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Answers to Midterm Review Packet 2010-11

Answers to Midterm Review Packet 2010-11

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Answers to Midterm Review Packet

1. Homeostasis
‡ Maintaining a stable internal balance

2. Controlled Experiment
‡ An experiment set up in duplicate in which a single factor is changed in one set up but not the other ‡ Experiment is designed to scientifically solve a question

3. Control Group
‡ The normal situation ‡ Used as a reference in the experiment ‡ Group in a controlled experiment that does not have the variable

4. Independent Variable
‡ The ONE factor that is changed in a controlled experiment ‡ ³Independent variable starts with I, it¶s the variable that I change.´ ‡ Examples:

5. Dependent Variable
‡ The variable that changes because of the independent variable ‡ It depends on the independent variable ‡ What is measured ‡ Examples:

6. Compound Light Microscope
‡ Is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye ‡ Too small for a CLM: atom, virus, molecules, DNA, mitochondria, lysosome, ribosomes, « ‡ Visible with the CLM: nucleus, chloroplasts, cell membrane and wall, THE CELL, vacuole«

7. Organic Compound
‡ Any compound that contains BOTH carbon and hydrogen ‡ Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids ‡ Glucose, starch,«.

8. Inorganic Compound
‡ Any compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen ‡ It can contain either carbon or hydrogen ‡ Ex: Salt (NaCl), CO2, H2O

9. Carbohydrate
‡ A large group of compounds that consist of simple sugars like glucose and much more complex sugars like starch ‡ Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ‡ Used for energy (for cellular respiration)

10. Protein
‡ LARGE molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ‡ Made up of long chains of amino acids that are folded and twisted together

11. Lipid
‡ Provide and store energy ‡ Protect organs ‡ Provide insulation ‡ Part of cell membrane ‡ Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ‡ Made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

12. Enzyme
‡ Biological catalysts that are involved in every biochemical reaction that takes place in the body ‡ Speed up the reaction ‡ Not changed during reaction so can be reused ‡ Type of protein

13. Substrate
‡ Substance that the enzyme is working on

14. Active Site
‡ The part of the enzyme that ³locks into´ the substrate

15. Lock and Key Model
‡ Enzymes are specific to one substrate, just like a specific key can only unlock a specific lock Enzyme
locked into the substrate

16. Organelle
‡ Cell parts ‡ Specialized structures in the cytoplasm of cells that carry out specific functions

17. Cell Membrane
‡ Outside boundary of a cell ‡ Semi-permeable

18. Cell Membrane Receptors
‡ Found on the surface on the cell membrane ‡ Allow cells to communicate

19. Nucleus
‡ Controls all cellular activity

20. Ribosomes
‡ Make proteins

21. Mitochondria
‡ Site of cellular respiration! ‡ Makes ATP

22. Vacuole
‡ Storage site ‡ Plant cells have a large, central vacuole to store water

23. Lysosome
‡ Organelles filled with digestive enzymes

24. Chloroplast
‡ Site of photosynthesis in PLANTS

25. Diffusion
‡ The movement of materials from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration ‡ No energy necessary ‡ Type of Passive Transport

26. Osmosis
‡ Diffusion of water ‡ Type of Passive Transport

27. Active Transport
‡ Movement of materials from an area of LOW concentration to HIGH concentration ‡ Requires energy (ATP)

Passive & Active Transport

28. Photosynthesis
‡ the process a plant uses to combine sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and sugar (energy) ‡ Takes place in chloroplasts

29. Heterotroph
‡ Organisms that must consume pre-made compounds ‡ Humans, protists, dogs, cats«. ‡ Cannot make their own food through photosynthesis

30. Autotroph
‡ Organisms that can make their own food (glucose) ‡ Usually through photosynthesis

31. Metabolism
‡ The sum of all of the chemical reactions that take place in your body ‡ Ex: cellular respiration, digestion«

32. Controlled Variable
‡ In a controlled experiment, the variables (except the independent) that are kept the same ‡ Examples:

33. Cellular Respiration
‡ The process by which organisms convert O2 and glucose into CO2, H2O and ATP ‡ Takes place in the mitochondria.

34. ATP
‡ Molecule that has energy stored in phosphate bonds.

33. What are the difference between plant and animal cell?
Plant Cell Animal Cell

Square shape Cell Wall and chloroplasts Autotroph Large Vacuole

Round Shape No Cell wall or chloroplasts Heterotroph Small Vacuole

34. What are the subunits for each of the following molecules? Place a check mark next to the terms that can pass through the cell membrane.
Subunit/Building Block Molecule Starch

Glucose ¥¥ Fatty Acid and Glycerol ¥¥ Amino Acid ¥¥ Glucose¥¥ Nucleotides ¥¥

Lipid

Protein

Sucrose (a disaccharide)

DNA

35. Explain passive and active transport.
‡ Passive Transport: movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration. No energy is necessary ‡ Active Transport: movement of molecules from an area of LOW concentration to HIGH concentration. Energy (ATP) is necessary

36. What are the components of a controlled experiment?
‡ Control Group ‡ Experimental Group with 1 variable ‡ Controlled Variables (components that are held constant throughout experiment) ‡ Repeat Trials ‡ Large Sample Size ‡ Repeatability by others

37. Explain the cell membrane. Don¶t forget receptor molecules.
‡ Thin membrane that surrounds all cells ‡ Made of a double layer of lipids and protein channels ‡ Acts as a barrier by controlling the passage of materials into and out of the cell (selectively permeable) ‡ Recognizes and responds to chemical signals such as hormones allowing different cells to communicate because it has receptor molecules on surface

Cell Membrane

Selective Permeability in Action

38. What are the levels of organization
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ Systems Organism

39. What are the 8 life processes?
‡ Growth: living things increase in size ‡ Respiration: a chemical reaction that converts glucose to ATP. All living things need energy! ‡ Reproduction: To make one or more of your own species. Asexual (offspring are genetically identical to parent) and sexual (required two parents; offspring are genetically different)

39. What are the 8 life processes?
‡ Synthesis: to take simple molecules and make something more complex - Ex: joining several glucose molecules to form starch! ‡ Nutrition: how an organism obtains its nutrients (autotrophic and heterotrophic) ‡ Excretion: how an organism rids itself of metabolic wastes (urine, perspiration«)

39. What are the 8 life processes?
‡ Regulation: how an organism maintains homeostasis ‡ Transport: circulating and absorbing nutrients throughout an organism

40. What is the equation for photosynthesis
light

‡ CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 ‡ Changes inorganic molecules into organic molecules!

41. What is the equation for cellular respiration
‡ C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + 36 ATP ‡ All living organisms carry out CR

41. What factors affect the rate of enzyme controlled reactions?

41. What factors affect the rate of enzyme controlled reactions?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Temperature pH Concentration of enzymes Shape Can be reused Must lock into a specific substrate

42. Indicators
‡ Indicators change color in the presence of specific compounds ‡ Iodine turns blue/black in the presence of starch ‡ Biuret¶s reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins

43. Microscope
1. Place slide on stage 2. Use the coarse adjustment to focus under low power 3. As you switch to medium and high power, use the fine focus to make adjustments

44. Single celled Vs. multicellular organisms
‡ Unicellular organisms ± organelles ‡ Multi-cellular organisms have organ systems that help them maintain homeostasis

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