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to all the problems in the text. Many of those are discussion problems; I have tried to present enough guidance so that the instructor can lead a useful discussion of those problems. In addition I have added discussion material to many of the computation problems. I regularly assign these as computation, and then after we have agreed that the computation is correct, asked the students what this computation tells them. That leads to discussion. Wherever I can, I begin a discussion of some topic with a computation problem which introduces the students to the magnitudes of various quantities, and thus requires them to read the part of the text covering that topic. Once we all know the magnitudes, and have all read that section of the text, we can have an interesting discussion of their meaning. In this additional discussion I have presented reference when I could. Often I relied on industry "common knowledge", folklore and gossip. I hope I got it all right. If not, I apologize for leading you astray. Where I am not sure about the folklore, I have tried to make that clear in the discussion. Those problems whose numbers are followed by an asterisk, * are ones whose answer is presented in the Answers to Selected Problems in Appendix D of the book. Many of these problems have been class tested. Some, alas, have not. This manual, as well as the book, is certain to contain errors. I will be grateful to those who point these errors out to me, so that they can be corrected. I keep a running correction sheet, and send copies to anyone who asks for it. If you find such an error, please notify me at Noel de Nevers Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering 50 South Central Campus Drive University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Noel.deNevers@m.cc.utah.edu 801-581-6024

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Solutions Manual, Page 1

FAX 801-585-9291 Many of the problems go beyond what is in the text, or show derivations which I have left out of the text to make it read easier. I suggest that the instructor tell the students to at least read all the problems, so that they will know what is contained there. Some of the problems use spreadsheets. In the individual chapters I have copied the spreadsheet solutions into the text in table format. That is easy to see, but does not let the reader modify the spreadsheets. In the Folder labeled "Spreadsheets" I have included copies of all the spreadsheets shown in the individual chapters, and also the high velocity gas tables from the appendices. These are in Excel 4.0, which is compatible with all later versions. Noel de Nevers Salt Lake City, Utah, 2003

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Solutions Manual, Page 2

Fluid Mechanics For Chemical Engineers, Third Edition Noel de Nevers Solutions Manual Chapter 1 An * on a problem number means that the answer is given in Appendix D of the book. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.1 Laws Used, Newton's laws of motion, conservation of mass, first and second laws of thermodynamics. Laws Not Used, third law of thermodynamics, all electrostatic and magnetic laws, all laws discussing the behavior of matter at the atomic or subatomic level, all relativistic laws. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.2 By ideal gas law, for uranium hexafluoride

PM L g lbm =⎛ ⋅ 6 3 = 0.0130 3 = 0.81 3 RT 10 cm cm ft L atm ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ (56.2 + 273.15 K) ⎜ 0.082 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ mol K ⎠

ρ=

(1 atm )⋅ ⎜352 ⎝

⎛

g ⎞ ⎟ mol ⎠

Here the high density results from the high molecular weight. At its normal boiling point, 4 K, by ideal gas law helium has

ρ=

PM 1⋅4 g lbm = = 0.012 3 = 0.76 3 RT 0.082 ⋅ 4 cm ft

Here the high density results from the very low absolute temperature. The densities of other liquids with low values are: liquid methane at its nbp, 0.42 gm/cm3, acetylene at its nbp, 0.62, ethylene at its nbp, 0.57. Discussion; the point of this problem is for the students to recognize that one of the principal differences between liquids and gases is the large difference in density. As a rule of thumb, the density of liquids is 1000 times that of gases. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.3*

ρ = ∑ mass

∑ volume:

⎛

For 100lbm

ρ = 100 lbm ⎜ ⎜

50lbm 50lbm ⎞ lbm ⎟ =102 3 + 3 3⎟ ft ⎝ 4.49 ⋅62.3lbm ft 62.3lbm ft ⎠

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 1, page 1

If we have a leak of any liquid fuel. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.9 specific gravity 1 1. ≈ 1.001 = 0.03) g g = = 1.g. over small obstructions and depressions.5* ρ= ρ= m gross − m tare V m gross − (m tare V = 45 g − 17.g.51 . like ethanol and water have changes of up to a few %.Discussion.5) to asphalts (s.6 This scale has the advantage that it places a higher number on lower density oils. Chapter 1.5 0. because they are more easily converted to high-priced products (e. from propane (s. = 1) has 10° API.110 3 25cm cm 3 + mair ) 45 g − (17. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. The relation between the meter and the kg was defined to have the density of water at 4°C be 1. Third Edition. and in many other cases. which methane or gasoline would not find in the same situation. not at zero.24 + 0. as a gas heavier than air.1). It often finds an ignition source. In a few. That matches the price structure for oil. If we have a methane leak.g. it will flow downhill on the ground. buoyancy will take it up and disperse it. and be stopped by any ditch or other low spot.g.1%. 200 150 deg API 100 50 0 -50 0. The plot covers the whole range of petroleum liquids. this assumes no volume change on mixing.99995 gm/cm3. flows downhill. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. Propane is by far the most dangerous fuel in common use. where B ≈ $0. For methane and propane the values are ⎝ gravity ⎠ ideal gas Mair 16 / 29 = 0. _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions.1 _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ specific⎞ M ⎟ 1.109 3 cm 3 25cm Omitting the weight of the air makes a difference of 0.7 0. but in the most careful work it must be considered.00 gm/cm3. Oil prices will often be quoted as (A + B·deg API) $/bbl. gasoline). That is a good assumption here.6 0. page 2 . However for various historical reasons it has ended up that the density of water at 4°C is about 0. Water (s.7 For ideal gases.01/deg API.4 The maximum density of water occurs at 4°C. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. where lower density crude oils have a higher selling price.55 and 44 / 29 = 1.24 g g = 1. ≈ 0. This is normally ignored. ⎜ = gas .8 0. Propane.

Blood. then does not run off until it cools. Plaster. low viscosity in pumped coolant. don't leak when you are not. Margarine. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Inks. because as discussed in the text its presence or absence is arbitrary. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. Then. Crayons.62 mm ⎞ 12. spread easily. high viscosity in potential leaks. stick to the plane at low speeds. Lipstick. then not move. viscous resistance is small in large arteries and veins. spread easily.9106 so that R Douter 27. high viscosity when leaking out of the well into porous formations. spread when you are writing. at the surface of the inner cylinder r = rinner cylinder = kR and ⎛ k 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2R2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ σ inner cylinder = ω ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ω⎜ ⎝ 1 − k2 ⎠ ⎝ 1− k ⎠ ⎝ (kR) ⎠ r D 25. dy ⎣of s ⎦ ft ⎡ has dimension ⎤ lbf lbf ft lbm ft sec momentum ⎥ 2⋅ τ⎢ [= ] = momentum flux 2 [= ] 2 ft sec ⎣ of ⎦ ft lbm sec area ⋅ time ⎡has dimension ⎤ τ lbf / ft 2 lbm ⎥ μ⎢ [=] [= ] 1/ s ⎣of ⎦ dV / dy ft ⋅s _______________________________________________________________________ 1. flow off at high speeds. not settle in the can. same as lipstick. page 3 . Chocolate. Third Edition.10 (a) For r = R. not run once applied while it is setting. Aircraft de-icing fluids. easy to spray on warm or apply by dipping. spread when applied. Radiator sealants.9106 ⎠ s _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions.9 Paints. corpuscles don't settle. Oil well drilling fluids.15 mm (c) Here k = inner = inner = = 0. For r = rinner cylinder = kR ⎛ k 2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ k2 ⎞ 1 − k2 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎟ = ω⎜ ⎟⋅R Vθ = ω ⎜ − kR⎟ = ωkR ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ k ⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎠ ⎝ kR ⎠ ⎝ 1 − k2 ⎠ ⎛ k 2 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Vθ = ω ⎜ − R⎟ = 0 ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎝1 − k ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ (b) ⎛ k2 ⎞ d ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛ k 2 ⎞ ⎛ −2 R 2 ⎞ d ⎛ Vθ ⎞ ⎟ and ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 2 − 1⎟ = ω ⎜ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎜ ⎟ = ω⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ dr ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎠ dr ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎠ ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎛ k 2 ⎞ ⎛ −2R2 ⎞ d ⎛V ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⋅⎜ σ = r ⎜ θ ⎟ = ω⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎠ ⎝ r2 ⎠ dr ⎝ r ⎠ Here we can ignore the minus sign. low viscosity when pumped up and down the well.8 1.26 2 10 ⋅ 2π min ⎛ σ inner cylinder = ⋅ ⎜ 2⎟ = min 60 s ⎝ 1 − 0. but remain solid when not being spread. Chapter 1.dV ⎡ has dimension ⎤ ft s 1 ⎢ ⎥ = .

page 4 .13 5280ft ⎞ 3 23 3 21 3 ⎜8000 mi ⋅ ⎟ = 3.3 3 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⎝ ft ⎠⎝ s ⎠ 32. now we can produce about half. If we ask what is the surface area for each of these figures for a volume of 1 cm3. (c) same as (a).08 cm.3 lbm/ft3 . for the cube E = 1 cm and for the right cylinder D = (4 cm3/π)1/3 = 1.12 ⋅10 m ⎝ ⎠ 6 6 mi ⎛ lbm⎞ m = ρ V = ⎜ 5. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ lbf s2 lbm ⎞⎛ 6 ft ⎞ = 11. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. a charged capacitor.35 ⋅1025 lbm = 6. For the earth there is no such well-defined acceleration of gravity. we have found it at about the rate we used it. Solutions. Thus for equal volumes the sphere has the least surface. 1. rather than finding new fields.95 ⋅1022 ft 3 ) = 1.14 (a) 62. Third Edition. (b) ⎜ 62. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. In the 1950's the US could produce about twice as much oil as it consumed. and the cube the most. of which we import about half. V π D3 D 6 π 2 2 S 2 4 D + πD 6 = = π 3 V D D 4 S 6E 2 6 = 3 = Right cylinder V E E This appears strange. but is correct.6lbf .4 3 ⎟ ⋅ (3. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.1⋅10 gal 9 The value in cubic miles is surprisingly small.95⋅10 ft = 1. Chapter 1. 1. boiling in the absence of a boiling chip.2 lbm ft _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ 5280ft ⎞ 3 1728 gal 12 ⎟ ⋅ = 1.1⋅10 gal .24 cm. This suggests that at the current usage rate we have (30/(0. 6 S πD2 = = .5 ⋅62.5·5) ≈ 12 years of oil reserves.11 Sphere. a balloon full of air (in the absence of a pin).15* ⎜ mile⋅ ⎝ ⎠ 231 ft 3 mi mi 3 30 ⋅10 gal ⋅ = 1. a pencil balanced on its eraser.12 Crystallization of supersaturated solutions.14mi3 12 1. a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen (in the absence of a spark). We use about 5 E 9 bbl/yr. This is mostly not due to a decline in production. all explosives. In the past few years this has mostly been by improved recovery methods for existing fields. but an increase in consumption. the right cylinder the next least. For the past half century this number has remained about constant.1. Cube with edge E. we find that for the sphere D = (6 cm3/π)1/3 = 1.14⋅10 24 kg ⎝ ft ⎠ V= π D = 3 π⎛ There is no meaning to the term "the weight of the earth" because weight only has meaning in terms of a well-defined acceleration of gravity.

in a given climate to produce a given crop.85⋅1013 ⎝ lbm s ⎠ ⎝ mi ⎠ 32.2 lbm ft lbm ft s gc = 1 = =1 dnoces = 2 2. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. The south western states look to the Columbia with envy. No one has seriously proposed this.02⋅10 23 electrons ⋅ = 6. The Colorado River. Multiplying that by the acres to be irrigated gives the water demand. So this terminology is wrong. but it makes as much sense as the slug and the poundal.toof = 32.16 coulomb = 778 ft ⋅lbf 4.500 _______________________________________________________________________ 1.2 lbm ft 778ft lbf 2 2 ⎛ m⎞ Ns J J c 2 = ⎜ 2.998⋅108 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ = 8. _______________________________________________________________________ 2 2 ⎛ BTU mi ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ lbf s2 BTU c 2 = ⎜ 186. The Columbia flows about 200 E 6 acre-ft/yr.3 3 ⎟ ( ft)⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ acre ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ft ⎛ kg ⎞ 2 mhectare meter = ρ V = ⎜ 998. over which arid Southwestern states have been fighting for a century flows about 20 E6 acre ft/yr.18*gc = 1 = 32.2 lbm ft lbm toof =1 . roughly. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.2 ft or 2 lbf s2 lbf s 32. Solutions. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.17 J =1= 1.184 J 4.20 1. But it is in very common usage. the Northwestern states are in no hurry to give it up. how many ft/yr of water one must put on a field.71⋅10 6 lbm m acre ft = ρV = ⎜ 62. lbf s lbf dnoces 32.98⋅106 kg ⎝ ⎠ m The acre-ft is the preferred volume measure for irrigation because one knows.99 ⋅1016 ⎝ s ⎠ kg⋅m N ⋅m kg _______________________________________________________________________ 1. Chapter 1.184 kJ This J is easily confused with the J for = = Btu cal kcal a joule.2 3 ⎟ (m )(100m) = 9.21* 300 seconds is not the same as 300 lbf·s/lbm. page 5 .2 The toof and the dnoces are the foot and the second spelled backwards. See any thermodynamics text written before about 1960 for the use of this J to remind us to convert from ft·lbf to Btu.000 ⎟ ⎜ 5280 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ = 3.19 ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎛ 52802 ft 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 2._______________________________________________________________________ gm equivalent 6. Third Edition.2 ⋅108 electrons gmequivalent 96.

317 ⎜ ⎟ hr hrft 2 A m s 1.74 ⋅10 −3 N ⋅ 0.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠⎝ DVρ ft ⎠ ⋅ 1. Chapter 1.2 lbm ⋅ft ft ⋅ = 9660 2 lbm lbf ⋅s s As discussed in Ch.6⋅10 1. _______________________________________________________________________ Btu ⎛ 30.0145 N = 0.01⋅10 gm ⎜1 ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠ _______________________________________________________________________ 1.24Darcy = ⎛ 6 atm ⎞ cm ⋅s ⋅cp 1.06⋅10 −11 ft 2 1.6 ⋅10 5 −5 2.8⋅ d C which is the relation used above. d F = 1. Some are confused o o o o because F = 1.33⋅104 2 2 hr A cm s 252cal ⎝ ft ⎠ hr ft 2 1J Btu ⎛ m ⎞ 3600s Btu q ⎟ ⋅ = 2 ⋅ ⋅⎜ = 0.25* F = 2σl = 2 ⋅ 72.0 o C 454 g Btu lbm⋅ F gm ⋅ cal The calorie and the Btu were defined in ways that make this 1.8 o F lbm 252cal Btu X= ⋅ ⋅ o ⋅ ⋅ = 1. If they are different (the common case) then this value must be modified. Solutions.1 m = 0. page 6 .26 o C 1.01gm atm ⋅cm ⋅s 2 ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ ⋅ = 0.22 (0.0.2lbm ft ⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ 0.5 m ⎞ ⎜ 10 ⎟ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 998.002 cp ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ cp ⋅ ft 2 lbf s2 ⋅ = 4.5cm ⎞ 2 3600s q 1cal Btu = ⋅ ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅ = 1. but if we differentiate. this is the exhaust velocity if the exhaust pressure matches the atmospheric pressure.5ft )⎜ 10 ⎟ ⎜ 62. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.99 ⋅10−8 cm2 = 1.Isp = 300 lbf ⋅s 32. 7.48 g(force) m _______________________________________________________________________ 1.055J ⎝ 3.002 ⋅10 −3 Pa ⋅s N kg ⋅s _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ cm ⎞ ⎜ 1 ⎟ (1 cp ) 0.281ft ⎠ _______________________________________________________________________ 1.0033 lbf = 1.2 kg ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎝ 3.09 ⋅10 lbf ⋅s 32. However European rocket engineers use the "effective exhaust velocity" which takes the pressure into account the same way US engineers use the specific impulse.23* R = = μ 1.28 m ⎟ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ Pa⋅ m 2 Nm ⎝ ⎠ s 5 or ⋅ R= 2 = 4. Third Edition.28 ⎠ ⎜ 3.8⋅ C + 32 .

_______________________________________________________________________ a= 1.968atm 2 ⋅ 2 m cm kg f This is very close to one atmosphere.013 bar. I think this is slowly losing out to the kPa.2 lbf ⎛ s ⎞2 ft ⎟ = 40. balances a weight against the pressure in the gages.28 The US air pollution regulations are almost all written for concentrations in (g/m3) and the models expect emission rates in (g/s). the dead-weight tester. It is very commonly used in high pressure work. Meteorologists express all pressures in millibar. _______________________________________________________________________ 1._______________________________________________________________________ 1. Clearly the bar is a convenient approximate atmosphere. as an approximate atmosphere. Currently thermodynamic tables like steam tables and chemical thermodynamic tables show pressure in bars. The direct observation is the values of the weights on the tester and the cross-sectional area of the piston on which they rest.27 One standard atmosphere = 1. but the mile doesn't seem to be going away very fast in the US.59kgf 32. but it is not gone yet. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. The available auto usage data is almost all in vehicle miles per hour (or day or second) so to get emission rates in (g/s) one multiplies the (vehicle miles/s) times the emission factor in (g/mi).81N 10 4 cm2 ⋅ = 98. Chapter 1. The most common type of pressure gage testers.597 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 60 2 4. The US-EPA would be happy to do it all in metric.30 This leads to the conclusion that (kg/kgf) = (lbm/lbf). Third Edition. which has the dimensions of kgf/cm2. page 7 .54 kgm lbf s 2.2 lbm kgf ⎝ min ⎠ min 2 1. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. __________________________________________________________________ Solutions.2 lbm ft kg 2.29 1kg f 9.1 kPa = 0.

for modestsized equipment. Chapter 2 2.3 ⋅6 ⋅ ≈ 11.792 3 m s m 1 lbf kN γ ≈ 62. Third Edition.792 kN/m3. the world is flat! Older computers and some hand calculators do not carry enough digits to solve this problem as shown above. page 1 . _____________________________________________________________________ 2. 9.3674 ⋅10 = 2.792 3 = 998..2 2 ⋅ = 62.000.6 3 = 998.2 kgf/m3 US civil engineering fluids textbooks show the SI value. 9.2 3 ⋅ 9.cosθ ) r cos θ Discussion The point of this problem is that. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.1* As the sketch at the right shows.792 kN/m3 or the intuitive 998.2 ⋅ 2 = 1.Solutions. depth = r (1 .3674 ⋅10 ) = 5.2 m s m m3 I don't know if civil engineers in metric countries use the specific weight at all..81 2 = 9.5w / r and cos θ = 1 + θ2 we can drop the higher terms and write (100ft )2 2 −5 depth ≈ w / 8r = = 5. and 50ft θ = arcsin(0.2 (a) 2! + θ4 4! + θ6 6! .3 3 3 ft s 32.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 = −0.3674 ⋅10 −6 depth = 4000 ⋅5280 ⋅ (1− cos 2.2 kg m kN kgf 3 ⋅9. and if they do whether they use the proper SI value..3* γ = ρ g = 998. Chapter 2.92 ⋅10−5 ft = 0. If we use the approximations θ ≈ sinθ ≈ tan θ = 0.996 3 32. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 ft m γ = ρ g = 62.4 dP lbm ft lbf ⋅s2 ft 2 psi = −ρg = −62.2 lbm ⋅ft 144 in ft Solutions.. (b) lbm ft lbf s3 lbf ⋅32.81 2 = 9.423 dz ft s 32.3 3 ⋅ 32.2 lbmft ft kg m kN γ = ρ g= 998.5 w / r) = arcsin 4000⋅ 5280 ft −6 = arcsin 2.3 _____________________________________________________________________ 2.018 mm −6 w θ r r (1.92 ⋅10 ft 8⋅ (4000 ⋅5280 ft) On my spreadsheet this approximation agrees with the above solution to 1 part in 50. for engineering purposes.cos θ).

6 h = = ⋅32.03 psia = 4.This is close to -0. which is practically atmospheric.433 psi/ft ≈ 0. _____________________________________________________________________ ⎛ m⎞ N ⋅s2 Pa ⋅ m 2 kg ⎞ ⎛ ⋅ 2.5 psi/ft in water is a useful number to remember.17 2 lbf s 62. made scuba diving possible.5 P = P0 + ρ gh = 14. so most of us remember that dP/dh ≈ 0. Chapter 2. page 2 .33 = 18.17 ⋅ = 2244 ft = 684 m ρ g (1. one cannot tolerate such a high pressure in the drinking fountains on the ground floor.5 psi/ft.81 2 ⎟ (11. Third Edition.3 lbm⎞ ⎛ 32.43 MPa 2 lbm ft 144in ⋅ 32.5 psi/ft. The air valve that does that automatically. One can also discuss why it hurts. taken from the municipal water system must be pumped to the top.7 + 4. so in any such tall building the water.7 psia + ft lbm ⋅ 32.17 ft 2 lbt s2 62.03)⎜ 998. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.17 2 2 3 ft s ⋅ ft = 14.7 P2 = P + ρgh = 15psig + 1 lbm ft ⋅ 32. Scuba divers have the same air pressure inside their lungs as that of the outside water. or the blood vessels in their eyes will burst.03)⎛ 62.2 3 ⎟ ⎜ 9. 0.33psig lbm ft 144in 2 32. and storage tanks at the top of each zone. _____________________________________________________________________ lbf ΔP lbm ft 144 in 2 in 2 2.3 Discussion. This is a problem for deep free divers. __________________________________________________________________ 2. with suitable pressures in each.17 2 ⋅1450ft 3 ft s = 15 + 627 = 642 psig = 4. Furthermore. People who dive deeply wearing a face mask must equalize the pressure in their lungs with that in the face mask. Tall buildings have several zones in their internal water system.8* P = P + ρgh = 101.000 m) atm ⎝ kg ⋅m N s ⎠ m ⎠⎝ Solutions. The pressure inside our eardrums is ≈ the same as that in our lungs.3 This is a higher pressure than exists in any municipal water system. So a pressure difference of about 5 psi across the eardrums is painful.3kPa + (1. they would put out people's eyes. invented by Jaques Costeau.17 ft ⎞ ft 2 lbf s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ s2 ⎠ ft 3 ⎠ ⎝ 1000 _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

If the gas is rich in H2S.93 psia = 43.23 psig ft s 32.17lbm ft 144 in 2 = 20. s. Most deep drilling rigs have mechanical "blowout presenters". which can clamp down on the drill stem and stop the flow in such an emergency.9 kPa abs The increase in pressure from that interface to the bottom of the tank is ΔP = ρgh = 62.013⋅10 + 1.000 lbf in 2 5 8 5 2.65 psig 3 2 32. caused by drilling into an unexpected zone of high-pressure gas. Even so one of the most common and deadly drilling accidents is the blowout.95 kPa abs Solutions. expand.g. lower its density.1105⋅10 kPa = 1096 atm = 16.10 The pressure at the gasoline-water interface is lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 P = ρ gh = 0. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.499.34 has been used. = 11.115psia Pgauge = 1.65 kPa gauge = 203. Ask the students how one would get such dense drilling fluids? The answer is to use slurries of barite.72 ⋅ 62.17 2 ⎟ (15000ft ) ⎠ ⎝ s 10.3 lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 ⋅32. and cause it all to be blown out.17 2 ⋅20 ft ⋅ ⋅ = 8.Pabs = 1.3 3 ⋅ 32.100 psig _____________________________________________________________________ ΔP 144 in 2 32. (barium sulfate) s. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.58 psia = 102.17lbm ft lbm kg = ⋅ ⋅ = 96. and flows back up the annulus between the drill pipe and the wellbore.17 2 ⋅ 20ft ⋅ ⋅ = 6. The great hazard is that high pressure gas will enter the drilling fluid.g. In extreme cases powdered lead.0 3 = 1538 3 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ft ft gh lbf s ft m ⎜ 32.17lbm ft 144 in ft s So the pressure at the bottom is the sum.9 ρ = Discussion: When I assign this problem I sketch the flow in an oil-drilling rig for the students. page 3 . Pbottom = 14. the rig workers are often unable to escape the toxic cloud. High-pressure drilling fluid is pumped down the drill pipe.109 ⋅105 kPa = 1095 atm = 16. = 4.88 psig = 29.109 ⋅10 Pa = 1.5 kPa gauge = 144. Third Edition. Chapter 2. This drilling fluid cools the drill bit and carries the rock chips up out of the well.

Solutions.35·105 lbf. An internal vacuum collapses the tank.2236 ft. ft 20 40 6. ⎟ ⎝ 2 3⎠ The easiest way to solve the problem is to guess h3.00. Then. Chapter 2. after the water has risen. at the interface the pressure of the water and the pressure of the air are equal. but the result is far less damaging than the vacuum collapse. and the height to which water rises in the can be h3. the height of the can be h2. Then one constructs the ratio of the two pressures. The result of that procedure (using Goal seek on an excel spreadsheet) is h3 = 0. and solve for both pressures on a spreadsheet. An internal pressure blows the vessel up like a balloon. it straightens out. starting at a non-uniformity and magnifying it. If you push one the kinks are increased and it folds up.88 Pressure. You might suggest the analogy of pulling and pushing a rope.175·105 lbf for internal vacuum. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. (b) Almost all pressure vessels can withstand much higher internal pressures than vacuums. Third Edition. or 2.0 The figure is sketch. The maximum vacuum there is 14. for internal pressure and exactly one-fourth of that result of 1. roughly to scale at the right. which makes that ratio 1. Pw = Pa Pw = Patm + ρg(h1 − h3 ) . An internal pressure of the same amount will cause the sides and top of the can to bulge out somewhat. If you pull a rope. Most students have see the demonstration in which a rectangular 5 gallon can is filled with steam and then collapsed by cooling to condense the steam. ⎛ h ⎞ 2 Pair = Patm ⋅ ⎜ ⎜h −h ⎟ .7. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.11 (a) See example 2. straightening out any non-uniformities. psig _____________________________________________________________________ 2. and uses the spreadsheet's root finding engine to find the value of h3. page 4 .23 14.7 psig. The result is exactly one-half of that result. Depth.12* Here let the depth to the bottom of the can be h1.

and Pinterface = 18. P = 16. If we equate the two pressures ⎛ h ⎞ 2 − 1⎟ = ρg(h1 − h3 ) . or done it analytically.8.3 3 ⋅ 32.98ft) ± (−33. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρg ⎠ let ⎛ − A ± A 2 − 4h1h2 P ⎞ ⎜ −h2 − h1 − atm ⎟ = A .2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ft s −(−33. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.13 lbm ft ft 2 lbf ⋅ s2 ⋅32.98ft) 2 − 4 ⋅10ft ⋅1ft = 0.7psia ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 18.2lbm ⋅ ft ⎟ in ⎜ −h2 − h1 − atm ⎟ = A = ⎜ −1ft − 10ft − = −33.. To simplify.94psia ⎝ 1ft − 0.223ft ⎠ This has an elegance which the spreadsheet does not.7 psia + (10 − 0. page 5 . so that h3 = Now we can insert values ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρg ⎠ 2 ⎛ ⎞ lbf 14.223)ft ⋅ 62. Before we had spreadsheets we could have done the same by manual trial and error.7 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎛ ⎞ P 144in 32.2lbm ⋅ ft (a) See the solution to problem 2. which can be factored to ρg ⎛ P ⎞ 2 h3 + h3 ⎜ −h2 − h1 − atm ⎟ + h2 h1 = 0 .223ft = 2.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ = 18.3 while the gas pressure is ⎛ ⎞ 1ft Pgas = 14.68in and h3 = 2 The liquid pressure is Pliquid = 14. Third Edition. Chapter 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Patm ⋅ ⎜ ⎜h −h ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎛ h ⎞ 3 Patm ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ h − h ⎟ = ρg(h1 − h3 ) ⎟ ⎝ 2 3⎠ Patm h3 = (h1 − h3 ) ⋅(h2 − h3 ) = h2 h1 − h2 h3 − h1 h3 + h32 .93 psia. which is a simple quadratic equation.099 psig (b) dP = ρgdh = ρ 0 g[ β (P − P )]dh 1+ 0 h P P 1 dP h ∫P0 1+ βP − βP0 = ρ0 g ∫0 dh = ρgh 0 = β ln (1 + βP − βP0 ) P0 Solutions.94psia ft 3 s 144in 2 32.98ft ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ lbm ft ⎜ ⎝ ρg ⎠ ft 2 lbf ⋅ s2 ⎟ 62.

β = 0. taking the compressibility of the water into account changes the pressure by only 2.17 ft ⋅ 29 lbm ⋅10000ft ⋅ lbf s ⋅ 2 ⎜ 32. _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions.023.4692) = 0. For the depths of ordinary industrial equipment this ratio is almost exactly 1.17 lbm ft ⎠ and P − P0 = 1.ln (β (P − P ) + 1)= βρ0 gh .075 3 ⋅ 32.281ft )⋅ ⎟⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ s2 ⎠ ⎝ psi ⎠ ⎛ ft 2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ lbf s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 1. 16 099 Discussion: Here we see that even at the deepest point in the oceans. A. One may do a simple plausibility check on this mathematics by computing the ratio of the density at half of the depth to the surface density.15 P = P0 − ρgz . the density at a pressure of 8000 psi is about 1.3 ⋅10 −5 P − P0 = [exp(βρ gh)]− 1 0 β / psi .04 ft s min 32.18 2 = −1. page 6 . _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Using the data here.17 ft ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.03 ⋅62.9.3⋅10−5 ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎛ 32.00.73 ⎜ ⎟ o lbmol R ⎝ ⎠ = 1atm exp(−0.17lbmft 144in 2 ⎟ s lb mol = 1atm exp⎜ ⎟ lbf ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ in 2 ⋅ft 3 ⋅ 400o R 10.14 ⎛ − gMz⎞ P2 = P exp⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ RT ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ft ⎟ ⎜ −32. 0 From App.0494 ⋅⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2⎟⎜ ⎝ 144in ⎠ ⎝ 32. Chapter 2.17 2 ⋅2000 ⋅ ⋅ = −7. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. so that ⎛ 0.3⋅10−5 / psi The ratio of the answer taking compressibility into account to that which does not take it 16 477 into account is Ratio = = 1.0494 − 1 = 16477psig 0.3 3 ⎟ ⎜ exp (βρ 0 gh) = ⎜ ⎟ (11000 ⋅ 3.17lbm ft 144in min min dt 2.625 atm _____________________________________________________________________ dz dP = − ρg dt dt lbm ft ft lbf s2 ft 2 psi kPa dP = 0. Third Edition.3%.024 times the surface density.

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. k RT1 Solutions.7)°F 0.17) ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ P ⎞ ⎜ k ⎟ ⎧ k − 1 gMΔz ⎫ ⎝ ⎠ 2⎟ ⎬ (Eq.272 lbf bR ⎜ 10. 2 = ⎜ 2⎟ = const = ⎛ MP ⎞ k ⎝ M ⎠ T1 ⎜ P ⎟ ρk ⎝ 1⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ P ⎝ dP gM −gM ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎜ − PMg =− dz = ⎜ ⎟ dP = − ρgdz = dz .000356 R ⋅ in ⋅32.18 we have T2 = 0 when k − 1 gMΔz = 1.00356 o R z = 519o R − ⋅ z = a + bz (a) 36 150 ft ft z dP P gM gM T gM gM dz . Chapter 2.17 lbm ft ⋅ 144in ⎟ ⎜ ft 2 ⎟ ft lb molo R lbf s2 ⎝ ⎠ gM (b) At the interface ⎛ 390 o R ⎞ 0. RT1 1 k ⎛P ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜P⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ k −1 k ⎛ k − 1⎞ gM − 1 = −⎜ Δz ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ RT1 ⎧ k − 1 gMΔz ⎫ k −1 ⎬ P2 = P ⎨1− 1 k RT1 ⎭ ⎩ ⎛ k −1 ⎞ (Eq.7 R ⎠ (c) In the stratosphere.572 5.73 2 o 2 ⎟ ⎜ 0. T = constant. 2. page 7 .752) = 0. Third Edition.2. ⎝ P⎠ RT P RT RT1 ⎛ k −1 ⎞ ⎟ k ⎠ k −1 k dz P ⎛ k −1 ⎞ −1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ k ⎠ gM k −1 dP = − P k dz . P RT R a + bz P0 bR bR T0 T = 519 o R − − P ⎛ T ⎞ bR =⎜ ⎟ Here P0 ⎜ T0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ft 29 lbm ⎜ ⎟ 32.16 ⎛ RT ⎞ k T ⎛P ⎞ P ( 1− k ) ⎟ ⋅ const = P . 2. ln = − =− dz = − ln(a +bz ) 0 = − ln .17 2 ⋅ ⎟ gM ⎜ s lb mole =⎜ ⎟ = 5. so we use the isothermal formula ⎛ −gM(z − z ⎞ interface )⎟ ⎜ P = Pinterface exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R Tstratosphere ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.18* Using Eq.272 ⎜ ⎟ P = P0 ⎜ = P0 (0. ⎜ .18) T2 = T1 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨1 − ⎜ k RT1 ⎭ ⎩ ⎝ P1 ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 2-17 59 − (−69.222P0 ⎟ o ⎝ 518. 2.

858. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.4.17 ft ⋅ 29 lbm ⎛ 1.150 ft ft (b) Solutions.9 inches of mercury.17 is P = 0. which are regularly reported on the radio for places not at sea level. Chapter 2.856 atm (a) P4300 ft = P1 exp ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ RT ⎟ ⎝ 1000 ft ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ (b) is given in Table 2. If one uses 528°R.73 This is the height which corresponds to turning all internal energy and injection work (Pv) into gravitational potential energy.03616 ⋅ 1000 ft ⎟ = 0. which contradicts the adiabatic assumption. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.03616⋅ 4300 ft ⎟ = 0. adiabatically.356 atm. At this elevation the predicted pressure from equation 2.697 atm ⎛ gMΔz ⎞ ⎛ 29 028 ft ⎞ (c) P29 028ft = P1 exp ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ RT ⎟ = 1atm ⎜ −0. Third Edition.lbf 3 ft in 2 ⋅ 519o R o RT1 ⎛ k ⎞ 144in 2 32.00356 dz Δz 36. ⎛ gMΔz⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ = 1atm⎜ −0.17lbmft lbmol R ⎜ ⎟= Δz = ⋅ ⋅ = 96. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.7 − (59)o F F = = = −0.350 atm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ These are based on T0 = 519·°R (the standard atmosphere). Discussion: you might ask the students about the barometric pressures.20* (a) o dT ΔT −69. These are normally "corrected to sea level" so that.4 ⎞ ft ⎜ ⎟ 2 lbmol ⎝ 0. the answers are 0. The fact that the atmosphere extends above this height shows that there is heat transfer in the atmosphere.19 Taking values directly from the table in example 2. which is about 5 inches higher than the actual barometric pressure ever gets. 0.783 ft 2 2 lbf s gM ⎝ k − 1⎠ 32.1 = 0. which they compare to the observed pressure to compute the altitude.701 and 0. Those values are used to set altimeters in airplanes. page 8 . which have a dial-in for the sea level barometric pressure. for example in Salt Lake City the reported barometric pressures are normally about 29.4⎠ s 10.

