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Semitic ^eyt anb Xl^ranslation Series* VIII. . IDoI.

History of the Likeness of Christ. zu. A. VI The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. Wallis Budge. continued. VOL. King. W. VOL. By R. By L. By : R. W. {In the Press. Wallis Budge. Syriac Text and Translation. Wallis Budge. Vol. By L. V : The History of the Virgin Mary. 18s. Vol. II English Translations. Wallis Budge. 6d. : Wallis Budge. VOL. : By E. C. and the Vol. {in the Press. Vol. VII : The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers Vol. II : OF Nineveh and Babylon.) .Xusac's Semitic Uejt anb translation Series. 12s. King. By E. W. 12s. Ill : The Letters and : Inscriptions of Hammurabi. I Introduction and Babylonian Texts. VOL. and the History of the Likeness of Christ. By E. By E. 2 IS. King. A. Vol. English Translation 12s.) Vol. Ill English Translations. VOL. and Transliteration. VOL. Texts. VOL. By L. I : Syriac Texts. X: The Histories of Rabban Hormizd and Rabban Bar-'Idta. VOL. 6d. VOL. 6d. II: English los. II : The Letters and : Inscriptions of Hammurabi. II Babylonian Texts. Vol. A. VOL. Thompson. Translations. 6d. I Cuneiform Texts. Thompson. etc. VIII : The Letters and : Inscriptions of Hammurabi. A. I : The Laughable Stories collected by Bar-Hebr^us. A. I : Syriac By E. C. IX: The Histories of Rabban Hormizd and Rabban Bar-'Idta. Vol. IV: The History of the Virgin Mary. 1 8s.

about b. .THE LETTERS AND INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. 2200.c. KING OF BABYLON.

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W. IN THE L. VOL. EDITED FROM TABLETS BRITISH MUSEUM.} . M. III.C. ETC.: THE LETTERS AND INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI.A. ETC. ABOUT B.S. F. KING OF BABYLON. Rights Reserved.A. TO WHICH ARE ADDED A SERIES OF LETTERS OF OTHER KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON.^ ]^All CO. ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS. 2200.. ASSISTANT IN lUU UEFARTMUNT OF EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIESj BRITISH MUSEUM. SUMMARIES OF CONTENTS. £onion LUZAC AND 1900.. THE ORIGINAL BABYLONIAN TEXTS. WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS. KING.

HERTFORD.'-/'-/o.\ •^"b^'&o s-a^/ip ' PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. ^o rS> f^i s u . g^i^k A.

in the in the British my examination of the tablets to Museum first belonging I the period of the reign of after Hammurabi." and a letters little number of unpublished of Hammurabi. found. and a text that found on the famous " Chronicle of the Kings of the First Dynasty. course of But. and Abesu'.Qprefdce. a number of documents which were of prime importance for the history of the kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. a duplicate of the Sumerian similar to inscription of the same king. Among these may be in- specially mentioned a duplicate of the Semitic scription of Samsu-iluna. In the first volume of this work the hope was expressed that the transliterations and translations of the texts printed therein would be issued at no remote date. Samsu-iluna. and had the scope of the work been kept within the limits originally contemplated these would have seen the light without any undue delay. the publication of my volume. A consideration convinced me that. as these recently discovered texts supplied new material and corrected .

third. and supplemented the documents of the same already class in- known. which contains transliterations. and the volume. etc. notes.PREFACE. From these we derive a considerable amount of information about to the administration of Babylonia at a very early period when the government seems have been purely personal. I decided to make the new and interesting texts available to students in an additional volume. therefore becomes the believe that the student forgive will. of texts has The supplementary collection been made the second volume of this present work. and the great mind of Hammurabi to was as well able superintend the conduct of . I vocabularies. and.. the it was absolutely necessary manuscript of facts to corporate in my second volume In such recently acquired and information. and they translated in the following pages eighty-one are arranged under the names of their writers and grouped according to subject-matter. as far as possible. introduction. No matter was too small to come under the royal cognizance. all matters of cuneiform research facts statements of new ought to be supported. translations. The total number of royal letters is edited . in view of the reason. after consultation' with my publisher. the con- the delay in the appearance of cluding portion of this work. by repro- ductions of the texts on which they are based.

. their pursuits their were chiefly pastoral and agricultural religious ideas and beliefs "civili- were. In the notes translations and commentary attached to to the an attempt has been made describe the circumstances under which each letter was written. in the notes to the translation the date-formulae found upon contract-tablets. The texts found oh " the " Chronicle of the Kings of the First Dynasty and its duplicate supply new and important information concerning the history and chronology of the period they furnish also a list of the great events by which in that early period. characteristic of the grade of zation to which they had attained. XI a campaign as to note that his woodcutters forest in the were sending him dead or decayed wood instead In Hke manner Samsu-iluna in the of sound trunks. lived after an exceedingly and that . intervals in of directing state affairs occupied himself settling a dispute between fishermen from rival It is quite clear that at this villages. whereI have also been able to restore the text of the . PREFACE. and in the introduction I have given a brief summary of the principal facts which a general study of the may be deduced from letters. period the primitive Babylonians fashion. documents were dated and from legal them the order of the dates inscribed upon have therefore given from and I commercial tablets can be accurately ascertained. etc. of course.

September ist. Chronicle in many in places. A. but the recently discovered it. Wallis Budge for his help during the progress of the work. Babylonia in 1891. W. KING. My thanks are due to Dr. and . L. 1900. which supplements and continues edition necessary.XII PREFACE. It will be remembered that the longer document was obtained by Dr. Wallis Budge its text has already been published duplicate. E. ." London. has made a new Complete vocabularies of Babylonian and Sumerian words and a general index have been added.

. ITS 28 ITS XII. . . . . ORDER FOR THE INSERTION OF AN INTERCALARY MONTH SECOND ELUL) in THE CALENDAR ORDERS TO CLEAR OUT THE DAMANUM-CANAL V. . ORDER TO FINISH CLEARING OUT A CANAL ERECH .. ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF CERTAIN OFFICIALS OF THE PALACE GATE .. MILITARY DESPATCH CONCERNING THE MOVEMENT OF TROOPS DIRECTIONS 3 II. .. . . CORN TO 2g - XIII. 18 VIII. . .. ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF THE RENT OF CERTAIN LAND 33 XV. ORDER FOR THE RETURN OF THE THEIR SHRINES ELAMITE GODDESSES TO 10 (A 12 14 IV. . ILLEGALLY . IN 16 VII.. PAGE IX INTRODUCTION TRANSLITERATIONS AND TRANSLATIONS:— I. . THE REPAYMENT OF A LOAN OF CORN WITH ORDER INTEREST THEREON FOR 31 XIV. ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF A CHARGE OF BRIBERY . . DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF LAND ILLEGALLY CLAIMED BY A MONEY-LENDER DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF CLAIMED BY A MONEY-LENDER PROPERTY . 20 IX. THE CITY OF s/VI. 23 X. . 26 XL DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN LAND TO RIGHTFUL OWNER ORDER FOR THE RESTORATION OF CERTJAIN RIGHTFUL OWNER . FOR THE CONVEYANCE GODDESSES TO BABYLON OF CERTAIN ELAMITE 6 III. xix LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.. 36 . DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF CANALS .. PREFACE . . I..ConfenfB.

.. KJ AND SHEEP . APPOINTMENT OF ADDITIONAL SHEEP77 XXXIV. . XXVI. ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OP CORN TO BABYLON . CONCERNING LABOURERS THE PROPER TREATMENT OF -85 . THE MISAPPROPRIATION OF TEMPLE -49 5^ XXII. .. ANNOUNCING THE DESPATCH OF LABOURERS TO LARSAM AND DIRECTIONS FOR THEIR EMPLOYMENT PART OP A LETTER CONCERNING THE TRANSPORT OF SLAVES DIRECTIONS LETTER 82 83 ^XXXIX. 60 62 65 XXVII. ENQUIRY CONCERNING REVENUES . ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF A SHIP WITH TROOPS FROM THE CITY OF UR 67 68 XXX. XXXI. 54 cf. LETTER CONCERNING THE CUTTING OF ^SSy4-TREES FOR USE BY THE WORKERS XXIII. SUMMONS OF TWO REVENUE-COLLECTORS TO BABYLON AFTER HARVEST LETTER CONCERNING THE DESPATCH OF MONIES TO BABYLON -45 48 XX. PROCEED TO BABYLON WITH ... PART OF A LETTER CONCERNING ARAD-SAMAS AND HIS SHEEP DIRECTIONS FOR THE TENDING OF CATTLE 79 80 XXXV. XXXVIII... XVIII. 70 XXXII. XXXVI. . SUMMONS OF TEMPLE-OFFICIALS TO BABYLON THAT THEY' MAY RENDER THEIR ACCOUNTS ORDER FOR THE SHEARERS 7S XXXIII.. 40 u/ POSTPONEMENT OF THE HEARING OF A CASE TO ALLOW OF THE OBSERVANCE OF A FESTIVAL 42 XIX. XXVIII. IN METAL ORDER FOR THE TRANSPORT OF DATES AND SESAME-SEED TO BABYLON . . ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF AN APPEAL TO THE KING 38 -^^ ORDER FOR THE TRIAL OF A CASE BEFORE THE KING . ORDER FOR THE TRANSFER OF A COMPANY OF WORKMEN FROM THE CITY OF LARSAM . ORDER FOR THE INSPECTION OF THE ROYAL FLOCKS AND HERDS ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF FORTY-SEVEN SHEPHERDS AND FOR THE PRODUCTION OP THEIR ACCOUNTS . PAGE XVI. XVII.. ... 81 XXXVII.. ... XXI..XIV CONTENTS. XXV.. .. XXIV... ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF CERTAIN RAIMENT AND ORDER FOR SHIP-CAPTAINS TO THEIR SHIPS OIlT 58 . INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROVIDING CREWS FOR SHIPS OP TRANSPORT INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING WORKMEN AND SAILORS XXIX. ...

LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. 103 DIRECTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF A PATESI TO HIS FORMER POSITION 105 Lir. • • • XLV. . IIO LIV. II7 DIRECTIONS FOR THE SUPPLY OF CORN FOR THE TEMPLE OP THE SUN-GOD HL IV. 108 WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF EIGHT MEN AND LETTER OP AUTHORITY FOR BRINGING THEM BEFORE THE KING . I. . PART OF A LETTER CONCERNING THE HIRE OF LABOURERS 86 87 ORDER FOR THE SEPARATE DESPATCH OF SEVEN MEN TO BABYLON LETTER SUMMONING A MAN FROM LARSAM BEFORE THE KING XLIL XLIII. WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF EIGHT INSUBORDINATE 114 OFFICIALS I. WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF THREE PALACE GATE OFFICIALS OF THE 112 LV. . IN THE CITY OF LARSAM . SIN-IDINNAM.. XLVII. DIRECTIONS FOR THE TRANSFER OF A PATESI TO THE SERVICE OF ANOTHER OFFICIAL LIII. 89 90 92 LETTER SUMMONING TWO MEN FROM LARSAM TO BABYLON XLIV..119 121 DIRECTIONS FOR THE STRICT OBSERVANCE OF FISHING RIGHTS LETTER CONCERNING THE PAYMENT OF TAXES ..94 96 REBUKE FOR SENDING TWO MEN OF ERECH TO THE KING AT BABYLON DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE RESTORATION OP CERTAIN MEN TO THEIR FORMER EMPLOYERS DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN XLVIH. . • 93 AN URGENT SUMMONS BEFORE THE KING .. DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE TRANSPORT OF AN IMAGE OP THE GODDESS ANNUNITUM II. KING OF BABYLON. LETTER CONCERNING THE STRENGTHENING OF THE WALL OF SIPPAR-AMNANU PART OF A LETTER TO IBNI-MARDUK. XLI. MEN lOI TO THEIR FORMER EMPLOYERS L. A SUMMONS TO BABYLON A SUMMONS BEFORE THE KING .. IZ4 V. 128 .CONTENTS. AND THE JUDGES OF SIPPAR I26 VI. . DIRECTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF A BAKER TO THE POST FORMERLY HELD BY HIM LI. 98 XLIX. XLVI. . XV PAGE XL.

FAVOURABLE II. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING 167 VI..164 165 III..- 149 XI. 130 . 157 IS ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH OVERDUE . V.. ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF CORN WHEN THE OMENS ARE I.. IV. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING . 137 139 I4I V. LETTER FROM SIN-IDINNAM TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT IN KUTALLA 168 II. ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH IS OVERDUE . PAGE III. . VH. . LETTER TO THE JUDGES OF SIPPAR CONCERNING A CASE WHICH THEY HAVE INVESTIGATED 150 XII. THE WIFE OF SIN-IDINNAM. . 160 V. DIRECTIONS FOR DEALING WITH A FLOOD ON THE IRNINA- CANAL II. KING OF BABYLON. LETTERS OF AMMIZADUGA. . LETTER ANNOUNCING THE DESPATCH OF CERTAIN MESSENGERS. VI. I. ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TAXES BY CERTAIN MERCHANTS OF SIPPAR . KING OF BABYLON. 143 14S DIRECTIONS FOR THE HARVESTING OF CERTAIN CORN . KING OF BABYLON. VIII. . IX. MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS. 169 . ORDER FOR THE RETURN OF AN ESCAPED FEMALE SLAVE ORDER FOR THE HEARING OF A CASE AT BABYLON 133 135 III. XVI CONTENTS. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING II. ETC . . 166 . LETTERS OF ABESU'. 153 XIII.. LETTER FROM TABEIWADI AND MAR-SAMAS TO AHATIM. _. OVERDUE . ORDER FOR THE BRINGING OF TRIBUTE TO THE PALACE ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH IS . SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING IV. . I. I. ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF A SHIP TO BRING CORN FOR THE PALACE 155 IV. ..162 . ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OP A CERTAIN PRIEST AND OTHERS TO BASYLON PART OF A LETTER TO MARDUK-NASIR AND THE JUDGES OF SIPPAR 147 X. LETTERS OF AMMIDITANA. GOVERNOR OF MARTU .

. RECORDING IMPROVEMENTS . 194 VIII... OTHER KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY. REIGN OF SIN-MUBALUT REIGN OF HAMMURABI REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA REIGN OF ABESU' REIGN OF AMMIDITANA . SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION UPON BRICKS FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD IN LARSAM SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF A TEMPLE TO THE GODDESS NINNI . ^. VIII. 207 209 K. FRAGMENT OF A SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION IX. REIGN OF SUMU-ABU REIGN OF SUMULA-ILU REIGN OF ZABUM REIGN OF APIL-SIN . II. 183 V. .. SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD IN LARSAM . BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION CELEBRATING ..VI. . INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE E-ZIDA INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE . V. . I. INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. INSCRIPTIONS OF I. . GREATNESS OF 172 BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION CITY OF SIPPAR ... FRAGMENT OF AN INSCRIPTION . X.CONTENTS. OF THE 180 IV... FRAGMENT OF A SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION 197 igS III. IV. . 224 228 240 248 248 252 252 IX. . SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION OF AMMIDITANA SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION REFERRING TO AMMIZADUGA . I. 184 186 VI. CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY. XL REIGN OF AMMIZADUGA SUMMARY FROM CHRONICLE B . IN THE 177 III. 194 . CUTTING ' OF THE NUHUS-NISI 188 CANAL Vril.. OF BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION SAMSU - ILUNA RECORDING HIS 199 BUILDING OPERATIONS II. VII. . THE HAMMURABI'S REIGN II. INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF A GRANARY IN 192 BABYLON IX.. III. INSCRIPTION FROM THE PALACE OF HAMMURABI X. XVII VII. INSCRIPTIONS REFERRING TO HAMMURABI. 212 214 in. VOTIVE INSCRIPTION IN SUMERIAN 195 II. I. 220 222 .

MADE DURING THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON 254 VOCABULARIES AND INDICES. lAHRURUM.C.. I. BABYLON ABOUT B... PAGE APPENDIX.- XVIII CONTENTS. .SIPPAR II. INSCRIPTION OP MAEDUK - SAPIK - ZERIM. KING OF PLAN OF BIT . SUMERIAN VOCABULARY INDEX TO REGISTRATION NUMBERS III.. GENERAL INDEX PLATE Frontispiece . IV. 311 315 319 V. INDEX TO TEXTS AND TRANSLITERATIONS . BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY 259 II. . I. . 297 . IIOO.

is The city of Babylon. Letters of Kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. a conqueror rarely lasted for long. withdrawn each they again city resumed its its old life and system of government. however. The connection the between a group of cities so confederated was result of external forces. kings of the First Dynasty administered empire and maintained an effective control over the cities and districts of Babylonia which were situated at a considerable distance from the capital...3ntrobucfton. . The the pecuhar interest as they exhibit the methods by which ' •' . During the earlier periods of Babylonian history city when each had its independent life and system of government. royal letters translated in . From time to time the king of a city would rise and conquer his neighbours. the need for close or frequent communication between them was not apparent. and was supported only by the As soon as this was military power of the conqueror. for was raised . it the exception to the rule. volume have a their . and would hold them in subjection and exact tribute from them at the point of the sword but the rule of such . . this . .. and until fell people remained independent victims to some more powerful and more ambitious neighbour.

but also an able administrator. From his letters we gather that he improved by repairing the old canals and by cutting new ones and that he organized the food-supply throughout the country and super. and and provinces of an example of his skill in absorbing . by means of which he received reports from his local governors and sent them detailed instructions in return. The empire founded by Sumuabu and consolidated by Hammurabi did not share the fate which befell the confederations made by earlier rulers. similar acts By these and yammurabi succeeded cities if in welding into a united whole the scattered the land.XX INTRODUCTION. and appointed own officers for its control. from which it was not deposed during the long and varied course of . and the secret of its duration may perhaps be learned from the letters of Hammurabi and his successors which have come down to us. his Even then. by the kings of the First Dynasty to a position of pre-eminence in the country. but he government. the irrigation of the land intended the administration of justice. and he planned its administration on the lines already adopted by himself at Babylon. jjqj- Qji]y ^ soldicr and a conqueror. By his letters Hammurabi is proved to have been y w i Babylonian history. Hairtitrmrabi's portrait from his letters. he did not leave agents to their own devices. but established a regular system of communication with the capital. however. He was not content merely its its to capture a city and exact tribute from straightway organized his inhabitants.

Dynasty. i. i ff. XXI cities into his empire be required. It is method of governdifferent Th^ • Cities ot /nil.e.must Babylonia clear that communication between the 1 have -Iexisted in B. of Sargon of Agade. at Already the time about 3800. while on their upper surface beside the the sealto impressions are written names of the men addressed. pp. and labels that had On the underside of the lumps of clay may still be seen the marks of the cords with which the bundles were tied up.AN EARLY SYSTEM OF CONVOYS. . we have Sirpurla. and traders. actually The private letters of this period which passed between friends and relatives. we his may quote the city of Larsam as typical of ment and of its results. Revue d' assyriologie. and which dealt with incidents See Heuzey. however. iv. reason to believe that a system of convoys had been established between the cities of Agade and Along with the thousands of at Tell clay tablets discovered Loh several lumps of clay have been found I bearing the seal-impressions of Sargon and of his son Naram-sin. which were evidently used as seals upon bundles of various objects been despatched from Argade to Sirpurla. post in an imperfect in r Babylonia. form from a very remote period.C. fifteen hundred years we first find evidence of the existence of letters in the proper sense of the term. merchants.^ First that It is whom about the bundles the were not. until time of the later.

the outside of the envelope was See Vol. same time preserved the inscripBoth the tablet and the tion from defacement. envelope were baked. some three in to four inches in and about an inch thickness. pp. and the former was prevented from permanently sticking to the latter by powdering it with dry clay. After the in tablets were inscribed they were carefully enclosed and at the envelopes of clay which insured the privacy of their contents. and commercial transactions. they were not too large to be conveniently carried on the person." by mare and a special service of swift runners for bearing the royal letters was no doubt established Letter-tablets and envelopes. Though rather larger than the letters of the later Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods. On ff.XXII INTRODUCTION. city to city The letters sipri. I.' prove that the sending of a letter was no extraordinary or uncommon occurrence and suggest that a regular post of domestic life was at this time established in Babylonia. and despatches from one place to another. We may conjecture that the post was organized by the king who no doubt perceived tion in his communicathroughout Babylonia would effectively assist him that a system of design of consolidating his empire. The letters of Hammurabi and his successors which " have come down to us are written on small clay tablets' oblong in shape and measuring some two to three inches in breadth. xxi . were probably carried from or "messengers. length.

the name of the official or other person for When clay whom the document was intended. rapidly. is evident that they were written In order to keep his rows of characters level the scribe ruled with his stilus a lines across the tablet.e.. A good example of a private is letter envelope complete preserved in the British Museum.LETTERS AND ENVELOPES. that when found its envelope was unbroken seems to show that the letter for some reason was never sent or opened. 14. No king appears to have employed more than his letters one scribe for writing all and despatches.'°" °f '•>« of a cursive character.018. 1900. . The retain writing found upon early Babylonian letters ' . and forms a striking contrast verbose phraseology ' See Guide 1 to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities. The to the style of composition employed in the letters is somewhat brief and abrupt. for of Hammurabi's letters are in the same bold hand. was delivered its recipient broke the envelope and usually threw it away but in the letter . i. whilst those of Abesu' are in a rather smaller but quite distinctive character. where it bears the number 93. London.^ The fact. some its tablets small pieces of the envelope still adhere with ~ to the letter. number of horizontal and when writing he impressed the heads of his characters upon the ruled line above them. XXIII written the address. is writing and style of comp°=''. p. and though in many of the signs some degree the complicated forms of it the Sumerian period.

A king. ! and of course the gender and number of the pronominal suffixes . in paying empty compliments to his sub- To the same reason may each letter. of their Ainarna letters compared. make thee prosperous) !^ I have Marduk greet thee. : The "" blessing read '"' li-ba-al-li-tu-ka. and M.^ All such ' Samas and Marduk are the shortest formute for deities most commonly invoked. This _ may be _ explained by the fact that they are not diplomatic communications but the subordinate officers letters kings to their containing commands or requests for information. for ever (or. written to i. Epistolary formulae. and even deities in private letters of this earlier period the writer usually begins his by invoking the blessings of two upon correspondent at greater or lesser length. " May S. naturally. through my name) grant thee life " To these blessings are sometimes added one or more of the ! following phrases ri-es-ka : lu sa-al-ma-ta (or ri-es lu ha-al-ta-ta ilu na-si-ir-ka a-na da-mi-ik-tim da-mi-ik-ti-ka) li-ki-il a-nd su-ul-mi-ka as-pu-ra-am su-lum-ka ma-har ''"Samas u '"'Marduk lu da-ri. also be ascribed the absence of greetings and formulae of blessing at the beginning of In the Tell el-Amarna taken the tablets a considerable portion of each letter is up with these preliminary compliments before substance of the letter is reached.e. " May Samas and Marduk u "" Marduk grant thee life " or Saj}ias ! Samas u '"' Marduk da-ri-is u-mi (or ina su-mi-ia) li-ba-al-li-tu-ka. uphold the ! head of thy prosperity. wasted no time ordinates. The Tell el- of the _ letters from Tell el-Amarna. May thy well-being before Samas and endure " Minor variants to these formulas are common. " Mayest thou be well and live May the god who protecteth thee uphold thy head for prosperity (or.XXIV INTRODUCTION.

or Samas and " Ai. (4. change." or belika u btltika. XXV phrases are absent from the royal letters which begfin ^ ^ with the bare formula containing the name of the man ^ _ Epistolary formulae. formulae of blessing upon private letters. (3) The " say. or Samas and Asur." Samas and in Marduk are the gods most frequently the oath -formulae upon contract . the writer sometimes invokes Samas alone. mentioned by name. whether the letter is from one or from a number of correspondents (2) The form of the permansive of ." or Samas and in other letters no deities are Bel. addressed and that of the sender of the letter. or kaba. we should expect the plural kibuma when the letter is from two or more people as a matter of fact the form kibi is invariably found... however. elsewhere found is not hibihxA kabi. especially in introducing quotations from previous letters or reports. . but invocations are made to beli u belli. has to say to A. s. and the In the reigning king is there generally associated with them." is found in letters of this kibi. the bride.. which is . "thy god and thy .— DIFFERENT STYLES OF GREETING. Thus saith then follows what B. .tablets. in the sense of imperative period followed by the enclitic ma introducing direct speech kibn. . " be ^ . " Unto A. .. the reigning king is but very rarely associated with them such an invocation invoked . goddess. -ma occurs elsewhere in letters.) The elision of the verb in the second phrase umma . has possibly descended from a time letters The phrase when verbal in messages and not written were vogue. That is. The the formula which was in general use at this time was also employed el - during the period in which Tell Amarna : rendered thus — letters were written. say. "my god and my goddess. ' ki-bi-ma um-ma -ma. and may B... : (i) \i kibi ^%x& a permansive. of the imperative may be taken as certain for the following reasons . ^ In place of Samas and Marduk. a-na That kibi is not a permansive form but the 2nd m. etc. would probably only have been employed by a high officer of state. .

. pp. to at the head of each letter without Each letter begins " Unto SinThus saith Hammurabi. are addressed to the same man. . When the written letter took the place of the spoken message we may suppose that the old formula was Hammurabi's correspondent. With some such words a man would begin a communication to a messenger whose duty it was to store the words in his memory and deliver them by word of mouth. p. XLIII." and in seeking determine the position held by Sin-idinnam we are entirely dependent on the internal evidence furnished by the letters themselves. All the letters of ^ - Hammurabi here published . . 1 14 ff. in which three out of the eight oflScials summoned to Babylon are from Larsam or its * neighbourhood. bourhood ^ . XLII. No. ^ . XXVI INTRODUCTION. The fact that he should have carried on a correspondence with the king in itself proves that his position was one of great im- portance. 90 f. also No. whether they are dwelling in Larsam or in its neighwhich point to the Babylonia as the centre of his authority. 8g cf. . still retained. a certam bin-idmnam. . p. . in announcing the despatch of certain orders that half of workmen Hammurabi . them are to ' No. ^ . in one letter Hammurabi writes to him to send a certain man of the city of Larsam into his presence in another he orders him to despatch two men to him. letters and there are several city of indications in the Larsam in southern For instance. idinnam say. LV.. sin-idinnam. whose name occurs a title of any sort.

vol. i. by whom. after the defeat of Rim-sin. he was established on the throne of Larsam as a vassal prince. ff.* little is Very known about this ruler. pp. and that he restored a temple of Nannar. From one of the in- several copies of which are found on bricks now in the British Museum. tion. No. XXVII be set to labour with the workmen of Larsam ^ . 8z. the temple of the Sun-god. as from two of his to us. See See XXXVII. i. and in another he orders Sin-idinnam to deliver certain workmen of Larsam into the to hands of an overseer take charge of them. xx. Asia. we gather that he also rebuilt E-babbar. the Moon-god.^ fairly whom From he had despatched such indications it may Sin-idinnam was a high the governor of the It official in be assumed that Larsam and probably city. p. and we might assume that he was a contemporary of Hammurabi. p.SIN-IDIN nam's position. 301 . West. ' may be urged the fact that ' ' * No. S. would be tempting to identify Hammurabi's sin-idinnam's correspondent with the Sin-idinnam who. pi. Delitzsch. king of Larsam. from his other inscrip- found upon a clay cone. we learn that he cut a great canal for supplying his land with water. in the city of Ur ' . ruler also of the city of Ur. Cun. scriptions of this king. Beilmge zur Assyriologie. Against the identification of Hammurabi's correspondent with Sinidinnam. 8 1. Inscr.' XXXVI. No. inscriptions we know which have come down and was an early king of the city of Larsam.

. " ' No." a Hammurabi's of a ruler title which is perhaps hardly consistent with the dependent position occupied by the letters recipient of letters. p. is mentioned at the head of several of Abesu's letters his for Hammurabi addresses commands solely to Sin-idinnam. Extent of Sinidinnam s jurisdiction. Moreover. f. correspondence between two It is hardly likely that Sin-idinnam was a vassal j j king. XXIX.^ Ur too was also under his control. while the Sinwith idinnam of Abesu's letters is usually associated the judges of Sippar. p. 96 67. .' and in another letter he is ordered to see to the repair of a canal in that city of city. XLVII. he is rebuked by Hammurabi for sending certain men The find of Erech before him. for letters tended beyond the limits of the city in which he Erech was probably within his jurisdiction. but he certainly occupied a higher position than his namesake of Sippar who .XXVIII INTRODUCTION.' and ordering him to keep clear the channel of the Euphrates between Larsam and ' No.6 No. Hammurabi's his officers are those to one of rather than part of a closely allied kings. the Sin-idinnam of enjoyed an authority which ex- Hammurabi's dwelt. p. the latter styles himself on both of his inscriptions " king of Sumer and Akkad. for we Hammurabi entrusting him with the arrangefor ments the transport of troops stationed in the neigbourhood of Ur. f. VI.

^ It would therefore appear that. Gferai characier of Speaking generally Hammurabi's letters and those o o J of the other kings of Babylon here published throw g™"'"''''''^ more light on the internal administration of Babylonia in during the period which they were written than on This naturally historical events. . is the case inasmuch as they are addressed to governors of Babylonian cities and other high true that civil officials and not to generals or allied in the field It is nor to the heads of friendly at states. or Unabum.^ but the references to military matters in the other letters are •' References to military affairs.MILITARY AFFAIRS. least one of military Hammurabi's despatch. not numerous. 29 f. stationed in In one letter the we hear of certain troops neighbourhood of In No. i8 f. 3 ff. another ' No. pp. ' See preceding page.. but this who had does not prove that Nippur was within his jurisdiction. XII. his authority cities of was acknowledged in the neighbouring Erech and Ur and probably extended over tract in the \j a considerable '^ extreme south of Babylonia. p. VII. Sin-idinnam is ordered restored to a native of Nippur. as tion of " it letters may be termed a gives directions concerning the destina- two hundred and forty men of the King's Company " who have departed from Assyria. while Sin- idinnam was normally the ruler or governor of Larsam. such as the capture of cities or the prosecution of military campaigns. may have lain in its neighbourhood. 3. n. where the corn had been stored. The man taken the corn may have been a native of Larsam. to see that certain corn p. I. ' No. XXIX Ur. is Ur ' .

p. Ill. 10 f. p. a body of troops under Inuhsamar's command escorted the same goddesses from Babylon to the frontier. II.XXX INTRODUCTION. which deal with the capture of the ' Elamite goddesses and their return to their native letters The two shrines are the only ones of the series that can be affairs. regarded as referring to foreign probably written by " Chronicle " that They were the Hammurabi was at before the thirtieth or thirty-first year of his reign. for it we know from this about to time that he close. finally.' clear that for some period of his life Sin-idinnam took the field at the head of a Babylonian army. n.. and cf. and. 236 f.* brought the war with ' Elam f. 66. but the majority of Hammurabi's letters which have been recovered were written to him during times of peace when he was dwelling in Larsam and acting as governor of that rounding districts. Sin-idinnam is ordered to inflict a blow upon the Elamites with the troops under his command It is before restoring the goddesses to their shrines. to the Babylonian forces off to a body of troops was to be told a campaign escort to Babylon certain Elamite goddesses spoil which had been taken as in ^ . 58 No. . contains directions for the supply of raiment and for oil certain men who may have belonged ^ . No. pp. XXV. a successful " ' * No. 6 ff. city and administrator of the sur- The goddesses from Elatn. p. See below.

pp. 7 priests of the Elamite god Eria. Samua and Samai. iii (i). fugitives . were assisted by Nebuchadnezzar I. See Meissner.. pomp than was accorded by Samsu-iluna to the native Babylonian goddess Annunitum when he a journey to sacrifice arranged that she should undertake Sippar-edina*" . iv. XXXI These two letters have already been discussed at some I. even when captured from pe ^vorship of * foreign deities. ' ' See p.FOREIGN AFFAIRS. p. Perhaps the most interesting point which they fact illustrate is the that foreign 'J race. 259 f. Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. and Schrader's Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. ff. when from their country. who invaded Elam on their behalf. 172 f. His action finds an interesting parallel in the favour shown by Nebuchadnezzar I to an Elamite priest and his son during their sojourn in Babylonia. deities. sheep were to be supplied for before the goddesses upon the journey. and it will not be necessary to go over the same ground again. the in Hammurabi gave to that Elamite goddesses were be conveyed "as with no less a shrine" to Babylon.' length in the introduction to Vol. I. to a hostile as were treated by the Babylonians with much respect as was paid by them their own in- native gods structions and goddesses. 1 1 XXXVI f. By such acts of worship Hammurabi no doubt hoped to secure the favour of the goddesses. and they were to be attended by their own temple-women or priestesses.' ' Vol. p. He afterwards settled the two priests and their god in Babylonia and assigned them revenues from certain lands. that is to say.

^ titles which they gave to the years of these From gather that not only were they constantly building or rebuilding temples for the gods.^ From his letters too we see that in smaller matters Hammurabi displayed the same care for the interests of their worship. ippalzam.revenues and received the reports the herdsmen . for there is abundant evidence that of he superintended the collection of the temple. .XXXII INTRODUCTION. 19 f. See p. Care for the worship of the gods. discussed. was chief of the temple-bakers. fostermg the worship ot the is r i principal Babylonian deities perhaps most strikingly their seen in the reigns. and Hammurabi had entrusted him ' The titles the Chronicle (see below). and on one occasion he postponed the hearing of a case at law concerning the disputed possession of certain land because it would have Ili- interfered with the holding of a festival at Ur. the plaintiff in the suit.' Hammurabi also cared for the due observance of religious rites and ceremonies. i • of the First Dynasty m we . . in describing is more fully For references. but they also beautified their shrines by making costly crowns and thrones and images in their honour. and while shepherds attached to the service of the gods one of the letters of his son Samsu-iluna contains for the store- directions for the prompt supply of corn house of the temple of Samas. ' ' were employed for dating documents this system of dating cf. 1 the Index. The carc showii by Hammurabi " and the other kings .

* . and he directed them to send a * ^ ' See pp. for "soothsayers. to the who had one of them stated to have belonged company of soothsayers. and received reports from the chief priests dbn^&fimg members of their own class. No.* is The duty of the by a letter of Ammiditana to three officials who were probably connected with the city of Sippar. ii4fF.PRIESTS AND SOOTHSAYERS.guild of The priesthood o and the guild . LV. pp. Abesu' quotes from a report wi^Pl he had received from Sin-musalim." were an importantbody at this period. Ammiditana wrote baru. IX. XXXIII with superintending certain offerings in the city q){ Ur. No. The making of As the hearing of his case would have interfered with of this duty the performance Hammurabi 'arranged that the trial should. or .^ T\i& baruti.be postponed. Abesu'.* and in another letter officials is ordering the arrest of eight to their duties. 1 2 f. p. In one of his lexers. concerning a priest also priest of the of Annunitum of Sippar-amnanu who was ' one of of'somh- the ^ patesi of Annunitum. 42 if. the durmahu or chief goddess Annunitum. or soothsayer. and were also under the king's Hammurabi makes mention an official of one of them who was not gone of the Palace Gate.fdirect control. well illustrated to inform them that there was a scarcity of corn in the city of Sagga. 1 f.^ In addition to collecting the temple-revenues. the king at this period exercised an active control over the priesthoocy^lf. 147 See p. for instance.

" order that the corn might be brought into It is Sagga under favourable omens. Campbell Thompson. which was probably the hands of the priesthood. different During the period of the the later Assyrian kings the astronomers and astrologers parts in of country sent to the king regular reports of their observations. In any case we know that the king regulated the calendar.XXXIV INTRODUCTION. hence the necessity for in carefully observing the omens order that the measures they were taking should not bring about further disaster. they were to control the soothsayers who were under in Observation of omens. ' ' and . their "divine the future. several hundreds of which have come down to us ^ . was also on under the control of the king. London. and it was probably on the advice of his astronomers that he inserted intercalary months when necessary. 157 if. That See pp. The carried the^cakndar"'^ practice of astrology in and astronomy. supply to make up the deficiency.^ not improbable that ^ the scarcity of corn was attributed to the anger of some local deity or spirit . The Reports of the Magicians Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. and although we do not possess any similar documents of the period of the First Dynasty it is not improbable that such were sent to the king from time to time. 1900. But before bringing let the corn into the city. and the Calendar was doubtless regulated by the royal astrono- mers in Babylon. See R.

e. (9) KAN-KAN-UD-DU.g.''" NINNI. i. XXXV the king undertook this duty we know from one of Hammurabi's he wrote " letters/ in which he informs Sin-idinnam . West. loth. (4) '"•*"5u-KUL-A. APIN-GAB-A. pi. let the month which (now) beginning There is evidence that at this period both a second Adar and a second Nisan were also inserted as intercalary months. and nth. (10) '»'*" .^ and it is probable that when one was to be inserted the king wrote to the governors of the principal inform them of the intended alteration in cities to be registered as a second Elul. of his intention to insert a second Elul in the calendar : insertion of intercalary " Since the year (i. 11. 29. other names written syllabically are sometimes met with.e. 6th.' ' No. 12 f. 9th. ""*" for the months at this period bar-zag-gar. (8) (7) (i) The ideograms commonly used AB-UD-DU. (14) "'*" KIN-''" NINNI-II-KAM-MA. Nos. Asia.THE BABYLONIAN CALENDAR. " a deficiency. are: "'•*" KIN . »''*" "''*" "•*" DUL-AZAG. the 3rd. See p. 1-13. vol. for other forms "''*" kin-ninni and "*" kin-an-na for the are sometimes found. later periods of Babylonian and Assyrian history by their side. (iz) "*" SI-KIN-KUD. v. offer slight variants.e. ' ' p. and (15) "''*" BARIt will be noted that the ideograms for ZAG-GAR-ii-KAM-MA. IV. (2) "'*" gud-si-di. months. probable that the majority of them corresponded to the names employed in the . the calendar) hath is months. i. though the ideograms for six of the The ideograms 4th. The names written of the months at this period are usually It is ideographically. (6) (s) '"*"NE-NE-GAR. (ll)'"'*"AS-A. (3) "*" murgu-a. Inscr. 13." the calendar. n. however. No. i. given in the above list are not invariably met with. 1-13 correspond in the main with the list of ideograms of the months given in Cun. (l 3) ""*" DIRSI-KIN-KUD.

Elul). 707. 80) "'*" Ti-ru-um (Bu. 91-5-9. and '"'^" . 181).Babylonian periods. 47S). It should be noted. 60s and 1081) and as \_^''i'"]E-lu-lu (Bu. . "•''-"• Sa-du-iim. Si-bu-ti {Bn.A. p. '"'^" names are found written syllabically as follows E-lu-nim (Bu. 91-5-9. '"'^" A-ia-ri UD-DU-A. Dur-abi.K. ru-um (Bu. Since the ideograms in use at this Privairecht. 151 Bu. '"*"kan-kan•""*" month. 707 probably reads '"''>" E-lu-nu-um. however. cf. 1.g. for it occurs written syllabically as "'''" E-lu-li (Bu.M. 88-5-12. v. '"'^" A-iaA-ia-rum (V. and 933. 2515). Rabutu.. Kinunu. 49 and 58). that the 6th month at this time was not named Ululu but Elulu (which resembles more nearly the form borrowed by the Hebrews. . W. 1468. those employed in the later periods ^are found. 804. Altbab. p.A. 907). "'"' Zi-bu-tim (V. 91-5-9. works are those which deal with the repair and cleaning out of the canals of canals Almost every king of the First Dynasty extended the system which he had inherited. fan'Sl'^"' Among to public letters which may be regarded as referring in Babylonia. the months Elunu. Nabru. 43 and Bu. : «'•*" 2498.Th.Th. .A. . Sibutu. 88-5-12. 374). e. 91-5-9. v. "'<"' E-lu-nu-um (Bu. 1. Tint. . 711 and Bu.M. Nos. 782. 88-5-12.K. found written as "''*"''" dumu-zi and '"*"dumu-zi upon V. 1020) "'i'" Na-ab-ri {Bn. and the great 6th month. 91-5-9. and V. V.. period correspond in the main to those employed in abbreviated forms in the Assyrian and Neo. 1104. 88-5-12. Alihabylonisches 33. A-ta-ri-im (Bu. W. 91-S-9. 16 (see Meissner. Humtu. names for the months other than •"'"" (Bu. not Su-lu-nu-um as Meissner. Sandulu or Saddutu. In support of this view the fact may be cited that the 2nd month is found written syllabically as Airu. 318). 1 .Z. '"'>" Sa-an-du-tim. "''*" gis-apin-gab-a for the 8th month.A. Dur-Rammanu. I go). "''^" Ti-ri-im (Bu. while the 4th month is 91-5-9. 410). and Sepi\_ These ]. 1026. W. Moreover. 636)... p.Th.g.M. 2486) "-i^" Ki-nu-nu (Bu.Th.A. 91-5-9. "'>" Sa"'i^" ad-du-iim (V. . cf. Meissner. it is not unreasonable to assume that the names for the months also corresponded. cf. 990.— XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 2477).Z. 9"-5-9.Th. 91-5-9.A. "'*" KAN-UD-DU-A and KAN-KAN for the gth ""^''AB-UD-DU-A for the loth month.K.Th. 9'-S-9. e.Z. Meissner.

p.K. •"»" 8. i. 83 f. 106). Pnz.. 180) and a'-*" Of the above names the su-GAR-Gi-NA (Bu.18. cf. 88-5-12. 13. 61) mention may also be made of the names '"'^"si-a-ga (Bu. 88-5-12. Journal asiatique.Th. ff. 14 f. vol. 88-5-iz. the "Bellino History 0/ Sennacherib. 938).. ^ 2 See the Chronicle. Nos. "'»" Ra-hu-tim ( ZAG-GAR on outer case. 9me s6r. Dur-Rammanu (Bu. v. W.Z. p. . THE SYSTEM OF CANALS.' The draining of the marshes of the Babylonian plain in the neighbourhood of the rivers and the irrigation of the outlying districts could only be adequately carried out by a careful and continuous supervision of the canals and water-ways. p.. 3.A. p. and V. 17. pp.Z. v.K.. vii (i8g6). 214 No..Th. summon of the canal and from this letter it may be inferred that the inhabitants of each village on or near a canal were held responsible for keeping their section of the and p. under the form "'*" Hi-bu-ti. 339 If. month Sibutu.. For the ideograms employed for 12). V.. Cylinder" of Sennacherib (see George Smith. V. 88-5-12. and Revue d'' assyriologie.Th. a-bi [or ga\ (Bu. 700. during the Second Dynasty of Ur and at the time of Sargon I.M. "'*">S^«-/"-[ ] (Bu. and it is interesting to find that instructions Hammurabi gave very In one of his definite letters on this point. W.. '"'•' Bu. 1051). = «'*'' bar181) p.. "'>>•' DurHu-um-tum (V. pp. Pnv. • • Meissner. the months in periods previous to the First Dynasty of Babylon. ^//3a3. 24.A. cf. 646 f. iv. 91-5-9. p. 135).e. 844. XXXVII importance in which this work was held is attested Repair of '^'^ by the number of years which take their titles from the construction of new canals. occurs in the date on ..M. see Thureau Dangin. 273). " the men he orders Sin-idinnam to " who hold lands along the banks of the Damanum" canal " in order that they should clear out the bed ^ .A.. 91-5-9. of.

i8 f. boats unable to enter the city that the obstruction is yammurabi days. The sudden is such a flood on the Irnina-canal in graphically described king's palace one of Abesu's letters. consequence. the building operations were stopped by the inundation. . Abesu'.XXXVIII INTRODUCTION.' The was being built in the city Kar-Irnina on the banks of and one year." Damage from flood. in . authorities wrote to the king reporting that the flood had come. I. which had become choked. p. canal in good order. when little more than a third of the year's work had been accomplished. The were process of dredging out the canal had not been carried out thoroughly. and. No. and that the waters of the Irnina-canal had risen to the wall ' of the town. p. VI. as is the case in certain parts of India and Egypt at the present day. that and we learn from the " Chronicle " disastrous floods took place in the twenty-sixth and thirty-eighth rise of years of Hammurabi's reign. pp. gives orders to be removed and the work In completed dealing within three another letter with the repair of water-ways Hammurabi gives directions for the clearing out of a portion of the stream of the Euphrates. 130 ff. and the this canal. In spite of the care expended on irrigation damage from flood during the winter rains was not infrequent. The duty of » ' No. No. i6 f. VII. Another letter^ refers to the clearing out of a canal at Erech.

The 1 their duty to repair. 121 ff. . m • T rsabylonia. deal with • the adminis- mmistration oi justice ^ . ^ while the fact that Hammurabi sup- ported a merchant's claim against a sakkanakku. pp. of Hammurabi's letters . XXXIX making good any damage as to the banks of the canals. fell to the lot of the inhabitants of villages far upon light their banks. and the work was doubtless Samsu-iluna ' but a letter of seems to show that the villagers received some compensation of their it Preservation of for their labour by the strict preservation fishing-rights in the rivers and canals which was ad. he immediately forwarded the report to Sin- idinnam with instructions that he should investigate the affair and send the guilty parties to Babylon for " ^''^' punishment . but also over the decisions of the courts in the other great It Babylonian cities. No. Many . . an impartial judge who would tolerate no corruption on the part of his subordinate When a case of bribery was reported to have taken place in the city of Dursuppression of gurgurri. No. letters Hammurabi appears officials. very active supervision which he exercised not only over cases tried at Babylon. or ' 2 Samsu-iluna. .FLOODS ON THE CANALS. . and mdicate the T-> 1 1 1 • tration of justice. 20 Ill. pp. it and from Hammurabi's correspondence In his would seem that as such appeals were always treated with consideration. if. VllI. appears that it was possible for any private citizen to make a direct appeal to the king for justice. we have from seen.

" governor. forwarded he left entirely Somc claim to of the disputcs brought before the king arose from the extortions of money-lenders. 23 flF.' In another letter he summons a moneylender to Babylon for punishment. IX. as he had refused he should " No. . may be to assumed that the king himself tried the majority of cases that were brought before him. the who had lands laid possession of certain which partly to they had received in pledge as security for seed-corn advanced by them. pp. disputes In settling between men who lived at a distance from if the capital such a course would be inconvenient. The local courts attached to the temples were competent to decide the majority of cases and to deal with the ' ordinary legal business of the day altbahylonischen Privatrecht." Extortigns of money-lenders. and took steps see that his judgment was carried out." for the repayment of a loan ^ proves that It the king was no respecter of persons.XL INTRODUCTION. p. and then forwarded the matter find that the alleged injustice Sin-idinnam with instructions to punish the money- had been done. 5 2 f. . XIII. impossible. 31 f. not and in these cases Hammurabi communidistrict in trial cated his decision to the governor of the which the disputants dwelt . It is p.. see Meissner. Beitriige zum No. probable that the king in Babylon and the governors of the principal cities confined their attention as a rule to the trial of cases of appeal. One such case Hammurabi examined lender if himself. the of to some cases the local which he governors.

No. ' in another he orders Sin-idinnam to see of corn . p. 28.jj. X. its crop. although the mortgage had been redeemed. f. p. XVII. 26 f. p. restore it to its rightful owner. to Sin-idinnam of the punish- ment which he desired should be inflicted on the man who should be he bids Sin-idinnam deliver "judgment according Other to the yoke. pp. . 33 ff. the guilty party should be put to hard labour in the king's service. 38 f. claim to the property was fully proved.' On another occasion he informs Sin-idinnam of the award he has given in a dispute concerning the ownership of certain land.1/-1 Disputes concerning land whose and com.^ letters merely direct the transfer of a case to Babylon. xm. No..' when forwarding a case Hammurabi states the nature found guilty . p. 29 f.ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. p. XLI mortgaged property. to part with certain Didamg rum . . No. p. . 31 XIV. No." that is to say. for trial. . 40 f. XII.' or the postponement ' ^ = * ' « ' No. XVI. .. In one letter Hammurabi forwards which a a case to Sin-idinnam for trial in man comfrom his with the plained that certain corn had been stolen granary that .'' Other cases the disputed brought before Hammurabi refer to ownership of corn. No. No.* is a loan repaid together interest thereon while in a third letter he settles a protracted dispute concerning the rent of certain land to be paid out of the corn which formed In one instance. XI.

See p. and is probably in of the letters of this connection that many Hammurabi which summon men to Babylon are instance. . 150 fF. Ill.* for Sin-idinnam told send certain men separately to Babylon.'' not get justice done them in Sippar. XI. pp.' in the course of administering was frequently necessary to summon to the it court the witnesses or other parties implicated in a suit. for when two men appealed to Abesu' stating that they could of their case at Babylon.. Abesu'.. XLI. is In to No. p. the king im- mediately ordered the trial From another their of Abesu's letters we gather that not only private citizens but judges themselves king. judges of Sippar-iahrurum and the central court of Sippar.XLII INTRODUCTION. 42 ff. It will It for further information. the former body appealed to to who forwarded be obvious that their complaint Sippar and asked The summoning of witnesses and others. justice .. Abesu'.^ example as an impartial administrator of the law was of followed by his successors on the throne.. pp. No. for made complaints to the local during a quarrel between the the king. No. to be explained. 13s f. 87 f. XVIII. which simply give the names and descriptions of ' men ' ' ' No. There is evidence that Hammurabi's its trial. and that the king's object in giving the order was to prevent collusion other letters of Hammurabi . which may perhaps be explained by supposing that the men were required as witnesses in a case.

is clear that the king exacted certain revenue from the various provinces of his empire. It •^ . 92 f. 90 f. of So. 89. Another subject dealt with in the letters in this volume is the collection of revenue and tribute. them gone to Babylon.ADk««STRATION OF JUSTICE. and contam directions to Sin-idinnam to place the men under guard and send 1 . ii+ff.^ The two in officials who had summoned from Larsam No. pp. pp. XLIIP for probably incurred the king's wrath. to the in urgent summons Enubi-Marduk Babylon No. LlII and LIV. 94 f. orders for arrest. . insubordinate and disobeyed the king's orders. XLII. he gives directions to prevent their escape. XLIII whom are he desires in to be sent to him at Babylon may- be explained the same way. or in he might answer some charge which had been Three of Hammurabi's letters brouPfht against him. XLIV. man in whom he had confidence.^ In the other two letters.. . '^ ° order the arrest of certain men. pp. See p. LV. Hammurabi is to their posts. the offence committed by the officials and others to be arrested is not stated. One of the letters orders the arrest of eight officials who. "have not who have proved adds. Nos." that to say. and that the • " ' * = Nos. and orders Sin- idinnam to send them to Babylon a in the company of too. See p. and XLV. No. XLVP was probably sent in consequence of order some that offence which he had committed.IT The collection of revenue. . no ff.' however.

for Hammurabi will out that the change in the calendar will not affect the day on which the tribute is become due. 49 ff. p. XIX.XLIV INTRODUCTION. ' » * See pp. and we find a letter to Sin-idinnam. In one of his refers for instance. No. 45 fr. collect his full deficit himself. collection. therefore. pp. Hammurabi to • to certain tribute . 12 f. interesting to note that if a revenue-collector was. that collectors to should have been anxious avoid returning Babylon.^ and Templerevenues. some reason or other.' not surprising. object rii of the letter month shows paid by Larsam • the king. . king also There abundant the evidence that the controlled the collection of the revenues of the great temples. Tribute from the great cities. IV. No. pp. 74 and 76. but it incidentally that the tribute from Larsam points was paid actual at regular intervals. governors of cities and other its local authorities were held responsible for letters. 2. n. unable to he was forced to make up the Thus we find yammurabi forwarding a complaint from a revenue-collector to Sin-idinnam who had been in prevented districts from collecting the revenue " certain but from whom It is " the palace had exacted to the the full amount.^ c^• The main i is is to inform bin-idinnam that to r i- an intercalary be inserted in the calendar.* urgently ' Hammurabi. for dues. in summoning to his No. XXI.. collectors of both secular and It religious tribute alike is made their reports to him.

forthwith. bidding them to pay the tribute due it . placed over each of the chief revenue departments. One of Abesu's letters. seed. p. From these it would seem that a certain official styled the musaddinu. VI. couched if with the additional threat that the tribute is not sent they will be fined. they had put off their journey after collection of "" ^ harvest! and now that the harvest was passed they had failed to carry out their promise.COLLECTION OF REVENUE." was Assessors of revenue.^ ' A letter of Ammiditana dealing ' Abesu'. written in con- sequence of a report from the musaddin buhade. p." is addressed to a high to and bids him send at once Babylon the young oxen that are due as tribute ^ official in Sippar. VII. XLV presence two collectors who had excused themselves capital. The duty of these two collectors was to gather the tax on sesame- and they would in any case be due to arrive in Babylon after the harvest with the revenue which they had collected. and another of Abesu's of Sippar-amnanu. No. Several of Abesu's letters also throw light on the methods of collecting revenue at this period. and was his duty to report to the king any deficit that might occur in the revenue-accounts under his control the king would then write to the officials concerned with the deficit. is letters. " the assessor of the flocks and herds. AbSsu'. written to the officials in similar terms. . from coming to the When previously till summoned harvest. No. . 143 f. "collector" or "assessor. that is. 141 f.

and bids them send a certain merchant to Sippar that he might pay the tax that was due from him ^ and on another occasion the same king wrote to the merchants of Sippar ordering them to hand over certain tribute . No. The royal The king and tax-collector could herds. Abesu'. II. in the for and the instance principal temples of the land possessed great wealth shape of flocks and herds. entirely dependent revenues on what the wring from the unwilling farmer both the king himself and merchant.' The class is of letters dealing with the collection of tribute large one. p. 153 f. In the first these were doubtless derived from taxation.XLVI INTRODUCTION. a relatively and this fact suggests that the payment of taxes Babylonians than was no more popular among the ancient among the subjects of His Majesty the priesthood. 139 f. to were unable to and he also directed that if they obtain it the defaulting merchants were be sent into his presence.' One of Abesu's letters is addressed to the authorities of Kar-Samas. » ' Abesu'. however. p. i6o f. ' Ammiditana. with tribute that is overdue. No. No. and they were being constantly increased from the same source. were not for their the Sultan at the present day. was also written in consequence of a report which the king had received from an assessor of tribute. V. which was owing. " Abesu' directed that the merchants " who are rulers of the district should see that the tribute was paid. . p. XII.

wherein we read that the king to commands forty-seven shepherds come to Babylon for this purpose. in The flocks in charge of the shepherds mentioned this letter are arranged in separate groups under chief. XXXI. 70 p. which would naturally afford good pasturage. cities The governors of the larger were probably responsible for the flocks and herds which were pastured within their districts. they other letters he summons in ^ the shepherds and herdsmen themselves to Babylon that may render their accounts to him is person . The sheep and cattle were placed in charge of a large body of shepherds and herdsmen. an The audit of instance of this found in No. XXX. 68 f. This was not the only control which for in king exercised over the revenue derived from his flocks and herds. order that they to may accompany Sin-idinnam when he goes make his inspection of the cattle that were under his charge.shepherds. for in one of his letters Hammurabi informs Sin-idinnam that he in is despatching certain of his officials to Larsam Arrangements spection." INSPECTION OF FLOCKS AND HERDS. and many of them are distributed along the banks of rivers and canals. It is interesting to note that several of ' ^ No.^ appointing these receive from officials and sheep Hammurabi's object in was doubtless that he might the them an independent report. XLVII but they yielded a considerable revenue themselves. and were distributed throughout the country. See pp. ff. .

75 f.^ and two others of though very broken.' The primitive conditions of life at this period and the pastoral pursuits in which the king engaged are still more clearly indicated in the series of five letters of Ammizaduga. give directions to Sin-idinnam concerning cattle and sheep. p.^ That the king took an active is interest in pastoral pursuits in clear letter which he bids Sin-idinnam appoint additional sheephis letters. that accounts to him.XLVIII INTRODUCTION. * . 77 f. e. god Ningirsu oflthe the goddess Nina of the city of Nina." together with certain overseers of cattle. No. XXX III. XXXII. XXXIV and XXXV. p. shearers to assist certain shepherds in his employ. Nos. ' ' ' No. etc. . to the to the fact Sun-god of the that the royal and the city of Larsam.g. and the priestly herds are not clearly separated from each other.* They consist of summonses to attend the sheep-shearing at Babylon. same is chief - shepherd. 79 f. See below. In each letter it is in different years. collection of the temple revenues It shows that the was under the king's in accordance with this fact that in another letter " the Hammurabi summons from Larsam he might render his from another shepherd of the temple of Samas. city of Girsu. but are frequently placed under control. and they were sent out The sheepshearing at Babylon. Shepherds in the shepherds are described as attached to the service of different deities. to the service of the temples. 162 flf. p. pp. inasmuch as four out of the five are written to the same man..

THE SHEEP-SHEARING. Sin- idinnam is told to put the matter in the hands of " trustworthy men. but only vigorous trunks. letters refer to the regulasupplies of seed.^ On another occasion Ham- murabi needed corn for Babylon. part in the nomadic people. and he therefore 1 » No. p. XXII. settled habitations. On one occasion he ordered Sinfor idinnam to make arrangements a supply of abbain Dur-gurgurri. . 'and corn. or " is to be held in the House is of the Feast of the New Year. XXIII. S2 fNo. 54 f.' In another letter he arranges for a supply of dates and sesame-seed which was needed at Babylon . XLIX Stated that the sheep-shearing bit akUi. which was more easily cut. wood for the use of the metal-workers In this letter Hammurabi goes it into details and gives are to the exact sizes into which the pieces of wood be cut forest for ." id the date given at which the his man addressed to arrive with Itke sheep at Babylon in order to It would seem that the sabylonians of the First Dynasty still retained usages "^nd customs which had come down to them from a time when they were essentially a pastoral and festival. in had been supplying him with to he orders that they are not send dead wood.'' who are to collect the necessary to the king's agent for supplies and hand them over transport to the capital. and is evident that his woodcutters in the inferior material. p. and had no Several of Hammurabi's tion of supplies.

3. ' and in the concerning the dates and sesame-seed the verb used for "loading" implies that the produce was to be loaded into barges. f. Abesu'. gave instructions that a supply of corn in a certain Mar-Uru's charge was to be loaded up and sent to him. XIII. n. in addition to the two classes of ships ^ ' ' No. s6 f. XXIX. p. S3See See p. 67. p.^ Transport by W3. for The sizes of he arranges that a ship of sixty gur capacity is to be brought to Babylon to convey corn for the palace.* and Hammurabi makes mention of ships of ten gur® "• ships. 57. of the rivers and canals for conveying supplies in bulk by water. above was A to portion of the abda-viood be brought to Babylon "in a ship " ^ the corn in Mar-Uru's charge was to be loaded "into an empty ship letter and brought to Babylon . p. No. f. XXIV. IS5 No. 83 No. Seep. and there is evidence that.tcr. Thcse Ictters throw an interesting light on the method of transport commonly employed at this period. * » « ' p. and of seventy-five gur capacity. p.INTRODUCTION. for they prove that considerable use was made mentioned " . XXXVIII. 55.' This method of reckoning the size of ships or barges was doubtless based on the amount of grain measured by the gur which they were capable of carrying. .* size In one of Abesu's letters the is of a vessel required for transport specified.

66. pp. n.^ The extensive building operations undertaken by the kings of the First Dynasty necessitated the employment of large bodies of serfs and labourers.^ The transport by water was carefully regulated. XXVI. and one of his letters was evidently written when he wanted a large number of vessels in an emergency. LI mentioned above. and urgent. thirty. and duties it own Labour on ^" the is not surprising that ' some of Hammurabi's 84. and No. fifteen. forty. vessels of twenty. It is sixty. in This may be inferred from a letter which Hammurabi orders his orders Sin-idinnam to hand over certain crews of ships to Taribatum.' Hammurabi must have required five numerous vessels for the transport of his supplies. fifty. He of gives orders that the captains of ships under Sin-idinnam's control are to forthwith take all command .OLD BABYLONIAN SHIPS. i. responsible for in Taribatum's " to his district " that is to say. No. XXVII. . pp. 60 f. 4. 62 ff. n. p. and threatens that carried out he will if are not make Sin-idinnam . their is vessels and proceed to Babylon the summons at embark their crews to arrive at Babylon by a fixed date. addition he will have to arrange the transport for which Taribatum was usually responsible. and clear that gur were also employed. letters ' ' See below. for they are to once and Regulation of it is probable that officers were placed in charge of separate districts or sections of the rivers and canals for which they were held responsible.

' ' ' ' " p. LII INTRODUCTION. See above. and orders that they are not to be punished by being put to forced labour. xH. p. . "hard labour" was the penalty enforced by law for various offences. No.^ and four of Hammurabi's letters deal with appeals made to him on behalf of men of various classes and occupations who appear to have been handed over unjustly to the No. half of them to be employed at Larsam and half at Rahabu ' and in a third letter he gives instructions concerning the yoking together and the transport of slaves. p. 85. The lowest class of labourers were the public whose ranks were supplied from prisoners of war and also probably from men of the native population who had been condemned to slaves. XXXIX. No. XXXVIII.' Public slaves. p. various periods of hard labour in the king's service. That forced labour was employed as a punishment may be inferred from a letter of Hammurabi in which he deals with the case of certain men who had refused to do their work. No. 8i. p. and below. labourers from Larsam another he wrote when despatching three hundred and sixty labourers to Sinidinnam. XXXVII..* Moreover. p. 39. 83 f. relate to the transport of gangs of slaves and to the transfer of large bodies of to another. 82. workmen from one is place In one letter he states that he to take sending two officials over the charge of a gang of ^ . XXXVI.

who were frequently Private slaves.^ In addition to the there are 1 . p. regarded as members of their masters' households. from other kings of the First Dynasty. Ammiditana's son and successor.. -1 twenty -six letters Of Hammurabi these six Letters of other kings of the First Dynasty. These men were on a slaves of private far lower footing than the Babylonians. .. Abesu'. but was recaptured and for fifty-five letters of ordered by Abesu' to be brought back to Babylon. Samsu-iluna's son and . II. the strengthening of walls and fortifications and must have taxed the ingenuity of governors and other officials to supply the demand. ' The correspondence ff. and were treated with kindness and consideration. Hammurabi's son and successor thirteen by Abesu'. two by Ammiditana. 133 f.SLAVERY. 98 No. Abesu's son and and five by Ammizaduga. XL. XLVIII-LI. and the building of temples and palaces. p. To this latter class belonged the female slave of Hallu..' but it is probable that the great building operations of the time were carried out by means of the public slaves.. 86. successor .. pp. . It is true that in one of Hammurabi's letters we find the king making arrangements for the hire of labourers. LI 1. were written by Samsu-iluna.^ A great amount of and it labour must have been required for the cutting of newcanals. mcluded m this work . No. the town of some reason not stated.. escaped to Sippar-amnanu. who. thus extends ' ' Nos.1 directors of the public slaves. successor .

to whom Sin-idinnam gave instructions concerning the transport of an image of the goddess Annunitum. while the former. over five successive generations of the monarfchy. VI. Ab"|"°^ Larsam while Haiab[ ]. p. I. pp. ' = ' * * Ill. 117 f. was a high Sippar. probably a judge. 121 No. who is associated with him. 131. official. and the is Judges of Sippar not to be identified as the Sin-idinnam here mentioned with Hammurabi's corre- spondent. of letters ' Another of Samsu-iluna's letter. . ff. Nos. and the Judges of Sippar. the latter was governor of Larsam. is written to Sin-ilu. 128 f. Sin-idinnam. was probably the governor of the city in which the image of Annunitum happened to be at the time. n. i. ng f. but letters were all this is not the case with the letters of the other kings which have been found. p. and V. one^ to Ibni-Marduk. See p. IV. .* and in five of them we again come across a high official styled . No. like Ibni-Marduk. . Sin-idinnam. who. Letters of Of and Samsu-iluna's letters three ^ are written re-- "to >> Samsu-iluna.* With one exception Abesu's letters are addressed to officials of the city of Sippiar and its neighbourhood. to judge from were probably high officials the contents of the and superintended the district of . No. Bitu-rabi. II. the Babylonian addressed to Hammurabi's same correspondent. collection of revfenue in the . p. and Nik-Sin. Kar-Sippar.LIV INTRODUCTION.

and one to a man of whose name only [ . V. nor of the name of the city in which they dwelt. . ff. /• written to "the scribe of it the merchants of Sippar-iahrurum. f. one consists oi a royal letters resemble . Sin his other letter^ is - idinnam. See pp. Of the two letters other than royal ones which other correspondence.' to Ahatim. 157 See p. the son of Marduk-nasir. . the remaining Abesu' is written to certain to have been . I. . No. pp. the wife ' ' » of Sin-idinnam. p. LV Sin-idinnam. p. 1 . One Letters of of Ammiditana's letters^ . 139 No. . 160 f. ]-nasir has been preserved.LETTERS OF OTHER KINGS. ' * governor of No. Of Ammizaduga's . but the letters give no indication of their rank. further reference to them is needless. II.musalim. . written. These in style and subject-matter strongly Hammurabi's letters." and possible that r- Ammiditana. and were to Letters of Apil-Sin. addressed Amtnizaduga. is quite Marduk . . ofificials of the city of is • men who appear Kar-Samas. r are mcluded m the volume. . whom we may ^ well identify with Samsu- iluna's correspondent of that letter of name . to whom also officials living in Sippar or * its neighbourhood. letters four _ are Ibni-Sin. and as the more important of them have already been cited under the description of Hammurabi's letters. 162-167. 168. despatch from a certain Sin-idinnam to the President of the Court in the city of Kutalla summoning the party to a suit which he is a petition for and the other pardon addressed by two suppliants is trying.

a short description may be given of the general character of this document. but. 172 See pp. the term " Chronicle " as applied ' ^ ' See pp.^ it also gives a new edition of the "Chronicle of the Kings of the First Dynasty. as these themselves commemorate events. fF. The Chronicle of the kings of f he Chronicle .p.^ rabi Most of the successors inscriptions of Hammuand and of his are votive in character. In addition to the letters and his sue- volumc contains tions of translations of a collection of inscrip. it does not give a conof a list tinuous narrative of events. the construction of a granary.. ff. . °^ ^^^ term that to say. Martu. to already described the ." which furnishes valuable information concerning the principal events of their reigns.LVI INTRODUCTION. Before summarizing the events recorded in the " Chronicle. The principal facts which they record are cited in the following paragraphs." however. is not a chronicle in the strict sense is D\S:^'of Babyion. whom Hammurabi's Inscriptions of letters are addressed. and the like. and record the building and restoration of temples fortifications. the cutting of a canal. it and will be unnecessary to refer to them here in greater detail. Hammurabi and of other kings of the First Dynasty .^ It is not improbable that the former of these two officials bearing the is name of Sin-idinnam to be identified with the governor of Larsam. the titles It consists of given to the separate years during the period titles in of the First Dynasty. 169 See pp. 212 if. cessors.

The system of dating documents which was in vogue during the First Dynasty. and which the Semitic Babylonians had inherited from their Sumerian predecessors in the land. in an event one city which might seem of great importance might appear of but little moment in a district at some Thus it happened that the same distance from it. 16. event was not employed universally throughout the country for designating a particular year. 39. They did not reckon dates by the years of the reigning king. especially when the system had been use a considerable period. must have required a very good memory to grasp the exact period of a document by a mere reference to an event which took place during the year in which it was drawn in up. as did the later Babylonians. 2Z0. and when the number of events to be committed to memory had become formidable. but they cited each year by the Method of event of the greatest importance which took place ments at this period. and there is evidence that different systems of dating were in in different parts of the country. n. and 228 f. n.. the 13th year of Sumu-abu was in it described as " The year in which the city of Kasaliu . It is not difficult to understand that this unwieldy system should in ' See pp.^ it use In the second place. was not a very convenient one. . r o for instance. place.CHRONICLE OF THE FIRST DYNASTY." The disadvantages of such a system In the first of dating are obvious. was laid waste. LVII to the document is not a misnomer.

91-5-9. . but [ . and the only cause for surprise is that it should have been retained for so long. the scribes compiled the years. which is numbered Bu.LVIII INTRODUCTION. No. ' The text of this list. Apil-Sin. pt.924. Zabum. Mus. ' Possibly 166 years. Samsu-iluna. [XXXjVIII is possible. Lists of years. Abesu'. . 284. has been previously published in Cuneiform Texts. Sin-muballit. In the summary at the end of the tablet the number giving the years of Abesu's reign is broken and reads ]VIII this should probably be restored as [XXJVIII. and is of the lists titles of from two of such of these that the "Chronicle" here published and translated has been made up. In Order the more it readily to fix the date of ancient lists documents. vol. but it has been the means of furnishing us with considerable information concerning the history of the period which we should otherwise have been without. The first lists covers the reigns of Sumu-abu.' Together the two lists relate to list ^ is . Ammiditana. and extended over a period of some one hundred and fifty-six years. and the first ten years of Ammizaduga's reign. Sumula-ilu. course of time have been given up for the simpler method of reckoning by the years of the reigning king. ' Brit.. and Samsu-iluna. 16. Hammurabi. vi an English translation of it has been given by Professor Sayce in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaology. pp.^ The second when complete it more imperfect covered the reigns of yammurabi. and extends over a period of one hundred and eighty-three years. 11 ff. xxi. While it lasted it doubtless proved a source of annoyance and of some confusion to the scribes.

The events from which the years took their names are of a varied character." From Samsu-iluna's inscriptions we learn the names {2) Sumuia-iiu. n. Taking the kings in chronological order. 214. a temple to Nin-sinna in his 4th year a temple to Nannar. the wall of and in his 12th year he laid out a "plantation of the gods. ' Possibly referred to as " the wall of is Sumu-abu " . the Buiwins undertaken following are the principal buildings erected by them during their reigns : Sumu-abu built a wall or fortress in his . in his 5th year. LIX a period of some two hundred and fifty-eight years. supplemented by the facts obtained from a study of the votive inscriptions already to. the destruction and rebuilding of their walls. the founding and restoration of temples. and it furnishes glimpses of the history of military expeditions and of foreign invasions of Babylonia. .— BUILDING OPERATIONS. . consisting of the capture of cities. 3rd year . to which three years later he added a great door of cedar the city of Dilbat in his 9th year . etc. 5. the Chronicle thus forms a valuable source of information concerning the public works undertaken in Babylonia during this period. We may give a brief summary referred of such events. its Apart from use in settling the dates upon contract- tablets. the making of thrones and crowns for the gods. the Moon-god. the cutting of canals. in a tablet which dated by the destruction of this wall see p. ^ (i) sumu-abu. the setting up of royal and sacred images.

a temple to in his Ramman in his 7th year. and we now know from the Chronicle that the into decay since the time of implies that restoration of the former temple his 8th year. iii. vol. . Dur-padda. col. and also (4) Apii-sin.' and. i. See Cun. Inscr. the wall of Sippar 29th year. of six fortresses. was carried out in In his 9th and loth years work was is undertaken in a temple the name of which broken. 11.^ this passage Zabum restored E-babbar and E-ulbar.. n. Dur-Zakar in Nippur. and the wall of Babylon in his 2nd year. West. which Sumula-ilu built. of his In the course reign he built Dur-muti and he rebuilt the temple of Istar of Babylon. Apil-Sin built the wall of Barzi in his ist year. 26. and that he undertook other building operations in the 30th and 31st years of his reign. 69. which is mentioned in a historical inscription from ' ^ ' See p. DurDur-usi- lagaba. pi. and ana-Urra. 205. viz. in the temple E-sagil in Babylon. 27-30.^ built From the Chronicle we in gather that he his the great wall of Babylon 5th year. Nabonidus states E-babbar and E-ulbar. had been falling Zabum . to judge from its name. Dur-Gula-duru. On that his great cylinder from Ur. Asia. or walled places. Diir-Iabugani.LX INTRODUCTION. (3) zabum. the temples of Samas and of the goddess Anunitum at Sippar. 222. he was also the builder of Kar-dur-Apil-Sin. See p.

ff. No. the temple of the goddess Ninni in yallab.^ nth year the wall of Muru. * All of Sin-muballit's building's consisted of fortifica° tions. in his 12th year the wall of Marad. Perhaps read Dur-Sin-muballit. pi.^ Building operations were also carried on 5th. . in his loth in his in his 7th year the wall year the wall of Sin-muballit. or broad shallow ditch. 2. Asia. inscriptions supply information in (6) Hammu- concerning his building operations somewhat fuller He increased the height of the wall of Sippar it and surrounded this with a swamp. (s) sin- muballit. according to the Chronicle. during his nth. 64.' Hammurabi's votive detail. the temple of Samas . * * ' ' Seep. took place in the 25th year of his reign. LXI Kuyunjik. and i6th years. for protection. 186 See p. vol. Rev. 184 f. of Zakar-dada. and in his 6th and 35 th years he also know that he built a wall and a fortress. 1. In his 28th year he rebuilt E-namhe. In his 1 8th year the wall of some' city •was either rebuilt or See pp. the temple of at Babylon. f.* and. at Larsam.BUILDING OPERATIONS. and in his 15 th year the wall of Eres..' ' ' ' See Cun. We restored E-babbar. West. iii. 14th. In his ist year he built the wall of Rubatum. in his 34th year Ramman he restored the temple of E-tur-kalama. 38. 177 See pp. 6th. Inscr. destroyed." built E-zi- and the temple E-zida in Borsippa ® he kalama. 180 ff.

his his 1 year. 188 See p. ] .* (8) Abesu.g. 320.' and he also rebuilt the wall of the city of Isin. ff." fortress on the and some contracts are dated by a or wall which he built. 86. ' * « « i" See pp. 8th year. and the temple Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah in built 22nd year. but from one of his letters we learn that he erected a palace at Kar-Irnina Irnina-canal. 72. he restored the six fortresses which Sumulahad founded. and the wall of the god Dadi rebuilt the in his i6th He temple E-babbar in Sippar in a palace in his 34th year.. and Dur- years. p.. lix f. 72. 24. See p. 192 f. and he ilu Moreover. n. n. and a palace ® which was also in the capital. .* ' he erected and he built a granary probably (7) ' at Babylon. See above. 245. samsu- Samsu-iluna built the walls of Ur and Erech in his iluna. See p. n. which he called Dur-Sin- muballit-abim-walidia.0. and the wall of Kar-Samas on the Tigris a building on the river Arah[ . See pp. E. 198. ' The Chronicle gives no information concerning and Ammi- Abesu's buildings. Bu." Ammiditana built the wall of Iskun-Marduk in his 32nd year. 130 ff. 194.^ of the Igi-e-nir- He built a wall or fortress at the head Nuhus-nisi canal. See p. nth year.. 91-5-9.LXII INTRODUCTION.. See p. Ammiditana and Dur-Ammi in his 35th and 36th and a broken inscription of his records the • ' ' ' ' See p.^ and he built the wall of Rabiku.. and restored the temples E-me-te-ur-sag and kidur-mah. . 241.

and Hammurabi is — .. masmuch as .' up in their The Chronicle also furnishes us with the names of the principal canals which were cut during ' See p. Such are the principal building operations of which we have evidence during this period. . viz. black basalt on which his long bilingual inscription was cut see pp. In addition to the actual building and restoration of the temples the Chronicle makes it clear that the kings of the First Dynasty expended much energy in enriching the sacred shrines by the making of thrones and the . 19s f. upon the slab. many years take their titles from such events . which forms the frontispiece to the present volume. . P settmg up or images oi the gods therem. .. Bu. the fragment of . the slab is dedicated to in an attitude of adoration a goddess.. It must therefore be either Ibirum or Hammurabi. rather than one of himself. or Hammurabi. but was cut in his honour by Ibirum. The sculpture portrait of Hammurabi. as Ibirum's object in setting find up the inscription was evidently to favour with the king. 270 and 460. a god. 172 ff.)- That we may see in this figure a representation of : probable for the following reasons The figure can only be one of three personages. a high official in his service (see p.' that upon contract built tablets ^ we know From dates Ammizaduga Dur-Ammizaduga at the mouth of the Euphrates.. that the set The making of thrones and images. It is not the figure of a god. LXIII building of another wall or fortress. or Ibirum. gi-5-Q. 207 f. 88-5-12. 12 To such an image of Hammurabi belonged Bu. he would be more likely to achieve his purpose by cutting a figure of Hammurabi. for the hand is raised moreover.BUILDING OPERATIONS.. . . was not set up by himself. ^ ' E. from the same source we also know kings had images of themselves sculptured and palaces.g.

