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Bulgarian Folk Music Research Author(s): Barbara Krader Source: Ethnomusicology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (May, 1969), pp. 248-266 Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/850148 Accessed: 11/12/2010 11:47
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BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH Barbara Krader
his survey is based primarilyon two recent writingsin Bulgarian,which summarizevery well the work done almost to the present. These are listed first in the bibliography.The writer has filled in a few gaps, especially details of bibliography, and added some titles in Western languagesand some 1968 imprints. The bibliographyappended is selective, however.Whileseveral in early articles by Makhan'(Machaih the original Czech) are included for historical perspective, most of the writings of Ivan Kamburov,for example, are omitted, as he was primarilya popularizer.Also omitted are articles on such subjects as how to redesignfolk instrumentsfor orchestraluse, articles on the Kutev Professional Folk Ensemble, and so on. Extensive works on workers' songs and urban songs are present, as these are current subjects of research not only in Eastern Europe but also in the United States. Macedoniais not discussed. Throughout this article and the bibliography, the Library of Congress transliterationsystem is used for titles of books and articles. In the bibliography, those entries which are not confirmed are followed by n. The writer has visited the BulgarianAcademy's Institute of Music in 1960, met its Director, AcademicianPetko G. Stainov, and most of the leading folk music specialists there. Many have also attended conferences of the InternationalFolk Music Council, and we also met at a meeting of the Yugoslav Folklore Society in 1965. Bulgarianfolk music is highly attractiveto Westernears, as anyone who has access to the excellent record issued by the ColumbiaWorldLibrary(Columbia KL 5378, deleted), and the Topic record 12 T 107, will readily agree. Both these records were edited with notes by A. L. Lloyd. The music appeals to ethnomusicologists because of its complicated rhythms, unusual modes, numeroussongs with narrowambitus, and because of the special types of singing in seconds, sometimes called diaphony. The point of this survey is to demonstrate that these problems are being studied systematicallyand intelligently today by Bulgarian specialists. As a very brief historical sketch, let it be said that the Bulgarswere a Turkic tribe, a small band of which crossed the Danube into the present area of Bulgariain 679 A.D. They conquered the far more numerous Slavs, who had migrated to the region somewhat earlier, but the Bulgarssoon adopted the Slavic tongue. The Bulgarian ruler Boris I was converted to Christianityin 248
its editor. 1. 1-65). Katranov. 3+2+2).followed by a book. This is important here because he emphasizedthe need and importance of notating melodies as well as texts of folksongs. Among the folksong enthusiasts was young N. in 1396.published a lead article called "The Importanceand Aims of our Ethnography" (Znachenieto i zadachite na nashata etnografiia.e. NaidenGerov (1821?-1900). Some of the folksongs were published and some not. In the fourteenth century Bulgariawas invaded by the Turks. comparingit with Turkish and other neighboringmusical styles. Kalomati. Vidin. Ivan D. In 1886 Anastas Stoyanov from Shumen made the first successful notations of folksongs in asymmetric meters (in 5/8 and 7/8). for books in Bulgarianhad to be published abroad. Georgi Rakovski (1821-1867). An alphabet was adopted. There followed a period of independence. in the first volume of the great folklore serial Sbornik za Narodni Umotvoreniia. was among the first to try to characterizethe melodic and metrorhythmic structure of Bulgarianfolksong. Publications of folksongs with text and melody appearedshortly after the Liberationof Bulgariain 1878. Three years later. and to discuss the originality of Bulgariantraditional music. and in 7/8 with the extended third beat (2+2+3). that serial published melodies with texts. and Petko R. In 1884 losif Kalomatipublished a supplement of thirty-five urban songs and songs of the national awakeningalong with his textbook of singing. who was Turgenev'smodel of the Bulgarian revolutionaryin his novel On the Eve (1860). in 7/8 with the first beat extended (i. Slaveikov (1828-1895).. an outstanding Bulgariancomposer and choral director as well as musicologist. Among the early Bulgariancollectors were Neofit Rilski (1793?-1882). Karel Makhan'(1867-?). D. Cyril. who were famous national leaders (educators. incidentally.D. a Czech who lived in Bulgariafor many years.KRADER: BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH 249 865 A. to describe folk dances. His study "The Rhythmic Bases of our Folk Music"(1913) was an early landmark. The TechnicalStructureof Bulgarian . and in its pages were publishedthe first correct notations of songs in 9/8 meter. writers. vol. 1889.which is still continuing. From 1890 on. was educated at Robert College. but with much strife with the Greeksof the Byzantine Empire. which begins in the 1830s. and politicians) of their time. pp. called Cyrillic. who conquered its final stronghold. Shishmanov. Interest in the folksong begins to appear in Bulgariain the first half of the nineteenth century. after St. It finds its expression first in the collecting of folksong texts. and few were interested or had money enough to issue anything but school texts. After five hundred years under Turkish rule Bulgariawas liberatedin 1878 by the Russianarmy. which was founded outside Constantinopleby Americanmissionaries in 1860. A new higher level of analysis is achieved by Dobri Khristov (1875-1941). As the music of folksongs became availableit became possible to study its patterns.
Metrics and Rhythm (1927).) and RainaKatsarova (1901. According to Nikolai Kaufman. Vasil Stoin (1880-1939) was the director. who studied in Berlin 1936-1938. Several budding Bulgarian performers. and his name has an honored place among the outstanding Eastern European ethnomusicologists. Kosta Nikolov (1900. Rhodope Folk Songs (1934). Others were Stoyan Brashovanov (1888-1956). He worked out the basic rules of rhythm and meter in Bulgarianfolksong. Ivan Kamburov. Lyubomir Romanski (1912.and later.but worked for a time with von Hornbostel and .The first great collections soon began to be published. Khristo Obreshkov(1907-1944). who is.). Folk Songs from Eastern and WesternThrace (1939). "On BulgarianFolk Melodies" (1924). These included Stoyan Dzhudzhev. containingthousands of folksongs with text and melody: Folk Songs from the Timok River to the Vita (1927). who studied in Berne. the violinist. and Hypothese sur l'origine bulgarede la diaphonie (1925). who studied in Leipzig. In the third he surveys Bulgarian two-part folksongs and develops the hypothesis that diaphony originated among the Bulgarians. Raina Katsarova. Stoin himself wrote down the melodies of some 12.000 folksongs.these two works serve as the basis for all the later studies of Bulgarianfolk music.250 KRADER:BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH Folk Music (1928). with Dzhudzhev. and Vasil Spasov.At that time the melodies were written down by ear. including comparisons with Turkish music. Stoin was the author of various theoretical studies: Bulgarian Folk Music. Katsarova. and Bulgarisongs. and other members of the staff were Pavel Stefanov. losif Cheshmedzhiev. These collections still remainthe most important fund of Bulgarianfolkresearchin folk music. under Stoin's editorship.and others. musicologists.). and touched upon several other problems.Konstantin Zagorov.whose important study (dissertation) Rythme et mesure dans la musique populaire bulgare (1931) was published in Paris. In the first two he discussesthe metric peculiarityand variety of Bulgarian folksongs.The work of Vasil Stoin is distinguished in the fields of collection. About 1930 the first articles appearedby Stoyan Dzhudzhev(1902. publication and analysis. and composers studied abroad in the 1920s and 1930s and produced dissertationsand monographs on Bulgarianfolk music. the conductor. the finest Bulgarianfolk music specialist of today. without the help of sound recordingapparatus. They are the basis for all Bulgarian an composersuse them as well.) concerning Bulgarianfolk music. who studied at the University of Vienna. studied chiefly in Bulgaria. Folk Songs from North CentralBulgaria(1931). Under Stoin's direction and very active participationall of them began to collect and notate folksongs of all of Bulgaria. who studied in Leipzigand Berlin 1935-1942. In 1926 a Section of Folk Music opened within the EthnographicMuseum in Sofia.
