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Tactics, Techniques, & Procedures
Identify the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures used by Mujahadeen in Afghanistan. ► Conditions: Given student handouts ► Standards: Identified the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures used by Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
risk assessment level is low.Administrative ► There ► The are no safety requirements. are no environmental considerations Student Checks ► There ► Evaluations .
Topics ► Maneuver ► Fire Support ► Air Defense ► Command & Control ► Mobility & Counter- mobility ► Logistics ► Denial & Deception .
Maneuver ► Ambush ► Harassment 2 to 15 personnel Small scale Rapid withdrawal ► Resupply Require more personnel ► Up to 150 Looting ► W eapons ► Food ► Munitions .
Maneuver ► Ambush Teams Observers Firing Element Alert Element Reserve Element ► Radio or visual communications ► 3 Lines Fire Element Commo Element Command Element .
Maneuver ► Ambush Locations Entrance/exit of canyon Behind earthen walls ► Early morning or evening ► Hit convoys on return trips ► Hit rapid reaction forces .
Maneuver ► Ambush Lessons Learned Advance recon patrols are necessary Helicopter support is essential Avoid predictable patterns Communicate with replacements .
Maneuver ► Sniper Operations Lack of well-trained Muj shooters ► Al Qaeda marksmanship is generally good Will use canals to move Catch targets in crossfire Use of bounties ► Helicopter crews are popular .
Maneuver ► Raids ► Generally against isolated outposts ► Probe for weaknesses Gather forces covertly ► Prefer cover of night Attack the objective Seize needed supplies Withdraw before counterattack .
Maneuver ► Individual & Small Team Tactics Probe and assess reactions/patterns ► Airfield Raids Influenced by Soviet war Propaganda value ► Shelling Attacks Will attack civilians to prove Gov’ts inability to protect them .
Maneuver ► Mujahadeen Tactics Fire and move Reduce signatures Delayed fuse rockets Survivability is key Use of mines Blend in with population .
Maneuver ► Mountain Defense & Ambushes ► Caves and tunnels Used since Mongol invasion ► Prepared defenses Used to attract attacks ► Ambush Limited routes Attack on return ► Use of air support .
Maneuver ► Urban Ambush and Bombs ► Cover for action Homes Businesses Mosques Gov’t buildings ► Multiple IED attack Kanhadhar Max casualties .
Maneuver ► Hostile House-Clearing 6-10 team Ak-47. rear vehicles Box vehicle Kill guard/driver Subdue abductee Exit scene ► Hostage Taking . hand grenade Room to room Single location Tradition technique Front.
Maneuver ► Armor Small number assets Primarily defensive T-54. T-62 May still possess Fortified/stationary position Dug in defensive position Hard to spot Alters signatures Sensor-fused weapons hard to target . T-55.
Maneuver ► Infantry Anti-tank Weapons Used as multipurpose direct fire weapons Used on aircraft Used as crude mortar Used to destroy buildings or bunkers Improvised off-route mine Breach minefields Used against light armored/soft-skinned vehicles .
Maneuver ► Recoilless Rifles 90mm ► No info on use B10 82mm ► Not seen in engagements ► Large amounts of ammo found SPG-9 73mm B-10 82-mm Recoilless Rifle ► Often fired on shoulder .
Maneuver ► Rocket-Propelled Grenades Anti-armor weapon Used against helicopter Firing signature ► Tactics W etting ground Track flight patterns Higher elevation Teams ► Countermeasures Physical Tactical .
Fire Support ► Mortars Primary support weapon Team leaves mortar set up High elevations ► 82 mm mortar Primary indirect weapon ► 120 mm mortar Used. not used . not preferred ► 60 mm mortar Found.
expedient launch Harassment fire Cities and bases targets ► 107 mm rocket Crude time delay firing ► 122 mm rocket Expedient aiming methods .Fire Support ► Rockets No organized units High elevation Crude.
Fire Support ► Artillery Employ unconventionally Control of warlords Not employed against coalition forces ► 122mm D-3 Howitzer Most plentiful prior to air attacks in 2001 .
Air Defense ► MANPADS Limited numbers may still exist in theater Work in pairs or small groups Attempt to use higher elevation (warmer months) Take off or landing Along take off or landing path .
higher levels use operator Probable satellite telephone use Couriers Challenge and Password system ► Arabic ► Dari/Pashtu .Command & Control ► C2 Use of commercial VHF radios Tactical leaders use.
tribal leaders Commercial radio scanners Know the area Attacks to observe countermeasures . friends.Command & Control ► Intelligence and Reconnaissance Human intelligence and dissemination ► Family.
Command & Control ► Checkpoints Traditional fundraising function under Taliban Tribal leaders or warlords may keep unofficial tolls to a minimum Unofficial checkpoints usually do not hamper coalition operations .
Mobility & Counter-Mobility ► Mine Threat 5 million uncleared Urban and rural areas Iran/Pakistan borders mined Markings Indicators .
Mobility & Counter-Mobility ► Improvised Explosive Devices/Booby Traps Coupling Daisy Chain ► Up to 200 meters Boosting Sensitizing Timed delay Vehicle borne .
green zones Advance team Decoy team Main element . dry riverbeds. livestock Canyons. caves.Logistics ► Caravan and Convoy Use to bring in supplies At night Vehicles.
houses.Logistics ► Caches Throughout AF In operational area Small to large Caves. possibly commercial or government facilities May use guards Many individual/households have small cache for self-defense purposes .
blankets .Denial & Deception ► Understanding Signatures Basic knowledge of D&D Understand difference between night-vision and thermal sensors Information to my Afghani Mujahideen Brothers Spiderholes. tarps.
Denial & Deception ► Thermal Decoys Wood fire in shallow pits Look like person or vehicle Method to deceive radar with rocks and pieces of metal approximating size of vehicle .