Thesc are given in the following : list together with the dates of their construction Name of canal.— LXIV INTRODUCTION-. this pcriod. . Canals cut during the First Dynasty.

' The Chronicle does not throw light on the means established himself as king in campaigns of Dynasty." in Cun. No.n. "just. Samsu-iluna. I.206 (B. but Arabic. 88-S-I2. the date reads mu {iT>)A-su-uk Ivi-me-ric-uvi The year Immerum dug the Asuh-canal. plur. 346. a tablet of is dated mu (id)Idigna mu-ba-al. Asia. was dug out to the oce9." the " case " of the same tablet formula MU (id)[Idigna] id dingir-ri-e-ne MU-UN-BA-LA. vol. names Hammu-rabi. further pointed out that the word f^ammu. zadika. 22) he compared with the Syr. " the Euphrates was dug out. "the sun is our god. by which Sumu-abu Babylon. e. Arab. Ammi-ditana. is dated mu (id)Buranunu mu-ba-la. therefore. . dug out a portion of the bed of the Euphrates'* and widened the channel of the Tigris at its mouth.. and we are. did in the inscriptions and was probably not of Babylonian and the second part of the name Ammi-zaduga (which not occur origin is . 1.205 (B. on the peculiar forms of some of the royal names of the dynasty." in which «a. 33. '* The year in which ' ih-ru-u. v. " The year in which the Tigris." ' Brit. col. "The year in was dug out. pi. still without definite information concerning the origin of the First Dynasty. and Ammi-zaduga." ' Brit. lit. a tablet inscribed in Rim-Sin's reign. the pron. which occurred in the. Mus. sadih. 48). 44. Rim-Sin's reign." * The Semitic origin of the kings of the First Dynasty has long been recognized it was Pognon who further suggested that the .. which the Tigris giving the fuller zag a-ab-ba-ku the river of the gods. Mus.XV date upon a contract' we may we infer that the usurper Immerum two other cut the Asuh-canal. or ammi. explained as ktt-ium.CUTTING OF CANALS. who was overthrown by Hammurabi. 49). Elamite king of Larsam. No..g. i. and from dates upon the contracts learn that Rim-Sin.* Bu. Inscr^ West. 33. He suffix of the 1st pers. He based his conjecture dynasty might be Arab or Aramean. is not Babylonian.

pp. 199. . . 1. 88-5-12. which was built by Ammiditana .. Ha-am-mu-um-ra-hi Brit. Hammurabi's name is written with the determinative for deity. for on Bu. 13th year of Sumu-abu Kasallu was laid waste.. The are titles for the first two years of Sumu-abu's reign but those that are preserved entirely missing. ring. from the 3rd to the 12th year suggest the picture of a nation at peace. 33. 33. for there are not lacking indications that revolts were constantly occur- and we find records of the same conquered by them more than once. Mus. 544 fF.. It must not be supposed. and in written with the \ No. Conquest of Kis. I. see Journal asiatique. s. xi. it word Hammu. city having been DuHng In the the earlier period of the dynasty the cities of Kasallu and Kis appear to have given some trouble. that these early Semitic kings of Babylon succeeded during one campaign the principal cities in finally subjugating of Babylonia. seduk. of the 1.223. we must set back the conflict before the year in which Sumu-abu ascended the throne in Babylon and assumed the reins of government. Rev. the founding of Semitic dynasty at Babylon was the result of a conquest of the country. 253 f. see p.LXVI INTRODUCTION. Rev. for in the date upon Brit. mimation at the end Hammurabi's name therefore signifies " Great is the god Hammu. No. Sine s6r. If. however. saddik vol.. Eth. Hammu and Ammi in these proper names are clearly variant forms of the same word..212. engaged in building walls for cities its and temples this for its gods. Mus. The word is probably the name of a deity. therefore." The god's name occurs also in that of the place or fortress DDr-Ammi. we find the name of Hammurabi written as Am-mu-ra-bi. and Hebr. ^" is Ha-am-mu-ra-hi.

was slain. that the dates in question refer to a capture of the city by Rim-Sin. Even it then." but the principal military event of this reign was the capture of the city of I sin. its independence. however. It is tablets of Rim-Sin's reign are dated. before dealing with Sumula-ilu subdued city. however. with hopes of regaining Kasallu. KIS. who had seem led the revolt. The taking of the city of Kis in the 13th year of Sumula-ilu was evidently an important event. LXVII but in the i8th year of Sumula-ilu lahar-zlr-ilu." by which many may be referred to the capture of this city by Sin-muballit (see p. but it was not until the 25th year of his reign that lahar-zir-ilu. 228 f. . it revolted under who led an expedition against Babylon. the city was not that in finally subdued.^ Of Hammurabi's ' earlier campaigns we know little Hammurabi's campaigns. it is possible. inasmuch as it conquest of formed an epoch for dating tablets in some parts of Babylonia. AND ISIN.KASALLU. evidently inspired for. 39). for would the 12th year of Zabum its wall was again destroyed. The it revolt of Kasallu. however. not improbable that " the taking of Isin. In the 20th year of his reign Sumula-ilu captured Kasallu and slew the inhabitants thereof. n. though in his of less importance 3rd year. Kis once more and destroyed a fortress in the ilu's These were Sumulahe undertook others principal campaigns. for five years were dated by it. and also towards the end of his reign. In the 14th year of Sin-muballit the Chronicle states that " the people of Ur were slain by the sword.

Rev. •' Kii of Kasallu and Kis appear to have given In the some trouble. engaged in building walls for cities and temples this for its gods. No. in finally however. from the 3rd to the 12th year suggest the picture of its a nation at peace.223. Ha-am-mu-um-ra-hi Hammurabi's name signifies "Great is the god Hammu. 13th year of Sumu-abu Kasallu was laid waste. seduk.. Rev. and in Brit. If. "" Ha-am-mu-ra-bi. The word is probably the name of a deity." The god's name . Mus. it is written with the \ mimation at the end Hammu.. saddtk see Journal asiaiique. pp. for in the date upon Brit. Hebr. we must set back the reins conflict before the in year in which Sumu-abu ascended the throne of government. Hammurabi's name is written with the determinative for deity.. 33. we find the name of Hammurabi written a. 5. 88-5-12. occurs also in that of the place or fortress Dur-Ammi. that these early Semitic kings of Babylon succeeded during one campaign the principal cities subjugating of Babylonia. I. ^ Eth.. therefore. Mus. the founding of Semitic dynasty at Babylon was the result of a conquest of the country. for on Bu. Hammu and Ammi in these proper names are clearly variant forms of the same word. No. for there are not lacking indications that revolts were constantly occur- Conquest of Kasallu and and we find records of the same city having been conquered by them more than once. of the word therefore 1. which was built by Ammiditana see p. 544 if.LXVI INTRODUCTION. 1. and vol. xi. .. During the earlier period of the dynasty the cities ' ring. The are titles for the first two years of Sumu-abu's reign but those that are preserved entirely missing. 33..212. Babylon and assumed the It must not be supposed. . 253 f. 8me s^r.s Am-mu-ra-bi. igg.

evidently inspired its with hopes of regaining Kasallu. the city was not that in the finally subdued. not until the 25th year of his reign that lahar-zir-ilu. it revolted under who led an expedition against Babylon. though in his of less importance the end of his reign. The it revolt of Kasallu. LXVII but in the i8th year of Sumula-ilu lahar-zlr-ilu." but the principal military event of this I reign was the capture of the city of sin. however. however. destroyed a fortress in the ilu's Kis once more and These were Sumulahe undertook others principal campaigns.^ Of Hammurabi's " ' earlier campaigns we know . n. for five years were dated by it. for would 12th year of Zabum its wall was again destroyed." by which many tablets of Rim-Sin's reign are dated. not improbable that " the taking of Isin. The taking of the city of Kis in the 13th year of Sumula-ilu was evidently an important event. it is possible. inasmuch as conquest of formed an epoch for dating tablets in some parts of Babylonia. and also towards In the 14th year of Sin-muballit the Chronicle states that " the people of Ur were slain by it the sword. 3rd year. KIS. little Hammurabi's campaigns. who had seem led the revolt. 39). Even it however. was slain. before dealing with Sumula-ilu subdued city. for. In the 20th year of his reign Sumula-ilu captured Kasallu and slew the inhabitants thereof. . that the dates in question refer to a capture of the city by It is Rim-Sin. 228 f. independence. may be referred to the capture of this city by Sin-muballit (see p. AND ISIN. but it was then.KASALLU.

^ See p. ' Rim-Sin's opposition to "the evil foe. however.^ The defeat of In the 30th year of his reign. * See p.. and possibly included that country in his dominions/ but his other campaigns of which we have evidence to * do not appear have been of great importance. 33. I. 33.. king of Elam. it is probable that up to this time he . had had considerable trouble from that quarter the mere fact that no years received their titles from victories against Elam during this period may perhaps be taken as evidence that no great success attended the Babylonian arms. army ^ and overthrew Rim-Sin. who is mentioned in Gen. n. 33. and that in his 21st year he probably captured the city of Basu. Hammurabi signally defeated the Elamite and the capture of Emutbal.196. contract of his reign records the taking of the city of Dtir-ilu cf. 5.208. XLIX ff. i • his victory freed Babylon from her most powerful is enemy. The date upon another " For a discussion of the evidence of the historical character of Chedorlaomer. Although the in his 4th year Chronicle does not refer to the Elamites until the 30th year of his reign. pp. see Vol.201. for . Nos. and in the following iiii iri-' -ii i'i year he added the land of Emutbal to his dommions. There evidence that during his reign Hammurabi stationed troops in Assyria. 33.162. the dates upon Brit. Mus. etc." which is referred to in dates upon tablets of his reign. xiv.. except that he destroyed the walls of Malga and Maer. probably . 237. success of his against the Babylonians Mus. 71 and 72. No. . LXVIII INTRODUCTION. This was the chief event of Hammurabi's reign. Brit. commemorates some cf.

each king of the First Dynasty to a particular year must be regarded as purely the case as provisional. If the List of Kings were perfectly preserved this would not. proraids.: ELAMITES AND KASSITES. and any attempt it to definitely settle the various Dyn^ty 1 . In the 9th year of Samsu- iluna the Kassites invaded Babylonia. were beginning to make their pressure felt.. and from the other that Sagasalti-Burias . . LXIX With of the disappearance of it Elam from the horizon that invasion of the Babylonian poUtics might be supposed ^^'^^" a period of peaceful development for Babylonia would follow. however. and although of they were doubtless defeated and driven out by the Babylonians. the principal evidence by which the is general date of this dynasty fixed consists of two of passages these in cylinders of Nabonidus.. of this period is only approximately . From one we learn that Burna-Burias lived 700 years after Hammurabi.be . this raid was only the first many which were to take place and which were to finally succeed. duced by these early Kassite the revolt of cities which had been previously subjugated. for already the Kassites. who eventually overran the country and founded a dynasty at Babylon. This was not the case. - presents and to assign the accession 01 Evidence of general date. and in his 24th year he had to reconquer the city of Kis. chronology of problems . Thus in his 15th year Samsu-iluna had to reduce Isin to subjection. it is. The chronology fixed. We may perhaps trace to the feeling of unrest.

. Sumu-abu Sumula-ilu 15 years 14 years 35 14 18 „ . in (cf. whose names occur as those of rulers dates upon contract-tablets of this period.. pp. only roughly. See Schrader's Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. fix these two for references at enable us to roughly the date of Hammurabi the 2200 B.^--w i ' tion. period which separated is Burna-Burias and Sagasalti-Burias obviously speaking in round a matter for conjecture.. List of Kings. 90 f. p. . in oath-formulae and . 220.. See Winckler..^ or Kassite. (2). ... . Schrader's Keilins. and Rim-Sin (cf.. the List of Kings ' and the Chronicle of the First Dynasty. With regard to the years of the reigns of the kings _. cf. which he tells us took place 163s years before his own conquest of Susa. lived 800 years before Nabonidus. 208 f. p. Since Burna- Burias and Third. p. far these The following table will * : show how documents agree Name. 16)... r r of the First Dynasty we have two sources 01 mtorma.— LXX INTRODUCTION.. viz. Sagasalti-Burias are both kings of the Dynasty. f. and 106 ' Corroborative evidence as to the general date of the First Dynasty is furnished by Asur-bani-pal's reference to the invasion of the Elamite king Kudur-Nanhundi. P' HSIt may be noted that both documents omit Immerum. Untersuchungen zur altorimtalischen Geschkhte. Rim-Anum.. Zabum Apil-Sin ' . Bibl." The and the Chronicle List of Kings._. ' ii.C. Chronicle. 39). Bungunila n. and in the two passages is referred to Nabonidus numbers.. 228 f. . 36 14 18 iii „ . however. n.

CHRONOLOGY. .

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.'^xamMiom.

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863. a - na - "" Sin bi - i din - nam ki ufii ma busu Ha sab - am "" mit kisir ra bi ma ma sarri 240 5 Nannar sa - iddina 5 sa sa ip [ li tim ga Si - ti - ka - is .. Transliteration.J I.is - ur da li as su - nu ti - ina la kam pu su nim . 23. pl. Obv. No. Mus. [ J - a it la - kam sdbi l\i\ p\u'\ - s[u'\ - n[im - ma"] t[u] ti lb - ni - ''"Mar su • um li - ma su tu - ti is - - nu bu - - 5 sdbum{um) ar a - u la - u - la - - ap - pa - - tu 5 hi .] Rev. 12. No."-' tu r[u] n\im m\a ] [There are several lines missing at the end of the Obverse and at the beginning of the Reverse. [Brit. MILITARY DESPATCH CONCERNING THE MOVEMENT OF TROOPS.37.tu Assur^' - u - tu ul lum. LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

. all haste that they may make is " march. here and elsewhere in the letters. is " force that in who are thy hand and who have the " country of Assur. The title kisir sarri must have been borne by one of the finest companies in Hammurabi's army.. should be transliterated as ummanu. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith Hammurabi. Obv. Two hundred and of the left " forty " men command of the King's Company. " . The traces of two characters after sarri are due to an erasure by the scribe." Rev." This military despatch of Hammurabi interest. " and . them let them set out that together with the " troops of Ibni-Martu their force " pleted. as it of great contains the earliest known reference to ' In Old Babylonian contracts the ideogram ka-sar {kuru) is employed in the sense of " hire. It is possible that sab.. met with at a later period in the military title rab kisir. from asdbu. It is hardly possible to regard the verb as a contracted form of the Prec. and the district of Situllum. In this passage. as suggested above. ." we may perhaps render it. ^ The fact that fully half the despatch is missing renders the translation of li-is-bu uncertain." . the word is clearly used in a military sense.^ " in may be comDespatch the Let not these troops delay. however. Translation." both of labourers and of property. .— 4 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. If the verb is to be taken as the Prec. . which would give the better sense.' under the of Nannar-iddina. from sebu " to be satisfied. . in the metaphorical sense of " to be completed " it could only have its literal meaning on the assumption that the Babylonian forces in Assyria were disbanded in consequence of a want of food in that district. "that their force may take up its quarters with the troops of Ibni-Martu.

Asia. .MILITARY DESPATCH.C. this and assigned or it to about the 1800. the- son of Igurkapkapu. the son of definite Hallu. frohi the fact that they both bore the title of patesi. the son of Isme-Dagan that 641 years later it was pulled down by Ashur-dan and that it had remained in this condition for 60 years until he himself restored it. b. as their names are inscriptions .* viz. Assyria had been colonized by Semitic inhabitants from the south. i. Assyria. Inscr. As Situllum it is coupled with Assyria. Samsi-Ramman. Samsi-Ramman pi. 1820 respectively. to the and they record the building or rebuilding of temples god Asur in that city see op. The oldest of the patesi. .^ The names of two other early Assyrian patesi are found in brick-inscriptions in the British Museum. vol.c. they are usually associated with his son. The bricks were found at Kal'at Sherkat. is In view of despatch of Hammurabi. No dates have been assigned to them. enables us to fix the dates of Isme-Dagan and (see Cun. these flourished about B. . or "governors. the site of the ancient city of Aaur.e. and Irisum.. 6. 11. later. 15. i. In any case. vol. * i. ^This reference * Ramman. 60-70).C. Nos. not mentioned in the later historical but. ." of Assyria whose dates are known are Isme-Dagan and his son Samsi-Ramman . cit. we may conclude that at the time of the First Dynasty of Babylon. possible that they ruled at a considerably earlier date than Isme-Dagan. 1 and 2. West. district it may be inferred that was a which also lay to the north of Babylonia. Isme-Dagan and same period. In recording the restoration of a temple to the gods Anu and Tiglath-pileser I states that in former times it was built by Samsi-Ramman. and probably formed an integral part of Hammurabi's dominions. 1840 and B. pi.

a - na ina '"' Sin bi « din - nam bi - ki iim Ha - am - - mu bi - ra - ma ma - a-nu. No.6 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. II. 34. Mus.J Transliteration.Um - di - - im ra su - dam tim tim ki is - ma ta bi - a - \0 I - a u na na '' malalli ur ki - - ba li - am ka - ma nim na 10 Bdbili'" ki - li il - - - iz - ri e si - tim wa b Rev.ma 5 Zi .su AB ni - - AB - UL 5 u IJa am ta e - - mu ra - ra - - ba sa at - DU tar - GAB a-na ri - is - a tim E mu -ut-ba. 23. 59. [Brit.um . DIRECTIONS FOR THE CONVEYANCE OF CERTAIN ELAMITE GODDESSES TO BABYLON. No. - - ar il - - ki li - - ka is • - nim - a-na GAR u sa su - kurmnti BI ta - ra - a - iim i S immere*' MA ^ ki - GAR ri - RA tim SU a - KASKAL di Babili'^' - iz - - e - ka id bi - sa - di im ur ki sa di - ba am as . pi.ib . Obv.li - 20 sdbam{am) u su is li - im 20 sabam{am) ih ra - ku ta - - un - am ma nim nim 25 ra sa u - a - tim al la ~ a-na li - Bdbili'^' mu pa - - 25/13 - ap - td ar li - - hi - is' a ni na Babili"' IS - ga - am ..131 .kir .

1. etc. : Behold I am now . Abesu' states that he is despatching in a DU-GAB to Sippar to bring back a runaway female slave No. The title The ideogram ma-lal (cf.— THE GODDESSES FROM ELAM. Rev. " officer. 1. West. 5.. for was previously employed by the found upon tablets from Tell Loh. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. Abesu' states that he has sent a du-gab to Marduk-nasir and the Judges of Sippar-amnanu. 13. Gis-RIN MA-LAL is explained as {giirinnu) sa ma-lal-li-e. since they have not rendered the full number of young from the flocks that are due from them as tribute. 7. Inscr. 33. and the duties with which oflScials of this class were entrusted were of a very Thus in No. 89. No. it is 18. 8i. In Cun.. 1. which in the list follows {gisrinnu) sa hi-lat and . Sumerians. pi. The post of DU-GAB which he held was an important one. 16. 17. 88-S-12. and that Hammurabi-bani. 41. 3. . Samsu-iluna states that he varied nature. ' 78. 7. 1.' that they From yiammurabi-bani's name we may perhaps infer that he was a near relative or great favourite of the king. Asia. in No. " despatching (unto thee) Zikir-ilisu. the " -officer. 79. a du-gab is mentioned first in a list of seven men to be sent separately to Babylon and for other passages in which the title occurs. 37 (Meissner. mention is made of a du-gab whom Samsuiluna has sent to Sippar to receive three head of cattle and half a maneh of silver.701). V. see his instructions carried out with regard to the confiscation of a bribe in No. is equivalent malallu occurs in explanatory lists with the Brvinnow. not clearly indicated. they the dugabthe may bring (hither) " goddesses " of (the country of) Emutbalum. 1. see . No. 1. 26. 1. 5. Hammurabi tells Sin-idinnam that he is sending a du-gab and another official to ' . 1. 4. 14. 1. 100). Classified List. No. Thou shalt cause the goddesses to travel in " a processional boat^ as in a shrine." . but its meaning vol. Translation. 11. Obv. . in No. 1. 93. No. Bu. . is sending a du-gab to superintend the transport of the goddess Annunitum to Sippar-edinna in No.

" as in a shrine.). 41 f. On the sculptures of Tiglath-pileser III are representations of gods and goddesses being carried on the shoulders of men (see Layard. " a ship. 65). pi. 8). at any rate at a later period. * The group ma-gar-ra is perhaps to be regarded as a compound ideogram (ma + gar) for a verb parallel to su-ur-M-ba-am in 1. For * templethe food . " a journey. No. the ideograms Gl MA-LAL {ka-an ma-lal-li-e) and Gl ma-da-LAL {ka-an be-la-ii) being equated to the same broken synonym but neither of these passages indicate the meaning of the word. a conveyance for transporting the goddesses bj' land. ki-ma bi-tim. 1. 81. ° From it the context of the passages in which the word sct-kaskal may be inferred that it had some such meaning as " provision for a journey." and we should expect that the other two phrases had similar or kindred meanings biltu and malallu are again coupled together (ibid. strength" (cf. " of the goddesses thou shalt provide " sheep. and thou shalt take on board provisions maintenance of the temple-women on " for the " the journey" until they reach Babylon. Classified List. . we know that ships were employed." the phrase gisrinnu sa mallali litter might conceivably be one of the poles by which the carried. 32. And sa zi-ba-ni-tim gisrinnu sa zibanitim certainly means "the beam of a balance." We may explain the ideogram as made up o(sv emuku.8 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. while the occurrence of ma.069). if malallu signified " a litter. Briinnow. Monuments of Nineveh.'' is employed by Samsu-iluna in his instructions concerning the transport of Annunitum to Sippar-edinna (see No. and kaskal harranu. 1. i^gisrinnu) . 7. Moreover. " " may come to Babylon. .. and. "might." in the first half of the ideogram certainly favours the second alternative. was Against this rendering may be urged the fact that only one mallalu is mentioned. . 19. pi. And the women shall follow after them." occurs. ' The same phrase. namely. . or a ship for conveying them by water. = = . for the transport of deities in religious processions. In the present letter the word can only have one of two meanings.

it was ' intersected. at a considerable distance from the . It will suffice here to in goddesses were probably captured Elam by the Babylonian forces during a campaign . for bihru the sabam bihram may have formed a military guard in the latter phrase compare Hebr. Inscr. bahar." were clearly those who looked after the actual work of transport. xxxvii f. must have lain was rendered possible by the system of canals by which the country across Babylonia from east to west . letter was Sin- written in answer to a despatch received from idinnam acquainting him with the followed by Zikir-ilisu and The route yammurabi-bani. West. which he had captured in Elam. however.' Of the two classes of men whom Sin-idinnam is to appoint accompany the goddesses. " thou " (i. i. ' At a later time Sennacherib in his sixth campaign conveyed the gods. but speedily " reach Babylon. in the Intro- duction to Vol." and its . the sabam sadid aslim. possibly towing the vessel along the canals to .® tow the boat). derivative bahur." applied to picked troops. cannot be cited as a parallel to the present case.e. 40. "men who draw the rope. may bring the goddesses to Babylon Let them not delay. and chosen " that they " in safety. vol. in ships across the head of the Persian Gulf on their way to Assyria (see Cun.THE TRANSPORT OF THE GODDESSES. 11. This incident. state that the p. when escorting the goddesses to Babylon. Asia. for the district of Emutbal was probably inland coast. 21-32). " to choose." The written circumstances under which this letter was have already been discussed I. pi. 9 shalt to appoint men to draw the rope soldiers. " chosen. against that country and that Hammurabi's fact.

No. .. [I. 45-] Transliteration Obv.M. III.O. pi. ORDER FOR THE RETURN OF THE ELAMITE GODDESSES TO THEIR SHRINES.lO LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 79. a na ' .

though in Hammurabi's service. We may assume that Hammurabi's plan was successful. to send We own to appease their anger that may suppose that it Hammurabi decided . and he was In No. see the Introduction to - pp. after they had been removed in to Babylon the accordance with Hammurabi's instruc- tions." The goddesses here referred " identified with those It is to are evidently to in the be mentioned preceding letter. XXV ff. with directions to put the matter right. Babylonian forces were defeated by the Elamites. 26. ' fuller discussion of this letter it. When they " shall reach thee. a complaint had been brought to Hammurabi against him. officer The . and that this misfortune was attributed by them was to the wrath of the goddesses at having been taken from their shrines. the king refers the case to Sin-idinnam. and its connection with the one that precedes I. not improbable that. For a Vol. Inuhsamar.THE RETURN OF THE GODDESSES. " the troops " will II under the command of Inuhsamar^ bring unto thee in safety. for we know from other sources that he succeeded the Elamites in defeating during the later years of his reign. Inuhsamar with the task of conveying them to the and the present letter was despatched to warn Sin-idinnam of their approach. held a post which was connected with the city of Larsam. them back to their country he entrusted frontier. thou shalt destroy the people " with the troops that are in thy hand. " shall safely bring and they their back the goddesses unto own dwellings. when to some extent under Sin-idinnam's control.

i - .

and Ammizaduga. 508 is dated on the 13th day of a second Elul. Asm. see above. Ammiditana. 29. with two exceptions. Inscr. ^ At this period the series of ideograms most commonly used for the months is nearly identical with that given in Cun. i. 1 .3 CORRECTION OF THE CALENDAR.) upon Bu. 11. and that the king published any alteration therein by writing to the governors of the principal cities throughout the There is evidence that at the period of the Dynasty of Babylon both a second Elul and a second Adar were employed as intercalary months country. 1 This letter proves that the calendar was regulated by the royal astronomers in Babylon. 88-5-12. the Babylonians did not retain the Sumerian names for it may be the months. sometimes found. g 1-5-9. 9 -5-9. Bu. 734. Bu. 1-13 .^ With regard to the tribute the king is careful to point out that the alteration in the calendar it justify Sin-idin4a. 91-5-9. . From Bu. 88-5-12. No. it would seem that a second Nisan was sometimes employed. ' the use of intercalary but months was borrowed from the Sumerians.m in postponing payment. probably instead of a second Adar. 12 is dated on the 23rd day of the second Elul in the year in which Ammizaduga the king built Diir-Ammizaduga at the mouth of the Euphrates and the tablet Bu. other names are West. tablet Bu. Introduction. while from the dates upon other tablets it as an intercalary is clear that a second Adar was employed month in the reigns of Abesu'. First for the correction of the calendar . 739 we know that a second Adar was inserted in the calendar in the year in which the canal of Hammurabi named Nuhus-nisi was dug. pi. From the date (Cf. v. etc. 320 (a tablet of the reign of Abesu'). 454. 729. 88-5-12. noted that. vol.

i - im \0 lu li - Translation. as the men who are to do the work already hold land upon its banks. Within the present month shall they complete the work of clearing out the Damanum-canal. TRANSLITERATION. 137. Mus." but the phrase obviously cannot refer to the digging of a new canal but to the cleaning out of an old one.— J 14 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM..ar-hi-im an-ni-i-im Da na ig ma - - - um e - 10 i - ri m. 25. No.071 . ." ' The verb employed is haru. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. 71. No. Obv.ma ab - nu urn 5 ekle'" saki- - ttc di - e - ma li - *"'^'Da ma - nu um nu hi - ih - ru i-na p"'^ li-ib-bu wa. [Brit. "to dig. pi. aki - na ''" Sin - i - - din - nam bi - bi urn ma sa Ha i • - am a - - mu - ra - - ma ma - amele*' 5 na ak^"'^' Da . : Thou shalt call out " the men who hold lands along the banks " of the " out^ the " " Damanum-canal that they may clear Damanum-canal. ORDERS TO CLEAR OUT THE DAMANUMCANAL.

the inhabitants of each village on or near the canals are responsible for the maintenance of their banks in sound condition. Both the banks thereof I changed " to fields for cultivation. 7). which are subject to periodic inundations when the great rivers are in flood. ' referred to by The importance of the canals for purposes of irrigation Hammurabi in one of his inscriptions (No. as the canals formed the great highways for the transport of grain.) "I dug out the Hammurabi-canal " (named) Nuhus-nisi. is The reason for the interference of the government : obvious the crops cannot grow without a sufficient supply of water.^ Moreover. etc. and for clearing out the muddy deposit from their bottoms when the river has fallen to its normal level.THE CLEARING OUT OF CANALS. which bringeth abundance of water unto " the land of Sumer and Akkad." . that It is well known that in all the low-lying countries of the East. He there says (11. and " I procured unfailing water for the land of Sumer and Akkad. 17 ff. and This so prevent the passage of boats and barges. merchandise. : is in which he commemorates the cutting of the Nuhus-nisi canal. and the village which has a poor harvest cannot pay its full amount of taxes to the temple or to the Royal Treasury. and I garnered piles of grain. at certain and this work was done under the orders of the government and within a specified time.. any obstruction to the flow of water would increase the deposit on the bed of the canal and eventually block up the channel. letter furnishes us with one of the earliest examples of the use of the corvee. IS From the above text it is clear that the canals and water-ways of Babylonia were cleaned out intervals.

{im) - ah ri ka 3 ^"^"^ Rev. [a - na - "" S^. No. ORDER TO FINISH CLEARING OUT A CANAL IN THE CITY OF ERECH. 1 i - na li li .ri a-\iia a.5 l6 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDTNNAM. 12. [Brit.ri-a.\is - turn s}u - a ti u-ul ma - du ka a 10 - na \sdbim{im) /]« ma na - ah ri - - umu dub i - 3 i - ^^'*' n^d\ 10 - bi an ni e - - a - am a - ma - ri - im na sa mu . 7.n - i - din - n\am - ki - - bi - ma] [u7n ["""' ma Ha ] - am ka - in\u ra it - - ba - ma - - /u sa te .ib bi wni lim 5 ndra hi is - bi a - sa Uruk '^^ 1 ri tu ip ndra - su ra - - a ti te ih ~ te - ru ra - u si - am pu - sa as - pu - ku \e\ - us .Urn sd\ 5 [ ] Uruk - '^' u-ul u - hi . VI. Obv. Mus.818. No. si Transliteration.ih ..at i - ma bu 5 a lim ] ul - ir - ru - u [ sa ] a ah - nar Duru ti - "' [ na - a - at - e - bi . pi.ga ma ib - at sdbim.


the clearing out of canals.
Translation.
17

Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith yammurabi. The
:

canal

[..•]
been

" which hath been cleared out/ hath not

" cleared out as far as the city of Erech, and " therefore [boats ?] cannot enter the city.
"

Moreover
is

[

.

.

.

.

],

which

is

on the bank

" of the canal of the city of Duru, "
possible.

[....]
[••••]
shalt

This work

is

not too great for

" the

men

that are at thy disposal

" the third day.

When,

therefore, thou

" behold this tablet, with the

company

of

men
After

" at thy disposal thou shalt clear out the canal
" within the city of

Erech

in three days.

" thou hast cleared out that canal,

thou shalt

"

do the work concerning which
first

I

have written

" unto thee."

The

part of the letter

is

broken, but

it

would

appear that Hammurabi was not satisfied with the progress made in cleaning out the canal at Erech.

He

asserts that the

work

is

not too great for the
that that

men whom Sin-idinnam can employ, and orders days, so it must now be finished within three
other work of which he had previously written

may

be taken

in

hand.

^ As in the preceding letter, the verb employed is ^arii, " to dig." If the letter referred to the construction of a new canal, it would be strange for the king to set a limit of three days for its

completion

;

whereas such a time

limit

for the cleaning out of a canal, or for the repair of had fallen in.

would not be unnatural its banks if they

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

VII.

DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF CANALS.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 12,817

;

pi. 5,

No.

4.J

Transliteration.
Obv. a
uin

na
-

*'

Sin

- i -

din

nam
-

ki

-

b[i
bi

-

ma]
m.a

ma
sa

as -sum

mu ta -[as]- pur- am
-

Ha

am

ra

-

urn

-ma
e-bi

at-ta-ina
-

sdb
^

[

] - tim.

u
sa

sab

is- turn

a

-

na
is-\tu

si

-

\bi

-

ir\
-

KUN-*"

ndri

5

sa
[

\- la

nu

-

um
la

pt

"^"^

Hal-ki
J

^-as-su-u is-sa-ab-tu i-na mi-e ru-us-\_

[....]
[

za

-

ka
]

-

bi

-

im
-

na
iz

-

tu
-

-

u

-

ma
bu

ne

io[
[ [

]

u
]

5

GAN
i
-

epiH na
-

i-na-az-za-ah 10

az

za

-

hu
am.
]

j
]

it - ti -

su

nu

i - ib - bi - es li - is
-

[
[

be

li

pur -

[Several lines are missing at the end of the Obverse at the beginning of the Reverse.]

and

Rev.

[ [
]

]

ka
sa
-

la

as

-

pur
-

-

am
(?)

si - bi

-

ir

ndrim{im)
i

ah
ru

-

hi

ru

la

m,u
si
-

m.u
5 la

-

u

a

-

na
us
-

ip

ri

im
ar
-

ga

am
d[u]

-

ri

nim - im
u 5

ta

THE REPAIR OF CANALS.
u
i
-

19

is-tu

si-bi-ir

nari
-

sa

i-na-an-na
ta
-

sa-ab-ta-ti
-

na
Purattu
di
-

hi

-

ri

e

-

im
is
-

ag

-

dam

ru
'^'

""'"

sa

tu

Larsam
u
-

a
lO

-

Uru'^'
ik
-

mi
ha
su

ti

-

sa

su

uh lO
-

mi

sa
te -

su
se -

-

ut
ir
-

bi
si

Summary.
Sin-idinnam had written to
difficulties

Hammurabi

reporting

that

had been met with
canals

in the course of

his
for

work on the
instructions

in his district.

He
is

had asked
this

from

Hammurabi, who wrote
that

letter in reply.

The
the

text of the tablet

so imperfect,
is

especially
certain.

on

obverse,

restoration

un-

The
for

concluding lines of the letter contain
the
clearing

directions

of

the

stream
Ur,

of

the
Sin-

Euphrates

between

Larsam

and

which
shall

idinnam

is

to undertake as soon

as

he

have

finished the

work on which he

is

now engaged.

Perhaps miktasa usuh should be translated "thou

remove its state of ruin," i.e. repair its banks but both miktu and kamu are names of water-plants (cf Cun. Inscr. West. Asia, vol. ii, pi. 41, No. 5, 11. 30 and IZ No. 9, 11. 48, 50, and 51), and it is possible
shalt
; ;

to take the

verb
is

su-ut-bi, as

HI,

i,

from

tibu.

If this

explanation

correct

we may suppose

that

Hammurabi

gives directions for the clearing

away of the reeds and

water-plants with which the stream of the Euphrates

had become choked.

20

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

VIII.

ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF A CHARGE OF BRIBERY AND FOR THE CONFISCATION OF THE BRIBE.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. 12,829;

pl- '8,

No.

ii.J

Transliteration.
Obv. [a
-

INVESTIGATION OF BRIBERY.

21

2$ a

-

me

22

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.
"

and one
thee.

.

.

.

-officer,

I

am

despatching

" unto

When

thou

shalt

behold

this

" tablet, thou shalt examine into the matter,' " and,
if

bribery hath taken place, set a seal*

" upon the " offered
as

money
the

or

bribe,

upon whatsoever was and cause it to be
the

" brought unto me.

And

men who

took

" the bribe and the witness " of these matters,

who hath knowledge
Summan-la-ilu
will

whom

" point out unto thee, shalt thou send unto me."

From

this

letter

it

seems that Hammurabi was

anxious to remove corruption from

among

his officials.

Moreover, the successful recovery of any bribe which had been given tended to fill the royal coffers, as we may see from the fact that instructions are given for
the bribe
to

be

confiscated
seal.

and

despatched

to

Hammurabi under

' The phrase purus warkdtu is the formula usually employed in these letters in directions for the investigation of a case, of. No. 6, 1. 17, wa-ar-ka-lu pu-ru-us-ma, and No. 19, 1. 9, wa-ar-ka-as-su

pu-ru-us;

in

No. 43,

1.

11,

Hammurabi

states that

has investigated a case {wa-ar-ka-su ap-ru-u\s'^. parasu, cf. Hebr. paraS, Syr. peras.
*

he himself With the verb

Bundles of objects, done up in cloth and corded, could be and we may assume that the bribe mentioned in the letter was packed in this manner and despatched to the king. Pieces of clay, bearing on their upper surface seal impressions and on their lower surface the marks made by cloth and cords, have frequently been found in the mounds which cover the sites of old Babylonian cities.
effectively sealed with pieces of clay,

5

THE ADMINISTRATION OF

JUSTICE.

23

IX.

DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF LAND ILLEGALLY CLAIMED BY A MONEY-LENDER AND ORDER FOR HIS PUNISHMENT.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. iz.Szi

;

pi. 9,

No.

6.J

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na

""

Si\n
bi
-

-

i
\_

din

-

nam\
ina\
[bi
-

ki

um
"^

ma

Ha
KA-DUR

-

am

-

mu

-

ra

-

ma']

La-lum

ki-a-am

[u-lam-mi-da-an-ni]

5

um
""A
-

ma
ni
ellati{ti)

su
ra
is
-

-

[ma]
nu
-

5

\_ga
[

-

a

um]
]

ekla7n{am)
sa
ip
-

sa

tu
ta
-

ab
ta
se
-

-

[

ku]
am.]
]

ak
sa

-

r[a
[

-

10 u
ki
-

a
bu

dub
2

am am - um
-

ekli
-

10

u
i-

lam-

-

m\i
in
-

-

da
-

-

an

-

ni]

na
a
-

ekalli

\na
-

mi -

ir-

ma (?)]
J

GAN
-

ekli

na
-

L[a
a
-

lum
-

Ed&E. a
15

na

mi
ra
-

-

nim ga

A

ni

ellati{ti)
-

nu
ip
-

um
-

1

Rev. " La

-

lum
ar
-

eklam[am)

ku
us

ur

wa

-

ka

-

tu

pu

-

ru
ni
-

ma
u\l]

sum '^ La
20 hi u
22 ar
-

-

ma
lum
-

A
KA
-

-

ellatiiti)

DUR
te
-

ih
e

-

bu
-

-

bi

il
-

-

ta
-

-

su

ir

s\um] 20
bu
-

A

ni

ellati{ti)

sa
e
-

ih

-

lu

nam

mi

id 22

24

letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam.

Translation.

Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi.
:

Lalum, the kadur,*
'

" hath informed me, saying, Ani-ellati, the " raganu, hath laid claim to certain land which
'

"

'

I

have held from [days of

old],^

and the crop

" of the land [he hath taken].' After this " manner hath he informed me. Now a tablet " hath been found in the palace, and [it
'

" ascribeth] two gan of land unto Lalum. " Thou shalt examine into the matter, and, if " Ani-ellati took (the land) on pledge' from
" Lalum the kadur, thou shaltreturn his pledge " unto him, and thou shalt punish Ani-ellati, " who took (the land) on pledge."

it

KA-DUR is evidently the name of a class, or an official title should possibly be rendered in Semitic under the form hadurru. The word kadurru has the meaning " forced labour," and it perhaps also signified one who was liable to render forced service.
'
;

'

The

traces

of

the character after
is

is-tu

suggest

UD

;

the

restoration is-tu [ume ma'duti'\
'

therefore possible.

its

In this letter it would be possible to assign to the verb habdlu usual meaning, " to wrong, to damage," and to the substantive

hihiltu the

to the words the end

if we give these meanings may be rendered, "and, if " Ani-ellati hath wronged Lalum, thou shalt make good unto him " the wrong he hath suffered, and thou shalt punish Ani-ellati who
;

meaning "wrong, damage"
of the letter

This indefinite meaning, however, does which the words occur and it is preferable to assign to habdlu the meaning " to receive a pledge from" (Hebr. hdbhal), and to ^ibiltu the meaning "pledge" (Hebr. hdbhol, Mbhola) the same root appears in the substantive
in
; ;

" committed the wrong." not suit other passages

hubullu, "interest."

and that such records. In No. suit.* The object of this arrangement was to ensure the regular payment amount of of tax due to the king or temple estates. Hammurabi annuls the contract. 25 Under and from the Sumerians we know that regular surveys of districts in Southern Babylonia were undertaken. 28) Hammurabi possession of ° decides another some land. and the defendant Ani-ellati is condemned to lose the money which he advanced on the crop* and to receive punishment. 76 (p. who was probably a clever usurer. concerning on the evidence of "a the disputed tablet. because he intended to foreclose to Lalum more money on the mortgage and seize the crop. Ani-ellati. and that they were available of the full for inspection on appeal.THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. rolls. seems to have advanced to buy seed-corn than he would ordinarily have done. We may suppose that the landed which served the purpose of property of the inhabitants was tabulated in registers. On the appeal of Lalum. * It is of Lalum's possible that the tablet found in the palace was a copy own title deed to his land. this letter it may perhaps be in inferred that a similar practice was vogue during the First Babylonian Dynasty." The order that the mortgaged land should be restored probably implies that the loan was no longer recoverable. from the owners of the interests and incidentally it protected the owners. our manor-house were kept safely in the king's palace at Babylon and in the temples. .

.GAB bi bi . a ki - na ''" Sin - i - - din - nam bi - bi um mare^' 5 ma ha - Ha - - am lum - mu hi - - ra ma ma - ah DU . 18.] Rev. Mus. pi. /[^] ' ^ii^ li - u ka - al - mu ni - in - ni [Two or three lines are missing at tlie end of the Obverse and at the beginning of the Reverse. [Brit.26 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. r .TE - SI 5 dup sa ih ih - pa am - sa ti su - nu E bu lu - - nu su - ''" Marduk - - nu - ti ina. No. No.il - PA . . Obv. DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF PROPERTY ILLEGALLY CLAIMED BY A MONEY-LENDER.841 .] Transliteration. 12. 30.

who received the pledge from " them. cf. " " [ ] let them award. [saying and they have informed ] Rev. and thou " shalt restore their pledge unto them. And Enubi-Marduk. XV. 27 Thus saith Hammurabi. . see p. Unto Sin-idinnam say " " the " : . the similar expression anfele habiltu in No. although the mortgage had been redeemed. was evidently the tablet The dup-pa-am given by the plaintiffs to Enubi-Marduk as a receipt for a loan.— the administration of Translation. ' * For the duties of the du-gab.* which Enubi-Marduk^ " received from them. and which probable to part necessitated his despatch to Babylon. shalt thou send into my presence. sa hi-hi-il-ti-^u-nu ^ Enubi-Marduk was a person of some importance letters. this use of maru is suggested by the similar use of ben in Hebrew. 7. 24. p. his name occurs in several of Hammurabi's . Obv. " me. that he laid claim to the property It is and refused with it. ^ It is name to which the possible that Ha-ab-lum should be taken as a proper For title du-gab pa-te-si would then refer. The debtors (?)^ to DUGAB of the patesi have cancelled the ' deed of their pledge. which was secured by certain property they had pledged to him on habalu see above. justice. the rendering of the phrase mare hablum in the translation." Judging from the context. we may assume that the missing portion of the text described in the offence which Enubi-Marduk had committed with a mortgage on certain connection property.

Mus. [Brit.28 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. DECREE FOR THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN LAND TO ITS RIGHTFUL OWNER. ±1. .

No. Mus. 12. Transliteration. 20. [Brit. 29 XII. Obv. pi. ORDER FOR THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN CORN TO ITS RIGHTFUL OWNER.830 . No.J THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 12.. a - na .

that some such meaning as " granary should be assigned to e-ni-um. lived within the district under Sin-idinnam's control. explained on the supposition that fendant. 'Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus ' saith Hammurabi. the de- was a native of Larsam. The fact referred the case to Sin-idinnam for Hammurabi judgment may be that Apil-ili.' " 'the After Behold. at any rate. hath informed me.— " 30 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. worthy of note that the who was a the native of Nippur.^ I " the " " " man of Nippur. the second part of the ideogram occurs in ma-ni-um. In the city of Unabum stored up seventy ' GUR of corn in a granary." ' The context suggests. Thou shalt examine into their and the corn. which belongeth to Amelu- tummumu and which Amelu-tummumu Apil-ili hath taken. Translation. saying. " " It is him unto thee. ' A strange proper name. Thou and see that they bring " " case. the common word for ships employed for transport at this period." plaintiff in this suit. signifying " the deaf man. unto shall he restore.' but Apil-ili hath ' broken into the granary and [hath taken] corn. appealed for justice to king at Babylon. or. . " this am now despatching " shalt send for Apil-ili same Amelu-tummumu unto thee. this I fashion hath he " informed me. Amelu-tummumu.

.i Ha [5]/ am u mu mi - ra ma ma - Hi damk\ar lam su p]a - NAM - 5 ^ i^ ki a - am [«] da u - an - ni 5 um 30 ma na di - ma ma ma - GUR pa . is a tablet of the reign of Samsu-iluna. Obv. No.tu'\ - "" Sin - ma im - gir sakkanakki ad dup 10 \is - su 3 ^'^'^ na e - - si - a ir - - ku ri - - satti te ne is - su - ma \Je\ am - u - ul i na - ad - di - nam ni [ki . No. ORDER FOR THE REPAYMENT OF A LOAN OF CORN WITH INTEREST THEREON. 85).39> No. Mus.240 1. 33. 8. . who title there termed pa-nam-s.864. 3 XIII. 24.a'] am - u su - lam a mi da - an - Rev. mention is made of a certain Nidin-Istar. Mus. 12. Obv. dup se 1 - pa mu - ur - ma su - - atn u gir - sibta 5 "" '"' Sin - ma Hi U - sa bi ad i - di - na - ma a - na su i - di in ' On (B.1 THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. pl. Brit.J Transliteration.. a ki urn "' - na - "'" Sin - i din nam bi bi ma su .. [Brit. a similar to that borne by Ilisu-ibi.

Ilisu-ibi." This tablet proves that Hammurabi did not countenance any laxity on the part of his officials. hath informed me. 13 (liii) and 41 ' (xii). thirty lent " " " gur of corn years I to Sin-magir. Translation.— 32 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. the ' I merchant. to . satisfy in p. the phrase would then be similar to purui warkatu. for the title is not followed by the name of the city or district to which he belonged. Sin-idinnam. the formula employed upon other tablets to be investigated (see above. Possibly a-mu-ur-ma should be taken as the imperative. and Sin-magir shall pay the corn and " the interest thereon.' " hath he informed me. and thou shalt give it " unto Ilisu-ibi. to or "governor. the sakkanakku. ' and three I hold his receipt for the same for ' have besought him and he After this manner " ' will not repay the corn.^ the governor. in which case we must translate the passage "look at his tablet" . saying. referred seems not ' The Sin-magir with the man here mentioned is probably not to be identified of the same name referred to in Nos. I have beheld' his " tablet. and that he administered the law position impartially." have been of great importance. 22). The here of to. Unto Sin-idinnam say " *' : Thus ' saith Hammurabi. which orders are given for cases According to this rendering is before carrying out his king's instructions. . himself as to the justice of the case.

No.ak .ta .ma at -ta.nim 5 sa is.nu pur as pur - sum i.a [ ] - ni - ''"Mar - tu u-ul ik - a am.ti ekliin{im) sa - lb e \_ - ni - ''"Mar ] - tu eklam{am.is eklim{im.bi .5 THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. pi."" Mar . a - na - ''" Sin - i din - nam ki - - bi - - urn ma Ha se - am - mu ra - bi ma ma i) m.120 .na ekli lb • ni - "" Mar tu 25 su - u . Rev.ku .na Ib-ni . Mus.di . No. 47.sar -te-\_ \. 28.tu na .da .) im sa Ib-ni-''" Mar-tu sa i-na ga-at E-nu-bi-''" Marduk a .ki .ma "' E-nu-bi-'"' Marduk ki-a-am ik-bi-a-am um.] Transliteration.fita um a .ap . [Brit.lum ki it - ma Ib - m.i . 33 XIV.su sa.ma um . ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF THE RENT OF CERTAIN LAND.ra .ik u li i-na ib li - E-KU-SA-AN se-am ba - m\a-la'\i-na ekli lb -ni-'^" Mar-tu su ik - - bi - ir - ru - ma mi - sa ik - am -il-ku-u ki 1 a - ant bi - ma 1 5 ma ha - ar Ib ni .''" Mar -tu u-ul im gur su - Edge..) 10 se- a - ki. ta - bi ma ak - la - 20 se i - am ma - -la i na ekli - su ib - ba - su - - u 20 na ik - E-KU-§A-AN sa - u i - - ba - ar ru - ma am am • mi sa am ta - na - as ta - ki 25 se ib - am ma ma -la ad . Obv.-ma su-ma as - sum it . ba .a is am - // . um. 23.

the rent' of the field of Ibni-Martu. and the corn is in the place a which ' he hath therefore [. is give their in the field 'award upon" the corn that let them take the rent. And (Enubi-Marduk) said." is •which forms the mi'ksu to be paid to Ibni-Martu.." In this wise Enubi-Marduk spake. " " " " " " ' "Together with the of Ibni-Martu. the have in contracts of the period (see Meissner. "Without "'the consent of Ibni-Martu [we can do] 'of Ibni-Martu. I Con- " cerning this matter " thee." ' The verb li-hi-ir-ru-ma cannot here have the meanings "to award to" or "to receive as an award. but the " thing was not good in the sight of Ibni" Martu. ' the house of . : In the matter of the " handing over unto Ibni-Martu of the corn. .. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi.— 34 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM." which it appears to ' Cf. AUhahylonisches Privatrecht. " tribute. have already written unto ' : and thou field didst reply Enubi-Marduk " 'hath informed (me). na - i - E-KU-SA-AN li bi is - ir - ru - u - - ma su tu se am lb- mi - ki - ekli ni- ""Mar- 30 « - pu ul 30 Translation. he hath [.. p..] in all garnered.] ' different field... Let them .. saying. Hebrew mekhes. it seems that mi'ksu is employed in the sense of " rent. is in " which the hand of Enubi-Marduk. that is " to say.. and ' " ' ' As the portion of the crop owner of the field. iz8).

written to Hammurabi for instructions. both of whom bore the name of Ibni-Martu. Shall they. in the house of . and in reply he received the present letter confirming his suggestions as to the course of conduct he should pursue." clear that the matter " rent of his field shalt thou From the above letter it is had already been the subject of correspondence between him and Sinidinnam. z6) in in another letter (see above. i (L). " 'give their " 'his field. connection with a dispute concerning land.* the present occupier of the land. He had. " let " them in the house award upon all the corn of ." " ' JUSTICE.THE ADMINISTRATION OF " 'nothing. When Sin-idinnam had attempted to carry out the order he had found that Enubi-Marduk. / ' Ibni-Martu. and Ibni-Martu. the owner. and the corn which formeth the pay unto Ibni-Martu. 23 (I). 35 So he spake and he went his . the owner of the land. * Enubi-Marduk's name occurs p. therefore.. or with "the scribe of the bakers of Emutbalum" referred to in No. then. ... . give their the field that is in of " Ibni-Martu. way. In ac- words didst thou write unto cordance with that which thou didst write. may perhaps be identified with the military commander mentioned in No. could not agree as to the amount of land on which rent was to be paid.. " " award upon all the corn that is in and give him the rent?' These me.. He had previously directed Sin-idinnam to about which writes Hammurabi hand over a to certain portion of the crop of some land Ibni-Martu/ to whom it was due as rent.

ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF CERTAIN OFFICIALS OF THE PALACE GATE. No. 86. 103. Mus. a - .36 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. pl- 23S. XV.] Transliteration. No. Obv..284. [Brit.

and in passages where it does occur it appears to have a somewhat different meaning: e. that they be not involved " actions at law. . p.. see above. men from the obligations which they had From lo we may perhaps conclude that 1. a receipt given in the 12th year of Sip-par''-' Nabonidus for two manehs of silver. It may be noted that hibiltu is rarely found in Neo-Babylonian contracts. 24. To the majority of passages in texts of the Old Babylonian period in which the word occurs the meaning "pledge" seems most appropriate.g.THE AFFAIRS OF CERTAIN OFFICIALS.^ and Erisa is going " unto thee. 37 " cumbered with pledges. Erisa was the bearer of this letter.. in the personal service of the king. Nos. and thou shalt return their pledges in " unto them. and Tallqvist. * On the meaning of hibiltu. Die Sprache: der Nabonidus. we is may suppose that certain of the debts. which are described as See Strassmaier. 407. 678 (a tablet of accounts of the 15th year of Nabonidus). but would appear that the king was anxious that the If the rendering of hibiltu as " pledge " officials of the Palace Gate should not be involved in litigation. 68g and 940 Contracte NabA-nd'ids. Inschrijten von hi-bil-tum sa '"^'" [ J.. . . 71. p. 83-1-18.. . or had been. be correct. sa and 82-9-18. the company of the palesi and a member of the company of the soothsayers are all described as " Officials of the Palace Gate." The circumstances under which this letter it was written are not very clearly indicated. at the end of a list of various sums of money paid away occurs the summary naphar """" sangU 3 ma-na 1 3 siklu kaspi ultu kaspt sa hi-hil-tum." It is possible that the title implied that the men who held it were. it here directed to cancel or to pay clear is why the king should write to Sin-idinnam to free these incurred. Thou shalt examine into their " affairs. officials under Erisa's but not control had contracted which Sin-idinnam off.

. No.. 19. pi. Obv. [Brit. No.38 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.] Transliteration. 32. Mus. 12. XVI.846. ORDER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF AN APPEAL TO THE KING.

after the lists also frequently met with in names of men who head the of witnesses. which is of frequent occurrence upon contract-tablets (cf." That bel arriati signifies " the party to a suit " is clearly shown It is there stated that Ili-ippalzam had by No. Thou shalt examine into case. and thou " shalt give them judgment according to the " yoke. Die althabyhnischen Verlrdge aus Warka. cit." by which we may understand the performance of hard labour in the king's service.. pi. 9 (XVIII). Ilani-ippalzam. Kisti-Urra (see Strassmaier. was the penalty for various breaches of agreement. They may indicate that the guilty party or parties were to be punished " according to the utmost rigour of the law.' " ' By the words " according to the yoke " we are probably to understand that the penalty to be inflicted was a severe one. " this rabianu of the city of " 39 Medem his unto thee. P.. The phrase klma simdat "sarri nazazu. 129) suggests that it had sonie such * meaning as "president of the court. Meissner {Altbabylonisches Privatrecht. and probably implied a term of compulsory labour. 71 (ibid. who at the end of the letter are described as be-el a-wa-ti-su. 86) and ra-bi zi-ka-ti in B. pi. of a river. Meissner. Sin-imguranni.TRANSFER OF A CASE TO LARSAM.. 75). "to stand for the p. The title is contracts of this period.. Abi-lumur." etc. Thou " shalt send for the party to his suit/ andxshalt " cause them to bring him unto thee. brought an action against Sin-gimlanni and Libit-Istar. e. The fuller form of the expression is k'lma simdai sarri. 68 (ibid. From the position of the rabianu at the head of the witnesses in contract tablets. ' king's yoke.^ district . . 97).g. p. The title appears to interchange with that of rabi zikati. op..357)for Kisti-Urra is styled mar ra-bi zi-ka-ti in B.

Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith Hammurabi.3.815 .. despatching same Sin-rabi unto . [Brit. "* ''" K a 15 ^« - '""'" si i - bi sa i - ga - ab ri - bu - ku 15 na ma ur - ah ia dam Translation. XVII. No. Nur-Istar. Mus. 12. and he hath informed me concerning Idin-Sin. No.ma Sin ni - *'" mi 7na si - - an bi a nu na mn T - "" Sin - ra - su - a - ti 10 ri - ka din - at tar dam Si[?i] - Rev. ORDER FOR THE TRIAL OF A CASE BEFORE THE KING.J Transliteration. Obv. 2. [a u-in - no] ''" St/i - t - din - nam f7ia \ki~\ - bi - ma "* Ha "" - - atn mu - - ra "" bi - ma su ti OS-sum ^ Sin-ra-bi sa it-ti Nu-ur-Isiar 5 ta "" - at ru ra - - da as su - - '" - Sin - - bi ari - a na lam ma ah .ri -ia sum - asu \0 a - I u-sedinda - bu - - nim . this am now thee.— 40 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. pl. In the matter of in " Sin-rabi. whom thou didst send (unto me) " the company of They have brought I " this Sin-rabi into " " my presence.

he had been unable to decide. plaintiffs their Thus. XI. and that the king. with whom Sin-rabi travelled to Babylon. " Idin-Sin. also Nos. but he frequently made an examination of the case himself and suggested the verdict which should be given. X. and XIV. to applicants justice frequently applied petitions to him Babylon before presenting courts. IX. ^ammurabi not only did exercised over cases tried at Larsam the kino. We may infer that the case was brought by Sin-rabi to against Idin-Sin. like described as a man of Nippur.send cases to Sin-idinnam for trial. having heard the report of the latter. " tell 41 and the witnesses of thee. but which. and to the XVI we in find appealing king direct. had no connection with his case. illustrate supervision which . thou shalt send into whom he will my presence. sent him back Larsam with an order to transfer the case for trial to Babylon." From Sin - the above to we see that Sin-idinnam had sent ' rabi the king with information concerning a case which had come before him. in Nos. XIII.TRANSFER OF A CASE TO BABYLON. . XII a plaintiff who has These the so appealed letters. it This that letter and those which precede make it clear Hammurabi was for exercised a very active control over the administration of justice in Babylonia. is and No. for some reason not stated. • It is probable that Nur-Istar. The king and at local himself of easy access to his subjects.

42 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. XVIII. . POSTPONEMENT OF THE HEARING OF A CASE TO ALLOW OF THE OBSERVANCE OF A FESTIVAL.

iii (Rev.G. * No. 75 we gather that he had control of a district. 16.. 1. an uncommon one. MU E-uzu is explained as nu-ha-tim bit na-as-ri. pp. " Ili-ippalzam.' ' Two men natives of the city of bearing this name are mentioned in No. and by No. In No. col.and in 82-8-16. 43 Translation.. 1.). i. Concerning Ili- " ippalzam. 1. where Ibni-Martu is "scribe of the bakers of Emutbalum.. iSgg. 25." The meaning "baker" was suggested for the ideogram mu by Zimmern in his paper Z7ber Backer und Mundschenk im Altsemitischen (Z.^ the " Istar.' who hath brought an action in the " matter of certain land against " the son of Bitu-rabi. who is attached to the service I " of Taribatum/ of which matter Behold. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith yammurabi. . where Libit-Istar belonged.M.D. 49. 42 as Ahamnuta near Larsam the name was not . ^ gis-dub-ba is the name of the class or profession to which The phrase occurs again in No. 78 two men are described as DU-GAB-ofBcials and also as mare gis-dub-ba-a. From No. where a shepherd in Hammurabi's service bears this name. Hammurabi gives instructions for i mar gis-dub-ba-ka to take command of a company of workmen. 155 if. " of [ Sin-gimlanni. From his No.). 43 we household. In Rm. ' Taribatum was an ofiScial of some importance.. J. have appointed who is scribe of the temple-bakers. ' further learn that at least one palest was attached to in No. 2. 27. Libit- [••••]> and one of the company of the gisdubba^ . title is The met with again stated to be the .— postponement of a case. That Bitu-ra-hi is to be taken as a proper name is proved by 20. 338. I have aheady " written unto thee. where a certain "' Bitu-ra-bi is mentioned as one of the recipients of a letter from Samsu-iluna. i. and that part of his duties consisted in the regulation of transport on the canals.

Beitr&ge zur officials Assyriologie. 31. to the various temples is clear from K. . 17). Demuth.Babylonian contracts (see Tallqvist. bakers attached to the temples of Ninib and Nabti (cf. is Miscellaneous Texts. 1. p. : 1. and Libit -I star. " I and am HOW despatching him (to do so). nu-ha-tim. Sm. 90 and + . "a baker. 14) and '"^'" mu bit Hi sa bit ''" IVabii (1. . 493) the expression <""«'" mu^' ia "" Samas upon Neo. the restoration tim being taken from the traces in the preceding line. "a temple baker. occurs the title '"^'" In K." which may well have been borrowed from the Assyrian." and it is evidently to this class of That bakers were attached officials that Ili-ippalzam belonged. pi. These two passages establish the equation mu =. p. When " the offerings of Ur shall be completed. 56." Ili- From the above appears that the plaintiff ippalzam was a temple baker appointed by who had But as- just been Hammurabi to the service of the offerings in one of the temples of Ur. EN-ME MU explained as su nu-ha-\Jini\. A. the king the tells trial. 24). Smith. " their case may be it concluded. iii.. 12 (cf. Assyrian Deeds and Documents. col. 1.).e.44 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. i. v (Rev. p. plaintiff and the two defendants Babylon Obv. 25.. 1. 382. in which two witnesses are termed '""^'" mu bit "" Ninib (Rev. Zimmern cites the Aramaic nahtoma. " to (prepare) the offerings in the city of Ur. Johns. 420) refers to similar in the service of the Sun-god. For the meaning of the word nuhatimmu. Die Sprache der Contracte Nabu-na' ids. thou that " shalt send with " him unto Babylon Sin-gimlanni the parties to his suit. 4395 MU hit-ili. S. his -presence during the hearing of the case in Babylon would have interfered with the execvition of his duties at Ur. Sin-idinnam that he has decided to postpone and that he wishes him to to send both the later on.

ki ta i - - am as - ik - bu - ku - - pu e - ra ma am - na - - an na ni bu - ru i- - um a ra - it - ta - la - - ak 20 dub ki bi an- a am - na ma ri - ma as pu - - ak im 20 ku ''" ^ Se akil damkare*' Sin ib ga-du-um 1800 GUR-/«< u 19 ma-na kaspi XS-su ''" Sin akil damkari mu . No.mu ] na kaspi - na Bdbili'^' ra - \_di] - im - ma ] im. ma . 57. Mus.''" ra • ma ma as - sum Sin akil damhare^' damkare^' jW ga-du 5 um - 800 GU R sa samassammu uig ma-na \_kaspi'\ U-su - u '* - Sin m. [fl - na ''" 5]2« - .. No. pi. wa i ar a - ki ni eil - ri li - 15 ik - Rev. [Brit. SUMMONS OF TWO REVENUE-COLLECTORS TO BABYLON AFTER HARVEST.mu ib .i - din - - nam - ki - bi bi - \um'\ ma Se 1 Ha am . 45 XIX. Edge.ta . 23. Obv.u - us - ta - al akil 5 ga u a ID - du 7 um ma 1800 - OUR ta sa la [ \sain\assam.ha-ri-im it u ta - [ ti - su - nu ra - di 10 sa as - - pu - ra at ak ku - um um i ma ta ma ki akle^' damkare''' - na - ma - i - na - an - na bu e - bu • ru - - ma ma ma um im. Transliteration. 33.al u .130.J THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE.us .

together with eighteen " hundred gur of sesame .^ the scribe ' . and that as scribe of the merchants his Seb-Sin.— 46 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. is mentioned in this In this letter Sin-idinnam two that follow it. In the matter of the " sending unto Babylon of Seb-Sin. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith Hammurabi. is told to send him to Babylon with a large amount of seed in No. and that he has had to make up the deficit himself. It is therefore clear that he was a revenue-collector. . . 2^ ga u - du 7 - um na B]abili'^' it ] - 1800 kasf>i GUR U - su 25 su ma na ] [a\u [ tu ti - - ur su - dam nu lum ar ] ka su J - ia - ak ti - - 30 [ - nu - - ma di - 30 [ ra - [ [/i \it - su'\ - nu - ti /]/ - - [/]/ - katn \i^n ma me - ti ia] li - na ir Translation. duties consisted in collecting the taxes in the districts assigned to him. the scribe of the merchants. 30 mention is made of his complaint that he has not been able to collect certain monies due to the temple Bit-il-kittim. letter and in the .' the scribe " of the merchants. " Sin-mustal occupied a similar position to Seb-Sin it may be noted that the same amount of revenue had to be collected by each of them.seed and nineteen " manehs of silver as its " Sin-mustal. of . and also of the merchants. 16 instructions are given for his despatch to Babylon with certain money that is in his possession and in No.. ..

together with his ' eighteen hundred gur and nineteen manehs of silver as its ' .. of which matters thee. ' the scribe of the merchants. as Seb-Sin and Sin-mustal had already excused themselves from coming to Babylon. thou shalt behold I ' even as wrote aforetime unto ' thee. ' and . ' " Since now the time of harvest.. where Sin-idinnam is told to send seven men to Babylon. and with them a trustworthy [ ] let ' of thine ^ him ' come that he may appear before me. in . No.. ]. therefore. 1. . before him. and also Sin . 15 and the parallel phrase amele*' ta-ak-lu-tim in . itti is unusual. . ' 47 together with eighteen hundred our of sesame- ' seed and seven manehs of silver as its .* ' It would seem that. and thou didst write (to tell ' me of it). the together with his ' scribe of the merchants. .. Obv. 1.e. . is we will ' ' come after the harvest over. tablet. 78. * The restoration of this line is taken from No. .. 22. that they might appear " with " Hammurabi {it-ti-ia li-in-nam-ru). 15. This use of the prep... Compare the somewhat similar request in No. When. and the ' [ ." THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE. thou didst ' I have already written unto : ' reply ' The it is scribes of ihe merchants say.mustal. 41. the king wished to ensure their safe arrival. 7. i. I. the harvest is ' now this past. Rev. Behold. the matter of sending with them the ' .. ." ' After this ' fashion spake they unto thee. ' eighteen hundred gur and seven manehs of silver as its [officer] ' . thou shalt send unto Babylon Seb-Sin.

48 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. LETTER CONCERNING THE DESPATCH OF MONIES TO BABYLON. . XX.

53. 49 XXI. a - . [Brit.- kaspa us - ga as - am - ra - - am.123 . - n[i] . - - ma - am - ra - am u ul - u il - sa ki ad it - di in - na ha - kaspi bu"^' Bit - tim 10 - Ra u ip - na ri - we e - su " Gi kaspa ia - - m. a. 30. ENQUIRY CONCERNING THE MISAPPROPRIATION OF TEMPLE REVENUES.] Transliteration Obv. pi.bi kaspa 10 u sa - "" Marduk - ip-ta-na-ar- ri - kam.a Se Sin damkare^' 5 ki-a-am u-lam-mi-da-an-ni kaspi um-ma - su-u-ma .na u nim ] [ of the tablet only traces of characters are visible. No.] ] [On the Reverse 4 . Mus.THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE. ki - a - a\m fn\i - u\ lam mi da an .^"Marduk - kam. - 15 ekallu ta - ki - la - a\n - n']i 15 Edge.ir. na "" Sin bi - i - din - nam ki ma mu akil - um '" - ma ib - Ha "" - am.. No. ma ] ga-am-f\a-d\m ti u-ul i\t\-t\a. 23.it - 5 a sa - na Bit il - ki tim Dur ga a ''" - gurgurri^' u "^"^ Idiglat - " E -nil. - ra • bi - m.

21. see —we find a complaint that Enubi-Marduk had ' laid claim to certain property on which he had and \_pamku]. : Seb-Sin. ' region round about that [paid] the full amount. ' As il kitti. ' Enubi Marduk hath laid upon the money for the temple Blt-il-kittim. ' * For the The town of Rahahu city of Diir-gurgurri. with this meaning. " the god of justice. The town was probably situated not far from the city of Larsam. hath reported : unto me.— ' so LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. p.Marduk hath laid hands upon the . 18 (X). . The phrase also occurs in the proper name is . 26 Hammurabi— No. note 2. 46 (XXXVII). Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi.^ which is due from the city of Dur-gurgurri ' - hands ' ' ' ' and from the (region round about the) Tigris. where orders are given that one hundred and eighty labourers are to be sent to assist the workmen there." was a title of Samas. Why [ . In another letter of above. ' money for the temple city of Bit-il-kittim. and he hath not rendered the full sum and Gimil .' ' But the palace hath After this ' exacted the full sum from " fashion hath he reported unto me. is mentioned in No. which is ' due from the Rahabu* and from the city. p. usually occurs in III i. Translation. the scribe " of the " saying " " " " " " " " " " ' merchants. followed by ma pan or ana pan it is here followed by the preposition ana only. and he hath not me. we may probably see in bit-il-kittim a name for the great temple of the Sun-god at Larsam. The verb Apil-il-kittum. see above. .

control exercised this letter furnishes title Bit-il-kittim evidence of the the great temples. although the mortgage had been re- deemed. the Bit bum nidinit sarri and the Bit sutummu sarri indicate the close connection of the temple . 14 if. revenues with those of the king.® ^ It is also possible that Enubi-Marduk and Gimii-Marduk were collectors of revenue in certain districts. From the present letter also lent it may perhaps be the security inferred that he had money on of land near Dur-gurgurri and in the district of the Tigris . and^that it was their duty to hand over the amounts they collected to Seb-Sin. See Tallqvist. Contracte Nabu-nd'ids. his instructions broken. their superior officer. that to they were condemned to pay the taxes and punishment. 5 held a mortgage. by Hammurabi over the revenues of The Sumerian rulers of Babylonia had exercised a similar control. appear before the king for According to the explanation of the suggested above. It is however. in settlement of his claims and that he had refused to pay the taxes that were due upon the land. and their Persian successors were all probably under the control of E-babbara. and it is probable that the practice was maintained down to the latest periods of Babylonian history. Die Sprache der . ° The great storehouses at Sippar during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar II. as the Reverse of the tablet is which contained probable.' GimilMarduk's action with regard to the taxes due from Rahabu may be explained in a similar way. Nabonidus.1 THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE. the temple of the Sun-god the names of two of them. that he had possessed himself of the crops . How Hammurabi dealt with these two men cannot be gathered from the letter. pp.

26.J LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 72. No. LETTER CONCERNING THE CUTTING OF ABBA-TREES FOR USE BY THE WORKERS IN METAL.234. Mus.'3^. pl. [Brit. a - . Obv. Transliteration.. No. XXII.

" . or barges. "The /. ' For the and * Literally. . there be . 21. note 2. Dec. 1. or one-half. or three ells.e. to four ells. which down in the forest. and measuring in length from two " ells. LI. and not to the abba-tre. 661)." ' Literally. . Bezold. Ij330> Obv. Classified List. Proc. of a dagger. gam occurs again with the explanation si-ik-rum sa patri. Soc. No." that si-M-ir is to be identified with the word =:si-ik-ru (Briinnow. each piece " consisting of one-third. . plate i. " look to it that " they shall cut among the aida-trees. in 83-1-18. And three " hundred pieces of a66a-wood in a ship ' " unto Babylon let them bring. let them find for thee. "let them not cut down a tree which is dead in its forest. Bibl. " green wood. s3 Translation.s. see above. Handworterbuch. Arch. that is well -grown. and Delitzsch. . 20 (cf. " be." It is therefore possible that the a33a-wood was required by the metal-workers for the fittings of weapons. p...^ and wheresoever they may . " not any tree which is dead * (only) vigorous " trunks ^ shall they cut down.wood. ^ MA-Ni-UM is the ideogram commonly used at this period for ships of transport. p. And see that " they bring these pieces of adda-wood speedily. : The adda-wood for " the for the metal-workers in the city ' " of Dur-gurgurri. 6 7 probably refer to the metal-workers. to one ka " of wood. Now . " that the metal-workers be not delayed. . col. ii. . i888. And see that they " cut seven thousand two hundred pieces of " adia.— supply of abba-wood. 1. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. ' It is possible CAM city of Dur-gurgurri.216).

