Larsen & Toubro Limited

E & C Division
Safety Health & Environment Manual for Construction Site



E & C Division

SHE Manual

Contents • Foreword Part I: SHE - Administration

1. Introduction 2. SHE Policy 3. SHE organisation and Management 3.1. Management Commitment 3.1.1. Site commitment 3.2. SHE Organisation 3.2.1. Safety Control - Organisation Chart 3.2.2. Site Safety Organisation Chart 3.2.3. Duties and Responsibilities 3.2.4. Returns Site Opening / Closing Report Monthly Reports Monthly statistics report 3.2.5. Positive Reporting Format Format 3.2.6. Daily Log – Book 3.2.7. Safety Promotion and Recognition Display Board of Safety Performance Recognition 3.3. Statutory Requirements 3.4. Pre qualification for Selection and Performance of Contractors – for L & T work. Contents 1 Management Safety Control Department Resident Construction Manager Site Engineer Site Safety Officer

E & C Division 3.4.1. Basic Requirements for Contractors 3.4.2. Rules governing contractor’s work 3.4.3. Safety in Contractor’s work 3.5. Safety Committee 3.6. Construction Safety Plan 3.7. Accident reporting and Investigation 3.8. SHE Audits 3.9. SHE Training 3.9.1. Tool Box Talks 3.9.2. Training at Site 3.10. Permit to work System 3.11. Safety of L&T Site Visitors Part II: SHE - Implementation 4. Concept of Accident Prevention 5. Site Planning 5.1. Site layout 5.2. Construction details 5.3. In-built safety measures 5.4. Housekeeping 5.5. Safety at stores 6. Civil Work: 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Blasting Excavation Piling Working at heights 6.4.1 Ramps and Runs 6.4.2 Ladders 6.4.3 Scaffoldings 6.5 6.6 6.7 Contents Demolition Carpentry Workshop Grinding Operation

SHE Manual


E & C Division 7. Mechanical Works 7.1 Manual Handling 7.1.1 Winch 7.1.2 Reeving 7.1.3 Rigging Procedure and Precautions 7.1.4 Test Certificates 7.1.5 Operators & Banksman 7.1.6 Safe working load for men and women. 7.2 7.3 7.4 Crane Safety Erection of Structures Use, Care and Maintenance of Slings Synthetic Ropes / Slings Wire Ropes Lifting Gears – Hooks, Shackles etc

SHE Manual

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.2 9

Hoists Other mobile machinery and their movement at the site Work over water Confined Space

8. Critical Jobs:

Welding and Gas Cutting 10.1 Work Environment 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 Noise and Vibration Lighting Ventilation ( Heat Stress )

10 Health and Hygiene

10.2 Personal Protective Equipment



E & C Division 11 12 13 14 15 Occupational Health Center and First Aid Electrical Safety Non Destructive Testing 13.1 Radiography Abrasive blasting and spray painting Hand tools and power tools 16.1. 16.2. 17. 18. Handling and Storage of Chemicals Material Safety Data Sheet ( MSDS )

SHE Manual

16. Handling of chemicals / hazardous substances

Fire prevention Onsite emergency preparedness plan

Part III: Commissioning of plant Part IV: Environment protection Environment Management (Construction)




On behalf of Safety Control Department I am pleased to issue this (SHE) Safety, Health and Environment manual to E&C division. This manual will serve as a ready reference for methods and procedures to be followed in Safety, Health & Environment by those who are engaged in construction activity. This four-section manual contains information based on the most current knowledge and practices with the SHE (Safety Health & environment) much of this information based on practice and research and will remain relevant during the next decade. However changes are bound to occur that will require Site managers to find innovative solutions to SHE problems on the job. The need for a SHE manual for those engaged in or concerned with construction activity was recognized during the activities of Business Specific initiatives for safety Assurance by the senior management. I appreciate the assistance given by D.Venugopal our consultant, all team members of safety assurance team and my colleagues in the preparation of the text of the manual. I hope, By following safe methods and procedures in construction let us all in L & T E & C division make Safety - A way of life.

J.B.Desai Dy.General Manager Safety Control. E & C Div.


Health and Environment Management Manual includes the procedures.1. Health & Environment requirements during project construction. 1. responsibilities and safe practices required to be followed at project site by all personnel involved in the project.3 Introduction 1 .E & C Division 1. This Safety. This Safety. Health and Environment Management Manual has been developed for Projects under construction in E&C Division to ensure compliance of the Safety.2 1. including crews and representatives of Contractors. Health and Environment Management Manual shall be followed while carrying out activities at project site and this manual supersedes any other document on these subjects.1.1 SHE Manual This Safety.1. Introduction 1.

To set and review quality objectives for Continual Improvement of our products and services. Environment and Information Technology. 10. To encourage enthusiasm. To advance / ensure the use of better and cleaner technology to minimise adverse environmental impacts. and to exceed or meet their expectations. To deploy Information Technology for increasing the efficiencies of our business processes. innovation and empowerment whilst developing inspiring leaders to make working at L&T a rich experience and create new global benchmarks in whatever we do. 3. Date: 3rd May. whilst implementing the globally recognised management systems for Quality. and integrating these systems with our business partners and customers. safety and security of all our people. whilst enhancing our shareholder value. Safety. 6. caring and sharing achievements. As an undisputed leader in the Indian context. and shall strive to be amongst the globally outstanding companies. cost and delivery in line with the requirements of our customers. which the World is proud of. To promote a culture of mutual trust. with our people. VENKATARAMANAN (Member of the Board & Sr. we continue to make things that make India proud. To design / operate and maintain safe and environmentally friendly plants which meet all applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. our society. 2. To Engineer and Execute projects with consistent quality. 4. To continually reduce the risk of pollution through setting environmental objectives in our design / operation and maintenance processes. 2000 __________________________ K.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED Engineering & Construction Division CORPORATE POLICY 1. To comply with all applicable occupational Health & Safety legislation and continually improve safe working practices through setting health and safety objectives and ensure good health. 8. 9. based on the feedback. 7. VP) . our stakeholders and our customers for the growth and benefit of our Nation. our biggest asset. 5. while ensuring its security by protecting information as valuable assets and ensure availability. integrity and confidentiality of all information.

A safe and healthy Environment at all its work places and project sites . and .A Zero accident record. Management Commitment The E&C Division of L&T. a committed organisation is required. These are given in this chapter.A risk free operation.E & C Division 3. . SHE Organisation & Management 1 . After careful consideration the management has made Safety organisations at different levels with each person’s commitment well defined.1. .A responsible image within the marketplace. 3. is committed to continuous improvement in creating and maintaining: . SHE organisation and Management SHE Manual In order to implement the policy of the management given under chapter-2 SHE policy.An improved business performance.

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C Division SAFETY COMMITMENT Pursuant to the L&T Safety Policy Statement. we L&T employees at this site shall comply with the L&T Safety Management System by the following actions. safe construction site. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Work with competent and adequately resourced contractors to carry out work and ensure their co-ordination and co-operation. Resident Construction Manager ________________ . Give priority to safety in our day-to-day work. Site Safety Officer ________________ Resident Construction Engineer ________________ SAFETY FIRST 11th January. Follow L&T Rules and Procedures to ensure accident-free. Monitor health and safety performance. Ensure that workers on site will be given adequate training and comply with the site safety rules. Ensure that contractors have information about risk on-sites and they provide details of how they intend to safely carry out high risk operations. Ensure that all workers are properly informed and consulted on hazards and risks of their work. Communicate by reports and safety meetings with all concerned at the site and Powai about all safety matters. 99. Make sure that only authorised people are allowed on to the site.

Vice President (Operation) and Member of the Board Chief (Management Services) Cluster Heads Business Group Leaders Head (Safety) Head (Project Management/ER&C) Resident Construction Managers Safety Engineers Site Safety Officers LEGEND : Communication / Interaction SHE Organisation & Management 3 .2. SHE Structure SHE Manual The SHE organisational structure of L&T’s E & C Division Safety Management’s system and personnel responsible for safety aspects are as follows: Sr.E & C Division 3.

2.2.1 Duties and Responsibilities Management The management shall have ultimate responsibility for SHE management system.E & C Division 3. • To ensure organisational freedom necessary to implement the SHE management system. SHE Organisation & Management 4 .2. The responsibilities include. 3. • Adherence to statutory requirements pertaining to occupational Safety. Site SHE Organisation Structure The Site SHE organisational structure of L&T’s E & C Division Safety Management system and personnel responsible for Safety aspects are as follows: Resident Construction Managers Site Safety Officers 3.1.1. Safety Control Organisation Structure SHE Manual Head (Safety) Safety Engineers 3. Health and Environment.2. • Providing adequate resources essential to the implementing continual improvement of SHE organisation system.2.

2.3. 3. SHE Organisation & Management 5 .2.3.2. 3.3.2. for the statutory compliance and adherence to the guidelines given in this manual. To participate in safety activities and give full support for the programme.3. To ensure communication to all employees and other interested parties on the SHE requirements including legal and other requirements.3.3. To provide adequate training to all personnel working at site. Safety Control Department Responsibilities & C Division SHE Manual To ensure the provision of adequate personal protective equipment and their maintenance and proper use.2.2. To insist on safety being planned into all the operations undertaken at all times under any conditions.2.12. Health and Environment Manual.2.3. 3.2.2. 3. In addition to this his other responsibilities are: To establish and maintain OH&S management program for achieving objectives. 3.3. To set up standards for prevention and control of losses 3. 3.2.2. To periodically inspect and audit the site for SHE to provide training to the engineers and supervisors. To maintain good housekeeping at the project site.6. Resident Construction Manager He is overall in-charge of the safety of the site. To identify and have access to the applicable legal requirement and keep the information up to date.3. 3. To review an OH&S management programme.2. 3. To ensure the understanding of the job hazards and safe procedures before putting them on to the job.2. 3.2. 3. 3. Ensure that contractors follow safe working practices in line with the company policy and will take steps to rectify. To set up an OH&S objectives and consider the above while setting up the objectives.2.10. To identify hazard and carry risk assessment and keep the information up to date.6.3.1. 3.4. 3. To review the effectiveness of the provisions of the Safety. To review and act upon safety records.3.8. To ensure & maintain safe working conditions and practices for all employees under his supervision.

2. Inspect working area regularly. from construction safety point of view. Promote & implement the SHE manual at project sites. 3.3.2. Report accidents and near misses immediately to RCM/SSO. for future actions.3.3.5. Site Safety Officer The site safety officer is responsible to ensure the over all safety of the site. 3. Ensure that all persons working under him are trained on safe and proper working procedures by giving toolbox talk.4. 3. To conduct regular safety meetings.3. and making recommendations for improving safety. In addition he will: 3. 3. To ensure that SHE manual is made available at site and copies/ abstracts are issued to all concerned including sub contractors.5.7. In addition to this he will: 3. To ensure First aid arrangement are made and maintained at work place. 3. 3.E & C Division SHE Manual 3.3.2. To encourage safety suggestions and act upon them immediately.4.2. 3. Investigate near miss incident and accident reports and monitor the site safety performance against L & T’s internal standards. Assist the Site Safety Officer in conducting accident investigation involving his workers. 3. Suggest standards to prevent injuries/losses. Functionally he will be reporting to the safety control department and take guidance from them.3.2.2. To ensure proper feedback is given to the connected L & T departments about shortfalls in design etc. Site Engineer The site engineer is responsible for ensuring the compliance of the statues and the recommendations given in this manual by the contractor and sub-contractors working under them. SHE Organisation & Management 6 . To ensure that sub contractors are given proper instructions to comply with safety standards and entries are made in the daily logbook maintained at the site of all verbal instructions given to the contractors.3. 3. Give assistance in solving safety-related problems.2.9.

official bodies such as Factory Inspectorate and Insurance Companies and outside bodies such as the National Safety Council.5.3. Tool-Box talks with workers 3. Arrange and participate in periodic safety inspection of work areas.5.12. notices. 3.2. 3.5. memos. etc. Conduct Safety meeting at least once a month to discuss various aspects on safety with sub contractors and clients and minuted.3. 3.8. Be important member of the on-site emergency team and perform duties as mentioned in the emergency plan. Liase as required with the Fire Watch. 3. reports. etc.2.2. SHE Organisation & Management 7 . Prepare and keep adequate records of accidents and reports and tendering of advice to prevent recurrences. 3. Monitor and man the access and egress to project on the work site. Maintain liaison with other departments such as Medical and Training. Advise RCM to stop work when the need arises. 3.2. Propagate safety through leaflets. Productivity and Standards Board.15. Provide assistance to all level of management to implement accident prevention activities. Advice on legal requirements affecting safety.5.2.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. poster.2.

E & C Division 3. 3.4. 3. All construction sites of E & C Division shall be covered under this Procedure so long as any person/s of E & C division and/ or its appointed contractors/ agents carry out activity of any kind at the site.4 3. An event/day when L&T personnel or L&T’s contractor/s or L&T’s vendor/ agent/s start carrying out activity of any kind at a site where construction activities will be further carried out. 3.2.1. RCM/ RCE shall ensure that the information has been sent to SCD.4.2. upon taking charge of the site.2. Definitions Opening of a Construction Site for the attention of Head-Safety Control followed by a confirmatory copy by post/ courier.3.1.2. Returns SHE Manual 3. it is essential to know in advance the opening and closing of a site. man-hours shall be counted from the opening of the site and all safety procedures shall apply to the site. Objective In order to conform with norms set in the safety policy. The information to be sent to SCD. Project Execution Manager at Powai / Baroda shall be responsible to provide the information. For reporting to SCD. Reporting about Opening/ Closing of Construction Sites 3.2. Closing of Construction Site SHE Organisation & Management 8 .2.1. It should be sent by a fax message (No.1.4.2 3.3 3. However. Powai shall be filled in the format annexed to this Procedure. 022 .2.1.1 Procedure This Procedure requires that SCD at Powai should be informed about opening and closing of a construction site within seven days of its opening/ closing. A detailed procedure is given below for compliance.

2. SHE Manual 3.E & C Division 3.5 RECORD Forms Site opening and closing Report Records CSC – 10 –R2 SHE Organisation & Management 9 .1.4. which is closed. This revision: The annexed form has been revised to request additional information while opening a site.4.4.2. for the specific site.2. RCM/ RCE will stop sending reports to SCD from this day onward.2.1. An event/day after which no further activity of any kind is carried out by L&T personnel or L&T’s contractor/s or L&T’s vendor / agent/s at the site.

6. V-sat (hotline) & fax nos. of man-hours Available at site / required at site Debit code no. E & C Division SHE Manual Safety Control E & C Division (A) 1 2. 9. Mumbai To: Head (Safety Control). procedure manual and DACP (Safety -34 ) Whether commissioning is in L&T’s scope of responsibilities or whether L&T will provide commissioning assistance only to the client ? When will ownership of the plant/ facility be transferred to the client? (a) After mechanical completion. 10. Duration of construction activities Safety manual. (b) After commissioning & Test-run. 13.Powai/ Baroda : Champion of concerned SBU SHE Organisation & Management 10 .E & C Division Annexure -1 Larsen & Toubro Limited Powai. 5. 12. 11. 14. Date of opening of construction site Any other relevant information Date: __________ Signature: ________________________________ Name : ________________________________ (Project Execution Manager/ Resident Construction Manager) Copies to : : All SBU Heads : Project Execution Manager . 15. 7. 4. e . 8. & Location Complete address Telephone.mail address Name of Resident Construction Manager / Resident Engineer Names of Site Engineers Name of Site Safety Officer Names of contractors & nature/ type of their activities Estimated no. 3. SITE OPENING REPORT : (Attach separate sheet if required) Name of site/ project Project job no.

I have handed over to Mr. Of man-hours worked at this site from _______________ (date of opening of construction site) is ____________________.Powai/ Baroda : Champion of concerned SBU * [Strike off whichever is not applicable.] SHE Organisation & Management 11 . Total no. Mumbai To: Head (Safety Control). Date: __________ Signature Name : _____________________ : _____________________ (Project Execution Manager/ Resident Construction Manager) Copies to: : All SBU Heads : Project Execution Manager . E & C Division (B) SITE CLOSING REPORT : Safety Control E & C Division This is to certify that there will be no further construction/ commissioning activity of any kind on the construction site at ________________________ (location).E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure 2 Larsen & Toubro Limited Powai. ___________________________* / retained with me * all safety documents listed in point A (11) of the annexed form. from _______________ (date of closing of construction site).

Procedure SSO shall write the correct Accident Data & Man – Hours as per the standard format given by Safety Control Dept. SHE Manual Monthly Reporting & Analysis of Mishap at L & T Construction Sites Objective This procedure is to report and highlight monthly safety performance record of L&T sites to the management.2.2.3. Also it will be published in quarterly safety bulletin. If RCM is not present. Clarification After an accident to a contractor’s workmen.4. 3.2. then there are two types of man hours lost. by the first week of every month.4.2.2. Based on these reports. 3.2.1 SHE Organisation & Management 12 .2.1. Monthly statistic report are processed and analysed by Safety Control Dept. 3. if another workmen replace him. 3.2. If Site Safety Officer is not present.4. his representative will have to sign and to be forwarded to Safety Control Dept.2. Administration Site Safety Officer of E & C Division or Main Contractor shall send the report to Safety Control Dept. 3. 3.1. If there is nothing to report in a particular month then “ Nothing to report’’ will be written in “ Month under report ‘‘ and the same cumulative data as that of previous month shall be written.2.2. and performance is evaluated for further action.3.2.2. RCM will be responsible to send the report to SCD.2.1.2. SSO & RCM shall sign report.2.2.1 3.2 3. in the first week of every month.4 3.2. E & C Division. the management can take necessary steps and augment safety efforts as required at the sites.4. 3.E & C Division 3.

which equals to stoppage of work by the injured person/s. ) by the injured person/s. as a result of accident /mishap. i e.1 Monthly Statistic Report SHE Organisation & Management 13 .2.2 SHE Manual 3. after his recovery from the ailment.4.2. of hours not worked.3 ACTUAL man .2.5. NOTIONAL man . No.4.hours lost.hours lost due to stoppage work.2.2.4. to record overall consequence of the accident). (Total man .hours lost which equals to no.4. RECORD Reference CSC-02-R1 3. even if he is replaced/ transferred to other site.2. by the site work-force may also be reported as a third parameter. etc.5 Form 3. of hours not worked ( for medical treatment .E & C Division of injured person / s X no.4.

of People Man hours worked O. Head Construction Baroda / Powai . Report should be legible. Powai 4. of people Involved No.2000) Cumulative From _______ 1999 to________ 2000 d Other mishaps not covered in a. of Contractors involved L&T Person If any No.000 man hours lost is taken for any fatal accidents as per IS No.Annexure Larsen & Toubro Limited E & C Division Date of Issue : __________________ Project Name & Job No.T hours Total Man hours Grand total of man hours worked during the month ( A + B + C ) : Cumulative man-hours ( from _________1999 to _________2000) : ( Since the opening of site ) _____________________________ Signature of Site Safety Officer Date: Note: 1. of First aid cases No. of reporting to Govt. 3. Copy distribution : __________________ Signature of RCM Date : 1. DGM. Standard 48. : __________________ Ref. Of Man cidents hours lost No. of eqpt. 2. properly typed. of equipment damaged Loss in Rs. No. b Minor Injuries For the month under report ( ____2000) Cumulative From _______ 1999 to________ 2000 c Fires No. Site in charge contractor through RCM 3. For the month under report ( ____2000) Cumulative From _______ 1999 to________ 2000 Data for Man hours worked No. Of incidents Man hours lost No. of person injured No. miss & First aid Details L&T E & C (A) Main Contractors (B) Sub-contractors (C) No. BUH Powai or Baroda / Champion 6. Site Safety Officer 2. of NearMiss No. Reportable accident report is to be sent within 24 hours of occurrence. of person injured No.: CSC-02-MR-R1 MONTHLY STATISTICS REPORT For the month of ________ Year ________ Accident Data a Lost time Accidents For the month under report ( ____2000) Cumulative From _______ 1999 to________ 2000 No. DGM QAIS Process Cluster Baroda 5. b. E & C Division Safety. Damaged Loss in Total Near Rs. of fires reporting outside For the month under report(____. 3786-1983. c.

CSC-01 and CSC-02 deal with reporting of accidents and mishaps at E & C Division construction sites. Hence.5. about Safety Performance & Management at the sites and enables measurement of safety in terms of reduction in injury/harm/loss. and injury & loss are low at a particular site. Procedure The Procedure deals with formally reporting to the Safety Control Department (SCD) of E & C Division.E & C Division 3. (d) First Aid and Fire Fighting Training of site personnel (e) Any additional safety provision at site (f) Any aspect of safety promotion at site such as Safety Slogans/essay/quiz competition.5. 3. (g) Compliance with statutory requirements (h) Interaction with the client/contractor on safety matters like joint safety inspection (weekly) (i) Achieve milestones such as accident-free 100.000 manhours. (b) Provision and use of APTs to/by L&T and Contractors at site (c) Regular On-site training of workmen. albeit necessary. However. at Powai. these negative measurements are not sufficient to have adequate feedback for managing safety. These reports give negative information.2. safety poster display etc.2.2. SHE Organisation & Management 14 .2.5. (a) Compliance to Safety Control Procedures (CSC) in the Procedure Manual. mock fire-drills etc. because potential for injury/mishap may be high at the site but likelihood of risk of events may be very low. in writing. SHE Manual Positive Reporting on Safety At Construction Sites Objective Procedure Nos. about the positive aspects of safety such as follows in construction activities at sites. 3.1. when Safety Performance is good. absence of accidents is not a sufficient indication of good Safety Management and other measurements of Safety Performance are necessary to have assurance that the absence of accidents is due to good Safety Management.

E & C Division SHE Manual Before reporting.2. RCM/E should ensure that the following requirements are met: (I) Compliance/provision being reported must be of permanent/regular nature. 3. RCM/E will send its details to SCD in the form attached to this Procedure. as and when the positive safety action is taken at the site.e. (II) Compliance/provision must be seen as having definite and positive effects on preventing mishaps and personal injuries at the site. when he visit the site. (c) Safety Officer from SCD will check the actual provision of the measure/s reported by RCM/E. (b) The information may be sent at any time.3. they must continue at the site until the site is closed. Both RCM/E and SSO will sign the form. when instituted in E & C Division. SHE Organisation & Management 15 .5. Administration (a) Whenever a positive action is taken at the site. (d) SCD will record the action and use it for co-relation of such actions with the Safety Performance of the site and also use it for safety awards. i.

Date To: Head Safety Control E & C Division L&T-Powai. From : : : : SHE Manual We are pleased to report the following positive safety measure/s at our site: Sr. _____________________ Site Safety Officer Name: __________________________ Resident Construction manager / engineer Name: SHE Organisation & Management 16 . Date of action/ implementation Description Whether one-time or Continuous/regular (Frequency)? We shall ensure that this measure/practice will continue until the site is closed. No.E & C Division Annexure Positive Safety Measure/Action Name of Site Ref.

E & C Division 3. The entries should be shown to the Resident construction Manager for getting his signature and for prompt proper action The format of the Daily Log-Book is given in the annexure.6.2.Book SHE Manual The Site Safety Officer is required to make the Safety Inspection of the facility and Observations of the work methods and procedures adopted by the contractors and their men and record the same in the daily logbook. Daily Log . SHE Organisation & Management 17 .

Book DATE SR. NO OBSERVATIONS ACTION TAKEN SIGN OF SSO SIGN OF RCM SHE Organisation & Management 18 .E & C Division Annexure SHE Manual Format for Daily Log .

installation and updating of the Display-Board giving up-do-date. on continuous basis. Safety Promotion and Recognition SHE Manual Display of Safety Performance at Construction Site 3. if all persons working at the L&T site are informed about the safety performance at the site. Procedure The Procedure deals with the preparation.‘Safety Policy Statement’ is to promote interest and enthusiasm in safety efforts through awareness and recognition of safety performance.7.2.2. This is possible. SHE Organisation & Management 19 .1.7.1. correct and accurate information about safety performance of the construction site. if they know about the current performance.1.2. 3. where the Board is installed.7. The objective of this Procedure is to require all construction sites to display information about the safety performance of their individual sites. Efforts to correct/improve poor safety performance and to maintain good safety performance will be put by people at the site. Persons working at the site.1. is by displaying it on a board which is placed prominently and up-dated daily. when they read the information on the Board.7. Objective One of the Codes of Conduct in the E & C Division .2. will feel proud of their good safety performance and will strive to maintain it.2. 3.E & C Division 3. One of the methods of informing persons working at the site about safety performance of the site.

2.I.2. Sheet 1 mm thick or plywood 5 mm thick Background : White Lettering : Dark Green Numbers & L&T Logo: Black See Annexure for a Specimen One or more depending on the area of the site - Material : Colour : Layout Quantity : : 3.1.E & C Division 3. One of the following locations shall be considered: * * Hung on the outside wall of L&T site office near entrance to RCM office Mounted on a grouted frame at the entrance to the L&T site. Location of the Board shall be such that it is visible to all persons working at the site while they move around the site. Suggested specifications of the board: Dimensions - SHE Manual 1500 mm L x 1000 mm H (Dimensions may be reduced proportion-ately to suit site conditions but not below 1000 mm L x 800 mm H). Number Plates : 230 mm H x 115 mm W Aluminium (preferable) or G.1. Languages of safety information on the Board: English or Hindi Local language (top half of the Board) (lower half of the Board) SHE Organisation & Management 20 .

immediately after the first-aid treatment. If SSO is not present at the site.2. Administration SHE Manual (a) Within 15 days from the effective date of this Procedure RCM/Site In-charge will get the Display Board/s ready and have them installed at any of the suggested locations mentioned in 2. (d) Responsibility of operating/updating the Board shall be of the Site Safety Officer (SSO). SHE Organisation & Management 21 .8). (b) Nos. (See Definitions in 3.M. after reviewing information of the previous 24 hours. Minor Injury (MI) : An incident which causes bodily injury/ies to a person. then RCM or his designated person shall be responsible for operation/updating of the Board.1. (g) Safety Officer from SCD (Powai) shall include. who is treated by the first-aid facility at the site or by a doctor and who is permitted to work at the site. (e) Name of the person responsible for operation of the Board and date of updating shall be clearly shown on the Board.7. in his inspection. of days to be displayed will be from the date of the last LTA/MI/DI. Minor Injury (MI) and Dangerous Incident/Occurrence (DI) are given below for ready reference. (h) Definitions of Lost Time Accident (LTA). (f) SSO/RCM shall update the information on the Board every day (except on weekly offs) at 9 A.6. (c) The safety performance shall cover persons/equipment/assets of L&T-Group II (P) and of all its Contractors at the site.. Lost Time Accident (LTA): An incident which causes death of a person or which causes bodily injury to a person due to which s/he is prevented from working for a period of 48 hours or more immediately following the incident.2 above. working of this Procedure. during his site inspection/audit and check that the information matches with the one provided through Accident Reports sent to SCD by the site RCM vide Procedure of existing CSC-01.E & C Division 3.

gas leak. materials of L&T or its Contractor and in the surrounding. explosion. collapse or failure of structure. machine etc. vessel/cylinder bursting. and such incidents.. equipment. roof.E & C Division Dangerous Incident/Occurrence (DI) : SHE Manual An incident in which (with or without personal injury) there is or could have been a damage/loss to property. SHE Organisation & Management 22 . subsidence of floor. chimney etc. Personal injury/ies during a Dangerous Incident shall also be covered separately in LTA or MI as may be the case. Examples: Fire.


1996” AND “THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) CENTRAL RULES 1998” and the copy can be procured for the site. the rules governing the subject of the chapter are also given. Statutory Requirements: SHE Manual The Government of India has enacted “THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) ACT.3.E & C Division 3. In order to facilitate for easy reference for important chapters. SHE Organisation & Management 24 .

SAFETY CONTROL. Contractor desiring to register with L & T E & C Division. excluding Section H of CSCE which he fills and submits to either Project / Site Manager or Head . approaches any BU Manager / SAFETY CONTROL. 2. It is expected that by emloying the contractors who meet the qualification requirements laid in this procedure. accidents and dangerous occurences on L & T sites would be minimised. By following the procedure.t their sutability to work safely on L & T sites. for working on L & T project . New (Not qualified in safety by L & T) 3.t. CSC-03/ 1. Contractor is given a blank of ‘ Contractor Safety Capability Evaluation ‘ Form (CSCE) .r. (B) PROCEDURE The Procedure covers basically four situations / status w. (A) SHE Manual Prequalification for selection and performance of Contractors for L & T work Objective This procedure is to scrutinise / evaluate L & T Construction Contractors w. no bidding Bidding for a specific project Working at Group IIprojects site / s Not Working at Group II projects site / s /1 /2 /3 /4 Procedure for Prequalification in Safety of a New Contractor ( Not bidding for specific project ) 1. the contractors at E & C Division sites and these are shown in tables below : CONTRACTOR STATUS CONTRACTOR ACTIVITY PROCDURE NO. New (Not qualified in safety by L & T) 2. Existing (Not qualified in safety by L & T) Request for prequalification.E & C Division 3.4. L & T Manager should encourage contractors on safety and make every effort to qualify them by advising them corrective actions to be taken by them. 25 SHE Organisation & Management .Sample copy attached to this procedure for reference . Existing (Not qualified in safety by L & T) 4.r.

who are not qualified in Safety with L & T E & C Division. he will be instructed to corect it within a specified time . retaining a copy of the same. SCE advises the contractor about the shortfalls. the original must come to Head – Safety Control and others retain CSCE . Head – Safety Control reject the contractor’ s application to register and asks him to resubmit when is ready to meet the requirements. . If during the site inspection of SCE . 6. 26 2. untill he requalifies in safety. In any case.Head – Safety Control will inform the contractor about his acceptance by L&T for registration. Project / Site Manager will send the CSCE form along with other documents of RFQ . . In any case. he will send original to DGM ( QA & I ). Then .Head – Safety Control will inform the contractor about his disqualification. If the contractor intends to know. any shortfall in the qualified contractor safety capability is observed . Head – Safety Control will inform the contractor in writing about his shortcomings in safety qualification. Name of the disqualified conractor will be deleted in this list. It will be decision & responsibility of PM / SM about the continuation of services of the subject contractor at the ongoing sites. if any. .Head Safety Control will inform all BUH’s / DGM’s / AGM’s / PM’s / SM’s by a memo and a copy of updated list of prequalified contractors. 4. to all prospective contractors.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. 5. failing which he will be disqualified. if he finds more than 80 % of the requirements are met . If the contractor qualifies. Procedure for Prequalification in Safety of a New Contractor ( Bidding for a specific L & T project ) 1. If 80 % requirements not met. SHE Organisation & Management . When PM / SM receives the filled .Head – Safety Control will inform all BUH’s / DGM’s / AGM’s / PM’s / SM’s by a memo and a copy of updated list of prequalified contractors. Safety Control Engineer (SCE) from Safety Control scrutinises the information and visits the contractor office / sites for inspection. the contractor shall not be awarded any new contract for work/services.

4. 5. 4. who shall not award work to the said contractor / s at Group II Project sites . CSC-03/1. SHE Manual 7. Same as No. within one year . CSC-03/1. Same as in Procedure No. PM / SM will snd the original to DGM . CSC-03/1. 4. If the Safety requirements are not met satisfactorily . Same as in Procedure No. 3. with copies to BUH’s / DGM’s / AGM’s / PM’s / SM’s. SCE advises . Same as in Procedure No. If the contractor fails to meet the qualification standards of Safety. Same as in Procedure No. Same as in Procedure No. DGM ( QA & I ) will inform him accordingly . CSC-03/1. 5. 2. and sends a copy of the advice to the contractor for correcting / reinforcing his safety capability. CSC-03/1. in writing . Procedure for Prequalification in Safety of an Existing Contractor ( Not Working at any L & T Group II projects site / s ) 1. in writing .E & C Division 3.QA & I rejects the contractor from qualifying in safety and informs the contractor and BUH’s / DGM’s / AGM’s / PM’s / SM’s in writing. PM / SM about the shortcomings . CSC-03/1. If 80 % of the requirements are not met within 15 days after SCE’s advice to the contractor. retaining a copy of the same. SHE Organisation & Management 27 . It will be decision & responsibility of PM / SM about the continuation of services of the subject contractor at the on-going sites .QA & I . CSC-03/1. In any case the contractor shall not be awarded any new contract for work/services. All such contractors . Same as in Procedure No. Same as in Procedure No. who are desirous of working at L & T site. DGM . 6 in Procedure No. 6. 2. 3. are informed by PM / SM about L & T’s requirement for prequalification in SAFETY. PM / SM at the site / s issues the CSCE form to the contractor and requires him to fill in and submit it to PM / SM within 15 days. SCE scrutinises the information given inthe csce and visits the contractor office site / s. untill he requalifies in Safety. Procedure for Prequalification in Safety of an Existing Contractor ( Working at L & T Group II projects site / s ) 1. CSC-03/1.

if forms are exhausted. / BUH’ s about the status every quarter. E & C Division.E & C Division (C) Administration SHE Manual (a) Books containing 5 sets of CSCE Forms will be sent to all sites by Safety Control Department . V. the CSCE should be prepared in photocopy/typed copy and submitted to Head Safety Control. However. (b) SE will periodically check at all E & C Division Sites whether the contractors working at sites are qualified in Safety by L & T and advise Sr. SCD : Safety Control Department SM : Site Manager PM : Project Manager SCE : Safety Control Engineer from QA & I CSC : Construction Safety Control RFQ : Request For Quotation ( Same as ITB . (D) Definitions / Abbreviations BUH : Business Unit Head Head–Safety Control : Deputy General Manager. More forms can be obtained from Safety Control Department.Invitation to Bid ) SHE Organisation & Management 28 . P.

RCM/RCE shall fill up the necessary details and sign them. 5. REC/RCE shall ensure that the booklet is individually issued to L&T and contractor personnel who are responsible for supervising their workers activities at his site. RCM/RCE shall ensure that. for the on-going sites) . who are concerned with health and safety of their employees working at the site. engineers. in the space provided for this purpose. The following actions are required to be taken by RCM/RCE of L&T/LTCG (in case of site synergy situation). SHE Organisation & Management 29 .4. supervisors & safety officers of L&T and the contractors are constantly made aware of these T&C. (B) Procedure This Procedure deals with the issuing of standard Rules of SHE to all L&T-and contractors-managers. supervisors and safety officers. by the respective Project/Site Managers of E & C Division In order to ensure that the managers. RCM/RCE shall ensure that the persons issued with the booklet shall have the booklet with them at any time while they are working at the site. as Rules in the form of a booklet. RCM/RCE shall request to SCD adequate no. if any. have read and understood the Rules and have been provided with clarifications as needed.A sample copy of the same is enclosed in the annexure. engineers. 4. CSC-06 stipulates that the standard Terms & Conditions (T&C) of HSE should be included in the contract/purchase orders issued to the L&T site contractors.E & C Division 3.2 Rules governing Contractor’s work (A) Objective SHE Manual Procedure No. and have the person (to whom the booklet is issued) sign. which are individually issued to each of these persons. 2. 1.(Fifty booklets are being sent with this procedure. included in the contract are incorporated/attached to the booklet copies before issuing to the contractors. it is necessary that these T&C are available readily with these persons. additional rules. of copies of the booklet well in time before any contractor is employed at his site. 3.

2. to RCM's/RCE's of the on-going sites. If the stock of the booklet is exhausted temporarily at the site. 3.E & C Division (C) Administration 1. During the site visits. 5. Safety Officer shall also check that the Rules are understood by them. RCM/RCE shall request to SCD for copies of the booklet allowing adequate time for mailing etc. RCM/RCE shall issue photocopy of the booklet from the contract document and immediately request SCD for additional copies. Safety Officers from Powai shall check that the booklets issued to all concerned are available with them. SCD shall maintain adequate stock of the booklet in Powai. SCD shall send 50 booklets with this procedure. SHE Organisation & Management 30 . SHE Manual 4.


mishaps. their nature of work.) _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ . (Full-time or Parttime?) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Other dangerous occurrences (describe) f. Give the following details (for last three years) (incl: your sub-contractors) Incident a. dangerous occurrences at all your job-sites? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION D – SAFETY RECORD / PERFORMANCE 1. of man-hours worked ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ __________________ Compensation paid / Loss (Rs. Minor injuries b. Do you keep records of all accidents. of job-sites Involved _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Severity rate No. How does the system work? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. their accountability and authrities.SECTION C – SAFETY ORGANISATION 1. of safety officers. Fatal accidents g. Fires d. Do you provide safety officers at your job sites? Yes / No Give details. Do you nominate trained safety observers among workmen at your job-sites? Yes / No Give details and account of their effectiveness. LT accidents c. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ ________________ No. their qualifications. Explosions e. Frequency rate No. no. Do you have formal / written accident (personal & equipment) reporting & investigation system? Give details and attach blank forms used in your company.

) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 3. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ No. Give details of insurance. legal arrangement etc. dangerous occurrence at L&T site & its surroundings? Give details.2. Give additional information (on safety). _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ . you will provide / have provided for in this bid. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION E – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 1. Was your company / company official involved in any litigation due to accident / fire etc. Have you paid third party compensation? Give details for the last three years (incl : your sub-contractors) Year ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Amount paid Rs. fire. of persons Involved ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ Total contract value for the year (Rs. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION F – YOUR PROPOSAL FOR THE SPECIFIC JOB-SITE FOR WHICH ARE BIDDING TO L&T 1. at your job sites in the last three years? Is there any court case pending against your company / company official? Give details. Will you indemnify L&T and its personnel against any legal action due to accident. if any.

A well-planned safety committee is a great motivator for safety.5. minutes preparation and circulation and follow up action is listed in annexure. SHE Organisation & Management 31 . so as to prevent accidents and improve working conditions on site.1.E & C Division 3. Introduction: Statutorily (See section 38 of The Building and other construction workers (Regulation of employment and condition of service) Act 1996) each site should have a safety committee having equaled number of representatives from management and workers/ contractors. meeting procedures. The safety committee carrying out a site inspection together raises the level of safety consciousness at the site.5 Safety Committee SHE Manual 3. Its size and membership will depend on the size and nature of the site and upon differing legal and social conditions in the state concerned. scope and objectives of the committee. The procedure for forming the safety committee. but it should always be an action orientated group of people in which both management and workers are represented. It’s primary purpose is to enable management and workers to work together to monitor the site safety plan.

4) Administration a. Agenda of safety meetings shall be prepared by the L&T safety officer / site Manager at the site and sent to all participants at least one week in advance. 1) Formation of Safety Committee Each site will have one Safety Committee. so that the members can make themselves available for the next meeting. 32 SHE Organisation & Management . in the second week of each month. Discussion of accident and illness reports in order to make recommendations for prevention. Safety Committee will consist of/be represented by site – in – charge of all contractors / sub – contractors and headed by the L&T site Manager. This committee will have periodic meetings headed by L&T Site Manager. minutes and follow up action. Special safety committee meeting shall be held as required to discuss serious accidents. objectives. Meetings of the safety committee and shall be held at least once in a month. Evaluating improvements made. particularly by safety representatives. membership. b. meetings. 2) 3) Scope / objectives of the Safety Meetings Regular and frequent meetings to discuss the safety and health programme on site and to make recommendations to management. Dates of the next meeting shall be informed to all members in the preceding meeting. potentially accident – prone activities and such matters. This is important so that the members find / make time available to attend the meeting. Planning and taking part in educational and training programs and information sessions.E & C Division Annexure SHE Manual Formation of safety committee. Meeting Frequency a. Examination of suggestions made by workers.

acceptance by all participants (to be recorded) and record of actual completion dates of action items. SHE Organisation & Management 33 .E & C Division SHE Manual Agenda shall include review of MoM of the previous month.

E & C Division SHE Manual Site _______________ Date of Issue ________ Sheet ____of ____ Larsen & Toubro Limited. No. E & C Division Minutes of Safety Committee Meeting held on _______. at the site for the month of __________’2000 Present Sr. Name Company Signature SHE Organisation & Management 34 .

All committee member 3. ____________________ Name & Signature of RCM/RCE Date : Copy Distribution: 1. Site Notice Board 2. Safety Champions SHE Organisation & Management 35 . No. Report should be legible. Project Manager 5.E & C Division SHE Manual Site:________________ Date of Issue: _______ Sheet ____of ____ Larsen & Toubro Limited. SCD – Powai 4. Particulars of the minutes (Including recommendation) Action By Target Date for action Actual CompleTion Date of Action 1 Review of previous MoM held on ______ The next safety committee meeting will be held on ___________________________ Name & Signature of Site Safety Officer Date: Note: 1. E & C Division Minutes of Safety Committee Meeting held on _____________________. properly typed. at the site Sr.

about L&T’s concern for and recognition of Safety. i. the Client. procurement and commissioning. planned. ‘Construction Safety Plan’ is meant to be a part of `Project Safety Plan’ (PSP) which will cover not only construction safety but also safety in engineering. Project Execution and Construction Departments will be enabled to make adequate provision for safety during construction. Project Execution and Construction Departments of E & C Division. Health and Environment (SHE) during construction.6 (A) Construction Safety Plan Objective (i) SHE Manual (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) This procedure is to inform. (B) Procedure The procedure deals with making available General Construction Safety Plan (CSP-G) to Marketing. from the very beginning until the project is completed and handed over to a client. in the contract/order document. It is expected that by following this procedure. SHE Organisation & Management 36 . Provisions for SHE during construction of projects have to be thought about.e. Prospective Clients (through Marketing).E & C Division 3. and carried through in techno-commercial discussions with the client. involve and get commitment of Project-ites of E & C Division. incorporated and committed by L&T from the time a tender is submitted to a client. familiarise. `Project Safety Plan’ will be incorporated as separate Procedure and Document. Total Safety Management (TSM) in a project. and in the project execution such that construction is possible to be carried out in safe/accident-free manner. who have all to play important roles in its implementation in the steps described below.

Event Action SHE Manual Action By Marketing Marketing Dept. for discussions on safety matters with the Client. Procedure Manual. from the Client prior to the technical discussions. to the Client. Project Execution and Construction Depts. (b) Provide for safety require-ments (Sections 1 to 6 of CSP-G) in the price quoted to the client. (b) Provide one copy of Construction & Procedure Manuals to Marketing Department (for client’s inspection). Technical discussions with the Client (a) Obtain sections (7) & (8) of CSP duly filled up. 1. Client wants to inspect the attachments to CSP (a) Show the attachments viz.. (c) Request the client to fillup Sections (7) & (8) of CSP-G.E & C Division (C) Steps for Implementing the Procedure: Step No. Marketing SCD 3. Marketing Marketing 2. Safety Manual. Do not submit them to the client. invite Safety Control Dept. Marketing Marketing SHE Organisation & Management 37 . Terms & Conditions for Contractors on Safety. Policy Statement. (b) If necessary. sends proposal/tender to a client (a) Attach Construction Safety Plan (CSP-G) to the Proposal / Tender.

(a) Hand over PO/CO with (CSP-S) to the Construction/Resident Manager (b) Send copies of Policy Statement.E & C Division SHE Manual Step No. 6. 15 days before Construction starts Project Execution SCD 8. 3 & 4 above. (6). Sections (7) & (8) will contain the information and commitments from the client in Step Nos. Construction Safety Manual. Project Execution Marketing 7. finalise and get the client’s commitment on the information in Sections (7) & (8). Marketing + Project Execution Marketing 5. Pre-Construction Meeting (a) Invite SCD to participate at the site to explain CSP-S to the site personnel. Hand over the PO/CO and specific CSP (CSP-S) to Project Execution and Safety Control Depts. which is specific for the client in the CO/PO attaching Sections (1). Event Action Action By Marketing + Project Execution Techno-Commercial discussions with the client (a) Adjust the price quoted. if necessary. Procedure Manual to the Resident Manager (if he does not have these). for additional provisions for safety according to the information provided by the client in Sections (7)&(8) of CSP-G (b) Discuss the above with the client. Contract/Purchase Order with the client Include CSP-S. (5). contractors and the Client. (7) & (8) of the CSP. Resident Manager SHE Organisation & Management 38 . (2). 4.

Construction & Safety Control Dept. Policy Statement Placard. at Powai. Marketing. Clarifications/Suggestions. Model Terms & Conditions for Contractors on safety will also be sent to the Marketing Managers. if any on this Procedure should be communicated to SCD in writing for subsequent revisions. CSC-07 to the Marketing Managers of E & C Division. who have not received them from SCD. Marketing Department is requested to print/photo copy (without any alterations/changes) the original CSP for their future requirement.E & C Division SHE Manual Like in case of any Company Procedure. CSP-G: `General Construction Safety Plan’ which contains blanks for a client to fill up in the Section (7) of CSP and does not have the client’s specific safety requirements in the Section (8) of CSP. Besides. Copies of the Construction Safety Manual. of which `Construction Safety Plan’ (CSP) will be a part will be developed and issued in the near future. is key to the success of this procedure which is essential and important to achieve accident-free construction sites of E & C Division. (SCD) will initially provide copies of CSP-G and Procedure No. TIMELY & SINCERE ACTIONS by as also CLEAR AND COMPLETE COMMUNICATIONS among the concerned departments viz. SCD: Safety Control Dept. (ii) (iii) (iv) (E) Definitions (i) `Project Safety Plan’ (PSP). CSP-S: `Specific Construction Safety Plan’ which contains detailed information and commitments in the Sections (7) & (8) from the client. (ii) (iii) (iv) SHE Organisation & Management 39 . Project Execution. CSP-G and the Procedure will also be sent out to the recipients of controlled copies from SCD. The cover-page of CSP-S will bear the name of the site “For __________________Site”. Procedure Manual. (D) Administration (i) Safety Control Dept.

(c) Any injury which is likely to prove fatal. (b) Crushed or serious injury to any part of the body due to which loss of the same is obvious. steam or any other cause. which should also include Sundays and holidays.. bursting out. Dangerous Occurrences: (a) Bursting of a vessel used for steam having pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. wire rope hoist. Definitions Fatal : Death resulting from an accident. (d) Unconsciousness due to accident. etc. etc). chain pulley block. wire rope sling.. which results into injury or material damage. shackle. clamp.) and lifts (passenger. (c) Explosion. hot liquor or gas. leakage or escape of any molten metal. This procedure will also provide a systematic method of investigating and reporting an accident at construction site and identify corrective action steps to prevent a reoccurrence. SHE Organisation & Management 40 . lifting Tackle (chain sling. E & C Division. (a) Immediate loss of any part of the body or any limb or part there of.E & C Division 3. (b) Collapse or failures of any lifting machine (crane. (e) Severe burns or scalds due to chemicals. E & C Division is notified of all accident as soon as possible. LTA (Lost Time Accident): An injury causing disablement of an injured person beyond 48 hours excluding the days of accident and reporting to work back. fire.7 (A) Accident reporting and Investigation Objective (i) SHE Manual (ii) (iii) (B) Objective of this procedure is to ensure that Safety Control Dept. goods and service). This procedure also outlines the method of communicating with Safety Control Dept.

machinery. 3. tunnel. 4. buildings. V P (O) / DGM (Safety). causing any disablement of injured person from work less than as mention in LTA.Residence Construction Manager Reporting . gallery. water. First aid injury: An injury. Person is resumed site within two hours after receiving an injury. (e) Collapse or subsidence of any floor. Minor Injury: An injury. Wall. which could have resulted in the serious accident. Method of reporting . Near .Miss Occurrence: These are incidents / occurrences wherein a serious accident as described in 1. bridge. roof.) at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. SHE Organisation & Management . (C) Procedure The procedure deals with reporting of accidents involving people. 3. building. surroundings.As per distribution given in the forms. and 5 above has not happened but could have happened or could happen. 2. structure. Person is resumed the site within 48 hours after receiving an injury. land). which requires Medical treatment. Report Forms : There are four basic forms: 41 4. liquid. 1. environment (air.E & C Division SHE Manual (d) Explosion of a receiver or container used for storing any substance (gas. chimney. Responsibility of reporting . which requires first-aid treatment only without causing any disablement of the injured person from work.e-mail / by fax / courier (Preceded by verbal report within 4 hours in case of major mishap / fatal accident to BUH/ Sr. or it did not happen due to absence of a factor. 2. if the unsafe situation / act continues. solid etc. dangerous occurrence and near accident & first aid occurrence which could have resulted in an accident and / or dangerous situation.

The time of incident. If there is any fatalities. immediately within 24 hours. The name of contact person and his Tel. The interviewer should ask the witness to give their account of the events that occurred. and. (ii) Form ( Accident Investigation ) It is for reporting investigation of the accident / dangerous occurrence already reported in (i). Fire & other dangerous occurrence. • • • The witnesses should be interviewed promptly. Minor Injuries.charge with copies for L & T Site Manager and others as shown in the form. separately and . Lost Time Accident. of fatalities or hospitalized employees and their names. The interviewer should explain the purpose of the investigation to individual. an oral report must be made to DGM (Safety). Brief description of the incident. steps to secure the incident site must be initiated immediately to ensure the investigating party can reconstruct the events leading to the incident. The no. within 4 hours and following information must be provided • • • • • • The facility name. When indicated by the severity of the incident. No. Individual interviews should be conducted with each person at the time of the incident.E & C Division (i) Form (Accident Report) - SHE Manual - - This is for reporting Fatal. 42 - - SHE Organisation & Management . The location of the incident. It has to be filled in by the SSO / person investigating or nominated by Site Manager and copies to be sent as shown in the form within 72 hours. To be filled by the supervisor / engineer of L & T/ Contractor and sent to his site .

of E & C Division and others as shown in the form within first week of the month. Accident. Clause 5) To be filled by SSO / person investigating or nominated by Site Manager. first aid should be send as shown in the form within 24 hours after an accident take place.1. both immediate recovery actions and long term follow – up actions to prevent the incident from reoccurring. Sub Section 2. The reports in photocopy or in typed form should be prepared and submitted to Safety Control Department of E & C Division within stipulated time frame as mentioned in the form. - (D) Administration 1. minor. The investigation will identify corrective actions. (iii) Form (Near Miss) It is for reporting Near.0. one copy to be send to Safety Control Dept. In case of Lost time accident. the interviewer should document any concerns identified. the Site Manager (or Client’s Project Manager) will have to send separate reports to the 2. To be filled by the supervisor / engineer of L & T/ Contractor.e. which does not come under above category i. After the interview. Safety Control Department will send revised procedure with the forms to all sites.E & C Division • • • • • SHE Manual The interviewer should avoid questions that give a yes or no answer. - (iv) Form (First Aid cases) It is for reporting only first aid cases (Please refer its definition in Section 2. Lost time accident. The investigation should be directed at determining the root cause.miss accident. The investigation team must focus on getting accurate and complete information. SHE Organisation & Management 43 .