That day found Bulgarianfolk music researchat a halt. her study of the state of the Bulgarianepic song tradition (1939). concerns the texts and versification. A man of outstanding cultivation. the history of music. 1944 is the day now marked in Bulgariaas the beginning of the postwar era. Since 1954 he has been chairmanof the musicology department. in my opinion. After 1950 she was assigned the field of Bulgarianfolk dance. has been her section of the Rhodope folksong collection published in 1934.000 dances.Mme.After the Second World Warshe was head of the Folk MusicSection of the newly formed Institute of Music of the Bulgarian Academy from 1950-1966. as full professor since 1944. as well as for the place where a song has been published.but also analyzes some forty Bulgarianfolk dances. and a long study of three generationsof women folk singers(grandmother. and has visited many European archives. a knowledge of the folk tradition all over Bulgaria. in particularto the links between Bulgarianfolk music and the music of ancient Greece. the leading specialists.000 Bulgarianfolksongs and about 1. and has several important publications on this subject. Dobri Khristov and Vasil Stoin. . He pays strict attention to texts and music. Dzhudzhev has also contributed an impressivebook on Bulgarianfolk dance (1945). musical acoustics. Katsarova'scontacts abroadare vast. when she was retired. and Brailoiu. dance. for example. His major work is doubtless his Theory of BulgarianFolk Music (1954-1961). She was a collaborator of Stoin's from 1928 and eventually succeeded him as director of the Folk Music Section in the EthnographicMuseum. September 9. which is intended in part as a reference book on the dance in general. He has been readingbooks on Indiantraditionalmusic in recent years. and was consulted by a host of foreign specialists after 1945 both in Bulgaria and at various conferences abroad. All her writings are based on field work. to problems of versification and verbal stress. and daughter). nearly one third of the book.which includes courses in ethnomusicology.were dead. with many years of study at the Sorbonne. Her finest work. concerning the Pomaks. The collecting and publishing of folksongs had stopped.with Klyment Kvitka in the USSR. customs. A recent article (1961) read at an international conference in Warsawshows his abiding interest in ancient Greek metrics. in four volumes. Graduallyactivity was resumed. and musical pedagogy. the first long section. She was in correspondencewith Bartok. published in 1952. Dzhudzhev is inclined to theoretical studies. and. In his book of 1931.mother. and a phenomenal memory for music. looks forward to the time when it will be possible to study the links between the Balkans and the Middle East and India. like Katsarovaand other Balkan music specialists. Professor Stoyan Dzhudzhev has taught at the State Musical Academy (now the Bulgarian State Conservatory)since 1931.KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH 251 Lachmannin Berlin. She has collected some 10.
in the Rhodope mountains.R. Elena Stoin and Kaufmanstate that it is already feasible to work on a basic atlas of Bulgarian folksong. collected by ear. One hopes this project is already under way. Katsarovahas written that Bartok took great interest in trying to help Stoin and Katsarova acquirea recordingmachine. Dobrudjahas been studied. Advantage is being taken too of a newly organized postwar custom of folk festivals in the various folksong regions. They also report that the archive is in the process of . as well as many regions of Thrace and the plains south of the Balkanmountain range. nor any further details about it. thereafter recordings were made on magnetic tape. From 1950 the old Folk Music Section of the EthnographicMuseum was transferredto the Institute of Music to its Muzikalnofolklorna Sektsiia. pp. mainly from other institutes.either because the songs in those areas were about to disappearor because they were of special interest. In fact. From 1948 to 1954 most of the songs collected were recorded on discs. but I have found no indication of actual recording with that equipment. Expeditions are organized from time to folk time in which several take part from varioussubsections: choreographers. as well as on problems of rhythm and meter in the folksongs. and even sent them a copy of a Southern Folklore Quarterly for 1937 so that they could read John Lomax' article on machine recording in the field.and among the refugees from Southern Thrace. folksong specialists. "Spomeni za Bela Bartok" (Recollections of Bartok).000 songs and instrumental melodies. Various staff memberswere transferredwith Katsarovaand some new younger specialistswere appointed. The Archive of the Institute of Musichas been acquiringmany old manuscript collections of folksongs. Each member of the staff spends an average of two months a year in the field. and Srednogorie. Before the war collecting was concentrated in North Bulgaria. Muzika 1961. By 1966 the Archive of the Institute had over 100. These are very useful to field workersin search of the best carriersof the tradition.in 1938. collecting literally thousands of songs.as has part of the Shopi area in the northwest.B(ilgarska No. 12-15). When they received the equipment. 3. or those working on folk customs associated with music. In the east. sound recording apparatus was obtained just before the War. Bartok wrote a letter with practical advice for field work based on his experience (Katsarova. instrument specialists.252 KRADER:BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH In 1948 the Institute of Music was established in the BulgarianAcademy of Sciences. counting those in manuscript form. The Folk Music Section's staff has been travelingthrough the country systematically. The Rhodope region has also been worked on systematically(now using recordingmachines). and also those on discs and tape. It is hoped that this researchwill shed light on two-partsinging. Since 1950 intensive collecting and study of the Pirin region has been made.