4 ⎦ ⎣ k ⎝ RT ⎠ ⎦ = 465.4 o R = 5.21 (a) From Table 2.1.17 s2 ⋅29 lbmol dT R lbf s2 ft 2 ⎟ = −⎜ = −⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ = −0.186 ⋅10 lbm ⎣ A A in mi ft ⎦ _____________________________________________________________________ 2 2-23 F = PA = π 4 (120ft ) ⋅ 2 1lbf 144in 2 = 1.683atm ⎟ 1⎜ ⎝ T1 ⎠ (c) See the solution to Problem 2.8967 ⎣ 1. Chapter 2.8964)0.272 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ P = P0 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 atm ⎜ = 1 atm (0.07 psia ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 519o R ⎠ ⎝ T0 ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.17 lbmft 144in dz ft ⋅ ft in 2 10. from which we can easily conclude that there are 14. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. which explains why such vents are of crucial importance.4⎞ 32. These terms are widely used in meteorology.4 ⎤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = T1 ⎢1− T2 = T1 ⎢1 − (0.17 o ⎛ R⎞ ⎜ -0.22* Here the pressure at sea level is due to the weight of the atmosphere above it. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. (b) ⎡ k − 1 ⎛ gMΔz ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ 0.7 2 ⋅4 ⋅ π ⎢4000mi⋅ ⋅ ⎥ = 1.697 atm.7 lbm of atmosphere above each square inch of the earth's surface.3616)⎥ = 519 ⋅0.24MN 2 ⋅ 2 in ft This is normally enough to crush such a tank. page 9 . and in air pollution modeling.56°F/ 1000 ft. Then −gM k ⎡ m m lbm 5280 ft 12in ⎤ 2 19 m = ⋅ A = ⋅ 4π D = 14.685) = 10.1o R ⎞ 5.7psia (0.73 lb molo R Discussion: These are called lapse rates and the minus sign is normally dropped.lbm ft o ⎛ k − 1⎞ gM ⎛ 0.00356 ⎟ ( 4 ft ) = 23.7o R ⎛ T ⎞ k −1 1.04 psia = 0.1o R T = 59 + ⎜ ⎟ 10 ⎝ ft ⎠ ⎛ T ⎞ bR ⎛ 483. so that the standard lapse rate is 3.36 °F/ 1000 ft.4 P2 = P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 14.4 o F = 483.4 = 10. Third Edition.00536 2 lbf 3 ⎝ k ⎠ R ⎝ 1.4 ⎠ 32. 0. and why prudent oil companies pay high prices to get one that always works! _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions. and the adiabatic lapse rate is 5.63⋅106 lbf = 7.

81 psig 2 0. Is the piston a floating body? Answer. The small air compressor in the service station easily lifts the heavy car. page 10 . If you look into Archimedes principle for floating bodies.97 ⋅1010 N = 4. Direct substitution of this value for W leads to 10 m ⎡ h2 ⎛ h ⎞ h3 ⎤ ⎥ F = ρ g 20 m ∫ h⎜ 1− ⎟ dh = ρg 20 m ⎢ − ⎝ 10 m ⎠ ⎢ 2 3 ⋅10 m ⎥ ⎣ ⎦0 ⎡ (10 m )2 (10 m )3 ⎤ kg m ⎥ (c) F = 998. (d) We begin by writing Eq. not in the common sense of that term.2 3 ⋅9.8[ 2 kg m 998.8 the atmospheric-pressure terms cancel. we find F = ρgA ∫ hdA A Solutions.81 2 ⋅ 20 m ⎢ − m s 3 ⋅10 m ⎥ 0 ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 10 m N s2 6 = 3. You can ask the students whether this is psig or psia. 2. 2. there is an unstated assumption that the top of the floating body is exposed to the same atmospheric pressure as the fluid is. You can also ask them about buoyancy. as in Ex. Here for a confined fluid that is clearly not the case.M for the gauge pressure of a constant-density fluid: F = ρ g∫ hdA Multiplying by A/A and rearranging.2 ⋅10 lbf kg m This is exactly 1/3 of the answer to Ex.92 kPa = 12. and the buoyant force.81 m / s2 N s2 Pa m 2 = ⋅ ⋅ = 88.25 (a) P = ρ gh = 998.2.42⋅10 9 lbf 2 2 kg m _____________________________________________________________________ 2-26 m. 2.24* P = F 1800 kg⋅ 9. zero at h = 10 ⎛ h ⎞ ⎟ so that W = 20 m⎜ 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 m ⎠ (b) Here. (a) The width. _____________________________________________________________________ kg m N s2 Pa 2.25 MPa = 326 psi kg m N / m m s (b) See Ex. so we may save effort by working the problem in gauge pressure. W . Third Edition. If an immersed body is in a confined fluid that assumption plays no role.2 3 ⋅ 9. fairly rapidly.8. A small pressure. acting over a modest area can produce an impressive force. 20 m at the top.81 2 ⋅ 76 m ⋅ (230 m ) 2 ρ gwh N s2 m s F= = = 1.81 2 ⋅ 230 m 2 = 2. Chapter 2. is linearly related to the depth. 2.2 m kg m N A Discussion: This small value shows how all hydraulic systems work.26 MN = 2. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 3 ⋅9. computed by Archimedes' principle is independent of the external pressure applied to the fluid.

63333333 0.55 11.45 0.1375 has been replaced by 0. Third Edition.But ∫h dA/A is the definition of hc. the centroid of the depth measured from the free surface. 0. A little algebra shows that this is identical to the formula F = ρ gAhc = ρg 2 3 in part (b). so this equation may be simplified to F = ρ gAhc Wh h (e) .28 See Example 2.275 3. So. for an average thickness of 0. because if you make it thicker than that.81 2 ⎟ (50m ) N s2 Pa m 2 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ s m = ⋅ ⋅ = 8. at 60 ft.83⋅108 lbf 3 kg m N 2 2 (b) F = ρ gAhc = ρ g 1 π 2 2D D3 2 D ⋅ = ρg = ρ gr3 . _____________________________________________________________________ 2. because the top plate has a minimum thickness of 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.25 inches thickness would be used.25 inches. Solutions. It is not asked for in the problem.4125 7.6875 15. ft 60 50 40 30 20 10 Pressure. The required thickness (for the assumptions in the problem) is proportional to the gauge pressure at the bottom of each band of plates.27* (a) F = 2 ρg ∫ depth r − depth d (depth) = 2 ρg ⎢ − r − depth ⎥ = ⎣ 3 ⎦0 3 ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ m kg 3 (2)⎜ 998. which is proportional to the depth.2666667 0. _____________________________________________________________________ r ⎡ 1 2 2 ρgr 3 2⎤ 2.6875 inches at the top. Some designs call for 5/16 inch. The rightmost column shows the average thickness of the tapered plate (except for the lowest entry. (c) The first two columns of the following table repeat the first and third columns of the preceding table.2 3 ⎟⎜ 9.0825 in. t.9 0. the same as in part (a) 24 3π 12 3 If this doesn't convince the students of the convenience of the centroid method. for example.1375 (b) The calculated thickness for the top band is less than 0. the required thickness was 0. you must heattreat the welds.9.0833333 0. There. which is prohibitively expensive for a large tank. page 11 .81666667 0. in 22.75625 inches. However in the middle column the lowest value. the lowest plate is 0. so a plate with 0.25. one wonders what would.825 19. which is not tapered).25 inches. psig Design. but the same industry source who gave me these values also told me that the maximum used is 1. Chapter 2. (a) The values are Depth.825 inches at the bottom and 0.16 ⋅108 N = 1.75 inch.

Compare this to Example 2. Thus the tapered plates reduce the weight of the plates. The same industry source who gave me the other values in the problem also told me that the tapered plate solution is quite rare.61875 0. but the economics of having this big a tank apparently made it worthwhile. 0. So it is not simply the cost of the metal. 412 ft (≈ 125 m) in diameter and 68 ft (≈ 20 m) high. inches. Surprisingly the volume of metal in the wall of the tank is ≈ proportional to the cube of the tank diameter.34375 0. and heating to a stress relieving temperature. etc. page 12 .825 in ⋅ 68 412 ⋅ = 3. I thank Mr. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. for equal safety factor. LNG is transported at a low enough temperature that one must use expensive alloy steels.75625 0. Chapter 2.6875 0. That costs. so the cost of those spherical tanks must have been justified. because the surface area is proportional to the diameter squared and the required thickness ≈ proportional to the diameter.48125 0. uniform thickness plates tapered plates. to 0. the larger the tank the smaller the cost per unit volume. which had some huge spherical tanks in it.2625 0.904 times the weight of the constant-thickness plates.21 in = 8. in the field. Here the depth increases by (68/60) and the diameter by (412/120) so the calculated wall thickness would be t = 0. piping. finding 0.25 We can then compute the average thickness of the walls of the whole tank by summing the six values in the second and third columns. but the cost per unit stored of erection. ft 60 50 40 30 20 10 Wall thickness. foundations. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.29 As a general proposition.275 0. after it was complete. Solutions. for all three types of tank. inches. It is apparently only done when there is an order for a substantial number of very large tanks all of one size.825 0.25 0. He said that the biggest flat bottomed tank he knew of was in the Persian Gulf. Terry Gallagher of CBI who spent a few minutes on the phone and shared his insights on this problem.9. showing one of their liquid natural gas tankers. Third Edition. Average thickness. He said that they stress-relieved this tank.452 inches.15 cm 60 120 which is thick enough to be a problem to handle. that decrease as the size increases.55 0. I have seen an advertisement for Hyundai. by building an insulating tent around it. For spherical tanks he and I think that the difficulties of erection become too much as the size goes over about 80 ft. and dividing by 6.500 inch and 0.4125 0.Depth. and would require heat treating of all the welds.

_____________________________________________________________________ 2.com.31 The plot below shows all the values from App. Solutions. Most of the tanks of this type are factory assembled. I think. and then shipped to the user.687 inches.60 in = 1. for these pipes. hot pressed. schedule 80 pipe has a wall thickness of 0. Clearly one should not fit a single equation to that set of data. A ≈ 0. Thus. where roads and railroads have maximum height.30* See Example 2. R = 0. It would probably be selected. The diameter may be set by the largest diameter hemispherical heads which steel mills will regularly produce.0240 Dinside . A. The heads are one-piece.240. ______________________________________________________________________ 2.05 ft = 0.1366 in + 0.1366 inch and B = 0. Two interesting web sites to visit on this topic are www.chicago-bridge. Chapter 2. Gallagher (who refers to this tank shape as "blimps") indicates that there are some field-erected tanks of this type.For sausage-shaped tanks. the limits are presumably the difficulty of shipping. width and length specifications. lbf ⋅1 ft in 2 t= = 0. then t = 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.9.000 2 in 1000 From the larger table in Perry's equivalent to Appendix A. page 13 . Third Edition. which are larger than the values I show.trinitylpg.994 .2.52 cm lbf 2 ⋅10. If one considers only the values for 2.com and www.5 inch nominal 2 diameter and larger. Mr.3 we see that a 12 inch diameter. with a significant cost saving over field erection.

32 Hooke's law says that the stress is proportional to the strain. 2.976 by fitting a quadratic to this data set.897 . inches 20 However if one fits the sizes from 1/8 to 2 inches nominal.024 D = σ allowable 2σ will the definition of schedule number in App. from which allowable = 0. page 14 . One can get R = 0.4 0.0719 in + 0. showing that the values for the smaller pipes do not correspond very well to this equation. one finds 2 2 t = 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 Pipe inside diameter. Third Edition. Comparing this rewritten t − 0. If. A ≈ 0. then ⎛ increase in ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ Young' s⎞ ⎝ diamter ⎠ ΔD ⎟⋅ stress = ⎜ ⎛ original ⎞ = k D ⎝ modulus⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ diameter⎠ Solutions. If as stated the increase in diameter is the same for all diameters.25 can be P PD . The difference is conservatism on the part of those defining the schedules. ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Chapter 2.1336 in = 0.5 Pipe wall thickness. A. not Sch.0454 Dinside . then the Eq.048 . inches 0.3 0. while the original diameter is greater.6 0. 40. R = 0.2. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. which is the change in length divided by the original length.0. the further one moves from the center.1366 is the corrosion allowance. we see that this corresponds to Sch 48. as shown above.

6P 20.25.7547 in t = ri ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 20.5 = 2/3) of the stress at the inner wall. The thin-walled formula shows t= P ⋅ ri 250 psi ⋅ 5 ft + Cc = + 0 = 0.25 gives values which increase linearly with pressure.6 ⋅ 250 psi (b) The thick-walled shows ⎛ SE + P ⎞1/ 2 ⎛ 20.7556 in SEJ − 0. Third Edition. For Douter / Dinner = 1.000 psi ⋅1− 0.5 the stress at the outer wall would be (1/1. but larger values than Eq. inches ic Th T 30 e all -w hin 20 Eq. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.33 (a) Example 2. psig 8000 1 104 _____________________________________________________________________ 2.11in SEJ − 0.2.7500 inch.6 ⋅ 50 000 psi Solutions. 50 a ll -w k ed d 40 Wall thickness. P.11in i + Cc = = 0. 2. t.25 10 0 0 2000 4000 6000 Internal pressure.6P 80 000 psi − 0.and the stress decreases as (1/D) from the inner to the outer diameter. Above that Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Chapter 2.06290 ft = 0. page 15 . 2.34 (a) t = P ⋅ ri 50 000 psi ⋅ 0.6297 ft = 0. We see that below about 2000 psi the three equations give practically the same result. 000⋅1 + 250 ⎞ 1/ 2 ⎜ J ⎟ − ri + Cc = 5ft ⎜ ⎟ − 5 ft + 0 = 0.10 shows a wall thickness of 0. while the thin-walled and thick-walled equations give practically the same value as each other. 000⋅1 − 250 ⎠ ⎝ SE J − P ⎠ (c) The plot is shown below.

48 gal ⎠ t cylindrical = PD 2σ tensile = 250 psi ⋅ 7. From Eq.99 ft = 0. remembering that the length of the cylindrical section is 6 times its diameter V= π ⎛π ⎞ 10 D3 + ⎜ ⎟ D2 ⋅ 6D = πD3 ⋅ ⎝ 4⎠ 6 6 1/3 ⎛ 6 ⎞ 1/ 3 ⎛ 6 ft 3 ⎞ ⎟ = 7.11 in ⎛ safety⎞ t 0.6 ⋅50 000 psi ⎛ 20 000 + 50 000 ⎞ 1/ 2 ⎛ sq.35 The pressure at the bottom of the tank is 27. 2. For Eq.22) in ⎜ ⎟ = thick end of barrel = = 2.5 ⋅(0. but this example shows it is only and indication.000 psi The hemispherical ends have exactly one-half this thickness Solutions.7 psig.11 in ⎜ ⎜ 20 000 − 50 000 ⎟ − 0. Third Edition.74 − 0.11 in = ⎜ negative #⎟ ??? ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ J Clearly this does not work.27 ⎛ safety ⎞ PD 80 000 psi ⋅0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.36 (a) For the cylindrical container. page 16 .11 in i t = 4⋅ = −2. ____________________________________________________________________ 2.7 psi ⋅200 ft = 0.1189 in The simple formulae used for pressure vessels give some indication about the design of guns.19 ⎝ factor⎠ t thick walled formula 0.11 in ⎜ 80 000 − 50 000 ⎟ − 0. 2.20 in ??? 20 000 psi − 0.99 ft ⎜ D= ⎜ V⎟ = ⎜ 20.22 in ⎟⋅ t =⎜ =4 = 0.74 − 0.1076 in t= 2 ⋅30 000 psi This differs by 1.1189 in ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ J ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ J 50 000 psi⋅ 0.(b) ⎛ SE + P ⎞1/ 2 ⎛ 80 000 + 50 000 ⎞ 1/2 J J t = ri ⎜ ⎜ SE − P ⎟ − ri + Cc = 0.0922 ft = 1.11 in = 0. Chapter 2. rt of a ⎞ J t = 4 ⋅0.36 and ⎝ factor⎠ t thin walled formula 0.0499 ft = 0.000 gal ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 10π ⎠ ⎝ 10π 7.22) in ⎜ ⎟= (c) = = 2.88 in ⎝ factor ⎠ 4σ tensile 4 20 000 psi Which is much larger than the values shown in part (c) ⎛ safety⎞ t thick end of barrel 0.25 27.599 in 2 ⋅ 20.4% from the value calculated by the API method.5 ⋅(0. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

3 3 ⎟ ⋅ 65. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.6456 in 4 ⋅ 20. 40 pipe seem to include a corrosion allowance of 01366 inches. Third Edition. A.31.) However the sausage-shaped container is small enough to be shop assembled and shipped by rail or truck.13 ft 3 2 ⎛ lbm⎞ mshell = ρ V = ⎜ 7.000 gal ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝π ⎠ ⎝π 6 7.1 ft 3 ⎛ lbm⎞ mshell = ρ V = ⎜ 7. D = ⎜ V ⎟ = ⎜ 20. while the spherical container could be shipped by barge.0538 ft = 0.⎛ volume of ⎞ ⎛ shell ⎞ ⎛ shell ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ≈⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎟ = tspherical πD2 + t cylindricalπD ⋅ 6D ⎝ metal shell⎠ ⎝ thickness⎠ ⎝ surface⎠ = π D2 ⋅ (t spherical + 6tcylindrical )= 6.0. 2.1366) in ⋅10 000 psi P= = = 481psi 5.25 2tσ 2 ⋅ 0.37 For this size pipe the wall thickness is 0. _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions.99 ft ) ⋅ 0. but at 17 ft diameter it could probably not be shipped by truck or rail.3 3 ⎟ ⋅ 50. 2. foundations.650 lbm ⎝ ft ⎠ The spherical container requires only 77% as much metal (exclusive of corrosion allowances. Chapter 2.258 in ⋅10 000 psi P= = = 1022 psi D 5.047 in D This suggests that a new 5 inch Sch. the sizes of Sch. Reworking the problem taking that into account.22 ft V = D .9 ⋅ 62. From Eq.050 lbm ⎝ ft ⎠ (b) For a spherical container.047 in But.258 in.22ft) 2 = 50. etc.13 ft 3 = 32.5π (7.258 . we find 2tσ 2 ⋅(0.000 psi ⎛ volume of ⎞ ⎛ shell ⎞ ⎛ shell ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ≈⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎟ = tπ D2 ⎝ metal shell⎠ ⎝ thickness⎠ ⎝ surface⎠ = 0. page 17 .1 ft 3 = 24. as shown in Prob.22 ft = 0. 40 pipe would have a safe working pressure of 1022 psi.00538 ft ⋅ π ⋅(17. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. but that at the end of its corrosion life it would have one of 481 psi.48 gal ⎠ π 3 t= PD 4σ tensile = 250 psi ⋅17.5π D2t cylindrical = 6.9 ⋅ 62. The rule of thumb cited in App.2 suggests a safe working pressure of 400 psi. 1/3 ⎛ 6 ⎞ 1/ 3 ⎛ 6 ft 3 ⎞ ⎟ = 17.0499 ft = 65.

80832 ⋅10−5 m 3 kg 998.). Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.80832 ⋅10 m N s v m cm and its gold content was vol % gold ρalloy − ρsilver 18. but not perfect assumption.81 s2 m and the volume of water displaced was V = ρ = 2. which is only half the hoop stress.9% 100 ρ gold − ρ silver 19.869 = 86.275 N kg m −2 = m ⋅ N s2 = 2.8032 ⋅10 −2 kg = 2. Grooved joint connectors (Perry's 7e Fig 10-139) use this fact.3 -10. If one computes the buoyant force of the air on the crown in the weighting in air.F = 5. The external clamp which fits into the groove supports the pipe against external expansion. Third Edition.4 %.149 -10.5 The corresponding wt % (mass %) gold is 92. so the doubling of the hoop stress is not a hazard.39* The buoyant force equals the weight of the water displaced B.00033 N.2.149 3 v 2.8032 ⋅10 kg a 9. The clamp only operates on half the thickness of the wall. If one then substitutes 5.33 and 2. one finds 0. Discussion. This assumes no volume change on mixing of gold and silver.00033 N for the 5 N in the problem one finds 86. page 18 .5 = = = 0.275N Thus the mass of water displaced was m = F 0.38 Comparing Eq 2.35 we see that the axial stress in a cylindrical pressure vessel is exactly half the hoop stress (for the simple assumptions in those equations.0 − 4.81 2 ⎟ ⎝ m g kg g s ⎠ kg m ρ= = = −5 3 ⋅ 2 = 18149 2 = 18. but that is enough to resist the axial stress. Chapter 2. They cut a circumferential groove half-way through the pipe to be joined.725 = 0. That is a very good.2 3 m So the density of the crown was F ⎛ m⎞ ⎜ 5 N / 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.7 vol % gold. but must insert the perfect gas expression for its density. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Then ⎡ P ⎤ Payload = BF − weight = Vg(ρair − ρ gas ) = Vg⎢ (Mair − Mgas )⎦ ⎥ ⎣ RT Solutions.40* If you assign this problem make clear that one should not assume that air is a constant-density fluid.

721⋅10 − 3. page 19 .3K = 32.5512⋅10 ft . Third Edition. Chapter 2. finding kgm 200kgf 9.43* The volumes of the lead and the brass weight are Vlead = 2. is not an SI unit. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. in kg.6%. As far as I know no one uses hydrogen in balloons today.9 o F Tgas = Tair ⎜ air ⎟ = 293.551⋅10 = 1. 2.20 3 − π = 1.3(11. ft 32. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.5) = 4.5 lbf = 278 N ⎟ Payload = ⋅ lbm lbm ft ⎝ lbmol lbmol ⎠ 4 32.170 ⋅10 ft (a) The differential buoyant force is Solutions.81 2 6 s ⎛ρ ⎞ ⎛ 1. One must make the distinction between kgf and kgm to solve here. but probably not enough to justify the increased hazard of hydrogen combustion in most cases.7lbf Payload = 34 lbf ⎛ mole gm gm ⎞ −4 ⎜ 29 ⎟ ⎝ mole mole ⎠ This is an increase of 7.152 ⎠ ⎝ gas ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.But V = nRT so this becomes Payload = ng Mair − Mgas P ( ) Thus the answers to parts (a.14o C = 89.20 ⎞ ⎟ = 305.11 ⎛ gm gm ⎞ −2 ⎜ 29 ⎟ ⎝ mole ⎠ = 36.0477 = 1.3)(8.81kgm m kg ρgas = 1. viz. ( ) ρgas = ρair − Payload Vg Here the students are confronted with the fact that the weight.3) 3 ft −3 −3 −3 3 and the difference in their volumes is ΔV = 4.721⋅10 ft 62.5 −3 3 −3 3 lbm = 3. which is significant.152 3 m ⋅ kgf s2 3 m m (20m ) ⋅9.2 2 ⎛ 10 lbm s ⎜ 29 lbm − 4 lbm ⎞ = 62.) (b) and (c ) are the same.41 Starting with the solution to Ex.42 Payload = Vg ρair − ρ gas .15K⎜ ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎝ 1.20 − 0.50 lbm 2. Vbrass = (62.2 lbmole lbf s 2 _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

3 3 ⋅ lbm ft ⋅1.99 ρwater ft 32 2 ⎛ 0.81kg m 3 V= = m kg ⋅ kgf s2 = 2.2 2 lbf s so the indicated weight is Indicated weight = 2. this shows that Archimedes principle does indeed give the right answer for two-fluid problems.2 m3 s2 kg Massof logs = V ρ = 2. page 20 FT = Fg − Fb = mman ⋅ g − mman ⋅ g (0. h hgasoline = hwood − hwater ρwood hwood = [hwood − hwater ]ρ gasoline + hwater ρwater hwater ρwood − ρ gasoline SG wood − SG gasoline = = hwood ρwater − ρ gasoline 1 − SG gasoline Discussion.46* Payload = Vg ρw − ρlogs payload 500 kgf 9.ft 32.170 ⋅10 3 = −8.92 ⎞ s ⎟⋅ = 150 lbm ⎜ 1 − 0.85) ρwhiskey 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.500 + 7.075 ⋅ so the indicated weight is −5 32 ⋅1.99 ρ water whiskey ( ) .573lbf (b) here the differential buoyant force is Δ BF = −0.500 + (−8.85m man ⋅ρ 0.5045m g(ρw − ρlogs ) 9.77 ⋅10 ) = 2.77⋅10−5 lbf 32 Indicated weight = 2.49991 lbf _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Chapter 2.44 FBuoyant ↑= FBottom ↑ − FTop ↓= A(PB − PT ) = ρ wood gA hwood PB = PT + g hgasoline ρ gas + hwater ρw ρwood gAhwood = Ag[ gas ρgas + hwater ρwater ].2 N ⎝ 0. and why the density of the gasoline does appear in the answer.85 = 31. Third Edition. Buoyant Force = Vdisplaced ρg = 0.5045 m3 ⋅0.29 ⋅10 lbf ft 32.8 ⋅998.29 ⋅10−2 = 2.99 ⎠ 32 ft lbm s7 lbf _____________________________________________________________________ 2.45 Gravity Force ↓= Buoyant Force ↑ +Treading Force [ ] Gravity Force = mman ⋅ g .8)998.2 2 lbm 3 3 −2 s Δ BF = ρ ΔV = 62.81 (1 − 0.5 lbf = 140.2 3 = 2000 kg m _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions.170 ⋅10 ft = 7.

31 ⋅10 N This is a serious problem in areas with high water tables.49* B. = weight = 200 lbf = Vg(ρ air − ρ helium ) Solutions.F. To the best of my knowledge the fist time this was ever tried was when the CIA attempted to raise a sunken Russian submarine for intelligence purposes during the cold war. but that was said to have revealed lots of useful technical information.48 FB = V ρg = (5⋅ 20 ⋅30) ft 3 ⋅ 62.2 lbm ft / lbf s = 1. Third Edition.2. hung by its end in water.3⋅10 5 2 = 3000 psi ft ft s 32 lbm ft This is 15% of the allowable stress.3 3 ⋅1000 ft ⋅32 2 ⋅ = 4.79 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 62. empty swimming pools are regularly ruined by being popped out of the ground by buoyant forces.000 ⋅2000 lbf 2 = and its diameter 2 = 4000 in stress 20.03 0.9 − 1)⋅ 62. with multiple cables.3 3 ft (b) The cross-sectional area of the cable would be force 40. due to the cable's weight is σ= F (SG -1) ρwater LAg ≈ A A lbf lbm ft lbf s 2 = (7. Chapter 2.000 lbf / in 4 4 2 D= A= 4000 in = 71.87 ⋅10 lbf = 8.3 5 5 lbm 32.084 ⋅106 ft 3 lbm ⎢1. Whatever was pulling on it would have to have a buoyant force large enough to support its own weight.4 in ≈ 6 ft which is not a "cable" in the ordinary A= π π sense.47 (a) Buoyant Force = weight. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. They lowered a clamping device on multiple cables and tried to pull it up. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. (c) For a steel cable 1000 ft long. the stress at the top of the cable.2 ft / s2 ⋅ 3 2 ft 32. g(Vtanks + Vship ) = mship ⋅g ⎡ 1 m 1 ⎤ Vtanks = ship − Vship = mship ⎢ − ⎥ ρwater ⎣ ρ water ρsteel ⎦ 8⋅107 lbm ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ = − = 1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 21 . In 2001 the Russians successfully raised the submarine Kursk this way. so they only got part of it. It broke up while they were doing it. and also the weight of the battleship which it was raising. For deeper sunken vessels the fraction is higher.

3 kPa abs (b) _____________________________________________________________________ 2.605 = −1.3psia =126. Chapter 2.075 lbm ⎜ 1 − 4 ⎟ 2 3 s ft ⎝ 29 ⎠ 3 π V 3093 ft Vindividual = total = = 73.93⋅ 62.52* P2 = P + ρw g(z1 − z2 ) 1 2.093⋅10 ft = 87.3 lbm / ft In the water.7 psia = 18.3 lbm / ft So the volume of the pond decreases by ΔVpond = 0. 3 3 3 = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ lbf s2 = 3.203 ft ρ steel 7.65 ft 3 = D3 42 42 6 ⎛6 ⎞ 1/ 3 3 D = ⎜ ⋅ 73. Third Edition.58 m ⎝π ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ V= 2.0179 ft = 0.605 ft ρ water 62.9⋅ 62.65 ft ⎟ = 5. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.51 P3 = P2 + ρ Hgg(z2 − z3 ) P4 = P3 + ρ w g(z3 − z4 ) P2 = P4 adding these equations.61psig + 14. the displacement due to the block is m 100 lbm 3 V= = 3 = 0.2ft = 1. the part of the boat's displacement due to the block is m 100lbm 3 V= = 3 = 1.40ft 3 dz = = 2 = −0.402 ft 3 and its elevation falls by ΔVpond −1.F.203 − 1.200 lbf 32 lbf ft B.62 psig = 24. which has made this type of problem a favorite puzzle for many years.3 3 ⎟ ⋅ lbm ft ⋅ (44 + 8) in ⋅ ⋅ = 3. canceling and grouping produces 0 = ρ w g(z 1 − z2 + z 3 − z 4 ) + ρ Hg g(z 2 − z 3 ) but (z1 − z4 ) = Δz and (z2 − z3 ) = Δh so that 0 = ρ w gΔz + (ρ Hg − ρw )gΔh and ρw Δh = Δz ρHg = ρw Solutions.96 kPa gauge ⎝ ft ⎠ 32 12in 144 in 2 2 lbf s P2 = 3.6 m g( ρair − ρhelium ) 32 ft ⋅0.214 in Apond (p / 4)⋅ p(10 ft ) This is a counter-intuitive result. _____________________________________________________________________ (a) P2 − P = ρg(h1 + h2 ) 1 ft 32 2 ⎛ lbm ⎞ ft ft 2 s = ⎜ 1.50 In the boat. page 22 .

52 g/cm3.56 lbf P lbm ft 144 in 2 in 2 = ⋅32 ⋅ = 2.53 P = Pa + ρ1 gh1 1 P = Pa − ρ1gh1 1 P2 = P − ρ 2 gΔh 1 Adding these and canceling like terms.039 in ΔL = ΔL2 = ⎜ 2in ⎟ A2 1 ⎜ D2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Which is small enough that it is regularly ignored.55 ⎛ 1 ⎞2 ⎜ in ⎟ ⎛D⎞ A1 ⎜ 1 ⎟ L1 = ⎜ 8 ⎟ ⋅10in = 0.29 in = 760 mm (a) h = lbf s2 ρg 13.699 This is the set of values for the standard atmosphere.77in = sin θ .4 lbm ⋅32 ft ft 2 3 2 ft s 14. the two fluids tend to mix.6 ⋅ 62. At 20°C the density of mercury is 13. Laboratory barometers Solutions. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. which lead to the values shown inside the front cover of the book are for mercury at ≈ 0°C.77in = 70 mm lbm ft ρg ft 2 62. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. The values above. So there is a practical limit on how small it can be made. this shows the magnification of the reading obtained with a "draft tube". That corresponds to 14. and hence why these are widely used for low pressure differences.6 at 0 °C.72 in = 272 mm ΔL sin θ sin15o Discussion. Chapter 2. To get values in terms of heights of mercury one must use the density of mercury at some temperature. Third Edition. and may emulsify. However as this quantity becomes small.493 ft = 29. compared to 13. ΔL = = = 10. which is defined exactly as 101.231ft = 2. page 23 .54* Do part (b) first ΔP = ρgΔz lbf lbm ft 0.69595 psia.1 2 32 2 2 ΔP in lbf s 144in Δz = = ⋅ = 0. Pb = Pa − ρ 2 gΔh + ρ1 g(h1 − h2 ) Pb − Pa = gΔh( ρ1 − ρ 2 ) For maximum sensitivity one chooses ( ρ1 − ρ2 ) as small as possible.3 3 32 2 ft s Then do part (a) Δz Δz 2. ______________________________________________________________________ 2 A1 ΔL1 = A2 ΔL2 2.325 kPa._____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

Chapter 2. but also for the vapor pressure of the liquid which is about 0.0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.34 m ρ g 62. (c) The vapor pressure of water at 20°C = 68°F is 0.3391. A water barometer would need a temperature correction not only for the thermal expansion of the liquid. allowing one to correct for the thermal expansion of the mercury.025 − 0.995 atm = 0.4 lbm ⋅ 32 ft ft 2 lbf s2 3 2 ft s (b) which is impractically tall.003 1 atm ΔP = −455°R ⋅ 0. lbf 14. Solutions. Here Phigh − Plow Pz =0 = 1. page 24 .91 ft = 407 in = 10.006 atm at 0°C.4) of -5.003 = 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Thus the above calculation would replace the atmospheric pressure with 14. Third Edition.4°F would account for the difference in pressure between a high and a low.3391 psia.4°R Pz =0 so that ΔTavg = −Tavg An average decrease in average temperature through the troposphere of 1. =⎜ ⎜T ⎟ dTavg ⎝ R ⎠ avg ⎝ avg ⎠ ΔP Pz =0 ΔT ΔP ΔP = = − avg ⎛ PM ⎞ Pz = 0 Tavg gztop ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ avg ΔTavg = −Tavg The troposphere contains ≈ 77% of the mass of the whole atmosphere.3% of an atmosphere.35 °F ≈ 455°R ≈ -20°C.023 atm = 2.696 2 P lbm ft 144 in 2 in h= = ⋅ 32 ⋅ = 33. reducing all the computed values by 2.3%.are supplied with conversion tables.696 .57 The pressure at ground level for a non-moving atmosphere must be Pz =0 = ∫ z =∞ z=0 ρ gdz = ∫z =0 z= ∞ ⎛ PM ⎞ PM ⎟ gz gdz = ⎜ ⎝ RT ⎠ avg top RT Here the average is over the elevation from the ground to ztop which is the elevation below which all the mass of the atmosphere is. and has an average temperature (See Fig 2. This is 0. We now differentiate ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ PM ⎞ dP ⎟ gztop ⎜ 2 ⎟ .

2 3 = 1497.45 3 hfluid 1.465 m 2 ft ft 32 2 s That is the depth at the end of the dip tube.0 m m m ft Solutions. Discussion: One can discuss here the other ways to continually measure the level in a tank. If the atmosphere were saturated with water at -20°C. Chapter 2. ____________________________________________________________________ 2.58* The pressure at the bottom of the dip tube is Pbottom ⎛ lbm ⎞ = Ptop + ρgh = 2 psig + ⎜ 0.5 =5.087 Pz = 0 mol mol At the average temperature of 455° R the vapor pressure of water is slightly less than 1 torr ≈ 0.59 If we ignore the gas density.15% of the total.800 ft. its change in average molecular weight would be ΔMavg = 0. (If one runs this calculation at 20°C. If the gas flow can be tolerated. we could say that if the temperatures were the same between a high and a low. If we use 2. the difference in molecular weight would have to be ΔMavg = Mavg ΔP g g = 29 ⋅ 0.000 psig. one finds a change in Mavg of 0.0033psig lbm ft 144in 2 32 2 lbf s 32 (a) h= P 2. where the vapor pressure of water is 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.0033psig = ⋅ lbm ρg 60 3 ft lbm ft lbf s 2 144 in 2 ⋅ = 4.308 ft.Changing moisture content changes the average molecular weight.26. then hmanometer 1.0013⋅(29 − 18) g g = 0. etc. One can use float gages. but most of the atmosphere is much colder than it is at the surface).0013 atm. Third Edition. Thus it appears that the principal cause of atmospheric highs and lows is the difference in average temperature between air masses.808ft = 1. the calculated depth is 4.808 + 0. this is simpler. page 25 .08 3 ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠ 32 ft 2 s 2 ⋅6 ft ⋅ ft = 2. The total depth is 4. pressure difference gages.008 ft or 0.3 3 = 93.003 = 0.023 atm. _____________________________________________________________________ ΔP = (ρgh )fluid = (ρgh)manometer 2.02 mol mol which is about 1/4 of the required amount.5m kg kg lbm ρfluid = ⋅ ρ manometer = ⋅ 998. (b) The difference is 0. Following exactly the same logic.

or with some sonic gages. then ΔP = (gh)fluid (ρfluid − ρgas )= (gh)manometer(ρmanometer − ρgas ) ⎛h ⎞ ⎛h ⎞ kg ρfluid = ρm ⎜ m ⎟ − ⎜ m − 1⎟ ρgas = 1497.62* P2 = P exp⎜ 1 ⎝ RT ⎠ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ ⎥ ⎛ lb ⎞ ⎢ − ⎜ 32 ft ⎞ ⎜ 16 ⎟ (−10 4 ft )⎥ ⎟⎜ ⎥ ⎛ −g M Δz ⎞ ⎢ ⎝ s 2 ⎠ ⎝ lb molo R ⎟ ⎠ ⎥ = 0.3 − (1. but historically the height of the stack was determined by the required draft to overcome the frictional resistance to gas flow in the furnace.73 in o ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ 32 lbf s2 ⎜ lbmol R ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎢ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ P2 = 1014. ⎛ − g M Δz ⎞ ⎟ 2.1954 ⎟=⎢ ⎜ ⎛ ⎝ RT ⎠ ⎢ lbf 3 ⎞ ⎥ ft ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ 2 lbm ft ⎜ ⎜ 10.7 3 ⎜h ⎟ ⎜h ⎟ m ⎝ f⎠ ⎝ f ⎠ which is a difference of 0. Discussion: one can determine densities with hydrometers. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5 − 1) ⋅1.60* See Ex.If we account for the gas density.73 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ lbf s lbmol o R ⎣ = 0.47 in H2 O = 0.7psia ) ⎢ lbmol ft 2 s = − lbmol ⎥ ⋅ 3 lbm ft ⎢ 530o R psia ft 760o R ⎥ 144 in 2 32 10.16 ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ M⎞ P ⎢⎛ M ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ R ⎢⎝ T ⎠ air ⎝ T ⎠ flue gas ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ lb ⎤ ft lb 28 32 2 ⎢ 29 ⎥ (100 ft )(14. Third Edition.7 psia exp(+0.04%. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. 2. This system is simple and continuous. This introduces the whole idea of the use of stacks for draft.03 ⋅62.61 Pbot = ρ water gh ft 32 2 lbm ft 2 4 s Ptop = gh(ρwater − ρ oil ) = ⋅10 ft (1.39 MPa _____________________________________________________________________ Ptop = Pbot − ρ oil gh .3 − 55) 3 ⋅ lbm ft ft 144in 2 32 2 lbf s = 637 psig = 4. Currently we use stacks to disperse pollutants. more than we use them for draft.0170 psi = 0.20 = 1496. Chapter 2. page 26 .117 kPa PA − PB = gz1 Discussion.1954) = 1234 psia = 1219 psig = 8400 kPa gauge Solutions. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

Process Safety Progress.79 (1996) _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions.1954) = 1213psia = 1198psig = 8257 kPa gauge P2 = P ⎜ 1− 1 ⎝ RT ⎠ 1234 -1213 Error = = 1. They open valve B. the pressure difference is 32.3 3 = 17.37 psia. When the oil was slowly introduced. Third Edition.(b) For constant density ⎛ g MΔz⎞ ⎟ = 1014. while the downhill leg on the other side was filled with oil. See: Noel de Nevers. page 27 . the pipeline was from the Central Valley of California to the Coast. 15. Normally a newly installed pressure vessel is hydrostatically tested.7psia (1.2ft / s2 lbm ΔP = ghΔρ = 2 ⋅200 ft ⋅(1 − 0. Chapter 2.63 This is part of oil industry folklore.7 − 17. leaving some in place.3 3 ⋅ lbm ft = 14. This low a pressure will cause a normal pressure vessel to collapse.64 PA = PB − ρgΔz ft 2 lbm s 2 ⋅ 40ft ⋅ ft = 14. "Vacuum Collapse of Vented Tanks".2lbm ft / lbf s and for 10 such legs it is 173 psig. Δz water in pipe oil in pipe ΔP For any one such leg. and bypassed water. in which the uphill leg of a rise was filled with water. and then the workmen told to "drain the tank".6 psia ?? 144 in 2 ft 32 2 lbf s 32 This is an impossible pressure.7% 1234 _____________________________________________________________________ 2.7psia − 62. This led to situations like that sketched. 74 . and soon the tank crumples. and crossed the Coast Range of mountains. the water would boil.3 psig ft 32. and the pressure would be the vapor pressure of water. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. which at 70°F is 0. In oil industry folklore it is reported that this has happened several times.8)962. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. No 2.3 = −2. it flowed over the water.