CSC-01-R1-AI. Form Accident Report Accident Investigation Near miss Accident Report First Aid Accident Report Reference CSC-01-R1-AR. (E) Records 1. 4.. CSC-01-R1-NA. on the same day). 3. authorities as per the Section 88 of Factory Act 1948. SHE Organisation & Management 44 . Employees responsibility : Inform immediately to SSO or concern supervisor for work related illness and injuries (i. 2. besides these internal reports. CSC-01-R0-FAAR.e.E & C Division SHE Manual 3.

loss of fingers. Fatal. to whom ( Specify ) : No ! Name of two witnesses and signatures 1. Report should be legible. extent of damage / loss ( e. not to fix blame on somebody. E & C Division / SAFETY CONTROL DEPT To be submitted immediately after the Accident (Within 24 hours) Exact location of Accident / Incident Date & Time of Incident SBU Accident that has occurred ( Tick as applicable ) ! Personal Accident ! Collapse of Structure Event ( Tick as applicable ) ! Injury ! Environment pollution Name of Injured Brief Description of Accident : ! Property damage ! Others ( Specify ) : Designation & Token no. 2. BUH Powai or Baroda / Champion 6. The purpose of accident report is to find out the causes. tools etc. scald etc. DGM. relevant PPE used : Whether medical aid was given Yes ! No ! Whether person was hospitalised Yes ! No ! Probable cause of Accident & any additional information : No ! Was he under the influence of Alcohol / Drugs Yes ! No ! Has report been given to authorities Yes ! If Yes. Name : Date : ( Signature ) : L & T site manager’s remarks ____________________________________ Name of supervisor of L & T / Contractor Date : ( Signature ) : Date : Copy distribution : ( Signature ) : 1. ) Object causing injury ( e. ) Location of Injury ( e.__________) Project Name & Job no. Site Safety Officer 2. E & C Division Safety. left eye etc.g. Head Construction Baroda / Powai Note : 1. 3. Please attach sketches or a separate sheet if space for any column is not adequate. DGM QAIS Process Cluster Baroda 5. Name : Date : ( Signature ) : 2. Site in charge contractor through RCM 3.. structural material. right leg. properly typed.g. left hand. Age : ____ Sex : ____ Name of Contractor ( with whom he / she is working ) : ! Material loss ! Fire / Explosion ! Spillage of dangerous fluids ! Mechanical ! Others ( Specify ) : Specify the injury. m/c.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED ACCIDENT REPORT (CSC-01-R1-AR NO. ) Whether there was any unsafe condition Yes ! No ! Whether any unsafe act by injured person Yes ! No ! Whether the person was wearing protective equipment Yes ! If Yes. fracture of leg. Powai 4.g. .

The purpose of investigation report is to find out the causes. 3. DGM QAIS Process Cluster Baroda 5. Powai 4. Please attach sketches or a separate sheet if space for any column is not adequate. Site Safety Officer 2.__________) Name & designation of investigating person Name of Injured E & C Division / SAFETY CONTROL DEPT Investigation of the Accidents reported in CSC-01-R1-AR by persons nominated by L&T site manager ( within 72 hours ) Project name & Job no. properly typed.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION (CSC-01-R1-AI NO. Designation & Token no. Site in charge contractor through RCM 3. not to fix blame on somebody. DGM. BUH Powai or Baroda / Champion 6. 2. E & C Division Safety. Report should be legible. ) Whether there was Unsafe Act? Give details Whether LTA or Minor or Others Name of Contractor Whether there was Unsafe Condition? Give details Was he under the influence of alcohol / drug The Injured person working Since : ________ Month. Head Construction Baroda / Powai . Age : _____ Sex : _____ Exact location of Incident Date & Time of Accident Accident details ( CSC-01-R1-Accident Report (AR) No. 1. ________ Year Cause of Accident Yes ! No ! Specify the failure / deviation from Safety norms : Date & Time the person resumed work after accident What immediate actions have been taken to prevent such accidents : What actions could be taken to prevent such accidents in future : Investigating Person _____________________________ Name Contractor / Site in-charge _____________________________ Name Site Manager ___________________________ Name Date : (Signature) Date : (Signature) Copy distribution : Date : (Signature) Note : 1. ___________) What was Injured doing at the time of Accident : State whether it is Personal Injury / Property damage ( Specify value in Rs.

properly typed. Powai 4. . DGM.__________) Project Name & Job no. The purpose of near accident report is to find out the causes.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED NEAR MISS ACCIDENT REPORT (CSC-01-R1-NA NO. Exact location of Incident E & C Division / SAFETY CONTROL DEPT It is important that the reporter removes unsafe condition or stops unsafe act before filling the form Date & Time of Incident SBU Probable Accident that could have occurred ( Tick as applicable ) ! Personal Accident ! Collapse of Structure Name of Contractor ! Fire / Explosion ! Spillage of dangerous fluids ! Mechanical ! Others ( Specify ) : Brief description of Unsafe Act / Condition observed Brief description of Incident : Whether the unsafe practice / Act / Condition was informed to the person/s involved or contractor supervisor or L&T engineer before filling the form : ! Yes ! No To whom reported ( Give name of persons ) : What action was taken after reporting as mentioned above Name of the reporter with whom he is working / SSO ________________________________________ Name L&T site manger’s remarks Date : ( Signature ) Date : Copy distribution : ( Signature ) 1. not to fix blame on somebody. DGM QAIS Process Cluster Baroda 5. Site in charge contractor through RCM 3. 3. Head Construction Baroda / Powai Note : 1. Report should be legible. 2. Please attach sketches or a separate sheet if space for any column is not adequate. BUH Powai or Baroda / Champion 6. E & C Division Safety. Site Safety Officer 2.

1. BUH Powai or Baroda / Champion 6. 3. not to fix blame on somebody.No. E & C Division Safety. 2. Unsafe act Unsafe Condition 1. Type of Injury Location of Injury Object causing Injury Deviation in Safety norms 1. 4.FAAR) LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C Division / SAFETY CONTROL DEPT TO BE SUBMITTED WITHIN 1ST WEEK OF EVERY MONTH Project Name & Job no. Sr. 2.FIRST AID ACCIDENT REPORT (CSC-01-R0. : For the Month of Sex SBU Sr. Brief description about accidents : 1. 3. DGM QAIS Process Cluster Baroda 5. Report should be legible. Site in charge contractor through RCM 3. The purpose of first aid report is to find out the causes. Date Time Name of Injured Age Name of Contractors 1. 3. 2. Head Construction Baroda / Powai . 3. Only those name shall be included who received only first aid injury & resume duty within 2 hours. 2. 2. DGM. 1. Please attach sketches or a separate sheet if space for any column is not adequate. 3. ____________________________________ NAME OF REPORTING SUPERVISOR / SSO ____________________________________ NAME OF RCM DATE: Note : ___________ SIGNATURE DATE: Copy distribution : ___________ SIGNATURE 1. No. 3. Site Safety Officer 2. 2. properly typed. Powai 4.

codes and norms.8 SHE Audit SHE Manual In order to ensure that the site follows all the statutory requirements. SHE Organisation & Management 45 . which is of specific nature. provides a way to reduce the potential for these losses through the identification. wherever necessary formats are given for inspection / audit for ensuring the safety of the machinery used or the method adopted. Periodic measurement or Audit is more thorough than regular measurement or Inspection.E & C Division 3. The regular and thorough inspection activities which an operation undertakes on a frequency consistent with the risk. Unlike the Inspection. It takes more time and it measures the site’s complete SHE management System. periodic monitoring is required. which if left unnoticed may lead to potentially dangerous work situations resulting in losses. analysis and correction of work place hazards before incident occurs. The regular and periodic monitoring is also required to find out the introduction of any makeshift repairs and changes to temporary construction at work site. the Audit covers the entire SHE Management System. The formats that are in use are given in the annexure At the end of each chapter.

1. 4. 3. NO. AUDITOR : AUDIT CHECKLIST AUDITEE : REFERENCE : L&T SAFETY MANUAL OF E & C DIVISION REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. 2.400 072. REMARKS Is the Company Safety Policy displayed at site office and conference room? Is full time site safety officer deputed at site? Is Site Safety Officer approved by Safety Control Department? Are construction safety manual & safety procedure manual available at site? Does the site have safety committee? Are sub-contractors included in safety committee? Is safety committee meeting held monthly? SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : . 5. 6. MUMBAI . POWAI.Sheet 1 of 6 LARSENT & TOUBRO LIMITED SAFETY CONTROL DEPARTMENT E & C DIVISION. 7. SAFETY SITE : DATE : SR.

11. Powai? Is safety day / week celebrated at site? Are safety posters displayed at site? Are adequate numbers of first aid boxes available at site? i) Site office ii) One box for every 300 M radius SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : . 22. 10. 17. 18. REMARKS Are unsafe acts / conditions. 12. accident causes and recommendations discussed in meeting? Are action by and target date columns included in minutes of meeting? Are minutes of meeting circulated among members and copy sent to SCD. 20. NO. 13. REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. 21. 19. Powai? Is accident reporting and investigation procedure followed at site? Are near miss accidents reported and investigated? Is safety inspection logbook maintained by SSO? Is safety inspection signed by RCM? Is SSO conducting toolbox talks at site? Are records maintained? Is site-opening report sent to SCD. 15. 14. 16.Sheet 2 of 6 SR.

30.Sheet 3 of 6 SR. 23. 34. 24. 27. 32. SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : . 33. REMARKS Is ambulance available at site? Is clinic available at site? Is house keeping in order? Are walkways clear from obstruction? Is material stacked properly? Are sufficient dustbins provided? Is work permit system followed at site? Whether all safety precautions taken. 28. 29. 26. which are mentioned in work permit? Are Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provided for employees? Are employees using PPE? Are safety belts used for working at height above 2 M? Are safety belts anchored to fixed point? Are ear muffs / plugs provided. REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. 25. 35. NO. 36. where noise level is more than 85 dB? Is safe access / platform provided for working at height? 31.

43. 37.W. 41. REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. NO. 42.Sheet 4 of 6 SR. 39. REMARKS Are adequate scaffolding provided for working at height? Is scaffolding checked / inspected before use? Are sufficient fire extinguishers provided at site? i) Near site office ii) Near stores iii) Near hot work Are fire extinguishers properly serviced and validity date marked on it? Are employees trained for operating fire extinguishers? Whether all lifting equipment / tackles are marked with their S. SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : . 45. 38. 46.L. 44.? Are inspection / test certificates of competent person (s) available at site? Are adequate lifting tackles provided at site? Are trained operators engaged for operating the equipment? Are lifting equipment / tackles maintained in good working conditions and record maintained? 40.

47. 55. 59. 50. 51. 58. 52. displayed at site? Is emergency vehicle available at site? Are guards of machinery’s in position? Is work place properly illuminated? Are adequate ladders provided at site? Is monthly accident statistics report copy sent to SCD. 48.Sheet 5 of 6 SR. 53. NO. 56. REMARKS Whether proper storage is provided for gas cylinders? Whether valve protection caps are provided for gas cylinders? Whether flash back arresters provided for oxy-acetylene gas cutting set? Whether trolley provided for gas cutting set? Whether proper clamps provided for hose connection? Are pressure vessels tested / certified by competent person? Are ELCB's provided for electrical installations? Are emergency nos. 57. 49. REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. Powai? SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : . 54.

67. 68.Sheet 6 of 6 SR. 70. 71. 66. REMARKS Are accident prevention tools & safetyrelated items available at site as per procedure CSC-08? Is safety performance board displayed at site? Is positive reporting on safety report sent to SCD. 65. NO. 63. Powai? Are excavations safe for work? Are excavation barricaded? Is proper slope or shoring provided for excavation? Whether hand tools are in good working condition? Are damaged tools discarded? Whether portable electrical tools are in good working condition? Is earthing provided for portable electrical tools? Are guards provided for portable grinding machines? Whether AERB rules followed for radiography? 61. SIGNATURE OF AUDITOR : SIGNATURE OF AUDITEE : . 60. 62. 64. REQUIREMENT TO THE COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE YES / NO NON COMPLIANCE NOTE NO. 69.

to begin with himself.E & C Division 3. In these meetings/ talks workmen are informed about hazards involved in the activities and safe methods of carrying out these activities. their frequency.9.9 3. Steps to be taken by RCM/RCE to implement this procedure are as follows: SHE Organisation & Management 46 . and knowledge about hazards and their elimination/ minimisation in construction activities is one of the prime functions of Resident Construction Manager/ Engineer (RCM/RCE). knowledge. their timings.1 (A) SHE Training: SHE Manual Safety Tool . in general and specific to his site. and then ensure that safe practices are followed by all. The information must be given regularly. One of the effective methods. This awareness is essential to prevent accidents to man. Annexure gives various topics that could be included in such talks. culture. (B) Procedure This procedure spells out the requirement of conducting TOOLBOX TALKS (TBT) at E & C division’s sites.Box Meetings/ Talk (TBT) at Construction Sites Objective Awareness of safety in construction. The Annexure to the procedure gives Tool-Box Talks details for some of construction activities. In order to prevent accidents. Due to the typical nature of construction activities/sites. well in time and in sufficient details. skills and attitudes of workmen to safety vary from site to site and it is necessary for RCM/E to impart to workmen the knowledge and skill about safe practices in construction activities. subjects and responsible person/s. machine and environment under his control & responsibility. who actually carry out the construction activities. RCM/RCE has to put his knowledge about safe practices into action. to inform workmen about safe practices in their work is TOOLBOX TALK/ MEETING. who are working at his site and particularly by workmen. which are normally done at almost all construction sites.

SSO through RCM shall report on monthly basis to SCD about no. SSO shall get to know and RCM shall ensure that SSO knows the nature of activities on which he plans to conduct TBT. location and no. SSO shall ensure that RCM is informed about the TBT’s for the day and he takes RCM’s signature in the log book. Safety Engineers (from SCD. 7. SSO shall use the information annexed to this Procedure as such or with suitable modification. From the effective date of the Procedure. so that he can tailor TBTs to suit the exact site conditions and hazards. In order to make TBT’s more effective and meaningful. SSO shall ensure that the concerned Supervisors or Engineer/s of workmen attending the TBT’s are present when TBT’s are conducted. on the previous day. for conducting TBT’s on the subjects of TBT’s covered in the Annexure. details about the TBT’s he has conducted. SSO may conduct additional TBT’s during the day in areas where construction activity is likely to start. (iii) Each TBT shall be for a duration of about 10 minutes and shall be directly addressed to workmen in a language they understand. 3. 5.E & C Division 1. SHE Manual 2. 4. before activities in the areas start. Powai) shall conduct TBT’s when they visit sites. (ii) SSO conducts at least two TBT’s every day in the morning. time. subject of TBT. of persons attended and signature of RCM. such as date. language. of TBT’s conducted at his site and their effectiveness. he shall be immediately sent to SCD at Powai for the training). RCM shall ensure that (i) Site Safety Officer (SSO) at his site is trained & equipped to conduct toolbox Talks. 6. for any reason is not trained & equipped to do this. (iv) TBT shall be on one specific activity on each occasion. SSO shall record in a separate log book. (If SSO. SHE Organisation & Management 47 .

SHE Organisation & Management 48 . Uncontrolled copies of this procedure alongwith the annexure will be sent to all SSOs. 2.E & C Division (C) Administration 1. SHE Manual 3. SE shall also interact with SSO. during the site visit. on additional TBTs which need to be included in the annexure and also about revision in the contents of TBTs in the Annexure. Safety Engineer (SE) from SCD shall check up-to-date logbook records of TBTs conducted by SSO at the site and communicate his observations in the visit report.

When people are trained to do their job properly. there are other types of training program. Also training is the only way to influence human behavior.9. • When new information must be made available and • When Employees’ performance needs to be improved. The general topics covered by SCD in its training program are given in annexure 1. Objective should be planned carefully and written down. They should indicate what the trainee is to know or do by the end of the training period. Apart from the conventional training program covered in annexure 1 and annexure 2. • Proportionally more accidents and injuries • High labor turn over • Excessive waste and scrap • Company expansion of plant and requirement Program Objectives Training programs should be based on closely defined objectives that determine the scope of the training and guide the selection and preparation of the training materials.E & C Division 3. they will do them safely.2 Training at site: Introduction SHE Manual An effective accident prevention and occupational health hazard control program is based on proper job performance. Training Needs A training program is needed • For new and redesigned employees • When new equipment or processes are introduced. • Group training techniques (encouraging participants to share ideas) SHE Organisation & Management 49 . Here are some indications of a need for a good training program. Some of the important programs are listed below: • On –the –job training • Conference method of watching like problem solving Conferences. • When Procedures have been revised or updated. Annexure 2 contains the subjects normally covered in supervisors training program.

case study presentation. The annexure gives the existing program schedule and also a model training program schedule.E & C Division SHE Manual • • • Example: Brain storming sessions. discussions regarding standardisation of procedure. SHE Organisation & Management 50 . Simulation Quiz program on specific topic Television / screening of films.

E & C Division Annexure 1 SHE Manual Safety Control Department – Training Program Content • • • • • • • • • • • Safety philosophy Building and other construction work act Safety in working at height Material handling Crane safety Safety in welding and gas cutting Fire safety Personal Protective Equipment Video films and discussions Electrical safety (Optional) Safety in Chemical handling at Construction Site Participants: Both regular and contractors employees SHE Organisation & Management 51 .

measurements of a safety performance. Skin diseases. Session 5 Instruction for Safety Importance of job instruction. foot and leg Protection. maintaining good employee relations. accident investigations. unsafe conditions. ventilation. Making a job Safety analysis (JSA). Session 6 Industrial Hygiene Environment health hazards. Accident costs. SHE Organisation & Management 52 . The supervisor as a leader. Accidents affect morale and public relations. Job instruction training (JIT). temperature effects. Session 2 Know Your Accident Problems Elements of an accident. Session 4 Maintaining Interest in Safety Committee functions.2 SHE Manual Model Course Contents of Supervisory Training Program Session 1 Safety and The Supervisor Safety and efficient production go together. The alcohol and drug problem. Respiratory protective Equipment.E & C Division Annexure . Session 3 Human Relations Motivation. hand protection. Session 7 Personal Protective Equipment Eye protection. Unsafe acts. Basic needs of workers. Lighting. face protection. The supervisor’s role in offthe-job safety. noise. The cities of a supervisor under OSHA. Protection against ionizing radiation.

The responsibility of the supervisor. OSHA requirement. Standards and codes. Session 10 Guarding Machines and Mechanisms Principles of guarding. Session 11 Hand and Portable Power Tools Selection and storage. Benefits of good guarding. Training in the safe care SHE Organisation & Management 53 . Hand tools for material handling. Motorized equipment. Session 9 Material Handling and Storage Lifting and carrying. handling specific shapes. Hazardous liquids and compressed gases. OSHA regulations.E & C Division SHE Manual Session 8 Industrial Housekeeping Results of good housekeeping. Types of guards.

engines etc. These generally are: Radiography work permit for NDT (CSCR) Cold work permit (CSCP) For working at height. which has to commence from the day the first construction activity starts at site until the last activity. cranes( EOT. However. opening of flanges. pit/opening. running I.10 Work Permit System SHE Manual Objectives : At L&T .E & C Division construction sites.E & C Division 3. excavated area etc. Permit for entry into confined space (CSCC) For entry into vessel. it is necessary to ensure that there is commitment from the Managers / Engineers / Supervisors of persons who carry out these construction activities. painting. The commitment to follow safety instructions. manual sand removal. numerous activities carried out by L&T and its contractor/sub-contractor personnel need to be done safely to prevent accidents to men. Hot work permit (CSCW) For welding/ gas cutting. The ‘Construction Safety Manual’ of E & C Division lays down the basic and minimum requirements related to safety from those involved in these activities. Permit for working on electrical lines/ equipment (CSCL) - - Procedure : This procedure lays down steps to be taken by RCM/ RCE before and during the above mentioned activities at construction site.C. working on lifting tools/ tackles including chain pulley block. is obtained through ‘Permit System’. Such commitment can be obtained. machine and surroundings. gantry. grinding. mobile) etc. in writing. sand blasting. SHE Organisation & Management 54 . The ‘Permit System’ is applied to those activities wherein there are higher potential risks and hazards. in writing. if standard and specific safety instructions related to the activities are informed. in writing to the Managers / Engineers/ Supervisors before commencement of the activities on each day and they accept the instructions.

Manager/ Engineer/ Supervisor and ensured that they are followed by the persons actually carrying out the concerned activity. 4. These instructions have to be clearly understood by the workers. 5. SSO or any Supervisor and Engineer can stop work and cancel the permit 55 2. Adminstration RCM/ RCE shall ensure that this procedure is followed as outlined below: 1. RCM/ RCE shall issue the requisite permit form noting down special instructions and if instructions. Annexure . L&T Engineer and SSO shall sign the form to permit the form to permit the activity for the period and date mentioned on the form. The forms also require communication regarding completion of the ‘permitted’ activities. After the site and persons are ready as per the instructions on the form. who will sign on the form as the ‘Initiator’. The forms. After a form is returned stating completion of an activity. in case of radiography). implying their commitment to the instructions. Each form has certain standard instructions and space for writing special instructions by RCM/ RCE.I to this procedure lists construction activities that require issue of permits. During the progress of the activity/ work permitted. The permit can be renewed for maximum 6 days only. the contractor’s supervisor. each dealing with one of the five activities mentioned above. RCM/RCE. the contractor’s and RCM’s designated Engineer/ Supervisor shall ensure that there are no deviations from the instructions. the same can not be carried out again unless the permit is renewed. RCM/RCE shall inform all contractors about the permit system and advise them in writing (by letters and notices) that permits are required to carry out the above mentioned five activities.E & C Division SHE Manual There are five different ‘Permit’ forms. RCM/RCE. SHE Organisation & Management . shall inspect the work-site and persons for compliance of the instructions and if instructions are fully complied. therefore. related to the activity and site situation. RCM/ RCE. 3. Contractors shall be advised to apply for permits for the concerned activity at least 2 hours before it starts (4 hours. require signatures of concerned responsible persons. if any to the contractor’s supervisor. Thereafter a fresh permit is required.

12. Permit shall only be renewed if the work . SHE Organisation & Management 56 .going sites. the said five activities / work shall be carried out by contractors without a valid permit. of each form to all new and on. 7. All signatures and notings of the forms shall be done on both ‘Red’ and ‘Yellow’ copies of the form. 8. if they find any deviations during the progress of work. Samples of the forms for the said five permits are annexed to this Procedure.E & C Division SHE Manual immediately by stating the reason and signing the permit. Fresh permit shall be issued if the activity has to be continued after completion of the period. due to unavoidable delays. 9. RCM/ RCE shall ensure that under no normal circumstances. before the effective date of this Procedure. 13. 10. When the activity / work is completed or the period/ date stipulated on the form has lapsed. The same activity can be carried out again by obtaining a fresh permit from RCM/ RCE. 6. on a new day or if the work-site conditions change. RCM/ RCE shall promptly and well in time request additional forms to SCD. Only ‘Red Copy’ shall be issued to the contractor’s supervisor and ‘ Yellow Copy’ shall always remain in the Permit Book in L&T’s site office. Safety Control Department (SCD) will print and send 100 conditions. RCM/ RCE shall ensure that the contractor’ s supervisor returns the form (duly signed ) to RCM/ RCE who shall file it chronologically for future reference. when required or may get them printed without any change in the contents of the form. Contractors’ supervisors shall be advised by RCM/ RCE to keep the ‘Red Copy’ with them as long as activity/ work is in progress and ‘Red Copy’ may be demanded by any L&T person as a proof for authorisation of the work in progress. 11. if the work-site is different. activity and persons involved are same. RCM/ RCE may use photo copies of the blank forms if the originals are not available. 14.

Working at height Working in pit/ vessel Sand blasting/ blasting Drilling/ grinding Running diesel engine Working eqpt. SHE Organisation & Management 57 . While doing grinding work in confined space requires ‘hot work permit’ as well as ‘permit for entry into confined space’. Safety Officers/ Auditors from Powai will inspect/ audit this aspect when they visit the site. D. Annexure – 1 Table for ready reference : Activity/ Type of work Radiography/ N. T.E & C Division SHE Manual 15. RCM/ RCE shall inform SCD. Operating tools Hydraulic/ testing on electrical pneumatic Pneumatic √ of √ √ √ √ √ √ Shot √ √ √ √ CSCR √ √ √ Applicable Permit CSCP CSCW CSCC CSCL Welding/ gas cutting Manual sand removal Tightening/opening flanges Spray painting Manual painting Working on lifting tools/ tackles including cranes Note : * Some times more than one permit is required. if there is a need for an additional ‘ permit’ for activities which are not concerned in this ‘ Permit System’ and which in RCM/ RCE’s opinion require a permit.

manholes.) ____________ ( RCM / RE – L&T) . Provide adequate ladder for getting in and out of the excavations Used the method of work for putting in shoring which protects the shorer ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Additional permit required and / or attached:. 5. Name of Contractor : Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of Persons involved in Excavation work 4. Additional Precautions required / Remarks. Permit renewal – for not more than 7 times including the issue date.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C DIVISION COLD WORK PERMIT (CSCP) General Information Permit No. etc.S.) (RCM / RE – L&T) TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L & T AND CONTRACTOR AFTER THE WORK IS OVER. close to the edge of the excavations. whose stability is affected by excavations All persons provided with proper PPE Equipment electrically isolated / Grounded and tagged Sides of excavations are sufficiently shored 0 /are sloped back to 45 Area cordoned off Ensured that there is no spoil or eqpt..oil/rags etc. Sewers. Name of Incharge: The following items must be checked before issuing the permit Item Y N N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 14 15 16 17 18 19 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 20 21 11 12 13 Proper ventilation and Lighting provided.: - Valid from ________________AM/PM Date________________to_______________AM/PM Date_________________ Nature of work :________________________________________________________________________________ Location of work : ________________________________________________________________________________ 1. 6. removed Equipment blinded / disconnected / closed isolated / wedged open. This permit must be available at the work site at all times. 6.6% . Permit shall be returned to issuer after completing the job.23%) Precautionary tags/boards provided Confirm the locations of the Fire hydrant mains/ Electrical cable/ Service lines/ Drainage system / water mains. Equipment completely drained / depressurised. 2. 7.O.No ¨ Yes ¨ ( If yes specify:- ) To be signed only after completing the job Signature of Signature Site Engineer of RCM/RE Daily Visual Inspection Date of Work Time / Period Remarks From To Signature of Site Engineer Signature of RCM/RE Special Instructions : 1. Terms applicable must be clearly indicated by the permittee. Made sure that there are no bldg. All precautions given in permit must be strictly adhered to by the permittee. 2. 3. 5.S.O. and hot surfaces nearby covered /sealed/ isolated Considered hazards from other routine/ nonroutine operations & concerned persons alerted. __________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) _____________ (L&T Engineer) __________ (L&T-S.. Provide adequate material with which to shore the sides of excavations Gas / Oxygen deficiency test done ( Oxygen level -19. This permit shall be renewed each day only after checking all the compliance jointly by E & C Div. & the contractor. 4. 3.etc. Made arrangement necessary to prevent vehicles driving into the excavations. Permit is hereby returned after completing the job & ensuring safe removal of men & material. Are workers briefed about the hazards? Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 9 10 Equipment/work area inspected Surrounding area checked / cleaned up. Location & description of work must be clearly indicated by the permittee. If any : TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L&T AND THE CONTRACTOR AFTER CHECKING FOR THE COMPLIANCE All the points mentioned in the above checklist have been checked & found OK ____________________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) ___________________ ________________ ________________________ (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S.

No ¨ Yes ¨ ( If yes specify:- Testing Record Date of Work Time / Period From To Flammability % Meter Reading O2 Content % Toxic Gases PPM Signature of Signature of Site RCM/RE Engineer Special Instructions : 1. & the contractor. Permit shall be returned to issuer after completing the job. All precautions given in permit must be strictly adhered to by the permittee. Considered hazards from other routine / non-routine operations & concerned persons alerted. Location & description of work must be clearly indicated by the permittee.e. 7. This permit shall be renewed each day only after checking all the compliance jointly by E & C Div. Equipment properly steam purged.) ( RCM / RE – L&T) . 6. If any : TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L&T AND THE CONTRACTOR AFTER CHECKING FOR THE COMPLIANCE All the points mentioned in the above checklist have been checked & found OK ____________________________________ ___________________ ________________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. Proper means of exit provided. Gas / Oxygen deficiency test done ( Oxygen level -19. __________________________________ ___________________ ________________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S.S. 4. removed Equipment blinded / disconnected / closed isolated / wedged open. All persons provided with proper PPE & APT (i.O.6% .) (RCM / RE – L&T) TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L & T AND CONTRACTOR AFTER THE WORK IS OVER.23%) Equipment properly tagged Name of Persons entering into confined space 4.S.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C DIVISION CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PERMIT(CSCC) General Information Permit No.: - Valid from ________________AM/PM Date________________to_______________AM/PM Date_________________ Nature of work :________________________________________________________________________________ Location of work : ________________________________________________________________________________ 1.oil/rags/grass etc. 3. Name of stand by Person: Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Item Proper ventilation and 24v Lighting / handlamp provided. Terms applicable must be clearly indicated by the permittee. Equipment completely drained / depressurised. 2.O. This permit must be available at the work site at all times. 6. 5. 3. 2. Name of Contractor : Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Equipment/work area inspected Surrounding area checked / cleaned up. Additional Precautions required / Remarks.. Permit is hereby returned after completing the job & ensuring safe removal of men & material. life line) Proper portable ladder provided Suitable scaffolding provided Means of exit available Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ) To be signed only after completing the job Signature of Site Signature Engineer of RCM/RE The following items must be checked before issuing the permit Additional permit required and / or attached:. Equipment water flushed. 5. Stand by personnel provided for vessel entry. Permit renewal – for not more than 7 times including the issue date.

O. Use proper PPE while working with energized equipment / Non energized equipment Additional Precautions required / Remarks. Terms applicable must be clearly indicated by the permittee. removed Isolator / Breaker switched off Fuses removed / Breaker withdrawn Aux.S. Name of Contractor : Item 1 *2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 *11 12 Equipment locked out Caution notice provided near the place of work Surrounding area checked / cleaned up. 3. Adequate lighting provided Barrier established to prevent inadequate entry. Transformer isolated from both ends. 6. 4. Person certified and trained Metal hand tools used are electrically insulated All metal and loose clothing removed from person doing the work.No ¨ Yes ¨ ( If yes specify:Daily Visual Inspection Date of Work Time / Period From To Remarks Signature of site engineer Signature of RCM/RE ) To be signed only after completing the job Signature of site Signature of engineer RCM/RE Special Instructions : 1.S. 2. Supply (Diesel generator) switched off. All person provided with proper PPE. Permit renewal – for not more than 7 times including the issue date. Name of Incharge: Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ The following items must be checked before issuing the permit N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ *13 Item Workers insulated from ground by insulating material covering any adjacent metal / energized circuits. 2. All precautions given in permit must be strictly adhered to by the permittee. Appropriated fire-fighting eqpt. (*) used only for energized equipment..O. 8. & the contractor. This permit must be available in three copies two for initiator and one for issuer. Provided. 3. Temporary connection required? If so. ______________________ _________ ________ _____________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. Equipment earthed / earthing truck inserted / earthing rod put.: - Valid from ________________AM/PM Date________________to_______________AM/PM Date_________________ Nature of work :________________________________________________________________________________ Location of work : ________________________________________________________________________________ 1. 5. Permit form shall be returned to issuer after completing the job. 7.) ____________ (RCM / RE – L&T) TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L & T AND CONTRACTOR AFTER THE WORK IS OVER. Load________ Amp Test meter is calibrated and checked against known energized source before checking circuit Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Additional permit required and / or attached:. Verify circuits de-energized and capacitor shorted Name of Persons working on electrical equipment 4. Hydraulic / air / Gas / Steam / acid valves closed.) ( RCM / RE – L&T) .LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C DIVISION GENERAL ELECTRICAL PERMIT(CSCL) General Information Permit No.oil/rags/grass etc. 5. 6. 9. This permit shall be renewed each day only after checking all the compliance jointly by E & C Div. Permit is hereby returned after completing the job & ensuring safe removal of men & material. If any : TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L&T AND THE CONTRACTOR AFTER CHECKING FOR THE COMPLIANCE All the points mentioned in the above checklist have been checked & found OK __________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) __________ (L&T Engineer) ________ (L&T-S. Location & description of work must be clearly indicated by the permittee.

O. Location & description of work must be clearly indicated by the permittee.oil/rags/ grass etc. Permit shall be returned to issuer after completing the job. 3. Permit renewal – for not more than 7 times including the issue date.S. Equipment properly steam purged. removed Equipment blinded / disconnected / closed isolated / wedged open.23%) Precautionary tags/boards provided Fire water hose/ portable extinguisher/ nozzle provided Shield against spark provided Name of Persons involved in Hot work 4. & the contractor. 6. All precautions given in permit must be strictly adhered to by the permittee. 3. Equipment water flushed Gas / Oxygen deficiency test done ( Oxygen level -19.No ¨ Yes ¨ ( If yes specify:- Testing Record Date of Work Time / Period From To Meter Reading Lower Explosive Limit % Upper Explosive Limit % Signature of Site Engineer Signature of RCM/RE Special Instructions : 1.O. 4.. If any : TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L&T AND THE CONTRACTOR AFTER CHECKING FOR THE COMPLIANCE All the points mentioned in the above checklist have been checked & found OK ____________________________________ ___________________ _ _______________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. 2. Name of Contractor : Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equipment / work area inspected Surrounding area checked / cleaned up. Proper means of exit provided All persons provided with proper PPE Equipment electrically isolated / Grounded and tagged Suitable scaffolding provided Area cordoned off Flash back arrester provded to gas cutting set All the drain inlets(if any) been closed Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ) To be signed only after completing the job Signature of Site Signature Engineer of RCM/RE Additional permit required and / or attached:.) (RCM / RE – L&T) TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L & T AND CONTRACTOR AFTER THE WORK IS OVER. 7.etc. Equipment completely drained / depressurised.: - General Information Valid from ________________AM/PM Date________________to_______________AM/PM Date_________________ Nature of work :________________________________________________________________________________ Location of work : ________________________________________________________________________________ 1. This permit shall be renewed each day only after checking all the compliance jointly by E & C Div. Additional Precautions required / Remarks.S. __________________________________ ___________________ ________________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. Name of Incharge: The following items must be checked before issuing the permit Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 12 Item Proper ventilation and Lighting provided.. 2. 6.) ( RCM / RE – L&T) . 5. Terms applicable must be clearly indicated by the permittee. This permit must be available at the work site at all times. Permit is hereby returned after completing the job & ensuring safe removal of men & material.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C DIVISION HOT WORK PERMIT(CSCW) Permit No. manholes. Sewers.6% . and hot surfaces nearby covered /sealed/ isolated Considered hazards from other routine/ non-routine operations & concerned persons alerted. 5.

O. 6. Terms applicable must be clearly indicated by the permittee. This permit must be available at the work site at all times.No ¨ Yes ¨ ( If yes specify:- Daily visual Inspection Date of Work Time / Period Remarks From To Signature of Site Engineer Signature of RCM/RE Special Instructions : 1. 5.S. & the contractor. If any : TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L&T AND THE CONTRACTOR AFTER CHECKING FOR THE COMPLIANCE All the points mentioned in the above checklist have been checked & found OK ____________________________________ ___________________ _ _______________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. BARC Radiation survey meter is in working condition Y ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ Additional permit required and / or attached:.O. Name of Incharge: Name of Incharge of Radiography agency: The following items must be checked before issuing the permit Item 1 2 3 4 5 All the persons at the site informed/ removed from the area Area around the source of radiation cordoned off with rope/ chords Radiation warning symbol/ boards displayed around radiography work/ on ropes & chords Radiographer worn radiation badges during testing Radiography camera and carrying box having radiation symbol Y ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ N/A ¨ ¨ 7 ¨ ¨ ¨ ) To be signed only after completing the job Signature of Site Signature Engineer of RCM/RE Item 6 Radiographer has valid certificate from Radiation Protection Service Division.) ( RCM / RE – L&T) . 6. Name of Contractor : Name of Radiography agency : Name of Persons involved in Radiography work 4. 8. Permit renewal – for not more than 7 times including the issue date.S. 3. 2. Location & description of work must be clearly indicated by the permittee. All precautions given in permit must be strictly adhered to by the permittee. Permit shall be returned to issuer after completing the job.) (RCM / RE – L&T) TO BE SIGNED JOINTLY BY L & T AND CONTRACTOR AFTER THE WORK IS OVER. 4. 3.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED E & C DIVISION RADIOGRAPHY WORK PERMIT(CSCR) Permit No. 2. This permit shall be renewed each day only after checking all the compliance jointly by E & C Div. 7.: - General Information Valid from ________________AM/PM Date________________to_______________AM/PM Date_________________ Location of work :________________________________________________________________________________ Source strength: ___________________________________ Curie: ____________________________________ 1. 5. __________________________________ ___________________ ________________ ________________________ (Contractor’s Site Incharge) (L&T Engineer) (L&T-S. Permit is hereby returned after completing the job & ensuring safe removal of men & material. Additional Precautions required / Remarks. L&T for his authorisation. The permit shall be submitted 4 hours before carrying out radiography to RCM/RE.

`Visitors’ also include all other L&T employees. before they enter the site.E & C Division construction sites. it is necessary to make all visitors aware of the basic/minimum safety rules. For this. (C) Administration It is responsibility of RCM/RCE to ensure that the following steps are taken whenever he permits a visitor into his construction site. Term `visitors’ includes all persons who are not regularly employed by (registered/on the role of) L&T or its contractors/subcontractors. Safety of visitors at L&T construction sites is equally important as that of regular persons on these sites. 1. Visitors shall be advised by RCM/RCE to read the short version of “Safety Guidelines for L&T Construction Site Visitors”.11 (A) Safety of L&T Visitors to Construction Sites Objective L&T . (This is to ensure that such persons have knowledge about the equipment/material they carry and have adequate insurance coverage). given in Annexure-I. i.e.E & C Division construction sites are visited by a number of persons who are not normally working at the sites and who are not familiar with the site conditions and activities. This shall be available with 2.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. RCM/RCE shall permit only authorised persons of companies / vendors / suppliers to enter the L&T construction site. `visitors’ include all persons who enter L&T sites for discussion and/or for carrying out work/activity on behalf of suppliers/vendors of L&T or its contractor/sub-contractors.E & C Division guidelines are intended to supplement the applicable laws and regulations and state some of the practices required of `visitors’ on L&T E & C Division construction sites. (B) Procedure This Procedure sets out safety guidelines and working procedures which are considered as the minimum standards applying to all `visitors’ entering L&T . These L&T . SHE Organisation & Management 58 . and specific/working safety rules while they work on / go around the site.

If however. RCM/RCE shall show clearly a `safe route’ to his office from the entrance of the site. Visitors permitted for discussion/meeting on the site.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. 4. depending on the nature of hazards present in the area. (Safety Control Department will send six laminated prints of the short version to all construction sites).. where construction activities are going on. testing. etc. RCM/RCE. While walking on the `safe route’. they are required to go around in the `construction area’. they shall be issued by RCM/RCE. who are required to carry out work such as installation. They shall always be accompanied by a member of the RCM’s staff at the site. RCM/RCE shall arrange to prominently display “Safety Guidelines for L&T Construction Site Visitors” at the client’s gate where entry passes are issued to the visitors to the L&T site. while they are inside the construction area. safety shoes. then RCM/RCE shall ensure that visitors. gloves etc. who are not familiar with the site conditions and safety rules/procedures. 6. RCM/RCE shall take an undertaking from visitors that they have read L&T’s safety guidelines/rules/procedures before they do any kind of work in the `construction area’. If the site is within the client’s premises and the entry pass is issued by the client’s security staff. commissioning or any kind of supervision which may also require their independent presence in the construction area. shall be met at the entrance of the L&T site (not necessarily at the client’s main gate) and escorted in and out of the site by an L&T representative of RCM/RCE. 7. Visitors representing vendors/suppliers and L&T officers. then RCM/RCE shall ensure that these are issued at the entrance of the site. However. shall be made aware of the site safety rules by RCM/RCE and advised to read and follow the L&T 59 SHE Organisation & Management . 5. the necessary protective equipment like helmets. by clearly and prominently displayed signboards marked “Site Office”. shall be restricted to stay inside the site office. inspection. if these are required. visitors shall not be required to wear protective equipment such as helmet.

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`Construction Safety Manual’ and the relevant procedures of the `L&T Procedure Manual’. These visitors shall be issued all necessary PPEs or shall be advised to bring their own PPEs and wear them before they enter the construction area and start working. RCM/RCE shall also ensure that these visitors have the necessary insurance coverage for themselves and tools etc. which they bring into the site. These visitors shall be considered as if they are L&Tcontractor’s employees for all safety matters at the site.

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Safety Guidelines for L&T Construction Site Visitors The following rules are the minimum L&T standards applicable to all visitors to this site and are supplemental to statutory laws & regulations. If any doubt, please check with L & T - E & C Division Resident Construction Manager / Engineer (RCM/E) or his staff. 1. Visitors shall enter into and work on this site at their own risk and shall have own adequate insurance cover. 2. Visitors shall follow advice of RCM/E with respect to more detailed Safety Rules & Procedures, which visitors shall request for. 3. Smoking is strictly prohibited on this site. 4. Possession of illegal drugs and paraphernalia, intoxicating beverages, fire arms chemicals/ solvents and other weapons are prohibited. These may be searched by L&T and visitors having these shall be immediately removed from the site. 5. Horseplay can be dangerous and is prohibited. 6. Littering and spillage of any kind is forbidden for maintaining house-keeping. 7. Entry of chemicals / solvents, gas cylinders, photographic equipment, tools / gadgets / instruments require prior written permission from RCM/E. 8. Wearing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is necessary wherever required/directed by L&T. 9. Visitors shall read and follow L&T’s `Construction Safety Manual’ and `Procedure Manual’, if he is required to carry out installation, inspection, testing, commissioning or any kind of supervisory work on this site. 10. Visitors shall make available RCM/E, Material/Equipment Safety Data Sheets for Materials/Equipment permitted to be carried by them and shall be trained to use them suitably. 11. Visitors shall immediately report to RCM/E, accidents/injuries, unsafe conditions/near-misses and use of L&T’s fire fighting equipment.

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PART II: SHE – Implementation 4. Concept of Accident Prevention:
Any accident prevention Programme is based on Hazard Control Programme. The Hazard Control Programme must be carefully planned and be logical. Programme objectives and safety policies need to be established. Responsibility for the hazard control Programme needs to be determined. Specific steps to identify and control hazards need to be performed.

Accidents and Hazard Control Hazards are a major cause of accidents. A workable definition of hazard is any existing or potential condition in the work place which, by itself or by interacting with other variables, can result in deaths, injuries, property damage, and other losses. This definition carries with it two significant points. ! A condition does not have to exist at the moment to be classified as hazard, only when total condition is considered then hazardous condition is to be taken in to account. ! Hazard may result not only from independent failure of work place components but also from one work place component acting upon or influencing another. Effects of Hazard on the Work Process: In a well-balanced operation, workers, equipment, and material interact within the work environment to produce a product or perform a service. When all these function smoothly the productivity is the highest. But if one of the components does not function to the desired level then there would be disruption resulting in loss of productivity. Hazard Control and Productivity Improvement: The process of identifying and eliminating or controlling hazards in the work place is one way of optimising a company’s human, financial, technological, and physical resources. Hazard Control, like productivity improvement, is a strategic process. To be effective, it must be Concept of Accident Prevention 1

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integrated into the day to day activities and management systems of the organisation and must become institutionalised – an operating norm and a strategic part of the company’s culture. Determining Accident Factors: In order to set realistic goals for its process, the company should first determine the major factors likely to cause loss of control. It should determine where these factors are, their importance and their damage causing potentials so as to evolve control measures, which could be in the form of process/ work innovation etc.

Hazard Control and Management: Controlling hazard is a team effort involving all the departments. To co ordinate the departmental activities, a Programmeme of Hazard Control is necessary. Those involved in establishing hazard control Programmeme must take into cognisance the inter relationships between the Worker – Equipment – Environment system as shown in the figure below:




Figure on next page illustrates, an accident can intervene between the system and the task to be accomplished.

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The worker performs three basic functions as Sensor, Information Processor and Controller. Equipment should conform to all the norms. Special consideration must be given to environment factors, such as layout, maintenance and house keeping, proper illumination, temperature etc that might detract from the comfort, health and safety of the worker. Accident Causes and their Control: Accidents are caused. Close examination of each accident situation shows that it can be attributed, directly or indirectly to one or more of the following: ! Oversight or omissions or malfunction of the management system. ! Situational work factors like tools etc. ! Human Factor, worker or other person. ! Environmental Factors like noise etc. Human Factor is the unsafe act of the injured or other person resulting in the accident. The unsafe act of a person may be due to several factors such as physical deficiency, lack of knowledge or skill, mental deficiency like lack of concentration, aptitude to the particular job etc.

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Human error is eliminated by: ! Giving correct job method and procedure ! Providing proper training ! Considering worker performance with his physical characteristics and fitness ! Correcting potentially dangerous situation and ! Providing proper and effective supervision. Situational factors are another major cause of accidents. These factors are those operations, tools, equipment, facilities and materials that contribute to accidents situation. These may be defect in design, poor sub standard construction, improper storage of hazardous material and inadequate planning, layout and design. Environmental factor includes physical category like noise, temperature, radiation, etc. chemical category like toxic release etc and biological category like contact with bacteria etc. Situational and environmental hazards enter the work place from many sources like procuring material and employee’s negligence in following safety norms and rules. 4.1 Principles of Hazard Control: Hazard control is the function directed toward • RECOGNISE • EVALUATING, • ELIMINATING, or at least reducing, the destructive effects of hazards emanating from human errors and from the situational and environmental aspects of the work place. Its primary function is to locate, assess, and set effective preventive and corrective measures for those elements detrimental to operational efficiency and effectiveness. The process exists on three levels, namely National (laws, regulations etc), Organisational (management of hazard control Programmeme, safety committees etc) and component (worker – equipment – environment).

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Process Of Hazard Control: An effective hazard control Programmeme has six steps or processes, namely: ! Hazard Identification and Evaluation (through process information giving the hazard inherent to it, previous inspection reports, and accident reports and hazard analysis.) ! Ranking Hazards by Risk (consequence and probability) (through ranking hazard by risk taking into consideration the consequence and severity, the probability of its occurrence and the worker exposure and risk assessment). ! Management Decision Making ( providing management with full and accurate information, including all possible alternatives, so it can make intelligent, informed decisions concerning hazard control like training and education, for better methods and procedures, equipment repair or replacement, environmental controls etc) ! Establishing Preventive and Corrective Measures (actual installation of administrative and engineering e.g.: isolation of source, lockout procedures, design, process or procedural change, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution). ! Monitoring ( to locate new hazards and assess the effectiveness of existing controls through inspection, industrial hygiene testing and medical surveillance ) ! Evaluating Programme Effectiveness ( by assessing financial requirements and the benefits to be achieved through reduction of medical expenses, damages to machinery and material and improvement in efficiency)

Organising an Occupational Safety and Health Programme: The purpose of an hazard control Programme organisation is to assist management in developing and operating a Programme designed to protect workers, prevent and control accidents, and increase effectiveness of operations. The schematic diagram given below gives the major organisational components of a hazard and loss control Programme. Concept of Accident Prevention 5

4. The principle aim of this Programme is to get an employee to follow the same safe practices while pursuing outside activities as used on the job. This Programme could include employee. To make it effective it should be well designed i.e. Concept of Accident Prevention 6 . his family and community involvement and can include contest. picnic etc.E & C Division SHE Manual Identification and evaluation of hazards Monitoring Programmes Maintenance programmes Housekeeping Standard compliance Accident Investigation Evaluation of Programme effectiveness HAZARD CONTROL PROGRAMME Company policy Programme objective Assignment of Responsibility and Authority Adequate Physical and Economic Resources Safety committees Employee orientation and involvement training and education Supervision Programme Enforcement Detailed discussions on various Hazards control measures are given in the following chapters. and is a term used by employers to designate that part of their safety Programme directed to the employees when they are not at work. subjects well chosen and executed.2 Off the Job Safety: Essential off the job safety involves employees.

If this is not practicable. • Storage areas for materials and equipment: materials need to be stored as close as possible to the appropriate workstation.g. • Access for workers on and around the site: Routes should be free from obstruction and from exposure to hazards such as falling materials. thought needs to be given to: • The sequence or order in which work will be done and to any especially hazardous operations or processes. The objective should be to avoid the need to slew the load over workers. it is important to schedule the arrival of materials. Before work even begins on site. • The location of medical and welfare facilities. particularly in urban work sites. • The location of construction machinery: This is usually dependent on operational requirements so that tower cranes are subject to constraints such as their radius of operation. and whenever there is a drop of 2m or more. are nearly always the biggest limiting factor and a layout.1 SITE PLANNING AND LAYOUT Site layout SHE Manual A badly planned and untidy site is the underlying cause of many accidents resulting from falls of material and collisions between workers and plant or equipment.E & C Division 5. • The location of trade workshops: These are not usually moved after they are built. and timber close to the joinery shop. Edge protection will be required at the edge of floor openings and stairs. Space constraints. materials-handling equipment and vehicles. On large sites sanitary facilities for both sexes should be provided at several locations Site planning and layout 1 . which caters best for the safety and heath of workers may appear to be difficult to reconcile with productivity. Proper planning by management is an essential part of preparation and budgeting for the safe and efficient running of a construction operation. Traffic congestion prejudices the safety of workers from unsafe drivers. • Routes for vehicular traffic: These should be “one way” as far as practicable. 5. sand and gravel close to the cement-batching plant. Suitable warning notices should be posted. and pick-up and unloading points. e.

Overhead protection will be necessary if tower crane loads pass over public thoroughfares. Arrangements to keep the site tidy and for the collection and removal of waste. maintenance of better housekeeping and hiring of costly equipment and skilled personnel for a minimum period. Action taken toward planning and co – ordination activities between different operations and crafts. detailing • • • • Sequential order of construction Plans about layout of temporary construction site buildings. Other measures like Safety Indoctrination and Safety Education. integration of safety into operating methods and procedures will improve the quality of work and help in preventing accidents and dangerous occurrences at the site. The need for low-voltage electric power supplies for temporary lighting.E & C Division • • SHE Manual • • • 5. Access to work areas. unnecessary wastage of material due to prolong storage. but in populated areas it should be at least 2m high and without gaps or holes. the type of people to be engaged. 5. children in particular. and to protect the public from site hazards. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS: After preparing the layout of the site.2 Artificial lighting: At places where work continuos or workers pass after dark. etc. portable tools and equipment Training needs of both workers and supervisors. The type of fencing will depend on the location of the site. the infrastructure available and the environmental conditions and adequate in built safety measures and work methods should be evolved. Site security: The site should be fenced in to keep out unauthorized persons. the machinery to be used and the method of construction should all be evaluated with reference to the site.3 IN – BUILT SAFETY MEASURES: At the planning stage itself safety should be integrated in all the planned activities. These will enable the proper utilisation of the space. Site planning and layout 2 . The material for construction. delegation of safety responsibilities down the line. it is essential to program construction activities.