J

S4

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

XXIII.

ORDER FOR THE TRANSPORT OF DATES AND SESAME-SEED TO BABYLON.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 12,855

;

pl- 35.

No.

22.

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na
-

'"'

Sin

-

i

-

din

-

nam

ki

bi
-

-

ma
-

um
a
I
-

ma
-

Ha
-

-

am
"'

mu
nu
u
at
ta
-

ra
-

-

bi

-

ma
-

nu na

um

ma
suluppa

Su

ur

ha

li

a
su

samassamnia
tar
-

5

-

ud ti

du

-

nim

dam
-

it -

amele*'

ak un
-

lu

tim

su

-

ku
u

ma
sa
-

suluppa

samassamma

li -

ad -

di

-

nu

[Several lines are missing at the end of the Obverse and at the beginning of the Reverse.]

Rev
a
-

na

\

Su
-

-

nu

-

ur

-

ha

-

li

h

-

id

di

nu

ma
sa
-

suluppa
sa
5
li

u
su
-

samassamma
nu
-

ud - du

-

ma
nim

ak

-

nu

§i •

nu

-

ma
Bdbili'"

5

a
li

na
-

tb

-

lu

-

nim


SUPPLY OF DATES AND SESAME-SEED.
55

Translation. Obv. Unto Sin-idinnam say
"
:

Thus saith Hammurabi. Behold, I am now " sending Sunurhali to collect dates and sesame" seed. Place the matter in the hands of trust-

men and see that " dates and sesame-seed [
Rev. "
"
[

" worthy

they collect the
1
]

them give (it) unto Sunurhali. And the " dates and the sesame-seed, which shall have " been collected and placed ready, ^ let them " load ^ and bring unto Babylon."
let

Little

more than
its

half the tablet has been preserved,

so that

it is

difficult to

gather the circumstances which
to

attended

despatch, and
at the

which reference was
It

probably

made

end of the Obverse.
letter

would
and

seem, however, that the

does not refer to the

collection of revenue, but to a supply of dates

sesame-seed required by the king for a special purpose.
appointed by Sin-idinnam would therefore have to procure the supplies by purchase, or by drawing from the royal storehouses in different
districts

The men

under Sin-idinnam's

control.

'

The

expression sakanie
to, to

itti,

"to place with,"

is

here used in the

sense of "to entrust ^ Or "stored."
'

commission.",
in the following letter for loading

The same verb

is

employed

grain into an empty ship or barge.

56

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

XXIV.

AN ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF CORN
TO BABYLON.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 23,145

;

pi. 63,

No.

37.]

Transliteration.
Obv.

SUPPLY OF CORN.

57

for the

....

of the cattle which are under

his

charge.

Thou
corn

shalt
let

depute

certain

overseers of cattle' and

them* hand over

Mar Uru's
-

unto

them.
it

They
into

shall

receive
ship
It

it,

and thou
it

shalt load

an empty

and cause

to

be brought unto Babylon."

may be

inferred that

Mar-Uru was
cattle

in the royal

service,
in his

and that the corn and the

which were

charge were the property of the king.

periods.

In other passages

it

is

used for the name of a class of

men

:

e.g., in

utullu

No. 3 (XLIX) reference is made to Naram-Sin, an who had lodged a complaint with the king; in No. 83
list

(a letter of Abesu') the ideogram occurs in a
re^e,

of

oflScials

beside

"shepherds," and

daian'e,

"judges"; and

in

No. 85 (another

In letter of Abesu') it is coupled with marl "sipri, "messengers." the present letter we find an utullu in charge of cattle, and in the

fragment No. z i (XXXIV) Arad-Samas, an utullu, is mentioned in connection with shepherds, and as himself possessing sheep. It may be conjectured, therefore, that the word in these passages has some such meaning as " herdsman " or " drover." ' In No. 83, 1. iz, certain sa-ud^' are mentioned in close connection with utulle, or " herdsmen " (cf. preceding note), and an indication that their duties were connected with cattle and sheep may be seen in the fact that certain of them were among the officials despatched by Hammurabi to Sin-idinnam that they might accompany him during an inspection of the royal flocks and herds Moreover, No. 39 (XXXII) contains directions for in his charge. the SA-UD-^' of the temples to set out for Babylon with Arad-Samas, the shepherd of the temple of Samas, that they might render their accounts to the king. It is not improbable, therefore, that the word should be rendered by some such phrase as "overseers of
cattle."
*

I.e.,

the

men who

are under the authority of

Mar-Uru

shall

hand over

to the inspectors

whom

Sin-idinnam shall appoint the

corn originally intended for the

cattle.

58

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

XXV.

ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF CERTAIN RAIMENT AND OIL.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 23,337

;

pi. 78,

No.

44..]

Transliteration.
Obv. aki
-

na
-

""

Sin

-

i
-

-

din

-

[nam]

bi

ma
mu
na
a
ra
-

um
dub
J
subMu
'

am ma bi an-ni-a- am
f»ssft<

Ha

-

bi
-

-

m,a

i -

ma

ri

im

subat,. .j,j(,

nahlapta
-

"^^" parsiga 5

g

. fju -

su

ma

as

- li -

sa

sab

busu
^'"

u
si

busu

im
-

-

u samna a - am Im - gur - "" Bel Rammanu - ir - su ma dam

10 su

bi
la
-

-

lam 10

a
i -

-

kam
li -

li

-

pu

-

su

-

na
is -

ib

bu
-

nim 2 u

-

ma
mi
nim

li -

ni

ku

-

Translation,

Unto Sin-idinnam say
"

:

Thus

saith

Hammurabi.

When

thou shalt

" behold this tablet, thou shalt pack up and " send the

....

-garments/ and the apparel,^

'

Possibly wrappers for the neck.

^

See Briinnow, Classified List, No. 3,293.

DESPATCH OF RAIMENT AND

OIL.

59

" and the head-bands,' and the edus Au-raiment, " and the * and the oil, for' the men " under the command of Imgur-Bel,^ and under " the command of Rammanu-irsu. See that (the " bearers) set out upon the journey (speedily), " and let

them

arrive within

two days."
etc.,

The men

for

whom

these

garments,

were

intended were possibly
works, or troops

workmen employed on public under the command of their officers
;

Imgur-Bel and

Rammanu-irsu
It

the

latter

appears
that

more

probable.'
oil

may be

conjectured

the

garments and

were not their private property,
;

but supplies which had been ordered for their use

and

it

is

not unlikely that

Hammurabi wrote

this

letter to Sin-idinnam in consequence of complaints

which had reached him from Imgur-Bel and Rammanuirsu that their supplies

had not been forwarded.'

'

Cf. the phrase par-si-gi (var. par-si-gu) sa kak-^a-di in Curt.
iv, pi.

Inscr. West. Asia, vol.

44

[51], col. v,
is

1.

33.

perhaps to be identified with the word mas-la- -u in Briinnow, op. cit., Nos. 8,112 and 8,116. " which are ° The genitive particle sa may here be rendered intended for," rather than " which belong to." * Imgur-Bel is mentioned in another letter of Hammurabi,
substantive ma-as-li-a-am

'The

No. 42 (LV). ' For similar examples of the use of husu, see above, pp. 3 and and for a discussion of the word, see vol. i, pp. xliv fF. 10 * ^Jammurabi wrote from Babylon, but the men to whom the supplies were to be sent were probably stationed in a different part
;

of the country.

6o

LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

XXVI.

ORDER FOR SHIP-CAPTAINS TO PROCEED TO BABYLON WITH THEIR SHIPS.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 23,152

;

pi. 68,

No. 40.J

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na

""

Sin

-

i
-

-

din

-

nam

ki

bi

ma
ra
-

um
a
5
-

ma
akle

Ha
^'

-

na
-

am - mu MA - NI - UM
ur
'"'^"

bi
li

-

m.a
ti
-

sa
-

ka
^

su
ki

pu

-

ma
umu
2,0^""^
-

ma
-

i
-

-

na

Addaru
-

ga
a
-

du na
ni

um
-

MA BdbiW'
ad -

NX za
di
-

-

UM

su

-

-

li -

ma
-

na - ki du -

nu im
m.a

10

pa
li -

MA
ga
is -

-

NI

UM
-

-

su
-

nu 10

am

ri
-

im
nim.

ba

tu

Rev.
15

z

-

na
na

"""

Addaru
ni
-

umu
ku
ik
-

^qKam
BabiW^'

a

li -

is -

nim
-

\

5

u
a
e
-

tap

-

pu

-

ut
-

akle*^

MA
nu
i

NI
-

h

ma
-

[ma]
sa
-

-

NI

mu
20
li

a

UM am
-

-

su

-

ka
-

UM ma l\u\- ma
-

la

su

-

u

se -

lu

-

nim
sa

a- na
la

ha
u
-

-

di

-

nim
-

as

-

pu

ra
-

la

ap

-

pa

-

tu

20 ak - [ku] nim

ma


transfer of ships to babylon.
6

1

Translation.

Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. Thou shalt send " word unto the captains of ships* that are " under thy control, and shalt bid them^ arrive
:

" in Babylon, together with their ships, " thirtieth "

on the

day of the month Adar.
(their cargoes)

measure
all

" "

their ships.
shall

On

Let them and take command of the thirtieth day of the
to say,

month Adar

they arrive in Babylon.
is

" the crews of the ships, that "

And the men
forth,'

who

travel in their ships

and go not

" shall they (straightway) cause to embark, so " that they delay not for the
"
I

....,*

of which

wrote unto thee."

For evidence of the system by which transport on
the canals was
regulated,

see the following

letter

(No. XXVII).
'

I.e.,

ships of transport, or barges.
in the translation
.
.

The sentence is broken up " and, that they may arrive
'
.

;

literally it
.

reads
.

,

let

them measure

."

17-19 I take as participial expressions in apposition to The phrase tappiit akle ma-ni-um (see below, p. 64) in 1. 16. translated literally reads "one who goeth, and in their ships is ka-lu is probably not kalu "all," but shut, and hath not an exit" (like a-li-ik and i-su-u) is to be taken as a verb, i.e., the participle The phrase seems to refer I I oi kalu "to shut in, bolt, restrain."
'

LI.

;

to the sailors

who worked

the ships, as distinguished from the
to load the cargoes

porters

who were employed

and

left

the ships

when they weighed anchor. * The same word, under the form
Rev.,
1.

ha-di-a-nim, occurs in No. 27,

6.

pi.] Transliteration Obv. XXVII. n\_a - "''" 5z]w - i - din - - nam - um um 5 ma Ha - am - " Ta n ba - turn ki a - mu am - - ra sab ma MA di - NI UM *' u u-ul ?) sa be li - a - ni ul e-pu-us td di ma ma ik .bi a am su ma i .62 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 75.288 . Mus. No.. No. [Brit. INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROVIDING CREWS FOR SHIPS OF TRANSPORT. 27. a - . 144.si Ika am nu nim ma ki bi - bi - - - 5 - MA-NI-UM^' a-na i ki-a-am [ ik-bi-a-am ] sdbam{am ki MA-NI-UM-/^a i - na ma na - an na MA - NI - UM ^' 10 .

that district " shall be appointed unto thee." or " to place one in commission. Taribatum' hath " spoken (unto me). Since the " ships have not yet been commissioned. 43. an NI - 63 zs sa ak ka a u ta - sabamiam. " hath he spoken (unto me). see above. " thy ship [ Unto the crew of J." while the verb hanu was employed with the meaning " to build a ship. If thou dost not speedily restore " the crews of the ships unto him. The crews of the " ships which my lord hath desired (?) they " have not given unto us therefore I could not " 'put the ships in commission. " will they be commissioned . p. . all " the men thou hast already assigned unto the ' at this time the phrase ma-ni-um ep&u had the meaning " to man a ship. saying." At a later period both verbs are used in the latter Sense.*' In this wise ' ' ' . Therefore. ^ It For other references would appear that to Taribatum.) ma ad an la na di MA - UM'^' nu u 25 su - i - na - - na [ ta - na ad - - di - nu me - sa am ra /]« bi - - am lam 25 [i]M ud am ma su Translation.'' when On the day on " which thou shalt behold this tablet thou shalt " hand back the crews of the ships of Taribatum " that he may commission the ships that are in " his hand. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith Hammurabi.— SUPPLY OF CREWS FOR SHIPS.

10 ff.e. ." was evidently alternative expression for a ship's crew. With the sab ma-ni-um-^' maybe compared the phrase tap-pu-ut MA-Ni-UM. " ships... for which they were held responsible." It is preferable to refer this letter to the manning rather than to the building of ships." ships for transport." were the crews of the vessels. which occurs in the preceding letter (see p. That the akle ma-ni-um were not " inspectors of ships. Hammurabi's threat to Sin-idinnam seems to imply that if he will he refuses to return Taribatum's crews to him be held responsible for the transport in Taridistrict. and that districts officers were placed of charge of separate or sections the canals. is proved by 11. and those " thou shalt ..]. whom thou shalt now assign. . it follows that the tapput akle ma-ni-um. (and) thou " shalt give the command and cause them to be " brought (unto him). as Sin-idinnam had requisitioned the men he usually employed. . It batum's may therefore be inferred from this letter that transport on the canals in Babylonia was in carefully regulated. and in accordance with this rendering the phrase sab ma-ni-um'" has been translated " crews. The an phrase sab ma-ni-um.64 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. helpers) of the captains of the ships. of the same letter..[. where orders are given for these men to take command of their ships." but "captains" of vessels. "men of the ship. 60). literally "the help ^ akli*' (i. ^ We may conjecture that Hammurabi had ordered Taribatum to prepare certain and that Taribatum had stated he was unable to carry out the order.

8.] ak at - 5 as - ku ta - - [md] um ma ma di-ki-e-im i an-ni-tum a-wa-tum bu ub du 10 sa ma-ga-al - (?) ub li tu i - su sum i - - ma sa be - na naggare^' busu ki naggare^' ma a-na ga . Mus. Obv.Hi .•.ka . WORKMEN AND No. No. a - na ''" Sin bi - i - dm r[a] [ nam ki ma ^[2] - um .ma as S - IJa - am m[u] mla] ] sum - naggare^'^ - MA sa NI UM pur - [..SUPPLY OF CREWS FOR SHIPS.] Rev. [ J ] [.ab . e\kalli c [Some lines are missing at the and at the end of the Obverse beginning of the Reverse.nim sa-bi-ir be-li a-na [ ab-si-\_ .... ^im /]« - ma-tim. 65 XXVIII.. ] -lu-di-ma i-ga-ab-bu-v[m\ 15 [ [ ak - nu m\a\ ] ] 15 /]« •• .. pi..bi 10 Ta .su sa ...••]-'««-[ si - bi - ir ekalli\_ ] S . 12.826.ki . [Brit.. 12.. INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING SAILORS.il .] Transliteration.

note 4. may be compared the sab MA-NI-UM-^'. or "men of the ship" (see above. West. certain Hammurabi had written to Sin-idinnam concerning workmen who appear to have been employed upon the building or repair of a ship. and is used with the meaning "the crew of the ship". with the phrase "^'"malahe*'. varying from 60 to s gur. No. ' The phrase tap-pu-ut ma-ni-um is evidently a parallel expression to tap-pu-ut ahU^' ma-ni-um (see above. and Sinidinnam had replied stating the difficulties that had arisen and suggesting certain measures which he will carry out if Hammurabi in approves. . 84. e. Asia." in Rev. and greater is part of yammurabi's orders are missing. vol. or ships of transport. 44—51 see further. clear that he arranges for the completion of the work and gives instructions with regard to the crew of the ship when she should be ready to be placed in commission. Inscr. p. as distinguished from fishing-vessels. 7. 6o). 62. and sometimes the capacity of a vessel is stated. pi. is given in Cun. The present letter was written answer to Sin-idinnam's request though the it for instructions.g. "sailors. . a na la tap - - pu sa ut MA [ni [ UM^ \i^d-\_ [ J a 5 ki im ] ] ] a-wa-tmn ki-ma sa li - ta-as-pur-am 5 ri-it-tim-ma '"^'" sa-nu-wn malahe^' sa ta - ""•""naggare*' u sa - AD ap KAL^' ru ma NI - tim pa - ih ha ru li ma pu su \0 ID MA UM Summary. in the following letter. ii. 11. where a ship of 75 gur (this is preferable to reading 900 gur) is mentioned.. p. 64. The ideogram ma-ni-um is frequently employed for barges. 1. A list of ships of different capacities. note 3). 2. p.66 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

Mus. [Brit. 67 XXIX. 23. 36. No.] .TRANSPORT OF TROOPS. No.. pi. 62. ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF A SHIP WITH TROOPS FROM THE CITY OF UR.144.

a u at ma - - e - am um. 12.ti \a - za - la - tim ka m. Mus.su ""A -pi'" ] "' Samas-mu-sa-lim is Ri "" ''» - Rammdnu - il - ''" Sin - Samas' . " Hu .'^^" i - na sa Arahsamna - 10 i i it - an su ni - ku za - ni - ik - ku 10 - nu - ma - iz - an - - ku li - ni - ik - ku ti nu u ti a ik ma sine*' LID-GUD-^' sa IS li '" '''" ka bi - bi - ki - id lik 1 u Na - um '"'''" - ma '''" - '"""Nannar-l Rev.u - tar "'^" - - dam.um ma na] - am " ''" mu Sin - - ra - bi - ma ma rum ud-^' 5 - a ia ba 1 guzalu sa r[a] - u sa li . ORDER FOR THE INSPECTION OF THE ROYAL FLOCKS AND HERDS. [Brit.ru . a ki - na - "" Sin - i - - din nam - bi um a S ma Ha nu ..5 68 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.] Transliteration. No. XXX. 15.li Ta "" - bu um sah - 20 u it - I ti din li - - Nin - ka za la - il li - ku zi ma zu i na tim li iz . P'. Obv.^5> No. \2.na - si - - ir A - ku ia turn " Hi "" i - din ri - nam 20 '"^"Sin u si .837.

Another letter of Hammurabi. and and let Ili-idinnam. Nabium-malik is mentioned in another letter of Hammurabi." The probably guzalu. contains orders that Taribum should be sent with certain other oflicials to Babylon into the king's presence. and Ahuiatum. They will reach thee on the " twelfth day of the month Marcheswan. 38 " (LII). No. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith yammurabi.— inspection of flocks and herds.^ and Idin-Ninsah go with thee.].* and Nannar-[ . Behold. and Samas-nasir. shalt When of the " they shall reach thee. I have com- " missioned Sin-aiabamm. them become members of thy house- " hold. 69 Translation.. 41 (XLI). and RlsRammanu." significance.. Such appears to be the meaning of pakadu in this passage. and IJurusu. . which " overseers of ' * is as cattle. No. in connection with the transfer of a paUsi to his service from that of Enubi-Marduk. and Apil-Sin. ' For the phrase sa-ud^'. and Sin-usili. " " • and Taribum. thou shalt go with them. * " and thou make an inspection " cattle " let " " " and sheep that are in thy charge." see above. " am now them (to thee). And Nabium-malik. original was a title which had and was now borne by provisionally rendered a court oflficial of high rank. p.. and Samas-musalim. note 3. lost its or " throne-bearer.'* " and the overseers of and cattle I ^ to form part of despatching " thine household. one 'throne-bearer. 57.

. Transliteration.ar 20 ] 20 "" ''" Si\n .ra am i-na a .122 . THE PRODUCTION OF THEIR ACCOUNTS. Mus. a - na - ''" Sin - i - din - nam ki - bi - um dub "' ma bi Ha an - ni - a - am . ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF FORTY-SEVEN SHEPHERDS AND FOR. pi. 49. No.- J 7P LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. ] -hu-um Ili-ma-"" 5a-[ ..ma ''" bi - ma ma im KI ri Su-un-gu-gu-um sa Nin-gir-su [ Gir-su KI ]-/« J 5 "" Is-me-^" Sin u I-bi-"" Nin-gir-su re'U "^ A-da-am-te-lum re'U re'e*' Imere*' '^"'\_ {?)-\_ 4 "" ] I .. Obv. XXXI. 29.ha. .mu . mar Hi u - am ['" ''"] Sin-l .zi-na-bu-u - mar u «"""'[ Su-mu-\_ i{li ] ] ""Ma 10 "" sa - tum 3 ""Bel- ] ''" 10 E-ri-ba-am [ Nu-ur-"" Rammdnu J [ •'" ] u ]-«>-[ ia [ ] ] 10 "" re'e*' utulli A-pil-S^'" Ri-zu-ia u A-bu-um-wa-ga-\^ J ] IS "" "* A-pil-""M'ar-tu mar Li-bi-it-Istar u Ili-ha-zi-ri '^"' Mdre*'-\_ Nu-ra-tum " La-lum-ali-ia-ma-du-um A-mur-da-an-nu-su "" u [ ] "' u L\a\-l\un{\ UG - GIM - DU '" Silli - "" - Samas /a J ""Nina Nina"" ta. No. [Brit.. 23. .

.] ] ] M^u I - - ha - ad - du - um "'" Gu . men) When thou shalt this tablet (thou shalt : send before me " the following . "" Sin-la-{ J Sin-[ . Unto Sin-idinnam say " " : Thus behold saith Hammurabi.ai5 -[... . ["* 1 7 14 utulli llu-ka - ''" Samas u [. ] ""A-ha-nu-ta'^' - "•Ma *" - ni um ''" ""Bur "" Bel'^' Ma-an-nu-um-ki-ma-^" Samas mar ''" Im-ta-ga-ar- Samas sa Samas Lars\am ^^ sa "" ''" 30 "" ''" Samas -ki-nam-i-di {?)-za-tum Larsam'^' sa Samas 30 ] "• I-M "" Ur-sag-ga [ ] 12 utulli Arad-'" Samas u Balatu\ pil '^A-pil-""Mar-tu ""Ili-i-din-nam^' " Nu-ur-li-[_ "* ] la - [/]« - rum "" A - ma .. "" ] Sitt-\_ ] "^"'UG "" GIM u DU'[ [ ] ] Ak-ba-kit-um II "^"' Idiglat Ap-lum u u - 40 rfe^' utulli Arad-'" Na-bi-um an nu tu li Ili-ub-lam tim - a - na - ma su - ah ri - ia ur dam ma su nikasa nu pu Translation.. "" In-bu-ku'^' Nu-\_ ..ga ["""' -{_ - J - 35 "' -" u]g GIM DU 35 Ili-i-ki-sa-am "" m[dr "'"•' "" ] Nu-ur-"" Nin-g\ir-su'\ . ["" d'\in ."" Is-ka-ra •" "[_ . ["" \-dam u Bitu-ra-bi [ ] ] 25 \^Na'\m-rum ""Ap-lum "" Til.— — SHEPHERDS AND THEIR ACCOUNTS.*'" Mar tu "'" [ Rev. . Edge..

. who is " Silli-Samas... and C J " Lalum all of them shepherds from the district • and • • • ..].. p. " shepherd of the say. the Mare"[. the shepherd of the city of [ ]]a (and) Adamtelum. . Lalum-alia-madum. 32). . attached to the service ' The shepherd here mentioned is probably not to be identified with the father of Arad-Samas (see 1.. No.72 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM..... " of the " " " Sungugum... four city of Imere-[ . .. No. Nuratum.. ] ..].. ] . Eribam ^ of the city of Nur-Rammanu "[. the .. and that is to " say.. who is " attached to the service of the " god [••. and Ibi-Ningirsu..]. . son of Libit . . . ]. ten shepherds from the flock of " . Masatum.» Rizuia and Abum-waga[ ..]. who also bore the name of Eribam (cf..]. " of the river [. that "is to shepherds from the district of " the river [••••]• the son of Bel-ili[ ... Ili-haziri. three shepherds " river [ from the district of the . 56 f. for another use of the word.. Apil- " Martu. .Istar.. XXXII). " Izinabu. see above. cf.. and [. ' The name should perhaps be restored as Apil-Samas. . who is attached to the service god Ningirsu at the city of Girsu Isme-Sin..] ir [ ... " In this letter utullu is clearly used with the meaning of "flock". " Sumu[ .].. .]. % (XLIX). .]• ^ "In " Apil-[ all. . and " Amur-dannusu.

... " is attached to " Ihiatum of the who service of the god Samas the city of Ursagga. " to the service of the god [. and " " Idin of . and nima-Sa[ ... . "In " ]hum. the son of attached to the service the city of Imtagar-Samas.. . .... Gub[ [ ... * ' On the It is .. who is attached ..]. "In " all. 39 (XXXII) we learn that Arad-Samas was a shepherd of the temple of the Sun-god at Larsam. " Nur-li[ . note 2. 42 (LV). " Apil.. . .. all of them shepherds from the " district of the river . . .. SHEPHERDS AND THEIR ACCOUNTS... who " of the god Samas at Larsam . " of the city of Inbuku " of the city of " of " Nu[ Ahanuta*. p.. . (and) Apil-maga- "[. ] ] Bitu-rabi* [•••] [••. J .]..Bel . all. the son of Ili-amtahar Sin- "[. Namrum Aplum of the city of Til-Ishara ...]. " of the " Sin-[ 73 goddess Nina at the city of Nina . " Samas-klnam-idi of the city of Larsam. Manium of is ] the city Bur. Martu of the "[. jdam. lasarum ... From the present letter it may be inferred that he and Balatu-[ ] were placed in charge of a number of the flocks owned by the temple.]. probable that the city here referred to is the same as that styled A-ha-am-nu-ta in No.. . see above.. twelve shepherds from the flock of Arad-Samas® and Balatu-[ .•] .. Muhaddum - of the city of city .. .Martu of the city of Ili-idinnam .. 43.. fourteen shepherds from the flock of " Iluka-Samas and [.. .. Mannum-kima-Samas.].. ^ From No. name Bitu-rabi.]..

68) it may be inferred that the governors of the larger cities were held responsible for those cattle and sheep which were pastured in the districts under their control.. which were placed in the charge of shepherds and herdsmen and were distributed throughout the country. for who the administered the sacred revenues . etc." From were in we gather that the shepherds charge of the flocks owned by the great in temples the land rendered their accounts direct to the king.... which naturally afforded them the best pasturage. . of the goddess Nina at the city of Nina. . eleven shepherds from the flock of Arad-Nabium and Ili-ublam. great part of the sacred and royal revenues was doubtless obtained from flocks and herds.. .' 74 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. From No. Sin-la[ " (and) Sin-[ .. the son of " Ningirsu . " These shepherds shalt thou send presence that they this letter into my who " may render their accounts.]. . Akbahum from [ .. of the Sun-god at the city of Larsam. p. . all ] [••••]... It may in be noted that the various flocks were distributed districts along the banks of the principal rivers. NurSin-[ . . .. among shepherds who are to be sent to Babylon are those who had charge of the flocks belonging to the temples of the god Ningirsu at the city of Girsu..].. XXX (see above. " Ili-ikisam. of them shepherds and Aplum of " from the " district of the river . the Tigris ]. ' The name ' A of the city may perhaps be restored as G[ir-su'*^^].' " the city of "In " all.

No. pi. 39. [Brit.] Transliteration.148. \_a - no] - ''" Sin - i - din nam \ki'\ bi [urn ma] Ha ] - am -^^ - m.u i-na ra bi - ma ma \dub-bi'\ 5 [ an-ni-a-am a-ma-ri-im bitdti*' SA la - UD sa Hani*' $ \ka\ - su - nu ''" [u] Arad-'" [sa-] Samas mar E-ri-ba-am re'u sa hit Samas . 75 XXXII. No. 66. SUMMONS OF TEMPLE-OFFICIALS TO BABYLON THAT THEY MAY RENDER THEIR ACCOUNTS. 23. Obv. Mus.TEMPLE-OFFICIALS AND THEIR ACCOUNTS..

together with all who is under thy their accounts. and he was thus enabled to control the accounts which the shepherds and herdsmen presented to him from time to time. See that " they travel by night and by day. but the revenue from the temple-lands was also administered by him this is clear from a letter of Samsu-iluna (No. And " thou shalt despatch them unto Babylon that " they may render their accounts. thou shalt cause " bring unto thee " cattle ' them to [." In the indications preceding letter (No. 49) which deals with the corn for the temple of the Sun-god at Larsam. From No. the son of Eribam. : When all thou shalt " behold this tablet. and " Arad-Samas. 51). and the present letter furnishes additional proof that this was the case. appears that the king used to appoint some of his own oflScers to accompany the governors on their tours of inspection. . " control.^ For a discussion of the rendering of this title..] the overseers of attached to the temples of the gods.. but the task of inspecting the cattle and sheep was carried out by the governors of districts. XXX it ' * Not only were the . flocks and herds of the temples under the control of the king. p. 57. p. see above. that XXXI) there were the king himself controlled the revenues of the great temples of the land.— 76 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. and reach " Babylon within two days.. It is clear that the shepherds and herdsmen in charge of the royal stock had to render their accounts in person to the king at Babylon. Unto SIn-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. Translation. and from a letter of Hammurabi (XXI) concerning the misappropriation of temple revenues (see above. the shepherd " of the temple of Samas.

15. y7 XXXIII. No. 25. Obv. No. Mus. 41. [Brit.THE SHEARING OF SHEEP.329 .] Transliteration.. pi. \a - na . ORDER FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF ADDITIONAL SHEEP-SHEARERS.

]. Nos.^" important part of the royal revenue consisted and it is not surprising that we should find Hammurabi making detailed arrangements for the sheep-shearing from the letters of Ammizaduga. to tear (the beard). Its derivative bukumu. is here used with the meaning " to shear " sheep.' ' But the men who have been appointed unto us for the sheep-shearing are too few for the sheep.. it may be inferred that the sheep-shearing of wool.— 78 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. . to be completed. ' Sin - idinnam hath given us one " " ' company (?) of men for the sheep -shearing. Mendlbum. The present letter deals with a complaint brought by certain shepherds against Sin-idinnam. An Babylon was a function of some importance and was attended by the governors of other cities. and Masparum have written. Translation. it an additional proof of the readiness with which Hammurabi received and remedied the complaints of subordinate officers in his service. who had at not sent furnishes them sufficient shearers for their flocks . that the shearing may be "finished." is also found in several letters of Ammizaduga (cf.. 50-54)" It is clear from the context that the meaning " to be finished. Thou shalt therefore appoint a strong body of speedily " men." etc..." is to be assigned to the Nifal of kamdsu. : " saying. ' The verb hakamu. " to tear oflF. " sheep-shearing. moreover. . Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi.' " " " ' ' After this fashion have they written. Bel" da[ .

" of Larsam mentioned in Nos. 56 f. unto the " shepherds for [ . No. 12. Mus. Arad-Samas. . p. Transliteration. PART OF A LETTER CONCERNING ARAD-SAMAS AND [Brit. Obv.^ [hath the fourth part of ] " the sheep.. which belong to him. XXXI f. ' For is this Samas styled an utullu. : . J 79 XXXIV. No. . .. see above. or " shepherd." . HIS SHEEP. .— THE SHEARING OF SHEEP. ].. As Aradis probably not to be identified with the n^u.852 pi. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. The few lines of this letter which are preserved do not indicate the nature of Hammurabi's instructions with regard to Arad-Samas and his sheep. a ki - na "" Sin - i - din - n[a7n'\ bi uni "" ma - Ha Samas - - am sa mu - ra - bi - ma ma ] A rad - /'" utullu sene*' [ 5 ri ib - ba a - tim ra - 5 sa sa e - ma re'e*' - ni [ - su J ] li [ a [ na 1 [The rest of the letter is missing.] Translation. the " herdsman. 34. 21.. he rendering of utullu.

' 8o LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. XXXV. . 74. No. see below. pi.a - ra - ma ma «/ S LID 5 - u J sene*' sa\_ [ [ [ ra - \- ba - si ka ]] li - a e ¥ra ]si - - as [ mu ] 10 a sa i d[i LID . 27.ti ma - - [ ] J Edge. No. [ Rev. Only a few words of the letter have been preserved. a na UKU - us - [ ] bi li - ki iz - id - ma - zu ru si - LID t.J Transliteration.260 ..[gud^' 10 u sene^' - ri\a . GUD ^' u i - sene^' si - na - ti '^ la ih - hi ra Summary. Mus. but it is clear from the reverse of the tablet that Sin-idinnam is directed to see that they are properly cared for. [Brit. Obv. In this letter Hammurabi gives instructions to Sin- idinnam with regard to certain cattle and sheep. DIRECTIONS FOR THE TENDING OF CATTLE AND SHEEP. " that the cattle and sheep may not be diminished." ' For the ideogram uku-tjs. [« - nal - ''" Sin - - i - - din - - nam bi - \ki'\ - bi [u-m\ ma GUD^' Ha am - mu m. 142.

ORDER FOR THE TRANSFER OF A COMPANY OF WORKMEN FROM THE CITY OF LARSAM. No.J TRANSFER OF WORKMEN. No. 8l XXXVI. Transliteration.825. Mus. Obv. 12. 7. a - . pi.. [Brit. 11.

pi. . . or " labourers.. Behold. For his earlier reading zabiluti. a ki - na ''" Sin - i din nam.^ See that one hundred and eighty " of these labourers serve with the workmen " of the city of Larsam. Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith Hammurabi.. [L. 8o.]- tu il - li ku{?) Translation. The epiluti doubtless refer to the same class of men as the sah e-bi-is-tum mentioned in Nos.ti u 3 su- si e -bi - - zu." [. 46. 4 (VII) and 7 (XXXVI).— 82 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. however." were of a lower grade than the episuli. bringing bricks to the builders. and one hundred and " eighty of them with the workmen of the town " of Rahabu. I am now " despatching unto thee three hundred and sixty " labourers.ti ak e - ku bi - S su si zdbiluti^' zu - tim "*"' sa Larsam zabiluti^' it ." and were employed for carrying away earth in baskets. xxxvir.tim bi"" sa 10 li - "'" Ra - - ha pu bu - su 10 li - [. ' It is probable that the zahiluti. hi - - ma mu su - um a 5 Ha ma um ma tar - - am 6 ra si hi - nia zdbiluti^' at 3 da it . or " workmen.. Transliteration Obv.]. let them go. Dangin has since suggested the reading THALktA-i-L*^ {cL Zeils. No.. etc.fiir Assyr. p. xii.] . 273').. LETTER ANNOUNCING THE DESPATCH OF LABOURERS TO LARSAM AND DIRECTIONS FOR THEIR EMPLOYMENT...

pa-tu.862. No. 8.] - Rev. . 83 XXXVIII. 45. note s- . na "" Sin - i - din - nam bi - ki bi um dub 5 ma bi am an.DESPATCH OF LABOURERS AND SLAVES.ni.ar - gis - ka^ I li . .am.im i - tu lO u i [ NAM-IO-^ na 10 GUR li-il-ki-a-am-ma Simanu end of umu tlie ^'^^ ] [Some lines are missing at the at the Obverse and beginning of the Reverse. note " For an explanation of this ideogram.dam su - pa I - ni dupsikki - a ba - ti m. pi. see above. Mus.nim di a ak Other references to 3. [Brit.im .is - tu 10 SU KASKAL^ I '"'*" arhi elip ri - gi. p. [mla i-na - ah - ri i[a ] i sab - dupsikki su-a-ti ""'""[ . . this class of officer are given on p.lam da - an - - nam ma - tu ur - TUR mar dam 5 u sa ha as I ^""^ umu ' la nim ku pur u-la-ap.. No. a - . 15. PART OF A LETTER CONCERNING THE TRANSPORT OF SLAVES.J Transliteration Obv. ] sa dupsikki su si -ip - ra. . . 43. 27.a. sab sa dupsikki-ka li-ti-ka u sab it-ti dupsikki sa sab - bi-ir-[ . sab i-te-ne -ip dub ba - EDIN (?)-TA si .am - Ha - mu i- - ra • • ma ma - na a ma - ri im . ] SU la S GE in - u nam - id .

. . . e-hp ha-mes-se-rit gur-ri (or gur-rum) one of 10 gur. them from the work on which they have been engaged. that is to say. 66. but the name which they are to be taken was is place. or ships. one of 15 gur.^ first GUR They are to arrive at their destination on the of the day of the month Sivan. e-lip ha-mil-ti gur-ri. . . In this letter Hammurabi ' bids Sin-idinnam send him certain of the slaves is that are under his control. e-lip e-se-rii gur-ri. e-lip es-ra-a. . note i. e-lip Jia-an-m-a one of 40 GUR. who is to take to He arrange for their transport in a ship. e-lip ir-ha--ia (or ir-ba-d) one of 30 gur. 66 e-lip su-us-su (or su-us-se) one of 50 gur. p." and shall carry out his other instructions without delaying a single day. of ten capacity. as in the list of ships referred to on from that list we learn that a ship of 6o gur was termed p. e-lip "se-la-sa-a one of 20 GUR. . and from the present letter it is clear that they were yoked together in companies for transport. ' The sab dupsikki were among the lowest class of labourers they were compelled to do forced service for the king. yoke them together. * For this method of reckoning the size and capacity of ships. In the present letter the usual ideogram ma is employed. and one of 5 GUR. and place them under the command of one of his officers. Their capacity was reckoned by the gur. by the amount of grain measured by the gur which they were capable of carrying. 84 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. now that The letter ends with the request Sin-idinnam shall send Hammurabi " a strong man. see above. . Summary. to contained in the portion of the letter which missing.

O. .109 .147. DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE PROPER TREATMENT OF LABOURERS. 85 XXXIX..M. No. Obv.77-1 Transliteration. pi. No. [I. 1.SLAVES AND LABOURERS.

PART OF A LETTER CONCERNING THE HIRE OF LABOURERS. XL. .86 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.

153 .]e.im ] u a - ''"Sin is - a - ni ?>^' na - Babi\li^'~\ - Rev. 70.. No.am - Ha - mu i - ra - \bi - - ma'\ -na [« ma . ..ri-i~\m [gab] iddina 5 "'[Amell^ "'"" '" ""Sin - DU napisti - - Nannar Ta Sin - ri - bu [um] " "' ''" ma - - gir ahu - . Mus. . No. Obv. Transliteration. 87 XLI. . tu it ur ti - da ia as li - - su in - - nu - ti - nam - - ru l^ u i - - na i]t - ta ra - di - ka is - l^ m[i l[a ha - ri - to] tar ra - da as - su nu - ti «-[. a ki - na "" Sin b[i - [i - din - nain] ma\ um 5 ma bi dub - am an-ni-a.J DESPATCH OF MEN TO BABYLON.."" Sin is also possible..] tu - a-me-lam a-na - ra-ma-ni-su ur ' The restoration " \_Mi-ii\i. AN ORDER FOR THE SEPARATE DESPATCH OF SEVEN MEN TO BABYLON. [su] . [Brit. 23. pi. Ap luin mar turn - Si im - ti - \_ ] - ni 10 "' A-bi- ia mar me - la [ - a\k -ri. 41.

or. see No. " Abiatum the son of laKrem. p. : When thou shalt " behold this tablet thou shalt send unto " Babylon Amel-Sin the DUGAB-officer/ Nannar" napisti . 96 f. 46 f. see also. but each man shalt thou despatch " by himself. " that they may appear (or be seen) with me. . In No. .. is probably not to be identified with the Aplum of this letter. I. " may appear before me. * Literally. p. p. so that the circumstances under which the letter was written cannot be determined. 7. Taribum/ Sin magir* his " brother.— 88 letters from hammurabi to sin-idinnam. 27. 29. itti. . ' The shepherd named Aplum. note ' by Hammurabi Taribum is mentioned among the men appointed accompany Sin-idinnam during his inspection of the royal flocks and herds thus it would appear that he held a post of some importance among the officials at Larsam. The king's object in giving the order for their separate despatch may have been to avoid attracting attention.iddina.^ And when thou " shalt send them thou shalt not send them " together. that they . . if the men were required as witnesses in a case. . who is mentioned on No. prep. and Sin-ismeani " the man of the city of [ ]ir." For this use of the what was probably another instance of see above. * For another mention of Sin-magir and Sin-ismeani. * For a discussion of the duties of the DU-GAB-ofBcer.." these Hammurabi does not state his reason for wishing seven men to be despatched separately to Babylon. to . 1. Aplum ^ the son of Simti[ .. to prevent collusion. Unto SIn-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. see above. 15. ]ni. I3(L1II). Translation.

Obv. Transliteration. 31.. 55. 23. 89 XLII. pi. No. a - na .J SUMMONS TO BABYLON.127 . LETTER SUMMONING A MAN FROM LARSAM BEFORE THE KING. Mus. [Brit. No.

a ki - na - '"' Sin - i - din - nam bi - bi - urn ma bi i Ha na - am an - mu ni - ra - ma ma atn dub S a - a ni - ma ri - im 5 "'Mi u - ''"^amas^ Nu - - ur . XLIII.im 10 Larsam ^' - wa li - - bu - pur te - it - ru - ni - ik ti - - ku il- su IS isli - - nu ta ma ma ' ka 15 en ki - // - ki • a - - as - su as - nu su - ti - ma - a li na ir - Babili"" di a - - - nu ti ' The name Mi-ni-''" Samas also occurs in No.M.. LETTER SUMMONING TWO MEN FROM LARSAM TO BABYLON. This is probably the reading of the tablet.] gis i - du dub - - gab-'"^ mare*' - ba - a '^' 10 sum sum ka su - ma m. .] Transliteration..a i - na na na we as sa lis Larsam . 148.90 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 92."" Nin -[.e . . This use of the particle ma is unusual as sunuh' is placed after the verb that governs it. No. pi. a letter of Abesu'. [I.O. 78. the particle attached to the verb is ' ' . repeated..

Another letter of Hammurabi. For the phrase mar gisdubba. 1. 36. thou shalt send for Mini- " officers Samas and Nur-Nin[ . " in whom thou hast confidence.^ " " " may be to it dwelling. No. 4. 33 (XIX). 7. is Nin\_girsu'] the latter perhaps to be restored as Nur-Nin[tb']. For the duties of the DUGAB-officer. in the whether it be in the city of Larsam or let neighbourhood thereof. p. take them and to Babylon. Sin-idinnam to put he can rely. * ' 29.* the dugab^ and members of the company of the wheresoever they " gisdubda. and a man. No. for he gives directions to prevent their escape in . see above." " bring It them would seem that the two men.]. Hammurabi requests Sin-idinnam to send a trustworthy ofhcer in their company. the charge of an officer on whom some importance. .— summons to babylon. whom Hammurabi had is in this letter summons to Babylon.3. it is clear that they were people of . in some way them incurred the wrath of the king. qi Translation.. bring these Look that they men unto thee.. contains a similar request made in very similar circumstances when summoning to Babylon two revenue-collectors who had already excused themselves from appearing before him. or Niirname occurs as that of a shepherd in p. * The name . Unto Sin-idinnam say " " " : Thus behold saith Hammurabi. From the fact that the two men in the present letter are termed DUGAB-ofificers. When thou shalt this tablet. see above..

92 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 56. Obv.J Transliteration. [a - . No. A SUMMONS TO BABYLON.129 . pi.. 23. No. [Brit. Mus. 32. XLIV.

title MU (= nuhatimmu). pi.] Transliteration. Translation. is " a baker.— SUMMONS TO BABYLON. : When is thou shalt " behold this tablet. 35. Obv. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi." see above. " Apil-Samas. . A SUMMONS BEFORE THE KING. the scribe of the " [ ]•" company of the ' For the explanation of the f. a - na *'" Sin - i - din - nam ki bi ma mu i ti - urn ma bi - Ha an - - dub 5 '" ni - a am am ra - hi - - m. 3 (XLIX) man here referred to. No.a ri ^ - im 5 Hi ma it ti MU pit ''" A sa akil iz - - Samas '"' " Ilu ka . probably to .. Mus. the baker. [Brit. p. 43 ^ note 5. 93 XLV. 61. be identified with the The Apil-Samas mentioned on No. No.^ me who and who is in the service of at present assisting " Iluka-Sin.136 .. ]-KU^' zlju] sa - az - 10 a tu na ma - ak - r[i - i'\a 10 ur dam. - Stn '""'"{_ .a - na a m. 23. thou shalt send before " Ili-mati.

Transliteration. 140.at -ru. Mus. [a - na - '"' S]m - i - - din - [narn] [ina] M? \as'\ ii - [u]7n ma sum Ha . pi. KING. No.250.da - as - /«] - dub " \o a ni - a - am bi i - - na a - ina ri - im E - nu na '" - Marduk «[«] ma - ah - ri - 10 tu[ ur {dam] ]• Rev. 26.am mu '" - ra - - bi - \jna\ - E • - nu - bi - "'" Marduk - 5 [«] \as - na ma - ah - ri ia t\a ra'] - di \im\ ku] 5 pur mi.J 94 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.nim an - - ak [a - na] bi - l\a - ta. Obv. . No. 73. XL VI.. AN URGENT SUMMONS BEFORE THE [Brit.

had laid claim to it.^ He is mentioned in another letter. and Sin to send Enubi-Marduk to Babylon for punishment. No. and that he arrive speedily.]. : I wrote unto thee into " bidding " presence. then. that his summons reference Babylon the present letter was in some charge which had been brought against him. On that occasion certain men had complained to Hammurabi that EnubiMarduk.idinnam to put the matter right. and when the Palace exacted the full sum from him. the also with reference to a complaint. thou shalt " presence " night send Enubi-Marduk into my [. 30 (XXI). revenue-collector. 95 Translation. 26 f. had been unable to collect his full amount of revenue. from Look to it that he travel and day. and here Seb-Sin. in therefore. who had held certain property of theirs in pledge. and another. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith yammurabi. p..— summons to babylon.. ' ^ See above. See above. he complained to the king that his deficit was due to the dishonesty of Enubi-Marduk had .^ to to It is probable." to Another letter Hammurabi Sin-idinnam contains directions that Enubi-Marduk shall be sent into the king's presence. although their pledge been redeemed and Hammurabi instructed . 49 fF.. . pp. " sent thee send Enubi-Marduk thou shalt my not this Wherefore. hast ? thou him When behold " tablet.

828 .i\u - [ma'] . Rev. No. XLVII. pu na ra - am is . Mus. . . REBUKE FOR SENDING TWO MEN OF ERECH TO THE KING AT BABYLON. a - na ''" Sin - i - di\n - nani] ki bi - ma mu ra - um "• ma - Ha u - am [ka] b\i "" - maj ia 5 Ilu Samas bab^' KI-^' 5 li - Bi bu «».5 96 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. a ^^ si ri - \ka it - ta - - ru - [niml \_du - 1 ki a - am BAB ru [ - u - lam ''" a - na mi . Obv. pi. No. lb- gu . 12.< UNUG in sa ki 10 - it - ti - ia nam - - ru ni a um is [ am ma Sin - u - lam - mi nu din - du su i - ma nam 10 "" Edge.ni - .?/» /[«] . ]. [Brit. B^B - «„«.nim - I\lu mi Samas - ni - u Bi li ia] '""'"' SU BAB^' [""^'"UNUG [ni - KI^' - 2^ - in ni I 20 ki ir li - 20 si - [ p\i- . lo..] Transliteration. 16.

' Sin-idinnam ' hath sent and they have brought our [ . not clear for what reason these It men had been sent not improbable to Babylon. * 22. note 4.e.. Unto Sin-idinnam say " " : — Iluka-Samas ^ Thus saith Hammurabi: and Bilia.. for the form of the expression cf. i. of the guardians of the wall ^ and men " of the city of Erech. and p.. No. 70. 1. saying. " (oflficer or guardian) of the wall" (cf. No. that it is the king ordered their return. Briinnow. 7 .' " and have " " ' made a report. and that they accompanied the bearer of this letter to Sin-idinnam. and as the of the letter containing the king's instructions are broken. p.' [. p. guardians of " the wall '' and men of Erech. may be conjectured. 88. ""'""su-bab-bab is explained in a list by the phrase sa u-ma-si. have appeared before me. note 6. as the Ilulia-Samds (written Ks-ka-*'" Samas) occurs in name of one of Hammurabi's chief shepherds (see above. See above. ' The name 2g. however. (unto me) ? Let ].092) title .•••] " fashion have they reported. Why have they " brought Iluka-Samas and Bilia.arrival of men from erech. The Assyrian ^ title '""^" ia-ris." them [ As and it is the report made to Hammurabi by Iluka-Samas last three lines' Bilia is imperfect. the Classified List. 47. 97 Translation. 7. J from After this unto thee.

. XLVIII.848 . DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN MEN TO THEIR FORMER EMPLOYERS. Obv. No. 26. 43. Mus. [Brit.^8 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. a - na ''" Sin bi - i - din - nam bi - ki urn - ma - Ha ma ik - - am - mu - ra - - ma ma is - " 5 ''" Sin gir ki - a am DUR-^' i - bi - a am - um - - ma - su ti - ma ia 5 KA sa sa ga ni ik na an nu - ka - be - - li - ia ka '" /" - ku uh u - nim sa - mar a - 10 a - na - rlduti^' il li - ki - im. 15.] Transliteration. hi - i ti - im um ki - ia - al su - a - am ik bi - nu a - - am a . No. pi.

-^' had been assigned under the king's seal to Sin-magiris indicates that they occupied it is possible that they were employed on manual labour see above. ^ The fact that the men styled ka-dub. L. and who were assigned lord's seal. roi f. 99 Translation. 24. and Althabylonisches Privatrecht. both in this letter and in No. above. see above. being used as a synonym of kunukku of." ' On the name Sin-magiris. . The ideogram uku-us is met with list in contracts as a it title following a proper name.' After this fashion " hath " he made his report. note i. p.' (unto me) under my hath Inuh- 'samar* handed over unto the riduti^ and ' " unto different control. : — Sin-mag-iris ' hath " reported (unto me)." In contracttablets of this period it is frequently employed with these meanings. In a of words is explained as . p. . for he was selected by the king to convey the goddesses to Sin-idinnam from Babylon see . ° The word kaniku. probably has the meaning " seal " or " sealed document. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi. He must have held an important position. a subordinate position. Why hast thou handed over unto the riduti and unto different the icadur " control who were assigned (unto " Sin-magiris) under my seal ? The kadur who by the " are under the control of Sin-magiris " authority of my seal. p. shalt thou restore unto him. 'The kadur^ are ' who " " " in my hand. p. saying. ' The ofiHcer Inuhsamar is mentioned again by Hammurabi in one of the letters referring to the goddesses of Emutbalum. Meissner. 89. ' 1 1.THE TRANSFER OF EMPLOYEES. and whom thou hast " taken.

ri-du-u sa sabe^' •we (cf.etc. or directors of the public slaves. p. We may therefore connect the military service. 91-5-g. may be seen in a . «"»f'" us) alpi. wrongly handed over by Sin-idinnam to the taskmasters. the title uku-us would be the participle St. and Arad-Bunene's answer in 1.lOO LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. and would imply a captain of troops or a driver of slaves. oxen. title with public slavery rather than with . "a drover of rid). 17 f. that the governors of cities and high officials. Texts. i-na ridiiti*' u-ul a-al-la-ak il-ka sa bit a-bi-ia a-al-la-ak). and it is clear that he had no desire to serve under the rlduti {zL 1. should have been only too ready to avail themselves of any excuse to swell the ranks of the public slaves. ri-du-u may take as the verb ridii. as it may be compared to the expressions rid (i. part vi) this document is concerned with the employment of a slave named Arad-Bunene. 12 f. must have required an enormous amount of labour. Bu. when in need of labour for the public works. worterbuch. It is not surprising. No. the building of walls and fortifications. Classified List. 6. deal with complaints which have been made to the king that men It is of various classes and occupations have been rlduti. therefore. el-li-ta ab-bu-ut-ia-ka gu-ub-laba-af ta-al-la-ak i-na ridUti*'. suggested below (note 5) that the rlduti were The time numerous public works undertaken at this throughout the country.960) to rule. Handor fidu 613). Briinnow. (see Delitzsch." . and the three which follow it. This letter. such as the cutting and repair of canals." etc. document." rid gammale. and in that case of the verb {ridil.. constr.. " a camel-driver. 419 (see Cun. A further indication that uku-us indicated a taskmaster legal or director of the public slaves.e.. " to drive. Of these two renderings the latter is preferable..

il - te - ir - ^ These two lines should possibly be restored \j-na-an-na'] E-nu-bi. pi. 12. . 4.. DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE RESTORATION OF CERTAIN MEN TO THEIR FORMER EMPLOYERS. 3. a - na "" Sin - i - din - nam ki uin "' - bi ma - ma - Ha ra ik - am - mu Sin - ra bi [tn]a utull\u'\ Na - am bi - ''" 5 ki a - - am a -'am sa um ga - ma ta - su ti - - ma ni 5 K. Transliteration.816 . No.J ' TRANSFER OF EMPLOYEES. Mus. No.""Marduk u a-me-li-e \di-ki'\-i-ma. Obv. [Brit. lOI XLIX.\ BAR^' a ki - na ridiiti*' um ik - - al lu - u a - - am busu bi a - "'" am Samas "" KA 10 [« [ [ - BAR^' A Na la - - pit - u n'\a rlduti*'' ] ra am ma u " ^ " - - Sin 10 lu - u - al - u E-nu-bi-"" Marduk ] a-me-li-e '^'^ ''" [ICA 15 - b]ar \f' sa\ A Na - - pil - - Samas ''" u sa li - ra am ku - - Sin u ru 1 5.

' and the kabar shalt " of Apil-Samas and Naram-Sin. shall whom they " they restore (unto them). one of the rlduti. see above. 26 f. or directors of public slaves. Nos. ' It is possible that in place of a-me-li-e we should read A-me-li-e.— LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. p. 56 ' evidently refer to a body of men who were working under the orders of Naram-Sin and Apil-Samas the word does not seem to be connected with the ideogram ka-bar-ra (^z^picpM and pu ussuj-u. cf. 6." letter. see above. XLV. 49 ff. " 'The kabar' who were our hands have " 'they " this fashion hath " " " " handed over unto the riduti. ^ Thou Enubi-Marduk have taken. Briinnow. kabar them not hand over unto the rlduti the * that are under the control of Apil-Samas and Naram - Sin. As in the preceding discuss the reasons which Sin-idinnam for transferring these Hammurabi does not may have had men to the rlduti.). f. Apil-Samas is probably to be identified with the man of the same name mentioned in No. Unto Sin-idinnam say " Thus saith Hammurabi.). He merely orders their restoration to their former employment. a proper name.. 99 f . * From this passage it may perhaps be assumed that EnubiMarduk. was. Classified List. The KA-BAR^' . saying. ' For a discussion of the ideogram u-tul {=utullu). and the [summon] men. note 5. 609 f. 1. and 94 f.. pp. the " herdsman. I02 Translation. : Naram in - Sin. * ^ On the ridilti. p. .^ hath reported (unto me). who is mentioned elsewhere in Hammurabi's letters (see above.^^ After Let he made his report. in addition to being a moneylender.

IO3 L. "* as ta ia - pur - - am - Gi - lum - sa - at se ru - da - as - - su 15 su a a "' na ma - ah ri - u - - rt. No. [Brit.tar - a na ma mil - - har ta - be - li .ra Mar tu mu . i. a - na - ''" Sin - i - din - nam bi - ki bi um as 5 - ma "" Ha lb - - am - sum ni "" sa sa as - E 4 - mu .J Transliteration.TRANSFER OF A BAKER. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF A BAKER TO THE POST FORMERLY HELD BY HIM. Mus.a ti su ka-an-ki-su nu - u-sa-as-ti-ra-an-ni 10 bi - u "" i - na li - su - nu Gi - mil lum at^.bu ni is - wa Gi - ti - su su su - a u - mu du - ur - ma mil - lum - ur su - MU sa te - wa at ri is - a na ridl is ir . sa Rev.812 ..ni'\ ma a - um 4 MU^' 10 i-na ma bi-i - ta - - m.ia - dam Edge. i. Obv.ut - - ma ma MU^' akil ba - - lum - 5 as - sum pur MU *' ak at u • - lam - mi ku da \an . No. pi. 12.

' These are the words which thou me). 43 f. .an .^ and from among them am ' sending Gimillum into the presence of my lord.i la ak mu-ul-li pu-hi-su sa-ni-a-am-ma riduti*' u sa 25 a-na lb - ka tu ] ni ""Mar sa - . whom thou didst send. saying. ^ On the use of kaniku. who had bakers. didst write (unto Now Gimillum. ' For a discussion of the ideogram mu (= nuhatimmu.ki na su im u ] MU wa la u - dah-hu-\_ - su-ut-li-\_ at ra - am sa il - i - na - ka - ni - ki im su . note 5. The king begins h!s letter " I wrote unto thee concerning Ibniwith the words Martu.idinnam and assigned to the rlduti." see above. a na ki - im mu - ul Summary.li at ru Edge.. " a seal. position among the bakers. and Sin-idinnam is to assign to the rlduti some other man in his stead. they have brought into my presence. and then gives his decision. 20 i i - na - an na Gi - mil - luin i - su il - u 20 na MU^' ma a-na bi . who had made a report unto me with regard to four : Hammurabi orders the restoration of Emutbalum. p." Hammurabi goes on to say that he has examined into the matter. Gimillum is to retain his.I04 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. the scribe of the bakers of Emutbalum. named Gimillum. In this letter ^ a baker of been removed from his post by Sin . "a baker"). gg. hath assigned unto me ' Those under I four the ' authority of his seal. ' And he bakers thou didst reply. see above. p.

j RESTORATION OF A PATESI. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF A PATESI TO HIS FORMER POSITION. 43.. pi.159. m.ba tum 5 na-da-nim. No. 23. 75. a - na "" Sin - i - din nam ki - - bi - um sa $ ma a - Ha na am PA-TE-SI mu ta ti - ra bi ma ma - as-sum"""" Sin-ilu busu as - Ta-ri-ba-tmn tu - rlduti*' SI - ru su - a na TA-TE- a. Transliteration. a Rev. [Brit. Mus. u ki - na "" - pa Sin-ilu - ni i-na - su bi-i [ ra-ma-n\i-su^ 15 ma ga - du ar - ur - - su PA u - TE bi - SI ir SI ^' u a a - su na na mi nim mare *' tu - PA TE al rlduti*' ma li 20 a-wa-tum an-ni-tum sa te-pu-su u-ul na-ta-a-at . Obv.na £^a- " Ta ri .are*'-su as-pur-ak-ku-fna um-ma pur at-ta-ma ta-ar-zu-ma a-na rlduti^' as-tu-ur-su-nu-ti ki - a - am su-a-ti ta as - - am u "" Sin-ilu a-na ma-ah-ri-ia ta-at-ru-dam 10 "'""Sin-ilu su-a-ti a-n\a ma-ahri-ia u-s'\e-ri-bu-nim wa u - ar - ka ''" - su ap - - ru - u\i PA [ - te] - SI ] Amel Nin ib u Amel - {f^dbu sa al-ma-di ba-l[um ] ] Edge. No. I05 LI.

I06 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. di- .

Wherefore the " hast " thou handed over members of is company of the patesi unto the rldutil This " thing which thou hast done of no avaih " " Thou shalt not again* assign unto the rlduti members of the company of I the patesi who " remain patesi. * For this use of tdru with another verb to express the idea of repetition. It is was to send Sin-ilu over to the he handed Sin-ilu's sons probable that Sin-idinnam was assured of the justice of his in it own case. 1. and for a similar expression. the similar use of siibh in Hebrew. patesi. see No. ' Cf.. "" . Sin-idinnam 's reply to to Babylon. his district. .'''' unto the rlduti other whom thou didst " assign unto the It would appear that the case of the patesi Sin-ilu had already formed the subject of correspondence between Sin-idinnam and the king. which he clear that is reproved for what he has done. We may assume that Taribatum had complained Sin-ilu to yammurabi letter - that had been taken from the his service and handed over to the rlduti^ and from the present learn that we king had written this request to Sin idinnam ordering him to restore Sin-ilu to his former position. L.. makes Hammurabi would not have his orders disobeyed. \0^ '•'• -A. " into the " Now have given this Sin-ilu hands of Taribatum as sons his patesi. but the present letter. 1. i8.RESTORATION OF A PATESI. while rlduti. cf.^ hath . " Thou shalt hand over men in the stead of his rlduti.. 22 Gi-mil-lum su-u du-ur-su MU.

. 64. 23.I08 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. ik i - - bu - ku ti um it . No. - a .] Rev. LII."" Mar-tu b^i . Obv."'" p[a s\_a te bu\su su i E n\u Marduk KI 5 ekli '\na E IM k^i .] Transliteration. 38..e - I c ] lum - ma il - wa .ti - m.ia 10 a-nd\ "" Na-bi-um-ma-lik bilti-ia ] li-id-di-nu-ni-in-ni ek'\li a-na ru E-nu-bi-^'" Marduk ir - [••••] ] [Some lines are missing at the at the end of the Obverse and beginning of the Reverse.147 . No. a - na "" Sin - i - din nam ki bi um 5 ma - Ha - am mu - - \r'\a bi ma ma as-s[um " Aypil.ar pil- - k\i - ] i 5 la ak tu 5 - " a - na ''" A Na ""Mar- - bi um - ma lik i di in - ma .a ekli su u - ma ] ia bilti . am . [Brit."" \_Mar\-tu si - mar Mi-ni. [ U a - Ul m. DIRECTIONS FOR THE TRANSFER OF A PATESI TO THE SERVICE OF ANOTHER OFFICIAL. Mus. pi.

ekil IO9 bilti-slu] sa a-na .TRANSFER OF A PATESI.

[Brit. pi.J no LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. 12. 22. No. a - . No. Transliteration.832. LIII.. 13. Obv. Mus. WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF EIGHT MEN AND LETTER OF AUTHORITY FOR BRINGING THEM BEFORE THE KING.

. officials are not infrequently referred to by their titles only for the use of maru in the sense of "a member of a guild or class. Behold. my presence Nur.Sin -ismeani. . and seems as if Hammurabi offence sent it hands in order to convince Sin-idinnam of the bona fides of his mission. 24 is probably a different person from the Sin-magir mentioned above. Unto Sin-idinnam say '' : Thus saith Hammurabi. whom Sin- putram shall indicate unto thee. mare manzaz pani. in all eight men. and probably consisted of treason or of disobedience to the royal commands. " members of the guild or company of the soothsayers " : . 41. sons of Zia[tum] " Samas-magir. The sakkanakku referred to in No. Translation. " of the kukka^ '' . ^ In tablet No. ilisu and Ameli[ ]. Sin-ismeani. . 15 On the other should be translated " the three sons of Kukka." hand. When " thou shalt behold this tablet.— ARREST OF EIGHT MEN. thou shalt place " under ward and send into '' . sons " of Sin-magir and three members of the guild . of which the The men were guilty must have been of a serious character. ' It is possible that ku-uk-ka-a is a proper name and that 1." that Sin-putram it From was the the above we may assume by his actual bearer of the letter." etc.^ and Sin-lipir. Ill . . "members of the class of those who stand in the presence. "members of the patesi-class " mare hart. The present letter indicates that they were father and son." cf the phrases mare patesi. we meet the names of Sin-magir and . in a list of men who are to be sent to Babylon. I am " despatching Sin-putram unto thee.

? [^] 2 libbi mare"' PA Rlv.840. 12. su li - - pur it - li su ik - nu ru 20 m\_a . [Brit. 28.SLITERATION.ri a - na ri - ku su .] . No.si .] TRAN. [a \_ki - na "" Sin - i - din - H ma - naml ma] - um dub S '" Ha bi i - - c^m an a mu - - ra b\i m\a\ ni a - am im 5 na a - ma ri . '" Li - tul - ilu mar libbi Im mare"' sab TE gur - ''" SI'" Sin barl libbi 15 3 ?^b bab - ekalli 15 sa la a - [n^a il - ma a - - as - - sa as - ti - su - nu ti h me - ku e nim. 17. LIV. Obv. pi.har'^' i^)-i-din-nam mar U-bar-''"Sin amel libbi 10 Ka U - ru - um'^' ni - saplita{ta) - 10 A - na - mi - su - e - mi . WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF TWO GOVERNORS AND A SOOTHSAYER WHO WERE OFFICIALS OF THE PALACE GATE.as. No. Mus.'"' Hi ma - bi mar Til Is A ta pil Mar ri - - tu i^' amel libbi '" as - U Ri mi ia Si -hal.112 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM.uk.im ma ah ri ia as] two ni ma [su a - su - nu - ti [It is possible that lines are here missing.su -nu .as] -sa.na ..

or " soothsayers. ii." occurs again in " ' The ideogram u letter. of of .ilu. who " belongeth to the " company of the soothsayers. and see that they bring them unto thee. We may suppose that they had shown insubordination in not carrying out the royal commands. son of Imgur Sin. the son of Apil-Martu. " a " ' ' man of the city of Karum-saplita. whose arrest Hammurabi here orders. * It is not improbable that the two patesi and the soothsayer. from the . had been guilty of the same offence as the eight officials mentioned in the following letter. 56) we find directions for certain of the haruH. . a " the city of Til-Istasri. the son of Ubar is - Sin. from the " .* and despatch them into my presence. tablet : When thou shalt " behold (thou shalt send for the " following men) " Ilima-abi." Now all three men are officials of the Palace " Gate. .. p. 36 f. two of Ana-minisu-emid — that - to say." " " Send for these men. ' Rimia " Sihalhar - idinnam. and probably also in the following * In a letter of Ammiditana (text No. ii 3 Translation. see above.... — — arrest of officials. in order that some corn might be delivered to a district under favourable omens. 8 . Place them under ward. men from the company of the patesi the " Litul . 1." to perform their normal duty of examining the portents. man . Unto Sin-idinnam say " : Thus saith this Hammurabi. ^ For another reference to officials of this class.

Mus. WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF EIGHT INSUBORDINATE OFFICIALS.ma .154 .am i .duHi - tim " In su mar A manzaz pil "'"' - su amel libbi Gu ub - rum '^' kisdd Edin na mare^' pdni " ID Hi . 42.tu - amel 20 ""In bi - "'"GIR NI - NI SAG-*^^ Hi - su mar "" Hi Bel - su - um ^' 20 amel sakin ."" Mar .ip -pa .bi Larsam"^' - A-ha-am-nu-ta'^' libbi - U Im gur ''"Bel "' Hi -ip -pa-al-za.. "" Hi - e - ba - Naam mar Mi - ni "" Mar . pi.\bi ma] an-ni a.im] IJa - ia - turn mar Hi .are^' Larsam'^' bdrl 15 '" E - nu - ka Istar - -mar ''" Sin - .] Transliteration.\ri . No. No.i tu - ra - am 1 5 amel libbi Za U ri - - gi nu bi - - um ^^ ""Sin Rev.114 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. [Brit.am amel libbi °'" mar Mi . LV.na a.mil ra .al. 72.ni .za. Obv.tu libbi A-ha-am-nu-ta 'm.am amel \libbi] '"^ mar "" Rammdnu -ra.gim '^' - la - an - ni 5 amel bi - Ka Hi - - \a]p -pa-nu libbi wa . 23. a - na "" Sin - i • din - n\_am ki bi - ma] um dub '"A ' ma - bi bi - am .

.

as in the preceding letter. the son of Sin-ituram. the son of Mannum-mahirsu. from the man ." /zW perhaps refers to Ili-ippalzam so also in 1. 17 and 24. is probably not to be read as pa. a ". which formeth part Larsam. This ideogram. from the of Imgur-Bel " Ih-ippalzam. " they bring " place and thou shalt see that them unto thee. of the son of of Rammanu ... company " Enuka-Istar.. 13. a " of the city of " " Larsam . which man the town * Ahamnuta. " shalt thou send for. * A man bearing the name of Imgur-Bel is mentioned in another * .. ° letter of Hammurabi. formeth part of* the city of Larsam.. " Inbi-ilisu..' " of the man " of the city of " town of Ahamnuta.rabi.. a " of the " city of .. . Zaginum. who belongeth to the of the soothsayers . but u. who are under thy " control but who have not gone to their posts.. Thou shalt (then) them under ward and despatch them to " Babylon. " Hi " a " - ippalzam.. the son of Mini-Martu. a man of the " city of Bel-sakin " Ili-banI.. the son of Hisum. the son of Mini-Martu. of man of Nabi-Sin " Ili-eribam. which occurs again in 11. eight of Tillaku... a " the city of . —the last three man men from the . " These men. . while four of the men belong to the company of th&patesi. Il6 LETTERS FROM HAMMURABI TO SIN-IDINNAM. .

91-S-9. DIRECTIONS [Bu. CONCERNING THE TRANSPORT OF AN IMAGE OF THE GODDESS ANNUNITUM. Obv.J Transliteration. 81. No.II. KING OF BABYLON. 6o5 . LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. I. a - na . pi. 153.

" . "Sippar the great" (cf. a which was perhaps used for the central city to distinguish it from the surrounding towns and districts to which it had given its name. let the if goddess travel Emutmeaning would "with the same dignity and its comfort as she were in her own temple. " The name of the city of Sippar occurs in the names of two or three places at this period." The name of the man to whom this letter is addressed does not occur elsewhere on these tablets. If the reading kima iitim be correct. Mention is also made title of a Sippar-rabu. ' The same phrase is employed by ^Jammurabi when giving directions for the transport to Babylon of the goddesses of balum. Edina (see above.^ " See to it that the goddess ' Annunitum travel as in a shrine unto the " city of Sippar-edina. seem to be. and from which she was about to set Sippar-edina. " Sippar-edina. or canal. Bu. and it is probable that these places were situated within a short distance of Sippar. He was not improbably the governor of the city in which was the image of the goddess Annunitum.Il8 LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. and the same expression is used in (see both letters with regard to the method by which the goddesses are to be conveyed. a DUGAB-officer is being sent to make the arrangements for the journey. 115). 333).g. e. p. It is possible that Sippar-edina took the second half of its name from the river. Sippar-iahrurum and Sipparamnanu (see below). There are several points of resemblance between this letter and one of yammurabi in which directions are given for the conveyance of the Elamite goddesses to Babylon out upon her journey to In both letters it is stated that pp. but from the instructions here given him it may be inferred that he was a high official in the king's service. 6 ff). 91-5-9.

Obv. note 2. The corn for the ' A patesi On this of this name is mentioned in a p. DIRECTIONS FOR THE SUPPLY OF CORN FOR THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD IN THE CITY OF LARSAM. 43. Mus. 84. 13. [Brit.na i - lu - u ta at ta - - ad .— CORN FOR THE TEMPLE OF SAMAS.^ and Nik-Sin say : " Thus saith Samsu-iluna. Unto Sin-ilu. letter of Hammurabi. . No.ti - 10 i i - na - im - sa i na ga ku bit nu 10 u ba as su se-am a-na zi-mi ukulli na-kam-tum sa sa i - ''" Samas zu na - an - na is - za az ub 1$ id bi sa ma na 1$ - Translation.na na - na - - an . '^ name. a - na "" - Sin - ilu ^ Bltu u ki 5 • ra ''" bi Nik bi - - Sin um - ma Sa - am su - i - lu - na sa - ma ma Sin 5 se-am a-na na-kam-tim sa busu sa is - bit "" - Samas mil - Larsam '^' ''" Ig - - ta at tu se - ta - ad . No.936.. 43 (LI).' Bitu-rabi. see above. NOv49-J Transliteration. II9 II. pi.

." Sin-ilu. which now remains unpaid.' shall and deliver." was probably one of the great storehouses into which the revenues of the land were collected. from the corn which which your hand. pp. " " which ye are bound to deliver. were probably high officials the collection who looked district after revenue in of Larsam. The nakamtu sa bit Samas. I20 LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. a fact which is proved by from Hammurabi to Sin-idinnam. Bitu-rabi. the That they were something more than the other to revenue-collectors may be inferred from the fact that . They here ordered to hand over certain corn for the temple of the Sun-god. is and Nik-Sin. of to whom the this letter addressed. 70 flf. king writes to them personally letters in this for royal volume are are all addressed officials of high rank.e. or " Storehouse of the temple of Samas. " Storehouse of the temple of Samas in the city " of Larsam. the corn for the supply ye procure " of the " " storehouse of the temple of Samas. The king letters himself controlled the collection of both the royal and the sacred revenues.* for officers attached in which instructions are given to the service of the temples to proceed to to render their accounts to the king. the delivery of which had been delayed. is now standing over. ye shall deliver.. XXXI and XXXII. Babylon ' ' I. See Nos. is in Henceforth. .

