Etruscan tomb at Corneto. theog.312 The Kyklops of the East and West Kyklopes of Sicily and Italy had originally one large circular eye in the middle of the forehead1 (fig. 14 Meineke. This is throughout the prevailing type of the Kyklops in Greek and Latin literature. in the passage on which Servius was commenting. iii. engraved gems. 3. Lyk. others Fig. 52 f. Classe p. . 516. 1685. Inst. 7. a Roscher Lex. 15. 453. Brontes. Cycl. first that the Kyklops should have his normal eyes. 1392.. cp. and last that his abnormal eye should dwindle away into nothing. berl. The Homeric Kyklopes in general had one eye.D. 333. 5 Serv. ii. 1695. i. ad loc.ov. those of Lipara in Kallim. Philostr. 397. d. 14. 53.ov6<j)()a\fj. others that he had two. Steropes. 36 ff. 174.). not /j. Eur. Myth. can write: ' Many say that Polyphemos had one eye. 659 f. Eustath. 1857 Phil. 18. Daremberg—Saglio Diet. 2703 ff. 772 f. h. i. u. Akad. Al. and stated in Kratin.' Virgil. Inst. ix pi. Grimm in the Abh. 503. in Od. 21. but the whole tale is a make-belief5. Myth. Theokr. Cycl. 1588. 33.. whether shut or open. bas-reliefs and sculpture in the round the case was different. 4 Roscher ib. 27). Ov. in Verg. Pal. Here a growing sense of artistic fitness prescribed. 249)2. with Tzetz. 387.. The Kyklopes of Aitne are one-eyed in Eur. 36. d. imagg.. 249.. 2 Mon. according to Strab. ii. i. Guido de Columna (1287 A. W. 77. as well as his abnormal eye3. 41 f. Ant. 394. and Arges in Hes. 1685. Vat. 525. But with vase-paintings. 9. 132. 383. 1622. Anth. d. wall-paintings. inclines to regard Polyphemos as £Tep6<j>Oa\fj. 1870 xlii. who in his account of the Trojan war gives Polyphemos two eyes and makes Odysseus pluck out one of them (W. 2711 f. Odysses frag. 2. 39 ff. 21 f. 636.. 6. 7. met. again that he had three. Thus it comes about that Servius in the fourth century A. leaving him two-eyed like other folk4.oi>. pp. 2. 2.-hist. mai. Aen. 13. Helbig in the Ann. adheres to the original conception of the western Kyklops and speaks of his eye as— 1 In the case of Polyphemos this is implied by Od. 22. Artem.D. 144 f..

with the shining orb of the sun8. and with one only orb4. frag. who wrests from him the means of making fire. argues that one-eyed beings such as the Kyklopes are storm-powers.' But it is more probable that Virgil is comparing the eye of the Kyklops with the sun. Yea. from which he took his name. 637. H. Roscher Lex. and that the Greeks regarded the sun as the eye of the animate sky7. which can be traced back to Hesiod. 8 L. and the 'torch Phoebean' must be either the moon or the sun 2 . Aitne. the Kyklopes were known as ' children of the Sky 5 '. 5 6 7 Supra p. must be regarded as a star if he has one eye. 63. 130 has given a similar volcanic explanation: cp. they ' derived their name from one Kyklops. and V. 27 and A. Aen. ii.-hist. as a constellation if he has many heads and arms : he is attacked by the solar hero or sun-god. 1857 Phil. the other to the glow. Aen. whose father was the Sky 6 '. A presumption is thus raised that we are on the right track in investigating the story of the Kyklops as though it were a nature-myth and in identifying the round eye. W. 13. Supra p.5 'groups | Of young volcanos come up. of Polyphemos' eye: the 'Argive shield' was circular. On this showing Odysseus would be the sun-god and Polyphemos a star! W. who lives in a cave and is a famous builder. R. their fiery eye denoting the lightning (see infra ch. in the words of Hellanikos. suggests that the one eye of the Kyklops refers to the crater of Mt. But like a mighty shield. 367—412. Of course no simile or collection of similes can prove that the Kyklops' eye stands for the sun in heaven. 3. cyclops-like. Kuhn Die Herabktinft des Fetters und des Gottertranks^ Giitersloh 1886 p. d. 303. | Staring together with their eyes on flame. Akad. Browning Paracelsus sc . 636 f. 3 Farm. lurking there alone 'neath his fell brow. Myth. 851 ff. met. 169 ff. where Polyphemos defends his claim to good looks in the following lines : One only eye my midmost forehead bears. This last line draws from Servius the just remark that the one simile refers to the size (and shape). Classe p. 4 Diels £pya re /a5/cXto7ros Trfijcrj Trepifoira ireAi^s. Like to some Argive shield or torch Phoebean1. 2 1 . in Verg. ii § 3 (b)). Serv. Supra p. 1689. Ovid does so expressly in the Metamorphoses. 4 Ov. 196 f. The distinction that I have drawn between the many-armed Kyklopes of the east and the one-eyed Kyklopes of the west Verg. comes to the conclusion that the maneating ogre (or ogress). Berard Les Phlniciens et FOdyssee Paris 1903 ii. 3. all these things Yon sun beholds. berl. Schwartz Indogermanischer Volksglaube Berlin 1885 p. 302. after a wide survey of analogous myths all the world over. that. But we have seen that according to one version. Grimm 'Die Sage von Polyphem' in the Abh.' I follow W. Parmenides in one of his fragments mentions ' the round-eyed (literally kyklops] moon3. 59 ff.Huge. Frobenius Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes Berlin 1904!. 10.

41. Briareos. A. 306. Monstrous their power. 327. et. The oldest group of Egyptian deities was headed by a divine pair named Nu and Nut. 26 Friedlein. i. All unapproachable. v. Wallis Budge Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection London 1911 i. enumerating the children of Earth (Gaid) and Sky (Ouranos). They verily in all else were like the gods. 'E/caro7%et/)es Apollocl. Marcell. viol. 40. 3 Pap. i. 312 B. one. writes : She brought forth too Kyklopes proud of heart. 10. 17. 298 f. I. when the attributes of Nu were transferred to the god Ra6. 3. or Nes-Min. 156. 123. cp. The pyramid text of Pepi i addresses ' Nut. and fifty heads Grew from the shoulders on each stalwart neck. am.. Hesiod's division is just that between the Kyklopes of west and east. 2. c. 135. Brontes and Steropes and strong-souled Arges. 14. digest. as is Typhoeus in Ov. priest of Panopolis. Gyes. Eudok. 69. 139 ff. 36 (Centemmanus as nick-name of Appius Claudius Caecus).. The one-eyed Kyklopes are here mentioned side by side with certain many-armed giants of the self-same parentage. If we may regard these Hekatoncheires^ as analogous to the Cheirogdstores. in II. 303: cp. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians i. 2.ib. Boeth. and nothing more. and guile were in their deeds. 19 (20). mult. de amic. Kottos. violence. A hundred arms were waving from their shoulders.314 The Kyklops of the East and West corresponds fairly well with a difference indicated in Hesiod's Theogony. A useful parallel is afforded by the religion of ancient Egypt.] Power. Gyas is centimanus in Hor. 19 p.' 2 1 . Palaiph. upon their forehead set. Nor need we be surprised to find the sun conceived in two forms so widely different by people residing within the same area of civilisation. Maspero The Dawn of Civilization* London 1901 p. prideful brood. Similarly a late papyrus in the British Museum 4 makes Nu speak of his Eye in terms which can only refer to the sun5. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 i. Plout. A. met. i. Briareos is ejcarcfyxeipos in //. 221. But had one eye amid their forehead set. 4 E.C. Others again from Earth and Sky were sprung. 213. i. 14 t. A. Ov. i. The poet. arithmet. [Kyklopes were they named by reason of A round eye. 3. 2. strong to match their size1. p. the Eye of Ra was identified with a variety of solar Hes. p. Who gave the thunder and wrought the bolt of Zeus. i the name Ra 'means the sun. 6 E. Three sons of size and strength. written for Nes-Amsu. Eustath. mag. i. de inst. trist. 188. Again. 17. According to G. od. and Pompon. 4. 402. p. 5 E. 7. 4. i. in whose head appear two eyes 3 '—presumably the sun and moon. not to be named. theog. 18. 2. 42. 88 n. god and goddess respectively of the watery mass of the sky. 12.

cp. 365 Hathor. with or without his family. 386 Index s. 446 identified with Bast. and said to have two eyes. Wallis Budge ib. Ra himself was fused with the Theban deity Amen. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians i.C. 517 Sekhet.' This Aten was a very old Egyptian deity. 4 E. 2 E. 'Aten. pp. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians ii.. Ra was fused with Horos5 (Heru}. Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection i. thus forming the double god Ra-Tem 3 : accordingly we hear of the Eye of Tern as another designation of the sun4. He adopted a new name. i.' Ra was likewise fused with Tern the local sun-god of Annu. 127. 467. But these numerous descriptions of the sun as the eye of this.. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians i. 5 G. Id. Maspero op. For example. 3 E. 158. the sun being the right eye.73. and the moon the left6. 133. A. In these representations the rays 1 E. i. Thy flame maketh thine enemies to fall. that. 203. 73. 6 E. about the year 1430 B. 422 f. i. some two hundred miles south of Cairo on the east bank of the Nile : the site of his foundation is now marked by the Arab villages of Haggi Kandil and Tell el-'Amarna. 119. : . Khut-Aten. 330.The Kyklops of the East and West 315 powers1. The Gods of the Egyptians ii. 100. Meh-urt. and a hymn written in the time of the twentieth or twenty-first dynasty for the great resultant god Amen-Ra says : ' Thou art the beautiful Prince.. 87. The Gods of the Egyptians "•70. 'was the physical body of the SunV And monuments of Khut-en-Aten often show the king.' says Dr Wallis Budge. Khut-en-Aten means the ' Spirit' or ' Glory of Aten'. ib. cit. 328. i. 277. 92. A. despite the first element in his own name. who was regarded as the Face (Her or Hra) of heaven. A. 446 Bast. Wallis Budge A History of Egypt London 1902 iv. the Horos of Manethon. A. ' Eye of Horus. A. A. 137. that is On or Heliopolis. ib. 248. Amen-hetep iv or Amenophis iv. ib. illuminated by the sun's rays8. 305. and thou art the lord of radiant light and the creator of brilliant rays. ii.' G. and founded a new capital. Maspero op. Wallis Budge A History of Egypt iv. cut himself off from the old capital Thebes and the Theban cult of Amen.77. i. 346. 144. who risest like the sun with the White Crown. 88.74. cit. the ' Horizon of Aten. 8. 8 E. 172. 109. pp.. Wallis Budge ib. ib. whose original home was near Annu or Heliopolis. i. 202. 7 E. ii. or the other deity by no means prevented the Egyptians from depicting it in curiously incongruous ways. and Khut-Aten. Khut-en-Aten. 120. 3^3) 457) Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection ii. Lastly. 165. A. and thine Eye overthroweth the Sebau fiends2.v.

made an attack upon Zeus and the other gods5.3*7 mere succession of pictures or metaphors. 3 Id. 2 1 . the evidence is of the scantiest. 39 has an altogether delightful parody entitled ' An Ode to Spring in the Metropolis. who might have been. So far as the eastern Kyklopes are concerned. The scholiast on Euripides. called Cheirogdstores. 310 f. ib. 7 Ibid. but are not. 309 n. vii. A fin-de-siecle poet opens his Sunset in the City with the lines— Above the town a monstrous wheel is turning. With glowing spokes of red. he shakes | His big red hands at me in wanton fun! | A glorious image that! it might be Blake's. 314.' in which occurs the following allusion to our metaphor: 'And O the sun ! j See. 6 Supra p. Low in the west its fiery axle burning1— but at a distance of half a dozen pages changes the scene— The sun has shut his golden eye And gone to sleep beneath the sky2— while elsewhere in the same little volume he prefers to speak of the sunbeams as— the curious fingers of the day3. 18. Steropes. p. probably confusing the many-armed with the one-eyed Kyklopes. p. 83. But. Id.' And the names that he gives them7—Brontes. In dealing with their western compeers. fashioned the thunderbolt for Zeus4. Eur. Mr Owen Seaman in The Battle of the Bays London 1896 p. states that the former. Arges—are all but identical with sundry titles of Zeus. ib. 5. At most it may be said in quite general terms that the Cheirogdstores belong to the same category as the Titdnes. 5 Siipra p. the Encheirogdstores.). Clearly no conclusion can be based on such premises. that is. Hesiod speaks of the Kyklopes that made the thunder and the thunder-bolt for Zeus as ' like the gods8. Or. see. we are on firmer ground. j Or even Crackanthorpe's !' 4 Schol. And the Platonic Aristophanes in his whimsical narrative tells how certain wheel-shaped and quasi-human beings. They are. stood towards Zeus. The Kyklops and Zeus. 965. namely R. (After R. we have next to enquire in what relation the Kyklopes. elder and unsuccessful rivals of Zeus. Le Gallienne English Poems* London 1895 p. Le G. whether eastern or western. the Kyklopes par excellence. supra p. to return to the Greeks. 89.