All other combustible wastes like cotton wooden boxes. ramps stairs. 3. An effective means like provision of receptacles should be provided to store waste and scrap pieces. Good house keeping is an important element of accident prevention. slipping or falling over materials and equipment which have been left lying around. etc shall not be allowed to be lying in the working areas especially in the vicinity of ladders. 2. It should be planned at the beginning of the job and carefully supervised until the final clean-up while handing over the site to the client. house keeping should be the concern of all supervisors and engineers in their respective area of working and not left for the clean up crew. 4. scrap. Scrap yard : Wooden scrap yard should be well away from any gas cutting or welding operations and 'No smoking' shall be strictly. Spills of oil and grease should be removed immediately.E & C Division 5. There shall not be any projections in the walkways. Site planning and layout 3 . working platforms and stairways should be clear of equipment and materials. not in immediate use. It is recommended to have a regular clean up in all job sites. tools. This is more important at heights where the loose materials are liable to fall down. ensured. Gangways. house keeping should be a part of daily routine with clean up being a continuous procedure. In any case. Storage areas : All materials should be maintained in neat stockpiles with well laid aisles and walkways for ease of access. etc. In general rubbish and scrap should not be left at the work site. However. Simple rules for good house keeping are as follows: 1. and stepping on nails which have been left projecting from timber. Work areas: loose materials. Protruding Nails : Protruding nails in wooden pieces is a chronic problem in civil sites.4 HOUSE KEEPING: SHE Manual Many accidents occur at the site due to tripping. empty paint tins shall be disposed off safely within a reasonable time. It is worthwhile to have one or two helpers continuously for retrieving protruding nails.

sing below the cover.E & C Division 5. Openings in floors : All openings in floors where our workmen. 6. The approach road from and to the work site shall never be blocked by parking vehicles or stacking materials. passage ways. are liable to work or even pass through shall be either closed or barricaded. ladders & other areas used by personnel. If they are closed. thus blocking the movement in case of emergencies. 7. SHE Manual Lighting : Adequate lighting should be provided in and around all work areas. stairs. a visible warning sign shall be kept to indicate the open . etc. Site planning and layout 4 .

Site planning and layout 5 . (c) Material or equipment is not stored upon any floor or platform in such quantity as to exceed its safe carrying capacity. 1998 should be complied with. In addition to above requirements. (d) Material or equipment is not stored or placed so close to any edge of a floor or platform as to endanger the safety of persons below or working in the vicinity.The employer shall ensure.E & C Division SHE Manual 5. There should be sufficient passage provided for easy movement of material and lifting machinery. Adequate draining facility should be provided to avoid flooding. In general the following should be adhered to: • • • • In case of storage of flammable or toxic substances. this rule is given below: Stacking of materials. storage and transportation of hazardous materials are dealt at the appropriate chapters. Illumination should be proper and should confirm to the relevant rules and standards.5 SAFETY AT STORES: The handling. at a construction site of a building or other construction work that(a) All building materials are stored or stacked in a safe and orderly manner to avoid obstruction of any passageway or place of work. the provisions under Rule 51 of the Building and Other Construction Workers ( Regulation of Employment and conditions of Service ) Central Rules. Since it covers the stacking of all construction material. adequate ventilation should be provided. (b) Material piles are stored or stacked in such a manner as to ensure stability.

removed from & returned to storage magazines maintained current at all times.number of holes . 6.compliance of the same should be ensured. handling & use of explosives are governed by Explosives Act and The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Central Rules 1998 (Rules 212 and 213). placed in.job 2. The use or possession of intoxicants on or around the.1 Civil work Blasting SHE Manual The transportation.1.type of explosive used .1. 6. If it is an open • Civil Work 1 .firing pattern & sequence B An inventory of all explosives received. storage. Following three unsafe acts are strictly forbidden while handling explosives: 1.amount of charge per hole & . Smoking or use of open lights 6.3 Transportation: • Explosives should not be carried in the same vehicle with detonators unless the detonators are carried in a separate approved container. Horse play or practical jokes & time of blast . The vehicle should be equipped with a non-sparking metal or wooden floor.E & C Division 6. the sides should be high enough to prevent the explosives from falling off or it should be equipped with a closed body. Only licensed blasters shall be allowed to handle explosives.2 Blasting records Following two records have to be maintained in 'all quarries while handling explosives : A A blasting record for each blast indicating . Strict.

a fire & waterproof tarpaulin shall be used to cover the explosives. etc. near the magazine is prohibited. garages. Unauthorised persons or ' flammable & corrosive substances ’ shall not be allowed in the truck carrying explosives. 2 Civil Work .4 Storage • Explosives should be stored only in approved storage magazines however small the quantity it shall be. Detonators should NEVER be stored in the same magazine with any other explosives. • • • • • • 6. Barrication of the storage area. should be avoided. it shall not be placed near sources of heat or water. The floor should be de-sensitized with an agent approved for that purpose by the manufacturer. bush or debris shall not be allowed to accumulate within 25 feet of an explosive magazine. Leaves. Unnecessary parkings at hotels.1. While taking explosives for actual usage. Congested traffic should be avoided while transporting explosives. • • Two fire extinguishers must be provided in the vehicle. if nitro glycerine from deteriorated explosives has leaked onto the floor of the magazine.5 Using explosives: • Explosive cases should not be opened using metallic tools.1. Smoking is not allowed in & around the vehicle carrying explosives.E & C Division SHE Manual body truck. Smoking or possessing matches. filling stations etc. • • 6. Manufacturer should be consulted. grass.

the detonator should be completely inserted length wise in the cartridge. Children or unauthorised persons are totally prohibited in the blasting area. Quantity of the charge to be used must be well calculated and be safe enough to prevent any damage to nearby structures due to shock & vibration resulting from the explosion. etc. possible presence of unfired explosives should be carefully checked. Deteriorated or damaged explosive caps and other accessories shall not be used and these shall be returned to the manufacturer.6 Drilling & loading • Before drilling is started. Before loading. Only fuse and nothing else shall be inserted in the open end of the blasting cap. etc. fastened in such a manner that it cannot be pulled out accidentally. Never drill in the butts of old holes. Smoking or other sources of fire are prohibited within a radius of 100 feet from the place where explosives are being handled or stored. The charge can be covered with blasting mats.1. To avoid misfires. 3 • • • Civil Work . holes should be loaded except those that are to be fired in the next round of blasting. • • • • • • 6.E & C Division SHE Manual • Replace the cover of the case after the required quantity of explosive is taken out. Holes loaded during one shift should be fired on the same shift. No. used conveyor belts or sand bags to prevent splinters flying off especially in running plants. the condition of the holes should be checked either with wooden tamping pole or measuring tape and not with hot broken drill bit. Explosive caps or fuses 'shall not be carried in the pockets of clothing.

night hours.8 Firing In electrical firing following safe practices are recommended to avoid any trouble.1. etc.7 Warning signal A standard warning signal and an all clear signal should be used before & after firing and inspection. At the same time competent persons equipped with red flags should be posted at all possible approaches to the blasting area to stop traffic and by passers from entering the danger zone. or cap wires during tamping. Care should be exercised to avoid injuring fuse. • • 6. Civil Work 4 . loose dynamite should not be tamped. Blasting should be carried out only during lean hours .say during lunch time. The diameter of hole drilled should be at least 3 mm more than the Diameter of the cartridge. Only wooden tamping tool should be used.1.7 Tamping • Dynamite should not be normally removed from the cartridge. they should be of non-sparking type. All personnel working in the area and nearby area should be made aware of this established warning procedures.1. • All electrical connections should be good & rigid.not with ones teeth or a knife. detonating fuss.E & C Division SHE Manual • Cap crimpers of proper design should be used for crimping blasting caps onto fuse . if metallic parts are used. • • 6. 6. Primer should never be tamped. but if this is done.

Electric detonators or delay electric detonators manufacturers should not be used in the same blast. times before making the connections to prepare it for the maximum generation of current. of different • • • The resistance of the circuit should be measured with a Blasting Galvanometer before attempting to fire. Generator type blasting machine shall be operated few.distance(feet) 100 150 220 350 450 650 1000 1500 2200 3500 5000 7000 • For FM Mobile Transmitters 1 10 30 60 - 10 30 60 250 5 10 15 30 Civil Work 5 . television and radar transmitters create fields of electrical enery which can detonate electric caps. Radio. It may be tested with a rheostat. Hence following minimum distance must be maintained between the transmitters & electric blasting caps.E & C Division • SHE Manual The blasting machine should be in good order and of sufficient capacity to fire all the electric blasting caps connected in the circuit. This type of blasting machine should be operated with maximum force. Transmitter power (watts) 5 25 50 100 250 500 1000 2500 5000 10000 25000 50000 25 50 100 250 500 1000 2500 5000 10000 25000 50000 100000 Min.

it should be handled very carefully. try to Shoot the hole with a fresh primer. or if the wires are in-accessible. if throw of rock can be tolerated. However. only by experienced persons. or if caps and fuses are being used. paper or fibre used in packing explosives should be burned only in an isolated outdoor location. if a misfire does occur. the stemming should be removed carefully.1. i ii iii by proper use of high-grade blasting supplies. The safest way to dispose of a misfire is to re shoot it. If the shot fails again. If this also fails. spilled or deteriorated explosives should not be abandoned.9 Misfires: SHE Manual There is no absolute safe method for handling misfires. When the trouble is caused by faulty connections and if the leg wires are accessible. Wood. It should be preserved and disposed only by competent and experienced persons. After the burning has started. by testing each electric cap with a blasting galvanometer before loading or by testing the complete circuit before firing the blast.E & C Division 6. no person shall be allowed within 100 feet of the place of burning. Unused. But misfires can be prevented. Civil Work 6 . a new primer inserted and then fired. test the blasting cap with the galvanometer and try to blast it in the usual manner after giving connections properly.

Is black powder prohibited? 11. Detonators tested before each shot? 13. and scrap? 15. Explosives and related materials properly stored? 17. Contractor qualifications and credentials checked? Explosive inventory completed and accounted for at all times? Stray electrical currents checked? Blasting mats used when required? All signs. and protective equipment in-place? Non-essentials removed from area? Radio transmissions limited? Procedures for handling misfires in-place? Explosives properly stored? No NA 10. Proper disposal of wrappings. 7. waste. 6. warning signals. Area inspection after each shot? 14. 3. Experienced and trained personnel handling explosives? 12. Operations suspended during electrical storms or when lightning is within 10 miles? 16. 5. 4. 2. 8.Construction Blasting Inspection Company Name: ______________________ Jobsite Address:________________ Site Engineer: _______________________ Date/Time: ________ _________ SSO: _________________________ Yes 1. 9. All blasting operations conducted between sunup and sundown? .

2 Excavation: To prevent injury and property damage during excavation work. Excavation permits should be used to ensure that all the necessary precautions are taken to protect employees. contamination of water. interruption of service. such as superimposed loads. gas. Many states have a “one-call” system for locating buried lines. soil structure. such as utility lines (water. and to plan the job ahead. Do the allow any shovel. consult the company or plant engineer. Study preexcavation condition. Electronic locators can be especially helpful where an excavation would cross numerous buried obstacles. From such a study. disruption of processes and expensive delays. Also indicate the bottom depth of tank. and the city’s or town’s engineers. the utility companies. it is possible to evaluate changes that might occur. dragline or other digging machine to Civil Work 7 . electric. and hydrostatic pressure. they must be protected against damage and sometimes also against freezing. have proper protective equipment readily available in case of rupture.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. process piping. If the contents are flammable or toxic. engineers. or telephone). Underground Utilities A major hazard in urban or built-up areas is the presence of underground facilities. undercut or damaged in any way. In one call all utilities can be identified and all underground utilities will be marked. make adequate` protective measures part of the job. Before starting operations. If the facilities are to be left in place. If this equipment is dug into. Indicate the contents of buried tanks and piping on the location markings. and sewers. to prepare for situations that might develop. there may be injury or death to workers. The location of various facilities and their approximate depth below ground must be determined and marked by stake in the ground or by marking on the floor. tanks.

provide adequate bracing and shoring or have the trench slope. When an excavation must remain open for the duration of the construction work. or low built-up board barricades can be used to confine the excavated material to the immediate are under construction. and complete the excavation by hand digging. horses. General Excavation). Civil Work 8 . and warning signs are necessary. Tarpaulins. sloping and supporting systems (bracing. sheeted barricades. Base shoring.6 m) from the edge of the excavation unless toeboards or other effective barricades have been installed to prevent fallback. (3) anticipated changes in materials from exposure to air. In some cases watchers and flaggers may be needed. shoring. Establish a depth limit for digging machines. sloping of the ground. (5) and vibration from equipment. equipment. have them trucked or otherwise removed from the building.) on careful evaluation of factors such as (1) depth of cut. cribbing etc. overlaying material.E & C Division SHE Manual excavate close to underground facilities that must be left in place. water or freezing (4) loading imposed by structures. or other equivalent means. blasting. or stored material. or traffic. (2) possible variation in water content of the material while the excavation is open. The minimum slope in any soil. sun. Barricades at Excavation Sites Place excavated material at least 24-in. lanterns or flashing lights. (See NSC Industrial Data Sheet 482.5 m). Barricade excavations to prevent employees and others from falling into them. should be no less than threefourths horizontal to one vertical. Do not permit excavated material to accumulate in work areas or aisles. If personnel are working in a trench deeper than 5-ft (1. When hand excavation is being done. fences. Guard the sides of all excavations in which employees are exposed to danger from moving ground with a shoring system. warn workers about driving picks. Guard the work area at night with flares. barricades. (0. paving breakers. with the exception of solid rock. or other powered tools through buried facilities.

Stumps or other materials that may slide or roll into the excavation. safely support overhanging material. Where personnel are required to enter excavations or ramps over 4-ft (1. drainage and similar control measures should be planned and directed by a competent engineer. or underpinning designed by a qualified person. or mechanical personnel Civil Work 9 . Provide walkways or bridges with guardrails where people or equipment are required or permitted to cross over excavations. provide ramps. provide sufficient stair. Consider the existing moisture balances in surrounding soils and the effects on foundations and structures if it is disturbed. Remove boulders. When access to excavations more than 20-ft (6.E & C Division SHE Manual Have a competent person approve the excavation safeguards and inspect shoring. Use diversion ditches. ladders or ramps. or other means (1) to prevent surface water from entering an excavation and (2) to provide good drainage of the area adjacent to an excavation. Freezing pumping. as conditions warrant. Groundwater should be controlled. Where it is necessary to undercut the side of an excavation. all work in the excavation should cease until the necessary precautions have been taken to safeguard the employees Except in hard rock. bracing or underpinning inspected daily or more often. dikes.6 m) of lateral travel. Have such shoring.2 m) in depth. excavations below the level of the base of footing of any foundation or retaining wall should not be permitted unless the wall is underpinned and all other precautions taken to ensure the stability of the adjacent walls. If evidence of possible cave-ins or slides is apparent. (61 m) from the edge of the excavation to prevent excessive loading on the face of the excavation.1 m) in depth is required. Increase protection against slides and cave-ins. stairs. Store and retain excavated material at least 2-ft. provide shoring bracing. Locate them so as not to require more than 25-ft (7. provide an emergency power source. If the stability of adjoining buildings or walls is endangered by excavations. if necessary. When continuous operation of groundwater-control equipment is necessary. sloping. and supporting systems daily and after every rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence.

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SHE Manual

hoists. Ladders used as accessways should extend from the bottom of the trench to not less than 3-ft (91 cm) above the surface. Provide at least two means of exit for personnel working in excavations. Where the width of the excavation exceeds 100-ft (30 m), provide two or more means of exit on each side of the excavation. When mobile equipment is used or allowed next to excavations, install substantial stop logs or barricades. Operators of excavating or hoisting equipment should not be allowed to raise, lower, or swing loads over personnel in the excavation unless those personnel have substantial overhead protection. In locations where oxygen deficiency or gaseous conditions are known or suspected, test the air in the excavation prior to the start of each shift, or more often if directed by the designated authority. A log of all test results should be maintained at the work site. If air is not within specification, ventilation may have to be provided to improve the condition. Test until air is safe. A confined space entry procedure should be mandatory in excavations with oxygen deficiencies or gase0ous conditions. Where such conditions are suspected or are likely to develop in an excavation, have readily available emergency rescue equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness and line and emergency medical supplies. Trench Excavation Trenches more than 5-ft (1.5 m ) deep should be shore, laid back to a stable slope, or provided with other equivalent protection where employees may be exposed to moving ground or cave-ins as per OSHA regulations. Trenches less that 5-ft (1.5 m) deep also should be protected when studies show hazardous ground movement may be expected. Bracing or shoring of trenches should progress with the excavation. Portable trench boxes, sliding trench boxes, or shields should be designed, constructed, and maintained to provide protection equal to or greater than the sheathing and shoring be in true horizontal position, secured to prevent sliding falling or kick-outs. Civil Work 10

E & C Division

SHE Manual

Back filling and removal of trench supports should progress together from the bottom of the trench. Release jacks or braces slowly. In unstable soil, use ropes to pull out the jacks or braces from above, after personnel have cleared the trench. In hand-excavated trenches, spike or bolt wooden clears to join the ends of braces to stringers. This will prevent the braces from being knocked out of place. ln a long machine excavated trench a sliding trench shield may be used instead of shoring. Sliding trench shields generally are custom made to size for a specific job. They must be designed and fabricated strong enough to withstand the pressures that will be encountered. Metal, portable hydraulic shoring systems are also available.

Civil Work


E & C Division

SHE Manual


Piling : Piling work is an integral part of any construction activity. If this activity is not carefully prepared and executed, it can result in delay as well as causing serious accidents. The Building and Other Construction Workers ( Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service ) Rules, 1998 ( Rules 214 to 222 ) give detailed statutory requirements to be complied with while doing the piling work. It is advisable to adhere to certain basic safety measures which are given below:

6.3.1 General precautions: There are certain hazards, which are common to all types of piling, and the following precautions are necessary. 1. Piling machine operators should be over 18 years of age and properly trained; Prior to piling, all underground services should be located and made safe. A check should be made to ensure there are no basements, underground water courses or ground conditions which might cause hazards; There should be a firm level base for the crane, or crane mats provided; When working on piling operations the worker should wear a safety helmet and ear and eye protection where necessary. All cranes, lifting appliances and lifting gear must have appropriate certificates of testing and thorough examination, and should be large enough for the job; Particular attention should be paid to the risk of damage to lifting gear from sharp edges; Cranes used for raising or lowering workers must be fitted with a dead man's handle and lowering should be done under 12







Civil Work

E & C Division

SHE Manual

power; the worker should be carried in properly constructed cages which cannot spin or tip; 8. Piling contractors should be asked to provide a written method statement setting out the precautions relevant to the type of piling they are to employ; Induction training and information for the supervisor or operative should be given and specifically related to the method statement. Workers should be encouraged to use Protective equipment at all times when engaged in piling work,



6.3.2 Bored Piles: Workers may need to enter a bore hole for inspection or for clearing out in undercuts, and there are certain precautions, which must be taken prior to such entry: 1. 2. The bore hole should be at least 75 cm in diameter The bore hole should be treated as a confined space and the precautions which are advised elsewhere to ensure a satisfactory atmosphere must be closely followed Waste material from the bore hole should be kept clear of the bore hole Descent into a bore hole should be in properly designed skips, chains or cages fitted with an anti-spin device. The power source of the lifting-appliance should be kept running throughout the time someone is underground While the workers are working down a bore hole they must wear a safety harness All workers concerned must be trained and competent in rescue from deep bore holes, and emergency rescue drills should be carried out at regular intervals 13





Civil Work

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A banks’man who can see you in the bore hole should be present at all times There must be adequate lighting at safe reduced voltage and a means of communication from the bore hole. Wherever possible, the need for workers to enter pile bore holes should be avoided by the use of television cameras and other techniques for remote inspection.



Civil Work


E & C Division 6. 4. Safety in working at Height

SHE Manual

Several factors and serious accidents are caused yearly to persons engaged in working at height such as building construction where men have to go at heights & unless adequate safety precautions are taken serious accidents can happen. Investigations reveal that these accidents are caused by improvised & make shit arrangements instead of providing proper means of access. 6.4.1. Ramps & Runs At the beginning of construction excavations are made to provide proper foundations. As the depth increases the means of access to the bottom will be through ramps & runs and to cross the cuttings, gangways are to be provided. The Ramps and Runways should be constructed and maintained in such a way to comply with the provisions under rules 82 to 85 of The Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Condition of Service) Central Rules, 1998. The slope to the ramps & runs should be as far as possible, max.15° to horizontal i.e. one in four and the total rise of a continuous ramp does not exceed 3.7 meters, unless broken by horizontal landing of at least 1.2 meters in length or as provided in relevant standards / codes. Cleats not more than 40 cm apart should be provided on ramps with steep slopes. The width should be adequate for traffic. Toe boards should be provided where ramps extend over a workplace or passage. The open sides should be protected by railings as required. When the construction is started at some stage or other the gangways or any other means or access should have to be provided to reach higher levels. At the top level where the work is to be undertaken, there are certain precautions to be taken.

Civil Work


E & C Division •

SHE Manual

• •

Unprotected floors situated at a height and openings, pits etc. in platforms should be protected by railings and toe boards or otherwise guarded suitably. Toe board should not be less than 15 cm. There should also be an intermediate rail between floor and top rail.

6. 4. 2. Ladders Ladders should conform to the provisions given under Rules 172 to 174 of The Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Condition of Service ) Central Rules, 1998. Ladders may be classified under two broad categories – Portable and Fixed. • Since the portable ladder is a hazardous piece of equipment every effort should be made to replace it with fixed ladders and scaffolds. It not only prevents the accident but also saves time for carrying ladder from one place to other. However we may have to resort to portable ladders for work to be carried out at height for short period.

Single Ladders These are as single unit and intended to be used as such. The rungs are generally round or horizontal in cross section. Some ladders are provided with flat plates in which case they are called stepladders. B.I.S.4435: 1967 specifies that the treads should be horizontal, when the ladder is inclined at an angle 650 – 750 to horizontal. Where ladders can not be placed directly then retaining hooks or devices should be provided on top of the ladder. Some of the dos and don’ts while using single ladder are given in annexure-1.

Civil Work


Best way to prevent fall is to use specially designed roof ladders. For curved roofs. Designs of wooden and metal ladders are given in annexure-2. Roofs covered with asbestos sheets. loss of balance due to steep slope of the roof and insufficient care while working at the edge of the roof constitute the principle causes for these accidents which could be prevented by the safety measure given below. special ladders to suit the shape of the roof will have to be designed. (a model work permit is given in annexure-3). It is not safe to fix the headboard or anchor board to the ladder by nails alone. roof light covering glass or perspex can break under the weight of the person and working along perlins can not be relied upon. The right method is to have the anchorage to bear on the opposite slope or to be secured by other means such as rope. Safety belts should also be used as additional precaution. To ensure safe working at least two roof ladders are to be provided.2cm thick and with a gap between them not more than 38cm. Civil Work 17 . They should be atleast 38cm wide should have cross battens of at least 3. A common mistake in securing the roof ladder is to allow the anchor board or other anchorage to bare on the ridge capping. when spanning across the points of support on the roof. The ladder should be of sufficient to withstand the weight of the person and the material he carries.E & C Division Working on Roof : SHE Manual Some accidents happened due to fall of persons working on roof. The permit to work system given in the annexure (under the control of respective person) can help to ensure that persons are not allowed to work on roof without adhering to the above safety precautions. Fall through fragile roof sheeting. The capping may break off if it is off brittle material or the anchorage may slip away.

They should be securely supported or suspended and should Civil Work 18 . 2. Scaffold should be designed to carry at least 4 times the anticipated load. The other is to provide safe means of access to all places where any person is required to work at any time. use and dismantling of scaffolds. Accidents at scaffolds are generally caused either due to direct collapse of the scaffold or as a result of person or material falling of the scaffold.E & C Division SHE Manual Warning notices must be displayed at all approaches to the fragile roof. alterations and dismantling of scaffold should be done under the supervision of competent person. suitable scaffold should be provided. These should conform to the provisions of the Rules 188 to 205 of “The Building and other Construction Workers ( Regulation of Employment and Condition of Service ) Central Rules. All scaffolds should be of suitable design. The scaffold serves 2 purposes. 3. from any part of the building or permanent structure from a ladder or any other means of support. General requirements are: 1. The erections. 1998”. 6. Falls from the side of the roof can be prevented by providing a strong barrier at the edges of the roof. One is to provide convenient platform to perform work at heights. 4. sound construction with material of sufficient strength. Great care is therefore necessary in erection. Scaffoldings : Whenever construction or maintenance work above floor level can not be safely carried out from the ground.

1500 mm ! Extended at least 60 mm beyond the end of the support... Instead of wire mesh planking with 15-mm planks or steel corrugated sheeting can also be used..... Width of working platform: Following minimum widths are recommended as a general rule as per BIS 4014 (part II) – 1967.E & C Division SHE Manual wherever necessary. be sufficiently and properly strutted or braced to ensure stability.... but can not be used where there is appreciable difference of the levels to be connected.... 900 mm for support of any platform . as a footing only . ramps... The use of cross braces or framework of the scaffolds as means of access should not be encouraged. Ramps and runways are also safer than ladders...... 700 mm for the deposit of material . Stairways are the fastest and the most efficient.... 3... Failure to provide such access has caused many serious accidents. then suitable protection should be provided so as to prevent falling tools etc.. It is recommended that portable ladders should not be used as a means of access if height of the platform of scaffold exceeds 3...... Overhead protection: In case work is in progress at higher level than that of scaffold..75 m. 4. Protection under scaffold: When persons are required to work or pass under scaffold..1300 mm for purposes stated in (3) & (4) above . 6.. Safe means of access should be provided t all scaffold platforms. 5. gangways or stairways..... Screening with 13 mm wire mesh of 18-gauge wire is satisfactory for ordinary purpose. The safe means of access may be by ladders (portable or fixed).. it is necessary to provide a screen or canopy over the area..1100 mm for dressing stone or bricks .. from the higher level informing the workers working on the scaffold. runways.... ! ! ! ! ! Civil Work 19 If If If If If a a a a a platform platform platform platform platform is is is is is used used used used used . Such protection should extend at least 30 cm outside the scaffold proper in order to catch any material falling from the edges of scaffold.

the persons should wear safety belts secured suitably through a line to a proper anchorage. It is also essential to provide toe boards at the edges of the platform. Competent person should inspect scaffolds after erection and before use.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. 4. There should be sufficient gap between hoisting equipment and scaffold to prevent material from hoist getting entangled with scaffold. 2. 3. 1. Height 150cms. Some of the scaffold sketches are given in annexure-4. 4. 5. 6. Civil Work 20 . A common cause of failure in a scaffold is the removal of structural parts while in use. 120 cm) above the platform and an intermediate rail halfway between the top rail and the platform. 3. 4 Safety Belts There are many situations where it may not be practicable to provide all the normal measures to protect persons falling from heights. In such cases. Railings and Toe boards The railings should consist of a top rail at a height not less than 90 cm (max. Steel components of tubular scaffolds requirements laid down in BSI 2750-1964. should conform to the Other General Safety Practices 1. This should be strictly prohibited. The scaffolds should be periodically inspected. 6. 4. People should not be allowed to work in bad weather condition such as storm. Periodic treatment against deterioration due to weather conditions should be carried out. The railings should be strong enough to withstand a load of 90 kg applied in any direction on the top of the rail.

E & C Division SHE Manual There are four common types of safety belts namely. convention pertaining to this chapter. The belts should be maintained properly with periodic inspections. Pole safety belt. Steel cables are not suitable for use as lifeline in case where a free fall is possible. Annexure-5 gives important standards. unless shock absorber is provided. PP or nylon rope of 12 mm diameter are suitable for use as lifeline. Civil Work 21 . General purpose safety belt. General purpose safety belt with remote anchorage and Harness (Man hoisting) type safety belt. The material of the safety belt which should be chosen (leather and webbing of natural and man-made fibers) according to the job requirements. In case of obstruction for free fall. shock absorbers should be provided for the lifeline. Lifelines should be secured to permit as little slack as possible.

b) Ladder should be placed on firm base and on a level ground.E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure 1 (Ladders) a) While carrying ladder.e. 1 foot gap at the base to wall and 4 feet from the top resting place to the ground. e) Non slipping devices should be put to the bottom ends of ladder when sued on slippery flooring. Long ladders should be carried by 2 persons. Civil Work 22 . f) Persons ascending / descending the ladder should always face the ladder. the leading end should be at least 2 meters above ground. One ladder should be fixed firmly either through lashing or hooks at the top. g) Ladder should not be misused and should be maintained properly. c) Ladder should be placed against a firm support for the stiles to rest on it securely. d) The slope of the ladder to wall / support should not be more than 75° to the floor (i.

Whether ramp is provided with proper slope Proper hand rail/ guards provided in ramps. . gratings properly welded / bolted? Are ladders inspected and whether they are maintained in good condition? Are ladder spliced? Are ladders properly secured to prevent slipping. Adequate illumination has been ensured Work area inspected prior to start the work Area below the work place barricaded. nuts and hand tools. Yes/No 1. All the workers have been explained safe work method? An established communication system have been established and explained to the workers. 7.Larson & Toubro Limited E & C Division Safety at Working at Height Check-List Name of Job site: SI. staircases welded / bolted properly. 14. 3 4 5. 10. 8. 10. 6. 3. 12. Any obstruction in the stairs Are landing provided with handrails. Proper maintenance and storage Ladders placed at right slop Ladders. 4. 5. sliding or falling? Do side-rails extend 36” above top landing? Are built up ladders constructed of sound materials? Are rungs and cleats not over 12” on center? Metal ladders not used around electrical hazards. 2. 16. All work platforms ensured to be of adequate strength and ergonomically suitable Fabricated makeshift arrangements are checked for quality and type of material welding. Work at more than one elevation at the same segment is restricted. Walkways provided with handrail. mid-rail & toe guard? All checkered plates.especially below hot work Workers provided with bags/box to carry bolts. 6. 7. 15. Arrangement for fastening hand tools made. anchoring etc. knee rails. 9. Description Observation No. 2. 8. Remarks ACCESS / EGRESS 1. 9. 13. 11. toe boards etc.

4. Use of safety helmets. 3. 5. 3. 5.House – Keeping belts ensured for all workers Anchoring points provided at all places of work Common life line provided where ever linear movement at height is required Safety nets are in use wherever required Proper fall arrest system is deployed at critical work places Crawler boards/Safety system for work on fragile roof are used . 6. Walk ways. are cleared All deshuttering material are removed after deshuttering is done Platforms and walkways free from oil/grease or other slippery material Collected scrap are brought down or lowered down and not dropped from height PPE and Safety Devices 1 2. 2.aisles & all overhead workplaces cleared of loose material Flammable material.if any. 4.

down to roof level. gases. Determine the condition of the framing. Remove all debris promptly. explosives. Remove chimneys and extensions of walls above the roof. Employ specialists in the field if structures to be removed look as though they will present a problem. Notify the utility companies in advance.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. asbestos. Work from scaffolds supported independently outside the walls. Post signs that warn of falling materials. and they know the applicable federal. To minimize production of dust assign persons to wet down the debris.5 Demolition of Structures Plant personnel should do only minor demolition. Following are minor demolition work: • • • • • • • • • • • • Make provision to keep the public and unauthorized plant employees at least 15-ft (5 M) away from the structure. Avoid subjecting walls to lateral pressure from stored materials or to lateral impact from falling material. They know how to protect the public and adjacent property. Remove walls by picking them apart. state or provincial. Strip off lath and plaster to eliminate excessive dust during succeeding work. and walls. electrical circuits that may be engaged. 23 Civil Work . and check for any unanticipated conditions. Wrecking specialists are familiar with the procedures and precautions necessary to do the wo0rk safely. Prohibit employees from working below others. flammable materials. Have a competent person make an engineering survey of the structure. through chutes or internal holes. Check for hazardous chemicals. Disconnect utility services (gas. and place barricades where necessary to protect workers from flying pieces. Maintain water lines as long as possible. steam. etc. while working from the roof. and electricity) outside the building. Barricade any area where material is being dumped. Maintain or install a temporary water source for fire protection and for wetting down the site to reduce dust. Remove all glass doors and windows through out the structure. hazardous waste. Remove the roof. using either machine or hand tools. and municipal codes and regulations. floor.

1 Carpentry Workshop Plant Layout : The following general principles should be followed while siting the machinery: • • • • Provide a minimum of 1m backspace for the machine operator.6.6. (See Chapter 14. Provide clear passage around the machine. It shall not be allowed to become slippery and as far as possible shall be kept free from chips or other loose material. or (2) explosive. and gloves as needed for all workers.6 6. foot protection. Ensure that the timber used does not interfere with operations on adjacent machines.) Develop necessary safety procedures for handling hazardous materials and provide training for employees. respirators. goggles. 6. use (1) “powder cutting. Require safety hats. Sometimes the conventional methods for altering or removing concrete installations are unfeasible or undesirable.E & C Division • • SHE Manual • • • Remove asbestos in an approved manner. 6.” a process that substitute penetration by intense heat for concussion breakage. The floor of the workshop shall be cemented and maintained in good condition. Avoid exceeding the allowable floor loads for the storage of waste and debris. In such cases. Personal Protection Equipment. 24 Civil Work .2 Housekeeping : • • The space around every wood working machine shall be free from obstruction. Make continuing inspections to detect hazards resulting from the demolition operation. Keep the materials properly stacked and away from machines.

Civil Work 25 . The illustrations given in the annexes provide proper method of guarding and working on wood working machines. 6.4 Operator : The Carpentry in-charge should nominate the required number of operators who will be authorised to work on the wood-working machines.6.5 Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) : Suitable personal protective equipment should be used by the operator while working on the machinery. The designated operator shall be employed after he has been sufficiently trained to work on the wood working machinery and he should be adequately instructed as to the inherent dangers involved in the operation. 6. After use these equipment should be stored near the machine. Push stick should be used and should be kept near the machine.6.3 Machinery : • • • Dangerous parts of the machinery shall be adequately guarded. Lighting should be provided in such a way to prevent glare and direct lighting on the work.6.6 Lighting : • • Lighting must be adequate and suitable for the work being carried out. dust and pieces. 6.6. 6. Their names must be displayed on a board near the machine with a statement saying no other is authorised to work on the machine. Stopping and starting devices shall be located within the reach of the operator.E & C Division • SHE Manual A cordoned area shall be demarcated to dump the wood shavings.

understands the requirements. or longer Proper types of cutters SANDER • • • • Keep hand from abrasive surface Ventilation Belt or disk condition Sand on downward side of disk LATHE • Stock without defects. Be sure the operator checks the manufacturer's manual. and follows the recommended procedures. clearance of material Tension and type of blade Release cuts before long curves Stop machine to remove scrap or pull out incomplete cut Flat stock Push stick for small parts JOINTER/PLANER • • • • • • Depth of cut Length of stock Sharp cutters No hands over cutters Push stick for small stock Guard WOOD SHAPER • Clamping work piece • Use correct guard • Feed into knives-don't back off • No feeding between fence and cutters • Collar and starting pin work for irregular work-stock of sufficient weight • Fence opening only enough to clear cutters Use stock as guard by shaping the underside of stock Spindle nut tight Shape only pieces 10 in. TABLE SAW • Feed with the body to side of stock • Blade height • Splitter and anti kickback fingers for ripping • Stock firm to fence • Remove rip fence for crosscuts • Blade guards CIRCULAR SAW Blade guards • Binding • Blade-correct type • Blade-tight on the arbor • Firm support for work • No obstructions • • Begin cut with motor at manufacturer's recommended speed for materials being cut Hand and finger position • RADIAL ARM SAW • Rip sawing-direction of feed (cut) and anti kickback fingers Blade guards • Pull for cross cuts • End plates on track-arm tight • Clamp handles tight • Material tight to fence • Return cutter to rear of track Hand and finger position BAND SAW • • • • • • • Feed with body to side of stock Guard height 1/8-in.E & C Division SHE Manual ANNEXURE 1 SUMMARY OF SAFETY RULES FOR VARIOUS WOODWORKING TOOLS Every operator should be trained in the safety rules covered in this chapter. As a summary. glued joints dry • Power off when changing speeds on belt lathes • Tool rest close to stock • Hold tools firmly in both hands • Remove tool rest when sanding or polishing Civil Work 26 . safety rules that demand close attention are listed below.

When the width of the rip is less than 2 in. or wider. When the width of rip is 2 in. uses your right hand to feed the workpiece until it is clear of the table. Hold the workpiece in position and install the push block by sliding it on top of the auxiliary fence-work support (this might raise the guard). beyond the front edge of the table. Use the auxiliary fence-work support and push block... to 6 in. use the push stick to feed the work. Feed the workpiece by hand along the auxiliary fence until the end is about 1 in. Civil Work 27 . the push stick cannot be used because the guard will interfere.E & C Division SHE Manual When the width of the rip is 6 in. Continue to feed using the push block.Carefully raise the guard only enough to clear the workpiece. Use the push block to complete the cut. Only use the left hand to guide the workpiece-do not feed the workpiece with the left hand. Narrow strips thicker than the auxiliary fence-work support may enter the guard and strike the baffle. Use two C clamps to attach the auxiliary fence-work support to the rip fence.

E & C Division SHE Manual A clear plastic shield has been formed into a guard for this band saw. the hold down is flat on the bottom. The push block has a piece of wood acting as a Positive stop against the end of the workpiece. Note the difference between a hold down (left) and a push block (right). Civil Work 28 . Both are used to keep the operator's thumbs and fingers away from the cutter head.

Civil Work 29 .E & C Division SHE Manual Close – up of a properly functioning splitter (Driving knife) and antikickback device during a ripping operation.

high-speed grinding wheels have been dealt under Hand and Power Tools. Using the wrong type.7 Grinding Operation: Introduction The commonly used grinding m/c s in construction are the portable grinding m/cs. Grinding is a hazardous operation.7. Failure to use wheel washers (blotters). Applying work too quickly to a cold wheel or disk. Grinding includes surface. Even a minor mishandling would lead to a serious mishap.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. Using bearing boxes with insufficient bearing surface. Incorrectly holding the work. Portable machines that use small. 30 Civil Work . Using a spindle with incorrect diameter or with the threads cut so the nut loosens as the spindle revolves. Hence grinding operation ought to be done by a trained operator following the safety norms. Grinding too high above the wheel's centre. buffing. honing.1 Grinding Machine Hazards Hazards associated with grinding machines include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Failure to use eye protection in addition to the eye shield mounted on the grinder. and wire brushing. a poorly maintained or in.balanced wheeler disk. 6. Vibration and excessive speed that lead to bursting a wheel or disk. Incorrectly adjusting or not using the work rest. The speed of the wheels ranges from 7000 rpm to 14000rpm or sometimes more than that. Taking too heavy a cut. The grinding wheel rotates at a speed of more than 7000 rpm that cause a very serious injury Grinding machines shape material by bringing it into contact with a rotating abrasive wheel or disk. Ringing on the side of a wheel not designed for side grinding. internal. as well as polishing. external cylindrical and centerless operations.

7. with unequal diameters.7. on the spindle or arbor of a grinding machine. suspend a light wheel from its hole on a small pin or the finger. Only the periphery or circumferences of many abrasive wheels are designed for grinding. unload. A wheel or disk in good condition will give a clear. Make the tap at a point 45 degrees from the vertical center line and about 1 or 2 in. Reaching across or near the rotating grinding wheel to load. Then gently tap the wheel or disk with a light tool.E & C Division • • • • • • • • SHE Manual Installing flanges of the wrong size. Using controls that are out of the operator's normal reach. broken. inspect them for damage from shipment and perform the "ring' test. Incorrect wheel dressing. This side is mounted on the faceplate of a grinding machine. To conduct the ring test. or with unrelleved censers. 6. Using an abrasive blade instead of a grinder disk. Only the exposed flat side of an abrasive disk is designed for grinding. Contacting unguarded moving parts. An abrasive wheel is made of bonded abrasive and is designed to be mounted. metallic ring when tapped. (2. Failure to run a wet wheel dry.5 or 5 cm) from the periphery. A mallet may be used for heavy wheels or disks. such as a wooden screwdriver's handle.3 Abrasive Disks and Wheels An abrasive disk is made of bonded abrasive. projecting studs. either directly or with adapters. This test can be used for both light and heavy disks or wheels that are dry and free of foreign material. with inserted nuts or washers. and place a heavy one vertically on a hard floor. or tapped plate holes on one side of the disk. without coolant. 6. for a period of time before turning off the machine. or adjust the machine during set-up. or cracked grinding wheel. Using an untested.3 Inspecting abrasive wheels: Ring test : When unpacking abrasive disks and wheels. Wheels Civil Work 31 .

Daily inspection of grinding machines should include the points shown in Figure. Do not roll large disks and wheels on the floor.7. preferably with the manufacturer's representative. along with immediate corrective action. Follow this by a check for recommended speed. (ring test to be done on receipt by the user. 6. Thoroughly investigate grinding wheel and disk failures. Breakage of a wheel or disk can occur if it is taken from a cold room and work is applied to it before it has warmed up. Store abrasive disks and wheels in racks in a central storage area under the control of a specially trained person.) Visual Inspection on breakage.4 Handling abrasive disks and wheels: Abrasive disks and wheels require careful handling. Check the speed of all grinding wheels against the spindle speed of the machine-some are designed only for low- Civil Work 32 .E & C Division SHE Manual and disks of various grades and sizes have different pitches. Do not drop or bump. Wet wheel might break or crack if stored below 32 F (0 C). Give the ring test to disks and wheels taken out of long storage. This type of investigation.7. and a speed test on the machine on which it will be mounted. especially below-freezing temperatures. The length of time abrasive disks and wheels may be stored and still be safe to use should be in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations. greatly reduces the possibility of recurrent failures. Transport disks and wheels too large or heavy to be carried by hand ! By truck or other means that provide the correct support.5 Storing abrasive disks and wheels: fifo method Store abrasive disks and wheels in a dry area not subject to extreme temperature changes. ! ! ! ! 6. expiry dates designed rpm & wear & tear of the wheel etc.

not bearing evenly on the wheel. and in balance. Flanges for the same wheel should be of the same diameter and thickness. Civil Work 33 . (hand tightening . Exceptions to this rule include mounted wheels. Flanges should have a diameter not less than one-third of the wheel's diameter. Key. blotter paper) Schedule flange inspections frequently. plate-mounted wheels. cup. Remove from the spindle a flange found to be sprung. An incorrectly mounted abrasive wheel is the cause of much wheel breakage. screw.E & C Division SHE Manual speed use. follow safety regulations concerning size and design of the wheel. The bearing surface of the flange should run true with the spindle. shrink. Mounting wheels : Mount all abrasive wheels between flanges. If it is not. accurately turned to correct dimensions. the wheel may explode and throw particles into the work area causing serious at times fatal injuries. The outer flange's bore should easily slide onto the spindle. Replace it with a flange that is in good condition. threaded wheels (plugs and cones). and cylinder. or press the inner or driving flange onto the spindle. or defective in any other way. Since rotational forces and grinding heat cause high stresses around the wheel's central hole. The requirement for balance does not apply to flanges made out of balance to counteract an unbalanced wheel. or segmental wheels mounted in chucks. The grinding wheel must be rated at the same RPM as the machine or more than the machine rpm.

2 mm) of wheel securely clamped FRAME: securely mounted no vibration WHEEL FACE: well-lighted dressed evenly FLANGES: equal size correct diameter (1/2 wheel diam.unscored .E & C Division SHE Manual GRINDER CHECKLIST TYPE _____________ SIZE ______________ Item • • • • • • • • WHEEL GUARD: securely fastened Properly aligned GLASS SHIELD: clean .) SPEED: correct for wheel mounted GUARD FOR POWER BELT OR DRIVE: in place DATE _______ DEPARTMENT ________ RPM ________ PERIPHERAL SPEED________ OK NOT OK INSPECTED BY _____________ Civil Work 34 . ( place WORK REST: within 1/8 in.

Never allow coolant to flow on a stationary grinding wheel.8 Safe Speeds : Do not operate abrasive wheels and disks at speeds exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.7. ( the underlined portion stands good for fixed grinding m/c not for portable one.7.7. If the spindle's speed is not adjusted. such as deep cups with thin walls or backs with long drums. serious injuries to the operator or others can result. or any of its safety equipment at any time.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. 6. Always use coolant when truing the wheel or during normal grinding. Allow at least one minute of warm-up time before grinding with the wheel. Operating a Grinding Machine: When starting a grinding machine. its wheel speed. When the worn wheel is replaced. This unbalanced condition can cause the wheel to disintegrate upon restarting. When the wheel is nearly worn down. the spindle's speed (rpm) sometimes increased to maintain the surface speed (sfpm). causing an unbalanced condition. The guards are on the machine for the operator's safety. adjust the spindle's speed. the spindle is running at the highest rpm. As the wheel wears down. if they are removed. the new wheel might break because the surface speed exceeds manufacturer's recommendations. unmarked wheels of unusual shape. Do not attempt to physically operate a machine that is in its automatic mode. Never alter or try to alter the machine. never remove a guard fastener or guard. It is not possible and there is no need of adjustment of the spindle. Civil Work 35 . stand to one side away from the grinding wheel. Do not touch any moving part of the machine or the rotating grinding wheel to determine its smoothness or condition. coolant might collect on one portion of the wheel.) While the machine is running. In particular. should be operated according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

and flanges to eliminate mounting stresses. Such things as sidegrinding pressure and the wheel's shape. Give special attention to spindle strength. Civil Work 36 . guards. Obtain the manufacturer's approval (instructions) for all high speed wheel and disc operations.E & C Division SHE Manual Grinding equipment for high-speed operation should be specially designed. Proper maintenance and protective devices are also important for safe high-speed operations. mat also be considered.

E & C Division 6. The operator should move the wheel dresser back and forth across the wheel's face. The operator of a wheel dresser should use a rigid work rest set close to the wheel. to be balanced by truing or dressing should be taken out of service.9 Work Rests : SHE Manual Because work has become wedged between the work rest and the wheel. Occasionally test wheels for balance. The work rest might slip and strike and break the wheel. Never adjust the work rest while the wheel is in motion. and rebalance them if necessary. Check the work rest's position frequently. while firmly holding the heel or Lug-on the underside of the dresser's head-against the edge. They will protect the operator from particles flying from the wheel or pieces of broken cutters. Civil Work 37 . often it is necessary to dress it by removing a large area of the face. decreases wheel wastage. and lengthens the wheel's life.7. or too out of balance. The work rest's height must be on the horizontal centreline of the machine's spindle. To prevent work from adding twisting and bending stress to the wheel. They can damage the machine and injure the operator.2 mm) from the wheel. To recondition a rutted or excessively rough wheel. (3. Keeping the wheels in good condition eliminates these possibilities. thus causing serious injury. or the operator might catch a finger between the wheel and the work rest. operators should use guides to hold the work in position when slot grinding or performing similar operations. Equip wheel-dressing tools with hood guards over the tops of the cutters. and not on top of the work rest. DRESSING ABRASIVE WHEELS Abrasive wheels that are not true or not in balance will produce poor work. The work rest should be substantially constructed and securely clamped not more than 1/8 in. many bench and floor-stand grinder wheels have broken. Wheels that are too worn.

7. They must always properly adjust and turn on a magnetic chuck before applying the wheel. Insecurely clamped work pieces and unenergised magnetic chucks are common sources of injury to operators of surface grinders. train operators. and supervise them to clamp work tightly. Since grindstones are run wet. They must also control the work's speed and depth.000 sfpm (10 nets). and mounted on a solid foundation to withstand vibration. Use rough concrete or other slip-resistant floor material in grindstone operating areas. Baffle plates on each end of a surface grinder are usually standard equipment.500 sfpm (12.7. 6. take all possible precautions to prevent slipping accidents near the stones. as soon as they arrive from the manufacturer. the wheel can overheat at the rim and crack. Store those not to Civil Work 38 . Under these conditions. follow the manufacturer's suggested running speeds and operating procedures.5 m/s). Therefore. The size and weight of grindstones require a stand that is rigidly constructed. This kind of hood covers the grinding wheel when it is in the retracted or idling position.E & C Division 6.11 Grindstones: When using grindstones. Never run stones of unknown composition or manufacture at more than 2. heavy enough to hold the stone securely. Carefully inspect grindstones for cracks and other defects. work pieces can be thrown with considerable force If the operator takes too deep a Cut or too quickly traverses the table or wheel. and ordinarily not more than 2. They should also include some provision for exhausting the grinding dust.10 Surface Grinders and Internal Grinders: SHE Manual Operating requirements for surface grinders and internal grinders differ from those for other types of wheels. Internal grinders can often be guarded with an automatic positioning hood.

is determined by the size of the flanges used-the larger the flange. A coat of emery or other abrasive is glued to the periphery of the wheels. Buffing wheels are made of disks of felt. Work rests should comply with the same requirements as those for grinding wheels. Do not use wooden wedges on power-driven stones. The periphery is given a coat of rouge. these wedges are too tightly driven or can become wet and swell. uniformly heated room. where they will not be damaged. This practice causes an unbalanced stone that can break when rotated. To remove dust and wet spray or mist when dressing or operating power-driven grindstones (either wet or dry). it often is necessary to soften the working surface of the built-up wheels to conform to the contour of the object being polished.12 Polishing Wheels and Buffing Wheels : Polishing wheels are either wood faced with leather or made of stitched-together disks of canvas or similar material. A safe procedure for softening the working surface is to place the wheel on the floor or other flat surface and pound the edges of Civil Work 39 . or canvas. and weaken the stone causing ruptures to occur when operated at normal speeds. the harder the surface. Tripoli. radiate outward. canvas. Many grindstone failures result from faulty handling and incorrect mounting.5 cm) thick and the flanges should be clamped in place by heavy nuts. When large flanges are used. or leather.E & C Division SHE Manual be used immediately in a dry.7. rather than wood washers. The softness of the wheel. After the stone has been centred. (1. If wood washers are used between the flanges and the stone. the washers should be '/2 to 1 in. felt. Often. Do not leave grindstones partially submerged in water. or other mild abrasive. In either case. linen. cracks start in the corners of a square center hole. wherever possible. provide an adequate exhaust system. Use double thickness of leather or rubber gaskets. built up of linen.3 to 2. 6. fill the central space about the arbor with lead or cement.

