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Bitumen and Mixture Characteristics of Lawele Buton Rock Asphalt
Madi Hermadi , Kemas Ahmad Zamhari Universiti Tun Husein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia email: email@example.com
The biggest deposit of Buton Rock Asphalt (natural asphalt from Buton Island) located in Lawele Region. It is called Lawele Buton Rock Asphalt, locally known as Lawele-BRA. Lawele-BRA deposit is about 100,000,000 tons. In dry condition, the row material consists of about 30% bitumen, 7% light (volatile) oil, and 63% mineral. The bitumen penetration value is around 180 dmm. It is too soft especially for asphaltic pavement in tropical country. In this study, the row material of Lawele-BRA was heated to dry and reduce the light oil content. It decreases bitumen penetration value. Next, four samples of four times production were tested to examine the physical characteristics. One of the products was chosen as a binder in the mixture characteristics. Then, the characteristics were compared with the characteristics of petroleum bitumen mixture. Based on the test results, the Lawele-BRA product should has volatile oil (that loss on heating) 1-2% or 2-3% to produce Lawele-BRA with bitumen penetration value of 60-80 dmm or 80-100 dmm. Based on dynamic shear test, Lawele-BRA bitumen with penetration 60-80 dmm and 80-100 dmm are sufficient as asphaltic mixture binder for road with field maximum temperature 58 oC and 64 oC. Comparing to petroleum bitumen mixture, the Lawele-BRA mixture has Marshall Stability 11% higher, retained stability 5% higher, dynamic stability 2.4 times higher, and resilient modulus about 2 times higher. Keyword: Rock Asphalt, Bitumen, Hot mix asphalt, Lawele-BRA
In 2008, the price of crude oil reached 150 USD per barrel, the most expensive it has ever had. As a consequence the price of petroleum bitumen was also increased tremendously. Although at the present time the price of crude oil is reduced due to the worldwide economic down turn. To anticipate the same cases in the future, it is necessary to look for other alternative of petroleum bitumen. One of the alternatives is to utilize the natural asphalt. Buton rock asphalt is natural asphalt from Buton Island in Southeast Sulawesi Province in Indonesia. Buton Island has been known as natural asphalt sources. A Dutch geologist, Hetzel, found the natural asphalt deposit in Buton Island in 1920. He completed the natural asphalt deposit map of Buton in 1936. The Directorate of Inventory and Mineral Resources in Bandung - Indonesia shows that natural asphalt in Buton Island located in many places, such as Kabungka, Lawele, Winto, Wariti, Waisiu, Rongi and Ereke areas. The exact deposit of the natural asphalt resources has not been known clearly. PT. Sarana Karya, a state own asphalt mining company, estimates that sources of the Buton rock asphalt is about 300,000,000 tons, spreaded in Kabungka about 60,000,000 tons, in Lawele about 100,000,000 tons, in Winto about 3,200,000 tons, in Wariti about 600,000 tons, in Waisiu about 100.000 tons. However, only two locations have been exploited. Those are Kabungka (since 1980) and Lawele (since 2003). Nevertheless, the exploitation is still very limited . Previous studies indicates that, in general, Lawele-BRA has bitumen content about 35%, water content about 12%, loss on heating about 6%, and penetration value of bitumen about 180 dmm. An
1. 4. 5 sec. % 2.2% to 2. dmm 183 Loss on Heating minus water content. The characteristics.0%. Based on the data in Table 3 and Figure 1. Penetration after RTFOT. 100g.8 No. are not comply with those of petroleum bitumen pen grade 60-80 or 80-100 that normally used as a binder in asphaltic pavement in tropical country. The value of loss on heating is used as an indicator during the processing of Lawele-BRA to achieve the product with the required characteristics.3 Water Content. water content and loss on heating. Results and discussion Bitumen Characteristics of Lawele-BRA The raw materials of Lawele-BRA was preheated and stirred at 130oC at an increasing duration to get four processed Lawele-BRA product called Product-1.8 Penetration of bitumen at 25oC. % 6. Each product has different values of loss on heating. the bitumen of Lawele-BRA with penetration values of 60 to 80 dmm can be produced by heating until the loss on heating of 1. % Original Values 99. Penetration at 25 C. In addition. While bitumen 1 . %Original 28. The investigation includes the effect of preprocessing on the physical characteristiecs of Lawele-BRA. The characteristics of petroleum bitumen that used in this study are shown in Table 2.1 Penetration of bitumen after TFOT. % 35. The effect of heating on characteristics of Lawele-BRA bitumen was evaluated especially in penetration and dynamic shear value. 5 sec. Product-2. Product-3 and Product-4. Table 2 Characteristics of the petroleum bitumen No. and comparing the mixture characteristics between Lawele-BRA and ordinary petroleum bitumen as the control.9 Marshall Mix Design method was used to find out the optimum of Lawele-BRA and petroleum bitumen mixture than the mixtures were tested in dynamic stability and stiffness. the material was preprocessed by heating. Table 1 Characteristics of the raw materials of Lawele-BRA Lawele-BRA Characteristics Raw Material Bitumen Content. 3.7 0. Petroleum Bitumen Characteristics 1. Solubility in C2HCl3. % 11.032 76. dmm 4. % 3.0 65 0. 2. These loss on heating have been corrected for water content that also lossed during the heating. especially penetration. % 5. 5. Materials and Methods The characteristics of raw material of Lawele-BRA that used in this study are shown in Table 1. Water content. 3. The loss on heating indicates percentage of volatile oil that loss in weight after heating at 1630 C during 5 hours in Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT). the bitumen has dynamic shear G*/sin () minimum 1kPa at 580 C for fresh bitumen and dynamic shear G*/sin () minimum 2kPa for TFOT aged bitumen. 100 g. Loss on heating (RTFOT).investigation has been done to assess its characteristics as a binder in hot mix asphalt mixture. In order to reduced the water content and decrease the penetration. 2.