Sprung into being from the western flame. Steropes. 'the Thundering1. made of earth-born snow.' arges. cloudless Zeus. Infra ch. Cycl. Above that murky throng Argilipos was flashing as he swung A radiant brand and. 172—201. and Arges are named among other Kyklopes opposed to the Indians. The late epic of Nonnos describes in bombastic style how Argilipos. shed water False-fashioned. man on man destroying. and. A brand his dart. [Not one Salmoneus only he convicted Of bastard bolts. ii § 4 (d). 3 Supra p. Helpers of Zeus. Seed of Sicilian fire and glowing hearth. 28. a bastard. Thereat Quaked the dark Indians. mazed at such a flame That matched the fiery whirl-wind from the sky. while he bellowed back The clappings of the thunder and with spray Unwonted. 14. both flash and fade.] Steropes next had armed him and was wielding A mimic blaze. now comes again. ib. ii § 3. armed with chthonian bolt Fire-tipped. 31. and Brontes fought on the side of the gods against the Indians : The stout Kyklopes circled round' the foe.' Again. like the light of heaven. A cloud-like robe he wore.318 The Kyklops and Zeus Bronton. that Kyklops. within whose fold He hid his sheen and then the same revealed • • . little-lasting. 'the brilliant3. blazing. Ash spears he beat and many a blade. Swaying his hot shafts and his burning pike. He. Still scorched the Indians with his archer flame. ' the lightning-gatherer2. not one god's-enemy Alone he slew. cp. sometimes wearing a pointed cap and Infra ch. For lightning's gleam now goes. led the way: 'gainst hostile heads Sparks from his earth-born thunderbolt were shot. Then Brontes went a-warring and beat out A song sonorous. 52—60 where Brontes. took torches for the fray. For the Kyklops' imitation of Zeus' thunder see Eur. from the skyHe and his drops. nor only one Euadne Made moan for Kapaneus extinguished there. but could on occasion wield his weapons on their own behalf. But Zeus the Father marked the Kyklops aping His own fell din and laughed amid his clouds-4. Dion." With double quivering. a gleam that echoed back The lightning of the sky. Steropes. the Kyklopes not only made the thunder and lightning of Zeus. 4 Nonn. 2 1 . .' steropegereta. On terra-cotta brasiers of Hellenistic date there is often stamped a grotesque bearded head. 327 f.

Myth. 15. kais.'t\iQjahrb.v. 8 fTrl TOV FepaiffTOV TOV K[>K\w7ros rd(f>ov Karefffpa^av. 6 Steph. 156 n. arch. Brit. they first slew the daughters of the Lacedaemonian Hyakinthos on the tomb of Geraistos the Fig. ii.fab. s. the eponym of the village and promontory in Euboia5. no ff. Thus either Geraistos the 1 A.vv. 1890 v.accompanied by a thunderbolt or thunderbolts1 (figs. Aovcrla. Harpokr. Kyklops (or the son of the Kyklops). Byz. Again. 5 Supra p. Inst. Roscher2 follows A. deutsch. xix. When the war dragged on and he failed to capture the town.253. 3. he prayed to Zeus that he might be avenged on the Athenians. . A 448. Terracottas pp.. 251. 118 ff. the direct or indirect cause of his bereavement. Furtwangler in regarding this type as that of the Kyklops.of Geraistos. s. z Roscher Lex. Conze ' Griechische Kohlenbecken' in 'Cas.Jahrb. and Souid. This proved unavailing . a connexion of some sort between the Kyklops and Zeus is implied by the myth . arch. \lyg. 252 Fig. 4 Apollod. B Euboia. Inst. Minos. Steph. d. 6. kais. deutsch. and they had in the end to listen to Minos' demand of seven youths and seven maidens as food for the Minotaur 4 . s. 1681. 'TaKwdides. d. W. Furtwangler 'Die Kopfe der griechischen Kohlenbecken' m. cp. who is presumably to be identified with the Geraistos of the Athenian myth. 1685. Cat. 251—253). Append. 3 A. 238. 68 no. 1891 vi. H. Tawapos. at the advice of an ancient oracle. is said to have been the son of Zeus6. If they are right—and Furtwangler's arguments are plausible3—. Byz. But Geraistos. after the death of Androgeos went to war with Athens. we have here monumental evidence of the Kyklops conceived as the owner of the thunderbolt.v. Mus. and. rejScucrros. Thereupon famine and pestilence befell them.

or Geraistos was. Merry adloc.' Rather. 410. M. 1904 xviii. pp. 107. 287. 1857 Phil. 87» 325. berl. On this showing. It is not at present possible to determine the race to which this T. 288 f. 75 ff. M. But nowhere in Greek literature do we get a definite identification of the Kyklops with Zeus. He holds that the original Kyklops was one with the three-eyed Zeus of Argos. 30 f. Append. it is true. W. deeming themselves superior to the gods. Classe p. JKap.. Polyphemos. 1904 xviii. would not refrain from laying hands on Odysseus through any fear of incurring Zeus' enmity 9 . Rev.. Mayer 4 arrived independently at a similar conclusion.' D. He was. 10 Supra p. 5 Class. who in turn is strictly comparable with other three-eyed figures in Greek mythology in particular with the three-eyed Argos Panoptes*. 2 1 . 8 M. d. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. the son of the Kyklops. The nearest approach to it is Nonnos' description of the Kyklops Brontes as 'a bastard Zeus10. Akad. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. however. analogous to. Mayer Die Giganten und Titanen in der antiken Sage und Kunst Berlin 1887 p.' he is going too far. 318. Rev. 1904 xviii. 75. Mayer op. 28. then. W. according to others. in. 7 Class. his round eye being the sun and his weapon the thunderbolt. 9. 9 Od. 320 f. 275 ff. 1904 xviii. B Argolis. 4 M. Grimm 'Die Sage von Polyphem' in the Abh. Rev. the three-eyed Kyklops is but another form of the three-eyed Zeus. draws attention to the similar inconsistencies of Od. inf. 9. 6 Class. taking a hint from the scholiast. cit. with the three-eyed guide of the Herakleidai6. 3 Class. Mayer over the section of his work devoted to this question prints the words 'Zeus Kyklops8. 288 f. the son of Zeus. we must suppose that the Kyklops was originally a sky-god like Zeus. 325.-hist. boasts that the Kyklopes care nothing for Zeus. Zrjvbs S' eya Kepavvbv ov <ppia<ru. Grimm 2 long since pointed out that the three-eyed Kyklops of Sicily bears a striking resemblance to an extremely archaic statue of Zeus with three eyes seen by Pausanias on the Argive Larisa3. Eur. %eve. 24 p.320 The Kyklops and Zeus Kyklops was the son of Zeus. 325. 115. 325. T. Lastly. the Hellenic god. 431 ff. Panofka 1 and W. 75 f. no ff. the speaker. observes: 'This is inconsistent with what the Cyclopes acknowledged about the power of Zeus. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. When. Cycl. and with the various heroes named Triops or Triopas7. | ovd' old' 6' n. Zetfs ear' e/j-ov Kpeicrffuv 6e6s is following the Homeric passage.. Muelder 'Das Kyklopengedicht der Odysee' in Hermes 1903 xxxviii. and with Polyphemus' boast that Poseidon was his father. Dr W. 289 f. and that he. Panofka Archaologischer Commentar zu Pausanias Buck II. Rev. in fact. according to some. Folk-Lore 1904 xv. but not identical with.'113.. Both inferences presuppose that the Kyklops was somehow related to Zeus. 358.

Lobeck Aglaophamus ii. A constant feature of the Kyklops-Mdrcfon is the boring out of the giant's eye by means of a red-hot stake. II. MacCulloch The Religion of the Ancient Celts Edinburgh *9ii pp. Sebillot Le Folk-Lore de France Paris 1904 i. and Galas.g. 48 f. 1644. Einaugigkeit.. son of Kyklops and Galatia. king of Sicily.. A. those of Argos for Akrisios. and shall here say something by way of comment upon them. Maass in Hermes 1889 xxiv. Illyrioi and Galatai respectively. But these combinations. J. 1440. 37.. most of them in Kouretis: from Kouretis they came to help Proitos and built the walls of Tiryns for him. 89). Appian. 283 ff.. Gr. as we have seen. 125). 47 ff. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. mag. Precisely similar figures are to be met with in Celtic 2 and Germanic 3 mythology—a fact which is suggestive of a remote origin in the past. further observes that the Sicilian Kyklopes are located in the Chalcidian colonies Naxos and Leontinoi (Strab. H. In Appendix E I have collected a number of such tales. D'Arbois de Jubainville Le cycle mythologique irlandais et la mythologie celtique Paris 1884 p.). who'divided the land between them. 4 Append. Squire The Mythology of the British Islands London. Aristot. lives no longer in the mind of the modern peasant.v. ausc. Or. Roscher Lex. 312 s. W. Thoosa daughter of Phorkys (Od. Eur.. Moreover. 71 f. Illyr.. 42). 272.. a Thracian tribe (cp. Stallybrass London 1888 iv. 295. 2 says that Polyphemos the Kyklops had by Galateia three sons.). were driven from their land by war and settled in various parts. are altogether too speculative. pp. 644 f. i. was a nymph of Mt. schol. Athos (66w<7a from *96cos = 'A06ws). hist. k. 439). 66 ff. 37 (Frag. i. Eustath. 2. mir. viz. J. where there are other traces of the Kyklopes (supra p. 5 f. H. Polyphemos' claim that the Kyklopes were 'much superior' to the gods has in one respect been substantiated. C. and Polyphemos. however ingenious. 5 p. S. Searbhan Lochlannach (Folk-Lore 1906 xvii.The Blinding of the Kyklops' Eye 321 one-eyed sun-god properly belonged1. lo. whereas far and wide through southern and central Europe folktales still tell the old story of the Kyklops and his lawless deeds. 10. 238 f. For Zeus. J. Malal. 1689. 3 E. 121) named after its king Kyklops. in the Celtic area at least the one-eyed giant is regularly black-skinned4. 114 Dindorf asserts that Sikanos. who according to one account seems to have lived on the coast of Euboia (Lyk. 200 Milller) ap. The Blinding of the Kyklops' Eye. Does this point to his connexion with a melanochrous race ? viii. J. arguing that the mother of Polyphemos. Balor (H. 965 the Kyklopes. 516 n. This incident is repeated in a variety of slightly differing forms: we hear of a sharp 1 According to the schol. Timaios/m^-. 20. states that Galatia took its name from Galates. et. Kyklops. 1905 ii. Myth. in Od. Keltos. Glasgow and Dublin 1905 Pp. Al. Artem. 220. Illyrios. ii. Curtin Hero-Tales of Ireland Boston 1894 p. 2 speaks of 'sooty Cyclops' on the strength of Kallim. 438 ff. or the giants and ogres of France (P. J. 2 E. 112 f. 208 ff. Grimm op. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 Index p. chron. who ruled over the Keltai. had three sons. E. 1132 note d identified this Kouretis with Euboia. . ii. p. thinks that colonists from Chalkis in Euboia brought the Kyklops-myth to Chalkidike. Istros ap. 434 f. cit. 59. 376 <t>6/>Kwos oiKijTripioi'). 319 f. 1618. Antiphantes (sic).

so sharp at the point. as the ball was burnt 1 A. Esthonia). as reconstituted by Muelder. We. or of a molten mass poured in the eyes (Dolopathos. when the olive-bar was like to catch. cut off a fathom. Kypros. 62. In this the episode of the red-hot stake is of fundamental importance. And some god breathed great courage into us. of a red-hot poker (Erice). D. They took the olive-bar. and the blast singed all about His lids and eyebrows. 2 D. which he had felled To bear when dry. Zakynthos. Sindbad). so huge its girth to view. of a stabbing in the eye (Carelia. And twirled it in his eye: the blood flowed round Its hot end. Abruzzo. Beside the fold the Kyklops' great club lay Of olive-wood yet green. Green as it was. Muelder. Muelder 'Das Kyklopengedicht der Odysee' in Hermes 1903 xxxviii. and my comrades all I heartened. The oldest obtainable version of the story is of course the Kyklops-myth of the Odyssey.1 and in its original form goes back doubtless some centuries further.Paris 1896 i. Kappodokia. They smoothed it: I stood by and pointed it. sets aside all later accretions and interpolations and prints what he conceives to have been the primitive Kyklops-poem2. Therefrom I. of red-hot spits (France. Croiset Histoire de la litterature grecque*. as a man drills with a drill A timber for ship-building. 402. . I uplifted Twirled it above. while below His fellows spin their strap and hold amain Its either end. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur5 Mlinchen 1908 i. Just so we took the fiery-pointed bar. after a minute and painstaking criticism of the myth. runs thus: This to my thinking seemed the best advice. But. Some merchantman broad-beamed and twenty-oared That gets to harbour far across the main. Likened its size to the mast of a black ship. and M. Then 'neath the heap of embers I thrust in The bar to heat it.C. which in its present shape must be placed at least as early as the year 800 B. lest in terror they should fail me. of a red-hot knife (Oghuzians). looking on the same. Gave to my men. I fetched it from the fire. of a sharp piece of wood (Servia). Yorkshire). Roumania. and bade them fine it down. And took and turned it in the blazing fire. W. The passage. and still the drill runs on. of a red-hot iron (Harz Mountains.322 The Blinding of the Kyklops' Eye red-hot pole (Athens). 414—455. standing close. while they stood round. And full in his eyeball plunged it. Finland). and glowed with dreadful light. So huge its length.