Exhaust hoods should be designed to catch particles thrown off by the wheels when working in a workshop. Do not place the wheel on the spindle with a file or other object held against it.E & C Division SHE Manual the wheel with a hammer or mallet. Mounting procedures for polishing wheels and buffing wheels are the same as those for grinding wheels. 6. if thrown. and other materials. scratch wheels are used to remove burrs. apply the side of the stick to the off side so. Operators should not attempt to hold a small piece against the wheel with the bare hands. Never substitute a prick punch and hammer for a spanner wrench.7. If a stick is used. hold the side of the cake lightly against the wheel's periphery. Small pieces being polished or buffed can frequently be bed in a simple jig or fixture. then use a spanner wrench to install smooth nuts over the spindle's ends. Operators of polishing wheels and buffing wheels should not wear gloves. The file could catch in the wheel and be thrown with such force that the operator or nearby workers are injured. A glove can catch and drag the operator’s hand against the wheel. more commonly. sand. it will fly away from the wheel. scale. These wheels Civil Work 40 . Some operators use a piece of an old linen or canvas wheel for holding small pieces.13 Mounting : Mount polishing wheels and buffing wheels on rigid and substantially constructed stands that are heavy enough for the wheels used. 6. 6.15 Wire Brush Wheels: Wire brush wheels or.7. When applying rouge or tripoli to a revolving wheel. If working conditions require a hood that does not give the needed protection.7.14 Safeguards : Hood guards should be designed to prevent the operator's hands or clothing from catching on protruding nuts or the ends of spindles.

The hood on scratch wheels should enclose the wheel as completely as the nature of the work allows. leather gloves. or other heavy material. Do not exceed the speed recommended by the manufacturer. The hood should also cover the exposed arbor ends. with different thickness. Adjust the work rest to about 1/8 in. The same machine set up and conditions that apply to polishing and buffing wheels apply to wire brush wheels. Make it mandatory for operators to wear aprons made of leather. face shields. (3 mm) from the wheel. The hood should also be adjustable so protection will not lessen as the diameter of the wheel decreases. install a smooth nut on them. and goggles. Civil Work 41 .E & C Division SHE Manual are made of various kinds of protruding wires. If not. heavy canvas. Use flanges or nuts to hold scratch wheels rigidly in place. Personal protective equipment is especially important when operating scratch wheels because the wires tend to break off.

shrunk or pressed Blotter Wheel easy fit on flange shoulders Correct methods of mounting abrasive wheels with large holes (left) and wheels with small holes (right) Civil Work 42 .E & C Division SHE Manual Grinding Wheel Grinding Wheel Undercut necessary for firm fit Wheel Blotter Flange Recessed Wheel Spindle Wheel Spindle Inner flange keyed screwed.

E & C Division SHE Manual A badly rutted or out – of – balance grinding wheel should be taken out of service and dressed Top: with a properly adjusted work rest. Bottom: there should be a safe space of no more than 1/8 in. (3. Civil Work 43 . the operator can keep the hands away from the wheel and still firmly hold the work in place.2 mm) between the tool rest and the wheel.

E & C Division 6.8 Formwork & Falsework

SHE Manual

The planning and design of formwork and falsework should be in accord with provisions of the American Concrete Institute Publication ACI 347-78, Recommended Practice for Concrete formwork and ANSI A10.9 Safety Requirements for Concrete Construction and Masonry Work. All formwork, falsework, structural shoring and bracing should be designed, erected, braced and maintained to safety support all vertical and lateral loads that might be applied until such loads can be supported by the structure. Drawings and plans shall be available at the job site. All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as specified in the shoring layout. Any equipment found to be damaged should not be used for shoring. Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to, during and immediately after the placement of concrete. Immediately reinforce or reshore any shoring equipment found to be damaged, displaced or weakened. The sills for shoring should be sound, rigid and capable of carrying the maximum intended load. All baseplates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws should be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form. Prohibit eccentric loads on shore heads and similar parts, unless these parts have been specifically designed for such loading. When single post shores are used one on top of another (tiered), 1. The design of the shoring shall be prepared by a qualified designer and the erected shoring inspected by an engineer qualified in structural design. The shores shall be vertically aligned. The shores shall be spliced to prevent misalignment. The shores shall be adequately braced in two mutually perpendicular directions at the splice level. Each tier shall also be diagonally braced in the same two directions 44

2. 3. 4. 5.

Civil Work

E & C Division 6.

SHE Manual

Adjustment of single post shores to raise formwork shall not be made after placement of concrete.

Remove and stockpile stripped forms and shoring promptly after stripping. Protruding nails, wire ties and other form accessories not needed for later work should be pulled, cut, or by other means taken out. Supply employees with eye and or face protection when nailing into concrete. Require employees to wear this personal protective equipment. Provide reshoring to safety support slabs and beams after stripping. Also provide reshoring when slabs and beams are subjected to superimposed loads due to construction. When temporary storage of reinforcing rods, material, or equipment on top of formwork is needed, strengthen these areas to meet the intended loads. Adequately reinforce steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures to prevent overturning or collapse. Do not load metal tubular frames used for shoring beyond the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer. Keep all locking devices on metal tubular frames and braces in good working order. Coupling pins should align the frame or panel legs. Pivoted cross braces should have their center pivot in place. All components should be in a condition similar to when originally manufactured. Fasten devices for attaching the outside lateral bracing to the legs of the metal tubular shoring frames. When using tube and coupler shoring, use coupler (clamps) made of drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Do not use gray cast iron. Do not use couplers (clamps) if they are deformed, or broken or have defective or missing threads on bolts, or other defects. When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout, the spacing between towels and cross brace spacing should not exceed that shown on the layout. On metal tubular frame shoring, all locking devices should be closed. On tube and coupler shoring, check all interlocking of tubular members and tightness of coupling. Floor & Wall Openings Guard all floor and roof holes, skylights, and openings into which persons Civil Work 45

E & C Division

SHE Manual

can walk with an enclosure guard. Or cover them completely with material and bracing strong enough to support any load. Secure coverings for floor and roof openings to prevent accidental removal or displacement. Guard every stairway and ladderway floor opening on all exposed sides except the entrance opening. Install a securely anchored standard railing with intermediate rail and toe-board. Offset temporary stairway and ladderway entrances, or provide them with a gate to prevent anyone from walking into the opening. Guard every hatchway and chute floor opening with a hinged floor-opening cover. Equip the cover with railings attached so as to leave only one exposed side. Provide the exposed side either with a swinging gate, or offset it so that persons cannot walk into the opening. Guard wall openings from which there is a drop of more than 4-ft (1.2 m) and the bottom of the opening is less than 3-ft (0.91 m) above the working surface, with a top rail, top rail and intermediate rail, or standard guardrail. Provide a toeboard where the bottom of the wall opening, regardless of width, is less than 4-in. (10 cm) above the working surface. An extension platform outside a wall opening onto which materials can be hoisted for handling should have a standard railing. However, one side of a extension platform may have removable railings to enable handling of materials.

Civil Work


E & C Division 7. Mechanical works:

SHE Manual

At any construction site, the main activity will be handling of material either manually or with mechanical means. About 80% of the accidents occur while doing this activity. This chapter exclusively deals with problems encountered while undertaking the above task. 7.1. Manual handling: Due to the occurrence of large number of accidents, workers and managers must know the correct procedures for material handling and storage to protect their health and safety. The safety professional must evaluate employee fitness and job tasks to determine the specific material-handling engineering and administrative controls and personal protective equipment required. To reduce the number of injuries caused by material handling, the project managers should try to minimise the manual handling of material as much as possible. They can combine or eliminate operations, introduce ergonomic principles to job design, and move material mechanically whenever possible. For hazards or jobs that cannot be mechanised, workers must learn safety techniques to reduce their risk of injury. Although physical differences make it impractical to establish safe lifting limits for all workers, some general principles can be applied. In manual lifting, worker should make sure the route they must travel with the object is clear. Next, they should inspect the object and determine how best to grasp it to avoid sharp edges slippery surfaces, and other injury-producing factors. 1f mechanical aids are required (slings, block and tackle etc.) they should be secured before any lifting is done. Guidelines for lifting must satisfy four criteria: - Epidemiological, - Bio –mechanical, - Physiological and - Psycho-physical Some safe-lifting techniques include two-hand squat lift and team lifting and carrying.

Mechanical Works


E & C Division

SHE Manual

Squat lifting emphasises correct placement of feet, straight back and bent knees, load held close to the body, correct grip, chin in, and use of body weight to move the object. Team lifting and carrying emphasises two or more people working in unison to avoid injuries. Accessories for manual lifting include hand tools (hooks, crowbars, rollers), jacks, and hand trucks. Jacks must be inspected regularly for signs of wear o defects. They should be placed on a clean, level surface and used with shims and blocks to prevent accidents. Hand trucks include two-wheeled and four-wheeled carts and trucks. Workers should be aware of the main hazards (1) running wheels off bridge plates or platforms, (2) colliding with other trucks or obstructions, and (3) jamming their hands between trucks an other objects. Temporary and permanent storage of materials should be neat and orderly to eliminate hazards and to conserve space. Materials storage must be carefully planned to allow adequate ceiling clearance under sprinklers; to keep aisle and exits clear; to install adequate bins, racks, and shelving; to secure mechanical lifting aids; to establish warning signs and signals; and to develop disaster and emergency planning procedures. Rigid containers such as metal and box pallets, fibre board/cardboard boxes, barrels and kegs, rolled paper and reels, and compressed gas cylinders must be stored to conserve space and to provide easy access when the material is needed. Uncrated stock, such as lumber, bagged materials, pipes, and sheet metal, presents special storage problems. Supervisors must ensure that these material are secured and will not fall or come loose and injure workers when being removed from storage. Hazardous liquid and combustible materials stored containers require special handling and storage methods to ensure worker’s safety and health. These containers must be protected from extremes of temperature or humidity, fire hazards, electrical hazards, and jarring or excessive movement. Storage areas must be well ventilated and preferably isolated from other work areas. Workers must exercise extreme caution when cleaning, removing,

Mechanical Works


E & C Division

SHE Manual

using, or filling these containers. They must be taught to follow proper safety procedures and wear protective clothing. Handling and storage of cryogenic liquids: The storage and handling of cryogenic liquids (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, helium, and hydrogen) require careful planning and worker training. These liquids can cause frostbite on contact with skin and (except for oxygen) displace breathable air in an enclosed workspace. To reduce the risks in handling these materials, workers must know the nature and properties of each cryogen, know how to operate the equipment, use only approved and compatible materials, use protective clothing and equipment, know emergency medical techniques, and be prepared to deal with emergency situations. Cryogenic liquids should be stored only in the containers designed for the particular gas. Containers should be transferred slowly into a warmer environment to prevent thermal shock to the containers and equipment. Workers must avoid dropping warm solids or liquids into cryogenic liquids, never breathe vapours from cryogenic sources, always check containers for leaks or loss of insulating vacuum, and use only approved transfer lines to move the liquid from one container or point to another. Supervisors of shipping and receiving areas must be aware of appropriate regulations and labels. Floors must be level, able to bear the weight load required, and kept clean and slip resistant. Ramps must have slip-resistant surfaces, be equipped with handrails, and be clearly marked. Aisles should be wide enough to allow employees to move about while handling materials and to allow passage of loaded equipment. Warning signs, mirrors, and directional markings can ensure that workers avoid collisions and blind corners. Workers in shipping and receiving must be trained in the proper use and handling of such common items as dock-boards, machines and tools, steel and plastic strapping, burlap and sacking, glass and nails, pitch and glue, barrels, kegs, drums, and boxes and cartons. They must also be taught how to load and unload railcars, safely using mechanical aids and protective clothing.

Mechanical Works


E & C Division

SHE Manual

Common personal protective equipment used in material handling includes safety shoes, gloves, goggles, aprons, and leggings to protect against the most common injuries to hands, feet, extremities, and eyes. Where workers handle toxic or irritating materials, they should take showers or wash hands and face thoroughly at the end of their shifts. The management / contractor should provide a change of clothing or laundry facilities at the site.

Treating Cold-Contact Burns Workers will rarely come in contact with a cryogenic liquid if proper handling procedures are used. However, in the event of contact with a liquid or cold gas, a cold-contact ‘ Burn ’ may occur. Actually, the skin or tissue freezes. Medical assistance should be obtained as soon as possible. In the interim, the following emergency measures are recommended: • Remove any clothing that may restrict circulation to the frozen area. Do not rub frozen parts, as tissue damage may result.

Mechanical Works


assess frostbite by the swelling and blistering of the skin. Reduction of swelling indicates alleviation of frostbite. Morphine or tranquillisers may be required to control pain during thawing and should be administered under professional medical supervision. Warm drinks and food may be administered. Supportive treatment for shock should be provided. The victim should in a warm room. Alcoholic beverages and smoking decrease blood flow to the frozen tissues and should be prohibited. sterile dressings and a large. if possible. monitor vital signs. cover the area with dry. For black people. immerse the affected part in warm water (not less than 105 F or more than 115 F. They will become swollen and painful and prone to infection when thawed. the patient should be totally immersed in a warm-water bath. If the exposure has been massive and the general body temperature is depressed. thawing should continue until the pale blue tint of the skin turns pink or red. • • • • • Mechanical Works 5 .E & C Division • SHE Manual As soon as is practical. 0 C to 46 C ). For white people. If the frozen part of the body thaws before the doctor arrives. Frozen tissues are painless and appear waxy and yellow. Do not re-warm rapidly. As with any injury or illness. bulky protective covering. Never use dry heat. Thawing may require 15 to 60 minutes.

1998 provides the statutory requirements to be complied with while using the winch. A schematic diagram of the winch is given below The operator of this car puller winch stands behind the shield. The operator should also be protected against extreme weather condition. gear and pinion including the meshing. • • Mechanical Works 6 . which protects the employee if the rope breaks. The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Central Rules. ratchet arrangement.1 Winch : SHE Manual Crabs and Winches may be either hand operated or electrically driven. Some form of braking or safety lowering device should be installed. It should be placed on a firm base and properly anchored. The brake. Under Rule 59. and portable units should be installed securely against the pull of the hoisting rope or chain. The following are some of the guidelines given for the safe operation of the winches: • • The Safe Working Load of the winch should be marked and this should never be exceeded. wire rope and its clamping arrangements and direction of receiving rope drum.1. tie rods should be checked before using the winch. Barricade guard should be installed to protect the operator against flying strand of wire and the recoil of broken ropes.E & C Division 7.

The locking pawl on the ratchet of a winch frequently presents a serious hazard to fingers of the operator particularly when he attempts to disengage the pawl. Mechanical Works 7 .E & C Division • • • SHE Manual • • Ratchet arrangement should be kept in position while hoisting a load. To reduce this hazard. a small lever may be welded to the pawl so that it can be safely grasped. Tie rod should be adjusted not to allow drum movement causing clutch arrangement to slip. Provide a dog to lock the gears. Providing strap brake will be useful when load is to lowered rapidly. Hand operated equipment that has a crank handle instead of a hand wheel poses a major danger if operator loses control while lowering the load (struck by the revolving handle). A pin through the end of a crank will keep it in the socket during hoisting operation.

four rope parts at the movable block. (Mark blocks with their safe working load. For each sheave of 3 in. (7. A load to be lifted weighs 2. Divide this figure by the number of ropes or parts running from the movable block.2 Reeving : SHE Manual If more than one tackle block is used in material handling.1.000 lb (900 kg). By multiplying the number of sheaves and rope parts. Block and Tackle : A safety factor of 10 is recommended for determining the safe working load of Manila rope (falls) in a block-and tackle assembly. add 10% to the weight of the load to compensate for friction loss.) The total weight on the tackle should never exceed this safe load limit. This large safety factor allows for (1) error in estimating the weight of the load. The governing factor usually is the safe working load of the blocks. and the tackle consists of two double blocks-four sheaves. 3. 8 Mechanical Works .6 cm) in diameter or larger. as specified by their manufacturers. An example for working out the procedure given above follows: 1. 2. the weight of the load that can be handled by the rope multiplies but does not correspondingly increase the strength of the blocks. and (4) deterioration of the rope due to wear or other causes. The safe work loads for rope used in block-and-tackle assemblies conversely 1 / 10th of the block's breaking strength. proceed as follows: 1. To find the required breaking strength for new rope. Calculations show that. rather than of the falls (rope). (2) vibration or shock in handling the load on the tackle.E & C Division 7. Multiply the resultant figure by a safety factor of 10. in most instances. based on a safety factor of 10. using a safety factor of 10 for the rope automatically makes the load on the blocks correspond to the rope size within safe work load limits. (3) loss of strength at knots and bends. the process of connecting them is termed as REEVING.

therefore. wire rope is more serviceable than fibre rope. paying particular Figure below shows how tackle blocks should be reeved.700 lb (3.200 kg). New Manila rope of 7/8 in.E & C Division 2. Friction loss (10% for each sheave) = 40% or 800 lb (363 kg). When blocks and falls are used to lift heavy materials or to keep heavy loads in suspension.500 kg) and. 2. Mechanical Works 9 . (22-cm) diameter is 2. If the sheave holes in blocks are too small to permit sufficient clearance.000 lb (3. excessive internal friction on the fibres will occur if the diameter of the sheave is too small for the rope.000 lb (900 kg)-the equivalent of the total load in the example.270 kg). Attach the rope to the block with a thimble and a proper eye Likewise. 4. (22 cm) has a breaking strength of 7. as on heavy-duty scaffolds. attention to parts that are subject to wear. the required breaking strength of the rope. excessive surface wear of the rope will occur.000 + 800 = 2. When using block and tackle in confined spaces.800 lb (1. Synthetic fibres would have greater tensile strength. The safe work load limit for two double blocks made for rope Of 7/8. A mousing of yarn or small rope should be placed on the upper hook of a set of falls as a precaution against its accidental detachment. provide guards on the pulley block so that a person's hands cannot be caught between the pulley and the rope. is the proper size for the load. SHE Manual 3. which divided by 4 (the number of parts at the movable block) = 700 lb (3 1 8 kg). Applying the safety factor of 10 (10 x 700) gives 7. Inspect blocks thoroughly and frequently.

bridle hitches. and weight a rigger needs to know what method of attachment can be safely used. Judgement of distance 3. The contractor needs to train those employees who are responsible for rigging loads about the :1. slings.1. Some of the types of hitching / slinging are given below: Watch for broken wires in This socket must be replaced Mechanical Works 10 . Because loads vary in physical dimensions. The most important rigging precautions are to determine the weight and the size of the load before attempting to lift it. Selection of tackle and lifting gear 4. basket hitch etc.3 Rigging: SHE Manual In lifting the various materials and supplies. and basket hitches can be used. a number of standard chokers.E & C Division 7. There are various methods of hitching the load to the hook through choker hitch. Knowledge of the load 2. This will determine the type of equipment and gear to be used and the method of slinging. It is estimated that at least about 15 to 50% of the crane accidents are due to improper rigging. shape. Proper operational directions to be given.

The usual crown breaks are accompanied by breaks in the valleys of the strands – these breaks are caused by “strands nicking” resulting from the heavy loads. A wire rope which has jumped a sheave. installation.E & C Division SHE Manual A wire rope which has been kinked. Close examination of the wires show two types of breaks – normal tensile “cup and cone” breaks and shear breaks which give the appearance if having been cut on an angle with a cold chisel. A fatigue break in a cable tool drill line caused by a tight kink developed in the rope during operation The fiber. or operation. An example of “fatigue” failure of a wire rope which has been subjected to heavy loads over small sheaves. Early rope failure will undoubtedly occur at this point. The itself is deformed into a “curl” as if bent around a round shaft. These strands and wires will not return to their original positions. Note the distortion of the strands and individual wires. wire ropes and chain slings attachments are dealt under appropriate headings. A kink is caused by pulling down a loop in a slack line during improper handling. Mechanical Works 11 . A wire rope which has been subjected to repeated bending over sheaves under normal loads. This results in “fatigue” breaks in individual wires-these breaks are square and usually in the crown of strands A “ bird cage” caused by sudden release of tension and resultant rebound of rope from overloaded condition.

As a general rule. Swaged sleeve sling endings should develop 92 to 95% of the wire rope’s strength. heat treatable alloy steel as the chain itself. or equivalent. Basket Hitch. when properly attached with wire rope sling should develop 100% of the rated strength of the wire rope. Choker. Some of the special rigging methods are shown below: - Identification tag Safety lock The three most common hitches for all types of slings are the Regular. The recommended load rating for a sling assembly is usually based on 1/5 the calculated strength of the assembly. In most cases the attachments are provided by the manufacturers themselves. When rigging irregular shaped loads or heavy loads proper rigging should be made. Hand tucked splices develop about 90% of the rope’s strength in ropes having diameter less than ½” and 80% for larger diameters. hooks and rings. Typical Double-chain sling Mechanical Works 12 . pear shaped links. Sockets and compression fittings. Compression fittings and swaged sleeve fittings are available from the wire rope manufacturers. coupling links and other attachments should be made of the same.E & C Division Method of Attachment: SHE Manual All hooks and rings used as sling connections should develop the full rated capacity of the sling. oblong links.

1 .Single Vertical Hitch 2 – Leg Bridle Hitches NOTE: Load may be supported on only 2 legs while 3rd leg balances it. 3-Leg Bridle Hitch Mechanical Works 13 .E & C Division SHE Manual Safe Slinging Practices: Leg length can be adjusted with turnbuckles.

Single Choker Hitches Mechanical Works 14 . Double Wrap Basket Hitch Pair of Double Wrap Basket “Double” choker Use to turn loads Not recommended Recommended Right Wrong Chokers do not provide full support for loose loads – Material can fall out.E & C Division SHE Manual Single Double Wrap Basket Hitch This hitch compresses the load and prevents it from slipping out of the slings.

60 x SWL of rope Load held on four parts of rope Packers to prevent chafe Packers to prevent chafe Endless Sling with Four Legs SWL= 1.8 x SWL of rope Load held on two parts of rope Sling with two separate legs SWL= 1.00 x SWL of rope Mechanical Works 15 .25 x SWL of rope Endless Sling with Two legs and Choke Hitch SWL= 1.8 x SWL of rope Simple sling with two legs SWL= 0.60 x SWL of rope Sling with Four Separate Legs SWL= 2.E & C Division SHE Manual Types of Slinging and SWL of this Mode: Load held on one part of rope Load held on Two part of rope Packers to prevent chafe Sling with Choke Hitch SWL= 0.

E & C Division Sling Calculation: - SHE Manual When this angle is greater than 450 SWL = SWL (of single vertical hitch) x 3/4 When this angle is less than 450 SWL = SWL (of single vertical hitch) x A/B Determining capacity of single choker hitch When this angle is greater than 450 SWL = SWL (of single vertical hitch) x ¾ x H/L x 2 When the choker angle is less than 450 SWL = SWL (of single vertical hitch) x ¾ x H/L x 2 Determining capacity of double choker hitch Mechanical Works 16 .

Mechanical Works 17 . quad chain sling to handle loads of virtually any size or shape.balance load by a double sling with chain leg adjusted (Two short chains with grab hooks attached to the master links. Triple. Out .of .) Wear Surfa Web sling protects roller polished surface Extreme wear at load bearing surfaces.E & C Division Special Rigging / Heavy Rigging: - SHE Manual Double.

The format of annual through examination of loose gear exempted from annealing is given in annexe 6. 2. The pressure vessels should be periodically tested and examined as per the procedure laid under rule 207 ( as given in annexe 8) and a suitable record of the same should also be maintained. Test Certificates: SHE Manual THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) CENTRAL RULES. 1996 vide rule 56 require the employer to ensure that all lifting machinery including all parts and gears thereof are tested periodically by the competent person before taking them into use for the first time or after repairs and also after 5 years of their use.4. The formats in which these are to be maintained are given in annexes 1. Mechanical Works 18 . A record of these tests should maintained in the form of a register as given in annexe 7.1. 3 and 4. The format can be the same as given under Factories Act & Rules.E & C Division 7. The format for keeping the record of annealing of loose gear is given in annexe 5.these machinery and gear should be annually examined by a competent person and a record of the same should be maintained. Apart from this.

4. Operators and Banksman: Crane Driver and Slinger: Normally crane operator tries to do simultaneously resulting in flying start. jerky movements of the load. jumpy quick reversal and sudden stops. be sure it is rewound in the correct direction and seated properly in the drum grooves. otherwise the rope will be damaged and the hoist limit switch will not operate to stop the hoist in the high position. Slack must be removed from the sling and hoisting ropes before the load is lifted. Mechanical Works .5. Be sure everyone in the immediate area is clear of the load and aware that a load is being moved. 1. Cranes shall not be used for side pulls. SHE Manual several and jerky to avoid following operations operation. Loads should not be swung by the crane to reach areas not under the crane ( Figure below ) 2. Centre the crane over the load before starting the hoist to avoid swinging the load as the 1ift is started. Never lower the block below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.1. Activate the warning device 19 5. the suggested. In order provide smooth and safe operations. 3. these and rules are Crane controls should be moved smoothly and gradually to avoid abrupt.E & C Division 7. Crane hoisting ropes should be kept vertical. Should all the rope be unwound from the drum.

If the hoist brakes do not hold. load chains. etc. Do not operate the crane if limit switches are out of order or if ropes show defects or wear. or other load lifting devices are fully seated in the saddle of the hook. Do not make lifts beyond the rated load capacity of the crane. 12. 9. 7. sling chains. the hoist brakes should be tested by returning the master switch or push button to the OFF position after raising the load a few inches off the floor. 10. When a duplex hook (double saddle hook) is used. 6. Check to be sure that the load is lifted high enough to clear all obstructions and personnel when moving bridge or trolley. rope slings. Report the defect immediately to the supervisor. lowering. On all capacity or near capacity loads. At no time should a load be left suspended from the crane unless the operator is at the master switches or push button with the power on. 8. Make certain that before moving the load. set the load on the floor and do not operate the crane.E & C Division SHE Manual (if provided) when raising. or moving loads wherever people are working to make them aware that a load is being moved. and under this condition keep the load as Mechanical Works 20 . load slings. a double sling or choker should be used to assure that the load is equally divided over both saddles of the hook. 11.

(If all sling hooks are not needed. Upper limit switches (and lower limit switches. Before closing main or emergency switches. 13. (The slight pause is necessary to give the braking mechanism time to operate. 19. 21. (Dangling cables or hooks hung in sling rings can inadvertently snag other objects when the crane is moving. 23. mechanical. it is the joint responsibility of the crane operator and the hitcher to see that hitches are secure and that all loose material has been removed from the load before starting a lift. magnetic. adjust or disconnect limit switches in order to go higher than the switch will allow. they should be properly stored or a different sling should be used.E & C Division SHE Manual close as possible to the floor to minimise the possibility of an injury if the load should drop.) 16. place your controllers in the OFF position and keep them there until power is again available. If the electric power goes off. always stop the controllers momentarily in the OFF position before reversing-except to avoid accidents. friction. Molten metal shall never be carried overhead where it could splash onto personnel. when provided) should be tested in stopping the hoist at the beginning of each shift. or vacuum. be sure that all controllers are in the OFF position so that the crane will not start unexpectedly. or as frequently as otherwise directed. 18. When a hitcher is used. When the crane is holding a load. (These are emergency devices and are not to be used as operating controls) 17.) 15.) Mechanical Works 21 . If plugging protection is not provided. Do not block. Do not lift loads with any sling hooks hanging loose. hoist under normal operating conditions. 22. All slings or cables should be removed from the crane hooks when not in use. Crane operators should not use limit switches to stop the. No loads should be moved or suspended over people regardless of the attachment. the crane operator should remain at the master switch or push button. 20. 14.

it is very important that the crane operators take signals from only one designated person. 25. the crane operator should remain in the crane cab unless otherwise instructed by the supervisor. When two or more cranes are used in making one lift. In case of emergency or during inspection. Contacts with runway stops or other cranes shall be made with extreme caution. Do not change fuse sizes. the following procedure should be followed: (a) Raise all hooks to an intermediate position. Whenever the operator leaves the crane. Even when a crane operator has placed the card. 30. Mechanical Works 22 . a warning sign or signal should be displayed and the main switch should be locked in the OFF position. Never bypass any electrical limit switches or warning devices. (c) Place all controls in the OFF Position. regardless of whether it is locked out or not. (b) Spot the crane at an approved designated location. or lubricating. 26. operators should set the brake and anchor it securely so the crane will not be moved by the wind. 29. The operator shall do so with particular care for the safety of persons on or below the crane. it is necessary to make a careful check to determine that no one else is working on the crane. Never attempt to close a switch that has an OUT OF ORDER or Do NOT OPERATE card on it. 27.E & C Division SHE Manual 24. cleaning. (d) Open the main switch to the OFF Position. before removing the card. NOTE: On yard cranes (cranes on outside runways). This should be done whether the work is being done by the crane operator or by others. 28. repairing. and only after making certain that any persons on the other cranes are aware of what is being done. (e) Make a visual check before leaving the crane. Never move or bump-another crane that has a warning sign or signal displayed. Do not attempt to repair electrical apparatus or to make other major repairs on the crane unless qualified and specific authorisation has been received. On cab-operated cranes when others are doing the work.

This is an emergency device and is not to be used as a production operating control.E & C Division SHE Manual 31. Mechanical Works 23 . Load limit or overload devices shall not be used to measure loads being lifted.

tool or appliances exceeding in weight the maximum limits set out in the following table: Person Maximum Weight Load Adult-man 55 kg Adult-woman 30 kg Adolescent-male 30 kg Adolescent-female 20 kg Unless aided by any other building worker or a mechanical device. any material. ” (b) No building worker aided by other building workers. Lifting and carrying of excessive weight- SHE Manual As per Rule 38 of THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) CENTRAL RULES. lift by hand or carry overhead or over their back or shoulders. tool or appliance exceeding in weight the sum total of maximum limits set out for each building worker separately under clause (a).6. article. 1996 “An employer shall ensure at a construction site of a building or other construction work that (a) No building worker lifts by hand or carries over-head or over his back or shoulders any material. article.E & C Division 7. unless aided by a mechanical device.1. Mechanical Works 24 .

2. The following diagrams show some of the common type of derricks used at construction site. 1998 give statutory guidance regarding the construction of the derrick. Rules 67 & 68 of THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITION OF SERVICE) CENTRAL RULES. Crane Safety Derricks and Cranes: Derricks: SHE Manual The derricks are normally rigged/fabricated at the site to do a specific repeated type of job like piling operation. within a small radius of swing. Stiff Leg Derrick Mechanical Works 25 .E & C Division 7.

E & C Division SHE Manual Frame Derrick Guy Derrick Mechanical Works 26 .

guy ropes. swivel hook. check for proper bolts and their tightness CRANES: Some of the common types of crane in use at the site are given below: Mechanical Works 27 . ♦ The mast. ♦ Depending on the type of derrick..E & C Division The following guidelines may be followed: SHE Manual ♦ A competent person should ascertain the lifting capacity of the derrick and it should not be overloaded. ♦ All precautions should be taken so that base of the derrick does not shift or sink. the mast should be firmly fixed by guy ropes / structure. of the derrick should be thoroughly checked before erecting the derrick. rope clamps etc. wire ropes. ♦ Guys of the derrick should be anchored tightly with strong structures / hold fasts/ anchorage blocks ♦ The load being hoisted should not run against the derrick ♦ All welded parts of derricks especially in bracing and stiffeners should be periodically checked for any crack. or defects in metal itself ♦ If bolted joints are used.

E & C Division SHE Manual JIB CRANE PILLER CRANE Mechanical Works 28 .

E & C Division SHE Manual Mechanical Works 29 .

Mechanical Works 30 . Crane should never be overloaded. the crane is chosen. The Safe working load is generally tabulated in the Load chart of the crane. 5. The Crane operator shall respond to signals only from the appointed signaller but shall obey stop signal at any time no matter who gives it. 1998 are given below: 1. etc. bend in angle. Standard signalling code properly understood by the Operator and trained signal man should be used. 6. They should not be placed near the edge of the pit or excavation. and Condition of clutch brake. Bracing etc. Tag lines should be used while hoisting heavy and bulky materials. ropes/slings. Some of the important requirements as given under THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS ( REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITION OF SERVICE ) CENTRAL RULES. Safe working load of any mobile crane depends on • • • • • Operator’s skill condition of the ground Boom length Radius of rotation while lifting the load inclination of boom to the vertical out rigger blocked/free 2.E & C Division According to the site requirement. Brakes should be checked while lifting critical load and adjusted if needed. 3. Mobile cranes should be parked on hard soil or strong base. etc. 4. The load is the total load. The capacity of the crane should be ascertained before using. Sometimes cranes are derated due to the defects in welding. hung from the rope sheaves of the boom including weight of hook block. SHE Manual The Do’s and Don’ts of operation have been given under Ropes and Rigging.

17. with blocking. the hook block should be anchored firmly and swing lock be released. Proper quality of packing should be used and the outrigger should rest tightly on the packing. 11. 19. or adding counter-weight. 12. An extended boom never should be lowered to one side of the chassis for the stability of the crane is usually reduced in that position and the crane will get over turned. When an extended boom is used on the crane. 15. The operator should be able to see the hook and load throughout the hoisting period. mud and 31 8. 9. During storm.E & C Division 7. 18. The boom or any part of the crane should not come near any live electric line/service line. The use of any make shift methods to increase the capacity of crane such as timbers. 14. should not be permitted. Swinging of load should be done smoothly. hook. 10. SHE Manual The brakes. Mechanical Works . 16. The crane operator should keep the deck clean of any oil. rope anchoring should be checked periodically by Maintenance personnel to ensure the crane's safe operation. The load being lifted should not touch the boom. the crane operator should remove the load from the hook and raise the hook block to maximum height. the operator must use extreme care in lowering load to the ground. wire ropes and pulleys. Nobody should stand below the boom or load. Before leaving the crane at the end of the workday. 13. boom. The crane has to be travelled on a heavy timber mat whenever there is instability of soil.

20. After a boom extension. in order to prevent accident due to this. Ensure atleast two full turns of rope be always on the rope drum. the hooks shall be lowered to the required lowest point to ensure that atleast two turns of rope remain on the drum and to the highest point to check that the drum capacity will not be exceeded. SHE Manual Operator should always keep the windshield clear. 21. Mechanical Works 32 .E & C Division grease.

tyre mounted mobile cranes in addition to the precautions given above. 1. ropes/slings. 4. Radius of rotation while lifting the load. 3. 9. Bracing etc. 5. The capacity of the crane should be ascertained before use. The Crane Operator shall respond to signals only from the appointed signaller but shall obey stop signal at any time no matter who gives it. Mechanical Works 33 .Sometimes cranes are derated due to the defects in welding. inclination of boom to the vertical out rigger blocked/free. The load is the total load. 10. 7. hook. etc. 8. 11. Safe working load of any mobile crane depends on Operator's skill. should not be placed near the edge of the pit or excavation. Standard signalling code properly understood by the Operator and trained signal man should be used. boom. etc. Tag lines should be used while hoisting heavy and bulky materials. The Safe working load is generally tabulated in the Load chart of the crane. Boom length. The load being lifted should not touch the boom. They 2. 6. hung from the rope sheaves of the boom including weight of hook block. condition of the ground. Mobile cranes should be parked on hard soil or strong base. The brakes. wire ropes and pulleys. and Condition of clutch brake.E & C Division Mobile Cranes: SHE Manual Following precautions have to be taken while using. Brakes should be checked while lifting critical load and adjusted if needed. bend in angle. Crane should never be overloaded. rope anchoring should be checked periodically by a Maintenance person to ensure the crane's safe operation.

19. 17. SHE Manual The boom or any part of the crane should not come near any live electric service line. 16. Cranes with cantilever type jib.E & C Division 12. Headlights. Side Lamps. the crane should travel in the reverse and on reaching level ground it should travel in the normal way otherwise. the jib should be lowered to a horizontal position. 18. The pneumatic tyres shall be maintained at the correct pressure at all times. Mechanical Works 34 . Nobody should stand below the boom or load. rear and stop lights and flashing direction indicator. Swinging of load should he done smoothly. the load shall be kept in front of the crane and when travelling down a gradient. 13. When travelling up a gradient. 14. The mobile crane shall be fitted with suitable horn. constant watch on the radius should be maintained while travelling on uneven surfaces. when travelling without load. 15. Proper quality of packing should be used and the outrigger should rest tightly on the packing.

crushing.) Check Hoist Rope. Emergency stop -Pendant. Twist. Cracks or components -Hok block. Sheaves. or Chain -End connections Chain-excessive wear. tanks. Twist distorted links.) Check for deterioration or leakage in lines.__________ Crane No. or Damage -Saddle wear (10%) Max -Twist (10%) Max -Throat opening (15%) Max 4.) Examine load hooks for wear.excessive wear.E & C Division Crane Operation Daily Checklist SHE Manual Crane Operation Daily Checklist For The Month _________ 2001 Name of Site:___________________Operator's Name:______________Lincence No. End connections Chain. Distorted links.) Test run unit. valves drain pumps and other parts of air or hydraulic systems 3. Cracks. other items may apply. kninking. Stretch Slings. stretch Rope. Broken wires tears 6.) Check upper limit with no load Date 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 4 Item Number 5 6 7 8 Operators Remark Sign Code: A= Acceptable D=Defective. 1.Proper spooling 8.) Check for excessive wear. Report at Once Signature of P & M Incharge : Signature of Site Safety Officer : Signature of RCM : Mechanical Works 35 .) Check all running ropes and chains for correct reeving . broken wires -Latch 5.) Check load attachments -Capacity ratings.___________________ Model#__________________ Type: _______________________ Date of Inspection: __________________________Date of expiry: _________________by competent person Description The following applicable items shall be checked daily. observe operation for malfunctions -Safety. Joystick -Correct direction of motions -Brakes of all motions 2. Kninking. Hook 7.crushing.

The structural members should be kept in orderly manner on the ground so that they do not roll down or slide while being handled.E & C Division 7. No sling should be overloaded. 3. generators. At the same time. should be utilised for handling. hole matching. No person shall walk. while being used as diversion pulleys.3 Erection of Structures: 1. The structural members should be able to be taken out as per sequence of erection without disturbing the stack. 7. However. only one signaller shall give proper signals. etc. etc by feeling with a finger must be strictly curbed. In no case. etc. 36 2. During erection. Mechanical Works . 5. skids. on the type of equipment to be handled. ropes. should made depending. rollers. A visual check must be done regarding fitness of all lifting &. Structural Erection: 1. 4. stand or work beneath suspended load. 9. 8. slings etc. before every use. The common tendency of checking gear meshing lubrication. pulley block suitable for fibre rope should be used for steel wire ropes. haulage tackles. turbine. 2. before handling any equipment. a ‘STOP' signal should be obeyed whoever gives it. Selection of Tommy bars. light structures should not be stacked below heavy structural members where they are likely to be damaged. 6. Eye bolts provided at correct slinging points for heavy Machinery parts such as motors. Proper quality of pulley block should be used. coupling matching. SHE Manual Load should be properly ascertained to identify Centre of Gravity and load transfer at slinging point.

Lifeline must be tied to any independent strong members. 10. Care should be taken while lifting loads. etc. All persons working at height and standing on structural members must wear safety belts equipped with suitable lifeline. All electrically operated equipment like grinding machine. Welding machine. must have proper earthing. should not be allowed to work at height. (epilepsy. 8. left for easy SHE Manual handling and All persons shall stand clear when a crane is sorting or shifting steel girders or other structural materials. it shall be so held that the employee's hand does not get jammed against other objects. gloves. Providing padding over sharp edges should protect ropes and slings. 16. Proper sequence of erection should be followed.E & C Division 3. Only those persons who are skilled in working at height should be engaged for jobs to be done at height. or addicted to drug/alcohol. 12. Slinging should be carefully done so as to prevent the load from slipping. etc. 6.. 9. Care should be taken to fasten the erected members properly and to secure by guys. etc. While positioning a beam or fabricated structure. it may not be possible to use safety Mechanical Works 37 . 4. 15. 5. 14. Persons suffering from diseases. Loose bolt. Clear passages should be transportation of structures. etc. In the process of ascending or descending a column and while placing a truss in position. nuts and tools must be kept in boxes and not on structures. at heights. etc. whenever necessary. they should be tied with a rope fixed to nearby structure so that they will not drop on the ground in case of any slip. 7. Drilling machine. All safety appliances like safety helmet. Boxes must have proper anchorage. 13. safety belts must be used in erection site. 11. Proper tag line must be used for guiding while lifting loads. revetting hammers. While using spanners. blood pressure. etc.

G. Use of nets is recommended while job is done in elevated places. should be erected first and held by separate cranes and only after bracing are fixed. The man on the roof should use safety belt. When a column is erected. Only after bracing system is fixed the ropes in that axis can be removed and the other two can be removed only after roof trusses are fixed. A lot of precautions are to be taken for erecting roof girders and roof trusses as they are usually slender. which have a bracing system. The required number of CGI sheets only should be lifted and unbolted.ty. 20. it should be kept in vertical position using a minimum of 4' guy ropes unless secured otherwise.1 sheet should be kept tied on the top. C.G. 17. in such cases. For all other spans. where suitable platform cannot be provided. If semi -permanent cat-ladders cannot be provided. Mechanical Works 38 . 18. Rope ladder should be placed in position and its top should be tied with individual strong members.1 sheets should be lifted manually by proper system.E & C Division SHE Manual belts or provide platforms. 19.I sheet falling from a height can cause heavy casua. The trusses. rope ladders must be used. very long and unstable by themselves.G. Monitor roof should be erected separately. C. Roof truss should never be erected along with monitor roof truss. C. riggers with expertise in such jobs should be engaged. the crane should be released. only purling and horizontal runners need to be fixed before release of cranes.

Successful use of synthetic fibre rope depends largely on selecting the synthetic with physical properties and characteristics that most closely match the requirements of the job. It is. Tapered splices are highly recommended for rope sizes with a 1-in. diameter. Nylon rope also is highly resistant to organisms that cause mildew and rotting and to attack by marine borers in sea water. 7. such as is required for restraint lines. (2. Use. care and maintenance.4. • • • Mechanical Works 39 . • Nylon rope: • Nylon rope has over two and a half times the breaking strength of Manila rope and about four times its working elasticity. their use.E & C Division 7. therefore.4. well suited to shock loading. Care and Maintenance of Slings : SHE Manual In any construction site the main activity will be handling and storage of material. Synthetic fibre ropes are used more often than natural fibre ropes for the following reasons. its breaking strength is reduced by 10% to 15%. While nylon rope is wet or frozen.5-cm).1 Synthetic Fibres: Nylon. and polyolefin ropes are the major types of synthetic fibre ropes used. This chapter deals with different types of slings. or larger. Its resistance to abrasion is remarkably high in comparison to other ropes. Splices can be made readily in synthetic fibre rope and can develop nearly the full strength of the rope. • More is known about the properties of various synthetics. Polyester.

such as linseed oil or the phenols. is made of polyester. It burns at about 480 F (250 C). It floats and is unaffected by water. It is not weakened by rot. also. especially for critical uses. or prolonged exposure to seawater. mildew. but its resistance to ultraviolet light. and fungus. Although resistant to petroleum oils and most common solvents and chemicals. Since there is no swelling. Exercise caution. nylon's strength is affected by drying oils. does not absorb moisture. most of nylon's strength is regained upon cooling to normal temperature. • • Polyolefin rope: • • In general. therefore. this energy makes the rope's moving ends as dangerous as a projectile. and loses strength at temperatures over 390 F (200 C). when working nylon lines around corners. When nylon rope breaks. wet nylon rope runs through blocks as easily as dry nylon rope. it does not shrink or swell with water. Mechanical Works 40 . Nylon loses some of its strength at 300 F (150 C) and all of it at 482 F (250 C)-its normal melting point. Polyolefin. Polyester. more than any other rope material. Nylon rope is also vulnerable to strong mineral acids. It is unaffected by rot. so energy absorption is also about half as much. retains its full strength when wet because it does not absorb moisture. Nylon of a higher melting point is available. Polyester rope: • • • The best general-purpose rope available. polyolefin rope is strong and inexpensive. Short of melting. and the like. will absorb and store energy in the same manner as a spring. Nylon.E & C Division • • • SHE Manual • • Exposure to air produces little loss of strength over long periods of time. mildew. Polyesters stretch about half as much as nylon. phenolic compounds. like polyester. Polyester is somewhat vulnerable to alkalis. It shows little deterioration from long exposure to sunlight and has good resistance to abrasive wear. capstans. timber heads. and heat. therefore.

it swells and softens with hydrocarbons. size for size. particularly at temperatures above 150 F (66 C). with a specific gravity of 0. However. Pure polypropylene rope has relatively poor rendering properties. Composite rope results from attempts to give the surface of the rope or strand more wear resistance. with a specific gravity of 0.91 and a softening point of 300 F (150 C). Composite rope can be made to match the requirements of specific jobs. It is strong and has little stretch. caution has to be exercised while using thumb rule. as well as other types of abrasion. 41 Mechanical Works .E & C Division • SHE Manual • • • • • • Polyolefin rope is also highly resistant to a wide variety of acids (except nitric acid) and alkalis. Polyethylene rope also has a comparatively low softening point and low coefficient of friction.95 and a softening point of 250 F (120 C). as well as to alcohol-type solvents and bleaching solutions. Working Load : • Because the safety factor is not the same for all ropes and is based upon static loading. is characteristically slippery and has very little springiness. is made in several different size filaments and from film with or without longitudinal fracturing. Also caution has exercised when using the working load figures supplied by the manufacturer. must be avoided because even modest loads will cause a sawing motion that leads to a built up of friction. greater internal tensile strength. It burns at 330 F (166 C) and loses some strength at 150 E E Polyethylene rope. or more structural strength to retain its shape. Descriptions of two types of polyolefin ropes are given below: Polypropylene rope. The movement of crossed ropes. Polypropylene rope is about 50% stronger than Manila rope. Composite rope : • • Rope made by combining several types of synthetic fibres or by combining synthetic and natural fibres is also available.

and (4) with very modest dynamic loads included. It is advisable to Select a higher working load only with expert knowledge of conditions and a professional estimate of the risks involved. Many uses of rope involve serious risk of injury to personnel or of damage to valuable property. moved. snubs. Working load figures do not apply when rope is subject to significant dynamic loading. working loads are tabulated for rope (1) in good condition. there is an increased force due to dynamic 42 • • Mechanical Works . or swung. (2) whether it has been inspected and found to be in good condition. stopped. it may recoil with considerable force-especially if the rope is made of nylon. (2) with appropriate splices in non critical applications. extended periods under load. a heavy load supported above one or more workers. consult the manufacturer. and (4) whether the application involves high temperatures. such as sudden drops. or pickups. the SWL should be greatly reduced and the rope should be properly inspected and the manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations on working loads. In all cases where such risks are present. This risk is often obvious.E & C Division • SHE Manual To provide guidelines. for example. or if there is any question about the loads involved or the conditions of use. Should the rope fail. or obvious dynamic loading. Workers should be warned against standing in line with the rope. (3) whether it is to be used in the recommended manner. Whenever a load is picked up. Factors to consider include: (1) whether the rope has been subject to dynamic loading or other excessive use. • • For all such applications and for applications involving more severe conditions of exposure. or for recommendations on special applications. Dynamic loading automatically voids the working load. (3) under normal service conditions. An equally dangerous situation occurs if personnel are in line with a rope that is under excessive tension.

the force put on the rope may be two. such as when picking up a tow on a slack line or using a rope to stop a falling object. untwist the rope in several places to see whether the inner yarns are bright. the load must be handled slowly and smoothly to minimise dynamic effects and to avoid exceeding the provision for them. natural fibre ropes. broken or cut fibres. variation in size or roundness of strands. Any irregularity in the uniformity of appearance is evidence of possible weakness. displacement of yarns or strands. In extreme cases. however.E & C Division SHE Manual loading. Dynamic effects are also greater on a shorter rope than on a longer one. thoroughly inspect its entire length to determine that no part of it is damaged or defective. powdered fibre between strands. three. Before placing new rope in service. abrasions. Synthetic rope damage is not always visible. under ordinary conditions. To inspect the inner fibres. There is no agreement on what determines when a rope should be removed from service. replace or splice out the rope. clear. discoloration. The rope should be inspected much oftener if it is used in critical applications. and unspotted. Every 30 days. • Dynamic effects are greater on a rope with little stretch such as Manila than on a rope with higher stretch such as nylon. If there is a visible core or core damage. inch by inch. the greater this increase will be. for wear. The working load listed contains provision for very modest dynamic loads. damage to synthetic rope is not always visible. 43 • • • • Mechanical Works . as visual inspection does not always reveal acid damage. such as to support scaffolding on which employees work. or even more times the normal load involved. the rope should be inspected before taken in to use. Inspection consists of examining the entire length of the rope. should be scrapped or retired from critical operations. Likewise. The more rapidly or suddenly such actions occur. If exposed to acids. that when a working load has been used to select a rope. This means. such as Manila. and rotting.

The remaining strength of the rope will be in the proportion that the core yarns are to the original total of yarns. Manually break the fibre samples. surface wear may destroy the strength of the cover yarns. and general anticipated mishandling. To make a good estimate of the strength of fibres. synthetic ropes sometime melt on the surface and form a skin.. yet not affect the original strength of the core yarns. an estimate of the rope's strength can be made. diameter-strength ratio. scratch the fibres with a fingernail-fibres of poor strength will readily part. quartered to allow for twist configuration. This "fingernail test" is a quick test for chemical damage. 19 mm. • • • Care of Rope Being Used : • Safe use of different types of rope results from factors such as chaffing. elasticity. Rope. Due to slippage on a supporting surface when under high tension. If the diameter of a rope is worn more than 5 % the rope should be replaced. diameter. In small ropes (up to 1/4in. replace it and look for the source of abrasion.E & C Division • SHE Manual Natural fibre rope loaded to over 50% of its breaking strength will be permanently damaged. Damage from overloading may be detected by examining the inside fibres. This skin is the evidence of wear. surface wear that has progressed to the centre of the twisted element (yarn) may account for more than an 80% loss of the rope's strength. and estimate the distribution of fibres in a cross section. will often "fuzz. To keep rope in good condition. the following precautions should be observed: Mechanical Works 44 . (19-mm). cutting. If a rope is very fuzzy. If fibre samples can be secured from the rope. or more. in diameter). These will be broken into short lengths in proportion to the degree of overload. In ropes with a 3/4-1n. using multifilament synthetic fibre on the surface. synthetics loaded to over 65% may be damaged." This is due to minute fibre breakage.

do not drag rope since this wears away the outer fibres. but a knot retains only 50%. pad the corners. Severe unbalance can cause permanent damage. select an object with a smooth round surface of sufficient diameter. If it uncoils in the other direction. use sheaves or surface curvatures of suitable size for the rope's diameter. otherwise. Do not knot them. If the object does have sharp corners. Rope deteriorates more rapidly if it is alternately wet and dry than if it remains wet. near power lines or other electrical equipment. It may be difficult to detect a weak spot made by a kink. To avoid excessive bending. Do not use wet rope. and pull the end out on the other side. Kinking strains the rope and may over stress the fibres. To prevent a new rope from kinking while it is being un -coiled. Avoid sharp bends over an unyielding surface since this causes extreme tension on the fibres. it will quickly deteriorate. or rope reinforced with metallic strands. Hang up a wet rope. Use of such rope could cause injury by electric shock to workers. A well-made splice will retain up to 100% of the strength of the rope. • Splice lengths of rope that must be joined. localised over twisting causes kinking or hocking. or lay it in a loose coil in a dry place until thoroughly dry. To make a rope fast. • • Mechanical Works 45 . Pull the bottom end up through the coil. If a rope picks up dirt and sand. abrasion within the strands of the rope will rapidly wear it out. Handle twisted rope so it retains the amount of twist (called balance) that the rope seeks when free and relaxed.E & C Division • SHE Manual • • • • If possible. If rotating loads and improper coiling and uncoiling change the balance. Do not allow wet rope to freeze. restore it by properly twisting the rope at either end. turn the coil of rope over. and unwind the rope counter clockwise. lay the rope coil on the floor with the bottom end down. Thoroughly dry out rope that has become wet.