5 in)2 4 The point of this problem is to show the students how one calibrates spring-type pressure gauges. the elevation difference. Third Edition. pressure gauges are calibrated this way.2 2 − 32. This is a manometer.66 No.69 At spill.2 2 = 46. or 2 ft.3 3 ⋅8 ft ft 2. they make the average density on one side of the manometer different from that on the other. h. from one end of the tank to the other is twice the original freeboard. _____________________________________________________________________ ⎛ ⎛ d 2z ⎞ ft ft ⎞ Pgage = ρ h⎜ g + 2 ⎟ = ρh⎜ 32. cheap ones are not locally calibrated.32 2 2 = dt l 20 ft s s _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions. and if bubbles are present. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. For precise work. The horizontal part of the device plays no role. page 28 . but simply used with the factory design values.3 psig A π (0. Chapter 2.32. If all the bubbles are excluded. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Common.67 The elevator is moving upwards.2.5 .2 2 = 3.36 2 2 2 ⋅ 2 lbm lbf s s s dz ρh ft ρ 62.68* P = ρ h⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dz ⎠ lbf 5 2 2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ft m d z P in = −g= ⋅ 32.3 2 = 4. then this is an excellent way to get two elevations equal to each other. leading to false readings. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. d 2x h ρgh = ρ l 2 dt l d 2 x hg 2ft ft ft = ⋅32.2 − 32. In the factory they are not individually calibrated because each one coming down the production line is practically the same at the next.2 ⎟ = 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ dz ⎠ s s⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ ⎛ d 2z ⎞ ⎜g + 2 ⎟ 2.2 =14.65* P = F 25 lbf = = 127.

If we assume that over the size of this particle we can take an average radius.03105rad = 1. We compute the pressure at C two ways B A l1 C l2 D d 2x d2 x Pc = ρ1 gl1 + l2 ρ2 2 + PA = PA + l2 ρ1 2 + ρ 2 gl1 The pressure is the same either dt dt d2 x d2 x way we calculate it. Physically. Solutions. then they will not form a clean and simple interface.72* A rigorous solution would involve an integral of P dA over the whole surface.71 Pgage = ρω 2 ∫14 m rdr = 62. Here P is not linearly proportional to radius.70* As shown in the sketch at the right. passing through B and D.779° g 32. so ρ1gl1 + l2 ρ 2 2 = +l2 ρ 1 2 + ρ2 gl1 or dt dt d 2x 2 l d2 x gl1 (ρ 1 − ρ 2 ) = l2 2 (ρ1 − ρ 2 ) and 1 = dt = tanθ The division by (ρ1 − ρ2 ) dt l2 g is only safe if this term is not zero.03106 rad = 0. then we can use Archimedes' principle as follows.17lbm ft ⎝ 144in 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ = 14. The numerical answer is d2 x ft 1 2 2 θ = arctan dt = arctan s ft = arctan 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.4 kPa gage _____________________________________________________________________ 2.2.85psig = 102.3 15 m ρω 2 2 [(15in) 2 − (14in ) 2 ] lbm 2 2 ⎛ ft 2 ⎞ 2 ft 3 ⎡ 2π 1000 ⋅ min ⎤ [ 225 − 196]in 2 ⋅ lbf s ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ ⋅⎜ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ min 60s ⎥ 2 32. Third Edition.2 2 s _____________________________________________________________________ 2. the interface is a plane. Chapter 2. if the two fluids have exactly the same density. and calculate the "equivalent gravity" for that location. Most likely they will emulsify. so this is complicated. page 29 .

26kPa gauge 32.73 See the sketch at the right. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. we compute the pressure at C. page 30 . Work in gage pressure.44] 2.0472 ⎞ 2 ft 2 2 2 ⎟ ⋅ (22 ft ) − (24ft ) ⎥ ⋅ P4 = 62.153 lbf = 0.053 psig = 7.3 3 ⎟ (0. as shown in example 2. two ways. P =0 1 P2 = P ρ g(h2 − h1 ) 1 ρω 2 2 2 (r − r2 ) P3 = P2 + 2 3 P4 = P3 + ρ g(h4 − h3 ) Adding these and canceling like terms 2 1 4 ⎡ ω 2 2 ⎤ P4 = ρ ⎢ g(h4 − h1 ) + (r − r2 )⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2 3 3 2π ⋅10 1 ω= = 1.3⋅ [128.2 ⋅144 _____________________________________________________________________ = 62.01in )⎜ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠ 60s ⎠ 32. Third Edition.683 N 2 ⎛ ft 2 ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 144 in 2 ⎠ (b) This points toward the axis of rotation.⎛ 2π ⋅1000 min ⎞ 2 ⎛ lbm ⎞ lbf s2 3 ⎟ (15in ) (a) BF = ρ Vω r = ⎜ 62.2 2 ⋅ 4 ft + ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ 32. finding Air Gasoline By path DBC PC = PD + ρgasoline gΔz + ρ water By path DAC PC = PD + ρgasoline ω2 2 (Δr ) 2 A C D B Water ω2 2 Subtracting the second from the first 0 = (ρ water − ρ gasoline ) (Δr) + ρ water gΔz 2 ω2 2 (Δr) − (ρ water − ρgasoline )gΔz 2 Solutions. Chapter 2.19 Using the sketch at the right.8 − 50. _____________________________________________________________________ 2.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ⎣ s 2 ⎝ s ⎠ ⎦ ( ) = 1.17lbm ft ⎝ min = 0.74 The gasoline-air interface is a parabola.3 3 32.0472 s 60 s ⎡ ⎤ lbf s2 lbm ⎢ ft 1 ⎛ 1.

Two parabolas are the same.density of air). Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. it will work! If one solves it as a manometer. _____________________________________________________________________ or Δz = ω 2 (Δr)2 Solutions.2g Which is the same as Eq. as it flows the levels become equal and then the flow stops. _____________________________________________________________________ 2-75 Yes.38. Third Edition. one will see that there is a pressure difference equal to the difference in height of the liquid in the two bottles times g times (density of water . page 31 . Chapter 2. for air and water. from the top of the funnel to the nozzle of the jet. 2. This is clearly not a steady-state device.

flow out across borders Currently not too many $1 bills circulate outside the USA. Chapter 3. rock artists in the state for a concert.4 Boundaries: the skin of the balloon. in people's mattresses. nor are they fixed in size. military personnel on station. Accumulation = 0 . etc.flow out across state borders. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.2 Boundaries: USA including money in bank vaults. Accumulation = + number printed .5 Boundaries: The auto including all parts. _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions. truck drivers passing through the state. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. traveling salespersons.amount consumed (both by people who put it in the coffee or cereal and by food manufacturers who add it to processed foods) + flow in across state borders (normally in trucks or railroad cars) . airline pilots who have homes or apartments at both ends of their regular route. including both real and counterfeit bills. The boundaries are not fixed in space. or unintentionally. Third Edition. carbon in paper and trash thrown out the windows by litterers). fuel leakage. some by inter-bank shipments) . including the plane of the opening. page 1- . for example in a fire in a supermarket) + flow in across borders (mostly with tourists. either in bulk carriers or packaged for sale in stores. oil leakage.flow out. with boundaries crossing the openings in the grille and the exhaust pipe.Solutions. visiting drug dealers. Accumulation = . anti-freeze leakage. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.3 Accumulation = amount refined (in sugar plants) . which equals the negative accumulation of carbon in the fuel. Chapter 3 3.flow out (carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in exhaust gas. leaking out through windows. but they are readily identifiable. carbon in bugs smashing into the windshield or in road oil thrown up on body. carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds in driver and passenger's breaths. and then a lot of other minor terms.0 + flow in (carbon dioxide and other carbon-bearing gases in inflowing air. tire wear.1 Migrant agricultural workers. bird droppings falling on car) . _____________________________________________________________________ 3. the carbon dioxide in the exhaust. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. paint flaking off. construction workers. but the US $100 bill is a common medium of exchange outside the USA. The point is that there is one main flow out.number destroyed (either intentionally by treasury department which destroys old bills.

If we choose as boundaries those atoms originally in the firecracker.7 2 A 2000 ft s hr yr _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.145 V2 = V1 A2 s 7⋅150 ft 2 s s _______________________________________________________________________ 3-7* Q = VA = 1 acre ft ft 3 ft 3 ⋅ 4. That was supposed to reshape the beaches and in other ways make the canyon more like its pristine state.3.10 Vaverage Q = = A ∫ r =r wall r =0 V ⋅2πrdr 2 π rwall a) Substituting Eq.35 ⋅1011 Q ft mi ft yr V= = = 2.9 (b) ft 3 Q ft s (a) V = = 2 = 111. then accumulation = 0 If we choose the topologically smallest envelope that includes all the solid parts.476 = 0.35 ⋅1011 acre ft yr yr 3 ft 4.8 Q = 10 7 3.5 = 15.9 A 8⋅ (π / 4) ⋅(8 ft) s ft 3 Q 45 000 s ft mi m V= = = 22.34 = 2.16 3 s min s min ft s ft 500 ft 2 ft m A1 =1 ⋅ = 0. Third Edition. Those who organized the flood pronounced it a great success.10 A 200 ft ⋅ 8 ft s hr s 45 000 The purpose of the artificial flood was to mimic the spring floods which regularly passed down the canyon before the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam (1963).21 and simplifying. then accumulation = .48gal ft 3 m ⋅10ft ⋅50 ft ⋅ ⋅ = 2.17 ⋅10 8 = 6.6 Here defining the boundaries is the big problem. Solutions. page 2- . Chapter 3. _______________________________________________________________________ 3.244 ⋅105 = 500 = 14.35⋅104 = 4. 3. which may move faster than solid products + flow in of air engulfed in the expanding envelope.flow out of gaseous products.9 = 4. _____________________________________________________________________ gal ft 60s 7.

per (rw6 − 3rw4r2 + 3rw2r4 − r6 ) ⋅ rdr 2 8 r =0 rwall Vaverage Vavgrwall ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ unit mass V3 3 3 1 ⎤ V3 1 8 ⎡1 = max ⋅ rwall ⎢ − + − ⎥ = max ⋅ 8 ⎣ 2 4 6 8 ⎦ Vavg 8 Vavg rwall [ ] Solutions. Third Edition. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 3 2 ⎛ rw − r 2 ⎞ ⎤ r = rwall ⎡ ⎢ Vmax ⎜ ⎛ average kinetic⎞ ∫ ⎜ r 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⋅rdr ⎟ r= 0 ⎢ ⎟ ⎜ r= rwall ⎝ w ⎠⎥ V3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎟= = max ∫ ⎜ energy.Vaverage Q = = A ∫ r =r wall r =0 ⎛ r 2 − r2 ⎞ ⎜ w 2 ⎟ ⋅2πrdr Vmax ⎜ ⎟ 2V ⎝ rw ⎠ = 4max 2 πrwall rwall ⎡ rw2 r2 r 4 ⎤ rw Vmax ⎢ − ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 4 ⎦0 2 Vmax = 2Vaverage (b) Substituting Eq. Chapter 3.8656 Vmax rwall 2 ⋅1 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 1 10 10 10 10 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ r =0 Vaverage Vmax = = 1. page 3- .23 and simplifying.8166 ⎛ r − r ⎞ 1/10 r =r wall ⎜ ⎟ ∫r =0 Vmax ⎜ wrw ⎟ ⋅ 2πrdr 2Vmax ⎝ ⎠ Q = = = 2 2 π rwall rwall A ∫ r =rwall r =0 1/10 ⎛ r⎞ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⋅ rdr ⎜ ⎟ rw ⎠ ⎝ 1 1 ⎤ r =r w ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ 2 10 ⎛ ⎞ 1 10 ⎥ ⎢ r r ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2Vmax 2 ⎢ ⎝ rw ⎠ 2 200 ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎥ = 2 ⋅ rwall ⎢ − = 1 ⎥ 1 1 1 Vmax = 231 Vmax = 0. 3.22 and simplifying.8166Vmax ⎥ 1 1 60 max ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 ⋅1 1 7 7 7 7 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥r = 0 ⎣ ⎦ Vmax = (c) Vaverage Vaverage = 1.155 Vaverage 0.8568 _____________________________________________________________________ 3.21 in Eq.11 (a) Substituting Eq. Vaverage Q = = A ∫ r =r wall r =0 ⎛ ⎞ 1/ 7 ⎜ rw − r ⎟ ⋅ 2πrdr Vmax ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ rw ⎠ 2V = 2max 2 π rwall rwall ∫ r= rwall r =0 1/ 7 ⎛ r⎞ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⋅ rdr ⎜ rw ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 2Vmax 2 rwall 1 1 r = rw ⎡ 2 1 ⎤ ⎞ 7⎥ ⎢⎛ r⎞ 7 ⎛ ⎜ 1− r ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ rw ⎟ ⎥ rw ⎠ ⎝ 2 49 ⎠ 2 ⎢⎝ ⋅ rwall ⎢ − = 1 1 Vmax = V = 0.224Vaverage 0. 3. 3.

Third Edition.21 we find 2 ⎛ r 2 − r2 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ total momentum ⎞ r =r wall ⎡ 2 V 2 2πρ r =rwa. from the preceding problem Vmax = 1. per ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ unit mass ∫ r = rwall r= 0 1/ 7 ⎤ 3 ⎡ ⎛ r⎞ ⎥ ⎢ V ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎢ max ⎜ rw ⎟ ⎥ ⋅ rdr ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ V3 = max 2 2 rwall Vaverage Vavg rwall ∫ r =r wall r=0 3/ 7 ⎛ r⎞ ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⋅ rdr ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ w⎠ = 3 Vmax 2 Vavg rwall 3 3 r =r w ⎡ 2 1 ⎤ ⎢⎛ r⎞7⎥ r⎞ 7 ⎛ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⎜ r ⎟ ⎜ 3 rw ⎟ ⎥ 1 V3 49 Vmax V3 ⎝ ⎠ w⎠ 2 ⎢⎝ ⋅ rwall ⎢ − = 3 3 max = = 0.??) Substituting Eq 3. per ⎟ avg Vavg Vavg 2 ⎜ ⎟ turbulent flow ⎝ unit mass ⎠ 1/ 7 th power approximation (b) The total momentum flow in a pipe is given by ⎛ total momentum ⎞ r= rwa.224Vaverage So that ⎛ average kinetic ⎞ 3 2 3 ⎜ ⎟ (1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5285V 2 = 1. Chapter 3.2882 ⎜ energy. so that ⎛ average kinetic⎞ 3 2 ⎜ ⎟ (2Vavg ) ⋅ 1 = V 2 = 2 ⋅ Vavg ⎜ energy.22 and simplifying.. per ⎟ = avg 8 Vavg 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ unit mass ⎠ laminar flow Substituting Eq.But for laminar flow Vmax = 2Vavg . page 4- . ⎛ average kinetic⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ energy.224Vavg ) = 0. ⎜ ⎟=∫ Vdm = ∫r =0 V ⋅ρV ⋅ 2π rdr whole flow area ⎝ flow ⎠ (3. 3..2882 = 0.2882 max ⎥ 3 3 Vavg ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⋅1 Vavg 170 Vavg 2 1 ⎢ ⎥ 7 7 7 7 ⎢ ⎥ r =0 ⎣ ⎦ But. 2 w ⎢V ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ρ 2πrdr = max 4 ⎟=∫ ⎜ [rw − r2 ] rdr max ⎜ ⎟⎥ 2 ∫r = 0 r =0 ⎢ ⎠ ⎝ flow rw ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ r = rw 2 4 2 Vmax 2πρ ⎡ rw r 2 rw r4 r6 ⎤ 2 2 1 ⎢ = −2 + ⎥ = Vmax 2πrw ρ 4 ⎢ ⎥ rw 4 6 ⎦r = 0 6 ⎣ 2 Solutions.057 Vavg Vmax = 0.

But for laminar flow Vmax = 2Vavg ..22.224Vavg ) 2πρ rwall = 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. RT V= Ý 1 mRT 2 (π / 4)D PM The velocity increases as the pressure falls.224Vaverage ⎛ total momentum ⎞ 2 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.8 hr 10 hr A2 _____________________________________________________________________ Q = ρ1V1 A1 = ρ2 V2 A2 . rw ⎠ ⎝ ⎥ w⎠ ⎢V ⎜ 1− r ⎟ ⎥ ρ 2π rdr = V 2 2πρr 2 ⎢ ⎝ ⎜ ⎟=∫ − ⎥ max wall ⎢ ⎢ max ⎜ r ⎟ ⎥ r =0 2 2 ⎝ flow ⎠ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 ⎢ ⎥ 7 7 ⎢ ⎥r = 0 ⎣ ⎦ 1 49 2 2 2 2 2 2 = Vmax 2πρ rwall 2 2 = Vmax 2πρrwall = 0. we find 21 21 ⎤ r = rw ⎡ ⎞2 7 ⎛ ⎞17 ⎥ ⎢⎛ r r 2 ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ r ⎟ ⎟ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ 1/ 7 ⎤ ⎛ total momentum⎞ r =r wa. from the preceding problem Vmax = 1. page 5- .0137ρπrwallVaverage turbulent flow ⎝ flow ⎠ 1/ 7 power approximatin These are the values in Tab.55 4 s s 4⎝2 ⎠ s 4⎝ 4⎠ Solutions. V2 = V1 3.13* Assuming that the soldiers do not change their column spacing mi A1 4 mi 12 = ⋅ = 4.333πrw ρ Vavg 9 6 ⎝ flow ⎠ laminar flow Substituting Eq 3.12 Ý m = Qρ = π 4 D 2V ⋅ PM . 8. so that ⎛ total momentum ⎞ 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ = Vmax 2πrw ρ = (2Vavg ) 2π rw ρ = 1. which causes the pressure to fall.3403Vmax 2πρrwall 144 2 ⋅1 7 7 But.14* dm Ý = 0 = ∑ m = ρ ∑ Q. This type of flow is discussed in Ch. Chapter 3. Q3 = Q1 − Q2 dt π π ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ft π ⎛ 7⎞ ft 3 2 ft Q3 = (1ft ) 5 − ⎜ ft ⎟ 7 = ⎜ 5 − ⎟ = 2.3403( 1. This has the paradoxical consequence that friction. Third Edition. 3. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.1 _______________________________________________________________________ 3. causes the velocity to increase.

55 = 159 3 ft s s ft 3 Q s = 13 ft V3 = 3 = ⎛ 1 ⎞2 A3 π s ⎜ ft⎟ 4⎝2 ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.16* From Eq.Ý m3 = ρ Q3 = 62.075 lbm / ft 3 and Qout α −1 ρsys.00074659 ⎜ 10 ft 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solutions. final − in = α ⎜ ρsys.3 lbm ft 3 lbm ⋅ 2.001 3. final − in ⎞ ⎛ Q Qout ⎜ − out Δt⎟ = α where α is used to save writing. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Psteady state = 1 atm ⋅ lbm 0.001⋅ 0. _____________________________________________________________________ lbm ft 3 = 0.AC.17.55 3. = = m dt υm dr MV M υ M psift 3 lbm 10. Third Edition.075 lbm / ft 3 ⎛ ⎞ ft 3 ⎜ 1 ⎟ α = exp⎜ − min 72 min ⎟ = 0. final = Here ρsys. inital = 0. inital − in Qout ⎛ Ý Ý Ý m m ⎞ min Then ρsys.15 m RT dP RT dm RT Ý . It plays no role. The answer would be the same if the initial pressure were any value. inital − in ⎟ : (α − 1) = αρsys. take the exponential of both sides m Ý ρ sys.17 (a) Start with Eq 3. 3. as long as the pressure was low enough for the ideal gas law to be appropriate. in their answer. final = 0. initiall − ρsys. initial − ρ sys. ⎟ Ý = exp ⎜ V m ⎝ sys ⎠ ρsys. Chapter 3.075 3 ft _____________________________________________________________________ 0. page 6- .0133 atm 3.73 ⋅ 530o R ⋅10 o dP psi lb mol K hr = = 196 lbm dt hr 10ft ⋅ 29 lb mole P= = ρ RT Students regularly try to find a way to include the current value of the pressure. 100 psig. final ⎟ ⎜ Qout Qout Qout ⎠ ⎝ Ý min αρsys.

01 atm of 56.001⋅ 0.lbm lbm -5 Ý lbm min 7.00663 calculated here.8 we find a final pressure of 0.4659 ⋅10 ⋅ 0. 3. independent of pressure.AN. t − 0 = ln β α P+β P+ 0 α α P+ 1 0. Chapter 3. which is a more reasonable representation of the leak rate with a constant leak rate makes very little difference in the β = −6.10 − 6.006628atm − min P = −β / α = −(−0. All real vacuum systems have leaks whose flow rate is more or less proportional to the pressure difference from outside to in (assuming laminar flow in small flow passages) but this comparison shows that replacing Eq.4659 ⋅10 − 1 ft ft 3 lbm lbm Ý = 1.0005 lbm/min.902 ⋅10-5 3 ⋅10 min ft min (b) To find the steady state pressure we set t = infinity.10067 1atm − 0.00666 atm instead of 0.536 ⋅10 atm P0 ρ0 0. instead of the 56. and a time to 0.50 min calculated here.902 ⋅10 -4 min = 1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.672 ⋅10−4 = − β = 6.075 ft 3 − 0. Third Edition.100667 α = −0.01atm − 0.006628 atm At steady state t= If one assumes that the leak rate is 0. then repeating Ex.902 ⋅10 ft 3 −4 −4 = = lbm = 2.97 min.6672 ⋅10 −4 min min β dP 1 α = α ∫ dt .5min 0.18 V dρ Ý = −Q ρ + min = −Q ρ + a(P0 − P ) where a is a place holder.6628⋅10−3 atm α Solutions. Pss = 2. dt VM dP QM =− P + a(P0 − P ) RT dt RT ⎡ ⎤ dP Q aRT = − P+ (P0 − P) = P ⎢− Q − aRT ⎥ + P0 aRT = αP + β ⎣ V VM ⎦ dt V VM VM ∫ 1ft 3 530 o R Q aRT 5 ⋅10−4 lbm 0. which leads to Ý lbm min = 1.006628atm ln = 56.902 ⋅10-5 3 Qout ft −5 lbm Pss ρ ss 1.075 3 ft _____________________________________________________________________ ρsteady state = 3. 3.536 ⋅10 .006628 atm) = 0.075 ft 3 = = 1. page 7- .902 ⋅10 -5 3 -5 Qout 7.7302 atmft 3 α=− − = − min3 − ⋅ min atm V VM 10 ft lb mol o R 10ft 3 ⋅29 lbm lbmol atm 0.

21* dP psi : = const = 0.075 3 ⎟ = −0. The reason is that the pressure in the system falls rapidly to a small fraction of an atmosphere. Chapter 3.2 ⎟ ⎜ 0.2 ⎝ s⎠ ⎝ s⎠ s The minus sign indicates a flow out from the tank through the vent.090 ⎜ ⎟⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ s⎠ s s _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Third Edition.73psi ft ⋅ 530o R o lb mol R lbm kg Ý Ý = 0. Here dc = −Qc dt Vsys is constant and cout = csys. so ⎜ ⎟ = 0 = ∑ Qin and out and ⎝ dt ⎠ sys ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ ft 3 Qvent = −Qin + Qout = −0.0408 m vent = Q ρ = ⎜ −1. rising = = 6 2 dt A dt 100 ⋅10 m s hr h _____________________________________________________________________ ⎛ dV ⎞ 3.0023 m in = nin ⋅ M = 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.1 dt min dP RT dn = dt V dt psi 10 ft 3 ⋅ 0. and thus the leakage rate quickly becomes ≈ independent of pressure. and ⎛ lbm ⎞ ft 3 ⎞ ⎛ kg lbm Ý = -0.758 ⋅10 −4 ⋅ 29 = 0.19* 1 dm dV 1 m3 Ý Ý = = (min − mout ) = 10000 − 8000 = 2000 ρ dt s dt ρ 3 m 2000 dh 1 dV s = 2 ⋅10 −5 m = 72 mm = 2.3ft 2 ⎜ 16 ⎟ = −1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. ln = − (t − 0 ) and c V c0 V ⎛ 10 m 3 / min ⎞ ⎛ Q ⎞ kg c = c0 exp ⎜ − Δt ⎟ = 10 3 exp ⎜ − t⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ V ⎠ ⎝ 1000 m ⎠ m Solutions.22 d (Vc )system dt = (cQ)in − (cQ) out where c is the concentration.computed final pressure and time to reach any given pressure.8 in .20 All the flows are incompressible.1 dn lb mol V dP min Ý = nin = = = 1. page 8- .0051 min min _____________________________________________________________________ 3.5ft 2 ⎜ 12 ⎟ + 0. and cin = 0 so that V dc Q c Q = − dt.758 ⋅10 −4 3 dt min RT dt 10.

_____________________________________________________________________ 3. ln ⎢ ⎢ c0 − K / Q ⎥ c−K/Q V V ⎣ ⎦ c = (c0 − K / Q)exp(−Qt / K) + K / Q Comparing this solution line-by-line with Ex.23 V dc = −Qc + K. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.which is the same as Eq 3.1 ft ⎣ ⎦ 0 min ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎞ − 1⎥ ⎛ ⎢ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎢ ( −4 )⎜ 1+ (1 ft 3 / min)/ (−0. ⎛ Qour ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 1+ b ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 a + bt c ⎛ c 1 ⎜ ⎟ . we see that they are the same.8. =⎜ ρ0 ⎜ 1 + (b / a )t ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ Q⎞ 1 + (b / a)t = 1 ⎡ ⎤ 10 ft 3 1 ⎥ a⎢ t= ⎢ − 1⎥ = 3 1 b ⎢ (ρ / ρ )1+ Q/ b ⎥ −0. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. = −(Q + b) dt c a + bt dt dt Vsys = a + bt.5.16 (after taking the exponential of both sides) with concentration replacing density. we see that it is the same. so that we can simply copy.1 ft 3 / min ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ 10 ⎜ ⎦ (ρ / ρ0 )1+Q / b 1 Solutions. with the variables renamed. 3. K = dissolution rate dt ⎡ c− K/Q ⎤ dc Q ⎥ = − Q (t − 0) . 3. and the Q / V one tenth as large as in Ex. ⎜ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜1+ b ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ρ ⎛ 1 ⎟ .1 d (ρV )sys dt = d (ρ (a + bt ))sys dt ft 3 . min = −mout = −Qρ Comparing this to the solution to the preceding problem. a = 10 ft 3 . (a + bt ) = − (Qour + b)c . Its analogs also appear in heat and mass transfer. One can look up the answers on Fig 3. b = −0. Chapter 3. = − dt. with the variables renamed. Third Edition.7.24 ⎛ 1 m3 ⎞ ⎜b = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ min ⎠ d (cV )sys d(c (a + bt )) = = (Qc)in − (Qc )out but (Qc)in = 0 so that dt dt dc dc dt dc dc a + bc + bt = Qour c . page 9- . if one takes the vertical scale as c / c0 and multiplies the time values on the horizontal scale by 10.25 Vsys = a + bt. =⎜ ln = − (Qout + b ) ln ⎟ b c0 a c0 ⎝ 1 + (b / a )t ⎠ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

3⋅10 liters 4 ⎝ 3. Third Edition. That makes the volume of the oceans be ⎛ m ⎞ 3 ⎛ 1000 l ⎞ 3 2 20 ⎟ ⋅⎜ Vocean = ⋅ 4π ⋅ (5280 ⋅ 4000 ft) ⋅ (5280ft ) ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎟ = 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.85⋅10 At 1 atm and 20°C one liter contains 2.3 ⋅10 The assumption of perfect mixing of the oceans since Moses' time is not very good.281ft ⎠ m ⎠ molecules 1000 gm molecules ≈ 18gm ⋅ 6.31⋅10 7 −14 20 = 7.50 ⋅10 22 ⋅7. Chapter 3.31⋅10 7 mols min breath 22.34 ⋅1025 4 20 = 5. and that the average depth is 1 mile. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.4 L yr day hr Thus the fraction of the atmosphere that he breathed was Fraction he breathed = 1.06min ⎣ 2.34 ⋅1025 liter mole mol This ignores the differences between pure water and ocean water.07 ⋅10−14 = 1. page 10- .023⋅1023 = 3.857 ⋅10 20 mols 29 gm lbm Caesar lived 56 years.186⋅1019 lbm in 454 gm mol mols = mass ⋅ ⋅ = 1.27 The mass of the atmosphere is lbm 2 mass = 14.07 ⋅10 1.3⋅10 molecules which were in the liter that Moses examined. which is negligible compared to the other assumptions. except by evaporation and rainfall.⎡ 1 ⎤ = −100min ⎢ − 1⎥ = 64. so he breathed in his lifetime 56 years ⋅ 365 day 24 hr 60min mol breath 1L ⋅ ⋅ ⋅10 ⋅ ⋅ = 1.26* Assume that the earth is a sphere with radius 4000 miles. that it is 3/4 covered by oceans.78256 ⎦ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.77⋅10 9 liter breath Solutions. The deep oceans mix very slowly. Then. The Red Sea does not mix much with the rest of the world ocean.50·E22 molecules so that the number of molecules in one liter of the atmosphere that he breathed must be molecules breathed by Caesar molecules = 2.7 2 ⋅ 4π (4000 ⋅ 5280 ⋅12 in ) 1. 6. a randomly-selected liter contains 3.

The logical answer is ≈ 2 billion.I have carried more significant figures than the assumptions justify.. Third Edition. The perfect mixing assumption is much better for the atmosphere than for the ocean in the preceding problem. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 11- . _____________________________________________________________________ Solutions. Chapter 3. because it is so easy to do on a spreadsheet.

11s V = V0 − gt.Solutions. = = 0.464 2 2 778 ft lbf 32. Third Edition.2lbm ft ft 2000 V s = 62. ft.684 kJ 2 2 32. Chapter 4 In working these problems I have used the and Keyes 1969 Steam Table for English Unit problems. or velocity ft/s _______________________________________________________________________ 10 4. For Freon 12 I have used DuPont publication A-973.2 2 s Solutions.2 (a) (b) 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎜ 2000 ⎟ 2 mV 2 ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s K.02 lbm ⋅ = 1.2 lbm ft lbm kg and for V = 100 ft/s. and the NBS/NRC Steam Tables for SI problems.129 = 0. The gz term will have slope 1. and the V2/2 curve will have slope 2.299 s 778 ft lbf 32. _______________________________________________________________________ 4.1 100 1000 104 Elevation. page 1 .200 = 0.242 ⋅10 3 ft lbf = 1.E. Chapter 4. V = 0 when t = 0 = ft g 32.1 The plots will be straight lines on log-log plots. For z = 100 ft. Btu/lbm Kinetic 10 1 Potential 0.2 2 ⋅100 ft ⋅ ⋅ = 0. we have ft Btu lbf s2 Btu kJ PE = gz = 32. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 lbm ft lbm kg 100 Kinetic or potential energy. we have 2 V 2 (100 ft / s) Btu lbf s2 Btu kJ KE = = ⋅ ⋅ = 0.

the volume of the hydraulic cylinder downstream of the pump ⎡ ⎛ V2 ⎞⎤ ⎢m⎜ u + gz + ⎟ ⎥ = hin dmin − 0 + 0 + dWn.f .73 ft lbf = 5. rack and car. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎡ ⎛ V2 ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎥ = 0 − 0 + 0 + dWn. d ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎠ ⎦sys ⎣ ⎝ Solutions.2lbmft s The fact that the initial kinetic energy and the potential energy at the top of the trajectory are the same is not an accident.f . the water d ⎢m⎜ u + gz + ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ sys but for this system the changes in internal. 6.f.5 (a) System. ⎡ ⎛ V2 ⎞⎤ ⎢m⎜ u + gz + ⎟ ⎥ = 0 − 0 + 0 + dWn. rack and car. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Third Edition. rack and car.f .423 kJ (c) System. piston. Our system is the ball. d ⎢m⎜ u + gz + ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ sys ⎣ ⎦ Here the left hand term is zero.21⋅10 4 ft s s 2 2 ft lbf s2 4 3 PE = mgz = 0.2 2 ⋅6.1s − 32.94. Here the dWn. Chapter 4.21⋅10 ft lbf =1. If one applied the above equation with the same system from takeoff until the ball hit the ground.f .0lbm ⋅ 6 ⎡ ⎛ V2 ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎥ = 0 − 0 + 0 − dWn. potential and kinetic energies are all ≈ 0. d ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎠ ⎦sys ⎣ ⎝ with this choice of system the change in potential energy is significant. Work was done on the ball as the airplane lifted it from the ground.f. 4.05 J 2 32.02lbm ⋅32.3* ft lbf s2 ⋅10ft ⋅ = 3.f . water. so there is no work done on the ball! This appears paradoxical. ≈ 0 . _______________________________________________________________________ z = ∫ Vdt = V0 t − 4. see Prob.4 with the final KE being equal to the work done by the airplane in lifting the ball.1s) = 6. page 2 .684 kJ (c) 32.21⋅10 ft ⋅ = 6. then we would have ⎡ ⎛ mV 2 V2 ⎞⎤ final ⎢m⎜ u + gz + ⎟⎥ = 0 − 0 + Δ ⎜ − ΔWn. but the ball is simply converting one kind of energy into another. but the water is merely transferring work from the pump to the piston. This seems odd. dWn.1 2 ft 1 ft 2 gt = 2000 ⋅ 62. Air resistance complicates all of this.f = mgΔz = 4000 ft lbf = 5423 N m = 5. so that dWn. is the algebraic sum of the work done on the water by the pump and the work done by the water on the piston. ⎟⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎠ ⎦ sys 2 ⎣ ⎝ 4.2 2 ⋅ (62. (b) System.2 lbmft s _______________________________________________________________________ W = Fdx = mgΔz = 2.