the same word and the same use for the reed which mythology teaches us Prometheus employed when he brought down fire from heaven. 565 ff. 313 n. od.' Id. that of Prometheus.: ' In Lesbos this reed is still called vdpd^Ko. Kuhn 2 . 4 J. it remains to enquire what was the original significance of this rather gruesome scene? Why should the hero thrust a sharp stake into the solar eye ? And why is that stake regularly described as being red-hot ? ix.. who. Anthrop. ec /cot'Xy vdpBf]Ki.fa&. says: 'One can understand the idea well: a peasant to-day who wishes to carry a light from one house to another will put it into one of these reeds to prevent its being blown out4. writing of the Greek islands. An answer to these questions would hardly have been forthcoming—since even in the Odyssey the incident has been already worked over and incorporated into a wonder-voyage—had it not been for the fortunate preservation of a more or less parallel myth. as a man that is a coppersmith Dips a great axe or adze all hissing hot In water cold to temper it. 2. 7. 13. Hes. 1885—6 xv. astr. o. like the Effiks or the Igalwa. adservare ferula Prometheus. d. v. And. that the single eye of the Kyklops was an early representation of the sun in the sky. Bent The Cyclades London 1885 p. Plin. 144 Prometheus in ferula detulit in terras. eel. in \h&Journ. if we have been right in supposing.. Hyg. Id. cited by E. o. 318—328. H. 3 Hes. round us rang the rock— And we in a panic fled. poet. nat. d. etc. so hissed the Kyklops' eye About that bar of olive. having a soft pith. 8. for this Is the strength of steel. 42 ferula ignem de caelo subripuisse.. of Aisch. 126 says that 2 1 . 50 ff. with W. 178 ignem. Serv. 600 : ' In most domesticated tribes. Kingsley Travels in West Africa London 1897 p. quo deminuto et in ferulam coniecto. 6. 13. 2. Bent. 323 Now. which has a lining of its interior pith left in it.Prometheus' Theft of Fire Till even its roots were crackling in the fire. and Plin. xvii n.' The schol. which here alone have I heard termed vapd-r/Ka or vapBr/^.. and they will carry this "fire box" with them. 365. T. while he from his eye Plucked out the bar bedabbled with much blood1. theog.' As to the manner in which Prometheus obtained the Od. 375—397-' Supra pp. Prometheus' Theft of Fire. 52 observe that the i>dp6r]%. (vdpd^). and he groaned A ghastly groan—yea. 567. will keep a fire smouldering within it. interp. in Verg. Sikes in his ed. 37 raptor per ferulam ignis divini. T. 565 and Proklos in Hes.' The same custom is found in Kypros. 15 devenit ad lovis ignem. p. hist. Grimm and A. He is said to have stolen fire from Zeus 'in a hollow fennel-stalk 3 '—an expression cleared up by J. P. theog. infra ch. Acron in Hor. 320. if they are going out to their plantation. Inst. i § 6 (h) i. where a further reference is given to Miss M. they will enclose a live stick in a hollow piece of a certain sort of wood. nat. i. E. hist. 9. ib. theog. 401 (in Karpathos) ' If a woman wishes to carry a light from one house to the other she puts it into a reed. according to Sittl on Hes.

de nat. 260. which he showed to men. On the submerged volcano see R. 23. 60 Mtiller) ap. 9 clam ferulam Phoebiacis adplicans rotis. This version of the myth. 4 See G. in Lyk. Ibyk. 237 ap. ii. [lapeti et Clymenes films. but asked whether it was possible for the goddess to raise him to the gods above. See further Frazer Golden Bough* : The Magic Art ii. frag. i. and is quoted from Servius in Myth. 2. 64. So Minerva placed him on her shield and took him to the sky. 63 Phoebiacis rotis applicans faculam. a sole faculam accendit. Vat. 3. to a date c. Phil. who notes that Bent is mistaken in calling the vdp6r)% or 'giant fennel' a reed. 335 Nauck 2 . . represented the fire as stolen from Mount Mosychlos.x f. 321 D — E. and an obviously older explanation is given by Servius3: ' It is said that Prometheus. and. 3.e. 532 ff. 2. Cp. expands this meagre statement: ' Prometheus was helped by Minerva .' in fact from the celestial Erechtheion.324 Prometheus' Theft of Fire stolen fire. 25 Bergk4. Hellanikos frag. as in its terrestrial counterpart. 243 ff. Vat. Prof. he secretly applied a reed to the wheel of Phoebus and stole the fire. Bode Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini tres Romae nuper reperti Cellis 1834 pp. when he had made mankind. hist. but later ib. which he applied to the breast of man. When he saw there the heavenly bodies animated and invigorated by their flaming heat.frag. 5 Myth. a wooded volcano in Lemnos now submerged by the sea1. 10. etc. 2 Plat. i.2 of Soph. 2. 227. Prom. Cic. 112 (Frag. ascended by the help of Minerva into the sky. Aischylos possibly. plausibly identified by Angelo Mai with a certain Leontius mentioned in J. Vat. H.. xx f. Tzetz. 10. Hephaistos in Loukian. applying a small torch to the wheel of the sun. which occurs with some slight variations also in Myth. a Zakynthian tale infra ch. in order that he might see with his own eyes and choose what suited his work. 193 Nauck 2 and Ace. 480— 550 A. promised him whatever heavenly gift he would to help him with his work. p. Ail. Al. eel. admiring Prometheus' handywork.] post factos a se homines dicitur auxilio Minervae caelum ascendisse : et adhibita facula ad rotam Solis ignem furatus. Gr. and about him the following tale is composed. where presumably. Soph. 5 says to Prometheus: TO irvp {Hpe\6/nevos \f/vxpdv fj. Platon supposes that Prometheus stole it from 'the common abode of Athena and Hephaistos2. 51 prefaced by TOP TlpofjLirjOta /cA^cu TO irvp 3 Serv. and moulded him without life or feelings. thereby making his body alive5. stole fire. 10. 1 Aisch. is philosophising. Tusc. Jebb's ed.D. Platon. frag. Ribbeck 3 p. quern hominibus indicavit. 42 Prometheus. ap. 9 clanculum ferulam rotae Phoebi applicans.' An anonymous mythographer of the ninth or tenth century. 6. § 3 (c). different accounts were current in antiquity. 2. Minerva. however. can be traced back to Fulgent. He said that he did not know at all what good things there were in heaven. The same statement in almost the same words occurs in Myth. Cp. Brassicanus' commentary on Petronius4. an. and Accius certainly. Prometheus made man out of clay. 6.oi T-TJV Kd/Mvov aTroAAoiTras. in Verg.' Egyptian ferulae are best for the purpose. For the reed cp. C. a perpetual fire was kept burning. Vat.

Hoernes Natur.. M. B. the production of fire between them being spoken of as a sexual act. G. 1 . If so. Wood states that the fire-drill may be seen any day in South Africa : ' The operator lays one stick on the ground. 207 ff. Add the illustrated chapters of N. the dust becomes red hot. an instrument employed by primitive or backward tribes all the world over3. p. from the Annales du xx. the one vertical. and. The former is commonly made of harder wood and regarded as male. E.' My illustration (fig. 238 ff. By the continuous friction so much heat is evolved that the sides of the hole become black.The Fire-drill x. H. 254) shows a couple of fire-sticks of this sort obtained for me from a Mutoro of Central Africa by my brother-inlaw the Rev. G. Congres archeol. Joly Man before Metals3 London 1883 p. et histor. and a quantity of fine dust falls into it. and holds it down with his feet. the latter of softer wood and regarded as female. (ch. the other horizontal. This second stick is mostly of harder wood than the first. Maddox: three holes have already been drilled in the under stick and a fourth has been commenced. consists essentially of two sticks. G. Wood Man and his Handiwork London 1886 p.' The fire-drill. de Belgique i. cit. and the monographs of M. Tylor Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization* London 1878 p. 415. the sides of the hole begin to darken. 415 ff. 188 ff. and Zeus. while he places the pointed end of the other stick upon it. and the blowing continued until the grass takes fire. 35. and those again with larger. More recent literature on the subject is cited by Frazer Golden Boughs: The Magic Art ii. xv 'The FireDrill'). but in truth he was the inventor of the fire-sticks. until a good fire is made4. 4 Rev.und Urgeschichte des Menschen Wien und Leipzig 1909 ii. and in a short time he works a small conical hole. The Fire-drill in relation to Prometheus. Planck Die Feuerzeuge der Griechen und Romer Stuttgart 1884. Diodoros was not far wrong when he wrote: ' Prometheus son of lapetos is said by some mythographers to have stolen fire from the gods and given it to men. Kuhn in his remarkable study on The Descent of Fire has made it probable. He then twirls the upright stick between his palms. J. not to say certain. G. 18 ff. that this myth of Prometheus thrusting a torch into the solar wheel rests upon the actual custom of obtaining fire by the use of a fire-drill1. 67. bursts into an evanescent flame. The Rev. 3 On the fire-drill see E. the Kyklops. t ff. 2 Diod. J. 5. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gb'ttertranks^ Gutersloh 1886 pp. 325 A.. J. pressing it slightly downwards. Presently. 196 — 226). when blown upon.. Sarauw Le feit et son emploi dans le Nord de F Europe aux temps pr£historiques et protohistoriques Gent 1907 (extr. It is then covered with small dry sticks. A little fine and very dry grass is then carefully laid upon it. from which fire is kindled2. Sometimes the A. Wood op.

or the weighting of the A FRE-STIGK OF HARD WOOD B SOFT DRY WOOD C HANDLE HELD BY THE TEETH D THONG A. N. cp. the latter in an ingenious self-winding apparatus used by the Iroquois Indians (fig. E. And primitive folk are quick to catch at quasi-human features. 422. while the other is slackened. cit. and as an implement of every-day use among the Eskimo and the inhabitants of the Aleutian Isles (fig. Cp. vii f. fit. . such as the employment of a bow instead of a strap. Stevenson describes the Brahman's method of getting fire from wood: ' It consists in drilling one piece of ararii-wood into another by pulling a string tied to it with a jerk with the one hand. 193 fig. Wood op.3 p. 257)®. 248 ff. 419. The fire is received on cotton or flax held in the hand of an assistant Brahman1. 25 from an example in the Edinburgh Industrial of. Romilly Allen 'Need-Fire' in The Illustrated Archceologist 1894—1895 ii. 2. B. cit. B FIRE-STICK OF THIN HARD WOOD FIRE-STICK OF THICKER SOFTER WOOD A D Fig. 69. 242 fig. 3 E. G. 209 on the fire-drill as used by the Brahman fire-priests or Agnihotri.326 The Fire-drill upper stick is made to rotate by means of a cord or strap. Stevenson Translation of the Sanhitd of the Sdma Veda London 1842 p. Crooke Things Indian London 1906 p. Thus the Rev. 256)*. G. 244 f. p. Further modifications are occasionally introduced. W. Joly 4 J. pp. B. cit? p. B. J. figS. Tylor op.' This type of fire-drill has survived as a toy among the Swiss in the canton of Neuchatel2. Wood 5 J. and so on alternately till the wood takes fire. 420. E. Tylor Museum. This Iroquois drill bears some resemblance to an eye pierced with a stake. spindle with a heavy disk: the former may be seen in a Dacotah fire-drill (fig. cit? p. cit? p. A full account of their procedure is given by Frazer Golden Bough9: The Magic Art ii. 255)3. Tylor op. Thus Dr Frazer reports that the fire-boards of the Chuckchees in the north-east extremity of Asia 1 J. 2 J. I. cp. op. 77 f. 254. op. 243.

' 2 1 . The other enables us to connect the name with a verb meaning 'to be heated' (ithainesthat)*. Bapp has sought to prove that Promethetis was an appellative or cult-title of the Titan whose true name was Ithas or Ithax3.v.from which attho. WalveffOaf 0ep/j. Bapp in Roscher Lex. 'I burn. The root of this verb is idh-. 3 K. 4 Hesych.' Frazer Golden Bough*: The Magic Art ii.v.v. s. 318). Myth. ISalveiv' evcppovelv and idapbs. iii. Nonnos unconsciously hit the mark. Recently K. 'pure. 5 Hesych. Is it a mere coincidence that the Homeric episode culminates in a simile drawn from a strap-drill2? On this showing the hero of the Kyklops-adventure must have been originally a divine or semi-divine figure comparable with that C / A. s.t. the weak grade of aidh. Bow D Bow of Prometheus. as the supernatural guardians of the reindeer. almost deified.a. One of these informs us that Ithas or Ithax was Prometheus the herald of the Titans4. Tiv£s"I6tn. clear. cp. 3034. 225. 'I0ds' 6 TWV Tiracwz' K-rjpv^ lipo/jL-riOeijs.' Now.FIRE-STICK OF HARD WOOD A FIRE-STICK OF HARD WOOD B SOFT DRY WOOD C HANDLE OF BONE OR HARD WOOD B SOFT DRY WOOD C SPINDLE-WEIGHT OF STONE D.The Fire-drill 327 ' are roughly carved in human form and personified. Supra p. He relies on two glosses of Hesychios. it becomes—I think—credible that the myth of Odysseus plunging his heated bar into the Kyklops' eye originated in a primitive story concerning the discovery of the same simple utensil. s. At every sacrifice the mouth of the figure is greased with tallow or with the marrow of bones1. The holes made by drilling in the board are deemed the eyes of the figure and the squeaking noise produced by the friction of the fire-drill in the hole is thought to be its voice.. when he described the Kyklops' blaze as 'Seed of Sicilian fire and glowing hearth' (supra p. who squeaks at the process. 322.ive<rdai. if uncivilised people can regard the fire-stick in its hole as turned about in the eye of a voracious and supernatural herdsman.