80. No. No. [ [ • 1 20 u elippe ^' la [ta] - ta - ar - ma i - 20 ba 'iruti*' [a - n]a ugar u [t]u - ugar ur - Sa - Ra am ra - bi - im ad ka - [nim] . a - na ''" Sliri] - i - [din nain] Sipp\_ar'"\ Kar u ki 5 - - \daid\ ne*' bi - Sipp\ar '^'\ ma - urn kz - ma ma Sa a . u [ugar S^a - Ra am - bi i - itn ka nitn J Rev. 27. Obv.J Transliteration.269.PRESERVATION OF FISHING RIGHTS. pi.%] nim ma'] \nini\ baHruti*' ta ar ba - - d\u ru - - 10 nune*' ik I - ar bab - 10 bu [nim] e[kaUi'\ amel - at tar - dam an - ki ma i - iz - za - ga - - a[k - ku\ 15 15 elippe''' bd'iruti[^''\ sa na ugar Edge.[?'] . [Brit.«"[. DIRECTIONS FOR THE STRICT OBSERVANCE OF FISHING RIGHTS.. Mus. 121 III. 151.na ugar na i - - am Sa - su i - lu bi na ka - - m[a] 5 ugar - u elippe^' it - Ra am ra - .

and is therefore not to be identified with the Sin-idinnam of Larsam. They have reported "(unto me) that the ships' of the fishermen " " district of go down unto the district of Rabim and the Sakanim and catch fish. In this passage Kar-Sippar might well be rendered by some such phrase as "the Court of Sippar. Ibni-Samas. lit. 65). Ill). I -IV and VIII -XI) are addressed. p." indicates that the phrase is used with a special and technical meaning. to whom Hammurabi's letters are addressed. since they had not obtained justice. which we learn that two brothers had appealed to the king. Two letters Kar-Sippar. daiane. I am an official " therefore sending (unto thee) of the in this letter and in those which was evidently a high official in the city of Sippar.). or ships of transport (see above. No. "the wall of Sippar. but also " to KarSippar and the Judges of Sippar" and in one of the letters of Abesu' (No. Unto Sin-idinnam. in place of "the Judges of Sippar" we find " the Judges of Sippar-amnanu. although for two years they had been before the Kar-Sippar [istu "satti 2 '^'^'^' maikar Kar-Sippar ^' in nfstanakkanma ul usteseruniati). (perhaps three) of Samsu-iluna's letters (Nos." is coupled with " the Judges. VII). . and Sippar^ say " : the Judges of Thus saith Samsu-iluna. Translation. we may well identify him with the Sin-idinnam whose name occurs in ' The Sin-idinnam addressed it follow six of the letters of ^ Abesu' (Nos. I-VI). What this meaning is may be seen from one of the letters already referred to (Abesu'.— 122 letters of samsu-iluna." The fact that in all these ." and the coupling of the phrase in other passages with " the Judges of Sippar" may be cited ' in favour of this explanation. III-V) and eight letters of Abesu' (Nos. Marduk-nasir. not only to one or more of the high oflBcials of Sippar (Sin-idinnam.^ Kar-Sippar. It may be noted that the fishing-vessels. while ma-ni-um is ideogram ma is here used for employed for barges. etc. On the other hand.

From the opening lines of the letter the use of the plural might be expected as the singular is used. see above. to the men from Sippar had been fishing in their waters. * The traces of the first KA "'»''" ° {babu). Samsu-iluna probably ordered the recall of the men. . ° For this use oi taru. Sakanim [shalt "thou^ " again and thou shalt not send the ships of the fishermen down " unto the district of " of Sakanim. the ships of the fishermen which are in the district " of Rabim and ^ the district of j. " Palace Gate. of clearing the waterways 14 that the duty of repairing the banks of rivers and canals and property along their upon the owners of banks. The letter is of interest as districts it proves that the inhabitants of different the exclusive right of fishing in had It home p." Rablm and the district The made case which is here brought to the notice of the judicial authorities of Sippar concerns a complaint to the king by the inhabitants of Rabim and effect that Sakanim. we may suppose that the king addresses his remonstrance particularly to Sin-idinnam. and at the end of his letter he tells the authorities of Sippar to put a stop to such encroachments. 107. note 4. otherwise the character of the ideogram are those of title might be restored as DU-GAB. p.) has already been inferred (see above. f.PRESERVATION OF FISHING RIGHTS. not du . . and it was no doubt as fell a compensation for this enforced service that the fishing in these waters was preserved.^ " 1 23 When he shall reach thee. waters.

uz za az ki um. 149. I - ad . No..a.] Rev. No. na ''"Mari]p - kaspi] [iu] a- . 79.268 . [Brit. - a am ma du ik - u m.i - da an su ma - mare*' su-nu ma-an sa a-na se-im su ri-ib-ba-ti-su-7iu ud - nim - na um..ni mu lam.. - a-na 3 $ ma DU na as sa - - ri - - ti\m ti li - ki - du su LID-GUD-^' - su nu sa u at - i ru ma-na . LID-GUD^'] [A few u ma su ma-na - nu - tna kaspi ] lines are missing at the end of the Obverse and at the beginning of the Reverse. Mus.J 124 LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. Obv. pi. LETTER CONCERNING THE PAYMENT OF TAXES.. 27. IV. a ki - na '"' Sin - i din daiane^' nam Sippar '^' Kar - - Sippar bi - u su um 5 *» ''" ma - Sa e - Sin ri - ba - am am - - i - lu - na - - ma ma babi 3 .\_d'\a - kaspi as - a na - GAB na - 5 id a ma ib - a- BabiW^' li - lam . Transliteration. [ ] 3 LID na - GUD'" [ - \u \ ma J.nu - nim m. 10 10 ^ - si ir ki [3 [ a - am - bu nim.

Sin - eribam.. ' saying. see the preceding letter. possible that the office of the muzzas habi was similar to that of " an ofBcial of the Palace Gate " (see above. j-Martu the three head of cattle and " half a maneh of silver for safe keeping. patesi. Privatrecht. head of cattle and . etc. .iluna. Alibahylonisches ° See above. p..* whom I have sent (unto thee). see Meissner. Sin-eribam refers compounded for the corn which they owed by offering to pay three head of cattle and half a maneh of silver. 7.). taxes. p.— the payment of . Obv. I have half .* and " thou shalt hand over those three head of cattle " and the half maneh of silver unto the dugab" officer. " Those townsmen ' who were adjudged to " " " " ' contribute a fourth part of their grain. . " [ Let them deliver unto "[. Unto Sin-idinnam." letter. ' but they have spoken " Three unto me. ' mar'^ may perhaps refer to certain "members" of the official for this use of maru.^ hath informed me. mare baruii. 36 f. the class to which Sin-eribam belonged ' men ^ It is . saying. that " he It may to bring (them) to Babylon. the " officer of the Gate. cf. arrested. ]. would appear from what remains of the whom. ' a maneh of silver [ • " ]. p. Kar-Sippar.' and the Judges of Sippar say : " Thus ' saith Samsu . 125 Translation. * ana massarti nadanu (or sakdnu) was the expression used in legal documents of this period for " depositing " money with expressions man anyone. that the For the explanation of this expression.' Rev.. n8.

Mus. . 104. 86. - na (?) Sippar'^' la ku ni\in\ NIM a u [ ^"'" - MA '"'"' Sippar'^' 10 na KALAM .] Transliteration.ti na. . No. [ . . LETTER CONCERNING THE STRENGTHENING OF THE WALL OF SIPPAR-AMNANU. . [a [ [ - na "" Sin - - I - din - nain\ Kdr u Sippar '^^ daiane*' ] Sippar ^''\ \ki 5 bi - - ma j]z/ . r ]-«] - [m]u "^^ Sippar - a]/ - Hi - - mu ru - ] u ^'"'" ka as - sa 20 '\I nu KALAM i'\s - ILA zu - SU a ru [t]i - .126 LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA.im in - ] Sippar"" . V.287 : P'- ^37.ILA ki su - - a . [Brit. No.. ] [ ]-im-[ . ] IS ^«-[ ] 15 Rev. Obv.i - \um ^'""' - ma - Sa ILA am - lu - - na • ma - 5 KALAM na - busU sa "" Nannar apil - iddi[na] a - dura us - Sippar ^^ su i - am - - na ' nu ku a 10 - ri il - im.sa-ri.

* ' The ideogram -f"*"'" kalam-ila occurs as the name of a garment with the Semitic equivalent na-ra-mu (see Briinnow. Kar-Sippar. No. " to bind. men on their Of the rest of the letter only the ends of lines are preserved. see above. The Inf. In this letter '°*" kalam-ila refers to a body of men under the command of Nannar-apil-iddina. however.. No.916). at least three lines are missing. styled the kalam-ila." the wall of sippar-amnanu. it may be inferred that they were slaves or men who performed forced labour. may be assumed that resembled Nos. and if this explanation is correct we may assume that the men were to be employed in work upon the fortifications of the city. They are stated to be under the command of Nannar-apil-iddina. 86. . n8. The beginning of those to of the letter. Ill and IV. Classified List. 19 are probably to be taken from a root ksr of. 86. It is possible that we should read kalam-ila in place of SAG-iLA in the letter of Hammurabi. whom it was addressed. * This letter has been made up from two fragments in the same collection. as Samsu-iluna takes measures for guarding them on their arrival at Sippar.' Samsu-iluna then states that he has appointed the authorities of Sippar to safely guard the arrival.' are going to the city of Sippar. . No. and are coming " to strengthen ^ the wall of Sippar-amnanu. kasar. is broken it as. The letter begins with the announcement that certain men. '' note I. 82. p. 12/ Summary. ukassaru in 1.287. Hebr. 46 (XXXVII) see above. The fragment joined to Brit. kussuru and the Pres.294. and the Judges of Sippar. . Mus." The meaning " to strengthen " is here suggested for the word. and. ^^ No. p. 5. ' On Sippar-amnanu. containing the it names . and was written by the king to Sin-idinnam.

86... pi. Y ^' Siplpay' [ 6"] ippar daiane kz] - bi - urn ma] ma] . . I . Obv.128 LETTERS OF SAMSU-ILUNA. SIN-IDINNAM.. ] C ] - tz be - /[/ in - ] i ni - - [ - ] - 15 \ki a am i - t]a as pu - - r\a e - - nim] - 15 Rev. 239. e-ri-sa-am ] ak-sa-[ - . 105. . [Brit. . No. ki - ma n]a na ba - an al na e ri i sum. AND THE JUDGES OF SIPFAR.. - ga al - ri - si im a - n]a la ] Bdbili'^' - to] ka sa - - nim 20 . y .275 . . . Mus.] Transliteration. Sa - am at - su - - i - lu - - na - ma ma [nz^m 5 as - sum] - sa ta - as tii pu ra U7n nu bu - ma turn ] . na lb - n\i i - ''" diln] - Marduk nam '^' . - al ka - nim - ma ra ] na an me . 10 pa a « zi - ni be 10 - na U]f^ d\i] - . VI. PART OF A LETTER TO IBNI-MARDUK.li - rani n\_a [ . . No. .

a fragmentary letter.

1

29

Summary.
was written by Samsu-iluna in consequence of a report which he had received from
This
letter

Ibni-Marduk, Sin-idinnam, and the Judges of Sippar.'
Ibni-Martu
iluna, but
is

not mentioned in other letters of Samsufact that his

from the

name

occurs
it

first

in

the address at the head of the
inferred that

letter,

may be
city.

he was

in

high authority in the

On
his
it

the obverse of the tablet the
their report,

king quotes an

extract from

and on the reverse he gives
very broken, but
to

own
is

instructions.

clear that the

The text is king summons

Babylon those
first

to

whom

the letter was addressed, for the

four

lines

of the

reverse are well preserved, and read,

" Since now it is seed-time,' during the seed-time " unto Babylon shall ye come." It was no doubt
unusual to
the capital,

summon such high officials and we may perhaps sfee in
;

in

a body to

Samsu-iluna's

reference to the time of year an excuse for the issue

of the order
their absence
i

as

it

was seed-time and not harvest

from Sippar would be possible without

inconvenience.

^

It

may be noted
of Sippar,"
usual

that
is

[....]
and
'

some ideogram in the plural, "the here coupled with " the Judges of Sippar,"
122,

that the
is

expression Kar-Sippar (see above, p.

note 2)

omitted.

With this expression compare the following passage from one Hammurabi's letters, No. XIX, 11. 14-16, i-na ki-ma i-na-an-na of
e-bu-ru-um wa-ar-ki e-hu-ri-im
i ni-il-li-ik,

" Since

now it

is

the time

of harvest, we will come after the harvest."
9

III.

LETTERS OF ABESU', KING OF
BABYLON.

DIRECTIONS FOR DEALING WITH A FLOOD ON THE IRNINA-CANAL.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. 26,970;

pi. 168,

No. 88.]

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na

''"

Si\n

-

2']

-

din

-

nam
Sippar'^'

Kdr ki
-

Sippar'^'
bi

u
-

daiane*'

\uin\
5

ma
sa

A
Kar US
ni
-

-

bi

e

-

su

-

'

-

ma ma
na

as-sum
i
-

ta-as-pu-ra-nim,
"""*

um-ma
Ir
ni
-

at-tu-nu-ma 5
ni
-

na
su-si

2

sa-at-ti-sa-am

ekallu
-

i-ib-bi-es
-

44
i
-

US
na
Ir
-

nu

ib

bi

-

es

an
ni

-

na na
ta
-

mi
a
-

10

""''"

lum na dur
-

il - li

kam
-

ma
nim
ar

kdri
-

izza-\a^

sa

as

pu
as'
-

ra

[a-na am\ele^' su-ut bi-ha-a-tim sa i-na Sippar'^' wa-as-bu
\li .
.

?V]
.

-

ta

-

pa

-

]

sab bi-ir-tim sa i-na
]

Sippar^' wa-as-bu
'^"'
-

15

L

sa-ka-nim
]

i-sa-ak-ka-nu-ma 15

-tim
-

Karda,
-

Ir-ni-na
-

«

]
]-^'

an

na

nu
J

kari sa na\ru

...

]

[Some

lines are missing at the

at the

end of the Obverse and beginning of the Reverse. ]


A FLOODED CANAL.
Rev.
I3I

[
[
[

....

]an[
]

...
sa
bi
-

]z^[.
a
- [
.

...
. .
. .
'\

]

] ] 1

6i - zt

[...'..
S
[

k]i'
\ -

i\b
I
. . .

-

[
[

s\a

"'"'

Puratiu
]
-

[....]
-

tim

i,

bi

ku

Translation.

Unto Sin-idinnam, Kar-Sippar, and
'
:

the

Judges of

Sippar say " Thus saith Abesu'. Concerning the matter " about which ye wrote unto me, saying, Of
'

" "

'

the palace in Kar-Irnina, one hundred and

'

twenty measures have been
(this

built

every year,
(only)

"'but
"
'
'

year)
built,

forty-four measures

have we

and now the flood hath come
one and

The

thirteen letters of Abesu' here published are, with

exception, written to

men

in authority in the city of Sippar,

they are here arranged according to the names of those to whom Nos. I-III are written to Sin - idijinam, they are addressed. Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of Sippar; No. IV to Ibni-Samas, Sin-idinnam, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of Sippar, i.e. to the same men as those addressed in Nos. I-III, with the addition of IbniSamas No. V is addressed to five men who were probably rulers
;

it is placed after Nos. I-IV as it consequence of a report received by the king from No. VI is Sin-idinnam, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of Sippar. addressed to Sin-idinnam, whom we may identify with the Sinidinnam of Nos. I-V. Nos. VII-X are written to Marduk-nasir, Kar-Sippar, and the^ Judges of Sippar. No. XI is addressed to Kar-Sippar, and the 3, Samas-sumu[ [ J, ]su-Sin, who, Judges of Sippar and No. XIII to [ to judge from the contents of the letter, was probably a high official For an explanation of the phrase " Kar-Sippar in the same city.

of the city of Kar-Samas, and
in

was written

...

;

and the Judges of Sippar," see above,

p. 122.

132

LETTERS OF ABESU'.
" 'and the Irnina-canal" reacheth right up to "
'

the

wall

of the town.'

" words which ye wrote (unto me).

These were the Let word

" be sent unto the men of the province' " dwell in the city of Sippar, [and . ]
.
.

.

who men

" of the citadel * who dwell in Sippar they will " appoint for making [ .... and they will J,
" strengthen

the

[....]
1"
is

of

Kar-

Irnina

"

[

[The

rest

of the letter

broken.]

This

letter

was written by Abesu'

in

consequence

of a report which he had received from the authorities of Sippar, stating that

work on

the palace in course of
to

construction at Kar- Irnina had had

be stopped.

more than a third of the ordinary year's work had been done, when the building operations were interrupted by the rise of
had been informed that
little

He

the Irnina-canal.

His

instructions,

which are given

in

the second half of the letter, are very broken, but
is clear that Sin-idinnam is to send workmen from Sippar to strengthen the walls of Kar -Irnina and render secure the work which had already been done.
it

" The Irnina-canal is mentioned in a list of canals, K. 4,337 (see Cun. Inscr. West. Asia, vol. ii, pi. 50, 1. 15), where it is stated that " the canal of the its Sumerian name was Id-ega-gal-gal-la, great stream." From the above letter it is clear that its ancient name was not ill-chosen. By the Semitic Babylonians the canal was renamed after the god Irnina. ' With this title cf. the expression he-el bi-ha-ttm applied by Abesu' in one of his letters (No. XII) to certain merchants of

Sippar.
*

This rendering of sab U-ir-tim

is

provisional.

J

5

CAPTURE OF A RUNAWAY SLAVE.

133

II.

ORDER FOR THE RETURN OF AN ESCAPED FEMALE SLAVE.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. 27,248;

pi. 170,

No. 89.

Transliteration.
Obv. [«
ki
-

«]«

"" Sl_zn -

i -

din

-

nain\
Sippar'^'^

Kar
-

S.ippar'^'

u
-

daiane[f'

bi

ma
e
-

um
5

ma
a
-

A
ab
-

-

bi

su

'

-

7n[a]
u[7n']
5

"'"'"'^a -

bais -

u

-

ki

-

am
-

pu

-

ra
su
-

-

\ain\

um
SAG

-

[/]«
10
i
-

ma amat ma la
na

m[a]
-

URU
sa
-

Ha
i\m
-

-

al

l^u]
]

ni

Sippar'^'

am
as

-

na
ra
-

-

\_nu] ^[}'\

10

i

ba
-

-

ki
I

a

-

am
""""ga
-

is -

pu DU
ab
-

[«;«]

-

GAB
ba
[u]

u
1$ at
-

tar
-

-

da[7n^

1

Rev.

ma iz za an -ku - ni - \i^k \Ji\u -nu- it '"•"" ga - ab - ba - u sa SAG AMAT - ARAD al la u /^[«] mu DU - GAB sa at - ru - dam bi - [ki a - na
[/^]?
-

20 a
li C [

-

na
ir
-

id! Babili ^' 20

di

-

a
\

-

am

-

ma
]

li

V

]

[The bottom half of thetaHet

is

brol<en.]

134

letters of abesu'.

Translation.

Unto Sin-idinnam, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of
SIppar say
"
:

Thus
'

saith Abesu'.

" written (unto me), saying, "
of Hallu,

The g'aSda'u-officer^ hath The female slave ^
'

whom we
in

could not find,
-

[is

found].

"

'

She

is

Sippar

amnanu.'

'

After this

" fashion

hath

he written (unto me).
*

Now
and

"

I

am

sending (unto you) a DUGAB-officer

" the gabbdu-o^cex. " ye
shall
I

When

they reach you,
DUGAB-officer,
slave,

"

whom

hand over unto the have sent, the female

whom

" the gabba'u-o^cer will point out (unto you), " (and) he shall conduct her to Babylon, and

"[
It is

]•"

probable that the female slave referred to in

this

after

was the private property of Hallu, who, her escape, had appealed to the authorities to help him in his search. The king had received word
letter

that the slave

was

in

Sippar-amnanu, and he therefore
Sin-idinnam and the Judges of

sent

this

letter

to

Sippar ordering her removal to Babylon.
With
the somewhat similar one,
'"^'"

'

this title

cf.

ga-ab-ba-hu-u,

in the letter of Abesu',

No. XI. ^ In the combination sag-amat-uru, uru seems to be employed as a general word for "slave," while amat indicates'the gender;
for the explanation of sag, see Meissner, Altbabylonisches Pnvatrecht, p. 92.
' ^

On

Sippar-amnanu, see above, See above, p. 7.

p. 118,

note

2.

••'"

Sin

-

i -

.

136

LETTERS OF ABESU'

Translation.

Unto Sin-idinnam, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of
Sippar say " Thus saith Abesu'.
:

Bunene-nasir and Mini-

" Samas, the sons of Ris-[ have J, " informed me, saying, IH-idinnam, our elder " brother, hath held us in pledge.^ For two " ' years have we laid (our petition) before the
' '

....

"
"

'

Court of Sippar,^ but they

(i.e.

the judges)

'

have not done us

justice.'

After this fashion

" have they informed me. When ye shall " behold this tablet, ye shall send unto Babylon " this Ili-idinnam and the witnesses who have
" knowledge of his case,

whom

Bunene-nasir
.

" and Mini-Samas, the sons of Ris-[ ... ], " will point out unto you, in order that their " case may be concluded."
It is interesting to note from this letter that, if a litigant were unable to obtain justice from his local court, it was open to him to appeal to the king at

Babylon
'

^

For

this

meaning of the verb

habalu, see above, p. 24, note
it

3.

would be possible here also to assign to habalu its usual meaning, " to wrong, damage" Bunene-nasir and Mini-Samas would then begin their appeal with the words "Ili-idinnam, our elder brother, hath wronged us. For two years," etc. On the whole, however, it is preferable to assign to the word the meaning which it has elsewhere in these letters. ' The Kar-Sippar appears to have had some such meaning see
in the letter of
;

As

Hammurabi

there referred to (No. IX),

;

further, p. izz, note 2.
'

Cf. also p. 4

1

pi.] Transliteration. [Brit. [2 - n'\a ta i - AG ga se - am na na na »»«/« Sippar^' 20 ai - TUK - - NA-^' 20 ad - di nu . LETTER ANNOUNCING THE DESPATCH OF CERTAIN MESSENGERS.961 .ru -m..si . 85. a - na "' •'" lb - ni - - '"' \_Sa]mas Sin - - i din - nam Sippar'^' Kdr \^k'\i - Sippar'^' bi u - daiane''' ma e - 5 um - ma si ip - A ri - bi su [ - ' - m[a] 5 ] mare*' u utulle*' is-tu Babili"^' i - a-na Sippar^' -\ia-ah-ru-rum'\ "'*" i-il-la-ku "'^'^ na sa - Tisritu umu - 24 - i - an - ni - - ku - - ni ik i - - ku a - nu - si - im im 10 10 dub 5 bi an ni a - am na - ma ka - ri su si """"" BI u pa ni{?) i-na ga-ti ri i - TUK-NA^' sa Sippar-am-na-nu li-ki-a-ma - sa - am li - ki - it - lu nu.DESPATCH OF MESSENGERS... Obv.. 137 IV.ma • • i-sa.im su-bi-la 15 [ «< • 3"^' ana Sippar'^' -ia-ah-ru-rum Edge. No. No..] ] ""^-tuk - na^' [ sa ta - as - p\u r'ja - nim (?) Rev. [. Mus...ik -ku-nu.. ETC. 161. 26.ap -pa.

[and The letter probably arrive. possible that the mentioned by Abesu' were the actual bearers of the letter. Summary. 56 f . p. 128). The space on the tablet. same name line and it first of this letter as ' On Sippar-iahrurum. suggests the restoration of Samas. ' For this rendering of the ideogram u-tul (= utullu). The . and " on the twenty-fourth day of the month Tisri they " will reach you." The letter was sent by Abesu' to prepare the authorities of Sippar for their arrival. p. and the Judges of Sippar (see above. however. rather than Marduk. see above. and with regard to certain grain. see above. ] " are going from Babylon unto Sippar-iahrurum. . . as the second half of the name. . ." In it Abesu' states that some messengers. ' One of the letters of Samsu-iluna is addressed to Ibni-Marduk. and the herdsmen. Kar-Sippar. in which case the document must have been informed the authorities at Sippar of the intended to serve as their credentials. p.' and he states the day of the month on which they will : begins with the words " messengers. It has already been suggested that the Sin-idinnam mentioned in Samsuiluna's letters is to be identified with Abesu's correspondent of the would be tempting to restore the name in the Ibni-Marduk.138 letters of abesu'. Sin-idinnam. in the city the king adds instructions which they are It is to carry out on the receipt messengers of his letter. 118. note 2. and the Judges of Sippar. " Thus saith Abesu'. herdsmen/ and others are setting out from Babylon on their way to Sippar-iahrurum. This letter is addressed by Abesu' to " Ibni-Samas/ " Sin-idinnam. while at the same time it object of their journey.

3bv.a\m -su-i -lu "' {A . 27.249. No.il "" Ta ri " 73 - ia ni S M ki uin ""'" - Ri - bi - ma A - bi Sin-i-din-nain Kdr-Sippar'^' u \_daiane*' Sippar'^'] is-pu-ru-niin ki-a-am 10 a - um-ina su-n\u-ma\ Sippar'^' na i [/j - - din - Utar - sa na Kdr "" damkaru amel Samas '^' wa - as - bu . 90.p\i . 1 39 V. 172. No. pi. a - na S\a .. Transliteration.J PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE. [Brit. ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH IS OVERDUE. Mus.

not buhadu. Sin-idinnam. : Taribatum. still it his abode in Kar- may be inferred from this letter that he was liable to pay taxes to Sippar. Translation. When. that he may hand over the changes " of raiment which are due from him. and he hath not come After this fashion have they " ' " 'unto Sippar. Kar-Sippar." Although Idin-Istar had taken up Samas. the merchant of Sippar. etc. together " with the changes of raiment which are due *' from him. ' The ideogram is more clearly written in 11. restored [/a ni-il-k'\i-a-atn-ma. ye shall " behold this tablet ye shall send unto Sippar " Idin-Istar. J. ' The five^ men addressed were clearly men in authority in the city of Kar-Samas. possible to read the numeral as 20. " ' who Cometh from Sippar. " and the Judges of Sippar have written unto " me.. changes of raiment which are due from him he hath not taken. therefore. and "that he should come unto Sippar" in that case 1.. saying.' " written (unto me). Ibni-Marduk. and Ris-Samas^ say Thus saith Abesu'. as in 1 Nos. it seems It is to be KU (i.— 140 LETTERS OF ABESU'.. Unto " Samsu-iluna-nur[ . . but dwelleth in " " " ' ' Kar-Samas. ' Unto Idin-Istar. 17 should be . 22 and 25 . the merchant.e. ' It is possible that this passage should be translated " we " wrote that we might receive two changes of raiment. we wrote bidding him take * two changes of raiment ^ which are due from him ' " ' But the and come (with them) unto Sippar. subdtu). VI and VII. his native city. Apil-Nabium.

82. [Brit.di .] Transliteration.id. Mus.. pi.251 . 26.na.sa . 154.ad. [a] - na "" Si?t - i - din - nam ' ki - hi um *" ma A ''" - bi e - su ma ma buhade*' 5 Ni . 141 VI.PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE. No. Obv.ma Sin mu . No.in .at ki . ORDER FOR THE BRINGING OF TRIBUTE TO THE PALACE.

142

LETTERS OF ABESU'.
" thou hast not brought unto the Palace the " young of the herds which are due from thee. " Wherefore hast thou not yet brought unto the " Palace the young which are due from thee ?

"In "[

that thou didst not fear to
. . . . . . .

do

this thing,

] thou shalt yoke^ " the young oxen that are due from thee and " bring them to Babylon."

The Sin-idinnam
is

to

whom

this letter is

addressed

clearly to
is

be

identified with the

man
is

of this

name
of

who

mentioned at the head of other

letters

Abesu' (Nos. I-IV);' and, as he
a high
that

there coupled

with the Judges of Sippar, he must have occupied
official

post in the city.

It is

not improbable
in

he superintended the collection of tribute

Sippar, and in ordering

him

to

pay the

tribute that

was due from him, we may suppose that Abesu'
referred to the public tribute under his control,

not to

any tax

for the

and payment of which he was

personally liable.
tribute

We
on
all

may suppose

that

regular

was

levied

the great cities in Babylonia,*

and, in the event of any delay in the

payment of the

same, the king would naturally rebuke the governor
of the city or
If the verb

some highly placed
is

official.

'

correctly restored as si-[im-dd\m-ma

it

is

clear

that buhade refers to the

young of the herds, not

to the

young

of the flocks.

See above, p. 131, note i. In one of his letters to Sin-idinnam yammurabi refers to the tribute which was paid by Larsam to Babylon see above, p. 1 2 f.
'
*
;

PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE.

I43

VII.

ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH IS OVERDUE.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 27,745

;

pi. 180,

No. 93.J

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na

""

Marduk - na

-

[si

-

ir

Kdr -

Sippar '^'

']

"

]

144

LETTERS OF ABESU'.
20

20

[ [
\_a ]

]
-

^^l^l
n^iut]
-

na

BabiW^'
ne
-

s^u

-

b\i\

la
-

30 a
25 u

buhade*'

me
-

- it -

ta

\ku

nu\
^'

na
ul
-

Babili
tu
i

-

ub
]

ba
i

la

n\iin\
siklu

-

ma

25

a

na
sa
-

bu\hadi
as
-

ka\_spi'\

u

-

ga

-

lu

ku

-

nu

'

Translation.
Obv. Unto Marduk-nasir, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges
of Sippar-amnanu say

:—
The
assessor of the flocks

"
"

Thus

saith Abesu'.

and herds hath reported that ye have not " brought unto Babylon the thirty young which " are due from you. Wherefore have ye not
" brought unto Babylon the thirty
" are due from "

young which
^

you
I

?

Since ye did not fear to

do

this thing,

am
ye
if

sending a DUGAB-officer

" (unto you)

....
and But
shall

Rev. "

.

.

.

.

send (them) unto

" Babylon.

" Babylon the thirty

" you, for

do not bring unto young which are due from each one shall they cause you to pay
ye

" one shekel of silver.'

^ '

On
;

the various duties of this

official,

see above, p.

7.
is

The

restoration of this line, as suggested above,
i

not quite

the traces of are not very clear.
certain

before gin and of

ud

at the

end of the line

THE HARVESTING OF CORN.

14S

VIII.

DIRECTIONS FOR THE HARVESTING OF CERTAIN CORN.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. 26,960

;

pi. 159,

No. 84.]

Transliteration.
Obv. a
-

na

"'"

Marduk

-

na

-

si

ir

146

LETTERS OF ABEbU'.

Translation.

Unto Marduk-nasir, Kar-Sippar, and
Sippar say
"
:

the Judges of

Thus

saith Abesu'.

Sixteen and
.

two-thirds
*

" shekels of "

...

from Sippar-amnanu
thereof,

and the neighbourhood

and four male
his brethren,
in

" slaves, the property of the sons of Rfs-Samas,
" the judge,

and of Sin-iribam and
.

" [

.

.

.

]

to harvest

the corn

the

"hired
" Dur-[

field
.
.

of Sin-musalim, the governor^ of
. .

]

and

[

].

"

When

ye shall behold

this tablet, sixteen

and

" two-thirds shekels of "

...

.

from Sippar-

amnanu and

the neighbourhood thereof, and

" four male slaves, the property of the sons of " Ris-Samas, the judge,

and of Sin-iribam and
shall

" his brethren, together with provisions for the

" journey,^
"

...[...]
field

ye send
the

unto the

hired

of

Sin

-

musalim, the

" governor of Dur-[ " corn which " "
is

....].
(you), let

And

in his hired field, in the place

where he will show and carry."

them harvest

'

On

Sippar-amnanu, see above,
this title

p. 118,

note

2.

compare that of Gal Martu, applied to a certain Sin-idinnam in letter No. 48 (Miscellaneous Letters, No. II). It is possible that the signs which followed gal did not give the name of a town, but formed part of Sin-musalim's title, of which GAL was the first syllable. ' For this explanation of the ideogram su-kaskal, see above,
"

With

p. 8,

note 5.

SUMMONS OF A PRIEST TO BABYLON.

147

IX.

ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF A CERTAIN PRIEST AND OTHERS TO BABYLON.
[Brit. Mus.,

No. 27,254;

pi. 175,

No. 91.J

Transliteration.
[a
[
\_ki'\

na
K'\dr
-

""
-

Mar\duk

-

na

-

si

ir

Sippar '^'
bi

u

daiane*'

Sippar'^'

\uTn\
5
[""]
'"'

ma
a
-

A
am
u
-

-

bi
"'''"'

e

-

su

'

ma ma
ni

Sin-mu-sa-lim

durmah

An-nu-ni-tum

[ki^

lam

-

mi

da
su
-

an

[urn

in\a
''"

ma
An-nu-ni-tum

\_Nu\-ur-

....
Sippar"^'
]

-ga

l

sangu
na"]

\_a7H

nu

-

um
tu\m

10

[ [ [ [ [

....
^
. ,

libbi

PA-TE-Si-^'

sa

An -nu-ni''^

]

te . .

ne

-

[«]''

L-"'
.

]

a-na

a-me-li-\i\
-

ir-\_

.

.

.

.

t\a-na-ad-d[i
]

ekil
\

bil\ti
-

.

.

.

IS

[ [ [

-

ik
]

ki
I

-

]^

.

.

.

.

]

IS

ni

]

]

[Some

lines are missing at the
at the

end of the Obverse and beginning of the Reverse.]

Rev.

[ i
.
.

J
.

.

\

ir

i

]

\e

-

te\

ne

-

[.i~\r -

I'i

su

"

]

148

[

.

.

.

dii]

sa ""Snfuas
]
-

E-DI-TAR-KALAM-[ma]
Nerval
durma/i
-

5 [
\_sa
•"•

""
"*""'
-

S

Stn-m]u-sa-li>n
-

An-tiu-7ii-iu[m'\
-

[m

-

ka
na
-

a]l

-

la

w[«]
tii

su

fiu -

ti

[rt -

Bd6]ili'^'
-

\ur- d'\a
-

nitn
ri

-

ma
[/

[wa

ar]

ka

-

turn

ti

ip

pa

-

?

Translation.
Obv. Unto Marduk-nasir, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges
of Sippar say
"
:

Thus

saith

Abesu'.
the

Sin-musaHm, the chief

"priest^
" informed

of

goddess
saying,
'

Annunitum,
.
.

hath
]ga,

me,

Nur-[

.

a priest of the goddess Annunitum of Sippar-

amnanu, one of the patesi of Annunitum,
hath
.'
. . .

Rev. "

.

.

.

.

of the

temple of Samas, (which

" is

called)

E-ditar-kalama,

and

[••••]"
may

" Nergal,

whom

Sin-musalim, the chief priest

" of the goddess

Annunitum

will point out, shall

" ye send unto Babylon that the matter " be investigated.*

'

The dtirmahu was

evidently a priest of high rank

;

for the

reading of the ideogram, see Briinnow, Classified List, Nos. 5,072

and 10,577.
' The verb should possibly be read li-ip-pa-ri-i\s'] cf. Letter I of Ammiditana (No. 56), 1. 24, wa-ar-ka-tu l[i'\-ip-rus\u-ma']. In that case the reason for sending the priest to Babylon would be
;

that the future

might be divined.


FRAGMENT OF A LETTER.
1

49

X.

PART -OF A LETTER TO MARDUK-NASIR AND THE JUDGES OF SIPPAR.
[Brit.

Mus., No. 86,369

;

pi. 241,

No. 106.]

Transliteration.
Obv. la]
[
\_ki] -

na
.

""
-

Marduk

-

na

-

si

ir

Kar

S'\ippar'^'

u
-

daianelf']

Sippar'^'

bi

via
e
-

[urn
5 [

ma
]

A]
-

-

bi

su
[

'

ma
]

turn

amel

5

[ [The
rest of the text is wanting.]

1

Translation.

Unto Marduk-nasir, Kar-Sippar, and the Judges of
Sippar say
"
:

Thus saith Abesu'. " [of the city of
written

[

.

.

.

.

]tum, a man^
]."

Like Nos. VII, VIII, and IX,
is

this letter of

Abesu'

to

Marduk

-

nasir,

Judges of Sippar, but
has been preserved.

little

Kar - Sippar, and the more than the address

'

It is possible that arrielu
title.

should be taken as a determinative

before a

Mus..] Transliteration. [Brit. 156. [a na "" ''" ] Samas.959 . 26.su - mu u - - [ ] Kar uvt "" Sippar'^' dai\ane*' e Sippar ^^ ' - ma - A mu - bi s\u - md\ "" Marduk sa - Urn - [••••] - 5 \u\ daiane"' Sippar '^' ia ah - ru r\uin\ 5 \_k'\i-a-am is-pu-ru-nim ] um-ma - su-nu-ma \blt [ [ Marat ii\gar ] Dun bit - - gi sa ia - ''" Samas - ma ut - - mm ekalli 10 - 10 [ s]z ] bu ib [ [ [ bi -it tu - u Syppar'^' utulle^' SA-UD^' ]-im ""''"] apsei^y ab - [ 1 5 ga- ba "" hu - u 1 [ ] - bit ] Samas [ [ bu - - ma - ib bi'\ - it tu - u . XI.5 150 LETTERS OF ABESU'. 83. No. Obv. LETTER TO THE JUDGES OF SIPPAR CONCERNING A CASE WHICH THEY HAVE INVESTIGATED. No. pi.

see above.gi am k[i^ ib - ti [_ . 6 and 139.ti su - - ni a - t\i'\ ul - iz zi iz a na - am si - is - a 30 ba e - bu ut pu ekalli -a utulle*' -\_ ru ia - nim tim .i - - him ri - re'e^' ib daiane'" ekalli - §A UD-^' 30 ] - su u bit te - "^'"ga ah - ba se - hi - i . Kar-Sippar. 118.] ' ' Samas-sumu[ and the Judges of Sippar say Marduk-musaHm... ' —Thus [••••]) and : . . saying. .^ [which in] the Sippar-iahrurum. is ' The house On of Marat-Dungi. '. Kdr bit ip - - Sippar'^' daiane^' S\ippar'^''\ Marat tu - Dun u - - gi ma ni - 25 sa ini - pu a - su uu ul ni ul is - di - - [«'] 25 u u ki - . p. of royal names as component parts of proper names.. . ] su - up ra - nim Summary. . Marat - ma Dun . [ ISI ] Edge.]. .. . preferable to take this as a proper name rather than to for other instances of the use translate " the daughter of Dungi " ' ^ It is . pp. saith Abesu'.. The ' letter begins with the words : " To [ .THE HOUSE OF MARAT-DUNGI. see above. 20 [ ] ''" ] [ Sin - i - din [ - nam daianu 20 ] indr ''" Nannar u - Rev. the Judges of Sippar-iahrurum ^ have written (unto me). note z..

" us of We therefore. ' For this explanation of the phrase Kar-Sippar'^' u daiane*^ It Sippar'^'.... and ends his letter with a request for further information. .. are lines preserved.*" Abesu'. the '" ' 'district of the On the rest of reverse Abesu' continues to quote from the report which he had received from Marduk-musaHm and Only the ends of it it the Judges of Sippar-iahrurum. 152 LETTERS OF ABESU'. but what they did. see above. neither did they tell took no part in the matter. however. p. and they with by the judges of the supreme court of Sippar. would appear from this letter that the Court of Sippar claimed jurisdiction over the neighbouring towns and villages. jnot Kar-Sippar. temple of Samas. son of " Nannar-[ . that the report refers a claim put forward by the officials of the contents. and the Judges " of Sippar " we knew it. opened the house of Marat-Dungi. the judge.* who had effect." The local judges of Sippar-iahrurum clearly resented the action of the Court of Sippar. perhaps translate " we were not present (at the investigation). close their report to Abesu' with a complaint to this saying : " Sin-idinnam. * This seems to be the meaning of the expression u-ulni-iz-zi-iz. forwards this report to the supreme court of Sippar. the J. from which is not possible to restore the text with certainty to would appear. 122. Palace to the house of Marat-Dungi or to some of its In their investigation of the case the local judges of Sippar-iahrurum had been interfered investigated the case independently.

- (5>" . .. .. .«. . . ki . 86.. . . .962.. 26. Mus. ] djn\ l{u'] ...ra nu sa - ma 5 Slippalr'^' .. IS3 XII.] [ . a - na - Istar - is - me . ] - by ma ] 10 [ ..«a J [. ] [ . Transliteration. Obv. ^2 ] ..J PAYMENT OF TAXES.. No. . [ be - el ] \_ \_ . .tiin . ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TAXES BY CERTAIN MERCHANTS OF SIPPAR. ba- u ^ 10 '" u\_l . ] damkare*' J ~\ amele*' [ Sippar\f\ - s\a l\i . [« - na - damka]re*' Sippar'^' bi - ki s'\u - bi ' - \um \_as - ma ma A sa e - - - ma ma nim sum - f\a a\t - as - \jim 5 [ [ [ . . tu J pu . ]./^[w] -«/. ] 20 as [ sum kaspa na - damkare*' ] su - nu - t\{\ 20 - im li ma \ivi\ a u - Bdbili^' ta su bu \i\t asdamkare'" be - pael ar - at tu nu bi ha . ] ni[a [ . .. pi. ma -ad - mi as [ - it{\a 15 l\i - ?]/t'\a - ^Ul *- «"« 15 - s[a [ pu ab - - ra nii7i ?']/ - la ak ab u \d'\a - ba bi - - R KV.. . No. .su igisl sa i\r . . [Brit. .. 163.

and " let them take it to you.. let them hale them into my presence. see Briinnow. who [••••]. [ (it). Unto the merchants " of Sippar say : Thus ' saith Abesu'. ' men of Sippar. Babylon the from silver which of is due as " revenue^ " merchants. 12. see above. 25 kaspa li - igisi .384. ] of Sippar [ ]. p. J.* " see to it that they pack the silver which " is due as revenue from those merchants. " " [ . damkare*' su - nu si - - \_ti'\ 25 is il - - mi - - li ku ni - ik ku na - du nu - ma - im. " Unto Istar-ismesu. 130. the similar expression am'eU*^ "su-ut bi-ha-a-tim in Letter I 1.].. the merchants. " List. ] and bring " unto [. saying. Cf. 9. of Abesu'. see above. rulers And ye who the district. which is " due from " them as revenue.. But if those " merchants bring not the money. Classified No. ... p. - sum -ma 30 it - kaspa igisa-su-nu la us - - ta b[i ri lu\ damkare*' su ir nu - ti a - ma - a\h [ ia^ du «m] 30 Translation." ^ For this reading of the ideogram. instructions" have been sent that he [ ..' and let " ' him receive These were the words " which ye wrote (unto me). 12. for another instance of its use. Concerning the matter ' " about which ye wrote. . ..— 1 54 LETTERS OF ABESU'. .. those are merchants..

J TRANSLITERATIO N. . 155 XIII.969 ... 166. ] a i - na im si - sa ehalli [. [ IS u [i - M[A n^a - ni - UM '"*" 60 GUR ne -me .. Obv.] ] REV. No... ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF A SHIP TO BRING CORN FOR THE PALACE. ad-di-di mdre*'-\_ ] ] - ti7n .. Mus.CORN FOR THE PALACE. a - na - [ \b'\i - j]« - ""Sin ki um MA 5 ma NI - A UM - b\i - e\ - su - - ' - ma ma ti S 60 GUR Sippar^' - ne me - - it - akil malahi se am n^a ni'\m i\m. pi. [Brit. .ti'\ Simdnu umu ga 25 '^'^'^ a li - na is - Bdbili^' ni - am .an - - h\u ki - ma - dub ta bi ni a - - am ru ti am GUR - - ma ne 10 MA akil [ [ [ NI - UM 60 me na it - lo malaj}i Sippar'^' \- am nim .it . No. 26. 87..

." the letter is As imperfect. Another expression for a "captain of a ship " is akil ma-ni-um see above. " let the chief captain of Sippar . clear that to it Abesu' required inferred that a ship of sixty GUR capacity be sent to Babylon." . The chief captain^ of " Sippar-amnanu requireth (?) a ship of sixty " GUR capacity ^ to [convey] the com for the " palace. . to the -effect that the vessel for was required therefore carrying corn to the palace. " capacity" or " rating.. . pp. is not improbable. and from for 1..amnanu [.. . Obv. and 64. the exact nature of the is king's instructions not apparent. and rendered by some such word as ' . 60 f. ]su-Sin say : Thus saith Abesu'. 84. 6 of the obverse may be the ship was wanted in connection with certain corn the palace. In this letter the substantive ne-me-it-ti is probably to be taken with the preceding phrase ma-ni-um 60 gur. . . see above. ' For the system of measuring the capacity of vessels employed In other passages where the size for transport.] Rev. p. however. The restoration suggested in the translation. a ship of sixty gur capacity And thou shalt see that the ship " of sixty GUR capacity arrive at Babylon on " the twenty-fifth day of the month Sivan. " . Unto " [ .— letters of abe§u'. is6 Translation. When thou shalt behold this tablet. it is From the reverse of the tablet. of ships is given the ideogram ma-ni-um is followed simply by the number of gur which formed the vessel's capacity.

ma 57 a-na 10 sa ih GUR kurmat sdbi bi-ir-ti 184I KA a-hi-a-tim Sag-ga^' u °''^" Kislimu 10 ih - ha - as is - se - ki a - am i-nu-ma Ba-ab-bi-li pu ru nim. a-na ameW su-ut bi-ha-a-tim sa i-na Sag-ga'^' wa-as-bu ta-sa-ap-pa-ra-su-nu-s\i-i'\m as-sum 15 amele*' a-na ma-ah-ri-ku-r^ji\ 15 . [«] - na "' ^" Marduk i - - mu din - sa - Urn Sin - nam *'" u ki 5 A - pi- il Sin bi - um ma is Am m. I.i - di - ta - na - ma ma 5 amele*' su-ut bi-ha-a-tim sa i-na Sag-ga ^' wa-asbu ki -a. 9S. -pu -ru. Obv. [Bu.J Transliteration.am.nim um . 91-S-9.IV. LETTERS OF AMMIDITANA. No.mu su -nu. ORDER FOR THE DESPATCH OF CORN WHEN THE OMENS ARE FAVOURABLE. s6. 340. pi. KING OF BABYLON.

ip ra - [am \ku s\u m. note 4. p. Inasmuch as the in at the tirne when ye province ' shall write unto men of of the who dwell the city Sagga. in For another reference to certain " men of the province.' fashion have they written unto me. saying.tim sa - al- ma -aa - t^im^ 2 5 ti am Sagga-' su - su bi la Translation. In this 'are lacking.ah l\i'\ . The men province Sagga have written unto me. [? ] - ma-ah-ri-ku-nu l\i-il-li-ku-niin-ma\ na se - ivi sa ti - su - nu\ 20 57 GUR bi-ir-ti i84i KA - 20 a-na kunnat sabi sa """ Kislimu Sag-ga '^' \u - a-hi-a-tini\ su - bdruti*' sa um . and Apil-Sin of the Thus saith * Ammiditana.\_ab - bi - A] Edge. p. Unto say Marduk-musalim." Abesu'. Fifty-seven gur and one hundred and eighty-four and a half ka dwell in the city of ' who ' 'of corn.nu'\ - wa se - - ar ka ""' - tu - ru ma'\ 25 i.hi ma . a-na Rev. a letter of * .— 158 LETTERS OF AMMIDITANA. pa it - ta - as - - \ru nint\ "u up - ra amele^' Ba g\a . ' round about during the month Kislev.na te-ri-e. see above. 132. ' for in the food of the men and of in the the citadel district ' the city of Sagga.d\ ri . : Sin-idlnnam. 132. See above.

and the authorities of that city would naturally be entrusted with the task its of arranging the supply of corn for chief point of interest in the letter five needs. i-na e-mu-ga-at sahimiini) sa ma-ah-ri-ka. z f. also held posts in In that case the city of Sagga probably lay in the neighbourhood of Sippar. is not improbable that to Marduk-musalim. in The lies the last lines of the for reverse. And let the soothsayers who are in your " presence' divine the future. Letter ' V of Hammurabi (No. in which the king gives or instructions the baruti^ "soothsayers. is whom that written. the present letter city."* to examine the portents in order that the corn should be brought into Sagga under favourable auspices." " As the following letter of Ammiditana it is addressed to a high official of Sippar. p.OBSERVATION OF OMENS." 1 1 see above. and Apil-Sin. For this restoration.. iVnd " from the corn which is in their hands shall " ye take fifty-seven gur and one hundred and " eighty-four and a half ka as food for the men " of the citadel in the city of Sagga and the " district round about for the month Kislev. * For another reference to "the company of the soothsayers. " I 59 men of Babylon will have been sent unto " you. Sin-idinnam. 1. . and (then) with " favourable omens shall ye bring this corn " into the city of Sagga. cf. ye shall send for the men of Babylon " that they may come into your presence. 6). i2 f.

No. a - na - akil damkari Sippar'^' bi - - ia - [ah - ru - ruin\ ki ma di - um "'""" 5 - ma - Am sa - mi - ta in - na - m. Obv. ORDER FOR THE PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE WHICH IS OVERDUE. 91-5-9.a mu ad di sipati (?) ki-a-am a-na as - u-lam-mi-da-an-ni akil um-ma ftie - su-ma - 5 damkari sipati Sippar'^'-ia-ah-ru-rum sum na ne - it ti - su '^' a - Bdbili li - im. [Bu. 325 . II.] Transliteration. 55.93. ap - pa - - ar - - ma su i o me u u - it - ta bi sa lam an - lam - mi -da ni . pl.i6o LETTERS OF AMMTDITANA.

Unto the say " : scribe of the merchants' of Sippar-iahrurum Thus ^ ' saith Ammiditana. and 21 is conjectural.' this fashion hath he informed me. The assessor of ' " wool " " " " hath informed me. the king writes in consequence of a report he has letter. IV of Samsu-iluna and XII of Abesu' also deal with the collection of taxes which are overdue. " Wherefore hast thou not brought unto " Babylon the wool that is due from thee ? " After " Since . for received to the effect that certain tribute which is due has not been delivered gives an abrupt order that it . VI.' in ^ One of the duties of this official was probably to collect the revenue from the merchants in his district. and VII) bear a very close resemblance to the present they deal with the collection of tribute overdue. 7. 14. " when thou shalt behold this tablet the wool " that is due from thee shalt thou (forthwith) " bring unto Babylon. l6l Translation. but he hath is ' not brought the wool that due from him. saying. I wrote unto the scribe of the merchants of Sippar- ' iahrurum bidding him bring the wool that is ' due from him unto Babylon. and in each case the form of the which is In them. as in the present letter. . ' Letters No. and shall each case he be promptly paid. V. " The reading oisipatu in II.— PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE. letter is the same." Three letters written by Abesu' (Nos. 11. 4.thou hast not feared to do this thing.

17. LETTERS OF AMMIZADUGA. pi. No. No. 50-] Transliteration. KING OF BABYLON. Mus.298 . a - . SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING. 85.V. [Brit.. I. Obv.

. and those of the sheep which are " marked ^ and which thou shalt bring forth.. and bukumu. When thou shalt behold this A [•. Ill on the eighth day of that month in in different years. " sealed " it is possible to translate. . see above. the son of Marduk-nasir. Nos.] the sheep which [. be noticed that the date Thus. . Nos. p. As Nos. which are here published.." Ammizaduga. are on the same subject they consist of a series of summonses to attend the sheep-shearing at Babylon. in the present letter Ibni-Sin is told to reach Babylon on the first day of the month Adar. II he is told to arrive on the tenth day of the month Sebat. the son of Marduk-nasir. the translation given above has not been repeated. with the exception of 1. say : — " Thus saith Ammizaduga.the shearing of sheep. II III are practically duplicates of the present letter. " tablet. 17 containing the date. in No." ' On ^ Literally.•••] " have taken. Unto Ibni-Sin. Thou shalt not delay. I-IV are addressed to Ibni-Sin. note i. " shalt thou take (with thee) and come to " Babylon. sheep-shearing' " will take place in the House of the Feast of " the New Year. 163 Translation. IV and V the dates are wanting. but shalt " arrive at Babylon on the first day of the " month Adar. " which were assigned (unto thee) under seal. 78. and in No. and were evidently written All five letters of . It will of the sheep-shearing varied slightly.

. II. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING.1 64 LETTERS OF AMMIZADUGA.

J Transliteration. [Bu. 329 . 91-S-9. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING. S4. [a - . Obv. No.91. 16$ III. pl.THE SHEARING OF SHEEP.

No. . . . the son of Marduk-nasir. New Year of . as there for the restoration of his is not sufficient room name in the first line. 162.9°. p.] Transliteration. ] Translation." A sheep-shearing of the Feast of " will take place in the " House . Unto Ibni-Sin. The portion the text which is missing may probably be restored from No. l66 IV. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING. with the exception of the date in 1. say " : Thus the saith Ammizaduga. 11. Mus.53' ! pl. [Brit. [a - n\a ' lb - ni - "" \s'\i - Sin ir mar [ki] - "" Marduk bi - na \um 5 - fn]a Am bi\t - mi za - du - ga ma ma m[u] 5 \b'\u \_i - ku na [«] - kyi - tim"] [is [ - sa - ak - ka - an] ] [The rest of the text is missing. The letter which follows (No. Obv. 50 (I). 17. No.. addressed to Ibni-Sin. 17 see above. V) was probably not .— LETTERS OF AMMIZADUGA. 8-19. 53.

. [Brit. 1 67 V. SUMMONS TO A SHEEP-SHEARING. 89. Obv [a [ - na ] - na'\ . Mus.THE SHEARING OF SHEEP.. 52-] Transliteration. 17. No.416. No. pi.si - ir ^« [/^?] bi - - [um 5 \bu-\ ina\ Am - mi - za du ga ma ma .

the rendering of the phrase hU amati.^ Thou shalt send me the man who is party to the suit* " of Namertum. pi. The writer of this letter may probably be identified with the Sin-idinnam of Larsam.J Transliteration. [Brit. ' come before the court of Kutalla.868. note . Mus. No. 38 f. to * whom Hammurabi's letters are addressed. Obv. I. p. see above. 12.." meaning of the title ' For this rdbianu. On 2. LETTER FROM SIN-IDINNAM TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT IN KUTALLA. MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS. and had been referred to Sin-idinnam for ^ The name of this city was also written Ku-ta-la. p. Unto the President Kutalla " " ^ of the Court ' in the city of say : Thus unto saith Sin-idinnam. see above. No. . 81. a - na "" ra • bi - a - Ku"" ta bi ki - um t) - ma el Sin - be - a - sa Na - a tu - na ur - Translation.— VI. 47. It is possible that the action mentioned in the letter had settlement. 39.

GOVERNOR OF MARTU.] Transliteration. PRESENTING A PETITION FOR PARDON. 169 ir. THE WIFE OF SIN-IDINNAM. 1.PETITION FOR PARDON. pi.08 1 . LETTER FROM TABBIWADI AND MAR-SAMAS TO AHATIM. 82. 48. [Bu. [« - «]« sa - ''A "" ha - tim as - at Sin bi - i - din - - nam u ki GAL Mar ma tu um wa 5 is - ma Tab ar ra - wa di - Mar - ''"Samal - - du tu - GAL pu - Mar - a ni - - na e - si li - - ri - - ki S an la - ti nu ak - um ru e il - kal ki (?) - tim ti - na i - - ni - na iin - ekalli KU 10 ni ag a ni - mi - - ki el 10 ib - bi - a a - na bu bi ni ip - zi - ir - - mi - - ma - li - tu ru ni ti dup . 91-5-9. No.

.170 MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS." ." The literally. ^ expression " our father " is probably not to be taken but to be regarded as referring to Sin-idinnam. Translation.. that his son (also) may free us. 106. . it has been suggested that it refers. " our We have brought the tablets unto father. 32. (Cf. Rome critique. " ..) ' The singular is here used collectively. Unto us* palaces are strange.. . With regard to that . * The word eli e-li-nu-um is i taken pi. not to the country of Martu. and may he write unto " his son. the of Martu.. the preposition with to seems preferable " and the mimation this regarding the word as an adverb. On the other hand. No. may " we remove thine [anger (?)] towards us. " but one hath taken us into the palace. hitherto. Unto Ahatim.. the governor :— " servants. Unto our mayest thou . in the translation as . Thureau Dangin. the title of Gal who was set over the slaves or workmen from Martu. and of his son " It is quite possible that Martu in the phrase Gal Martu had a local significance. " When we shall behold thy countenance. and merely referred to a district in Babylonia. 1899. ahu clearly has the meaning " side. F. favour.^ (say) " wife of Sin-idinnam. that our father may " free us. Thy father^ ". p. thy The governor of Martu hath sent us unto thee." Tabbiwadi and Mar-Samas had in some way " may he show ° incurred the wrath of Sin-idinnam. In the phrase i-na a-hi-ni. with the the suffix meaning " formerly.' " Thus say Tabbiwadi and Mar-Samas. but to Martu being held by an men from official that country. do we possess.

17 and wife. plur. They had arrived at the palace. In contract-tablets of this period there is II. behalf with the seeking her intervention on their governor and his that and ending with the request her favour they may secure when they are brought into her presence. attached to the verbs in 18. Some expressions in the and it is possible that the writers were foreigners who had settled in Babylonia. perhaps be inferred from the unusual form of the follows that ma-ri-''su in 16 is there. letter are obscure.1 PETITION FOR PARDON. They first refer to their want of knowledge of the ways of the court. . They then throw themselves son. and abundant evidence that foreigners settled in Babylonia and traded Sin-idinnam's son.' on Ahatim's mercy. " This may pronominal suffix of the ist pers. and 13 refers to Sin-idinnam. Sin-idinnam had not dealt with the case himself. 6. ii. but had sent the two men to his wife. and they now presented to Ahatim this petition for pardon. 12. 12. 8. perhaps to excuse the unusual nature of their petition. 1.' ' If the expression it "our father" in 11.

No. a.. 85 . Mus. 60.] . No. INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. Semitic Version. BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION CELEBRATING THE GREATNESS OF HAMMURABI'S REIGN. 112. [Brit. I. pi. . Col. I.VII. Transliteration SuMEKiAN Version.

[ II. . .BI . N[E U 5 - S[UL(?)S[UL (?) ] ] . LA - A - NI GAR - RA A - A ZU [i]B ^ NAM - [GAL] GUB UB .SUN . .A [ZA a] [GIR . .EN IS [DINGIR MUS GE^ ] [me] sun . . SuMERiAN Version.GUB .THE GIFTS OF THE GODS. [BA] RA AN SUM [ZA E] a BA A [GIR .DA 10 [an] NE TAB - TAB BA AN [•••]- . J ] . .EN Col.NE] .NA [bA R]A AN SUM [ZA E] BA A A 20 [GIR .GU]B BI .NE .NE GUB] .EN • 173 Semitic Version - - [(DINGIR)UTU] (DINGIR) MER [MASKIM] ZU ME§ E BA .BI . u.

174 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. SUMERiAN Version. .

.SI KI Semitic Version.GIS LAL GU RU .THE king's power AND MIGHT." as the equivalent oi muktabli. literally " the maker of war. then. . then. •which may perhaps be restored [mu-un-gul]-gul-la . ' Two signs at least are wanting at the beginning of the line. mu'ahhit (ii. habatu). I. dost thou wait ?' battle. then. dost thou wait ? Ninib hath given thee a noble weapon.ku ma mdt^ za - . dbatu) might be expected in the Semitic version rather than muhabbit (ii. value of this sign is uncertain. dost thou wait } Sin hath invested thee with princely power. I. For whom.A SI . and it is possible that ha is here employed merely for the breathing. MAR a-bu-ub ID za - tu - bi - - in bi . i. i]mi - mu ki - uk tab ma - sa bi lam us ti - ti - hn ti ] GA J ] ] mu pu it - ki tu 20 [ [ 20 \sade [ w\a as tim ] Translation. dost thou wait ? granted thee the contest and the For whom. Bel hath bestowed lordly rank upon thee. For whom. For whom. URU Gis . 175 10 SuMERiAN Version. Istar hath then. .tiin i ri li GIS GIS - LAL TE - mu tu - il - T[e] EN GU)2SI - - EN uk - - ma ma - - tim - (GU + (GU SI * ] + GU) mu za 1 - se ib bi A ah - - sa - tim it li 1 5 [ AG 5 vtu ha ab - bi [alam [ [ [ . is no equivalent for mat (kalam) in the Sumerian version. Col. ' There ' The . ' Jensen suggests the restoration [me (= tahazu')\ -AG.* GIM -GUL]-GUL-LA.

Let them tender their obedience Unto thy supremacy. . then. May they bow down their faces In reverence before thee. For whom. [Only the ends of a few lines of the Semitic Version have been preserved. bringeth opposition to nought. Samas and Ramman are thy guardians. . . He He He is the hurricane of the battle.] Col. In the four quarters of the world May thy name be proclaimed. Let them celebrate Thy great glory. II.— 176 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. And he breaketh through the barrier Of impassable The beginning mountains.'' Col. May mankind in its myriads Address supplication unto thee. the destroyer of his foes. III. III. hath made glorious for future days The The Hammurabi. he putteth an end destroyeth the warrior Like an image of clay. the strong warrior.' greatness of his power king. dost thou wait . Col. IV. casteth He And down the land of his enemy. EstabUsh thy might. to insurrection. . He He hath established. . ' of this sentence occurred at the end of Col.

212. Col. 97. s8.. Transliteration.216. Semitic Version. No.] Col.DIM NIG AG AG (dingir) ME BI ni sa si ''" ma ip - sarru sa tu - SU Utu - a u 10 - na a ir Samas - BA 10 - DUG - Marduk ME GA RA EN Marduk - ta ba na - BAD ZIMBIR(KI) ku duru KI . No. Mus.. SuMERiAN Version. No.THE WALL OF SIPPAR. No. IJa am ra bi Ha sarru am inu ra bi ga lugal lig Ka-dingir-ra(ki) lugal LUGAL (AN)UB-DA TAB-TAB 5 da ki sar sar ib num BabiW" ra tim ar ba - - ba - im tim ''" 5 KALAMA LUGAL SU (DINGIR) DIM . pi. I. 57. I. [Brit.] inu pi. 12. 177 II. 102. Mus. BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION RECORDING IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CITY OF SIPPAR. 12. [Brit.

SuMERiAN Version. lu - u - um niu - mi ra - su - Ha am inu ra DIM K A LAMA DIM - hi 25 2 Ha ba - am ni sa si ''" bi tim. II. II.178 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. ME - ma ip ir - LUGAL SU 25 (dingIR) NIG - AG - AG - BI sarru sa tu - su (dingir) Utu RA EN (ki. lu (id) - Semitic Version. a u - na a ''" Samas - BA . us - ta - as hi - - ir - su ' UD - - KIB NUN ku - 20 ""'" UD KIB a - NUN Sippar^' Zimbir(ki) a lu na hu 20 mu SILIM ba NI KAR MA - al GE US - uh su ri - - - am mi - ma iin kar 0>L. ul HU - MU Col.DUG ZiMBiR - Marduk GA ME Marduk - ta ba 30 na - ku .

sarru la in ib sarri ali^ ni be - U li a 43 ra lu na "" Samas bi ia is e - pu - us - su - um .IR BA . ' That "for his city-god". I have caused Sippar and Babylon to dwell continuously in a peaceful Hammurabi. the mighty king.MA AN (dINGIR) UtU LUGAL-MA 40 GAL BI HU . the Sumerian version.RU Semitic Version. am I. have I have digged compassed it about with a swamp. Hammurabi.E NE .Translation.RA DIM . LUGAL-E-NE-iR. yammurabi. the founder of the land. . "for his kings. am I. the king of the four quarters. his gods.THE SIPPAR-CANAL.pleasing unto the heart of Samas and Marduk. reads is. * . the king whose deeds are well-pleasing unto the heart of Samas and Marduk. habitation. am I. the king whose deeds are well . of old no king had built for the king of the city. • uru {aW) is read by all the duplicates. unto Sippar. the That which from days beloved of Marduk. the Euphrates.MU ." i. the founder of the land. the king of Babylon.e.NA. and I have set out the Euphrates '^ up a wall of safety for it.' for Samas my The sign lord I have gloriously accomplished. 179 SuMERiAN Version. I The summit with earth of the wall of Sippar have raised I like unto a great mountain. (id)ud-kib-nun is probably an abbreviation of (iD)un-KiBNUN-KI. LUGAL LUGAI. the darling of Samas.

Mus. 12. . (dingir) . 121. III. No.219 pi. No.j l8o INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. Obv. SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD IN [Brit. Transliteration. 62. LARSAM..

LUGAL I8I .THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD.

' Hammurabi. 14). 94). 95. therefore (dingir) En-lil da-ga-ni ymu "" Bil. 94. ' Three of the phrases in 11. . his king. or a symbol. 1.102 inscriptions of hammurabi. 94. Samas. the king of Babylon. the exact meaning of the word is uncertain. the servant of Bel. ]-OT« It is '"'"5?/ ""Marduk. of power. though it is clearly either an object. which may [ perhaps be restored as \ie\-mu "" Bel (see below. 5-1 1 correspond to those in the Semitic inscription No. . . * DUR-KA is the Sumerian equivalent of sirratu (No. = ""Samas re'u na-ra-am probable that the remaining phrase \mi'\-gi-ir . Translation. which read : na-bi-u An-nim [ . . sub No. the shepherd who delighteth mighty king. his beloved temple. 11. and No. — when Samas gave unto rule. the lord of heaven and earth. the king who hath built anew their the shrines of the great gods. 10-17. 1. the lord who is the protector of his the temple E-babbar. . For Samas. 28. the city of his rule. in Larsam. the beloved of Samas. then did (Hammurabi) build life. the king of Sumer and Akkad. the king of the four quarters of the world. the of Ann. the minister Marduk's heart. him Sumer and Akkad for to and entrusted sceptre* to his hands.

Transliteration. bi LIG ga LUGAL (KI) 5 5 Ka LUGAL DINGIR - RA UB - (an) DA GE TAB BA - TAB EA DIM BABBAR (dingir) E 10 e Utu (KI) 10 Ararma MA Translation. 183 IV. No.. No.J THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD. the temple of Samas. . Mus. [Brit. 124. was probably deposited in the temple. the king of the four quarters of the world. in the city of Larsam. 121 . TA Hammurabi. which also records the building of E-babbar by Hammurabi. pi. the mighty king. SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION UPON BRICKS FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD IN THE CITY OF LARSAM. hath built E-babbar. The bricks on which the above inscription is found were built into ' its walls.' The preceding inscription. HaLUGAL am ra mu. the king of Babylon. 63.

V. Mus. No. No. 118. (dingir) Ninni Za - Rl UNU (ki) . [Brit.. pi. 61.J 1 84 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURA13I. SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF A TEMPLE TO THE GODDESS NINNI. 12. Transliteration.068 . Obv.

THE TEMPLE OF NINNI. SI I8S + .

VI. (Louvre) . E-ZIDA.i86 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. 94.] pi. INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE [L. a - . Obv. 182. Transliteration. No.

1 8/ .THE TEMPLE id E-ZIDA.

] Transliteration. No. [L. .INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. 185. (Louvre) . Obv. VII. OF pi. 95. INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE CUTTING THE NUHUS-NISI CANAL.

THE NUHU§-NISI CANAL. 20 Ak lu - - im ri ah sa - - ki sa - - di ki sim. - la - li - en ir a na - me ri - ri e - lu u - te - 25 ka lu as tap na an 25 pa ru - ak tint - da - Su ka as - me di er - im. me I §9 ba - bi - la - at - e - Jiegalli 20 a u na mat Su ka - me di - er • im. im - ku un 30 - me ka ni lu - er im im - di - - si - su nu sa - ap - ha tint u - pa tu ah - hi - ir 35 mi lu in lu ri u ma si as - ki si - tu 35 as ku un na u - im nu e - uh ri - sim si Jiegalli na - - ti su ba -at se - ne - ih si - - tim - 40 /a i - u - si ib - na ti 40 nu - ^Kt su ra - Ha mi 45 in am - mu -da - bi sarru gir ildni e - num a - rabuti na - - ku in 45 mu - ki .

.

fortress. the beloved of the great gods. I This fortress named Dur-Sin-muballit-abim-walidia. ' That is. the top of which reacheth on high like unto a mountain. Hammurabi." restore. with much earth. I I collected scattered peoples thereof. As the for the land of Sumer and Akkad. through the great power which Marduk had bestowed (upon me). and procured unfailing water for the land of Sumer and Akkad. At that time I." of the people.^ at the built a lofty head of the Hammurabi-canal (named) Nuhus-nisi. and procured food and I drink for them. to fields thereof I changed^ for I Both the banks cultivation. the mighty king. (and thus) did I cause the name of Sin-muballit. In I abundance and plenty pastured them. and garnered piles of grain. I9I Nuhus-nisi/ which bringeth abundance of water unto the land of I Sumer and Akkad." not "to wall. and caused them to dwell in a peaceful habitation. to convert." ' The Or " verb probably implies "to change.THE NUHUS-NlSl CANAL. to turn s . the father who begat me. " The abundance back into. to dwell in the (four) quarters of the world.

pi. VIII. Obv. No.J ig2 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. 59. 106. Mus. No. INSCRIPTION RECORDING THE BUILDING OF A GRANARY IN BABYLON. 9. a - na . 81-8-30. Transliteration.. [Brit.

193 bi - su e pu us eli musare{e) ' sa "' E nam - ti - la Ha-am-inu-ra-bi sarri Ri-niut "" Gu-la 25 apil ""^'"SAG-SAB """''"SAGAN-LAL-NAB-TUR is-tur-ma a-na balat napsdti*'-su iub{ub) i-na lib-bi-su ''" u semi su-pi-e-su u-ki-in E-zi-da bit na-rain Nabu Translation. Rimut-Gula. a the temple of E-namtila by king. ^ (This copy of an inscription). and that may be made glad. my hands. 13 . For Bel. . ]. the great lord of heaven and earth. in the hope that his his heart may be preserved. .A GRANARY hu sa 25 sa lid lib - IN BABYLON. and that his prayers may be ' answered. my lord. life . the of the host... king in of the gods. and was made The copy is on clay. in the Neo-Babylonian period. his beloved a granary to rejoice his heart. Hammurabi. the humble and . the beloved temple of Nabu.. son of a captain . which (was engraved) in upon a tablet Hammurabi. the prince whom Bel taketh delight. the reverent one who showeth obedience unto Samas and maketh reverent one [ . —when Bel gave (me) the (in) peoples of his land to rule and set the sceptre thereof within city. hath written and hath placed it in E-zida. I made Babylon. glad the heart of Marduk. the beloved shepherd of Ninib. the king of Babylon. I. the mighty king.

.J 194 INSCRIPTIONS OF HAMMURABI. 64 and 65. ." Like No. VIII the copy was made in the Neo-Babylonian period. Col.. condition. Nos.. No. 190. . [Brit. } ' The text is inscribed upon a clay tablet. [Brit.. J - <5«. for the scribe has left his third column blank with the exception of two notes in smaller characters. . ku >&« 3[ . FRAGMENT OF AN INSCRIPTION.] Transliteration. i. ] . INSCRIPTION FROM THE PALACE OF HAMMURABI.. Nos. . 22. .. III. .]- Translation. . .. and was copied from an ancient inscription which was probably engraved upon stone and must have resembled the stone tablets of Samsu-iluna (see below. pi. ekal Ha - am - mu - ra - bi Translation. No. The original from which the copy was made was in bad p. IX. Col. 96. hi-b\_i'\ and lii-bu-u.] Col. X. 36. . Hammurabi.e. Palace of yammurabi. Mus. the mighty king. 2[_ .. . destroyed. .. . II.255 . Mus. OBV. 199). pi.] mnn Rev. " broken. 125. [Wanting..456 .]- <5/. *[.. Transliteratio n. I. IV >[ . Ha sarru am- mu - ra - - bi da [Wanting. Col.455 and 22.

I.GIN GIN] 20 20 IGI . I. ] 1 BA AN ] ALAD ME-TE NAM-DIN[GIR-RA-NI] AG G[a NI KU] KI . . .E . II. No. Col. 66.. NAM - [TI^^L)] Ha I 15 ra - - am bi - - mu [ - r\_a - bi'\ LUGAL rum - Mar - - [tu] ] bi a an (ID) [ . traces of a character. 126..DI ..1 j 5 VIII. No. . pi.. VOTIVE INSCRIPTION IN SUMERIAN. . Mus. INSCRIPTIONS REFERRING TO HAMMURABI. ' There is .\M A - NI 10 INIM NIN - IM TUK A BI SAG NI GI IR 10 COL. [ ] - ra - turn E GI - - A a LI An TUM - NAM NIN 5 NIN HI Z[l] na MA BI MA SAG - AZ HAR SAL NIN NITA - DE SAG - E§ DUG LAL - GA GA SUD IR - 5 D.NE DU SU -[. Transliteration. though Anu's name is usually written without the determinative.DUR KI URU IM [ ] N[E . probably no sign wanting after a if the marks are dingir is possible. [Brit. 22.454.

10. is It may be inferred that the flat slab on which the inscription engraved did not form part of the alad.. j. and Anatu. as its form suggests..i^) . ^ In Semitic helit kuzbi u ulsi. the lady of strength and abundance/ (the lady of?) the mountain/ (whose worship) for her is carefully tended. "queen". a photograph of which has been reproduced as the frontispiece to the present volume we may probably see in this figure a piety. Introduction). the merciful lady.. . the . strength. who (. .. and the postposition ir occurs in 1. is a guardian image service worthy of her for her within the dwelling which beloved of her. who spouse maketh favourable her exalted word.. hath marvellously fashioned* divinity. [ J. for his lady.'') hath attained to dominion. . Translation. of the (district of the) river of Suban[ (. representation of Hammurabi (see above. . * ^ In Semitic ana tdbrati usdlik. the rabiami the son king of Martu. ^ .196 inscriptions referring to hammurabi. Jratum/ the bride of Anu. 2 is clearly the goddess If the name or title is Semitic. it may be restored as \}ar\-ra-tum.. or " guardian image." but was set up in the temple of the goddess as a record of Ibirum's On the slab beside the inscription is a figure in relief. the preposition ana is necessarily absent. ' We the inscription was set up. For [ . on behalf of the Ibirum[ life of Hammurabi.. possibly should expect here the name of the deity in whose honour who from 1. as the inscription itself is Sumerian. ' It is not clear whether har-sag ga is to be taken by itself or with the lines which precede or follow it perhaps it should be translated " my mountain.].." a phrase descriptive of the goddess's ..