2 .0% to 2. Based on the data in Table 4 and Figure 2.0% is suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 64 oC and those with loss on heating value of 2.00 kPa at the maximum design temperature.1 No.8% is suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 58 oC.7 61.932 1. 100g. G*/Sin () at: 52 oC. 2. Lawele-BRA with loss on heating value of 1.1 3.8 63.00 kPa.673 2. kPa 0.796 0. 1. % 6. kPa 0. 5sec.127 1.4 69.52 2. Figure 1.935 1. Table 3 Penetration Value of Lawele-BRA Bitumen Lawele-BRA Characteristics Raw Material Product-1 Product-2 Product-3 Product-4 Loss on Heating of Lawele-BRA.8%.501 7.536 1.676 0. 1. G*/sin() of fresh bitumen shall be minimum of 1.909 64 oC.083 Dynamic shear of Lawele-BRA bitumen.866 70 oC.315 1.673 2.233 2. Table 4 Dynamic Shear Value of Original Lawele-BRA Bitumen Lawele-BRA Characteristics Product-1 Product-2 Product-3 Product-4 Loss on Heating of Lawele-BRA.52 2.544 o 58 C. The Effect of Loss on Heating on Bitumen Penetration of Lawele-BRA Superpave PG-grade specification required that the rutting resistance parameters.083 Penetration of Lawele-BRA bitumen 183 112 93 83 61 at 25oC. kPa 3. 2. oC 60.0 to 2.791 1.2 to 2.127 1. % 3. kPa 2.with penetration value of 80 to 100 dmm can be produced by heating until loss on heating value of 2.820 3. dmm No.
%Original (dmm) 28.991 1.182 Product-2 2.633 2. all of the Lawele-BRA products have water content less than 2%.00 kPa at the maximum design temperature.8 (53) 39. water content of the Lawele-BRA must be controlled. kPa 0.4(44) Dynamic shear of bitumen after RTFOT. % 6. Based on the data in Table 5. kPa 58 oC.534 1.356 64 oC. kPa 2. Table 6 shows that flash point of the raw Lawele-BRA is 178 oC whilst the four products in average are 2170 C.420 o 70 C.67 45. 3.13 1. In addition. In this case.218 5.08 50. 3 .313 4.461 1. Therefore. Lawele-BRA Characteristics Raw Material Product-1 Loss on Heating of Lawele-BRA. heating may cause Lawele-BRA with bitumen content more than 30% to clot and difficult to mix with aggregates.000 kPa.475 1. 2.7(43) Product-3 Product-4 2. The experiment is still going on for a more comprehensive rheological data on PAV aged residue bitumen. 1. raw material of as well as all of Lawele-BRA products are suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 64 oC. for safety reason.210 4.10 3.Figure 2.453 2. Superpave PG-grade specification required G*sin() of PAV aged residue bitumen should be not more than 5. it is recommended that the Lawele-BRA should not be directly heated in the dryer of the asphalt mixing plant during its application.8 (42) 65.52 Penetration after RTFOT. G*/Sin (). G*/sin() of TFOT residue bitumen shall be minimum of 2.234 To anticipate cracking at the intermediate temperature. The Effect of Loss on Heating on Bitumen Dynamic Shear of Lawele-BRA Superpave PG-grade specification also required that for rutting resistance parameters. kPa 4. Table 5 Characteristics of Lawele-BRA Bitumen after TFOT N o. The result will be presented during the paper presentation. As indicates in Table 6. These temperatures are close to the normal mixing temperature of hot mix asphalt.2 (40) 4.931 2.037 2.