1890 xv. on coppers of Methana (fig. Hyg. 9f. d. 21.s. Coins Peloponnesus p. 258)". 258). gives himself out. Gr. Fig. 259)7. I figure a. 15. 103 Mliller) ap. 8. 7 Brit. e. p. frag. 23 s. met. 8.v.' etc. 30 (Frag. Mus. 4 f. 690).z p. 307. de la Langue Gr. 470.2 p. So Eur. 207 states that Ithake was named after Ithakos—nYepeActou 7rcu5es"I0aKOS (cat N^ptros.Kos 'Odvcnrevs 6/j. 442.Kr)'. /c. daughter of Autolykos and Mestra (Ov. argues that Odysseus assumed the name Mffuv because his mother Antikleia. Fig. 8. 44 ff. schol. e. specimen in my collection. p. the home of Odysseus Ithakesios or Itkakos*. 8. num. 2 Roscher Lex. in Od. al6ir)p. p.. and virtually identical with that of the bearded Kabeiros8. Od. 9. 30. Cat. pi. ap. 3 Akousileos/ra^. QKOVV rty Ke<f>a\r)viav.r. 5 Od. ad loc. 40 f. 260. 17) son of Helios (Souid. Eustath. Nauck 2 ) had reference to Odysseus: but? 6 Brit. In short. 'the burning sky. Coins Troas etc.a K\VTOV Mdwv. F. al'0w. Cat.o<j>i!}vws T<£ oiKiffTrj. Gr. are formed1. when pressed by Penelope on his return to declare his lineage. It thus appears that Prometheus was essentially a 'Fire'-god—a conclusion that suits well his relations to Hephaistos and the Kabeiroi2. Al. 47 and Prellwitz Rtym. Head Hist. s. Other points of resemblance between the hero of the Kyklops-tale. Myth. Lib. in II. Cat. 36 ff. Gr. s. Spr? p. Further. Eustath. 10. It has been conjectured that Achaios' satyric drama Aithon (Trag. //. But his name Ithax can hardly be dissociated from Ithake3. Head Hist. Cycl.z p. 194 s. IBapos.. on coppers of Ithake (fig. Head Hist. Cp. Myth. 259). s. on coppers of Birytos (fig. i. 307. 26o)9. 1 On this point our philological authorities are unanimous: see L.g. ii. cbrd Atos £%cwres rb yfros.?lOa.X. n. 259. d. 'Waicr). p.. 738). e. 13 (my fig. and . p.328 The Fire-drill aither. Byz. Ant. I suspect that behind Odysseus the hero stands an older and more divine personage akin to Prometheus the fire-god.v. 258. 17. Mus. See also Roscher Lex. 1815. vesp. cp. 19. F.g. 428. 1106. 183 efj-ol §' ovo/j. 747 ff. p. num. pi. from the art-type of Hephaistos. Mus. Byz.v. mag. I would suggest that this is the reason why the art-type of Odysseus. 399). Wbrterb. Zielinski in Philologus 1891 1. 'I6a. 146 ff. 680. iii. 432 with Tzetz. i85"I0aKos 'AiroSpaffnnrtdov. in Od. 31 gives the name of Prometheus' eagle as Aithon (cp. 105 f. Lyk. 1861. Steph. 7 f. et. Eustath. io3"I0aKos'05w<rei. n (my fig.v. 8 A votive vase from the Theban Kabeirion is inscribed 'OXucrcreiSas Ka/3//x>t (Ath.g. 542.w. Itym. Prometheus.fab. Aristoph. in II. Boisacq Diet. 3040 f. AtOuv) : see Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. is indistinguishable Fig. p. Mitth.. Etym. gf. hist. was granddaughter of Mestra's father Aithon (Nik. iii. cp. Meyer Handb. Coins Peloponnesus p. p. 9 Brit. It is surely significant that Odysseus. 4 Steph. num. as the grandson of the Cretan Minos and says totidem verbis: My famous name is Aithon5. i. 163 pi.

This ingenious. Arrowsmith Boston 1886 p. (Append. 121. J. 2 J. 674 D appears to have given Prometheus a garland instead of a ring. Miss J. fig. 138.IO 4> A. frags. i). It is quite possible that they may occur elsewhere in the Puranas. the son of Madhu and Sumanas (Sir M. 1895 pp. 107. by assuming that Prometheus' name was originally n. 'He of the fire-drill. Kaukasos. 2. however. R. we cannot regard Prometheus as the phonetic equivalent of pramantha?\ and it is only by invoking the uncertain aid of popular etymology that we are enabled to set the two side by side3. in Lyk.' 4 Pramantha. but over-venturesome. My friend Prof. 1857 yi. orig. Isidor. nat. and K. Al. Roscher Lex. 17. gave him a ring to wear fashioned out of his chains. F. On the other hand. Harrison has kindly drawn my attention to W. Serv. in Verg. in which was set a stone from Mt. Several versions of the Kyklops-tale make the giant give the hero a ring that binds him to the spot etc. 175 ff. A.' and that it was distorted into ILpowdetis to suit the supposed connexion with Trpo^^eia. 108 f. writer attempts to connect Prometheus as inventor of the fire-drill with Prometheus as inventor of the alphabet. 108 ff. Prometheus. Spiegel iii.' can hardly be separated from Pramanthu. E Abruzzo. a kingly sage. A. ii § 9 (h) ii (•>/)). 'fore-thought. 168. astr. Kaegi The Rigveda trans. it is highly probable4 that pramantha the 'fire-drill' does explain the Kabeiros are not lacking. on being warned by Prometheus not to marry Tethys. and. E.The Fire-drill 329 The Sanskrit word for 'fire-drill' is pramantha. 1283) with the Cabiric names Axieros. ib. 19. ib? Giitersloh 1886 p. 3094 f.42. 118.). 132 n. Bapp in Roscher Lex. 15. was an axe-bearer (infra ch. 235 Nauck 2 ap. 189 f. 1006). Zeus. Dolopathos. Myth. Roumania). Rapson writes to me : ' The names Manthu and Pramanthu occur in a long genealogy of one Priyavrata. . On the rings of the Kabeiroi see supra p. Plin. cp. and persistent attempts have been made to bring the name Prometheus into connexion with it1. 2. 3 E. 131 pi. Aisch. Axiokersa.g. who is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purdna.pofj. W. infra ch. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 p. E. 1 A. 18. lest he should beget a son to dethrone him as he had himself dethroned Kronos. but none of their achievements are recorded. 32. Axiokersos (supra p. iii. but at present I have failed to find them me'ntioned anywhere else. 6. Hopkins The Religions of India Boston etc. swore never to release him from his chains. the younger brother of Manthu and son of Vira-vrata. 685. Pott in the Zeitschnft fur vergleichende Sprachforschung 1860 ix. hist. A. cp. Monier-Williams A Sanskrit-English Dictionary new ed. 109). 3041 acutely compares Axiothea the name of his wife (Tzetz. Oghuzians. eel. An Etruscan mirror shows him wearing a willow(?)-wreath and presented by Herakles and Kastor with two rings (Gerhard Etr. Athen. Schultz ' Das Hakenkreuz als Grundzeichen des westsemitischen Alphabets' in Memnon 1909 iii. Oxford 1899 pp. to keep his oath. Hyg.. but. Odysseus' wife too is famous for her ordeal of the ' axes' (Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions Oxford 1908 ii. Strictly speaking.' It is certainly tempting to suppose that the brothers Pramanthu and Manthu correspond with the brothers Prometheus and Epimetheus\ but evidence is lacking. 37. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks1 Gutersloh 1858 p. the link being the swastika. Myth.av6efc or *ILpofjiev()e6s. ii § 3 (c) i (%)). E. but of mighty men of old who as kings and priests became almost gods on earth. Kaukasos (interp. the 'fire-drill. iii. 194. when he fastened Prometheus to Mt. They belong to a class not of deities. he did out of gratitude release Prometheus. 202. Again. Schmidt Zur Geschichte des indogermanischen Vocalismus Weimar 1871 i. 91. like the Kabeiros (supra p. 5 b).foef.

Yet the second element in Rhadamanthys' name suits my interpretation better. analogous ideas expressed themselves in a cult of Zeus5. iii.' Dr Frazer has cited examples from south-west Africa (the Herero) and north-east Asia (the Koryaks and Chuckchees) of the male fire-stick or fire-board being identified with an ancestor. 8.ai'dvs). Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks.. not even recorded by E. d. Worterb. Al. TctXw^ 5e elrat KJOTJTOS iraiSa. following Gerhard Gr. iv. ib? Giitersloh 1886 p. Lykophron mentions him in juxtaposition with Zeus Aithiops Gyrdpsios of Chios3—a combination that strengthens his claim to be considered a god 'of the Fire-drill. Harrison reminds me of Find. gr. i. difficult to believe that at Thourioi. A. 9. 563. 1389 i 47). Kuhn in the Zeitschrift filr vergleichende Sprachforschung 1855 iv< 9°> I 2 3 £ l°n§ since anticipated this derivation. (irpo/j. 289 f. 17. 227 ff. rectius'). From the vantage-ground gained in preceding sections we can explain a whole series of bronzes found by Messrs Saltzmann and Biliotti at Kameiros and now in the British Museum. Certainly in that capacity he had a pdjSSos (Plat. 6). The graves 1 Supraf. addressed as 'Father. 97 f. A.1 Glitersloh 1858 p. 01. Myth. 5 <ws> 'faddfj. Monier-Williams op. Note also the Pythagorean identification of the ecrrta roO iravros with the Atos olKos (supra p. 471 ff. would read TipowBefc for Hpo/uaz'tfetfs in Lyk. Etym.adei/s: ed. ii.. Paus. K. a Greek colony in south Italy. radius. no. 537 and recognise a Zeus Ilpo/xij^eiys at Thourioi. If he was thus connected with the fire-drill. 674 'fors. Meyer Handb. we can understand his genealogy as set forth by Kinaithon frag. 4 Id. Worterb.ev 'H<f>aiffrov. Gr. Gk. cit.avdvs /J. Bapp in Roscher Lex. radix (L. He has further suggested a like origin for the association of lupiter with Vesta in Italian religion4. iii § i (a) ix (a). Sic. On the similar coupling of Zeus ~ Hestia see infra ch. 222 ff. padii. 289 f. E.. Prellwitz Etym. But the 'early variant' on which he relies is merely a bad reading in Tzetzes' riote adloc. But further evidence deest.& title under which Zeus was worshipped atThourioi1. 103 connected Tlpoinavdetis with ^avOavta and A. Spr? p. The Solar Wheel combined with Animals. p. 513 f. xi.' and venerated as the supernatural guardian of the hearth and home3. Gorg. therefore. 393 f. "B. Scheer (ii. 3 Frazer Golden Bough9: The Magic Art ii. 'to stir or whirl about' (Sir M. . etym. It is not. 45). 3034 f. d. 18.) and of the root that appears in Sanskrit as math or manth.' a compound of the digammated root of p#5ct/wos. and Miss J. Walde Lat. 777).. 526 c) or ffK^irrpov (Inscr. Myth. ib. F. p. 33 otid"A'idas aKivr^rav £%e pdfiSov (see her Proleg. Pott in the Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung 1857 vi. Rel? p. but took the Rodtwirler (' Gertenschwinger'1) to be Rhadamanthys as judge of the dead. i Kinkel ap. Gr. 97. 5 The name Upo/JiavOetis recalls 'PaddfjLavOvs (Aeolic B/raSa/^cwfluj for Fpadd/Ji. 303 n. associated both words with pramantha. p. which might be explained as the 'Rod-twirler. Miiller i. 2 Supra p. It. 53.. 191).330 The Solar Wheel combined with Animals Promantheus.<f>aiffTos 5e eiTj TaXw.