compiled by Nikolai Kaufman and Todor Todorov. now being studied intensively. structures of metric groups. dates and occasions of first performances.and Folk Songs from Northeast Bulgaria. compiled by Ivan Kachulev. the Bulgarians carryare out special studies of melodic ornamentationin the folksongs. BulgarianUrbanSongs. I. such as Folk Songs about Russia and the Soviet Union (1953). hoping to ing establish more precisely the rules of certain rhythms and meters. Vol. as well as the way syllables are divided. The first two bulky volumes to appearwere Folk Songs of the WesternBorderlands (1959). Songs of the Bulgarian Labor Movement 1891-1944 (1959). II. the Division for Fine Arts. Stoin before the war and edited for publication by R. None of the collections has an index of first lines of text. Music and Architecture has organized several expeditions to specific regions. These have been used quite extensively by Bulgarianchoral groups and others. Another collection made by him. tonal ambitus. collected by V. The old problem of non-temperedmelodic intervals is another subject which can now be studied scientifically. Interdisciplinary Expeditions Within the BulgarianAcademy of Sciences.and variantsin other countries. compiled by R.Ivan Kachulev.and BulgarianContemporaryFolk Songs (1958).KRADER: BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH 253 classifying and indexing this vast material. and Elena Stoin. He compiled a large collection. In preparationare Folk Songs from the Samokov District and Folk Songs from Northeast Bulgaria. particularly by Kaufmanin the Institute. of course. Both collections have meticulously preparedscholarly indexes of meter. I find it a very interesting contribution to social history. Katsarova. but the subject index is better than the lack of any text index in the prewarvolumes. They also plan to study the links between text and melody in closer detail. including specialists from the Academy's researchinstitutes in each of these . and a subject index of the song texts. Another large volume has just been published: Folk Songs from Southwest Bulgaria. Urban folksongs and those of the labor movement were neglected before the war and are. Now that mechanicalrecordingis in generaluse (one does not know just what proportion of the music collection is recorded). I (1963). Pirin Region (1968). appearedin 1968.Vol. compiled by Elena Stoin and Kachulev. Vol. In addition to the big collections the Institute has issued smaller ones on specific themes. which is furnished with much information on sources. Katsarova.but this is by no means completed. Collections The prewar tradition of publishinglarge collections of folksongs is being continued by the Institute.
indeed prejrule. attempts to characterizethe Rhodope melodic style and show how it differs from the songs of other parts of Bulgaria.Todorov has also published an article entitled "The Song Variants in the Rhodopes" (1962). A. architecture. rhythm. describingthe present state and characterizingthe folksong in that outlying section of the Sofia district. Further. and the same use in everyday life. Elena Stoin's "Folk Songs of Srednegorie (The True Central . The studies include Kaufman'slengthy "Folk Songs from the Smolian and Madan Areas" (1961). Five volumes were published containing accounts of the present state of music. which has its own characteristicfolk music for the area in spite of the religious division of the population. (These are listed in the bibliography.and versification. their folksongs appear The musical studies published so far do not exhaust the possibilities. with the relevant articles described under each volume. Breznik. Ilieva has written "Folk Music ReConcerning search in the Svogen Region" (1964). the same esthetic goals. which includes eighty music examples. They worked in the Rhodopes in 1953. On the Srednegorie (Central Mountain)area. They preservea very pure Bulgarian speech. and Kyustendil. They were ostracizedby other Bulgarians udice still exists againstthem. 1955-1960. A study by Todor Todorov. at a time of rapid industrialization West CentralBulgaria.) Regional Studies Among the regions best studied so far is the Rhodope mountain area. melody and ornamentation. His major finding is that in meter. This is an investigation of the language used in the songs collected and change. Khristov Vakarelskihas publisheda study. and to be very archaic due to their centuries of isolation. in the northwesterncorner of Bulgaria 1956. in Dobrudjain 1954. and in 1957 and 1958 they studied western Bulgaria in the regions of Triin. the music of the Rhodope Bulgarians.and Moslems has a common origin.and variousaspects of the fine arts in the various regions. based on work with materials collected by the Institute. Kaufman's most recent general study is "The Folk Music of the Pirin Region" (1965).structure.language. "Some Melodic Features of the Rhodope Folk Song" (1962). but do constitute a solid contribution to the task of defining the Rhodope folksong style. nearly all of folk polyphony.254 KRADER:BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH fields. as well as his "Ritual Songs of the BulgarianMoslems"(1963). his "Songs of the BulgarianMoslems"(1962). in Strandin zha in 1955. It is in this region that the so-called Pomaks live.Christians. "The Languageof the Rhodope Songs" (1962). a group of Bulgarianswho were converted to Islam under the Turkish until very recently. we have one study of the central part.
"Three Generationsof WomenFolk Singers (1952). Studies of Specific Villages and Performers In Raina Katsarova'sstudy.PazardzhikDistrict" (1952). is very common. Stoyan Dzhudzhev's article. is a study of a song collection made some forty years earlierby Dobri Khristovand G. but it may evolve and improve afterwards. Yankov. The researchin the Pirin area and West CentralBulgaria. of the BulgarianEthnographicMuseum. MominaKlisura. publishedin 1913. In "Notes on the Musical Theory and Esthetics of the People" (1959). Vakarelski quotes statements of peasants and references in folksongs to attitudes and value judgments concerningmusic. The area includes the towns of Koprivshtitsa It is bordered on the east by the river Stryama and on the west by the Gillbets mountain peak. he gives details of whistling to sheep or oxen or coaxing the dog to come. In this article are general observations on rhythm and meter. "The ContemporaryBulgarian Folk Song" (1952). structure. She also discussesthe definition of folksong. The southern edge is about five miles north of Pazardzhik. Folk Polyphony Reference was made earlier to Vasil Stoin's pamphlet on Bulgarian diaphony. where part singing. and recalls the fact that folk music is always in the process of development-so that a song may be collected which is not very pleasingesthetically. Yankova and the Songs of the Bessarabian Bulgarians"(1952). and the links between text and music shown in variousrhythmic. ContemporaryFolk Music A study of the new folksong by Elena Stoin. she traces the process of formation of folksongs. especially in seconds. melodic features and scales. With recording machines work was quickly intensified in this area. investigates how it resembles the old traditional song and how it differs. One is Nikolai Kaufman's"Folk Singingin Two Parts . Especially interesting to the ethnomusicologistare two articles by Khristov Vakarelski (1896. as well as more detailed study of specific genres of Central Mountain songs. published in 1925. their oral transmission from one generationto the next. and their place in the life of the people. and describes the children's homemade instruments as well as their songs. Mountains)"(1964). and structuralcombinations. favoring its extension to include urban songs and composed mass songs. "Elena V. In "The Music in the Life of my Native Village. have made possible some extensive analyses.KRADER: BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH 255 and Zlatitsa.). metric.