Wire rope has greater strength and durability under severe working conditions than does fibre rope. plow steel.). or it can be a metallic strand core or independent wire rope core (IWRC). 6 x 25 filler wire. The service for which the rope is to be used determines the size. the lay. 6 x 37. • • Classifications: • The most popular and most generally used constructions of wire rope are six-strand ropes of these two classifications-the 6 x 19 and 6 x 37. To make a strand. Wire rope has controlled and predictable stretch characteristics. improved plow steel. the number of strands. mild plow steel. ranging in number of wires per strand from 15 to 26. The wires are then laid together in various geometrical arrangements according to construction requirements for strands and classifications of wire rope (6 x 19. the required number are coiled around the core. Construction • Wire rope is composed of steel wires. These lengths have a definite ratio to the length of lay or pitch used in forming the finished wire rope. and the type of core In a wire rope.E & C Division 7. strands. etc. After the individual strands are made.2 • Wire rope : SHE Manual Wire rope is more widely used than fibre rope. Grades include iron. carefully selected lengths of pitch or lay are used. the number and arrangement of wires. The 6 x 19 classification contains a variety of constructions for wire rope. The physical characteristics of wire rope do not change when used in varying environments. The individual wires are cold drawn to predetermined size and breaking loads according to required grades. Typical constructions are 6 x 19 Seale.4. and 6 x 19 Warrington. which supports the load-carrying strands. and core. The 6 x 37 classification also covers a large number of designs and constructions for wire rope with the number of wires per strand ranging 46 • Mechanical Works . and extra-improved plow steel. tractor. The core can be made of sisal or synthetic fibre.

Some conditions require rope with special qualities. Generally speaking. or an RVRC. consult engineers from reliable wire rope manufacturers. Flexibility is not a requirement for guy wires. exercise care to make the proper selection Service Requirements: • Depending upon service requirements and conditions. six-strand ropes may have a fibre core (FC). When selecting wire rope for a particular job.4 cm) and larger. highway guards. a metallic core provides greater efficiency and safety. the more abrasion resistant and crush resistant is the rope. a wire strand core (WSC). the greater the number of wires per strand. or they may be laid in the same direction (lang. (6. Under such conditions. thus. A zinc-coated or stainless-steel wire rope effectively resists some types of corrosion. However. They are usually of the 8 X 19 classification with regular lay and a FC or IWRC. 2 in. Since preformed wire rope does not unravel. practically all wire rope is produced in the 6 x 37 or 6 x 61 class. Preformed wire rope is less likely. the more flexible the wire rope. it has advantages for certain services. wire rope of 6 x 7 construction (six strands with seven wires per strand) is suitable. lay) as those of the strands in the rope. • • • Mechanical Works 47 . Typical constructions of this classification are 6 x 41 filler wire. 6 x 36 Warrington Seale. such as for slings to hoist heavy construction equipment.E & C Division SHE Manual from 27 to 49. Where maximum flexibility is required. Therefore. • In ropes with large diameters. Wires in the strands may be laid in the opposite direction (regular lay) from that of the strands in the rope. and similar services. because of the large number of possible rope constructions that are available. Therefore. to set or kink. broken wires are less likely to protrude and create a hazard to workers. eight-strand hoisting ropes are also used. Fibre cores are affected by temperatures above 250 F (120 C). 6 x 37. the fewer number of wires per strand. and 6 x 49 filler wire.

• Causes of Deterioration: • Deterioration of wire ropes is caused by a number of factors.E & C Division Design Factor for Rope Used in Hoisting: • SHE Manual The operating or design factors for rope used in hoisting are calculated by dividing the nominal catalogue strength of the rope by the sum of the maximum loads to be hoisted. is indicated by pitting. particularly on the crown or outside wires. It is recommended that hoisting rope have at least the strength of improved plow steel. it is prudent to check what codes are in force before making a final determination or selection of wire ropes to be used in hoisting. or by torsional stresses. Fatigue. Many of these codes describe exactly how the design and operating factors should be figured. corrosion often is the principal cause of deterioration of wire rope used for hoisting in wet conditions. often hastened by heat and operating pressure. acquired from improper Installation of a new rope or from hoisting with slack in the rope. Also obtain the advice of a reliable wire rope manufacturer. Drying out of lubrication. can be caused by bending stresses from sheaves and drums with small radii. vibration. indicated by a square type of fracture at the end of the wire. This highly dangerous condition is difficult to detect. to provide an adequate design factor and better service. from contact with sheaves and drums. Corrosion. which vary considerably in importance depending on the conditions of service. Among other factors causing deterioration are the following: Wear. particularly of the interior wires. For some applications. by stresses from whipping. use extra-improved plow steel. Kinks. A kink cannot be removed without creating a weak place. For example. which is the greatest in strength. Moisture and the presence of acid in the water lead to corrosion. Therefore. It is normal practice to base this on static loads. and pounding. The minimum design factors for rope used in hoisting depend upon the type of service required and the state codes covering the particular hoisting operation. • • • • Mechanical Works 48 . Corrosion accelerates wear.

Mechanical abuse. abrasive particles. 4. Damage to wire rope may occur but not become known until some time after the overload. Light oils are sometimes used to loosen the coating of lubricant and harmful materials. and drying out of the core. cleans a rope effectively and thoroughly. and corrosion-producing moisture. The lubricant should be insoluble under the prevailing conditions. Over winding. successful over winding can be achieved by using specially engineered drum grooving. They also have the ability to penetrate the strands. method of attaching chain to fittings. Alloy steel is the standard material for chain slings because of its resistance to corrosion and wear and high tensile strength. 1. or other mechanical method. when rope length is greater than the drum can accommodate in a single layer. 2. clean a wire rope before lubricating it. However.E & C Division • SHE Manual • • Overloading. 6. is a better way to apply them. Good lubricants are free from acids and alkali and have adhesive strength. Regular application of a suitable lubricant to wire rope used for hoisting prevents corrosion. and proper inspection and maintenance. wear from friction. providing some means of dripping thin lubricants on the rope. Clean wire rope monthly. This can cause heavy abrasion and excessive wear at crossover points. Compressed air or steam jet. Chain Slings: • The safety of a chain sling assembly depends on the material used. or using a spray device to apply the proper quantity automatically. Thin lubricants can be applied by hand. 3. 5. Hooks and attachments are generally made of the same material. if acceleration and deceleration are factors of importance. However. It is more common for wire rope to be thrown away because of abuse than from use. Do not use cleaning fluids on wire rope-they harm the core's lubricant. Ropes should be dry when lubricant is applied so that moisture will not be entrapped by the lubricant. such as is done in mine shafts. its strength for the load handled. such as running over rope with equipment and permitting obstructions to remain in the rope's path of travel. to remove dirt. 49 Mechanical Works . including dynamic overloading. Lubrication: When possible. 7.

or other unsafe practices. faulty rigging. Workers must be trained in proper procedures for using and inspecting chain sling assemblies. these web slings require an initial inspection. A link-by-link inspection should be made to detect the following: • • • bent links cracks in weld areas. All metal mesh slings should be labelled to show their safe working load limit. if ignored. and high-temperature loads. concrete. Metal mesh slings are classified as either heavy-duty. with a formal inspection conducted once a year. Synthetic web slings are useful for lifting loads that need their surfaces protected. or use the sling when the spirals are locked. these slings are easily cut and have little resistance to abrasion. As a result. in shoulders. and periodic formal inspection by trained personnel. These slings rnust be inspected regularly. Also watch for the following signs of wear. Safe use of metal mesh slings is determined by use of the right sling for the right load and by the construction of the sling. however. could eventually result in sling breakdown: • • • • • broken wires in any part of the mesh a loss of 25% in wire diameter due to abrasion a lack of sling flexibility cracked end fitting visible distortion. twist or kink the legs. or in any other section of link kinks and gouges 50 Mechanical Works . medium-duty. with a six months inspection conducted by a trained professional. The most common causes of chain wear include overloading. or light-duty.E & C Division • SHE Manual Chains should be inspected daily by workers. Synthetic web slings and metal mesh slings are also widely used in industry. They are used to handle sharp edged material. Any one of these conditions or a combination of them. frequent on-the-job evaluation. Workers should never shorten metal mesh slings. • • Remove metal mesh slings from service if a broken weld or brazed joint is discovered along the sling edge.

E & C Division • • • transverse nicks and gouges. Train workers to take up the slack slowly so they can see that every link in the chain seats properly. Never splice a chain by inserting a bolt between two links. Never put a strain on a kinked chain. Whenever repairs are required. greatly reduce their strength. Whenever the throat opening exceeds 15% of the normal opening. and end links) designed for the chain to which they are fastened. SHE Manual When inspecting the hook. make sure the hooks are secure. Pay special attention to slings to which hooks have been added. Store chains not in use in a suitable rack. Loading on or toward the point (except in the case of grab hooks or others especially designed for the purpose) overloads the hook and leads to spreading and possible failure. corrosion pits stretching caused by overloading. Safe Practices Follow these recognised safe practices to prevent chain failures: • • Purchase chain slings complete from the manufacturer. Remember that decreasing the angle between the legs of a chain sling and the horizontal increases the load of the legs. Do not use a hammer to force a hook over a chain link. Use chain attachments (rings. Shackles. These processes reduce their hardness and. See that the load is always properly set in the bowl of the hook. couplings. Do not let them lie on the ground or floor where they can be damaged by lift trucks or other vehicles. send them back to the manufacturer. therefore. replace the hook. Never anneal or normalise alloy steel chains and hooks. Never remove the permanent identification tags that have been attached to chain slings by the manufacturer. Secure "out-of-balance" loads properly. • • • • • • • • • Operating Practices for all type of Slings: The following safe practices for all slings are given as guidance: Mechanical Works 51 . measure between the shank and the narrowest point of the hook opening.

• When extensive exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light is experienced by nylon or polyester web slings. • Twisting and kinking the legs (branches) shall be avoided. • In a basket hitch. • Nylon and polyester slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 194 F (90 C). dry. • Sling shall be hitched in a manner providing control of the load. the load should be balanced to prevent slippage. hitch. • The weight of a load shall be within the rated load capacity) of the sling. with or without a load. and environment shall be selected in accordance with appropriate specifications. and from between the sling a crane hook or hoist hook. • No portions of the human body should be kept from be the sling and the load. • Slings should be stored in a cool. personnel shall be alert for possible snagging. • A load applied to the hook should be centred in the base (bowl) of the hook to prevent point loading on the on the hook. • Slings should not be pulled from under a load when load is resting on the sling. slings shall be long enough so the choker fitting chokes on the webbing and never on the other fitting. • In a choker hitch. • Slings should not be dragged on the floor or over an abrasive surface. and dark place to prevent environmental damage. the sling manufacturer should be Mechanical Works 52 . • Sharp corners in contact with the sling should be padded with material of sufficient strength to minimise damage to the sling. • Slings that appeared to be damaged shall not be used unless inspected and accepted as usable. the sling's legs (branches) should contain or support the load from the sides above the centre of gravity. When using a basket hitch.E & C Division • SHE Manual Slings having suitable characteristics for the type of load. • Slings should be long enough so that the rated load (rated capacity) is adequate when the angle of the legs (branches) is taken into consideration. • Personnel shall not ride the sling. • During lifting. • Slings shall not be shortened or lengthened by knotting or other methods not approved by the sling manufacturers. • Shock loading should be avoided. • Personnel should stand clear of the suspended load.

However. machine them to proper contour and groove diameter. knuckles. 7. Maintenance of the rope and of the hoisting equipment is also required. while others use much larger ratios. It is essential that heads. and. The safety and the service life of installations for hoisting rope can be greatly increased by using sheaves and drums of suitable size and design and by properly lubricating them. curved sheaves. sometimes a sacrifice must be made because of designs and considerations for other equipment. inspect the grooves.E & C Division SHE Manual consulted for recommended inspection procedure because of loss in strength due to such exposure. idlers. the more favourable will be the rope's life. and grooved drums have grooves that support the rope properly.3 Lifting gears: Sheaves and Drums: • Fatigue of wire rope resulting from bend' g stresses depends upon drums' and sheaves' diameters-the larger the diameter of the drums and sheaves. • • • Mechanical Works 53 . where necessary.4. Many types of equipment successfully operate with smaller drum-and-sheaves rope ratios. Before installing a new rope.

E & C Division Sheaves: • SHE Manual The condition and contour of sheave grooves Is important for the service life of wire rope. Periodically check sheave grooves (Figure 10-4). check the sheaves for worn bearings. and the sides of the groove should be tangent to the ends of the bottom arc. and contour. During rope changes. Sheave groove bearing pressures can become very hot depending upon operating conditions and rope loading. expect a reduction in the rope's service life. The radius of the arc should be one-half the nominal rope diameter plus one-half the value. smoothness. for new (or re machined) grooves. The bottom of the groove should have a 150-degree arc of support. The depth of the groove should be one times the nominal diameter of the rope. • • • Mechanical Works 54 . proper groove size. Check sheaves for proper alignment when they are installed. and do not let them wear to a smaller diameter than those shown for used grooves in Table 10-G. therefore. It is necessary. Information on this subject may be found in most wire rope manufacturers' handbooks. broken flanges. High pressures can cause excessive sheave wear and shorten the life of wire rope. the grooves should be made for the size of rope specified. If they become worn more than this. On all new sheaves. Reconditioned sheave grooves should conform to the tolerance. to consider this factor and to select proper sheave materials and liners at the time of installation. Recondition or replace heavily worn or damaged sheaves. shown in Table 10-G.

Where practical. To reduce any tendency for the rope to open-wind. Multiple layering causes the rope to wear thus shortening the rope's life. In general. In no case should there be fewer than two full wraps on a drum. limit the number of layers to three. To assure the rope's starting back on the next 55 • • • • Mechanical Works . do not let the fleet angle exceed 1o30'. use drums wide enough diameter and length that they can take all the rope in a single layer. efficient winding of wire rope. avoid reverse bending of wire rope (bending first in one direction and then in the opposite) over sheaves or drums. In any case. The fleet angle is the included angle between the rope winding on the drum and a line perpendicular to the drum shaft and running through the head or lead sheave. Minimise crushing and excessive wear of wire rope using spirally grooved drums with capacity for one layer rope.E & C Division SHE Manual Recommended Tread Diameters of Sheaves and Drums for Wire Rope Average Rope Classification 6x7 6x19 6x37 8X19 Recommended (times rope diameter) 72 45 27 31 Minimum 42 30 18 21 Drums: • Avoid multiple-layer winding of rope on drunk if possible. Rope lifters at the flanges are recommended when two or more layers are wound on drums. This wears out the rope faster. three is preferred. particularly at the point where the rope rises to the next layer. cut off one-and-a-quarter wraps every 6 months or three or four times during the life of the rope. Correct fleet angle is important for even. To distribute wear uniformly crossover points.

use a minimum angle of 0030’ for smooth drums and 2o for grooved drums. the operator will encounter control difficulties because the rope will pile up. Maintain close supervision during the entire installation process to make sure that: 1. Shaft. Anchorage should be strong and firm. and usually does.E & C Division SHE Manual • layer. Also. Locking pins should be checked before use and lubrication done on necessary parts. The wire rope or fibre rope should run free without touching against the block or suspension parts. 56 • • • Mechanical Works . and fall from the pile to the drum surface.or smooth-faced drum requires a great deal of care. Installing a wire rope on a plain. Sheaves. The results of such abuse are lower operating performance and a loss in the rope's effective strength. Pulleys: • • • • Proper pulleys should be used. Hook pin. on jobs that require moving and spotting a load. Adhering to these 'fications helps achieve uniform winding on smooth-faced drums and also increases the winding efficiency of grooved drums. crushing. The starting position should be at the drum end so that each turn of the rope winds tightly against the preceding turn. pull into the pile. the rope is properly attached to the drum 2. Loose and uneven winding on a plain. The ensuing shock can break or otherwise damage the rope. and distortion of the rope. Sheaves should rotate freely on the shaft. For smooth-faced drums. create excessive wear. appropriate tension on the rope is maintained as it is wound on the drum 3. there are at least two dead turns on the drum when the rope is. each turn is guided as close to the preceding turn as possible so that there are no gaps between turns 4. according to the requirement of work In no case pulley meant for Manila/ Nylon rope should be used with steel rope. fully unwound during normal operating cycles. proper direction of lay of rope for specified winding conditions further helps achieve uniform winding. The shaft should be free from crack and should not be worn out.or smooth-faced drum. Grooves of the sheaves should be uniform and smooth. can.

• No cannibalising should be done on the chain block. • It should operate freely and the chain should not come out of the pulley.3/16 to 2. • The anchorage should be strong and rigid.1/2 incl. • Chain block must be checked. elongation.E & C Division • SHE Manual Anti twister should be used to prevent rubbing of ropes against one another. by subjecting to shock load. 1. • Chain block / pulley must be checked if stored for a long time. • Chain block should be tested for slip by suspending safe load. 2. 1. • They should be checked for cracks.3/16 to 1. be used unless it is thoroughly checked and tested by competent person as laid down under the relevant statute. jamming of links etc. Mechanical Works 57 . 13/16 to 11/9 incl. • No chain block or pulley which has been tampered. It should be lubricated before every use. etc. Groove Diameter in Relation to Wire Rope Diameter Amount that Groove Diameter Should Be Larger than Nominal Rope Diameter (inches) Used 1/128 1/64 3/128 1/32 3/64 1/16 New 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/1 6 3/32 1/8 Rope Size (inches) 1/4 and 5/16 3/8 to 3/4 incl. Hooks which are opened out should not be used. excessive wear and tear.1/4 incl. to observe slipping of load.5/16 and larger Chain Block / Pulley Lift : • Chain blocks of proper lifting capacity supported by test certificate should be used for lifting known loads. and tested periodically as specified by the statue.

E & C Division SHE Manual Link tend to close – up and elongate Bend Stretched Link Twisted Link Bend Wear Cuts Remaining Material Mechanical Works 58 .

E & C Division SHE Manual HOOKS: Inspect and discard if: • Throat opening exceeds 15% of original opening • Twist exceeds 10o along the vertical axis • Deep nicks and gauges are observed • If loss of metal due to filing is more than 1/64th for 1” depth of the hook • Wear in the hook exceeds 8% of the depth Normal Defective – Throat Open Throat opening more than 15% Hook should be rejected Defective – Hook worn out Defective – Hook bent Worn out hook Bent s Mechanical Works 59 .

mechanical sleeve splices. Rope often is connected to the fittings of conveyances by means of clips and clamps. clips and clamps. hand-tucked splices. Fittings are important for safety because they develop from 75% to 100% of the breaking strength of the rope. Mechanical Works 60 . They are rated to develop 75% to 80% of the rope's breaking strength. as well as at all subsequent regular inspection periods. Some types of attachments. must be made at either a wire rope manufacturer's plant or at a properly equipped commercial sling shop. sockets. The strength of an attachment is attained only when the connection is made exactly according to the manufacturer's instructions. such as pressed fittings or mechanical sleeve splices that are used in making slings. and knots. It is important to retighten the nuts on all clips after the rope's first load-carrying use. Efficiencies of properly made hand-tucked splices vary according to the splicer's ability and the rope's diameter but can be as high as 90%. Manufacturers also specify fittings of suitable size and design for ropes of different sizes.E & C Division SHACKLES: Inspect and discard if • • • Wear exceeds 8% of the diameter Body is distorted Damage to thread on pin or body is observed SHE Manual Rope Fittings: There are several ways to attach wire rope to fittings: pressed fittings. The efficiency of mechanical sleeve splices varies from 90% to 95% when IWRC-type wire rope is used.

Inspection and Replacement: The frequency of inspections and replacement of rope depends on service conditions. cut off and discard. A decrease in the rope's diameter. loose wires. follow the recommended procedure exactly. The number of broken wires per lay is one of the principal bases for judging the condition of a rope. such as kinking and loose wires. is difficult to determine in many cases. and lubrication. the rope speed is generally less than 60 feet per minute (fpm). For this reason. make a daily inspection for readily observable defects. that section of the rope is weaker than it Mechanical Works 61 . The reason for this change is general deterioration of the structure of the interior rope. the section adjacent to the conveyance. at frequent intervals. such as corrosion of uninspectable wires and general deterioration of the core of wire rope. for instance. In high-speed hoisting. sudden change in rope length and/or diameter is a warning that the wire rope is nearing the end of its useful life and that it should be removed from service. high strands. Since there is no ready way to detect flaws in the finished job. The supervisor checks specifically for wear of the crown wires. which may also occur.E & C Division SHE Manual Socketing with zinc and a thermostate plastic resin will develop 100% of the rope's breaking strength. corrosion. nicking. Square knots and other types of knots have low and unpredictable efficiencies-40% or less. and a thorough inspection weekly. In most cases. Rope callipers and micrometers are used to determine changes in the cross section of rope at various locations. For the latter inspection. fatigue is especially likely to develop with this type of attachment. kinking. If most of the broken wires in a lay are concentrated in several strands. Using them is likely to result in the failure of a rope assembly and under certai conditions to result in serious accident. Some plants and mines.

Experience and judgement of all these factors. determine when it should be discarded and replaced. Inspection codes are given in the statutes.E & C Division SHE Manual would be if the broken wires were uniformly distributed throughout all strands and along the length of the rope. the number of broken wires along the length of a rope increases rapidly between inspections. Mechanical Works 62 . however. Usually inspections are based on numbers of broken wires per strand in one rope lay or number of broken wires per rope lay in all strands. Electronic inspection devices are available for determining loss of strength due to corrosion. or other work done by the rope. and broken wires. loss of metallic area. At intervals throughout the life of the rope. combined with the length of time the rope has been in service and the tonnage hoisted. the rope is becoming fatigued and nearing the end of its useful life. This practice has two purposes: 1 remove wires damaged by vibration dampened at the socket and 2 to change the positions of critical wear poi throughout the system. a short section should be off at the socket end. If.

Base the design on a safety factor of at least five. This will prevent objects from falling down the hoistway. Mechanical Works 63 . recommended operating speeds and special hazard warnings or instructions on cars and platforms. Install standard railings and toe-boards on runways connecting the tower to the building. is often substituted. Be sure to consult with tubular steel manufacturers or suppliers for current technical data. and have it well guyed or fastened to the building. The plant supervisor or the contractor must comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and limitations. (1.7m) high and within 4-in. ½-in.5 Hoists SHE Manual Material hoists and personnel hoists are made of tubular steel. Provide protective covering of heavy planking below the cathead of all hoists. Outside Material Hoistways Hoisting towers are usually made of tubular steel and are used on construction sites. Enclose the tower with heavy wire screening and equip it with a fixed ladder extending the full height of the tower. Erect the tower on a level and solid foundation.E & C Division 7. Do not permit work in or on the hoistway while the hoist is in operation. (10 cm) of the hoistway. Protect entrances by solid or slatted wood gate at least 5-ft (1. enclose the hoistway. Never permit personnel to ride on a material hoist. Inside Material Hoistways If the material hoist is installed inside the building.25 cm) mesh. However. No 18 US gage wire. Post the rated load capacities. Partition adjacent hoistways. Hoists may be erected in hoistways inside the building or in outside towers. Personnel hoists are used just for the transport of people. Counter-weight gates and use latching or locking mechanisms. Solid enclosure is preferred. heavy wire screening.

or telephone system can be used. Permanent passenger or freight elevators in buildings under construction modification or demolition may be used for carrying workers or material or both. the car safety clamps or dogs are then thrown into position on the guide rails to stop the car. masts and hoistway enclosures. Personnel Hoists Any hoist used for carrying passengers should conform to the safety requirement of BSI. Where wheelbarrows are handled. (5 cm) for flooring. Electrically operated lights or bells. Equip the car with a broken-rope-type of safety device. they must be approved for such use and a temporary permit must be issued for the class of service. However. and provide 6-in (15 cm) toeboards. Adopt standard signals and post them at each entrance and at the engine. Include all safety devices. a combination of bells and lights. Design and install the tower or mast construction that forms the supports for the Mechanical Works 64 . Enclose sides not used for loading with heavy wire screening. normal limit and final limit switches and thoroughly inspect and maintain the hoist regularly. Rack and pinion hoists can be used to carry personnel or material but never both. bells operated by pull cords. If a car’s cable breaks. Signal Systems A good signal system is necessary to safety operating hoists. including an over-speed governor. Tower. according to strict manufacturing specifications and safety rules. Use timer not less than 2-in.E & C Division Material Hoist Platforms SHE Manual Build material hoist platforms with a safety factor of at least five. Install an overhead plank covering at the crosshead. Temporary use of permanent elevators. attach stop cleats to the floor. The covering can be built in hinged sections to permit handling of long material.

If tie-ins cannot be made. enclose the hoistway throughout its height. When wire rope is used for guys. (1. For hoists located outside of a structure.E & C Division SHE Manual machinery and guide members to support the load and forces specified. or be equal to. Where multiple hoistways are used and one or more of the cars are designed solely as a material car in accord with ANSI 10. Construct hoistway enclosures so that when they are under a horizontal pressure of 100 lb. Enclosure at the pit should be not less than 8-ft (2 m ) on all sides.05 m2). (30 cm) above the level of each floor above the lowest. it should be at least ½ -in (2 cm) in diameter. the manufacturer’s specifications and should remain in place until the tower or mast is dismantled. If the open-work. it should have a vision panel. covered Mechanical Works 65 . Doors or gates for hoistways should not be less than 6 ½ -ft. For hoists located inside a structure. (2 m) high. Anchor hoist structures to the building (or other structure) at vertical intervals not exceeding 25-ft (8 m). If a solid door is used.5 cm) The running clearance between the car and the hoistway enclosure is not reduced below ¾-in (2 cm) except on the sides used for loading and unloading. as not to exceed the safe load-bearing capacity of the ground upon which it is set. not wider than 6-in. Each personnel hoist should be independently powered and operated. the enclosures (expect the one at the lowest landing) may be omitted on the side where there is no floor building’s side of the hoistway should be full height or a minimum of 10-ft (3 m) at each floor’s landing. Foundations of hoists should distribute the transmitted load.5 cm) and not larger than 80-in (0. Tie-ins should conform to. The kick plate should extend not less than 12-in. Never use Chicago booms on a hoist structure.5 personnel cars are prohibited. guy the hoist structure to adequate anchorage for stability. provide hoistway enclosures with an unperformed kick plate on all sides within the building or structure. (445 N) • • they cannot deflect more than 1-in (2.

At landings other than the lowest one. Enclosures and linings of cars should be made of metal or fire retardant wood. Protect all hoistway SHE Manual entrances with Landing doors should lock mechanically so they cannot be operated from the landing side.41 m). Each car should have a platform or protective covering that extends over the entire area of the car’s enclosure. provide a means to unlock the car from the landing side to permit access to the car. In such cases. Mechanical Works 66 . Do not locate a working platform on top of the hoist car. Securely fasten this enclosure to the car’s platform. with a minimum dimension of 16-in. unless specifically provided in ANSI A10. (0. or the equivalent.16 m) in area. The covering should be non-perforated. Permanently enclose personnel hoist cars on the top and all sides. Safety Requirements for Personnel Hoists Do not place equipment that is not required for the operation of the hoist or its appliances. except the entrance and exit. on the top of the hoist car. use locks that can be released only by a person in the car. (2 cm) when a force of 100 lb (445 N) is applied horizontally to the walls of the enclosure. Car platforms.2 (10.E & C Division with expanded metal. Car enclosures. Use wire glass. Use plain glass only for car’s operating appliances. fire retardant and supported by the car’s frame. Make the enclosure’s walls strong enough so that their running clearance is reduced by no more than ¾ in.4. substantial gates or bars. Never use a hook and eye as a door-locking device. Design the frame and the floor to handle the anticipated loads. Require that the hoist be locked out per lockout / tagout procedure prior to performing repairs. for vision panels. Provide an emergency exit with an outward opening cover in the top of all cars. The opening should be not less than 400-in. It should provide a clear passageway unobstructed by fixed hoist equipment on or in the car. Support the enclosure so that it cannot become loosened or displaced when the car’s safety or buffer is engaged. Some doors at the lowest terminal landing automatically lock when closed with the car at the landing.

Where clip fastenings are used. Cover exposed steam pipes and place exhaust pipes where steam cannot strike nearby persons. In general. In any case.E & C Division Wire Ropes & Sheaves SHE Manual Use hoisting ropes not less than ½-in. Mechanical Works 67 . install a roof to protect the equipment and operator from the elements. Where electric hoists are used. Keep sheaves aligned and bearings lubricated. Hoisting Engines Do not locate hoisting engines in public streets. Enclose exposed gears. Replace ropes when inspection discloses that wear. or corrosion has reduced their strength below the permitted safety limit. enclose them with barricades to protect the public. (1. there shall be at least three clips. Engines should have brakes that can stop and hold 150% of the rated safe load. Enclose or guard all current carrying parts to prevent personal contact and ground installation. they should provide a safety factor conforming to the requirements of applicable elevator codes. If they must be located there. Ropes shall be guarded at points where persons may come in contact with them and where objects may strike or rub against them. with the U-side on the dead end of the rope. like those on gin poles.25 cm ) in diameter except on such equipment as small winches. install enclosed safety-type switches. In any case. breakage. shafting and couplings. engines should have a pawl for holding suspended loads. In addition. sheaves diameter should be at least 20 times the rope’s diameter. Inspect ropes frequently and keep them lubricated.

for every 10 kV above 50 kV. install reverse alarms on all heavy mobile equipment and trucks. or operated in. powered wheelbarrows. They cause a large number of accidents. No part. Also be sure barricades. Trucks and other mobile equipment: Contractors working at the site should take great care to prevent their trucks and other mobile equipment from colliding with pipelines. Before mobile equipment is moved. Equipment with high clearances. pipelines excavations. any area containing electric power lines until the approval of the superintendent has been obtained.6 SHE Manual Other Mobile Machinery & their Movement at the Site: At the construction site number of mobile machinery are used apart from cranes. bulldozers. Timber mats may have to be provided for providing firm footing. Hence it is imperative to use them safely. guard-rails. including the load. When trucks. Details have been given under chapters captioned “Cranes ”and “Electrical hazards”. Powered Trucks: One method of handling construction deliveries by trucks is to have a signaller serve as the eyes for the truck driver. and other equipment. and similar hazards. power lines. such as cranes. should not be moved into or out of. and warning signs are in place to assure maximum safety. If there is no signaller. and other mechanised construction equipment are to be operated within a Mechanical Works 68 . contractors should survey the area in which it is located to check for overhead wires.E & C Division 7. they will avoid interrupting the operations at the site. In this way. unless power in the lines is shut off. This chapter deals with some of the most commonly used mobile machinery at the site. may reach within 10-ft (3 m) of electric lines carrying up to 50 kV and an additional 4-in. invisible ground conditions.

this operation can become a major source of serious injuries. the coupling mechanism must be carefully safeguarded and loads secured to the trailer. exercise care in backing up.E & C Division SHE Manual plant. Operators should make sure the brakes are on. and exercise caution at railroad crossings. Sometimes it may be necessary to transport employees in trucks from one location to another within the work area. keep trucks a safe distance apart. Such trucks should be equipped with flexible bumpers that shut off power on contact. contractors should be notified by the site officials about the exact location to make deliveries. Unless this is controlled. Motorised hand trucks must be safeguarded (1) to prevent the operator from being pinned between the truck and a fixed object and (2) to prevent the truck running up on the operator's heels. the contractor and the plant's management should agree upon the traffic flow. Automated guided vehicles must have some means of stopping should someone step in front of them. the areas in which the construction equipment is to be operated will be known and isolated where possible. In that way. avoid driving trucks into elevators unless authorised. They need to observe speed limits. The contractor’s key personnel and the plant's designated personnel should receive drawings of these areas. Loading and unloading trailers require careful procedures to avoid accidents. stop at blind corners and doorways. Industrial trucks should not be used for any purpose other than the one for which they were designed. wheels are blocked. In tractors and trailers. Operators of industrial trucks can prevent accidents by using the same safe driving techniques they employ on the highways. loads are neatly stacked and stable. Mechanical Works 69 . To avoid extra handling and vehicle movement. and the load is fastened to the trailer securely.

Secure all equipment being towed not only with a regular hitch or drawbar but also with a safety chain attached to the pulling unit. and few. or other work should be performed only by trained mechanics wearing proper protective equipment. This precaution prevents the bowl from striking the ground or pavement and injuring persons or damaging equipment. replacements. if any traffic violations. A drawbar failure can result in a serious accident. Contractors must carefully select trainees to meet certain physical and mental qualifications required by safety standards. idle engines for too long. they should keep arms and legs inside the truck's guard or operating station. When driving. Training programs should centre on company policies. good driving record.E & C Division SHE Manual Operators are responsible for the care of trucks and should never leave a truck unattended. or place a safety bolt in the beam to give maximum clearance for road projections such as at crossings. operating conditions. and watch out for pedestrians. Mechanical Works 70 . Operators must have a valid driver's license. Only authorised fuel and fuel tank equipment should be used on these trucks. Management should maintain records of each employee's driving performance. Repairs or re-fuelling of gasoline and liquefied petroleum trucks should be done as per norms/instructions to avoid health hazards and burns and explosions. and types of trucks used. particularly when handling electrically powered trucks. Repairs. When towing a scraper from one job to another. keep passengers off the truck. park in an aisle or doorway. Industrial powered trucks should be inspected and overhauled regularly. or ignore mechanical problems. the operator should use a scraper bowl safety latch. Operators should inspect their trucks before and after each shift.

Ground’s conditions will determine how close to an excavation or the crest of a dump and operator safely work a machine. well-supported. keeping the loads in front of the blade. A safe procedure to eliminate the danger is to cut the roots on three sides and then apply the power to the fourth side. bulldozing rock.E & C Division Clearing work: SHE Manual Work requiring exposure to low limbs of trees or to high brush involves serious hazards. Operators should ensure that all workers in the area are out of harm's way before pushing over any trees. Wet weather means the operator must work at a greater distance from the edge or crest. equip it with a heavy. but make sure in advance that the tractor and operator will be in the clear when the tree falls. arched steel-mesh canopy to protect the operator. Head protection guards against injuries from falling branches. Use a long rope to pull over large trees. When a bulldozer shoves hard against the butt of a large dead tree. Special hazards: Fatalities can occur easily when equipment is used on dumps and fills. The operator should keep the bulldozer blade close to the ground for balance when the machine is travelling up a steep slope. If the dirt is lost on the way down. and on steep slopes. the operator should not lower the blade to regain the load because of the danger of overturning. When a worker is driving a tractor-dozer down a slope. assign someone to signal the driver. Never use the blade as a brake on a steep slope except in cases of extreme emergency. and rolling logs. near excavations. When the ground is treacherous. Mechanical Works 71 . Suitable protective measures and safe practices can readily eliminate these risks When using a bulldozer. The operator also should wear goggles to shield the eyes from whipping branches. the tree may crack in the middle or limbs may fall onto the machine. the person should doze three or four loads of dirt to the edge of the slope. Dead branches or tops also can drop from live trees.

or sit at the side or end of a flatbed truck. Prohibit workers from getting off or on moving equipment. Mechanical Works 72 . Provide seats for each person if required to ride on vehicled equipment. If necessary. adjacent to a highway in normal use. the truck should be standing still. the public. In such cases. or track mechanism blocked. When people are boarding or descending from a truck. make sure there is sufficient clearance below before the work begins. Equipment left unattended at night. or adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress should have lights or reflectors.E & C Division SHE Manual Sometimes employees. Provide a boarding ladder. Equipment parked on inclines should have the wheels chocked. livestock. Do not permit workers to ride on a loaded truck or other machines not equipped for the purpose. and property are endangered when material is pushed over the edge in side hill work. provide a bus to transport employees to the work site. Whenever equipment is parked. operators should set the parking brake. Vehicles that will be moving slower than normal traffic at night should have a yellow flashing light or four-way flashers visible from all directions. or barricades equipped with lights or reflectors to identify the location of the equipment. Some Useful tips for Safe Operation: Don't allow anyone to stand on the running board or bed of a truck. Supply safety belts for all passengers who ride in the cabin with the driver. and the parking brake set.

Properly ground all non-current-carrying metal parts. etc. drums. Guarding. chains. locate them so that they do not endanger workers or obstruct the view of the operator. Tools should not be left suspended from cranes. Replace guards and devices as soon as repairs and adjustments have been completed. hoists. located where they endanger employees or create a fire hazard. clutches. gears.E & C Division SHE Manual Bulldozer blades and scraper blades. Properly insulate or guard current-carrying parts of electrically operated equipment. No modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of equipment should be made without the manufacturer's written approval. Personnel should not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders in operation. Cover high-temperature lines and equipment. platforms. with suitable insulating materials. and similar equipment should be either fully lowered or blocked when being repaired or when not in use. safety appliance. and means of access: Provide guarding for belts. pulleys. or device unless immediate repairs or adjustments are required. and other reciprocating or rotating parts of equipment. Do not remove or make ineffective any guard. flywheels. sheaves. Properly release exhausts from all equipment powered by steam or internal combustion engines (carbon monoxide hazard) and also. and then only after the power has been shut off. safety devices. end loader buckets. Mechanical Works 73 . dump bodies. shafts.

This prevents it from being released. Do not permit debris. steps. At the end of a work shift. Flammable liquid: Prohibit refuelling of gasoline-operated equipment while the motor is running. falling objects. Allow continuously operating equipment to be fuelled only from properly protected tanks located outside the work area. Operators of equipment should be protected against the elements. ladders. Provide safety devices to prevent unauthorised persons from starting equipment. surfaced with slip-resistant material. The manufacturer's procedure for shut down should be followed. or battery. oil. dropped. Provide suitable floors or platforms. Tanks should be adequately grounded and bonded to equipment to prevent static electricity build-up. Post safe load capacities and operating speeds on all equipment. and similar hazards. operators should set and lock equipment. for all equipment operators. handholds. swinging loads. Do not locate fuel-tank filler openings in such a position that spills or overflows can run down on a hot motor. oily rags. Be sure each piece of equipment is placed on an adequate foundation and properly secured. grease. exhaust pipes. or in the immediate vicinity of. and toeboards on all equipment where they are needed to provide safe access. guardrails. and waste to accumulate on equipment. Be sure that windows in cabs or enclosures on equipment are made of safety glass and kept in good repair at all times. gasoline-operated equipment while it is being refuelled. This could simply be a key ignition system or simply blocking and locking the starter. footwalks. or activated in any way.E & C Division SHE Manual Install platforms. Prohibit smoking or the use of open flames on. Mechanical Works 74 .

Block or crib equipment suspended in slings or supported by hoists or jacks for repairs before anyone is permitted to work underneath it. For repairs on equipment made away from the source of power. and do not remove them until repairs have been completed. each should lock the main switch with a personal lock and retain the key. or similar devices. The person doing the repairs should retain the key to the switch lock. Before repairs on electrically powered equipment are begun. Do not store gasoline. to a safe location where operations will not interfere with the repair work.E & C Division SHE Manual Workers should not use solvents with flash points below 100 F (37. and other flammable or combustible liquids on equipment except in fuel tanks or approved safety cans. each industrial truck. blocking. Locate suitable fire extinguishers on. Such precautions will prevent injury in case the equipment is accidentally started. Post suitable signs. fuel oil. Move mobile equipment.8 C) for cleaning equipment or parts. transfer them by approved pumps or store them in approved safety cans. or close to. If there is more than one repairperson. use chains. Mechanical Works 75 . lock the main switch in the open (OFF) position. if possible. Repairs: Shut down all hazardous equipment for repairs. When gasoline and other highly flammable fluids are used. such as conveyors and cable ways.

maintenance. straddle trucks. Standards specify certain hazardous locations. Mechanical Works 76 . operator comfort. Common types of industrial trucks include lift trucks. Operators should realise that lift trucks are generally steered by the rear wheels. motorised hand trucks. Classes 1 through Ill. backup systems. and automated guided vehicles. tractors and trailers. and to stack pallets safely. handle more easily when loaded. All trucks should carry fire extinguishers regardless of their location classification. and safety features such as seat belts and wraparound seats. Rider controlled trucks. to drive on different gradients. in which various types of trucks should not be used unless they comply with requirements or are officially approved. Lift trucks should have overhead guards designed to prevent injury. are designed to be controlled by a driver who rides on the truck. to load and unload the truck properly. are used in reverse as often as forward. or means of engaging the load classifies powered industrial trucks. and inspection of this equipment. operator position. Factors to consider in purchasing/hiring trucks include work site conditions. and nameplate with rated capacity. such as the lift truck. Safeguards common to all trucks include guarded lifts and tires. crane trucks. Motorised hand trucks and electronically controlled or automated guided vehicles can be controlled from the outside. Power source.E & C Division Fork lift trucks: SHE Manual Powered trucks require safeguards for the operator's protection and for the safety of other workers. horns or other warning devices. Site Management must establish guidelines for the operation. and are often steered with only one hand. Drivers must be shown how to handle various types of loads. reinforced platforms.

Horns. forks properly placed/not cracked. Crane trucks should be driven at the lowest possible speed when carrying a load to maintain its balance. ( mast for broken weld. remember to allow enough room for forks to clear the sides before starting the turn. A professional forklift driver will make sure that equipment is in good condition and will practice safe operating techniques. turn off the engine and set the brake Some policies may state that if you are closer than 25 feet or maintain Visual contact with the forklift. always lower the mast completely. you may leave the engine running. If you leave your forklift unattended for any reason. Some useful tips for drivers for safe operation of the fork lift truck: • • When you back out of an aisle. Keep in mind that you put yourself and your Co-workers in danger when you do not follow safe operating procedures. • • • • • Points to remember about inspecting and operating a forklift include: Pre-Use Inspections: Always inspect the forklift before you start work. proper lubrication of roller tracks and chain. hydraulic fluid level and leakage) Inspecting the Power Source: Finding The Rated Capacity. or other warning devices should be used to protect pedestrians. red flags. - Mechanical Works 77 . Practice and concentration on your work are the keys to becoming a successful operator.E & C Division SHE Manual Straddle trucks present a special problem because the operator sit so high off the ground they cannot see directly in front or behind them.

Be aware of clearance. slow for turns. Tight spaces .E & C Division SHE Manual Safety Tips: • • • Never lift load while moving Stop before you raise mast. steer to maximise turning angles. Overhead clearance . or it could tip over. stay wide when turning into aisles. and avoid tight turns. Loading docks . and use horn to alert others. Heavy traffic areas . avoid acceleration. Drive slow. These Suggestions will help to ensure safe operation: Slippery floors .Set loads carefully. Safe Steering: Drive slowly.Slow speed. mast and overhead guard height. There are many floor surfaces a forklift must operate on. brake carefully. Be sure that load sits squarely on stack. If you can't see.Move empty forks to one side. maintain safe speed. Driving With A Load: Always travel with load tilted slightly back. keep load at proper height. drive in reverse.Check for bridge security. Mechanical Works 78 .

! Check that access ladders guard-rails and toe boards are firmly fixed in position. Surfaces soon become slippery and should be treated immediately by cleaning. 1998 ” give the requirements when workers are allowed to work on or adjacent to water. ! Needs of both workers and supervisors. Rules 86 & 87 of “ THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) CENTRAL RULES. Critical Jobs 1 . and ensure that it is properly fastened. ! Check that lifebuoys fitted with lifelines are ready to hand for immediate use. wire. ! Use any safety nets or safety harness provided. ! Wear a safety helmet at all times . Even though the worker may be a good swimmer. the following precautions should always be followed: ! Make sure that the working platform is secure and has no tripping hazards such as tools. ! Wear a life jacket. gritting or applying industrial salt or sand.if over tidal water or a fast-flowing river. it must have a motor with a self-starting device Ensure that you know the routine for raising the alarm and for rescue drill.1 Work over water: SHE Manual Falling into water and being drowned or carried away by currents is an ever-present danger when working over or adjacent to water. timber or bricks. ! Make sure that there is a safety boat and that it is manned while you are working above water .E & C Division 8.if you are struck on the head and fall into water you are at special risk.

These include spaces that are either deficient in oxygen or certain explosive.2. they have the potential for causing injury or illness if protective measures are not used.E & C Division 8. Confined Spaces: SHE Manual If you are one of the workers who work in confined spaces each year. you know your job is dangerous. flammable or toxic atmospheres. & Which is not intended for continuous human occupancy. Class C spaces are those where any hazards posed are so insignificant that no special work practices or procedures are required. Class B spaces do not present an immediate threat to life or health: however. Unfavorable natural ventilation which could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants. Some examples of Confined Spaces TANK SILO PIPELINE Critical Jobs 2 . Serious injury or death in a confined space can be result of: " Asphyxiation " Engulfment " Electric shock " Fall & heat stress NOISH defines a confined space as A space that by design has limited openings for entryand exit. Class A spaces are those that present situation which are immediately dangerous to lift or health.

repairing and inspecting electric and telephone cables. # Maintenance such as abrasive blasting and application of surface coatings. splicing. # Checking and reading meters. # Installing.E & C Division SHE Manual Typical reasons for confined space entry: # Inspection of physical integrity and process equipment.required Confined Space Permit required confined space has one or more of the following characteristics: # Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere. # Installing. Flammable or Combustible Atmospheres are hose in which flammable or combustible vapors/gases are equal to or greater than 10% LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). # Adjusting and aligning mechanical devices and components. motors. # Rescue of workers who are injured or overcome inside the space. # Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant. coating. steam and water piping system. dials. 3 3. # Cleaning to remove sludge and other waste materials. inspecting. in below ground pits and vaults. repairing and replacing valves. # Has an internal configuration such that the entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section. Critical Jobs . Conditions may result in acute or immediately severe health effects. Permit .5% v/v oxygen. etc. wrapping and testing of underground sewage. Oxygen deficient atmospheres are atmospheres which contain less than 19. including welding and adjustments to mechanical equipment. gauges. petroleum. Confined Space Hazards 1. 2. charts and other indicators. # Tappings. # Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard. pumps. Toxic vapors and gases which exceed their PEL(Permissible Exposure Limit) should be considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. # Repair. piping.

# Make special arrangements with contractors who may enter permit spaces. # Reduce employee risk around permit spaces with signs or training. Critical Jobs 4 . # Flammable atmospheres # “Toxic” or irritating atmospheres. # Engulfment by finely divided material or liquid. # Oxygen enriched atmospheres. # Fluids: liquids. The PERMIT Space Programme SHE Manual Steps to control the hazards of permit spaces: # Identify all permit spaces in your workplace. # Contact with corrosive substances. # Electrocution by electrically energized conductors. # Supply safety and personal protective equipment. A written permit system. Physical Hazards: # Unexpected movement of machinery. Thermal condition: hot or cold. Elements of Confined Space Entry Programme: # # # Procedures for identifying hazards associated with entry. # Develop & implement a written permit space program. B. powders and gases. # Document procedures establishing a non-permit space. Procedures. # Heat stress. # Prevent unauthorised employee entry in permit space Program. method and practices used to control confined space hazards. # Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Atmospheric Hazards # Oxygen deficiency atmospheres.E & C Division Confined Space hazards: A. # Re-evaluate spaces when conditions change.

Annual program review to assure continued effectiveness. including provision forrescue equipment and an attendant. Designation of employees who have an active role in the entry. ventilation equipment. Critical Jobs 5 . and entry supervisor.E & C Division # SHE Manual # # # # # # Specialized equipment. e. Coordination of contractor activities. such as air sampling struments. authorised entrants. Provision for testing and evaluating the space to ensure that conditions are suitable for entry. rescue gear.. Employee training and information.g. etc. attendants. Personal Protective Equipment. required for entry. Emergency response procedures.

Make sure no hazardous energy can be released. # Sanding. such as solvents. Assignment and training of entry supervisor. that no hazardous materials can enter the space. When ventilation is needed. Empty the space of any materials that may be hazardous. Verify breathing safety by air testing. Follow your company’s lockout / tagout rules. clean.E & C Division SHE Manual THE WORK BEING DONE CAN CAUSE CONDITIONS IN A CONFINED SPACE TO BECOME MORE HAZARDOUS: Hotwork uses up oxygen and can release hazardous materials. Blind or disconnect and cap all input lines. to Confined Space Entry Permit. begin long enough in advance so that the air will be safe before anyone enters. attendant and entrants is required to comply with the employer’s Permit space Plan. # # # # # # # # Critical Jobs 6 . # Preparation of the Permit Space: # # All departments likely to be affected by service interruption must be noticed. purge or inert hazardous residue in the space. paints into the permit space. Post signs and put up barriers to protect entrants from vehicle traffic and pedestrians from falling into the space. If necessary. if required. Add emergency contact telephone numbers. # Workers bring hazardous materials. scraping and loosening residue can stir up hazardous materials. # Work outside a permit space can produce harmful vapors that collect inside. Attach completed Hotwork permit.

such as ground-fault circuit interrupters. # List any measures needed to guard against shock. face shields and encapsulated suits must be made available at the site. ! A person must also be stationed outside the vessel in a position to handle the lifeline and to summon assistance in case of an emergency. General Entry Work Practices in Confined Spaces: ! The air in the vessel must be tested for oxygen and for flammable and toxic gases before entry ! Lifelines and safety harness must be used by all the persons entering in the confined spaces.E & C Division SHE Manual Equipment required for entry and work: # Appropriate personal protective equipment. # List devices such as ladders. # List any special light sources. Test this equipment before entry begins. ! All the inlet of the vessel that could injure the entrant if operated unexpectedly must be blinded or locked in the“Safe” position. Permit Authorisation: # The entry supervisor fills up the confine space entry work permit. such as hard hats. # List any measures needed to guard against shock. such as ground-fault circuit interrupters. ! Self-contained breathing apparatus must be kept ready for emergency. Welding & Gas cutting in confined Spaces: # Minimum general ventilation rate of 2000 cubic feet per minute per welder be maintained in confined spaces. # Choose and list devices for communication. Test it before entry. # Decide whether respirators and portable air monitors are required and which types match the hazard. # Make sure this equipment is intrinsically safe and in good condition. 7 Critical Jobs . the entry supervisor signs and dates the permit. boatswain’s chairs and work platforms. spark-proof tools and other electrical equipment that must be on hand before entry begins. # ONLY THEN workers are allowed to enter the permit space. # After verifying that acceptable entry conditions exist.

refineries and underground storage tank removal projects. Excavations. hazardous waste sites. These locations include places such as landfills.or mercury -coated base metals. cutting or heating is performed on beryllium -.E & C Division # # SHE Manual # # If local exhaust is used. Welding machines and compressed gas cylinders must be kept outside the confined spaces. the capture velocity at the point of work must be at least 100 feet per minute. chemical plants. When work stops for a prolonged period of time. Local exhaust or air-supplied respirators must be provided if welding. Trenching and Shoring: # Special precautions must be taken when employees enter trenches deeper then four feet that are dug in locations where atmospheric hazards may be present. lead -. # Critical Jobs 8 . electrodes must be removed from their holders and gas flow to torches must be shut off from outside the space. cadmium .

some euphoria. Respiration stops. Causes of Oxygen Deficiency In confined spaces ambient oxygen being. carbon dioxide and nitrogen # Adsorbed by porous surfaces like activated charcoal. possible unconsciousness. torch cutting and blazing. inability to move freely. Critical Jobs 9 . emotional sets. Gasping respiration. flames are extinguished. Nausea and vomiting. Minimum safe entry level. heart coordination may be disturbed. Increased respiration. # Consumed by industrial processes like welding. Normal air oxygen level. death in minutes.E & C Division Physiological effects of Oxygen at different levels. # Consumed by chemical reactions like oxidation (Rusting and naturally occurring fermentation) # Displaced by inert gases like argon. followed by cardiac arrest. fuel fired space heaters. abnormal fatigue on exertion. possible collapse while remaining conscious but helpless. possible headache. Disturbed respiration. SHE Manual Oxygen enriched atmosphere.