Olympia iv. Bronzes p. p. Olympia iv. Cat. 161—166. 13 (bird on wheel-base). 175. 9 Gruppe Gr. 206 pi. cp. Cat. 13 no. but remains four-spoked.The Solar Wheel combined with Animals 331 from which these little objects came contained geometric pottery of the eighth and seventh centuries B. 13 no. 158—160. 263)a or the heads of two animals adosses. p. 174 and Olympia iv. 13 no. 8 Ib. Rel. 4 Ib. 12 nos. 2 Brit. 12 no. p. . 6 Ib. 7 Ib. 61 no. 13 no. Since the principal cult of the early Rhodians was that of Helios9. p. Bronzes p. Myth. 24 (cock on wheel-base). 167. p. 262)2. six. The bronzes themselves are in the form of a wheel with four. a similar wheel8. 261. 66 no. 13 (stag on wheel-base). i t no. In yet another we have a rude human figure winged and mounted on Fig. p. In another the central shaft terminates in a mere loop. nos. 265 ff. 420 pi. seven. In one case (fig. cp. The animals thus combined are mostly goats (figs. from the centre of which rises a shaft supporting either a duck (fig. 477 pi. but cows3. 5 Ib. 161. 263. p. 136. eight. i68f. 36 no. rams4. no animals being added to it7. 2iob pi. Bronzes p. Mus. 13 nos. 261)6 the wheel has become a square base. Cat. ib. And it is reasonable to conjecture that the 1 Brit. s Brit. it can hardly be doubted that the wheel represents the sun. 12 f. or nine spokes. Mus. p. Mus. 170. cp.C. 25 (two rams back-to-back). 36 no. and asses (?)5 also occur.

264.332 The Solar Wheel combined with Animals animals placed upon the solar wheel are in some sense devoted to Helios1. the absence of horses is noteworthy2. according to J. i. 2 Suprd^. An early colony of the Rhodians was Rhode. 305 ff. ' 1 .. 1909 i. and Manuel d?archttologie Paris 1910 ii. 413 ff. Fig. in the north-east corner of Spain. claims to have discovered dozens of swans or ducks associated with the solar wheel in the art of the bronze age throughout Europe. 180 n. Dechelette ' Le culte du soleil aux temps prehistoriques' in the Rev. the modern Rosas. ii. If so. 5. It was founded. Arch. 94 ff.

approximately to the same date as the Rhodian bronzes. d. 7 (from a photograph of the bronze as pieced together in the Louvre. A. Cabre ' Objetos ibericos de Calaceite' in the Boletin de la Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona 1908 p. or rather in between a pair of solar wheels. the remarkable bronze here shown (fig. 64 ff. Rapp in Roscher Lex. cit. i. The body of the horse is connected with the wheel-base by means of a stay or support with spreading foot.. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 P. 41. in height. fig. deutsch. and Manuel d1 archeologie Paris 1910 ii. 59. Like them it represents an animal on the solar wheel. but fortunately J. Strab. ' A. Myth.. A. E. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 pp. Dechelette in the Rev. In point of fact it was near Calaceite in the province of Teruel that a farm-labourer in 1903 discovered. 1532 2 1 . Rapp loc. cit. The transition from solar wheel to solar chariot was perhaps facilitated by a half-forgotten belief that the sun itself was a horse. 13 and p.Jahrb. Anz. 654. Its discoverer. it needed no great effort of imagination to combine both ideas and henceforward to believe in the driver of a celestial chariot5. 1895 p. 1999). 51 ff. W. 180 n. Arch. 307 ff. kais.und Feldkulte^ Berlin 1905 ii. J. 1909 i. 4 Supra p. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks^ Giitersloh 1886 p. A. fig. 203. Kuhn op. arch. 293. J. 105. Arch. 1910 xxv Arch. Rel. The former has a bell-shaped capital and base . xii. M. 320f. 1998^. the latter have smaller wheels serving as spokes.tterr\s. We are well on the road towards the conception of the solar chariot. The Solar Chariot. 264)*. It is a horse which stands on a wheel and bears on its back a column topped by a similar wheel. i. W.3 r > £"•• Oldenberg La religion du Vlda Paris 1903 pp.). 94. Hopkins The Religions of India Boston etc. This Iberian bronze may be referred to the ' Dipylon' or ' Villanova' period of the Early Iron Age.. had broken it into fragments. along with a bronze cuirass and two iron swords. That belief meets us in the mythologies of various Indo-Europaean peoples3 and very possibly underlies the Greek practice of offering horses to Helios4. 413 ff. believing it to be of gold. but hails from Asia Minor (Gruppe Gr. the whole being some 20 cm. 3 A. many years before the establishment of the Olympic festival (776 B. p. 400 pi. p. Rev. 38. cit? p. In its neighbourhood therefore we might look to find a parallel for the Rhodian bronzes. E. The conception of Helios as a rider on horse-back is not Greek (pace Rapp loc. Inst.e. H. Column and wheels alike are decorated with guillocke-$a. Meyer Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte Leipzig 1910 p. A. Cabre had seen it while yet entire). When the growth of anthromorphism made men no longer content to regard the sun either as a wheel or as a horse. R.C. p.. 5. 294 f. 51 ff.The Solar Chariot 333 Strabon1. Mannhardt Wald. 1909 i. 381 n. io. 300. i. Myth..

1 Ch. 3 "H\iov e(f>' 'iinrip at Pergamon and the numerous representations of a solar rider whose type is discussed by R. citt. 265.). i. 476 f. Monsieur J. 206) and its Irish counterparts (R. 266. Dechelette locc. 265)1. Dechelette claims that this is the pre-Mycenaean prototype of Fig. M.334 " The Solar Chariot Evidence of the combination has been found here and there in Greek art. Smith in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London 1903 6—13 figs. A silver band from a prehistoric grave at Chalandriane Fig. Miiller Urgeschichte Europas Strassburg 1905 col. the solar equipage2. 1899 p. pi. 1903 i. pi. 369 ff. inscr. bronze tripods of geometric style from Olympia have two large ring-shaped handles. comparing the famous Trundholm chariot (S. . 123 f. Hoernes Natur. 2. 754. and a bird-like human figure (?) side by side (fig. 10. Gr? no. fig. Tsountas in the'E0. in Syros (Syrd) shows a horse with a collar. Again.. " J. 'A/9%. a solar disk. Dussaud in the Rev. 4 quotes Dittenberger Syll.und Urgeschichte des Menschen Wien und Leipzig 1909 ii. on which is set a n. 5—7). Arch. A.

133 Khut-en-Aten on a portable throne. from the exclusiveness of primitive religion. indeed. convictions become views. 233). 322. deep-seated in human nature. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. the left holding a bow (Count Goblet d'Alviella The Migration of Symbols London 1894 p. and. For. 63. 81. Rawlinson The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World1' London 1879 ii. after G. Griffith p. Wallis Budge A History of Egypt iv. the right hand open. fanned by attendants. Of course. the easier it is to hold simultaneously ideas that in their origin were incompatible. The Gods of the Egyptians ii. A. and views pass into a 1 E. An Assyrian obelisk shows two hands issuing from a solar disk. G. 250. like many other natural phenomena. Maspero The Struggle of the Nations London 1896 pp. S. 26. 2 E. which sometimes hold emblems of life and sovereignty in their grasp2.of Aten are made to terminate in human hands (fig. though logically the former should have forced him to identify the disk with the eye of a giant and the latter should have called up the image of a monster's circling hands. A. the further we are removed Fig. as belief wanes. contrive to coexist in spite of obvious inconsistencies. A Greek of the classical period at least might speak of the sun as a revolving wheel and yet credit tales of the Kyklopes and the Cheirogdstores. A. The Gods of the Egyptians ii. 123. 74. 25O)1. Wallis Budge A History of Egypt iv. beneath the rays of Aten. . Such solar symbols are. A. 121. 328.

A. 262)8. ii. 12. regum quoque et tyrannorum veteres nummi Palermo 1781 pi. pi. 27. The god emerges from the sea with a team of two or four horses. Ann. 574 pi. Fig. 4 Id. 4: fig. they may be merely decorative. 267. 73 no. p.The Solar Chariot 1 2 3 335 horse (fig. p. i. Lenormant—de Witte £l. Gruppe Gr. 360 Atlas pi. b. Myth. i. and his horses turned inwards or outwards. 93 no. Ant. Kunstmyth. 33. 34. Daremberg—Saglio Diet. 573 pi. no.de rArt viii. 30. 572 pi. 6. 2). d. 245. d. man. Since the Delphic tripod is sometimes treated as a winged vehicle bearing Apollon across the sea5. and the restorations pi. 20 ff. as the Fig. Brunn—Bmckmann Denkm. and the restoration pi. Overbeck Gr. 79 no. Baumeister Denkm. io$ = ib. e. 2 Id. 17). 268. a. p.. e. 638 pi. fig. But the only wheel visible is the disk above his head . i pi. Furtwangler in Olympia iv. 5. 539 pi. 102 fig. Rel. 34. 607 pi. 20 n. 333 ff. cit. 315 fig. 624 pi. 79 no. Inst.g. no. 266) . case may be. ii. 226 n. no. ib. 268)7. 370. Lenormant— de Witte op. 63. the metopes from temple C at Selinous (Perrot—Chipiez Hist. But neither of the band from Syros nor of the handles from Olympia can we say that they must be solar. 3 Id. 267. 576 fig. no. cp. Castelli Prince of Torremuzza Sicilice populorum et urbium.und 1 . 226 f. 29. ib. 7. recall in effect the back-to-back arrangement of the Rhodian bronzes (figs. n. 29. Inst. 6 Supra p. 33. 483 ff. Apollon pp. p. L. 28 (two birds). c£r. 5 On a red-figured hydria in the Vatican (Man. c. 93 no. 8 Doubtless the grouping of the horses is primarily due to the fact that the artist could not as yet correctly foreshorten his chariot: cp. 7 Fig. more rarely a bird or bull's head or lion4.dergr. I figure pi. 30. 72 ff. 1235 n. 104 = supra p. 30. 10 cite a winged tripod from a coin of Agrigentum (G. 46. 261. 108. no. it is conceivable that tripodhandles were assimilated to the sun. More to the point is the earliest type of Helios as a charioteer on Attic black-figured vases6 (figs. 641 pi. d. p. 1832 iv. ib. p. 20. 640 pi. 30.

62. On a red-figured krater from Apulia now at Vienna (fig. empor'). Nicole Cat.J. Welcker Alt. 6. fig. 28 no. His cloak is fastened with a big circular stud. Stud. Bather in the Journ. 8. 269)* the complete chariot appears surrounded by a rayed disk. i. C. An interesting reminiscence of the solar wheel is the swastika on the rom. 2 F. Panofka 'Helios Atabyrios' in the Arch. Reinach Re'p. Marshall dates them all c. 368. Hell. Stud. 4. 15. 40. Vases Oxford p. Hell. 'no. 2. 1848 ii. equally well suggests the quiet moon. Eleutherai (id. 160 fig. Marshall in the Journ. as L. p. 164^. pi. 533 pi.-hist. Vases d'Athenes Suppl. 167 f. H. Terracotten Wien p. 25 no. p. This latter plaque was found in another tomb at Elis along with a whole series of phdlara or ' horse-trappings'. 2—6. 2)2 likewise embossed with acanthus-leaves. Vases i. Furtwangler in Olympia iv. 3 L.pkdlara. H. 159 fig. Mr F. who owns a good collection of modern horse-amulets ('horses' money'). But the Rhodian bronzes too were presumably meant to represent a pair of animals apiece. 305 ff. Carapanos Dodone et ses ruines Paris 1878 p. 2108 pi. G. 1865 p. Gesellsch. Hell. Stephani pointed out. they have it still. 42 n. Wiss. p. 1 Brit. no. i. 2. 104 f. 239 no. 106. Width n'5 cm.C. 20. Visick. 48. 287 a). Vasenb. p. 36 pi. i. O. 66 ('Helios steigt wahrend eines Gewitters. 171 f. lotus-work. Stephani in the Compte-rendu St. 20. alib. Cp. F. But the whole disk with its shining concave surface and its divergent lines suggests the on-coming sun in a marvellously successful manner. 13. had an apotropaeic value3. Denkm. ant. 2. p. Phil. Vases Cambridge p. Atlas pi. Bertrand La religion des Gaulois Paris 1897 p. Pdt. Cat. H. F. 223. 4 T. i)1. My brother-in-law Mr C. Dodona (C. Olympia (A. G. informs me that most of them are demonstrably derivatives of the sun or moon. Indeed.336 The Solar Chariot Later this type of Helios and his chariot came to be enclosed in the solar disk. Pollak Klassisch-antike Goldschmiedearbeiten in Besitze Sr. 53 pi. bronze plates from Athens (A. and two plunging dolphins the sea. 1892—3 xiii. A fine example is furnished by a silver-gilt plaque found in a tomb at Elis and acquired in 1906 by the British Museum (pi. 706 pi. xxiv. "39). 29f. Stud. no. Jahn in the Ber. and such no doubt was the character of our solar disk also. The oval shape of this disk was determined by the turn of the horses to right and left. 8. 220 fig. pi.). 30 f. T\\ese. A. 2575. iii. A. Jewellery p. das durch den Blitz angedeutet ist. many black-figured vases (Gerhard Auserl. 889 pi. and can hardly have been meant to reproduce the optical illusion of the sun's orb flattened on the horizon. Mr Marshall remarks that an exactly similar disk was published by L. 300 B. d. 1909 xxix. 235. 1909 xxix. 2). 3. 19. 28. xxiv. A curved exergual line represents the horizon. 9. Its embossed design shows Helios with radiate head driving his horses up from the sea. H. 6. Excellenz A. sacks. 255 pi. Classe 1855 p. Nothing of the chariot is visible. Diameter 6'2 cm. Masner Samml. P. Gardner Cat. 4). pi. i. •z^i. . Marshall in the Journ. 2. i pis. ib. 12. and two large lilies. E. no. Zeit. Sc^llpt. no. Gardner Cat. 237 pi. von Nelido-du Leipzig 1903 no. A crescent of bronze (pi. Vasen u. Mus. 190 pi. 14. 5. 8). no.