which is a most interestingattempt to locate the areasin which polyphony is found and to compare the musical styles. Primovski. Among these studies are Dzhudzhev's "Elena Yankova and the Songs of the Bessarabian (1952). religious and secular. of Folk MusicalInstruments A few brief articles were written before 1945 by Vasil Stoin and Katsarova. A longer study is his "Three-Part Folk Singingfrom the CastoriaRegion" (1959).and A. HistorialData on Folk Music Withoutembarkingon a survey of the many writingsattempting to trace the earliest known Bulgarianmusic. This concerns Slav-speaking emigrantsfrom the district of Castoria. Abroad Folksongsamong Bulgarians Various studies have been made of the songs of Bulgarians Bessarabia.According to Kaufmanthe three part singing of this region has the same origin and development as Bulgarianfolk singing in two parts. in of settlements in northeast Bulgariawhere there are Bulgarian emigrantsfrom Northern Dobrudja (now in Rumania). of refugees from Aegean Thrace (in Greece).There is of course much data also in Kaufman'ssummarizingaccount of the Pirin region (1965). Another is Stoyan Petrov's "The Folk Song of the Banat Bulgarians" (1965).but the major contribution in the field has been made since World . These are "Folk MusicMaterialof the Plovdiv Exposition of 1892" (1955) by Khristo Vakarelskiand A. and solely from the recent past. "Polyphony in the Folk Song of the Balkan Peoples" (1966). Motsev'sstudy. and Kaufman's Bulgarians" "The Songs of the Bulgariansof Asia Minor" (1963).who now live in Bulgaria. We will add here an article by Kaufman.256 KRADER:BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH in Bulgaria"(1958). All these show the stability of the folk music tradition throughout a period of isolation. we will mention only two articles touching folk music alone. "Meterswith Extended Beats in the Transcriptions BulgarianFolklorists"(1955).in western Greek Macedonia. Certain features of two-part singing in specific areas of the large twopart region are also discussedby Elena Stoin in her article on Srednogorieand by Ilieva in her study of the Svogen region of West CentralBulgaria. and its importance to the people. and of Bulgarianswho have returned to Bulgariafrom Asia Minor from a settlement there which lasted three hundredyears. An interesting study of a minority in Bulgariais Kaufman's"The Folk Musicof the Spanish(Sephardic)Jews in Bulgaria"(1967).
He has also published studies of bell making in the town of Gotse Delchev (1956) and flute making in the village of Shipka. as is Katsarova'sstudy of the carnivalkukeri rites and dances in Puderevo (1963). and a survey of instrumentsin the districts of WesternBulgaria. the folk dance subsection in the Institute of Music has worked on folk dance practices in certain clusters of villages. and the village of Pudarevoin the Sliven district. Quite recently he published an article on folk instruments and instrumentalmusic of the Bulgarian Moslems in the Rhodope mountains (1962). John's Day (En'ovden. part of which appearedin English translation.). the village of Khlevene in Lovech district. organized somewhat differently.and another survey by him. The interdisciplinaryexpeditions enabled them to survey larger regions too. appearedin Yugoslavia(but in in Bulgarian) 1964. In general. stressing the customs associated with the dances and viewing them as a social or community phenomenon. a study of the Bulgariangadulkas (1958). As the folk instrument specialist in the Institute of Music. Attention has also been paid to folk customs which are associated with folk dances and song. and the parallels in neighboringcountries. peperuda (songs and dances to bring rain). Much material has been collected on wedding customs. distributed by the Committee for Friendshipand CulturalRelations with Foreign Countries. Elena Stoin's article on the Lazaruscustoms (1956) is in this field. he has written an article on tamburasin the Razlog district (1957). The serious study of this subject can be said to have started with Professor Dzhudzhev'stheoretic work BulgarianFolk Choreography(1945). noting the variants.KRADER: BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH 257 War II by Ivan Kachulev (1905. with many illustrations. the various names. 24 June). Raina Katsarova'sbook The BulgarianFolk Dance (1955) employs a different approach to the subject. In fact he devoted three chapters of his book of 1931 to the analysis of folk dance rhythms. St. A small popular book by Katsarovaon Bulgarianfolk dances was publishedin London in 1951. and her book mentioned above has been publishedin Englishin Sofia. a survey of folk instrumentsin Dobrudja(1956). .Trin and Kyustendil (1961). and one on two-part wind instruments: the bagpipesand the dvoyanka (1964). Several other studies of dances in specific regions have been written by her. They have also studied the distribution of certain individual dances all over Bulgaria. e..g. Folk Dance This is a fascinating field of researchas there is a wide variety of Bulgarian dances and numerous complex meters and rhythms. A useful survey article by Kachulev on Bulgarianfolk instruments appears in the Encyclopedia of Bulgarian Music Culture on pages 4448.
which criticizes the previous Bulgarianwritings on the subject and offers a new theory of Bulgarianasymmetric meters. been some agreement on dance terminology. This book has been much more influential among the Bulgarianspecialists. The conclusions of this book have not found general acceptance. Apparently he was unaware that dissenting views were advanced within the IFMC as well. One of Katsarova's articles on this subject was publishedin 1963. Another work by the late AleksandurMotsev (1900-1964) was published the Institute in 1961: Ornamentsin BulgarianFolk Music. and this too has been investigated by the Folk Music Section. and new rhythmic combinations are turningup which are still being studied. and a book on terminology by K. It contains frequent citations from foreign literature. and so forth. This is a thorny subject. and one feels that Motsevis perhapstoo absolute in his assertions. Nevertheless the book is thought-provokingand well worth readingeven if one finishes by disagreeingwith the author. The second important work is A.and there are various systems of dance transcriptionin use. has received wide approval. Dzhenev and others.on pages 68-72. The Bulgarianfolk puppet theater (kuklen teatir) is usually associated with folk dance music. These are described in the Encyclopedia of BulgarianMusical Culture. but has also published three monographs.In the fourth volume the author cites the working definition of folk music proposed by the International Folk Music Council in 1954. this is because so much recording is now being done. and another in 1968. In part.The book includes a detailed descriptionof 30 Bulgarian folk dances. There has. and disagrees with it vigorously. * * * The Institute of Music has not only issued twelve volumes of the Izvestiia. published in 1955. The fourth volume by Dzhudzhev is probably the most interesting to us. however. Written . Karastoianov'sThe Melodic and Harmonic Foundations of the BulgarianFolk Song (1950).The first was Aleksandir Motsev's Rhythm and Meter of Bulgarian Folk Music (1949). some of it Western. many of whom have adopted his terminology and a large number of his conclusions. Labanotationhas not been generally adopted in Bulgaria. notably by Charles Seeger.258 KRADER:BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH children'sgames with songs. Dzhudzhev's impressive four volume Theory of BulgarianFolk Music was not issued by the Institute but by the regularpublishing firm "Nauka i Izkustvo. it is neverthelessuseful to other specialists." Obviously intended for students. In it he atby tempts to show the evolution of melody and ornamentation over the centuries. from 1952.
