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An EE5200 Term Project Report

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fa112003

Automatic Generation Control Model Using Matlab Simulink An EE5200 Term Project Report

Xingkang Wang, Fa112003

1. Introduction

An interconnected power stem is often divided into different contr~areas as they are operated by different utilities. Th e areas are connected by one or more circ&Uf transmission lines which are called 'Tie Lines'. satisfactory operatio~ystem frequency should be kept near constant and power flow between different areas should be controlled as scheduled despite the variation of load in different areas. This function of AGC is commonly is referred to load-frequency control.

/ L ~). Another objective of AGC is to distribute the required change in generation among units to

'v ( minimize operation cost which is r d4e economical dispatch. The purpose of this project is

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to model a simple 2-control-area po er_system and do a simulation of 1 under different disturbs>"

Matla(simulink is used to do the m depnd simulation. L {C

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2. Two-Control-Area Power System model.

An interconnected system is shown in figur\ It consists of two areas connected by a tie line of reactance X. For load-frequency studies, each area may be represented by an equivalent bus.

G1

1---- ... Control Genter

Figure 1. A 2-Control Power System

On each bus there is equivalent generation G and load L. Tie line power exchange is deSignatt as PI2 with an assumed positive direction from area one to area 2. Components in this system to be modeled include:

• Generator

1

• Load

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2.1 Using Simplified Mod~ yl-iV' / (;J I

JI" According to wh~t we want/samer:m can be modeled i~ different ~n levels.l.n

,>\-V'" featun?and detail include~even -"governor-turbine dynamic'of a generator can be really

\-'.,-C;'; ~~ whole control area and connected system. Although the complications

are not necessarily serious if we intend to rely on computer simulation, they are a definite

• Tie Line

• Control Center

disadvantage if we want to understand system behavior in general terms. Fortunately the system

)'.'7 -1etrds itself to simplifications if we make some assumptions which will not affect the accuracy Ln

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, a specific point of view. "

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2.2 Generator Model

Electric power

Shaft speed

Figure 2. Schematic of Governor-Turbine-Generator System

Figure 2 is a schematic of Governor- Turbine-Generator system. The speed governor controls the amount of steam through the valve by controlling the position of the valve according to the shaft

-,

speed of the generator, thus control the output mechanical power of the turbine. To keep the

generator rotate at synchronous speed the mechanical power applying on the rotor should always be same as the electric power output to the grid. In the following a generator model is constructed by modeling the components individually.

2.2.1 Speed Governor

2

As stated in 2.1 the governor model proposed here is a simplified one.

Speed governor

steam .--------, valve position

deltp

a) Schematic of Speed Governor Figure3. Speed governor model

b) Simulink Block diagram

Figure 3 a), b) show a speed governor model. This is a first order system with a time constant Tg which represents the time constant of hydraulic servomotor and steam valve position dynamics. Typical value ofTg is 0.2 second. R in the block diagram is called 'droop characteristic' of the generator which governs mechanical output-generator speed relationship. We will introduce this parameter after we finish governor-turbine combined model.

2.2.2 Turbine

1 Tt.s+1

Turbine

a) Schematic of a Turbine Figure4. Turbine model

b) Simulink Block diagram

Figure4. a), b) show a turbine model. This is a first order system with a time constant Tt which represents the time constant of steam flow-steam valve position relationship. Typical value of Tt is 0.3 second. Note this model is only for non reheated turbine. For reheated turbine a second order is needed to represent the reheat behavior.

So far by connecting the block diagram of governor and turbine we may have transfer function as:

3

If we set s=O to get steady response of this system we have,

1

M = (M --/).0) (2)

meR

This is so called "droop characteristic" of a generator. Where ~p m is the mechanical output, ~p c is reference set point of steam input. ~(O is speed deviation due to the load change. R is 'droop characteristic' of the generator. The word 'droop' means with only primary control (like fly

primary control will make a increase in mechanical power to regain the balance with lower

weights speed control) when system load increase to make a deacceleration of the generator the

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frequency. R is the slope of the frequency power characteristic as shown in figure 5.

FigureS. Generator Droop Characteristic

2.2.3 Generator's Power output-Speed Relationship.

Mechanical

generator

Electric

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a) Generator Mass and Torque applying on it FigureS. Generator Mass-Speed Dynamic model

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b) Simulink Block diagram

Figure 6 a), b) show a Generator Mass-Speed Dynamic model. When there is a load change, it is reflected instantaneously as a change in the electrical torque output of the generator. This causes a

4

mismatch between the mechanical torque and the electrical toque which in tum results in speed deviation as determined by the equation of motion. Note so far we considered only the relationship between generator electric power output and generator speed. We also know system load its self will also be changed due to system frequency change. By modeling this behavior we have following section.