Lily-work etc. on a silver-gilt disk. 2..Plate XXIV Phdlara from tombs at Elis: 1. See page 336. Helios rising. on a bronze crescent. .

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.. Hyg. myth... Soph..iruv Schol... were named Bronte and Sterope....... 314 ff.. Xpocos Ai'0c6 BpOlTT? Schol. $& ...... Arch... The addition of a thunderbolt to the left of the disk requires explanation2. 67. Ka... i83.. 183 . cp... a vase from Apulia of like design and style then in the Betti collection at Naples.... i and 34. 1909 i.. Panofka long ago observed.... 453 ff..... At first sight it is tempting to interpret the scene as that of Phaethon in his father's chariot struck by the bolt of Zeus. But... i. ep..Pyrois Eous Aethon Phlegon Mart.... 825 .... 'Thunder' and 'Lightning 3 ..fab.. but I cannot help thinking that the swastika precedes the solar wheel and simply represents the four points of the compass in motion..... 984 — 996) and recently J. 2 r . El.' The sun-god has much in common with the thunder-god. 3b . as T.fj... n .fab. 183 . 2 greeting. cit. this would ill suit the peaceful pose of the charioteer..... p. 3 The sun's horses bear the following names: Eumelos ap.. cp. <ba£Quv Ov... who extends his hand in Fig.... Xanthus Aethon Fulgent..... Rather we should recollect that two of the sun's steeds...The Solar Chariot 337 driver's breast1. Dechelette in the Rev... On the derivation of the swastika from the solar wheel see T.. Hyg.. Phoen. Harrison kindly sends me the following criticism : ' I am open to conviction.. according to the oldest tradition.. not in terror. ttyg. 153 f-. Wilson The Swastika Washington 1896 passim (bibliography pp... The four points seem to influence tribal arrangements among very primitive people at early stages— see Durkheim et Mauss Annte Sociologique 1902 p. E..... 5 . Eous Aethops Bronte Sterope ^ Schol. Phoen... Erythraeus Actaeon Lampos Philogaeus Homerus (!) ap..... i........ Abraxas Soter Bel lao 22 1 .. 7. 2. 3.... and Manuel d' archlologie Paris 1910 ii. Miss J..' '2 Panofka loc... Eur.. 305 f... cp. 8. met...... Eur...fab.

7. is regularly connected with storm3. num? p. Aeovrivov Topyiov yeXarai ypdcpovros K^/>£?7S 6 T&V Jle/xrwz' Zet/s). Mus. 10 n. 3. i. with col. who called the whole circle of the sky ' Zeus' (supra p. it was drawn by eight white horses. Mau Pomfeji* Leipzig 1884 p. i). 2 ra rot. J.). had a chariot sacred to him. This may be solar (infra ch. 9ff. xl. .wv irajiTO. which I obtained in 1901 at Eleusis. Winter Das 'Alexandermosaik aits Pompeji Strassburg 1909 col. 8. Longin. It cannot.X. sacred to Zeus. 4386. after them 365 youths in scarlet cloaks. Kal eTTi/u. 2 The Persians. 163 ff. When Xerxes' army was on the march. next a chariot sacred to Zeus. Note that the chariot of Zeus is throughout distinguished from the chariot of the Sun. not sunshine 4 . xxv) a wreath of the sort. The first of May is kept as a day of jest and jollity by the modern Greeks. 115). and lastly Kyros himself in his chariot (Xen. 405. this chariot went immediately in front of Xerxes himself (cp.). The Solar Wreath. 8. xiii. behind it a fire on a great hearth or portable altar.\. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p.T.vt£ Zei)s e\aiji>ui> Trrrfvov apfj. Miss M. 246 E 6 fj. pi. cp.T.eAoifyiej'ps K. The sumptuous chariot of Dareios iii is well shown in the great mosaic from Pompeii (F. 3 Infra ch. pi. 8. 3. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. be maintained that Zeus the charioteer was directly identified with the sun. We have already 1 First in //..). I figure (pi.a irpwros Tropetjerai di. 4 A copper coin of Alexandreia struck by Trajan has for reverse type Zeus Amman in a chariot drawn by two rams (Brit. Cyr. But his chariot. Overbeck—A. after that the white chariot of the Sun similarly adorned. where it was hanging over the door of an inn. The young folk make wreaths of flowers and corn. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. Hamilton op.aKoaju. J. Cat. i. 5 G. 6 'See further Miss M. They are then replaced by next year's garlands. This conception is utilised by Plat. i § 6 (f) i). then a third chariot. and that the master of the house is expected to jump over the flames6.a KCLL cinrovs \ Qfl\v/jnrov S' e'diwice K. 35. then horses for sacrifice to the Sun. since no man might ascend the char lot-throne (Hdt. Parties go to picnic in plains and meadows. In the time of Alexander the Great it was the custom of the Persian kings to set out in procession at sunrise: first went the sacred eternal fire borne on silver altars. cit. first came four fine bulls for sacrifice to Zeus etc. in the Greek area at least2. 3. 7. C. then the Magi chanting. 862). 4. returning with sprays of the fragrant protomatd.The Solar Wreath Zeus too was sometimes conceived as driving a chariot1. and the withered relics are burnt 5 . Zet)s de Trarrip "Idr/Oev etirpoxov dpfj.ev Sri [Aeyas Tjye^uiv iv ovpa. F. When Kyros the elder went in procession from his palace. and their driver followed them on foot. ii § 4 (c). cp.. 55. the horses of which were spread with scarlet cloths. p. de sublim. 40. 49 no. 130 f. Phaedr. 3. These must be left hanging over the door of the house till May-day comes round again. The inn-keeper told me that such wreaths are thrown on to the bonfire of Saint John the Baptist (June 24). adorned with garlands. Tib. Head Hist. u ff. therefore. next a white chariot with a golden yoke. drawn by white horses and followed by a magnificent horse called the horse of the Sun—the leading horses being decked with gold rods and white cloths (Curt. 46. 613 ff. 157 ff. Coins Alexandria pp.

See page 338.Plate XXV May-garland of flowers and corn from Eleusis. .

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the wreath burnt upon it may well have represented the sun itself—another case of the solar apotropaion being fixed above the lintel2. O. cp. 37 elpeai&v-ijv e£ avQ&v 7rXe£a<ra /c. Pal.). 9 f. Analogous customs are.' The several shapes attest a progressive degradation (globe. Dieterich8 have shown that the private rite attracted to and absorbed by these public festivals was performed—as the scholiast on Aristophanes affirms—for 2 Supra p. 205 ff. and ultimately burnt 5 . a). But E. Append. Aristpph. Reinach in Daremberg—Saglio Diet. hung over the lintel for a twelvemonth. Alkiphr. Cougny Anth.e. [p. the doll in the flowery hoop being an effigy of the earth-goddess4 blossoming beneath his rays? The wreath of protomam hung over the doorway in modern Greece had its ancient counterpart in the eiresione. 393—397. e). ical ydp /*' Efyi[6\7ro(o] dur/TroXoi.. i. 1054 eXd'Cvov K\ddov yffTe<f>avoi>e£ dvdtwv ?) /cXdSow TreTrXijcrti£vd)v (cod. 2616. 1 E. The first of the shapes here shown (fig. 286 ff.X. wheel. The most complete form that I have come across consisted in two hoops set at right angles to each other and decorated with a branch of may: from the point of intersection dangled a doll (fig.).The Solar Wreath 339 seen that Saint John's bonfire was in all probability a sun-charm1. a] can hardly be separated from that of the intersecting hoops which topped the May-pole. fig. b). ep. Other forms in use are a single hoop of flowers or coloured tags with crossed strings and a doll in the centre (fig. i. Pfuhl De Atheniensium pompis sacris Berolini 1900 pp. the Pyanepsia and the Thargelia. 8 A. which vary much in shape. festivals of the greater city deities. 5 Boetticher Baumkultus pp. 4 Cp. This is commonly described as a branch of olive (or bay) twined with wool and decked with fruits etc.' They carry garlands. Dorv. Supra pp. B Schol. 0.. 270. But it is noticeable that the same name was given to 'a wreath of flowers6'—a May-garland rather than a May-pole..r. 270. Kern in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. 316. K\d8ov eXaias (cod. 338 n. Dieterich Kleine Schriften Leipzig and Berlin 1911 p. All alike are dubbed ' the May Lady. Pfuhl 7 and A. Plut. and these appear to have represented the sun (supra p. 270.91). 270. v. c). which was paraded from house to house. Here in Cambridge the children are out early on the first of May begging all and sundry to ' Remember the May Lady. <rTe<f>avoi>. i § 6 (g) xviii (the garland of Hellotis). 270. 2. a cross and doll without the hoop (fig. 3 1 22—2 . 2135 f. common throughout Europe. 292 ff. Ant.eyd\r)i> unr^affav et>K\e'iT]v. Is it rash to conjecture that the Maygarland once stood for the sun 3 . 3. a hoop without the cross and doll (fig. 86—88. d\ a mere cross without hoop or doll (fig. 2. ii. S. 270. If so. The festivals with which the eiresione was connected are the Panathenaia. eipeffubvyv \ [reJyfaz'Tes. 497 f. of course. hoop) and ultimate confusion with a different type (cross). infra ch.

340 The Solar Wreath Fig. . 270.

The Sun as the Bird of Zeus 341 Helios and the Horai1. 322. caeruleam roseis caudam pinnis distinguentibus. Benedite in the Man. the phoenix is more like a heron than a sparrow-hawk. Sethe Zur altdgyptischen Sage vom Sonnenauge Leipzig 1912 p.v 6/J. whose solar connexions are notorious9. 86. E. cit. Myth. but secondarily with Surya the sun.' says Prof. Plot. Others (H. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 i. 314 ff..— or. Erman op. the Horos of Edfu (Heru-behutet) was known far and wide as the winged solar disk10. Maspero op. Egiz. pi. A. 2 E. a play dealing with a Graeco-Libyan myth11. and was further developed into the phoenix 8 . 7.* p. cit. 89—106. 4 G. cp.* p. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. cristis fauces caputque plumeo apice honestari. & TO. ' had been usurped by Horus. hist. Solin. cit. and all the designations of Horus had been appropriated by Ra3. 23) derive the phoenix from the heron (bennu) of Heliopolis. 100. p. In Egypt the sky-god Horos was early confused with the sun-god Ra2. as to-day. p. came to be regarded as the symbol of Ra6. 22. ^dXttrra • atery Treprfyr)(ri. open to us to maintain that of old. 5 G. A. 73 (of the phoenix) rot /nei> avrov xPVff°KO/JLO. as Monsieur G. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 p. the worthy Greek householder hung over his doorway a solar wreath destined to be burnt as a sun-charm on the midsummer fire. Benedite has recently contended4. As represented in Egyptian (Lanzone Dizion. 7 So in the Veda the eagle is connected primarily with Indra the thunder-god (A. p. A. A. Moreover. 10 Supra p. Maspero op. A. di Mitol.' 9 D'Arcy WT. 49f. id. 5. ' One by one all the functions of Ra. 6£ epvdpa. Hdt. 3450 is content to describe it as ' ein Wundervogel. 33. cit. 466. A.' Thus the sparrow-hawk. ii § 9 (d) ii (a). cit. Theophrast. cit. Wallis Budge op. Souid.oi6raros Kal TO /JL^yaOos. It is. A. ib. 198 ff.v. but directly called an eagle (id. n (copies Pliny). de abst. Maspero. 182 ff. iii.). Aristoph. 136 n.Si)8 G. 2. but does not closely resemble either. dpetn&vt]. roo. 3465 ff. i—3). K. Wallis Budge op. 'A G.. cit. say to his daughters— Call now likewise on yonder bird of Zeus. 6 G. 70. Griffith London 1907 p. S. the falcon— which was originally conceived as the embodiment of Horos5. Turk in Roscher loc. ap. auri fulgore circa colla. 2. Maspero op. Wiedemann 'Die Phonixsage im alten Agypten' in the Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 1878 xvi. Plut. 1909 xvii. 729. 3 aquilae narratur magnitudine. cp. i. (e) The Sun as the Bird of Zeus. 5 f. 205 ff. A. i. Brugsch Nouvelles recherches sur la division de Tannee p. the twinbrother of Aigyptos. 152). Plin. Schol. 146. P. makes Danaos. Now Aischylos in his Suppliants. 1054. 10. or in other words was transferred from the sky to the sun7. not. 1 . eq. 11 Infra ch. s.* p. Herodots zweites Buch p. E. therefore. Maspero The Dawn of Civilization* London 1901 p. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. TUV irrep&v TO. which is not only compared with a flying eagle. 5 ff. classical and post-classical art (Roscher Lex. Porph. cetero purpureus.