His knowledge of Germanmay provide the bridge to wider contact in the future. and of a short discussion of research on the problem of interrelation between text and melody in Bulgarianfolk songs (1967). His study of the Bulgarian folk music in the Banat area (part of Hungary1770-1920. and revolutionary songs.KRADER: BULGARIANFOLK MUSICRESEARCH 259 by a scholar who has devoted his life to one very complex music. The author of an excellent study on the rhythmic structureof the verse (or line) of Bulgarianfolksongs (1964). working successfully upon a problem of exceptional complexity.and he has had no contact with Westernethnomusicology whatsoever. and who studied at the Moscow Conservatory1949-1953. His training has been wholly in Bulgaria. I consider her article on LazarusDay customs (1956). Elena Stoin is the daughter of the great collector of the 1920s and 1930s. now mostly within Rumania)was published in 1965.) for special mention.). She has collected over 5000 melodies in the field since the Second World War and has edited several folksong collections and a number of important studies. new peasant songs. an outstandingwork. but he has also collected urban songs. and is now teaching the history of Bulgarian music and of Russian and Soviet music at the BulgarianState Conservatory. along with her recent one on the folksongs of part of the Srednogorie region (1964). I find most provocative his early analysis of two-part singing (1958) and the recent article on polyphonic folk singing in the Balkans (1966).) and Nikolai Kaufman(1925. The Pirin region has been the chief focus of his field work. Of the younger generation of Bulgarianfolk music specialists we may single out Elena Stoin (1915. (Many of his shorter articles have been omitted from the bibliography.) Stoyan Petrov (1915. He is energetic and productive. . he shows promise as a careful and logical thinker. He has had various administrative posts in the Union of BulgarianComposers. whose interests lie chiefly in Bulgarian-Russian musical relations. so far as I know. and issued collections and studies on a wide variety of subjects. has published a history of Bulgarianmusic (1959) which was in fact the subject of his dissertationin Moscow. Among the youngest folk music specialists in Bulgariais Todor Dzhidzhev. he discusses here how one should approach the study of ethnomusicology and folk music (clearly differentiatingthe two in terms of subject of study). Nikolai Kaufman has recently become the head of the Folk Music Section in the Institute of Music. as his list of publications shows. There is a detailed discussion of Motsev's book and the first volume of Dzhduzhev'sbook (on rhythm and meter) in Katsarova's survey of work since 1945 (1960).
"Rodopski narodni pesni" [Rhodope folksongs]. Illustrations and bibliographies. A Select Bibliography of European Folk Music. Stoin. "Folk music: Bulgaria. 1939). pp. vol. OtherBasic Surveysand Bibliographies "BMlgarska narodna muzika" [Bulgarian folk music] in Entsiklopediia na bulgarskata muzikalna kultura (Sofia. 582 pp. Kachulev. Vasil. 1959. Sofia. 4076 melodies. pp. 1684 melodies. Vasil Stoin and Raina Katsarova. 23-29. Sofia. 1960. 1134 pp. Sofia. B?ulgarskinarodni pesni za Rusiia u Syuretskiia Sfuiuz [Bulgarian folksongs about Russia and the Soviet Union] Sofia. Published in cooperation with the International Folk Music Council. 1934. 5th ed. comp." in Karel Vetterl. comps. "Bulgarska muzikalna nauka i kritika: muzikalna folkloristika" [Bulgarian musicology and criticism. 1928. with brief bibliography. Annual Bibliography of European Ethnomusicology. Folk Melodies Chief Collectionsof Bulgarian Stoin. Ivan. By various authors.260 KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES Abbreviations IIM INEM SbNU Izvestiia na Instituta za Muzika. Bukureshtliev. comp. Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniia 39. 1953. Oskar. Angel. "Bulgaria. 1252 melodies. pp. Published in cooperation with the International Folk Music Council. 153 pp. 1939.. (London. Biilgarski sfuvremenni narodni pesni [Bulgarian contemporary folksongs]. Raina. Vasil. 237 pp. Current Bibliography Elschek. Narodni pesni ot Iztochna i Zapadna Trakiia [Folksongs from Eastern and Western Thrace]. Stoin. Katsarova. "Novi prinosi v subiraneto i izsledvaneto na bulgarskata narodna pesen" [New contributions in collecting of and research on Bulgarian folksong]. comp. comp. Narodni pesni ot Timok do Vita [Folksongs from the Timok River to the Vita]. Elena and Ivan Kachulev. Sofia. comp. 622 pp. Stoin. (Prague. 1889- Surveys Usedfor ThisArticle Stoin. collections. 1966)." in Folklore musical (Paris: Institut International de Cooperation Intellectuelle. . Narodni pesni ot Zapadnite pokraTnini [Folksongs from the Western border regions]. 1967). 1967. ed. Katsarova. Sofia. 1920-1943? Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniia. 9-74. 1966. 1952Izvestiia na Narodniia Etnografski Muzei v Sofiia. 893 pp. Sofia. 1958. Survey of collectors. 2718 melodies. Narodni pesni ot Sredna Sevema Builgariia [Folksongs from the Central Part of North Bulgaria]. Sofia. Raina. Elena and Nikolai Kaufman. Raina. 201-11. "L'Ethnomusicologie en Bulgarie de 1945 a nosjours. 28-34. Vasil. Sofia.. 116-18. 1931. IIM 12:23-27. By Raina Katsarova. E. 1954). Bratislava. Edited by R. eds. xxii. 360 pp. 656 melodies. "Bulgarie. By Nikolai Kaufman. comps. Vasil." Acta Musicologica (Basel) 32:77-89. Stoin. 44 melodies. Sofia. Katsarova. Katsarova-Kukudova. 1967. [part I]: Folk music research] in Entsiklopediia na bulgarskata muzikalna kultura (Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite. 3." in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. pp. Stockmann and Ivan Macak. 1967). pp.