If we had worked it in absolute. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.184 kg °C ≈ 2.62 = −0. steady flow Wh kWh kWh = −0.dWn. _______________________________________________________________________ 4.7* System the pump. the water path through the dam.f.f.4 m −P (1000 − 14.2 2 (−80 ft ) + ⎜ s − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ s dm 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solutions.f.6* System.00062 = −2. But it shows how one would proceed if one did not have access to a suitable steam table..8⋅10 −4 kg kg lbm This is negative because it is work flowing out of the system. = d(mu)sys − hin dmin if we assume no change in temperature (a good assumption) then usys = uin = constant and dWn. −4000ft lbf ft 2 3 3 = ⋅ 2 2 = 0.00062 = −2.8 System. one can use ΔP (20 − 1)bar 100 kJ kJ kJ Δh ≈ + CP ΔT = kg ⋅ m 3 bar + 4. ⎟ = −(397. Third Edition. If one does not have access to those tables.7)lbf / in 144 in Here we work the problem in gauge pressure. the power plant.f. rack and piston were driven up. The enthalpy values are from the NBS/NRC steam tables. rack and piston =.f. Solving for vin dmin vin dmin = dWn. page 3 . = − Pvin dmin here dWn. steady flow ⎛ dQ ⎞ kJ dWn. Chapter 4.93 E .0 + 401 ≈ 403 kg ρ 962 3 m which is only approximate because the equation used is approximate and the values of the density and heat capacity are only approximate.94 + (−2)) = 412 = − ⎜ hin − hout + ⎝ dm ⎠ kg dm The work is positive because it is work done on the system. steady flow ⎛⎛ ⎞2 ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 5 ft ⎟ ⎜ 100 ⎟ ⎟ ⎛V2 ⎞ dWa⋅0 ⎠ ⎝ ft ⎜⎝ s⎠ ⎟ = gΔz + Δ ⎜ ⎟ = 32. _______________________________________________________________________ 4.8⋅10 −4 kg kg lbm = −0. then we would have needed to include a term for driving back the atmosphere as the car. _______________________________________________________________________ 4. is the work done by this system on the car.4000 ft lbf. from inlet to outlet.0282ft = 7.99 − 807.622 Wh kWh kWh = −0.

dm ⎛ ⎛ m⎞ 2 ⎛ m⎞ 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜15 ⎟ − 9⎜ ⎟ ⎟ dWn. steady flow.0 = −1. power plant.10 System. and not on the pressure. nozzle. unsteady state.3 lbm o F o Tout = 600 − 260 = 340 F = 800°R = 444 K ______________________________________________________________________ −1.f. hence negative according to the sign convention.955⋅106 4.702 lbm lbm kg The minus sign goes with the new sign convention. page 4 .07 E4 s lbm lbm ft 2 2 Btu s2 ⋅ lbf s ⋅ = −260 o F ΔT = Btu 32. 0 = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ in ⎝ 2 ⎠ out ⎝ ⎛⎛ ⎞2 ⎛ ⎞2⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 2000 ft ⎟ − ⎜ 300 ft ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ s⎠ ⎟ s⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ΔV 2 ⎝ ⎝ Δh = CP ΔT = − = 2 2 2 ft ft lbf Btu = −78.4 + 72.ft lbf Btu kJ = −0. work flows out of the power plant. Here the students must use the fact. ⎛ ΔV 2 ⎞ ⎜ m ⎝ s⎠ ⎝ s⎠ ⎟ m2 ⎟ = ⎜ 9.955⋅106 2 = −6.11* System.0) = −320 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ dm ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜ s 2 s ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ kg ⎞ ⎛ J Ws m 2 ⎞ N s2 Po = ⎜ 5000 ⎟ ⎜ -320 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = −1.602 MW ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠ kg m N m J s ⎠⎝ This is power leaving the system. ______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ ⎛ V2 ⎞ V2 ⎞ ⎜h + ⎟ − ⎜ h + ⎟ 4.f. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.81 2 ⋅ (−40 m) + = ⎜ gΔz + = (−392. ______________________________________________________________________ = −235 dW Ý 4.302 = −0. Third Edition. the tank up to the valve. stated at the beginning of this set of problems. ∫ d(mu) sys = 0 − hout ∫ dmout + ∫ dQ − 0 : ΔQ = Δmu + hout Δmout but Δ msys = −Δmout so that ΔQ = Δmout (hout − u ) = Δmout (CP − CV )T = Δmout RT Solutions. Chapter 4.2lbm ft 778ft lbf 0. that for a perfect gas u and h are functions of T alone. steady flow Po = m n.9* System.

Using the solution to problem 4. contents of the container. even approximately if one tries this in the laboratory. and in the first two editions of this book (see page 118 of the second edition). System.12 System.0 293.15 − 1.15K CV Tf = = ⎞ 0. but the mass of gas from which it is transferred is also small so their ratio is substantial.40 ⋅ 293. The amount of heat transferred is small.15) 1− i ⋅ ⎜ Ti − P Tin ⎟ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ 1.5 ⎛ 1 C P 1 ⋅ (293. d(mu)sys = hin dmin .8 Btu = 15. Even in the few seconds it takes to fill such a container the amount of heat transferred from the gas makes the observed temperature much less than one calculates this way. ______________________________________________________________________ 4.62 kJ in 778 RT ______________________________________________________________________ ΔQ = 4. CEE 33(1). page 5 . This is explored in Noel de Nevers. ______________________________________________________________________ Tfinal = Tin 4.15 Pf Ti ⎝ CV ⎠ Solutions. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Chapter 4.13 See the discussion in the solution to the preceding problem.12.4 ⋅293.Δ nout = capacities V (P − P2 ) here we switch from mass to moles. adiabatic. (mu) f − (mu)i = hin(m f − mi ) CV ( f Tf − mi Ti )= CPTin (m f − mi ) m Pi ⎛ m − m ⎞ V RT Pi Tf C f i⎟ i . In spite of that this is a classic textbook exercise. "Non-adiabatic Container Filling and Emptying". 26-31 (1999). Substitute and rearrange to Tf = Tin P ⎜ = ⎜ m ⎟= CV ⎝ Pf Ti ⎠ V Pf f RTf ⎛C ⎞ Tin ⎜ P ⎟ ⎜C ⎟ ⎝ V⎠ Tf = If Pi = 0. Unfortunately the adiabatic assumption cannot be realized. which appears in almost all CV thermodynamics books. adiabatic ∫ d(mu)sys = hin ∫ dmin . this simplifies to the solution to the Pi 1 ⎛ CP ⎞ 1− ⋅ ⎜ Ti − T ⎟ Pf Ti ⎜ CV in ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ preceding problem. which is repeated here. and for ideal gases CP = kTin This is the classic solution. contents of the container.13 we have CP T 1. and use molar heat RT 1 lbf 144 V (P1 − P2 )RT = V (P1 − P2 ) = 1ft 3 ⋅80 2 ⋅ = 14. Third Edition.14 See the discussion with problem 4.

The propagation velocities of high explosives are of the order of 10. Our bodies make fats out of carbohydrates so that we can store them for future use (in case of famine). earth satellites. we would expect carbohydrates to have 9·0. I don't know what will! ______________________________________________________________________ 4.16 ⎛ V2⎞ Btu Δ ⎜ ⎟ = 1800 ⎜ ⎟ lbm ⎝ 2⎠ ⎛ Btu ⎞ 778ft lbf 32. compared to hydrocarbons. So if fats have 9 kcal/gm. ______________________________________________________________________ 4.47 = 4.2 lbm ft ft mi km V = 2⎜1800 ⋅ = 9497 = 1.85⋅10 lbm If this won't convince the students that c2 is a large number.65 g 13 Btu c 252cal 3. As fats an equal amount of food takes about 47% Solutions.4 ) = 342K = 68. but not much. Fats are roughly (CH2)n.= 293.89 ⎟⋅ 2 ⎝ ⎠ lbm lbf s s s s Btu Such velocities are observed in meteorites. and in the kinetic energy weapons proposed in the Star Wars defensive systems.8 = 2. Carbohydrates are roughly (CH2O)n.5(−0. and not included in the weight of the fuel.47.15* c 2 dm = dQ dQ −14 ⋅1012 cal Btu −3 dm = 2 = ⋅ = −1. much faster than ordinary combustion reactions. Then some will figure out why. Some will know that the seeds have fats. Some will figure out that the heating value is for the fuel plus the oxygen needed to burn it. compared to 1 to 10 ft/s for hydrocarbon flames. with ≈ the same density as the initial liquid or solid.44 ⋅10 lbm = -0.000 Btu/lbm.17 This is a discussion problem. taken from the air. Chapter 4. You can estimate the pressure for this from the ideal gas law.000 ft/s.9°C = 156°F 1 − 0. Ask them why.15K (1. finding amazing values. This simplifies the chemistry a little. That is so fast that the reaction is complete before there is significant expansion. page 6 . You might ask your students what parts of plants have fats. Third Edition.2 ≈ 4 kcal/gm. They do not release large amounts of energy per pound. It is easier to store the energy for that as a fat than as a carbohydrate.4 ) ______________________________________________________________________ 4. the leaves and stems practically zero. put down roots and put up leaves before it can begin to make its own food. For one C atom the ratio of weights is (14/30) = 0. and this problem shows that high explosives only release about one tenth of that. To stimulate class discussion you can tell the students that hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline have heating values of ≈ 18. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. ICBMs. High explosives include their oxidizer in their weight. The assignment of a seed is to find a suitable place. What they do is release it very quickly. and the solid (or liquid) explosive turns into a high temperature gas.

d (mu) = 0 − 0 + dQ + 0 0.as much space and weight as the same food as carbohydrates. This latter is not quite correct.12 ⋅1014 ⎟ ⋅ ⎝ dx ⎠ hr o F ft ⎝ ⎠ dt ft hr mi The amount of mass converted to energy is dQ Btu −1. assuming negligible outflow of mass. ______________________________________________________________________ 4. c 2 dmsys = dQ ______________________________________________________________________ 4.f. unsteady state.20 System.02 o F 1 Btu = kA⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ π ⎜ 8000mi ⋅ = −1. Thermodynamics explains a lot of basic biology! ______________________________________________________________________ 4.18 System. unsteady state. Chapter 4.21* System. steady flow dWn. contents of calorimeter. accurate measurement of small temperature difference. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.85⋅1013 lb ______________________________________________________________________ 4. the boundaries of the sun. Note that the metal walls of the calorimeter are outside the system.12 ⋅1014 dm hr = −2. because particles are blown off the sun by solar storms. It corresponds to a good grade of coal.19 System: earth. but their contribution to the energy balance of the sun is small compared to the outward energy flux due to radiation. condensation of water vapor produced on combustion.0 cal = −500g ⋅ 5o C ⋅ − 5000g ⋅ 5o C ⋅ o o g C g C = −300 − 25 000 = −25 300 cal ΔQ −25 300 cal cal Btu Δu = = = −6325 = −11395 m lbm 4g g Sources of error: heating of gases in calorimeter. the power plant from inlet to outlet. The heat flow is ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎛ dQ Btu 5280ft ⎞ 2 −0. Third Edition.12cal 1.9 lb = dt = 2 Btu dt hr c 3. The value here is between that for fats and for carbohydrates. ⎛ V2 ⎞ ⎜ Δh + gΔ z + Δ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ dm 2 ⎠ ⎝ Solutions. page 7 .

096 − 3. steady flow.2 lbm ft ⎠ ⎜ ⎢ lbm ⎝ s ⎟ 778 32. What nature does is independent of how we think about it. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. h f = hi (b) System. h f = hi i The results are the same.2 2 ⋅10 ft ⋅ ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ lb 778 ft lbf 32. We may show that they do not violate the first law by making an energy balance for each. (a) ⎛ Btu ft Btu lbf s 2 ⎞ ⎟ Δ (u + gΔz) = 0 = ⎜ −0. Third Edition.22 (a) System.2 ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ Btu kJ = (1 − 0.2 ft lbm ⎠ \ s ⎝ = −0. u f − uc = (Pv i − Pf v f ). valve and a small section of adjacent piping. Be patient! Solutions. as they must be.01284 + 32.895 lbm⋅ ⎜ 1232. page 8 .144) = −2. They all violate common sense.01284 = 0 (b) ⎛ ⎛ Btu ⎞ Btu Btu ⎞ ⎟ + 0.07 lbm kg _____________________________________________________________________ 4.⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ ⎜ 50 ⎟ − ⎜ 400 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ Btu lbf s2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎢ Btu ⎛ ft s⎠ ⎟⋅ 1 ⋅ 1 ⎥ ⎟ +⎜ = ⎢1 + ⎜ 32 2 (−75ft ) ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ 2 778 ft lbf 32. Chapter 4. one kg of material flowing down the line.01284 + 0. If you doubt that. as they must be for an adiabatic throttle. These all violate the second law.105 lbm ⋅ ⎜ −143.34 ⎝ ⎝ lbm ⎠ lbm ⎠ lbm is equal to the initial internal energy. Δ u = 0 + Δ W . waiting to see it spontaneously jump to a higher elevation and cool. all violate the second law. put a baseball on a table and watch it. ______________________________________________________________________ 4.2 ⎟ = 1088 ufinal = 0.24 = −1.23 None of these violate the first law. which (c) The upstream and downstream enthalpies are the same.

29 2 32.2 3 ⎟ ⎜ 8 ⎟ 2 ρV 2 ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ N ⋅s ⋅ Pa ⋅m = 31. Third Edition.0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ lbm o F ⎠ Discussion.1* d (u + gz ) = 0 Δu = −g(Δz) = −32. we do not observe friction heating unless it is concentrated.29 ⎟ Δu ⎝ o lbm ⎠ (b) ΔT = =⎛ ⎞ = 1. spinning tires on drag racers. Chapter 5.64 psi ΔP = = 2 2 kg⋅ m N Δu = 0 Solutions. boy scouts making fire by friction.3* (a) 2 ⎛ kg ⎞ ⎛ m ⎞ ⎜ 998. Chapter 5 5.f.94 kPa = 4. smoking brakes. ⎛ hasdimension⎞ ft ⋅ lbf 32. z⎜ ρg 2g gdm g ⎝ of ⎠ lbf 3 ΔP ⎛ has dimension⎞ ft 2 32. F ⎟ ft + Δz + = − . e. hot drill bits or saw blades.2 lbf s2 ft Btu Btu − (1000 ft) ⋅ = 1.2 The head form is 5.f. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 1 .2 lbm ft 778ft lbf s lbm ⎛ Btu ⎞ ⎜ 1.29 ⎟ Δu ⎝ o lbm ⎠ (a) ΔT = = = 11 F ⎛ ⎞ CV .12 ⎟ ⎜ o ⎟ ⎝ lbm F ⎠ ⎛ Btu ⎞ ⎜ 1. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ has dimension ⎞ ΔP ΔV 2 dWn.2lbm ft ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ [= ]ft ⎠ ft ⋅ lbm gdm ⎝ of lbf s2 s2 ft 2 F ⎛ hasdimension⎞ s2 ⎜ ⎟ [= ]ft ⎠ ft g ⎝ of 2 s _______________________________________________________________________ 5.steel Btu ⎜ 0.water Btu ⎟ ⎜ 1.Solutions.g.3 F CV .2lbm ft [= ] ft = ft ⎜ ⎟ ρg ⎝ of ft 2 lbf s2 ⎠ lbm ⋅ ft 3 2 ft s 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎛ has dimension⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎜ ⎟ s [= ] ft 2g ⎝ of ⎠ ft 2 s dWn.

311 269. psi 0.7 psia P1 = ⎛ = 1.016 = 345.0 ⎛ ft 2 ⎞ ⎜100 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ρ (V − V2 ) ρ ⎡⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎛ 10 ft ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎝ s ⎠ 5.075 = 7.602 476.1.2 multiplied by P1 ⎛ (P1 + Patm )⎞ with all ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ pressures absolute. Third Edition.20 2 ⋅ kg ρ Pa ⋅ m N ⋅ m kg 998.7 kPa = 4. carrying more significant figures than are shown in Table 5.0050 kPa 62.1)(31. 8.1 0.016 and the calculated velocity is ⎛ (P1 + Patm )⎞ (15. Ch.992 268. delta P.94 kPa) N J J Δu = = ⋅ = 3.5 s s Below is a table comparing the three solutions.3 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 100 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ = 0.5 The answers are the answers in Example 5.352 266. Δu = 32. For 1 psig.4 ⎟ ⎥= ρ ΔP = = ⎢⎜ 10 ⎟ − ⎜ ⎝ 3 s⎠ ⎥ 9/4 2 2 ⎢⎝ s ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ (a) For water ft 2 ⎞ lbm ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ ft 2 lbf s2 ΔP = 62. page 2 .7 psia )⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ft ft V = 340 ⋅1.799 V .697 465.2 ⋅10−4 psi = 0.747 190.3 0.094 110.239 480. ft/s 35.827 191.28 psi 0.640 190.3 _______________________________________________________________________ ΔP = above answer ⋅ 5.6 1 2 V.090 110.9⋅ (answer from part a ) = 28.(b) ΔP = 0.546 339.100 110. Chapter 5.1ΔPrevrsible (0.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ⎝ 9 ⎠ ⎝ 2 1 2 (b) For air 0.405 Solutions.384 343.1 kPa ⎜ ⎟ s ⎠ 32.60 psi = 4.269 V.2 3 m J kg _______________________________________________________________________ (c) ΔP = 0.01 0. this Problem ft/s 35. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. this factor is 15.7 psia + 14. simple BE ft/s 35.198 345.

3 5

554.136 678.100

572.306 713.154

579.222 725.709

From the table we see that while the simple approach in Example 5.2 underestimates the velocity, the approach in this problem overestimates it, but by a smaller percentage than the simple approach in Example 5.2. If one is not going to use the approach in Ch. 8, then this approach is more accurate than the simpler one in Example 5.2. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.6 The plot will be a straight line with slope 1/2 on log-log paper. For a height of 100 ft ft ft V = 2gh = 2 ⋅ 32.2 2 ⋅100 ft = 80.2 s s The figure is shown below 1000

V, ft/s

100

10

10

100 h, ft

1000

_______________________________________________________________________

**ft ft m V2 = 2⋅ 32 ⋅ 2 ⋅12 ft = 27.8 = 8.47 s s s ft 3 m3 ft 2 = 1.57 Q = VA = 27.8 ⋅2 ft = 55.6 s s s _______________________________________________________________________ 5.8 The density of the fluid does not enter Torricelli's equation, so ft ft m V = 2gh = 2 ⋅ 32.2 2 ⋅ 30 ft = 44.0 = 13.4 s s s
**

5.7*

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 5, page 3

Discussion; ask the students if you dropped a can of water from 30 ft, with zero air resistance, what the velocity at h = 0 would be. The ask about a can of gasoline. _______________________________________________________________________

**ft ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞2⎞⎞2 27.8 A answer to Prob. 5.7 ⎜ ⎟ s = 30.3 ft = 9.24 m = 5.9* V = ⎜ 2gh / ⎜ 1− ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ = 1 1 ⎜ ⎜A⎟ ⎟ s s ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞2⎤2 ⎝ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎠⎠ ⎝ [1− 0.16]2 ⎢1- ⎜ 2ft ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ 5ft 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 3 3 ft ft m Q = 30.3 ⋅ 2 ft 2 = 60.6 = 1.71 s s s _______________________________________________________________________
**

1

5.10

V = 2gh = 2 ⋅ 32.2

ft ft m mi = 65.9 = 147 2 ⋅ 726 ft = 216 s s s hr

Discussion; the dam is fairly thick at its base, so the pipe would be long, and friction would be significant. Torricelli's Eq. is not reliable here. See Chapter 6. _______________________________________________________________________

5.11

m m ft = 46 2 ⋅10 m = 14.01 s s s 3 ⎛ ⎞ m m ft 3 2 Q = VA = ⎜ 14.01 ⎟ (5m )= 70.0 = 2474 ⎝ s s s⎠ V = 2 ⋅ 9.81

I'm sure all of you liked the movie "Titanic", particularly the scene in which the boat's designer, resigning himself to death. says that the design allowed for the boat to survive flooding of two compartments, but not four or five. Apparently the safety doors divide the boat's hull into some number (7 on the Titanic?) of compartments, all of which are open at the top. So if the hull is punctured, as in this problem, and the doors close properly, one compartment will fill with water up to the level of the water outside, but the other compartments will remain dry. Apparently the impact with the iceberg opened the hull to more compartments than the ship could survive, even with the safety doors closed. Presumably if the compartments were sealed at the top, then even that accident would have been survivable, but it is much easier to provide closed doors on passageways parallel to the axis of the boat, in which there is little traffic, than on vertical passageways (stairs, elevators, etc.) on which there is considerable traffic. _______________________________________________________________________

5.12 From Eq. 5.12

V2 = 2gh = 43.9 ft which is absurd. s

⎛ ρ ⎞ V2 = 2gh⎜ 1 − air ⎟ = 0 which is quite plausible. ⎜ ρ air ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ _______________________________________________________________________ From Eq 5.22

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 5, page 4

5.13*

⎛ ΔP ⎞ ΔV 2 = 0; V2 = 2⎜ − − gΔz⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ρ 2 ⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎛ρ ⎞ ΔP = P2 − P1 = − ρ air gΔz ; V2 = 2g(− Δz)⎜ air − 1⎟ ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎝ He ⎠ ΔP + gΔz +

**The densities are proportional to molecular weights, so
**

⎛ 29 ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ ft m V2 = ( 2)⋅ ⎜ 32.2 2 ⎟ ⋅ (40ft )⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ = 127 = 39 ⎝ 4 ⎝ ⎠ s ⎠ s s

This looks strange, because the velocity is higher than the velocity from Torricelli's equation. However it is correct. The reason is the very low density of the helium, which makes the difference in atmospheric pressure seem like a large driving force. _______________________________________________________________________

5.14

V = 2gh ;

m m ft ⋅10 m = 0.14 = 0.46 s s s 2gh Some students will say you should use V = 2 . That multiplies the above 1 − (A2 / A1 ) answers by 1.00005, which is clearly negligible compared to the uncertainties introduced by the standard Torricelli's assumptions. _______________________________________________________________________ 2gh = 0.01 2 ⋅ 9.81

⎛ dh ⎞ A ⎜− ⎟ = outlet ⎝ dt ⎠ tank Atank

⎛ dh ⎞ Q = VAoutlet = Vtank Atank = Atank ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ tank surface

5.15

⎛ ΔP ⎞ V2 = 2⎜ − − gΔz⎟ , but ΔP = ρ gasoline gΔz so that ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ ft m V2 = 2g(− Δz)⎜ 1− gas ⎟ = 2 ⎜ 32.2 2 ⎟ (30ft )(1− 0.72) = 23.3 = 7.09 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρw ⎠ s ⎠ s s ⎝

**This is the same as Ex. 5.5, with different fluids. _______________________________________________________________________
**

5.16* V2 = −

ΔP

P = 30ft ⋅ gρ water ; P2 = 10 ft ⋅gρ water + 20 ft ⋅gρ oil 1 P − P2 = 20 ft⋅ g(ρ water − ρ oil ) 1 ⎛ ft ⎞ ft m V = 2(20 ft )⋅ ⎜ 32.2 2 ⎟ ⋅ (1− 0.9 ) = 11.3 = 3.46 ⎝ ⎠ s s s _______________________________________________________________________

ρw

=

P1 − P2

ρw

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 5, page 5

3 kPa gage This indicates that at that velocity. and that the flow is from right to left.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ft ft m = 74.17 ⎛ ΔP ΔV 2 ⎞ ⎟ Assuming the flow is from left to right F = −⎜ + gΔz + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ lbf 8 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 32.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = (−2. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5 2 2 lbm ⎜ ⎟ lbf s s ⎟ s s ft ⎜ 62.18* V2 = 2⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ lbf ⎜ 20 2 32.19 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ρ ⎝ ρ 2 ⎠ ⎛ ft 2 ⎞ ⎜ 100 2 ⎟ 2 ⎛ V2 ⎞ ft ft 2 lbm s ⎟ ⋅ lbf s P = ρ ⎜ g(−h) + 2 ⎟ = 62.50 2 32.16 + 0.5. Chapter 5.2 = 22. there is a vacuum in the top of the vessel.6 2 = −4.2 2 ⋅ 30 ft ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ lbm ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ lbf s 2 s ft 2 ⎠ ⎜ 62.2 2 ⋅ (−5ft ) + ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ 1 s ⎝ ft ⎜ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎟ 32.6 s s _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions. page 6 .3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ft _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ ΔP ⎛0 − P ΔV ⎞ V 2 − 0⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟=0 + gΔz + 2 ⎟ = 0 .2 lbm ft 144 in ft in F = ⎜− ⋅ ⋅ + 32.4 = 17.51 2 ⎜ ⎟ s ⎠ s s s ⎝ The negative value of the friction heating makes clear that the assumed direction of the flow is incorrect.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⎟ ⎛ ΔP ⎞ ft in ⋅ 5.2lbm ft 144in 2 ⎟ ft ft m in ⋅ V2 = 2⎜ ⋅ + 5ft ⋅32.3 lbm lbf s s ft ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ft 2⎞ 2 2 ⎛ ft ft m ft = ⎜ −595 2 + 644 2 ⎟ = − 48.2 2 ⋅20 ft + 0⎟ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ 62. + g(−h) + 2 5. Third Edition.20 V2 = 2⎜ − − gΔz⎟ = 2⎜ − ⋅ − 32.2 2 ⎟ = 57.67) = −1. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ ΔP ⎞ − gΔz⎟ 5.49 psig = -10. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ ⎞ lbf ⎜ .3 3 ⎜ 32.

meaning that in reading them one is automatically extracting the square root of the signal. Chapter 5.21* Let the water-air interface be (1). ΔP = ∫ ρ (rω 2 )dr = ρω 2 (r 2 2 − r12 ) ⎛ 2π 2000 min ⎞ 2 in ft m 2 2 ⎟ (21in ) − (20in ) = 1341 = 112 = 34 = ⎜ ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ min 60s ⎠ s s s ( ) _______________________________________________________________________ 5.1 2 2 lbm ⎜ ⎟ ft lbf s s s s ⎜ 62. Solutions.58 = 18.2 2 ⋅10 ft ⎟ = 46.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⎟ ft ft m in ⋅ = 2⎜ ⋅ + 32.23* V2 = − 2Δ P ρ 2 ⎤ 2 ⎡ ρω 2 2 ⎢ V2 = (r2 − r12 )⎥ = ω 2 (r22 − r12) ⎢ ⎥ ρ⎣ 2 ⎦ . Then V3 = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 2 3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ρ ⎝ ⎝ Hg ⎠ ⎠ but P3 =P1 and P2 = h2 ρw g .81 2 ⋅1m ⎥ = 5. so that ⎤ ⎡⎛ ρ ⎞ V3 = 2 ⎢⎜ h2 g w ⎟ + gh1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢⎜ ρHg ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ ⎤ ⎡ m 1 m m ft = 2 ⎢(8 m) ⋅ 9. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. the mercury-water interface be (2) and the outlet ⎛⎛ ⎞ P − P3 ⎞ ⎟ + g(z − z )⎟ be (3).81 2 ⋅ + 9. pitot tubes) the flow rate is proportional to the square of the pressure difference. The chart manufacturers refer to these as "square root" charts. Third Edition. venturi meters. page 7 . One solution to this problem is to have chart paper with the markings corresponding to the square of the signal. the desired information. If this is shown directly on an indicator or on a chart. Then ⎛P − P ⎞ V2 = 2⎜ 1 2 + g(z1 − z )⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ lbf ⎜ 10 2 32.5.2 = 14. is proportional to the square of the signal.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ft _______________________________________________________________________ 5.6 s s s _______________________________________________________________________ 5.24 In Bernoulli's equation devices (orifice meters. These devices most often send a signal which is proportional to the pressure difference. For example if one inch of chart covers the range from zero to 20% of full scale.3 ⎦ ⎣ s 13. the flow rate.22 Let the water-air interface be (1) and the outlet be (2). then four inches of chart will correspond to the range from zero to 40% of full scale.

Third Edition.25* Vmax = 2gh = 2⋅ 32.1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft m ft⎟ ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ = 0.2 Vmin = (2)⎜ 32. boat fans will buy anything.075 3 ft 0. e.4 = 17. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. many new flow recorders extract the square root of the signal electronically. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5ft ⎞ ⎛ 62.3 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ in ⎠ ⋅ 32.3 = 7. which is marked to read the speed directly in mi/hr or equivalent.057 s hr s This is one of my favorite discussion problems.3 − 0.With recent advances in microelectronics.4 ⎝ 0.6 ft = 131 mi = 58. Moving blade or moving cup anemometers are most often used for low-speed gas flows. The indicated airspeed is = V(ρ/ρsea level)1/2 which is found by putting this pressure difference across a diaphragm.72 ⎠ s s ⎠ ⎝ gasoline _______________________________________________________________________ 5.2 2 ⎟ ⎜ = 14. This indicated air speed is the Solutions.2 ft ft mi m ⋅10ft = 25.14 V2 = 2gh⎜ manometer fluid − 1⎟ = (2)⋅ ⎜ 32.7 s s hr s These have actually been sold.26 V2 = 2gh ρ air (ρfluid − ρair ) ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ 0.28 V= 2 ΔP ρ (a) (b) ⎛ lbf ⎞ 2⎜ 0.46 = 0.2 lbm ft ⋅ 144 in = 192.7 m V= 2 2 lbm lbf s s hr s ft 0.075 ⎠ s ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ s hr s Low-speed flows of gases are hard to measure with Bernoulli's equation devices. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. page 8 . On the dashboard of an airplane (private or commercial) is an "indicated air speed" dial. and use a chart with a linear scale. and using a linkage to drive the pointer around a dial. For speedboats the pitot tube is normally connected directly to a bourdon-tube pressure gage.9 = 151 = 67. Chapter 5.27* see preceding problem ⎞ ⎛ρ ⎛ ⎞ ft ⎞ ⎛ 0.075 ft mi m V = Above answer ⋅ = 220.3 0. meteorological measurements.075⎞ ft mi m ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 47. The students have certainly seen these in weather stations. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.2 = 32.2 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ρ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 0.g. because the pressure differences are so small.

see Secs. 5. the corresponding absolute velocity goes up. For a given weight.16.2 lbm ft = 66.29 2 ⎛ km hr 1000 m ⎞ ⎜ 60 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ kg ⎝ hr 3600 s km ⎠ N s2 Pa m 2 ΔP = 1002 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 139.31 Example 5. 5.14 and 7. they go faster. This means fewer hours between takeoff and landing.2 psig m 2 kg m N _______________________________________________________________________ 5.49ft 3 / s ⎠ ⎝ Q0 ⎠ and similarly for other values. e. Using the methods in this book.30 Equation 5.85 ft = 4011 ft V= 2 lbm lbf s2 s min ft 2 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. That means less fuel used.velocity of interest for pilots. _______________________________________________________________________ 0.49 ft3/s. so this is also effectively a lift indicator. As the air density goes down.BN predicts that for a VP (which we would call ΔP ) of 1 inch of water = 0. for 1 ft3/s ⎛ Q ⎞2 ⎛ 1ft 3 / s ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 1psig⎜ ⎟ = 0. page 9 . Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. The form of the equations is the same. We can get other values by ratio. Solutions. Chapter 5. The lift is directly proportional to the indicated air speed. so for any value of ΔP the prediction of this "practical" equation is within 0. we find for that pressure difference lbf 2 in 2 ⋅ 144 in ⋅ 32. You can ask the students why commercial airliners fly as high as they can.03615 5.g. 6.161 psig ΔP = ΔP0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2.6. and happier customers who do not like to sit too long in an aircraft.8 shows that for a pressure difference of 1 psig the volumetric flow rate is 2. fewer hours to pay the pilots and crews for.0016 times the 4005 in Eq.16% of the value from Eq.2 kPa = 20. So by going high.075 2 ft This is 1.03615 psig the velocity is 4005 ft/min.BN. Third Edition. there is only one indicated air speed at which they can fly steadily in level flight. V proportional to the square root of ΔP .

on arithmetic coordinates is probably easier for non-technical people to use.984 so that if we take this correction into account we would report ft m In most common work we would probably ignore this difference. psig 100 10 8 6 Q. From Fig 5.72) 2 ft m s ft = 5.075 3 Q 2gh( ρmanometer − ρ ) / ρ ft ft s 5. 5. V2 = 235 = 71.32 V2 = = ≈ 4 4 A 1 − (D2 / D1 ) 1− (0.7 E 5.19 2⋅ 32.2 2 ⋅1 ft ⋅ 62. The upper one.17 = 1. and would probably be selected if technicians were to use it.58 lbm 4 s s 62.The plot is shown at the right in two forms.6 s s _______________________________________________________________________ ( ) 5.5) ft m = 239 = 72. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. on log-log coordinates is probably the more useful.3 3 / 0.72) 1 − (0.8 s s One may compute that the Reynolds number at 1 is ≈ 3.5) ft V2 = ( ) Solutions. cfs 4 2 00 5 10 Delta P. Third Edition. The lower one. psi 15 20 _______________________________________________________________________ lbm lbm ft 2 ⋅ 32.1 1 10 Delta P. because the fractional uncertainty in the reading is practically the same over the whole range. Here I have chosen the pressure drop as the independent variable.2 ft lbm ⋅1ft ⋅ 62.3 3 (0.33 We use Eq. page 10 . Chapter 5. because that is the observational instrument reading.11 one would estimate Cv ≈ 0.3 3 (1− 0. 10 Q. cfs 1 0.

3 3 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ft = 12.35 Let (1) be in the pipe opposite the top leg of the manometer.0 ft = 3.2 2 ⋅ 62.34* V2 = ρ + 2g(z1 − z2 ) 2 1 − (A1 / A2 ) lbf 2 2 32.5) 5.1in ρHgg = ρwg ⋅ (2 + 1.5 ft = 6.72 = 0.3 3 ⋅ ⎜ ft ⎟ ft m s ft ⎝ 12 ⎠ V = 1. Chapter 5.3 3 1 − (0.36* V = Cv interface . Here D2 / D1 = 0. P water-mercury = P + ρ waaterg ⋅2 in 2 2 interface ρ 1− (A2 / A1 ) Pmercury− air = P1 = Pmercury-water + ρHg g ⋅ 0. See Eq 5.48 s s s _______________________________________________________________________ interface Solutions.5) ft ft ft 3 m3 2 Q = V2 A2 = 12.72(62.01 = 0.33 4 s s 1 − (0.5ft ) = 4.17 s s s 2⋅ 32.13 s s 4 s _______________________________________________________________________ 2(7 .ft ⎛ π ft 3 m3 2⎞ ⎜ (0.5ft ) ⎟ = 1.5 ⎛ lbm ⎞ s s 2 ⎜ 0.1 in ( 2(P1 − P2 ) ) P − P2 = 2 in ρwg + 0.2 2 ⋅2 ft 2 lbm lbf s2 s ft 0.075 3 ⎟ (1− 0. Third Edition.66 m sec V2 = lbm 4 s s 62.1 ) ⎝ ⎠ ft ft ft 3 m3 Q = VA = 123 ⋅1ft 2 = 123 = 3.6 − 1)⋅ 62.0 = 0.2 ( ) From the figure there is no way to tell which way the water if flowing.19.5 / 2 = 0.36 ⎞ 2 ⋅ 32.36 ) in 1 ft lbm ⎛ 3.5 lbm ft ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ft ⎟ ⋅ (13.17 2(P1 − P2 ) 5. page 11 . _______________________________________________________________________ 5.0 = 123 = 37.5) 3 ft π ft m 2 Q = VA = 24.3) 3 ft m ft = = 24. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. (2) be in the vertical section opposite the lower leg of the manometer.0 ⋅ 0.2 lbm ft 144 in ft in ⋅ ⋅ + 2 ⋅32.0 ⋅ (0.0 = 7.029 ⎠ s ⎝4 s s _______________________________________________________________________ Q = V2 A2 = 5.