as he fell. several myths merit attention. camp. 2 Oiph. cit. 271 ff. 257. 57 A — B (i. the 'son of Daidalos13'. A bird was on occasion affixed to the tynx-Vf}\Q&\5. Bekker) 'HeXte. makes Daidalion son of the Morning Star Infra ch. Supra p. The solar wheel upon which Ixion was bound is not unfrequently figured with wings 3 . 2. 304. cp. 3 Abel ap.evos ZvOa. suppl. Talos son of Daidalos' sister was hurled from the Akropolis and in mid air changed by Athena into a partridge14. certain beliefs and practices current in ancient Greece which become more intelligible on the assumption that the sun was once viewed as a bird. hist. Supra. The Danaides do so in the words — This invocation of the sun as the ' bird of Zeus ' is probably a deliberate Egyptism on Aischylos' part. 296 ff. Ov. 3 Supra p. Ka\ovfjiev avyas i]\iov ffUTTjplovs. as we have seen. 306 f. It would seem. Paus. Hyginus adds that daedalio means ' a hawk12. u. 300 f. for parallels occur in various versions of the Daidalos-myth. 6.. Dindorf = Kedren. The triskeles is superposed on a bird7. 8. The cj. Infra ch. 65 Abel (of Phanes) xpw««'S Trreptfyetrcrt (popeti/j. opened their Rhapsodic Theogony with a somewhat similar invocation : Sun that soarest aloft on golden wings2. And the Greeks were familiar with a variety of winged solar deities9. Supra p. 11 Ov. 4 Supra pp. 253. then. that behind the stories of Daidalion 1 Aisch. i § 6 (h) iv. 9 10 Supra p.' More probably the name is a mere patronymic. 12 13 14 15 Hyg.. Hyg. met. But Talos is definitely identified by Hesychios with the sun15. The Orphists. 200. lo. Ovid tells how Daidalion. Orph. flung himself from the summit of Parnassos and. 4 p. . i § 6 (h) i. 240 ff. 198 ff. 72 f. 294 ff. /cai Z^pds opviv r6vSe vvv /a/cX^cr/cere._/a3. Supra p. was transformed by Apollon into a hawk11. met. 291 ff. Cp. or itself fitted with wings8. n. p. 213 n.342 The Sun as the Bird of Zeus Lo. | XO. According to Athenian tradition. and the solar chariot that took Triptolemos across the world is winged likewise4. nal Hvda. however. AA. presupposes the belief in a solar hawk10. Apart from these examples of the winged sun. loc. 241. 4.frag: 49. 212 f. chron. 7 8 Supra p. The Lycian symbol is sometimes furnished with bird-heads6. frag. (Lucifer). thus we call on the saving rays of the sun1. and must not in itself be taken to prove that the Greeks entertained the same idea. xpvveritriv aeip6/neve TTTeptyeinn. 217 ff. tviv for 6pvtv is improbable. That of Kirke. There are. 101 f. 5 6 Supra pp. grieving for the death of his daughter Chione. Mala]. jealous guardians of antiquated ideas.

where for 'a sea-devil clawed him with a thirteen-prongedfork' read 'the god of the sea struck him with a three-pronged fork'). G.279 ff. which has been traced back to the Cretans of Euripides1. Gilbert Gr. But the analogy of Talos. 1310 'Ein Helios war ursprtinglich der kretische Talos'). whom Gruppe admits to have been the sun (ib. Gruppe Gr. On the second day 1 C. we have once more the sun represented by a bird-like figure. But his enemies then covered the pit with a mountain.g. von Hahn op. is valid. . O. 1908 p.4 (v. This made him the weakest of all men. Myth. If this conclusion. Sagen und Volkslieder Leipzig 1877 p. G. Sakellarios Td KvirpiaKa Athens 1855 no. Schmidt op.. So Captain Thirteen—that was his name—and thirteen of his companions were flung by the enemy into a pit. Many mythologists. Myth. 1908 p. 229. Knaack in Hermes 1902 xxxvii. 336. Gotterl. Schmidt recognised certain traits of the Ikarosmyth 3 . 2 E. Daidalos imprisoned in the Labyrinth made wings for himself and his son Ikaros : Daidalos got safely away. See further Frazer Golden Bough" iii. p. 523f. which squares well with the foregoing account of Talos. Rel. is here to the point: ' In the time of the Hellenes there once lived a king. Hofer in Roscher Lex. The enemy then took him prisoner. 525 f. but afterwards the strong king with his army beat the enemy and pursued them to their town. 206 n. bound him.. 215 ft. ib? Taboo p. in both of which the hero's strength is vested in three golden hairs on the top of his head. J. 2001. Schmidt Griechische Marchen. zu dem Ber. arguing from the analogy of Phaethon etc. von Hahn Griechische und albanesische Marchen Leipzig 1864 ii. makes strongly for the solar view.. 960). p. 9. have concluded that Ikaros was the sun conceived as falling from the height of heaven2. and gave him only an ounce of bread and an ounce of water a day.. and the three hairs on his breast were so long that you could take them and twist them twice round your hand 4 . p. 8. Holland Die Sage von Daidalos und Ikaros (Abh. Lit. 11. ib. Myth. Gruppe Myth. C. and on a certain month the fighting began. A folk-tale from Zakynthos. he fell on the top of his companions and escaped death. A. 960. G. 946) or perhaps. G. who adheres to his opinion that ' Ikaros.The Sun as the Bird of Zeus 343 turned into a hawk and of Daidalos' nephew Talos turned into a partridge lay the old conception of the solar bird. 8 B. who betrayed him and cut off his three hairs. 882. pp. p. his hairs soon began to grow again. He would there and then have destroyed them all. J. like Phaethon (ib. 598 ff. who was the strongest man of his day . the Morning Star (ib. Lit. pp. 47. i. 91 ff. 4 B. Robert in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Rnc..).. a tale from Syra in J. As he was the last to be flung in. 263 f... Frazer on Paus. in which B. 180 and the author of the latest monograph on the subject R.ist der im Laufe des April und im Anfang Mai in der Sonnennahe verschwindende Orion' (Gr. iii. der Thomasschule) Leipzig 1902—both cited and criticised by Gruppe Myth. 229 and Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. and another from Kypros in A. 3262 ff. 2 cp. Lawson Modern Greek folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 p. shut him up in a fortress. n '0 Kairirdvos AeKarpeis with nn. Again. had they not given 400. but Ikaros soaring too high had his wings melted off by the sun and fell into the sea. p. Rel. However. At first the other king was victorious . 358 f. Marchen no. cit. 390 f. 75 f. p. iv. Another king once declared war against him. 42. in another version. 1310). cit.000 dollars to his wife. So in a tale from Epeiros (J.

6. But a rain-storm came on and softened the clay. which not only contained the same episode of the purple or golden life-lock but also involved the metamorphosis of the father into a sea-eagle and of the faithless daughter into a heron5. O. with which he had stuck the feathers on. iii. a dolphin. 24. had a big canal dug from the sea to it. 341 Reiske. Ov. an. Tzetz.' This tale combines the characteristics of Ikaros with those of Pterelaos. But this is hardly to be got out of Souid. KpeKa' TTJV rpixo.crcras. 6 Paus. Out came the sea-god1 and with his three-pronged fork gave him such a blow that the sea turned red with his blood. 5. He knocked his head on the mountain and sent it spinning up to the sun. its natural enemy (Ail. He told him too that he could never change back again till he found a girl willing to marry him. 7 Roscher Lex. The ' White Rock. 1412 n. 8 Od. They got in easily enough but couldn't get out again. Amphitryon and his allies could not capture Taphos till Komaitho the daughter of Pterelaos. 5). The princess resolved to wed the dolphin. ii. ii AewcdSa -jreTp-qv. Myth.' as Homer calls it8. de nat. for the dolphin took them both on his back to a small island.v. He then flew further afield and soared high into the air. and justly compares the Megarian myth of Nisos and Skylla. Myth. 7. 489). west of Samos6. or. in love with the hostile chief. Komaitho into an aWvia (so M.Tropfivperjv ^uijcre Kp^Ka. 425 ff. 2 1 . in Lyk. Myth. s. Ikaros' tomb was shown on a headland of Ikaria. So Captain Thirteen fell into the sea. Gruppe 3 infers from the name Pterelaos that a bird played an important part in the Taphian legend4. is a cliff that 6 Saifj-ovas TTJS 0ciXa. 4. p. the Taphian hero whose life depended on a golden hair. 4. Rel. Apollod. 426. iii. and they lived happily ever after—but we here more happily still. to get him up to her castle. Mayer in Hermes 1892 xxvii. iii. When all was ready for the wedding. the island . Nobody was saved but the princess and the king . and so fearful a storm overtook them that their ship broke up. 3266 conjectures that Pterelaos was changed into a K/>e£. He married the princess. and. And the story of Skylla was associated with the point Skyllaion near Hermione7. i. It so happened that a king and his daughter came that way. ibis 361 f. Now the sea in which the dolphin lived was of such a sort that no ship entering it could get out again. 932. plucked or cut the fateful hair from her father's head2. 9. This recurrence of a headland suggests comparison with the ritual of the Leucadian promontory. the dolphin shook off his skin and changed into a young man of gigantic strength and great beauty. and then set them ashore on the coast they had come from. which may refer to Nisos and Skylla. 5 Roscher Lex. 4 O. Al. Myth.344 The Sun as the Bird of Zeus after he was thrown into the pit he found a dead bird somewhere. 64 p. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Daidalion and Talos were both precipitated from a rocky eminence. 3 Gruppe Gr. He stuck its wings on to his hands and flew up. Dion Chrys. and changed him into a big fish.

248 Miiller) ap. in Od.v. B. much to be said for the view recently advanced by A. therefore. Eustath.. 2272 ff. who was said to have founded a temple for his goddess on the Leucadian rock5. iii. if possible. p. commencing with Aphrodite herself. 8 On a copper of Nikopolis in Epeiros (?). 32. Phot. O. p. See further J. 2 Frazer Golden Bough** iii. Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ i.T.. d.?. Aen. cp. 10. id.Gr. d. Etym. as K. in Verg. iii. 57 (Frag. the Leucadian 'leap' was persistently connected with Sappho's love for Phaon4. 6 (v. 43. Miiller Dorierz i. iv. 452. loc. hist. Aeu/car?. which surely implies that the victim was a quasi-bird like Ikaros. 401). lex. loc. ws ndvTis uv £yvdiKei dioTL 6 Zeus del epw»'"Hpas €pxo/J. Fick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 p. She thereby got rid of her love for Adonis'. to avert evil.The Sun as the Bird of Zeus 345 rises on one side perpendicularly from the sea to a height of at least 200 ft and has on its summit remains of the temple of Apollon Leukdtas. 3. O. Dr Frazer regards 'these humane precautions' as probably ' a mitigation of an earlier custom of flinging the scapegoat into the sea to drown2. 279). ib. Eur. Gr.. Myth. Myth. cp.. 293.v. 126 and on Paus. struck by Trajan. 452. //. Turpilius (Com. Hattiden und Danubier in GrucAenIancl(j6ttingen 1909 p. Phot. Strab. Wb'rterb. 279. or by Leukates to escape the love of Apollon (Serv. rtrepeAews: the second element in the word is certainly Aaoj. 12 f. 7 A. 8 Alcmaeonis frag. Cp. ' the Shining One. gr. 1964. and many persons in small boats waited down below to pick him up and. Fick ascribes this cult of the sun-bird to the Leleges. \ (Frag. 461). 6 K. Cp. f^rowrr/s de rijc alriav elireiv \fyerai TOV 'ATroAA&wa. Or. It is significant that the eponym Leukadios was the son of Ikarios 3 . in II. Further. schol. 292 f. 1581". 452. Rom. Bekker gives a long list of lovers who had leapt from the rock. flung a criminal from the top of their cliff. Ptol. Serv. s. Wings of all sorts and birds were attached to him in order to lighten his ' leap'. Phot.. Meineke) ap.. ap. 3. fahren gebildet' (Vorgr. 153 a 7 ff. 348 ff. get him in safety beyond the boundary1. 3264). Ilberg in Roscher Lex. is simply a doublet of Phaethon. id. Spr? p. Meyer Handb. On (f>deiv. 457. 461. 581. a nude figure on a pedestal with volutes: he . frag. This Ikarios is called Ikaros by Eustath. Leucadia frag. Aeu/cd-njs• cr/coTreAos rrjs 'HTreipoi/. Strab. Hephaist. His notion that 'IlrepAas ist der "auf Fltigehi Daherfahrende. Aen. d^>' o5 piTrrovcriv avrovs ets TO TreAo/yos ol tepets (so MS. bib I. Once a year at the festival of Apollon the Leucadians. 2. p. Miiller The History and Antiquities of the Doric Race Oxford 1830 i. Others declared that the 'leap' had first been taken by Kephalos son of De'ioneus out of love for Pterelas (Strab. 137 ff. 233. 52.' But this hardly explains the peculiar feather-garb. Aews (Roscher Lex. Schleusner cj. Fick7 that the Leucadian 'leap' was the ritual of a solar festival8. Ribbeck) ap. But Phdon. Apollon Leukates (I/ICOAAOTTA. O.\. i. 5 Kinkel and Ephoros frag." von irrtpov [sic] und eAa treiben. epacrrcu)' K.' There is. s. cit. Ortsn. lex. 482. the favourite of Aphrodite. AEVKATHC) is shown. 4 Menand. C. com. iii. cit. 260 f. L. (paeOfiv see L. in Verg. 138) ignores the forms HrepeXaos. Gr. p. ib. 452 and Serv.evos £irl TTJ irtrpa eKad^ero /ecu dveTrcujero TOV i-puros ! 5 Serv. that 1 Strab. nsff. schol. Miiller pointed out6. Prellwitz Etym. p.