Note when we're deriving the generator model voltage control system is not taken into consideration because our focus here is primarily power-frequency relationship. When the

operation point is very close to nominal change in voltage have very limited effect on real power. This is the main reason we're able to treat the voltage and power relatively separatel6 '

2.3 Model of System Load

In general power system loads are a composite of a variety of electrical devices. For resistive loads, such as lighting and heating loads the electrical power is independent of frequency. In the case of motor loads, such as fans and pumps, the electrical power change with frequency due to changes in motor speed. The overall load characteristic can be described as following,

(3)

Where ML is Non-frequency-sensitive load change, D!J.w is Frequency-sensitive load change, and D is Load-damping constant. Having this effect of load, combined with generator power output-speed characteristic we have block diagram as following. Note loading damping constant D is included in the transfer function to represent the load effect.

deltPI

Figure6. Block Diagram including effect of load

5

2.4 Model of Tie Line Power Flow

The electrical equivalent of power flow between 2 control area and tie line is shown in figure7, with each area represented by a voltage ideal voltage source and tie line as a pure inductance. The power flow on the line from area 1 to area 2 is,

E1 X E2

~ ~ '1nI'1I"(r • ~ Figure7 Electrical Equivalent of Two-area system

Linearizing about an initial operating point we have

~2 = T~5]2 (5)

where ~5]2 = 5] - 52 . And T is synchronizing torque coefficient given by

2.5 Model Control Center

The basic objective of supplementary control is to restore balance between each area load and generation. Another requirement of AGC action is that a control signal to a given area should ideally correct only for changes in that area. In other words, if there is a change in area one load, there should be control action only in area one and not in area two. Since controlled value is frequency and tie line power flow it is naturally to make deviation of these two values as controller input signal. We often take flow deviation added to frequency deviation weighted by a bias factor to accomplish the desired objectives. This signal is known as area control error (ACE) described by function (7), (8). Where B is the bias factor of the two control area respectively.

ACE] = (~2 + Bl~f) (7)

ACE2 = (M21 + B2~f) (8)

6

2.5.1 Selection of Bias Factor

Suppose we have L1PL in control area 1. With only the primary control the steady-state frequency deviation is the same for two areas as following

(9)

where R"q is the equivalent droop characteristic of the two systems respectively. It is determined by the combination of all generation units' R. D is the load damping constant described in 2.3. Tie line power flow deviation is,

(10)

Ifwe take BI=lI R, + D, and B2=1/ R2 + D2 we can find ACEI = ML and ACE2=0. This arrangement accomplished the control objective in section 2.3. This is the most often used bias factor. Simulink block diagram implementing this algorithm is shown in figure8.

F1

2 Tieline Flow

FigureS. Block Diagram representation of Control center

Control center gathers the information of system frequency and tie line power flow, combine them to ACE to control area 1 and control area 2.

3. System Block Diagram

The Matlab Simulink diagram of two control area system is shown in figure9.

7

frequenoyllilOlnitol

S-,.sI:emControl

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Figure 9. Block Diagram of Two-Control-Area System

There are 4 subsystems namely control area 1, control area 2, tie line, and control center. The two control areas are constructed as the same model shown in figure 10. All components of this control area model are illustrated individually from section 2.2 to 2.5.so far in previous sections.

Figure 9. Block Diagram of Control Area

4. Matlab Simulation

4.1 System Response without AGe

With primary speed control action, a change in system load will result in a steady-state frequency deviation, depending on the governor droop characteristic and frequency sensitivity of the load.

8

All generating units will contribute to the overall change in generation. At time 1 second a 1 % step increase of load in control area one is applied. System frequency and generation respond is shown in figure 10 a). b).

a) Generation

b) System frequency

FigurelO. System Response of 1 % Load increase in Area l.(AGC control loop is disconnected.

Simulation results are as following:

• L 1 increase step 1 %

• Both Gland G2 take part in balancing the load increase according to Its R

• G 1 increase 5%

• 02 increase 5%

• 5% power flow increase from area2 to area 1

• System frequency change according to combined "Droop Characteristic"

4.1 System Response with function of AGe

(11)

The supplementary generation control action is much slower than the primary speed control action. As such it takes effect after the primary speed control has stabilized the system frequency. Thus AGC adjusts load reference settings of selected units, and hence their output power to override the effects of the composite frequency regulation characteristic of the power system. At time 1 second a 1 % step increase of load in control area one is applied. System frequency and generation respond is shown in figure 11 a). b).

9

a) Generation

b) System frequency

Figurell. System Response of 1 % Load increase in Area l(With AGe)

• L 1 increase step 1 %

• G 1 increase 1 %

• G2 not change

• Tie line power not change

We may see from this simulation load change in area one is pick up only by area one. System frequency and tie line power flow keep constant as before disturb.

5. AGC Tuning and Performance

Objective

• To minimize fuel cost

• To avoid operation of generating units in undesirable ranges

• To minimize equipment wear and tear

6. Conclusions

• A Two area power system is set up and modeled using Matlab SimUlin).

• Simulation is done in situation both with and without AGC.

• Basic AGC lfc function is simulated and investigated.

References "

1) Power System Analysis, Arthur R. Bergen,

7 \ \:\~e<"S • ,(""YJ

second edition, Prentice hall. 20000

2) Power System Stability and control by Prabha Kundur

3) Power Systems Analysis, J.J. Grainger, W.D. Stevenson, McGraw-Hill, © 1994.

4) Power System Analysis, Yangzan He, Huazhong University of Science & Technology.

10

EE 5200

Term Project Evaluation

Criteria:

1) o~,iginality in appro, ac~ ~nd c9-vera9.e of TQ~i~/ Application \ c-;',_;'-t,\ +:,:>,t~;'- J I"', ~1)~"-\--t\rJ , .,,-.1 eJ~\~y'_M,-, • <, 0~c

~ , +~(:._ L~\ \~ta ! 1E'(l.. v"':-, (] ~~ l.

2) Organization/~/Format/Spelling

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3) Technical level befitting 5xxx-level course

4) Adequate use of figures, equations to explain concepts & theory

5) Complete concise coverage of chosen topic

6) Presentation materials & delivery

Comments:

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