Nikolai and Todor Todorov. dokladi i materiali [The Rhodope Complex Scientific Expedition in 1953. 658 pp. 425-41. Loose inserted errata sheet must be consulted for the many misprints in this article. Sofia. 1965. 419-46. 1968. 483-509. Compiled in 1928-1930 by Vasil Stoin and others. 1958. Sofia: Izdanie na BAN. Kompleksni nauchni ekspeditsii v Zapadna Bulgariia Trinsko-Breznishko-Kiustendilsko prez 1957 i 1958 godina. pp. Nikolai. pp. 456 melodies. Sofia: Izdanie na BAN. comp. 724 pp. dokladi i materiali [The Strandzha Complex Scientific Expedition in 1955. "Khora i igri ot Severozapadna Bulgariia" [Dances and theatrical customs with dances from Northwest Bulgaria]. "Narodni instrumenti v Dobrudzha" [Folk instruments in Dobrudja]. "Sustoianie na narodnata muzika v Rodopite" [The state of folk music in the Rhodopes]. Elena Stoin. 1956. 1288 melodies. Katsarova in Bulgarian. Raina. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na BAN. R. Ivan Kachulev. Bulgarski gradski pesni [Bulgarian urban songs]. Sofia. Katsarova. 1961. 45-62). 1957. Nikolai. Tom 1. pp. pp. 956 pp. and English (pp. pp. pp. et al. Vol. Narodni pesni ot Severoiztochna Bulgariia [Folksongs from Northeast Bulgaria]. Kaufman. "Dneshnoto sustoianie na narodnata muzika v Severozapadna Bulgariia" [The present state of the folk music in Northwest Bulgaria]. reports and materials]. comp. R. "Narodnite pesni na Strandzhanskiia krai" [Folksongs of the Strandzha Region]. 731 melodies. Sofia. Pirin region]. 163-75.KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH 261 Kaufman. E. Pesni na bulgarskoto rabotnichesko dvizhenie 1891-1944 [Songs of the Bulgarian workers' movement 1891-1944]. in the Trun Region and Kiustendil]. dokladi i materiali [The Complex Scientific Expedition to Northwest Bulgaria in 1956. N. Kiuchukov. 359-423. eds. reports and materials]. 13. Kaufman. Katsarova. pp. 293-364. Kompleksna nauchna dobrudzhanska ekspeditsiia prez 1954 godina. "Narodnata pesen v Trunsko i Kiustendilsko" [The folksong in the Trun and Kiustendil Regions]. Elena Stoin. pp. "Trinskite narodni tantsi" [Trun folk dances]. Stoin. "Narodni khorai i igri v Strandzha" [Folk dances and theatrical customs with dances in Strandzha]. Narodni pesni s melodii [Folksongs with melodies]. Kompleksna nauchna Strandzhanska ekspeditsiia prez 1955 godina. Pirinski krai [Folksongs from southwest Bulgaria. reports and materials]. comps. dokladi i materiali [Complex Scientific Expeditions to Western Bulgaria (Trun. 365-85. Katsarova. 593 pp. 1959. T. "Dneshnoto sustoianie na narodnata pesen i tantsoviia folklor v Dobrudzha" [The present state of the folksong and dance folklore in Dobrudja]. 1968. R. Sofia: Izdanie na Bilgarska Akademiia na Naukite. Narodni pesni ot IUgozapadna Bulgariia. Elena Stoin. 139-62. Russian. Bvulgarsko narodno tvorchestvo [Bulgarian folk creation]. Katsarova. Introductory survey by R. reports and materials]. 1955. Katsarova. . 575 pp. dokladi i materiali [The Dobrudja Complex Scientific Expedition in 1954. pp. Edited by R. Sofia: Izdanie na BAN. reports and materials]. pp. Ivan Kachulev and Elena Stoin. 1963. Kaufman. Ivan Kachulev. I. Ivan Kachulev. Sofia. 199-220. Breznik and Kiustendil Regions) in 1957 and 1958. "Narodni muzikalni instrumenti v Zapadna Bulgariia-Trunsko i Kiustendil" [Folk musical instruments in Western Bulgaria. Kompleksna nauchna ekspeditsiia v Severozapadna Bulgariia prez 1956 godina. Tom I. Expeditions Interdisciplinary Kompleksna nauchna rodopska ekspeditsiia prez 1953 godina. Sofia. 447-82.
(Janua Linguarum. 1954. II: Melodika [Melody]. Sofia. 52340. Seria Major. 1954-1961 Teoriia na bfulgarskatanarodna muzika [Theory of Bulgarian folk music]. Stoian 1923 Uber die Rhytmik und Metrik des bulgarischen Volksliedes.262 KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH Books and Articles Brashovanov. Kiuchukov. vol. I: Ritmika i metrika [rhythm and metrics]. Petur 1959 "Narodnopesenni elementi v bfulgarskiia tsfurkoven napev" [Folksong elements in the Bulgarian Church chant]." in To honor Roman Jakobson (The Hague). Dinev. Tamburite v Razlozhko" [Bulgarian folk music instruments. vol. IV: Obshti vYuprosi na muzikalnata etnografiia [General problems of musical ethnography]. 31. 364 pp. K. (n) Dzhidzhev. Paris. 1961 "Vestiges de la metrique ancienne dans le folklore bulgare" in Poetics (Warsaw: Polska Akademia Nauk. IIM 10:165-216. IIM 1:97-124. 1967 "Problemfut za vzaimovr'uzkata mezhdu tekst i melodiia pri narodnite pesni v nashata muzikalnofolklorna nauka" [The problem of the interinfluence between text and melody in folksongs in our folk music research].D. IIM 5:131-93. 1963 "Narodnata muzika kato obshtestveno iavlenie" [Folk music as a social phenomenon]. 461 PP. IIM 6:39-59. Zakhariev. Ivan 1952 "Bfulgarski narodni muzikalni instrumenti." IIM 2/3:351-56. With T. Kachulev. Ph. Stoian 1931 Rythme et mesure dans la musique populaire bulgare. 1952 "Elena lAnkova i pesnite na besarabskite bfulgari" [Elena Yankova and the songs of the Bessarabian Bulgarians]. 1967 "Esquisse d'une mdthode musicologique pour l'etude des vers populaires.) Ilieva-Shturbanova. 1945 Builgarska narodna khoreografiia [Bulgarian folk choreography]. dissertation. ii. 1955 "Svirkarstvoto v selo Shipka" [Folk instrument makers in the village of Shipka]. K. IIM 2/3:21548. vol. 431 pp. pp. Sofia. Todor narodni pesni" za 1964 "Kfum vYuprosa stikhovo-ritmichniia stroezh na b%ulgarskite [On the question of the poetic-rhythmic structure of the Bulgarian folksongs]. Rad IX. (n). (n) 1955 "Vasil Stoin. Sofia. pp. IIM 10:217-75. vol. Sarajevo. III: Morfologiia i prozodiia [Morphology and prosody]. IIM 1:149-66. 359 pp. Dzhudzhev (Djoudjeff). Leipzig. Sofia. Pp. 489-98. 1959 "Gludulkite v B?ulgariia"[Gadulkas in Bulgaria]. Sofia 1961. . vol. IIM 12:35-38. vol. N. Kharalampiev. 378 pp. Dzhenev. 1956. 1955 "Zviuncharstvoto v grad Gotse Delchev" [Bell making in the town of Gotse Delchev]. 537-58.. A. IIM 2/3:249-68. I. 1955 Terminologiia na narodnite khora [Terminology of the folk dances]. Instytut BadaniLiterackich). 1955. Sofia. 400 pp. 1964 "Muzikalno-folklorni prouchvaniia v Svogensko" [Folk music investigations in the district of Svogen]. The tamburas in the district of Razlog]. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Mostaru i Trebinju 1962..
