Digestion In the Mouth

Definition of Terms  Digestion the breakdown of complex. where they are degraded to yield energy and the raw materials for synthetic processes  Saliva . usually insoluble foods into molecules that can be absorbed into cells.the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and most other animals  Salivary amylase .an important enzyme found in the saliva  Achromatic point point wherein the solution or mixture is without color .

Composition of Saliva  Salivary amylase .  Mucin . into simpler and smaller molecules that can be readily absorbed by the digestive tract.a glycoprotein that is present in most glands which secretes mucus and is the lubricant that protects body surfaces from friction.an important enzyme found in the saliva. . breaks down complex sugar.

 99. these ions serve as buffers and activate the enzymatic activity of the saliva.5% water. 0. Cl+.Involved in first phase of fat digestion  Statherins prevent precipitation or crystallization of supersaturated calcium phosphate in ductal saliva and oral fluid . Na+ and PO4-).5% ions (K+.Composition of Saliva  Saliva is produced in and secreted from the salivary glands.  Lingual lipase .

Table 1 showing the test done to saliva to determine its composition Tests performed on saliva Biuret test Xanthoproteic test Ammonium molybdate test Silver nitrate test Results Positive Negative Positive Positive Results: .

5 min) . formed The dark blue solution became light blue with red ppt The achromatic point was reached in a shorter period of time (2. then eventually.Results: Table 2 showing the test done to saliva to determine its digestion Tests Performed on Saliva Iodine test at the first minute @ 40°C Benedict s Test @ 40°C Barfoed s Test @ 40°C with 5% drop of NaCl Results the solution was black in color. it lightens up The blue complex became green yellow red ppt.

 In xanthoproteic test .Discussion  In the Biuret test.  In the phosphate test .  In the silver nitrate test .the copper sulfate reacted with the mucin forming a blue complex solution. .it showed a yellow color which is a positive result this yellow compound is called phosphomolybdate.negative result is obtained since there is no aromatic amino acid found in mucin.specific for peptide bonds. .small traces of white precipitate is observed which indicates that saliva has small traces of chloride ions .

5 minutes). On the spot plate. the salivary amylase is able to digest the starch molecule. But then.Discussion  At 40°C. This signifies that the starch is already digested and broken down to individual glucose units. . as it goes to the next drops. the color of the solution lightens until a clear solution appears (the achromatic point within 3 to 3. The blue-black compound does not anymore appear because there is no starch molecule that will accommodate the big iodine molecule. the first drop forms a blue-black compound which denotes that starch reacts with the iodine molecule and that it is still a coiling polysaccharide molecule made of several glucose units.

.Discussion  In Benedict s and Barfoed s test the experiment gave a negative result but theoretically it will give a positive result since the digest should consist of maltose possible errors may be due to the fact that the optimum temperature was not maintained and exceeded it denaturing the salivary amylase.

sulfate and phosphate.9. bromide. The presence of the following also enhances the activity of the salivary amylase: chloride. .6 6. What are the optimum conditions for the action of salivary amylase? The salivary amylase should be in optimum temperature which is 37 °C and optimum pH condition that ranges from 5. iodide.Post-Lab Questions 1.

. Does salivary amylase continue to act in the stomach? In the intestine? The salivary amylase stops to function in the stomach because the pH is already 3.Post-Lab Questions 2.3 brought by gastric acid. The salivary amylase continues to work in the intestine because the acidic gastric juice is neutralized back to pH 7. This is an extreme condition that inactivates salivary amylase.

Post-Lab Questions 3. Substance for: starch End products: Starch is converted to amylodextrin then to erythrodextrin. Name the substance for. achroodextrin and finally maltose . and the end product of salivary amylase activity.

the diffusion of the liberated dye molecules is used to indicate the likely presence of salivary Amylase. Commercial tests available: The Phadebas® amylase Test is used to accurately determine amylase activity in a variety of sources. Give other methods/tests that may be used to determine amylase activity. such as Analis's Isoamyl assay. while non-degraded DSMs (and dye) is washed away. After electrophoretic separation of the various subclasses of salivary and pancreatic Amylases. the DSM is degraded at a speed proportional to the Amylase activity. When the dye is bound to the microsphere. The free dye molecule is water soluble and its concentration measurable at 620 nm. taking the form of globular microspheres of defined size. The remaining colored spots reveal the Amylase pattern. A Phadebas® tablet consists of homogeneously interlinked starch polymers. for diagnostic purposes. Where Amylase activity degrades the DMSs. Phadebas® tablets are dissolved on top of the gel. the blue dye is used for visual detection. a blue dye is covalently bound. the absorbance reading gives the solution's Amylase activity. Using a fixed assay time. . However. To the DSMs. it remains water insoluble. and the blue dye is liberated. These Bio-Degradable Starch Microspheres (DSM) are insoluble in water. In the qualitative forensic assay. through the standard curve supplied with each kit. The characteristics of the now liberated blue dye molecule is the key for Phadebas action. the free dye diffuses into the gel. in the presence of Amylase.Post-Lab Questions 4. In semi-quantitative assays.

Post-Lab Questions 5. The color indicates the structure of the starch that has been broken down to smaller pieces. At the first drop. Correlate the gradual change in the color response of hydrolysis products to I2 with their secondary structure. As the salivary acts on it. the color is still blue-black which indicates that the starch molecule is still a polysaccharide and can form an assemblage with the iodine molecule. This signifies that glucose units are already present and do not anymore react with the iodine. . it degrades the structure to smaller parts until the color becomes clear.

In the experiment. The addition of 5% NaCl increases the amylase action which contributes to the faster digestion of starch molecule. . b. The requirement for certain activators The activity of salivary amylase is enhanced by the presence of chloride. Cite experimental evidences obtained in this experiment that illustrate: a.Post-Lab Questions 6. the digestion of starch has been facilitated by the salivary amylase present in the saliva. The high efficiency of enzymes Enzymes basically speed up chemical reaction. The Benedict s and Barfoed s results are all positive denoting that the starch has been broken down to glucose units.

Yun lang po! Salamat sa pakikinig! .howie and kerie .

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