4 5. inch Raw Material 35. Mixture Characteristics Petroleum Bitumen Lawele-BRA Unit 1. Figure 3 Gradation of Lawele-BRA and Petroleum Bitumen Mixture Table 7 Marshall Characteristics of Lawele-BRA and Petroleum Bitumen Mixtures No. 1.1 Mm 9. 3. The optimum Lawele-BRA mixture consists of 10% Lawele-BRA. Marshall Quotient 300. oC Maximum Size. Bitumen content optimum 5.3 11.9% petroleum bitumen and 94.4 198 3/8 Product-3 Product-4 32.7%) and 86.285 gr/cc 3. Voids in Mix at refusal density 3.8 Product-1 32.2 4.2 % 4.325 2. 2.Table 6 The other characteristics of Lawele-BRA No. Lawele-BRA Characteristics Bitumen Content. Design of the mixtures was done by Marshall Method. Both mixtures have the similar gradation as shown in Figure 3. Retained Stability 87. Voids Fill Bitumen 72. 4. Void in Mix Aggregates 17.4 1. Flow 3.9 % 7.0 260.2 226 3/8 178 - Mixture Characteristics of Lawele-BRA Characteristics of Hot Mix Asphalt with Lawele-BRA Product-3 and petroleum bitumen are shown in Table 7.5 2.3 1. Stability 930 1030 Kg 8.0 kg/mm 11.1 222 3/8 31. The optimum petroleum bitumen mixture consists of 5.0 19.1% aggregates. % Water Content.6 % * Percent of Lawele-BRA bitumen + petroleum bitumen 4 .6 1.0 % 6. 3. Density 2.8 92.9 6. Voids in Mix 4. % Flash Point.5% petroleum bitumen (ie.6 1.1 220 3/8 Product-2 32.5% aggregates. total bitumen of 6.0 74.7* % 2.0 % 5.
fresh and after TFOT. J. Proceeding of Asphalt Paving Technologist. As was mention previously. suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 580 C. Kennedy (1996). References  Chipperfield. Public Work Departmen.W. Hot Mix Asphalt Materials. NAPA Education Foundation.0120 mm/min . Asphalt Characteristics in Relation to Road Performance. F. Linn. dynamic stability (2. Vol 39.97 mm .B. Syahdanulirwan.  Research and Development State of Public Work Departemen (2000).Deformation 2.7 4235. Nevertheless.5 289. Menko Ekuin. M. P. Public Work Department..0 1835. 4.3 733. p 575. and resilient modulus at 450 C is better than the mixture of petroleum bitumen. the fresh bitumen of Lawele-BRA Product-3 is comply with Performance Grade of 580 C and after TFOT aged it is comply with Performance Grade of 640 C. hot mix asphalt with Lawele-BRA is outperform the mixture with ordinary petroleum bitumen in term of Marshall Stability (11% higher). ” Increasing and Utilization Recommendations of Buton Natural Asphalt.0293 0.  Roberts. Maryland. rheology of TFOT aged bitumen of this Lawele-BRA also complies for pavement with maximum temperature of 640 C.21 1. Jakarta 5 .4 times higher). Whereas the petroleum bitumen.Deformation rate 0. Edition. Lanham. Mixture Characteristics Petroleum Bitumen Lawele-BRA Unit 1. This is in accordance with rheological bitumen. Development of Production and Utilization Asbuton.S.L. (iii) Based on dynamic shear value. Jakarta.100 is suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 580 C. Conclusion Based on the this study it may conclude that: (i) The raw material of Lawele-BRA has high volatile oil content so it is not sufficient as a bitumen binder especially for pavement in tropical country. F.5 MPa o 45 C 371.  Utilization and Improvement Team of Asbuton (1999). Duthie. dynamic stability. Bandung. M. E.H.. Girdler (1970).Y.2 MPa In general. Mixture Design and Construction..  Hermadi. (2009). The fresh preprocessed Lawele-BRA to comply the pen grade of 80 . R. T.5 MPa 55 oC 230. and resilient modulus (about 2 times higher).R. D. Brown.Table 8 Performance Base Characteristics of Lawele-BRA and Petroleum Bitumen Mixtures No. (iv) The mixture of Lawele-BRA Product-3 in term of Marshall stability. Institute Of Road Engineering Journal.5 MPa 35 oC 1066. Dynamic Stability: .Dynamic Stability 1432 3500 track/mm 2. It is should be processed. retained stability (5% higher). (ii) Preprocessing of the row material by heating will decrease the volatile oil and improve the consistency of its bitumen. Suggestion Specification of Asbuton-Lawele Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement for Road. 5. the preprocessed Lawele-BRA to comply the pen grade 60 – 80 is suitable for pavement with maximum design temperature of 64 oC.L. Kandhal. Resilient Modulus: 25 oC 2950.