" the creator of the kingdom . P'.J SUMERIAN INSCRIPTIONS..667. as "I. 1.'^8.MU . ] [A]R [ 5 [ • KU • MU - [ 1 ] . and It is possible that probably formed part of a statue. 197 II. INSCRIPTION. No. These few words from an inscription referring to Hammurabi are engraved upon a fragment of basalt. BA - RA . N. am and the land. The fragment is some three inches in thickness. .[ ] 5 E- [ - ] Ha< • am - mu \ra - bi'\ 10 NAM LUGAL .] Summary. j - NE - AG - - [ . 67. Transliteration. 7 ff. in which case part of a we may conclude that the fragment statue of Hammurabi himself. . [ ] [ • .. FRAGMENT OF A SUMERIAN [Brit. we should translate 11.[a KALAM ma pa ud d[u AG AME - ] • • ] e[n] 10 • UD [ • (DINGIR)EN - LIL - [ • J • ] [Both the beginning and the end of the column are wanting. is . ] ] - LI NE a[G - . Mus. No.. Hammurabi..

No.. FRAGMENT OF A SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION. pi. Mus.. III. inu la - [ilu] - - su - i [ lu n\_a\ ] 5 ] - [nam] LUGAL - [••••] .. 80-1 i-iz.. 68. Rev TIG (id) a KA - - ra -ah-\_ Ha AD 5 - am - m.. 329.. [Brit.igS INSCRIPTIONS REFERRING TO HAMMURABI.] Transliteration.DUN -[.u [n]e in ru TIL - - [NA]M [ [.GUL m]u r[u . Obv Su - DU Sa 5 [ • [•].]. izg. No.] am .

98 . 97. pi. No. . Semitic Version. are based on the Sumerian version. Col.NE A BAR RI . 98 and 99. ' The variant readings and most of the restorations in the Semitic version are taken from the tablet in Berlin.GE (dingir) Marduk DU-SAG - [iVz nu sa Anu same "" ''" Bf\l [sarru [a - u - Yrsiti na ri - Mar\duk ti'\ \mdri (dingir) 5 es - En-ki-ka-ra la IN - 5 [ sa •'"£] is im a SI - HUL SI IN - NE^ . 29 some restorations .BI .A - \Jia - di - ip\ pa sum^ [ al - su] - ^ The Sumerian version is taken from No. 91. footnotes.. pi. published by Winckler.. Nos. pi. Nos. 99.'] Mus.DA ."] I. INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY. BILINGUAL INSCRIPTION OF SAMSU-ILUNA RECORDING HIS BUILDING OPERATIONS. No.507 and 199 ff.083 Col. Mus. L VD Ana (dingir) En-lil LUGAL AN Kl .IX. ip-pal-su-sum.. [Brit. 22. with restorations the variant readings of No. I. Var. Transliteration. 38. Ni. SuMERiAN Version.402 .ES . AUbabylonische Keihchrifttexte. igi. . [Brit. 98 are given in the from No. ' * Var.

. may possibly be restored as \_a\-pi-ir. vol. lu - ut ki\ - - ib - ra - at ar ti'\ d]a nil - MU-NA. 98 inserts A.MA KALAM NA NAM .AN -SUM-MU-US-A (DINGIR) A-NUN-NA-GE-NE-IR lO ID \i - im sum na - \in '" ] - A - nun si - ki MU MAH IN - A SA - MI - NI - - \Ju \i - ma - d\m ra - - am su su ES A GIM 1 U\i u KA MU 15 DINGIR - RA{KI) KI - [Bdbil'\u'^' 5 isda GIRI - BI AN NA - \ki - m. This is possibly the reading of the Berlin tablet Wesl.a same] - u irsiti AN - - [u ki i^n - nu ^"' sum GI NI ES - A \i - UD - BA {piNGlvC)Marduk nu - su] Marduk ti - (DINGIR) 20 AN AN En . NAM-EN UB-DA TAB-TAB-BA \be [ SEMITIC Version..LIL .a\m.AZAG . if correct. the phrase ' ' * is clear. . Obv. . MA - AN d]in - nam - KALAM MA - NI ~[« mat - su* a] ri - which. kalam-ma-a-ni TJ-SAL-LA NA-DA =: mal-su a-bur-ris sur-bu-si.EN NA .'"£e]l ma1 su • [ ] ne - m. pi.200 INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS.e - ki im DIM - DIM su - - ME - - A na 20 \a-na \sar am Sa LUGAL NI. Although the restoration of the word is uncertain. Cun. the general meaning of ' .of the Berlin tablet as -pi-ir. No. 19 f. . cf. SuMERiAN Version. Winckler gives the reading. BI AG NE SUM \i - Col..T[a] KUR NIGIN BA*-BI SIBA - \naphar ma-ta-tim a-n^a ri-ia-im NAM II.su-i-lu-na la - LA - LA - NI IJi - su ia - ti^ KUR 25 - ME . iv. Inscr. - i - lu Sa. 12. 1. Asia.ZU - [. Var. ia-a-ti.

MA DU URU . am su i - lu LUGAL LIG GA LUGAL KA-DINGIR-RA(KI) LUGAL (AN)UB-DA TAB-TAB-BA GU UR A NE-IN-SIG-GA-ME-EN KAL IM GA 40 A SI - sarru da - niim Bdbili'" sar sarru 35 ki- mu ib - us - te .na'\ na Col.EN.MU . \_Sa II. Possibly restore as \)a-pa]-ra-am. . U SAL - Semitic Version. So also the Berlin tablet. Briinnow.KU TUM . . NA-u-NE. ^ cf.a\p u/'\ .""Si[n'] ' Var. \-ra-am ic\ - A - Sa 35 - HU . ' No.BUILDING OPERATIONS OF SAMSU-ILUNA.^ im [a-na \ra - da-ar bi - .NA-US Bad PAD [da(ki)] (dingir) (dingir) na ba • ''" Nin - - ummi Dur 45 ni ti ta pad na ri - da ^' Mer id-dah-[mu-ge] GA - a- "" Rammdnu - si \ia'\ Bad LA b[a(KI)] - Dur a - la ga - ba ^' (DINGIR) URU KI na .TUM MU NE - \in su - mi .su . Classified List. 201 SuMERiAN Version. " to rule " . 25 \is \_ni - LA NA LA - NE' - su si - - ur - b'\u - sa sa - - am tim UKU 30 SILIM DAGAL NI im - ra.Sgg. -(-.DA am .AG lu - is - lu wa - 30 [ e - ra - an - - n\i .es - mi at ra - ar ra ba e im - a na - ku ia mu ni - uk^ - ma blrit IG GAL - MU Za - TA 40 tn uzni bi - ia ra - im Nippuri"' Bad - (dingir) kar Dur ""Za-kar a - (dingir) En-lil-[la(ki)] Nin-har-sag-ga 45 DAGAL in -DIM .i GAL AN .

ia'] ne .- 202 INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS.bu .A .ib .TE .ru . Hi ba - SAG-DU-MU-KU^ ni - la Bad-(uru) Ia-bu-[ga-ni(ki)] SO Dur .la .as 55 Bad.gu .""• Gu-la- dur\u - * '^' u'\ "^'^ Bad na ^ - u si Dur.A NE NE A NI-SUB-SUB-BU-US. III."" la.\_ga .(URu)Gu-LA-BAD(Ki) u a (DINGIR) Dur .A-AN** SIG-GI-GA - NI IN .GAL MUL-ERIM-MU-UM IN AG . so DINGIR Col.ni "'I (DINGIR) LUGAL-DIRI^-TU-GAB a-na ''" Lugal-diri-t\u-gab\ mu-nam-lugal-la-[mu-umJ mu-sar-bi^ sar .ul . Semitic Version.u-si-a-na-Ur'^ r\a 55 Ur - RA(KI) UT-TUN 60 NE VI Su A- - NER URU .A NAM. SuMERiAN Version.AS BAD-GAL-GAL-LA'-BI a- mu A - - la - GU LA MU 65 MI V-kam-ma-mu RU .t\_i .SUN -BA IM .

203 SuMERiAN Version.NI DU - ib - bu - \arhu al e - 2 "^^^ libiita su nu [bi in GAL IM MI - RU 70 ra ra - bi is SI - \j)u us \_nu * SAG-NE-NE MI - HAR-SAG-GIM NI IL su sa - ki - fna - [tu - ini \li ' u u - ul NIGIN 75 GIRI - KUR BI - KUR NI - RA GI - MI - GE EN naphar matati ^ \isda-si-na - ki - \in Col. SAG 70 GAR - Semitic Version. IV.BUILDING OPERATIONS OF SAMSU-ILUNA.MA . in li - ITU BI BI - II - KAM . .TA MI .

- 204 INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS. [ba [*'" - la - tam sa\ ki - ma am Slin - 90 ITU-ITU-DA SAR-SAR-DA^ \_wa ar te - - hi s\a - - \u i]d ut\ di su ib NAM-SIBA ub-[d]a2 tab-tab-ba \ri ia kiar ba - \ra tim'X im. NAM-TI-LA (DINGIR)Uru-KI-GIM '90 Semitic Version. SILIM - MA DU - URU - KU . SuMERiAN Version.

and established for him the foundation of Babylon like unto heaven and earth." overthrow . the fortress of Dur-padda for the fortress Dur-lagaba for Sin. the king of heaven and earth. six who hath overthrown ^ mine father. begat me ." The Sumerian version reads " who hath brought about the of. the mighty king. me to settle his own land in security. am I. the first-born son of Ea. and to rule the scattered peoples in Samsu-iluna. the fifth father of my had built. the king quarters who hath brought to subjection the four of the world. my the god who helper . granted the whole of the world to rule. the lord of his land. With mine own power and in my great wisdom (I restored) the fortress of Dur-Zakar in Nippur for the goddess Nin-mah. then Marduk. the fortresses of Dur-Gula-duru and Dur-usi-ana-Urra for Nergal. my father. 20s Translation. unto me. and gave unto him the dominion over the four quarters of the world and called him by an exalted name among the Anunnaki.\ the mother who bore me . who hath increased my kingdom . which Sumula-ilu. the fortress Dur-Iabugani for Lugal-diri-tugab. looked with joy upon Marduk. Ramman. ' ' The Sumerian version reads " for the goddess Nin-har-sag. ' These mighty strong fortresses. the king of his abundance.building opfrations of samsu-iluna. who is endowed (?) with wisdom. the king of Babylon. enemies. When Anu and Bel. Samsu-iluna. and with majesty he commanded prosperity for ever.

bounds of heaven and their The this : bright regard gifts beheld and they bestowed these is upon me (to live) a life which . and not fortresses in the strict sense of the term. in their old age through their own accord had In two months I fallen into ruins. like I I unto a mountain. renewed month by month to like the Moon-god to wield for ever a peaceful sway over the four quarters of the world . I constructed them majestically. . and walk each day with head raised joy and gladness of heart. I rebuilt their brickwork. ' It is possible that these six durani were walls. The fear of the majesty of my kingdom earth.206 INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS.' have firmly stablished the foundations of I all have exalted the name of Babylon. great in have made it the four quarters of the world. raised their summits lands. attain the desire of to my heart like unto a god in . hath covered the great gods with thing.

Mus. 38. . No..303 .INSCRIPTION OF AMMIDITANA. 215. 10 Su DU mu bi - 1 UR - SAG g[a] 10 A SE e - su a me - en - - g[a] (dingir) ] En lil la J KI-[ Rev. SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION OF AMMIDITANA. [PAL] .] Transliteration. 100.GI (ki) U[RDU] DA GA M[u] (kur) Mar-tu (ki) A-ME-EN es - bi su) la ' SAG ilu - - PAL \ . 207 II. Am - mi - di - \_ta - na\ 5 LUGAL LUGAL LUGAL LUGAL LUGAL {ki - LIG [ - GA] (KI) S Ka Kl - - DINGIR KiS RA[(KIj] EN . AN-[ . No. Obv. pi. [Brit.

MUL-IM-A NE-IN-BUR-RU-DA-A .208 INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS.

SUMERIAN INSCRIPTION REFERRING TO AMMIZADUGA.A DEDICATION TO THE SUN. [Bu.J Transliteration. 88-S-12. Obv. pi. 209 III. 130.GOD. 48. (dingir . 69. No.

. is not written in usual cursive hand. but in the more complex and careful character employed in inscriptions upon stone." for the preservation of the Ammizaduga.. This to the is a votive inscription containing a dedication is Sun-god. the great lord of the gods. Briinnow. No..2IO INSCRIPTIONS OF OTHER KINGS." The inscription was of made by " order of " Gimil-Marduk the judge. the mighty king. ' I..e. SAR - NE 1 - IN [ . the king of the temple E-dikud. It probably formed the rough draft used by the engraver when preparing the stone tablet which was intended by Gimil-Marduk to be placed before Samas in E-dikud." The thie text. his temple in Babylon.] Summary. [ [ ]-NA-AN ] - A - NI IN [ ] IN BA E 30 DUB 30 iGi - BI - NA (?) NE DA - (dingir) DI - Utu TA NI SE - E IN - KUD GA - - DUG - SI IN - - GA MU NI [. who described in the opening words of the text as " Samas.. . the king of Babylon. is his king. 821. - GUR 25 SUKUS-ME-BI J-GAR-RA 2$ .. . the son life of Mini-Samas. GAM .. which on a clay tablet.

. A CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON.X.

I. 102). BA . z 17. A.] Brit. (pi. 10. 91-5-9. YEAR. No. the it is used. 8. 16.RU BAT(KI) MU (dingir)ni Kis(ki) mu-un-na-dim-ma^ (10) MU aga mu us-saaga (dingir)ni Kis(ki) mu-un-na. literally "wall. 11.284 (pi. 3. in whose thirteenth year Kis was captured and destroyed.924 Transliteration. ' The first sign in the line is aga. [mu [mu Su-mu-a-hu LUGAL-E ^ ] ] 2. 7. 228. Mus. rendering of the line be correct. the city of Kis must have been This was not the allied with. 6. Col. B: No. or subject to. MU MU MU MU MU MU BAD^ E E [ ](KI) - B[A-RU] (DINGIR)NIN SI IN NA KI BA [RU] - MAH (DINGIR)URU BA [RU] (5) BA-RU (DINGIR)URU-KI E-MAH US-SA US-SA-BI E-MAH (DINGIRJURU-KI BA-RU US-SA GIS-GAL ERIN GU-LA E (DINGIRjURU-KI-RA 9. not bad as in 1. ' The word bad (Semitic duru). REIGN OF SUMU-ABU. I. 4. 1. J.dim-ma MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA DiL BAD ' As Sumu-abu founded the dynasty it is possible that the usual formula was not employed for his first year.A CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON. meaning is not essentially altered. however. [A: Bu. No." means also " fortress. loi).. case during the reign of Sumula-ilu." and it is sometimes difficult to decide in which sense Whichever translation is employed. If this 34. Babylon at this time. . as the fortifications of ancient Babylonian cities consisted of huge walls of earth faced with sun-dried bricks.

year in which the temple of Nin-sinna was year in which the great temple of Nannar built. [The year • • • which Sumu-abu became king ^•'. Mus. The second year after that in which built.924 Translation. Kis was made. 5. The year in which the great door of cedar was made for the temple of Nannar. year after that in which the great temple of built. 3.* year after that in which the crown of the god NI of the city of Kis was made. . ] was 4. [A: Bu. 91-5-9.] Brit. (pi. 102). of [ . The The year in which the crown of the god ni of the city of 1 1. 16. 284 (pi. 228. 217. B: No. I. . The year in which the wall of the city of Dilbat was built. . No. Nannar was 7. [The year in which ^ ]. : 2. REIGN OF SUMU-ABU. . built. The The year in which the wall built..A CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON. loi). 1. 9. in YEAR. the great temple of Nannar was 8. No. The The was 6. 10.

"The tablet Bu. MU MU US-SA bad-gal [Ka-dingir-ra(ki) - b]a-ru - E (DINGIR)MER RI [ BA] RU " Nearly fifteen hundred years before the time of Sumu-abu. At that time Kastubila. is dated MU i-zi Su-mu-a-hu-um year in which the wall of Sumu-abu was destroyed" . revolted against Sargon of Agade. 7.. Asia. The "Omens of Sargon" relate that " he overthrew their mighty host. 3. of the city of Kasallu.214 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. The List of Kings assigns It is fifteen Sumu-abu. I. 34. Inscr. and he left not so much thereof that the birds of heaven could roost upon it. 475. MU MU MU Ha lam US-SA bu u gts - ku ba sig Ha-lam-bu-u [gis-ku - b]a-sig BAD - gal Ka - dingir ra(ki) [b]a - RU (20) 6. years to the reign of but to ° some subsequent period. iv. the of Kasallu was in conflict with the Semitic population of Babylonia. vol. 31 f. ' probable that the " Sumula-ilu-canal. Col. the same canal as that . but the latter marched against the rebels and defeated them. 12. 1. 91-5-9. 5. A. 11. Obv. 14. MU MU MU GIS-HIR DINGIR-RI-E-NE-GE MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA Ka US - sal /«(KI) BA - HUL* HUL^ SA Ka- sal - - Iu{ki] - BA du XIV MU Su II. West." mentioned under is the izth and 32nd years of this reign. [mu] a - LUGAL-E^(i5) REIGN OF SUMULA-ILU. No. I. MU MU Su-mu-la-tlu 'LVGA'L-^ (ID)(DINGIR)UTU-HE-GAL MU-UN-BA-AL' 2. pi. this year is probably not to be referred to the reign of Sumu-abu. US-SA (]D)(DINGIR)UTU-HE-GAL MU-UN-BA-AL 4." See Cun. 13. * city ' The BA-TIL. YEAR. and he turned Kasallu into mounds of dust.

in the 1 2th and 32nd years. . 21 12. the king. year in which the great wall of Babylon was built. If this be so. The The The The The The The year in which Sumula-ilu became king. year in which the city of Kasallu was laid waste. or perhaps extended. year in which Halambu was in slain with the sword. 3. REIGN OF SUMULA-ILU. year after that in which the great wall of built. and the canal Samas-hegallu was dug. Babylon was 7. 13. The The The year in which the plantation of the gods was made. " A very similar formula was employed for the 28 th year of ^Jammurabi. 6. it may be inferred that the canal was repaired. year after that which Halambu was slain with the sword.' was The fourteen years of Sumu-abu.^ II. 5. year after that in which the city of Kasallu laid waste.* 14.' 2. 4. year in which the temple of Ramman was built.5 REIGNS OF SUMU-AEU AND SUMULA-ILU. 1. year after that in which the canal Samas- hegallu was dug.* termed the Samas-hegallu-canal in this line. YEAR.

13. 9. which had been captured in the 13th year of Sumu-abu the formula implies that lahar-zlr-ili.SA E (DINGIR)M[ER . 17.BA AL] MU KlS(Kl) [BA HUL]3 MU KIS(KI) B[a . YEAR. 20. 15.HULJ US . Two years later (see the 20th year) the revolt was crushed by the destruction of the wall of Kasallu and the massacre of the inhabitants. 16.HUL MV la-har-si-ir-ili Sk-G-Ka-sal-lu-TK BA-RA-UD-DU " MU BAD (DINGIR)NI KIS(KI) BA-GUL^^ MU BAD Ka-sal-lu{K.n]AM -[.\) BA-GUL U SAB-BI GIS-KU BA-SIG (35) MU US-SA BAD Ka-sal-lu{Kl) BA-GUL U SAB-BI - - - .UM M[A j (25) ..HUL^" MU V . inasmuch as it gave the official title to five years of Sumula-ilu's reign. 18. lahar-zIr-ili must have made his escape from the city. the leader of the revolt.KAM . went forth from the city and took the offensive against Babylon.. 14. : . MU Su m[u . ] - - GIS-KU BA-SIG ° The capture of the city of Kis was evidently regarded as a most important event. for it was not till five years later (see the 2Sth year) that the Babylonians succeeded in defeating the remainder of his forces and in slaying him.2l6 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. ..MA Kis(KI) BA .ilu m[u . '" The Babylonians named this year "the fourth year" of the taking of Kis. 8.KAM MA KIS(KI) BA .SA MU US-SA US-SA-BI Kis(KI) BA HUL (30) MU IV .RI BA ~ RU] MU US-SA US-SA-BI [e (dingir)Mer-ri ba-ru] MU NU DU . 19. 11. " This line probably refers to a revolt of the city of Kasallu. . A. Col. I. 10. MU US . 12.la ilu MU ID Su mu -la. 21. as they included in their reckoning the year in which the city was taken.

13. were the six durani. purposes of defence. year in which the canal of Sumula-ilu was dug.). 18. The year after that in which the wall of Kasallu was destroyed and the inhabitants thereof slain with the sword. 10. The The The The The year in which . and the inhabitants thereof with the sword. destroyed.'" fourth year after that in which the city of Kis was destroyed. 14. 1 2. which the city of Kis was 15. 8. Ramman was j. pp. . The second year after that in which the city of Kis was destroyed. year in which the city of Kis was destroyed. for frequently dedicated to a god cf. The The was 17.^ in year after that destroyed. Kis was destroyed. year after the temple of The second built. 11. third year after that in which the city of Kis 16. zoi if. . YEAR." 1 9. [ year in which Sumula-ilu [ ]. was buih. or walls erected .REIGN OF SUMULA-ILU. '^ Fortresses. year in which the fortress of the god ni of the city of 20. was slain 21. 217 The year after that in which the temple of Ramman 9. The The year in which lahar-zlr-ili went forth from Kasallu. .'^ in The year which the wall of Kasallu destroyed." which Sumula-ilu founded and which Samsu-iluna repaired (see above. or " fortresses.

the is city of Cuthah. p. and named it by him Dur-Zakar into decay. 201). 26. 29. " From inscriptions of Samsu-iluna we know that a or w^all.. 31.NA-NA-A MU 27. as the determinative Ki absent...TA SU - - UL {'DlNGIR)Marduk RA (40) MU 24. MU MU GIS-GU-ZA BARA-MAH GUSKIN-KU-BABBAR-TA BARA-MAH SU-UL-A {DmGlR)Marduk-'RA MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA 23. 22. - UN har NA DIM MA Hi GIS MU ALAM MU [m]U la (DINGIR) Sar-pa-m-lum MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA - 25... 28.. city of Nippur. A. 32.. was built by Sumula-ilu in the after this god. but In the course of time fell it was restored by Samsu-iluna.. zi - ir - KU BA - SIG ALAM (DINGIR)NiNNI U (DINGIR. .. who dedicated to the goddess Nin-har-sag (see above. U§-SA J UZ(KI) RU ]-GA MU-UN-SIIG U ID Su-mu-la-ilu MU-BA-AL 33. fortress. I... . ]-GAB-Al5 U (DINGIR)Za-KAR" IB-KU BA-RU SAG BaR-ZI(ki) Zi]MBIR(KI) ] Su-mu-l'\a-ilu I-NI-IN-TU-RA (45) bad . -G]A MU-UN-SI-IG U ID (50) Su-mu-la-ilu 34. Col. YEAR. K]U BA SIG " These two signs are probably not to be taken as part of the ideogram for Kutu..2l8 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. [MU .. - UN DIM - MA i^ [MU [mU [mU . . . BA - RU RU [mU [MU [mU .. . URU - SAG BA BA - . . MU-BA-al GIS [MU . 30. US-SA GI3-GU-ZA GUSKIN-KU- BABBAR ..

-zi(ki) an abbreviation for Barzipa. 25. The year The The I which the image of the goddess Sarpanitum was made.'^ in which Sumula-ilu entered the 29. . . in 24. in 34. 30. and the canal of Sumula-ilu was dug.. . The year which god Zakar'* 28. . 219 2 2. city of The year Barzi. . [••••]'' and of the were made.. in 27. was built. built. 31. The year In which the throne of the great shrine silver. 32. [••••] was which slain. year in which the images of the goddesses star and Nana were made. " It is improbable that Bak. year in which lahar-zlr-ili was slain with the sword. after that in [•••] was and the canal of Sumula-ilu was dug. ]-karradu Juz was . The year slain. Borsippa. 33. The year in which the The year in which [ The year in which [ The year in which wall of Sippar . for Marduk. and was made (ready) The year after great silver. was completed with gold and 23. The year which [••••] was is slain with the swrord. 26. that in which the throne of the shrine was completed with gold and and was made (ready) for Marduk. was built..REIGN OF SUMULA-ILU. YEAR. .

A. 12. is of interest. MU MU MU MU MU MU [ E BABBAR [ E . 7. 2.. .220 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. 318. 9 1-5-9. 1. ] II. 2j'72) and Bu. - [mu [mu us Za SA [The bu urn LUGAL urn is e] " - 2. [mU [mU us - RA SA ] RA TU TU - RA RA [XXXVI MU III.524.184. which reads: mu us(-sa) Za-bi-um lugal-e. 79) as follows: iattu Za-hu-um a-na bit a-bi-^u i-ru-bu.] A. may be cited. 91-5-9. see Meissner. Althabylonisches Privatrecht. ." i. Col. . I. 9. No.. 92. and in support of this fact the dates upon the contracts. 11. 91-5-9. 706. ascended the throne. A. Mus. . This tablet also proves that the date-formulae given in the Chronicle were not universally employed throughout the country. " The restoration of this line is taken from the date upon Bu. 8. "The year in which Zabum entered into his father's house.I GA [ E . 2. 36. 10. for it as 35 years. 91-5-9. and the names of Sumula-ilu and Bungunila are associated in the oath-formula.636 (Bu.Th. Za bu 3-6 LUGAL E] ^^ text for years wanting. Brit.l\u BA-GUL - J ] ] ] . proves that during the reign of Sumula-ilu a vassal-king named Bungunila held sway over some portion of Babylonia the tablet is dated mu gar Bu-un-gu (. but their date-formulae do not correspond to any in the Chronicle. " This year is cited under a Semitic formula upon a tablet in Berlin (V. Su-mu-la-ilu LUGAL-e] i^ REIGN OF ZABUM. . Col. both these tablets belong to the reign of Sumula-ilu.SAG 'IL [ ALAM Za-bu urn [ BAD Ka sal . 35.e. ] YEAR.?)-un-i-la lugal-e. No. 18 ^" ^^ (5) ] "^ In the List of Kings the length of Sumula-ilu's reign is given The tablet Bu.

. . the formula there reads MU alam Za-hi-um ba-dim-ma. where the year is cited as mu bad The restoration of the end of the line as ba-gul Ka-sal-lu{-Ki). 's dated in this year. in which [•. year year which the temple E-sagil which the image of Zabum in [ [ . is uncertain. .463. . made]. The The year in which the temple E-iga[ built]. 221 35. . . 91-5-9. 2..463. are preserved.'"' The year which . which is dated Mu E-sag-il. This date. ." ^' The reading of the in name Kasallu is quite clear upon the an abbreviated form. was 9. . . 2. From the spacing of the signs which beginning ne-[ ]. year in which built]. . the verb upon the "case" of Bu. The The The year in which year after that [ . ]. tablet. [••••] entered thirty-six years of Sumula-ilu. . . was 10. . 2. . 1. 8. . 91-5-9. it would seem that some such additional phrase is missing as is given under the 21st year of Sumula-ilu. The The The The year year REIGN OF ZABUM. .'^ 2.^' The in [ . . 91-5-9. g 1-5-9. . 36.189. ™ The tablet Bu. is found upon the tablet Bu. in . the king.^' of Kasallu was destroyed " The formula for this year occurs in an abbreviated form upon Bu. was 12. . built]. wall ]...480. was 11. in which Zabum became king. .] ]. "| entered [ . the ." after that in which Zabum became [The text for years king.•••] III. " The year in which the image of Zabum was made. 7.REIGNS OF SUMULA-ILU AND ZABUM. 2. . [ year in which the temple E-babbar [ .'' 3-6 is wanting.

43. . m[u m[u] UN - m[u" m[u (ID)^-/z7]-''" ] m[u 5z[«-HE-GAL] u]n gi mu-un-ba-al^ '' This date occurs in an abbreviated form upon the tablet Bu.. z[i](ki) . BA-RU ^ su-UL-A (dingir)Utu (dingir)[ ] mu-un-na-dim-ma 4. note 17. 14. . 5. which reads: Mv A-pil-''" Sin lugal-e bad Du-ur-mu-tiiTn-t) BA-RU. 8. 3. M[U (id) . Col. 91-5-9.. 2. where it is given as mu e a-ab-ba he-gal. 711).. . p. cf. 2. 13. A. i ith. "The year in which Apil-Sin the king built the fortress of Dur-muti. this year is "sattu A-pil-Sin a-na year in which Apil-Sin entered into his father's house". " The reads mu bad mah gi Ka-dingir-ra(ki) A-pil-"" Sin ba-ru. "^ Upon Brit. 88-5-12. II.421. which : cited under the following Semitic formula hi-it a-bi-su i-ru-hu. VKAR. "The year in which Apil-Sin built anew the great wall of Babylon. MU MU E A-AB-[bA he-gal M]U-U[N[Za bu u\in .222 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON." It is also possible that to one of these three years . - - LUGAL E ^^ REIGN OF APIL-SIN. ] ^^ US-SA E A-[AB-BA HE]-GAL MU-UN-[ . . 220. or 14th year should perhaps be restored from the date upon Brit. No. 88-5-12. ''^ Partly restored from the date upon Bu. LUGAL ba-ru^ • [E BaJd (10) M[U bad ] [ m[u gis-gu-za ba]ra-matj guskin-ku-babbar-ta ] KA-DINGIR-RA(ia) ." ^^ The formula for the sth. ] UTU (?) ] MU ] UN - BA - - AL Gl(lS) [mU BA RU 2° 6. 92. 1. 7. . Mus. . .583 (Bu.498). No. 91-5-9. - M[U A'\ - pi\l'\ ""Sin Bar 2. Mus.660 (Bu. - J XIV MU IV.. 92. " This estimate of the length of Zabum's reign agrees with that given in the List of Kings.

The fourteen years of Zabum.^^ year after that in which the gulf of the ocean [ [gave] abundance .. 91-5-9.^^ IV. . which gives the date in the MU (iD)/4-/z7-&ra-HE-GAL. 38. which . . [. J. .^^ was restored. The year in which was built.. ]. YEAR. [••••] [••••] . The year in which ^' The year in which [ ] was restored. . 1. . 88-5-12.^* [ . . . the king. was built. abundance 14. 5. the date upon Bu. The The year in which the gulf of the ocean [gave] [ . .. "The year in which Apil-Sin built the dwelling of Istar of Babylon " cf. . " The year after that in " Possibly read mu us-sa . The year in which the canal (named) Apil-Sin- hegallu was dug. or repair.REIGNS OF ZABUM AND APIL-SIN.^' (or to the 6th year) the building. 8. year in Babylon 3..477. 22 3 13.]. 91-5-9. of the temple of Istar of Babylon should be assigned.^^ The year in which the throne of the great shrine 4..•] which the wall . ] of was built. The The year in which Apil-Sin became king and the wall of Barzi 2. REIGN OF APIL-SIN. 7. 6. . . abbreviated form 586. This event is referred to under a Semitic formula in the date upon Bu. . : . 2. which reads: sattu Mat ''"Isiar [sa BYbiW^' {_A-pil\Sin i-pu-su. [•." ^ Restored from Bu. .. . was completed with gold and silver and made (ready) for Samas and The year in which the canal of Samas (?) was dug.

." If this be the case.. . (poured out) the drink-offering (?) Samas. the alternative formula refers to the religious ceremonies which accompanied the inauguration of the throne of the Sun-god. BAD Ru-ba-ium '^ BA-RU Sin - 2..li -it MU - UN - BA - AL (30) . .TA ] [ UHU KALAM-MA MU-NA-DIM-MA ] 11. . and we may perhaps assign to the 17th year the tablet Bu. II. 16.. which is dated MU us-SA sa-kara-am a-na ""Somas A-hi-il-Sin re'u{?). ]-Kis (dak)igi-sid-ta (dingir)Utu (dingir)Su-nir-da-ra mu-un-na-dim-ma '° It is possible that this year is referred to under an alternative formula upon Bu. .UL . RU ] MU ka-[ga]l[ ..A KI [ ] ] . which is dated satiu A-pil-Sin u-ra-am-mi-ku. BARA MAH MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA us-SA gis-gu-za bara-mah (dingir)Utu Ka-dingir-ra(ki) MU-UN-NA-DIM-MA 29 GIS GU ZA - (DINGIR)UTU Ka-dingir-ra(ki) XVIII V.. "The year in which Apil-Sin poured out (the to libation). ] KALAM - M[a BA] - 14. .4.. . .84. .. m[u [MU MU[ MU[ MU[ MU[ MU[ . 13. 3. 2. 15. "The year after that in which Apil-Sin. MU MU MU ''" Sin-mu-ba-li-it LUGAL-E '"' ID §u-[ mu - ba . Col. 12. 224 ' CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. the Shepherd. A. 91-5-9. 265. YEAR." . - ](Ki) (dingir)Utu-ud-du (25) BA-RU 17. MU MU 18. g. (ID)]BURANU[NU . 1 MU A-pil-""Sin LUGAL-E^O REIGN OF SIN-MUBALLIT. ma]h (dingir)Utu-^ra mu-un-na-dim-ma SU . . 88-5-1 z. 10. BA ]-BI RU KA-BI ] (20) . .

year in which year in which year . [. [. This estimate of the length of Apil-Sin's reign agrees with that given in the List of Kings. the king. . and the wall of Rubatum " was built.. 16. which [•••. dug.. (thereof). REIGN OF SIN-MUBALLIT. ..] of .] year in year in which [. The The The The The The [ year in which [ . . 22$ 10. 9.] its the Euphrates 13.. . [. 3. The year in which the made for Samas.] was mouth.. . '' The reading Lib-ba-tum is possible. city in . year in which the canal of Sin-muballit was year in which for 2. YEAR. 17.] 11. The The The year in which Sin-muballit became king. the land 14.-stone were made '" Samas and Sunirda. [••••] was [••••] was completed great of the land was made. The The year in which the throne of the great shrine for was made 18. 12. . 1. IS . The year in which [.. [•... ..]...^^ The eighteen years of Apil-Sin.'" V.•] built in built. ] was built. Samas year after that in which the throne of the great shrine was made for Samas in Babylon. 15..REIGNS OF APIL-SIN AND SIN-MUBALLIT. which the great gate of the ] was on the east side Babylon....

II. Mu bad Muru(ki) is upon Bu. .RU - (40) (ID)(DINGIR)TU-TU-HE-GAL Gig - MU-UN-BA-AL^* KU BA BA S[IG] ^' BAD GIS-GU-ZA EREg(Kl) [RU] MU UN BARA-MAH [(DINGIR) NA DIM . . 1. 13.A.UN .. 88-5-12.KAR . is dated in this the formula is there abbreviated to mu (id) (dingir)Aiyear HE-GAL. 91-5-9. 782 (Meissner.. .da ] MA BAD (DINGIR)ZA . No: . 733 is also to be assigned to this year. Brit. see the traces of the date given by Meissner. (id) Tu-tu-he-gal : see Bu. 341. TfEAR. 15. loi.451) '° this year the tablet Brit. 16.504. Mus. . mu .SU- . 91-5-9. Allbdbylonisches Privatrecht. US-SA (ID)(DINGIR)AI-HE-GAL ''" MU-UN-BA-AL it 10. 2. MURU(Kl) BA BA RU^* MARAD URU(KI) - DA(KI) RU '^ BA . ^ ^ To 2.BA . etc. The Berlin tablet V. 91-5-9. (dingir)Igi . Mus. BAD BAD BAD SAB Sin - mu - ba - li 11.. A. 8. 6. No. 280.654 (Bu.455).AL ^' us - sa - UN - NA - DIM - 9.A.Th. 91-5-9.)Za-kar-da-da. and Bu.226 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. 12. 91-5-9. . is to be assigned .DA BA-RU^2(35) (IDI(DINGIR)AI he . Col. 721 17).Th. MU 7.da . 14.. This date is found in the abbreviated form 2.021 . 48. 31.655 (Bu. 92. Bu.. .MA] ^^ ^ The formula for this year is abbreviated on contracts to MU BAD (dingik. 256. ]-KIS (DAK)IGI-SID-TA (dingir)Utu 5. V. (dingir)Su-nir-da-ra . the date-formula there employed agrees with that given in the text. 46. See Bu.DA . pi. 4.GAL MU . 88-5-12. '° Upon contract-tablets the formula for this year generally abbreviated to 60. MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU [ US-SA [. 92. No. ] (dingir)I[gi]-da-damu-un-na-dim-ma [ . 404. No.

. . 10.. is dated in this year under the mu bad Eres(ki). the of of was made.173).?). YEAR..] Igidada Sunirda. 91-5-9. No. 88) dated mu . year after that in which .'^ 8. 4. The The The The year in which the wall of Muru was built.. Ai-hegallu was dug. year in which the canal (named) Ai-hegallu dug. 6. 285. 22/ The . '' It is probable that Brit."* year in which the wall of Marad was built. .^^ was 9. year after that in which the canal (named) year in which the wall of Sin-muballit was . 15." year in which the throne of the great shrine for [ .637 (Bu. 13.[za] should be assigned to this year tablet " The abbreviated formula . (dingir)Al-mu (. year in which the canal (named) Tutu-hegallu dug. built. No. The The year in which the wall of Eres was built...••] of Igidada was made.-stone for 5. The The The The The The year in [. 16. 905 (Meissner.] (were made) Samas and which [. 12. is The Berlin tablet V.'^ was 14. . was made ]. but the name of the god is not clearly written.3* 1 1. 92. year in which the wall of Zakar-dada was built. 88-5-1 z.'* Bu.A. year after that in which the [.. it is dated mu gis . 7. Mus. 2..gu . year in which the people of Ur were slain with the sword.REIGN OF SIN-MUBALLIT.Th.

.280 (B. 50) in the seventh year. A. 19. should be read [ ]. and. . I SI IN MU [ MU BAD [ MU (dingir)Utu [(dingir)Mer MU [ II. in place of Meissner's reading Sin-mu-\_ . 91-5-9. III.466 .e. 88-5-12. 1. No. Isin. Mus.228 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. i. No.Th.207 ^B. restored from Bu.e.. [m]u si DI ]" Gu-ZA (dingir)Uru-ki. which reads I-si-na(ki) IN-DIB.). .. - YEAR. according. If this were the case. "The fifth year of the taking of Isin ". No. 47). 290. It is therefore preferable to suppose that the traces of the royal name in V. and it is unlikely that the same date-formula would have been used twice within a period of eight years.to Meissner's copy of the reverse. A. it would be possible to restore the name of the god in the formula for the i5th year of Sin-muballit as (dingir)Uru-ki.e. Mus.195 (B.204 (B. 91-5-9. IN - DIB - BA] 88 (45) ] ]*" ] 20. No. 13. Brit. 123) in the sixth year of the .am mu nig - r[a [ - bi LUGAL - e] ^^ 2. 38). epoch for dating tablets in some parts of Babylonia this is proved by the dates upon many of the contracts of Rim-Sin which were found at Tell Sifr. Sin-mu-\ba-H-it~\. 18. with the first syllable written as I instead of Ni.. i. 1. No. 33.. {Ha-a\m. But the 3rd year of Hammurabi takes its title from the making of a throne for Nannar.] . Nannar. • • mu-[ra-bi'\. 17. 33. " XX VI. . 447. Col. The capture of the city of Isin in this year formed an [. which is dated In the abbreviated form mu I-si-inna(ki) the date is found upon Bu. Thus. 90s. i. iz f. 33. and the name of is ^' This line MU I-si-in(ki) in-dib-[ba]. is dated in the same epoch. this tablet should be assigned to the reign of Sin-muballit (cf. is dated MU us-SA V-KAM I-si-in-[na(ki)] ba-an-dib. - [m]u Ha . the oath-formula in 1.A. . -a\m-mu-\_ . 2.163 in the eighth year. ]. 33. [MU ''" Sin-mu-ba-li-it LUGAL-e] ^^ REIGN OF HAMMURABI. Col. 33. occurs in the date upon Bu. Brit.

which read: (ding[r)Utu (dingir)Mer. . 88-5-12. YEAR.1^.. 19. MU Larsain may have shared the fate of the people of Ur. there a considerable discrepancy between this chronicle and the List of Kings the latter assigns thirty years to Sin-muballit. was established]. the king. year in which righteousness . 91-5-9. 1. 2. Ha-am-mu-ra-UlMQk. 332. and Bu. when the inhabitants of . 33. in the Imperial Ottoman Museum. .REIGNS OF SIN-MUBALLIT AND HAMMURABI. The year in which The twenty years VI.502. Ramman ]. The The The year in which the city of Isin was taken. and No. No. 229 17. Recueil de travaux." year in which the gods Samas and 20. " The year in which the ) " it is also possible that the tablet people of Larsam ( should be assigned to the fourteenth year. 33. [ of Sin-muballit.467 MU 1. 18. and Bu.197 (B. 33. in the abbreviated form .194 (B. The The year in which king. . '^ year in which the wall of [ . 91-5-9. 88-5-12. No. 2. 1899.058 (mu Ha-am-mu-ra-bi lugal-e). 88-5-12.*^ REIGN OF HAMMURABI. xxi. no. •which is dated MU umman Ararma(ki).. 33. upon Bu. 91-5-9. 157. i^nLVS 2. ^ In is their estimates of the length of Sin-muballit's reign. p..202 (B.*' . the still shorter form Ha-am-mu-ra-bi occurs upon Bu. and Bu." ninth year. .181. 9 1-5-9. 37) in the eighteenth year. 45) in the twenty-eighth year. ** The accession-year of Hammurabi is referred to in the dates .]. 125) this year . . 91-5-9. to the z6th year of Hammurabi. *° The formula for this year has been partially restored from the dates upon Bu. " This line should possibly be restored from Bu. A tablet at Constantinople. would correspond is even dated in the thirtieth year of the taking of Isin (see Scheil. 40) in the thirteenth year. Hammurabi became [ . " This date is cited on Bu. 2.

identical (B." a reference to the reforms undertaken by Hammurabi at the beginning of his reign. 220. No. (Meissner. ]Mo. rabi established righteousness. 14th. 755 (Meissner. ..227 which reads mu Ha-am-mu-ra-bi lugal-e [case inim Ana (dingir)En-lil-la-ta] bad Ma-er(ki) u bad Ma-al-ka-a ba-anGUL-LA a similar formula also occurs on Brit. 33. . 744 (Brit. and V. .Th. No. 227 f. Mus. 58).468 f. On V. 88-5-12. 38).. 16) occurs the longer formula mu (gis)gu-za (dingir)Uru-ki KA. " To judge from the spacing of the signs and from the similar formulae for the 12th. A. and i6th years. Mus. Col. and the two events are sometimes coupled together in the dates upon tablets inscribed during the year.2:5 Some tablets are dated by reference to the destruction of (B.A.i occurs upon Bu. Hammurabi also destroyed the fortress of Maer in this year of his reign.A.230 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. 905 (see above. [MU] CIS GU - ZA - (dingir)Uru GI - - [ki]^* 4. 8. is dated MU Ha-am-mu-ra-hi lugal-e inim (dingir)Ana (dingir)EnLiL-TA BAD Ma-er(ki) u Ma-al-ge-a(ki) mu-un-gul. No.-DINGIR-RA. Thus. p. 92." An almost form of the same date occurs on Brit. 3. IIL YEAR..A. MU MU MU MU MU BAD [ . This date in the abbreviated form mtj gu-za (dingir)Uru-k. 5. " The year in which Hammurabi (established) the heart of the land We may perhaps see in the title of this year in righteousness.'' 1. 91-5-9. it may be concluded that the verb mu-un-na-dim-ma was omitted at the end of the line. " The year in which HammuThe fuller formula upon V. . . year of Hammurabi the king in which at the word of Anu and Bel the wall(s) of Maer and of Malga were destroyed. 7..Th. 33." *" In addition to the destruction of Malga. Bu. No.Th. " The MU .. 70).] TIG {lT>)A/'u-ku-\_us-m-st] ^a-mu-ra-hi nig-si-di GAR-ra.594).. Mus. MaL ] A [ [BA GUL] *^ DINGIR-RA (DINGIR)[ ] (S) ] BAD [ • • • ] I-SI-IN [•••]*' *' [. 6. 44. " The year in which the throne of Nannar (was made) in Babylon.. 49) is probably a variant of the same date it reads mu Ha-mu-ra-hi lugal-e sag-ga kalam-ma nam-si-di. n.

not from the 7th year 1 7th year of Sin-muballit. We may conclude that the formula did not refer to the capture or destruction of Isin.. the era of the taking of Isin must again destroyed..** 4.192. ]. roj). and Bu..] fortress built)]. [ . and of Hammurabi. J. in view of its previous subjugation under Sin-muballit since tablets would not have been dated for thirty years by that event if the city had again revolted in that period and had been Moreover. . and Bu.. The The The [ year in which the throne of Nannar (was made).." year in which [. It is strange that the bank of this canal should be mentioned before the year in which its construction by Hammurabi is recorded. " It is possible that the sign at the beginning of the line is bad. . . are probably not to be assigned to this year. or repair. but the traces appear to be those of two characters. 2. but . 88-5-12. of the fortresses of Mal-ge-a and of Ma-ek.. year in which the wall of Malga was of the god destroyed. [. REIGN OF HAMMURABI. " For the canal named Nuhus-nisi. year ..Th. year in which ..g.. 23 3. 166. 762 (Meissner. 363.(ki) respectively. n. as their dates seem to refer to the building... The tablets Bu. 91-5-9.*® 5. for a tablet of Rim-Sin is dated in the 27th year after its destruction. ] of Isin [was 8. V. mu bad Ma-er(ki). .*^ Maer only. and we know that Rim-Sin was defeated and deposed by Hammurabi in the 31st year of his reign (see below.] on the bank of the canal (named) Nuhus-nisi.A. 6. mu bad Ma-er(ki) ba-gul-la.. 236. The The year in which the . . No.1. which the (was of the god 7. 88-5-12. see the following note. The [ in . 66). e. date from the p.

canal.am .•] ](Kl) MU [ .).)Bel'] u (id)Buranunu and the date upon the "case" of V. Many contract-tablets are dated MU id Ha-am-mu-ra-bi. 176. or the king may have merely deepened and improved an old canal. 2. etc. . No. *^ MU ID Ha .g. 9. Bu.Th. 188 people. "The Bu. MU {iT>)IVu-ku-us-m'-si.ni . 712 (mu id-da Ha-am-mu-ra-hi). pp. ff.A." e. 88-5-12. Bu. From the cone - inscriptions of addition to the Nuhus-nisi Canal he also ^Jammurabi we learn that in dug out a channel from the Euphrates to supply Sippar with water (see above. which is mentioned upon some dated contracts. 143. 3. 88-5-12. 842 f." The mentioned with the Euphrates in the date upon 2. " Reference is made to the digging of canals by Hammurabi in it is the formulae both for this year and for the 3 3rd year of his reign.mu .A.GU . 147 and 188. . Tisid-Bel Canal is both of which are dated mu (id) year of the Tisid-Bgl Canal.474. 12). and it is not improbable that this canal bore the name of Tisid-Bel.464. 13. . 856 (Meissner.. VII (see above.232 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. .pa . (Meissner. mu id Ha-am-mu-ra-bi Nu-huand Bu.GAB MAH . is "The abundance of the and name also referred to in the formulae upon dated contracts.g. pp.109 (Meissner. V. Col. YEAR.g. .) to have this been Nuhus-nisi. (lO) B.bi [ ] MU SAB I[D-NI]M Ma-AL-GI [." us-m'-it. which reads mu {iT>)Ti-si-i[d-{-DiNGiR. 1. The name of the most important of the canals of Hammurabi we know from inscription No. e. 177 ff. . 88-5-12. 137. No.. . 91-5-9. Bu.ZA .BI MU SU[ ] . 175. III.. gi-5-9. no) gives the still fuller formula mu (id) T{i-si-i^/l-{j:imQ\s:)Bel (id)Buranunu mu-un-ba-al-la. Bu. 14. and Bu. 2n.Th. 15. 12. Col. 11. 88-5-12. . e. " The year of the Hammurabi . I. Ti-si-id-{-DmGiBi)Bel. No. MU MU GI§-GU-ZA [NiNNi] - KA-DINGIR-RA(KI) ^1 alam [alam] VII naS2A(is) possible that the 8th year was occupied with preliminary work on the canal which was completed in the 9th year..tum^ \_Sa\r MU GIS . 10. A. " The . and the tablets so dated may be referred to either of these years.ra . 91-5-9. Bu. 91-5-9. 106).

501 (82-9-18. 91-5-9. under the form mu alam VII-bi cf. There is no evidence as to what years to assign the construction of these two canals.] . 88-5-12. '" To this year belong the contracts Brit. V..178. 91-5-9. 88-5-12. 2. Mus. Brit.. 92. 91-5-9.'" 13. 227. 12. year in which the seven images (were made). year in which .'^ 15. 713). 828 (Meissner. 374.)Ninni Ka-dingir-ra.." the tablet itself giving the abbreviated formula MU (id) Jz-lz'-zi/(T)iNGis. we may provisionally assign the completion of that canal to the gth year.. year in which the throne of Istar of Babylon (was made). 13) is dated mu gu-za (dingir. the date is found upon reads Mus.)Bel.. 91-5-9. The The [ year in which the inhabitants of Malgi 11. or to one of those years for which the formulae are partly. and Bu. [. the canal of Hammurabi [ . • • .'.. in view of the reference to the Nuhus-nisi Canal in the formula for the 8th year. V[II]-a-an . 92. 88-5-12.*^ ] 10. [. No. 169 and 322 (mu gis-gu-za (dingir)Ninni). but. No. year in which [. and Bu. ... 780. The The The The year in which the throne of Sarpanitum (was made). No. '' The restoration of this line is taken from the dates upon Bu. The [ year in which . 14.] exceedingly.. 220).. 91-5-9.. 334..''' year in which the canal Tisid-Bel was dug out to the Euphrates. which is dated MU GU-ZA {Di'NGiR)Sar-pa-m-ium.584 (Bu. J.] of the city of J..Th. 233 9. . . and Bu.A. or entirely. 773 (mu gu-za NiNNi).REIGN OF HAMMURABI. also Bu.. wanting. and the date occurs in more abbreviated forms upon Bu. which read mu gu-za (dingir)Ninni Ka-dingir-ra(ki). which is dated mu gis-gu-za. and the cutting of the Tisid-Bel Canal to the 33rd year of Hammurabi's reign. and Bu.]. . etc. " B [....

[MU] ALAM (DINGIK)[ . 17.595 (Bu. . 88-5-12. 1. No. the first sign in the formula for the 19th year preserved by B. Mas. [mu bad ba - [mu a]- gal- ru 8" a la" (25) " Bu. 488. not e. 26.. 241). under the form MU gu-za (dingir)Mer. are dated mu bad (uru) ^a-jK(Ki). 2.. .. I. the "case" of this tablet. ** The traces of the last character but one in this line on both A and B suggest nun it is therefore possible that the name of Sippar should be restored. appears to be en. 364) reads MU uS-sA e-igi-harSAG-GA. I. 92. which may perhaps be regarded as an alternative formula to this year. 11] between the 23rd and 24th years of A. ^ The restoration of the name of Enlil is taken from B. and Bu.341. Col.337. ]-KI (DINGIR)[ - . 746).mu ] - ra . CIS - GU - ZA . however. 91-5-9. Mus.. the restoration of the line is taken from the date upon Brit. 18. The reckoning of the two tablets appears to differ at this Zimbir(ki)-ra point. or perhaps to the making of an image of the king. are to be assigned mu gu-za {DmGV&. and Brit.)N'a-bi-um. . B inserting an additional year [mu It is possible. A gives the variant reading [S^a-zi. . CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. ^ The restoration is certain.590 (Bu. . ]-KI - ] (dingir)En IGI - LIL ra B Cs) .. their dates reading for the 20th year.. No. 91-5-9.. [mU [mu [mu GU bad Z]A ] (DINGIR)MER Kl^^A{20) (Ki)^^ Ba-su H\a am .bi^'' [mu [mu ] (ki) =' B (10) (dingir)En-lil(?)-ra=9 Z]imbir(ki) 25. 88-5-12. B. GIS E]N - HAR - SAG - GA^* 20. 24. " The date upon Bu. (DINGIR)jV« . 88-5-r2.234 YEAR. " The reference in this line is possibly to the cutting of a canal by ^Jammurabi (as in the formulae for the gth and 33rd years). 12. as part of the sign ZA . A. 91-5-9. in 1. Col. 19. col. 16.. 22. '^ Yox Ba-su. is preserved by B the date also occurs upon Bu. 2. . Ill . - bi . 21. 92. MU [MU [MU . - um^'^ . 23.

22. probability at the beginning of the line.. 91-5-9.. and that both refer to the Z4th year. .575 (Bu.. 18." and may *' also refer to this year. 645)." 21.'' 24. Sippar. note 71).. year in which the throne of Ramman (was made). . 238. year in which the wall of Basu (was year in which the [ ..REIGN OF HAMMURABI. ] of Hammurabi (was 23. 1 1 and i z B form a double line.. 88-5-12. ).. mu 1. that 11.^^ 17.. Bu. also the date upon of the foundation of the wall of Brit. mu bad-gal Zimbir(ki). The name of '° Sippar verb ba-ru is omitted by A.'® . . [. . year in which the . . is dated simply MU Zimbir(ki).. and the restoration of the bad may be restored with some is taken from B. 92. [. .] for Bel (was made). . "The year of Sippar.. ] of the city of ] (was . year in which the image of year in which year in which [ .. ."* 20. YEAR. character a.. 185. it is possible that the destruction of Umlias by flood should be assigned to this year and not to the 38th year of Hammurabi (see below.] of the mountain. 19. The The The The The The The The [ year in which the throne of NabQ (was made). Mus. ). ... The traces of the character before if gal upon B suggest the be correct. .024.g." [ . . this reading . p. ]. " The year of the great wall of Sippar. " The year Sippar " cf.] for Bel (was made). 25.'^ built. . . 26.'i [••••] of (was destroyed) by however.^" year in which the wall of Sippar was year in which flood. No... 88-5-12. as some contracts of the reign of Hammurabi are dated by the building of the wall of pin bad Zimbir(ki)." The contract Bu. e. 23S 16. The The The year in which [.). .

30. 92. 28. " The restoration of he is taken from B. 88-5-12.. 91-5-9. YEAR. 824. 29. E-namhe. 88-5-12. 241. .168. la-mu-ut-ba-lum). Briinnow. 27. 88-5-12.460. and upon Bu. the date of this tablet reads mu Ha-am-mu-ra-bt ixsGKL it (?)-ti Ana (dingir)En-lil-bi-ta sig-ka BA-Ni-GiN-NA-A MA-DA la-mu-ut-ha-lum (case inserts determinative . "The year of E-namhe. I. 91-5-9. under the same formula as that given in the text. 2. note 72 (+)). . . under the form mu E-he (dingir)Mer. under the form MU E-nam-he e (dingir) Mer-ra. Ramman at Babylon . No. 91-5-9. The date is found upon Bu. 2. No. ]-a62B(IS) [MU [mU NAM(DINGIR)5a - HE^ /a^ - AL]am MU MU MU MU UMMAN MA DA UMMAN - ELAM MA ^^ A - (30) E mu [ - ut - ba luin *^ ]67 - ID Ha mu - - ra b[i . Mus. 33.440)." and upon Bu. probably refer to this year. cf. A fuller formula for the same year occurs on ra-bi lugal-e Brit. 64). p. A tablet found at Abu-habbah is also to be assigned to this year. " The dates upon Bu. Col. p. Recueil de iravaux. under the form MU umman Elam-ma(ki) the " case " of the latter tablet inserts Ha-am-muafter MU. as it is dated mu E-nam-he (dingir)Mer (see Scheil. Mus.650 (Bu. and upon Brit. .. upon Bu. .425.221 (B. Col. 32. . under the form [case Elam-ma(ki)]. 31.236 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. ]«» ^^ 34. 339 (mu ma-tia. 36). the temple of Ramman. '' The name of the goddess Sala is restored from B. 624. 1895. 91-5-9. MU Ana (dingir)Nin[ni (dingir)Na-na-a] " In A the line ends at mah perhaps the building of the temple Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah should be assigned to this year (see below. "the House of Abundance. xvii. . . The date occurs upon Bu. No. A. [MU ]-MAH E] - [ . 2. 2. Ill B. 33. 48 (mu ma-da E-mu-ut-ha-lum). " This year is cited MU SAB-UMMAN Elam-ma ." was the name of the temple of Classified List.

A fuller form of the same date is found upon the "case" of Brit. . The The year in which ^* [ J.*^ year in which the land of Emutbal ( . year in which the army of Elam [ . Mus. p.- Anu. . during this year in honour of these deities is supplied . see above.210 (B. . . note 49.. 33. ^* For the canals cut by Hammurabi. gives the slightly variant form MU Ana (B. Jensen. 126 f.. The The The The The [ year in which the image of the goddess Sala (was made). p. 71. 28.. 31. YEAR.- yammurabi and 34. U LUGAL Jii-im-{TilNGlK)Stn SU-NI KI NE-DUG (case NE-IN[dug]).^'' year in which the temple E-namhe (was built).^ 32. No. which reads mu Ha-am-mu-ra-bi lugal-e Ana (dingir)Ninni (dingir)Na-na-a mu-un-dim-ma (on the tablet the signs un and . repaired. . 29. . pt. . "The year of Hammurabi the king in which for Anu. ). gives the first part of Kl) . No. in .. No. "The year of Hammurabi the king in which with the help of Anu and Bel he established his good fortune. . year in which the army of year . or ( . I star.^* 30. n. date upon Brit.. 33.REIGN OF HAMMURABI.. p. Nana . ( .**' in . ^' This line is restored from the date upon Brit. 318.. [Es-nun-na(ki)]. which reads ni-gin-na-a. The ( year .222 Bu. which ). i. . Mus. . DIM are transposed through a scribal error). and his hand cast to the earth the land of lamutbal and Rim-Sin the king " The cf. year in which the men of Umlias (were slain with the sword) " see below. which the canal of J. 237 27. III. . 232 f. 53).. . 33. ]. 73). 238 f. 33. 88-5-12. this formula down to the first verb. ). " " Perhaps restore the line MU umman The . 65) (DiNGiR)NiNNi u (dingir)Na-na-a. Mus.230 (B. Keilinschriftliche Bihliothek. Istar. and Nana was built )." The name of the temple which was built.

A. the "case" of No. No. p. 752 (Meissner. Col. Mus. 239 f. . "The year in which the great wall (named) Kara-Samas (was built) " see below. 75) and 33. " The year in which the ). 77). 1. note 72. 62): MU Ha-am-mu-ra hi lugal-e Ana (dingir)Ninni (dingir)Na-naA-A-E-NE-BI-TA E-TUR-KALAM-MA MU-UN-GI-A-AN. . . " The year in which the men of Umlias were slain with the sword. therefore. men Es-nun-[na(ki)]. No..Th. " This line is restored from Brit. The contract-tablet Bu. III. and Nana the temple E-tur-kalama was restored. 35). 91-5-9. Istar." It is. some slight variants occur in the date upon 410. is dated mu SAB Es-nun-na(ki) gis-ku ba-sig. - BI [The text for the 40th and 41st years is wanting. is dated mu Es nun-na(ki) me gal-gal-la (see Scheil. which reads [mu MU-UN-GUL-LA. 3738.] 42. E]s-nun-na Recueil de travaux.A." The date upon V. MU MU MU MU M[U BAD [ [ [ r''A(3S) ] ] [ES - NUN - NA(KI) A - GAL] - GAL - LA '^ ] 39. .232 giving the slightly fuller formula MU Ha-am-mu-ra-li lugal Es-nun-na(ki) a-gal-GAL-la MU-UN-GUL-LA Bu.234 (B. 691. A. 33. and now in the Imperial Ottoman Museum. 33.. Mus. "The year of Hammurabi the king in which for Anu. '" Perhaps restore mu bad [gal Kdr-ra-"" Samas'\. 33. 91-5-9.232 (B. [MU ](KI) " by the following formula from Brit.. xvii. but it is possible that the sign read as vu is a carelessly-written A." and Bu. while the verb is V. YEAR..Th.. conceivable that the iiood mentioned in the previously cited formulas should be treated as a metaphorical description of the capture of the city is dated [mu] umman ( of Umlias .155. a-gal-gal omitted in the date upon Es-nun-na(ki) a-gal-gal-la. mu A tablet found at Abu-habbah. 817 (Meissner.219 (B.. No. p. 87). gi-5-9. 82) gives the first part of the preceding formula it reads mu Ana (dingir)Ninni u (dingir)Na-na-a-e-[ne]-bi-ta. which are dated mu ES-nun-na(ki) a-gal-gal-la MU-UN-GUL. Nos.238 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. 35 36.

J the city of (was by Hammurabi )J'^ . Kakmum.'"' [ . is a-gal-gal-e mu-un-gul-e. MU bad gk^ Kar-*^" Sama^YS) of which Ibik-Ramman captured . Mus. 91-5-9. Among the dates upon tablets belonging to Hammurabi's reign which have not been identified. .6. the following may be mentioned (x) Bu. No. 239 35. 88-5-12. 2. . dated Mu umman Tu-ru-ku. 33.several " The formulae years of Hammurabi's reign are entirely missing..480." (2) The city of Rabiku is also mentioned in the formula for another year upon Bu. [ . 2. year in which .. 88-5-12. J.i) u Su-bi-e (ki)-bi-ta. p.) "" I-bi-ik-"" Ramman the city ba-dib. that the destruction of Umlias by flood is to be taken literally. ]. for . 2. "The year of the city of Rabiku. No. and we may (. year in which [The [. it appears to me more probable. but the dated by quite a different formula. . ^y. . [ . 91-5-9. 636. ] ] 42. . 237. . its [ . YEAR. 68). which reads mu Ha-ammu-ra-M lugal umman Tu-ru-uk-ku Ka-ak-mu-um{'K. by the : fuller formula in MU Ra-bi-ku{Ta.Th..225 (B. ). " The year of Hammurabi the king in which the people in Turukku. 831.?) .A.i). 471.] 40 and 41 . . J. perhaps assign to this year Bu..." a date which occurs without either deterininative. text for years is wanting.— REIGN OF HAMMURABI. dated mu [ ] MUL Tu-ru-ku. 70). and the capture of the city to be referred to another occasion (see above. The The The The The The year in which the wall of year in which year in which [ [ ]. The "case" dated tablet mu is Es-nun-na(ki) of Brit. . 766 (Meissner.. however. . and V. upon Bu. This date is probably explained on Bu. .. " The year Rabiku. year in which the city of Umlias (was destroyed) by flood/^ 39. . 91-5-9. is dated mu (jj-Rv)Ra-bi-ku{-K.'' These two dates are evidently alternative formulae for the 38th year. or the traces of characters are so incomplete as to render their restoration from dates upon contract-tablets uncertain. under the form MU Ra-bi-ku. 38. note 67). . and Sube ( . . .515.

which u BAD No. possibly also refer to this year. 33." and by the still fuller formula on Brit.217 (B.228 (B. No. 33.220 (B. which read mu Halugal[-e] {oiNGiR^Tas-me-ium inim-sag-sag- .212 (B. - I. That this formula refers to the building.214 (B.187 (B. 72).179 (B. 60).. "The year of Ta§metum. Ifa-a7n-mii-r[a-l>i LVGAL-e]''* REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA.. 33. A. 62). 76). Nos. whose summit he made high like unto a mountain. MU "" Ha-am-mura-bi lugal-e bad gal tig (id)Idigna sag-bi har-sag-gim MU-UN-IL Kar-ra-'"' ^amas mu-bi ne-in-sa mu-un-ru-a. and upon the "cases" of Brit. MU Ha-mu-ra-hi lugal bad gal Kar-ra''" Samas mu-un-ru-a. No. Mus. In the majority of the formulae is not mentioned it is clear. III.211 (B. i66).A. 63). ] YEAR.." which occurs upon Bu. where we should probably read Ra-bi-ku{T/ii) in the second line of the date-formula. 686.07s (Meissner. [m]U \^Sa am - sIu . Mus. MU BAD GAL Kar-ra-''" Samas mu-un-ru-a. Col.229 (B. [mU [ URU UL [ .240 CHRONICLE OF KINGS.Th. III. " The year in which Hammurabi the king built on the bank of the Tigris a great wall. Ra-bi-ku{. 55).. 33. and not to the destruction of the walls of Kar-Samas and Rabiku. A. 22) and 33. 30). 33." V. No. 91-S-9.. which also occurs. therefore. also the date upon V.^^^° ^^^ dates upon Brit. " The year of Hammurabi the king in which the great wall of Kara-Samas was built. cited the wall of the city of Rabiku . 39. . 88-5-12. Col. with the end of the line imperfectly preserved.K. ]^' XLJIII [mju VII. 71). Mus.223 (B. am-mu\_-um'\-ra-bt and 33. 51).A. 743 (Meissner. 1. 66). 33.z - lu na LUGAL - E" (45) cf. 43.. 54). . 33. .OF BABYLON.Th. (3) Another date-formula not uncommonly met with is mu (piNGiR)7aJ-OT«-/'«w.137 ^^. 1.i) . 33. is proved by the dates upon Brit.323 (B. and whose name he called Kara-Samas. Mus.. No. No. No. that the construction of the wall of Kar-Samas was regarded as the more important event of the two. and Brit. Mus. Bu. 57). gives the abbreviated formula MU bad gal Kar-^" iiamas{&i). Mus. on Bu. Mus. This date is given more fully upon Brit. 91-5-9.233 (B. 33. 33. and Brit. Nos.

74). 61) we learn that the the temple Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah was built in the same year formula reads mtj Ha-am-mu-rahi lugal-e E-me-te-ur-sag-ga . and on the "case" of Brit. e.179. and 2. " The year of gammurabi the king in which the goddess Tasmetum made favourable her word." of No.209 (B. 91-5-9. '* The List of Kings assigns fifty-five years to the reign of Hammurabi B agrees with A. and its summit made high like the heavens. Brit. [B. 182. 56)." From the dates upon the " cases " of Brit. occurs also on Bu. Nos..519.278 (B.. 2. Mus. 91-5-9.224 (B. Nos. Mus.REIGNS OF HAMMURABI AND SAMSU-ILUNA. The The year in which [ forty.three years of Hammurabi.218 (B. 91-5-9. 61 adds -ge] of Hammurabi the king in which the temple E-me-te-ur-sag was restored. 33. 938. 33. 846. 121) is also dated in this year. No. and 33.226 (B. Mus.B. 2. 33. are dated mu Ha-am-mu-ra-bi lugal[-e] E-me-te-ur-sag muUN-Gi-A. 61 mu-un-gi-a] Igi-e-nir-ki[B. (4) Other contracts of Hammurabi's reign. 33. I.213 . REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA. . 16 . 69). " The year omits ga] mc-un-gi-lal [B. "The year of Hammurabi the king in which the temple E-me-te-ur-sag was restored. 61). Mus..209 gives the slightly abbreviated formula mu E-me-teur-sag-ga MU-UN-GI-LAL E-IGl(sic)-NIR-KI-DUR-MAH (dINGIR)ZaMA-MA (dingir)Ninni. The year in which Samsu-iluna became king.. Bu. 2.g. 24I 43. with the omission of Hammurabi's name.465. 52) and 33.'^ VII. It is possible that this line should be restored from the date upon Bu. 33. the king. No. 33. 5 1 dur-mah (dingir)Za-ma-ma (dingir)Ninni SAG-Bi AN-GiM iL-LA MU-UN-RU-A.369. may be mentioned Bu. 67). 33. " Among tablets dated by the formula mu Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal[-e]." The same formula. 88-5-12. and the temple Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah was built for Zamama and Ninni The tablet (IStar)..231 (B. The " case "-fragment Brit. which reads mu isi Zimbir(ki) uru ul " (D'INGIR)UtU-GE.218 (B." Ga[-a]-ni.

4- .

4).'* 6.259 (B.A.REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA.240 (B. No. Briinnow. Mus. No. year in which the canal of dug). To this year belong Mus.. 91-5-9. upon .623. 243 The The The The year in which the .Th. the "case" reading ID Sa-am-su-i-lu-na He-gal while the abbreviated formula given in the text is found upon V. 33. 83).269 (B.O. ] (was made).245 (B." 4. 57). Sa-am-su-i-lu-n[a lugal-e] (id)He-gal is [••••]. dated mu Brit. 841 (Meissner.. the canal is termed simply " the Samsu-iluna-Canal " in the date-formula mu Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal-e id Sa-am-su-i-lu-na mu-un-ba-al-la.. 2. 33.Th. Kassites year in which the army of the . YEAR. 272 and 439.. . 33. 3.. 55). . 33. " Bu. 10.] the river [. are dated by the formula for this year as given in the text the date upon V. No.. No. 88)... dim-ma. No. "" probably also refer to this year.161 (B.. year in which the throne of the shrine (was year in which the image made). year in which of Samsu-iluna (named) Nagab-nuhsi (was dug). ).100). 183 (see Scheil. ... . the canal in the land of Sumer. and Brit... 33. Classified List.- He-gal mu-un-ba[-alJ-la.. 643 (Meissner. 841 (Meissner. 83). 102). Mus. V.]. ^' This early reference to an invasion of Babylonia by the Brit. 9. [. and 33.'^ Samsu-iluna named Hegallu (was 5. No.257 (B.Th.A. year in which year in which *" 8. Mus. Brit. Cf. 78) gives the fuller formula mu gis-gu-za bara-ge mu-un-na.. 7... The The The The ( (?) of [ . p. The dates upon Brit.. Recueil.235 No.A. 112). No. and I. Nos. in its fuller form the date refers to the restoration of the temples E-me-te-ur-sag and E-sagil. 1. 83) reads mjj gu-za bara-ge (B. Mus. 33." 3. xix. .M. No.

No. 15. ^' may Bu.. 17.LA^S B (15) [DI] a8^A(io) (DINGIR)DA BAD MU LA GAL GAL BAD HAL MU MU E . A.BI-DA-GE(?) RA^^ MU LUGAL . 642. No.244 YEAR. IV B. " The year of Samsu-iluna in which the wall(s) of Ur and Erech were built" (see Scheil. and Bu.GI KAR [ MU BAD I . the date upon a contract in the Imperial Ottoman Museum. CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. are dated in this year mentioned tablets UMMAN is expressed by the sign sab. . Kassites during the period of the First Dynasty is of great interest. . . .663 (Bu.BABBAR (DINGIR)UTU Ud . «^ The tablet Brit. 88-5-12. . TO.. xix. Mus. . 16.^UR RA U TAB . is dated in this year under the same abbreviated formula mu Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal-e umman Ka-as-su-u. 88-5-12.SI . 21.518). Recueil. .IN NA(KI) BA . . No. 13.MU [ ]A(is) • • • ] . 12. ] . Col. Brit.]. .BU . 60). 88-5-12. .. Col. in the formula upon the two last396. .248. 92. 194. 91-5-9. 19. MA RA . 2. . which reads MU *'" Sa-am-su-i-lu-na bad Uru(ki) u Unug(ki) mu-un-na-dim. *' From the abbreviated formula given in the text it is not clear whether the walls of Ur and Erech were built or destroyed in this year that the former was the case may perhaps be assumed from . 14. 33. . . 20.SE . . " The year of Samsu-iluna the king in which the army of the Kassites '" ( . which is dated mu lugal im-[ probably be assigned to this year. is dated in this year according to the formula in the text its " case " gives the fuller formula mu kur am-si-a an-ga-a.KIB ..IM . 715. 18. ). II." Mus. Bu. p. ].RA(KI) ^ ]^* GUSKIN II-NA-[ MU GIS-GU-ZA [ NE KUR NU . 114. . .GUL . 91-5-9.. . The contract Bu. 11.AZ8^B(lO) DA UMMAN MU I UNUG(KI) 83 a (s) URU(KI) BAD MU SIA ^* AMKUR MU MU KI .GA MU m[u g]is-gu-za [.

p. and from which it would appear that the wall in question was built at Sippar. E-babbar (was of built) for Samas in the city of Sippar (?). The The The The The The The year in which the army year in which the wall(s) of the cities '^ of Ur '* 12..." " The restoration is taken from the formulae upon Bu. For a similar formula employed during the reign of Sin-muballit. The The year in which the land had year in which the throne [ . see above. .. 88-5-12.'^ year in which the wall of the god Dadi (was made).. "The year of Samsu-iluna the king in which the wall of Isin was restored to its place. It is possible that Bu. reads mu E-babbar e[(dingir) Utu]. . 545 and i..... 16. year in which the throne gold 20.. ]. e. and Erech (were built). 225 and 706. 228 f.*' fortune. ^ B gives the variant reading i(i.] (was [.'' year in which the land year in which .. which give the formula MU [Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal] bad I-si-in[-na](ki) Ki-Bi-KU NE-iN-GE-A. ] (was made). .. 18.[... and cf.] ill . both of which are dated in this year.e. .. note 39.. The The The year in which the great walls year in which the temple (?) (were made)."* year in which the king . ni)-si-in[ . year in which the wall of destroyed. 14. made).. are dated in this year. .. 13. 11.** 19.REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA. ^^ ^' B. It may be noted that some contracts of Samsu-iluna's reign are dated by the restoration of the wall of Isin. I sin and was .oi6. 91-5-9." 17. 245 10.g. J. YEAR. 153 and 707... 88-5-12. 21. Bu. [. 15.

lil-la. which refers to this year Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal-e us-sa id-ag-ga (dingir)Enalso Bu. which ends with Samsu-iluna's reign. but of the second characters remain. '^ The reads. 174 in the Ottoman Museum (see Scheil. 24. 28. IV. mu date upon Bu. A.246 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. A. 25. is dated in the reign of B agrees . 88-5-12. MU MU MU MU MU [MU [mu IGI - E NIR [ - KI - DUR - MAH '" ] ] ] A - KAL [ [ BAD KiS [ (KI) ALAM HAR . AG [ga (dingir)En lil] 31. 33.NA MU A .G[A (DINGIR)EN LIL] ^^ MU us .. 23. 91-5-9. are tablet all dated in this year by the formula given in the text.NUN . YEAR. 330. MU [us .LA MU [ XXXVIII MU Sa-am-su-i-lu-na LUGAL-E^^ ] '° Bu. Col. line of the formula only traces of .SA . 38. with A in assigning thirty-eight years to Samsuthe List of Kings assigns thirty-five years to his reign. '' cf. 37. 36.]. 22.UM(KI) SAB Mar MU Tu a A (30) M[A d]a KI MU URI A NU -[. 685.AL(KI) IGI .MA . 32.§U .S]A id . xix. " The date upon the No. Recueil. 57) possibly gives a variant formula for this year. and 699. 26.. iluna Ammizaduga.SAG id] ] " J A (20) 27.SA ID-AG-G[A (DINGIR)EN-LIL] MU ALAM-A-NI GIS-NIM MU-[UN-DIM-MA(?)] A (25) MU (ID) [ ] MU {VRV)Ka [ raturn ] m[u] E GAL NAM .NUN .AG . 29.US . 35. 135. 687.. 30. 34. p. 88-5-12.