3. which combines with hemoglobin about 200 times more easily than oxygen.E & C Division OR SHE Manual If make-up air is inadequate. Sources 1. making them both easier to ignite and faster burning once ignited. Carbon monoxide produced by inefficient combustion. Compressed oxygen used to dislodge welding slag. Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere # # Permit flammable gases and vapors to ignite over a much wider range of concentrations than is possible in ordinary air. Critical Jobs 10 . Leaking welding oxygen lines in barge wing tank. Oxygen used to ventilate tank during repair. Alters the burning characteristics of many materials. 2.

including fumes and gases that can be a serious health hazard to workers. The machine performing the welding operation is referred to as the “Welding machine”. or material handling. and upon the physiological responses of the human body. The amount and type of fumes and gases involved will depend on the welding process. the filler material. very small percentage of emphysema caused by occupational exposure) • Chronic bronchitis Welding and Gas Cutting 1 . the base material. electrical shock.E & C Division 9. “Welder” and “Welder Operator” refer to the individual only. (a) Toxic Gases: Exposure to various toxic gases generated during welding may produce one or more of the following effects: • Inflammation of the lugs (chemical pneumonitis) • Pulmonary edema (swelling and accumulation of fluids) • Emphysema (loss of elasticity of the lungs. Definitions used in this chapter are those of the American Welding Society. Safety hazards are also associated with welding. Hazards: 1. Equipment supplying current for electric welding is called either a “Welding generator” or a “Welding transformer”. and the shielding gas. Health Hazards: The most significant health hazard in the welding process is the generation of fumes and gases. if any. Because high heat is used to make the weld. All welding process requires heat and sometimes other substances to produce the weld. The toxicity of the contaminants depends primarily upon their concentrations. such as the potential for fire or explosion and injuries form arc radiation. Welding and Gas Cutting: SHE Manual Introduction: The purpose of welding is to join metal parts. a number of by-products results from the process. Sampling by an industrial hygienist or other qualified person may be necessary to fully identify the fumes and gases actually being given off in a specific operation.

They often require special ventilation precautions. Otherwise. the welding and cutting site should be inspected to determine what fire protection equipment is necessary. Safety Hazards (a) Fire Protection Because portable welding and cutting equipment creates special fire hazards. (b) Cleaning Compounds used Because of their chemical properties. the regulations of the agency having authority must be consulted before beginning the job. (b) Floors and Combustible Materials Where welding or cutting must be done near combustible materials. (c) Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Degreasing operations often employ chlorinated solvents that can decompose to toxic phosgene gas in the presence of the ultraviolet radiation emitted by the welding arc. Specifications for hot work permits are outlined in the annexe. special precautions are necessary to prevent sparks or Welding and Gas Cutting 2 . to require "Hot work" permits issued by the welding supervisor. Follow the manufacturer's instructions. or some other qualified person before welding or cutting operations are started. Asbestos can produce fibrosis and lung and other cancers. It is advisable. cleaning compounds can create health hazards if improperly mixed. (d) Asbestos If welding or cutting involves asbestos. a member of the plant fire department. particularly in hazardous locations.E & C Division SHE Manual • Asphyxiation The major toxic gases associated with welding are classified as primary pulmonary and nonpulmonary. 2. it should be used in a permanent welding and cutting location that can be designed to provide maximum safety and fire protection.

Cracks or holes in walls open doorways. If it is necessary to weld or cut close to wood construction. multipurpose chemical. nor into machine tool pits. Spray booths and ducts should be cleaned to remove combustible deposits. a fire hose. though the wet floor increases the shock hazard to electric (arc and resistance) welders and necessitates special protection for them. it is important that no openings exist between the curtain and the floor. it is advisable to wet down the floor. be moved a safe distance away. or carbon dioxide. or fire pails should be conveniently located. Before welding or cutting is started. and open or broken windows should be covered with sheet metal guards. Similar protection should be installed for wall openings through which hot metal or slag may enter when welding or cutting operations are conducted on the outside of the building. water pump tank extinguisher. covered with metal or other non-combustible material where sparks or hot metal may fall. If gas welding or oxygen cutting is done inside a booth provided for arc welding. Pails of limestone dust or sand may be useful. or near combustible material that cannot be removed or protected. the exposed combustible material should. Because hot slag may roll along the floor. It is good practice to provide a fire extinguisher. Otherwise. it should be covered with sheet metal. The fire watch Welding and Gas Cutting 3 . In some cases. If the work itself cannot be moved. A fire watcher equipped with a suitable fire extinguisher should be stationed at or near welding or cutting operations conducted in hazardous locations to see that sparks do not lodge in floor cracks or pass through floor or wall openings. either dry chemical. the gas cylinders should be placed in an upright and secured position away from sparks to prevent contact with the flame or heat. for each welder. Hot metal or slag should not be allowed to fall through cracks in the floor or other openings. preferably. wood floors should be swept clean and. Portable extinguishers for specific protection against Class B and C fires should also be provided. if possible.E & C Division SHE Manual hot slag from reaching such material and starting fires.

) from the vicinity of the drum to be cleaned. Steam the drums for at least 10 minutes. or (2) they are filled with water to within an inch or two of the place where the work is to be done and a vent is left open. liquids. 5. Place the drums on a steam rack with the bungholes at the lowest possible point. Use a portable electric hand lamp that is listed for hazardous location. 2. turpentine. Tanks. Drums that have contained shellac. Sufficient draft should be maintained to prevent accumulation of explosive concentrations. Drums. All of the surrounding premises should be thoroughly ventilated. and fumes (present in the surroundings or generated by the welding or cutting operations) that ventilation falls to dispel. etc. waste. or similar materials require longer steaming. or dusts. or other debris that might interfere with free draining. and frequent gas testing provided. Hazardous Locations Welding and cutting operations should not be permitted in or near rooms containing flammable or combustible vapours. and let the drums drain for some minutes. Remove the bung w' h a special long-handled wrench. Nor should they be permitted on or inside closed tanks or other containers that have held such materials until all fire and explosion hazards have been eliminated. Welding and Gas Cutting 4 . Examine the inside for rags. two other practices are sometimes followed: (1) the containers are purged with an inert gas (Figure 19-1). Local exhaust equipment should be provided for removal of hazardous gases. and Closed Containers Closed containers that have held flammable liquids or other combustibles should be thoroughly cleaned before welding or cutting. Either of these measures may also be used The accepted method for preparing tanks and drums for welding is: 1. 4. Remove all sources of ignition (open flames. If the containers cannot be removed for standard cleaning procedures. or an electric extension lamp protected by a guard of spark resistant material. vapours.E & C Division SHE Manual should be continued for at least 30 minutes after the job is completed to make sure that smoldering fires have not been started. 1. unguarded electric lights. 3.

Whenever these materials are encountered as Welding and Gas Cutting 5 . long sleeves. 9. Rescue procedures should be tested for adequacy before beginning. and gloves. • If a vessel must be entered. • Dispose of residue in a safe manner. Make similar tests just before welding repair operations are performed. Thoroughly flush the drums for at least 5 minutes boiling water. 10. Test for toxic contaminants and for oxygen sufficiency or enrichment if personnel are to enter. wear approved respiratory protective equipment. using a light that is listed for hazardous locations. boots. and aprons when handling steam. The drums for at least 5 minutes. Drums should placed so that water can drain out the 8. and fill drum part way with caustic soda or soda ash solution. rubber gloves. Precautions for employee protection during container cleaning operations include the following suggestions: • Wear head and eye protection. Test the container for the presence of flammable vapours with a combustible gas indicator. 11. Light hammering with a wood mallet will help to loosen scale. make repeated tests. A water spray nozzle placed 6 to 8 in to 20 cm) inside the drum can be used. Wash down the outside of the drum with a hose stream of hot water. repeat the cleaning process. If it is not clean.Thoroughly inspect the interior of the drum. the method of disposal should be checked for hazards.E & C Division SHE Manual 6. hot water. Dry the drum thoroughly by circulating warm air throughout the inside. 12. If operations extend over an appreciable period of time. and a small mirror. Refer to Material Safety Data Sheets provided by the manufacturer to identify any of the materials listed above that may be contained in the consumable. and caustic solutions. In each instance. Steam irons or other hot surfaces that may be touched should be insulated or otherwise guarded. When handling dry caustic soda or soda ash. wear respiratory protective equipment approved for the exposure and a safety harness with attached lifeline tended by a helper who is similarly equipped and stationed outside the vessel. • To handle hot drums. Remove the drums from the steaming rack. 7. wear suitable hand pads or gloves.

cutting. Unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions have established that exposure is within acceptable concentrations. not a welding booth or screened area that is used to provide protection from welding radiation. the following precautions need to be observed. and general area mechanical air movement. ventilation precautions must be taken to assure the level of contaminants in the atmosphere is below the limits allowed for human exposure. Local forced ventilation means a local air-moving system (such as a fan) placed so that it moves the air at right angles (90 degrees) to the welder (across the welder's face). or other structural barriers that obstruct cross-ventilation m materials covered above are not present as deliberate constituents. local forced. Natural ventilation often meets the standards if the necessary precautions are taken to keep the welder's breathing zone away from the plume and all of the following specifications are met: • • • • Space of more than 10. Mechanical : Mechanical ventilation includes local exhaust. and related processes where the necessary precautions are taken to keep the welder's breathing zone away from the plume and where sampling of the atmosphere shows that concentrations of contaminants are below the levels given above. brazing. Local exhaust ventilation is preferred. It means fixed or movable exhaust hoods placed as near as practical to the work and able to maintain a capture velocity sufficient to keep airborne contaminants below the limits. balconies.E & C Division SHE Manual designated constituents in welding.000 ft3 (284 m-3) per welder is provided Ceiling height is more than 16 ft (5 m) Welding is not done in a confined space Welding space refers to a building or an enclosed room in a building. Natural ventilation is acceptable for welding. or cutting operations. nor does the welding space contain partitions. Taking air samples at the breathing zones of the personnel involved is the only way to assure that airborne contaminant levels are within the allowable limits. It should produce an approximate Welding and Gas Cutting 6 . Ventilation Natural.

when used in addition to local ventilation. Precautions must be taken to ensure that contaminants are not dispersed to other work areas. Welding and Gas Cutting 7 . General area mechanical ventilation includes roof exhaust fans. General mechanical ventilation may be necessary ventilation to maintain the general background level of airborne contaminants below the levels referred to or to prevent the accumulation of explosive gas mixtures. however. wall exhaust fans. and be maintained for a distance 'Of approximately 2'ft (0.6 m) directly above the work area. It is often helpful.E & C Division SHE Manual velocity of 100 ft per min (30 m per min). General mechanical ventilation is not usually satisfactory. and similar large area air movers.

12. Secure them to prevent violent contact or up setting. When empty cylinders are to be returned to the vendor. 5. If an outlet valve becomes clogged with ice or frozen. Accidents have resulted when containers under partial pressure were thought to be empty. Do not lift compressed gas cylinders with an electro-magnet. applied only to the valve. 2. Do not use slings. it should be thawed with warm (not boiling) water. Because of their shape. Always consider cylinders as full and handle them with corresponding care. 8. Load cylinders to be transported to allow as little movement as possible. Close the valves and replace the valve protection caps. A flame should never be used. consult the supplier of the gas. Where cylinders must be handled by a crane or derrick. The fusible safety plugs on acetylene cylinders melt at about the boiling point of water.E & C Division Handling and storage of cylinders: Precautions in handling of gas cylinders : SHE Manual 1. 10. mark them EMPTY with chalk. or any purpose other than to contain gas. cylinders are difficult to carry by hand. 6. 4. 7. 3. Protect cylinders from cuts or abrasions. Do not remove or change numbers or marks stamped on cylinders. as on construction jobs. carry it with some Mechanical Aid. Do not tamper with safety devices in valves on cylinders. carry them in a cradle or similar device and take extreme care that they are not dropped. supports. When in doubt about the proper handling of compressed gas cylinders or its contents. smooth surface and weight. Do not drop cylinders or let them strike each other violently. 11. Welding and Gas Cutting 8 . Do not use cylinders for rollers. 9.

15. (iii) No flammable material should be stored in the immediate vicinity of the cylinder or in the same room in which it is kept. 1981 (i) The colour of the cylinder should not be changed. No oil similar lubricant shall be used on any valves or other fittings of any cylinder. Cylinders together with their valves and other fittings and other fittings and the identification colours under these rules shall always be maintained in good condition. If a leak in the valve can not be rectified by lightening the gland nut or the spindle. 17. Welding and Gas Cutting 9 . 16. 1981 prescribes 4 warning in the following terms are attached to every cylinder containing permanent or liquefiable gas.E & C Division SHE Manual 13. (iv) No oil or similar lubricant should be used on the valves or other fittings of this cylinder. Every cylinder containing compressed gas shall have valve securely closed so as to prevent leakage. (ii) The cylinder should not be filled with any gas other than the one it contains. 14. the cylinder shall be removed to an open space where it is least dangerous to life and properly and the filler shall be informed.1981. To prevent inter change of fittings. (v) The cylinders should be periodically tested and inspected and the record of the same should be maintained. COLOUR CODING: The cylinders should be painted as per the Indian Standards for easy identification. Rule 9(2) of gas cylinder rules. the valve out lines are screwed left and right respectively. namely: “WARNING” Gas Cylinder Rules. As per rule 9 (2) of gas cylinder rules.

12. 2. gangways. should not be stored in the same area. 8. Accordingly. Never store cylinders near elevators. 9. stairwells or other places where they can be knocked down or damaged. cylinders stored in the open should be protected from contact with the ground and against extremes of weather accumulations of ice and snow in winter and continuous direct rays of the sun in summer. Flammable substances. Never store oxygen cylinder close to cylinders containing flammable gases. Cylinder storage should be planned so those cylinders will be used in the order in which they are received. 11. dry. or near highly flammable substances like gasoline. Cylinders are not designed for temperatures in excess of 130 F. 10. 6.ventilated place prepared and reserved for the purpose. well . 3. Store cylinders in a safe. Cylinders should be stored on a level floor. 5. Acetylene storage rooms and buildings must be well ventilated. 4. 7. Never permit cylinder to have contact with direct flame or electric arc. such as radiators or furnaces. Cylinder storage should be planned so those cylinders will be used in the order in which they are received from the supplier. they should not be stored near sources of heat. Welding and Gas Cutting 10 .E & C Division SHE Manual Precaution in Storage of Cylinders 1. such as oil and volatile liquids. To prevent rusting. and open flames must be prohibited. Store acetylene and liquefied fuel gas cylinders with the valve end up.

15. 17. 2.E & C Division SHE Manual 13. 18. always release the adjusting screw for regulating the pressure output. Before fixing a regulator on to a full cylinder. the open the valve fully to allow the gas to escape freely. Oil or grease must under no circumstances be allowed to come in contact with one another. Make sure that the threads on regulators and other auxiliary equipment are the same as those on the cylinder valve outlets. Welding and Gas Cutting 11 . For storage of gas cylinders flammable storage rooms for cylinders containing flammable gases should be well ventilated to prevent the accumulation of explosive concentrations of gas. Never allow cylinders to come into contact with electrical apparatus or live wires. Never strike an arc or tap an electrode on a gas cylinder whether full or empty. otherwise there is a risk of damage to the regulator. 14. Before attaching a regulator to the cylinder it is necessary to ‘Shift’ the valve in order to remove foreign particles or moisture from the valve seat. If an acetylene cylinder becomes hot or fires internally due to external fire or uses of faulty equipment. 16. close the valve. disconnect the regulator (if possible) remove the cylinder into the open. When transporting by a trolley the cylinder valve must be shut before the cylinder is moved from place to place. since arcing may be set up which will heat or damage the cylinders. Meantime. apply water to cylinder body from a hose or immerse the cylinder in a tank of water and inform the supplier immediately. 3. Never transport cylinders with the regulators and hose attached unless a proper trolley or carrier is used. Care in the Use of Gas Cutting Set 1. Care should be taken to see that the regulator chosen be the correct one to use for the gas contained in the cylinder.

6. Leaks of gas are dangerous. low pressure and high pressure. but under no circumstance. Use red hoses for acetylene and to other fuel gases and black for oxygen and be careful to see that they are never inter changed. can a high pressure blow pipe be used on a low pressure system. 11. “crack” the discharge valve on the cylinder by opening it slightly for an instant and the close it. cracks. 12. sparks or the blow pipe flame. falling metal. The blow pipe when alight should not be hung on the cylinder or on the regulator. nor should the blow pipe flame be allowed to come in contact with the cylinders. the gas may ignite at the valve. first see that no open flame or other source of ignition is near. Cylinders should not be used to support the work. On a fuel gas cylinder.e.E & C Division SHE Manual 4. Connect the regulator to the outlet valve on the cylinder. Welding and Gas Cutting 12 . Remember. or vice versa. Don’t force connections which do not fit. There are two types of blowpipes in common use i. Never connect an oxygen regulator to a cylinder containing fuel gas. otherwise. 10. 7. 9. Use hoses of equal length and do not coil any surplus hose around regulators or cylinders. 5. burns and worn places and arranges it so that it can not be cut by contact with sharp edges or corners. 8. Be sure the regulator inlet threads match the cylinder valve outlet threads. To blow out dust or dirt that otherwise might enter the regulator. Check all connections regularly faulty or leaky equipment should be changed without delay. Never poke a nozzle orifice with a steel wire. Nozzle tips should be kept clean as otherwise distortion of flames and back-fire may result. Be sure that the connections between the regulars and cylinder valves are gas-light. Inspect rubber hose periodically to see that it is free from cuts. a low pressure blow pipe may be used on a high pressure system.

Secondary) side of transformer. 3. Use good quality insulated electrode holder. Open the cylinder valve slightly to let the hand on the high pressure gauges move up slowly. On the output (i. cables of the correct type and capacity tied with the appropriate connectors / lugs. the work must.e. 7. 4. Both portable and stationary equipment must be double earth with 8 SWGI wire. defects etc. Periodically clean and tight the jaws of electrode holder to prevent overheating. Much of the heat generated in a holder is the result of poor electrical contact at the jaws holding the electrode. 6. Ensure that all connections are clean and tight. In service.E & C Division 13. if necessary. but Care in the Use Arc Welding Transformer / Generator 1. Provide switch fuse adjacent to the equipment in order that it may be isolated from supply main. 5. cable connectors are being used. that they are correctly made. earthing clamps. SHE Manual Release the pressure adjusting screw on the regulator to its limit – turn it counter . of course. On an oxygen cylinder gradually open the cylinder valve to its full limit. 14. the welding operator should check all external connections daily and report any weakness. In addition. that the correct types and sizes of cables. electrode holders. and a spring or other grips ensures a uniform pressure.clockwise until it is loose. be earthed. Welding and Gas Cutting 13 . 2.

high boots or similar protection. In the case of cutting operation it is advisable to wear asbestos cloth or leather spats so as to prevent hot particles from falling into the boots or shoes. to prevent burns which can be caused by small globules of metal falling on his thigh and legs. For heavy work. 4. wherever heavy objects are handled. For overhead work. fire-resistant leggings. spatter and radiation. 2. gloves must be worn. Welding and Gas Cutting 14 . Low .resistant material to withstand radiated heat and sparks. the welder should wear a leather apron to protect his clothing.resistant gauntlet gloves. (B) Gloves To protect the hands against heat.E & C Division SHE Manual Personal Protection for Welders (A) Protective clothing for the body Wear leather apron to protect his body and clothing from the heat of the work. asbestos or other flame . as specified in IS : (C) Head protection * When molten metal or hot particles are emitted during welding.cut shoes with unprotected tops should not be used because of the spark hazard. capes or shoulder covers of leather or other suitable 3. Safety shoes. Aprons of leather. except on very light work. 5. and these should be of the leather gauntlet type with canvas or leather cuffs. and in gas shielded ultra-violet radiation and ozone on clothing. Flame . 1.

Wear an approved respirator when paint burning. a responsible person should keep the site under observation for at least half an hour after completion of the work. Never do welding or cutting on a concrete floor. cutting. If possible pass steam also. welding or flame cleaning on painted galvanized plate for an extended time or in a badly ventilated place 6. 8. in order to watch for and Welding and Gas Cutting 15 . Use a spark lighter and not a match-stick to light up a flame. 7. When cutting or welding inside boilers or other confined spaces. Fire extinguishers and sand should be readily accessible and water should be used to flood the floor where no other protection is possible. because when heated. 9. spirits or any other inflammable or explosive material without make it safe. gas cylinders should always keep gas cylinder outside and take special care to make sure that the hose is in good condition. Sparks from welding and particularly from gas cutting can travel a considerable distance. They should be washed out thoroughly with caustic soda or carbon tetrachloride and then with water. 5. Have a pail of water and fire extinguisher at hand and have an assistant outside to control the gas supply and to give any necessary help. Suitable fire-extinguishing apparatus should always be ready to hand and. a portion of the concrete may spell and fly with possible injury to the operator. if the working condition are such that a fire risk is present. oils. If welding or cutting is performed in a confined space and an operator must enter through a manhole or other small opening some means should be provided for quickly removing him in ease of an emergency. 3. Do not weld out tanks or vessels which may have contained petrol.E & C Division SHE Manual General Safety Protections 1. 4. 2.

E & C Division SHE Manual deal with any outbreak of fire. Obtain a written permit before using portable cutting or welding equipment any where. Wear respiratory protection as needed and a safety harness with attached lifeline for work in confined spaces. Welding and Gas Cutting 16 . In outside work. 13. After welding.put them in a safe storage area. remove the torch and hose from the area.common for a fire to smolder for many hours before breaking out. 16. Before starting. or cover them with sheet metal or equivalent. 12. flying particles of incandescent metal or slag. above the floor or ground. don’t let sparks enter doors or windows. 17. 14. such as tanks and pressure vessels. It is not un . The lifeline should be tended by a similar equipped helper whose duty is to observe the welder or cutter and effect rescue in emergency. if possible. 11. shut off the gas supply at a point outside the confined area. Never wear oily or greasy clothing of any kind. or cutting is completed.discard them in the proper waste container. Keep tools and other tripping hazards off the floor . Do n’t throw electrode or rod stubs on the floor . or a safety belt and lifeline. sweep floors clean. 10. Take special precautions if welding or cutting in a confined space is stopped for some time Disconnect the power on arc welding or cutting unit and remove the electrode from the holder. use a platform with railings. 15. Turn off the torch valves on gas welding or cutting units. wet down wooden floors. It is the operator’s duty to adequately protect his own clothing and person from sparks. mark hot metal or post a warning sign to keep workers away from heated surfaces. For work at more than 5 ft. Follow safe house keeping principles.

27. 21. carefully and completely. 23. and inspect adjoining rooms and floors above and below. Welding and Gas Cutting 17 . shall be instructed to watch for and be ready immediately to extinguish any fire that may occur and know how to transmit a call to the nearest fire station. Suitable extinguishers conforming to IS : 1648 . 24. 26. Don’t use the equipment near flammable liquids. Cutting and welding operators. Carefully follow manufacturer’s instructions for use and maintenance. 19.1961 shall be available for immediate use. 22. Remove inside deposits before working on ducts. cover what can’t be moved with asbestos curtains or sheet metal. and every other person concerned. See that the fire service should be called at the first sign of fire. Ample supply of dry sand in suitable containers shall be provided.E & C Division SHE Manual 18. 20. Move combustible material 13 meters away. Station extra men with hose. watch scene of work half-an-hour for smoldering fires. Keep cutting and welding equipment in good condition. or fire pails to watch sparks and see that they do not start fire. Hoses connected to an effective water supply. or on closed tanks which have held flammable liquids or other combustibles. After completion. or where such supply is not available an ample supply of water in suitable containers shall be available. 25. extinguishers.

Are hose conform to BIS Specification? 11. 8.? 2.with records? Is the welding cables inspected periodically? Is there any shed / cover for the welding machine? Are operators / welders qualified? Whether proper safety appliances are given and used. 5. Description Observation Yes / No SHE Manual Action / Comments Is the welding cables routed properly above the ground? Is welding equipment installed in an elevated position & operating? Is there any system of maintaining the machines--. Are hoses stored after us in oil & grease free place? Welding and Gas Cutting 18 . 4.K. 1. 6. No. 3. 9. Is physical condition of hose O. 10. 7.E & C Division ANNEXURE GAS CUTTING & WELDING CHECK LIST Sr.K? 12. Are the flammable materials removed / covered? Are clamps clips on hoses conforms to BIS & physical condition is O.

Are electrode holder used. Are pressure gauges are provided & are in working condition? 18.E & C Division SHE Manual 13. Is physical condition of connecting lead is O. Are hazardous (combustible)materials kept beside / below gas cutting operation? 24.K. Are colour code marking for flammable gas cylinder and oxygen cylinder is done? 17. Are fire extinguishers / fire buckets available near work place? 25. Are empty & filled cylinders stored separately away from heat / sun light? Welding and Gas Cutting 19 . Is current carrying capacity of electrode holder is adequate? 20. Is welding torch conforms to BIS specification & nozzle is free from scale? 15. Is tip of welding torch nozzle is free from scales? 16.? 21.K. Is crimping of lugs on welding lead O. conforms to BIS specification? 19. Are gas cylinder kept vertically at safe places? 23. Are clamps and clips are used only for tying up of welding hoses? 14.? 22.

E & C Division 26. Are protective caps provided to all cylinders? 27. Is tightness of connection of leads O.K? 28. Is distinctive double earthing of welding generator / transformer done? 29. Is insulation resistance of welding equipment checked? 30. Is separate cable for earthing taken for welding return? 31. Is welder’s safety helmet provided to welder? 32. Is fire blanket used to arrest welding sparks? 33. Is hot used to arrest welding sparks?

SHE Manual

Welding and Gas Cutting


E & C Division 10 10.1 HEALTH & HYGIENE Work Environment:

SHE Manual

The work environment at any construction site can cause discomfort to the personnel working at the site due to any of the following reasons. While elaborating these factors in the following chapters care has been taken to give proper guidance either to completely eliminate them, if not, to minimise their effect. 10.1.1 Noise and vibration: Construction sites are noisy places. Excessive exposure to loud noise can cause permanent damage to hearing of the workers. Noise at work can cause stress, making it difficult to sleep. Very high levels of noise caused, for example, by using cartridge tools can cause instantaneous hearing damage. The levels of noise produced in operations such as piling, tunnelling and cleaning operations may be such that unprotected persons will exceed their maximum recommended daily dose in a matter of seconds. Even a few minutes' exposure every day to very noisy machines can be enough to start permanent hearing damage. Loud noise can cause a temporary partial loss of hearing, with recovery time varying from 15 minutes to several days depending on the noise level. There may also be a "ringing" in the ears which should be regarded as a warning - temporary loss may become permanent with repeated exposure. Deafness develops very gradually but cannot be cured once the damage has been done. Noise also makes it difficult to hear sounds that you need to hear such as work signals and warning shouts. THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS ( REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE ) CENTRAL RULES, 1998 under Rule 34 indicate the requirement at the site for suppression of excessive noise and vibration and also give under Schedule VI the maximum permissible limit of exposure. This is given in Annexe 1.

Health and Hygiene


E & C Division Noise control

SHE Manual

There are several steps that can be taken on site to reduce noise: • • • • • Check that exhaust outlets are fitted with silencers or mufflers, and do not keep machinery running unnecessarily. Keep compressor motor covers closed when they are running. Check that concrete breaker mufflers and similar devices are securely fitted. Check that machinery panels are secured and do not rattle. Ensure that sound-insulating screens are provided to reduce noise from stationary plant, and that where practicable noisy machinery is sited behind earth mounds or brick stacks to isolate or screen it as far as possible. Hearing protection:

If the workers are expected to work at or near a noisy machine, then • • The noise levels have to be measured, and those measurements are to be recorded. If the level of the noise is high then appropriate earmuffs or ear plugs should be provided for persons working near the source of such noise and the worker should wear the ear plug until he completes his job. The hearing protection should be kept clean and stored in a safe place when not in use. The ear plug should be periodically examined and should be replaced when found damaged. Vibration:

Many noisy machines or hand-operated tools also transmit vibrations to the body - pneumatic rock dribs or concrete breakers are common examples. In this way they can injure muscles and joints, and affect blood circulation causing what is known as "white finger disease". When using these tools the worker should wear gloves, which help to cushion the vibrations.

Health and Hygiene


E & C Division 10.1.2 Illumination:

SHE Manual

THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS ( REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE ) CENTRAL RULES, 1998 under Rules 50 & 124 provides statutory illumination requirements for passages and for excavation sites. The general requirements are given below. All parts of the site need to be properly lit by natural or artificial means whenever work is going on. Site lighting is always necessary in those areas short of natural light such as shafts and enclosed stairways. Artificial lighting should be placed to avoid deep shadows - these may conceal hazards which would be obvious in good light. Mounting of lights should be as high as practicable to avoid glare, and lights should be placed so that workers do not have to work in their own shadow. Only robustly installed fittings which are well out of reach, such as floodlighting, should be used and operated at full mains voltage. Temporary electric lighting should be installed by trained electricians using low-voltage equipment. Ensure that the following are followed by workers: • • Do not interfere with the installation. Report any damaged insulation, on broken bulbs, lamp holders or fittings. Make sure that cables are fastened well off the ground and do not let cables or connections trail in wet conditions. Do not change bulbs. Ventilation:


THE BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS ( REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE ) CENTRAL RULES, 1998 under Rules 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, and 158 gives broad statutory requirements for adequate and proper ventilation while undertaking excavation and tunnelling works. Hot weather Health and Hygiene 3

E & C Division

SHE Manual

Workers on construction sites are often exposed to all weathers. In tropical countries radiation from the sun, with high air temperatures and humidity, increases fatigue from heavy work and causes heat stress which may lead to heat exhaustion and heat stroke, the latter a medical emergency, and to ill health. The effects of heat combined with physical workload tend to accumulate. Good welfare facilities are essential to health in hot climates, and the suitable arrangement of working time is important. There should be: • sufficient work breaks .. for moderately heavy or heavy work 50 per cent or more rest time is essential; Rest areas should be away from workstations to cool off., Adequate supply of clean, cool drinking-water should be provided and the workers should be encouraged to drink as often as possible and in small quantities . Washing facilities should be provided to allow the workers to bathe and keep their work clothes clean.

• • Tips for Keeping the Body Cool: Keep out of direct sunlight as much as possible. Avoid unnecessary quick movements. Ensure that there is air circulation in operators' cabins. Avoid wearing tight clothes or those which prevent evaporation of perspiration such as some plastic materials. Wear head protection. Take cool drinks regularly to replace moisture lost through perspiration. Add salt to food or eat food that contains natural salt. Find a shady place for rest pauses.

Cold weather: 4

Health and Hygiene

E & C Division

SHE Manual

Cold is not just uncomfortable - it may affect health and judgement. Although not a serious problem in tropical climates, it may nevertheless be experienced at high altitudes and in the early morning at sites which are well inland. Some of the hazards of cold weather are as follows: There are more likely to be accidents if the temperature of the hands falls below 150 Celsius, there is loss of concentration and coordination. Workers repeatedly using vibratory tools such as rock drills may suffer "white finger" syndrome involving sensory loss as a consequence of cold. Prolonged exposure to temperatures around freezing may cause frostbite or hypothermia. Wind can affect temperature. When the air temperature is 100 Celsius and the wind speed is 32 km per hour, the temperature, so far as the body is concerned, falls to freezing. This is called the chill factor. Even where the temperature is above freezing point, a condition called "immersion foot" can occur in wet conditions if the feet are not kept dry.



- How to keep warm The following points should be considered when working in cold conditions Choose clothing which allows moisture to escape but does not allow wind and rain to penetrate: waterproof clothing tends to prevent evaporation of moisture. Avoid bulky clothes, as they hamper movement - a number of layers of clothing are preferred. Hands and feet are particularly susceptible to cold. Use facilities for preparing hot meals and drinks, and for storing and drying clothing. 5



Health and Hygiene

E & C Division Annexure -1

SHE Manual


Total time of exposure (continuous or a Sound level (in dBA) number of short term exposoures) per day (in hours) (1) (2) 8 90 6 92 4 3 2 1½ 1 ¾ ½ ¼ 95 97 100 102 105 107 110 115


Notes:- 1. No exposure in excess of 115 dBA is to be permitted. 2. For any period of exposure falling in between any figure and the next higher or lower figure as indicated in column (1), the permissible sound pressure level is to be determined by extrapolation on a proportionate basis.

Health and Hygiene


E & C Division 10. or C). Generally speaking. implement a training program. bump caps. Once a company decides on the use of PPE. and electric shock and burns. and hair protection. In selecting the proper equipment. and establishing a sound training program with consistent enforcement of all rules and regulations. The Safety Equipment Institute helps to ensure objective. administrative controls. All workers exposed to head injury hazards must wear protective headware to shield them from falling objects. headware should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. it should develop a company policy on PPE usage for employees and visitors. select the proper equipment for the existing hazards. Companies can increase compliance by enlisting the aid of line supervisors and managers. Every 30 days or sooner.2 Personal Protective Equipment Introduction: SHE Manual Methods of controlling hazards in the workplace fall into three categories: engineering controls. These devices include helmets (classified as A. When engineering and administrative controls cannot eliminate work hazards. B. and personal protective equipment (PPE). General guidelines on the type of Personal Protective Equipment to be used. blows. helmets should be inspected for any defects or signs of wear that can reduce their protective effectiveness. fair testing and certification of PPE devices. it is the least desirable method of controlling hazards because the hazard still is present in the workplace. letting employees have some choice in the type of equipment purchased. and enforce the use of PPE. Before each use. Health and Hygiene 7 . PPE must be used to ensure worker health and safaty. Workers should be encouraged to use PPE and should receive some type of sanctions if they fail to wear the equipment. the most important criterion Is the degree of protection that a particular piece of equipment can provide under various conditions. however.

Face shields alone generally do not provide adequate protection against eye injuries and must be combined with basic eye protective glasses or goggles. Hearing protector’s fall into four categories: enclosure (helmets). Hearing protection devices are given a noise reduction rating that indicates their protective effectiveness. management should conduct a thorough job survey analysis and establish a fall protection program. goggles and face shields. molded). harshness retracting lifeline devices. Active fall protection systems include secure anchorage points and the use of lanyards. Both eye protection devices and face shields must be kept scrupulously clean to avoid contaminating the surface of the eyes or face. Passive fall protection systems include personal and debris nets placed beneath work areas to catch workers or falling debris. and hardware connectors. Protective devices include safety glasses. Management must evaluate the workplace for hearing hazards and determine the need for hearing protection devices. particularly for laser and welding operations. These nets can be combined to serve as both personnel and debris nets for the same job.). Hoods can provide protection against chemical splashes. Fall protection is defined as a means of preventing workers from experiencing accidental falls from elevations. custom molded. harnesses etc. safety belts. Daily work in steady noise of more than 85 decibels for eight-hour shifts is considered hazardous noise exposure. In selecting the right fall protection system. Health and Hygiene 8 .E & C Division SHE Manual Protection of eyes and face from injury is vital in any occupational health and safety program. fall arresters and shock absorbers. although real world values may be considerably less. Safety glasses and goggles should be large enough to shield the entire eye socket area and should contain lens materials matched to the hazard worker’s face. Each hearing protector should be fitted to each worker. Fall protection systems are either passive (nets) or active (lifelines. horizontal and vertical lifelines. and employees must be taught proper insertion techniques and maintenance procedures. aural (ear insert formable.

and electrical shock or burns. particulate and combination contaminants and oxygen deficient environments. These respirators are available in three configurations. (2) supplied air devices. half-face. quarter-face. Some jobs require conductive. All respirators must be routinely inspected. nonconductive. Air supplying respirators provide a breathing gas to the worker and include (1) self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). foundry. weather extremes. quantitative. To protect workers from airborne health hazards. depending on the shoe design protective level required. Footwear must be kept clean and in good repair. management must provide respiratory protection equipment against gaseous. individual worker capabilities.E & C Division SHE Manual Companies must also develop rescue procedures for retrieving a fallen worker from above ground. hot metal. below-ground or confined spaces operations. and (3) combined supplied air SCBA respirators. or chemical splashes. The company must establish a complete training and medical surveillance program to make sure that employees know how to use and maintain their equipment and that only physically qualified personnel use respirators. Air purifying respirators must be properly fitted and tested using qualitative. Proper selection of equipment depends on the toxic substance encountered. and repaired or replaced on a routine basis. Each type provides increased protection against higher concentrations of toxic materials. conditions of exposure. and equipment fit. Such clothing includes leather garments. and properly stored to ensure their protective effectiveness. negative pressure. cleaned. reinforced plastic. Fall protection equipment must be inspected. Respiratory protection is evaluated according to a “protection factor” that describes the overall effectiveness of the equipment. cleaned. and hard rubber models. chemical splashes. and full-face models. Safety footwear includes steel. Air purifying respirators are classified as either gas/vapor devices (also known as chemical cartridge respirators) or particulate devices. Special protective clothing is used to shield workers form such workplace hazards as heat. Respirators are classified as air supplying or air purifying devices. and positive pressure tests. wool Health and Hygiene 9 .

heat-stress and cold weather clothing. Health and Hygiene 10 . aprons kneepads.E & C Division SHE Manual and asbestos substitutes. aluminized clothing. imperious materials. gloves and gauntlets. In each technical chapter of part II. hand leathers and arm protectors. and conductive or nonconductive clothing. flame resistant or flameretardant materials. Specification for safety equipment is given in annexure – 1. whoever required specific personal protective equipment requirements is dealt with.

unbreakable flame proof with wide flexible and replaceable plastic highly transparent full view ‘O’ optically correct visor 11 (b) (c) Health and Hygiene . leather covered nosepiece. B SAFETY BELT General purpose harness safety belt consists of one body belt and two shoulder straps made from strong closely woven approximately 50 mm wide 6 ply cotton webbing with 3 mm long 12 mm dia tested quality polypropylene rope. It should withstand 20 deg and plus 50 deg. Face shield with headband may also be used. A special Dring to be provided at the back of safety belt and life line is directly spliced (minimum 9”) from back of D-ring. fitted with elastic headbands and conformable to use. If a plumb bob of 500 gms weight with conical steel point is dropped from a height of 3M there should be no piercing or denting. All iron fittings be galvanised and jointless cut from solid. For welders / gas cutters heat proof unbreakable zero power smoke colour glass of suitable shade according to the type of hob with protective clear glass. The fibre frame should have provision for side ventilation padded cup edge.E & C Division Annexure – 1 SHE Manual SPECIFICATION FOR SAFETY EQUIPMENT A SAFETY HELMET Fibre glass HDP etc should weigh 400 to 450 gms and be moisture shock and fire resistant. Over head grinding panorama goggles moulded PVC frame. C. C GOGGLES (a) For chippers / grinders / hammer men clear glass 50 mm dia with shatterproof toughened glass preferable panoramic view.

All ropes should be made of tested quality polypropylene rope. The fit of gloves should be such that the fingers have ample room and the bridge connecting the thumb to the gloves should be sufficiently deep so that the thumb will not cause strain on the palm of the gloves. There should not be any joint in the mesh.E & C Division SHE Manual deep frame to fit over power spectacle indirect ventilation fitted with elastic headband. F SAFETY NET 6 mm dia with twin rope inside for 50 mm x 50 mm meshing with provision for intermediate rope of 12 mm dia every 1M and 20 mm dia rope on all four sides. The gloves should be comfortable to use so that fingers have ample room and the bridge connecting the thumb to the gloves should be sufficiently deep so that the thumb will nto cause strain on the palm of the gloves. with provision for tying the net at every one meter. For Electricians gloves made of rubber 380 mm / 450 mm long tested to 15000 volts. Stitching done should not be too near the edge. For material handling leather cum canvas 304 mm long double leather for palm single leather for five finger type. enclosing the mouth and the nose. (b) (c) E DUST MASK Cloth dust mask flannel type made from netting cloth outside and fine canvas cloth inside sandwiched with 3 mm foam padding. Health and Hygiene 12 . The cloth should be of thick cotton canvas. D GLOVES (a) All leather made of chrome / calf leather 450 mm long with five fingers double stitching for joints. Stitching should be done with good quality thread. double stitching with stitches spaced 1 mm from each other with good quality thread. with elastic head strap ensuring safe breathing in dusty atmosphere.

H EAR MASK When noise level exceeds 85 to 90 decibels. Centre metal frame aperture to accommodate glass of 107 x 82 x 3 mm size dark green colour of shade 11 DIN sandwiched with a pair of clear protective glass of same size. G WELDING FACE SHIELD (HELMET TYPE) Shield made of vulcanised fibre swivel type with adjustable sponge padded head gear. The safety net should pass through a drop test which specifies that the deflection should not be more than 2 M or half the length of shortest side when a sand bag of 140 kg mass is dropped successively three times on to the centre of the net from a height of 50 feet. ear muffs / earplugs are to be used. Health and Hygiene 13 .5 m span.E & C Division SHE Manual The safety net should withstand a load of 500 kg on 2.

This record should be maintained and be made available for the audit team. some trained first-aid personnel should be available at the Occupational Health Center which also monitors the health of the personnel working at the site. Duration of training: The duration of training shall be of one full day to first aider and / or nominated persons at the site. 2. 6. bodies etc. Therefore first aid becomes essential to control the condition of injured to avoid further deterioration. Minimum No. Maintenance of records. In order to give first aid immediately at accident spot. Occupational Health Center and First Aid at Construction Site Serious or minor injuries are often occur at construction site. Frequency to training.E & C Division SHE Manual 11. (Annexure 4) • • • Occupational Health Center and First Aid 1 . Responsibility and arrangement of first-aid training program: The responsibility to train the persons in first aid leis with RCM/RCE. 3. Govt. record of training given to personnel should also be kept in a separate register. titled as "Training Register". Maintenance of records: The record of each first aid treatment case shall be recorded in a register. Contents of first-aid box. This procedure gives information about the following: 1. titled as "First Aid Register" (Annexure 3). RCM/RCE shall arrange training program by engaging services of agencies such as St. of trained first aiders. In addition to first aid treatment cases. John Ambulance or other local agencies like Hospitals. Placement of first aid boxes. • Duration of training. 5. Frequency of training: The frequency of training shall be six months from the date of commencement of project or six months from the date of issue of this procedure. 4. 7. Responsibility and arrangement of first aid training.

One more box for every additional 100 persons shall also be provided. Minimum No. 3. Occupational Health Center and First Aid 2 .E & C Division • SHE Manual Placement of first aid boxes: Over every 50 workers a first-aid box shall be provided at work site or at distance of 500 meters. If any deviation found. RCM/RCE shall check and sign all registers pertains to first aid once in every fifteen days.& II. Information about first aid shall be displayed at all prominent locations at site. Contents of First-Aid box: As attached in annexure I. • • RCM/RCE shall ensure the enforcement of this procedure: 1. that will be highlighted in inspection/audit report. All records maintained shall be checked by Safety Engineers from SCD whenever they come for inspection/audit at site. of trained first aiders: At any time of work at least 5 trained first-aiders shall be available at site. 2.

1 Tab 3/4 times a day.) Tabs Crocin (500 mg) (500 Nos. 3 times a day X 5 1 Tab 3/4 times a day. Amoxyciline 250 mg.). 23.) chewed 2/3 times a day. One pair of scissors. 2. Polycrol forte (PFT) (500 Nos.) For local application 2/3 times a day Ointment Sofraycin (10 Nos. 24.) Local application Ointment Multigesic (10 Nos.). Savlon lotion (5 Bottles) For cleaning of wounds Tincture Benzoine (5 Bottles) For local application Bandages all types 1/2/3" (20 Nos. (100 Nos. 1 Tab 2 times a day. One copy of first aid leaflet. a day 1 Tab 3 times a day.) Eye Wash Bottle (One Nos. 18.). each) For bandage Cotton wool (10 Rolls. 14. (500 Nos. 27.15 to 20 Nos. 10.) Tabs.) Tabs Avomin (100 Nos. 22. Althrocine 250 mg. 1 Tab 3/4 times a day. 7. Caps. Tabs Metrogyl Compound (500 Nos. Jonhnson & Jonhnson Eye pads .5 cms X 1 Mtr. Ibugesic plus. Dettole Ointment Silversuphidezine For burns (One Nos. One pair of adhesive plaster (2.) Local application First aid sprays (2 Nos.)/ days.E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure . 1 Tab 2 times a day. 6. 1 Tab four times. 12. 1 Tab 2/3 times a day. Tabs Neobarb/Entro-quinol Tabs Domid (200 Nos. 9. 21.I Contents of First Aid Box The first aid shall be distinctively marked with a red cross on a while background and contain following: 1.) For cleaning / use for dressing Large size burn dressings (10 Nos. 11. Medicines 17. 25.)/ 1Cap. 26. 16.) Tabs.) Tabs. 8. 13. 20.). 19. Band aids (200 Nos. (300 Nos. 4.) For burn / cuts / bruise etc. 3 Occupational Health Center and First Aid . 5. 15. 1/2 Tab at a time to be 1 Tab.) Tabs Polaramine (200 Nos.For local application Ointment Thrombhob (10 Nos.Three times a day.) Tabs Vikoryl (300 Nos. 3.

2/3 times a 1Tab 2/3 times a day For gassing Note: All medicines to be taken after meals. Tabs Colinol P/ Spasmoproxyvon Nos. Gentycin Eye / Ear drops (10 Bottles) day 32. before consumption. Tabs Placidox (2 mg ) 29. Please ensure 'Medicine allergy' to any of the above medicines.) 33. Occupational Health Center and First Aid 4 .Small Pack (100 Nos.) SHE Manual 1 Tab SOS 1 Tab 3 times a day (200 1 Tab 2 times a day 2/3 drops.) 30. Tabs Theo-asthaline (100 Nos. Tabs Rantidine (200 Nos.) 31. Electral Powder .E & C Division 28.



III SHE Manual The format for first-aid treatment register shall be as follows: Sr. No.E & C Division Annexure . Name of patient Date Sex & Age Type of Injury Part of body injured Type of Treatment given Occupational Health Center and First Aid 7 .

instead of contracting in a coordinated manner contract separately and at different times.E & C Division 12. Such current flow can easily be received on contact with low voltage sources of the secondary lighting or power circuit. Blood circulation ceases and unless proper resuscitation efforts are made. Dry skin has a fairly high resistance. Heat is a secondary effect on the body. the fibers of the heart muscle. A person’s main resistance to current flow is the skin’s surface. Interface with the normal rhythm of the heart. Low voltage is dangerous as it prevents the victim from breaking the contact with the circuit. which may interfere with breathing to such an extent that death will result from asphyxiation when the contact is prolonged. The severity of electrical shock is determined 1) by the amount of current that flows though the victim (Table 1). death occurs. Temporary paralysis of the nerve center. In this condition. 2) by the length of time that the body receives the current and 3) the part of body involved. 3. these factors are also important and if it is alternating current frequency. The resistance decreases rapidly with increase in voltage. The heart cannot __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 1 . But current flow depends on voltage and resistance. A sharp decease in resistance takes place when the skin is moist (Table 2). the current flows readily through the blood and the body’s tissues. 2. Internal Injuries: Death or injuries from electrical shock may result from the following effects of current on the body: 1. Contraction of the chest muscles. a condition that often continues long after the victim is freed from the circuit. which may result in failure to breath. Once the skin’s resistance is broken down. Electrical Safety SHE Manual General : Electrical Injuries: Current flow and time are the factors that cause injuries in electrical shock. causing ventricular fibrillation.

the muscular contractions of the heart stop. flashes of explosive violence may result. Immediately apply CPR to a victim of electrical shock and continue until they revive. Such burns are usually deep and slow to heal and may involve large areas of the body. Hemorrhages and destruction of tissues. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ( CPR) Because electrical shock can stop the heart and lungs the worker involved in hazardous energy levels know cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rescue procedure. 5. When worker receives a shock from defective or malfunctioning equipment causes muscles to contract so worker loses his balance and fall. wenches or jewelry make contact with current carrying conductors. Injuries from electrical shock are less severe when the current does not pass through or near centers and vital organs. Persons at a reasonable distance from the arc may receive eye burns. The heart may resume its normal rhythm when the victim is freed from the circuit. trucks and lift trucks when metal. It has been estimated that 50 ma is sufficient to cause ventricular fibrillation. When current flows from the hands to the feet involving both the heart and the lungs the results are very serious. 6.E & C Division SHE Manual 4. Severe burns may result from contact with low-voltage systems in cars. This intense arcing is caused by 1) short circuits between bus bar or cables carrying heavy current 2) failure of knife switches 3) operating knife switches while they are carrying a heavy load 4) pulling fuses in energised circuits Injuries from Falls Other injuries from electrical shock include falls from one level to another. Skin and Eye Injuries : Another type of injury is burns from electrical flashes. spontaneously recover from this condition. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 2 . Where high voltages are involved. On contact with heavy current. nerves and muscles from heat due to heavy current along the electrical circuit’s path through the body.