956 if. 103 pi. 23. The Ram and the Sun in Egypt.. Khnemu-Ra in the form of a ram (cp. 427 Miiller). 1869 xxvii.). 321). The torch suggests that the cult was solar. A magnificent gold statuette of Her-shef with a ram's head was found by Prof. dXXot ' Ap<ra</>ris (ev T£ &\<pa ypd/^fian. o Ra. di Mitol. ib. Cat. iv. Egiz. Sethe loc. 2349 if. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Drexler loc. (a) Khnemu and Amen. 51 ff. and that all alike imply the primitive conception of the sun as a bird. At Mendes too Khnemu has a quiver and holds a bow in his lowered left hand. 1271 f. Pterelaos are so many mythical expressions of one belief. Miiller) ap. (Man 1904 .^pi/Lt. Another animal that came to be associated with the sun in Egypt was the ram. A. p. Gr. Plout. struck under Hadrian.' At Herakleoupolis (Henen-su) Khnemu was equated with the local solar god Her-shef.. OI)K "Ocripis. 2351. exalted power. 3 A. the great god of Elephantine 1 . SriXovvTos TO dvdpeiov rov wOjUaros. K. viii B. p. 2350). i. Wallis Budge op. 324 f. i. R.. and thou makest bold thy brow. Ariston Alex. gr. cit. s.dpxov TTfpitwecrev. 37 'Apiffrtav roivvv 6 yeypafitos 'ABr/vaiuv dwoiidav tiriaroKy TLVI 'A\et. i.e. frag. i. 4 E. iii. l^aivei 5e TOVTO /cat 6 'Ep/ucuos. 58 ff. 336 f. 363).) \eyeff6ai. iii. Sethe in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. A. 2 This is inferred from the hieroglyphic form of his name (Sethe loc. 5 Id. Khnemu. and ii. num. Wiedemann Religion of the Ancient Egyptians London 1897 p. Nisos. de Is. cit. thou ram. ev 77 Aw? IffTopeirai Kcu"lcrt5os vibs <£i> 6 Atovvaos VTTO AiyvTrriwv. E. et Os. xvi B. a ram-h'eaded deity often depicted as wearing the solar disk3. 128. Flinders Petrie at Herakleoupolis: it dates from the twenty-fifth dynasty.. was represented originally as a ram 2 . to judge from one of The Seventy-five Praises of Ra found at Thebes on the walls of royal tombs of the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties: ' Praise be to thee. 1252 f. Pietschmann in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. p. mightiest of created things4. (f) The Sun and the Ram. Zeus Amman. 21. From the beginning of the New Kingdom (s. cit. ev rrj TTpurri Hepl TUIV AiyvTrrluV "OfJ. Drexler loc. p. 342. 1252. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 ii.C. ii. Cp. hist.C. Head Hist.oi> ydp <$>f\ai /jLe6epfJi:7]vev6[Jiej'ov elvai TOV "Qaipiv (Hermaios in frag. Ra himself was on occasion addressed as a ram. but in historical times generally as a ram-headed human figure.) onwards he was fused with the sun-god Ra and worshipped throughout southern Egypt as Khnemu-Ra. ii. pi. Zeit. 141. Friedlander in the Arch.346 The Ram and the Sun in Egypt Ikaros. Coins Alexandria p. ii. Myth.'2' p. p. cit.. A coin of the Hypselite nome. Sethe ib. a torch in his extended right (J. 1250 ff. Gr. Thou raisest thy head. W. Imhoof-Blumer Monn. shows Isis holding in her hand a ram with a disk on its head (Brit. 1848 ff. cit. Mus. who not only receives many of the titles of Ra but is also represented with a ram's head5. 1 Lanzone Dizion. 3 (Frag. hist.

3). Souid. 181. who holds that the tradition of Herakles importing sheep from north Africa into Greece (Palaiph. Myth. i8ff. d\\ avSpeixeXov /cat Kad7i[ji.evdr)v.7jTai a.' 4 O. the provincial god of Thebes2.evov Kepa/J. E. and Zeus did not wish to be seen by him. Herakles was very eager to set eyes on Zeus. Griffith London 1907 p. Cp.. praep. Kepara. 1874 s. viol. Kvavovv re TTJV XjOotdc.. 46. A. ~M. rer. while en revanche Amen acquired those of Khnemu and was even represented as a ram of the Khnemu-species6. K£(f>a\^jv 5e Kpiov KeKTr/fjievov. Plout. i Kara oe TTJV ^\e<pavTLvqv iro\iv Teri/j. Erman A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. who rose with the rise of Theban power till as Amen-Ra he became ' King of the Gods ' of all Egypt3. 5 K. i. Wiedemann op. 1855. 3. 35 3 f. M.ya\/J. s. reports a remarkable myth concerning him : 'All who have a temple of Zeus Thebaieus or belong to the Theban nome abstain from sheep and sacrifice goats____But those who possess a temple of Mendes or belong to the Mendesian nome abstain from goats8 and sacrifice sheep. cit. ii. was another ram-divinity. ' Amonrasonther. 2 Lanzone Dizion. 54. cit. rust. 7 Hdt. 336. Sethe in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. the ram of Amen. e</>' ov oivdpwjrov dvair\d<r<reiv (see Lanzone op. ev. In the time of the eighteenth dynasty (s.. whereas the ram of Khnemu belonged to a very ancient Libyan species with goat-like horns projecting horizontally from its head. 29 ff. ofs ^Tretrri /ctf/cAos 5t<r/coet5^s. Pietschmann ib.Khnemu and Amen 347 was identified with another local form of Ra.v. nSf. i. p.evot>. pi. 182. 75 rov 0?//3at'ov A<6s. Varr. 12.4ov dyyeiov. 2. /cd^T/rat 8e irapaKei/j. 3 R. lord of Tetfu\' Amen. 'the Ram. who speaks of Amen-Ra more than once as the Theban Zeus 7 . H. nsff. 2350.a. Wallis Budge op. ciTjAot Se O. 1 E. pi. . 205 f.. and those who on their account abstain from sheep explain that this custom of theirs arose in the following way. 2. Hdt. Pietschmann in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 42. R. 107). like the rams of ' Minoan ' art. i. i. A. The Thebans. A. Flinders Petrie The Arts and Crafts of Ancient Egypt Edinburgh & London 1909 p. Herodotos. rr\v ev Kpitp ffvvoSov ijXiov /cat ffeXyvrjS' TO 8e e/c KVOLVOV %pw/u. xvi B. more often as a ram-headed or ram-horned god wearing the solar disk. p. Pietschmann in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. 18 (19). At p. Keller Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 1909 p. But. cp. then.TTO fj. 6) corresponds with a cultural fact..&. pi.. Eudok. 8 On the goat-cult of Mendes see Find. rpdyeia. 4. di Mitol. Gryll. Meyer in Roscher Lex. A.) Khnemu acquired the horns of Amen in addition to his own 5 . (/3) Amen and Zeus Thebaietis. frag. had horns curving sharply downwards 4 — a fact of which we are reminded by the 'ammonites' of our geologists. W. STL vdpayuyos ev crvvody T/ ffe\r)vr]. namely Ba-neb-Tettu.. Euseb. i. e-)(ov.ev rov Kpiov •jrpbvuirov %xeiv /cat afyos K^para. 201 Christ with n. 2. 18536°. iii. 3091!. Egiz. 94 fig. 64 ff. ireTr\ao~/uLevov /J.a. 6 R. He was figured sometimes as a ram. /cat j3a<rl\eioj'. 2. S.C. 5. cit. 283 ff.v.

Eustath. 42. i. For these and the following references I am indebted to Roeder in Roscher Lex. therefore. u. and she gave her favours to whom she would till she was past the age for child-bearing. that of Herakles. the 1 Hdt. Lanzone Dizion. Doubtless. since they are settlers of the Egyptians and Ethiopians and speak a patois of both languages. 3. //. the larger of which belonged to Zeus the sky-god. when Lucian in the second century of our era makes Mdmos. were carried up a mountain. interp. 2. 4. cp. when Herakles was importunate. The Thebans for the reason I have stated do not sacrifice rams but treat them as sacred. and two golden shrines of Zeus. He flayed a ram. 154 ff. did not hesitate to identify the Greek Zeus with Amen-Ra. i. cut up and flay a ram : they thus clothe the statue of Zeus and then bring before it another statue. Thebes had a temple dedicated to the parents of Zeus and Hera. Vopisc. When they have so done. the Theban ram-god and sun-god. Zeus thought of this device. On the connexion between Ammon and Herakles see Arrian. E. presumably for Zeus and Hera. p. Amoun being the Egyptian term for Zeus.) were localised at Thebes. 4. who slept in his temple (Hdt. Herodotos. and so showed himself to Herakles. and on the occasion of great public festivals two shrines. which was strown by the priests with all kinds of flowers (Diod. Brugsch Reise nach der grossen Oase El Khargeh in der Libyschen Wiiste Leipzig 1878. in Dionys. i. on the festival of Zeus. 6 H. 5 Pap.' The rite implied by this myth has not hitherto been found represented on the monuments 2 . The great hymn to Amen-Ra in the Oasis of El-Charge even identifies that god with 'the soul of Shu6. Aur. 181. 2. 1163 f. Myth. and Gruppe Gr. i. 5. However. 97. who is often called 'the son of Ra 3 ' and as god of the atmosphere 'draws the air before Ra4. 4 . Zeus Qrifiaietis had a human consort.' 'brings the sweet breath of life to the nose of Osiris5. Aen. 55 and 38 B. Serv. On account of this popular cult Thebes came to be called At6<r7ro\ts or AiotrTroXts tie^aXf) (Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc.' etc. Egiz. 182): she was a woman chosen for good looks and good birth. But it is by no means improbable that Amen-Ra (Zeus Thebaietis) was annually confronted with Shu (Herakles). 425). In my opinion. 3. 423 f. held the head in front of him. 196. 825. the smaller to Ammon the former king and father of the people (Diod. and the Ammonians have got it from the Egyptians. 42. 4. returning after certain days. in Verg. Salt. 15). i. Stein on Hdt. pi. the Ammonians took their name too from the same event. The journey of Zeus to Aithiopia (//. 386. p. i. they. 571. 1167 pi. di Mitol. like their god. 1506 n. per. Every year the shrine of Zeus was taken across'the river into Libye. p. 3 Lanzone Dizibn. 2 H. 816). 15. donned the skin. 22 ff. Myth.348 The Ram and the Sun in Egypt last. (the name Heraclammon). i. From this circumstance the Egyptians make the statue of Zeus ram-faced . di Mitol. Rel. 1144^). all who are round about the temple beat themselves in mourning for the ram and then bury it in a sacred sarcophagus1. i. . v.' (7) Amen and Zeus Amman. when lamentation was made for her and she was bestowed upon a husband (Strab. as though the god had come from Aithiopia. Brugsch cited by H. once a year. iv. cut off its head. . Egiz. schol. Naville Book of the Dead ch.) and his union with Hera (supra p.

5. 4. they would be glad to worship him under his new-found Loukian. But Khnemu was coloured blue as a water-god or Nile-god (siipra p. 477 with schol. 347 n. It was a cheer to meet a familiar face in a strange country. K. In fact. Wiedemann op. dear.). probably because that was the colour of the heavens in which he ruled as Sun god ' (ib. 2 1 . 118 remarks that Amen-Ra 'was sometimes coloured blue.Amen and Zeus Ammon 349 god of ' Mockery/ ask Zeus how he can permit ram's horns to be affixed to him and makes Zeus apologise for the disgrace1. sometimes quite unessential. The Greeks in general delighted to trace an analogy. If so. between their own deities and those of the foreigners among whom they were sojourning.' pious Greeks would regard him as their own Zeus and would readily discover further points of resemblance2. 271. and mantle of Zeus (supra p. n. even if the garb was outlandish and some of the accessories novel. cit. the blue nimbus. But in earlier days and with simpler folk it was not so. Sethe in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. The two alleged reasons are not necessarily incompatible : Homer speaks of the Nile as duirereos iroTa/nolo (Od. 2351). we may cp. globe. 3 ' Amen is coloured green in the tomb of Seti I'). p. Greek refinement had corne to despise these barbaric identifications. 33 ff. 10 f. not to say far-fetched. A. If the Egyptian Amen Fig.). was ' King of the Gods. condl.

83. 600. 37 pi. Maspero The Passing of the Empires London 1900 p. It may have been at Thebes. See L. some little uncertainty as to the date at which 1 On the various forms of this name see R. A. Pietschmann in Pauly —Wissowa Real-Enc. Studniczka Kyrene Leipzig 1890 p. 3 A.Murdoch Smith— E. Hdt. Synes. 552. Akad. But they hinted at the animal-conception by adding to the divine head ram's ears and downward-curving horns. ap. where Zeus was honoured under a variety of titles8 and Ammon came to be reckoned as a patron-god9. bayer. 167. 1 Infra p. for Herodotos definitely states that the Ammonians got their worship from that of Zeus Thebaieus5. Eup