. year in which the city of . (were .. the i^']. year in which the men of Martu (were . 28. year after that in which the oracle of Bel given).. 26..). The year in which [. [ 32... 29. year after that in which the oracle of Bel (was given).. 23. The The year in which the canal ]. 35. . in which his image was made of -wood.. The The The The The The year in which the wall of Kis (was destroyed). 36.. .] did not The thirty-eight years of Samsu-iluna. YEAR... . .''' (was 30..... 24. year in which the image of 25.. .REIGN OF SAMSU-ILUNA. year in which the cities of .. 247 2 2.. 34. The year the land 38. year in which the might of [ ...). 27. . year in which [ year in which the oracle of Bel (was given).. year . . The second The .. year in which the mountain [ . • J-" J. 33. . (was . 31. [ J.).. ] (was made).'^ . king. The The The year in which the palace of dominion (was built). The The year ^o in which Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah (was built). .

197." the mighty counsel of Samas and Marduk ( . " The year of Ammiditana the king in which through ). VIII. B. ] I MU MU [ [ ] SILIM M[U ] CS) ] IX. 281. [ REIGN OF ABESU'. and that upon Bu. in the abbreviated form mu Am-vii-te-ta-na lugal siba im-tuk se-ga. Col. and 419.GAL . 355. probably refer to the early years of the reign ofAbesu'. °^ The formula for this year should possibly be restored from the dates upon Bu. The date occurs upon Bu.s* B. YEAR. 88-5-12. which reads MU Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal-e siba im-tuk se-GA (dingir)Utu. . to judge from their on the tablet. '* What remains of Col. . 397. . which read mv Am-mtdi-ta-na lugal-e ad-gi-A gu-la (dingir)Utu {lymGYS^Mardukbi-da(-ge). IV. 88-5-12. Col. This was perhaps the first year of Ammiditana's reign.LA] NAM GI [gal (Bl'NGIRjMarduk']^^ ] position " The few signs preserved of Col.248 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. IV of B refers to the early years of Ammiditana's reign. -nixs Am-mi-di-t\_a-na lugal-e] siba im-tuk se-g[a (dingir)UtuJ bi-da-[ge]. l*"^ MU MU MU MU [ [ ] • ]-[G]l-[ IM V GA (DINGIR)UTU]'' - SIBA TUK - [SE - ES - BAR . [ REIGN OF AMMIDITANA. 88-5-12. 271. Ill of B. . 91-5-9. III.MA^I A [ [tA DINGIR GAL . ^ The line has been restored from the date upon Bu.

)"... 249 VIII. No. 263 and 330.«* J- [•••_ The The [ year in which [ [ J year in which prosperity ] J- IX.). and Bu.A. 799 Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal-e ES-BAK-TA DINGIR-GAL-GAL-LA SAG-DU-A-NI AN-LA-AL NAM-A-GAL {pr&GW^Marduk-G'S. "The year of Ammiditana the king in which through the exalted decisions of the great gods ( ).i^).. It is possible that upon see a variant of this formula in the date Bu." the The of year in which through the exalted decision the great gods might of Marduk restored.] was been restored dated is '^ two lines have (Meissner. [ REIGN OF AMMIDITANA. . V year in which [ J. REIGNS OF ABESU' AND AMMIDITANA.'). 88-5-12.. which reads mu Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal-e we may NAM-A-GAL-LA {TUSGYB^Marduk-G^ {^) IN-NE-EN-GAR-RA-TA (. " The year of Ammiditana the king in which the might of Marduk was established". cf. REIGN OF ABESU'. YEAR. "The year of Ammiditana the king in which by the decision of the great gods he raised (?) his head and the might of Marduk (. . 91-5-9. . 218.. the date occurs on Bu.. 91-5-9. which MU from V.Th.. also the dates upon Bu. 357 and 363. The These year in which [•-. 393. 88-5-12. 19).." .^^ The [ The year in which the illustrious shepherd and darling of Samas (. . in the abbreviated form mu Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal es-barMAH-A DiNGiR-GAL-GAL. J.

25. 91-5-9. Col. y^ ll"" occurs here of not more than fifteen years.] B. . NAM-NUN-NA-Ni .]- 32.NI NAM (DINGIR)Ni[N-I]b(?) . which reads mu Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal-e alam from the fuller formula upon Bu. 736.. are probably to be assigned to this year.. 10.A . 91-5-9.NI [ ALAD-ALAD A-[ ALAM . . ] ] ] ALAM-A-NI U (DINGIR)[ ] SAG [ (?) . 88-5-12. - mi - di - ta - na [ . 26. ]. . . 29. 88-5-12.NI .[ MU BAD [// . . it may be inferred that an image of Samsu-iluna was also set up . V.A - Nl U '"^ [ . MU ALAM M[U E [A gap 22. 369. [ YEAR. characters in the text. of images 28th. refers to this year it reads . "' Bu.A . 30.250 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON.ku . '°* This formula is found with slight variants in the date upon Bu. 522. 91-5-9. IV. is also referred to in the formulae for years. 31. ALAM ..UM NUN . 496 and 734. MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU MU [ [ ] ID 23. A . B.un{?)'] lOS {DlNGlR)Marduk (ki) ™ °' The making 26th. 24. Am . '™ The date upon Bu. and 30th . . A "" (lO) ] - BU . Am-mi-di-ta-na lugal-e (dingir)Uru dr-sag-gal-[ . - NA NI . (dingir)Uru UR-SAG-GAL ] ] - "^ 28.[ - GA (?) ] ] GIS-KU [ ] [ .MA l"* - [ ] - J-SAG [. . and several contracts of but few Ammiditana's reign are also dated by similar events of the formulse on the contracts correspond to the traces of the 23rd. (S) ALAM . . Col. . . 27. and 852. not certain. ^ ™ The reading e is The tablets Bu. . MU . 781. are dated in this year. .

. the tablets Bu. 88-5-12. 32. 29. 27..^"* The year in which Ninib J... also the shorter formula on Bu. . 49. 302.. and the suggested restoration of the text is taken from them.[. and Bu. occurs here of not more than fifteen years."^ The date upon Bu.^" year in which Nabu the mighty hero 28. di-ta-na lugal-e alam nam .] his image and 24. the sword 26.. 31. ] The The The The The The year in which [ • • • 3 the canal of Ammiditana 23.'"' The year in which the wall of Iskun(?)-Marduk . 764). The year in which his image [ ]. reads MU Am-miin this year. . . (was built)]. 25 The The year in which the image year in which the temple [ [ . '™ Some tablets of Ammiditana's reign are dated by the building of the wall of Iskun(sometimes written Iskun)-Marduk (cf.^"" [A gap 2 2. ].[. and is perhaps a variant form cf. year in which year in which [••••] [ . of this date. .. 359 and 895. YEAR.. 25. '"' If the reading of the god's name as Ninib is correct.1 REIGN OF AMMIDITANA. . ]. . 635. [ .'"' The year in which the colossi The year in which his princely image (was made). 471. .na alam guskin]-GA su-NE-iN-GAB-A. 91-5-9. gi-j-g. 91-5-9. .'^ . . ]. [••••]• [ year in which [.la . ]. year in which his image and .lugal .. . are to be assigned to this year. 88-5-12. . Bu. (was built). . 30. and 305.

Am mi(K.] [MU [MU [ SIBA - Zl] SE - GA (DINGIR)[UTU (miiGlR)Marduk'] "' ] - MA .ta .am.l) Gl . 88-5-12. 158. VI. 1. and Bu. 36. • X.ta . tablets Bu. and 283.. 215. which read MU Am-mi-za-du-ga lugal-e (dingir)Marduk-bi-da[-ge].su .2«(Kl) i"' (15) AmMU Biilr] Dur . 352 "' The are dated in this year. V. "' The restoration of this line is taken from the dates upon Bu.ra .^z"i (5) MU Sa .[ ] '<" Am-mi-dlz']-i[a-n']a [lugal-e] XXXVII MU .i . siba-zi se-ga (dingih)[Jtu .mu . 3435. 435 and 864. upon Bu. YEAR.[ MU ] MU BAD [ ] BAD KI . also the dates and 608. 91-5-9. Col.ga MU Am and Bu. LUGAL^^" B. 37.fia^'^'^ MU Am . B. . REIGN OF AMMIZADUGA. .NA ] - [ ] IN - GAB - A X MU Am-mi-za-du-ga XI.am .lu na'^^'^ bi e su -' "' MU ^ di . [Seven or eight years of Ammizaduga's reign are wanting. Col.252 CHRONICLE OF KINGS OF BABYLON. 88-5-12. ^™ The List of Kings assigns twenty-five years to the reign of Ammiditana. 33. 91-5-9.mi mi za du . ]-GI BAD-SIBA(?) MU [ MU [ ] mi. 753. cf. SUMMARY FROM CHRONICLE XLIII XXXVIII [ ]VIII [X]XXVII [ X ] MU Ha. 91-5-9. B.di .203.

"^ [ . The thirty-seven years of Ammiditana.] The of year in which the true shepherd. the king. 246 "' f. REIGN OF AMMIZADUGA. 24. . V. 1. The year in which the wall [ ].'" thirty-eight years of Samsu-iluna. 253 33. The year in which [ ]. was 34. . . .'" 36. 108 X. ). "' List of Ammizaduga's Kings assigns him twenty-two years." SUMMARY FROM CHRONICLE forty-three years of B.'" ten years of Ammizaduga. ]• The [ year in which The XI. 18. The year in which restored.'" thirty-seven years of Ammiditana."" ]. .. The year in which Dur-Ammi was restored. . "* The restoration of the number is taken from B. YEAR. [Seven or eight years of Ammizaduga's reign are wanting. The year in which Dur-Ammiditana (was built). the darling Samas and Marduk [ ( . ]-eight years of Abesu'. A also assigns thirty-eight years to Samsu-iluna see above.. Col..0 f. . 27. .REIGNS OF AMMIDITANA AND AMMIZADUGA. The List of Kings assigns twenty-five years to AbBsu' B's reading should perhaps be restored as [twenty]-eight. see the preceding page. "^ p. 35. p. [••••] the wall . The The The The The "° Hammurabi. ten years of no Ammizaduga. This estimate agrees with A . the king. B was The clearly compiled in the tenth year of reign. see above.

26. .c. - zerim. king of in Vol. Babylon about pi. : B. . the text of which was included (see No.sapik iioo (Brit. 633. [ [ [ [. I. is a copy^ on clay of an older inscription made in the is fifteenth year of Kandalanu.] - 5 UR MAH ZI - E UN A - - [sag] IL - - LA BI 5 E u HI DA Mu - - Bar - zi - pa(ki) - GAL E sa zi - Zl DA IR ik - LUGAL NI - lo {Yi\^Ql&)Marduk bi ri lo im me nun - a - tig gu de - su du du - a a - - ni ni ki SI - gar bi e ni GI - zi da ga 15 Rev.295). 133. in form. ]-a GU E ] DINGIR . for many of the characters are archaistic. — This I inscription. Inscription of b.— APPENDIX.. the copy is not a facsimile of the inscription.C. The following a transliteration of the text Transliteration. and not genuinely archaic.GE (DINGIR)LUGAL LUGAL-HE-IR-AN-KI-A - - ] . Mus.NE .E . Marduk . 70). sun - diri IN - KU BI - DIM - KI MA KU GI MU ki - UN NA la - ma bi - ri - nu ' Though the text was doubtless taken from an inscription of Marduk-sapik-zerim. No. Obv.

.

the three additional chambers on the right having possibly been added at a later period. . rather than to render the phrase as bit Sippar-iahrurum. Twelve doorways are marked in the walls.. p.. giving access from room to room it is noticeable that no doorways are marked in the walls of two small chambers in the front of the The innermost portion of the central building on the right. SILA-DAGAL (Sem. vol." while two of the chambers on the extreme right and left are labelled PA-LUL. note z. The first day of the month Sivan. which may perhaps be rendered " shrine. p. . Looking towards the street we see that the three chambers on the extreme right probably did not form part of the original building. .2S6 APPENDIX. 23). . 118. " the main street. . see above.'' which is marked along the side parallel to the top of the tablet. a phrase which also occurs on a plan published by Thureau-Dangin {Revue d'assyriologie. and chambers may have been employed for storing and taxes collected in Sippar-iahrurum. . . . inasmuch as they break the symmetry of The building consisted of two long. iv. chamber farthest from the street is labelled e-si-ir-tum. ' is far title would be akil zammeri from certain. "a house . of Sippar-iahrurum." ^ . siiku rapsu). narrow the plan. this For Sippar-iahrurum.' ' It is preferable to take Bit as part of the title of the building. however." The sketch on the obverse represents of Bel ( the ground-plan of a building with eleven principal chambers the area occupied by the rooms is in the form of a rough The building faces the square. of Bit^-Sippar-iahrurum. and which he translates The Blt-Sipparas " (chamber of) the chief musician. iahrurum may its well have been a building under the control of the priests of the some of the tithes Temple of the Sun-god in Sippar. chambers. the beloved shepherd the year after that in which ). each divided by a partition they are flanked by three chambers on each side. with one corner missing.." ' The Semitic form of the rendering.

(Poca6ufane0 .

.

61. " and. IV. 11. 14. 14. 160). I I. III. 12. g. abalu. copula. Pres. . "to bring": (p. zi. igisu. 28. Col. us-ta-b[i-lu }'\ 86 (p. 86 (p. 153). 14. 27 \_s'\u-b[t'\-la-n\j7Ti\ 93 (p. su-bi-la . 14. 22. 124). (p. z6. 58). 75 (p. ia-a-W). 17 72 (p.] K i. 97 9. 8 . 67). 54). 20). nu-us-ia-bi lam 48 (p. 169). igg). 169). (p. "tribute" •igisi 14 (p.+5). ai-hi-ia (p. 9. 56). 44 (p.I. 56. 12. 82 141). foe" 97 : ai-hi 60 (p. 22 (p. "to li-ib-lu-nim-ma 72 (p. 48). 14. Pret. hurricane" : 11. 172). 45). to bring": Pret. (p. BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 24 f. personal pronoun. tu-sa-bi-lam 55 62). 153). "harvest": e-bu-ru-um 33 (P." aibu. (p. 160). : 33 i6. 157). 21 (z-)2i2-/z' 38 (p. Rev. Rev. . —The figures in heavy type . . 20. "to cause to bring. i6g). a-hi-im 95 (p. " deluge. e-bu-ri-im 33 aburris. 25 . 11. "father": a-k'-m i8 (jp. IV 3. "tribute. 1. "enemy. . 55 (p. 52). 153). igg). {p. emploj'ed with (p. liib lam 79 . 12 . abu. 108). Ill 2. 12). abiibu. tu-ub-la-nim 93 (p. plur. igisa- hi-nu 86 (p. 16 . "in security": : a-bur-ri-\is \ 97 (p. 86 (p. 7.B. 160). 17. " (var. 48 (p. 52). 188). ist pers. \s'\u-bi-lam-\ma\ 36 (p. 160). 172). tu-ub-ba-la-nliml-ma Pret. Inf. [N. 199). Obv. refer to the numbers of the texts in Vols. su-bu-li-im 56 see eklu. Imper. 7. 10. "su-bi-lam 11 (p. Col. 22 55 (p. 24.5- 19. (p. 4s). 28. . 7. u-sa-bi-lam 55 (p. 13. iati. hire" ebiiru. 7 . 25 Prec. 153). biltu. 143). me" : 2a-/z'30(p. igg). 37 (p. a-bu-ni i8 a-hi 97 (p. 143). 24. 60 . a-M a-bu-ub 60 (p. to bring": Pret. cohortative particle. 169). 23. 49). 60 a-hi-ia 97 (p. 143). li-ib-lu-nim 16 (p. Ill I. I and II the pages within parentheses refer to the transliterations in Vol. cause to bring. 199). 93 (p.

Col. 9. 13: . " hostile. I II id-lam 27 (p. 88 (p. 7. up to" 10. . ekalli-a 83 (p. 4. 194). to renew oneself" 97 (p. 28). adi. "to cause to receive (judgment)" 19(p. "side. Obv. ekallu 30 (p. 4. aha. 17 (p. 10. I e-kal-la-tim 48 . Obv. Rev. 21. 194). 74 (p. 11. 14). id. "palace": "food. 8. : " : Inf. 8. " future " . 17. 6. 2. 8 ahu. 9 . ahazu. I. 17. 20. 34 (p. 207). " man i. " to know " (P- : i-du-u 11 (p. ekallu.28. 38). 49). 150). 6 see also inanna. 9. 80). 157). 83 (p. 119). "to be renewed. ID. ahu. 83 (p. ugar 80 (p. mudiL. I 1 "to take. 7. akalu. 82 (p. 7. " ear " see birtu (sub harii). 10.26o BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 150). a^e^'-su 84 (p. " to eat. a-hi-t-im : su-hi-is-su-nu-ti ahru. "hired labourer" agruti*' %0 (p. 8 (p. (p. 141). 7. Free. plur. "to be new. 65 (p. "side. ahi 32 (p. 5. 26 (p. los). 6. 71 (p. 72 (p. "to hire" : agru. 8. " knowing. 62). 52). (p. food-supply": ukulli i9 {p. Rev. strange. 6. adH. 6). : wa-du-tim 42 (p. ''<"• : agam. 112). a-hu-ni 92 (p. 6. recent" . 172). ugari 76 (p. 86). 25. 150). 145). 15. 130). 114). " the future " : ah-ri-a-at 60 (p. 18). 199). 33). Tiznu. Obv. : es-m 100 (p. . Rev. 31. ahatu. to hold. 12. "to. 16. "new. IV ^. neighbourhood": u-ga-ar-su 43 (p. 3. 169). neighbouring district": a-hi-a-tim 56 (p. a-hi-ni 48 . 87). 23). 23. 12. Obv. 135). 92). 92. different " a-hi-a-am 28 (p. 16. 150). "brother": (p. 83). 12." 2." iikullii. f. 6s). 5. a-di-ni 75 18. 48 (p. 29 elal 64 (p. "captain" idii. "district. ahralu. 20). II. 155). 121). 87 (p. ni-di-\_P^ 83 (p. 86). li-gu-urZQ (p. ngaru. 7. ekulh' 6 (p. 15. 6. ahu-lsu] 41 (p. 19- having knowledge of " : viu-di-e 92 idln. 16). 17. 6. 16-9). 98). 15. bank": a-ah 5 (p. 22. edesu. 13s). : a-dt 4 (p." Ill I. . 169). u-te-id-di-su essu.

(p. (p.-il-li-liu-nim-ma\bQ {^. damkaru. Hi 94 (p. il-likam-ma 88 (p. li-illi-ku{}) 46 (p. 59 (p. 27. 71 . Rev. 60). 186). 6. alaku. 4. Part.. 162). akiti. 64 (p. 105). il-li-kam 90 (p. "to be high": (p. 32. "to raise": (P. 192).. aladu. 15. 114). secretary " akz7 """'"' : akle^'-^amt7ia{ia) 16 (p. 188). a-lim 5 (p. 21.u^' 35 (p. 11. 4 [ 85 (p. festival of the New Year. 18. i5j u-ul 5 (p. 95 188). i-il-la-ak 1 (p. 24. 12. (p. li-se-lu-SjT^ 84 . ilu. 137). 22 . (p. . 16). . 51 (p. (p. IS. Rev. i-il-la-ku . 19. 48). 60. (p. 10). 164). C. Pret. "to cause to li-se-lu-nim-ma 40 (p. 255. 13s). 17. 165). 5. 18. 79). 7. 11. 10. 14s).i-i\l-\_r\ikam-ma 33 (p. 43 83 92 alu. 49). [ . ]-k. 44. 6. 6. aklu. 95 (p. 28 38 (p. 21. bii Feast of the New Year": (p. 34. 90 . 2. negative. 15 . to cause to embark. l\j. 16s). e-li-a I I. to carry": (p. 49. 60). s . a-li-ik-ma 15 (p. 68). 5. "the House of the 50 (p. 166). 167). . nuhatimmu. 45). 153). nialahu. Prec. 7. 90 (p. 15 (p. i7> 4. 97 (p. (p. 52 (p. ]-zZ-/a-(2/4 86 (p. ni-il-li-ik 33 (p. 100. 22- "upon. 153). 103). Inf. Rev. 42 (p. 65). 62). 117). 84: "goddess" : i-la-a-tim (p. go up. "to beget" wa-li-di-ia 95 (p. . 94 (p. 108). "god": 39 97 iltu. . 26 " scribe. 33 Imper. 82). (p. g. 81 (p. (p. akil. 162). 51 ul. a-la-ki-im 8 (p. 9 il-li-ku-nim 17 (p. see also ellppu. 160). 42. 86 (p. 117). 15. 54 24 (p. 112). 4. hit akitu. 199). e-li-nu-um 48 (p. 8. . 25. 104. 20 eli. 6. 12 al-kavi 50 (p. I I. a-ki-tim 6. 17. ilani^'^ 75). (p. 177). 6). a-li-ik-ma 40 (p. 14. elii. i8 \J. "to go": Pres. eli 59 (p. 4. 38 (p. 45). 30 55 93 (p. " city " : (p. (P- "not": 33). 130). li-il-l\i-ku\ 81 (p. 139). 186).i77)> I?- u-ul-li 97 (p. [al]-ka-a-nim. 20.St. 8. lu-u-ul-li III I. 51. 75 150). li-il-li-ku-ma II. 139). 108).1 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 6. 16. (p. 93). Obv. . li-il-li-ka-nim . . 13. Hani 59 45 192). all 57 (p. 34 (p. 6. 11. 192). 15. 53 (p. to": e-li 21 (p. 6. 199). 199). 7. 169). u. 26. 143). 164). 188). 68). 157). 6. 17. 199). 28. 16). 31). e-li-a-tim 97 67 II I. 139). 9. 8.

Obv." 36 (p. tribute the register or ne-mecapacity of a ship" ne-mi-it-ti-su 55 (p. 62). . "command. " to . 83). I. (p. capacity. rule. 13. I i. 17. alpu. 60). 68). g. 72 (p. : IV b. 17. 58). 73 (p. 19. 8. "in. 14 (p. 39 (p. Obv.. 79 15. 7. 20." inplur. 16. upon" with arnu. 165). march. 1 akle^' 6. 26 (p." 75 (p. 15 (p. 87 14. 60). 6. 14. 37 (p. 13. elip "a ship of ten MA-NI-UM. "crews of 18. 177). 10. 58). 16). 7. n." 87 (p. ema. Rev. 75 (p. employed as subs. 65). 44 (p. "ship for transport. "ox. to place u-mi-sa-am 97 (p. 37 (p. 12. 5 (p. u-mi 39 Col. 56). 177). 186). Rev. a-ta-al-lu-kam 97 (p. II. 62). 10. 45). 36. 8. 4. II. MA-NI-UM 60 GUR m-me-it-H. "cattle": 5. 4. 9. "journey. 36 (p. 3. 28. 4. 10. 72 (p. 4. (p. u-um 57 (p. e-mi-id 6 (p. 3). 51 (p. i5o). 10. 80). ships." 8 (p. 12. lid-gudJ"15 4. I. : visit an offence upon. "captains of ships. tax. " to walk. 199).: . . 5. 8. 17. Inf. Obv. "day": umu 5 (p. Rev. 62). 40. 52). 60). 44 (p. ilmi . 62). (p. 17. 15s). within. to punish " II I. 124). ellu. 255). 27 <p. (p. it-ta-la-ak 28 (p. 56). 40 (p. Inf. "a ship of sixty GUR MA-NI-UM 75 SE-GUR-NE. 22 . 11. 23). 50 85 137). 14. 68). 11. 24. 19. ma-ni-um. to go one's way. to pass (of an event) " Pret. 7. 75). (p. 21. 12). 52). elippu. 162). 103). Obv. 10. "ship": elippe^' 80 (p. 74 Rev. gur 40 (p. 8. 10 gur. 164). 6. 3." e-ma 40 (p. 83). 145). 10. "that which imposed. Obv. 12 75). 22. '4 ma-ni-um-/m-«« MA-NI-UM-'" 75 (p. umu. where. (p. 16. 12. 7 : . 40 (p. capacity. capacity. adv. 107." a-la-kam 23 (p. 60 (p. 102. 199). 107 (p. 33). "bright" : el-lam 94 (p. 7. I ilku. 18 . 14. 2. Rev. 84 (p. Imper. 17. 4. 16. 172). 98). s. wherever": 60). 67). 18. "daily" "to set up. nemittu. umiiam. 16). "a ship of seventy-five gur sab ma-ni-um^'. 155). 33 (p. i8. emedu. " to set up " : lu-u-um-mi-su 57 is (p." 27 (p. 54 (p. (p. control" : il-ki-im 1 (p. sabam{am}) ma-ni-um-^c 75 (p. 7. 121). Rev. 67). 94). 262 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY.

20. 90 22 ne-me-it-ta-su 263 it-ti-su (p. Obv.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. um-ma su-nu-ma 10 (p. Pret. (p. 17. 31 (p. 23 . 77). 62). 147). 54). 33). 145). 12. 84 (p. loi). (p. in letter- Obv. 22 (p. 10. 8. umma. 45). 88 (p. 6 (p." introducing direct speech. power. 42 (p. 112). 167). I " Pres. 4. s. 25. passim letter introduces quotation from a previous um-ma su-ma or report: um-ma 33 (p. {^. '"^" um-ma60 "to supplicate": f. 160). a-me-lu-u 11 (p. 16. 79 (p. 12. amele^' 13 (p. 42 90 (p.. 65). 43(p. Obv. Si 38 (p. 3. 20). 12. 17 (p. 6. no). 7. 157). 80 (p. 75 (p. 67). Rev. e-mu-ga-a-tim 25 (p. 3). 124). 7. 37. 4. 188). ta-ami. 25 141). um-ma 96). Rev. (p. "mother": ummi97 tim 36 (p. 28 (p. 91 (p.ti-'su-nu 23 [emeku]. 86 153). . 77). 11 (p. 92 (p. . 25 (p. s. 16). 18). (p. 71 (p. 160). 8. um-ma at-tu-nu-ma 86 (p. . as follows. 55 (p. 4. 13. 9. Free. s. . 108). 20. Obv. 91 (p. ISO). 172). s. 133). 89 (p. 199). 155). 21. IS. a-me-lum-ma 38 (p. 7. 16s). 114). 12. 29. 90 (p. 130). "wisdom": ne-m^-ki-irnQt amaru. (P"thus. 43 79 (p. 139). 153). 160). 7. : nemeku. «e-OT«-zV-/z' 143). 30 um-ma at-ta-ma 4 (p. 16. 121). 20). 28 (p. 83 (p. 45). 23). 155). 3 a-me-li-e 3 (p. 55 (p. 6. 65 (p. 13. 54: (p. 12. 75 (p. 8. 87). S. . 6. 114). 18. 12. 9 12. 7. 7. 88 (p. 164). 18. 62). 108). 19. Obv. 18. 4. (see elippu) 87 (p. 6 . 13s). 8. Obv. 49). ta-am-ma-ra 90 (p. 9. 23. might": e-mu-uk 97 e-mu-ki-in 95 (p. a-me-lam 41 (p. "troops": um-ma. Col. 6. 124). 147). "to see. 139). ummu. ne-me-it-ta-ka 55 (p. 98). 87 (p. 12 (p. 33). e-mu-ga-at 5 (p. 29). 4. 7. 90 82 amelu. 7. loi). to find ma-ru 50 (p. ne-me-it-ta-ku-nu 93 (p. 199). 7. 9. 14 emuku. 6. 103). . 33 . at-ta-a-ma 1 (p. 12. 10. 16. 130). 139). amel 17 (p. 12. 21. 162). 11. 199). 157). to behold. III 2. li-is-te-mi-ga-ku (p. Obv. 13 3 (p. 13. 112). 3. formula. 9. 56 (p. 20). 16. 45. 10. i6. 7 . IS 6. 8 (p. 113. . 11 (p. S. s. II. "man": 10. 21 . 31). 8 (p. 14). s. 105). Obv. 10. 14. "strength. 51 (p. um-ma su-u-ma 24 (p. 19. (p. (p. 139). (p. 9. to examine. ummatu. . 10. 139). 56 (p. i5o). 12. 52 (p. 26 (p. 8g).

169).87). amatu awatu " I v^rord . 9. 8. 39. 137). 18) ur-ma 1 (p. a-wa-a-tim (p. 103). Obv. amtu. 188). 38). 8. : sag-amat-uru 89 . 83). 4. inuma. nilnu. thing. . 42). Inf. a-mu-ur-ma 12 (p. 20). 8. li-mu-ru-ni8 Imper. 96). 4. 31). i-mu-ru-nim 4 (p. 44. 4. 41 (P. 199). 57 libbu. 39 73 (p. in combination with 97 56 (qq. li-\i'\n-name-irZZ (p. 199). ig 18. 7 (p. 199). 19 (p. "time". "at that time": i-nu-su 59 i-nu-ma 15 (p. (p. s. 45). 17 (p. 188). '7- IV be found. now " 11. 177). 29 35 (p. by. 47 17 (p. case. 4. to mar 21 83). 105). 85 (p. also 94 employed (p. 34 li-in-nam-ru 41 (p. 92 Cp. s. 192). a-wa-ti-su 1 (p. panu. 32 (p. 90). 36. 41. to appear": Pres. II. 12. "female slave" ana. 14. (p. "to be seen. fl-wa-n' 48 (p. 29)." written i-na. 38). 42). in-namRev. 17. nru. suit": a-wa-tum 8 (p. a-wa-a-ti-su-nu 12 (p. 6). 68). 27 (p.'57). a-wa-a-tu-su-nu 9 ID. (p. s. 42 (p. 19. . Rev. with niahru. 168). viati inusu. 92 11 (p. : " at that time " i-nu-mi-su 95 (p. 103). 44 10. Pret. anaku. in-\na-mi-ir-ma{l)'\ 6 (p. 188). 19 (p. 4. 40). II. 94).264 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 16. 5. 54). 85 (p. 46 iniiinisu. 12. Prec. 8. inu. (p. and 97 (p. (p. (p. 12 29). 89). 133). 6). Free. j Obv. . "I": 95 a-na-ku 57 (p. 68). (p. 20). 20. 14. 177). 21. 19. 82). 65). 13 (p. 11. 17. 14. 97 (p." written a-na also employed in combination the form in 95 (p. 20. H. 4. 33 (p. 3. 92 (p. prep. (p. occurring in Nos. . 8. 52). 112). . 30. " (p. 11 (p. 5. 135). 75). 31 (p. 137). a-nu-um-ma 2 15.).. 42). zimu (qq. 20). immeru. 4. 4. ik-ku-ma 72 (p. : (p. 10. 27. muhhu. 10). ina. 3 Pret. 186). 114). personal pronoun. 78 (p. 45). (p. (p.) a-mu24 (p. a-ma-ri-im 5 (p. 29). (p. Rev. for. 93). 59 animmia. 16). (p. 43 (p. 1. 20.v.). in-nam-ru 10 (p. "when": (P. 45 (p. (p. 192). 81). 4. 4. 13. Obv. among.v. 7. 58). 70). 4. (p. " " to. 9 26 . 4. 3. 17.135). 17. 17. wfith. 135). 10. 92). in. 9 (p. .. (or Imper. 11 (p. 22 (p. 87). "sheep": immere^' Z^{-p. matter. prep. 23). no). 15 34 (p. 5.

4. 177). 89). Obv. 10. 82 (p. 7. Rev. " to enclose. 75 (p. " son " apil 59 (p. 188). 70). 87 (p. 73 (p. 4. 160). 55 (p. 265 "now": 33 88 (p.. 19. "hitherto. 143). 14). 4. 95 (p. 20 . 39 (p. est. 68 e-pu-msu-um 57 (p." 82 (p. 19. 95 (p. 9. 19. 29 (p. 1 14). i-na-an-na 1 (p. epiru. 19. 113. Obv. e-bi-zu-iim 82). " countenance " ap-pa-si-na 60 (p. 88). 15s). 9. . 18). 49. IV 3. 13 . 19. 164). 44 (p. 93 (p. (p. Imper. 23. 62). 46 (p. 16). 17. Rev. 4. 7 70). 25 i-ib-bi-es 4 (p. "to make glorious": Pret. 4s). 33). 90 (p. 75 (p. 70). 10. 141). Obv. 62). 20 75 (p. 9. 20). 16. 83). li-pu-us 75 (p. 58). 12. 192). 71 (p. 1 37). 139). . 130). 11 (p. Rev. epiri 4 1 (p. 103). 130). 93 (p. 62). 75). 105). 54. 26. 44 (p. "hence- forth. apil. apin. li-pu^a-anT^ 73 (p. 12. 143). to make. 8. : eseru. 33 (p. . 17 (p. to pay back. 10. \_e']-pu-us 5 (p. 26. 92).. . 167). e-pu-us 59 (p. Rev. 8. li-pu-ul 20 (p. 4. Part. II. 85 (p. 199).. to arrest " (p. 3). "to give back. 62). 42 (p. Obv. li-pu-su-nim 23 (p. 11. 51 (p. 10. 124). 162). 20. u-se-hi 60 (p. 135). 8. 177). 4. 141). 207). 105). 29 (p. . Pret. 10. 15 an-ni-tum 8 (p. 97 (p. 8. 32 (p. te-pu-su 43 (p. appu (for anpu). 165). 62). : apalu. 27 (p. 64 (p. 62. Col. 8. 93). 43 an-nu-u-tim 29 (p. III I. (p. 119). 4 (p. 15. 4. 20. 16). . 14s). 14.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 160). 100 (p. Obv. 7. 16. 87). I. "this": an-ni-a-am 5 (p. 65). . 94). 13. 39 (p. 50 (p. 84 (p. (p. ni-ib-bi-es 88 (p. n. 41 (p. 78 (p. 3). 49 119). li-pu-su-nim-ma 23 58). 17. 94)> 8. 192). 45). 199). 172). 90). 10. 52 (p. 43 . 62). 18). 4. 24." 49 (p. e-si-ir-ma 79 [apii]. 10 . inanna. 46 Imper. Prec. (p. e-pi-ri 57 (p. Col. 112). 35 (p. 4. ta-ap-pa-al-su-ma 75 (p. 6. to pay " Pres. 18). to imprison. 46. a-pu-ul%i (p. (p. 7. 17. annu. demonstrative pronoun. 65). 11. 8. to build" Pret. 150). Prec. 8. . is-tu i-na-an-na. 41 an-nu-ti-in 13 (p. li-pu-su 8 (p. i-pu-su 83 (p. : : 172). I "to do. 3. e-pu-su 97 (p. an-ni-i-im 55 (p. 92 (p. 75). 139). "earth": e-bi-ri 1. : epesu. 14. no). 30 a-pu-ul-ma 75 (p. 20. 82). Rev. 31 (p. 4. 17. 3. a-di i-na-an-na.

"field": ekli 6 (p. 7' 27- "to procure. 85). Obv." 4 57 [epeiu]. 8 (p. (p. II . 19. musu. "to make. 84 (p. Inf. lu-se-su-lu] 50 61 (p. 21. : u-zu-ur-ii 1Q1 (p. 10. taskmaster. IV I. IS e-pi-si 59 (p. i. II.. 160). 162). "to go out. \li\-se-bi-is 7 (p. 93 (p. 41. I 3. 77 (p. "eternity" pitu. Inf. to be (p. 14. Rev. 13. III "to cause : do. 77 """•' (p. 81). esedu. deed " e-bi-\ii-turn\ 5 (p. eklam{am) 6 (p. : epistu. 85). Free. 20. 81). to purchase": Imper. "workmen. II. 55 (p. 164). 9 (p." 91 (p. 10. 28). 7. 13. 164). (p. 266 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 16. "plan" 28 28 8. 12. 7 (p. 62). i-te-ne-ip-su 27 (p. 11 li-se-bi-su 77 39 (p. 7. " work. 33). 9 . 145). 199)." " to cause to go (p. 10 s . 108). ekli bilti-ia 38 (p. 16s). satu. to take possession (p. Obv. 10. with determinative am'elu. e-^i-di-im 84 (p. to cause to work. . 16 e-hi-sa-am 97 (p. 18). e-bi-e-si-im . Pres. Obv. in-ne-ip-pu-us (p. i6s) 12. 9. 10. li-si-d\u\ 10. 33). 143).z). 8s). . "exit": mu-sa^a-am isu. II. 13. Inf. 33). (p. 33). 8 . 145). 141). in-ne-pu-us 75 (p. tu-se-ib-bi-is-su-nu-ti . eklu. 96 f. 60). " wood " : isa 72 (p. out. ekilbilti. Ss). 15. Ill I. II I. 147). 119). 9. 52). 7. . 3> 8 . 14s). 83). "exit": si-i-tim 50 162). I I. to bring out" : Pres. 16). 108). 85). 9. 13. 54 (p. (p. sab e-bi-is-tum. (accounts) " Pres. made ready" : lb Pret. 61 (p. 25 (p. 17. 28 (p. Rev. to render . 23). ekil bilti-su 84 38 (p. (?) i-ib-bi-es 88 (p. 7 tp-sa-tu-'su (p. 23). . in 72 (p. 8. 14s). e-bi-si-im. 14. <. 62). Obv. to do" to : Pret. ub-bi-sa-ma 49 asu. tu-se-si-a 64 (p. Obv. 14). " to be made. 4. 9 " overseer. of. usurtu. I. 17. : si-a-tim 57 (p. 177). su-bu-su-um-ma 77 (p. 11. eklim{im) (p. 6. . 75). 76 ekli-su 28 (p. ig. 42). mu-se-bi-h 7 (p. ekle*'1l (p." "^'" mu-se-bt-si-su-nu 11 81). 5. "hired field. 130). 82 (p. 84 (p. 28. Perm. 20. 13. 2ss). 192). Part. ^ 22 {^.. 177). "to harvest": Prec. 7.

12)." "to cause to bring. (p. 1 12). 199). Rev. arnu. (p. 188). tua-ar-ki-si-na 34 38 (p. 5. 10. to hand su-ri-a-am 13 (p. to send": Imper. IS. 14). (p. BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. it-ta-na-ar-ra-d\u-md\ 80 (p. 18. ii. 6. (p. 94 (p. "length": murak{?)-su 72 (p. \wa-ar\-ka-tum 91 (p. j. Ill I. : wa-ar-ka-tu 6 (p. I i. arki. 6. 11 f. araku. 22. 23). 10. 33. 12). to be delayed " Pres. u-se-ri-bu-m'-is-su erbu." arkata parasu (q. 20. 24. 24. 31. (p. 75 (p. 72 (p. 121). 9. Pres. 13 . . 108). "male servant": wa-ar-du-ki-ma 48 SAG-URU-^' 84 (p. "to send down": slave. 113. wa-ar- "to examine 20). 121). "behind". 45). wa-ar-hi-im 71 8. I (p. arMs. 1 over. 43 (p. 38). 52). arkii. 4. 20. (p. Pres. go down " : Tres. "to bring. 105). 199). wa-ar-ka-as-su 19 (p. i6). 3. 16. 9. (p. I 267 I. "four": ar-ba-im 57 97 Col. I. . (p. 11. into a matter" 20. 7 .v. 6). \su-ri-a-as'\-su- nu-h'll erebu. i-ir-ru-bu Ill "to bring in": \u-s'\e-ri-hu-mm (p. "to go down. 77). "triumph" : ir-ni-ti%h (p. arkafu. ardu. 169). su-\ri-a-as su-nu-ii'\ 42 114). 186). 32 (p. "offence": ar-nam 6 irnittu. (p. : e-ri-ib 83 (p. "future. 5. 23). 172). 73 i-ri-ik-ku 72 (p. 105). 150). adv. \f\r-bi-tim. 60 (p. "swiftly. 26. . 23. 5. 8. 14. 23. i-ir-ru-ha-am 14 (p. Rev. " revenue" arba'u. wa-ar-hu-um 14 (p. 14s). . "to enter": 5 (p. 157). arhn. " to be long. 199). arhi 27 (p. 25 52). 103). 17. wa-ar-k[i- ] 15. II I. 56 (p. 31 10). 25. 66. 10. 83). "after": wa-ar-ki ZZ (p. 62). 188). 1 u-se-ri-bu-nim-ma 2 (p. "month": Obv. 52).."'34 (p.). speedily": ar-hi-is 23 (p. ka-su 43 (p. (p. 5 . 40). 95 aradu. : Rev. irbitti. plur. miiraku. 20). 92)." " to 3. aru. 6).. II. 94). to carry off. arMsam. 91. 36. \f\u-ur-ra-ad 80 (p. 22. (p. 77. 6. 9. (p. "monthly": wa-ar-hi-sa-am 97 3). 177). arhu 97 (p. I i. 147). \)u-ri'\-a-am 11 (p. 94. f.

Rev. 7. 14. eresu. 90 (p. Col. 40. 20. "to cause to dwell. straight. 172). 33. habitation": su-ba-at 57 (p. II \e-te\ne-\i^r-ri-su 91 (p. urru. 255). 3. 33). 147). irsitim{tim) 59 (p. 108). daylight" I i. 130). 39. 95 (p. "magician": "^'" a-H-pu 100 (p.. 8z . I 3. 12. sing. 188). "to plant. I i. astu. 199). 16. 10. 72. "earth" ir-si-tim irsitu. \b. Obv. alar. 135). (p. I i. 24.?)" : (p. 90). 188). 14 (p. . 157). li-sa-am 20 (p. iidu. 13. su-te-se-ir-si : ^ (p. to beseech for" Pret. "where": "to be I." : Ill "to direct" Imper. subtu. : . 2. 40 asabu. Ill 2. irnti^l (p. 8 (p. 35 95 (p. "instead of": 7. 192). us-te-es-se-ru- ni-a-H 92 asaridutu. 12). "dwelling. prep. "foundation": " difificult. for. 199). Col. to request": Prec.'\r-ri-{su\ 91 (p. : 97 (p. aslu. Rev. i-nd-si-nd) 97 (p. Obverse. 12). " IV 3.) 6. 172). 9. " to have. rope " : 34 (p. 65). 60). 73 (p. i-su-u Prec. 188). 78 (p. isda-si-na (var. 15 ." : merisa. 13. 192). 10. 188). "to dwell": Perm wa-as-lu (3rd wa-as-bu (3rd plur. Ill I. 31). 75).. arku. [eseru]. . 207). 25asipu. ainan. "planting. /u-u-se-si-ib-si-na-it 95 (p. a-sar 14 (p. me-ri-sim 95 (p. "humble": as-ru 59 eiirtu. 22. "princely power" : a-sa-ri-du-tu 60 (p. 4. to do justice to" (p. 177). 177). "green" : wa-ar-ga-am-ma 72 : "day. 10). 139). 52). a-sar 28 (p. 62. cultivation" isii. 11 . 18). ur-riZ% (p. "to ask Rev. "grain": as-na-an95 (p. "to request. asm. Pret. 14. 6). 12. 10. 188). 7. 13. 10. tsda-su 97 (p. 94). eresu. {e'\-te-ne-\i. to be" : i-lu . 199). e-si-ir-tum 107 (p. (p. ds-li-im 20.268 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. Rev. 2. e-te-nt-ir-ri-is-su-ma 24 (p. 19 Obv.) 56 (p. 12. su-ub-ti-si-na ^ (p. impassable": \w'\a-as-tu-tim 60 (p. " shrine (. li-ri-is 38 (p. 88 (p. 86). 12. conj. 147). " to set right. 199). (with particle of lu-u-s[/\-s[ib'\ emphasis) lu-u-se-'si-ib bt (p. to settle" : Pret. Obv. 15.

loi). [ataruj. 6s). isten. los). Obv. 2. 22.'k (p. 7. utullu 3 (p. 23 (p. 45). Obv. 3. 4. 2. 153). 81 (p. 135). in excess. 269 assum. 8. 23. 45). 35 (p. personal pronoun. Obv. 42). 5. 82). Obv. 1 (p. . 153). ntullu. 9 (p." : Ill atru : "to make great" Pret. 94). 33). it-ti-su 9 (p. 12. 26 wa-at-ri-is-su 1 (p. is-tu 4 72 (p. 9. 14. 28 (p. itti. j2. 33 (p. "one" : is-te-en 78 (p. 33 (p. 8 24 at-tu-nu-ma 86 (p. 8 it-H-ia 10 (p. 12. "flock": u/ulH 2Q (p. 7 (p. 4.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 14. \b. Obv. 3. II. 5. 93). 43 (p. 7. jV-Zz' . . 7. 8. "since": as-sum 56 aZ-ia-a/ : (p. 14. 108). 108). 18). at-ta-ma 4 (p. lordly power": [^]-/^-/«-/[a] 60 (p. 19. "herdsman": (p. Rev. 20. conj. 130). S4). (p. idati. 4s).. 16 (p. Obv. 67). s. 33). 4. 7. 4. 6. 83). Obv. 103). 88 (p. 79). 6. Col. 17. Obv. 137). (p. 42).. Rev. etelliitu. 4 (p. 8 (p. 4 (p. I "to be I. 27 (p. 90 conj. 4. 2 (p. 103). 13. 10. 153). 12.. . 40)." see also inanna. 9. 37 56). atta. 3). 15 (p. 15. 38 (p. 34. uiulle^' 83 (p. 10 (p. 4. . . 10. 18). istar. "thou": at-ta 60 (p.. 23 85 (p. (p. 15. 23). 19 (p. 103). "lordship. \i. 40. prep. 172). 13 . 4. 18). 65). (with particle of emphasis). 52). 16). plur. . 13. ig. as-sum 55 (p. 139). 137). 73 (p. 42). 40). 150). 41 68). 33). 90). 4. 78. 5 "in order that/' followed by the Inf. "since (of time). 6. prep. 3. 88 (p. i. assatu. 18). 4. [ittu]. 6. 5 (p. 153).. 169). . 6). "from" 3). 86 (p. attunu. 30. 33 (p. Rev. 7. . 33 (p. 6 at-ta-a-ma plur. 117). lu-u-sa-it'r 97 (p. s. 7. 103)." at-tu-nu 86 (p. 68). 48). 8. 19 it-ti-ka 15 46 (p. it-ti-su-nu . 4. 157). 38). " troops" : i-ta-at 36 (p. istu. 160). 43 (p. 23 28 (p. 8 (p. 4. "wife": (p. 45). Obv. 28 (p. 4. " after" : is-lu 6 (p. 6. 4. 96). 10. Obv. 172). 21 (p. " goddess": is-la-ra-a-tim 34 Col. "concerning": as-sum 1 (p. 22 (p. 32. . 85 (p. 81). 96). 70). 105). g. 18). Obv. 9 (p. 87). "ye. 2 (p. (p. 7. 38 (p. 2. "with": 5. 28. I 30). 6. 48 (p. 8. 86 (p. 3. 3. 22 (p. 199). 3. wa-at-ra-am 1 (p. 12. 6. 92 (p.

: belu. be-li-im 94 (p. (fish) " : Pres. 30. s bel amati. 62). 10 . 7. 13. bakamu. 150). igz). 59 (p. "without. to rule " Pres. 6. Inf." a-na bu-ni 25 85 . bukru. ba-ni-ia 97 (p. 192). 32. 97 (p. 48 belu. 2. to beget. be-el 86 13.i-ia-ar-ru-[ntfn]. 26 (p. 121). 6. ib-ba-nu-u 36 (p. 19 (p. I "to make. II. 77). to bring to nought": Part. 8. 83 (p. ba-ni 57 (p. 186). : 80 babalu. 5. 22. bihru. " to bring" Perm. be-li-im 94 Obv. "to be built" : Pret. ana buni. 9. 89 . bear": . beliitu. 199). balu. : bu-kur 70 (p. 186). be-li 4 10. 199). 94 (p. buhadu. 6s). 15 ." be-el bi-ha-tim 86 be-lu-ut (p. 177). 3 ba'aru. (p. picked (of troops)" : 141). (p. s. " to possess. be-li-ia 1 (p. IS. 172). without the consent of": ba-lum 28 (p. " party to a suit. bel pihati." a-wa-ti-m 9 (p. i2i). 38). 168). ni-ib-bi-el 186). II 1. 75 (p. 44. regard": bu-ni-su-nu 97 (p. . 57 (p. 188). balat 59 (p. 94 57 (p. 37 Part.77). "to shear (sheep) " : Inf. (p. 153). 1 99). 23. 5. 10. 192). 15. 186). II. in respect of. 10. 21. "gate" : (p. am'el bab e\kalli'\ mu-uz-za-az babi 79 (p. Obv. 18. "form. 13. 95 (p. to take possession of. 254). 26. S. to create. 26. id. " life " I. 12 sa5 bab ekalli 17 (p. 67).270 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 6). 43. 18). " ruler of a district. Col. 93 (p. ba-bi-la-at 95 (p. "lord": (p. 188). 27. 177). 42). 24. build. : ba-la-tam 97 (p. 121). 1 99). 13^ . 8. 59 (p. 112). 186). 143). bi-ih-ra-am 34 (p. ig. 103). " for. to . "lordship": (p. 124). 14. (p. 98). (p. 33). "young (of flocks and herds)": buhais*' 82 4. 153). 'S- . 8. i6g). 2. bunu. 10. 8. appearance. IV 3. . 16. (p. 186). ba-ga-mi-im 25 (p. (p. " to hunt. 43 ib-ni-sum 94 (p. . 8 (p.. banH. be-el 5 . ia'i'ruii'^' 80 (p. 192). be-lu-ti bQ balatu. 49 ba-ni-ii-ia 97 (p. ba-ni-su 94 (p. IV I. 80 Part. "to destroy. 177). 21. " firstborn " [balu]. 199). be-li-lu 7. mu-bi-il-li 60 17. to Pret. 47 (p. babu. to catch (p. "chosen.

6. 5 . [3]k-^«-ot[«] 50 (p. 150). birtu. 23 (p. 119). " men of the citadel " sabt bi-ir-ti 56 (P. 119). 5. 20). 52). tb-ba-s{i~\ (p. 7. . 6s). 14. 12. 14. 10). 84 (p. 19. 49 (p. 164). birit uzni. sntumma. 49 (p. S- gabbaM. 75). sab bi-ir-Hm 88 (p. i-ba-as-s\f\ 13. 83 (p. 21 ib-ba-si-ma 11 (p. 53 (p. "wisdom": : birit uzni-ia blrtu. 157). barH. . 145). "to be made. official title: {''""'"'\ga-ab-ba-hu-u 83 (p. 6. : Pret. bitu. [_bu']-ku-mu 64 (p. 3. 42). 150). Obv. 67). 8. 7S). los). 150). 58). 5. 98). li-bi-ir-ru-u-ma 33)> 27 . 14. "^'" ga-ab-ba-hi-i %Z (p. 8. 81 (p.'S7)> 9i 21 basil. to take place": 8. 254). ii i-ha-as-su-u . 108). gabba'ti. 133). "^"' ga-ab-ba-u-u\in\ 89 (p. 11 Pret. 9. 166). 23. "house. II I. I I. . 45 (p. to examine. 8. 33. magician": mare''' ban 17 baruHf'h% (p. bitati*' ilani*' 39 (p. : Pres. II. 192). 11. 93). 12. 7 ib-ba-su-u 80). 44 (p. 7. -yba-si 74 (p. 52 fbaru]. IV buiii. 9. 11 (p. ib-su-u 28 (p. 39 (p. 15. 7. ba-ar-im (p. " to see. 77). " citadel " sab birti. Obv. 23. 40 (p. 150). [ . glance". 83 (p. 23. 6. 3). s see also akitn. official title: "^'" ga-ab-ba-u 89 (p. 20. 4. bit ''"Samas 39 (P. 33). 45). Rev. 7. 38 (p. 60). 16. Obv. 97 (p. 2/1 "sheep-shearing": (p. 133). 20. 5.75). 167). 6). "seer. Prec. 8. 14. 33). . li-bi-ir-ru-ma 18 (p. s. . 90 (p. 8 (p. 72 (p. 28. 26 (p. 162). 89 . . 22. 36 (p. (p. 165). 20. 13. 133). 130). " possession under the control of" busii 3 (p. 43 (p. 2. 119). 8. gadn. 49 (p. 117). loi). 6. 112). 17. "to be" 28 (p. (p. . 14. 21. 6. 199). 7. temple": bi-Hm 34 (p. bu-ku-m[^u'] S) 51 (p. Obv. 20). I. 39. 26.33)> '3- baru. bukumn. u-ba- (p. : Pres. 33). 20). 35 (p. "look. "to award ar-ru-ma 28 (P- to. 28 28 70 42 (P. s bu-ku-mu-um 25 (p. 25. 9 (p.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. . to give an award upon" z6). "together with": ga-du-um 33 (p. . (p. bit 59 (p. 32. to revise " : Perm. 139). 114).

gamaru. 12. 14). 172). Rev. 29. 11 da-num 67 (p. du-uh-lu-uh-tu 8 Obv. damkare"' p]a-nam-5 (p. lU. 20. 89 (p. : Imper. 49). 6. : li-id-lu-la 60 (p. 38). " to complete. 21 \li-ig-ga-d\m-r{a\ 92 (p. 2. . 188). 33 (p. 14 ga-am-ri-im 4 (p. 2. gamalu. 18. 45). Col. : di-nam 19 (p. II i. IV i. </<2OT^[(zr 21. da-annu-um 60 (p. 7. 130). Pres. 4. akle^' damkare*' 33 (p. 11. dalila.'5°). 130). 199). 84 (p. : I 2. . Obv. 172). 8. 18}. " strong. 3." II 1. u-\d'\a-ab-ha-ab (p. Rev. I i. 160). I diku. subraissiveness " Col. 13s). li-i\_g\ga-am-ra 9 (p. : . 4. : gasru. 153). "to strengthen" Pres. 18). Col. 3.272 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 52). dubbubtu. Col. 46. 188). 11. S> 22. 6 . 2. 4. 9. 5. "merchant": damharu 90 86 (p. 5. daiane*' 79 (p. " to speak " . {u\-da-an-na-nu 88 (p. IV 3. 177). " throne-bearer" guzalu 15 (p. 94 (p. 10. "obedience. 20. metal-worker" gurgurre*' 72 (p. 32. 137)." dinu. 2. dannu. 139). 31). 42). aUl damkari 16 (p. "strong": da-an-nam-ma 27 (p. Rev. " smith. 18. "to judge. "power": du-ni-su 60 (p. 124). : "to complete" I. summon " Col. 48). 145). 65). : . 5. " to be strong. 25: . (p. 13. 25. Obv. da-U-K-ka 60 (p. 17. II h. I. n dababn. danu. 24. 139). 121). II. 2. 97 (p. 9. i. 30. 13. 43. 186). (p. 3>93(p. "judge": daianu 83 14. 2. ta-ag-dam-ru 4 (p. li-ig-mi-lu 71 (p. Obv. official title. 3. 39 (p. : 68). 88 (p. 153). 21. 86 (p. I i. 45). to be concluded " Prec. " to be completed. 83). 12. damkaru. 96 (p. 143). "judgment" 6. 40 (p. (p. 14). 5. 133). "all " ga-am-ra-am 30 (p. gamru. 80 (p." gnzalu. 7 dan-nu 59 (p. di-ki-e-ma 71 (p. 172). 10. 55 aha damkare^' 30 (p. 2. 3. dtmnu. 135). 85 (p. IV Pres. " to complete" Prec. " to dalalu. 60). great" : ga-as-ra-tim 95 (p. 150). 83 (P. 194). 192). "to tender obedience to": Prec. 24 1. 22. 90 (p. s. 2dananu. 75). daianu. 172). 145). 92 (p. daiani 84 (p. 95 (p. 2. gTirgurm. 49). 26. 22 .

39 (p. da-ru-tim 95 (p. 4s). dub-bi-im 76 (p. du-ur-su-nu 43 (p. 28. 4. 8. 3+dilru. 48. 16). 20). 1 1. "to be proclaimed " Prec. . 55 (p. 84 (p. 8. 172). 5. "labourer": zabiluti^' 46 (p. 22. 13. 27 (p." : IV zikru. Rev. 8. "eternity": a-na da-ar21 daru. zakaru. . (p. zd'iru. 78 (p. 31 (p. "bribe. 58). . Imper. 139). ID. fortress" diir 88 (p.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 33 (p. continuous": durati. . 4. II. 4. [zaramu?]. 13 dup-pa-tim. "to up . set countenance". . 8. 85 (p. 167). 59. 23. T zabalu. bribery" (p. plur. 105). 147). 164). 4. 8z). 4. 4. 8. 92). 29 (p. 83). Col. Obv. zi-ir-mi-ma 48 (p. 19. darn. Obv. 18). 112). "wall. 12. "duration. 25 ta-a-tum 11 ta-a-tim 11 20). 9. \lb. " to hate " Part. 50 (p. 12. zabilu. "name": zi-kir^t (p. 18 . 94). 62). 119). : 49 (p. 103). zakapu. ia-a-ta-am 11 (p. 3. 87 (p. 130). 96. to I. 90). 23). ta-a-tu 11 (p. za-ka-bi-im a-na zi-mi. 28). f. s. zimu. 83). 90 (p. 20). 32 (p. 87). 93). 162). to proclaim. 75 (p. da'atn. of high rank: '"""^ durmah An-nu-ni-tum 5. Obv. 4. 7. 14s). 83). dup-pa-am 18 (p. 11. "to carry". iss). 8. 5. 19. VJb. 16. opponent " za-i-ri 60 (p. Inf. 42 (p 114). 12. 21 Rev. iz. 35 (p. 105). 48 (p. 6. 4. '' : 4 (p. "tablet": dub-hu-um 6 (p. 75). 7. J 69). 20. 89). "appearance. 92 (p. 137). dupsikku. 2 sab dupsikki-ka 27 (p. 11 (p. 199). 5. 54 (p. call. 169). Obv. a priestly (p. 44 (p. [zaru]. Obv.177). 52 (p.a. (p. dub-bi 5 (p. 9 . 172). "for": 8. dup-pa-su 24 (p. "eternal. 20). 3. 41 (p. 188). 177). SS. 43 11 duru. Obv. 26). 51 (p. " eternity " a-na daratimia-Hm) 57 : (P. 10. i6s). 199). 17. 4. 57. 160). 8. 27. 135). (p. Part. 20). 31). . : 18. continuance": du-ur-su 1 (p. li-iz-za-ki-ir 60 (p. 10 dura 95 darmab. I "to name. 6. 188). Col. 17 (p. 73 (p. "forced labour": sab dupsikki 27 (p. 70). 20. data. : 91 (p. 8. 4. i. durani 97 (p. " enemy. 273 duppu. 188). title duru 57 (p.

hamu. 11." (p. igg). Obv. it-te-ih-ri 5 (p. 14). 38). IV 3. 16). 60). "pledge. "to pledge. to cancel (a pledge) " Pret. a water-plant " to break (?) : ha-mi-sa 4 (p. 8 . Rev. to be clothed. particle of emphasis. 37. 3 hi-bi-il-ti-su-nu 18 (p. 26). Rev. 192). 199). 95 (p. IV 2.274 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY." I. n habalu. 6 . ri-a-am-ma 57 Imper. " break 100 (p." nahlaptu. Prec. "to plunder. 62. 16 . 26). " to be dug. hi-ri-a-at-ma 5 (p. 16). 19. ha-ah-la-an-ni-a-ti . mortgage": hi-hi-il-ta-su 6 (p. 19. i88).?)" : ha-ab-lum 18 oiF. Perm. 58). Obv. Inf hi-ri-e-im 4 (p. Rev. "joyfully": ha-di-is^1 (p. 14). to be cleared out " 1 : Pret. 8 . hadmu(?). I II i." hi-bi es-su hi-blj. 194). 18). 20. apparel" : "'^''" nahlapfa 44 (p. 207). employed as substantive. (p.^ hi-bu-u 96 haru. to clear out (a canal) " : Pret. huddu. 21. hegallu. . 16). 188). 18). to make glad " Inf. . lu ah-ri 95 (p. 6. 23). "to destroy": Part. Inf. 7. 7. lib-bi-su 59 : : . 26). (p. III. ih-bu-lu-M-nuii Perm. (p. virith i. 7. 83). hiru. 4. hablu. II "abundance" hegalli^ (p. 3. ih-p\u\-nim-ma 18 (p. to clear out (a canal)": Pret. 106 hu-ud. 5 (p. (p. : hamiu. ih-iu-u[l'\ 6 18 (p. habatu. "fifth": ha-alnil-sum 97 hipii. 6. " pledge (. 6). . " to dig. 26). 5 hi-bi-il-ta-su-nu 18 (p. "mantle. halapa. IS: hadu. lu-uk- I 2. I I. to carry I. 10. Obv. ie-ih-te-ru-u (p. hadianu. ha-di-a-nim 27 (p. Rev. Obv. 12. 92 hibiltu. ha-di-nim 40 (p. 71 (p. 4. 21 26). "to dig. Col. I (p. hi-bi-il-ti-su 19 (p. to receive a pledge from": Pret. 22 . igg). (in a text). 13s). 23. ih-hu-lu 6 (p. "joy " huud li-ib-bi-im 97 (p. 23). 177). 4. 22 . 5. 5. hi-rifi (p. "to rejoice. . 186). Col. 23). hadis. Rev. "to delight. " to cover oneself. li-ih-ru 71 (p. 17. mu-ha-abbi-it 60 (p. 172).

ta-at-ru-dam 43 105). "to despatch": at-tar-dam 1 (p. Pret. 8. ! ta-at- ru-da-as-su 1 (p. f«-«/-3?' (poss. 5 (p. " to be good. i. 82 (p. 17. "to sink. 6. Inf. "to overcome. to want. mu-ti-ib 95 (p. Perm. to be lacking": ih-ha-as-se-ih 56 Part. i2i). tu-ur-da-nim-ma 90 (p. tub: tub{ub) lib-bi-su 59 (p. 42 tu-ur-da-a-\_am. tubbu employed as submu-tib 59 (p. 1 1. "to despatch": \_ta]-tar-ra-da-as-su-nu-li 41 (p. 169). 103). 29). (p. 160). at-tar-da-ak-ku 46 (p. 2/5 " I. 143)." "to cause fr. "• : hatu. . 40). 42). ki. Rev. tibu) 4 : to sink": Imper. constr. . s. 4. 89 (p.T\ 84 (p. tu-ur-dam 2 (p. 13. . 18 (p. stantive. 18. 5. I. 81). 56. 150). 94). 4. 11. "clay" I ti-ti-im 60 (p. tu-ur-da-as-su-nutu-ur-da-as-su-nu-ti 41 (p. 32 (p. tabu. 40). 80 (p. loi). 141). . 12). 9. 13 ti-ma 23 (p. Obv. ii%). 13. 22 (p. 19 (p. 15. 18. 6). iLasahu. 14s). a\t-t^ar28. 6.-d\m. 172). 27 (p. 45). 15 (p. 93 (p. ki-i bb (p. . 9 (p. 34 (p. Mam. 139). 199). li-ti-bu-ma 48 (p. 'su-ul-bi. 70). "information. 177). is. Rev.157). at-ru-dam 89 at-ru-\d'\a-as-su 79 (p. I II I. 39 (p. news" taradu. 29. Rev. (p. 92). 19 Imper. 25. tibu. . 192). 31 (p. d\a. Ill t. 38). 40). I i. 87). tema. 18. ta-ra-di-im ta-ra-\di\-im-ma 33 33 (p. 13. 15. 192). "since": ki \^ (p. 18). (p. 91 (p. " to delight. 34. 45). 89). Col. 20. 9. ta-ba 57 (p. 8 2. 13. s (p. 27. 93). St." IV "to be wanting. . to be favourable": Prec. 13. "thus" : ki-a-am 3 6 (p. 168). 94). 20). : IV 3. 124). 93 (p. 133). 9. Rev. to overthrow" 13 97 (p. 15. 73 tu-ur-dam-ma 9 (p. II . 147). Rev. 35 (p. 143). 10. I I. '6. ha-fi (P. 18. 12. titu. 54). 4s). 19. 7. 7 (p. I "> 41 (P. to make glad " Part. s. to desire. 33 (p. 23). 87). 3).BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 6. 42). 11. (p. 83). 73 (p. Rev. 8. 9. s ta-ra-di-ka 41 (p. 17. 24. 103). 68). 10 8 : . 11 (p.87). 135). 12 (p. 8. 8. 16. 92 (p. 87). 2 (p. 7. 8. 47 (p. 2 (p. 133). 82). 29 (p. 10 . Inf. te-ma-am 83 Pres. (p. 75). 26).

143). corresponding to. 165). or official title (possibly geographical name) Free. 8. 89 (p. 20. 18. 75 Cp. 12. 61. as. . 7. 133). " forced labour" kizritu. 164). S. 7. 7. 9. 124). s. 9. 16. 87 (p. 97 (P. 56 (P. 16. 8.: 2/6 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 76 ki-ih-ra-fim 57 (p. 5. 19. 133). 25 (p. " on both sides " : ki-la-li-en . 12. 15. 55 (p. 6. 23. 28. Obv. 147). plur. 14. even as. 60). 28 (p. 65). 177). 75). 51 (p. 13. 22. 188). 45). to the effect that. 90 (p. 80). 5. followed by Inf. f- 94 (p. 89 (p. sword": kakka 60 kukka. 6. 19. 20). 34 (p. 6 {Jia'l-la-su-nu 39 (p. 12. 60). 9. 121). 97 (p. 81 (p. 5. " quarter of heaven. 24 26 (p. 3. 56). Rev. (p. 6. 16. 6 "when. 5." ki-ma 28 that. 70 (p. iss). in. 150). 12. 98). 188). "altogether. priestess": ^ ki-iz-ri-e-tim 34 (p. Rev. at all " ka-lis 78 95 (p." ki-ma 80 (p. kima. 51. . 160). 9. 70. 97 (p. no). 113.62). 167). 90 (p. 9. 5. "how. 55 (p. 199). 160). 7.. 8. (p. (p. 95 (p. 108). n. 29). 83 (p. 30 (p. (p. 6. 45). s. : ku-dur-ra-am 77 (p. "weapon. 16. 14. 6. according to": 8 (p.199). 12. 21 (P. 89. 141). "temple-woman. 92 (p. kilallen. 62). "like. mare*' ku-uk-ka-a 13 (p. 79 (p. 172). 17. 135). 6. 95 (p.33)1 50 (p. 12. 93 kudurrn. 33 (p. 137). 7. 254). 38 (p. 186). 85)." i. kakku. 19 (p. 139). "to hold": 85 Pres." ki-ma 40 (p. 18. 6." ki-ma 9 (p. "to shut " all. (p. li-ki-il-lu (p. quarter of the world " (p. 24. II. lb. " in accordance with. introduces indirect speech. 19. M-ma i-na-an-na 33 (p. kibratu. kizreti. ids). 4. 14. (p. 12. " in order " as. to restrain" : Part. 12 31). 52 (p. 8. 38 (p. 121). 162). 5. 43 (p. 8. : kalu. Obv. 16. 7. 188). kalii. name of [kalu]. u-ka-a-al 37 (p. 5. 199). 13. 84 (p. 108). 80 (p. 54 (p. 33). 60 Col. 8. 93 (p. 56).157)' 7> 12. everyone " ka-li-a 74 (p. 1. 17. 100. ka-l\u'\-ma 40 . : kalis. 77). : ki-ih-ra-at . 9. 35. 117). 43 (p. 172). 12. Obv. II. H. 145). 49). 33 (p. 8. II class. 82 (p. Obv. 14. 75 (p. 11 (p. los). IS. 91 (p. 8. 90). 38). 6. 17. 6).e. Col. 42). Obv. 37 (p. 6). 139). 96). 45).

ka-an-hu 26 (p. karu. 5 {u-ka-all-la-mltiysu-nu-ti 91 (p. 4. 124). . . weight": ka-ri-e as-na-an%h 188). u-ka-al-la-mu 84 (p. 6). lu ik-tum 97 (p. 199). i-na (p. to. 25. 10. 7 . 10. 98). 15 . "silver. 145). '3S)> ^3 Pret. 22. 18.. 20. 188). Part. to assign (p. 45 ). " to cover" Pret. 103). seal to " : 9. 6. 6. ka-ni-ka-a-at 50 (p. . 11 20). kaianu. 83. 13. secretary": ka-ni-ki-ia i-na (p. kistu. to establish" 199). 9. firm. 18 . 25. 165). 98). 164). haspa 11 (p. heap. 26 14. Obv. 2^^ "to point out to. ka-ni-ki-im 1 98). II i. 9. I i. 18. : Pret. kisra. 97 (p. kanku. 133). (p. to inform concerning": Pres. . u-ki in-nu-sum 59 97 (p. "enduring" : ka-ia-an-tim-ma 38 (p. " company. 30 (p. (p. 51 Perm. 49). 108). 18. 14. IV kanu. 21. 16. I I. "to attain reach. 20. notary. 103). 15 seal. ka-ni-ki-ia 26 (p. 89 (p. no). Inf. 52). kisadu. kauaku. karu. 199). to 6). ku-un-kam-ma 24. kaspi 30 (p. 26. z6). ": i-na : : ki-Sa-di-sa 95 (p. lOI. katamu. 188). "food" : kur/nah'&i{p. z8 . 20). kamasu. Obv. 4. : 86 (P- 153). 21. 48). Obv. iz. . 33 4.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. II ka-an-ku-nim 26 (p. Rev. 49). kurmatu. (p. 147). 77). kar 57 {j^. 98). "pile. "seal. hi-i 98). II "to to 28. u-ka-al-li-mu-ni-in-ni 18 (p. 8. to bring about": Part. 20. 23. "bank (of a river or canal)" kisad^ (p. 7. li-ih-ka-mi-is 25 (p. 130-). 4. 157). u-ka-al-la-mu-ku-n\u-V\i 92 (P- Rev. 9. i. 114). [kalamu]. place. 3). Obv. 12. 73 . (p. (p. 23 i-na hi-i ka-an-ki-'su 1 (p. money" (p. "wall": kari 88 (p. "to be I. 79 kaspim{im) 16 (p. 54 (p. battalion " : kisir sarri 23 (p. u-ki-in (p. "to bow down. kurmai 56 kasadu. 10. 177). 7' 231 26. 192). i-na ka-ni-ik he-li-ia 26 a-na bi-i ka-an-ki-im 1 (p. 162). ka-si-id 95 ka-m-dam 97' (p. 103). to stand fast. Rev. kaspu." set." I. (p. ka-sa-di-im 34 (p. " to under Imp. . "to be finished" : Prec. u-ka-alla-mu-ka 13 (p. 20 . kauiku. 199). "wood •'" kisti-'su 72 (p. 23. 12.