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Demands for higher fuel economy and lower emissions are causing the carburetor to be replaced by the fuel injector.052 D2 19.72 ⋅ 62.83 atm air AF = 15 = 13. Rich combustion leads to increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The density is proportional to the molecular weight. _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions. Chapter 5. for which one wants a lower air fuel ratio (" rich ratio"). _______________________________________________________________________ 5. one gets a practically constant air-fuel ratio. independent of the throttle setting. the air-fuel ratio should be constant. ⎛ lbm ⎞ 2 ⎛ D ⎞ 2 ⎜ 0.83 atm.15 (d) At 5280 ft the atmospheric pressure is about 0. so the air fuel ratio would become ⎛ lbm ⎞ 0. the predicted jet velocity in the burners will be the same for propane and natural gas.075 3 ⎟ ft ⎟ . The air density falls while the fuel density does not. simple. In a way it is sad.37 (a) AF = Ý m A AAVA ρ A . there are special air pollution rules for autos at high elevations. Because of the higher density of propane. = Ý m F AF VF ρ F VA = VF 2 2 ΔP ρA ΔP = ρF ρF ρF We cancel the pressure difference because both the incoming air and the liquid gasoline ⎛ ⎞2 AA ⎜ DA ⎟ = in the reservoir are at the same pressure. the diameter of the jets will normally be reduced.3 lbm ⎟ ⎝ ⎟ ⎝ ft 3 ⎠ 1 1 1 (c) DA = 19. page 12 . This explains why this type of carburetor was the practically-exclusive choice of automobile engine designers for about 80 years. 15 = ⎜ A ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ DF ⎠ ⎜ 0. self-regulating device. For the values shown. to get comparable burner aerodynamics.5. Then and AF ⎜ DF ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ D ⎞2⎛ ρ ⎞ 2⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ D ⎞2⎛ ρ ⎞ 2 AF = ⎜ A ⎟ ⎜ F ⎟ ⎜ A ⎟ = ⎜ A ⎟ ⎜ A ⎟ ⎜ D ⎟ ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎜ ρ ⎟ ⎜D ⎟ ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎝ F ⎠ ⎝ A⎠ ⎝ F⎠ ⎝ F ⎠ ⎝ F⎠ (b) As the above equation shows. High altitude conversion kits (smaller diameter jets) are available to deal with this problem. to maintain a constant heat input. the basic carburetor is a really clever.7⎜ ⎜ lbm ⎟ ⎟ 1 atm ⎝ fuel ⎠ and the engine would run "rich". mostly cold starting and acceleration.38 By Bernoulli's equation the velocity of a jet is proportional to the square root of the pressure drop/density. With a very simple device. DF DJ 1 = = 0. independent of the air flow rate. But the velocities of the individual gas jets are held the same. Third Edition.15 . The rest of the carburetor was devoted to those situations in which one wanted some other air-fuel ratio.

84 )= 0.24 ) = 0.8 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− A22 ⎟ = ( − 0.62 ⎟ 32. Third Edition.6⋅ 62.2 the multiplier is 1.14.9 kPa 2 2 (2)(0. Doing this by "goal seek" on excel one finds D2/D1 = 0. − ΔP = 1− ⎛ D ⎞ 4⎞ 2Cv2 ⎜ ⎜ D0 ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ρ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ D0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ π 2 ⎞ ⎜ (1 in ) ⎟ 1 ft ⎜ 4 ⎟ = 25 ft V2 = ⎜ π 0. 5.0008.5 .3 2 = 70.2in 2 ⎟ s ⎜ ( s )⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 4 ⎜ 55 3 ⎟ ⎜ 25 ⎟ 1− (0.30. page 13 .5.5 ) 1 ⋅ = 3.57 2 ⎜ 0.768 1 ⎜ A1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− A22 ⎟ = ( − 0.9992 1 and for D2 / D1 = 0.6) 32. _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions.2 . We then ask the spreadsheet's search engine to find the value of D2/D1 which makes the press drop = 3 psi. This is a simple scale change for each curve on Fig. ⎜ A1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ So the curves for C would simply be the corresponding curves for Cv divided by these values (or multiplied by their reciprocals). Then ⎛ ⎞2 ⎛ ⎞2 ⎜ D1 ⎟ = 1 ft ⋅ ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 4 ft and V2 = V1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ s ⎝ 0. Chapter 5.8 it is 1. while for 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5205.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 2 in ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ This is done on a spreadsheet. For 0.5 ⎠ s ⎝ D2 ⎠ 4⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1− ⎜ D2 ⎟ ⎟ ρ ⋅ ⎜ V ⎟ − ΔP = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎠ 2 ⎝ Cv ⎠ lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 13.3 3 ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ft 2 lbf 4 ft ⋅ ⎜ s ⎟ ⋅ lbf s = ( − 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.39 ⎛ ⎞4⎞ 2(−ΔP) ρ V22 ⎜ ⎛ D ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ V2 = Cv ⎛ .2 ) lbf s2 ft 2 lbf ⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ − ΔP = ⋅ ⋅ = 10. or practically 1.2 lbm ft 144in in _______________________________________________________________________ ( ) 5.40 Here for D2 / D1 = 0. First we guess that D2 / D1 = 0.41 This is simplest by trial and error.

2 lbm ft 144 in Solutions.2 2 ft s s = +31.12.2 ⋅10 ft⎟ = 25.z1).3 ⎟ (14.7 − 0.94 = 23.43 ΔP + gΔz + 5.55 = 30. Third Edition. Δz = − − ρ 2 ρ g 2g ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 lbf ⎜ 10 ⎟ − (1− 14.2 m V2 = = 2 2 2 lbm ft lbf s s s ρ 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 62.5 (b) V2 = ⎜ ⎜ part (a) ⎟ ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 20 20 s s _______________________________________________________________________ ( 2(P − P2 ) 1 2 ⋅ (20 − 0 ) ) ΔP ΔV 2 ΔV 2 = 0 .67 − 1.3 3 ⋅32.3 3 ft ⎛ V2 from⎞ (20 -11. Working from 2 to 3. Solving Eq.2 2 2⋅ 32.3 3 ⋅ (. we have 2⎞ ⎛ P3 − P2 V32 ⎜ ⎛ A3 ⎞ ⎟ + (z3 − z2 )g + ⋅ 1−⎜ ⎟ = 0 ⎜ ⎟ ρ 2 ⎜ ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ 2⎞ V2 A P2 − P3 = ρ (z3 − z2 )g + ρ 3 ⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜A ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 = 62. Either gives the same result.2 lbm ft ⋅ 144in = 63.12 1/ 2 ⎛ ⎞ 1/ 2 ft ft m V3 = [2g(h1 − h3 )] = ⎜ 2⋅ 32.71 ⎝ ⎠ s s s One may make the next step applying BE from 1 to 2 or from 2 to 3.19 − 9.5 ft) ⋅32.2 lbm ft ⋅ 144 in − ⎝ = 2 2 lbm ft ft ft lbf s 62.0 ft = 19.09 m _______________________________________________________________________ 5. we find P1 − P2 V22 (z2 − z1 ) = − ρg 2g ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 lbf ⎜ 25.44 The velocities will be the same as in Ex.45 This follows Ex.34) 2 2 s⎠ in ⋅32.42* (a) lbf 2 in 2 ⋅ 32.3 = 7.5.2 2 ft s s = 33. Chapter 5.2 2 2 ⋅32.18 m _______________________________________________________________________ 5.5 ft m = 63.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 ft s 32. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.AX for (z2 . 5. 5.3 3 ⋅32. 5.7) 2 32.5) 8. page 14 .11 ft = 9.1 = 12.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⎝ s⎠ in ⋅ Δz = ⋅ − 2 2 lbm ft ft ft lbf s 62.0 = 41.25ft = 7.

Chapter 5.54 psig = + 7. 5.0 ft ⎠ ⎠ 32. applying BE from 1 to 2a. then the flow at any instant would be unchanged. So this is really the same as Ex.16 − 5. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Solutions. the higher the speed at which the propeller can turn without cavitation.16 psia = 49.04 = 62RPM ω max = max = πD π ⋅15ft s _______________________________________________________________________ 5.54 2 = −7. Take (2a) at the interface between the gasoline-water interface.1 V s = 1.3 3 ft ft 49.38 = −7.26 2 ⎟ 2 ft ft m ⎝ in ⎠ 32.48 See Ex.14 with the initial height being 24.14. because it reveals the position of the submarine to acoustic detectors.46* Take the ocean surface as (1) the tip of the propeller at its highest point as (2) 2(P − P2 ) 1 + 2g(z1 − z2 ) V2 max = ρ ⎛ lbf ⎞ 2⎜ 14. Here the velocities ρgasoline 2 are both negligible. the pressure at 2a will always be that due to 20 m of gasoline.4 kPa abs in _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Third Edition. As in that example take (1) at the upper fluid (gasoline) surface and (2) at the outlet jet.0 2 2 lbm ft ρ lbf s s s 62.4 m and the final height being (14.1 = 15.3 ⎟ ⎛ ⎛ 2 2⎞ lbf s2 lbm ⎝ ft 2 s ⎠ ⎜ ⎜ 1. If we replaced the 20 m of gasoline with 14. which is the same as that of 14. Submarines which do not wish to be detected operate with their propellers turning slower than their minimum cavitation speed.7 − 0.3 3 ⋅ ⎜ 1− ⎜ ⋅ 2⎟ ⎟ 2 2 ft ⎝ ⎝ 1.5ft ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⋅ + 62.⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜ 25. page 15 . the greater the depth.4 +1 ) 15. ΔP ΔV 2 Then. Thus this is a plug-in. 5.4 m of water. 5.2 lbm ft 144 in = ⋅ ⋅ + 2 ⋅ 32. However the noise from propeller cavitation is a serious problem for submarines. we have + gΔz + = 0 . so that P2 a = ρ gasoline g(z1 − z 2 a ) Then applying BE from 2a to 3 we find V32 ρ gasoline g(z1 − z2 a ) = + g(z2 a − z3 ) 2 ρwater At this point we can observe that as long as the gasoline-water interface is above the nozzle.2 lbm ft 144 in lbf = − 2.47 See solution to Prob. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.4 m of water.4 m. so this is not as severe a problem for submarines (submerged) as it is for surface ships. Clearly.2 ⋅ 4 ft = 49.46*.

2 ft ⎞ 1/ 2 ⎜ ⎟ s2 ⎠ (π / 4) ⋅(10 ft)2 ⎝ [ ] [ ] V0 A ⋅1 ft 1 = (100 + 14.4 m )1/ 2 Δt = 1/ 2 = 45. finally 1 ft.50 (a) See the preceding two problems. (b) In this case we have P = P0 Solutions.49* See the solution to the preceding problem.2 ft − 7. 5. The period when the interface (either gasoline-water or gasoline-air) is close to the nozzle is not easy to predict by simple BE because the Δz becomes comparable to the diameter of the opening. Then this is the same as Ex.4m )1/ 2 − (24. This gives the answer to part (c).7 psia V A ⋅ (6 − h)ft (6 − h / ft) where h is the height of the interface above the nozzle. the 5-fold expansion of the gas lowers its absolute pressure by a factor of 5. The final pressure is 22. because in this period the density of the flowing fluid is the same as that of gasoline. I have the device described in that problem. and the non-uniform flow phenomena discussed in Sec. but not lower. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.19 ft of water. −2 Δt = A ( h2 − h1 )= 1 2 32. 20 psig is the equivalent of 46. then run the demonstration. finding the same time as for water. 5. Then one repeats the whole derivation in Ex 5.11 come into play.13 .7)psia = 114.19 ft ) Δt = = 7.14.5 s 2 2g 2⋅ 2 A1 100 s _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Third Edition. See Prob. 5. asking the time for the level to fall from 17.24 psig.2ft ( 17.8 s = 0.2 ft of water.11 s = 0.53. page 16 .94 psia = 8. down to an interface one or two diameters above the nozzle.2 ft.19ft ) − (5 + 46. so that 1/ 2 1/ 2 −2 (1 + 46. which may please some students better. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. I regularly assign the problem. is to write V32 ρ gasoline g(z1 − z2 a ) = + g(z2 a − z3 ) = α + g(z2 a − z3 ) where α is a constant (as 2 ρwater long as the interface is above the outlet). initially 5 ft.2 ft to 7.12 min (π / 4 )⋅(1 ft) 2 ⋅ ⎛ 2 ⋅ 32. Chapter 5. One can estimate well.2 ft )= 36. One can also compute the time from when the interface has passed the exit to when the surface is 1 m above the exit. which would produce a vacuum and stop the flow if the initial pressure were 20 psig. The easiest way to work the problem is to conceptually convert the 10 ft of gasoline to 7. finding the same result.81 2 ⎟ s ⎠ (π / 4 )⋅(10 m)2 ⎝ An alternative.76 min (π / 4) ⋅(1 m)2 ⎛ m⎞ ⋅ ⎜ 2⋅ 9.−2 (15.

534 6.375 0.033 35.370 3.778 80. The time for the surface to fall dt Atank s s Δh −0.949 64.323 0.25 4 3.850 Solutions.733 1.771 30.5 3.23 .233 35.430 0.743 -0.353 1.23 dt s remained constant over this height.5 4.288 10.009 23.600 -0.805 -0.078 -0.180 27.25 2 1.680 Cumulativ et 0.635 0.482 74.940 5.533 20.843 42.278 31.245 0.460 0.434 -0.2 ⎟ Voutlet = 2 ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⋅144 2 + 32.⎛ −ΔP ⎞ + gh⎟ where −ΔP = the At any instant.000 77.878 -0.25 3 2. If we substitute that equation in the velocity a + ch where a.557 0.860 4.490 0.702 2.159 52.880 41.170 6.813 96.709 38.071 15. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.07 ft/s.227 -1.75 1.203 s if the velocity 1. ft/s -1. h.467 65.910 3.030 1. and an integral of the form .368 46. Third Edition.700 91. For time zero we have ⎛ ⎞ lbf ⎜ 100 2 ⎟ lbm ft in 2 ft ft in ⋅32.447 8.636 49. and c are expression we get an equation of the form Voutlet = b−h dh constants.297 0.526 -0.383 4. But as the following table shows.217 0.01⋅122.060 61. but not easily.350 50.997 56.7 psia.650 36.988 25.463 -0.227 59.789 9.75 3.66 lbm ⎜ ⎟ ft lbf s s s ⎜ 62.966 -0.75 4.380 -0.302 68.975 12.217 0.760 76. This might be reducible to one of a + ch b−h the forms in my integral table.271 0.461 0.639 87.2 2 ⋅ 5 ft = 122.664 107.355 delta t 0.479 dh/dt. the velocity declines.523 0.5 2.480 2.75 ft above the outlet would be Δt = dh = ft = 0.595 0.5 1.673 38. ft/s 122.349 0. Instead we proceed by a spreadsheet numerical integration. which is -1.587 28. Then we make up the following spreadsheet.887 13.689 -0.489 24.494 -0.75 ft. the velocity is given by Voutlet = 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ ⎠ above absolute pressure minus 14.25 ft from 5 to 4.592 18.407 -0. page 17 .310 43. psia 114.940 P psig 100.403 0.75 2.422 40. ft 5 4. b.077 2.767 50. so we cover this height step using the average of the velocity above.240 V inst. and the velocity at h = 4.543 57.000 0. Chapter 5.292 32.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ft dh A ft ft and = − out Voutlet = −0.642 -0.978 45.675 26.562 -0.66 = −1.25 1 P.147 22.

Both round to 6.8563 s.52* The instantaneous depth in the tank is h.85 s.53 This is the same as Ex.51 Vout = 2gh .13 −2( h2 − h1 ) Δt = .30 min 12 in s ⎠ Solutions. Chapter 5. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. For increments of 0.3 s ⎥ ft ⎢ 1 1 ft 2 2 ⋅32. 5.2 ft A1 s2 20 _______________________________________________________________________ 5.5 ⋅ 2 ⋅32.8498 s. Following Ex.Finding a time of 6.25 ft. Third Edition. Then this becomes the same as Ex. One may test the stability of this solution. = 0 h0 h0 dt a + bh h h= h top ⎡ ⎤ 3⎥ ⎢a b 1 ⎢ Δt = h + 3 h2 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ Aout 2g ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2 2 ⎦ h= 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ 50 ft 2 3⎥ 1 2.14.5 ft ⎢ = 20 ft + 3 (20 ft )2 ⎥ = 74. h1 = h1 A2 2g A1 2 h 2 h1 s Δt = A 1 = = 9.2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 s dh dt _______________________________________________________________________ 5.5 in (π / 4) ⋅(0. 5. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 18 . with much smaller dimensions. shown in the table.h.5 ft ⋅h = a + bh Atank = 50 ft 2 + 50 ft 2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 20 ft ⎠ where a and b are constants. the time is 6.14 Δt = −2 (1 in ) 6 in ⋅5. h2 = 0. Let h' = h1 . For increments of 0.85 s.97 ⋅ h1 ft 2 2g 0. by rerunning it with smaller height increments. which match a Plexiglas demonstrator which I have used regularly in class.2 ft ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ 2 [ 1/ 2 − (11in ) ⎝ 1/ 2 ] 1/ 2 ⋅ ft = 78 s = 1. The original spreadsheet carries more digits than will fit on this table. Δt h adh h dh − Aout 2gh − Aout 2g ∫ dt = ∫ + b ∫ hdh .3 in) ⋅ ⎛ 2 ⋅32.1 ft it is 6. (c) See the discussion at the top of part (b). Qout = Aexit Vout = −Atank ⎛ h ⎞ ⎟ = 50 ft 2 + 2.

t.11). where the assumption that the diameter of the nozzle is negligible compared to the height of the fluid above it becomes poor (see Sec 5.original outlet 2h0 Atank cross section V2 .5 ft ⎛ 29 ⎞ ft V2 = C 2gh⎜ air − 1⎟ = 0. When I do this I assign the problem and ask each student to write her/his name and predicted time on the blackboard before I run it.43 ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ s ⎜ 4 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ t= 2h0 Atank cross section V2.14 we write that 2 (V2.original V2 This is a straight line on a plot of vs.5 ft ⎞ 2 ⎞ 2⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎜ 4 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = = 246 / s 2⎞ ft ⎛ π ⎛ 0.r. so that V2 h = .25 ft ⎞ ⎟ 3. finding V2. page 19 . (b) For totally unmixed flow the densities above and below the interface between gas and the air which has flowed in from below are constant. Third Edition. Some students like that.When I have run this in a classroom (with a sink) the times are typically 84 to 88 s. 5. finding V A t V2 = 1− 2 . initial ) Aoutlet = to dt 2h0 Atank cross section which we can then separate and integrate from start to any time. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.5 ⎞ ⎛ρ ft 7. Much of the time is spent in the last inch.5ft ⎞ ⎛ π ⎛ 6.43 ⎟ ⎜ρ s 12 ⎝ 16 ⎠ s ⎝ gas ⎠ Here we introduce the orifice coefficient because the hole drilled in the lid of the can is much more like a flat-plate orifice than like the rounded nozzles in the Torricelli examples.54 (a) See Ex. others don't.original ⎛ 7.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ = 3. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.. initial ) dt h0 dt dh Aoutlet . We substitute this in the preceding equation and simplify = −V2 dt Atank cross section 2 dV2 −(V2. original Aoutlet For the totally mixed model we have Solutions.6 2 ⋅ 32. initial h0 2V2 dV2 1 dh = . t . Then using the same ideas as in Ex 5. Chapter 5. Its value is zero when V2 . We then square both sides and differentiate w.

initial ⎟ exp ⎜ − Q ⎟ 1 − ⎜ 1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ V ⎟ ρ air ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ can ⎠ In principle. you'll be impressed! However it is easy to solve this on a spreadsheet.341ft / s = 3.⎛ ⎞ ρair ⎜ ⎟ −1 ⎜ρ ⎟ V2 ⎝ gas mixture in can ⎠ instantaneous = ⎞ ⎛ V2. it has a "can" subscript. The first line is obvious. We take the exp of both sides and rearrange. initial 1 − (1 − 16 / 29)⋅ 0. page 20 . above.905 V2 = 0. Following the nomenclature. finding Solutions. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. In this problem two Vs appear. both are italic. nor has anyone shown me how.1.916⋅ 3. Then (16 / 29) ⋅0. initial ρ air ⎟ ⎜ −1 ⎟ ⎜ρ ⎝ gas mixture in can ⎠ initial By material balance.905. one should be able to eliminate Q from this relationship by V2 Q − Aoutlet t ∫0 V2dt = − Vcan to get V2. we can easily compute that exp(-Q/V) = 0. The solution is shown below. finding ⎛ Q ⎞ ρmixture = ρair − (ρair − ρmixture )initial exp ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ V ⎟ ⎝ can ⎠ We then substitute this into the velocity ratio equation and simplify to ⎛ ρ gas initial ⎞ ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ exp⎜ − ⎜ ρ ⎟ ⎜ V ⎟ ⎟ V2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ can ⎠ air = ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ρ gas initial ⎞ V2.431 s.905 V2 = = 0. but I haven't Vcan been able to do so.145 ft / s We get delta t by differentiating the material balance. dρ Ý Ý Vcan mixture = m in − m out = V2 Aoutlet (ρ air − ρ mixture ) dt Which we rearrange to dρ mixture VA = 2 outlet dt (ρair − ρmixture ) Vcan and integrate to ⎛ (ρ − ρ ⎞ −A t Q air mixture ) ⎟ outlet ln ⎜ ∫0 V2dt = − Vcan ⎜ (ρ − ρ ⎟= V ⎝ air mixture )initial ⎠ can Q where is the number of can volumes which have flowed into and out of the tank Vcan since time zero. Try it. For Q/V = 0. taking the can as our system. initial as an explicit function of t. Third Edition. the volume of the can and the instantaneous velocity.916 and V2. When a V is the volume of the can. Most of the spreadsheet carries more significant figures than are shown here. Chapter 5. at time zero there has been no flow in and V = V0 = 3.

057 0. V2 . Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.7 0.836 0. which is a tolerable match with the observed ≈ 325 s.727 2.438 1.594 25.297 1. page 21 .⋅ ⋅⎜ ⎟ (0.1 to 0.912 21.905 0.797 22.5 1.899 13.321.741 0.285 0.25 in ⎠ 3.670 0.435 0.524 1. For the plug flow model the agreement is 1.449 0.9 1 1.269 32.407 0.634 2.420 28. We can see that the required value of = = 0.275 236.994 s which is certainly a minimal change.43 for it by V A t (1− 0.969 0.150 0.497 0. average π ⎛ 0.316 58.301 0.414 1.341 + 3.original outlet .43 s Solutions.331 1.original V2 .692 24.588 0.202 0.1 1.183 0.782 2.899 264. ft/s delta t.593 295.983 26. s t cum.145 12.8 1.549 0.607 0.065 114.077 38.653 0.5 in ⎞ = 167 s ⎟ ⎜ t= ⎟ ⎜ ft ⎝ 0.594 2.052 0.5 ⋅(3.6 1.8 0.213 362.370 1.3 1.117 0.678 2.557 1.2 0.05 and found that the time to Q/V = 1.1 ft/s corresponds to ≈ 420 s. (c) From the above table we may interpolate that 1. Chapter 5.774 0.3 0. We solve V0 3.247 0.916 3.948 0.223 0.819 0.136 41.171 436.495 16.684 15.314 1.037 20.493 1.504 27.431 0 0.1 − 0) Vcan Δ(Q / Vcan ) 4 12 ⎝ 12 ⎠ Δt = = = 12.9 V.850 12.845 2.342 30.776 94. π 7.85 s 2 ft Aoutlet V 2.264 0. Third Edition.273 0.321)⋅ 2h0 Atank cross section V2 t= = 0.465 1.4 1. exp(-Q/V) V/V0 1 1 3.717 208.4 0.541 0.725 s to 476.165 0.363 327.5 ft 2 (1 − 0.321 = 1− 2 .020 40.145) ⋅⎜ ⎟ s 4 ⎝ 12 ⎠ Each number in the rightmost column is the sum of the one above it and the one to its immediate left.333 0.147 398.725 I tested the stability of this solution by reducing the increment size from 0.5 ft ⎛ 6.5 0.391 1.527 75.201 34.833 0.174 18.5 ft ⎞ 2 Q/V 0 0.321) ⋅2 12 ⎛ 6.049 0.7 1.289 476.368 0.1 V not good as good.350 1.812 0.904 0.9 changed from 476.original Aoutlet 2h0 Atank cross section 7.1 0.326 17.2 1.784 158.137 36.6 0.221 183.25 ft ⎞ 0.399 136.850 0.

portable. This is a very simple. cheap.584⋅ 2gh V2 = ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ρpropane ⎟ ⎥ 44 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ This is true at all values of h so we can simply substitute this value and find that the required time is the answer to that example divided by 0. looking for an ignition source. dikes or low spots will trap some or all of it. dramatic demonstration to use in class. and ditches.56 At the periphery. In the center hole the pressure must be higher than atmospheric. Thus by BE. Prog. Solutions. 5. We see that the instantaneous velocity is given by ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤1/ 2 ⎢2gh⎜ 1 − ρair ⎟ ⎥ = 2gh ⋅ ⎛ 1 − 29 ⎞ = 0. If there is leak of any liquid fuel (gasoline.77 minutes. Chapter 5. I give this problem as an introduction to a safety lecture. the pressure must be rising steadily in the radial direction. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. For me it is a fine demonstration of unsteady-state flow. As of spring 2003 you could watch a film clip of a version of this demonstration at http://chemmovies. Thus the figure is as sketched below. Propane is by far the most dangerous of the commonly-used fuels. In making up this solution I found two errors in [7].14 with Ex. page 22 . and then burning at the elevation where people are.5. 5. Eng.We always tell the students that the totally mixed and plug flow models will normally bracket the observed behavior of nature. 80-82 and 124-126 (1987).584 = 5. dikes and low spots. They see all sorts of interesting combustion-related issues in it.edu/Chemistry/DoChem/DoChem049. But released propane forms a gas heavier than air. 84(6). Third Edition. in order to give the gas its initial velocity and to overcome the frictional effect of the entrance into the channel between the cardboard and the spool. heating oil) it will fall on the ground and flow downhill. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. where the air flows out. No 5. But the ground will absorb some. 22-27 (1988). buoyancy will take it up away from people and away from ignition sources. which flows downhill. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.html The combustion specialists in Chemical Engineering at the U of Utah like this demonstration very much.55 Replacing the flowing liquid with a gas heavier than air requires us to combine Ex." Fire Journal 81. See "Chemical Engineers as Expert Witnesses in Accident Cases" Chem. and "Propane Overfilling Fires.unl. That happens here. its pressure must be the same as that of the atmosphere (subsonic jet!). diesel. I hope the version here is error free. and flows over ditches. By material balance (assuming that the width of the flow channel between the cardboard and the spool is constant) the velocity is proportional to (1/radius) so the velocity decreases with radial distance. If there is a large leak of natural gas.

so the velocity at the perimeter is L 0. Third Edition.7 m V= = L A 22 mm2 s s The velocity at the edge of the center hole is Dperimeter m 35 mm m Vhole = Vperimeter = 22. Q= _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions.0 mm 2 .2 kPa = 1.05 psi At the periphery the pressure is 0.05 psi.Pressure above atmospheric Centerline radius of disc radius of hole Atmospheric pressure _______________________________________________________________________ 5.05 psig. page 23 Pressure below atmospheric .57 1L L = 0. the pressure at the edge of the center hole must be minus 1.e.00 psig.2 mm = 22.5 6 3 Q s ⋅ 10 mm = 22 736 mm = 22. i. Since the pressure increases by 1. a vacuum of 1.20 3 ⎛ ⎛ 2 2 ρ 2 2 m ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ 22.7 m ⎞ − ⎛ 112 m ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ N s ⋅ Pa m ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ΔP = ⋅ (Vperiphery − Vhole )= ⎜⎝ ⎝ 2 2 N s⎠ s ⎠ ⎠ kg m ⎝ = 7. Chapter 5. finding kg 2 2⎞ 1.05 psi from center to periphery.5 The area of the periphery is 2s s A = π Dh = π ⋅ 35 mm ⋅ 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.7 = 112 Dhole s 7.1 mm s Then we apply BE from the edge of the hole to the perimeter.

25 1.223 0.15 0.15 1.05 0 0.2 1.05 0.095 0.272 These values are plotted below.049 0.1 1.2 0.5.35 P2 / P 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions.000 0.230 0.3 0.3 1.15 1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. with smooth curves drawn through them. page 24 .25 [M/RT]·[dW/dm] 0.58 The numerical values are shown below: P2/P1 1 1. Third Edition.3 0.25 1.15 0.05 1.35 0.1 0.2 0. Chapter 5.2 1.097 0.049 0. It must be clear that at low values of the pressure ratio the three curves are practically identical.182 0.95 1 1.05 1.187 0.1 0.25 0.262 0.1 1.000 0.3 incompressible isothermal adiabatic 0 0.143 0.140 0. 0.

0 2 QΔP s ft ⋅ HP s = 0.2 lbm ft = 29. Third Edition.44 psi = 3. page 25 .3 ⋅ 5ft = 146.355 HP = 0.59 The pressure difference needed to support the load is − ΔP = The velocity under the skirt is V = Q = VA = Vπ Dh = πh 2W 2(− ΔP ) W W =π A D2 4 ρ = .1ft 3 ⎞ ⎛ 14. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 5.93 m V= = (b) 2 lbm ρ lbf s s s 0. There are two put up each winter within five miles of my house. P2 Ý Po = m = ρQ ln = P1Q ln dm M P1 P1 2 W 5000 lbf ft P2 = = ⋅ 2 = 0.22 with the coefficient described below it.7 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⋅ = 0. 0.44 ⎞ 144 in 2 hp s ⎟ ln ⎜ Po = ⎜14.0479 kPa lbf ft 2 32.15 s s s ft 3 lbf 146.05 kN ⎛π ⎞ A 10ft )2 144 in ⎜ ⎟( ⎝4⎠ ⎛ lbf ⎞ ⎛ 6.5.007 psig = 0. using Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ 2ΔP 2 ⋅1.0 5.1 lbm π s 12 lbf s 2 ρ π ⋅ 0.036 in H2O = 0. Chapter 5.7 + 0. regularly crossing English Channel.60* (a) The gauge pressure inside the structure must equal the weight of the roof per unit area. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. thus 8⋅ 5000 lbf 32.67W 2g 3 Q= h2 3/ 2 Solutions.75 550 ft lbf These structures are widely used as winter covers for outdoor tennis courts.52 kW ⎟⋅ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎝ 14.7 ⎠ ⎠ ft in ⎝ 550 ft lbf As far as I know these devices were quite popular for a while.2 ⋅1.5 = 8760 cfm = 4.61 (a).3 ft = 8.f.0 lbf/in2 = 0. P = 1.264 kW (c) Po = = η 0. and some other applications.075 3 ft 4 RT1 P2 dWn.075 3 ft ft ft 3 m3 2 Q = VA = 29.01 ft 3 ft π ⋅ = 6. but have recently declined in popularity. As far as I know there are still ferry boats that use this system to stay above the water.2lbm ft 0.69 hp = 0.