Kamburov. Vjesnik Etnografskog Muzeja u Zagrebu. The kukeri ritual carnival dances in the village of Pudarevo. 14-21. Partial translation of 1959 article. INEM 12:89-110. 1956 "Verbreitung und Varianten eines bulgarischen Volkstanzes" in Studia Memoriae Belae Bartok Sacra (Budapest). 1963 "Pudarevski kukeri" [The kukeri from Pudarevo]. Fuller version of 1956 entry. 1958 Bulgarian folk dances. 1967 "Nauchni prinosi v oblastta na narodnite instrumenti i narodnata instrumentalna muzika" [Survey of scholarly works in the field of folk instruments and folk instrumental music]. pp. 1963 "Gadulkas in Bulgaria. 1963 "Phenomenes polyphoniques dans la musique populaire bulgare. 1943 "UgYurchinska pentatonika" [The pentatonic scale of the village of Ugurchin]. Bagpipes and dvoyankas]. 1939 "Dneshnoto syustoianie na epichniia rechitativ v Bulgariia" [The present state of the epic recitatif in Bulgaria]. 1951 Dances of Bulgaria.. 319-35. Sofia. pp. pp. Sliven district. 1955 Bilgarski tantsov folklor [Bulgarian dance folklore]. Ivan 1925 "Slishtnost'. godine. With K. 1965 "B'ulgarski dukhovi dvuglasni narodni muzikalni instrumenti. 1952 "Tri pokoleniia narodni pevitsi" [Three generations of women folk singers]." The Galpin Society Journal 16:95-107. 1936 "Gaidite na edin shumenski maistor" [The bagpipes made by a craftsman in Shumen]. Izvestiia na Etnografskiia Institut i MuzeT 6:409-24. 116 pp. Ohrid. Dzhenev. Sofia. 40 pp. instrumenti" narodni muzikalni 1964 "Bulgarski [Bulgarian folk music instruments]. illus. 69-87. . Asen 1950 Melodichni i harmonichni osnovi na blulgarskatanarodna pesen [The melodic and harmonic bases of the Bulgarian folksong]. INEM 14:78-93. 1929 "Nashite narodni napevi i teoriiata na Riman" [Our folk melodies and the theories of Riemann]. the significance and the collection of our folk music]. znachenie i zapisvane na nashiia muzikalen folklor" [The essence. INEM 13:189-99. 161-72. IIM 12:27-34. in Rad VII-og Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Ohridu 1960. 3. music. IIM 8:197-234. Raina D. (n) Karastoianov. pp. 1963 "Naroden kuklen teatYur:kukli ot k"urpi" [Folk puppet theater: Puppets made from cloths].KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH 263 1962 "Narodnite instrumenti i instrumentalnata muzika na builgarite mokhamedani v Rodopite" [Folk instruments and instrumental music of the Bulgarian Moslems in the Rhodopes]. 96-107. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije u Mostaru i Trebinju 1962. 1936 "KopriKki gajdi i gajdari" [Koprivshtitsa bagpipes and bagpipe players]. Katsarova-Kukudova. IIM 4:89-122. Gaidi i dvoianki" [Bulgarian two-voice folk wind instruments. IIM 2/3:3-188. 499-508. 167 pp. Sarajevo. London: Max Parrish." in (Zoltano Kodaly Octogenario Sacra. Pp. bk. 1957 "Razprostranenie i varianti na edin bulgarski tants" [Distribution and variants of one Bulgarian dance]. 150 pp. Uchilishten Pregled 38:184-98. pp. Sofia. IIM 11:23-78. (Part I).) Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. (n) 1955 "Narodni khora v selo Khlevene" [Folk dances in the village of Khlevene]. IIM 1:43-96. in Rad IX. INEM. III (Budapest).
Boris 1952 Bulgarian-Macedonian folk music. Contains previously unpublished writings. no. No original source given. Izvestiia na Etnografskiia Institut i MuzeY. vol. Edited by Venelin KYirstev. although source not indicated. 395-410. illus. Kremenliev. 2. never before published. SbNU 27. Kaufman. 3040. 1965 "Narodnata muzika v Pirinskiia krai" [The folk music of the Pirin region]. 1964 "Mehrstimmigkeit in der bulgarischen Musik. .. in Rad XII. Translation of 1966 entry. Celje 1965. heft 1. Pp. 1963 "Obrednite pesni na bulgarite mokhamedani" [The ritual songs of the Bulgarian Moslems]. IIM 7:253-59. 165 pp. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite. IIM 8:13-112. 6:393-407. pp." IIM 7:79-158. 48 pp. Sofia. 1956. 1967 "Nauchni prinosi v narodnata ni khoreografiia i obichai" [Scholarly contributions to the study of our folk choreography and customs]. Also Studia Musicologica." Journal of the International Folk Music Council 18(2):293-99.. IIM 9:73-110..264 KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH 1965 "La classification des melodies populaires en Bulgarie. 1963 "Pesnite na maloaziiskite b[ulgari" [The Songs of the Bulgarians of Asia Minor]. 4. 351 pp. xii.. Nikolai 1958 "Dvuglasnoto narodno peene v Builgariia" [Folk singing in two parts in Bulgaria]." written about 1929. 1968 "Obredni svatbeni pesni" [Ritual wedding songs]. 56 pp. 1962 "Pesnite na blulgarite mokhamedani" [Songs of the Bulgarian Moslems]. Builgarska Muzika 1966. 1967 "Die Mehrstimmigkeit in der Liedfolklore der Balkanvolker" Beitrage zur Musikwissenschaft (Leipzig). 1968 "Naroden kuklen teatfur: kukli ot rasteniia" [Folk puppet theater: Puppets made from plants]. Pp. IIM 9:5-72. pp." Beitrage zur Musikwissenschaft (Leipzig). Spisanie na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite 1958. 201-05. I. (n) Reprinted Sofia. 1967 "Muzikalniiat folklor na shpan'olskite (sefaradskite) evrei v B?ulgariia"[The folk music of the Spanish (Sephardic) Jews in Bulgaria]. 101-28. Ljubljana. 1961 "Narodnite pesni ot Smoliansko i Madansko. Pages 33-259 concern Bulgarian folk music. 1963 "Pesni na balramsko khoro. 45-58. IIM 12:231-68. in Rad XII. 9. 3-21. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije. no. IIM 6:65-158. music. Khristov. Berkeley and Los Angeles. pp. Dobri 1913 "Ritmichnite osnovi na narodnata ni muzika" [The rhythmic bases of our folk music]. Kongresa Saveza Folklorista Jugoslavije. izpulniavani ot bfulgarite mokhamedani" [Songs with the Bairam dance performed by the Bulgarian Moslems]. 1967 Muzikalno-teoretichesko i publitsistichesko nasledstvo [Music theory and publicistic legacy]. Celje 1965. IIM 12:15-22. 2. 1959 "Triglasnite narodni pesni ot Kostursko" [Three part folksongs from the Castoria region].and issued by the Institute of Music. VII (Budapest). IIM 11:149-220. pp. no. Ljubljana. 1961 "Evreiskiiat muzikalen instrument 'shofar' v bogosluzhebnata praktika na evrei" [The Hebrew musical instrument "shofar" in the religious bYulgarskite service of the Bulgarian Jews]. 1928 Tekhnicheskiiat stroezh na biulgarskata narodna muzika. Of special importance in his revised version of "Metric and Rhythmic Bases . 1966 "Mnogoglasieto v pesenniia folklor na balkanskite narodi" [Polyphony in the folksong of the Balkan peoples].