. (p. 169). (p. 82 (p. . 72 8. i ig). 23. 80 89 li'ii. loi). 17 (p. 16. 45 (p. (p. 21. . 86 90 (p. 18. labirutu. 42 (p. "brickwork" libitta-su-nu : 97 (p. 30. lamadu. 16).278 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 192). 16. 11. 153). "to be old. 106. Rev. 199). 83). 103). 3 Obv. 12. I i. 103). lii. (p. 6. 29). 139). S4> SS. to be ancient. 22. 27 lib. Fret. labauu. 5. Obv. 8. 99. ^a li-tim sa ga-ti-ka 23 (p. 254). 177). 91 (p. "to learn. 95 (p. Rev." li-ib 48 (p. . 21. 67. 17. ii. 16). 2 6(p. 15 14. 8. 6. 60). ina libbi. 8. 121). : Free. 12. 41 (p. labanu. 40 (p. h'-l^i-h'-ka'\ 60 3). 83. 19 (p. . of. 67). in li-ib-bu 97 (p. 11. 188).12(p." "to inform": (p. . (p. 114). 39 (p. libbu. 188). 42 57 5. la-bi-rum 76 : (p. s. Hb-bi-su 59 (p. 172)." Perm. 199). i-na li-ib-bi fi (p. 97 (p. 10 li-ib-bi-ia . Col. 28. (p. 172). 60). 46. 42 lii. 12. 8 . 15 libbi 17 (p. 5. "strength. 92). 77 85). 10). (p.9. 8. 36 (p. ID. labirinu. 160). 11. 4. 109. 75). ina Itbbu. 17. 6. 9.4. 22. 16. 199). 6 24. Rev. 162). 32 (p. 28). 6. 87). 20. 34 (p. :4. "not": 103). libbi. power.II 17. 6. 105). n . 36> 38. 164) 177). 61 (p. Rev. 52). 4o). 199). 5. . Obv. la 1 (p. 21. li-ib-bu 10 (p. 97 (p. 14. 26. 10. 112). 26. 7. "within. 14. "heart": b% (p. (p. 113. 23). 13. 112). li-il-bi-na-ku 60 (p. li-ib-bi-su 95 (p. li-ib-bi 5 (p. al-bi-in : 97 (p. i-na li-bi-m-nu 1 (p. 19. u-lam-mi-da-an-ni 1 (p. 4. 165). 40 (p. 9. 25. 66. li-ib-bi-im^l {^. mighty. " old lalu. "to build" libittu. : (p. Col. 87. 17. s. i-na li-ib-bu 39 (p. 114). II I. 1 27 (p. ". 4. 6. 10. i5. 147). libbn. 67. 27 (p. 3. 199). 192). 14). 199). 18. Obv. 68). 93 (p. 6 sa li-ti-ka 15 (p. age" \_la-bi'\-ru-ti-su-nu 97 "abundance": la-li-su 97 (p. emphasis: lib-bi (p. 44 (p. "original. 6). " strong. 27. 58). Pret. control": (p. precative particle particle of : lu-u lu 49 57 (p. 25. 133). labaru. 199). (p. 63. 18). (p. 50 55 25. 28. 19. 141). 14. (p. 83). force. might. 143). 8. in. 16. " to bow down : (the countenance) 3. (p. (p. 71 (p. 4 (p. (p. negative." litu. (p. IS. 75). 38). 199). 23 10. 17. 3). 14). 43 54 43. 8. 96). prototype" la-bi-ri-nu 70 (p. 74 80). 7. from among. h la.

u-la-ap-pa-tu 23 (p. 3"). 26. 18). u-la-ap-pa-tu-nim 27 (p. (p. nie. 8 (p. 4. BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 162). 153). 6 . 27. Rev. 27 (p. 5. 14. "to take. 12 124). 169). loi). attached to a word umma. 25.. "and. 160). tu-la-ap-pa-tu 50 (p. 5. 85). 108). 'S- migru.m. mi-e 4 Pret. 10. 94 mi-gir%b (p. Rev. 10. 164). 5. I 96). li-ki-a153). 9 gives indefiniteness to a word: sa-ni-a-am-ma 1 (p. 13. . . Obv. 29. 13. i6 . Inf. 9. \il-kY-a. 44. 29). 61 (p. introducing a quotation. 16. Rev. tu-laap-pa-ta-nim 54 (p. 14. li- ki-e-im-ma 90 (p. il-ki-ni-ti l^{^. 22 sa-nu-tim-ma 43 (p. 3. li-il-ki-a-am-ma 27 . (p. Rev. 83). Obv. 165). 20). (p. for . 19. 139). Obv. 37. 30 6. li-il-ku-ni-ik-ku-nu-si-im 86 (p. 16. 105). 86 . 9 li-il-ki-a-as-su-nu-ti-ma . S. 32 (p. me-girbQ (p. 51 (p. 65). 49). 162). 11. magaru. 9. 55 (p. ma. (p. likii. 92).-o. 186). to be pleasing to " : im-gur 28 (p. 83). 24 79 3"). 22. 16 Imper. 6. 90 (p. 10. 18). lu-pu-ut-ma 45 (p. il-ku-u 3 (p. 95 (p. enclitic particle. 98).'\-a-am (p. to destroy": Imper. 52). 8. " to find favour. 188). 10. 8 Prec. (p. Rev. 10. 16. 139). 13. 12. 83). 103). to ma. (p. 147). 72 (p. 22. 15 . 14 (p. plur. (p. 12 (p. 6). 103). 40 (p. S. 7. 10). 77 (p. am-ma 50 (p. . Rev. 13 li-il-ku-nim. 165). 27 164). after (2) attached to personal umma emphasis: 1 (p. 90). 279 (p." attached to verbs. li-il-ku-u 28 (p. formula attached to employed before direct speech. u-lam-mi-du-ni-in-ni 92 (p. 16. 5 (p. 12). 188). 14. to receive": Pret. mH. (p. \liyki-a-nim-ma 54 78 (p. 13s). "to delay. 21 . 16). ma 16 (p. u-la-ap-pa-ta-nim 34 (p. 38 (p. 19 te-el-ku-u 26 (p. 16. 192). "to overthrow. "darling": mi-gi-ir 57 (p. 177). 17. "water": mu-u 4 7. (p. or substantive. 137). II . to tarry": Pres. u-lam- mi-du-ni 10 lapattt. 48). 1. 6. 16. Obv. copula. 11 (p. 21. II I. 33). 76 (p^ 28). .-ma l\i-i\l-k\J. 60). li-ki-a-ma 85 (p. 91 9.33). (i) in letterkibi and to the proper name after pronoun.

33). 29 (p. 112). 10. 7. 22. 20). unto " i-na mu-uh-hi-ka 75 (p. "to take": 22. Rev. u-ma-al-lu-u 3 (p. 33). 43 (p. u-ma-al-lu-u 95 (p. 22. i6). ina muhhi. 89). 16. to be full. 17 (p. 10. 86 (p. 29. " upon. mahri. 18. 23 . ana kali: Pres. 8. li-im-hu-ru-ma 37 Inf. malahu. 105). (p. 16. 8. (p. "captain. 14. 7. 28. 98). 9. great " ma-du 5 (p. 21. 3. ma-ha-ri-im 33 (p. li-ma-ad-di-du-ma 40 (p." 87 u- . no). mitharis. 153). in the presence of" : ma-ha-ar 28 i ." with (p. su-um-hi-ra-\am-ma\ 56 157). 11 (p. 11. 92 (p. 26). ma-a}i-ri-\_ku-nu\ 56 '^'^'^ presence of": 24. 10. 56). II 2. n. . I I. 10. I. . 45). "together": mlj-iy-ha-ri-is il (p. " before. ma-ah-ri-ia 1 (p. 130). 9. " to fill. est. mahar. ma-la 28 (p. 42. 103). i. 103). mahrn. 10. tu-ma-al-li 26 (p. 2 (p. ma-ah-ri-ka 5 (p. 16 . 9. loi). 186). a-na 7. 13 . Imper. 20. 157). to entrust to. 105). 192). into the a-na ma-har 1 (p. madu. III (p.157)1 23 I 27 (p. : 16). 5. 19 u-ma-al-li-u 94 (p. 67). 135). " flood " mi-lum 88 (p. Rev. loi). 70). Pret. um-ta-al-lu-u 3 2Q (p. as many as " : 75 (p. 87). ma-ag-ga-ri 72 (p. milu. 40). 188). mahar. "before. 52). mahar. 98). 105). miksu. 62). 14. I. 65). " to measure. akil malahi. 9. 7. 30 . "to hand over as to. 25. 20. : maMra. maggaru. 20. madadu. (p. 35 (p. Rev.28o BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 155). 4. 43 (p. II "to hand 43 (p. iSi >8. 13. 28. tu-ma-al-la 11 . Imper." : II I. 73 (p. 9. 13. 93). 13. 13 (p. u-ma-al-li 59 (p. "sailor" : """'"mala he f' 8 (p." with ana. mndadu. \m'\a-ah-ri-i\^a\ (P. 94). "rent" : mi-ki-is 28 (p. 60). I i. malu. um-ta-al-li-su-nu-ti ana: Pret. " front " ni\_a-ir\ar . 15 . 18 (p. " much. " to measure " Prec. *' much : as. I "to receive": Prec. 30. 62)." over. mu-da-di 36 (p. ana mahri. a-na ma-aJiri-ku-nu 56 (p. mu-ul-Li 1 (p. 22. 83). 33). muhhu. mala. Obv. 103). 31 (p. 33). in the sight of. ig 105). mi-ik-sa-am 28 (p. 43 (p. 5.

6. 24. 8.-') : miktu. io8). "guarding. 162).?": 17. 38 (p. 105).1 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 93 (p. 3. maru. 13. indefinite pronoun. nazazu). "tablet" : musare^e) 59 (p. pronoun. 114). interrogative pronoun. los). 18). mi-is-sa 25 massam. 8 . . 26 (p. ma-sa-m 89 to be : (p. 9. I i. 75). i6g). 13. 20. 4. 29 (p. 18. 27. a water-plant mi-ik-ii-sa 4 (p. it2). 10. 15 (p. 18 6. "processional boat(?)": OTa/(2//r 34 (p. to order": Pret. "anything": mi-im-ma 11 (p. 114). "to be " : Perm. 9. 13. 192). 77). " (p. 22 . 141). 2. 6). "guard" massarltu. mimma. musarii. (p. . 8. 42 (p. 92 (p. (. 150). 13. "why. " anyone " : [ma]-am-ma-an 20 indefinite pronoun. 98). 31. Col. 4. ma-as-sa-ri 13 (p. 18. masu. who ? whom ? " : ma-an-nam 60 172). mannn. a-na mi-nim. yg. 42). 108). to commission. war 9 IS. 94). g. 9. 27. 68). 96). 1 6s). or mazzastu (fr. 20. 112). 16. 8. 23. . 10 17. safe custody": Rev. mare^'-su 43 (p. OTa-n-J«48(p. 135). Obv. indefinite (p. 7. malallu. 21 mari 97 (p. 6. "post" 17 (p. 84 (p. rt. 42 51 12. " whosoever '' : ma-an sa 79 (p. 14. 22. (p. i6. " to send. (p. mdre^'\Z{^. 70). 14. : ma-as-sa-ri-Hlvi] 79 massastu. est. 23). 20. 17 (p. Rev. 10. 14s). 83 (p. 86). melam. 2. 87). 14. mare^'-\_ 87 ] 53 (p. 160). (p. (p. 14. Rev. few" : Perm. 16. 39 (p. im-ku-tu-ma 38 10. 108). 82 (p. 124). ig. 42). u-ma-e-ra- am-ma 9 97 (p. 8. 30 (p. 199). (p. 22. 7. majesty" melam 97 (p. Obv. 55 (p. 2. 7> 41 IS. 2g f .'". "to find misu. 6. 79 (p. 20). ig. 6 (p. 4. 36. little. 114). Obv. 43 (p. interrogative pronoun. 2g. 10. lu-u-ma-e-ra-an-ni igg). 54 (p. 10. 14. 8. " son": ma-ru 48 (p. 7. 17 (p. ma-as-sa-as-ti-su-nu makatu. followed by negative. 133). (p. 4. (p. 2. rriannu sa. no). (p. 124). 124). 112). " splendour. 77 minii. 85). ijo). 8. 73 (p. . im-ku-tu 38 7. 42 (p. 7. . 9. Pret. I. 164). (p. : 28 igg). i6g). "what. 166). 49)." II "to send. melamniu. 143). maru. mamman. (p. 50 (p.

Col. Rev. (p. 94).137). . 75). IV 3. 199). I "to 67). naggaru. " : " 75 (p. 105). 21. . 5 . 4 . 25 [matu]. iiz). . " messengers. 74 8. "to die" : Perm." 2. ta-na-ad-\di-in\ 62). . 26. 52). 172). 43 (p. 7 . 177) 6. 62). "us" : ni-a-ti%Z (p. ni. 73 (p. "land" ma-tim 8 (p. nabiu. uiati. "minister": 94 (p. lib. : mu-si2. 192). nadu. Obv. nadanu. 72. : Pres. mi-tu 72 (p. to be high. 18. (p. 26. (p. Col. personal pronoun. musu. } i-ta-ad-di-\_ . 52). 26). 20. 83). "to cast. to. Col. 27 Obv. 110). 13. to celebrate": (p. 172). 113. 172). II. Obv. . 31 mat-su 97 (p. 13. 14. attached to verbs in the 3rd pers. (P- '5S)> "member" (p. 12. 6- marasu. . mat 60 (p. 14. 186). I 2. 8. 15. "to name": Pret. 65). 6. li-is-ta-ni-da 60 tanattu. " to be sick " [ . 19 mata 94 (p. " when ? matu. 58).282 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 78 (p. 1 1. " debtors (?)." 85 '\-ma-ra-as (P.?) " "^'" naggare*' 8 naggare*' 8 (p. ta-na-ad-di-nu 75 ] (jJ. i-na-ad-di-nam (p. (p. . 15 ma-ta-tim 97 (p. I I. or guild: mar 9 mare^' 13 (p. 28. Prec. 95 (p. 188). 8. to lend. " workman. ] 72 (p. 199). 14. ma-ta-titri) 97 (p. 25. 8. 150). "glory": ta-na-da-ii-ka 60 (p. give. smith (. 80). yra-as 74 (p. to give (p. nabu. 91 (p. I I. 199). 13. 13 t-na-ad-di-nu 85 . enclitic particle. 11. igg). 11 . Obv. .% (p. mare*' ha-ai-lum. 58. 4. Obv. (p. 20. 80). 10. 94 (p. 57 (p. . 18. . mare*' si-ip-ri. 9 of a class. 199). plur. i-hi-u-su 97 (p. 147). 7. 114). 10. 31). 36 II . db-bi 95 (p. 22 matati {yax. 90). . 24 ma-ii-su 97 (p. 188)." 18 Obv. \t'\a-na- ad-d[i- . Ill "to raise. mati. 65). 42 (p. 24 . plur. 12. 186). : [ . 42). to pay" 24. 65). 20." "to cast": i. Rev. "to praise. 18 mati-su 59 (p. 186). nadu. ma-as-H-a-am 44 : when } " t'-na ma-ti-ma. 17 . 12. tanadatu. 16. "night" maslii. : (p.

Pres. Obv. Pret. . 119). 119). 43 (p. . 188). 105). 1 14). to hand over": Pres. 49 (p. fern. iz-za-SjT^z 88 (p. Perm. S4). 68). 18. "baker": (p. 177). su-zi-iz 60 (p. 49). 31). 93 (p. (p. akil MU-^' 1 . u-sa-ad-di-in 30 (p. 8. nihtu. 21 di-nu-'su-nu-si-im 37 (p. 12 i-di-in-ma 38 (p. Obv. . . na-ad-nu-nim 79 (p. to procure. 9. Ill I. . 124). 47 17 . 10. id-di-na 59 (p. 6. 2. 6.'iL . Pret. id-di-nam. ni-iz-zi-iz iz-za-az-zu 35 (p. 8. nuhatimmu. "to stand": . I : muzzazu. los). 23. employed as (p. Rev. 6. 5. 6. Rev. 39. 62). 54). 124). 130). It. IS li-id-di-nu-ma 22 (p. . 141). 93). . 6 mu-'sa-ad-di-in 82 (p. 172). .BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 95 (p. su-ud-du-nim 22 79 (p. 95 (p. 2. 77). 36 (p. " peaceful. Obv. Imper. li-id-di-in id-di-na-an-ni-a-si-im 25 (p. 124). 9. 9. {=nuhatimmu) s. . : nazazn. 283 i-na-adi-na-ad-di-nu-sum 28 (p. 8. 76 (p. g Pret. 9 . 22 (p. . Col. 56). I i. id-di-nu-nim. na-di-in 94 (p. 42 (p. to give. 4. to pay" : Pret. restful" ne-ih-tim 57 (p. 108). ta-at-ta-ad-na 49 . " assessor" "^'" mu-sa-ad-di-in 55 (p. bdbi. 9 Part. : 79 (p. 43 (p. Rev. 119). 28). to render. 9 Part. 31). abundance" : nu-uh-sim 95 (p. S4). 143). 93). 33). 199). li-sa-ad-di-na-ma 24 (p. 1 1 18 38 (p. Prec. 8. 13. zif-«a. 42). Free. nihu. "to cause . MU^' 1 (p. 6. Obv. igg). "plenty. 3. 130). m-zi-iz 60 (p. 23. Ill I. n- mu 1 (p. 4. 188). 160). "to give. 16. IV i. id-di-ik-ku 60 (p. Col. 31). 4. 172). na-da-nim 28 (p. 54). Imper. su-ud-du-nu-ma 22 (p. Col. 15 id-na-a-ma 79 (p. 23. 103). 13. li-iz-zi-zu 15 (p. 186). 103). 9. s. Prec. 95 nuhsu. Obv. IS li-sa-ad-di-nu (p. 10. \\b. 27 (p. 26 . substantive. mu-uz-za-az (p" 188). an official title. 186)." an official title. i-din-nan 97 (p. i-di-in . Inf. 108). 13 83 (p. at-ta-di-in 8. 35 21 . ta-ad-di-nu 75 (p. Inf. 8. id-di-nu-nim-ma 75 i-ii-nu-sum 97 (p. 67). 23. 124). I 24 (p. Perm. 33. lu-u ta-at-ta-ad-na 49 (p. 37. 188). Rev. 103). 1 08). id-di-nu-sum 94 (p. "to establish": Pret. 10. 119). 4. . Obv. 9 (p. 62). 137). 8. (p. Rev. "place. "those who stand in the presence. 172). 33). 13. 192). li-id-di-nu-ni-in-ni 38 (p. . 4. manzazu. 49 (p. position" mare^' manzaz pdni. 27 Prec. ad-di-im-ma^'iA (p.

12. "store. we " : ni-nu 88 (p. 80). "to raise. 11 u-su-uh 4 (p. nara 5 (p. nismatu. 199). 26. Obv. 52). i-na-az-za-ah 4 . 75). 8s). na-ak-ru 48 (p. 43 . u-su-uh-su-nu-ti 77 Prec. na-ti-a-at 5 (p. ig. : natu. na-ta-a-at 43 (p. to cut 21 . Rev. down": Pres. nisu. 14. li-ik-ki-su-ni-ik-ku(p. 85 f. : (p. 130). 3. 186). to be valid" " nakamtu. 52). 6. niau. 20. nakaru. na-me-ru-tim 97 8. 24. ni-ik-ku-ur i'& (p. 5. storehouse": na-kam-ium 49 (p. 105). 103). "to be possible. "to be removed": 36 (p. to annul" : Pret. (p. 13. 15. 98 f. 10. " offering " nike 9 (p. canal": ndr 5 (p. 10. 12. 16). na-si-a-ku-ma 24(p. 22. 18). 119). 18). 42). nawu. used as adj. 16). ma 72 nikasu. (p. na-wee-su 30 (p. " ninu. 10. 6. 97 (p. 13. "when": ni-nu (perhaps read t-nu) 59 (p. .284 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 192). "people. 119). " to be different. 15. nasaru. nasahu.). n na-we-su 84 (p. "to take away. 24. : (p. Perm. IV I. to be strange. namaru. 10. desire": ni-is-ma-at li-ih-hi-ia 97 napistu. Rev. i-na-ah-ki su 72 (p. ni-'sim 94 (p. 15. 95 (p. 17. Obv. nakaru. ndrii (p. 12. 25 ni-si-su-nu 95 (p. to bear": na-su-u 1 9. ni-'siim 97 (p. 192). 172). 4g). Obv.. i88). su-nu 29 70). 7. 3. 169). to be hostile " : Perm. to protect" : Prec. g . 18). personal pronoun. " life " napsali^'-su 59 (p. I i. mankind": . nakasu. 27. nikas'e^'-su-nu 39 (p. 12. namu. 21. 8. Prec. i-na-az-za-hu 4 (p. nikasi-su-nu 39 (p. Col. "to be bright": (p. igg). 199). " to guard. i6g). Obv. 18). Ini'ptx. 90). "to render an account": nikasa(p. na-tu-u-ma 4 (p. . 16). li-in-na-[f\i-ih (p. " to destroy. 145). igz). li-iz-zu-ru 74 nikii. 199). "fish": ««»«-^'80(p. lib. nasH. 52). "to cut. ni-Hu 60 (p. (p. . "neighbourhood": na-we-e-im 78 (p. li-ik-ki-su 72 (p. i86). 10. 18). 121). "river. na-kam-tim 49 (p. 188). " property" nikasa epesu.. 75). 7. 33 nisi^'bQ (p. i. 5. 67). 15. "will. Part. Obv. . 14. Rev. to remove": Pres. 94 nunn. naru. 6.

10. "mouth": bi-i 1 (p. I Pres. . 10. zi-in-ga-am 50 (p. 12). 157). za-na- "to cause to reach. i-si- h\u[sahu]. "to refuse" . i-sa-an-ni-ku-ni-ik-ku 15 68). to surround. 23. 13. suluppu. 19. paharu. 8. . Pres. 103). 2. IV sapauu. 27. 13 34 (p. he-el hi-ha-tim 86 li-ha-tum 75 (p. 23. Prec. 10. (p. (p. napharu. II. is. 9. Imper. 87 (p. Part. 199). with particle of emphasis. 22. 177). 20. 105). 6. Col. Pret. 94). is-hu-m-ik-ku 11 (p. : . saphu. 68). 51 . za-ah-ma-sa-tim 60 IV i. pii. "to reach. salatu. 12. " date " suluppa 22 (p. I t-sa-an-ni-ku-ni-ik-ku-nu-si-tm 85 (p. 92). Obv. 72. "insurrection": 14. 6). lu-us-ta-a^-hi-ir-su (var. 40 (p. to arrive": Prec. : : 6. 68). 43 (p. li-'se-is-ni-ga-am 73 (p. lu-u- "to turn. supu. 188). (p.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 192). 172).. 162). iz-za-an-ku-ni-ik-ku (poss. 9 \zi-in-ga\-nim 54 (p. 172)' Col. D [sahu]. . 130). to surround with": Pret. 14. Pret. 19 .) 15 (p. 34. 2. " to cast down" : : b. ig. 16. II 1. za-bi-in 60 (p. 137). 12. iz-za-an-ga-alk-ku] (poss. 9. I i. li-is-ni-ga-am 32 (p. 8. 12). 1 6. 26 (p." "to cause us-ta-as-hi-ir-su) 57 (p. . " scattered " sa-ap-ha-tim 95 (p. 18). 7s). 15. 10). 3. 5. 85). 121). 6. 7. 87 (p. li-is-ni-ku-nim 39 li-is-ni-ga-nim (p. 44 (p. Obv. " district " (p. 60). 19 za-na-ki-im 40 (p. I i. 19. Ill 2. 165). saMru. ku 14 Ill I. si). to reach. plur. 188). "to collect" (transitive): 88 (p. lu-u-pa-ah-hi-ir 25 (p. sanaku. (p. 27. sahmasatu. 62). 6. 58).) 80 (p. Obv. 54). 153). . 20 pihatu. with particle of emphasis./2 4(p. 24. to arrive": Pres. Rev. amele*' su-ut bi-ha-a-tim 56 (p. 285 "to desire (?)": . " household " za-la-tim 15 (p. 62). I 75 (p. 133). "to collect" (intransitive). 14 (p. ii. "prayer": su-pi-e-su 59 (p. zz-za-a«-^a-raz-[z']^-[^]«-««-jz' (poss. "the whole. I 2. 33. all": napharWt (p. ] i-si-ha-am. Pres) 89 (p. 164). 98). 155). 60). Pret. 20. 5. Inf. sahmastu. 45 (p. I i.

81. 80). 9. Perm. g ." with double ace. I "to destroy. parasu. I. 108). Obv. /« ip-pa-al-su-nim 97 87 f. see also manzazu. countenance. naplusu. and itti : Pret. palahu. l\i'\-ip-ru-s\u-md\ 56 (p." with prep. I 3. 43 pu-hi-su 1 (p. Obv. ana : Pret. I I i. Inf. 133). 49). in place of": pu-uh 38 (p. 13. palhu. pakadu. 16. 157).. 105). ru-ni-H ^i (p. 89 (p. ana : Pret. . and ana)" Prec. Prec. I i. pakaru. 3).. 186). 169). employed as prep. 49). 18. f. front " (p. panu. to depart from to loose. " face. ta-ap-la-ah 55 (p. 6 (p. 79.286 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 124). 103). 105). 199). 8. : pa-ni 27 (p. to lay claim to. li-ip-tuip-iu-r\u]-n\tm-m\a 23 (p. 12. IV I. "to fear": Pret. I i. lap-la-h. and with ace. 160). "boundary. to decide". Rev. 199). 27. to behold" : Pret.. I i. 13. 141). " head-band" '"''''" : parsiga 44 (p. : 2. 9. parsigu. 19 hi-ki-id-ma 74 (p. 82 (p. puh. "to look upon. 60). "instead of. 36. 199). : pu-luh-tiWl (p. 14. to claim from. . 58). "to be destroyed. warkarta parasu. to set free" . a-na pa-ni-su 40 43 14. 169). 199). . puluhtu. and by ace. ip-ta-na-ar-ri-kam-ma 30 (p. "to lay hands upon. to fall into ruin" pasasu. 199). 23). parakku. ip-pa-al-su-sum 97 (p. bi-ki-id 15 (p. 81). : parahka-su 94 (p. 6 (p. : . 18. "to bring a suit for recovery. "to disband. "to investigate. up-ta-az- ei-zu-ma 97 (p. 65. patu. 192). ip-ku-ur% (p. 6i-ti-ku-ru-n[ifn] 9 [paraku]. 12. ip-ri-kam-ma 30 (p. 22 . pa-ni-ki 'iA (p. . "fear" [palasu]. 5. 12 ." II 2. puhhn. Pret. " to inspect to deliver to (with double ace. 8. (p. 83). temple " parasu. 68). 24. 8 li-ip-tu-ra-ni-ti ^S (p. . pataru. 15 hi-M-is-su-um-ma 7 (p. [li-i']p-ki-du 79 (p. 9. 3 Imper. to divine" Prec. 169). do. followed by ace. with prep. do. 143). : Pret. id. (p. est. ip-la-ak-r^jz-arn] (p. 19. 23). 42). 16. realm" : pa-at^l (p.a-\nim\%Z i^. "to . to seize. : Fret. Rev. " shrine. : "to decide. "reverent" : pal-hu 59 (p.

(p. 19. pa-ni . "difficulty. Col. . 17. to seize. Ohv. 26. I 1. 3). IV I. "to . 23). 5. 18. 7. troops" lo). Prec. used Rev. jateOT 42 (p. I i. pu-ru-us-ma 6 (p. property" sibtu. 14. 150). i8). h'-is-ba-/u 27 S3). 60). 11 Imper. (p. 18. . 22. " to be opened " ib-bi-it-tu-u 83 (p. 130). ' Obv. 75 (p. pu-ru-us 19 (p. 139). {p. . 10). 25. 150). 4. 77). pani sabatu. 3). 4 (bis). ap-ru-u[^s'\ 43 (p. "men. 172). II sa-\_a]b-\_t'\u 51 [ja-a]3- /a-[«z?w] 52 (p. to break through" QQ (p. Obv. 2. Rev. warrior". II mu-bi-if-ii "to make a way through. 10. 10). ^^ sabu. 165). : : Part. Rev. 67). 14. IV I. %^ (jp. 3. 11. sabi 23 (p. 11 : . 36 (p. 6 I 2. . " possession. 7. Rev. Obv. 10. examine 287 into a matter. pusku. li-ip-pa-ri-i\)'\ 91 (p. Col. is-sa-ab-tu 4 (p. pa-m (p. 7. Perm.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 3 . subatu. 130). 10. [sa]-ab-tu 50 164). 9. 12 . 1 12). ip-tu-u-ma 83 (p. (p. "to be investigated": Rev. s. . 88 (p. (p. (p. 162). fa3KOT(aOT) 23 (p. "possession. to hold. 8. 45 9. to undertake. 147). 12. 20. to investigate a cause of dispute" Pret. 114). (p. 23). 38). 23 (p. 14). 34 (p. 150). 167). 8 sa-ab-tu 71 (p. barrier": pu-us-ki %Q pitu. 17 (p. 83). 9. 16). Obv. 6. "garment": suba/e^' 90 . 11 . 172). sabatn. [s^a-ab-ta-nim 54 (p. collectively. s8). 44 (p. "to sa-ab-ta-\ku\ 6 (p. 8. 14. . : sabu 36 3). 75 (p. 77). Obv. g. 45 (p. 88 (p. 10. Rev. IV (p. 31). 6). 18. 20. "man. 45 . . 27 (p. 4. 40 . (p. 29. 5 (bis). "to open. 15 (bis). 17. 157). " to take command {Tp. 24. 62). 20). 22 sab 4 (p. 10. I. to break into" : ip-t[_e'\-e-ma 12 29). IV 3. sa-ab-ta-ti 4 (p. 12. 21 sabim{im) 5 (p. 67). 18). 6 . 12. of " : Prec. take. 16. : sibuttu. 62). 25 56 (p. take . Imper. li-is-ba-tu-nim (p. 8. "interest": sibta-su si'-bu-ui 83 (p. 105). s. 2. 7 (p. sibittu. 18). 21. 81). title to possession " : si-bi-is-su 76 28). (p. " : Pret. sa-bi-it . to possess " . 9. 6. sabam{am) 25 (p.

Obv. . 7. 80). 45). 25 (p. 40). ana^ "to. ikbu-ku 38 (p. with prep. 172). 21 12. . 153). 12. 172). "to be high. 51 164). Obv. (p. 12 (p. 12. 7. i86). 26 si-im-dam-ma 44 Imper. 75. : 17. 7. "high. to count upon. 97 (p. tu-ga-a 60 (p. 5. i-ga-ab-bu-ku 2 (p. 16. 5. exalted. 82 (p. 9. (p. : lu-u-si-ir siru. "to wait for. (p. 95 (p. 47 (p. 20). IV 3. Pret. i-ga- Obv. IQ9). 108). 11 (p. 48. "yoke": di-nam ki-ma (p. "to be small. 3. 10. Rev. 5. speak. . [a-na si^ri-ia 11 (p. 18 ik-bu-nim 79 (p.288 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 10 (p. command Pres. S4)> [senu]. 52 (p. 20). 50 i6z). " sheep " 12. ki-bi-ma. 29). 10 i-ga-ab-bu-ulm] 8 (p. noble'': si-ra-am 60 . 188). 79). 17. 95 (p. 7. 8. lb. II I. sirritu. 167). no). 82 (p. ik-bi-a-am 3 (p. 65). to ab-bi 8 (p. : sene*' 15 (p. II. 141). 19 (p. 98). 12. I II Imper. 28 (P. to . 8. simdati. Obv. 54 (p.33). Obv. 17. : kibu. Col. 20. 15. siru. 75 (p. 168). (for transport) " Prec. plur. • . 58). 16s). to . 9 ik-bi-ma 28 (p. in the formula at the beginning of each letter. . 13 (p. 40). Col. 199). 12. " yoke to pack . li-si-nu-nim-ma 22 (p. 8. 96). 56). "to I. 14s). 14. lo. 38). 17. . with particle of emphasis. 12. 143). 80 (p. 30 . si-nam-ma 37 I. 17 Imper. 26 (p. 5. 86 (p. 13. pack": Prec. 11 (p. lofty. si-ru-tim zi-na "sceptre": 94 (p. (p. 4. 21. 14. 7 . 33). 6 [seru]. 93 (p. 10. 172). Sirratu. salmu. 5. be diminished": Pres. 18. 62).. 20). li-is-mi-du-ma (p.~\ 84(p. to sihlru. 77). 121). 97 (p. i-si-ih-hi-ra 74 (p. . 13. lb. si-im-da-tim 19 senu. 15. 5. sir-ri-is-sa 59 (p. unto" a-na si-ri-ka 2 (p. 9. 9. "image" to : sa-lam 60 (p. 124). 83). 12 60 (p. \\h. 10. 80). 192). a-na si-ri-ki ^i (p. ik-buku-ma 33 (p. 141). to have need of" " : Pres. Id). 172). si-ir-ra- 28. " to to say. 13. 24. 14. 74 (p. tell. 169). s. II. Col. 16 si-im-\_ . 188). 68). Col. si-im-dam 27 (p. 38). samada." "to exalt": Pret. 14. II. P [ka'u]. simittu. fill up. 11. 14. (p. 65).

"prince" rabianu. elder": r(2-3«-[«] 92 (p. +. ra-bu-tim 84 "majestically": 29. I. 7. official : ru-bu-u 59 (p. 3). 12. II b. 6. 7. Col. sa ga-ti-ia 26 (p. rabuti 95 (p. (p. 15. . title. " battle. 8 94 (p. 2. 38 (p. hero": kar-ra-du-um 60 katu. rte*'^\ (p. 119). . 188). . e-ri-si-na-ii95 (p. 192). 79). 192). IV 3. ribatu. 29 (p. to shepherd" Inf. " to be great. 39 (p. 5. 49 ra-bi-is 57 (p. . 7. 98). sa g\_a-ti-su-iw~\ 157). ri-ia-im re'ti. 68. rtu 29 (p. 199). 13. (p. 108). 177). 8. food": mi-ri-tu2b {. 17. 172). rabl{i) 59 (p. IV 16. ri-'-u 7. 188). Obv. i-na ga-ti-ku-nu (P. : kablu. 6 . 8. 199). 177). 35. [kabalu]. 97 (p. 186). : Pret. 83 (p. 75J. S. 6. a-na ga-ti ^Z (p. 199)." 1. Ill "to make great" (p. b. Col. 38 . mu-sar-hi {yax. 19 . (p. 97 (p. 192). 5 ri-ib-ba-ti-su-nu 79 (p. a-na ga-li-su 94 (p. 5. 137). 40. "sa ga-ti-ka 23 (p. muktablu. loi). 289 I 2. 41. 188). rubu. 57. IV 3. ri'utu. miritu. 56). 59 (p. 44. 195). 19 sa ga-ti-niZ (p. 95 (p. "to pasture. . 10). 94 (p. 70). 172). 45. 79). re'u. 70). fem. : narbu. 97 95 rabis. 47 "president of a court": ra-bi-a-an 19 (p. 52. 16. 135). . 172). 16 sa ga-ti-su 37 (p. "warrior. 124). "great. Rev. Col. I I. ra-bi-imhl (p. 19. . 62). . igg). 75 (p. 2. 6. contest" kalla 60 (p. (p. 7. "hand": a-na ga-aHZ . 188). ra-bi-a-tim 60 (p. 186). \b. . 9 (p. : Part. Col. 188). 66 (p. 4. rabu. 5 25. IS i-na ga-ti %b (p. 186). Part. a-na ga-ti-i-a 95 a-na kati-ia 59 (p. 172). Obv. 29. 199). i8 i-na ga-at 28 (p. 172). plur. 188).33). Col. ri'u. 105).p. 11 60. (p. " fourth part " . ri-ib-ba-a-tim 21 (p. 22. (p. 97 (p. 52). 12. 150). (p. musar-hi-u) 97 ra-bi-umWt rabu. (p. 10 . rule" : ri-ia-ut 97 (p. "greatness": naar-bi&i ribu. 3. " fourth " . 15. " warrior": mu-uk-tab-li 60 (p. 168). : " shepherd" 6.192). 38). 93.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 199). " shepherding. "pasturage. 30. . karradu. 49 45 56 (p. 199).

36 (p. (p. 18. "head. ri-h'-in) (var. 80). 7. empty" ri-ki-im 37 (p. 192). ragarni. 52. scattered": Col." "to cause to dwell. 38. 18. 5.. ri-di-e-im 34 (p. ra-si-su-nu (var. "to drive. 67). 6). 172). 199). IS- [radu]. " watchman. 22. 23). 16 na-ram 59 (p. 16. 34 su-ur-ki-ba-am-ma ramu. 6. 192). rigimtu. 90)." . rapsu. 10. 13. 27. riku. riku. I'-na bi-i ra-ma-n\J-su\. 46. : Inf. ride. 177). 29." "to cause to go": us-ta-ar-dluyu 4 (p. 3 (p.290 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 69 ri-si-in 95 (p. 188). " to love. . I. "to cause to su-ur-ki-ha-am 34 (p. 97 (p. 6). rabasu. deficiency" : ri-ga-am 14 (p. 43 (p. ramann. loi). sa ra-ma-ni-su 21 a-na ra-ma-ni-su. employed as subs. 6). "self": 41 (p. na-ar-me-su 59 (p. naramu. 97 (p. rakabu. ri-si-su 57 (p. 177). 23. 83). own "of 172). 7. 186). 74 (p." 186). Ill "to ride. own 3. 105). 27 (p. 10. "by his testimony. 60 (p. 199). to (p. 199). in ra-ma-ni-su-nu. 4. 21. to . "helper" : ri-si-ia . ra-ap-sa-tum ra-ap-sa-tim 97 (p. 50. . 14. name I I. I i. 105). II. 22. 8. I i. 19. accord. cause to 19 : embark": Imper. 94 (p. Obv. 15. 199). Ill "to lie down. li-ir-di-a-as-su-nu-ti 78 (p. ri-si-su-nu) 97 . 12). 199). guardian " ra-li-zu-ha 60 (p. conduct": Prec. 36 (p. "to be empty" Inf. to settle": 97 (p. II 13 . 21 li-ir-du-\nim\ 86 (p. 6 ra-ma-ni-ia 97 (p. "to go. Part." ridi (uku-us) 1 (p. Rev. " resu. or official title: ra-ga-a-nu-um 6 (p. 25. rldu (ideogram uku-us). 18). r\J'\-sa-'iu- nu 95 (p. Col. 34. 19. 153). summit": ri-sa-am 85 : 11. 103). Ill ridu. 30. separately. 103 m (p. 28 na-ra-mi-su 94 (p. 199). 7. " slave-driver (?). ri-gi-im-tu. "wide-spreading. "beloved": na-ra-am 57 (p. . risu. Inf." 97 (p. 14. su-ur-bu-sa-am rabisu. 79). li-ir-di-a-am-via 89 (p. (p. 103)." 43 their (p. . of class. 4. 26. riduti*^ (uKU-us^O 1 (p. 56). 98). 87). " gap. 64. I h. " by himself." I. 16. 199). 188). 38. 2. 10. 137). 133).

20. plur. 10. 4. 33). g. 6. Rev. 2g su-nu-ti-ma 78 (p. fem. 62). [s'ju-ud-m-am-ma 75 (p. "to satisfy. 6. 91 (p. 14. 95 (p. 172). 87 (p. 147). 26. 6. " to be satisfied to be completed (. plur. 92 (P. 2g. 20). 8 (p. 153). s. li-is-bu 23 (p. "to Part. I II I. 4. 20. 103). Rev. 90 (p. 77). 62). su-nu-ti 1 (p. fern. 7. 97 (p. 33). 172). 101).13s)) '9. 137). 28 (p. h'-i " that " 75 (p. 20. 33). 70. 14. 49 iig). 56 Obv. : iebu. II. 89 (p. relative pronoun. command" : : Imper. 8. 108). W«60 : sadadu. : Col. go). i3g). '""""n-z-52'2 (p. to conciliate" Part. si-lu 11 (p. "mountain": (p. pronoun. II. 7 hi-u-ma 24 fp. sadii. 28 (p. 74 sibu. "joy" ri-sa-a-tim 97 (p. . 5. 157). 3 s. 92 (p. igg). mu-'se-tb-bi &i (p. Obv. 23). 52). 7. g. si-M 11 (p. 17. . 26. g8). II. 20. Col. g. 103). 20). (p. sa. su-nu-ma 10 (p. "corn. (p. 6. 188). 6 (p. Rev. 4. 23. (p. 17 (p. h. 37 (p. 124). grain": 28. Obv. 97 (p. "su-ma (p. " well-grown " n-hu-tim 72 . sinati. 49 (p. 13. s.?) " Free. Obv. Sli. 10. 25. (p. 79 (p. lYb. "se-am 6 (p. Obv. 28 (p. 18. 25. 33). 26 sii. to drag" sadaru. masc. rittu. su-nu 79 (p. igg). 72 (p. sa-dt-id Si (p. 3. s. 75 (p. 42 (p. 160). Rev. 83 (p. (p. 7. seu. "to draw. "who. ig. 12 24 (p. 27. . 11. igg). 112). 56 (p. 79 (p. 3). 79 (p. IV 3. 20. 8. 20. 3). genitive "se-um particle. 10. 86 (p. zg). 80). 62). 12 (p. (p. iig). 124). 12. 56). : "witness" I. (p. 135). 25 (p. 31). personal (p. 4g). 133). 56 (p. 7. 11 . 150). 16. 79 (p. 10. 8. "they": 6. s. 65). g6). 20). 18. 2g). igg). sihu. 11 (p. 23). 8. Obv. 18. restii. 27. 23 (p. 124). ri-ii-iim-ma 8 (p. 124). 30 (p. 31). first-born" : : ri-es-ti-im 97 (p. 6. 84 14s). ig. sa-tu-im 57 (p. 157). 105. siinu. 155). "se-im 28 (p. ig. "he". : su-u 1 . 8. risatu. 84 14s). 10. 10. 114). 40). 58. sunilti. 6).38 (p. sunu. 14. which". 157). 4. n-na-tiW (p. 177). 29 "pre-eminent. 13. 51. 85 (p. 5. 124). 20).1 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 55 (p. 52).

to inscribe. same{e) 59 (p. to for " with itti. "to write. 105). 135). "to I. 177).292 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 28). 81 . to assign 192). 76 sa-at-ru-su 1 (p. su-ku-utirma 22 (p. 42 (p. I i. . " to be finished. . 7. 7 Prec. Rev. 53 to be appointed. 8. as-hu-un-si-na-si-im 95 188). 7. sikir: h'-h'-i'r 72 to (p. Pret. 2. is-tur-ma 59 (p. 12. . no). 22. "to . 15. 37 (p. 52). 19. 13 (p. 26. appoint. 6. 7 . sa-ie-ir-sum. 103). be prosperous. (p. 164). 77). salamu. to" : Pret. 1." II "to convey . i-sa-ak-ka-nu-ma 88 (p. 4. 54). is-'sa-ak-ka-an (p. 31. is-sa-te-ir 103). sa-ak-nu 22 \f\a-ak-na-an-ni-a-si-i\m\ 25 (p. su-uknam-ma 13 (p. 27. 28 105). 65). Bulmu. st. to be completed " : Pret.i^{'^. 112). ni-is-ta-na-ak-ka-an-\m'\a 92 (p. to place an order with " : Pres. I 3. salmu. sam'e 97 (p. . to procure " to enjoin. [ Inf. (p. 56). li-sa-al-li- mu-nim 34 II 2. Obv. constr. "to assign to " 1 6. 30. 27. Perm. . Obv. su-uk-na-as-su-nu-si-im-ma 17 (p. to. 42). "same) 97 (p. 7. 15. ta-as-tu-ru sataiu. 25 (p. prosperity. Obv. 43 (p. "to be complete. safely to": Pres. to place. 20. (p. (p. m-ta-al- li-mu 9 (p. 77).. . u-ia-as-ti-ra-an-ni 1 (p. 130). I. sa-ka-nim 8 (p. plur. 15. 157). 70 (p. III I. 7. 3. 76 (p. 15. as-ku-un 95 (p. 6). 97 (p. 14. Bamii. "governor": sikru. 25. "heaven": sa-me-e (var. "peace. 114). . Imper. Perm. 62). 103). lucky": sa-al-ma-a-t\iin\ 56 (p. 54). 7. 21. Obv. sakanu. 10). (p. 199). set. 6). 4 . be . to register. I i. 36. I I. u-sa-al-la-ma-ak-ku . \J'\i-is-sa-ie-ir 14 (p. 31). 5 s\a-ak-nu-m\ji\ 8 (p. i66). 65). 88 (p. IV " to be registered. 199). 167). 45 (p. ig. 95. li-'sa-al-li-mu 45 (p. 14. Pret. 199). to take place": Pres. assigned to " : Pret. IV "to be placed. as-lu-ur-su-nu-ii 43 20 . 130). 254). safety": m-ul-mi-im 58 23. (p. 'sa-H-ir-ma . same. 188).. 43 (p. ig Prec. Obv. 52 165). 'sakkanakki'i. to (p. to establish. 10). 162). 12). 15 . 50 (p. 192). sakkanakku. 34 (p. 54 51 (p. 24. "favourable. ta-as-iu-7~u-su (p. file a petition": Pret. 6. g : 105).

26. 12. 105). 7 ra-hu 5 (p. 97 (p. semi 59 (p. semu. ihpii-ru-nim 35 7. 17. "name": su-ma-am sum-su 97 Col. 11 . 97 (p. 172). 8. 83). II . ^42). sa-nu-tim-ma 43 sangii. "oil": samna 44 (p. (p^. 88 (p. . ds-pu-ra-ak-ku 33 (p. 1 (p. "another": sa-nu-um 8 (p. I i. 43 . 6. 11 (p. 293 Ill "to hear " Inf. 12. 18). 4. ta-a's-pur-am 4 (p. summa. 7. 8 . 12. 54)) Obv. . 130). 58. . a's-pu-ra-am 9 (p. 10. 4. semii. 9 f.. 199). ta-^a-ap-pa-ra-'su-nu-'s\i-i~\m 157). 4. 14. 188). 8 (p." 78 (p. Obv. ta-aS-pu-ra-am 33 (p. 27. 20). 188). 86 (p. s. 1 a's-pu81 (p. ta-as-pu-ra-nim 85 (p. (p. 18. 45). 188). . to send a letter. 38 23. 96). is-pu-ra-\_am^ 89 (p. to store" Pret. su-mi-im 95 (p. 9. 56 (p.33). 147). ak-ku-ma 33 8 (p. 103). 137). "obedient": (p. sasu. 65). 29. ta-'sa-ap-pa-ru 8 (p. \se\-mu 94 sumu. 6. Rev. (p.. (p. 65). 9. 133). H-is pur-am 4 (p. 77). sa-ni-a-am-ma 1 (p. 83 (p. 115. . a's-pu-uk-ma 13 (p. . 28 sum-ma " whether or : . : samasianuuu. 105). (p. 6. a's-pur-ak-ku-ma 1 (p. 15. 137). 192). 192). 19. Rev. (P- (p. 34.^hl)^ 3. I I. Rev. "to heap up. 7. 65). 12. 45). : Obv. . 3. b5). . sanu. 139). 157). : (p. 6 . se-mu-u 59 (p. Obv. sum-ma 90 (p. 'sum-ma 6 (p. Pret. 5. 18). Rev. 6. 4') a's-pur-ak-ku 27 (p. 90 (p. . to tell " Pret. 7. Obv.. 8) i-sa-ap-pa-ru-ni-ik-ku- nu-si-im 85 (p. " to heap up.BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. 60). 117). 7 Perm. 5. 9. 150). : Pres. 139). 28. 22 . 6. saparu. 17. "to bring into subjection": Part. 12. 75 . 90). 150). 21. is-pu-ra-an-ni-ti <L% 56 (p. 10. 18). sapaku. 6. 29). 2. "to send. . . 105). 186). 16). Prec. sum-ka 60 (p. : sangii 91 (p. to write. (P. 199). 8 (p. " to speak. Pret. . Rev. 45). sanrnu. 45). to rule" . 43 (p. Obv. 18. 33). 10. 103). "if" 21. 86 \ni\is-pu-ur'6. is-su-ni-a-t\j'\ 83 : (p. 6. 14. 65). 14. 21 . 12 is-pu-ra-am-\rna'\ 10 (p. 58). 23). a's-tap-pa-ak 95 I 2. 'sum-ma . (P. 18. 169). Rev. 26. 199). 103). 153). mu-us-te-es-mi 95 : (p. sa-bi-ik 38 (p.. as-pur-am 4 (p. to garner " . " sesame-seed " samassammu 33 samassamma 22 (p. 24. to garner. as-pu-ra(p. " priest" I i.

an official title : sa-bi-ir ma-iim 8(p. lYb. 2. saraku. 192). 8 (p. IV ^. 114).294 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. (p. 97 (p. 6. U-is-pu-ra-am-ma 48 su-pu-ur 12 (p. 83). 28. 43. sipru. 177)) 3. Part. II. "to present. 34." 85 (p. 97 (p. 28. 12. 14. Imper. 18. 199). 4. 2'> 33- . 172). 6. 42 (p. 6. 4. 24. 130). 186). 160). 254). Obv. 65). 77 oV-^z-zV 4 (p. work": si-ip-ra-am 5 (p. 160). sarriZZ (p. Obv. 19 su-pu-ur-ma (p. 177)' 2. "gift" : le-ri-ik-tim sarru. 23. 177). maskitu. 199). . sent. Col. 188). 108. 94 (p. as-ta-na-ap-pa-ar-ma 55 (p. 94 (p. 4. 8. 78 (p. 25. "message. 5. 150). 5." (p. " flesh. 192). 65). 137). 90). i6g). iipatu. 3). sakii. . sa-ki-is 60 (p. lo. 6. n-ip-ri-im 4 (p. mare*' si-ip-ri. II. 4. to bestow upon": Pret.) is-ta-ap-ra-ak-ku-ma 28 (P. 7i 27' 42. 2. 8s). 60). 112). "to weigh. 32. 27 (p. heart " : st-ir 57 (p. Obv. 17. 2. : Pret. 3. 18). Rev. 18. 199). 194). 29. Prec. 13. "to write": Pret.49). 109. Obv. Obv. I 3. 14. " shekel" : h'klu : 84 (p. (. ']. sarru 57 59 (p. "wool": Sipdti{}) 55 (p. s su-up-ra 56 (p. s Rev. 2. is-ru-ku-nim 97 97 (p. 177). 13 40 (p. "to write" z. Rev. lu-pur 17 (p. it-ta-as-pa-\ru-nim\ 56 (p. 34. [li-Wyta-as-pa-ar %% (p. 13. . 2. 22. 38). 95 (p. 96 (p. 199). 199).sipata{?) 55 (p. 13. sapirn. 18. 186).?) [ . matter. Col. 59 (p. "king": mr-ru-um 60 (P- 172). (p. us-ia-ai-kt-la-a[^n-n]i 30 (p. (3 sing. 57 (p. I i. . 59 (p. "messengers. Siriktu. 29). 18). 95 (p. 10. Inf. IS- siklu. 16). (p. (p. 4. Col. 157). 145). 42. 160). hr 57 (p." 2. 8. "drink": ma-as-ki-iu 95 sakalu. ]-ra-a»i 97 (p. 188). 19. "to drink. 35. " ruler " . 1S7)> '7 su-up-ra-nim 83 (p. "sapir mail.33). to pay. I 2. to be written " : Pret. 16. 21. . . 7. IV " to be (p. "to destroy" siru. 192). 4. sakasu. 188). 13. \f\t-ta-as-pa-ar 86 153). 70 (p. II. Ill "to cause to pay": Pret.

. companionship. 4. 29). 4. 13s). 55. "sixty": 5 su-'siH (p. 130). (p. . suatu. 8. li. 20). li-te-ir lu-u-te-ir change 95 188). 7. 24. . Obv. (p. 130). 2z. 48). 38). 28). 172). "si-ta-at 7. (p. 188). 17. to Pret. su-si 85 (p. 29 ia-ak-lu-iim 22 (p. [sittu]. ID. Obv. IVi5. Obv. su-ium-me 59 (p. su-si-um 72 (p. 157). " opposition. 15. 8. help " 65). 9. 8. Obv. "companion": tab-bt-'sul {p. to make good. 2. "granary": sattu. 157). 130).BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY. s j«-Jz46 (p. sasu. 5 (p. 95 (p. 169). 97 (p. "to . 67). 56 (p. 12. 52). takalu. tap-pu-ul ma-[ni-um] 8 tapputu. 8. 28). " to trust in. 61/ sutummu. 15 . " to turn " to . 16 (p. 92 (p. 172). 6. 10. battle " tu-ku-ma-tim 60 ma-tim 60 (p. 21. 13. " him" 11. '' : to restore. (. 90). j "year": \_i]a-ai-ium 14 (p. to entrust to": 10. 40). genitive particle: su-ut 56 (p. 13. 84. 17. 29S "kingdom": 2 sar-ru-ti-ia 97 (p. n tahaza. 24: 12 29). Col. emphasis. 88 (p. 31). III li-[_ i. 3 tap-pu-ut akle*'' ma-ni-um 40 (p. tappu. hi-a-ti 2 (p.?)Imper. taru. Rev. 172). Mt. 9. 15 takilu. 12 : . 6. " to repeat. 12 36 76 (p. 4: saUu 70 (p." ta-akta-ki-il-ka 78 (p. 9:i). Col. li-te-ir-ru . taklu. 16). 3 susu. 254). (p. 80 (p. 135). 6 su-Si iQ !p. suasu. . igg). do again": Pres. i2i). 27 43 (p. tu-uktukumtu. 10. I I. II 1. 76 (p. 192). 21. 25. with particle of Free. 82). iatu. followed by ma and another 43 verb. 80. (p. 19 (p. : . to (p. 60). "that" : sa-tu 48 (p. 12. 18. 92 (p. personal pronoun. offer. 7. sarrutu. sattisam. : a-na su-a-si-im. tukumati. [talamu]. 16. 103). 54). 26. ids). 83). 137). plur. 10. 52. "battle" : tahaza 60 (p. su-ut- ] 1 (p. IV 5. 11 (p. 199). "to bring back. demonstrative pronoun. 45). tukmatu. "yearly": sa-at-ti-sa-am 88 (p. 12). . Col. 13. "trustworthy" lum 33 (p. 20. 10. Obv. (p. 6. ta-ta-ar-ma 105). Rev. 82). 23 ja/'/i24(p. 7. (p.

4. 13. 114). 19. omen" : ""' ie-ri-e-iim (p. te-ir-su-nu-si-im 18 (p. " to bring" : Pret. 15. s\um\ 6 (p. 75). loi). Imper. "to bring": II. 105). 26). 98). 19. tarii. Perm. I 2. ta-ar-zu-ma 43 56 (p. . 39 (p. tarasu. li-it-ru-ni-ik-lu 12 (p. 16. 96). 23). 20. 42 (p. 17 (p. I i. 38). Pret. 96). te-ir-sum 26 22 te-e-ir- 17 . 11 li-it-ru-ni-ik-ku-ma 78 (p. Rev. 157). 30.?)" tertu. . " to be available (. it-ta-ru-\nim\ : 10 (p. 112). it-ru-\ni-in-ni'\ 10 (p. 90).296 BABYLONIAN VOCABULARY 3 (p. 29). " oracle. (p. Free. It-it-ru-ni-ik-ku-ma 19 (p. 7. . 25.

{e-bi-sa-am) 99 (p. 24. Rev. IV. 184). 8. Col. 199). Col. Col. ag-ne 61 62 99 (p. 38. s. 70 (p. "ocean": 101 Col. name AG-. Col. 4. ig. 212). 9. AD-DA. "heaven AR.. Rev. a wood: '"'ab-ba-^' 72 (p. "who. A." Ill. la. 23. 9. AB-AB-UL. 212). 199). 13. 17. AGr. . 40. V. I. 199). "guardian Col. A-AB-A. 14. 8. do": ag-da 184). A. II. Ill. 33. "majestically" 99 (p. Col. V. 16. III. 18. by. "to build. Col. to (p. "crown" : 101 (p. Col. 25. : 172). 62 (p. 199). official title 34 (p. 254). AN.? whom. (p. "power. J AG 67 (p. 4. figures in heavy t3'pe refer to the numbers of the texts in Vols. ALAM. 21 . 63. II —The . colossus": 66 9. hu-mu-da-an-ag {lu-u-ma-e-ra-an-ni) A-GA. z8. 65). ALAD. to make. 212). : 23. . : 184). 199). for. Col.] A. (p. 180). 10. 180). 212). IV. 172). II. 32. 172). or official title : ad-kal^' 8 ^p. .II.'": 60 4. AGA. 7. 172). A-BA-A. 101 (p. IS. AD-EAL. order " 99 (p. . 197). " to. 17. 52). 212). 6. IV a. Col. 2. AB-BA. A-A. NE-IN-AG-A 61 (p. 60 (p. Col. 199). interrogative pronoun. 2. 19. Col. (p. (p. 199). image. 14. 212). "father": 99 (p. Col. 198). "water": 101 (p. A-KAL. 6). 93 25 [ . 25 102 (p. 3. 11. Col. 212). Col. 62 (p. : A-GAL. of class. 29. 102 (p. 10. [N. IV. Col. 82. 99 (p. 195). strength. 101 102 (p. 10. 41. "future": 60 (p. 17. 4. 180). might": 99 (p. 6. II. (p. 4. postposition. 43. I. IV a. I and the pages within parentheses refer to the transliterations in Vol.. 7. 13. " glory" : " : 61 (p. 4. II. 3. 7. title of Hammurabi 68 (p. SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. " to commaild. 212). 18. "image": 60 (p.B. I.

41 . 101 (p. copula. postposition. 207). f. " to attain to'' : (p. I. II. (p. copula. Col. BI. IV. A-SI-GAB. Obv. I. sing. 61 37. di-di-da {ka-la-dam) 99 (p. BA. 38. Obv. MU-BA-AL 101 (p. to seize": in-dib-ba 101 DI-DI. 177). 255). (p. 13. 43. 212). Ill. pron. and plur. 209). 1 7. 46. 7 f- DIB. "to bestow" in-na-an-ba-a 69 58 4. 12. 16. 39. wide-spreading": 60 (p. 4. " and. 49> SOnegative. 6. 25. 199). '""«"' : a-si-gab^' 77 (p. 35. 100 (p. 95. BARA. "to dig": hu-mu-ba-al (lu-uh-ri-a-am-ma) 58 (p. 97. BI. m. suffix of 3rd pers. 62 12. pron. 35. 3. 17 (bis). 18. Col. 85). II." BI.. (p. 36. 15. Col. 10.298 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. B. 27. I. "joy": 99 (p. fortress": (p. " mother" 99 (p. 177). " that. 13. 13. "judge": 69 . (p. 184). 1 to. Col. 46. 99 Col. 212). 34. 21. (p. DA. 8 62 80). Col. 101 (p. 36." BI-DA. 20. 21. "broad. 39. i8. 172). "to take. (p. Rev. : BA.. and plur. Col. 35. 207). 212). 207). MU-UN-BA-AL 101 (p. 27. 199). V. II. 184). 30. 6. NE-iN-BUR-RU-DA-A 100 D. (p. demonstrative pronoun. 209). II. 212). 29. 45. 12. "obedient (p. servant of(?)": 61 (p. 16. 199). 180). "wall. " watchman" 199). . 6r. 4. copula. 199). II.212). "and. II. 6. Col. s. 17. Col. 38. 212). Col. "shrine": Col. i8. and f. 44. 17. suffix of 3rd pers. Col. ASILAL. DA-GA-MU. DI-KUD. " and. (p. 22. Col. I. II." BI-DA-GE. II. 9. 21. 6. BAD. sing. 45. 10." : DAGAL. II. 37. 102 (p. BA-RA. " not " : 58 (p. Rev. 99 107 (p. DAGAL. 212). " in." BUR-ETJ-DA.. da-ga-m[u] 100 DA-GA(-NI). 102 (p. 177). those. Col. BAL. II. 40. 29. 26.

143). (p. II. 209). 4. 92..SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 13. 2 2). 212). Col. 25 I 212). " to build": mi-ni-du {al-bi-iri) 99 DUG. DUE. (p. "to make. . 254). n. 10. (p. " to possess. 26 . [ (p. 40. "to tend DU-GAB. Col. 70. 5. DU-URU. 20. 195). 8. 199). 254). DiM-ME. E. 24. IV. 78 (p. 212). 183). 99 (p. 17. (p. mu-un-na-dim-ma 101 (p. " to make great" he-ne-diri {lu-u-sa-lir[_-su]) 99 79 NI-DIRI-GA 70 (p. 3. 38. 207). (p. 62 99 (p. Rev. 69 Obv. 16. : 61 12. 212). I. 184). 7. . DIM-DIM (la-ni) 58 (p. 177). IV. 8. 199). 3. "to cover": he-en-dul la 61 . 3°. (/« ik-tum) 26). 15. he-im-mi-dur {lu-u-ie-n-ib) J-NE-NI-DUR-RU 100 . (p. "to be good". 101 (p. s. 6. 1 43 . 180). mu-un-dim-ma 101 MU-NA-DIM-MA 101 (p. 50. 9. 199). 117). 198). 83. 100 (p. DIRI. 33. (p. 87). 69 (p. 101 (p. Rev. 209). 99 199). 90). 18. 183). 38. to bear. ba-dug-ga {ia-ba) 68 (p. 209). 20). DUL. 4'. lo. DINGIE. 3'. 62 (p. 19. 177). to build. 81 (p. 18 (p. 209). title: 11 (p. 32. 199). 27. to create. "son": 66 99 (p. . 177). (p. DIM. in-na-an-dug-ga-ni 69 (p. S. 124). dug-ga-ni. "temple": 61 (p. 13. s. 8. to beget": var. (p. " : . 95. 4. Col. 22. 3. to delight" 61 (p. DIM. I. 180). 180). 184). 4. DUG. 34 79 (p. (p. 34. 63 22. s. C61. (p. Col. 177). . DU. 2z baRA-AN-DIM-MA {la ib-ni-u) 58 (p. 212). official carefully": 66 (p. DU. 89 (p. '184). 31. 133). 7. 199). IV. " sceptre" " eternity" : 61 : (p. 16. Col. 6). bul- (p. Col. Ill. io. 31. 5. IN-DIM-ENNA-uS (ba-ni-ti-ia) 99 (p. 58 (P. J2. . 102 . (p. 8. 184). "god" 70 (p. 93 (p. 39. 7. E. 38. Col. 26. " to please. 68 (p. 19. dug. 3. " to dwell to cause to dwell 58 (p. .'99). Obv. dug69 184). 6. Col. (p. 11. 28. 41 (p. 32. Col. 17 : 177). 3. 199). : 102 (p. 12. DUR-KA. Obv. 9. II. 85. I. 195). DUG-GA. to be (p. 299 endowed with (?) " : an-dim-dim-me-a 99 dim. 4. 45 ba-dim 63 (p. 62 I. 44. 207). 212). 23.

"enemy. Col. 199). 38 (p. 180). 8. (p. E-GAL. GIM. n." GIN. 8s. : : gar-ra-a 60 199). 16. II. Obv. 2. ES-A. 18. 7. E-KI-im. " granary " : 12 (p. EX. 184). 172). suffix of genitive. GA. 254). pron. (p. 98. Col. 69 (p. V. Col. : ES-BAR. mi-NI-gi-EN {u-ki-in) 99 (p. 101 (p. 28 (p. 5. attached to verbs. . 172). GAL-BI. 6. ERIM. GA-GA. 14 f. GAB-BI. 13E-GI-A. "hollow. I. II. 60 (p. IV. 4. 2. 199). I. 20. " bride " : 212). Rev. . 209). 212). Col. 7. S. GAL. to walk " : gin-gin-da {a-la-al-lu-kam) 99 to (p. "decision" 102 (p. sing. "suluku) n[e-gin- . gulf" : E-GAL. 99 (p. 195). 180). suffix of 3rd pars. 177). 4. I. 16. : GIN-GIN. "gloriously": 58 (p. 21. 29). HA-RA-AB-GA-GA 100 (p. 33). mu-na-an-giNl-ES-A (u-h'-m-nu-sum) 99 (p. 15. 69 (p. 145). "to restore": 70 (p. Col. 207). GI. 207). Col. E-NI-UM. 8. GI. II. GAR. 19. GE. (p. "cedar": 101 : 60 IV. 169). "to establish": mu-un-na-gi 70 (p. make " (i. 20. 101 (p. pron. Col. Col. 102 212). Col. 2. GiN]66(p. 27. 7. IV. 99 (p. official title (. 177). 22.300 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 195). 108). " to go. 86). "like. 199). 84(p. 14s). Ill. "to place. II. 66 (p. 14. 199). 38. 21. 6. 59. establish " GAR. 199). 6. 9. postposition. IV. : GAB-A. "brickwork" 99 (p.. 84 (p. E-KIT-SA-AW. "majestically": 99 (p. Col. ziz). (p. Col. 19. "governor": 48 (p. II. 8. " to cause to become. 71. 212). "lord": 62 (p. 101 (p. E-HE. E.?) 20 (p. suffix of plural. 199). G. g. 61 25. "palace": 101 (p. 28. 212). GAL. 2. suffix of ist pers. (p. 61. sing. Col. (p. 7. Rev. 2. official title.e. "great": 58 (p. 11. 40. 75. 32. 209). Col. IV. Col. 62 41. 12. 17. 254). 70. Col. 7. 172). foe" 'ERIN.

ii. Ill. 172). II. (P. Col. 172). Ill. GIS-GIS-LAL. 12. " opposition. Col. 212). GIS-HIE. 7. 172). Col. g. 172). 3OI "to wait for": [gir-ne]-gub-bi-en {tu-ga-a) 60 (p. 212). I. Col. 101 (p. GIEI. 19Q). 180). " 60 (p. Col. 3S. see sig-ga. 6. 212). IV. Col. : 75. "insurrection" : 60 (p. 172). "gold": GTJ-XIR-A. 199). Col. IV. 172). IV a. 76(p. Col. "that": 99 H- . 8. 19. 39. la. GUB-NE-IB {su-zi-iz) 60 (p. la. (p. 3. GIT-SIL. -gulJ-gul-a (p. 8. 35. submissiveness " to supplicate " gu-ha-ra-ab-sag-sag-gi-ne {li-tsGU-SAG-S AG. 1 12. I. Col. + GTJ)-(GU + GTJ). 212). 54. 36. : te-mi-ga-ku) 60 (p. opponent" 60 IV a. 10. : (wza-^a-a^-iz-zV) 172). Col. 14 f. Col. 62 : (p. sword": 60 (p. GUL. Col. . s. 199). 8. "to destroy": ba-gul-la 101 (p. Col. II. 37. mu-sar-bi-u) 99 (p. II. 8. IV a. ba-gul 101 (p. "to destroy": [ 60 (p. 172). 13. "obedience. I. s. 102 (p. 212). GU-DE-A. 13. 16. to establish": ne-in-gub (us-zi-iz) 60 (p. 21. GIS-HAS-AG-AG. 5. II. 20. Col. 9. Col. battle": 60 (p. 20. 172). I. 42. Col. 172). 12. GUL-GUL. GTJB. Col. 13. Col. 212). GIE-GTIB. . "foundation": 99 (p. 4. 212). 8. IV.(poss. Col. II. 14. I. 199). II. Col. " door" 101 (p.SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. "weapon. GIS-GU-ZA. (p. Col. 10. 12. 44. I. Col. 26. 172). 102 {sa-M-is) I. IV. Col. 101 . to make great" ne-ib-gu-ul-la-a5 {mu-hrbi. 39. 254). H. "great" 99 (p. 212). " enemy. : GULA. s. Ila. (p. GULA. GTTSKIN. IV. HAIl. "plantation": 101 (p 212). 28). GIS-GAL. IS.z'^). 4. a wood Col. "throne": 101 27. 7. "minister": 61 (GTJ (p. 63. Col. V. 1 . I. IV a. 101 (p. "to stand. 101 (p. 37. IV a. "to destroy": gis-has-ag-ag 60 (p. 42. GU-EF-A. HA-PA. Tu). Col. 34. Col. "to be great. 36. II. 25. Col. 24. 15. 11. Col. 5 '1 Col. : GIS-NIM. GIS-KU. 12. Col. 70 (p. 13. : 17. 212). 184).

40. (p. KA. HTJL. lEi. : : : 14. . " for. 21. wonder": 66 IGI-SID. 195)." ITU. 195). 14. INim. postposition.302 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. var. imi. 32. 5. (p. 19. : Col. IV «. 199). " before" : 69 (p. 97. "self": 99 (p. a stone : (dak) igi-sid 101 Col. I. 212). ID. II. : IM. Col. 172). 23. . 199). he-im-mi-il {lu-u-ul-li) 58 (p. "mouth" 101 (p. 2. 90- K. 30. "self". Col. name of class 3 (p. 102 HE-GAL. 9. " canal" : 101 (p. 20. 212). (p. (p. Col. Col. IL. loi). :fje-mi-il. 212). 20. 3. ID-DAH. 199). Col. "to destroy": ba-hul 101 301 3'i 32- 13. " in upon. "monthly. Col. 66 99 HAR-SAG. " tablet" 70 (p. : 22. II. Ill. 6. Rev. IM-TUK. 7. "word":J6(p. 177). 29. Col. IGI-E-DI. 4. 49. 17. z8. "mountain": 58 (p. 12. " abundance" HI-II. II. 30. I. 50. 13. 4. 212). 212). "gate" 101 (p. 199). 8. 47. Col. 199). 207). IV. : 212). "to be high. itu-itu-da. 99 IM-GID-DA. KA. IV. Col. 6. 7. " to rejoice" : Sag-hul-la {hu-ud H-ih-hi-im) 99 (p. I. "marvel. IGI. "strength": 66 101 (p. 212). IL-LA 99 (p. 212). II. to raise": mi-ni-il {u-ul-li) 99 (p. II." 99 '(P. "clay": 60 (p. "oracle" 101 (p. 177). (p. Col. 212). IM-TE. 73. I. (p. 100 (p. 212). 33. Col. 16. 96. 21. 209). IV. "month": 99 (p. HUL. 2. g.199). 212). V. Col. 102 (p. 27." KA. 199). 25. 101 (p. 9. 66. 199). 195). (p. im-KI-A. 254). 69. postposition. II. I9S). "helper" 99 (p. 9. Col. Col. ID-AG-GA. 102 (p. 24. 199). "exalted": 66 (p. 72. 14. KA-BAS. Ill. 195). (p. 31.

LID-GUD. in. 3. 77). structure": 70 (p. 254). 69 (p. 199). 2. IV a. 36. "earth": 61 (p. 62 (p.99 27. 19. IV. 2. 13. 6. 195). 7. 180). LTIGAL. II. 63 (p. (p. IIG-GA. habitation" 100 (p. lA-IA. "will. 13. 12. sub alpu. 9. 184). 2. Col. 39. 35. 60 (p. Col. KA-STJ-TAG. (p. 184). 12. 9. 4(p. 212). 212). KU. 10. 66 (p. 37. II. 19s). Col. 19. "beloved": 58 177). 13. 28. (p." KIT-BABBAR. "building. 212). 17. 13. 39. 14. 101 (p. 5. I. 172).100 (p. IV. 4. 2. 66 (p. 4. 62 (p. "wall" : 58 (p. "silver": 101 (p. 74. 9. Col. 101 (p. IV a. 37 (bis). 172). 199). 184). 2. 4. Col. II. 6. 18. 35. 26 (p. II. Col. IS. 10. 44. 61 (p. 62 (p. Col. 35. 25 (p. 22. 14. "land" 99 (p. 38. 177). 102 (p. 22. 4. Rev. 18. (p. Col. 199). V. IS. "dwelling. 2. 209). beginning : (bis). 25s). 16. 101 (p. postposition. KA-LUR. 2. 199). 63 209). 254). Obv. 11 a. LUGAL. "to. "place": 70 (p. 2. 4. 22. 21. 69 (p. 254). : 107 (p. I. 23. 8. 6. 10. 4. 70 (p. 212). 5. p. 99 (p. 37. in plur. Obv. S4> Col. 183). 197). I. 30. 9. KI. "cattle" . 183). Z07). name 18. 33. Col. 8. Col. 17. 98). 22. Col. Col. 4. 3. 6. KTJR-ZID-LA. IS. KI-AG. 2. VI. 212). 199). 61 62 (p. 14. 67 (p. 102 (p. 66 (p. "lord": 58 (p. 4. 19. 177). IS. : 24. KALAMA. see above. 195). Col. Rev. 14. 180). 12. 177). 49. 39- . 58 (p. 10. 29. 18. I. 94. 180). (p. "king" 99 (p. KI-DTJR. "to bow down the face": ka-su-ha-ra-ab-tag-giNE [ap-pa-si-na li-il-bi-na-ku) 60 (p. 16 f. 23). 70 (p. 58 (p. 19. 207). 60 (p. 19. L. Obv. 3. 199). "abundance": 99 LI. 3. 82. 18). 16. 45. 58 (p. KI-GAR. 207). 100 (p. desire": 99 (p. 6. 99 (p. 16. 177). 199). 3. "strong": 58 (p. "land": KAE. 35. sKUR. 184). 13. KUN. 177). KI. 303 of class : 6 (p. 212). 180). 18. 177). Col. 262. 12. 254).SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 4. II. 172). 61 (p. Ill.

18. [m]a(. 37< 39> Col. display" : 66 (p. M. hurricane": 60 (p. 1 1. 21. Col. 100 (p. sub nuhatimmu. 12. 172). 262. 207). noble": 60 Cp. MAH-BI. Ill. passim. Rev. sing. " . MA-DA. HA. "abundance": 66 (p. suffix of ist pers. 100 (p. "baker" : da) 60 (p. MU. 23. IV. 6. MA-GAB. MAH." trans. 44. MA-NI-UM. 28. 4. ME. 177). var. 99 (p. pron. pron. ME-TE. 7. 9. " to be high . s. 195). 199). 102 (p. 209). 283. 212). Rev. Col. 212). \a.e. sing. " light " DiNGiR MuS-GE. 6). "year" MU. : . 16. : MES. see above. MUS. 88. l\a. MA-LAL. 212). 184). Istar: 60 (p. 17. 39. majesty " 61 (p.?)-lal 69 (p. "battle" : guardian": 60 (p. 35. dippu. " land" 101 (p. 10. suffix of plural. 195). Col. na-u-ne {lu-ur- . la. Col. to exalt " : ^u-mu-nimah {lu-u-n-ir) 99 (p. Col. la. to celebrate": me-ur-he-i-i-ne MU. suffix of 3rd pers. "I. MAH. 99 (p. the goddess of light. " to settle. 31. to cause to dwell ": hu-sa-am) 99 (p. Col. sing. 199). 102 (p. (p. 101 (p.?). 13. 12. " splendour. "deluge. 26. pron. 199). i99)." i. (p. ME-EIT. IV.304 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 172). 19. Col. 99 (p. la. g. "watchman. 197). p. ME-LAM. Col. 3. "pomp.172). 10. MA-AZ. N. na-ne. II. I. 212). {li-is-ta-ni- ME-TJE-I. 4. MUL-IM-A. "name": 60 MU. Col. 207). lOO (. NA. (p. exalted. : : 31. Col. 27.io. 172). IV a. 8 101 . "exceedingly" 101 (p. "to embark {?). 99 (p. Col. 26. 6. 172). 16. 12. 212). 7. 22. 20. 172). 17. 77. p. " ship for transport" see above. great. "to praise. MASKIM. 199). Ill. ma-gar-ra 34 (p. 60 (p. 67 (p. "lofty. personal pronoun. 207). II a. II a. igq). suffix of ist pers. Col. 77. me": 58 (p. sub MAR-URTT. 172). MA. 212). Col.