As the work progresses. demolitions and routine work may all result in damage to both the temporary site distribution system and / or the permanent installations. Try to tackle the risk if it cannot be completely eliminated and give priorities to the control of risks that could directly result in injuring the workers. The cables and equipment are likely to be damaged by the movement of heavy plant and materials. In such cases low voltage system (max. Much of the work is carried out outdoors in all weather conditions thereby increasing the risk and the severity of the electrical shock. Congestion at the sites and also the difficulty in identifying the energised and dead installations may also increase the risk. Different contractors with varying methods and different tools further aggravate the risk due to the usage of the same facility. As a first step. Excavations. He should make the line diagram. the site keeps on shifting inducing the contractors to adopt / improvise supply systems. As a next step. the possibility of eliminating the risks should be explored such as the provision of pneumatic tools instead of electrical ones in wet conditions. The Building code and the statue the necessary requirements to provide a risk free work environment. 50 V) or reduced voltage system (110 V system which provides only 55 V between phase and earth in single phase system) or system provided with residual current device can also be considered. • • Planning the work: • Planning helps in removing most of the inherent risks at the initial stages itself. a suitable person should be appointed to plan the work. • • __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 3 .E & C Division The Risk Due to Use of Electricity at The Site: • SHE Manual Construction sites present one of the most challenging work environment for the safe use of electricity.

and as the project develops. easy transportability. Site distribution units should be designed and manufactured to a suitable standard and should have features like repeated usability. ! If refurbishment works are to be carried out. identification of parts of the system which are alive. ! Provision of lockable switches and means of isolation. ! The supply voltage required. ! Earthing requirement / system to be used. distribution boards and supply cables. ! Location of overhead lines and buried cables. in particular the siting and protection of metering equipment and switchgear.E & C Division • SHE Manual At the design and planning stage. ! Environmental conditions such as weather. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 4 . ! Use of existing permanent systems as a supply for plant and equipment. sturdiness and lockable switches and means of isolation. Most of these issues are covered in the following chapters. ! The need for providing alternate power for augmenting the supply requirements. ! Commissioning and handover arrangement for completed buildings or installations. issues which need to be considered or reviewed will include the following: ! Giving intimation to the state authorities for providing power supply for commencing the work. ! The way in which the system will be modified /extended as the work progresses. Selection of equipment for the temporary site distribution system: • • While selecting equipment particular attention should be paid to any restriction on use specified by the manufacturer. ! Operation of temporary system and the use of plant and equipment connected to the distribution system. ! The installation and commissioning of the temporary site distribution system.

knowledge of the risks involved in their job and the ability to complete them safely.g. and shall read substantially as follows: “WARNING – HIGH VOLTAGE – KEEP OUT “ Some typical site situations along with the precautions to be taken are given below: Generators: A supply from electrical board is not always available.E & C Division Staff Appointments: SHE Manual • Before starting work the principal or main contractor/s should appoint key personnel responsible for electrical installation. less than one day). __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 5 . 2. Permanent and conspicuous warning signs shell be posted on all doors or gates that provide access to enclosures containing exposed energised parts and conductors forbidding unqualified persons to enter. generator line and neutral cabinets or rear entry motor control centers. Electrical Equipment Locations 1. For short time work (e. such as transformer switch yards. of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. portable generator (with outputs of up to 10kVA) are often used. Care is needed to ensure that the generator is installed safely and expert advice may be needed particularly on earthing. these generators need not be earthed provided that they are only used with ClassII (double insulated or all – insulated) tools or equipment. Their competency is based on their training and experience. shell be kept locked. or in locations remote from the site supply. vaults or fenced enclosures containing electrical equipment shell be readily opened from the inside without the use of a key. Access doors or gates to rooms. For small-scale work. The entrances to enclosures containing exposed high voltage energised parts. In these instances the electricity supply for the site can be provided by an ac generating set. Such signs shall be legible at 12 feet.

(i. single phase generators used for 110V supplies. or if it is supplies only one item of “earthed” equipment. Further guidance on earthing and bonding of generator system are given under appropriate headings.) In all other circumstances. This is generally difficult to achieve on a __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 6 . " The impedance of the bonding needs to be low enough to ensure correct operation of protective devices (fuses. circuit breakers etc. The responsibility for ensuring that the electrical earthing is effective rests with the person in charge of the site. (In these systems neutral and earth are combined. by bonding the neutral to the frame and connecting the frame to earth. However. a suitable earth should be provided. those with ratings up to about 5kVA) need not be earthed. including structural metalwork.) " Sensitive earth fault protection may be necessary if earthing conditions are difficult. Earthing: Electrical safety often depends upon the existence of effective earthing.) Where a PME system is used all metalwork. if all the equipment in use is double insulated. the generating set may be either single or 3 phase. When larger generators are used (output in excess of 10kVA). the equipment should be bonded with the frame of the generator. " Many electricity suppliers systems use protective multiple earthing (PME). must be bonded together (connected together in a way that is electrically continuous). Particular care is needed to ensure that the system is installed safely and this may require specialist advice. not with the electricity supplier.e. Generator should be connected and operated so that they are separate from the public supply system unless agreement has already been obtained in writing from the electricity authorities.E & C Division SHE Manual The smaller. (Bonding involves connecting items of metalwork together in a way that is electrically continuous. Matter to consider include the following: " Generator needed to be earthed.

where steelwork has been treated against corrosion or where individual metal framed portable buildings or cabins are used. it needs to be bonded (metalwork connected together in a way that is electrically continuous) and a separate protective (earth) conductor will be necessary. the existing electrical installation may be supplied from a PME system. Therefore most electricity suppliers will not connect the site electrical system unless there is an adequate alternate earth. Where necessary. and the equipment.E & C Division SHE Manual construction site for a variety of reasons. are kept separate from the PME system. On a construction site a system that uses earth electrodes is most commonly used and will ensure that fuses etc will operate if there is a fault. Earthing should always be tested after an item of equipment has been installed. specialist advice should be sought to ensure that there is adequate electrical protection.g. e. Guidance can be taken from relevant BIS. Fixed cable armouring and metal conduit can be used as a protective (earthing) conductor. particularly where steelwork is being added in the course of the work. Additional electrical connections between the various metal parts may be necessary to provide this low resistance path. depend on the provision of their own earthing electrodes. The effective operation of any electrical protection depends on a low resistance earth path in the event of a fault. The use of an earth from a PME system is not allowed for the electrical supply to site caravans. for their effective earthing. Specialist advice on appropriate values may be necessary. In these circumstances it is strongly recommended that temporary site distribution system which. paying particular attention to the continuity of protective (earthing) " " " " __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 7 . Flexible metallic conduit should not be used as the only earthing conductor. ensuring reliable operation of fuses etc. Guidance on earth impedance values is contained in BSI Requirements for electrical installations. If the work involves extending an existing site or structure. " There are several alternative methods of providing a secure and effective earth. cable glands. Joints in the earth path are particularly vulnerable to damage so there should be good electrical connection between the various componets. between conduit.

The temporary site distribution system: " This is the cabling system and equipment installed to distribute and supply electricity to points of use at the various locations on the site during the construction phase. fixed installation.E & C Division SHE Manual conductors. " If extension leads are used. as it is then no longer required. Double insulated equipment is marked with this symbol: and will therefore be supplied with a two core cable only. Earthing equipment connected to the supply: " Equipment that is either double insulated. A three-core cable will be needed. Removal may begin on completion and commissioning of all or part of the permanent. This will ensure that the supply to tools. insulated or all insulated must be earthed. The temporary site distribution system is always removed when site work is completed. as well as to the polarity and to insulation resistance. always includes an earth. it is strongly recommended that these are always of three core construction having a separate protective (earth) conductor. See BIS for the above. (constructed with reinforced insulation) does not need. (constructed with two layers of insulation to provide electrical protection in case of damage to the outer insulation) or all insulated. which is not double. and will not be fitted with a means of connected to earth. Equipment. the harsh conditions on site require that it is to a high standard. Equipment must be adequately protected against damage and contamination due to dust etc. " Although the site distribution system may be only temporary. which are not double insulated. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 8 .

Moveable Plant: __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 9 . are often dangerous and should not be permitted. This will minimise unauthorised interference with the permanent fixed installation. " All fixed distribution cables which carry 400V or 230V on a construction site are recommended to be of a type which has metal sheath and / or armour which is continuous and earthed. using maps or plans showing the line and depth of such cables will be invaluable in avoiding damage as work progresses. If the roadway is used by vehicles. If they need to cross a site roadway or walkway they can be put into ducts with a marker at each end of the duct. taped and twisted cable joints. All wiring on site should be installed to appropriate standards. Uses and other Protective devices: " The use of correctly rated fuses and / or circuit breakers is essential for all the supplies on site. " Site offices and fixed floodlighting will generally require 230V supplies.5m below the surface. Make sure that switchgear. " Distribution cables should be located where they are not likely to be damaged by site activities. such as unprotected wiring. on larger sites. the duct should be at least 0. and in particular the means of turning off the supply. ladders and other services. It should preferably be located at a place where it is less likely to be damaged.E & C Division SHE Manual " Switchgear and metering equipment should be provided with secure accommodation. is accessible at all times in case of emergency. The metal sheath and / or armour should be protected against corrosion. " It is strongly recommended that. " Makeshift arrangements. A goalpost type system may be required. any existing or new permanent fixed supply contractors’ equipment during the construction work. cables properly protected can be carried at a suitable height above the roadway or footway. The equipment should be suitable to the surrounding enviroment. Alternatively. Installation within site offices and the other buildings should be to a suitable standard. and protected from adverse environment conditions. They should be kept clear of passageways. A record of the location any underground cables.

lower voltages can be used and are even safer. but their leads and plugs are still vulnerable to damage and should be regularly checked. Plant which is moved frequently (e. in the course of the construction operations. (e. which operate. " The site supply voltage will often influence the choice if equipment. causing burn or other injuries. arcing can occur if the plug and socket are separated under load. 110V systems which are center tapped to earth).g.E & C Division SHE Manual " Plant such as lifts and hoists. Cables will need to be suitably located and adequately protected so that they will not be damaged. plugs and sockets used on the reduced low voltage system should not be interchangeable with 230V (mains) plugs and sockets. which is not designed for use on construction sites. To avoid danger. Ways of isolating the supply should be provided to ensure that the supply is switched off before the plug and socket are separated. These industrial plugs and sockets are more robust than domestic type equipment. Portable Equipment: " Portable equipment and its leads face harsh conditions and rough use.g. Equipment is likely to be damaged and may become dangerous. contractors can themselves eliminate or reduce the risks by selecting cordless tools or tools. from a reduced low voltage supply. is recommended to be supplied by armour cable. This will include turning off the supply and disconnecting the cable before the plant and cables are moved. " There have been fatal accidents where 110V equipment fitted with plugs designed for a 230V system or damaged. It is essential that the type of equipment selected is suitable for use on a construction site. If. a cement mixer) should be connected to the supply by a flexible cable with protective braid and abrasion-resistant sheath. For lighting.110V plugs have been plugged into 230V supplies. which may be relocated occasionally during the work. Where the supply is 230V or above. " If equipment has a high current requirement (current ratings greater than 16 amps). a safe method of work must be adopted. and that any restrictions on use given by the manufacturer are followed. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 10 . Modern double insulate tools are well protected. the plant is to be relocated.

(e. " Protected against mechanical damage and vibration. so they should not be used as either extension leads or replacement cables for portable equipment. Reasonably practicable precautions include: (a) Protecting people who may receive an electric shock by fitting non-adjustable residual current devices (RCDs) with a rated tripping current of 30mA. RCDs fitted close to the tool only protect the tool. and / or (b) __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 11 . RCDs should be installed either at the distribution board. NOTE: The tests should not be carried out on RCDs at a time when loss of power may adversely affect other work activities. run them at ceiling height inside a building). which feeds the mains supply sockets.g. the risk of injury or death arising from the use of damaged or faulty equipment. Use of main voltage equipment: " When main voltage equipment is used on construction sites. In either of these positions they will provide protection for both the cable and tool. or at the fixed mains supply socket. The precautions must reduce the risk to an acceptable level taking into account the constraints regarding RCDs mentioned in following paragraphs. " Tested every threee months by an electrician using appropriate electrical test equipment. " Inspected weekly together with the equipment it is supplying during the formal visual inspection. RCDs should be: " Installed in a dustproof and weatherproof enclosure (see the manufacture’s instructions) or designed for use in dusty and outdoor environments. leads or plugs is unacceptably high unless special precautions are taken. " Checked daily by operating the test button. Reducing the risk of flexible supply leads being damaged by: " Positioning them where they are less likely to be damaged. The conductors inside are brittle and liable to break if bent.E & C Division SHE Manual " Cables with solid conductors (non-stranded) are designed for use in fixed installations.

(Danger can still arise. These should include: " " " Checks by the user each time the tool is used. (d) __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 12 . because the tools themselves are less likely to give rise to danger. Any restrictions on use out in the manufacturer’s instructions should be observed. Regular maintenance checks which should be made of all electrical equipment. (c) Selecting tools that are designed for trade and work use. or Using special abrasion resistant or armoured flexible supply leads where appropriate. Combined inspection and testing by a trained person at suitable intervals depending on the risk of damage and the potential for injury.E & C Division " " SHE Manual Protecting them inside impact resistant conduit where appropriate. Formal visual checks by a trained person on a regular basis. if the cables. Double insulated equipment is strongly recommended where it is necessary to use a main voltage supply. however. plugs or equipment casing are damaged).

Maintaining portable electrical installation On construction sites. " Check daily RCDs. They only protect against earth faults and will not operate when there is no connection to earth. and control over the number of times the test button is operated may be difficult. " If an RCD fails to operate. So it is possible to suffer an electric shock and injury even though the RCD is operating correctly. In case if it is decided to use RCD in the system then it’s limitation should be taken into account. it is not ideal for use in the rough environment of a construction site. or is faulty. " Combined inspection and electrical testing where necessary. " There are no taped or other non-standard joints in the cable. It may not be possible to ensure that the housing for the RCD is maintained to the quality required in these locations. the pins are not bent or the socket is not blocked with loose material. " The outer sheath of the cable is gripped where it enters the plug or equipment. " RCDs for protecting people have a rated tripping current of not more than 30mA and operating time of 200 milliseconds(ms) or 150mA for 40 ms. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 13 . ie if current is passing from live to neutral.E & C Division SHE Manual Residual Current Devices (RCDs) " Due to the delicate nature of an RCD. the risks from damaged or faulty portable electrical equipment are high and need to be managed and controlled by appropriate maintenance system. " Formal daily visual inspections on a regular basis because this can detect about 95% of faults or damage. the casing is not cracked. this will not be indicated and the worker may remain unaware of the danger. " Bare wires are not visible " The cable covering is not damaged and is free from cuts and abrasion. The manufacturers of RCDs do not generally recommend them to be fitted on portable apparatus that may receive mechanical shock or on equipment that might vibrate. " Checks by the user. " The plug is in good condition.

cable or the equipment.E & C Division " " " SHE Manual The outer cover of the equipment is not damaged or loose and all screws are in place. There are no overheating or burns marks on the plug. It is serviced regularly in line with the manufacturer’s instruction. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 14 .

They should be air tested daily before use and kept powered. severe arcing may occur. " Use approved tools and “hot” circuit handling equipment when working on energized equipment. " Always assume a circuit is energised until you have checked it. " Do not energise a tagged starter or switch without first properly removing the ‘lock-out/tag-out’. " Only trained authorised personnel should perform maintenance and repair work on electrical equipment. There should be ample light. " Always remove the load from a circuit before de-energising it. " Ventilate the working area well and keep fires and sparks away from charging batteries since the acid fumes explode as hydrogen gas is generated while charging a battery. " Make dielectric tests on rubber gloves and blankets at regular intervals. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 15 . the following precautions must be taken: (a) (b) (c) Work must be performed only by trained and experience personnel. Be thoroughly familiar with the circuit to be worked on. The worker should stand on non-conducting material such as layers of dry canvas. " When repair work on energized circuits must be made. " Notify all personnel concerned before starting any electrical equipment. dry wood or rubber. " Personnel should be stationed near the main switch or circuit breaker so that the equipment can be de-energized immediately in an emergency. " Never look directly at open switches or breakers when energising or deenergising to avoid retinal burns.E & C Division Annexure – I SHE Manual General Precaution " Implement lockout / tagout procedures prior to performing any electrical work. " Never use water on an electrical fire. Never break a circuit under load. " Never pull any fuse that is carrying current.

Safe work Practices Voltage Remove Jewelry (Y/N) Y Y Y Y Insulated tools (Y/N) Y Y Y Y Rubber Gloves (Y/N) N N Y Y Eye Protection (Y/N) N N Y Y Rubber Matting (Y/N) N N Y Y Safety Signs (Y/N) Y Y Y Y Safe Distance (Table 2/3) Line (a) Table 2 Line (b) Table 2 Line (b) Table 2 Table 3 0-150 151-300 301-600 >600 (*) (*) In no situation are SSOI employees authorized to work on or near energized circuit parts or equipment when the voltage level exceeds 600 volts. In these situations. " Always de-energize circuits before attempting to reset them. or used to secure safety belt lanyards. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 16 .E & C Division SHE Manual " Metal ladders and scaffolds are electric conductors. " Follow the following safe work practices: Table1 . These cords must be free so they can be unplugged in an emergency. they should never be used around electric circuits or in place where they can come in contact with electrical circuits. a licensed electrical contractor must be used. " Extension cords should not be tied to electric outlets. " Cable trays are not designed to support loads. nominal due to the extreme dangers associated with and the lack of frequent experience working on high voltage systems. to be walked on. " Use hand line when raising or lowering tools. Never lower electrical tools by the cord.

000 25. (II). Table 2 working Clearances (less than 600 volts) Nominal Voltage to Ground 0-150 151-600 Minimum Clear (I) (ft) 3 3 Distance for (II) (ft) 3 3.II Working Clearance (Safe Distance): The dimension of the working space in the direction of live parts operating at 600 volts or less and likely to require examination. (II) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. and (III) are as follows: (I) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space. or from the enclosure front opening if such are enclosed. brick. concrete.501-9. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at not over 300 volts shall be considered live parts.500 2. or exposed live parts on both sides effectively guarded by suitable wood or other insulating materials.5 Condition (III) (ft) 3 4 Table 3 Working Clearance (greater than 600 volts) Nominal Voltage to ground 601-2.000 9. adjustment. servicing.E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure . Distances shall be measured from the live parts if such are exposed. or tile walls will be considered grounded surface). (For Table II. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 17 . or maintenance while energized shall not be less than indicated in Table 2 and less than indicated in Table 3 for live parts operating at greater than 600 volts.001-25.000-75kV Above 75kV Minimum clear (I) (ft) 3 4 5 6 8 Distance for (II) (ft) 4 5 6 8 10 Condition (III) (ft) 5 6 9 10 12 Where for both Tables 2 and 3 conditions (I).

HEADROOM: __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 18 . the minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment.E & C Division SHE Manual (III) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace (not guarded as provided in condition (I)) with the operator between. switchboards. panelboards. or motor control centers shall be 6 ft 3 in. NOTE : Distances shall be measured from the live parts if such are exposed or dorm the enclosure fronts or opening if such are enclosed. In both cases (600 volts or less and greater than 600 volts).

10ft. isolated. or insulated. i.III Overhead Lines: SHE Manual When work is performed in locations containing energized overhead lines which are not guarded. + ** __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 19 . ladders).e.E & C Division Annexure . precautions shall be taken to prevent employees form contacting such lines directly (through the body) or indirectly (through conductive tools or equipment. When work near overhead lines is required. minimum distance shall be maintained to those lines in accordance with following table. Nominal Voltage to Ground 50KV or below 50KV or above ** Add 4 in. for each 10 KV above 50 KV Minimum Distance 10 ft.

reliable condition. nominal and when performing work on exposed energized parts of equipment where there is a danger of injury to the eyes or face from electrical arcs or flashes. rms.000 26.E & C Division Annexure – IV Personal Protective Equipment: SHE Manual " Protective clothing and equipment:Employees shall be safeguarded from injury by utilizing appropriate protective equipment while working in situation in which there are potential electric hazards. nominal sees table 2 for glove classes and according voltage rating. Phase a-c. they shall be protected by outer leather or canvas gloves. rubber gloves shall be air tested prior to each use. __________________________________________________________ Electrical safety 20 . and leak tested every six (6) months. " Eye and Face Protection:Suitable eye or face protection shall be worn for voltages in excess of 300 volts. In addition. 1.000 36.000 Note: The a-c voltage (rms) classification of the protective equipment designates the maximum nominal design voltage.500 17.000 7. Table 2 Class of Insulating Item 0 1 2 3 4 Nominal Maximum Use Voltage. Whenever rubber gloves are used. shall be tested annually. All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and construction for the specific part of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed. " Electrical Safety Gloves:Suitable insulated gloves shall be worn for voltage in excess of 300 volts. All protective equipment shall be inspected prior to each use. and shall be maintained and stored in a safe.

inspection and maintenance of the electrical equipment used in many of these testing procedures are given in Chapter 15. however. • defects that result from processing such as high residual stressed cracks and checks caused by handling. erosion. in this volume. or grinding of casting and forging. Non-Destructive Testing SHE Manual Visual observation. Nondestructive testing methods locate the following defects: • defects that are inherent in the metal.E & C Division 13. or in weldments. and sharp changes in section. to suit the Non Destructive Testing 1 . Electro-magnetic Tests 6. such as found in pressure vessels. even with magnification. reveals all such defects without damaging the parts being tested. Electrical Equipment. The types of testing most commonly used for forged and cast metals are the following: 1. and nuclear components. such as nonmetallic inclusions. cannot locate all small. X-rays are unidirectional and their wavelengths can be varied. Penetrant Inspection 3.1 Radiography Radiography uses x-ray and gamma rays. Proper nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic Non-destructive Testing for Metals. shrinkage and porosity. as well as others that apply to nonmetallic substances. such as corrosion. Radiography These methods. Ultrasonic Methods 4. Magnetic Particle Inspection 2. are fully discussed in National Safety Council Industrial Data Sheet 12304-0662. shruing. Recommendations for installation. boilers. within certain limits. Triboelectric Method 5. • in-service defects. 13. below-the-surface defects in cast and forged metals.

Isotopes Radioisotopes commonly used in industrial radiography are Cobalt-60 and Iridium-192. their sources are portable.E & C Division SHE Manual condition. proportional-scintillation geiger counters. isotopes are independent of electrical power. which are artificially produced by bombarding with an excess of neutron. Gamma rays for radiography usually are obtained from isotopes of cobalt-60 or iridium192. gamma-ray exposures are inferior to x-ray exposures in sensitivity and contrast. cannot be regulated. and the small size of the sources makes it possible to obtain radiographs in tight quarters. In some instances. Devices used to transform differences in intensity of the penetrating radiation into visible images are x-ray films. has several advantages. provided that specimens can be suitably located. In addition. All sources of ionizing radiation are potentially dangerous. Gamma radiography differs from x-ray radiography in that the gamma rays are multidirectional and their wavelengths being characteristic of the source. Non Destructive Testing 2 . 192 & 60 represent mass number (atomic weight) of the isotopes. however. The following are details of hazards and remedial measures to be taken while handling and shruing radioisotopes. and ionization gages. Gamma radiography. Moreover. Because of the nature of isotopes. a number of tests can be made at tha same time. fluorescent screens. X ray units involve both low and high potential electrical hazards. X-ray and Gamma rays sources may also produce hazardous secondary radius.

Unit used for exposure is Roentgen (R) The special unit of equivalent ionising dose presently used is Sievert (Sv). Which is corresponding to 3. Setting dose limits below the threshold dose limit (maximum permissible limit) can prevent any effects due to radiation Definition of Permissible dose: “ A dose of ionising radiation that will not cause any appreciably bodily injury to a person at any time during his lifetime. which have been recommended.E & C Division Radiation quantities and Units : SHE Manual Curie : Radiography of a source is measured in terms of numbers of transformation it undergoes in one second. 1 Sv = 100 R (Roentgen) Dose Limit : Since radiation causes undesirable effects on the body tissue. International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) sets guidelines in the form of annual dose limits to individual. The unit for radiography is Curie. Curie shows the strength of the material.7*1010disintegration per second.” Non Destructive Testing 3 . It is important to observe the maximum permissible levels of radiation.

Skin or bone Tissue & thyroid Extremities Any other organs. The devices are designed to give cumulative reading of exposure measures. The survey meter is used to check the radiation zone this meter is designed to give instantaneous reading in Roentgen or milli-Roentgen per hour at any distance from the source. (b) Distance. The operator of radiography camera uses the personal monitoring devices.E & C Division Permissible limit: Organ or Tissue Whole body Red bone marrow & On hands. Control of radiation hazard: The three basic factors by which radiation hazard can be controlled are (a) Time. Area monitoring: Most commonly used device is Survey meter. Lens of eyes In a lifetime 300 mSv _ In a year 50 mSv In a quarter 30mSv SHE Manual In a week 1mSv 300 mSv 150 mSv _ _ _ 750 mSv 150 mSv 150 mSv 80 mSv _ _ Monitoring of radiation dose : Personal monitoring: The most commonly used personal monitoring devices are photographic film badges and pocket dosimeters. (c) Shielding Non Destructive Testing 4 . X and Gamma radiation exposure in Roentgen.

The most economical and effective method of reducing the radiation hazard is to increase the radiation distance between the radiation source & person. Carry out dry run with out radiation. lesser would be the radiation dose. Share work load with two person if the time exposure is large Distance: Larger the distance. lesser will be the radiation level. Lesser the time spent near the source. The shielding properties of any material depend on its atomic number and energy of the incident radiation. so that with radiation. The radiation intensity or radiation level from a given source decreases as we move away from the source it is governed by the inverse square law. Non Destructive Testing 5 . Most commonly used shielding material is lead. If an operator takes one minute while working with a source and exposed to 10mR. Plan all operation in advance. Shielding: Shielding is the absorbing material is provided in order to reduce the radiation intensity to the required value.E & C Division Time: SHE Manual The radiation dose received by person depends on the total time spent by the person near the source. the exposure time can be reduced. another operator who takes 2 minutes to do the same job would be exposed to 2*10 = 20mR In order to minimize the time of exposure 1. 3. 2.

Transportation for Radiography Source 1. ceiling & doors is having sufficient shielding so as to minimise radiation level below the recommended limit. Lock the camera to ensure that the source assembly would not be released. Make sure that the source has returned to the camera. This should always preferably in a least occupied area. The pit room consisting of the two compartments. A logbook is to be maintained in order to record the day to day use of radiography source stored in storage room. 4. 8. 9. SHE Manual The contractor has to obtain approval from Radiological physics and Advisory Division. Prepare pit room at the site for which approval is to be obtained from BARC. 5. 6. 2. (RP & AD) BARC for storing radioactive material. 1.25mR/hr. 2. Check surrounding area for radiation after the radioactive materials are stored ensure that radiation level around the room is less than 0. 7. There should not be any window of the exposure room. floors.E & C Division Storage of radioactive material. Provide barbate fencing all around the pit room. Keep pit rooms in locked condition. 3. Non Destructive Testing 6 . Do not allow entry of unauthorised persons near the work area. Ensure that all walls.

25mR/hr. Ensure that survey meter for proper working Setting up procedures required for radiography shall be completed before start of radiography exposure. Source to be properly marked labeled.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. The operation to be carried out only when minimum nos. Area around the source to be cordoned off using ropes/barricading tapes and radiation warning symbol and nighttime with red lamps. 6. 4. 5. Radiation level beyond the cordoned off area should be less than 0. There should be a site-incharge looking after the radiation safety. The site in-charge and the cameraman are to be certified by BARC. 7. 3. The operator of radiography equipment should use personal radiation monitoring badges or dosimeters. Because the radiography site-incharge is specially trained for emergency handling procedure. Non Destructive Testing 7 . Suitable radiation monitor (survey meter) should be used to measure the radiation level to ensure that the cordoning area is adequate. type of exposure workload and the nature of occupancy around. The exact area to be cordoned of depends upon the nature & activity of the source. The operator of radiography equipment shall maintain a log book to record the details of day to day use of equipment. of persons is present around the radiography site preferably during nighttime. 2. Safety in Field Radiography 1.

E & C Division 8. Non Destructive Testing 8 . Time taken for coming down should not exceed the safe exposure time. SHE Manual The source container to be placed in such way that the radiation beam can be made ‘ON’ towards unoccupied area. Mock drill to be carried out before starting any radiography operation. Maintenance and servicing of radiographic material shall no be attempted without consulting radiographic safety officer. 10. 11. 9. The operator should be aware of the dose record and send the records for periodic medical examination.

As a result. Regulations require special handling. Smaller particles (10 microns or smaller) can bypass the lung's filtering system and penetrate deep into the respiratory system where they may cause serious damage. workers must wear a positive pressure or pressure demand respirator with an assigned protection factor (APE) of either 1000 or Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 1 .E & C Division 14. Metals such as lead. trained personnel. users must always be alert to the hazards of these operations and take precautions against harmful exposures. can be extremely toxic when inhaled. Metal dust: In addition to the abrasive being used. considered "nuisance" dust. Abrasive Blasting and Spray Painting Abrasive blasting SHE Manual Sand blasting operations can be overlooked when preparing safety plans because they are generally a small part of a larger project such as cleaning and refinishing or painting. it's important to consider the concentration of dust and the size of particles. Silica sand: This product is a potentially serious health hazard and should not be used as an abrasive. Many existing paints are lead based. Larger particles. When evaluating this hazard. If silica containing (quartz) materials are selected for any reason. Safeguards are needed when smaller particles are present in the work environment. and manganese. are normally filtered out in the nose and throat. many workers are exposed to the hazards of sand blasting without adequate protection. and medical monitoring when lead is present. contributes to the generation of airborne dust. cadmium. Even if all sandblasting equipment is properly designed and regularly inspected. Airborne dust This is one of the most serious hazards associated with blasting operations.

When working inside of blast cleaning rooms. silica that is allowed to migrate by either wind or water. as they would be breathing the contaminated air. Manual cabinet blast cleaners should never be exhausted into an area where workers are allowed to move / work. These fully enclosed cabinets are designed to filter out dust and re-use blasting medium. will eventually become an airborne contaminant. An attendant should be in the area at all times. it should be made sure that the intake hose is placed in an area that provides clean air.Under any circumstances where the operator is not physically separated from the abrasive material by an exhausted enclosure. and . Handling and storing abrasives: Dust is always created at any point where abrasives are transferred. all points of transfer must be properly exhausted and workers who handle abrasives manually should wear appropriate breathing apparatus. Therefore. monitoring breathing air and assuring the Blaster’s safety. . whether by hand or shovel.When using portable units in areas without enclosure. Operators should also use full body protection while doing the sand blasting operation. Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 2 . so hearing protection is a must--for both the operator and nearby workers. Air supply: Air-supplied respirators must be used: . If airline respirators and compressors are used. Silica must be contained and disposed of properly. Additional personal protective equipment: Blasting operations create high noise levels.E & C Division SHE Manual 2000. Even if a wet blasting method is selected.

Inhalation of mists and vapors from nearly all paints. Pressure Equipment Pressure equipment used in painting operations is hazardous because of the compressed air component.E & C Division Spray Painting Hazards SHE Manual Painting and paint removal present hazards requiring effective controls. facility design. and epoxies can be injurious depending upon the agent's toxic characteristics and the amount and method of exposure. controls. particulates. and equipment. protective clothing. Potential physical and health hazards can be effectively controlled by appropriate work procedures. therefore. Further. 2. scaffolds. 3. strippers. A pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge shall be installed between the pressure regulator and pressurized paint containers and/or spray guns. and vapors. solvents. many paints can physically injure the skin and eyes. On all air-type spraying equipment a pressure regulator valve shall be installed in the air line between the compressor and painting equipment. Pressure relief valves shall be set to open at pressures not more than 10 pounds above the required working pressure. Hazards include exposure to toxic materials and flammable or explosive mists. the supervisor should ensure that spray painting equipment is in serviceable condition. Other Equipment Painter's ladders. adequately ventilated rooms constructed of fire-resistant materials. Safety 1. and other equipment shall be inspected prior to use to be certain they are in safe condition. All sources of ignition shall be Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 3 . cleaning chemicals. Paint Mixing Paint mixing shall be done in designated. thinners. or be absorbed through the skin.

Protective Equipment Personnel engaged in painting and paint removal shall wear BIS approved protective clothing. as needed. Personnel shall wash their hands prior to smoking or consuming food. All electrical fixtures or equipment in or within 20 feet of designated paint preparation areas shall meet the requirements of the BIS Code. The principal modes of personnel exposure are inhalation of vapors and absorption through skin contact and ingestion. eye. or consumed. All solvent / paint soiled rags shall be placed in approved self-closing metal containers plainly marked to indicate the contents. Personal Hygiene The hands and face shall be kept clean. 4. Housekeeping Good housekeeping is essential to safe operations in paint shops. booths. Clothing shall be changed. to minimise body contamination.E & C Division SHE Manual prohibited in mixing areas. and appropriate face. clothes shall be changed when contaminated.. these containers shall be emptied or removed to an approved location for pickup and disposal. and hand protection. Paint rooms. Personnel Exposures There is a wide application of organic solvents in painting. Health 1. All organic solvents have some effect on the central nervous system and the skin. At the end of each day. Fire Prevention and Protection Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 4 . etc. shall be kept clean with equipment stored in a proper and orderly manner. in paint shops. Eye or face protection is required during scraping or paint preparation (abrasive techniques). respiratory devices if required. 3. 4. Personnel engaged in painting operations should review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) in order to acquaint themselves with the properties and hazards of the solvents that are used 2. No food or drink shall be brought into.

Original closed containers. Ventilation Systems If spray painting work is undertaken in a confined space adequate Ventilation should provided. Fire Fighting Portable fire extinguishers should be installed near all areas where spray painting is carried out. depending on the materials used. Supplies of flammable and combustible liquids should be stored in approved fire-resistant safety containers equipped with flash screens and self-closing lids. 5. including portable mixing tanks. The withdrawal of liquids from containers and the filling of containers. Open or glass containers shall not be used. Adequate conditioned make-up air must be provided. Open containers may only be used for cleaning of painting materials after which the solvent should be transferred back to a closed container for retention or disposal. Mechanical ventilation shall be in operation while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to assure vapors are completely exhausted. No storage of open containers of solvents is permitted. and approved safety cans should be used for bringing flammable or combustible liquids into spray finishing rooms. approved portable tanks.E & C Division SHE Manual Spray painting presents varying degrees of fire hazards. The quantity of paints. should be done only in a mixing room or Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 5 . and this is applicable to those having a flash point higher than this. thinners. lacquers. Bulk storage of these liquids shall be in a separate building detached from other buildings or in rooms specifically designed and constructed to meet flammable storage room requirements. Any material having a flash point below 140°F should be handled very carefully. solvents and other flammable and combustible liquids kept near spraying operations should be the minimum required for such operations. 6.

a relief valve shall be installed in the discharge line to prevent overpressure. This practice prevents electrical discharge from the accumulation of static charge. Whenever flammable or combustible liquids are transferred from one container to another. Precautions to be taken during installation of electrical fittings are given elsewhere.E & C Division SHE Manual in a spraying area when the ventilating system is in operation. Precautions shall be taken to protect against liquid spillage. While using airless spray guns adequate precautions to be taken as recommended by the manufacturer. both containers shall be effectively bonded and grounded. Abrasive Blasting & Spray Painting 6 . The same general safety and health precautions apply to spray painting from pressurised cans as to spray painting by other means. It is desirable that the floor of paint spray booths be covered with a noncombustible mat. removable for cleaning or disposal. Pressure hoses and couplings shall be regularly inspected for condition and shall be replaced as needed. When positive displacement pumps are used.

2. Hand Tools And Power Tools 1 . Toolbox includes portable boxes. and trends for any particular task. Hand Tools and Power Tools Introduction SHE Manual Hand tools and power tools enable employees to apply additional force and energy to accomplish a task. Each year hand tools account for about 6% of all disabling injuries. Central tool controls Programme ensure uniform inspection and maintenance of tools by trained employees. associated accident and injury rates.E & C Division 15. noise. These items should be used only for storing tools or lunch boxes. 4. and stress factors. To determine if tools should be changed. 3. management should consider use. Through proper selection. vibration. Store tools in a safe place. tool chests. or other adjustments. Because of increased force of hand and power tools. the object of safety with these tools is to protect users from inflicting harm to themselves and others as well as to provide ergonomically designed tools. In selecting hand and power tools. job rotation. take into account employees’ concern about the tool. Make sure toolboxes and cabinets are locked after each workday and that all tools are accounted for. Train workers to use tools correctly. 5. These tools improve efficiency and make better products. injuries from tools can be prevented. Select the right tool for the right job. comfort. care. Provide proper protective equipment. Certain changes may include adding personal protective equipment. use. maintenance and supervision of hand and power tools. setup of workstations. work methods. Five safety practices can help to eliminate or greatly reduce injuries with hand and power tools: 1. Keep tools in good condition. mobile tool cabinets and gang boxes. quality.

pliers. Include open end. knives. • Portable power tools are divided into five groups: electrical. pneumatic. saws. hand snips and cutters. Handles should be properly attached to tools and fitted by an experienced worker. Soldering irons can be the source of burns and illnesses that result from inhaling fumes. special cutters and pullers. wearing protective gear and following manufacturer-operating rules. hatchets.E & C Division SHE Manual A good maintenance and repair program includes tool control through periodic inspection of all tool operations (See annexure–1). battered. Make sure employees have adequate workspace and equipment for repairs. or a fastener breaking. combination. The most common types of wrenches used in industry. Make sure workers are trained in safe work habits and do not attempt to use tools for jobs they were not designed to do. Safe work practices include disconnecting the power before changing accessories. adjustable and pope wrenches. box and socket. Workers should exercise similar precautions when using tools such as tongs. flaws or wear. storing tools properly. wood chisels. axes. Supervisors may mistakenly assume that everyone knows the proper use of common hand tools. Soldering irons must have adequate holders to prevent accidental burns and workers have proper protective gear and ventilation to eliminate vapor and fume hazards. or mushroomed should be redressed otherwise they should be discarded. Wrenches should be inspected frequently for cracks. Gasoline. cutting tools. the fastener suddenly turning free the wrench breaking. punches. Workers should be trained to select the right tool for the job and should frequently inspect and repair equipment. Hand Tools And Power Tools 2 . tap and die tools. hammers. hydraulic and power-actuated mobility and power sources. Workers must be alert for the possibility of a wrench slipping off the fastener. files. torque. Only tools that are not chipped. shovels and takes is a source of many injuries. Misuse of common hand tools such as screwdrivers.

Pneumatic impact tools (nailers. Air powered tools include air hoses. buffers and wire brushes. To prevent injuries associated with air hoses. Gasoline powered and powder actuated tools present serious hazards and must be operated only by trained personnel and adequately guarded to prevent fires and injuries. noise. Air-powered grinders require the same type of guarding as electrical grinders. sanders and routers. and using only approved wiring and current. grinding wheels. circular saws reciprocating saws. Double-insulated tools also provide more reliable shock protection without third-wire grounding. Hydraulic tools cause injuries because highpressures leaks or ruptures in hoses may force oil under the skin of workers hands or arms. gasoline powered and powder actuated equipment.E & C Division • SHE Manual The risk of electrical shock from electrically powered tools can be reduced by using battery-operated tools. drills. The most common electrical tools include drills. jig/saber saws rotary die grinders. impact wrenches. workers should make sure hoses do not present tripping hazards. Workers must recognize and protect themselves from shock. properly grounding equipment. miter-box and shop saws. cuts burns and other potential hazards by using proper guards and safety equipment and devices. All parts of electrical equipment should be inspected regularly. Workers must check noise levels to determine if hearing protection is needed and guard their eyes against flying debris. avoid using hoses as cleaners and prevent accidental disconnection of hoses from the tools. Tools used in wet locations should be provided with a ground-fault circuit interrupter. grinders and pneumatic impact tools. stationary band saws. Similar • • • • • Hand Tools And Power Tools 3 .) require two safety devices. etc. an automatically closing valve and a retaining device to hold the tool in place to prevent it from being fired accidentally. Special power tools include hydraulic.

grinding and sanding jobs.E & C Division SHE Manual precautions are used for impact wrenches as for any electrical or hydraulic equipment. Some does and don’ts using power tools are listed in Annexure – 2. • Workers operating power tools must dress appropriately to avoid catching clothing or jewelry in the equipment. and eye and hearing protection where appropriate. wear respirators on buffing.3 • • Hand Tools And Power Tools 4 . use fall protection equipment when working in overhead places. Some of the common personal protective equipment’s required are listed in Annexure . wear safety shoes.

E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure – 1 PORTABLE ELECTRIC TOOLS Inspection Checklist GENERAL Low voltage or battery powered equipment used in tanks and wet areas? Tools well maintained? Motor in good condition? Approved tools used in explosive atmospheres? Tools left where they cannot fall? CORDS Insulation and plugs unbroken? Cords protected against trucks and oil? Cords not in aisles? GROUNDING Ground wire fastener in safe condition? 3-wire plug extension cord (if a 3-wire tool)? Ground wire used? Defects or minor shocks reported? Ground fault circuit interrupter used? GUARDING Guards used on grinders and saws? Movable guards operate freely? Eye or face protection worn? Yes /No Yes /No Yes /No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes /No /No /No /No /No Yes /No Yes /No Yes /No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes /No /No /No /No /No A model check list is given to enable supervisory personnel to inspect the tools before issue and on their return back to stores Hand Tools And Power Tools 5 .

- Using tools improperly can cause serious physical truma. Hand Tools And Power Tools 6 . - Taking Tools For Granted Is Inviting Accident. - Familiarity Breeds Injuries - Before you begin.E & C Division Annexure . grab the unsafe condition and practices share it off with safety procedure manual.2 SHE Manual Tool Safety a movement hits full strides for accident prevention.

Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance. Broken. 4. 5. Always cut away from your body. loose clothing. 7. Tool handles should be replaced promptly and wedged tightly in the head of all tools. axes and similar tools. the head of the tool may fly off and strike the user or another co-worker. 6. Hand tools such as chisels. The employers is responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees but the employees have the responsibility for properly using and maintaining tools. Proper apparel should be worn. Hand Tools: All tools and Equipment (Both company and employee owned) used by employees should be in good condition. splintered or fractured handles on hammers. 2. Hand Tools And Power Tools . freeing both hands to operate the tool. 3. The user should not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged in tool. 2. (Selection depends on the relationship between the work surface height and operators elbow height. or jewelry can become caught in moving parts. ties. should be replaced regularly. 6.E & C Division SHE Manual General Safety Precautions 1. 5. 4. 7 3. 1. Appropriate handles should be used so the operator's wrist can remain in a natural position for files and similar tools. loose. Avoid accidental starting. Never apply unnecessary pressure when using tools. 8. it's heads might shatter on impact. A. sending sharp fragments flying should be recondition or replaced. Worn. Work area should be well lighted. bent or sprung jaws spanners and wrenches. which slip during use. Secure work with clamps or a vise.) Employees to be made aware of the hazards caused by faulty or improperly used hand tools. punches wedges or drift pins which develop mushroom heads during use.

10. should be used while using hand tools for equipment which might produce flying materials or be subject to breakage. Jacks should be checked periodically to ensure that they are in good operating condition. Tools should be stored in dry. Floor near work area should be kept as clean and dry as possible to prevent accidental slips while working with or around dangerous hand tools. guard or attachment that is recommended by the manufacturer for particular type of job to prevent physical contact. spark resistant tools made from brass. 16. 8 B. Power tools: Majority of power tool accident is caused by improper handling and poor maintenance of equipment. 13. secure locations were they won't be tempered. sparks produced by Iron and Steel hand tools can be a dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists. Whenever possible use a box-end wrench instead of an open-end wrench to avoid slipping. 15. Scattered tool near work place should be avoided. 14. Hand Tools And Power Tools . Power tools should be used with the shield. Around flammable substances. face shields etc. Eye or face protection should be used when driving hardens or tempered spuds or nails. Tool cutting edges should be kept sharp so the tool will move smoothly without binding or skipping. Never push against it. aluminum or wood will provide safety. Blunt tools can be more hazardous than sharp ones. Appropriate safety glasses. plastic.E & C Division 7. SHE Manual 8. 12. 11. 9. 1. Always pull on the wrench. 2.

9. Keep cords and hoses away from heat. oil and sharp edges. 10. don’t use your hands. chains. Never carry a tool by the cord or hose. Earth leakage circuit breakers (ELCB) should be provided on all temporary electrical 15 and 20 amp circuits should be used during periods of construction. They are not wedged up with the lower portion of the blade unguarded.insulated type.E & C Division 3. before servicing and when changing accessories such as blades. electrically operated tools equipment should be effectively grounded by using three-cord wire or the approved double . 7. 12. Effective guard should be in place over belts. All portable electric tools those are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged "DO NOT USE". 11. Portable circular saws should be equipped with guards above and below the base shoe. 8. All cord-connected. While cutting always use push sticks. Disconnect tools when not in use. bits and cutters. and sprockets. All observers should be kept at a safe distance away from the work area. 5. 14. on equipment such as concrete mixtures and air compressors. pulleys. Hand Tools And Power Tools 9 . Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle. Hoisting equipment should be available and used for lifting heavy objects and hoist ratings and characteristics should be appropriate for the task. 6. SHE Manual 4. 13. Pneumatic and hydraulic hoses on power operated tools should be checked regularly for deterioration or damage.

Grinding wheels should be inspected before mounting. Never temp to use two-hole receptacle by removing third prong provided for earthing of tool from the plug. Electric tools should not be used in damp or wet locations. sanders pneumatic chisel are of good quality and the tools reach are attached to machine properly and locked before put to use. 21. 24. 23. Drills should be fastened to paving breaker to prevent its flying. Possible tools like drills. Portable electric tools should be used generally of 10V single-phase transformer with center tap earthed. 22. SHE Manual 20. Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools. Guard to at least half of the wheel diameter should cover wheels. Unless a person is authorized. It is to be checked for maximum operating speed against the machine speed. tools should be stored in a dry place. 19. repair or test any equipment. When not in use. Hand Tools And Power Tools 10 . 18. The operator should wear goggles while grinding. 16. he should not operate. Electric tools should be operated within their design limitations. 17. Portable electric tools should be tested before put into use. grinders.E & C Division 15. 25.

On buffing. gloves loose clothing and jewelry. The unusual positions in which the wheel operates may cause particles to be thrown off in all directions. the operator should wear fall-protection devices to minimize the danger of falling. Clothing should be free of oil.E & C Division Annexure – 3 Personal Protective Equipment SHE Manual Workers using revolving tools such as drills saws and grinders should not wear ties. Minimize the hard of flying particles by using nonferrous. However. wood or canvas. The weight of most power tools makes i9t advisable for users to wear safety shoes to reduce the chances of injuries should the tools or workpiece fall or be dropped. There is always the chance of particles falling or flying into the eyes. should be tool break suddenly or shock the operator or should the operator slip. Hand Tools And Power Tools 11 . brace and bits planes scrapers and saws.1 Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and False Protection. For operators of powderactuated tools or hammers. In all operations where striking and struck tools are use or where the cutting action of tool causes particles to the provide eye protection that conforms to ANSI Z87. Also. Also wear eye protection or face shields when working with grinders buffing wheels and scratch brushes. soft striking tools and shielding the job site with metal. Wear eye protection or face shields when using wood working or cutting tools such as chisels. solvents or frayed edges to minimize the fire hazard from sparks. provide hearing protection if more positive no controls are possible. When power tools are used in overhead places. eye protection still required. grinding and sanding jobs that produce harmful dusts provide workers with approved dust-type respirators. For this reason. eye protection is even more important than it is when working with stationary grinders. attach a safety line to the tool to keep it from falling on persons below should it be dropped.

Hand Tools And Power Tools 12 .E & C Division SHE Manual Do not overlook eye protection on the following jobs: • • • • • • • • • Cutting wire and cable Striking wrenches Using hand drills Chipping concrete Removing nails from lumber Shoveling material Working on the leeward side of a job Using wrenches and hammers overhead Working on other jobs where particles of materials or debris may fall.

Make sure your grip and footing are secure when using large tools. These injuries can be serious. 16. 9. To avoid injuries. Hand tools may look harmless. Hand Tools And Power Tools 13 . including loss of fingers or eyesight. Always cut away from your body. 4. freeing both hands to operate the tool. Also familiarity breeds injuries. Never push against it. 2. Carry tools securely in a tool belt or box. Early detection might prevent a serious injury. screwdrivers. Replace or redress tools heads that might shatter on impact sending sharp fragments flying. Use a hoist or rope. Work area must be well lighted. 12. 13. 3. Secure work with clamps or a vise. Keep floor area clean and dry to prevent accidental slips while working with or around dangerous hand tools. wrenches. an estimated 8 percent of all workplace compensable injuries are caused by incidents associated with hand tools. Store tools in dry and secure locations were they wouldn’t be tempered when you stop work. Check jacks periodically to ensure that they are in good condition. Always pull on the wrench. Pass a tool to another person by the handle. 8. pliers.E & C Division Annexure – 4 Hand Tools Safety SHE Manual Taking tool for granted is inviting accident. 7. Avoid scattered tool near work place. 5. Keep close track of tools when working at heights. Be on the lookout for signs of repetitive stress. In fact. Use the right tool in the right size for the job. but they are the cause of many injuries. 6. Hammers. A falling tool can kill a co-worker. Select ergonomic tools for your work task when movements are repetitive and forceful. 10. 11. and other hand tools are often underrated as sources of potential danger. remember the following safety procedures: Do’s 1. 14. 15. chisels.

2. 9. As that may fly off and strike the user or another co-worker. you can help prevent injuries and provide a better workplace for everyone. plastic. Injury from continuous vibration can also cause numbness or poor circulation in hands and arms. Never use tools having broken handle. amputations. Carpal tunnel syndrome (inflammation of the nerve sheath in the wrist) and injuries to muscles. Follow L & T’s safety manual for selecting and using safety eyewear. etc. steel toed shoes. Don’t use worn. 6. 5. mashroom head or damaged tools. gloves. 7. Cuts. remember what a single slip can do to fragile human flesh. Don’ts 1. Never use blunt tools. 4. hard hats. and punctures. can stress human muscles and ligaments. 3. If hand tools are designed to cut or move metal and wood. Don't use broken. Repetitive motion injuries. which is more hazardous then sharp tool as sharp cutting edge move smoothly without bending or skipping. abrasions. Never apply unnecessary pressure when using tools. Don't carry tools up ladders. or the right tool is used improperly. aluminum or wood. 14 2. Hand tools can cause many types of injuries: 1. or screwdrivers with worn tips. Use spark resistant tools made from brass. dull cutting tools. Replace handles promptly and wedged tightly in the head of the tool. joints and ligaments are increasingly common if the wrong tool is used. Never use iron and steel hand tools which produce sparks around flammable substances. Never carry sharp or pointed tools such as a screwdriver in your pocket. 10. Don't use your wrench as a hammer & screwdriver as a chisel. etc. By following these precautions. Using the same tool in the same way all day long. Never toss tools to another person. day after day. bent or spung jaws spanners and wrenches that may slip during use.E & C Division 17. 8. SHE Manual Use the right personal protective equipment (PPE) for the job. Hand Tools And Power Tools .