⎡ 3 ⎤ ⋅Q ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ h=⎢ 2 ⎢ 0.67W 2 g ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

2 3

⎡ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 100 m 3 ⎞ ⎢ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ =⎢ ⎢ 0.67 ⋅ 50m 2 ⋅ 9.81 m ⎢ s2 ⎣

⎤3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ = 1.007m = 3.3 ft ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

2

(b)

m3 Q s = 0.4 m V1 = = A (5⋅ 50) m 2 s 100

(c) Here, looking at the equation 5.BI, we see that the average value of 2gh is m2 m ⎛ 0 + 1.007 ⎞ ⎟ m = 9.88 2 (2gh)avg = 2 ⋅9.81 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎠ 2 s s ⎝ 2/2 is constant at 0.08 m2/s2, so the ratio of the neglected term to the while the value of V1 one retained is m2 0.08 2 s = 0.008 = 0.8% Ratio = m2 9.88 2 s _______________________________________________________________________

5.62

Vtop = 2 ⋅ 32.2

Vbottom

ft ft 2 (30 − 0.25) ft = 43.77 s s ft = 2 ⋅ 32.2(30 + 0.25) = 44.14 s

**= 0.9917 Vbottom Clearly we make a negligible error by ignoring this in the standard Torricelli's problems. _______________________________________________________________________
**

2 V1 A2 ⎛ D2 ⎞ V22 V1 2 Ý Ý = =⎜ ⎟ ; = − gΔz 5.63 m1 = m2 = ρAV ; V2 A1 ⎜ D1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜32.2 2 ⎟ (−1ft ) 2gΔz V2 ⎝ s ⎠ = 1− = 1− = 8.087 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 V1 V1 ⎜1 ⎟ ⎝ s⎠ D2 1 = = 0.3516 ; D2 = 0.25 in (0.3516 ) = 0.088 in = 2.23 mm D1 8.087 _______________________________________________________________________

Vtop

5.64 See the preceding problem. I have the solution on a spreadsheet, so I can simply duplicate that, and ask the spreadsheet's numerical engine to find the value of Δz for which

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 5, page 26

D2 / D1 = 0.1 / 0.25 = 0.4 , finding − Δz = 0.594 ft . By hand, we rearrange the above equations to ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 4 4 ⎛ ⎜1 ⎟ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ V02 ⎜ ⎛ D1 ⎞ ⎟ = ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ 0.25 in ⎞ − 1⎟ = 0.594 ft ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎟ − Δz = ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ 2g ⎝ ⎜ D2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ 2 ⋅32.2 ft ⎝ ⎝ 0.1 in ⎠ 2 s At first I was puzzled that ≈ 0.6 ft produces D2 / D1 = 0.4 while 1 ft produces 1/ 4 D2 / D1 = 0.35 . However we see that D2 / D1 ∝ (−Δz) so that the diameter decrease is rapid at the nozzle, and becomes much slower as the stream accelerates due to gravity. _______________________________________________________________________

5.65 I got this quote out of a book somewhere. I wish I remembered where. As the following calculation shows, by simple B.E. one would estimate a much higher velocity. However choosing 1.013 bar as atmospheric pressure may be too high for a major hurricane; the pressure at which the velocity is negligible may be substantially below that. In any event, 2ΔP 2 ⋅ (1.013 − 0.850)⋅10 5 Pa N m 2 kg m V= = ⋅ ⋅ 2 kg ρ Pa N s 1.20 3 m m ft mi = 164 = 538 = 367 s s hr _______________________________________________________________________

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 5, page 27

Solutions Chapter 6 For all problems in this chapter, unless it is stated to the contrary, friction factors are computed from Eq. 6.21. 6.1 For non-horizontal flow one simply replaces the (P1 - P2) term with (P − P2 ) + gρ(z1 − z2) 1 which makes the equivalent of Eq. 6.4 become. −r[(P1 − P2 ) + gρ (z1 − z2 )] τ= 2Δx and the equivalent of Eq. 6.9 becomes ⎛ ⎞ π D04 ⎜ (P1 − P2 ) + ρ gΔz ⎟ Q= ⎟ μ 128 ⎜ Δx ⎝ ⎠ For vertical flow Δz/Δx is plus or minus 1; for some other angle it is cos θ so that Eq. 6.9 ⎞ π D04 ⎛ dP Q= + ρg cosθ ⎟ ⎜− becomes ⎠ μ 128 ⎝ dx _______________________________________________________________________ 6-2 Assuming a transition Reynolds number of 2000, R ⋅μ 2000⋅ 0.018 cP 6.72 ⋅10−4 lbm ft m V= = ⋅ = 3.87 = 1.18 D ⋅ ρ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ft ⋅ 0.075 lbm ft s cP s s ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ft 2 ΔP 4 f V 16 = ρ ; f = = 0.008 Δx D 2 R 2 ⎛ lbm⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ (4)(0.008)⎜ 0.075 3 ⎟ ⎜ 3.87 ⎟ 2 ft 2 ΔP ⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s = ⋅ 2 ⎛1⎞ 32.2 lbm ft 144in Δx ⎜ ⎟ ft ⋅ 2 ⎝ 12 ⎠ kPa −5 psi = 4.7 ⋅10 = 0.0011 m ft

These values are low enough that air is very rarely in laminar flow in industrial pipes. _______________________________________________________________________

6.3* Again assuming a transition Reynolds number of 2000, 2000 ⋅1.002 cP 6.72 ⋅10−4 lbm ft m V= ⋅ = 0.259 = 0.079 ⎛1⎞ lbm ft s cP s s ⎜ ⎟ ft ⋅ 62.3 3 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ft 128 2.09⋅1e − 5 lbf s / ft 2 ΔP 128 μ = = ⋅ π D4 π (ft / 12)4 Δx lbf psi kPa = 0.0250 3 = 0.0001735 = 0.0039 m ft ft or, taking f = 16/ R = 0.008, and using the friction factor formulation

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 6, page 1

6 F = −gΔz = Δu = − 9.10. μ D0 This marked sensitivity to errors in diameter shows why this type of viscometer is almost always treated as a calibrated device. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 144 mile 2 These values show that water is occasionally. It is often in laminar flow in laboratory or analytical sized equipment.008⋅ 62.3⋅ (0.259) psi 1 1 psi = ⋅ ⋅ = 1. = (Vmax ) = (Vavg ) 4 _______________________________________________________________________ − 6. but not often.11.12 m )⋅ ⋅ = 1.8 πr02 A Δx μ 8 Vavg ΔP 1 r02 = 2 which is Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ ΔP π r04 ⋅ ⋅ 2 Q Δx 4 8 = − ΔP 1 r0 Vavg = = 6. Third Edition.735⋅10 −4 = 0. 6. Take ln of both sides and differentiate.5 . 6.4 From Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ in μ μ α4 α dQ dρ or so that a 10% error in Q or ρ causes a 10% error Q ρ (c) dμ 6.77 2 s N m kg m kg Solutions. page 2 . finding Q Δx 128 dμ dρ d(−Δz ) 4dD0 dQ d (Δx ) d ln μ = = + + − − μ ρ − Δz D0 Δx Q (a) and (b) dμ μ= ρg(−Δz )π D04 dD0 so that a 10% error in D0 causes a 40% error in μ .ΔP 4 ⋅ 0. 6.92 Δx ft 2 ⋅ (1 / 12 ) 32. Vmax = − so that Vmax Δx μ 4 ⎡⎛ ⎞2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎜ − ΔP ⋅ 1 ⎟ ⎥ r0 2 3 V 3rdr ⎢ ⎜ Δx 4 μ ⎟ ⎥ ∫ (r0 − r2 ) rdr ⎝ ⎠ ∫ ⎥ 0 r0 keavg = =⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 ∫ Vrdr ⎢ r2 − r2) rdr ⎢ ⎥ ∫0 ( 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 3 3 1⎤ r0 r08 ⎢ − + − ⎥ r06 − 3r04 r2 + 3r02 r4 − r6 )rdr r4 ⎣ ⎦ ∫ ( r = [etc] 0 = [etc] 2 ⎛ 4 6 ⎞ 8 = [etc] 0 0 2 2 1 1 2 r04 ⎜ − ⎟ ∫0 (r0 − r )rdr ⎝ 2 4⎠ 2 2 1 which is Eq. in laminar flow in industrialsized equipment.81m J N s2 J ⋅ (−0. Chapter 6.

have very low viscosities.44 = 3. however.2 lbf s2 ⋅ 144 in Δx 128 μ ft 128 1e5 ⋅6. The corresponding viscometer for very high viscosity fluids replaces gravity with a pump. so this is clearly a laminar flow.55 ⋅10 −3 oC = 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 1. so there might be a laminar-turbulent transition problem using this particular viscometer on them.V = π = 0.00133ft / s ft m V= = = 0. and attempts with cooling to hold the whole apparatus and fluid isothermal. Cryogenic liquids.8 .77 − ΔP π D4 (2 ft / 12)4 lbf / in 2 π lbm ft ft 6.14 kJ = 0.J Δu kg ΔT = = 2. The volumetric flow rate is proportional to the elevation. so at mid elevation of the test Solutions.0127 2 s (10−3 m ) 4 ⎛ ⎞⎛ kg ⎞ (10 −3 m )⎜ 0.01. A1 shows that this low a viscosity is rarely encountered in liquids. All serious viscometry is done inside constant temperature baths. page 3 .72e − 4 ft s 3 3 m ft = 0. _______________________________________________________________________ m3 10 m s 6.0608 A (π / 4)⋅ (2ft / 12) s s One may check finding R ≈ 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.7* Q = =1 lbm ⋅ 32. Chapter 6.9 The volume of fluid between the two marks is π π π 2 V = Δ z ⋅ D 2 = 1 cm ⋅ (1 cm ) = cm 3 4 4 4 The volumetric flow rate in the example is for the level at the top.99 ⋅10 −3 o F CV kg o C For much higher viscosities this temperature rise can be significant. Third Edition.0067cp 2000 2000 App. see Fig. and −8 μmin = μ ⋅ R 0.75⋅10 −5 s s 3 Q 0.0303 Pa s N kg ⋅m μ If the fluid density does not change then the lowest viscosity is one would correspond to R = 2000.0127 m ⎟⎜1050 m 3 ⎟ Pa m 2 N s2 ⎝ ⎠ DVρ s ⎠⎝ R= = ⋅ ⋅ = 0. so that this kind of viscometer can be applied to most liquids.03 cp ⋅ = 0. 1.5.00133 = 3.0185 2 = 0.44 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.

In Poisueille's equation Vavg = ⎟ f = ⎜− ⎝ Δx ⎠ 2 ρV 2 32μ ⎝ Δx ⎠ ΔP Eliminating between these two we find Δx Solutions.(-40) = 80 so that =m dt Δt hr ⎛5 ⎞ ⎛ mi⎞ ft ⎜ lbm⎟ ⎜ 80 ⎟ 5280 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ hr ⎠ mi ⋅ lbf s F = 16 ⋅ s 32. which is a general force balance. _______________________________________________________________________ 2 ⎛ ΔP ⎞ D D0 ⎛ ΔP ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ 6. This shows how the 4f appears naturally in the Fanning friction factor. but not on their velocity. _______________________________________________________________________ cm 3 6.18.11 If the balls are thrown in the I direction. and the viscosities are reported in "seconds". 6.5 cm −8 m 11. for horizontal flow use Eq. and equate the shear stress to the value shown in the problem -r(P1 − P2 ) V 2 D ⎛ ΔP ⎞ ⎟ τ= = fρ = ⎜− 2Δx 2 4 ⎝ Δx ⎠ Then.10* F = ma = m ΔV mi dV here Δ v = 40 .958 ⋅10 −8 s Many common industrial viscometers are of this "read the time between the marks" type. applicable to any kind of flow.2 and V Δt = = Q 3 3 11. then the I component is independent of the y component.958⋅10 s 12 s 12 cm π 4 m3 = 82. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Third Edition. Chapter 6. Eliminate between these two equations finding Δx ρ Δx Δx F V2 D ⎛ F ⎞ = ⎜ ρ ⎟ which is rearranged to f = fρ 4 ⎝ Δx ⎠ 2 4(Δx / D) ⋅(V 2 / 2) Which is Eq.0 s 3 ⋅ m 106 cm 3 0.6.13 . SSU which is the standard unit of viscosity for high boiling petroleum fractions.g.12 Start with Eq.5 −8 m = 10 = 0.2 lbm ft = 0. e. The x component force depends on the speed of the train. and how often the balls are thrown back and forth. 6.4.Q = QEx. Saybolt Seconds Universal. page 4 .114 lbf 10 s 3600 hr _______________________________________________________________________ 6.B with both sides divided by Δx -F 1 ΔP ΔP = ⋅ .

_______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ 6.065 ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎜ ft⎟ ⎜ 7 ⎟ ⎜ 62.253 1000 ft ft m psi − ΔP by linear interpolation in Table A.16 R = lbm 1.3 3 ⎟⎜ 7 ⎟ 2 ft 2 ⎝ ΔP ft ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s = ⋅ ⎛ 6. Poisueille's equation can be written as 16 64 f Darcy-Weisbach = 4 fFanning = 4 ⋅ = R R If you look at the equivalent of Fig. so doubling the flow rate doubles the pressure drop to 20 psi/ 1000 ft. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 6.15* f Darcy.14* (a) The flow is laminar.0018in = = 0. 6.2 = 0.72 ⋅10 −4 ft s cp ε 0.065in 2 ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ (4)(0. they will be embarrassed when you show them how trivial it is.12 ⋅10−2 = 11. After they have struggled with it. Maybe that way they will learn about the different relation between pressure drop and velocity in laminar and turbulent flow! _______________________________________________________________________ 6.Weisbach = 4 fFanning . Assign this problem.0042 D 6. Doubling the velocity quadruples the pressure drop to 40 psi/1000 ft One would think students would all see this. Chapter 6.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠⎝ s ⎠⎝ ft ⎠ = 3.10 in any civil or mechanical engineering fluids book. after you have discussed laminar and turbulent flow. so that the pressure drop is proportional to the velocity squared. (b) At this high a Reynolds number we are on the flat part of the lines of constant relative roughness for all but the largest pipe sizes.0042)⎜ 62. f = 0.065 ⎞ Δx 32.0003.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ⎟ (2) ⎜ ⎝ 12 ⎠ psi Pa psi = 1.⎛ 32μ Vavg ⎞ D 16 μ 16 0 f =⎜ ⎜ D2 ⎟ 2 ρ V 2 = DρV = R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0 avg avg _______________________________________________________________________ 6.002 cp ⋅ 6.3 ≈ 11. They don't. See Eq. Third Edition.1 1000 ft Δx _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions. you will see that the laminar flow line is labeled f = 64 / R .27⋅105 6. and you will be appalled at how few of the students can solve it. page 5 .19.

006 8.746 The answer. as discussed in the text. ft L. page 6 .5.7 gpm is slightly more than the 175 we got in part (a). guessed V.000 1000. gal/min First guess Solution 0. Chapter 6.6. then down to s. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.189 1. 6.733 0. One enters at 200 gpm. inches r.= 0.17 (a) The easiest way to work this problem is to use Fig.000 -30. 6.g . and is shown below Variable D. computed/f guessed Q. the Type 2 problem in Table 6.002 49. but no one should believe any calculation this type to better than ± 10%.685 40044.006 1.000 0.840 49.10 one sees that it is the same type of problem as Ex.000 5. then vertically to the 5 cs line. reads horizontally to the zero viscosity boundary (which corresponds to the flat part of the curves on Fig. cs m cp f.18 This is easily solved on Fig. and then reads horizontally. reads diagonally up to the 0. finding about 175 gpm.002 0.8 30 psi/1000 ft (b) To do it using Fig 6. computed f.000 0. This is less than the available 28.12. so a 3 inch pipe would be satisfactory. lbm/ft3 n.256 0. 175 gpm 5 cs 0. line.006 0.000 176.g.10).8 s.001 0.447 7.000 4.5.000 4.840 5.75. ft delta P.000 -30. psig e. which leads to a trial-and error solution. This is very similar to that shown in Table 6.256 1000.12. As sketched at the right one enters at the bottom at 30 psi/1000 ft. 6. 6.001 0. and diagonally to ≈ 23 psi/1000 ft. 176.005 0. Solutions. Third Edition.302 36428. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. ft/s R e/D f.3.

so that they become more rough over time. Third Edition. Btu kJ = 0. so ΔP = 4 f L ρV 2 = D 2 (4 )(0.2 lbm ft 144in 2 = 20.0 ft / s f=0.2 2 ⎟ (−20ft ) ⋅ ⋅ ⎝ s ⎠ 778 ft lbf 32.060 kg lbm Btu 0.20 ⎛ ft ⎞ Btu lbf s2 -F = Δu = −gΔz = −⎜ 32.026 Δu o lbm ΔT = = Btu = 0.6 o lbm F Solutions.0053)(1000ft )⎜ 0.043 F = 0.2lbm ft .006. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.13 generally predicts pressure drop values for turbulent flow somewhat less than does Fig 6. while most waters will rust or leave deposits on steel pipes. Fig.70 ⎟ 2 ft 2 ⎝ − ΔP s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s ft ⎠ ⎝ = ⋅ ⎛ 3.To solve using Fig. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.13 and indicates that a 3 inch pipe is big enough.2 3 ⋅ ⎜ 6.3 ⎝ ⎛ 3.00456. we calculate that R = 1.13 is that most petroleum products are slightly acid.53. so that gpm s 23.10. Chapter 6.5 psi (b) by chart look up on Fig.5106 and e/D ≈0. most likely because it uses a lower value for the absolute roughness. R = lbm gpm s 23 1. 6. The value for the roughness of steel pipe Table 6. 6.52 . The most likely reason for the lower roughness in Fig 6.72e − 4 ft s (ft / s) 6. 6.13 the pressure drop is 19 psi. and will smooth out a steel pipe in use. 6.87 ⋅62.52 ⎟ 150gpm ft ft ⎝ s ⎠ = 89.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 Δx ⎜ ⎟ ft ⋅ 2 ⎝ 12 ⎠ psi psi = 0.024°C CV 0.1 ft 1000ft This is adequate agreement with Fig. and 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ lbm ⎞ ⎛ (4)(0.10 (or Eq.0271 = 27.650 V= = 6. 6.2 is presumably more in accord with the experience with water in steel pipes than the experience with various petroleum products in steel pipes.068⎞ 32.21) we compute 200 gpm ft V= = 8.70 .3 3 ⎟ ⎜ 8.026 = 0.75⋅ 62.068 ⎞ ft⎟ ⋅ 2 ⎜ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎛ ft ⎞ lbm ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ 3 ⎟ ⎜ 6. page 7 .5⋅ 6.52 s⎠ ⋅ ft ⎠ ⎝ 2 lbf s2 ft 2 ⋅ 32.19* (a) f ≈ 0.00456)⎜ 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 2 lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ 0.256ft ⋅ 54.

Looking at the original spreadsheet we see it went from 0. 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.0646 2. If there had been no change in f then the volumetric flow rate in this example would be √3 times the value in Ex.0044 0.0497 1022. inserting 2000 in place of 500 for Q and then using the spreadsheet's numerical solution engine ("Goal Seek" on Excel spreadsheets) to make the ΔP.0044 4.10 for Δ z. remember the ± 10% uncertainty in all such calculations. guessed V.3055 9.0005 0.0018 0.6 0. indicating that we are on an almost-flat part of Fig.63 565222.004352. m/s First guess Solution Prob. Solutions.2232 531533. inches ρ.1 100 100 100 -10 -10 -30 0.9792 With this number of significant figures (chosen to fit the page) it would appear that the value of f did not change from Ex.0044 0.7102 8. m ε . and then using the spreadsheet's numerical solution engine ("Goal Seek" on Excel spreadsheets) to make the f computed/guessed =1. page 8 . vs the 1025 gpm computed here.0005 0.1838 551.5.8870 1. The first three columns are the same as those in Table 6.00 by manipulating the value of D guessed.836 0.6. which is practically a negligible change.0005 0.Here again we see that the temperature rise is negligible. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Variable D. 6. or 1015 gpm. computed/f guessed Q.21 0. 6. except for the number of digits shown.1 0. except for the number of digits shown. m L.127 986784. m Δ z.0018 720 720 720 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.21.0001 R e/D f.0044 0.4294 4. inserting -30 in place of .0298 0. computed f.00 by manipulating the value of f guessed. cp f.22 The table is shown below.6.0348 1. The bottom 4 rows are in addition to what is shown in Table 6. 6.5. computed/guessed =1.21 The table is shown below.6 0.5 to Prob.5.10.004425 to 0.0007 1. Chapter 6. Again. The right column is made by copying the column to its left.0044 0.7659 585. m/s ft3/s gal/s gal/min 0. The right column is made by copying the column to its left.2792 17.2277 9. The bottom 2 rows are in addition to what is shown in Table 6.6 0.0050 0.9539 0.0018 0.0370 1. The first three columns are the same as those in Table 6.1 0. 6. kg/m3 μ. Third Edition.

017 10.2 lbm ft 144in Then entering the table for 8 inch pipe we find for Q = 1600 gpm.8538 0. cfm D. ft ε.08 0.00006 0. 1.5 ft/s. m inches First guess 500 1 800 0.8489 33.3411 8. and for Q = 1800 gpm. ft L.1000 0. 6.08 0. 6.0035 0.08 0. f= 0.08 psi/100 ft. we need an 18 inch pipe.0000 1.00465346 0. mostly because e/D declines due to the larger diameter.4962E-06 4.0042 0.3 3 ⎛ 2 2 ΔP ρ ft 2 psi psi ft ⎜ 6440 ft ⎞ ⋅ lbf s ⎟ = (− F ) = ⋅ = 1.4678E-06 0. lbm/ft3 μ.2033 0.4. ft/s R e/D f.01446184 0. By linear interpolation.000 gpm.017 23. By trial and error one finds V= 10. ⎛ ft ⎞ ft To use Table A.73 psi/100 ft corresponds to Q ≈ 1630 gpm.24 See the solution to Prob.1000 0.0002 0. ΔP.25* Assuming the flow is from the first to the second tanks.1000 0.Variable Q.4294 Here f declines substantially. allow D calc.68. As shown here it increases by a factor of 1.65 psi/100 ft.000005 0. Chapter 6. calc/ΔP.0039. With the same pressure drop (1.1 0.14461836 Solution Prob. calculated Allowed ΔP.22 500 2000 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.23. − dP / dx = 2. for horizontal flow lbm 62. we compute −F = −gΔz = − ⎜ 32. − dP / dx = 1.0173 Δx Δx ft 100 ft 5000ft ⎝ s ⎠ 32. R = 6. cp V. If there were no change in f then quadrupling the volumetric flow rate would cause the required diameter to double.8872 111396. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.73 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 = 0.46 E5. and find that to get 10.00006 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.017 0. with different numerical values. 6.73 psi/1000 ft) we enter Table A.00006 0. Third Edition.028 265572.3.1000 1.66700631 1.2 2 ⎟ ⋅ (−200 ft ) = 6440 2 ⎝ s ⎠ s Then.0041 13.4.23* This is the same as Ex. computed ΔP.6103 74301. Q = 1639 gpm. page 9 .884 7.11911808 800 800 0. ΔP + gΔz = −F ρ Solutions. inches ρ.

Chapter 6. as shown in Ex.038 = 17. and compute the friction factor. in a flow experiment we would presumably choose as independent variables the choice of fluid.29 _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ 3.3 lbm ⎟ lbf s ft s s ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ft This negative value of the friction heating indicates the above assumption is incorrect. This new pipe is not as smooth as drawn tubing. Third Edition. 6.00006 in ) but is smoother than any of the other types of pipe shown in that table. at ν = lbf 4 ft 2 cP 144 in 2 ft 3 gal in 2 ⋅ π ⋅ (3. This is only an 0.000065 . or by trial and error in Eq. for this Reynolds number and friction factor ε ≅ 0.10. taking the flow from right to left − ΔP ρ = F= Δx Δx (0.002 cP ⋅ 6.5⋅10 μ 1.13.6 cs line.85)⎜62. so we could solve directly from Pouisueille's equation. ( ε = 0. to much greater accuracy than it could possibly be measured by any kind of flow experiment.27 There are easier and most satisfactory ways for finding them.85 ⋅ 62.72⋅10 −4 ft s cp From Fig 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.85 approximate read.068 ft / 12 ) ⋅ Q= ⋅ = 0.00020 in D See Table 6. i.068 ft ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 40 ⎟ ⎜ 62.29 ⎜ ⎟ 2 = 0. We would measure the pressure drop.e.21. 6. 6.2.⎛ ⎞ lbf 10 2 ⎜ ⎟ 32. The density is easily measured in simple pyncnometers.10.2 lbm ft 144in 500 ft 100 = 117. and read from Fig 6.2 2 min 2. because to the need to interpolate the 117. Then we compute the equivalent pressure gradient for a horizontal pipe.3 3 ⎟ DVρ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ ft ⎠ 5 6. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.068 in ) = 0.26 R = = lbm = 9.2 2 (− 20ft )⎟ = − (876 − 644 ) = − 232 2 F = −⎜ 2 2 ⎜ 0. The result is in the laminar flow region.000065 )(3.00529 ft 1000 ft ⎝ s ⎠ 32.09e − 5 lbf s 1000ft 128 100 cp ft s 5.6cs Q ≈ 18 gal. at the right side of Fig.2. the flow must be from the second tank to the first. min. so the measurements would be independent of Solutions. ε = ( 0.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ft 2 in ⋅ ⋅ + 32. The viscosity is measured in laminar flow experiments. the pipe diameter and roughness and the velocity. Furthermore.3 ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎟ ft 2 ⎞ ft 2 psi psi lbf s2 ⎝ ft 3 ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ 232 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ = 5. page 10 . we would see that the friction factor was independent of the Reynolds number. If we were at a high Reynolds number.

= 1. For Ex.0009.21.12 is a log-log plot. Chapter 6. the turbulent flow lines with slope about 0. one would see that it has three families of parallel straight lines.001375⋅ ⎢1 + ⎜ 20.5 is certainly easier. but that it is not plotted on normal log-log paper. it would be tolerably easy numerically. I doubt that this has an analytical solution. The friction factor would also be independent of the density (which is part of the Reynolds number). 1/ 3 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ 6 ⎞ 2⎞ ⎜ −4 ⋅ 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.Q and 6. First you should point out that Fig.5. Third Edition.000 + ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ D DVρ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ The only unknown in this equation is V which appears on both sides. although the calculation of the friction factor from the observed pressure drop would require us to know the density in advance.0048.29 If you assign this problem. It has a scale ratio of about 1.6 we combine Eq. D and ε. 6. 6.X and 6.001375 ⋅ ⎢1 + ⎜ 20.21. 6.3 3 ⋅ ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ΔP 4 f V 2 ft 2 ft ⎝ s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s = ρ = ⋅ 2 ⎛ 2. (a) for the zero viscosity boundary we estimate ε/D = 0.the viscosity. Then for a velocity of 1 ft/s and s.0048 ⋅62.5. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. the laminar flow lines with slope 1.5 vertically to 1 horizontally. we have ⎛ ⎞ 1/ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2g(− Δz) D⎟ ⎜ V=⎜ 1/ 3 ⋅ ⎟ ⎡ ⎛ ε 106 μ ⎞ ⎤ Δx ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⋅0. The resulting equation gives ΔP as a function of D and variables specified in the problem.0018/2 = 0. (to the 1/6 power on the right). We may restate this by saying that for really high Reynolds numbers.067 ft ⎞ Δx D 2 32. it would be tolerably easy numerically. you may want to give some hints. page 11 . I doubt that this has an analytical solution.55 and the transition and zero viscosity lines with slope 0.2 lbm ft 144 in 2⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ Solutions. The from Fig. 6. but the procedure shown in Ex.28 For Ex 6.6 is certainly easier. f. 6.000 ε + 10 μ ⎟ ⎥ Δx ⋅ V ⎟ ΔP = ρ air ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ D DVρ ⎠ ⎥ D 2 ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ and then replace both V 's with Q / ((π / 4) ⋅(D 2 )). If one re-plotted it on normal log-log paper. Eliminating f between these. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.00 we compute 2 lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ 4⋅ 0. but the procedure shown in Ex.g. Figure 6-10 really only relates three variables. 6. otherwise the students flounder with it. Again. 6.10 we read f = 0. the equations to be combined are Eq.

5 through it for the laminar-turbulent transition.4 gpm .0073 .45 gpm.59 ⋅10 4 . μ = 40 cP.0073 ⋅ ⎜1 ⎟ ⋅ 62.067 ft ft ⋅1 12 s ft s cS ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 lbm 4 ⋅0. and a line with slope 0. at constant flow rate the pressure drop is proportional to the viscosity. for s. (c) For the turbulent region we again need to calculate one point. For 1 ft/s.08 ⋅ 10 −5 = 5.00 ft 1000ft This point lies on both the 40 cS laminar curve. and ft ΔP 8 ⋅Vavg ⋅ μ 8 ⋅5. Third Edition. We draw a line of proper slope through it completes the zero viscosity boundary. We compute 2000ν (2000)(40 cS) ft 2 ft Then from Table A. but shifted to the left by a factor of two. We must guess a value of the kinematic viscosity for which the line will fall between the transition and zero viscosity lines.067 ⎞ 2 Δx ft s cP 32.g. (b) We can get both the laminar flow region and the transition region from one calculation.3 3 2 ΔP ft 2 ⎝ s⎠ ft ⋅ lbf s = ⋅ 2 2.00114 = ft 1000 ft 1cS ⋅1.08 ⋅10 −5 Solutions.02 ⎛ 2. for the laminar region. page 12 R= 2 = 1.2 V= = ⋅ 1.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 r02 ft ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 24 ⎠ psi psi = 0. so.2 lbm ft 144in 2⋅ 12 psi 1.067 ft Δx 32.2 we see that 1 ft/s in a 2 in pipe corresponds to 10. so we plot this pressure gradient at that volumetric flow rate. by choosing our point as a Reynolds number of 2000 and a viscosity of 40 cs.g. From Fig. = 1.45 ⋅5. by drawing lines parallel to the first line. Q = 10.3 for s.02 = 52. Chapter 6.77 psi = 1000 ft ft From Table A.00 2.14 psi = 0.12 it seems clear that the 1 cS line is likely to meet that requirement. Then for s. but shifted to the right by a factor of two. In the laminar region. We draw a line with slope 1 through it. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. = 1.067 ft ⎞ D s cS s ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ Q = 10.= 0. f = 0. Then we complete the laminar region. the 20 cs line is parallel to the 40 cs line. for various viscosities. 6. for example. Then.72 ⋅10−4 ⋅ ⋅ ⎛ 2.g. = 1.00077 psi 0. and on the transition curve.02 s ⋅ 40 cP lbf s2 ft 2 lbm = = ⋅6.0313 = 31. and the 80 cs line is parallel to the 40 cs line.45 gpm.

the true s. we find ΔP ⎛ head loss.00.g. = 1. = 1.3 lbm/ft3. The values calculated above are all for s. and -dP/dx = 0. is 0.31. You might bring that up in class discussion. The authors of Fig. But this problem shows that one could. In making up the laminar part of the plot we used the kinematic viscosity.075 3 32. page 13 .5 times the value for s. If. in this formulation the laminar pressure gradient is also proportional to the specific gravity. The problem does not ask the students to compute the lower section which corrects for differences in density. 6.30 Here lbm ⎝ ft ⎠ Entering the chart at 100 gpm. = 1. = 1. If we rewrote Poisueille's equation replacing μ with ρν we would see that the pressure gradient is proportional to the kinematic viscosity times the density.2 (and the others in that series) used 1600. _______________________________________________________________________ c St ⋅ 62. Here I have used 2000 as the transition Reynolds number.2 lbmft 144 in psi 0.08⋅10 −5 = 1000ft ft It is most unlikely that anyone would use Fig. Third Edition. for example. f = 0. If one solves this by standard friction factor methods. s. For laminar flow it is a bit more subtle.021 psi/1000 ft. Thus. then that bottom section shows that the pressure gradient will be 0. one finds R = 6872. and reading left to this kinematic viscosity (interpolating between 10 and 20 in the turbulent region) .12 to solve this type of problem. 6.55 through that point. We could compute similar lines for other kinematic viscosities if we wished.0 cSt ν= =⎛ ⋅ lbm ⎞ ρ ⎜ 0.We then draw a line with slope 0.040 ⋅0. with an assumed s.g. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.g. see Prob.0208 psi = 2.018 cP ft = 15. which corresponds to the bottom of the figure.5.040 1000ft ρg ⎝ ft / 1000 ft⎠ Then the pressure drop is ΔP lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 = 0. This is obvious for turbulent flow.3 3 μ 0. where we set the density to 62. (d) is taken care of in (b) above.Δx ft ⎜ ⎟= ≈ 40 = 0.00.00.075 cP 3 ⎟ 6-31* The 20 cSt line enters the transition region at 31 gpm and exits at 87 gpm. The corresponding Reynolds numbers are Solutions. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.g. The lines there would have slope 1 on an ordinary piece of log-log paper. ⎞ .0088. and then reading upward to the head loss scale on the top of the chart.g. 16. Chapter 6.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 Δx ft s 32.00.

One can also see from a plot of ΔP/Δx vs Q that there is break in the curve for 1/2 inch pipe between this value and all the others. For velocities greater than 9.00007.068 ft ⎞ ⎜ 31gpm ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⋅ gpm ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎜ ⎜ 23.3 gpm) has a calculated Reynolds number of 1346 (taking into account that the viscosity at 60°F is 113% of that at 68°F).08 ⋅10 ⎜ ⎟ s cSt ⎠ ⎝ and 87gpm = 4477 ≈ 4500 31gpm _______________________________________________________________________ Rturb = above⋅ 6. we see that for the lowest flow the ratio of the value n Tab. we have Δx V 2 m m2 F = 4f = g( −Δz ) = 9. page 14 . All the other values are for turbulent flow. indicating that it is laminar.0 ⎟ (ft / s) ⎠ ⎝ = = 1595 ≈ 1600 2 ⎞ ⎛ −5 ft ⎟ (20 cSt) ⋅ ⎜ 1. The value in the table is 0. A. Chapter 6.1 2 D 2 s s Either way the value of the friction heating per pound and of Δx/D are the same.061. finding about 436 gpm. 6. A few of the other smallest velocity values are also laminar. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.58 ft/s it is 1.21.062 and 0. which corresponds to Reynolds numbers from 0.34 Solving the problem either by Fig. Here the ratio of the velocities is proportional to the Solutions.0031 over the range of values. Third Edition.3. using ε/D = 0.56 million to 2.32 2 = 0.1 s2 ⋅ 998.21.10 or by App.78 million. (0. These match Fig. As a further comparison I ran the friction factors from Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 6.5. A.2 m 3 N s2 Pa psi − = = ⋅ ⋅ = 4.979 Δx Δ x 100 m kg m N m 100 ft m In App.21. showing that this is a laminar value.10 reasonably well for an ε/D of 0. 6. For this value we can compute the pressure gradients for laminar and turbulent equations. Comparing them to the vales from Eq.3 are 117% to 131% of the smooth tube values.32 The lowest velocity value for 1/2 inch pipe. so if we assume an equal friction factor we would conclude that the velocities were equal. A. 6.81 (10 m) = 98. compared to the 386 gpm in Ex.R transition ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 3.3 is 104% of that from Eq. 6. finding 0.073 psi/100 ft. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Then.0036 to 0. 6.00 ± 1%. For increasing flow rates this ratio diminished. we do not have smooth tube behavior.3 we must interpolate between 425 and 450 gpm.33 One may compute that the friction factor falls from 0. Clearly even at this size pipe. for water m2 kg kPa ΔP Fρ 98. finding that the values in table A.

square root of the ratio of the friction factors. This is tolerable agreement. The main reason for this is that in turbulent flow, the volumetric flow rate is proportional to D5. D 4.03 in Thus for the two different size pipes 4 in Sch. 40 = = 1.0228 and 3.94 in Ex. 6.5 ⎛D ⎞5 4 in Sch. 40 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ D ⎟ = 1.1196 Thus our best estimate of Q from Table A.3 is ⎝ Ex. 6.5 ⎠ . 436 gpm Q= = 389 gpm which agrees well with the 386 gpm in Ex. 6.5. 1.1196 This problem shows that the friction factor is practically the same for gasoline and water in this geometry, so that we can solve the problem using data for water, if we take the difference in diameters into account. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.35 Entering Fig. 6.14 at the left at 1000 cfm, reading horizontally to the 12 inch line, and then vertically to the pressure drop scale we find 0.2 inches of water per 100 ft, so for 1000 ft of pipe the pressure drop is 2 inches of water. _______________________________________________________________________

6.36 Drawing a horizontal line on Fig. 6.14 at 100 cubic meters per hour, and a vertical line at 1 Pa per meter, we see they intersect between the 0.1 and the 0.125 meter diameter lines. By visual interpolation the required pipe diameter is about 0.115 m. _______________________________________________________________________ 6-37 Drawing a vertical line on Fig. 6.14 from 5 Pa/m to the 0.125 m diameter line, and then a horizontal line from there to the right hand of the figure we find a flow rate of 300 cubic meters per hour. _______________________________________________________________________

ft 3 min ⋅ min = 83.1 ft From App. A.1 μ = 0.009cP 6.38(a)V = 2 s π ⎡ 6.065 ⎤ 60 s ft ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 12 ⎦ 4 A.1 is hard to read, but my HPCP, 71e shows a value of 0.009 at 300 K, so this reading is close to right. lbm ⎛ 2 ⎞ lbm ρ = 0.075 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0052 3 ft ⎝ 29 ⎠ ft 6.065 ft ft lbm ⋅83.1 ⋅ 0.0052 3 4 12 s ft ; ε = 0.003 ; f =0.0058 R= lbm = 3.6 ⋅10 0.009 cP ⋅6.72 ⋅10−4 ft s cP ft ⎞ 2 lbm ⎛ 4 ⋅ 0.0065⋅ 0.0052 3 ⋅ ⎜ 83.1 ⎟ 2 ΔP ft 2 s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s ft ⎝ − = ⋅ 6.065 ft Δx 32.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ⋅2 12 1000

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 6, page 15

= 0.000177

psi in H2 O in H2 O Pa = 0.0049 = 0.49 = 4.01 ft ft 100 ft m

(b) For air at the same pressure gradient and pipe size we draw a horizontal line from 1000 cfm to the 6 inch line, and then down vertically to read about 6.5 inches of water per 100 ft. If the friction factors are the same, we would expect the pressure gradients to be proportional to the densities. Taking the ratio of the densities as the same as the ratio of the molecular weights, we estimate − ΔP 6.5in H2 O 2 0.45in H2 O = ⋅ = 29 100 ft 100 ft Δx

The answers to parts (a) and (b) differ by ≈10%, which is within the range of uncertainty of any friction factor calculation. The principal reason for the difference is that the kinematic viscosity of hydrogen is ≈ 7 times that of air, so the Reynolds number is 1/7 that of air. If we repeat part (a) for air, we find R = 2.6·105 and f = 0.0043. Thus, this is only an approximate way of estimating the behavior of hydrogen. For gases with properties more like those of air it works better. _______________________________________________________________________

6.39 (a) From Fig 6.1 (before I tried Eq. 6.21), f ≈0.0048 (b) By Colebrook, the solution is a trial and error, shown in the following spreadsheet;

f guessed left side right side ratio

First Guess Solved values 0.5 0.00482514 1.41421356 14.3961041 15.0676463 14.3909702 0.09385763 1.00035674

I intentionally made a bad first guess, but the "Goal Seek" routine on excel, when asked to make the ratio of the left to right sides = 1.00 had no trouble finding f ≈ 0.0048 (c) By straightforward plug into Eq. 6.60 we find f ≈ 0.0049 (d) By straightforward plug into Eq. 6.21, we find f ≈ 0.0048 (e) From Eq. 6.61, which I found in the source listed, and for which that book gives no reference, by straightforward plug in one finds f ≈ 0.0045. All of these give practically the same answer. Observe that in the original publications give the equations for the darcy-weisbach friction factor = 4 · fanning friction factor. _______________________________________________________________________

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 6, page 16

ΔP f V2 =4 ρ If everything on the right except V is constant, then this D 2 Δx should plot as a straight line with slope 2 on that plot. (b) For 5 inches and less, the curves are parallel straight lines (as best the eye can see). To find the slopes I read the 4 inch line as beginning at 15 and ending at 430. Then ⎛ ΔP ⎞ ⎛Q ⎞ n = log(1000) / log(430 / 15) ≈ 2.05. log ⎜ 2 ⎟ = n log⎜ 2 ⎟ ; ⎜ ΔP ⎟ ⎜Q⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 1⎠ This result is sensitive to chart reading, but the exponent is very close to 2.00. (c) For all the pipe sizes greater than 5 inches the curves are concave downward. The curvature seems to increase with increasing pipe size. (d) Those making up the charts concluded that for small diameter pipes the normal flows were on the flat part of the constant e/D curves on Figure 6.10. However as D increases, with constant e one goes to lower and lower values of e/D and hence lower curves on Fig. 6.10. These do not flatten out until higher values of the velocity, so the curves correspond to a value of f which decreases slowly with increasing Q, giving the curves shown. ft 3 ft lbm 1000 1 ft ⋅ 21.22 ⋅0.075 3 5 min ⋅ min = 21.22 ft ; s ft (e) V=π R= lbm = 1.32 ⋅10 s 0.018cP ⋅ 6.72 ⋅10 −4 [1.0 ft ]2 60 s 4 ft s cP 2 ⎛ 0.2 in H O ⎞ lbm ft in psi 2 ΔP ⎜ ⎟ ⋅1ft ⋅ 2 ⋅32.2 ⋅144 2 ⋅ 0.03615 ⎜ ⎟ − 2 ft lbf s in H 2 O Δx = ⎝ 100 ft ⎠ f = = 0.00496 2 2 4 V lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ ρ 4 ⋅ 0.075 2 ⋅ ⎜ 21.22 ⎟ D 2 ft ⎝ s⎠

6.40

(a) −

Substituting this value in Eq. 6.21 and solving we find e/D ≈ 0.00050, e = 0.0005 ft. (f) From Table 6.2 we see that this corresponds to the value for "galvanized iron" which is ≈ 3 times the value for commercial steel. From the caption for Fig. 6.14 we see that it is for "galvanized metal ducts" etc. So this matches Table 6.2 fairly well. _______________________________________________________________________

6.41 From Ex. 6.12 we know that for the "K-factor" method the pressure drop due to the fittings is 31 psi, independent of pipe diameter. For the equivalent length method we must calculate the Reynolds number , e/D, f and the equivalent length for each pipe size. For all sizes L/D is constant at 1089. The computations are easy on a spreadsheet. Considering the 12 inch pipe we find that R ≈24,100, e/D = 0.00015, f =0.0062, Lequiv = 1089 ft, and dP ≈ 31 psi. The plot, covering the range from 3 to 12 ft is shown below.