Col. NAM-LTJGAL. 177). rule": 99 (p. 199). "all. 305 (p. NE-NE. dominion": 61 35. NAM-SIBA. (p. NAM-EH. NAM-SAG-LIG. (p. negative. 172). 199). la. 19S). " greatness" 60 : 172). " spouse. NAM-NIR-RA. Rev. 102 (p. 184). Obv. 24. 23. "lordship. 66 : (p.1." NE-E. 91. 4. NAM-AZAG-ZU. Col. lla. NIN. lordly power": 60 (p. NAM-IIG-GA. NX. : 28. NUN. 195). 28. "power": 60 (p. 10. NE. plur. 2. 7. "not " 101 (p. IV a. 3. "princely rule. " righteousness" 101 (p. 25. 14. 199). 212). 8. the whole" : Ill. "divinity": 66 (p. 62 (p. "wisdom": 99 (p.SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 6. IV. S3> 81. 6. NIGXN. H> 74NIG-SX-DI. (p. 102 (p. : IV a. 184). IV. 199). 199). 19s). (p. 13. Col. Col. 212). 99 (p. " to surround " hu mu-ni-nigin : {lu[^u}-us-la-as-hi-ir-su) 58(p. 17. nam-ti-la 69 nam-ti(l). 19. : 30. "lordship. 3. suffix of 3rd pars. : 99 (p. 7. 66 (p. 180). 212). "rule. : V. 199). 6. NAM-NUN-NA. "kingdom": 67 99 (p. 2. 32. 172). 199). NXGXN. 198). 7. 184). Col. "life": nam-til 68 209). demonstrative pronoun. 197). pron. Col. sing. " for. " restful. 7. : . NAM-NIN. NIG-AG-AG. "strength. "fear": 99 199). 177). 68 2. NAM-DINGIR. postposition. 184). husband " 66 (p. la. NU. dominion" 101 (p. 99 89. (p. "this. 37 66 (p. Col. S . NX. "deeds": 58 (p. might": 60 172). 212). " lady " : 61 (p. peaceful " 58 (p. Col. NAM-MAH. dominion" 61 (p. 195). 8- IV. 5. 172). 'o- NXTA-DAM. 6. Col. 66. . (p. NAM-TIL. 212). (p. "shepherding. 198). Col. "power" 60 (p. pron. 80." NE-HA. "old age" (p. 2. II. " prince " 61 (p. 2. 177X IS: 99 (p. NAM-SUN. : 19s). NAM-A-GAL. suffix of 3rd pers.

hu-mu-pa-kab-duf. Mi-Ni-iN-RU-A [e-pu-su) 99 (p. 40. 71 mu-na-ni in65 RU 61 (p. 177). 4 pa-ne-in-ud-du pa-ud-d[u ] : . 25. bis. 199). " to make. 39. RA. 212). " female slave " " . 180). . 10 f. 16. I. 40. 23. 212). ] r : . 4. 72. "head. 20. 10. 26.3o6 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 62 (p. first-born": 99 SAG. 43. official title: 17 (p." ETI. 18. " for. 12. IV a. 184). " male slave : see above. 39 [n]e-in-ru68 (p. 192). 99- (p. SAG-SAB. 13. 199). 172). BA-KU 101 (p. II. Col. summit": 58 (p. 25s). lOr (p. " to create ' 99 (p. s. 197). Obv. 1 1. Col. " earth " : 58 (p. PA-TJD-DXJ. 9. 2z. PA-TE-SI. 21. . 67 (p. 25. 5. 69 (p. "gift": 99 (p. I. (p. to create " . 14. 199). 199). 91 147). 42 22. (p- 108). . Rev. SAHAR. 177). " captain " sag-sab 59 (p. to proclaim": he-pad-de {li-iz-za-ki-ir) (p. sar-sar-dam {u-le-id-di-lu). 29. 264. Obv. iM-Mi-RU [epu-iis) 99 (p. s. 114). 48. II. 13. 44. SA. "pre-eminent. 3. 35. 20. . iggl. 96. : PA-KA. 199). 13. : SAR-SAR-DA. Col. 46. 21. 50. Col. 12. 18 (p.. to bestow upon " ES (Ju is-ru-ku-nim) 99 (p. " to name " : mi-ni-in-sa-es-a {i-hi-u-su) 99 (pi (p. 24. to build. 5. . see above. postposition. Obv. («-J^-i5z') (p. military title. Obv. 10. p. 9. sub amtti. " to be renewed " 99 sar-sar-da. sub ardu. """'" : SAG-DU. . P. 60 to call. iz. p. 40. 199). i6(?). 38 43 II. 199). 172). 102 (p. " to present. 47. 6.B-DII. R. 3. ri a. "to name. 267. " to make 60 glorious . 198). (p. SAG-TJRU. 7. 1 . (p. . 99 PA-LUL. var. 90. SAG. SAG-AMAT-URIT. 112). 209). 177). PAD. 99 SAG. 105). 23. to do" hu-mu-na-ru {Ju e-pu-us-su-um) 58 (p. 38. (p. Rev. Col. 25. 4. 26). 3. 199).

212). (p. 180). 26. "flesh. I. : si-si-A {mu-'se-ib-bt) 60 (p. SI-IL. 10. 18. : SUM. Obv. 255). : SAG. "prosperity": 61 (p. 172). II a. 199). 177). 62 (p. SILIM. 195). 192). Col. 2SS). 8. "shepherd": 61 3. 33. Rev. Obv. 8. MU-NA-AN-suM-MU-us-A {i-ti-nu-sum) 99 (p. 97 . 38 SIG-GI-GA. cast SI-SI-KI. "to entrust to" Co!. igg). 64. 92. Col.SI-IG 101 (p. conciliate" 14. I a. SI-SI-A. " old age " : 70 (p. 62 (p. Col. "to Col. 99 (p. 184). IV a. to make favourable" : sag-gi 66 (p. 26 f. (p. 207). I . to be slain" 49> SO- ba-sig 101 . "swamp": 58 " to give " 3. 9. "to slay. 94 "within. 307 SI. (p. 172). ba-ra-an-sum {id-di-ik-^u) 60 (p. ma-an-sum {i-din-nam) 99 (p. Col. (p. II.si-si-ki [za-bi-in) 69 (p. into. 199). (p. Ill. . 1 84). 172). 45- (p. 180). 199). "descendant": 100 (p. 177). peace.. men": 101 SAG. 36. 36. Col. verb STTG. °'"""saga>jlal-nab-tur 59 SAG-PAL-PAL. 209). SIG-GA. : ne-in-si-a 61 (p. 102 107 (p. 177). 8. 26. MU-NA-AN-SUM MA-TA 61 (p. SIG. IV a. from within" 99 (p. 18+). II. : 62 (p. 1 STJH. 4. 184). 101 (p. Col. : in-si-in-sud-a-an 69 (p. 24. " to be favourable SAG. 51. "people. IV. 29 f. down": 10. SIBA. . 30. 212). 212). Col.' SUMliRIAN VOCABULARY. Col. 19 f- STJD. I. 13. " street" : 107 (p. 19. 18. 212). 22 : {a-bi a-lpiyia he-si-il-li-ne {li-id-lu-la) 60 SILA. GU-UK. hath " 99 (p. 13. (p. 30. 172). 35. ID. 212). "to satisfy. Ill. 254). Col. 15. 199). : 99 (p. 7. " to tender obedience to " (p. "heart": 61 33. 67. 42. 212). Col.-A NE-iN-siG-GA brought into subjection : {viu-us-te-es-mi). 42. VI. : STJ. 5. IV.?) " sig-gi-ga v-kam-ma-mu ha-am-'sum) 99 (p. 11. " ancestor (. I. "safety. I. heart" 58 (p. 199). official title: SAGAN-LAL-HfAB-TUR. 102 (p. prosperity": 58 (p. . Col. 19. 42 MU-UN-. 199). 26. : "who f. 30. i s- SAB. Col. Col. 184). 80). 35. 11.

7. 3. IV a. " obedient to " 100 " : Obv. Col. Col. (p. to (p. 69 62 SE-GA. 68. lis. Col. "inspector of cattle (?)": 15 (p. 150). 6). 62 SU. SU-XTL. 32. "wisdom": 99 "help. . 9. Col. TA. 78." 177). SU-UL 101 (p. 102 : (p. 16. 172). 75. 27 STJ-GI. 20. 212). 212). SU-BAB-BAB. "merciful": 66 SA-TJD. 63 (p. 184). " from 58 TAB-TAB. regard" : 99 (p. SI-BAR. 17. . 33 (. 10. \a. 7. 199). 87 SIG-GA. I. IV. Col. 12. 62 (p. S(p. 99 (p. ni)-ne-a rejoice": "joyfully"): 99 (p. {lu ip-pa-al- su-nini) (p. 62 : (p. "battle. "hand": 61 (p. "to s[-HUL-LA-NE(var. "guardian (p. 18+). 39 (p. in. 145). SAG-LAL-SUD. 5. 96). 9. 18. helper. SI-HUL. 30. 83). 37. 207). 17. 199).-A {tp-pa-al-su-sum) . 34 84 (p.?). 34. 29. (p. (p. Col. 12. 26. Col. 7s). STJN-SITN. "new. "four" : . 199). 199). 10. : 3. 180).. 4. SE-GA. I. for a journey" 27 (p. postposition. to be destroyed. Col. of the wall": """^'"su-bab-bab^' 10 SUB-SUB-BU. to bring to nought": t[e]-en-te-en {rnu-bi-il-H) 60 (p. (p. VI. 56). 172). 60 (p. 41- [ha-di-is. 180). 199). to fall into ruin " ni-sub-3ubBU-US-A-AN {up-ta-az-zi-zu-ma) 99 (p. 180). (p.308 SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 37. : (p. " SU-GE. TE-EN-TE-EN. 83). 99 (p.. II. 212). " bright. 177). anew" 61 SU-KASKAI. 180). Obv. 199). "to destroy. "provisions (p. 7. 6. 37 SE-GA. to be Col. 17. (p. 14. 40. 23. "darling. 195). 212). official title. 184). 184). 61 (p. SI + UM. protector": 61 (p. SI-IG. 172). 183). 19 completed": 5u-ul-a 101 (p. 86. 209). 61 (p. 180). 6 Pu-MU-si-iN-BAR-Ri-ES f. "to complete. 20. IV. 91- 62 (p. Rev. beloved": 58 (p. contest": 60 (p. I. 83 (p. 68). " to look upon 99 iN-si-iii--BAK-iu-EF. 12. . "to be fortunate": (p. 12. 101 (p. 199). 32. 184). or favourable.

14. 3. 101 (p. UKTJ. 20. S3. 112). TT-MU-UN. "lord": 70 : (p. Col. 24. Ill. g. " to go" TUM-MA 66 (p. " people. 99 (p. 28. Ill. 212). : 60 (p. TIG." 99 199). 7. 102 (p. 25. Col. II. 195). 114). 197). 6. "at that 99 (p. a garment TXT. 27 (p.SUMERIAN VOCABULARY. 184). 212). 31. Col. 198)." (p. 13. 91. 43. 172). 3. ig.UD . 16. 12. II. 172). 33. 42 (p. 96. II. Col. "to go forth": ba-ra-ud-du 101 (p. 9. 30. IV a. 62 67 (p. Col. 22. (dingir) Utu . 99 (p. ITD-DU. 61 (p. copula. 83). 10. 3. 177). TJS-DA. ud-ba. i. "the East. 254). 78 : . 212). 199). 63 (p. (p. Col. V. 33. "to enter": i-ni-in-tu-ra 101 101(p. 180). 63 (p. mankind " TIL. 207). 36. host": 101 (p. 25. Col. 99(p. 16. "valiant. 5. UD-su-Ku. "city": 61 (p. Col. 8. Col. 137). gi (p.80). 19 (?)• U-SAL-LA. TIG." U. : TTJM-TCM. Col. . "day. 35. TJR-MAH. 177). 4. 199). ITRXr. 184). "army. "daily. i. "eternity": 58 (p. 212). 8. 212)." 101 (p. TI-LA. igg). Rev. quarter of the world " ub-da 60 (an) ub-da 58 (p. TTD. UMMAN. TUK-HA. 172). hero": 60 (p. 52. " quarter of heaven. "lion" 70 (p. (p. 180). 32. 37. tu-ra I. 7. 17. igg). 7. lla. 199). ofiicial title "'"''"tuk-na'^'' 85 TUM. TT. "to TTJR. II a. 184). "when": 61 (p. 212). 172). 102 (p.DU. 60 (p. igg). 2iz). Col. 6. URU. "life": 62 (p. Rev. " servant. 309 68 (p. 212). 101 (p. . Col. 100 (p. (p. (p. I. 36. 29. 254). 183). 62 (p. '"*"'" : tig 44 (p. 58). "in security" 99 (p. : 45. Ill. "bank (of a river)": Col. IV a. TTD. 180). time": 58 time. igg). 212). 10. 177). 69 I. " and. (p. slave " : 66 : (p. 99 (p. II. (an) ub-ta 98 (p. 195). 37. igg). n. 17 (p. (p. rule {?)": tum-tum-mu-ne 99 U. 16. . 209). 5UR-SAG.

ZU. ZI-DE-ES. 6. "to set up" : (p. suffix of 2nd pers. Z. 177). "the year after. 59 f. carefully" 66 (p. Us. "the second year after. "life": ZI. : VI. 21. la. 9. ZAG. pron." mu us-sa US-SA.3IO SUMKRIAN VOCABULARY. "truly. tahta sakanu." 101 and 102 (p. cf. realm": 99 (p. US. ZA-E. "true" 102 (p. "boundary. ha-ti). Col.-BI. "after. 199). US-SA. personal pronoun. hu-mu-ni-us {lu-u-um-mi-su) 53 (p. 4. 212). "thou": 60 (p. 172). following": Mu us-SA. ZI. Col. 19. passim. 212). . 8z. " overthrow " : ut-tun ne-in-ag-a-As (rendered by 99 (p. 14. 20. 130). 69 : (p. i. UT-TUN. 23. 209). 8. 7. 199). a measure: 88 Obv. sing. 195).

TION NUMBERS. . INDEX TO REGISTRA. Registration No.III.

Registration No. .312 INDEX TO REGISTRATION NUMBERS.

INDEX TO REGISTRATION NUMBERS. 146 313 see . 51-10-9.

. 12.221 No. Mus..072 No.287 . No.314 INDEX TO REGISTRATION NUMBERS. 91.220 No. 91.069 No.080 joined to No. Mus. 12. 12.219 No. 91.070 No.073 Brit. 12. 91.071 No. 12.213 No.076 No. 91. 91. 12.078 No. 91.212 see Brit.294 No. 12.2 14 No. 86. 12. 91.079 No. 91. No. 12. No.223 No. 12.215 No. 86.077 No. 91.216 No.222 No.

. INDEX TO TEXTS AND TRANSLITERATIONS. No.IV.

3i6 INDEX TO TEXTS AND TRANSLITERATIONS. No. . Registration No.

Registration No. Text.INDEX TO TEXTS AND TRANSLITERATIONS. 9 [Brit. Mus. 106 .543] I. Vol. No. 46. 317 59 81-8-30. pi.jNo.

. No.3i8 INDEX TO TEXTS AND TRANSLITERATIONS.

city. Ahatim. shepherd. Vol. Sumerian name of Anu (q. . p.: his images made in the 23rd. . n.. length of Ammizaduga-nukus-nisi-canal. 74.. 70. Ahanuta. formulae for reign. Amelu-tummnmu. Ammiditana-canal. xxxvi. Akbahum. 250 f. Ixvi. god. 248 f. Amraphel. audit of. p. Ana. 87 f. 71. in historical inscriptions. n. wife of Sin-idinnam. 72. king of Akkad. I. p. Ixii f. . . length of reign. title 130-156. 1 14 ff. 73 of IMartu. 70. —The references are to the pages of Vol. governor Ahuiatim. AnLel-[ Anieli[ . . . passim. I. Ai-hegallu-canal. 113. 87 f. canal.B. . f. its communication with Sirpurla. writer Ill unless otherwise stated. of Babylon. Ammiditana. 68 f. shepherd. [N. 157-161 king of . Vol. . 75 f- Marlu. I. Abuin-waga[ 72. 207 f. Adamtelum. 105 f. 226 f. Accounts. u. cut in 22nd year of Ammiditana.. identification of him with Hammurabi. shepherd the Tigris. remains of diite-formulee for early years. 28th. n. 105 f. I. and 30th years of writer his reign. V.v. remains of datef. a rngdnu. Ammizaduga. I. 108. in the district of Amur-dannusu. . a captain. ]. 209 1 f. . Ixiv. p. month. f. n. I. 253. xxvi f. thirteen letters. irrigated by the Nuhus-nisiking of. .).]. Amenophis cited. of the household of Sinidinnam of Lavsam. cut in 8th year of Sin-muballit. writer of two letters. I. Amel-Sin. Abiatum. son of Ili-gimlanni. king of Babylon. . Airu. 248-253 ismeani. Akatia. n.. 252. capital of Sargon I. Vol. recipient of letter from Menna. Adaiatum. 253. Agade. 29 f. mentioned. p.. CxENERAL INDEX. DUGAB-ofScer. 114. Vol. of Kappanu. 252 reign. 23 ff. shepherd. xxii. i. III. 10. 188 ff. writer of five letters. mentioned. of letter to Ili- date-formulae for reign. 207 f. xxii.] Abesu'. xxi.. king of Shinar. cut in Ammizaduga's reign. Vol. 70 ff. concerning cattle and sheep. xlvii of shepherds. p. Amel-Ninib. 4. 70.]. Ammu. written syllabically. Abu Habbah. length of reign. city. 71. 72. buildings of. no of Nippur. 250 f. . 162-167 building of. father of Ammiditana. 116. Vol. Ana-minisa-emid. mentioned. xvii . 169 ff.. his letter to Tusratia xxxix f. son of Zia[tum]. Turkish excavations there. Ixiii . xxii. 112 Ani-ellati. son of lakiem. . king of Babylon. inscription dedicated to Samas on his behalf. 26th. Ahanmnta.

ASurbanipal. 87 f. 71. 74. . of I. buildings of. shepherd of the temple of . of the city of Inbuku. I. 2. father of Ilima-abi. summons of ship-captains to. ff. 199. god. . f. 222 cut f. . 2. shepherd.320 GENERAL INDEX. summons of a priest to. 26 throne of set year of Apil-Sin. 155 f. spirits of the earth.. 157 of Larsara.). Asaru-mul-sar. . 182. 160 f. recipient of letter from Ramman-sum-nasir. Kassites. 73- ]ni. 232 f. 8i. . 147 f. Vol. . prosperity during its Ham- 71. xlv f. 141. chief shepherd. summons of tempIe-ofl5cials to. name on tablet of the Persian period. 5. . capture of the ark p. summons of a ship to. official of Kar-Samas. city of Ili- idinnam. Ktar set up there by Hammurabi. 5.v. goddess. year of Sumula-ilu. owned by the temple. 70. xxiii. 222 f. cut by Immerum. in 8th by Apil-Sin. summons of two officials to. 60 f. xlix ff. (q. . mentioned. Arioch. Apil ili. Assur. 180. Sumerian name of Larsam . 207. shepherd. 147 goddess of Sippar-amnanu. temple of Ramman built there by Hammuthrones of Nannar and 236 f. 72. p. Asuh-canal. 184 190. . 71. Asnr-narara. xxii. ]. . . Assyria. f. suggested reading of his the p. 178 f. n. transport of her image to Sippar-edina. liii f. Apil-Sin. orders murabi. Apil-Siu-hegallu-canal. earliest known reference to. mentioned. rebuilt its great wall built in the 51h f. son of Simti[ . Vol. 230 f. reference to early Elamite invasion 139/ Apil-Samal. 192 f. 205. king of Assyria. Ixv. 93. king of Babylon. I. Samas 224 f. up there by Apil-Sin.3- Aphek. n. herdsman. 117 f. reading of not justified. 195 f. . . Apil-ilisu. p. xliii.v. 71. Ix f. priest f. . Annanitum. of OldBabylonian letter. loi f. Arad-Samal. Aplum. 73. Arad-Nabium. i. . Asur-dan. 236 bride of. granary built there by Hammurabi.. 186 f. Samas. n. Anunnaki. the n. n. Ixx. chief priest of. of. Vol. 188. . 236 242 f. xhi. son of Eribam. Vol. I. Arah[ ]. 71. ff. Ammiditana. 4 f. shepherd. Babylon. 198. 92 order to 6 . title of Marduk. . . patesi of. Ararma. n. of the Astamar Bammanu. of. . his writer Apil-Nabium. murabi's reign. at. I.). 72. river or canal. arrangements for transport of Elamite goddesses to. Assyria (q. 205 in . 71. king of Assyria. 73. for. Apil-maga[ Apil-Martu. 147 f. rabi. of Babylonia. 79. n. 108 f.. from accused of theft of corn. . . king of Assyria.. E-tur-kalama restored his honour in 34th year of Hamff. . 243 f. 74. ]. f. 68 f. Army. 147 f. . Elam. 225. the flocks and herds. H2 f. 114 143 f. . . chief shepherd. father of Inbi-ihsu. one of recipients of letter from . Vol. 90 f summons of a man to. Arrest. 75 charge of flocks f. Assessors of revenue. 70. 214 in its wall of the household of Sin-idinnam 2nd year of Apil-Sin. in . 200.. Apil-[ . . 73patesi. . pp. 222-225 length of reign. king of EUasar. Semitic colonization - shepherd. shepherd. 75 f. Anu.. 222 temple of IStar rebuilt there f. 29 f. date-forraulse for reign.. . 30.

Buranunu. captains of ships. 5 > Chronicle. I . reported ff. bring sheep to.].. . IS. . u. Sumerian name for the murabi. 12 f. 16 f. Blt-il-kittim. . I. . high official at Larsam. plan Bitn-rabi. king of Babylon. its wall built Campaigns. . suggested shepherd. shepherd. king of (title). n. as tribute. Cattle. 11.]. in historical 45 ff. expression for. 17s. . . 6 f. Boat. . n. the temple of return of recaptured slave to.. 12 lation of the. 137 f. Bibeia. Bel-da[ Bel-ili[ . Calendar. 208. 184 186 f. attached to the various temples. of the First Dynasty. n. 114. 48 54 f. regu- his 28th year. to his report on former position. building of temple f. 73. entered by Sumula-ilu in . 157 ff. 255 f. during the First of silver as 124 f. 246 f. l6 omitted by the List of Kings and the . pp. explanation of discovery of his name I.. 192 f. 143 f.. . before Ham. during seed-time. orders to clear out a canal at Erech.v. f. 56 cattle. 77 f. cut during the First Dynasty. Ixix. 165 iz8f. door of. Baker.. sending of a case thither for trial.. ]. king of Elam. . xxxvi at Babylon iluna. Building operations. his oracle given in 28th year of Samsu- Captain (of a n. 18 f.. son of Ris-[ 135 f- . . n6. n. 164. in his honour. to. regulation of transport on the canals. . 9.. . guardian of the wall of Erech. f. Canals. 186 in. repair and cleaning out of. sending of tribute of tribute to. 2. the tending charge. f.. 71. 190. sending of wood to. f. to. Mar-Uru's Bel-uiallim. despatch of messengers from.. GENERAL INDEX. 20 ff. . Jo. Ixiv f. temple-bakers. .. 172. xxxix Bricks. Cedar. 43 f. 44. sending of dates and sesame-seed to. from E-babbar. . Vol. for temple of Nannar. 5 summons of a b.Samas at Larsam. BItu-rabi. 220. 21S f. xxvi the Bit-Sippar-iahrurum. . 199. . recipient of letter from Gimil- inspection of the king's 68 Marduk. E-zida Bribery. passim . 71. . transport of goddesses directions for towing. investigation and suppression of. magician. 70. order for trial of a case at. 103 f. 155 f. . 103 f. of. 141 revenue to. . p. Hammurabi. . bringing bringing . 182.. city. scribe of the four bakers.. Dynasty. 71. 207 granary built 234 f. tribute f. . Vol..]. 205. . sending of monies to. lix ff. in a letter of ff. vassal king during reign of his name Sumula-ilu.. inscriptions. 93 restoration of a b. 103 f. f. reading of his name on a tablet of the .. 49 title. 700 years after Hammurabi. f. in 1st year of Zabum. 2. 124 directions for in Bel-sakiii. there. xxxiv f. Barzi. f. expression for. 64. 60 f. .. of. city. Bilia. 73. Bungunila. . ship). . lived . 72. 222 f. 255 f..collectors to. men of. . father of Sin-gimlanni. 4. due 153 i6o f. 188. Borsippa. chief captain of Sippar-amnanu. chief shepherd. shepherd. Ixx. Bel. 119 f discovery due to a misreading of the text. 42 Balatii-[ ff. 133 f .. city. Chedorlaomer. . 73. summons to. Vol. Burna-Burias.. 212 f. . pp. Baneue-nasir. 135 f. 80. .). Ixv ff. ff. I. xxii. xxviii (f. summons of revenue . correction of the. 321 162 f. 96 the f. 52 f. Biir-Bel. 42 ff. . 180 ff. 183.. scribe of the bakers of Emutbalum. Euphrates (q. 115. god. 42 tf.

3. of Sumu-abu. Dur-iln. built Ammiditana. bricks from. xli . E-babbar. rebuilt in SHr-abi. p. 21. 322 GENERAL INDEX. 56 for the palace of Abesu'. 28. Dates. l8th year of Samsu-iluna. Vol. wall of. method formulfe 220. god. 147 f. 26. settlement of metal-workers in conflict with Babylon. city. n. official stationed the temple of . 49 pp. for a god in the city of Kis. disputes of.. 250 Convoys. of Annunitum. liii. f. E-ditar(or dikud) kalama. f. I. 244 f. Ivii ff. I. of Samas in Babylon. 31 f. Babylon. 61. . . 20 ff. army of. year of Zabum. the reading not justified. n. Vol. 212 Draft. f. concerning. n. loan of.205. Crown. 14.. 252 f. 205. city. 210. Dadi. pp. 205. tress or wall at the for- theft of. Chief priest. Elam defeat 2 . Persian period. Duru-canal. Colossi.. restored Ammiditana. . temple. . 155 iigf. 201 f. nisi-canal. of the period of the First Dynasty. Chronology.]. f. II. built n. built by Sumula-ilu position. 236 f. Ixviii . 222. . DSr-padda. xix f. Dur-gurgurri. liv f. river or canal. . built by Sumula-ilu and restored by Samsu-iluna. orders by Sumula-ilu and restored by f. to clear out its Samsu-iluna. head of the Nuhus- Crew (of a ship)... 199. fortress or wall in Nippur. 2 12 p. built by Sumula-ilu and restored by Samsu-iluna. Vol. 252 f.. temple of Samas in Sippar. xxxvi. of kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. name 8th year of Zabum and 220 f. of. Dlir-Zakar. xlix Vol.sir -ilani. Dtir-Iabugani. Ea-lu-bani. p. collection and transport of. bribery in. early confederations of. E-iga[ Edina. 3. Chronicle. 201 Diir-[ 205... owner of land in Durgurgurri. proper name. built . Ixiii. . xxi. 180 ff. for Dur-Eammanxi. Diir-lagaba. Sating. in gth and restored by Samsu-iluna. Ammi- Dar-muti. xxii. mentioned. n. . built by Sumula-ilu and restored by Samsu-iluna. 3. Diir. 190 f. u. by Apil-Sin. 64. 202. 114 f. 205. Dur-Ammiditana. fortress or wall at mouth of Euphrates. Ivii. . made in 29th year of f. built by Ammizaduga. I. ditana. n. 183. there. expressions I.. captured by Rim-Sin. Cities. xlii. 212-253.. 157 for. Ediknd. 54 f. temple 209 148. ff. its Silbat. Vol. .. I. for the storehouse of Dur-Sin. 28 . 36th year of in 35th year of temple of Samas in Larsam. wall built in 9th year f. f. Ixix G. built by Sumula-ilu and restored by Samsu-iluna. ff. Ea. built Samanum-canal. 3. harvesting 145 lack Diir Sin-maballit-abim-walidia. - Dur-Ammizadnga. univei'sally employed. Larsam. name of month. xxxvi in f. its Elam. 201 built f. 244 f. n. at f. n. same date- not . god of the PhiUstines. revenue from. . Ixviii. bed. 66. Dur-nsi-ana-TIrra. f. 29 of. ]. Dur-Grula-diiru. god. system Corn. 16 city. 52 in. . 2. 205. 202. Samas of. by Hammurabi. .. Ivi ff. Sagon. f. rebuilt by Hammurabi. success of . 205. I. 16 different systems of. land I. 145 f. city. f. 202. letter from at. Dflr-Ammi. of month. for inscription on stone. 220 f.

n.e. Euphrates. built in . 26th letters. rebuilt in loth year of Zabum. 26 the Nuhus-nisi-canal. Rammanu. 193. tablet engraved therein by Hammurabi. n. temple in Borsippa. 226 Fortress. 108 f. 53.v. during a Eri-Eaku. restored by Erisa. . 1 14 ff. urgently Sippar. discussion Forced labour. . GENERAL INDEX. of the city of Niir. 75 Wall. 72. 188 ff. 216 f. 6 if. 186 f. 236 10 f. . work upon. Rim-Sin. p. .. n 49. its restoration by Marduk . of. Eri-Ekua. Enzu. catching of. 3. see also father of Arjid-Samas. preservation 123. for cultivation. Fishermen.). p. xlvii. Hammurabi.). Elunu. 65 . Ixviii. 230 f. involved in disagreement concerning rent of land. name of Bel Fields. I. 237 f. n.v. liii f. son of Sin-ituram. Vol. shepherd. Sumerian name of Enlil. canal at. f. Elul.v. money-lender. Palace Gate. proper name. of Epistolary xxiv ff. Forest. 6th f. xxxi. transfer of a patesi from his service. assessor of the. Eria. Enukalstar. or wall. 244 f. of 323 Elam by Hammurabi. 52 f. 193- E-zi-kalama. cutting of 2 wood Sin-muballit. . of temple - revenues. dredged by Rim-Sin. restored in 34th Empire. . capture goddesses . resembles Hebr. n. 186 f 254 f. Sumerian name of Sin formulee. 254 f. xxxi. of Ninni in Ea (q.). xxxi. damage from. dug out to Sippar by in 31st year of Hammurabi. measure of length. 130 ff. Hallab. Eri-Akn. its Foreign deities. 236 f. 94 f. 220 f. (q. fortress. name of 6th month. perhaps one of the nduti. name of month. . p. 70 ff. 12 fortress in Kis destroyed. temple. Emutbalum. liii. 217. misappropriates Fish. 121 ff. xx. . neighbourhood of. consolidated by Hammurabi. year of Hammurabi. proper name. temple. Sumerian Hammurabi. . 141.. of Ixviii . and 38th years of Hammurabi. Es-nun-na. lonia. goddesses 103 f.). Hammurabi. Erech. Flocks. n. temple. from ff.sapik . city. rebuilt by E-namhe temple of Ramman at Babylon. 121 summoned before the king. officer in charge of officials of the E-sagil. . Eribam. n. temple of I. 16 f. . 69. (q. . 36 f.. 241. £-zida. xxxviii . n. Flood. 85. . xxxvi. 33 ff. 178 f. bakers . Envelopes. see Emutbalum. Ell. 3. votive inscription deposited therein. wall built in 15th year of f.v. 212.. 49 ff. 236 f subdued . 232. . loi f. Vol. 9 Nebuchadnezzar I and Elam. . E-tur-kalama. Elamite god. Vol. xxii f. in 12th year of Apil-Sin. of the city of Zaginum. Emutbal. on the banks of Enubi - Marduli. on the Irnina-canal in reign of Abesu'. campaign in Elam. year of yammurabi. 224 f. Ixv. Marduk. I. . as punishment for in- subordination. 238 f. f. rebuilt in 28th year of Hammurabi. frequently dedicated to a god. 3. Elulu. the clearing out of its stream. land of.zerim. liii f. . E-namtila. their worship in Babyin the. n. . xxxvi. 143 in f. inspection of the king's flocks. 184 temple f. xxxix. its permanence. Fishing rights. 19 . Enki. 234 f. of. Eres. its wall built in nth year of Samsu-iluna. Sumerian name for Umlias (q. i. discussion of phrase for. of. E-me-te-ur-sag.

198 . 97. 114. 141. f. campaigns of. general letters. father 5.. 172 date-formulae for reign.. i8. 83 f. Hire. ex- Gubrum. character of his official Sih-idinnam. . 67. banks young of the herds as of the tribute. . 23 f. f. baker. 3. of name. length of reign. Vol. Hammn. city 1 . 14 . . 184 f city. 195 Guardians. 232 f. 229 prosperity to . Gimil-Marduk. xvii. Halki-canal. meaning judge.. xxxvi ff. 124 f. portrait tions of. 241. officer of the. a. Granary.. built rabi. Huzabi. Guardian image. 72. 45 ff. Edina. . 116. of labourers. 4. Babylon by of Hammu- Hammurabi-canals. capital of Lugalzaggisi's Ixyii f. measure for grain. . Ixvi. 74. 2. hymn 195 f. p. I. 145 f Hisnm. reign. 124 gate built Assyria. Hanmmrabi. 3-1 16 . 254 f. despatch of herdsmen to Sippariahrurum. 96 pression for. I. . 6 ff. 2. and their return to their shrines. 103 Girsn. of the household of Sinidinnam of Larsam. f. recipient of letter from f.. 49. Vol. 71. 47. 5. . 3 1 f. Ixi f.. I. assessor of the. his title aiida. xxix . pp. 56 f. by. brought Sippar and Babylon. buildings of. of the wall. votive inscription 209 f. Ixiii. 117 f. 216 f. Humtu. 28. from his letters. slain in 3rd year of f.. god. city. 137 f. collection of revenue after. surface measure. Herds. at . 197 . 49 ff. . 70. the goddesses of Emutbalum. expression for. their transport to Babylon. .five letters to misappropriates temple-revenues. Vol. xx inscrip172-194.. 232 talcen n. 224 f. n.. . n. 10 f. by Apil-Sin on east side of a city. transport of an image of the goddess Annunitum. . lahar-zir-iln. inscriptions referring to. mentioned. female slave 133 f. 49 . patesi of Gate. Vol. pp. . 4. Ixiv. of. 3. reforms under- Goddess. named Nuhus-nisi and Tisid-Bel. f. ilu. Hallab. 2 . as tribute. f. . I. xxxii . 192 f. of Erisum. xlvi f. heads revolt of Kasallu in l8th year of Sumula-ilu. of Babylon. . n. and frontispiece in votive inscription Gods. his . Harvest. of Emutbalum. xxxix ff. 195-198 . by. Hurusu. king of Martu. time of. Hegallu-canal.]. 6 f. a. xlv . of Sin-musalim. Grain. 155 {. 66. . 141 f. Herdsman. Hammurabi-baui DUGAB-officer. .. 188 ff. n. n. . Ixvf. Giiban.. 81. i. 18. Amelu-tummumu. Gur."n. father of Inbi-ilisu. Samsu-iluna. father of NabJi-lum-lisir. 324 GENERAL INDEX. n. of Larsam. 242 f. canals cut kingdom. sculpture portrait of. their powers in foreign countries. of the king. xxxvi f. 4 . 45. 29 f. king forms of name. employed in measuring capacity of ships. 44 . in Sippar. 56 f. 196.. Haiab[ .. u. 117 Halambu. n. variant Ixvi. . city. 228-241 137 f. writer of letter to Bibeia. on the ]. worship of the. xxii. name of month. Sumula- 214 Hired field. celebrating the greatness of his ff. 29 f. writer of fifty. Halln. cut in 4th year of Samsu-iluna. making of a. of. Gimillum. fragment of statue of. p. . 195 f. temple of Ninni there. . 178 f . his honour. f. GTib[ . Gan. n. 68 f. 86. 73. 143 f.

71. . . I1>iTum[ tion in Ili-idinnam.. 1 1 5 f. Ili-bani.. name Ilima-Sa[ Iluka-Sin. Ili-amtabar. shepherd. l 246 f.. deity. attached to the service of of Sala. rbni-Martu. merchant. of Til-Istasri. f.. 218 f Igmil-Sin. son of Mannuniff. . baker. Nana. rebuilt in 72 . - nasir. recipient of letter from balum. n. 226 232 of Sarpanitum. Idin-Martu. 236. Idiglat. 73.. Imgur-Bel. made in 17th year of I^ammurabi and 6th and 25th years of Samsu-iluna. 74. 116. of the sagga. 236 f.. 132. . mahirsu. city of officer of Hammurabi. 137 11. 135 city.. 220 iluna. Emut- Mini-Martu. of the household of Sin- idinnam of Larsam. f. 71. 87 Ili-eribam. 73. father of Abiatum. 70. of Ahamnuta. 218 f. his name omitted . summoned f. 218 Imere-[ f. Ilima-abl. images of Ammiditana. his escape slain 32s from Kasallu. I. p. Slh year of Hammu- Igidada.]. Ili-ismeani.j Ili-gimlanni. father of Sin-[ the shepherd.. 234 rabi. son of Marduk Adaiatim. in 23 th year Sumula-ilu. n. 70 ff. 71. 246 images. 114 f. 62.Bammau. Vol. laSarum. ^a/«ri of Assyria. 72. ff. of Ahamnuta. official of Sippar. 139 f- Ili-ikisam.]. f. lakrem. son of Rammanurabi. images of Istar and SamaS at Larsam. 73. army. f.. 241. Immerum. f. 70. 72. Babylonian ruler. 73. i. made in . see Tigris. temple. captured city Rabiku. Sumerian the Irnina-canal. 72. 42 f. 71. . the seven iluna. Iluka-Samas. 93. chief shepherd.. honour of Hammurabi. 71. 195 f. Ibi-Niugirsu. ff. official shepherd. of the household of Sinidinnam of Larsam. Ili-ublam. n. J. 114 ff. shepherd. recipient of four letters from Ammif. guardian of the wall. shepherd. Ur- 114. GENERAL INDEX. cut inscrip- Mini-Samas. 73- f.. Ili-ippalzam. 73. 128 officer bakers. H2 Id-ega-gal-gal-la. 3 f scribe in Hammurabi's soothsayer. f. of Larsam. 70. 58 f liiatum.. of Erech. J. 71. 1 19. 74. a palest and i. Ibik . 139 reign of n. of Samsuf. Igorkapkapu. 246 . 25of. official of Kar-Samas. xxii. 162-166. 239. Idin-Sin.. see Emutbalum. 112 f. 11 . city. shepherd. 114 Ili-haziri. cut the Asuh-canal. Ili-mati. of Zabum. Imgur-Sin. . Ixv . dwelling in made in his 31st year. 242 f. 70. . chief shepherd. 68 of f. an of official of the Palace Gate. 22nd year of Samsuf. 73. 2. father of Ahiatum. . shepherd. 71. before Hammu- 40 96 f Image. a rabidnu. son of of the bakers of f. Ilisa-ibi. 103 Ibni - owner of land. lamutbalum. 33 Sin. Ibni-Marduk. Kar-Samas. f. elder brother of Bunene-nasir and . 5- . images. Idin-NinSah. scribe of the temple- official of Sippar. rebuilt in Hammurabi. father of Samsi-Ramman. of n. 216. merchant of Sippar. son of Mini-Martu. rabi. father of Litul-ilu. 68 f. 93. Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah.. zaduga. 114 ff. shepherd. 31 under Hammurabi. Ibni-Samai.

139 f Kar-Sippar. . city. xxxv. of Babylon. . f. Iskun-Mardnk. p. Ixvii. 139 f. Istar-iamesu. I. 72 . built by Apil-Sin. Imtagar - Samai. tablet Isin. and Judge. 175 . xxxv. 5. 236 ff. built by Hammurabi on the banks of the Tigris. 114. n. Inbi-ilisu. n. 130 f. 70. 4 .. iBkun-Marduk. on loan of Inuhaamar. 214. meaning of phrase. patesi of Assyria. Eal'at Skerkat. 147 f-. Hammurabi. . her image 145 f-. 73. 137 f-. capture an site 239. Hammurabi. (q. 326 GENERAL INDEX. of the city of Gubrum. administration of. 4. god. of Sippar-iahrurum. mentioned in dateformula for 7th year of Hammurabi. n. of Sippar-amnanu. n. 245. 153 Izinabu. laid waste by Sargon of made 218 f. possibly ruled considerably before B. 130 ff. 150 ff. com. I26f. 70. n. Marduk (q. 112 f. 212-253. n. taken in 17th year of Sin. her temple rebuilt by Apil-Sin. 71. 143 f . etc. xxxix ff. mentioned. Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah rebuilt in her honour by Hammurabi. 244 f. shepherd.. n. Jastice. Kar-diir-ApU-Sin. order a second Elul in the calendar. Intercalary months. muballit. 173.). 39 . Kappanu. . SIsme-Sin. of Babylon. Karnm-saplita. 26 . Hammurabi. 14s f-. epoch for dating tablets. 133 143 f-. of Sippar. 114 Hisum. name misread I.. variant form of Iskun- Ear-Samai.. Istar.. 116. city. city. Judges. father of Mannum- kima-Samas. laid wastfe in 13th yearof Sumu-abu.v. Kar-Irnina. . 2. a second Nisan. its Irnina. flooded.. son of Apil-ilisu. 147 f-. Ix. . 73. 150 ff. 1800. Inscriptions.. her xxxix 232 to f. Sumerian name. 135 f-. 1 39 f. . city. 239 f. its wall destroyed in 15th year of Samsu-iluna. see Gimil-Marduk.v. 2 . 86. Interest. letters to. letters addressed to. 172-194. 41. her throne made in 14th year Vol. as that p. people of.. court official. . for the insertion of 13. 250 f. 122. mentioned. other kings of the First Dynasty.. n. Sumerian name of Babylon. 132. n.C. for grain. journey f. king of Babylon. 149. Kakmum. 121 f. f-. 222 f. u. 2. Ka. 255. 121 f. of of the city of Bel-sakin. 199-210. '49.. 195-198 of . of the city of Asur. n. i . measure 157 ff. about B. 72. n. I. copied in his 15th year. 10 officer f.. city. 52 f IliSnm. of by the List of Kings and the Chronicle. 241. 130 n. Ixvii. f-. in 126 f. 4. of Chedorlaomer. ISme-Dagan. on the Irnina-canal. 114 f. chronological. Ixx. of referring to f. in Hammurabi's his letter to. 135 f. 98 f. I24f. shepherd. revenue-collector. 124 137 150 f. 72 . . their report to Abesu'. 71.). 2l4f. 72. honour in 34th year of Hammurabi. . employment of a second Elul. their report to Abesu'. Kasallu. Irnina-canal. Ka-dingira. 132. restoration of its vfall in Samsu-iluna's reign. f. 5. 31 f. goddess. its wrall built 32nd year of Ammiditana. ff. son of Nineveh. of Sippar. Vol. 228 f. of Sippar. 1840. service. 71. 230 f. 135 f. in her E-tur-kalama restored Agade. 128 133 f. revolted in .. 12 f.. Inbuku. in 26th year of Sumula-ilu. . patesi of Assyria. its Kandalanu. ff.C. a second Adar. Egypt. 228 I. .. n. 130 f.

Kudur-lagamar. Vol.. 216 f. Iv. n. Malga. Vol. . 28 order for the pay- ment of the rent of certain land. . 86 . 46. Iv . shepherd. Libit-Istar.v. Katalla. city. of Old pp. 81. I. the city. its . Elamite king. Vol. 116. 230 its n. 46.. p. 114. of Kasallu. xxix 3-1 16 . 72. 246 father of Apil-Martu. shepherd.). 71. cited. xxii f. city. 42 ff. n. 242 f. 212. its gisdiibbd. iSth year of Sumula-ilu. p. Vol. city. its wall destroyed I2th year f. by writing xxiii (q. Sumerian name of Sumer their reigns. shepherd 70. 72. Eudnr-ITanhiindi. 70. of city 71. 90. 89. Vol. Lists. 71. i8i f. ff. Chronicle of the First Dynasty. . Vol. soothsayer and official of the Kudur-Hahundu.. a. Larsam. 92. I. Lalum. 73. historical value of lonian letters.167 other correspondence. 231. Lugal diri-tugab. letters and their envelopes. Sippar near temple of Samas. p. 230 repaired. 23 ff. god. Litnl-ilu. kings of the First peculiar interest. . Babylonian royal letters. I. xxxvi. p. 220 ff. epistolary formula. Sumu-abu's time. 70. . relations to Babylon . Land. 72. I. xviii pubUletters. Manium. Law-suits. n. name of Elamite cited. of Sin-muballit. p. 231. Kengi. Palace Gate. xxii . Vol. Kis. ff. Elamite deity. Vol. 168. Hannum-klma-Samas. . Kings. I. father of Ili-banI. 202. Vol. invade Babylonia in 9th year of Samsu-iluna. city. year of Hammurabi. name Lugalzaggisi. 3. 125. 2. KADUR. for Larsam and Rahabu. Maneh. xli . 208. 216 f. Klnunu. 46. cited. Ixx letters of Hammurabi. n. 82 hire of. year of Samsu-iluna. 20th year of Sumula-ilu. 115 f. f. defeated n. system of surveying. 226 Marat. Elamite form of the name Chedorlaomer (q. . in the service of Taribatum. Jllaer. Ivf. xxii. his invasion of Babylonia. I. Labourers. p. H9. service of Samas at Larsam. in the Lalum-alia-madum. xix f. year of Hammurabi. 135 t". disputes restored to rightful . . its wall built in I2th year f. 33 ff. 216 f.. Xagamar. Marad. xxi - Babylonian p. of Zabum. I. letters of other kings liii ff. of Neo-Babylonian period. its wall destroyed in 4th f. 3 its wall of the company of the destroyed in 13th year of Sumula-ilu.. I. 41. their . xxi. 50 . compared with the f. shepherd. 183. cation Old-Baby. trial of.Dungi. 214. in the carriage of letters. owner. names Kudur . 25 concerning. 168-171 of the First Dynasty. p. xvii. xxiv I. 23 ff. their and style of composition. 1 1 7. its wall destroyed in 4th f. Dynasty. n. of the First Dynasty. its wall destroyed and its inhabitants slain 327 Letters. city. Iv. p. weight. name of Elamite king. 46 f. Ixix. List brother of Samas-magir. 19. . I. of Kings.v. 4. size of Old- KaStnWla. his empire cited. Iv and f. Kudur-mabuk. 205. Ixx. 73- of Bur-Bel. Ixx king. of years. Old-Susian form of wall repaired. 73.Nahundu Kudur-Nanhundi.. lengths of f. .. Kutir-Naliliunte. wall destroyed in 24th f. Iv f. in . Iviii f. GENERAL INDEX. 112 f. letters of Kassites. lady. Magician. see also Workmen. owner of house 1 in ff. Mannum-mahirsu. name of month.). Sargon of Agade. Vol. its wall Ivi.

2. 3. E-zida restored in his honour by Hammurabi. . 162 f. Mini-Samaa. name of month.v. I. Marduk-nasir. 186 f. cut year of Samsu-iluna. xl f. Ramman-sum-nasir.. high official at Sippar. xxiv. 236 ff. wall built in nth year f. 3. n. great door of cedar made for his temple in 8th f. Masatum. kalama restored in her honour in 34th year of Hammurabi. p. Nabu. DUGAB-officer. 160 f. I. Marduk -muBalim. his temple built in 5th year of Sumu-abu. rulers of . .Sumerian name of Ramman (q. xli. n. . Nabru. Nagab-nuhuB. Mardnk. 193. in Dur-gurgurri. building of his shrine by Sumula . father of Ili-ippalzam.ilu. xl . xxiii. 169 f. I. . 70. Muru. its 71. 72. chronological references. iahruruni.nisi -canal. for private letters and royal despatches. mentioned. father of Apil-Martu. Nabu-sum-Iisir. in 3rd Mer. 190. year of Sumu-abu. f. 178 188. xxix f. . 56 f. 2 . 230 in 3rd year of f. of Til- a district. Messengers. son of Ris-[ «35ffather . Mu^addum. Nannar. . recipient of letter from I. 181 f. on property.. 23 ff.. of Sippar. n. 2. 68 f. 72. Habonidus.. 157 ff. Vol. discussion of the term. Masparum. Vol. scribe of the. 169 ff. 77 f. xxii. of letter from Vol. patesi transferred to his service. Military affairs.. Marduk-aapik-zerim. 70. of. 150 ff. the judge. 23 ff. 38 f. p. p. names of the. Merchants. f. rebuilt E-zida. ideograms for the. father of Ibni-Sin. n. (q. king of Babylon. 143 145 f. 71. 209 Money-lenders. f. p. Marduk and Esarhaddon. xli. city. . shepherd. made in Babylon Hammurabi. 90 f. xxxv ff. father of Ili-eribam. 254 f. Vol. of Sin-muballit.. 116.. see also Intercalary months. Martu. Vol. 242 f.]. 212 f. Months.. 218 f. Mendibum. Mortgages.canal. writer of letter to Akatia.). ]. goddess. 13. god. . 205. xxxv ff.. Medem. 192 f. I. Namrum. 73. recipient 246 f. shepherd. Hagab-nuhsi. 108 f. 184 f.328 GENERAL INDEX. E-tur- Mini-Martu. abbreviation of Nagab-nuhus-nisi-canal I. p. 114. 26 f. his Sulmu-amnu (?). Menna. shepherd.. ... Mare-[ . extortions of. I. her image made in 26th year of Sumula-ilu. n.Vol. 166. letters referring to.. of the household of Sin-idinnam of Larsam.. 52 f. 73. shepherd.v. 153 f. herdsman. xxxvi. 218 f. god.. at Sippar- one of recipients of letter from Ammiditana. 116. Marduk and Cyrus. city. Metal-workers. the patesi. 77 f... 26 f. 234 f. 153 f. of the city Ishara. Mar-Uru. xxii . f. mentioned. god. n. one of the writers of a letter to Ahatim. 212 his throne Miai-Samas. p.. . despatch of. Hahi-Sin. . the title Gal Martu. tablet of. his I. 19s f.. 165. gods. 226 164. f. 254 throne n.. shepherd. 207 f. 137 f. Kahium-malik. oiificial of f. I . 147 f. Namertum. xxii. 254 f... king of the Babylon.). n. shepherd. 108 f. I. 116. Nana. Mar - Istar. king of Assyria. 149. Habu-daian. 254 f. n. 114. his made in i6th year of Hammu- men rabi. Vol. 199. . 170.. i68. Mar-Samas. 248 252 f. 250 f. 114. Ixix offence against p. 3 . Gimil - Marduk.

. of tlie Nuratum. 158 f.. 141 f. f. Pardon. 85. 23 ff. 70. ]ga.Zakar the. 68 f. 26 cancelling of pledges. 205. in the city 151 f.]. mentioned. lIannar-[ household of Sin-idinnam of Larsam. 70. xxxiv. city. 214 230 f. Philistines.. 42. Niir-Istar. goddess. 169 ff. tion of. Vol. transport of. restoration of Dur-Zakar therein. .. Old-Babylonian tablets. n. shepherd. 162 f. honour by Samsuiluna. . - intrusted with hire of labourers. herdsman. 201 (Sumerian version). observation of. . Pledge... 44. of Abesu'. Oil. 87 Nur-[ . 112 arrest of four. 70. ]. high official at Larsam. and a patesi of Annunitum. petition Party. . f. col- 3. 73. Kergal. 40 llur-li[ f. 201 Palace corn for the. f. of First Dynasty of Babylon. p. 201.. p. Offerings. finding of a tablet in the.. 44. 147 f. 11. of the gods. 36 . 68 f. god. DUGAB-officer. mentioned. 72. . 119 Mina. 147 ff. officer in Hammurabi's army. 86. of land. deed of pledge. of suit. 37. 172. Naram-Sin. Ark made f. restored Kar-Irnina. of watch- Kik-Sia. 110 f. of workmen. 57. of Ahanuta. 205. of Bel. I. 29 f. 147 f. shepherd. restored in her Palace. of Samsu-iluna. cattle. in 12th 71. Diir-Zakar (Semitic version). loi f. 246 f. 3. 49. xxi Priest. Kew Tear. of the Covenant. . n. of Ur. 184 f. J. .. Nebuchadnezzar I. Ninni.napiSti before - iddina. f.. 56 f. 58 f. . 81 . XX. officials of the. 75 f. 250 f. arrest of two. 212 f. suit concerning a pledge. Ixvf. 232 f. 38 f. lTu[ . year of Sumu-abu. in her honour by Samsu-iluna. goddess. 23 . shepherd. god. Ninib. the. in Babylonia. 105 transfer of. of f. principal lections of. goddess. . 108 Nippur. Bin-mah. 71. 329 Nur tamas. f. making of. .. 167. 114 ff. city. see 112 f. Overseer. 121 ff. 70. her temple built in 4th year of Sumu-abu. goddess. cut by Hammurabi. pledging of younger brothers. Kiir-Eainmanu... goddess. 72. irur-Nin[ . men. 135 Post. Annunitum. 202. priest of Annunitum of Sippar-amnanu. 70. 42. inscription from Dur . Niugirsu.. Nidnat-Sln.]. 168. also Istar.. Nannar-iddina. 205 . . 2 f. man of. 11. Nannar . 126 f. xxxiii . 3 f. summoned Hammurabi.har ... tribute due to f. and the I. father of Sin-idinnam. j restoraf. House of the Feast of the. xxxi.9of. 3. expression Niir-ilisu. Kannar-apiUiddiua. built in his 34th year. f. 175... 24. god. Oracle. 38 . Omens.GENERAL INDEX. n. two fortresses restored in his honour by Samsu-iluna. succours Elamite priests. 188 ff. the judge.. 71. for. overseeis of f. 155 Gate. 73.. 72.. f. assessor of the flocks and herds. 165. 141. 74. in ff. building of her temple in Hallab by Hammurabi. 73- NuhuS-niSi-caual. Origin. to a Paiesi. for. collection of revenue by the. 49 ff. xlii. 192 f. . . Nin-sinna.. 164. Annunitum.sag. 36 f. 194 . Ntir-Ningirsu. son of Zia[tum]. 73.. Vol. Plantation. of Hammurabi. 205. 166. Ifin . 246 130 f.. shepherd.

Saddutu. .. 224 f. xxxvi f. I19 f. 112 f. city. collection assessors of. Bis-Samas. - f. official title. Baimeut. . n.padda restored in his honour by Samsu- Hammurabi. 168 . 224 Sacrifice. 121 ff. his throne made in 20th year of Hammurabi. city. transport of. Bammanu-irsu.. city. 145 f. Bevenue. mentioned. .. Ixviii. wall built by Hammurabi. 252 f. his success against Babylon. 33 ff. dispute concerning. 244 f. iluna. Dur . his temple at of Sin-muballit. labour on the. 7'> 73> 75 f. iluna. officer Hammurabi. of the Neo. meaning of the of Isin.. 183 storehouse of his temple at Larsam. Sagga. 222 f. title. I. .ditar . Babim. Samas. his E . . Bimut-Crula. ff. 153 f. Eamman. Public works. n. shepherd. Eis-[ official of Kar-Samas. name of month. temple 150 ff. of the household of Sin-idinnam of Larsam. honoured in 3rd year of Sin . Bubatum. n. .kalama mentioned. official title. priest of of Elamite god Eria. . father of Bunene-nasir of. 178 f. 70. .. as tribute. 49 ff... Burias. by capture Purattu. Bababu. 38 f.. Ixx. 330 GENERAL INDEX. building of his throne in Babylon in 1 7th year of Apil-Sin. in 29th year of JIammurabi. n. i. building of his throne in 3rd year of Apil-Sin. I. . at . n. .. I . Province. and Mini-Samas.. . see Euphrates. administration of the. see of. 214 f. liii . Ixv .Babylonian period. 139 f.. Tigris at its 7rieBtIiood. xliii ff. n. n. f. 4. xxxi. n. n. 66 157 ff. 3 1 St year of Hammurabi. 3. ii. 239. 173. 201. 176. p. 173. E . 180 ff. 180 ff. xxxvi Sagasalti lived Ixix f. king of Babylon. 58 f. 76 from merchants of Sippar. city. 205. . f- its wall built in ist year f. . " men of the province. kingof Larsam. inscription of a. I. due of Bit-il-kittim. 239 judge. god. of Medem. and widened the captured Dur-ilu. of the temples.. 135 Bizuia. . 236 contracts of his reign dated n. Bent. 209 f. capture of. sons . Bimia. his temple built in 7th year of Sumula-ilu. Vol.babbar in Larsam rebuilt by Hammurabi. . 74. 236 Samai. 2. 114. see Sheep. E-babbar in Sippar rebuilt in l8th year of Samsu- also Tribute. name of month.. Sabiann. dredged out the Euphrates. 186 f. Bii 195 its f. revenue from. mouth. Bevenne - collectors. shepherds attached to his service at Larsam. 234 f. . Babylon built in 28th year of 800 years before Nabonidus. god. 70 ff. Babylonian ruler. . controlled by the king. 1^'s temple in Sippar mentioned. son of a captain of the host. 157 ff. Ixvii. Babiku. S8f.. n. 236 f. 3.muballit. Sala. 72. 228 f. xxxiii. her image made f. 72. of Kutalla. . . king of Babylon. xxiii.Bammanu. 193- 38 n. . 176. Ixviii. .. . his letter to two kings of Assyria. 248 f. father of Ili-ippalzam. 72 f. 45 ff. bricks from his temple Larsam. goddess.]. 228 f. district of. Bammanii-rabi. 224 f. xlv f. 184 f. 39. 3. 45 Eim-Annm. possibly to be read 139 Libbatum. . 116. 228 f. 49 ff. 192 f. 68 f. . Babutu. p. Eammau-snm-nasir. defeated in f. Bim-Sin. 148 dedication to.. reading of the name as Eri-Aku. from sheep. . Vol. f. .." li ff. summoned to Babylon. i .

247 83 . of Ixxi. . 54 f. f. . 112 f. on Bamas-ipusis. of Assyria. i.. 73. 89. Samsl - Bamman. f. goddess. seventy-five GUR. high official at n. Samaa-nasir. . patesi xlviii f. 93. SamaS-hegallu-oanal. her throne made in f. of Nina. . in the service . n. Ixii . Sargon I. 78. xxi. for transport of of the Hegallu-canal. 20. name of month. writer of six letters. appointment of additional sheep-shearers. buildings fortresses f. Ixv. . of Elamite god Eria. name of month. 232 non-payment of tribute. of Karum-saplita. of sixty gur. official 56 f. six built by Sumu-abu. sum- Samas-magir. mentioned.. . 2 of. xvii pedition against Kasallu. 194. of. method of reckoning 1 f. Samsuditana.C. . name of month. in ist 331 year Scrihal notes. 162 f. xxxi. 84. 17-129. Sepi[ . 214 f. B. possibly considerably before 68 f. 67 for transport Samsu-iluna-oanal. xxxvi. Seed-time. corn. of the king. of Sargon I and Naram-Sin. the tending of. 218 year f. moned to Babylon. xxxvi. ruled patesi of Assyria. 8 for . reign. . 153 as fine for f. 1 4 . n. of Arad-Samas. 70. 214. 3. Shekel. 201 205 . weight. canals Ixiv . 62 ff. 240 . at Babylon. alternative Samsu-ilima-iiilr[ name of of wood. 4 . n. 121 ff. II. 146. 22. of fishermen. Sarpanitum. Sesame-seed. Samsi - Bamman. Bamas-musalim. 166. a patesi and Gate. brother of 92. BamaB-sumu[ Sippar. packages. length of his reign. of the household of Sin-idinnam of Larsam. of length of reign. 49 ff. 68 f. xxxvi f sacrifice. size . . in the service of the temples.]. n. 45 collection . . king of Babylon. 1800. 7° name. 3. Vol. 72 f. I. summons of forty-seven ff! Hammurabi. seals set Seal. as tribute. 1820. n. xxi.. king of Babylon and son Shepherds. of the goddess Nina. 48 . Sihalhar-idinnam. n. Sandutu.. 165. Sihutu. ]. her image made in 24th year of Sumula-ilu. I. as revenue. sizes tioned in Sumerian inscription. 3. for 121 ff. 150 . 11. of the household of Sinidinnam of Larsam. ff. summons of shipcaptains with their ships to Babylon. no f. xlviii. n. . f. 5. . of Larsam. n. 144. 45 ff. his system of convoys. about B. SamkauiiD.. p. its and transport to Babylon.. directions . 79 80 . Samsu-iluna. 198 date-formulse for 84. shepherd in service of Samas. . 124 ^lammurabi.. Seb-Sin. 139 Samiia. 68 f. Sheep-shearing. seal -impressions SamaS-kinam-idi. to. of Larsam. scribe of the merchants.C. 71. king of Agade. men. 22 . summonses 167 . n. 3. 156. extent of his his exkingdom. 243. 77 f. 128 i. Kar-Samas.. 164. his son of Sin-magir. of. . . cut of Sumula-ilu. 4 . 66. complaint to Hammurabi. 155 f . of. shepherd. discussion of the restored shepherds before the king. Libit-Istar. 4 . 52 f. n. Silver. order for the commissioning 60 f. of the Palace official Silli-Samas.]. . ship of ten guk. 74Ships. offered as bribe.. due as f. 208. n. Sheep. 4. priest of. 5. . 98 f.. GENERAL INDEX... inspection of the king's flocks. 12th of revenue. district of. 246.

and its neighbourhood. judge in Sippar. by Sin-idinnam Hammurabi. . report from Judges of. judge) Sin-[ . named of. 126 built f. 145 f. surrounded with swamp. . . in . 3-116 in a report. 87 of 147 f. . 190 f. 40 f. .. . n. Judges of. Sin-ismeani. . 126 ].. 42 ff. for pro- tection. its wall [ .. 133 f. due to. part-ov^ner of slaves. Sippar. 137 . .. 70. 130 ff. . 205. 77 f. wall or fortress Sin. sent to Kutalla.formulae for reign. f. Sin-magiriS. chief father captain Samas-magir. . his report to Hammurabi. 124 f. 177 ff. taxes high official at Larsam. Sin-idinnam. . ]. . . shepherd. governor of Martu. of Larsam. in . son of Nannar]. 45 ff. orders for Babylon. neighbourhood of 98 f.. of. . . Sin-usili. cut in 2nd year of Sin-muballit. brother of Taribum. 147 f. . in neighbourhood of Sippar. 124 f. its 143 f. Judges of. 139 f. 105 ff.amnann. . Z29. letters to Judges of. 133 f. . son of Hi recipient of ST. instructions concerning grain there. 141 f. 68 f. goddess of. 128 f. 145 f. 137 f. . recipient of letters from . 133 f. 135 f. 121 128 f. 119 f. god. of. sum- moned before Hammurabi. after him. of. amtahar. shepherd. father of Aplum.. son of Sin-magir. 139 f. Samsu-iluna. Sin-putram. 139 f. no f. Sippar-edina. rabi's reign. in prosperity during Hammu- Abesu'. n. or shallow ditch. Sin-[ . high Sippar. from Hammurabi.. . 73.]iii. Sin-ituram.. 68 f. shepherd. liof. official under 124 Abesu'. . . bearer of letter of Hammurabi. 178 f. gia-magir. . 118. 74. patesi. . 153 f. . despatch to Sin-muballit. 137 f. governor. Simti[. f. merchants of.. 145 f. 147 £.. length of reign. Sin-ilu. 74. 145 Sin-gimlaniii. buildings Ix f. 126 f. . high f. son of Bitu-rabi. Sin-[. from a. . 7 . 45 ff. 128 130 ff. date . 87 f. vyriter referred to no f. . 150 ff-. .. of letter to the rabidnu of . 87 f. his Sin-musta>. order for arrest 114. Annunitum.. Sin-ismeani. stored in 201. . 218 f. and Sin-lipir. Sin-rabl. . Sin-iriham. 31 f. 234 f. official (prob.. 2. of the household Sin-idinnam of Larsam.' king father of of Babylon and Hammurabi. . rank and extent of xxvi ff. 151 f- I77> I79> letter one of recipients of Ammiditana. ..]huin. chief priest of Annunitum. 73. 139 i. 157 ff. Sippar . 143 f. ].- 332 GENERAL INDEX. reports to Abesu'. 224-229 Sin-aiabaTum. 168 probably Sin-idinnam f. scribe of the merchants. recovery of 155 f. 133 f. Iv of the household of Sinidinnam of Larsam. . of Sin-muballit -canal. 48. 71. 1 1 in f. Sin-la[ . merchant of.. 116.. shepherd. escaped slave there. Sippar. f. . 70. officer of the Gate. 130 ff. Siu-lipir. governor of Larsam. recipient of fifty-five letters . 135 f. 172. 42. son of Sin-magir. 149. 1755 Dur-lagaba rehis honour by Samsu-iluna. Sin-eribam. wall 126 f. 121 ff. letters from f. 137 f. 1 10 f. mentioned. Sin-mnaalim. 71. his jurisdiction. 29th year of Sumula-ilu. its wall rebuilt and raised in 25th year of Hammurabi. 169 . ff. father of Enuka-Htar. 224 f...

90 f. . Fnbe. I. 70. f. regulation of. 160 f. mentioned in Sumerian inscription. in neighbourhood of of. father of Izinabu. from Larsam. despatch of messengers Sirpurla.. Judges of. 103 f. Sunirda.. 20 ff. xlix f. . 72. ff. 62 periods. 116. . due to Sippar. title in historical inscriptions. 94 f. Summons. entrusted with collection of dates and sesame-seed. . 214-221 216 . Tasmetum.. n. muballit. for reign. public. 65. . xxi . his six fortresses restored f. its to. buildings of. 98 f. Vol. canals in a certain district. f. 93 . 105 . 220. 105 ff. district to ff. 137 205 . of Kar-Samas. . xviii find of in Old - Babylonian Vol. I.Babylonian and Persian 2. by Sippar. Stmgugum.. SituUum. god Ningirsu. . Hammurabi. lii f. 169 ff. 188 ff. Tabbiwadi. 72. 139 f. 145 f. shepherd in service of the 70. n. I. xxiv. the future.. f. . the public works. 54 f. 3 the north of Baby- Sumula-ilu-canals. Tell el-Amarna. 133 Soothsayers. 11. Storehouse. 7. n. king of Babylon.. king of Babylon. buildings silver Marduk in 22nd year of Sumula- . xxii. xxii. u. 39.]. Tribute. ff. in attendance Elamite goddesses. 6 ff. need of slaves for male slaves . Temple . 87 f.. 240 f. letters compared with those of the First Dynasty. Sunurhali. 71. date-formulae . .. Throne. f. one of the writers of a letter to Ahatim. 195 f- Snbaru. n. n. 68 f. of a officials of men before the king. slave. 2. Taribum. king of. of the temple of Samas at Larsam. Supplies. 83 f. 51. storehouses in Sippar. letter of Summan-la-iln. . Su6an[ . . Sumu[ ]. 228. 150 ff. completed with gold and for on 215 length of reign. 198 date - Samsu-iluna. Vol. 224 transport of. . 100 for harvesting. 1854. in charge of workmen. Mar-Istar.women. honoured in 3rd year of Sinf. lonia. 1 19 f. Amenophis IH. people of. Taxes. 5. length of reign. . n.. Sippar-iahruriiin. there f. 207 f. . lix . his report to Hammuf. 89 of two Tell-Sifr. 214. 239. Slaves. guild control. . of a baker before the king. of the household of Sinidinnam of Larsam. 212- Temple -bakers. private slaves.. see also Revenue. ]. p. of a man to Babylon. in inscription of Ammirtitana. 92 . ti . Snmu-ahu. 139 f. 42 f. see Baker. in the Taribatum. scribe of the merchants of. Hammuon ff. 16. Sumer. Sumula-ilu. 87 f. 201 .. Vol. 158 114.. contracts of Rim-Sin's reign from. her favourable before Sulmu - anmu (?). Temple -revenues. I. p. 101 liii . runaway female under the king's ordered to divine arrest of. xxxiii of. I. passim. 214. tablets p. . writer of letter to p. regulates transport Neo. n8. GENERAL INDEX. rabi. H2f. . capture of f. of Girsu. communications with formula for reign. xxi. Takil-ilisu. destruction of wall of.nisi -canal. . . irrigated by Nuhus. u. ~ n.. restoration of a paiesi to his service. 214 218 f. of Enubi-Marduk. father of Ibirum[ . slaves of the. high official under rabi. 6. xxxix . n. 72. . xliv. p. summoned official . I. I. lix 333 f. Agade. formula in letters from Vol. f. directors of public slaves. man of Larsam. word.. goddess.

) Tiglath-pileser III. Vol. 239 f. f. at Ur. king of Goiim. liii. . of Malga. 222 f. f. 73. as escort. Samsu-iluna.). the reading not justified. 235. 220 f. 5th of Samsu-iluna. 74. 71. 244 f. . 212 f. of Muru. Hammuin i6th . 3 f. 44 troops at. n. 71. 71. p. li. 61. Marduk. 2 . departure of Babylonian troops . to keep in the Euphrates. 49. cut in the 13th year of Sin-muballit. probably to supply Sippar with water. . made for Istar of Babylon in 14th year of rabi. Tatn-hegallu-canal. Tidal. 1 1 . 68 f. Sin. Vol. . made iluna. S. 218 f. court official of high rank. Sumerian ijame of Nannar (q Uta. Urn-ki. .. from Amenophis III. 212. 232 f. of Zakar{. 143 f. 10 f. completed with gold and in 3rd year of Apilfor employment of troops against Elara. . of the shrine. 2. . suggested reading ot the n. . Ixv. f. 226 f. mentioned. from the great cities of Babylonia. 19 . its 49 ff. Votive inscriptions. proper name. city. 115 f. v. p. discussion of phrase. 222 f. Unabum. f. 71. 29 f. Umlias. Vol. Ramman. xxxvi.. f. . of gold in 19th year of . f. its inhabitants slain.. Tigris. 226 of Sin-muballit. . oflferings at.. king of Mitani. Tiglath-pileser I.. 12 f. of the god Dadi. n. 226 f. Sumerian name of Samas (q. name of month. its (qv. Wall. pp. 1 . . Babylon in made for Samas in 17th year of Apil-Sin. 232 year of for made for Nabu Hammurabi. Uuug.. . regulation of. of Kar-. Tribute. Troops. . 244 f. his method of transporting gods and goddesses. 250 f . 334 GENERAL INDEX. of Babylon. . made made for Sarpanitum in 12th year of Hammurabi. f. laid waste by flood. . Til-Istasri. . . Sumerian name of Erech Ur. 178 3. 9. cut out to Euphrates. Ubar-Sin. from young of flocks and herds. " " 112 f. of Sippar. 190 of Dilbat. 252 f. Turnkku. .. Throne-bearer. of Kasallu. n. 212 f. of Iskun- from Assyria and SituUum. . Tisid-Bel-canal. city. made in 21st year of 244 f.. 230 f. mouth widened by Rim-Sin. 250. xxxix f. people of. 232 f. 214 177. date of SamiSi- Ursagga. of Hammurabi and his successors. xliii.). 8.. region of the. in 20th year of Hammumade 242 rabi. p. Tusratta.. Samsu- 238 f.Samas. 179. destroyed and . destroyed. xliv. . . 67. H2 f. 67.. Tiru. 218 ilu. xlix ff. f. a tablet of the Persian I. Tudhula. and the Euphrates. Til-Ishara. made in f. 234 of Barzi. period. "• 3- TTrn. . people slain in 14th year of Sinf. 239. 72 of Rabiku.. f. dada. 224 f. city. 238 f.. 71.. . a title of Nabu. city. 226 E res 226 f. of Rubatum. 244 f. 73. Ivi. walidia. n. I. fixes I. silver for Samas . Taxes. 42. n.v. . . n.. 224 in Nannar in Babylon 3rd year of Hammurabi. 222 f. 59 . 226 of of Marad. 142 sending of tribute from Larsam to Babylon. supplies for. by water. named Diir-Sin-muballit-abiraf. 244 f. 239 n. Tillaku. Ramman 234 year f. its date of construction. year of Samsu-iluna. building of. 226 its wall built in i Ith name on Vol. his letter I. 72 . n. or fortress. 234 f. . Transport. father of Sihalhar-idinnam. muballit. see also Revenue.

. of ]. Witnesses. . Nur 1 - ilisu and letters. 231. xxiii. father . their employment. Zakar. 335 Zabum. Writing. . 46. n.).. 226 f. Ameli[ Zikir-ilisu. his image. Workmen. of. 231. Zamama.). 222.v. no f. n.. of Maer destroyed and repaired. judgment according to the yoke. king of Babylon. Sumerian name of Sippar .GENERAL INDEX. . 116. rebuilt in her honour. Igi-e-nir-kidur-mah 52 f. its wall built in 7th year of Sin-muballit. u. meaning of expression. instructions city. Sumerian name of gallab (q. 39. 46 .. . in Hammurabi's (q.. Zaginum. n. service. formulae for 220 f. Zakar-dada. 218 f. datereign.. of. 112 f. god. 72. transferred from Larsam. 241. 246 f. 6 Zimbir. of reign. 13s f. n. 3. Yoke. 220-223 j length Warrants. n.. 81 . see also Labourers. of Kis destroyed. 230 f. 114. Wood. Il4ff. supply 40 f. concerning xliif. upon Old-Babylonian Zia'tum]. for arrest. repaired.v. style of. 230 f. 85. 21 f. 38 f. buildings Ix . ofiScer f. summoning of. 10 f. 23. 46 . Watchmen. goddess. Za-ri-unu.

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