Always check the condition of cords for deterioration or damage. They come in different styles and sizes. causing severe injuries. penetrating a hand. 3. These tools are useful time savers. or even be thrown by careless employees. They can deliver a paralyzing. A power tool can be turned on accidentally. They can slash. 4. 5. Be sure switches are in the off position before you plug tools into an outlet. 8. 2.such as safety glasses when cutting. Disconnect tools when not in use. stationary machines. sometimes easier than larger. Make sure the power tool has stopped running before placing it on the ground or a surface that you're working on. Only 3-prong grounding extensions are to be used for equipment and plugs must be matched with outlets. oil and sharp edges. Keep cords away from heat. or even deadly shock. Keep all observers at a safe distance away from the work area. a dust mask when creating dust and hearing protection when noise levels are high. 6. Use proper PPE . 9. inspect it for damage and adjustment and make sure all guards are in place. Tools can slip. before servicing and when changing accessories and locked before put to use. Hand Tools And Power Tools 15 . 11. Broken bones and bruises. Operate electrical tools within their design limitations and test them before putting into use. but they're also deceptive. Flying chips of wood or metal are a common hazard. Keep fingers well away from switches or buttons when tools are not being used. SHE Manual Eye injuries. arm or leg. often causing needless and permanent blindness. Choose the right tool for the job. 10. 7. Remember. fall from heights. 4. A hammer that falls from a ladder is a lethal weapon.E & C Division 3. Remove from use all portable tools those are damaged and tagged “DO NOT USE”. Do’s 1. cut and mangle. an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! Power Tools Safety Power tools are handy helpers that people use for a variety of purposes in all settings. and unplug or deactivate tools not in use.

even in fun or when unplugged. 4. Never tempt to use two-hole receptacle by removing third prong provided for earthing of the tool from the plug. Many times they're not treated with enough respect. Don’t wear loose clothing. Don’ts 1. Don’t operate. 3. It's easy to forget the potential dangers of power tools because they are usually small. Don't use cord for dragging tools on the floor. and they are frequently left lying around in unsafe places. portable and commonly found around the shop. Don't unplug power cords by pulling on the cord. or fasten them with staples.E & C Division SHE Manual 12. nails or other means that could damage them. repair or test any equipment by unauthorised person.Use It Safely! Hand Tools And Power Tools 16 . or raise or lower the equipment by the cord. ties or jewelry that can be caught in moving parts. 6. 7. Power tools should never be pointed at anyone. but careless or improper use can cause severe injury or death. Don't unplug or plug equipment with wet hands and use in damp or wet locations. When working in wet areas or areas that contain flammable liquids use only specified approved tools. 5. This can damage the cord and cause the tool to short when reconnected. 2. We should be as careful with power tools and portable electric tools as we are with any other dangerous machinery. There is no excuse for fooling around with potential danger in the workplace. Review and remember the following precautions: Power tools are invaluable. timesaving devices when used properly. Always follow safety instructions when operating power tools The Power is in Your Hands .

Adjust your air pressure to the manufacturer's rating. Use hand gloves to avoid frostbite. However. Here are things to remember when using air tools: Do’s 1. with air powered tools. 8. 2. Make sure hoses are of the correct inside diameter and are not kinked or crushed.E & C Division Annexure – 5 Pneumatic Tools Safety SHE Manual Air powered tools present many of the same hazards as their electrically powered counterparts. if oil-contaminated air discharges near where you grip the tool. Avoid over oiling the tools. 5. flows and plus hazards you may not have considered. 4. stiffen your fingers. which cause pain or injury. Use goggles to protect your eyes from compressed air or particles may fly from equipment such as chipping hammers. rotary drills or sanders. Don’t exceed the pressure/flow then the manufacture’s rating. Protect the hose from physical damage. Frequently wipe both your hands and the tool. Installed effective mufflers on the air exhaust at the tool itself or nearby or worn hearing protection from prolonged exposure to muffled loud noise of pneumatic tools can be much noisier than electric tools. 6. Your compressor and receiver must have enough capacity to deliver air in an amount sufficient to properly operate all attached tools. 7. delivering too much torque or other excessive force breaking tool or work piece. 2. Don’ts 1. the tool itself could over-speed. Electrical tools are powered from a source that provides a well-regulated standard current. rock drills. as you may injured by violently whipping air hose around or while scrambling to get out of its way until the air is shut off. 3. or even make you more susceptible to certain types of cumulative trauma injuries by cold air discharges on your hand. air may be delivered at varying pressures. Hand Tools And Power Tools 17 .

Hand Tools And Power Tools 18 . This may prompt you to apply excessive force in your work. you can get a shock as air powered tools are not grounded or double insulated. discharging contaminated air into the environment around you. 5. Don’t work in confined or poorly ventilated spaces. Don’t work in the immediate work area having live electric power. possibly causing tool breakage and injury. 4.E & C Division SHE Manual 3. Don’t give inadequate pressure or flow which result in an under performing tool. as the air feeding the tool may contain oil or antifreeze.

Toxic substances cause both acute effects. Some toxic gases and vapours cause irritation in the nose and throat and so give warning of their presence others do not. Acids and alkalis are corrosive and can damage both skin and eyes. paints. produced in a short time by exposure to solvents. surface coatings. the form of airborne dust. and penetrate to the lungs or blood Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 1 . Contact dermatitis may result from the contact between the skin and some chemicals. used in paint strippers. or toxic. lacquers.E & C Division 16. The routes into your body are by: Inhalation or breathing in: This is the most important route of entry. solvents and much else. cements and grouts insulants. with a potential for fire and explosion. They are found in adhesives cleaning agents for brickwork and stonework. and chronic effects resulting from exposure over a long period as in lung diseases such as asbestosis and silicosis. with an inherent potential to cause poisoning. Entry into the body A chemical can cause injury in various ways depending upon whether it is solid or liquid. decorative/protective treatments for timber and metals. which are liquids commonly. vomiting and headaches. such as dizziness. varnishes. vapour. fungicides. Chemicals and their risks: Many chemicals are hazardous. sealant. floor treatments. thinners and similar cleaning materials. Handling of Chemical / Hazardous Substances SHE Manual Great many chemical substances are used in construction .there is hardly a site without them. fumes or gas. Of particular importance are solvents.

Unless large amounts of water are used at once to rinse the substance off. those not visible to the naked eye. serious burns will be caused. and follow the established safe practice in handling them. Some dusts such as quartz and asbestos destroy the lung tissue and may lead to the development of tuberculosis or cancer. Acids and alkalis are corrosive and can damage the skin and the eyes on contact.E & C Division SHE Manual stream. producing changes and causing an incurable disease called ” pneumoconiosis ". Generally. • Substitute the chemical with a harmless or less hazardous one. Inhaled dust accumulates in the lungs. It is the smallest dust particles. Absorption through the skin: Some solvents can be absorbed through the skin into the blood stream and may travel to internal organs such as the brain and liver. Preventive measures: Accidents and ill health from the use of chemicals can be prevented if we know what chemicals we are using and the risks they pose. there is an order of priority in the measures for dealing with hazardous chemical substances. Ingestion or swallowing: This is Possible when You handle chemicals such as lead-based paints and then eat or smoke without first washing Your hands. Contact Dermatitis: Contact Dermatitis or eczema frequently results from the contact between the skin and some chemicals. Breathlessness and inability to work are the eventual consequence. Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 2 . which reach furthest into the lungs. when toxic vapours contaminate cups. plates or eating utensils. or when you eat meals at the work site.

There should be a label on the container. or working in the open will reduce the Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 3 . this is often difficult in construction processes. Provision of good ventilation. care should be taken to avoid spillage of the contents of containers. Use personal protective equipment (PPE). When opening containers. the employee should seek clarifications from the supervisor (with the help of the chemical safety data sheet available with him). if there is no label. If no such clarification is available. • If the use of hazardous chemicals cannot be avoided. The people should understand the contents of the label and if it is not difficult to understand what it says. it should not be assumed that they contain the same material. then it should not be used. the following are some basic safety measures that can be adopted: The containers of chemicals should be kept in a separate and secure store. If the information is not sufficient to tell how to handle the chemical safely. Because two containers look the same. or provide other engineering controls such as exhaust ventilation. then the instructions should be followed. the worker should not use the chemical. - - - - The correctness of the PPE given should be checked before their use.E & C Division • SHE Manual Enclose the process using the chemical. The worker should avoid breathing in any fumes from chemicals.

or feel unwell after using Chemical. - - - - - - - Highly flammable chemicals: Many chemical substances used in construction are highly flammable as well as toxic. Requisite quantity of chemicals alone should be stored and used. If the worker is burnt by chemical. If there is a spillage of chemicals on the ground or floor. Eyes should be flushed out thoroughly with water and should receive immediate medical attention.E & C Division SHE Manual hazard. Impermeable clothing should be worn If large quantity of solvent is used. The worker should leave the work area immediately if he feels dizzy or unwell. When mixing or pouring chemicals using temporary containers. The following precautions should be followed when handling or using them: Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 4 . seek medical attention without delay. Eye protection should be worn when chemical are being moved or transferred on site. such as soaking it up with dry sand. Clothing wetted by solvents should be removed and dried in the open. Workers should be encouraged to wash before you eating and smoking at the workstation. lllit should be properly labelled. this should be reported so that the right action can be taken. it should be rinsed immediately with plenty of clean running water. If the skin is splashed with a chemical.

make sure there is an adequate supply of fresh air. This can usually be achieved by opening windows and doors to the full. Soak up any spillage with dry sand and remove the contaminated sand to a safe place in the open air. If it is necessary to use a fan. Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 5 . and return them there when you have finished with them. Find out what action to take in the case of fire. if you kneel or stand in it) may cause cement burns or ulceration of the skin. If you cannot avoid using highly flammable liquids in an enclosed area. Use funnels and spouts to prevent spillage. Never smoke if there are flammable chemicals in the area. Store drums upright. Always transfer the contents of large containers to small containers in the open. Treat empty drums with as much care as full ones .they will still Contain flammable vapour. check that the fan is electrically safe to use in a flammable atmosphere. - - - - - - Hazardous substances: Cement: Cement mixes are a well-known cause of skin disease. Prolonged exposure to wet cement (for example.E & C Division - SHE Manual Study the label and the instructions on the chemical safety data sheet about safe handling and first aid measures. Both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis can result from proximity to wet cement. Remember that all flammable liquids give off vapours which travel unseen into the air and are easily ignited. Keep containers in the store until required for use.

the greater the risk to health.E & C Division SHE Manual The following precautions should be taken: Avoid breathing in cement dust. if any cement gets into the eyes. - - - - Asbestos: Breathing in asbestos dust can kill by causing irreversible lung damage and cancer. Immediately wash off any dust or freshly mixed cement that gets on to the skin. as well dust created by the surface treatment of hardened concrete which may contain a high silica content. Clean off your clothing and boots after work. with rubber boots and gloves when required. There is no known cure for asbestos-related diseases. Fire protection of structural steelwork. Asbestos insulating board is used in a wide variety of places such as: Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 6 . by wearing suitable respiratory protective equipment. Thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings.. The more asbestos dust breathed in. rinse them immediately with plenty of warm water. Protect the eyes. Asbestos is used in the following situations: (a) Asbestos insulation or coating is used for: (i) (ii) (iii) (b) Thermal insulation of boilers.. There are control limits for the various types of asbestos. Protect the skin from contact by wearing long-sleeved clothing and full-length trousers.

an adequate assessment must be made to work out the precautions needed to control the exposure to the substance. Internal walls and partitions Ceiling tiles in a suspended ceiling. Before starting any work with asbestos. and so on contain asbestos. etc. etc. and in particular in removing and disposing of asbestos. Only working methods that keep asbestos dust levels as low as possible should be used (e. bulk sampling and laboratory analysis are necessary. Gutters and down pipes. structural steelwork. In working with asbestos insulation board. Cladding on walls. Carrying out work with asbestos: In many countries those who work with asbestos to any extent. use hand tools and avoid breaking boards). Alternatively. require to be licensed or to hold a permit.g. Before starting work: If it is not clear whether insulating material. we may assume that the material contains crocidolite (blue). cladding and door facings.E & C Division (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c) SHE Manual Fire protection on doors. Work with asbestos may range from cleaning brake drums of construction plant and vehicles to full-scale asbestos removal. Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 7 . ceilings.. amosite (brown) or chrysotile (white) asbestos and take appropriate precautions. protected exits. Asbestos cement is applied on: (i) (ii) (iii) Corrugated sheets (roofing and cladding of buildings) Flat sheeting for partitioning. Someone must do this with suitable training and experience. boarding. workers will probably need to wear suitable protective clothing..

usually Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 8 .g. respirators should be worn. and storage tanks will be heavily contaminated. a system of wet scraping/brushing is preferred. If you have to clean asbestos cement sheeting encrusted with lichens or mosses. pipes. e. There is a risk to health from inhaling dust or fumes created by burning or cutting materials containing lead. Methods of limiting exposure to asbestos dust include: Removing asbestos materials before starting major demolition work. and by spray painting of leaded paints.E & C Division SHE Manual Asbestos cement is less likely to generate dust than many other asbestos products. gutters and old lead sheet roofs. Where it is not possible to keep asbestos dust levels under control limits. Separating asbestos work areas from other general work areas. Lead can be absorbed when swallowed. Organic lead is added to motor fuels. use hand tools (or power tools fitted with exhaust ventilation equipment). and disposal at an approved waste disposal site. including painted surfaces. by welding. Protective clothing will probably be required for any significant work with asbestos cement. but the risk of asbestos dust release is still present. Prompt removal and bagging of waste asbestos. When cutting asbestos cement. by grinding or cutting. - - Lead: Inorganic lead is found in many construction products. This prevents accidental exposure to asbestos " Wet methods of removal (to suppress dust). electricity cables.

Listing all the details of all these chemicals in this manual is not practicable.E & C Division SHE Manual when food is contaminated. An effective way of protecting the plant and machinery and people from the harmful effects of these chemicals is to procure the material safety data sheet of them from their manufacturers and use / refer before handling. and adequate washing facilities should be provided. strange behaviour. and smoking. Protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment should be provided whenever lead levels exceed national control limits. storing and transporting any of these materials. The material safety data sheet. causing impaired intellect. detailing their Physical. anaemia. Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 9 . - - Material Safety Data Sheet: Apart from the most common materials listed above. abdominal pain. the following precautions are to be taken: Hands should be washed regularly and always before eating. Organic lead compounds are readily absorbed through the skin. referred as MSDS. the site uses many other chemicals with varying quantities during construction and commissioning of the project. Wear works clothing on the job and store your “street" clothing where it cannot be contaminated by your work clothing. If lead is used in any form. Excessive lead absorption causes constipation. is a comprehensive document provided by the manufacturer of the chemicals for reference for of the user. fits and coma. It can also affect the brain. and weak muscles and kidney damage.

explosion and fire.E & C Division SHE Manual Chemical (Toxicity. acid and alkali is given in the annexe. The MSDS of some of the commonly used chemicals. The user should familiarise with the details and equip himself to tackle any of the emergency listed in the MSDS. Flammability and Reactivity) properties and the remedial measures to be taken in the event of a spillage. Handling of chemicals / Hazardous substances 10 . contamination.

confining the fire. detecting and extinguishing fires to protect employees and property and to ensure continued operations. fire detection-system manufacturers. companies must develop fire protection programs. employees should know their role in the following procedures: Fire Prevention 1 . building safety engineers. nonetheless. a fire does start.E & C Division 17 Fire Prevention Introduction: SHE Manual Fire is the most effective destroyer of plant and machinery and crores of rupees are loss every year due to fire. building contractors. Fire protecting engineering is a highly developed specialization requiring special engineering disciplines. fire prevention and control measures and fire fighting. it is essential to know the techniques of the protection. fire protection programs should enable companies to reduce hazards significantly. • • Fire Protection Program The primary purpose of such a program is to prevent fires from starting. and local fire departments. interior designers. Hundreds of people lose their lives due to fire every year. evacuating a building. Achieving the most efficient fire protection system require the involvement of architects. and extinguishing the fire. The primary purpose of the program is to prevent fires from starting and to train employee in proper procedures should a fire break out. Although a totally safe system for protecting life is not achievable. If. Electrical and structural engineers. To accomplish these goals. Fire Protection: • Fire protection includes procedures for preventing. Employees should know their roles in detecting a fire and in transmitting an alarm. urban planners. In order to prevent its occurrence.

Smoke and toxic gases are responsible for 66% of deaths from fire in buildings. When designing the plant’s building and laying out its operations. 3.E & C Division SHE Manual 1. Some general facts about fire protection that must be kept in mind follow: • No facility is absolutely fireproof. • Fire and flame will spread in a building both vertically and horizontally. Immediately detecting the fire and promptly transmitting an alarm. adequate fuel and sufficient oxygen. • Heat energy is transmitted by convection. They must understand (1) the special thermal load that fire puts on structural parts of buildings. • Onsite early detection of a fire is absolutely essential. Nearly everything can burn. 2. • The spread of the heat. 4. Architects and engineers must realize that designing for fire protection is a legitimate part of their responsibilities. given ignition. incorporate greater measures of fire safety than are called for. The earlier that fire-safety objective is identified and design decisions are made. conduction and radiation. Fire protection systems must meet or exceed all codes and should be especially protective of areas in the plant that are viral to the continuity of its operation. smoke and toxic gases is possibly the greatest single danger to life and takes place in much the same manner as does the spread of fire. and (2) the preventive measures that can be incorporated into their designs. Fire Prevention 2 . Objectives might be stated in terms of safety to people and of allowable downtime for the plant. the more effective the fire protection system can be. Initiating evacuation of the building Confining the fire Extinguishing the fire Objectives of a Fire Protection Program When planning a fire-protecting program first make a statement of objectives for fire safety.

E & C Division • SHE Manual • • • • • • • • • The use to which a building is put its occupancy will influence the degree of fire hazards. (See the section Fire Risks. The cost of fire protection should have a corresponding effect in reducing the amount of loss or risk involved. Very often. or safety. The more hazardous the materials handled in a plant area. The optimum level of fire protection is that which minimizes the cost from expected fire losses. and or (2) put out by Fire Fighters. insufficient motivation. The Planning stage itself all the statutory provisions should be in corporate. in the first few minutes of a fire determines whether it can be controlled or not. or improper action. Probably more than half of all fire losses is the result of human mistakes resulting from inadequate training. there are only a few minutes between the beginning of combustion and the development of a destructive fire. People and their actions are key elements. Construction alone is not adequate protection insofar as life safety is concerned. To be effective knowledge of the chemistry of fire is essential. Some risk will be some loss. Every fire protection device involves compromise. later in this chapter). What happens or doesn’t happen. Fire Prevention Complete steps to be taken for the prevention of fuel are extensive. A fire is usually (1) controlled by built-in equipment. reliability. a fire protection system always represents some trade-offinvolving cost. Fire Prevention 3 . The contents of a building are usually a more important factor in the start of a fire than is the physical structure of the building. the more likely is the chance for the fire to start and rapidly spread. That is. An automatic sprinkler system is the best tool to reduce loss of life from fire.

Rusting of metal is an example of this. Fire Prevention 4 . and a high temperature is produced. an explosion can result. Flame fires directly burn gaseous or vaporized fuel and include deflagrations. The flame fire includes chemical chain reaction.E & C Division The Chemistry of Fire SHE Manual Fire. The surface fire has three components that can be controlled. is extraordinarily complex. is a combustion process intense enough to emit heat and light. A fire then. • Oxygen can be taken away by excluding the air. These two modes of fires are not mutually exclusive and they may occur together or alone. A similar process that takes place over long periods of time and at a lower temperature is called oxidation. The surface fire is represented by the fire triangle-heat. Diffusion flame fires refer to gases burning on mixed vapors and air. Fires can be controlled in the following ways: • Heat can be taken away by cooling. heat and a chemical chain reaction join in a symbiotic relationship ( Figure 6-6). For a fire to occur. while the flame fire has four components. In addition. Controlling these fires is difficult. a gas-phase fuel or both. If the combustion process is confined so pressure can increase. Knowing how and why a fire burns suggests ways to control and extinguish it. The following are two types of flame fires: • • Premixed flame fires exist in a gas burner or stove and are relatively controlled. but no chemical chain reaction. In combustion. fire and air. The rate of burning is usually high. Surface fires occur on the surfaces of a solid fuel and are often called a glow or deep embedded seated fire. The combustion process is usually associated with rapid oxidation of a fuel by oxygen in the air. a fire can be classified into two general forms or modes flames fire and surface fire. Surface fires take place at the same temperature as do open flame fires. or the process of combustion. fuel oxygen. heat energy is released in a self-catalyzed reaction involving a condensed phase fuel.

To be effective. empty tank in case of fire. The chemical reaction of the flame fire can be interrupted by inhibiting the rapid oxidation of the fuel and the concomitant production of free radicals. the cooling agent must reach the burning fuel directly. smothering is ineffective on substances containing their own oxygen supply. (3) In any mixture of fuel gases or vapors in air. or incorporated in foam. Further. In practice. such as covering it with a wet blanket (make sure he blanket is not made of highly combustible fibers).E & C Division • • SHE Manual Fuel can be removed to an area where there is not enough heat for ignition. from a fire by smothering the burning area with a noncombustible material. or oxygen. Limited Oxygen in a Fire Limit air. remove heat at a greater rate than the total heat that is being evolved by the fire. or covering it with a chemical or mechanical foam. Fortunately. there are exception (1) Storage tanks for flammable liquids may be arranged so their contents can be pumped to an isolated. smothering it with inert gas. Cooling a Fire To extinguish a fire by cooling. the fire is literally drowned into submission by the water. the lifeblood of the flame’s reaction. throwing dirt or sand on the fire. (2) When flammable gases catch fire as they are flowing from a pipe. The most common and practical extinguishing agent is water applied in a solid stream or spray. hold the blanket in place long enough for all smoldering ignition to be extinguished. such Fire Prevention 5 . the fire will go out if the fuel supply can be shut off. To do this. The cooling action may also stop the release of combustible vapors and gases. Removing Fuel from a Fire Often taking the fuel away from a fire is not only difficult but dangerous. adding an excess of air has the effect of diluting the fuel’s concentration below the minimum combustible concentration point.

or cover. The almost simultaneous formation and consumption of free radicals appears to be the lifeblood of the chain reaction. Use an inert gas to purge operations involving flammable vapors and dusts in confined space where a source of ignition may exist. Interrupting the chain Reaction in a Fire In analyzing the anatomy of a fire. Much foam and some solids serve as an emulsion film. However. The concentration of free radicals is the determining factor of flame’s speed. combustion. If the contents of a wastebasket catch fire. being on the order of 0. unstable intermediate products called free radicals are formed. The fire will then remain out (1) if the percentage of oxygen is reduced below the level of combustible materials to cool below their ignition temperature and (2) If no ignition sources are present. such as dry chemicals and halogenated hydrocarbons. the original fuel appear to combine with oxygen in a series of intermediate stages. discharge CO2 or another inert gas into the fire. The intermediate responsible for the evolution of flames. The life of the free hydroxyl radical (-OH) is very shot. thus extinguishing the fire. called branched-chain reactions. however. Covering a fuel. occurs.001 of a second. drop an empty wastebasket on top of it to smother the fire. to ensure that the oxygen concentration remains low enough to prevent combustion. To dilute oxygen below the concentration necessary to support combustion. molecules successive Then the stages are As molecules break up in these branched-chain reactions. The effects Fire Prevention 6 . Extinguishing agents.E & C Division SHE Manual as ammonium nitrate or nitrocellulose. constantly monitor the flow of inert gas and or the actual concentration of oxygen. but long enough to be of vital importance in the combustion of fuel gases. remove the free radicals in these branched-chain reactions from their normal function as a chain carrier. Smothering is also ineffective on deep-seated materials like wood. can stop a fire. rags. and large rolls or skids of paper. final end product. on the burning fuel.

A fire can also be attacked with more than one agent to produce a synergistic effect. complement each other. Using Extinguishing Agents Some is extinguishing agents help control fire in more than of these four causes of fire. Although a fire can be attacked from at least four different standpoints. both plain water fog (as compared with straight water streams) and CO2 can react at flame temperatures with relatively slow-burning free carbon. with a resulting decease in black-smoke production. it must be fought with several different extinguishing agents that. Again the large halogen molecule is an effective trap. it is still very far from being an exact science. potassium bicarbonate base and ammonium phosphate-base and others have on capturing free radicals depend upon their individual molecular structure. Since a fire is usually composed of more than one source of fuel. the use of any one of them does not necessarily result in the most rapid extinguishing time. To match the pace of newer and more potent fire extinguishing agents more sophisticated tactics and technique will be called for. by working together.E & C Division SHE Manual that various dry chemical agents such as sodium bicarbonate-base. producing carbon monoxide (CO). For example. Although extinguishing fires might sound simple. they lower the heat of the fire as well as lower the oxygen concentration. it is believed that they decompose when discharged into the fire and form free radicals halogens (chlorine. This is done now in the joint use of light water and potassium bicarbonate-base dry chemical in fighting fires in aircraft crashes. Fire Prevention 7 . Potassium bicarbonate dry chemical is the most effective because of the large size of the potassium ion in the case of halogenated agents. bromine or fluorine) that unite with the radicals evolved in the branched-chain reaction. Because these reaction absorb hear. The BIS has developed four classifications of fuel.

Do not use foam or a stream of water because both are good conductors of electricity and can expose the operators to a severe shock hazard. or first importance in extinguishing these fires. multipurpose dry chemicals. or halogenated extinguishing agents for such fires. CO2. Fire Prevention 8 . The limiting of air (oxygen) or the combustion-inhibiting effect is of primary importance to stop fires of this class before they start. Generally. Use dry chemicals. The quenching and cooling effects of water. water-fog nozzles may prove effective in the control. However. but not the extinguishment. Class A Fires Class A fires occur in ordinary materials such as wood. Class C Fires Class C fires occur in or near energized electrical equipment where non-conducting extinguishing agents must be used. paints. paper. These classifications are based on the types of combustibles and the extinguishing agent needed to combat each (See NFPA 10. and thinners. Where total extinguishment is mandatory. Drychemicals agents (multipurpose dry chemicals) provide both rapid knockdown of the flames and the formation of a coating that tends to retard furthers combustion. excelsior. rags and rubbish. follow up with water. Solid streams of water are likely to spread the fire. use regular dry chemicals. under certain circumstances. foam or halogenated agents for such fires. such as gasoline. of these fires.E & C Division SHE Manual Classification of Fires Four general classifications of fires have been adopted by the NFPA. Portable Fire Extinguishers). Class B Fires Class B fires occur in the vapor-air mixture over the surface of flammable liquids. oil grease. CO2.

lithum. CO2 Halon. fixed and portable. Fire Fighting When all the above measures fail and a file occurs. Base upon these classifications various extinguishers are manufactured and used. zirconium. hydrants and standpipe hoses. Generally. Fire Prevention 9 . Other Fires Fire that involve certain combustible metal or reactive chemicals require. types of portable The following paras deal briefly these extinguishers. and special pipe systems for dry chemicals. and sodium. Fixed systems include water equipment. do not use normal extinguishing agents on metal fires. and extinguishing equipment have been developed to control and extinguish fires of this type. in some cases. potassium. titanium. to minimise its effect there should be an efficient the fighting system consisting of fixed system like the hydrants portable extinguishers and trained personnel to man these facilities Since all the sites do not have fixed the fighting system. and foam. there is the danger of increasing the intensity of the fire because of a chemical reaction between some extinguishing agents and the burning metal. In such fires. such as automatic sprinklers. extinguishing agents. Specialized techniques.E & C Division Class D fires SHE Manual Class D fires occur in combustible metals such as magnesium. Special pipe systems for are used in areas of high fire potential where tanks for storage of flammable liquids and electrical equipment are located. special extinguishing agents techniques. portable extinguishers are highly relied up on. Portable Fire Extinguishers Equipment used to extinguish and control fires is of two types.

Use the following paragraphs as a guide to the selection of portable fire extinguishers for given exposures. portable extinguishers must be: • • • • • • Approved by a recognized testing laboratory The right type for each class of fire that may occur in the area. The term portable is applied to manual equipment used on small. Labels on extinguishers indicate the class and relative size of fire that they can be expected to handle. Operable by area personnel who can find them and who are trained to use them effectively and promptly. must be supplemented by portable fire extinguishers. This classification is necessary because new and improved extinguishing agents and devices are constantly being developed and because larger portable extinguishers are available. Fire Prevention 10 . but they can also rapidly extinguish a fire in its early stages. Principles of Use Even though a plant is equipped with automatic sprinklers or other means of fire protection. Classification of fire extinguishers Portable extinguishers are classified to indicate their ability to handle specific classes and sizes of fires. have portable fire extinguishers available and ready for an emergency. or between the discovery of a fire and the functioning of automatic equipment or the arrival of professional fire fighters. checked against tampering and recharged as required. To be effective. beginning fires.E & C Division SHE Manual Fixed systems however. In sufficient quantity and size to protect against the expected exposure in the area. inspected frequently. Not only can they prevent a small fire from spreading. Maintained in operating condition. These often can preclude the action of sprinkler systems. Located where they are easy to reach for immediate use.

potassium. some plastics and textiles. zinc. paper. such as wood. the triangle should be colored green. B. If colored. These units are not classified by a numeral because Class C fires are essentially either Class A or Class B. such as oil. painting or similar methods having at least equivalent legibility and durability. paint and grease where oxygen exclusion or a flame-interrupting effect is essential. Use Class B extinguishers for flammable liquid ad gas fires. 1 Extinguishers suitable for Class A fires should be identified by a triangle containing the letter “A”.E & C Division • SHE Manual Use Class A extinguishers for ordinary combustibles. Extinguishers suitable for more than one class of fire may be identified by multiple symbols. Use C Class extinguishers for fire involving electrical wiring and equipment where the dielectric non-conductivity of the extinguishing agent is of first importance. such as magnesium. gasoline. Use Class D extinguishers for fires in combustible metals. or C extinguishers on a Class D fire. but also involve energized electrical wiring and equipment. They indicate which extinguisher should be used for a particular class of fire. zirconium and lithum. Persons working in areas where Class D fire hazards exist must be aware of the dangers in using Class A. Of course they should also know the correct way to extinguish Class D fires. where a quenchingcooling effect is required. sodium. titanium. • • • The recommendations that follow are given in NFPA 10 as a guide for marking extinguishers and or extinguisher locations. Therefore. powdered aluminum. These units are not classified by a numerical system and are intended for special hazard protection only. Fire Prevention 11 . choose the coverage of the extinguisher for the burning fuel. Apply markings by decals.

the star should be colored yellow. If colored the square should be colored red. Do not paint them in any way that will camouflage them or obscure their labels and markings. If colored. This requires potential users to exit the room and then make a conscious decision to reenter the room and fight the fire. Locate them along the normal path of exit from the building. Marketing indicating special uses can also be stenciled on the extinguisher or on an adjacent wall. preferably at the exits. locate the extinguishers outside the door. Extinguishers suitable for fires involving metal should be identified by a five-point star containing the letter “D”. Make the location of extinguishers as conspicuous as possible. the circle should be colored blue. paint a distinguishing red band around the post. Where highly combustible material is stored in small rooms or enclosed spaces. but not so close that they would be damaged or cut off by the fire. Apply markings to the extinguisher on the front. rather than inside. place signs or cards indicating this information on the wall close to where it hangs. For example. (0. If an extinguisher is not already plainly marked to indicate the classifications of fire or types of material for which it is intended.9 m). Then they will neither be damaged by Fire Prevention 12 . or machines. If colored. of a size and form to be easily read at a distance of 3-ft. finished material. Fire extinguishers must not be blocked or hidden by stock. if one is hung on a large column or post. Also post large signs to direct attention to extinguishers.E & C Division 2 SHE Manual 3 4 Extinguishers suitable for Class B fires should be identified by a square containing the letter “B”. Keep the extinguishers clean. Special labels are available from manufacturers of extinguishers. Extinguishers suitable for Class C fires should be identified by a circle containing the letter “C”. Location of extinguishers Locate extinguishers close to the likely hazards.

If installed out of doors. Distribution of extinguishers The relative hazard of the occupancy. Annexure – 1 give overviews of common types of extinguishers and their operating characteristics. ease of maintenance. If possible. and the availability of repair service. protect the extinguishers from the elements. Do not let the extinguisher’s cost be the overriding factor in the selection process. nor will they obstruct aisles or injure passersby. Secure on-the-job advice from fire inspection bureaus. and requirements of local codes determine the minimum number and type of portable extinguisher to be installed for each floor or area. (10 cm) between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor. Mark floor spaces to allow access to fire extinguishing equipment.E & C Division SHE Manual trucks. cranes and other operations or corroded by chemical processed. protection for special hazards. fire insurance carriers and fire protection engineers when selecting extinguishers. Follow the BIS requirements. and protect extinguishers with bumpers or guardrails. Obviously. Selection of Extinguishers Operating characteristics that make one type of portable fire extinguisher suitable for certain fire hazards may make the same type dangerous for others. Make plant and warehouse aisles wide enough (1) so that mobile fire protection unit can be brought close to a fire and (2) so that aisle can be kept free of obstructions. Maintain a clearance of at least 4-in. actually operate and test the extinguisher before making the final selection. the nature of any anticipated fires. Remember that good extinguishers are worth their cost because of the protection they give. (18KG) should not be more than 3-ft. only purchase extinguishers listed and tested according to BIS. (1 M) above the floor. Also consider the extinguisher’s design and operating features. Fire Prevention 13 . Extinguishers weighing over 40 lb.

the required units could be obtained by using various size dry-chemical and CO2. Fire Prevention 14 . if a certain condition calls for Class B extinguishers. there is some flexibility that can be used to the purchaser’s advantage. For example.E & C Division SHE Manual Although extinguishers must be installed in conformance with BIS.

Invert or hold upright the extinguisher as per instructions. pull oout the locking pin. Dry Chemical Powder Extinguishers: Type – D • • Remove the locking pin Press the operating lever and direct he powder over the pin. Direct the jet of water at the seal of fuel. Foam Extinguishers: Type – B • • • • Lift the knob and rotate it to fix in position Lift the container and shake it to mix the solutions in the inner and outer container. Slowly covering the entire burning surface. Until the foam covers the whole burning surface.E & C Division Annexure – 1 Operating Procedure of Extinguishers Type – A Water stored pressure or Soda Acid type: SHE Manual Remove safety catch strike the plunger against hard surface which process either the glass bulb in case of soda acid extinguisher or carbon dioxide cartridge. • • • Shake well in case of soda acid type. Press the operating lever. Carbon Di-oxide Extinguishers: Type – C • • • Hold in up right position. Hold the discharge horn at the modern handle and direct the gas in a sweeping motion over the fire. Fire Prevention 15 . Reserve keep upright the extinguisher as given in instruction Direct the jet of foam on the opposite wall of the container having burning liquid.

Rag etc.E & C Division SHE Manual Annexure –2 Effectiveness of Fire Extinguishers Type of Extinguishers Class of Fire Water Foam Water Jet from Hose Yes Vaporizing Liquid No CO2 Dry Powder No Ordinary fire (Wood.) Flammable Liquid Electrical Equipment Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Fire Prevention 16 .

plant failure.e. Complete safety is not achievable. recognising that accidents are possible. An important element of mitigation is emergency planning.g. and earthquake.e. but they must be concurrent with each other. i. Vehicle crash or sabotage. are in place. explosion or toxic release. On Site Emergency Plan Introduction Definition: SHE Manual A major emergency in a works is one. Emergency plans are likely to be separate for on site and off site matters. Although the emergency may be caused by a number of different factors.E & C Division 18. Achieving this will reduce the risk of an accident. they must be addressed to he same assessed emergency factors. works management should ensure that the necessary standards. e. Scope: Much of the earlier part of this manual has been concerned with preventing accidents through supervision. While on site plan will always be the responsibility of the works On Site Emergency Plan 1 . It would normally require the assistance of outside emergency services to handle it effectively. but it will not eliminate it altogether. appropriate to the safety legislation. i. In particular it is not a substitution for maintaining good standard inside thee works. assessing the consequence of such accidents and deciding on the emergency procedures both on site and off site. Emergency planning is just one aspect of safety and cannot be considered in isolation. It may cause extensive damage to property and serious disruption both inside and outside the works. and an essential part of major hazard control is concerned with minimising the effect of a major accident. which has the Potential to cause serious injury or loss of life. Before starting to prepare the plan. It will normally manifest itself in three basic forms: fire. human error. that would need to be implemented in the event of an emergency.

b) The route to those worst events. On Site Emergency Plan 2 . rehabitisation and giving information promptly to people living nearby. Experience has shown that for every occasion that the full potential of an accident is realised there are many occasions when some lesser event occurs or when a developing incident is made safe before reaching cull potential. which can be dealt with by works personnel without outside help to the largest event for which it is practical to have a plan. Elimination will require prompt action by operators and works emergency staff using for example fire fighting equipment. c) The time-scale to lesser events along the way. first aid. The assessment of possible incident should produce a report indicatinga) The worst events considered. d) The size of lesser events if their development is halted.E & C Division SHE Manual management. emergency shut off valves and water sprays. eliminate it and b) To minimise the effects of the accident on people and property. different situations may place the responsibility of the off site plan elsewhere. evacuation. e) The relative likelihood of events. Identification and assessment of hazards: This stage is crucial to both on site and off-site emergency planning and requires works management systematically to identify what emergencies could arise in their plants. Minimising the effects may include rescue. Objectives: The overall objectives of an emergency plan are: a) To localise the emergency and if possible. These should range from small events. f) The consequences of each event. This report may be part of the hazard assessment report or may be a separate exercise produced specifically for the purpose of emergency planning.

the emergency plan may consist merely of putting key personnel on stand-by and calling in the emergency services. Action off site. emergency control centre action on site.E & C Division SHE Manual Incident should be assessed in terms of the quantity of hazardous materials. in the form. The on-site emergency plan must be related to the final assessment and it is the responsibility of the works management to formulate it. Formulation of the plan and liaison with outside. On very simple sites. On-site emergency planning: 1.g. An essential element On Site Emergency Plan 3 . the plan may well be a substantial document including the following elements: a) b) c) Assessment of the size and nature of the events foreseen and the probability of their occurrence. The plan must therefore be specific to the site. (ii) works main controller. the rate of release and the effects of that release – e. as thermal radiation from a fire or fireball or as a toxic gas cloud – as a function of distance from the plant. which could be released. d) (e) (f) (g) The plan should set out the way in which designated people at the site of the incident can initiate supplementary action both inside and outside the works at an appropriate time. Formulation of the plan and of emergency services: The assessment of the risks and hazards in a major hazard works leads either to improvements being made to the plant. On large multi-process sites. Procedures: (i) raising the alarm (ii) communications both within and outside the works. Appointment of key personnel and their duties and responsibilities: (i) works incident controller. including the emergency services.

Alarm systems vary and will depend on the size of the works.).3. The alarm should alert the incident controller (subsection 18. nominated individuals are given specific responsibilities. it may be necessary to install more than one audible alarm transmitter or flashing lights. 2. These should be an adequate number of points form which the alarm can be raised either directly.E & C Division SHE Manual of the plan must be the provision for attempting to make safe the affected unit for example by shutting it down. Automatic alarms may be appropriate on some sites. It is the practice at many works that any employee can raise an emergency alarm. so allowing the earliest possible action to be taken to control the situation.2. in the event of an accident. The following are the key personnel and their duties. Alarm and communication mechanism: Communication is a crucial factor in handling an emergency. who should possess the situation and implement appropriate emergency procedures. On a complex site. 3. often separate from their day to day activities. via a signal or message to a permanently manned location. Predetermined code words to indicate the scale and type of the emergency may be valuable. Appointment of personnel and definition of duties: Effective emergency plans require that. by activating an audible warning. In area where there is a high level of noise. On Site Emergency Plan 4 . or indirectly. The details of the communication arrangements should be agreed locally. the plan should contain the full sequence of key personnel to be called in from other sections or from off site. in some cases it may be advisable to have a direct line to the fire brigade. There should be a reliable system for informing the emergency services as soon as the alarm is raised on site.

e) He will undertake all rescue operations. electrical and other assistance as required during the emergency. a) He remains in the emergency control center till the emergency is called of so that all concerned are aware of the location of his availability during the emergency. 5 On Site Emergency Plan . he proceeds promptly to the emergency center and takes overall charge of the activities for dealing with emergency. He will regulate the entry and exit of personnel required for controlling the fire/emergency. Responsibilities of unit in-charge (Engineer at site) a) b) c) d) e) Report to the site controller and site co-ordinator about the emergency.E & C Division Organisation and Responsibilities Site controller (RCM/RE) SHE Manual On getting information from any authentic source. b) He communicates and co-ordinates among various team leaders. transport. h) He will also be responsible for the head count at the assembly point. evacuation. c) He is the final authority on all matters related with management of emergency such as fire fighting. liaison. rescue operations. He will arrange PPE required for emergency. snacks in the canteen. f) He will maintain liaison with all government agencies regarding the emergency. public relations etc. calling outside agencies for assistance. g) He will take all steps required for welfare such as providing tea. He will call the local fire brigade. He will be responsible for providing transport facilities for evacuation of personnel to medical center (Hospital) or to a safer place. d) He will perform all duties required to be done regarding mechanical. police in case of necessity in consultation with the site controller/site co-ordinator.

E & C Division f) g) h) i) SHE Manual He will collect and disseminate information as required to all concerned. He will keep detailed report of the incident and the progress of operations to fight emergency. c) d) e) f) g) h) Apart from these personnel other works personnel will have key roles to play in the implementation of the emergency plan. These On Site Emergency Plan 6 . The leader will mobilize his team and establish contact with the Site Contractor regarding manpower accounting and start the searching operation if required. He will ensure that he and his team members wear the necessary Personal Protective Equipment while searching for the missing personnel. lorries and flammable material to a safer place. He will work in consultation with the site controller. Rescue team should send out all tankers. He will co-ordinate the transport services. Site co-ordinator (SSO) a) b) c) He will co-ordinate the activities of all the team. he will arrange for messenger for the purpose of communication. arrange for temporary shelter in consultation with the Unit-Incharge. In case of power failure/telephone service disruption. The trained person in fire fighting will restrict the movement of person to effectively cordon off the emergency area and start fighting with fire / explosion. Rescue / Evacuation team (Member of Safety Committee) a) b) This team will directly fight the emergency under the instructions from Unit-Incharge / Site co-ordinator. He will evaluate the safety and health hazards. The team leader will be the erection / Construction supervisor or engineer and will be assisted by various engineers for controlling the emergencies. He will ensure that the emergency does not escalate but is controlled the extinguished with the spot of occurrence. Trained person in first aid will give assistance to injured persons.

pens and pencils. Emergency control centres should therefore control the following (as applicable): 1. For large works. (vii) lorry parks and rail sidings. first aiders. An adequate number of external telephones. in order to bypass jammed switchboards during an emergency. Emergency control centers The emergency control center is the place from which the operations to handle the emergency are directed and co-ordinated. (iv) site entrances and roadways. to show: (i) areas where there are large inventories of hazardous materials. Radio equipment. An adequate number of internal telephone. casualty reception staff and public relations staff to liaise with the media. 4. (ii) sources of safety equipment. including up-to-date information on roadworks. atmospheric monitoring staff. the centre should be equipped to receive and transmit information and directions from and to the incident controller and other areas of the works. during an emergency. as well as outside. A plan of the works. however. 3. On Site Emergency Plan 7 . (v) assembly points. notepads.. one should accept outgoing calls only.E & C Division SHE Manual will include senior managers of plants not directly involved in the emergency. (additional works plans should be available to show affected areas. 2. (vi) the location of the works in relation to the surrounding community. (iii) the fire fighting system and additional sources of water. In all cases.) 5. All need to be aware at the emergency pre-planning stage of the precise nature of their roles. It will be attended by the site main controller. key personnel and the senior officers of the fire and police services. if possible. For a small works it may be a designated office which converts to a control centre in the event of an emergency. etc. a purpose-built family is advisable.

The emergency control center should be sited in an area of minimum risk. • Rehabilitation of the work site to the normal condition. Action on site The primary purpose of the onsite emergency plan is to control and contain the incident and so to prevent it from spreading to nearby plant. as far as possible. Other important aspects needing to be considered include the following: • Evacuation of non-essential persons from the site. On Site Emergency Plan 8 . • Accounting for all personnel listed as present in the premises. with addresses. SHE Manual a nominal roll of employees.E & C Division 6. that one will always be available for use should the other be put out of action. For large sites. • Access to records for informing next kith and kin of injured persons. It is not possible to cover every eventuality in the plan and the successful handling of the emergency will depend on appropriate actions and decisions being taken on the spot. 7. consideration should be given to setting up two control centers to ensure. telephone numbers. etc. or where toxic releases might be anticipated. a list of key personnel.

g. it should be made known to all personnel so that each knows his or her role in the event of an emergency. including contingency action if part of the system (e. Communication is a key component of handling an emergency and a rehearsal of the communications system. Rehearsing emergency procedures Once the emergency plan is finalised. will also need to take place. should be undertaken. senior officers from the emergency services or factory inspectorate. After each exercise. depending on the type of incident occurring. will still be needed to complement the tabletop exercises. The procedure for mock drill is given in annexure-1. the plan On Site Emergency Plan 9 . The plan can be tested in a number of different ways. Full-scale exercises.g. shutdown procedures may be comparatively simple. providing a realistic rehearsal setting. DOs and DON’Ts are given in annexure-2. with no knock-on effects elsewhere on site. Many organisations use table-top exercises test their emergency plans.g. e. plant operations are often interlinked and the shutdown of any key plant on site (e. involving the emergency services where they are part of the emergency plan.E & C Division Planning shut-down procedures SHE Manual For single plant sites. More elaborate exercises. These are very cost effective because they do not interrupt the day-to-day running of the plant and because the organiser of the exercise can “arrange” for a variety of difficulties to arise which will need on-the-spot decisions to be taken. such as large petrochemical works or refineries. telephones) becomes inoperative. With complex sites. Evacuation rehearsals should be regularly carried out and should cause minimum disruption to the normal activities. and preferably independent of the site. a power station) may have significant implications for other plant. Plan appraisal and updating Emergency planning rehearsals and exercises should be monitored by observer not involved in the exercise. It is essential that the plan is regularly tested because it is only through such rehearsals that defects become apparent. Emergency plans will need to take account of this so that ordered and phased shut-downs can take place when necessary.

E & C Division SHE Manual should be thoroughly reviewed to take account of omissions or shortcomings. Emergency plans. On Site Emergency Plan 10 . are the subject of continual refinement and updating out it is very important that any changes of substance are made known to those likely to be involved in that part of the plan when used for a real emergency. particularly for complex sites.

Report to your Team Leader and carry out your assignment. 6. Do not spread unauthorized or exaggerated information to others. Do not engage unnecessary the communications aids like telephone / Public Address Systems (PAS) and other means to make the same available for handling emergency. 4. Conduct the visitors / contract labourers outside the emergency zone to designated location. 3. 5. 2. 2.E & C Division Annexure-1 Do’s and Dont’s Do’s 1. SHE Manual Give attention to all instructions. Only qualified First Aiders shall render First Aid wherever possible and await for the Doctor. On Site Emergency Plan 11 . Do not disturb the leader assigned with specific work for handling emergency. Do not panic. Do not communicate with any external unless instructed by the Site Controller. 4. 3. Do not approach the emergency site as a spectator. Dont’s 1.

After each drill the plan will be thoroughly reviewed to take account of omission or shortcomings and updated response time for each action will be noted and studied for any improvement. Co-ordinator and Team Leaders shall follow their stipulated duties/responsibilities. d) Raise the siren for emergency. b) Fix date and location of emergency for MD. e) Site Controller. or else report to the Emergency Control Centre.E & C Division Annexure-2 Procedure for mock drill SHE Manual a) Inform all the employees about MD and signal to all. Unit-Incharge. c) MD shall be monitored by an observer who is not involved in the exercise. OEP Appraisal and updating Mock Drill will be monitored. Procedure on noticing an emergency A) Inform the nearest Unit-Incharge. On Site Emergency Plan 12 . f) Some persons should cordon off the emergency area. g) All clear signal should be raised after half an hour. B) Get back to your normal work station if safe.

The system consists of: • A Corporate Policy has been established which includes the Environment Policy • Establishing the requirements at the site as per the Central/ State legislation. It is necessary to incorporate an environmental management system at the planning stage itself so that along with the progress of site development the attendant environmental problems are also attended to. consider. And • Establishing control/monitoring/corrective procedures to maintain the facilities at the required level. The environmental management system provides a structured process for the achievement of continual development/improvement at the site. the size and other parameters of the site will decide the rate and extent of which. • • • • • • Emissions to air Releases to water Waste management Contamination of land Use of raw materials and natural resources Other local and community issues The last two issues. namely. The process to identify the significant environmental aspects associated with the activities at the site should. • Identifying priorities for setting appropriate objectives and targets • Establishing a structured programme to gradually implement the requirements as and when the need arises.E & C Division SHE Manual Environment Protection In the construction site adequate measures are taken not only to fulfill all the statutory requirements but also to conform to the norms laid down in ISO 14001 for certification. use of raw materials and natural resources and local and community issues will have to be dealt by the client and Environmental Protection 1 . where relevant.

As regards using the Diesel Generator sets. Piling. the water pollution can occur due to following reasons: The wastewater from washing facility. AIR POLLUTION: At the site. the blasting area is cordoned of so that the falling debris does not harm the workers. it is ensured for the proper performance of the set so as to keep the pollutants. In the site itself. at any given time. Sulfur di oxide and Carbon monoxide level below the prescribed levels. Adequate precautions are taken to control the concentration of the pollutants within the prescribed limits. The wastewater from the washing facility is drained through a soak pit. If the site is in an existing factory then it is let in to the factory drains. excavation and concreting are done in wet conditions thereby minimizing the emanation of the dust. Environmental Protection 2 .E & C Division SHE Manual the local authorities. water and soil pollution are to be considered and incorporated in the system so that. The three remaining aspects namely air. blasting. The action to be taken at the site on the other 4 issues is briefly described in the following paras. During blasting the explosives are placed in such a manner that the debris fall within the site limits. excavation. The E & C ‘s role in these to identify areas and suggest remedial measures to the client for consideration and implementation. piling and concreting operations are the essential activities undertaken and these provide air pollutant in the form of dust. the pollutants under the above 3 categories do not exceed the statutory limits. toilets are adequately handled. WATER POLLUTION: At the site.

The organisation thus makes a conscientious effort to ensure fulfilling all the statutory requirements to maintain a proper environment at the work site handling. the solid waste from the canteen is collected and disposed off. However the earth removed due to activities like excavation etc.E & C Division SHE Manual Since all these work are done through contractors. Environmental Protection 3 . are used for levelling the ground for making garden / planting of trees. storage and transportation of hazardous materials are dealt at the appropriate chapters. SOIL POLLUTION: From the above measures most of the pollutants are prevented from getting absorbed by the soil. The wastewater after removal of the sediments is let out to the common drain/soak pit. A major hazardous pollutant at the site is the wastewater collected from the acid and alkali washing of vessels and nuetralised.