Solutions, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition, Chapter 6, page 17

02 ⎞ ft ⎟ ⋅ (2 ⋅30 + 135) = 212 ft Δxequivalent = 50 ft + ⎜ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎛ ΔP ⎞ 0. other than to follow Lapple's suggestion in the text. In this case the curve on the above plot ends up nearly horizontal.10 ft/s and − ΔP 0. taking the fluid viscosity as 1 cP instead of the 50 cP in those examples.50 40 Pressure drop. I ran the value for 24 inches on the same spreadsheet program. as long as the flow is turbulent. inches We see that the equivalent length estimate is higher than the "K-factor" estimate for small pipes. I reran the spreadsheet that generated the values for the above plot.7 ∑ K = 2 ⋅ 0.7 psi for 3 inch pipe to 17. That raised the Reynolds numbers by a factor of 50.992 psi ⎝ Δx ⎠ 100 ft For the K method. but that the two values cross at about 1 ft.466 psi = 100 ft Δx For the equivalent length method ⎛ 10. That reduced the estimated delta P by roughly a factor of 2. But the equivalent length method is sensitive to changes in viscosity. reducing the computed f's by almost a factor of 2. Another peculiarity of this comparison is that the estimate by the "K-factor" method is uninfluenced by a change in fluid viscosity.42* From Table A. using the values from Table 6. the computed value for 24 inches is 15. going from 23. Third Edition.4 we read that V = 6. page 18 .466 psi -Δ P = ⎜ − ⎟ ⋅ Δx eq = ⋅ 212 ft = 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 psi.5 psi.48 Solutions. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. finding dP ≈ 6. I don't know which is best. psi Equivalent length 30 “K-factor” 20 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Pipe diameter. Chapter 6.4 psi for 12 inch pipe.74 + 2 = 3.

18 + 0.3 ⋅62.⎛ ΔP⎞ 0. You might ask your students what a check valve is.487 psi ft 2 2 32.56 ⎟ 2 lbm ⎝ ft 2 V 2 − V12 s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s s⎠ ⎝ ρ 4 = 62.298 ≈ 0.61 kPa We find very good.44* - ΔP ρ =F = ⎞ V2 ⎛ L ⎜ 4 f + Kexp + Kcont ⎟ V = ⎠ 2 ⎝ D 2ΔP ⎛ ⎞ L ρ⎜ 4 f + Ke + K c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ D Solutions. From Table A.103 psi = 7.525 psi. finding 7.487 = −7.674 .3 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 0.3 3 ⋅ ⋅ = −0.43 Let (1) be the upstream end.3 for 100 gpm in each of the two pipe sizes. (3) be the 3 inch pipe as it leaves that expansion and (4) be the far end of the pipe. page 19 .3.48⋅ ⋅ = 0.870 2 lbm ft 144in 2 in 2 2 32.56 − 0. Then for the expansion ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜ 9. (2) be the 2 inch pipe as it enters the sudden expansion.59 and 0.1 ⎟ 1 ft 2 lbf ρV 2 s⎠ ⋅ ft ⎝ -ΔPfittings = ∑ K = 3.3 we find that the velocities before and after the expansion are 9.233 + 0.34 ft/s.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 Finally ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ft ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ 4. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.18 psi ft 2 32. the first pipe. which you can point out. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.870 = 1.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 So that P4 − P1 = −7.56 ⎟ 2 lbm ⎝ ft 2 s ⎠ ⋅ lbf s ρF = −ΔP = 0.067 in we first observe that 3 = = 0. Writing BE from (1) to (4) and multiplying through by ρ we have ⎛ V 2 − V12 ⎞ ⎟ P4 − P1 = ρ ⎜ −F − 4 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ The ρ F term has three parts.34 ⎟ − ⎜ 9. We can simply look up the two pipe terms. 6. in Table A. Chapter 6. Third Edition. For the expansion term D 2.525 − 0.466 psi -Δ Ppipe only = ⎜ − ⋅ 50 ft = 0.068 in equation printed on it) to find that K = 0. the second pipe and the expansion.2 2 lbf s and -ΔPtotal = 0. Then we read Fig. multiplied by the lengths. Normally there will be one visible in the vicinity of your building.3 2 ⋅ ⎜ 6.81psi _______________________________________________________________________ 6.56 and 4. but not exact agreement between the predictions of the two methods.16 (or use the D2 3. as part of the lawn sprinklers.233 psi ⎟ ⋅Δ x pipe = ⎝ Δx ⎠ 100 ft 2 lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ 62.

Chapter 6. we have 2g(− Δz) ΔP Δx V 2 K V22 V2 + gΔz + = −F = −4 f − .262 Q = ⎜ 23.006 and our first guess of f ≈ 0.5⎟ ⎜ 62.0045. _______________________________________________________________________ Writing BE from surface to outlet. V= Δx ρ 2 2 D 2 1+4f +K D ε Here = 0. - ΔP Δx = gΔz ρ Δx ρ Δz ΔP 1 0.07e6 and f =0.0166 = 0. R ≈1. and for a large diameter ratio D Kcontraction ≈ 0.9 = 1032 gpm. so f ≈ 0.0 and 0. (easy on a spreadsheet) leads to V =44. and Q = 23.0045 to make another iteration unnecessary.The expansion and contraction coefficients are 1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.00458. and ft 2 ⋅32.720 psi ft 3 s2 32 lbm ft 144 in 2 =− = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 ft Δx Δx ρ g 100ft 62.2 = 7.004)⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3.8 s ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 10 lbm ⎞ ⎟ + 1+ 0.004.068 / 12 ⎠ ⎠ This corresponds to R ≈1.46* From table A.0· 44. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. This goes well on a ε spreadsheet.74·105 and f = 0.086ft / 12 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ft gpm m3 ⎟ ⋅ 24. 0.5.5. page 20 .70 and 0.45 6. Each contributes to the answer.00467 which is close enough to the assumed 0.0045⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. Then D ⎛ lbf ⎞ 144 in 2 lbm ft 2⎜ 30 2 ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ 32.0166 = ft 100 ft _______________________________________________________________________ F =− ΔP ΔP 0. we check the Reynolds number.2 2 2 ⎝ in ⎠ ft ft lbf s Vfirst guess = ⎛ ⎞ = 45.3lbm 32 ft lbf s ft 1.66 ft = 0.9 ft/s. in which one guesses f and then does a suitable trial and error. finding R = 5.00458.5.36 ⎛ ⎞ 10ft s s ⎟ + 0. The three terms in the denominator under the radical have values 1.5 1 + 4 ⋅ 0. Here = 0.720psi = 100 ft Δx =− Solutions.4 for 500 gpm in a 6 in pipe. Third Edition.006 and R is large.2 = 556 gpm = 0. Subsequent trial and error.3 ⋅20 ft ft m s V= = 24.0 ⎝ s s ft / s ⎠ To be safe.09e6 and f =0. The solution is a trial and error.3 3 ⎟ ⎜ 4(0.

6.71 ft = 0.013 ⋅ 0. In a lecture room with a sink one can fill the tank with a piece of tygon tubing.22 m V= 0.012 m Δz = = ft 2g 2 ⋅32.43. f ≈ 0.013 Students argue with me about relative roughness. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 21 . The above value is for galvanized pipe.5 + 4⋅ 0.039 ft = 0.016 .47 This is a demonstration. and let the students watch the results. ε D = 0. ⎛ Δx ⎞ ⎜ 1+ Ke + 4 f ⎟ ⎝ D⎠ let z1 − z2 = h ⎛A ⎞ 2( h1 − h2 )⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ A2 ⎠ Δt = 2g ⎛ Δx ⎞ ⎟ ⎜1 + K e + 4 f ⎝ D⎠ Then see Ex. As it was used more and more (and the pipe rusted) the time climbed slowly to 85 sec.5⋅ 4) in 2 = = 250.71 ⎟ ⎝ D ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ s ⎠ [ 4. A2 0. and ask each student to write her/his answer to part (a) on the board with her/his name. 5. then run the test.8. They use the value for steel pipe.364 s s ft 12 ⎛ ⎛ Δx ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 V 2 ⎜1 + Ke + 4 f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 0.104in 2 Ke = 0. Chapter 6. which our shop made for me.91] = 0. from which we have directly A1 (6.077 ⋅10−5 s = 0. getting a much lower value. I assign this as a homework problem.46 in = 0.2 2 s 24 in 1 + 0.6.2 2 s Solutions.5. Then we do the calculations. Third Edition. as shown in the problem. (b) For a Reynolds number of 2000 we find ft 2 2000 ⋅1. with a clear plastic window to let the students watch the falling level. 2g(z1 − z2 ) Vexit = (a) See the solution to Prob. ⎛ 7 ⎞ 1 ⎟ ft − ft ⎟ ⋅ 250 2⎜ ⎜ 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ Δt = = 66 s ft 2 ⋅ 32.14. Cleaning it with a wire brush got it back to its original value.364 in When I first did this in class it took about 75 sec for that change in elevation.

6.49 This is derived in detail on pages 51-54 of Bird et.508. Solutions. Chapter 6. first edition. V =0. 6.. V=− ⎜ ⎟ − y2 ⎥ @ y = .48 By steady-state force balance ⎛ dP ⎞ dV = ⎜ − ⎟ ⋅ y = −μ ⎝ dx ⎠ dy 2 ⎛ dP ⎞ 1 dP 1 y V= +C ∫ dV = −⎜ − dx ⎟ μ ∫ ydy .00015 in.5)3 = 1. and show that this oscillation represents a horizontal oscillation between the two curves in the transition region. al. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. but this description of the leakage path is generally correct.2 inches. this has worked well. others not. for which the calculated elevation for R = 2000 is 1. one can see several oscillations in the flow rate. _______________________________________________________________________ The flow rate is proportional to the third power of the thickness of the leakage 1 ⎛Q ⎞3 1 h2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ path.85in Δz = above ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ 2000 ⎠ Sometimes when I have used the demonstration.0001 in. = ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dy ⎠ μ 12 _______________________________________________________________________ h 6. h1 ⎝ Q1 ⎠ h2 = 0. and been easily observed. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. This works well.2 on the board.508 = 0.This would suggest that the transition would not be seen. ⎥ dx 2 μ ⎝ 2 ⎠ dx 2 μ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎣ ⎦ (P − P2 )⋅ 2⋅l ⋅ y = 2 ⋅l ⋅ Δx ⋅τ y . ⎝ ⎠ dx μ 2 ⎡ ⎤ dP 1 ⎛ h ⎞ 2 dP 1 ⎢⎛ h ⎞ 2 h C=− ⎜ ⎟ .. Third Edition. The fundamental cussedness of inanimate objects. and page 53-56 of the second edition. 6.. so that = ⎜ ⎟ = (3. One can sketch Fig.50 True leakage paths are certainly more complex than the uniform annulus assumed here. To show this clearly I replaced the pipe in the problem with a three-foot length of 1/8 inch sch 40 steel pipe. for which one would calculate ⎛ 4000 ⎞ 2 ⎟ = 1. τ y 1 h⎡ ⎤ ⎛ dP ⎞ 1 ⎛ h⎞ 2 ⎛ dP ⎞ l ⎡⎛ h ⎞ 2 y3 ⎤ 2 ⋅2 ⋅ l ⋅ ∫02 ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y 2 ⎥ dy = ⎜ − ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ y − ⎥ Q = ∫ VdA = ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ 2μ ⎝ dx ⎠ μ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎥0 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎛ dP ⎞ l h3 = Eq. page 22 .28. But the transition region is entered at a Reynolds number of about 4000.⋅1.

5188 This problem shows that this is one of a large class of problems which can be greatly simplified (and thus made much safer from error) by replacing some other geometry with a planar geometry.01.6.13 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎛ P − P2 1 ⎞ π 2 2 ⎜ Do + Di2 − Do − Di ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟⋅ Q =⎜ ⋅ ⎟ (D − Di )⎜ μ ⎠ 128 o ln(Do / Di )⎟ ⎝ Δx ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ lbf 100 2 ⎜ π 0.25022 + 0. with no success.2502 inches. Making those substitutions in Eq.52 ⋅10 −5 2 2.25022 − 0.2500 2 − 0. Chapter 6. page 23 .2502 in.51 Here Do = 0.30 128 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = ⋅ 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ Q6.00004.0004 off the spreadsheets. The other values are taken from Ex.2502 ⎜ ⎟ 1 in ⋅ 0.2500 2 2 3 cP ⋅ ft 144 in −5 in ⋅ ⋅ = 7. 0. The computed flow for the slit is 1. You might ask bright students how much error is introduced that way? I checked by comparing the slit solution to that for an annulus with inside diameter 0. For smaller values of Do/Di the spreadsheet produces values with oscillate between -132 and 1.28 12 Do (Do2 − Di2 )⎜ Do2 + Di2 − ln( D−/Di ) ⎟ ⎜ Di ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ o The D in the numerator can be taken as Di without much problem. 6.29. again Solutions. using Eq.09 ⋅10 lbf ⋅s ft s To see the difference between the two solutions.2500 2 ⎟ in ⎟ in = ⋅ ⋅ (0.13 7.In that example I treated the annular space between the stem and the packing as if it were a rectangular slit. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.6 cP 128 ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0. 6.0001 are 0. almost certainly because it does not carry enough significant digits to handle the 0/0 limit of the last term in the denominator.30. (b) Dividing and canceling like terms produces ⎛ D − Di ⎞ 3 D⋅ ⎜ o ⎟ Q6. 0. finding Qthis problem 7.28 produces Eq. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. and then tried by introducing Do = Di + Δ and simplifying with and without dropping higher-order terms in Δ.2502 2 − 0. 6.2500 2 )in 2 ⎜ 0. 1. 6. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.1.59·109. I tried to reduce this ratio algebraically. one must copy more significant figures QEx. Third Edition.1.9995.001. (c) The values of this ratio for Do / Di = 1.52 (a) Here the l = πD and h = (Do − Di ) / 2 .5158 = = 1. 1.9951.1.0004 that for the annulus.954.25 inches and outside diameter 0.

0040 s A s s s this is a very low-leakage window.00 inches makes a very good seal.5 ⋅10 s hr s min This low flow rate shows why we can use mating surfaces which are practically smooth as seals. after one sees that the ratio of the vessel radius to the length of the flow path is large enough that one may treat it as a linear problem rather than a cylindrical one. Chapter 6. HR = = 1 4 πD 2 D2 D HR = = which is also the same as for a circle 4D 4 HR = Solutions. page 24 . _______________________________________________________________________ 6. All real gaskets are the equivalent of this.without much success. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.25⋅10 = 4. The flow is laminar.018 cP 6. A gap of 0.28 ⋅10 . Vavg = = 0.54 This is really the same as the last problem. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.0133 = 0.002cP 12 ⎝ Δx ⎠ μ 12 ⎜ ⎟ 2. the flow rate through them is not zero. for which ⎛ dP ⎞ 1 1 3 Q = ⎜− ⎟ lh ⎝ dx ⎠ 12 μ lbf 0.2 lbm ft ft −3 in ⋅ 1 ⋅ = ⋅24 in ⋅ ( in ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ ⋅ −4 2 2m 12 0.5⋅10 = 0. If one of you will work that out satisfactorily and send me a copy. Third Edition.09⋅10 −5 ⎝ ⎠ ft s cP 3 3 3 −7 ft −4 ft −6 gal −9 m = 1.72⋅10 lbm lbf s 12 in Q ft m −6 ft −8 m = 2.01 2 3 1 cP ft s 32.53* This is flow in a slit. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.22 ⋅10 = 6.55 (a) (b) (c) Area Wetted perimeter 1π 2 D D 1 HR = 2 4 = 1 πD + D 4 2 + π 2 1π 2 D D 24 which is the same as for a circle. it is simply too small to detect.93 ⋅10 = 3. I will be grateful. ⎛ lbf ⎞ 3 ⎜ 1000 2 ⎟ 10 5 ⎛ ΔP ⎞ 1 1 3 1 1 10π ft ⋅ ( in) in ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ Q = ⎜− lh = ⋅ ⋅ ⎟ lbf ⎜ 1 in ⎟ 1.

somewhat more than 8 the equal area value of 0. this is a trial and error. finding D = 7.128 π 4 π This is also the ratio of weights for equal wall thickness.28 ft / s design = = = 1.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0. V = 22. Third Edition. This shows that the friction effect of a square duct is more than that of a circular one. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.15 and Solutions. page 25 .886 Dcircle 4 4 4 π 4 = = = 1. and we need a little more than equal area. 2 For equal cross-sectional area A = Dsquare = Perimetersquare 4Dsquare = Perimetercircle π Dcircle D 3.57* The velocity is proportional to 1/(square root of the friction factor.57·104 and f = 0. square = = 0.00438.1416 2 3. R = 9.00447)⎜18.065 psi 32.017cP ⋅ 6.000075 ≈ 0 V= = 2 D min s 8in A (8 ft / 12) ⎛ 8 ⎞⎛ ft ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎜ ft⎟ ⎜ 18. 4(8in ) 500 4HR = 8 in ft 3 Q min = 1125 ft = 18.08 2 ⎟ (800ft ) lbf s2 ⎝ s⎠ ⎝ ft ⎠ − ΔP = ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ 8 2⎜ ft ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎛ 2 ft ⎞ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ft 2 = 0.049 f estimated in Ex.080 3 ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠⎝ ft ⎠ = 8.4 ft/s.72 ⋅10 −4 ft s cP (4)(0.00006in = 0.89ft / s 6.15 4. Vactual design 3. 6. We first assume that a square duct with 8 inch sides will be used.1416 Dcircle .886.00447 R= lbm 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.914 of the corresponding circular duct. so f used in actual VEx. Chapter 6.31 square diameter is = 0.1 psi .75⋅104 . ε = 0. In this problem the computed 7.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⋅ Then we trial-and-error n D to find the value which makes − ΔP = 0. (8in )2 HR = = 2in. 6. f ≈ 0.31 in.75 ft .2 2 D2 − D1 D − D1 = 2 π (D2 + D1 ) 4(D2 + D1 ) 4 _______________________________________________________________________ π (d) HR = (D 4 2 2 2 − D1 ) = 6-56* As in Ex.5.

2 2 ⋅10 ft ⎟ 2⎜ 1000 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ft ⎝ ⎠ lbf s s in ft Vfirst guess = = 303 ⎛ ⎞ s ⎜ ⎟ 10 ⎟ 1+ 4(0. R = 7.00453.59* Here the velocity will be much too high for us to use any of the convenient methods.21 f = 0.012 ft 1/ 3 2g (b) .0006 and a large Reynolds number.0024 s f HR 1/ 6 f (17. Chapter 6.7 ft/s.4.001 estimated in the example). ΔPpump = dm ρ ρ + gΔz + ΔV 2 dWn. 6.0040.068 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎠ The corresponding R = 7.09 ft ) _______________________________________________________________________ 6.0024 ⋅1. try f = 0.2 ft / s2 n 0.f used in actual = 0.f . _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Then ⎛ ⎞ ft lbf 144 in 2 32. for 150 gpm in a 3 inch pipe Solutions. ΔPpump = ρ F + ΔP12 + ρgΔz1−2 ρ From Appendix A.00453. page 26 .07e-5.21 f = 0. for ε / D = 0. we find the velocity at which the guessed and calculated values of f are equal.198e6 and from Eq. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 6.00252 design From Eq 6.58 (a) Combining the equations.068 in = 0.102e6 and from Eq. Third Edition. which corresponds to an absolute roughness of 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. finding V = 295.049 = 0. we have V = C HR ⋅ −Δz = Δx 2 ⋅HR ⋅ g −Δz ⋅ f Δx These are the same if C = 2g f HR1/ 6 2g 2 ⋅ 32.60 (a) ΔP dWn.0014 ft (compared to the 0. Then. α= C= =α = = 1.22 1/6 n 0. so ⎛ ΔP ⎞ 2⎜ − ⎜ ρ − gΔz⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ V= Δx 1+4 f D As a first trial. using the search engine on my spreadsheet. ΔV 2 = −F + Here is zero.004)⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 3.2lbm ft ⋅ + 32.f .0018 in / 3.21 we find that this corresponds to a relative roughness of 2. so 2 dm 2 ΔP =F + + gΔz .

5 + 20 + 99.18 MPa ΔPpump dWn. try f = 0.004094. Then 6. _______________________________________________________________________ (b) Po = 2(−gΔz) Δx As a first trial.5psi + 20 psi + 62. we find ⎛ L⎞ ⎞ P2 − P V2 V2 ⎛ 1 + g(z2 − z1 ) + 2 = −F = − 2 ⋅ ⎜ Kfurnace + 4 f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ D ⎠ stack ⎠ ρ 2 2 ⎝ P −P ρ The first term is 2 1 = − air g(z2 − z1 ) so that ρ ρstack ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ L⎞ ⎞ V2 ⎛ ρ g(z2 − z1 )⋅ ⎜ 1− air ⎟ = − 2 ⋅ ⎜ 1 + Kfurnace + 4 f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D⎠ stack ⎠ ρstack ⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ Solutions. 6. finding V = 48. Ý ⋅m= ⋅Qρ = ΔPpump ⋅Q dm ρ lbf gal ft 3 144 in 2 hp min = 171 2 ⋅150 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 15.2 The corresponding R = 1. using the search engine on my spreadsheet. R = 1.2 2 ⋅230 ft ⋅ ⋅ 2 ft 2 32 lbm ft 144in = 51. Then.5 = 171 psi = 1.21 f = 0. assuming that (1) is far enough from the furnace that the velocity is negligible. in this case by driving the pump.ρF = ΔP pump 2.00036 and a 1+4f D large Reynolds number.0 hp = 11. and (2) the exit from the stack. this is power entering the system.5 psi 100 ft lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 = 51.48 gal 33 000 ft lbf ft According to the sign convention in this book.61* V = Vfirst guess ft ⋅10 ft ft s2 = = 48.047 in = 0.89e6 and from Eq. Then applying BE from (1) to (2).f.3 3 ⋅32.004094.0040.21 f = 0. Third Edition. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.3 ⎛ ⎞ s 10 1+ 4(0.62 Let (1) be the air inlet.24 psi ⋅2300 ft = 51. 6.1 kW 2 in min 7.004 )⎜ ⎜ 5. for ε / D = 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.88e6 and from Eq. page 27 . we find the velocity at which the guessed and calculated values of f are equal.14 ft/s.047 / 12 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝( )⎠ 2 ⋅32. Chapter 6.0018 in / 5.

025 cP ≈ the value for air at 350°F from Fig. We assume that the stack is made of concrete (a common choice). Students are generally uncomfortable with the idea that the pressure drop though the furnace is estimated by a constant times the kinetic energy based on the flue gas temperature. Chapter 6. Third Edition. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.2 lbm ft 144in If we enter Figure 6.1.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⎟ ft ft 2 in ⋅ F = −⎜ ⋅ + 32.2 we estimate that ε ≈ 0.02 in. and ε / D ≈ 0. Then ⎡ ⎤ 1/ 2 ft ⎢ 2 ⋅ 32.3·107 and f = 0.005. and reasonably reliable. flow is from right to left! The equivalent dP/dx is ⎛ dP ⎞ ⎛ dP ⎞ ρ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ equivalent ⎜ ρ ⎟ equivalent Δx ⎝ ⎠ 1352 ft 2 lbm ⋅60 3 2 2 ft 2 psi ft ⋅ lbf s s ⋅ 2 = 0. We also see that this is in the Solutions.589 ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎛ L⎞ ⎢ 1+ K ⎥ ⎝ stack ⎠ ⎝ 28 528°R ⎠ +4f ⎜ ⎟ furnace ⎢ ⎝ D ⎠ stack ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ L⎞ 100 ft Kfurnace = 3.63* Assume the flow is from left to right.0040. Then. But the simple estimating method here is widely used. taking into account the changes in density.1/ 2 ⎡ ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ρ air ⎢ 2g(z2 − z1 )⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ρ ⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ 29 810°R ⎞ ⎢ ⎝ stack ⎠ ⎥ V2 = ⎢ ⎥ Here ⎜ air − 1⎟ = ⎜ ⋅ − 1⎟ = 0.0175 ft 1000ft 32. first guess = ⎢ ⎥ = 29.005⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ft ⎠ stack ⎦ ⎣ This corresponds to R = 1. For the highest-quality estimate we would follow the flow through the furnace. with our spreadsheet's numerical engine we seek the guess of f which makes the guessed and calculated values equal. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 2 (−30 ft )⎟ = −(2318 − 966) = −1352 2 2 2 ⎜ 60 lbm ⎟ ft s lbf s s ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ft ρ + gΔz = −F The minus sign indicates that the assumed flow direction is wrong.4 s ⎛ 100 ft ⎞ ⎢1 + 3 + 4 ⋅ 0. (We estimated the viscosity of the stack gas as 0.2 ⋅100 ft ⋅ 0.589 ⎥ ft ⎢ ⎥ s2 V2.00033 This leads to a first guess of ffirst guess = 0.0040. viscosity and velocity from point to point in the furnace. and R = 1. That is now possible with CFD programs. so from table 6. then vertically to 100 cSt and horizontally we find Q ≈ 57 gpm. finding V = 29.13 at 17. ΔP ⎛ ⎞ lbf ⎜ 30 2 32.0 and ⎜ ⎟ = = 20 ⎝ D ⎠ stack 5 ft To solve the problem we need an estimate of f .96.7 ft/s.5 psi/1000 ft. A. page 28 . and the gas density from the ideal gas law).3·107 and f = 0. read diagonally up to SG =0.

we would probably have to specify some other type of pump). page 29 .5 _______________________________________________________________________ 6. The "equivalent lengths" are (6 ⋅30 ) + (4 ⋅13) + (1⋅ 340) = 572 so that ⎛ 3. 6. (This is a high head for a centrifugal pump at this volumetric flow rate. and to the lowest values of the specific gravity and viscosity.f. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Here the open globe valve adds 340 x (3.3 cP) finding lbf 4 ft 2 cp 144 in 2 ft 3 gal in 2 ⋅ π ⋅ (3.65 psi ≈ 0.126 = 56. and the lowest elevation and pressure in vessel 1. The required head will be highest for the lowest specific gravity (0. For all conditions ⎛ ΔP ⎞ dWn. we enter at the right at 200 gpm.068ft / 12) ⋅ Q= ⋅ = 0. in this case 200 gpm.8⋅ 62. read horizontally to the 5 cSt line and then ⎛ loss in head ⎞ 1 F ⎟ ≈ 105 = ⋅ from which vertically to the top finding ⎜ L g ⎝ ft per 1000 ft ⎠ ⎛F ⎞ ⎛ 105 ft ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 773 ft ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 81 ft ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ g ⎠ max ⎝ 1000 ft ⎠ lbf (81 − 8) 2 ⎛ ΔP ⎞ s2 32. and 398 ft of head. (first computing a viscosity of 96.12. The minimum corresponds to the opposite of those conditions.3 3 ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠ = 211+106 + 81 = 398 ft = 121 m The entrance and exit losses.65* The maximum corresponds to the highest pressure and elevation in vessel 2. So we would specify a pump with a design point of 200 gpm. and the lowest in vessel 1.laminar flow region.3cp ft s 2. ΔP F ⎜ ⎟ = = + Δz + ⎜ ⎟ g ⎝ ρ g ⎠ pump g dm ρ g (b) The highest required head will correspond to the highest elevation and highest pressure in vessel 2.64 (a) We must specify the maximum flow rate.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 in ⎜ ⎟ =⎛ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + (127 − 21) ft + 81 ft ⎜ ⎟ lbm⎞ 32. Chapter 6. In both parts Solutions. which we could solve by Poisueille's equation.2 ft ⎝ ρ g ⎠ pump ft 2 lbf s2 ⎜ 0. which we ignored are ≈ 0.09e − 5 lbf s 17.068 / 12) = 87 ft. Third Edition. so the effective length of the pipe is 860 ft.7 2 min 1000ft 128 96.086 ⎞ Leffective = 672 + 572⎜ ⎟ = 774 ft ⎝ 12 ⎠ On Fig.80) and for the highest kinematic viscosity (5 cSt). _______________________________________________________________________ 6.

3 ft By BE.0gpm ft Qmax = ⋅10.3 ⎦ ft Vmin = = 10.35 860 ft s 1 + 4(0.6 = 3592 gpm 93. D 2 ρ 2 V= For the maximum.2 lbm ft 144in 2 ⎥ ft 2⎢ ⋅ ⋅ + 32. page 30 .0034) 10 / 12 At this point we check finding R = 1.0034 and Ke = 1 / 2 . For both parts ⎛ ΔP ⎞ + gΔz⎟ −2⎜ ⎜ ρ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ L 1+ 4 f D ΔP V22 L V2 + gΔz = = −F = −4 f .44 m/s.3 = 238gpm ft / s s _______________________________________________________________________ 6.66 We begin by assuming that the pressure at A will not be low enough to cause boiling.2(100 − 43)⎥ ⎣ 0. Then. and V = 14. Chapter 6. Then we solve for the velocity applying BE.3 lbm ⎥ ft 2 lbf s2 s ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ft ft Vmax = = 17. Third Edition. 12 ⎛ V22 L ⎞ V22 2g( −Δz) we have or V2 = gΔz + = −F = − ⎜ Ke + 4 f ⎟ ⋅ L ⎝ ⎠ 2 D 2 1+ Ke + 4 f D ε = 0.020 ft Ladjusted = 60 ft + 2 ⋅ 20 ⋅ = 93.068 ft / 12 23.3 ft/s = 4.5 860 ft s 1 + 4(0.5 + 4(0.of the problem we have a trial-and-error for the velocity. and Q = 3526 gpm. ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ (81 − 8)psi 32.00488) 3.068 ft / 12 23.1·106 and by numerical solution find that f =0. Q = ⋅ 14.3 (ft / s) s s 1+ 0. with no pressure difference. so D ft 2 ⋅32 2 ⋅10 ft ft ft 246 gpm s V2 = = 14.6 .2 ⋅144 + 32. Here the adjusted length of the pipe is 10.85⋅ 62.00018 and R is large so f ≈ 0.2 2 (106 ft )⎥ ⎢ 0.8⋅ 62. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.0036. using those values Solutions.5 = 402gpm ft / s s For the minimum ⎡ (47 − 20) ⎤ 2⎢ ⋅32.0gpm ft Qmax = ⋅17. with friction from water level to outlet. The values shown are those at the end of that trial and error.0057) 3.

6 ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ ft 62.7 = 3.4 MPa PD .78 in = 20 cm 2 ⋅10 000 psi _______________________________________________________________________ 6.2 2 (7000 − 2500 ) ft ⋅ ⋅ 2 ft s 32.3 is show through four trials.00364) 41. Third Edition.68 This is Ex.15 of the first edition (pages 193-195).2 lbm ft 144 in 2 psi 1. Chapter 6.7 − ⎟ ⎝ 2 10 / 12 ⎠ ⎥ s ft 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ft lbf s ⋅ ⋅ 2 = 14. for an 8 inch diameter pipe and a fairly conservative value of thickness = 2σ 1947 psi ⋅ 8 in σ = 10 000 psi.Va2 V2 ⎛ L ⎞ = −F = − a ⎜ Ke + 4 f a ⎟ ρ 2 2 ⎝ D⎠ 2 ⎡ V ⎛ L ⎞⎤ Pa = P1 − ρ ⎢ g(za − z1 ) + a ⎜ 1 + Ke + 4 f a ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎝ D ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ 14.66 ⎞ ⎥ 32. so the pipe was made of aluminum. which allow the pipe.3lbm ⎢ s ⎠ ⋅ ⎜1 + 0.0176 100 ft ft pipe larger than 6 inches and smaller than 8 inches. Solutions.7 − 11. The final flow rates are A 285 gpm. C 225 gpm.3 3 ⋅ 32.3 we see that this requires = 0.2 ⋅ 20ft + = 14. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. we compute thickness = = 0. lbm ft lbf s2 ft 2 Pmax = ρ gΔz = 62. or used an 8 inch pipe.3 2 ⋅ 32.5 + 4(0. One can show that in terms of (strength/weight) high quality aluminum alloys are still the best (which is why we make airplanes of them). page 31 .76 psi = From Table A.67 This was actually done in the 1950s. to be shut down and drained for maintenance and repair when needed. you can see the occasional valve boxes. ⎛ ΔP ⎞ ⎛ ΔP ⎞ Δx Δx ⎟ gΔz = −F = − ⎜ ⋅ = −⎜ ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Δx ⎠ friction ρ ⎝ ρ ⎠ friction Δx ⎛ ΔP ⎞ Δz lbm ft 3000 ft lbf s2 ft 2 = ρg = 62.2 lbm ft 144 in This siphon would probably work satisfactorily. although the absolute pressure is low enough that dissolved air might come out of solution and cause problems. _______________________________________________________________________ Pa − P1 + g(za − z1 ) + 6. where a trial and error solution based on Table A. At that time high quality plastic pipe had not developed to the extent it has now. 6. which is buried by the trail. I don't know if they had a special pipe made. If you walk down the trail from the North Rim to the river. B 60 gpm.0 psia 32.2 lbm ft 144 in = 1948 psi =13.2 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ Δx ⎠ friction Δx ft s (14 ⋅ 5280 ft ) 32.

the flows would be unchanged because the two parts of α would change. 0.5 ⎡ 2(z3 − z1 − α )g ⎤ 0. (P2/rho g+z2) .21 V.0000 2000 11. and the check value is the ratio of the V based on that guess. and the three flows are 304 gpm. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 0. The actual spreadsheet carries and displays more significant figures than are shown in this abbreviated table.0003 281. VB = ⎢ ⎥ VA = ⎢ 1+ 0.5941 1.0003 311.4696 4. Then we guess a value of α . This is a somewhat clumsy way to solve this class of problems. and compute the algebraic sum of the flows into point 2. One need not know the individual values of the two components of α. 0. In this case the guessed value is Q.The following spreadsheet solution is longer.3768 158468.0000 2000 12 2000 0. ft D.1236 146583.5054 0.0039 3.1235 1. These are somewhat higher than those shown in the example in the first edition. ft/s V BE/Vguessed Section B L.5 ft the algebraic sum of the flows into point 2 = -1.9138 3.5 + 4 f (L / D) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ and ⎡ 2(z4 − z1 − α )g ⎤ 0. equation 6.2119 3. but their sum would not.5941 215593. Chapter 6. gal/min V guessed. as shown above We see that for α = 11. The correct choice of α makes that algebraic sum zero. 64 gpm and 241 gpm. 0. because it requires nested numerical solutions.0000 2000 20 2000 0.0003 303. page 32 . solve for the three flows.0037 4.5054 0.0039 3.0040 3. and solve for V ⎡ ⎤ 0.5 2αg ⎢ ⎥ . guessed. L and D are those for the VC = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1+ 0.4579 1. The second column of the following table is the solution for α = 10 ft. Real solutions would use nested DO loops in FORTRAN or the equivalent.0003 413. to the one computed from BE. but within the accuracy of interpolations in Table A.3.5054 0.3768 1. ft/s Re f. ft e/D Q. but is probably more illustrative. For each of the three pipe sections we have a trial and error for the velocity.5 ⎥ where the values of f. Third Edition. ⎛P − P ⎞ We begin by defining α = ⎜ 1 2 + (z1 − z2 )⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρg ⎠ Then we write BE for each of the three pipe segments.16 gpm ≈ 0.0000 2000 Solutions.1204 3.5 2000 0.5 + 4 f (L / D) ⎦ individual pipe sections.5 + 4 f (L / D) ⎥ ⎢1 + 0. ft 10 2000 0. done using the spreadsheet's numerical engine.4579 162273.5054 0. guessed ft Section A L. BE. If the pipes were flexible and we raised or lowered point 2.