Kuba. Izvestiia na (Regions Etnografskiia Institut i Muzel 6:383-91. SbNU 10:221-35.D. IIM 10:97-164. Khristo 1937 Das bulgarische Volkslied.D. 2nd ed. Karel 1894 "Nashite napevi" [Our melodies]. . (n) Motsev. Stoin. 1961 Ornamenti v bulgarskata narodna muzika. Vasil 1931 Volksmusik. I. Sofia. Berlin. 1901 "Nashata narodna muzika samostoiatelna li e?" [Is our folk music independent?]. Ph. Ph. Stoian 1965 "Narodnata pesenna kultura na banatskite bYulgari"[The folksong of the Banat Bulgarians]. Dzhudzhev]. 1-5. (n) Obreshkov (Obreschkoff).KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH 265 1966 "Extension and its effect in Bulgarian folk song. Primovski. Makhan' (Machai). Spasov. pp. 670-89. Kaval. IIM 2/3:319-50. Sofia. B'ulgarskipregled 2(8):90-96. vol. IIM 1:125-48. in his Cesty za slovanskou pisni' 1885-1929. Nikolov." Selected reports (Institute of Ethnomusicology at UCLA) 1(1):1-27. Liubomir 1942 "Die einfachen Koledo-Refrains der bulgarischen Weihnachtslieder. Reprinted in Czech. Ph.D. (Prague. dissertation. Kosta 1942?Beitrag zum Studium des bulgarischen Volksliedes. Giumiurdzha (?) and Xanthe)]. Influential in its time. (Trudove na Instituta za Muzika. dissertation. Vienna. [Ornaments in Bulgarian folk music]. Petrov. Vienna. 367 pp. 1953). revised by Kuba. Ph. 1957 ""Teoriia na bfulgarskata narodna muzika' ot d-r S Dzhudzhev" [The theory of Bulgarian folk music by Dr. Berlin. Aleksandur 1949 Ritum i takt v byulgarskatanarodna muzika [Rhythm and meter in Bulgarian folk music]. Elena 1952 "Suvremennata b'ulgarska narodna pesen" [The contemporary Bulgarian folksong]. 1964 "Narodnite pesni v Srednogorieto (Sushtinska Sredna Gora)" [The Folk Songs in the Srednegorie (in the Section called "Sushtinska Sredna Gora"-The True Central Mountain)]. (n) und Tanze der Bulgaren. br. 106 pp. Bere. IIM 4:241-60.D. 2. 287 pp. Anastas 1963 "Mominski Trakiia (Dedeagachko. IIM 11:79-148. Berne-Leipzig. S. pevcheski grupi v Belomorska Giumiurdzhinsko i Ksantiisko)" [Girls' singing groups in Aegean Thrace of Dedeagach. 1895 "Perso-arabski motivi v bulgarskite napevi" [Perso-Arabic motifs in Bulgarian melodies]. SbNU 14:641-64." Sbornik na Bulgarskata Akademiia na Naukite 36:293-654.) 1955 "Taktovete s khemiolno ud?ulzheni vremena v zapisite na bYulgarskite folkloristi" [Measures with extended beats (by hemiola) in the transcriptions of Bulgarian folklorists]. Long review. dissertation. Romanski. Volksinstrumente dissertation. IIM 2/3:189-214. 1955 "Lazaruvane v selo Negushevo" [Lazarus Day customs and songs in the village of Negushevo]. Ludvik 1897 "Tonalnostite v b'ulgarskite napevi" [The scales in the Bulgarian melodies].
Reprint of all above entries. Khristo 1952 "Muzikata v zhivota na rodnoto mi selo Momina Klisura. Sofia. in Bulgarian. IIM 8:113-62. IIM 8:235-56. Vakarelski. 1957 "Belezhki po muzikalnata teoriia i estetika na naroda" [Notes on the musical theory and esthetics of the folk]. Todor 1962 "Niakoi melodicheski osobenosti na rodopskata narodna pesen" [Some melodic features of the Rhodope folksong]. INEM 4:71-88. Treats only the dvoyanka. 1927 Biulgarskata narodna muzika. metrics and rhythm]. 1962 "Pesennite varianti v Rodopite" [Song variants in the Rhodopes]. . Sofia. Pazardzhishko" [Music in the life of my native village of Momina Klisura. district of Pazardzhik]. IIM 4:123-58. N. 1956 B'ulgarskatanarodna muzika. 1955 "Muzikalno-folklomi proiavi na Plovdivskoto izlozhenie prez 1892 g. 1925 Hypothese sur l'origine de la diaphonie. 1962 "Ezikut na rodopskite pesni. 44 pp. Vasil 1924 "Kum bulgarskite narodni napevi" [On Bulgarian folk melodies]. metrika i ritmika [Bulgarian folk music. 84 pp. subrani v Instituta za Muzika pri BAN" [The language of the Rhodope songs collected in the Institute of Music of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. IIM 1:167-202." [Folk music exhibits at the Plovdiv Exposition of 1892].266 KRADER: BULGARIAN FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH Stoin. New York. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. Edited by S. With Anastas Primovski. Dzhudzhev. INEM 12:86-88. Todorov. German resume. 1936 "BuYlgarskite narodni muzikalni instrumenti" [Bulgarian folk music instruments]. IIM 8:163-96.Y. IIM 2/3:267-318. 100 pp.
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