8925 68663. 6.0000 170.9543 46392. 2 ΔP ρ =− ΔV 2 −F 2 The velocity out the individual tubes is proportional to the square root of the pressure in the manifold below them.0000 9.7255 64699.0000 -33. 6. from 1 to 2. the far tube with squirt the highest.5264 2.3668 6.6623 2.5 ⎥ so toward point 2. page 33 . guessed.21 V. In all cases the velocity is declining in the 2 flow direction.2557 0. BE. we must take flow B as positive rather than negative. so ΔP ρ + ΔV 2 = −F .0000 1000 0.0102 1. Third Edition.0048 2.3355 0.0000 1000 0. gal/min V guessed.0004 239. Chapter 6. BE.3355 0. if ΔP is positive. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 20.4. ft/s Re f. Solutions.4 and 259.0047 2.0006 62.0006 63. 0.0666 6.0048 2.0004 248.68.0006 66. So for all cases Δ V is negative. Thus. ft/s V BE/Vguessed Sum of flows to point 2. ft/s V BE/Vguessed Section C L.4037 5.2719 1. equation 6.0038 6. because each tube bleeds off some of the flow.0037 6.69 See the solution to Prob.3355 0.2557 0. Then in the sum of flows into point 2.9543 1. The three Q's are 239.7729 0.0964 189912. we must write VB = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 + 0.68. Here the flow in section B is from the reservoir ⎡ −2(z3 − z1 − α )g ⎤ 0. 0. while if it is negative the near tube will squirt higher.0000 -1.0052 1. ft e/D Q.0038 6. 0.0102 156074.0370 1.21 V.1677 _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 0. 0.0006 44.17 gpm ≈ zero.3355 0. gal/min V guessed. equation 6. ft D. With these changes the trial-and-error on α is the same type as in Prob.0370 188061 0.5 + 4 f (L / D) ⎦ that the term in brackets will be positive. we see that there is no change in elevation.2719 195377.8924 1. ft/s Re f.0039 5.9489 1.0000 1000 0. 0. ft e/D Q. _______________________________________________________________________ 6-70* Writing BE.0000 1000 0.1170 0.7255 1.7679 1. gpm 0.0004 241.5 ft. with solution α = 7.2557 0.2557 0.0964 1.7679 65707.D.0004 198.6 gpm. The algebraic sum of the flows into point 2 = 0. guessed.4192 6. In the above spreadsheet. 0.4594 0. For multiple tubes one rewrites these equations for successive pairs of tubes.6858 2.

For an assumed f = 0. however an interesting historical example of the apparently first use of simple economics to find an optimum. then ΔP is negative and the water will squirt highest out the nearest (upstream) tube. It is. so this formula no longer applies. R = 96. Third Edition. and see that these predictions are observed. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. The point of this problem is that because of the 1/6 power.035 times the value in that example.71 We guessed f = 0. For 200 gpm in a 3.24 in diameter pipe. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. don't bet very much. (b) If the absolute value of F is greater than that of ΔV 2 / 2 . and from Eq.0005. high voltage. If we take the ratio of this value to 00042 to the 1/6 power we find that the economic diameter would be 1. (c) First. Chapter 6. f = 0.(a) If F = 0 then Δ P is positive. and simplifying we have ⎛ total annual⎞ Ý m 2 8πμΔx (4 / π )2 ⎜ ⎟ = PC ⋅ + CC ⋅ PP ⋅ D ⋅ Δx ρ 2 D4 ⎝ cost ⎠ Taking the derivative with respect to D. and setting it equal to zero we find Solutions.0051. One can build the device to the dimensions show in the article. the computed diameter is quite insensitive to modest changes in f _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ Annual ⎞ CI 2 rΔx CI 2 rΔx π 2 ⎜ ⎟ = A ⋅m ⋅ B + 6.73 ⎛ total annual⎞ Ý m3 2 fΔx (4 / π )2 16 4πD μ ⎟ = PC ⋅ (a) ⎜ + CC ⋅ PP ⋅ D ⋅ Δx . f = = 2 5 Ý ρ D R m ⎝ cost ⎠ Substituting this value for f in the first term. and the water will squirt highest out the farthest tube. if the experienced workers in some facility you are new at are goading you into betting on something. e/D = 0. 500. page 34 . Second.155 times the value in that example. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. 6. Inside our houses and other buildings we set the wire diameter for safety reasons. We want the maximum ΔT due to resistive heating to be low enough to pose no fire hazard. where the resistive losses are the only serious factor.21. In modern.01 it would be 1. transmission lines corona losses are apparently more significant.72 π 2 = ABΔx 4 D ρ + π 2 ⎝ cost ⎠ D D 4 4 d (annual cost ) π 2CI 2 rΔx = 2 ABΔx ρ D − π 3 =0 dD 4 D 4 CI 2 r 4 Decon = ⎛π ⎞2 ⎜ ⎟ ABρ ⎝4⎠ This is for low voltage transmission. maintain your humility.0042.

so that this is a short pipe.4 5 = CC⋅ PP ⋅ Δx D ρ Ý Ý m2 PC ⋅ m 2 32πμ(4 / π )2 2 5 Decon = but 2 = Q Substituting this and taking the fifth 2 ρ CC ⋅ PP ρ root produces Eq. − ΔP = (c) ⎜1 + K e + 4 f ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ D⎠ D ρ 2 2 Here R ≈ 2·109 and ε / D ≈ 1. Here we will see that L/D is of the order of 25.23 1/5 ⎡ $0.6 ft lbf ⋅ ⎠ cP ft 2 ⎝ 12 in ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 0.5 inches.63. 6. Third Edition.17 4 f = 4 ⋅ 0. Eq.63 becomes Decon ∝ (Q ) = Q and Q Q 0.23 for 200 gpm and 2000 cS we interpolate between the 6 in and 8 in lines. 6.g = 1 and the economic values on Figure 6. for which the entrance loss is significantly greater than the 4fL/D term. However 40 ft/s is still a plausible estimate. finding ≈ 6.8 we would conclude that the velocity should be about 40 ft/s.23 0.48 gal ⎟ ⋅ 737. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.4 (Decon ) (Q ) 2 1/ 5 0.63 PC ⋅ 2 Ý m2 8πμΔx(4 / π )2 ⋅ (b) For 200 gpm. Chapter 6. 2000 cP. 6.6⋅10 −8 (for steel pipe) so that f ≈ 0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.582 ft = 6.09⋅10 −5 lbf s ft ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⋅⎢ ⋅ ⎢ yr ⋅ ⎜ 7.04 ⎛ 200 gal ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎟ ⎥ ⋅ 32π ⋅2000 cP ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ kWh Decon = ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ 0.58⋅1011 4 4Q min = 9 158 ft = D= πV π ⎛ 40 ⋅60 ft ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 2 L ΔP V22 L⎞ ρV 2 ⎛ + = −F = − ⎜ 4 f + K e ⎟ V2 . (c) For constant viscosity.98 in From Fig.2 Vecon ∝ econ 2 = econ 2 = Qecon which is the slope on Fig 6. 6. because it is for pipes with L/D much larger than 100. page 35 .4 (d) The density does not appear in Eq. s. This is not quite right.0015 and ⎛ 50 ⋅ 5280 ft ⎞ L ⎟ = 0. ft 3 4083mi 2 ⋅ 2000ft ⎛ 5280 ft ⎞ 2 hr ⎟ ⋅ (b) Q= ⋅⎜ = 1.58⋅1011 ⎝ mi ⎠ 60 min 24hr min 3 ft 1. which is ≈ the same as calculated here.74 (a) Based on Table 6.0015 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ D ⎝ 9158 ft ⎠ Solutions.04 $2 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ yr in ft ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡ 8760 hr ⎛ ft 3 ⎞ ⎤ 1/ 5 kW s 2.

This may be a bit low for this large a pipe.49 ⋅10 hp = 11 100 MW (e) These values are all wildly impractical.1 ft ⎛ ft ⎞ 1 πV 365 ⋅ 24 ⋅3600 s π⎜7 ⎟ ⎝ s⎠ 4 For this diameter and velocity R ≈ 3. ⎟ = ⎜ 1.0020 )⎜ 62.f. this makes little difference.053 ⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dm ⎠ ⎝ lbm ⎠ ⎝ 2545Btu ⎠ ⎝ hr ⎠ min ⎠ ⎝ 7 = 1.022 ⎞ Btu dWn.185⋅1010 m = 1. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.8) a velocity of about 7 ft/s would be used. Chapter 6.356 ⋅ 104 ) 10 .185 ⋅ 1010 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 0.71.58) Btu ⋅ 528o R 1.21 we compute that f = 0. RT P2 lb mol R ⎟ = 0.7 29 lb mole ⎛ dW ⎞ ⎛ Btu ⎞ ⎛ hp hr ⎞ ⎛ 60 min ⎞ lbm ⎞ ⎛ Ý ⎟⎜ Po = m ⎜ n.075 3 = 1.17) ⋅ ⋅ = 0. page 36 Po = QΔP = ( 7 ⋅ 4. Then the pipe diameter would be ft 3 4( 7 ⋅ 4.2lbm ft ft 2 ft ⎠ ⎝ and the pumping power lbf ft 3 hp min 144 in 2 yr ⋅ 278 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 1 in 33 000ft lbf yr ft 365 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 60min 4 6 = 1.002. How would you build a pipe with that diameter? The power requirement is roughly that needed for a population of 5 million people. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. The pressure drop would be L V2 − ΔP = 4 fρ D 2 ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜7 ⎟ ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎛ 1000 ⋅5280 ⎞ ⎝ s ⎠ lbf s2 144in 2 ⎟ = 4(0. 5.29108 and e/D ≈ 3·10-6.58⋅1011 min min ft For an isothermal compressor. The only practical solution is to prevent emissions at the source. although for this large a pipe that equation may not be very accurate.75 Based on economic velocity calculations (See Fig. commercial and industrial uses. 6. because the friction factor will be lower than that in typical industrial pipes. (See Prob.23 or Table 6. 6.053 = ln = ln ⎜ lbm ⎠ ⎝ lbm dm M P1 14.00 ⋅10 hp ≈ 746 MW Solutions.5 + 0. From Eq.987 o ⎛ 14. Third Edition.356⋅10 4 ) 10 4Q yr yr D= = ⋅ = 50.⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜ 40 ⎟ lbf s2 ft 2 lbm ⎝ s ⎠ (1 + 0.075 3 ⋅ 2 32. including residential. but as shown by the solution to Prob. 6.3 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⋅ ⋅ = 278psi ⎠ 2 ⎝ 50 32.7 + 0.0022 psi ΔP = 0.2 lbm ft 144 in 2 ft ft 3 lbm lbm Ý (d) ⋅0.f.

5 ft/s. none this large in diameter.21 in ⎝ 10 ⎠ Probably we would choose at 2. page 37 . and the ratio of PP values 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞6 Decon = 3. 6.213 and Table 6.23 one reads a value of ≈ 7 ft/s. 6. These are close to the same.1 hp 2 min in 7.5 inch pipe. The disagreement between Fig 6.9 as we go from top to bottom of the table. If we did this project it would probably involve several parallel pipes. From App.48 gal 33 000 ft lbf ft These latter two values are not asked for in the problem statement.21 is for a fluid of specific gravity 0. The largest value is 1. the product of the density and the economic velocity falls faster than the viscosity falls.68 psi ΔP = ⋅ 5000 ft = 584 psi 100 ft And the pump horsepower is gal lbf ft 3 hp min 144 in 2 Po = QΔP = 200 ⋅584 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 68. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.77 The product of the velocity and the cube root of the density (ft/s)(lbm/ft3)1/3 goes from 23. 6.8. but are included here to show the full example.24 inches calculated in Ex. From Fig. This is not quite constant. A.40 times the smallest.18. The reason for the decline seems to be that as the density falls.4 to 16. The politics of such large water movements is much more difficult (and much more interesting)! At one point Senator Warren Magnuson of Washington managed to pass a law forbidding the federal government from even studying such a transfer.8. Chapter 6. which causes the corresponding friction factor to increase.78 ft/s for 200 gpm. so the economic Reynolds number falls. From Table 6. but certainly close. and several pumping stations. in several parallel pipes. The effect is small. Fig 6. (almost exactly 50 lbm/ft3) and Fig. but real.78 The 3.24in ⎜ ⎟ = 2.8 one would interpolate a velocity of perhaps 6.76 Here we can use the result from Ex. which raises the economic diameter and lowers the economic velocity. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.18 corresponds to a velocity of 7.28 uses a lower value of the pipe roughness than does Table 6. Los Angeles draws about half this amount from the Colorado River and pumps it about a tenth as far. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.As an engineering problem this is fairly easy.3 we can compute 11.8 results from two factors. Third Edition. _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 6.

6. The behavior of particles small enough to be of air pollution interest is discussed in more detail in that book. m 2 kg 10 10 ⋅ ( −6 m) ⋅ 2000 3 V0 D 2 ρ s m (b) xStokes stopping = = 0.018cp ⋅ m s cp This startlingly small value shows that for particles this small (about the size of air pollution interest) the air is very stiff. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. we can say that mpipe = ρpipe DL ⋅ (pipe wall thickness) m fuel to pump = Volume of fuel to pump ⋅ ΔPpipe ⋅ Heating value of pump fuel ⋅ η pump 1 For a given allowable pressure. ⎢ 2C1 ⎥ dD D ⎣ ⎦ _______________________________________________________________________ 6.63. the pipe wall thickness is proportional to D and ΔPα 5 D C2 C2 2 2 so that mpipe = C1 D .12. which is a function of the pipe diameter. "Air Pollution Control Engineering. although its mass depends weakly on the pressure it must develop. The mass of the pump is probably practically independent of the pipe diameter. dV = − (c) If we return to Eq 6. Chapter 6. page 38 dV 18μV VdV =− 2 = dt Dρ dx . For 1% of V0 2 kg (10 −6 m ) ⋅2000 m 3 x D2 ρ V0 t= ⋅ ln = ⋅ ln 100 = Stokesstopping ⋅ ln 100 = 2. ln 0 = 2 ⋅t ∫V0 V Dρ V Dρ from this we see that V = 0 corresponds to infinite time.66. and separate variables and integrate.061 mm = 0. 6. so taking the Cunningham correction factor into account raises the computed value by 12%. it loses 99% of its initial velocity in 28 microseconds.80 (a) Following the instructions in the problem 0 18μ xStokes stopping dx carrying out the integration and inserting the limits ∫V0 D 2 ρ ∫0 leads to Eq.018cp ⋅ 0. Third Edition. we find V dV V 18μ t 18μ = − 2 ∫0 dt . This is example 8. The stokes stopping distance appears often in the fine particle literature. There it is shown that for a particle of this size C ≈ 1. the mass of the pump and the mass of the fuel which must be expended to pump that fuel through the line. Leaving it out of consideration.001 kg = 0.79 We wish to minimize the sum of the mass of the fuel line.002 in 18 μ 18⋅ 0. Solutions. m total = C1 D + 5 D D 1 ⎡ 5C ⎤ 7 dm total 5C D minimum combined mass = ⎢ 2 ⎥ = 2C1 D − 62 = 0 . 2e".8 ⋅10 −5 s 18μ V 18 ⋅0. McGraw-Hill 2000. and particles come to rest quickly.5 page 225 of Noel de Nevers.001 kg V0 m s cp While the particle theoretically moves forever. and mpump fuel = 5 .

We find V = 0.2⋅ ⎝ 62. gravity Δt = 6.3) ⎝ ⎠ lbm 2 ft ft 3 ⋅ ft −6 ft = 0.0001 in )2 ⎜32. Third Edition. 2 V= π 4 2F D2 ρCd As a first trial we assume Cd = 0.7 ⋅10 -9 m s This is 3·10-5 times the stokes stopping distance (for this example) and clearly negligible.24 of the 1.84 ⎟ (0. so m Δz = Vterminal. On the time scale of geology this particles settles rapidly. ⎛ 78.02m )⎜ 998. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.24 se see that for this particle Reynolds number.002cP ⋅ 6.3 ⎠ ⎛ 78.6 2 = 6.05·10-5 m/s. 6.05 ⋅10 −5 ⋅ 2.5 above.83* F = π 4 D2 ρCd V2 . 6.2 2 ⎟ (100 − 62.1 Rp = −3 800 ⋅10 PaS From Fig.5 ⎞ s 3⎜ 998.55 ft/s.02 m )⎜ 9.84 m s ⎠⎝ V= ⎛ kg ⎞ ⎛ 78. copying from that example.2 3 ⎟ 4(0. so the stokes law assumption is safe.5⎞ ⎛ kg ⎞ m⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 998.14 ⋅ 58. page 39 .85 − ⎝ 62. Cd ≈ 1.1) ⋅ (1 + 0.5 ⎞ ⎛ m⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 1.81 2 ⎟ ⎜ 7. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (0.406 which is within our ability to read Fig.81* V = (0. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Chapter 6.5. Rp = 24.4.4 and Cd = 2.8 ⋅ 10−5 s = 1. Then. Be cautioned that the approximation formula is only applicable to spheres (although the discs curve is very close to the spheres curve) and only in the Rp range shown.9 we know that the gravitational settling velocity is 6. Then we use our spreadsheet's numerical engine to find the value of Cd in the above equation which makes the assumed and calculated values equal.96 ⋅10 lbm s 144 in day 18 ⋅1.7 ) = 1.82 As a first trial we assume Cd = 0.776 m/s = 2.10.3 ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ = 58. but on a human time scale it practically doesn't settle.27.3 ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠ = 1.4) ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ 62.(d) From example 6.4 Solutions. Using the approximate equation in the caption of that figure we find Cd = (24 / 58.72⋅10 −4 ft s cP ⎛ ft ⎞ s One may check that Rp ≈ 5 e-6.

Third Edition.9 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 100 ⋅5280 ft ⎞ 2 lbm⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ft ⎟ ⎜ 0. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.5 so we accept the second guess.5)(60 ft ) ⎜ D ρ CD Δx ⎟ V ft ⎠ ⎟ = − 4 ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ln = − ⎜ 4 = − 0.48 and R = 1. _______________________________________________________________________ ⎛ 2.02 ⋅105 ⎜ ⎝ 1. Cd ≈ 0.65 ⎠ s ⎣ 0.65 ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠ = 1. _______________________________________________________________________ π Solutions.2 ⋅10 .24 we read 2⎞ ⎛ ft ⎜1.613 ⋅10 −4 s ⎛ 1.02 ⋅105 From Fig 6.32 lbm) V0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ mi ft m V = V0 exp(− 0.161 ⎜ ⎟ 2m (2)(0. page 40 .4) lbf s ⎝ ft ⎠ 4 ⎛ ⎞ ft (10 ft)⎜1.9 ⎞ 2 ⎛ lbm ⎞ ⎜ ft ⎟ ⎜ 0.075 3 ⎟ (0. gravity and wind all influence the speed and curvature of the ball's flight path.5 π V2 F = D2 ρCd 4 2 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ 2.5)⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3600 s ⎠ lbf s2 ft ⎠ = ⋅ = 0. = −⎜ 4 ⎜ 2m ⎟ V ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛π 2 ⎞ π ⎛ 2.075 3 ⎟ ( 0.48 ⎞ ft ⎡ 0. From Fig.2 lbm ft D2 ρCd dV dV 4 (b) m = mV = −F = − V2 2 dt dx ⎛π 2 ⎞ ⎜ D ρCd ⎟ dV ⎟ dx.92 ⋅105 Cd ≈ 0.65 2 ⎛ lbm ⎞ π s trial (10 ft )2 ⎜ 0.84 (a) R p = = 2.5 ⎦ s guess Vfirst = For this particle Reynolds number.57 lbf = 2.161) = 85 = 125 = 38 hr s s Stitching on the ball.5 so that Vsecond = 1. Chapter 6. 6.4 ⎤ V2 ft ⎟ = 0.9 ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⋅ 5280 ft ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ft⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 3600 s ⎠ 5 6.55 N 2 32.2 lbm ft ft ⋅ = 1.65 ⎢ ⎥ = 1.1 lbf ) 32. spin.24 we see that this corresponds to RP = ft 2 1.613 ⋅10 −4 ⎟ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ that Cd ≈ 0.075 3 ⎟ (0.2(0.

425 kh ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ m m and V = 36 ⋅ exp (− 0. we can then compute that at that half-way point (see preceding problem solution) that ⎛ kg ⎞ ⎛π 2 ⎞ π (0.1. then we would expect Po = AΔPV ∝ A ρV 3 to be the same for both. because the swimmer lies flat in the water.4 ⋅10 m −5 1. Cd ≈ 0. while the runner stands mostly upright.1. This says that we are in the flow regime in which the viscosity plays no role.m ⋅ 0.0 s s V0 In the first half of its flight.223 m )2 ⎜ 1. Third Edition.6·106 and 2·106.2 3 ⎜ 10 ⎟ Po sprinter m ⋅ ⎝ s ⎠ = 0. but the drag force is ≈ proportional to the fluid density.372) = 23. while that for the 100 m freestyle swim is ≈ 2 m/s. At higher particle Reynolds numbers. If we assume that the characteristic dimension for both running and swimming is ≈ 1 m.20 3 ⎟ (0. The projected areas are quite different. then we can compute the particle Reynolds numbers for both.1)(13. so the difference is mostly due to the difference in densities.223 m 5 s 6. In the second half it lost about 31% of its remaining velocity. finding 0. finding m m V ln = − 0. Cd ≈ 0.60 = 4⋅ kg ⎛ ⎞3 Po swimmer 1000 3 ⎜ 2 m ⎟ m ⎝ s⎠ This may be a coincidence.5 m ) ⎜ D ρ CD Δx ⎟ V ⎝ m ⎠ ⎟=− 4 ln = − ⎜ 4 = − 0. The result was apparently very dramatic.074) = 33.4 s s For the second half of the ball's flight we substitute Cd ≈ 0. so the ratio is ≈ 5.4 ⋅ exp (− 0.372 and V = 33.074 ⎜ ⎟ 2m V0 (2 )(0. I think that the competitive swimmer is mostly expending muscular energy to overcome water's fluid mechanic resistance.5. Surprisingly the values are quite similar 3 kg ⎛ m ⎞ 1. and assume that the muscular power output is the same for the sprinter and the swimmer and all goes to overcome fluid resistance.488⋅10 s that this is very close to the particle Reynolds number at which the Cd curve has a sudden change.86 The world record speed for the 100 m dash is ≈ 10 m/s.. while the sprinter.24 we see 2 = 5. the ball lost about 7% of its initial velocity. for both. If we assume that this transition occurred half-way from the kicker to the goal. 6.85 As the ball began its flight R p = From Fig. The density of water is ≈ 833 times that of air. while Solutions.5.24 (but see the preceding problem) so that Cd ≈ 0. If we assume the sprinter has four times the projected area of the swimmer. Chapter 6. at lower particle Reynolds numbers. This suggests that for both running and swimming we are to the right of the sudden transition on Fig. 6. _______________________________________________________________________ 36 6. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. page 41 .

2 = − 2 dx = 2 2 . If readers have comments on this I would be interested to hear them. . The swimming speeds were the same.2 ft 12 . holding their heads out of the water because of the gum.8 s and 696 ft.58 because it is specific for a sphere. Minneapolis Star Tribune. Cd Aρ air dt 2 ⎞ 1 (V + V ) = gt dV C Aρ V ⎛ V +V ⎟ dV g ln t = g − d V2. Third Edition.2 ft ft m = 7. Aug 19.2 ft 0.2 lbm ft ft ⋅ = 384 2 ⎞ ⎛ lbm lbf s s 1 ⎜ (0. Cussler of the U of M had swimmers timed for 25 yards in water and in a swimming pools whose viscosity had been doubled by dissolving guar gum in it.99Vt = 31.73 2 ⋅10ft = 25.5 leads to 107 ft/s. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.075 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ft ft 384 ⎛ V +V ⎞ V s ln 1.0. 6. is mostly expending energy to overcome the internal resistance of her/his own muscles and joints. The swimmers had to modify their position. This was actually tested in Aug 2003 ("Swimmers take slimy dive for an experiment at U". _______________________________________________________________________ 6.7)( ft 2 ) 0.01Vt 2 s ⎛ ft ⎞ 2 ⎜ 384 ⎟ ⎝ Vt 2 Vt 2 12 s ⎠ ln x= ln = = 8954 ft 2 g Vt 2 − V 2 2 ⋅32.012 s2 Vt = (2)(120 lbf ) (b) Repeating the calculation with A = 6 ft2 and Cd = 1. ⎢ 0 − Vt2 ⎦ ⎥ C A ρV Vt − V Vt dt dx Vt 2 ⎣ g− d 2m 2 2 V V x = t ln 2 t 2 2 g Vt − V (a) 32. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. We derive its 2mg dV V2 Vt = equivalent for a general falling body. dx = ln =V 2 .87* Here we cannot use Eq.sensitive to aerodynamic resistance. Professor Ed. within experimental error. t = t ln ⎜ t = dt 2Vt (Vt − V ) Vt2 Vt 2 − V 2 Vt2 dt 2m 2g ⎜ Vt − V ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡V 2 − V 2 ⎤ gx 1 ⎢ VdV dV VdV dV g t ⎥ . 8.6 s t = t ln ⎜ t ⎜ V −V ⎟ = ⎟ 2g ⎝ t ⎠ 2 ⋅32. m = 0 = mg − Cd A ρ air t .88 Vallowable = 2gx = 2 ⋅ 32.4 s s s Solutions. Chapter 6. page 42 . . 2003).

= 5 and =10 lines. The difference between the two is partly due to the Cunningham correction factor.4 m ⎞2⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ft lbm (1. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.2 2 ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠ 2 2 = = 133 ft = 12.4 ⎟ ⎜ 0. McGraw-Hill 2000. For Ex.3⎜ ⎝ 3600 s ⎠ lbf s2 V2 ft 3 F = Aρ air Cd = ⋅ = 110 lbf 2 2 32.g.075 This is not asked for in the problem but can be used for discussion. then the fuel consumption is ⎛ fuel ⎞ mi lb lbm gal ⎜ ⎟= ⋅ 70 ⋅ 6. Then.075 3 ⎟ ⎝ s⎠ ⎝ ft ⎠ 4 2 133 ft = 13 ft = 4. on evaluating the Reynolds number we would have a higher value than the real value. we would find a velocity much higher than the correct value. If this auto gets 30 mi/gal at 70 mph. we read Vt ≈ 2.91 In those examples the calculated terminal velocities were 2·10-4 and 6.0 = 14 hr gal hr ⎝ consumption ⎠ 30 mi ⎛ fuel energy⎞ lbm Btu Btu ⎟ ≈ 14 The energy flow in the fuel is ⎜ ⋅ 19 000 = 266 000 hr lbm hr ⎝ flow ⎠ If we assume a 30% thermal efficiency for the engine. Third Edition.20 we must interpolate between the s.2 ⋅10 ft / s .21 ft/s. 6.4 kW ⎟⋅ ⎝ 3600 s ⎠ 550 ft lbf (6 ⋅ 5)ft 2 ⋅ 0.6 hp = 15.2 lbm ft ⎛ 70 ⋅ 5280 ft ⎞ hp s (b) Po = FV = (110 lbf )⎜ = 20.4 ⋅10 ft / s .See the preceding problem. = 2 setting in air. Thus the procedure shown in those examples is conservative. and did the calculation. so we would be certain to conclude we were outside the Stokes law range. and must extrapolate off the right side of Solutions. then Btu hp hr Po engine ≈ 0. it can never lead to an incorrect answer if used as shown. Cd Aρ air ⎛ ft ⎞ (2)(150lbm)⎜ 32. 2mg Cd Vt2 ρair A= D= 4 π A= π 2 mg .0 m Vt = _______________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. see p222 of Noel de Nevers.4 hp = 23.5)⎜ 25. For −4 Ex. 2e". _______________________________________________________________________ 6.3* 266 000 ⋅ = 31. "Air Pollution Control Engineering.4 kW hr 2545 Btu and roughly 2/3 of the power output of the engine is going to overcome air resistance.g. Chapter 6.19 for a 1 micron particle with s. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. page 43 .90 If we guessed Stokes law.89 (a) ⎛ 70 ⋅5280 ft ⎞ 2 lbm ⎟ ⋅0. If −4 we applied it to the result of Example 619 we would have found Vt ≈ 2. The rest of the difference is inaccuracy in making up the chart.

20. students should become familiar with it. you can kill it with a bullet.5 in ) ⎜ 62. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.3 3 ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ ft ⎠ My firearms consultant (Ray Cayias) says that pistols and submachine gun bullets are 800 to 1000 ft/s. it would take just as long to return to earth.93 dx C A ρV 2 dV − 2m dV =V =− d . and you have a rifle. 6.5 ft = 4.027 lbm 144 in 2 100 Δx = ln = − ⋅ ln = 14. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.26 is really useful. Fig.03. Then 2700 Solutions. we find Vt ≈ 6 ft / s which matches the result in Ex. page 44 . _______________________________________________________________________ ft −0 V0 − V s = 6. Most drops which we call rain have diameters at least ten times as large. and a Reynolds number of 0.06 ft/s.2 2 t t ft s t2 z = z0 + ∫0 Vdt = z0 + ∫0 (2700 − 32. He also tells me that if you can see a fish in the water.2 2 ft s (84s)2 = 113 000 ft z = 2700 ⋅84 s − s 2 With no air resistance. Doing so. 6.26 we read directly a velocity of 0. and it would return with its initial velocity. Droplets this small occur in fog and clouds.4 microns) From Fig.2 s ft 32. Third Edition. By direct substitution in Stokes law one finds a velocity of 0. Droplets this size are spherical. so this velocity is plausible for the submachine guns normally involved in James Bond movies. t = ft = 84 s a 32.the figure to 20.2t )dt = 0 + 2700 t − s 2 ft 32.92 (0.1⋅ ⎜ ⎟ (0. 6.001 in = 25. Rifles and hunting guns fire 2500-3000 ft/s.42 m ⎛π ⎞ lbm ⎞ 2⎛ Cd Aρ V1 1000 ft 2 0.000 microns. which settle very slowly. while larger ones are deformed from the spherical shape.064 ft/s.94 (a) For zero air resistance V = V0 − gt . _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Chapter 6. You must aim below where you see the fish to correct for the refraction of the image at the air-water interface. (b) With air resistance (and an assumed constant drag coefficient) ⎛ π C V2 ⎞ dV = − ⎜ g + D 2 d ρ ⎟ dt = −(a + bV 2 )dt ⎜ ⎟ 4 m 2 ⎠ ⎝ where a and b are constants introduced to reduce our bookkeeping. dx = CD Aρ V dt dt 2m −2m V2 2⋅ 0.

For going down we cannot use this high a value of the drag coefficient. First we guess that Cd = 0.5s t for top of = ⋅ tan −1 ⎜ V0 and ⎜ ⎟ ab a⎠ ⎝ trajectory We then use the spreadsheet's numerical engine to find the value of Cd which makes this value = 18 s.dV = −bdt this is a standard form I can look up in my a + V2 b V ⎡ b V dV b⎤ −1 integral tables. finding Cd = 0. Chapter 6.1 = 2555.0214 lbm ft ft 4 m 4 ⎛ ⎞ 1 b ⎟ = 7.3 ft ⎞ 2 0.80) = 11.021 lbm ⋅32.2 2 ⋅8 mg ⋅8 s Cd = = 2 = 0.1s )⋅ Δt = 262 ft Continuing this on a spreadsheet (switching to 1 s intervals after 2 s.76 s ⋅ tan−1 (10. a + bV 2 z = z0 + ∫0 Vdt ≈ 0 + ∑ Vavg Δt and Euler's first method on a spreadsheet.408 2 ⎛ 0.24. But numerically it is quite easy. finding ∫V0 a 2 = ⎢ a tan V a ⎥ = −b(t − t 0) or ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ V0 +V b b⎞ 1 ⎛ −1 b −1 t= ⋅ ⎜ tan V0 − tan V ⎟ for V = 0 this becomes ⎜ ⎟ a⎠ ab ⎝ a ⎛ 1 b⎞ ⎟ t for top of = ⋅ tan −1 ⎜ V0 ⎜ ⎟ ab a⎠ ⎝ trajectory The unknown. because there is no supersonic flow.1 and change to ≈ 0. Thus the 0.225 value is in reasonable accord with what we would estimate from Fig. page 45 t . so without any data we would assume the drag coefficient would start at ≈ 0.6 lbm 0.00051 ⎟ b= D ρ = ⋅⎜ ⋅0.1 second we compute that ft V0. Cd is buried in b. 4 2 ft 0.075 3 = ⎝ 12 ⎠ 0.6. we find that V becomes zero between 16 and 17 s. at an elevation of 8880 ft. The initial particle Reynolds number is 4.2 ft/s2. We must use dV = − dt . Thus for the first 0.5 ⋅ (V0 + V0.3ft ⎞ 2 lbm ⎛ ft ⎞ π D2 ρVterminal π⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 0. I doubt that there is an analytical solution of the above equation for a known t.075 3 ⎜ 300 ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ft ⎝ s⎠ Solutions. Third Edition. As a first approximation. which is an excellent check on the reported values. a = 32.7 s and Δz = 0. Then.2·105 which is close to the transition on Fig 6. we assume that the velocity at ground level represents a terminal velocity.5 during the flight.. and solve for 2 π 2 Vterminal mg = D Cd ρ .24. 6. using this constant value of Cd .225. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.1 s = V0 − ( a + bV 2 )Δt = 2700 − 1442 ⋅ 0. and π 2 Cd π ⎛ 0. We may check this by calculating the height.

Third Edition. so that the local flow between them must go faster than that around a single particle. and 9000 ft in 31 s.25 finding 0. In the left figure the flow is around a single particle. and the flow leaving one particle must turn to miss the particle behind it. _______________________________________________________________________ 6.4 ) = 0.95 (a) The sketch is shown at the right. and the bullet has fallen 7500 ft.093 . Thus we could have calculated this part fairly well from Fig. 6. 6. and extends to infinity in all directions. These two effects cause the net velocity of fluid relative to particles to be smaller. In the right figure there is a regular array of particles. and ends at 46. s s _______________________________________________________________________ Solutions. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers.65 The term on the right in Eq. we look up the result on Fig.500.45 from Fig 6. n 4. For the downward trip the particle Reynolds number begins at zero. for which we would read a drag coefficient of ≈ 0.24. (b) For the particle by itself.0015 ft/s. page 46 .We can test this value by repeating the above numerical integration (changing the sign on the drag term!).093 = 0.65 is (1 − c) = (1− 0. we find that after 31 s the velocity is 302 ft/s. Using 1 s intervals.0015 ⋅ 0. 6. so that the expected ft ft setting velocity is V hindered settling = 0. This is a reasonable.24 alone.00014 . Chapter 6. but not perfect check on the observed 300 ft/s.

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